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Sample records for oxygen species regulation

  1. Reactive Oxygen Species in the Regulation of Stomatal Movements.

    PubMed

    Sierla, Maija; Waszczak, Cezary; Vahisalu, Triin; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko

    2016-07-01

    Guard cells form stomatal pores that optimize photosynthetic carbon dioxide uptake with minimal water loss. Stomatal movements are controlled by complex signaling networks that respond to environmental and endogenous signals. Regulation of stomatal aperture requires coordinated activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating enzymes, signaling proteins, and downstream executors such as ion pumps, transporters, and plasma membrane channels that control guard cell turgor pressure. Accumulation of ROS in the apoplast and chloroplasts is among the earliest hallmarks of stomatal closure. Subsequent increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration governs the activity of multiple kinases that regulate the activity of ROS-producing enzymes and ion channels. In parallel, ROS directly regulate the activity of multiple proteins via oxidative posttranslational modifications to fine-tune guard cell signaling. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the role of ROS in stomatal closure and discuss the importance of ROS in regulation of signal amplification and specificity in guard cells.

  2. Reactive oxygen species in regulation of fungal development.

    PubMed

    Gessler, N N; Aver'yanov, A A; Belozerskaya, T A

    2007-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed by fungi in the course of metabolic activity. ROS production increases in fungi due to various stress agents such as starvation, light, mechanical damage, and interactions with some other living organisms. Regulation of ROS level appears to be very important during development of the fungal organism. ROS sources in fungal cells, their sensors, and ROS signal transduction pathways are discussed in this review. Antioxidant defense systems in different classes of fungi are characterized in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on ROS functions in interactions of phytopathogenic fungi with plant cells.

  3. HIF and reactive oxygen species regulate oxidative phosphorylation in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hervouet, Eric; Cízková, Alena; Demont, Jocelyne; Vojtísková, Alena; Pecina, Petr; Franssen-van Hal, Nicole L W; Keijer, Jaap; Simonnet, Hélène; Ivánek, Robert; Kmoch, Stanislav; Godinot, Catherine; Houstek, Josef

    2008-08-01

    A decrease in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is characteristic of many cancer types and, in particular, of clear cell renal carcinoma (CCRC) deficient in von Hippel-Lindau (vhl) gene. In the absence of functional pVHL, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1-alpha and HIF2-alpha subunits are stabilized, which induces the transcription of many genes including those involved in glycolysis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. Transfection of these cells with vhl is known to restore HIF-alpha subunit degradation and to reduce glycolytic genes transcription. We show that such transfection with vhl of 786-0 CCRC (which are devoid of HIF1-alpha) also increased the content of respiratory chain subunits. However, the levels of most transcripts encoding OXPHOS subunits were not modified. Inhibition of HIF2-alpha synthesis by RNA interference in pVHL-deficient 786-0 CCRC also restored respiratory chain subunit content and clearly demonstrated a key role of HIF in OXPHOS regulation. In agreement with these observations, stabilization of HIF-alpha subunit by CoCl(2) decreased respiratory chain subunit levels in CCRC cells expressing pVHL. In addition, HIF stimulated ROS production and mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase content. OXPHOS subunit content was also decreased by added H(2)O(2.) Interestingly, desferrioxamine (DFO) that also stabilized HIF did not decrease respiratory chain subunit level. While CoCl(2) significantly stimulates ROS production, DFO is known to prevent hydroxyl radical production by inhibiting Fenton reactions. This indicates that the HIF-induced decrease in OXPHOS is at least in part mediated by hydroxyl radical production.

  4. KRIT1 Regulates the Homeostasis of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Goitre, Luca; Balzac, Fiorella; Degani, Simona; Degan, Paolo; Marchi, Saverio; Pinton, Paolo; Retta, Saverio Francesco

    2010-01-01

    KRIT1 is a gene responsible for Cerebral Cavernous Malformations (CCM), a major cerebrovascular disease characterized by abnormally enlarged and leaky capillaries that predispose to seizures, focal neurological deficits, and fatal intracerebral hemorrhage. Comprehensive analysis of the KRIT1 gene in CCM patients has suggested that KRIT1 functions need to be severely impaired for pathogenesis. However, the molecular and cellular functions of KRIT1 as well as CCM pathogenesis mechanisms are still research challenges. We found that KRIT1 plays an important role in molecular mechanisms involved in the maintenance of the intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) homeostasis to prevent oxidative cellular damage. In particular, we demonstrate that KRIT1 loss/down-regulation is associated with a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels. Conversely, ROS levels in KRIT1−/− cells are significantly and dose-dependently reduced after restoration of KRIT1 expression. Moreover, we show that the modulation of intracellular ROS levels by KRIT1 loss/restoration is strictly correlated with the modulation of the expression of the antioxidant protein SOD2 as well as of the transcriptional factor FoxO1, a master regulator of cell responses to oxidative stress and a modulator of SOD2 levels. Furthermore, we show that the KRIT1-dependent maintenance of low ROS levels facilitates the downregulation of cyclin D1 expression required for cell transition from proliferative growth to quiescence. Finally, we demonstrate that the enhanced ROS levels in KRIT1−/− cells are associated with an increased cell susceptibility to oxidative DNA damage and a marked induction of the DNA damage sensor and repair gene Gadd45α, as well as with a decline of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Taken together, our results point to a new model where KRIT1 limits the accumulation of intracellular oxidants and prevents oxidative stress-mediated cellular dysfunction and DNA damage by enhancing the

  5. KRIT1 regulates the homeostasis of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Goitre, Luca; Balzac, Fiorella; Degani, Simona; Degan, Paolo; Marchi, Saverio; Pinton, Paolo; Retta, Saverio Francesco

    2010-07-26

    KRIT1 is a gene responsible for Cerebral Cavernous Malformations (CCM), a major cerebrovascular disease characterized by abnormally enlarged and leaky capillaries that predispose to seizures, focal neurological deficits, and fatal intracerebral hemorrhage. Comprehensive analysis of the KRIT1 gene in CCM patients has suggested that KRIT1 functions need to be severely impaired for pathogenesis. However, the molecular and cellular functions of KRIT1 as well as CCM pathogenesis mechanisms are still research challenges. We found that KRIT1 plays an important role in molecular mechanisms involved in the maintenance of the intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) homeostasis to prevent oxidative cellular damage. In particular, we demonstrate that KRIT1 loss/down-regulation is associated with a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels. Conversely, ROS levels in KRIT1(-/-) cells are significantly and dose-dependently reduced after restoration of KRIT1 expression. Moreover, we show that the modulation of intracellular ROS levels by KRIT1 loss/restoration is strictly correlated with the modulation of the expression of the antioxidant protein SOD2 as well as of the transcriptional factor FoxO1, a master regulator of cell responses to oxidative stress and a modulator of SOD2 levels. Furthermore, we show that the KRIT1-dependent maintenance of low ROS levels facilitates the downregulation of cyclin D1 expression required for cell transition from proliferative growth to quiescence. Finally, we demonstrate that the enhanced ROS levels in KRIT1(-/-) cells are associated with an increased cell susceptibility to oxidative DNA damage and a marked induction of the DNA damage sensor and repair gene Gadd45alpha, as well as with a decline of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Taken together, our results point to a new model where KRIT1 limits the accumulation of intracellular oxidants and prevents oxidative stress-mediated cellular dysfunction and DNA damage by enhancing the cell

  6. TOR complex 2-Ypk1 signaling regulates actin polarization via reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Niles, Brad J; Powers, Ted

    2014-12-01

    The evolutionarily conserved mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) signaling pathway is an important regulator of actin cytoskeletal architecture and, as such, is a candidate target for preventing cancer cell motility and invasion. Remarkably, the precise mechanism(s) by which mTORC2 regulates the actin cytoskeleton have remained elusive. Here we show that in budding yeast, TORC2 and its downstream kinase Ypk1 regulate actin polarization by controlling reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Specifically, we find that TORC2-Ypk1 regulates actin polarization both by vacuole-related ROS, controlled by the phospholipid flippase kinase Fpk1 and sphingolipids, and by mitochondria-mediated ROS, controlled by the PKA subunit Tpk3. In addition, we find that the protein kinase C (Pkc1)/MAPK cascade, a well-established regulator of actin, acts downstream of Ypk1 to regulate ROS, in part by promoting degradation of the oxidative stress responsive repressor, cyclin C. Furthermore, we show that Ypk1 regulates Pkc1 activity through proper localization of Rom2 at the plasma membrane, which is also dependent on Fpk1 and sphingolipids. Together these findings demonstrate important links between TORC2/Ypk1 signaling, Fpk1, sphingolipids, Pkc1, and ROS as regulators of actin and suggest that ROS may play an important role in mTORC2-dependent dysregulation of the actin cytoskeleton in cancer cells.

  7. Regulation of plant reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stress responses: learning from AtRBOHD.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yukun; He, Chengzhong

    2016-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced in plants, as the metabolic by-products or as the signaling components in stress responses. High levels of ROS are harmful to plants. In contrast, ROS play important roles in plant physiology, including abiotic and biotic tolerance, development, and cellular signaling. Therefore, ROS production needs to be tightly regulated to balance their function. Respiratory burst oxidase homologue (RBOH) proteins, also known as plant nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases, are well studied enzymatic ROS-generating systems in plants. The regulatory mechanisms of RBOH-dependent ROS production in stress responses have been intensively studied. This has greatly advanced our knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate plant ROS production. This review attempts to integrate the regulatory mechanisms of RBOHD-dependent ROS production by discussing the recent advance. AtRBOHD-dependent ROS production could provide a valuable reference for studying ROS production in plant stress responses.

  8. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulate the strength of inhibitory GABA-mediated synaptic transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, Michael V.; Daniels, Bryan A.; Brown, Patricia M. G. E.; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Tyagarajan, Shiva K.; Bowie, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal communication imposes a heavy metabolic burden in maintaining ionic gradients essential for action potential firing and synaptic signalling. Although cellular metabolism is known to regulate excitatory neurotransmission, it is still unclear whether the brain’s energy supply affects inhibitory signalling. Here we show that mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS) regulate the strength of postsynaptic GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses of cerebellar stellate cells. Inhibition is strengthened through a mechanism that selectively recruits α3-containing GABAA receptors into synapses with no discernible effect on resident α1-containing receptors. Since mROS promotes the emergence of postsynaptic events with unique kinetic properties, we conclude that newly recruited α3-containing GABAA receptors are activated by neurotransmitter released onto discrete postsynaptic sites. Although traditionally associated with oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disease, our data identify mROS as a putative homeostatic signalling molecule coupling cellular metabolism to the strength of inhibitory transmission.

  9. Targeting and Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation by Nox Family NADPH Oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Morand, Stanislas; Hurt, Darrell; Ueyama, Takehiko

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Nox family NADPH oxidases serve a variety of functions requiring reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, including antimicrobial defense, biosynthetic processes, oxygen sensing, and redox-based cellular signaling. We explored targeting, assembly, and activation of several Nox family oxidases, since ROS production appears to be regulated both spatially and temporally. Nox1 and Nox3 are similar to the phagocytic (Nox2-based) oxidase, functioning as multicomponent superoxide-generating enzymes. Factors regulating their activities include cytosolic activator and organizer proteins and GTP-Rac. Their regulation varies, with the following rank order: Nox2 > Nox1 > Nox3. Determinants of subcellular targeting include: (a) formation of Nox-p22phox heterodimeric complexes allowing plasma membrane translocation, (b) phospholipids-binding specificities of PX domain-containing organizer proteins (p47phox or Nox organizer 1 (Noxo1 and p40phox), and (c) variably splicing of Noxo1 PX domains directing them to nuclear or plasma membranes. Dual oxidases (Duox1 and Duox2) are targeted by different mechanisms. Plasma membrane targeting results in H2O2 release, not superoxide, to support extracellular peroxidases. Human Duox1 and Duox2 have no demonstrable peroxidase activity, despite their extensive homology with heme peroxidases. The dual oxidases were reconstituted by Duox activator 2 (Duoxa2) or two Duoxa1 variants, which dictate maturation, subcellular localization, and the type of ROS generated by forming stable complexes with Duox. Antioxid Redox Signal. 11, 2607–2619. PMID:19438290

  10. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediate hypoxic down-regulation of hERG channel protein.

    PubMed

    Nanduri, Jayasri; Wang, Ning; Bergson, Pamela; Yuan, Guoxiang; Ficker, Eckhard; Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2008-08-22

    Previous studies suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in physiological responses to hypoxia. In the present study, we examined the effects of hypoxia on human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) channel protein expression and assessed the role of ROS. Hypoxia, in a stimulus- and time-dependent manner, decreased hERG protein with marked reduction in hERG K+ conductance in human embryonic kidney cells stably expressing the hERG alpha subunit. Down-regulation of hERG by hypoxia was not due to increased proteasomal degradation or decreased transcription but due to decreased synthesis of the protein. Hypoxia increased ROS in a time-dependent manner. Antioxidants prevented hypoxia-evoked down-regulation of hERG protein and exogenous oxidants mimicked the effects of hypoxia. Hypoxia-evoked down-regulation of hERG protein and elevation in ROS were absent in p(O) cells, which are devoid of mitochondrial DNA. Inhibitors of NADPH oxidase failed to prevent the effects of hypoxia. These results demonstrate that hypoxia enhances the production of ROS in the mitochondria, resulting in down-regulation of hERG translation and decreased hERG-mediated K+ conductance.

  11. Mechanism regulating reactive oxygen species in tumor induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells1

    PubMed Central

    Corzo, Cesar A.; Cotter, Matthew J.; Cheng, Pingyan; Cheng, Fendong; Kusmartsev, Sergei; Sotomayor, Eduardo; Padhya, Tapan; McCaffrey, Thomas V.; McCaffrey, Judith C.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

    2010-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a major component of the immune suppressive network described in cancer and many other pathological conditions. Recent studies have demonstrated that one of the major mechanisms of MDSC-induced immune suppression is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the mechanism of this phenomenon remained unknown. In this study we observed a substantial up-regulation of ROS by MDSC in all of seven different tumor models and in patients with head and neck cancer. The increased ROS production by MDSC is mediated by up-regulated activity of NADPH oxidase (NOX2). MDSC from tumor-bearing mice had significantly higher expression of NOX2 subunits, primarily p47phox and gp91phox, compared to immature myeloid cells from tumor-free mice. Expression of NOX2 subunits in MDSC was controlled by the STAT3 transcription factor. In the absence of NOX2 activity, MDSC lost the ability to suppress T-cell responses and quickly differentiated into mature macrophages and dendritic cells. These findings expand our fundamental understanding of the biology of MDSC and may also open new opportunities for therapeutic regulation of these cells in cancer. PMID:19380816

  12. Mechanism regulating reactive oxygen species in tumor-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    PubMed

    Corzo, Cesar A; Cotter, Matthew J; Cheng, Pingyan; Cheng, Fendong; Kusmartsev, Sergei; Sotomayor, Eduardo; Padhya, Tapan; McCaffrey, Thomas V; McCaffrey, Judith C; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I

    2009-05-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a major component of the immune suppressive network described in cancer and many other pathological conditions. Recent studies have demonstrated that one of the major mechanisms of MDSC-induced immune suppression is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the mechanism of this phenomenon remained unknown. In this study, we observed a substantial up-regulation of ROS by MDSC in all of seven different tumor models and in patients with head and neck cancer. The increased ROS production by MDSC is mediated by up-regulated activity of NADPH oxidase (NOX2). MDSC from tumor-bearing mice had significantly higher expression of NOX2 subunits, primarily p47(phox) and gp91(phox), compared with immature myeloid cells from tumor-free mice. Expression of NOX2 subunits in MDSC was controlled by the STAT3 transcription factor. In the absence of NOX2 activity, MDSC lost the ability to suppress T cell responses and quickly differentiated into mature macrophages and dendritic cells. These findings expand our fundamental understanding of the biology of MDSC and may also open new opportunities for therapeutic regulation of these cells in cancer.

  13. TRPC3 positively regulates reactive oxygen species driving maladaptive cardiac remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Naoyuki; Numaga-Tomita, Takuro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Kuroda, Takuya; Nishimura, Akiyuki; Miyano, Kei; Yasuda, Satoshi; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Sato, Yoji; Ide, Tomomi; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Sumimoto, Hideki; Mori, Yasuo; Nishida, Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) function as key mediators of mechanotransduction during both physiological adaptation to mechanical load and maladaptive remodeling of the heart. This is despite low levels of cardiac Nox2 expression. The mechanism underlying the transition from adaptation to maladaptation remains obscure, however. We demonstrate that transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3), a Ca2+-permeable channel, acts as a positive regulator of ROS (PRROS) in cardiomyocytes, and specifically regulates pressure overload-induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling in mice. TRPC3 physically interacts with Nox2 at specific C-terminal sites, thereby protecting Nox2 from proteasome-dependent degradation and amplifying Ca2+-dependent Nox2 activation through TRPC3-mediated background Ca2+ entry. Nox2 also stabilizes TRPC3 proteins to enhance TRPC3 channel activity. Expression of TRPC3 C-terminal polypeptide abolished TRPC3-regulated ROS production by disrupting TRPC3-Nox2 interaction, without affecting TRPC3-mediated Ca2+ influx. The novel TRPC3 function as a PRROS provides a mechanistic explanation for how diastolic Ca2+ influx specifically encodes signals to induce ROS-mediated maladaptive remodeling and offers new therapeutic possibilities. PMID:27833156

  14. The early embryo response to intracellular reactive oxygen species is developmentally regulated.

    PubMed

    Bain, Nathan T; Madan, Pavneesh; Betts, Dean H

    2011-01-01

    In vitro embryo production (IVP) suffers from excessive developmental failure. Its inefficiency is linked, in part, to reactive oxygen species (ROS) brought on by high ex vivo oxygen (O(2)) tensions. To further delineate the effects of ROS on IVP, the intracellular ROS levels of early bovine embryos were modulated by: (1) varying O(2) tension; (2) exogenous H(2)O(2) treatment; and (3) antioxidant supplementation. Although O(2) tension did not significantly affect blastocyst frequencies (P>0.05), 20% O(2) accelerated the rate of first cleavage division and significantly decreased and increased the proportion of permanently arrested 2- to 4-cell embryos and apoptotic 9- to 16-cell embryos, respectively, compared with embryos cultured in 5% O(2) tension. Treatment with H(2)O(2), when applied separately to oocytes, zygotes, 2- to 4-cell embryos or 9- to 16-cell embryos, resulted in a significant (P<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in blastocyst development in conjunction with a corresponding increase in the induction of either permanent embryo arrest or apoptosis in a stage-dependent manner. Polyethylene glycol-catalase supplementation reduced ROS-induced embryo arrest and/or death, resulting in a significant (P<0.05) increase in blastocyst frequencies under high O(2) culture conditions. Together, these results indicate that intracellular ROS may be signalling molecules that, outside an optimal range, result in various developmentally regulated modes of embryo demise.

  15. Regulation of insulin secretion and reactive oxygen species production by free fatty acids in pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Graciano, Maria Fernanda Rodrigues; Valle, Maíra M R; Kowluru, Anjan; Curi, Rui; Carpinelli, Angelo R

    2011-01-01

    Free fatty acids regulate insulin secretion through metabolic and intracellular signaling mechanisms such as induction of malonyl-CoA/long-chain CoA pathway, production of lipids, GPRs (G protein-coupled receptors) activation and the modulation of calcium currents. Fatty acids (FA) are also important inducers of ROS (reactive oxygen species) production in β-cells. Production of ROS for short periods is associated with an increase in GSIS (glucose-stimulated insulin secretion), but excessive or sustained production of ROS is negatively correlated with the insulin secretory process. Several mechanisms for FA modulation of ROS production by pancreatic β-cells have been proposed, such as the control of mitochondrial complexes and electron transport, induction of uncoupling proteins, NADPH oxidase activation, interaction with the renin-angiotensin system, and modulation of the antioxidant defense system. The major sites of superoxide production within mitochondria derive from complexes I and III. The amphiphilic nature of FA favors their incorporation into mitochondrial membranes, altering the membrane fluidity and facilitating the electron leak. The extra-mitochondrial ROS production induced by FA through the NADPH oxidase complex is also an important source of these species in β-cells.

  16. Calcium-dependent protein kinases regulate the production of reactive oxygen species by potato NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michie; Ohura, Ikuko; Kawakita, Kazuhito; Yokota, Naohiko; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Shimamoto, Ko; Doke, Noriyuki; Yoshioka, Hirofumi

    2007-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in plant innate immunity. NADPH oxidase (RBOH; for Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homolog) plays a central role in the oxidative burst, and EF-hand motifs in the N terminus of this protein suggest possible regulation by Ca(2+). However, regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. We identified Ser-82 and Ser-97 in the N terminus of potato (Solanum tuberosum) St RBOHB as potential phosphorylation sites. An anti-phosphopeptide antibody (pSer82) indicated that Ser-82 was phosphorylated by pathogen signals in planta. We cloned two potato calcium-dependent protein kinases, St CDPK4 and St CDPK5, and mass spectrometry analyses showed that these CDPKs phosphorylated only Ser-82 and Ser-97 in the N terminus of St RBOHB in a calcium-dependent manner. Ectopic expression of the constitutively active mutant of St CDPK5, St CDPK5VK, provoked ROS production in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The CDPK-mediated ROS production was disrupted by knockdown of Nb RBOHB in N. benthamiana. The loss of function was complemented by heterologous expression of wild-type potato St RBOHB but not by a mutant (S82A/S97A). Furthermore, the heterologous expression of St CDPK5VK phosphorylated Ser-82 of St RBOHB in N. benthamiana. These results suggest that St CDPK5 induces the phosphorylation of St RBOHB and regulates the oxidative burst.

  17. Ethylene response factor 6 is a regulator of reactive oxygen species signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sewelam, Nasser; Kazan, Kemal; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Kidd, Brendan N; Manners, John M; Schenk, Peer M

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in plant cells in response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses as well as during normal growth and development. Although a large number of transcription factor (TF) genes are up- or down-regulated by ROS, currently very little is known about the functions of these TFs during oxidative stress. In this work, we examined the role of ERF6 (ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR6), an AP2/ERF domain-containing TF, during oxidative stress responses in Arabidopsis. Mutant analyses showed that NADPH oxidase (RbohD) and calcium signaling are required for ROS-responsive expression of ERF6. erf6 insertion mutant plants showed reduced growth and increased H2O2 and anthocyanin levels. Expression analyses of selected ROS-responsive genes during oxidative stress identified several differentially expressed genes in the erf6 mutant. In particular, a number of ROS responsive genes, such as ZAT12, HSFs, WRKYs, MAPKs, RBOHs, DHAR1, APX4, and CAT1 were more strongly induced by H2O2 in erf6 plants than in wild-type. In contrast, MDAR3, CAT3, VTC2 and EX1 showed reduced expression levels in the erf6 mutant. Taken together, our results indicate that ERF6 plays an important role as a positive antioxidant regulator during plant growth and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  18. Negative Regulation of Autophagy by Sulfide Is Independent of Reactive Oxygen Species.

    PubMed

    Laureano-Marín, Ana M; Moreno, Inmaculada; Romero, Luis C; Gotor, Cecilia

    2016-06-01

    Accumulating experimental evidence in mammalian, and recently plant, systems has led to a change in our understanding of the role played by hydrogen sulfide in life processes. In plants, hydrogen sulfide mitigates stress and regulates important plant processes such as photosynthesis, stomatal movement, and autophagy, although the underlying mechanism is not well known. In this study, we provide new experimental evidence that, together with our previous findings, demonstrates the role of hydrogen sulfide in regulating autophagy. We used green fluorescent protein fluorescence associated with autophagic bodies and immunoblot analysis of the ATG8 protein to show that sulfide (and no other molecules such as sulfur-containing molecules or ammonium) was able to inhibit the autophagy induced in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots under nitrogen deprivation. Our results showed that sulfide was unable to scavenge reactive oxygen species generated by nitrogen limitation, in contrast to well-established reducers. In addition, reducers were unable to inhibit the accumulation of autophagic bodies and ATG8 protein forms to the same extent as sulfide. Therefore, we conclude that sulfide represses autophagy via a mechanism that is independent of redox conditions.

  19. Insulin regulates glucose consumption and lactate production through reactive oxygen species and pyruvate kinase M2.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Liu, Xue; Yin, Yu; Zheng, Ji-Tai; Jiang, Cheng-Fei; Wang, Jing; Shen, Hua; Li, Chong-Yong; Wang, Min; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Although insulin is known to regulate glucose metabolism and closely associate with liver cancer, the molecular mechanisms still remain to be elucidated. In this study, we attempt to understand the mechanism of insulin in promotion of liver cancer metabolism. We found that insulin increased pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) expression through reactive oxygen species (ROS) for regulating glucose consumption and lactate production, key process of glycolysis in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and Bel7402 cells. Interestingly, insulin-induced ROS was found responsible for the suppression of miR-145 and miR-128, and forced expression of either miR-145 or miR-128 was sufficient to abolish insulin-induced PKM2 expression. Furthermore, the knockdown of PKM2 expression also inhibited cancer cell growth and insulin-induced glucose consumption and lactate production, suggesting that PKM2 is a functional downstream effecter of insulin. Taken together, this study would provide a new insight into the mechanism of insulin-induced glycolysis.

  20. Reciprocal Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Phospho-CREB Regulates Voltage Gated Calcium Channel Expression during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, Arti; Antony, Cecil; Singhal, Jhalak; Tiwari, Brijendra K.; Singh, Yogendra; Natarajan, Krishnamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work has demonstrated the roles played by L-type Voltage Gated Calcium Channels (VGCC) in regulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) survival and pathogenesis. Here we decipher mechanisms and pathways engaged by the pathogen to regulate VGCC expression in macrophages. We show that M. tb and its antigen Rv3416 use phospho-CREB (pCREB), Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Protein Kinase C (PKC) and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) to modulate VGCC expression in macrophages. siRNA mediated knockdown of MyD88, IRAK1, IRAK2 or TRAF6 significantly inhibited antigen mediated VGCC expression. Inhibiting Protein Kinase C (PKC) or MEK-ERK1/2 further increased VGCC expression. Interestingly, inhibiting intracellular calcium release upregulated antigen mediated VGCC expression, while inhibiting extracellular calcium influx had no significant effect. siRNA mediated knockdown of transcription factors c-Jun, SOX5 and CREB significantly inhibited Rv3416 mediated VGCC expression. A dynamic reciprocal cross-regulation between ROS and pCREB was observed that in turn governed VGCC expression with ROS playing a limiting role in the process. Further dissection of the mechanisms such as the interplay between ROS and pCREB would improve our understanding of the regulation of VGCC expression during M. tb infection. PMID:24797940

  1. Regulation of Rac1 and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Response to Infection of Gastrointestinal Epithelia.

    PubMed

    den Hartog, Gerco; Chattopadhyay, Ranajoy; Ablack, Amber; Hall, Emily H; Butcher, Lindsay D; Bhattacharyya, Asima; Eckmann, Lars; Harris, Paul R; Das, Soumita; Ernst, Peter B; Crowe, Sheila E

    2016-01-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during infection is an immediate host defense leading to microbial killing. APE1 is a multifunctional protein induced by ROS and after induction, protects against ROS-mediated DNA damage. Rac1 and NAPDH oxidase (Nox1) are important contributors of ROS generation following infection and associated with gastrointestinal epithelial injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if APE1 regulates the function of Rac1 and Nox1 during oxidative stress. Gastric or colonic epithelial cells (wild-type or with suppressed APE1) were infected with Helicobacter pylori or Salmonella enterica and assessed for Rac1 and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production. Rac1 and APE1 interactions were measured by co-immunoprecipitation, confocal microscopy and proximity ligation assay (PLA) in cell lines or in biopsy specimens. Significantly greater levels of ROS were produced by APE1-deficient human gastric and colonic cell lines and primary gastric epithelial cells compared to control cells after infection with either gastric or enteric pathogens. H. pylori activated Rac1 and Nox1 in all cell types, but activation was higher in APE1 suppressed cells. APE1 overexpression decreased H. pylori-induced ROS generation, Rac1 activation, and Nox1 expression. We determined that the effects of APE1 were mediated through its N-terminal lysine residues interacting with Rac1, leading to inhibition of Nox1 expression and ROS generation. APE1 is a negative regulator of oxidative stress in the gastrointestinal epithelium during bacterial infection by modulating Rac1 and Nox1. Our results implicate APE1 in novel molecular interactions that regulate early stress responses elicited by microbial infections.

  2. GASA14 regulates leaf expansion and abiotic stress resistance by modulating reactive oxygen species accumulation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shulan; Wang, Haoxiang; Yu, Hongmei; Zhong, Chunmei; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Peng, Jianzong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2013-04-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA) can regulate many plant developmental processes. GAST1 has been identified as a GA-stimulated transcript, and Arabidopsis GAST-like genes are known to constitute the GASA family. However, the functions of most GASA genes are not clear at present. In this study, the function of GASA14, a member of the GASA family, was investigated. GASA14 expression was upregulated by GA and downregulated by the transcriptional regulators that repress GA responses, the DELLA proteins GAI and RGA. Phenotypic analysis showed that growth of the GASA14 null mutant (gasa14-1) line was retarded, and the growth of the 35S::GASA14 lines were promoted in young plants. Furthermore, seed germination of the gasa14-1 plants showed more sensitivity to paclobutrazol (an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis) than Columbia (Col) plants, suggesting that GASA14 is required for GA-dependent responses. Analysis of the responses of the gasa14-1 and 35S::GASA14 lines to abscisic acid (ABA) and salt revealed that germination and seedling establishment of gasa14-1 were poorer than those of Col plants and that the 35S::GASA14 lines were more resistant to ABA and salt. Further analysis showed that overexpression of GASA14 could suppress reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that GASA14 regulates leaf expansion and abiotic stress resistance by modulating ROS accumulation. Because GASA14 contains both GASA (GA-stimulated in Arabidopsis) and PRP (proline-rich protein) domains, the PRP domain coding sequence was overexpressed in Col plants and it was found that the growth of the transgenic plants and the responses to ABA and salt were not altered. These results thus suggest that the GASA domain is necessary for the functions of GASA14.

  3. Lack of reactive oxygen species deteriorates blood pressure regulation in acute stress.

    PubMed

    Bernátová, I; Bališ, P; Goga, R; Behuliak, M; Zicha, J; Sekaj, I

    2016-10-24

    This study investigated the contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to blood pressure regulation in conscious adult male Wistar rats exposed to acute stress. Role of ROS was investigated in rats with temporally impaired principal blood pressure regulation systems using ganglionic blocker pentolinium (P, 5 mg/kg), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (C, 10 mg/kg), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (L, 30 mg/kg) and superoxide dismutase mimeticum tempol (T, 25 mg/kg). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured by the carotid artery catheter and inhibitors were administered intravenously. MAP was disturbed by a 3-s air jet, which increased MAP by 35.2+/-3.0 % vs. basal MAP after the first exposure. Air jet increased MAP in captopril- and tempol-treated rats similarly as observed in saline-treated rats. In pentolinium-treated rats stress significantly decreased MAP vs. pre-stress value. In L-NAME-treated rats stress failed to affect MAP significantly. Treatment of rats with P+L+C resulted in stress-induced MAP decrease by 17.3+/-1.3 % vs. pre-stress value and settling time (20.1+/-4.2 s). In P+L+C+T-treated rats stress led to maximal MAP decrease by 26.4+/-2.2 % (p<0.005 vs. P+L+C) and prolongation of settling time to 32.6+/-3.3 s (p<0.05 vs. P+L+C). Area under the MAP curve was significantly smaller in P+L+C-treated rats compared to P+L+C+T-treated ones (167+/-43 vs. 433+/-69 a.u., p<0.008). In conclusion, in rats with temporally impaired blood pressure regulation, the lack of ROS resulted in greater stress-induced MAP alterations and prolongation of time required to reach new post-stress steady state.

  4. Regulation of Rac1 and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Response to Infection of Gastrointestinal Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Ablack, Amber; Hall, Emily H.; Butcher, Lindsay D.; Bhattacharyya, Asima; Eckmann, Lars; Harris, Paul R.; Das, Soumita; Ernst, Peter B.; Crowe, Sheila E.

    2016-01-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during infection is an immediate host defense leading to microbial killing. APE1 is a multifunctional protein induced by ROS and after induction, protects against ROS-mediated DNA damage. Rac1 and NAPDH oxidase (Nox1) are important contributors of ROS generation following infection and associated with gastrointestinal epithelial injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if APE1 regulates the function of Rac1 and Nox1 during oxidative stress. Gastric or colonic epithelial cells (wild-type or with suppressed APE1) were infected with Helicobacter pylori or Salmonella enterica and assessed for Rac1 and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production. Rac1 and APE1 interactions were measured by co-immunoprecipitation, confocal microscopy and proximity ligation assay (PLA) in cell lines or in biopsy specimens. Significantly greater levels of ROS were produced by APE1-deficient human gastric and colonic cell lines and primary gastric epithelial cells compared to control cells after infection with either gastric or enteric pathogens. H. pylori activated Rac1 and Nox1 in all cell types, but activation was higher in APE1 suppressed cells. APE1 overexpression decreased H. pylori-induced ROS generation, Rac1 activation, and Nox1 expression. We determined that the effects of APE1 were mediated through its N-terminal lysine residues interacting with Rac1, leading to inhibition of Nox1 expression and ROS generation. APE1 is a negative regulator of oxidative stress in the gastrointestinal epithelium during bacterial infection by modulating Rac1 and Nox1. Our results implicate APE1 in novel molecular interactions that regulate early stress responses elicited by microbial infections. PMID:26761793

  5. Role of NADPH oxidases and reactive oxygen species in regulation of bone turnover and the skeletal toxicity of alcohol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies with genetically modified mice and dietary antioxidants have suggested an important role for superoxide derived from NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide in regulation of normal bone turnover during development and also in the r...

  6. The Promotion of Erythropoiesis via the Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species by Lactic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shun-Tao; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Qin, Qing; Lu, Lian; Luo, Min; Guo, Fu-Chun; Shi, Hua-Shan; Jiang, Li; Shao, Bin; Li, Meng; Yang, Han-Shuo; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2017-01-01

    The simultaneous increases in blood lactic acid and erythrocytes after intense exercise could suggest a link between lactate and the erythropoiesis. However, the effects of lactic acid on erythropoiesis remain to be elucidated. Here, we utilized a mouse model to determine the role of lactic acid in this process in parallel with studies using leukaemic K562 cells. Treatment of K562 cells in vitro with lactic acid increased the mRNA and protein expression of haemoglobin genes and the frequency of GPA+ cells. Also, increases in haematocrit and CD71−/Ter119+ erythroid cells were observed in lactic acid-treated mice, which showed a physiological increase in blood lactate. Mouse bone marrow CD34+/CD117− cells showed an increase in erythroid burst-forming units after stimulation with lactic acid in vitro. Furthermore, lactic acid increased the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in bone marrow and in K562 cells. Erythroid differentiation induced in Haematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) and K562 cells by lactic acid was abolished by reducing ROS levels with SOD or 2-mercaptoethanol, which suggests that ROS is a critical regulator of this process. These findings provide a better understanding of the role of lactic acid in cellular metabolism and physiological functions. PMID:28165036

  7. Peroxiredoxin-3 Is Involved in Bactericidal Activity through the Regulation of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sena; Wi, Sae Mi; Min, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Peroxiredoxin-3 (Prdx3) is a mitochondrial protein of the thioredoxin family of antioxidant peroxidases and is the principal peroxidase responsible for metabolizing mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide. Recent reports have shown that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) contribute to macrophage-mediated bactericidal activity in response to Toll-like receptors. Herein, we investigated the functional effect of Prdx3 in bactericidal activity. The mitochondrial localization of Prdx3 in HEK293T cells was confirmed by cell fractionation and confocal microscopy analyses. To investigate the functional role of Prdx3 in bactericidal activity, Prdx3-knockdown (Prdx3KD) THP-1 cells were generated. The mROS levels in Prdx3KD THP-1 cells were significantly higher than those in control THP-1 cells. Moreover, the mROS levels were markedly increased in response to lipopolysaccharide. Notably, the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection assay revealed that the Prdx3KD THP-1 cells were significantly resistant to S. Typhimurium infection, as compared with control THP-1 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Prdx3 is functionally important in bactericidal activity through the regulation of mROS. PMID:28035213

  8. The Promotion of Erythropoiesis via the Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species by Lactic Acid.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shun-Tao; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Qin, Qing; Lu, Lian; Luo, Min; Guo, Fu-Chun; Shi, Hua-Shan; Jiang, Li; Shao, Bin; Li, Meng; Yang, Han-Shuo; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2017-02-06

    The simultaneous increases in blood lactic acid and erythrocytes after intense exercise could suggest a link between lactate and the erythropoiesis. However, the effects of lactic acid on erythropoiesis remain to be elucidated. Here, we utilized a mouse model to determine the role of lactic acid in this process in parallel with studies using leukaemic K562 cells. Treatment of K562 cells in vitro with lactic acid increased the mRNA and protein expression of haemoglobin genes and the frequency of GPA(+) cells. Also, increases in haematocrit and CD71(-)/Ter119(+) erythroid cells were observed in lactic acid-treated mice, which showed a physiological increase in blood lactate. Mouse bone marrow CD34(+)/CD117(-) cells showed an increase in erythroid burst-forming units after stimulation with lactic acid in vitro. Furthermore, lactic acid increased the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in bone marrow and in K562 cells. Erythroid differentiation induced in Haematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) and K562 cells by lactic acid was abolished by reducing ROS levels with SOD or 2-mercaptoethanol, which suggests that ROS is a critical regulator of this process. These findings provide a better understanding of the role of lactic acid in cellular metabolism and physiological functions.

  9. Reactive Oxygen Species Regulate T Cell Immune Response in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinfeng; Song, Mengjia

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by cellular metabolism play an important role as signaling messengers in immune system. ROS elevated in the tumor microenvironment are associated with tumor-induced immunosuppression. T cell-based therapy has been recently approved to be effective for cancer treatment. However, T cells often become dysfunctional after reaching the tumor site. It has been reported that ROS participate extensively in T cells activation, apoptosis, and hyporesponsiveness. The sensitivity of T cells to ROS varies among different subsets. ROS can be regulated by cytokines, amino acid metabolism, and enzymatic activity. Immunosuppressive cells accumulate in the tumor microenvironment and induce apoptosis and functional suppression of T cells by producing ROS. Thus, modulating the level of ROS may be important to prolong survival of T cells and enhance their antitumor function. Combining T cell-based therapy with antioxidant treatment such as administration of ROS scavenger should be considered as a promising strategy in cancer treatment, aiming to improve antitumor T cells immunity. PMID:27547291

  10. Antioxidant Enzymes Regulate Reactive Oxygen Species during Pod Elongation in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nan; Lin, Zhifang; Guan, Lanlan; Gaughan, Gerald; Lin, Guizhu

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has focused on the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell wall loosening and cell extension in plant vegetative growth, but few studies have investigated ROS functions specifically in plant reproductive organs. In this study, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis pods at five developmental stages. In juvenile pods, the high levels of O2.− and.OH indicates that they had functions in cell wall loosening and cell elongation. In later developmental stages, high levels of.OH were also related to increases in cell wall thickness in lignified tissues. Throughout pod development, most of the O2.− was detected on plasma membranes of parenchyma cells and outer epidermis cells of the mesocarp, while most of the H2O2 was detected on plasma membranes of most cells throughout the mesocarp. This suggests that these sites are presumably the locations of ROS generation. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) apparently contributed to ROS accumulation in pod wall tissues. Furthermore, specifically SOD and POD were found to be associated with pod growth through the regulation of ROS generation and transformation. Throughout pod development, O2.− decreases were associated with increased SOD activity, while changes in H2O2 accumulation were associated with changes in CAT and POD activities. Additionally, high POD activity may contribute to the generation of.OH in the early development of pods. It is concluded that the ROS are produced in different sites of plasma membranes with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and that substantial ROS generation and accumulation are evident in cell elongation and cell wall loosening in pod wall cells. PMID:24503564

  11. Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species and the Antioxidant Protein DJ-1 in Mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Kyun; Beaven, Michael A.; Kulinski, Joseph M.; Desai, Avanti; Bandara, Geethani; Bai, Yun; Prussin, Calman; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Komarow, Hirsh

    2016-01-01

    Neoplastic accumulation of mast cells in systemic mastocytosis (SM) associates with activating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT. Constitutive activation of tyrosine kinase oncogenes has been linked to imbalances in oxidant/antioxidant mechanisms in other myeloproliferative disorders. However, the impact of KIT mutations on the redox status in SM and the potential therapeutic implications are not well understood. Here, we examined the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of the antioxidant protein DJ-1 (PARK-7), which increases with cancer progression and acts to lessen oxidative damage to malignant cells, in relationship with SM severity. ROS levels were increased in both indolent (ISM) and aggressive variants of the disease (ASM). However, while DJ-1 levels were reduced in ISM with lower mast cell burden, they rose in ISM with higher mast cell burden and were significantly elevated in patients with ASM. Studies on mast cell lines revealed that activating KIT mutations induced constant ROS production and consequent DJ-1 oxidation and degradation that could explain the reduced levels of DJ-1 in the ISM population, while IL-6, a cytokine that increases with disease severity, caused a counteracting transcriptional induction of DJ-1 which would protect malignant mast cells from oxidative damage. A mouse model of mastocytosis recapitulated the biphasic changes in DJ-1 and the escalating IL-6, ROS and DJ-1 levels as mast cells accumulate, findings which were reversed with anti-IL-6 receptor blocking antibody. Our findings provide evidence of increased ROS and a biphasic regulation of the antioxidant DJ-1 in variants of SM and implicate IL-6 in DJ-1 induction and expansion of mast cells with KIT mutations. We propose consideration of IL-6 blockade as a potential adjunctive therapy in the treatment of patients with advanced mastocytosis, as it would reduce DJ-1 levels making mutation-positive mast cells vulnerable to oxidative damage. PMID:27611333

  12. Crosstalk between nitrite, myoglobin and reactive oxygen species to regulate vasodilation under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Totzeck, Matthias; Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B; Kelm, Malte; Rassaf, Tienush

    2014-01-01

    The systemic response to decreasing oxygen levels is hypoxic vasodilation. While this mechanism has been known for more than a century, the underlying cellular events have remained incompletely understood. Nitrite signaling is critically involved in vessel relaxation under hypoxia. This can be attributed to the presence of myoglobin in the vessel wall together with other potential nitrite reductases, which generate nitric oxide, one of the most potent vasodilatory signaling molecules. Questions remain relating to the precise concentration of nitrite and the exact dose-response relations between nitrite and myoglobin under hypoxia. It is furthermore unclear whether regulatory mechanisms exist which balance this interaction. Nitrite tissue levels were similar across all species investigated. We then investigated the exact fractional myoglobin desaturation in an ex vivo approach when gassing with 1% oxygen. Within a short time frame myoglobin desaturated to 58±12%. Given that myoglobin significantly contributes to nitrite reduction under hypoxia, dose-response experiments using physiological to pharmacological nitrite concentrations were conducted. Along all concentrations, abrogation of myoglobin in mice impaired vasodilation. As reactive oxygen species may counteract the vasodilatory response, we used superoxide dismutase and its mimic tempol as well as catalase and ebselen to reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species during hypoxic vasodilation. Incubation of tempol in conjunction with catalase alone and catalase/ebselen increased the vasodilatory response to nitrite. Our study shows that modest hypoxia leads to a significant nitrite-dependent vessel relaxation. This requires the presence of vascular myoglobin for both physiological and pharmacological nitrite levels. Reactive oxygen species, in turn, modulate this vasodilation response.

  13. Vanadium compounds discriminate hepatoma and normal hepatic cells by differential regulation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Liu, Tong-Tong; Fu, Ying; Wang, Kui; Yang, Xiao-Gai

    2010-09-01

    Our previous study indicated that vanadium compounds can block cell cycle progression at the G1/S phase in human hepatoma HepG2 cells via a highly activated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signal. To explore their differential action on normal cells, we investigated the response of an immortalized hepatic cell line, L02 cells. The results demonstrated that a higher concentration of vanadium compounds was needed to inhibit L02 proliferation, which was associated with S and G2/M cell cycle arrest. In addition, in contrast to insignificant reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HepG2 cells, all of the vanadium compounds resulted significant increases in both O2.- and H2O2 levels in L02 cells. At the same time, ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) as well as cell division control protein 2 homolog (Cdc2) were found to be highly phosphorylated, which could be counteracted with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The current study also demonstrated that both the ERK and the JNK pathways contributed to the cell cycle arrest induced by vanadium compounds in L02 cells. More importantly, it was found that although NAC can ameliorate the cytotoxicity of vanadium compounds in L02 cells, it did not decrease their cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. It thus shed light on the potential therapeutic applications of vanadium compounds with antioxidants as synergistic agents to reduce their toxicities in human normal cells without affecting their antitumor activities in cancer cells.

  14. Regulation of signal transduction by reactive oxygen species in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Brown, David I.; Griendling, Kathy K.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has long been implicated in cardiovascular disease, but more recently, the role of reactive oxygen species in normal physiological signaling has been elucidated. Signaling pathways modulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) are complex and compartmentalized, and we are only beginning to identify the molecular modifications of specific targets. Here we review the current literature regarding ROS signaling in the cardiovascular system, focusing on the role of ROS in normal physiology and how dysregulation of signaling circuits contributes to cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, cardiomyopathy and heart failure. In particular, we consider how ROS modulate signaling pathways related to phenotypic modulation, migration and adhesion, contractility, proliferation and hypertrophy, angiogenesis, endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis and senescence. Understanding the specific targets of ROS may guide the development of the next generation of ROS-modifying therapies to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with oxidative stress. PMID:25634975

  15. Sexual Preferences in Nutrient Utilization Regulate Oxygen Consumption and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Schistosoma mansoni: Potential Implications for Parasite Redox Biology

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Matheus P.; Correa Soares, Juliana B. R.; Oliveira, Marcus F.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni, one of the causative agents of human schistosomiasis, has a unique antioxidant network that is key to parasite survival and a valuable chemotherapeutic target. The ability to detoxify and tolerate reactive oxygen species increases along S. mansoni development in the vertebrate host, suggesting that adult parasites are more exposed to redox challenges than young stages. Indeed, adult parasites are exposed to multiple redox insults generated from blood digestion, activated immune cells, and, potentially, from their own parasitic aerobic metabolism. However, it remains unknown how reactive oxygen species are produced by S. mansoni metabolism, as well as their biological effects on adult worms. Here, we assessed the contribution of nutrients and parasite gender to oxygen utilization pathways, and reactive oxygen species generation in whole unpaired adult S. mansoni worms. We also determined the susceptibilities of both parasite sexes to a pro-oxidant challenge. We observed that glutamine and serum importantly contribute to both respiratory and non-respiratory oxygen utilization in adult worms, but with different proportions among parasite sexes. Analyses of oxygen utilization pathways revealed that respiratory rates were high in male worms, which contrast with high non-respiratory rates in females, regardless nutritional sources. Interestingly, mitochondrial complex I-III activity was higher than complex IV specifically in females. We also observed sexual preferences in substrate utilization to sustain hydrogen peroxide production towards glucose in females, and glutamine in male worms. Despite strikingly high oxidant levels and hydrogen peroxide production rates, female worms were more resistant to a pro-oxidant challenge than male parasites. The data presented here indicate that sexual preferences in nutrient metabolism in adult S. mansoni worms regulate oxygen utilization and reactive oxygen species production, which may differently contribute

  16. Reactive Oxygen Species in the Regulation of Synaptic Plasticity and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Klann, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The brain is a metabolically active organ exhibiting high oxygen consumption and robust production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The large amounts of ROS are kept in check by an elaborate network of antioxidants, which sometimes fail and lead to neuronal oxidative stress. Thus, ROS are typically categorized as neurotoxic molecules and typically exert their detrimental effects via oxidation of essential macromolecules such as enzymes and cytoskeletal proteins. Most importantly, excessive ROS are associated with decreased performance in cognitive function. However, at physiological concentrations, ROS are involved in functional changes necessary for synaptic plasticity and hence, for normal cognitive function. The fine line of role reversal of ROS from good molecules to bad molecules is far from being fully understood. This review focuses on identifying the multiple sources of ROS in the mammalian nervous system and on presenting evidence for the critical and essential role of ROS in synaptic plasticity and memory. The review also shows that the inability to restrain either age- or pathology-related increases in ROS levels leads to opposite, detrimental effects that are involved in impairments in synaptic plasticity and memory function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 2013–2054. PMID:20649473

  17. Endothelial GRK2 regulates vascular homeostasis through the control of free radical oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Ciccarelli, Michele; Sorriento, Daniela; Franco, Antonietta; Fusco, Anna; Giudice, Carmine Del; Annunziata, Roberto; Cipolletta, Ersilia; Monti, Maria Gaia; Dorn, Gerald W; Trimarco, Bruno; Iaccarino, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Objective The role of endothelial GRK2 was investigated in mice with selective deletion of the kinase in the endothelium (Tie2-CRE/GRK2fl/fl). Approach and Results Aortas from Tie2-CRE/GRK2fl/fl presented functional and structural alterations as compared to control GRK2fl/fl mice. In particular, vasoconstriction was blunted to different agonists, and collagen and elastic rearrangement and macrophage infiltration were observed. In primary cultured endothelial cells deficient for GRK2, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased, leading to expression of cytokines. Chronic treatment with a ROS scavenger in mice corrected the vascular phenotype by recovering vasoconstriction, structural abnormalities and reducing macrophage infiltration. Conclusions These results demonstrate that GRK2 removal compromises vascular phenotype and integrity by increasing endothelial ROS production. PMID:23950144

  18. Regulation of signal transduction by reactive oxygen species in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Brown, David I; Griendling, Kathy K

    2015-01-30

    Oxidative stress has long been implicated in cardiovascular disease, but more recently, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in normal physiological signaling has been elucidated. Signaling pathways modulated by ROS are complex and compartmentalized, and we are only beginning to identify the molecular modifications of specific targets. Here, we review the current literature on ROS signaling in the cardiovascular system, focusing on the role of ROS in normal physiology and how dysregulation of signaling circuits contributes to cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. In particular, we consider how ROS modulate signaling pathways related to phenotypic modulation, migration and adhesion, contractility, proliferation and hypertrophy, angiogenesis, endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis, and senescence. Understanding the specific targets of ROS may guide the development of the next generation of ROS-modifying therapies to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with oxidative stress.

  19. Reciprocal regulation of TGF-β and reactive oxygen species: A perverse cycle for fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui-Ming; Desai, Leena P.

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is the most potent pro-fibrogenic cytokine and its expression is increased in almost all of fibrotic diseases. Although signaling through Smad pathway is believed to play a central role in TGF-β's fibrogenesis, emerging evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulate TGF-β's signaling through different pathways including Smad pathway. TGF-β1 increases ROS production and suppresses antioxidant enzymes, leading to a redox imbalance. ROS, in turn, induce/activate TGF-β1 and mediate many of TGF-β's fibrogenic effects, forming a vicious cycle (see graphic flow chart on the right). Here, we review the current knowledge on the feed-forward mechanisms between TGF-β1 and ROS in the development of fibrosis. Therapeutics targeting TGF-β-induced and ROS-dependent cellular signaling represents a novel approach in the treatment of fibrotic disorders. PMID:26496488

  20. NRROS Negatively Regulates Osteoclast Differentiation by Inhibiting RANKL-Mediated NF-κB and Reactive Oxygen Species Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Ha; Kim, Kabsun; Kim, Inyoung; Seong, Semun; Kim, Nacksung

    2015-01-01

    Negative regulator of reactive oxygen species (NRROS) is known to repress ROS generation in phagocytes. In this study, we examined the roles of NRROS in both osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Our results demonstrate that NRROS negatively regulates the differentiation of osteoclasts, but not osteoblasts. Further, overexpression of NRROS in osteoclast precursor cells attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. Conversely, osteoclast differentiation is enhanced upon siRNA-mediated knockdown of NRROS. Additionally, NRROS attenuates RANKL-induced NF-κB activation, as well as degradation of the NOX1 and NOX2 proteins, which are required for ROS generation. Based on our observations, we present NRROS as a novel negative regulator of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. PMID:26442864

  1. Fine tuning of reactive oxygen species homeostasis regulates primed immune responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Victoria; Luna, Estrella; Ton, Jurriaan; Cerezo, Miguel; García-Agustín, Pilar; Flors, Victor

    2013-11-01

    Selected stimuli can prime the plant immune system for a faster and stronger defense reaction to pathogen attack. Pretreatment of Arabidopsis with the chemical agent β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) augmented H2O2 and callose production after induction with the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) chitosan, or inoculation with the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina. However, BABA failed to prime H2O2 and callose production after challenge with the bacterial PAMP Flg22. Analysis of Arabidopsis mutants in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (rbohD) or ROS scavenging (pad2, vtc1, and cat2) suggested a regulatory role for ROS homeostasis in priming of chitosan- and P. cucumerina-inducible callose and ROS. Moreover, rbohD and pad2 were both impaired in BABA-induced resistance against P. cucumerina. Gene expression analysis revealed direct induction of NADPH/respiratory burst oxidase protein D (RBOHD), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase 1 (GSH1), and vitamin C defective 1 (VTC1) genes after BABA treatment. Conversely, ascorbate peroxidase 1 (APX1) transcription was repressed by BABA after challenge with chitosan or P. cucumerina, probably to provide a more oxidized environment in the cell and facilitate augmented ROS accumulation. Measuring ratios between reduced and oxidized glutathione confirmed that augmented defense expression in primed plants is associated with a more oxidized cellular status. Together, our data indicate that an altered ROS equilibrium is required for augmented defense expression in primed plants.

  2. Role of reactive oxygen species in regulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle during exercise.

    PubMed

    Katz, Abram

    2016-06-01

    Glucose derived from extracellular sources serves as an energy source in virtually all eukaryotic cells, including skeletal muscle. Its contribution to energy turnover increases with exercise intensity up to moderately heavy workloads. However, at very high workloads, the contribution of extracellular glucose to energy turnover is negligible, despite the high rate of glucose transport. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the stimulation of glucose transport in isolated skeletal muscle preparations during intense repeated contractions. Consistent with this observation, heavy exercise is associated with significant production of ROS. However, during more mild to moderate stimulation or exercise conditions (in vitro, in situ and in vivo) antioxidants do not affect glucose transport. It is noteworthy that the production of ROS is limited or not observed under these conditions and that the concentration of the antioxidant used was extremely low. The results to date suggest that ROS involvement in activation of glucose transport occurs primarily during intense short-term exercise and that other mechanisms are involved during mild to moderate exercise. What remains puzzling is why ROS-mediated activation of glucose transport would occur under conditions where glucose transport is highest and utilization (i.e. phosphorylation of glucose by hexokinase) is low. Possibly ROS production is involved in priming glucose transport during heavy exercise to accelerate glycogen biogenesis during the initial recovery period after exercise, as well as altering other aspects of intracellular metabolism.

  3. Lanthanum regulates the reactive oxygen species in the roots of rice seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongwu; Zheng, Shengnan; Wang, Xue

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of La3+ on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant metabolism were studied in the roots of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Shengdao 16) exposed to increasing concentrations of La3+ (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM). The level of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, and malondialdehyde was increased by 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM La3+, and the activity of catalase and peroxidase was increased by 0.05 and 0.1 mM La3+. However, La3+ treatments stimulated superoxide dismutase activity in the roots of rice seedlings at all tested concentrations. In addition, the probe 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA) was used to investigate the instantaneous change of ROS in the root cells with the laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The result indicated that ROS level was declined after treated with 0.05 mM La3+. The results showed that the appropriate concentration of La3+ decreased the level of ROS, and hormetic effects on the antioxidant metabolism were found in the roots of rice exposed to 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM La3+. PMID:27546334

  4. Inorganic Polyphosphates Regulate Hexokinase Activity and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Mitochondria of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Amanda; Moraes, Jorge; da Silva, José Roberto; Costa, Evenilton P.; Menezes, Jackson; da Silva Vaz Jr, Itabajara; Logullo, Carlos; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Campos, Eldo

    2013-01-01

    The physiological roles of polyphosphates (poly P) recently found in arthropod mitochondria remain obscure. Here, the possible involvement of poly P with reactive oxygen species generation in mitochondria of Rhipicephalus microplus embryos was investigated. Mitochondrial hexokinase and scavenger antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase were assayed during embryogenesis of R. microplus. The influence of poly P3 and poly P15 were analyzed during the period of higher enzymatic activity during embryogenesis. Both poly Ps inhibited hexokinase activity by up to 90% and, interestingly, the mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase activity was stimulated by the hexokinase reaction product, glucose-6-phosphate. Poly P increased hydrogen peroxide generation in mitochondria in a situation where mitochondrial hexokinase is also active. The superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase activities were higher during embryo cellularization, at the end of embryogenesis and during embryo segmentation, respectively. All of the enzymes were stimulated by poly P3. However, superoxide dismutase was not affected by poly P15, catalase activity was stimulated only at high concentrations and glutathione reductase was the only enzyme that was stimulated in the same way by both poly Ps. Altogether, our results indicate that inorganic polyphosphate and mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase regulation can be correlated with the generation of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria of R. microplus embryos. PMID:23983617

  5. MuRF1 activity is present in cardiac mitochondria and regulates reactive oxygen species production in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Taylor A; Young, Martin E; Rubel, Carrie E; Spaniel, Carolyn; Rodríguez, Jessica E; Grevengoed, Trisha J; Gautel, Mathias; Xu, Zhelong; Anderson, Ethan J; Willis, Monte S

    2014-06-01

    MuRF1 is a previously reported ubiquitin-ligase found in striated muscle that targets troponin I and myosin heavy chain for degradation. While MuRF1 has been reported to interact with mitochondrial substrates in yeast two-hybrid studies, no studies have identified MuRF1's role in regulating mitochondrial function to date. In the present study, we measured cardiac mitochondrial function from isolated permeabilized muscle fibers in previously phenotyped MuRF1 transgenic and MuRF1-/- mouse models to determine the role of MuRF1 in intermediate energy metabolism and ROS production. We identified a significant decrease in reactive oxygen species production in cardiac muscle fibers from MuRF1 transgenic mice with increased α-MHC driven MuRF1 expression. Increased MuRF1 expression in ex vivo and in vitro experiments revealed no alterations in the respiratory chain complex I and II function. Working perfusion experiments on MuRF1 transgenic hearts demonstrated significant changes in glucose oxidation. However, total oxygen consumption was decreased [corrected]. This data provides evidence for MuRF1 as a novel regulator of cardiac ROS, offering another mechanism by which increased MuRF1 expression may be cardioprotective in ischemia reperfusion injury, in addition to its inhibition of apoptosis via proteasome-mediate degradation of c-Jun. The lack of mitochondrial function phenotype identified in MuRF1-/- hearts may be due to the overlapping interactions of MuRF1 and MuRF2 with energy regulating proteins found by yeast two-hybrid studies reported here, implying a duplicity in MuRF1 and MuRF2's regulation of mitochondrial function.

  6. MuRF1 activity is present in cardiac mitochondria and regulates reactive oxygen species production in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mattox, Taylor A.; Young, Martin E.; Rubel, Carrie E.; Spaniel, Carolyn; Rodríguez, Jessica E.; Grevengoed, Trisha J.; Gautel, Mathias; Xu, Zhelong; Anderson, Ethan J.; Willis, Monte S.

    2014-01-01

    MuRF1 is a previously reported ubiquitin-ligase found in striated muscle that targets troponin I and myosin heavy chain for degradation. While MuRF1 has been reported to interact with mitochondrial substrates in yeast two-hybrid studies, no studies have identified MuRF1’s role in regulating mitochondrial function to date. In the present study, we measured cardiac mitochondrial function from isolated permeabilized muscle fibers in previously phenotyped MuRF1 transgenic and MuRF1−/− mouse models to determine the role of MuRF1 in intermediate energy metabolism and ROS production. We identified a significant decrease in reactive oxygen species production in cardiac muscle fibers from MuRF1 transgenic mice with increased alpha-MHC driven MuRF1 expression. Increased MuRF1 expression in ex vivo and in vitro experiments revealed no alterations in the respiratory chain complex I and II function. Working perfusion experiments on MuRF1 transgenic hearts demonstrated significant changes in glucose or oleate oxidation; however, total oxygen consumption was decreased. This data provides evidence for MuRF1 as a novel regulator of cardiac ROS, offering another mechanism by which increased MuRF1 expression may be cardioprotective in ischemia reperfusion injury, in addition to its inhibition of apoptosis via proteasome-mediate degradation of c-Jun. The lack of mitochondrial function phenotype identified in MuRF1−/− hearts may be due to the overlapping interactions of MuRF1 and MuRF2 with energy regulating proteins found by yeast two-hybrid studies reported here, implying a duplicity in MuRF1 and MuRF2’s regulation of mitochondrial function. PMID:24733503

  7. Regulation of erythrocyte lifespan: do reactive oxygen species set the clock?

    PubMed

    Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Lodish, Harvey F

    2007-08-01

    The forkhead box O (Foxo) subfamily of transcription factors regulates expression of genes important for many cellular processes, ranging from initiation of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis to induction of DNA damage repair. Invertebrate Foxo orthologs such as DAF-16 also regulate longevity. Cellular responses inducing resistance to ROS are important for cellular survival and organism lifespan, but until recently, mammalian factors regulating resistance to oxidative stress have not been well characterized. Marinkovic and colleagues demonstrate in this issue of the JCI that Foxo3 is specifically required for induction of proteins that regulate the in vivo oxidative stress response in murine erythrocytes (see the related article beginning on page 2133). Their work offers the interesting hypothesis that in so doing, Foxo3 may regulate the lifespan of red blood cells, and underlies the importance of understanding the direct targets of this transcription factor and its regulation.

  8. Candida albicans erythroascorbate peroxidase regulates intracellular methylglyoxal and reactive oxygen species independently of D-erythroascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Min-Kyu; Song, Sung-Hyun; Ku, MyungHee; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2015-07-08

    Candida albicans D-erythroascorbate peroxidase (EAPX1), which can catalyze the oxidation of D-erythroascorbic acid (EASC) to water, was observed to be inducible in EAPX1-deficient and EAPX1-overexpressing cells via activity staining. EAPX1-deficient cells have remarkably increased intracellular reactive oxygen species and methylglyoxal independent of the intracellular EASC content. The increased methylglyoxal caused EAPX1-deficient cells to activate catalase-peroxidase and cytochrome c peroxidase, which led to defects in cell growth, viability, mitochondrial respiration, filamentation and virulence. These findings indicate that EAPX1 mediates cell differentiation and virulence by regulating intracellular methylglyoxal along with oxidative stresses, regardless of endogenous EASC biosynthesis or alternative oxidase expression.

  9. HVCN1 modulates BCR signal strength via regulation of BCR-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Capasso, Melania; Bhamrah, Mandeep K; Henley, Tom; Boyd, Robert S; Langlais, Claudia; Cain, Kelvin; Dinsdale, David; Pulford, Karen; Kan, Mahmood; Musset, Boris; Cherny, Vladimir V; Morgan, Deri; Gascoyne, Randy D; Vigorito, Elena; DeCoursey, Thomas E; MacLennan, Ian C M; Dyer, Martin J S

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton currents regulate generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytic cells. In B cells, stimulation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) results in the production of ROS that participate in B cell activation, but the involvement of proton channels is unknown. We report here that the voltage-gated proton channel HVCN1 associated with the BCR complex and was internalized together with the BCR after activation. BCR-induced generation of ROS was lower in HVCN1-deficient B cells, which resulted in attenuated BCR signaling via impaired BCR-dependent oxidation of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. This resulted in less activation of the kinases Syk and Akt, impaired mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis, and diminished antibody responses in vivo. Our findings identify unanticipated functions for proton channels in B cells and demonstrate the importance of ROS in BCR signaling and downstream metabolism. PMID:20139987

  10. Hyperosmotic stress-dependent NFkappaB activation is regulated by reactive oxygen species and IGF-1 in cultured cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Verónica; Criollo, Alfredo; Quiroga, Clara; Olea-Azar, Claudio; Santibañez, Juan Francisco; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Chiong, Mario; Díaz-Araya, Guillermo; Foncea, Rocío; Lavandero, Sergio

    2006-08-07

    We have recently shown that hyperosmotic stress activates p65/RelB NFkappaB in cultured cardiomyocytes with dichotomic actions on caspase activation and cell death. It remains unexplored how NFkappaB is regulated in cultured rat cardiomyocytes exposed to hyperosmotic stress. We study here: (a) if hyperosmotic stress triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and in turn whether they regulate NFkappaB and (b) if insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) modulates ROS production and NFkappaB activation in hyperosmotically-stressed cardiomyocytes. The results showed that hyperosmotic stress generated ROS in cultured cardiac myocytes, in particular the hydroxyl and superoxide species, which were inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Hyperosmotic stress-induced NFkappaB activation as determined by IkappaBalpha degradation and NFkappaB DNA binding. NFkappaB activation and procaspase-3 and -9 fragmentation were prevented by NAC and IGF-1. However, this growth factor did not decrease ROS generation induced by hyperosmotic stress, suggesting that its actions over NFkappaB and caspase activation may be due to modulation of events downstream of ROS generation. We conclude that hyperosmotic stress induces ROS, which in turn activates NFkappaB and caspases. IGF-1 prevents NFkappaB activation by a ROS-independent mechanism.

  11. The Keap1/Nrf2 Protein Axis Plays a Role in Osteoclast Differentiation by Regulating Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Fumiaki; Kajiya, Mikihito; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as intracellular signaling molecules in the regulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-dependent osteoclast differentiation, but they also have cytotoxic effects that include peroxidation of lipids and oxidative damage to proteins and DNA. Cellular protective mechanisms against oxidative stress include transcriptional control of cytoprotective enzymes by the transcription factor, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). This study investigated the relationship between Nrf2 and osteoclastogenesis. Stimulation of osteoclast precursors (mouse primary peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 cells) with RANKL resulted in the up-regulation of kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), a negative regulator of Nrf2. It also decreased the Nrf2/Keap1 ratio, and it down-regulated cytoprotective enzymes (heme oxygenase-1, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase). Nrf2 overexpression up-regulated the expression of cytoprotective enzymes, decreased ROS levels, decreased the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells, reduced marker genes for osteoclast differentiation, and attenuated bone destruction in both in vitro and in vivo models. Overexpression of Keap1 or RNAi knockdown of Nrf2 exerted the opposite actions. In addition, in vivo local Nrf2 overexpression attenuated lipopolysaccharide-mediated RANKL-dependent cranial bone destruction in vivo. This is the first study to show that the Keap1/Nrf2 axis regulates RANKL-dependent osteoclastogenesis through modulation of intracellular ROS signaling via expression of cytoprotective enzymes. This raises the exciting possibility that the Keap1-Nrf2 axis may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of bone destructive disease. PMID:23801334

  12. Autophagy inhibition enhances silibinin-induced apoptosis by regulating reactive oxygen species production in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Hun; Kim, Kwang-Youn; Yu, Sun-Nyoung; Park, Seul-Ki; Choi, Hyeun-Deok; Ji, Jae-Hoon; Ahn, Soon-Cheol

    Silibinin is a major bioactive component of silymarin and has anticancer effects on cancer cell line and has been used as a supportive therapy for chronic inflammatory liver condition. These anticancer effects of silibinin have been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo cancer models. Although various evidences showed apoptosis signaling pathways by silibinin, there is no report to address the clearly mechanism of silibinin-induced autophagy in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Our study showed that silibinin triggered autophagy through up-regulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II, formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVO) and punctuate of GFP-LC3, which was inhibited by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an inhibitor of specific autophagy. In addition, silibinin induced autophagy through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Inhibition of ROS with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a ROS inhibitor, attenuated silibinin-triggered autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy with 3-MA enhanced the silibinin-induced apoptosis through the regulation of caspase-3 and PARP. These results suggested that silibinin induced autophagy by regulating ROS and its mechanism played a protective role against apoptosis in PC-3 cells.

  13. Reactive oxygen species regulated mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in PC12 cells exposed to chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Park, Jae Hyeon; Shin, In Chul; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2012-09-01

    Reactive oxidative species (ROS) generated by environmental toxicants including pesticides could be one of the factors underlying the neuronal cell damage in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we found that chlorpyrifos (CPF) induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal components of PC12 cells as demonstrated by the activation of caspases and nuclear condensation. Furthermore, CPF also reduced the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive immunoreactivity in substantia nigra of the rat. In addition, CPF induced inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity. Importantly, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment effectively blocked apoptosis via the caspase-9 and caspase-3 pathways while NAC attenuated the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity as well as the oxidative metabolism of dopamine (DA). These results demonstrated that CPF-induced apoptosis was involved in mitochondrial dysfunction through the production of ROS. In the response of cellular antioxidant systems to CPF, we found that CPF treatment increased HO-1 expression while the expression of CuZnSOD and MnSOD was reduced. In addition, we found that CPF treatment activated MAPK pathways, including ERK 1/2, the JNK, and the p38 MAP kinase in a time-dependent manner. NAC treatment abolished MAPK phosphorylation caused by CPF, indicating that ROS are upstream signals of MAPK. Interestingly, MAPK inhibitors abolished cytotoxicity and reduced ROS generation by CPF treatment. Our results demonstrate that CPF induced neuronal cell death in part through MAPK activation via ROS generation, suggesting its potential to generate oxidative stress via mitochondrial damage and its involvement in oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative disease. -- Highlights: ► Chlorpyrifos induces apoptosis. ► Chlorpyrifos inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity. ► ROS is involved in chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis. ► Chlorpyrifos affects cellular antioxidant systems. ► Chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis mediates activation of MAPK.

  14. Potential role of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant genes in the regulation of peach fruit development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Huan, Chen; Jiang, Li; An, Xiujuan; Yu, Mingliang; Xu, Yin; Ma, Ruijuan; Yu, Zhifang

    2016-07-01

    The roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as both toxic by-products and as signaling molecules have been reported in fruit development and ripening. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) play important roles in balancing the induction and removal of ROS in plants, and are respectively encoded by families of closely homologous genes. In the present study, we investigated the roles of ROS and the above-mentioned antioxidant genes during the development and ripening of peach fruit. The experimental results indicated that O2(-) and H2O2 acted as potential signaling molecules in the middle stage of fruit development, and only H2O2 might function as a main toxic molecule to stimulate lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in the late stage of fruit ripening. PpaCu/Zn-SODs were the most abundant members in the PpaSOD gene family and they expressed steadily in peach fruit development and ripening. Low temperature (4 °C) postponed and suppressed the climacteric peaks of respiration and ethylene, significantly enhanced the activities of CAT and GPX, and up-regulated the expression of PpaCAT1 and PpaGPX6 in the late stage of fruit ripening. PpaCAT1 and PpaGPX6 were two key genes in alleviating oxidative stress in the late stage of fruit ripening.

  15. RNH1 regulation of reactive oxygen species contributes to histone deacetylase inhibitor resistance in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Das, K; Wu, J; Lee, M H; Tan, P

    2014-03-20

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are a promising class of anticancer epigenetic drugs, however, molecular factors influencing the responses of individual tumors to HDACi therapies remain obscure. Here, we sought to identify genes associated with HDACi resistance in gastric cancer. Treating a panel of 17 gastric cancer cell lines with multiple HDACi compounds (trichostatin A, SAHA and MS275), we identified two distinct classes of lines exhibiting either HDACi sensitivity or resistance. Genomic comparisons between the sensitive and resistant classes using two independent microarray platforms identified RNH1, encoding a ribonuclease inhibitor, as a gene highly expressed in HDACi-resistant lines. Using genetic knockdown and overexpression assays, we show that RNH1 is both necessary and sufficient to induce HDACi resistance, and that RNH1 is likely to mediate this resistance through the dampening of HDACi-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells. The discovery of RNH1 as a regulator of HDACi resistance in gastric cancer highlights a functional role for ROS induction in the cellular effects of this important drug class.

  16. Temporal-Spatial Interaction between Reactive Oxygen Species and Abscisic Acid Regulates Rapid Systemic Acclimation in Plants[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Miller, Gad; Salazar, Carolina; Mondal, Hossain A.; Shulaev, Elena; Cortes, Diego F.; Shuman, Joel L.; Luo, Xiaozhong; Shah, Jyoti; Schlauch, Karen; Shulaev, Vladimir; Mittler, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Being sessile organisms, plants evolved sophisticated acclimation mechanisms to cope with abiotic challenges in their environment. These are activated at the initial site of exposure to stress, as well as in systemic tissues that have not been subjected to stress (termed systemic acquired acclimation [SAA]). Although SAA is thought to play a key role in plant survival during stress, little is known about the signaling mechanisms underlying it. Here, we report that SAA in plants requires at least two different signals: an autopropagating wave of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that rapidly spreads from the initial site of exposure to the entire plant and a stress-specific signal that conveys abiotic stress specificity. We further demonstrate that SAA is stress specific and that a temporal–spatial interaction between ROS and abscisic acid regulates rapid SAA to heat stress in plants. In addition, we demonstrate that the rapid ROS signal is associated with the propagation of electric signals in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our findings unravel some of the basic signaling mechanisms underlying SAA in plants and reveal that signaling events and transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming of systemic tissues in response to abiotic stress occur at a much faster rate than previously envisioned. PMID:24038652

  17. Global regulation of reactive oxygen species scavenging genes in alfalfa root and shoot under gradual drought stress and recovery.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yun; Udvardi, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging in plants under drought stress have been studied intensively in recent years. Here we report a global analysis of gene expression for the major ROS generating and scavenging proteins in alfalfa root and shoot under gradual drought stress followed by one-day recovery. Data from two alfalfa varieties, one drought tolerant and one drought sensitive, were compared and no qualitative differences in ROS gene regulation between the two were found. Conserved, tissue-specific patterns of gene expression in response to drought were observed for several ROS-scavenging gene families, including ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and peroxiredoxin. In addition, differential gene expression within families was observed. Genes for the ROS-generating enzyme, NADPH oxidase were generally induced under drought, while those for glycolate oxidase were repressed. Among the ROS-scavenging protein genes, Ferritin, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the majority of the glutathione peroxidase family members were induced under drought in both roots and shoots of both alfalfa varieties. In contrast, Fe-SOD, CC-type glutaredoxins, and thoiredoxins were downregulated.

  18. MLK3 is part of a feedback mechanism that regulates different cellular responses to reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sung; Hwang, Chae Young; Shin, Sung-Young; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-06-03

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) influence diverse cellular processes, including proliferation and apoptosis. Both endogenous and exogenous ROS activate signaling through mitogen-activated proteins kinase (MAPK) pathways, including those involving extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) or c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs). Whereas low concentrations of ROS generally stimulate proliferation, high concentrations result in cell death. We found that low concentrations of ROS induced activating phosphorylation of ERKs, whereas high concentrations of ROS induced activating phosphorylation of JNKs. Mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3, also known as MAP3K11) directly phosphorylates JNKs and may control activation of ERKs. Mathematical modeling of MAPK networks revealed a positive feedback loop involving MLK3 that determined the relative phosphorylation of ERKs and JNKs by ROS. Cells exposed to an MLK3 inhibitor or cells in which MLK3 was knocked down showed increased activation of ERKs and decreased activation of JNKs and were resistant to cell death when exposed to high concentrations of ROS. Thus, the data indicated that MLK3 is a critical factor controlling the activity of kinase networks that control the cellular responses to different concentrations of ROS.

  19. Myeloid cell-derived reactive oxygen species externally regulate the proliferation of myeloid progenitors in emergency granulopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hyun-Jeong; Liu, Peng; Bajrami, Besnik; Xu, Yuanfu; Park, Shin-Young; Nombela-Arrieta, Cesar; Mondal, Subhanjan; Sun, Yan; Zhu, Haiyan; Chai, Li; Silberstein, Leslie E.; Cheng, Tao; Luo, Hongbo R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The cellular mechanisms controlling infection-induced emergency granulopoiesis are poorly defined. Here we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations in the bone marrow (BM) were elevated during acute infection in a phagocytic NADPH oxidase-dependent manner in myeloid cells. Gr1+ myeloid cells were uniformly distributed in the BM, and all c-Kit+ progenitor cells were adjacent to Gr1+ myeloid cells. Inflammation-induced ROS production in the BM played a critical role in myeloid progenitor expansion during emergency granulopoiesis. ROS elicited oxidation and deactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), resulting in up-regulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in BM myeloid progenitors. We further revealed that BM myeloid cell-produced ROS stimulated proliferation of myeloid progenitors via a paracrine mechanism. Taken together, our results establish that phagocytic NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production by BM myeloid cells plays a critical role in mediating emergency granulopoiesis during acute infection. PMID:25579427

  20. NTRC and chloroplast-generated reactive oxygen species regulate Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato disease development in tomato and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Ishiga, Takako; Wangdi, Tamding; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Uppalapati, Srinivasa Rao

    2012-03-01

    Coronatine (COR)-producing pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae, including pvs. tomato, maculicola, and glycinea, cause important diseases on tomato, crucifers, and soybean, respectively, and produce symptoms with necrotic lesions surrounded by chlorosis. The chlorosis is mainly attributed to COR. However, the significance of COR-induced chlorosis in localized lesion development and the molecular basis of disease-associated cell death is largely unknown. To identify host (chloroplast) genes that play a role in COR-mediated chlorosis, we used a forward genetics approach using Nicotiana benthamiana and virus-induced gene silencing and identified a gene which encodes 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prxs) that, when silenced, produced a spreading hypersensitive or necrosis-like phenotype instead of chlorosis after COR application in a COI1-dependent manner. Loss-of-function analysis of Prx and NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC), the central players of a chloroplast redox detoxification system, resulted in spreading accelerated P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 disease-associated cell death with enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in a COR-dependent manner in tomato and Arabidopsis. Consistent with these results, virulent strain DC3000 suppressed the expression of Prx and NTRC in Arabidopsis and tomato during pathogenesis. However, interestingly, authentic COR suppressed the expression of Prx and NTRC in tomato but not in Arabidopsis, suggesting that COR in conjunction with other effectors may modulate ROS and cell death in different host species. Taken together, these results indicated that NTRC or Prx function as a negative regulator of pathogen-induced cell death in the healthy tissues that surround the lesions, and COR-induced chloroplast-localized ROS play a role in enhancing the disease-associated cell death.

  1. Amyloid-β-induced reactive oxygen species production and priming are differentially regulated by ion channels in microglia.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Tom; Eder, Claudia

    2011-12-01

    Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by microglial cells and subsequent oxidative stress are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Although it is recognized that amyloid-β (Aβ) plays a major role in inducing and regulating microglial ROS production in Alzheimer's disease, to date little is known about cellular mechanisms underlying Aβ-stimulated ROS production. Here, we identified ion channels involved in Aβ-induced microglial ROS production and in Aβ-induced microglial priming. Acute stimulation of microglial cells with either fibrillar Aβ(1-42) (fAβ(1-42) ) or soluble Aβ(1-42) (sAβ(1-42) ) caused significant increases in microglial ROS production, which were abolished by inhibition of TRPV1 cation channels with 5-iodo-resiniferatoxin (I-RTX), but were unaffected by inhibition of K(+) channels with charybdotoxin (CTX). Furthermore, pretreatment with either fAβ(1-42) or sAβ(1-42) induced microglial priming, that is, increased ROS production upon secondary stimulation with the phorbol ester PMA. Microglial priming induced by fAβ(1-42) or sAβ(1-42) remained unaffected by TRPV1 channel inhibition with I-RTX. However, sAβ(1-42) -induced priming was inhibited by CTX and margatoxin, but not by TRAM-34 or paxilline, indicating a role of Kv1.3 voltage-gated K(+) channels, but not of Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels, in the priming process. In summary, our data suggest that in microglia Aβ-induced ROS production and priming are differentially regulated by ion channels, and that TRPV1 cation channels and Kv1.3 K(+) channels may provide potential therapeutic targets to reduce microglia-induced oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease.

  2. β-Cell Uncoupling Protein 2 Regulates Reactive Oxygen Species Production, Which Influences Both Insulin and Glucagon Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Robson-Doucette, Christine A.; Sultan, Sobia; Allister, Emma M.; Wikstrom, Jakob D.; Koshkin, Vasilij; Bhatacharjee, Alpana; Prentice, Kacey J.; Sereda, Samuel B.; Shirihai, Orian S.; Wheeler, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The role of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in pancreatic β-cells is highly debated, partly because of the broad tissue distribution of UCP2 and thus limitations of whole-body UCP2 knockout mouse models. To investigate the function of UCP2 in the β-cell, β-cell–specific UCP2 knockout mice (UCP2BKO) were generated and characterized. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS UCP2BKO mice were generated by crossing loxUCP2 mice with mice expressing rat insulin promoter-driven Cre recombinase. Several in vitro and in vivo parameters were measured, including respiration rate, mitochondrial membrane potential, islet ATP content, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), glucagon secretion, glucose and insulin tolerance, and plasma hormone levels. RESULTS UCP2BKO β-cells displayed mildly increased glucose-induced mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization but unchanged rates of uncoupled respiration and islet ATP content. UCP2BKO islets had elevated intracellular ROS levels that associated with enhanced GSIS. Surprisingly, UCP2BKO mice were glucose-intolerant, showing greater α-cell area, higher islet glucagon content, and aberrant ROS-dependent glucagon secretion under high glucose conditions. CONCLUSIONS Using a novel β-cell–specific UCP2KO mouse model, we have shed light on UCP2 function in primary β-cells. UCP2 does not behave as a classical metabolic uncoupler in the β-cell, but has a more prominent role in the regulation of intracellular ROS levels that contribute to GSIS amplification. In addition, β-cell UCP2 contributes to the regulation of intraislet ROS signals that mediate changes in α-cell morphology and glucagon secretion. PMID:21984579

  3. Eicosanoids up-regulate production of reactive oxygen species by NADPH-dependent oxidase in Spodoptera exigua phagocytic hemocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eicosanoids mediate cellular immune responses in insects, including phagocytosis of invading microbes. Phagocytosis entails two major steps, the internalization of microbes and the subsequent killing of them via formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we posed the hypothesis that eicosanoi...

  4. Resveratrol regulates mitochondrial reactive oxygen species homeostasis through Sirt3 signaling pathway in human vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, X; Chen, M; Zeng, X; Yang, J; Deng, H; Yi, L; Mi, M-t

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) homeostasis plays an essential role in preventing oxidative injury in endothelial cells, an initial step in atherogenesis. Resveratrol (RSV) possesses a variety of cardioprotective activities, however, little is known regarding the effects of RSV on mtROS homeostasis in endothelial cells. Sirt3 is a mitochondrial deacetylase, which plays a key role in mitochondrial bioenergetics and is closely associated with oxidative stress. The goal of the study is to investigate whether RSV could attenuate oxidative injury in endothelial cells via mtROS homeostasis regulation through Sirt3 signaling pathway. We found that pretreatment with RSV suppressed tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by increasing cell viability, inhibiting cell apoptosis, repressing collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and decreasing mtROS generation. Moreover, the enzymatic activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) as well as deacetylation of SOD2 were increased by RSV pretreatment, suggesting RSV notably enhanced mtROS scavenging in t-BHP-induced endothelial cells. Meanwhile, RSV remarkably reduced mtROS generation by promoting Sirt3 enrichment within the mitochondria and subsequent upregulation of forkhead box O3A (FoxO3A)-mediated mitochondria-encoded gene expression of ATP6, CO1, Cytb, ND2 and ND5, thereby leading to increased complex I activity and ATP synthesis. Furthermore, RSV activated the expressions of phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and Sirt3, as well as estrogen-related receptor-α (ERRα)-dependent Sirt3 mRNA transcription, which were abolished in the presence of AMPK inhibitor and AMPK, PGC-1α or Sirt3 siRNA transfection, indicating the effects of RSV on mt

  5. Pleiotrophin-induced endothelial cell migration is regulated by xanthine oxidase-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Tsirmoula, Sotiria; Lamprou, Margarita; Hatziapostolou, Maria; Kieffer, Nelly; Papadimitriou, Evangelia

    2015-03-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a heparin-binding growth factor that induces cell migration through binding to its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta (RPTPβ/ζ) and integrin alpha v beta 3 (ανβ3). In the present work, we studied the effect of PTN on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human endothelial cells and the involvement of ROS in PTN-induced cell migration. Exogenous PTN significantly increased ROS levels in a concentration and time-dependent manner in both human endothelial and prostate cancer cells, while knockdown of endogenous PTN expression in prostate cancer cells significantly down-regulated ROS production. Suppression of RPTPβ/ζ through genetic and pharmacological approaches, or inhibition of c-src kinase activity abolished PTN-induced ROS generation. A synthetic peptide that blocks PTN-ανβ3 interaction abolished PTN-induced ROS generation, suggesting that ανβ3 is also involved. The latter was confirmed in CHO cells that do not express β3 or over-express wild-type β3 or mutant β3Y773F/Y785F. PTN increased ROS generation in cells expressing wild-type β3 but not in cells not expressing or expressing mutant β3. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or Erk1/2 inhibition suppressed PTN-induced ROS production, suggesting that ROS production lays down-stream of PI3K or Erk1/2 activation by PTN. Finally, ROS scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibition completely abolished both PTN-induced ROS generation and cell migration, while NADPH oxidase inhibition had no effect. Collectively, these data suggest that xanthine oxidase-mediated ROS production is required for PTN-induced cell migration through the cell membrane functional complex of ανβ3 and RPTPβ/ζ and activation of c-src, PI3K and ERK1/2 kinases.

  6. Reactive Oxygen Species Regulate Hematopoietic Stem Cell Self-Renewal, Migration and Development, As Well As Their Bone Marrow Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Ludin, Aya; Gur-Cohen, Shiri; Golan, Karin; Kaufmann, Kerstin B.; Itkin, Tomer; Medaglia, Chiara; Lu, Xin-Jiang; Ledergor, Guy; Kollet, Orit

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Blood forming, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) mostly reside in the bone marrow in a quiescent, nonmotile state via adhesion interactions with stromal cells and macrophages. Quiescent, proliferating, and differentiating stem cells have different metabolism, and accordingly different amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Importantly, ROS is not just a byproduct of metabolism, but also plays a role in stem cell state and function. Recent Advances: ROS levels are dynamic and reversibly dictate enhanced cycling and myeloid bias in ROShigh short-term repopulating stem cells, and ROSlow quiescent long-term repopulating stem cells. Low levels of ROS, regulated by intrinsic factors such as cell respiration or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH oxidase) activity, or extrinsic factors such as stem cell factor or prostaglandin E2 are required for maintaining stem cell self-renewal. High ROS levels, due to stress and inflammation, induce stem cell differentiation and enhanced motility. Critical Issues: Stem cells need to be protected from high ROS levels to avoid stem cell exhaustion, insufficient host immunity, and leukemic transformation that may occur during chronic inflammation. However, continuous low ROS production will lead to lack of stem cell function and opportunistic infections. Ultimately, balanced ROS levels are crucial for maintaining the small stem cell pool and host immunity, both in homeostasis and during stress situations. Future Directions: Deciphering the signaling pathway of ROS in HSC will provide a better understanding of ROS roles in switching HSC from quiescence to activation and vice versa, and will also shed light on the possible roles of ROS in leukemia initiation and development. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1605–1619. PMID:24762207

  7. Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species Coordinately Regulate the Germination of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Urediniospores

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shuining; Gao, Zhijuan; Wang, Chenfang; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng; Zhang, Hongchang

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) function as signaling molecules in a number of critical signal transduction pathways in plants, including plant biotic interactions. In addition to the role of plant-derived NO and ROS in plant resistance, which has been well documented, pathogen-produced NO and ROS have recently emerged as important players in fungal development and pathogenesis. However, the effects of pathogenic fungi-derived NO and ROS on signaling pathways during fungal pre-infection development remain unknown. Here, using a combination of pharmacological approaches and confocal microscopy, we investigated the roles of NO and ROS during the germination of Puccinia striiformis Westend f. sp. tritici (Pst) the wheat stripe rust pathogen. Both NO and ROS have a crucial role in uredinial germination. The scavengers of NO and ROS delayed spore germination and decreased the lengths of germ tubes. A similar phenotype was produced after treatment with the promoter. However, the spores germinated and grew normally when the levels of NO and ROS were simultaneously elevated by the application of a promoter of NO and a donor of ROS. Confocal laser microscopy indicated that both NO and ROS preferentially localized at the germ pores and apexes of growing germ tubes when the ROS/NO ratio in the spores was maintained in a specific range. We concluded that both NO and ROS are critical signaling molecules in the pre-infection development of Pst and that the polar growth of the germ tube is coordinately regulated by NO and ROS. PMID:26941716

  8. RhoA and Rac1 GTPases Differentially Regulate Agonist-Receptor Mediated Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Huzoor; Duan, Xin; Saleem, Saima; Davis, Ashley K.; Zheng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Agonist induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidases (NOX) enhances platelet aggregation and hence the risk of thrombosis. RhoA and Rac1 GTPases are involved in ROS generation by NOX in a variety of cells, but their roles in platelet ROS production remain unclear. In this study we used platelets from RhoA and Rac1 conditional knockout mice as well as human platelets treated with Rhosin and NSC23767, rationally designed small molecule inhibitors of RhoA and Rac GTPases, respectively, to better define the contributions of RhoA and Rac1 signaling to ROS generation and platelet activation. Treatment of platelets with Rhosin inhibited: (a) U46619 induced activation of RhoA; (b) phosphorylation of p47phox, a critical component of NOX; (c) U46619 or thrombin induced ROS generation; (d) phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC); (e) platelet shape change; (f) platelet spreading on immobilized fibrinogen; and (g) release of P-selectin, secretion of ATP and aggregation. Conditional deletion of RhoA or Rac1 gene inhibited thrombin induced ROS generation in platelets. Addition of Y27632, a RhoA inhibitor, NSC23766 or Phox-I, an inhibitor of Rac1-p67phox interaction, to human platelets blocked thrombin induced ROS generation. These data suggest that: (a) RhoA/ROCK/p47phox signaling axis promotes ROS production that, at least in part, contributes to platelet activation in conjunction with or independent of the RhoA/ROCK mediated phosphorylation of MLC; and (b) RhoA and Rac1 differentially regulate ROS generation by inhibiting phosphorylation of p47phox and Rac1-p67phox interaction, respectively. PMID:27681226

  9. Harnessing Evolutionary Toxins for Signaling: Reactive Oxygen Species, Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in Plant Cell Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, John T.

    2017-01-01

    During the early periods of evolution, as well as in niche environments today, organisms have had to learn to tolerate the presence of many reactive compounds, such as reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and hydrogen sulfide. It is now known that such compounds are instrumental in the signaling processes in plant cells. There are enzymes which can make them, while downstream of their signaling pathways are coming to light. These include the production of cGMP, the activation of MAP kinases and transcription factors, and the modification of thiol groups on many proteins. However, organisms have also had to tolerate other reactive compounds such as ammonia, methane, and hydrogen gas, and these too are being found to have profound effects on signaling in cells. Before a holistic view of how such signaling works, the full effects and interactions of all such reactive compounds needs to be embraced. A full understanding will be beneficial to both agriculture and future therapeutic strategies. PMID:28239389

  10. Autophagy-related gene 7 (ATG7) and reactive oxygen species/extracellular signal-regulated kinase regulate tetrandrine-induced autophagy in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ke; Chen, Chao; Zhan, Yao; Chen, Yan; Huang, Zebo; Li, Wenhua

    2012-10-12

    Tetrandrine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the broadly used Chinese medicinal herb Stephaniae tetrandrae, exhibits potent antitumor effects and has the potential to be used as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent. We previously reported that high concentrations of tetrandrine induce apoptosis in liver cancer cells. Here, we found that in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, a low dose of tetrandrine (5 μm) induced the expression of LC3-II, resulted in the formation of acidic autophagolysosome vacuoles (AVOs), and caused a punctate fluorescence pattern with the GFP-LC3 protein, which all are markers for cellular autophagy. Tetrandrine induced the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and treatment with ROS scavengers significantly abrogated the tetrandrine-induced autophagy. These results suggest that the generation of ROS plays an important role in promoting tetrandrine-induced autophagy. Tetrandrine-induced mitochondrial dysfunction resulted in ROS accumulation and autophagy. ROS generation activated the ERK MAP kinase, and the ERK signaling pathway at least partially contributed to tetrandrine-induced autophagy in HCC cells. Moreover, we found that tetrandrine transcriptionally regulated the expression of autophagy related gene 7 (ATG7), which promoted tetrandrine-induced autophagy. In addition to in vitro studies, similar results were also observed in vivo, where tetrandrine caused the accumulation of ROS and induced cell autophagy in a tumor xenograft model. Interestingly, tetrandrine treatment also induced autophagy in a ROS-dependent manner in C. elegans muscle cells. Therefore, these findings suggest that tetrandrine is a potent autophagy agonist and may be a promising clinical chemotherapeutic agent.

  11. Epithelial, Dendritic, and CD4+ T Cell Regulation of and by Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Allergic Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Ckless, Karina; Hodgkins, Samantha R.; Ather, Jennifer L.; Martin, Rebecca; Poynter, Matthew E.

    2011-01-01

    Background While many of the contributing cell types and mediators of allergic asthma are known, less well understood are the factors that induce allergy in the first place. Amongst the mediators speculated to affect initial allergen sensitization and the development of pathogenic allergic responses to innocuous inhaled antigens and allergens are exogenously- or endogenously-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Scope of Review The interactions between ROS/RNS, dendritic cells (DCs), and CD4+ T cells, as well as their modulation by lung epithelium, are of critical importance for the genesis of allergies that later manifest in allergic asthma. Therefore, this review will primarily focus on the initiation of pulmonary allergies and the role that ROS/RNS may play in the steps therein, using examples from our own work on the roles of NO2 exposure and airway epithelial NF-κB activation. Major Conclusions Endogenously-generated ROS/RNS and those encountered from environmental sources interact with epithelium, DCs, and CD4+ T cells to orchestrate allergic sensitization through modulation of the activities of each of these cell types, which quatitiatively and qualitatively dictate the degree and type of the allergic asthma phenotype. General Significance Knowledge of the effects of ROS/RNS at the molecular and cellular levels has the potential to provide powerful insight into the balance between inhalational tolerance (the typical immunologic response to an innocuous inhaled antigen) and allergy, as well as to potentially provide mechanistic targets for the prevention and treatment of asthma. PMID:21397661

  12. Albumin overload down-regulates integrin-β1 through reactive oxygen species-endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Chi; Chen, Chien-An; Chang, Jer-Ming; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2015-08-01

    Proteinuria is a major hallmark of glomerular nephropathy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in glomerular nephropathy. The protein levels of integrin-β1 in podocytes are found to be negative correlation with amount of proteinuria. This study investigated whether urinary protein, particularly albumin, induced ER stress that consequently reduced integrin-β1 expression. All experiments were performed using primary cultured rat podocyte. Protein and mRNA expression were measured by western blotting and semiquantified reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Albumin uptake was found at 1 h after albumin addition. Albumin reduced precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1, but did not change mRNA levels of integrin-β1. Albumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ER stress. Antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine) suppressed albumin-induced ER stress and decrements in precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1. Then, ER stress inhibitors (4-phenylbutyrate and salubrinal) also inhibited albumin-induced decrements in precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1. The potent ER stress inducers (thapsigargin and tunicamycin) directly decreased precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1 and led appearance of unglycosylated core protein of integrin-β1. Our results show that in proteinuric disease, albumin decreases precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1 through ROS-ER stress pathway in podocytes.

  13. Ethylene negatively regulates transcript abundance of ROP-GAP rheostat-encoding genes and affects apoplastic reactive oxygen species homeostasis in epicarps of cold stored apple fruits.

    PubMed

    Zermiani, Monica; Zonin, Elisabetta; Nonis, Alberto; Begheldo, Maura; Ceccato, Luca; Vezzaro, Alice; Baldan, Barbara; Trentin, Annarita; Masi, Antonio; Pegoraro, Marco; Fadanelli, Livio; Teale, William; Palme, Klaus; Quintieri, Luigi; Ruperti, Benedetto

    2015-12-01

    Apple (Malus×domestica Borkh) fruits are stored for long periods of time at low temperatures (1 °C) leading to the occurrence of physiological disorders. 'Superficial scald' of Granny Smith apples, an economically important ethylene-dependent disorder, was used as a model to study relationships among ethylene action, the regulation of the ROP-GAP rheostat, and maintenance of H2O2 homeostasis in fruits during prolonged cold exposure. The ROP-GAP rheostat is a key module for adaptation to low oxygen in Arabidopsis through Respiratory Burst NADPH Oxidase Homologs (RBOH)-mediated and ROP GTPase-dependent regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. Here, it was shown that the transcriptional expression of several components of the apple ROP-GAP machinery, including genes encoding RBOHs, ROPs, and their ancillary proteins ROP-GEFs and ROP-GAPs, is coordinately and negatively regulated by ethylene in conjunction with the progressive impairment of apoplastic H2O2 homeostatic levels. RNA sequencing analyses showed that several components of the known ROP- and ROS-associated transcriptional networks are regulated along with the ROP-GAP rheostat in response to ethylene perception. These findings may extend the role of the ROP-GAP rheostat beyond hypoxic responses and suggest that it may be a functional regulatory node involved in the integration of ethylene and ROS signalling pathways in abiotic stress.

  14. Reactive oxygen species regulate programmed cell death progress of endosperm in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under waterlogging.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiang-Xu; Yu, Min; Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Zhu-Qing; Xu, Qiu-Tao; Mei, Fang-Zhu; Qu, Liang-Huan

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have proved that waterlogging stress accelerates the programmed cell death (PCD) progress of wheat endosperm cells. A highly waterlogging-tolerant wheat cultivar Hua 8 and a waterlogging susceptible wheat cultivar Hua 9 were treated with different waterlogging durations, and then, dynamic changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene expressions, and activities of antioxidant enzymes in endosperm cells were detected. The accumulation of ROS increased considerably after 7 days of waterlogging treatment (7 DWT) and 12 DWT in both cultivars compared with control group (under non-waterlogged conditions), culminated at 12 DAF (days after flowering) and reduced hereafter. Waterlogging resulted in a great increase of H2O2 and O2 (-) in plasma membranes, cell walls, mitochondrias, and intercellular spaces with ultracytochemical localization. Moreover, the deformation and rupture of cytomembranes as well as the swelling and distortion of mitochondria were obvious. Under waterlogging treatment conditions, catalase (CAT) gene expression increased in endosperm of Hua 8 but activity decreased. In addition, Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene expression and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased. Compared with Hua 8, both CAT, MnSOD gene expressions and CAT, SOD activities decreased in Hua 9. Moreover, ascorbic acid and mannitol relieve the intensifying of PCD processes in Hua 8 endosperm cells induced by waterlogging. These results indicate that ROS have important roles in the PCD of endosperm cells, the changes both CAT, MnSOD gene expressions and CAT, SOD activities directly affected the accumulation of ROS in two different wheat cultivars under waterlogging, ultimately led to the PCD acceleration of endosperm.

  15. REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES: IMPACT ON SKELETAL MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Scott K.; Ji, Li Li; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Jackson, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that contracting muscles produce both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Although the sources of oxidant production during exercise continue to be debated, growing evidence suggests that mitochondria are not the dominant source. Regardless of the sources of oxidants in contracting muscles, intense and prolonged exercise can result in oxidative damage to both proteins and lipids in the contracting myocytes. Further, oxidants regulate numerous cell signaling pathways and modulate the expression of many genes. This oxidant-mediated change in gene expression involves changes at transcriptional, mRNA stability, and signal transduction levels. Furthermore, numerous products associated with oxidant-modulated genes have been identified and include antioxidant enzymes, stress proteins, and mitochondrial electron transport proteins. Interestingly, low and physiological levels of reactive oxygen species are required for normal force production in skeletal muscle, but high levels of reactive oxygen species result in contractile dysfunction and fatigue. Ongoing research continues to explore the redox-sensitive targets in muscle that are responsible for both redox-regulation of muscle adaptation and oxidant-mediated muscle fatigue. PMID:23737208

  16. Critical Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species in Age-Related Impairment in Ischemia-Induced Neovascularization by Regulating Stem and Progenitor Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Yuen Ting

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate bone marrow microenvironment for stem and progenitor cells functions including self-renewal, differentiation, and cell senescence. In response to ischemia, ROS also play a critical role in mediating the mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from the bone marrow to the sites of ischemic injury, which contributes to postnatal neovascularization. Aging is an unavoidable biological deteriorative process with a progressive decline in physiological functions. It is associated with increased oxidative stress and impaired ischemia-induced neovascularization. This review discusses the roles of ROS in regulating stem and progenitor cell function, highlighting the impact of unbalanced ROS levels on EPC dysfunction and the association with age-related impairment in ischemia-induced neovascularization. Furthermore, it discusses strategies that modulate the oxidative levels of stem and progenitor cells to enhance the therapeutic potential for elderly patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:26697140

  17. Increased reactive oxygen species production down-regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated alpha pathway in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, Agatha; Alegret, Marta; Sanchez, Rosa M; Adzet, Tomas; Laguna, Juan C; Carrera, Manuel Vazquez

    2002-03-22

    Generation of reactive oxygen species may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases involving intracellular lipid accumulation. To explore the mechanisms leading to these pathologies we tested the effects of etomoxir, an inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I which contains a fatty acid-derived structure, in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Etomoxir treatment for 24 h resulted in a down-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) mRNA expression, achieving an 87% reduction at 80 microm etomoxir. The mRNA levels of most of the PPARalpha target genes studied were reduced at 100 microm etomoxir. By using several inhibitors of de novo ceramide synthesis and C(2)-ceramide we showed that they were not involved in the effects of etomoxir. Interestingly, the addition of triacsin C, a potent inhibitor of acyl-CoA synthetase, to etomoxir-treated C2C12 skeletal muscle cells did not prevent the down-regulation in PPARalpha mRNA levels, suggesting that the active form of the drug, etomoxir-CoA, was not involved. Given that saturated fatty acids may generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), we determined whether the addition of etomoxir resulted in ROS generation. Etomoxir increased ROS production and the activity of the well known redox transcription factor NF-kappaB. In the presence of the pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of NF-kappaB activity, etomoxir did not down-regulate PPARalpha mRNA in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. These results indicate that ROS generation and NF-kappaB activation are responsible for the down-regulation of PPARalpha and may provide a new mechanism by which intracellular lipid accumulation occurs in skeletal muscle cells.

  18. Cucurbitacin L 2-O-β-Glucoside Demonstrates Apoptogenesis in Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells (HT-29): Involvement of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Hassan, Loiy Elsir Ahmed; Abdul Majid, Amin M. S.; Yagi, Sakina M. Ahmed; Mohan, Syam; Elhassan Taha, Manal Mohamed; Ahmad, Syahida; Chuen, Cheah Shiau; Narrima, Putri; Rais, Mohd Mustafa; Syam, Suvitha; Moharam, Bushra Abdulkarim; Hadi, A. Hamid A.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species can contribute to diverse signalling pathways of inflammatory and tumour cells. Cucurbitacins are a group of highly oxygenated triterpenes. Many plants used in folk medicine to treat cancer have been found to contain cucurbitacins displaying potentially important anti-inflammatory actions. The current study was designed to investigate the anti-ROS and -RNS effects of cucurbitacin L 2-O-β-glucoside (CLG) and the role of these signaling factors in the apoptogenic effects of CLG on human colon cancer cells (HT-29). This natural cucurbitacin was isolated purely from Citrullus lanatus var. citroides (Cucurbitaceae). The results revealed that CLG was cytotoxic to HT-29. CLG increased significantly (P < 0.05) RNA and protein levels of caspase-3 in HT-29 cells when verified using a colorimetric assay and realtime qPCR, respectively. The results showed that lipopolysaccharide/interferon-gamma (LPS/INF-γ) increased nitrous oxide (NO) production inR AW264.7macrophages, whereas N(G)-nitro-L-argininemethyl ester (L-NAME) and CLG curtailed it. This compound did not reveal any cytotoxicity on RAW264.7 macrophages and human normal liver cells (WRL-68) when tested using the MTT assay. Findings of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) assays demonstrate the antioxidant properties of CLG. The apoptogenic property of CLG on HT-29 cells is thus related to inhibition of reactive nitrogen and oxygen reactive species and the triggering of caspase-3-regulated apoptosis. PMID:22685485

  19. Reactive oxygen species in periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Gupta, Rajan; Bhardwaj, Rohit; Chaudhary, Karun; Kaur, Simerpreet

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies reveal that more than two-third of the world's population suffers from one of the chronic forms of periodontal disease. The primary etiological agent of this inflammatory disease is a polymicrobial complex, predominantly Gram negative anaerobic or facultative bacteria within the sub-gingival biofilm. These bacterial species initiate the production of various cytokines such as interleukin-8 and TNF-α, further causing an increase in number and activity of polymorphonucleocytes (PMN) along with these cytokines, PMNs also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide via the respiratory burst mechanism as the part of the defence response to infection. ROS just like the interleukins have deleterious effects on tissue cells when produced in excess. To counter the harmful effects of ROS, human body has its own defence mechanisms to eliminate them as soon as they are formed. The aim of this review is to focus on the role of different free radicals, ROS, and antioxidants in the pathophysiology of periodontal tissue destruction. PMID:24174716

  20. Bcl-2 family proteins as regulators of cancer cell invasion and metastasis: a review focusing on mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Um, Hong-Duck

    2016-02-02

    Although Bcl-2 family proteins were originally identified as key regulators of apoptosis, an impressive body of evidence has shown that pro-survival members of the Bcl-2 family, including Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bcl-w, can also promote cell migration, invasion, and cancer metastasis. Interestingly, cell invasion was recently found to be suppressed by multidomain pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, such as Bax and Bak. While the mechanisms underlying these new functions of Bcl-2 proteins are just beginning to be studied, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as inducers of cell invasion and the production of ROS from mitochondrial respiration is known to be promoted and suppressed by the pro-survival and multidomain pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, respectively. Here, I review the evidence supporting the ability of Bcl-2 proteins to regulate cancer cell invasion and metastasis, and discuss our current understanding of their underlying mechanisms, with a particular focus on mitochondrial respiration and ROS, which could have implications for the development of strategies to overcome tumor progression.

  1. GDF15 contributes to radioresistance and cancer stemness of head and neck cancer by regulating cellular reactive oxygen species via a SMAD-associated signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Li-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Lu, Ya-Ching; Li, Yi-Chen; Chiang, Chang-Hsu; You, Guo-Rung; Chen, Hsin-Ying; Cheng, Ann-Joy

    2017-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an integral part for the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC), while radioresistance is a major cause leads to treatment failure. GDF15, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, is hypothesized to participate in various types of homeostasis. However, the potential role of this molecule in regulation of radiosensitivity remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that GDF15 contributed to radioresistance of HNC, as determined by both gain- and lost-of-functional experiments. These results were achieved by the induction of mitochondrial membrane potential and suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We further showed that GDF15 facilitated the conversion of cancer stemness, as assessed by the promotion of CD44+ and ALDH1+ cell populations and spheroid cell formation. At molecular level, GDF15 conferred to these cellular functions was through phosphorylated SMAD1 proteins to elite downstream signaling molecules. These cellular results were further confirmed in a tumor xenograft mouse study. Taken together, our results demonstrated that GDF15 contributed to radioresistance and cancer stemness by regulating cellular ROS levels via a SMAD-associated signaling pathway. GDF15 may serve as a prediction marker of radioresistance and a therapeutic target for the development of radio-sensitizing agents for the treatment of refractory HNC. PMID:27903972

  2. Integrin alpha1beta1 controls reactive oxygen species synthesis by negatively regulating epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated Rac activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiwu; Abair, Tristin D; Ibanez, Maria R; Su, Yan; Frey, Mark R; Dise, Rebecca S; Polk, D Brent; Singh, Amar B; Harris, Raymond C; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2007-05-01

    Integrins control many cell functions, including generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and regulation of collagen synthesis. Mesangial cells, found in the glomerulus of the kidney, are able to produce large amounts of ROS via the NADPH oxidase. We previously demonstrated that integrin alpha1-null mice develop worse fibrosis than wild-type mice following glomerular injury and this is due, in part, to excessive ROS production by alpha1-null mesangial cells. In the present studies, we describe the mechanism whereby integrin alpha1-null mesangial cells produce excessive ROS. Integrin alpha1-null mesangial cells have constitutively increased basal levels of activated Rac1, which result in its increased translocation to the cell membrane, excessive ROS production, and consequent collagen IV deposition. Basal Rac1 activation is a direct consequence of ligand-independent increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation in alpha1-null mesangial cells. Thus, our study demonstrates that integrin alpha1beta1-EGFR cross talk is a key step in negatively regulating Rac1 activation, ROS production, and excessive collagen synthesis, which is a hallmark of diseases characterized by irreversible fibrosis.

  3. GDF15 contributes to radioresistance and cancer stemness of head and neck cancer by regulating cellular reactive oxygen species via a SMAD-associated signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Liang; Chang, Joseph T; Lee, Li-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Lu, Ya-Ching; Li, Yi-Chen; Chiang, Chang-Hsu; You, Guo-Rung; Chen, Hsin-Ying; Cheng, Ann-Joy

    2017-01-03

    Radiotherapy is an integral part for the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC), while radioresistance is a major cause leads to treatment failure. GDF15, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, is hypothesized to participate in various types of homeostasis. However, the potential role of this molecule in regulation of radiosensitivity remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that GDF15 contributed to radioresistance of HNC, as determined by both gain- and lost-of-functional experiments. These results were achieved by the induction of mitochondrial membrane potential and suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We further showed that GDF15 facilitated the conversion of cancer stemness, as assessed by the promotion of CD44+ and ALDH1+ cell populations and spheroid cell formation. At molecular level, GDF15 conferred to these cellular functions was through phosphorylated SMAD1 proteins to elite downstream signaling molecules. These cellular results were further confirmed in a tumor xenograft mouse study. Taken together, our results demonstrated that GDF15 contributed to radioresistance and cancer stemness by regulating cellular ROS levels via a SMAD-associated signaling pathway. GDF15 may serve as a prediction marker of radioresistance and a therapeutic target for the development of radio-sensitizing agents for the treatment of refractory HNC.

  4. Melatonin Improved Anthocyanin Accumulation by Regulating Gene Expressions and Resulted in High Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Capacity in Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Qianqian; Li, Hongfei; Li, Xingsheng; Cao, Yunyun; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Shuangtao; Zhang, Lei; Qi, Yan; Ren, Shuxin; Zhao, Bing; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we found, that exogenous melatonin pretreatment improved anthocyanin accumulation (1- to 2-fold) in cabbage. To verify the relationship with melatonin and anthocyanin, an Arabidopsis mutant, snat, which expresses a defective form of the melatonin biosynthesis enzyme SNAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase), was employed. Under cold conditions, the foliage of wild-type Arabidopsis exhibited a deeper red color than the snat mutant. This finding further proved, that exogenous melatonin treatment was able to affect anthocyanin accumulation. To gain a better understanding of how exogenous melatonin upregulates anthocyanin, we measured gene expression in cabbage samples treated with melatonin and untreated controls. We found that the transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were upregulated by melatonin treatment. Moreover, melatonin treatment increased the expression levels of the transcription factors MYB, bHLH, and WD40, which constitute the transcriptional activation complex responsible for coordinative regulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. We found, that free radical generation was downregulated, whereas the osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities were upregulated in exogenous melatonin-treated cabbage plants. We concluded, that melatonin increases anthocyanin production and benefits cabbage growth. PMID:27047496

  5. Regulation of macromolecular modulators of urinary stone formation by reactive oxygen species: transcriptional study in an animal model of hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saeed R; Joshi, Sunil; Wang, Wei; Peck, Ammon B

    2014-06-01

    We used an unbiased approach of gene expression profiling to determine differential gene expression of all the macromolecular modulators (MMs) considered to be involved in stone formation, in hyperoxaluric rats, with and without treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. Male rats were fed rat chow or chow supplemented with 5% wt/wt hydroxy-l-proline (HLP) with or without apocynin-supplemented water. After 28 days, rats were euthanized and their kidneys explanted. Total RNA was isolated and microarray analysis was conducted using the Illumina bead array reader. Gene ontology analysis and the pathway analyses of the genes were done using Database for Annotation, Visualization of Integrated Discovery enrichment analysis tool. Quantitative RT-PCR of selected genes was carried out to verify the microarray results. Expression of selected gene products was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Administration of HLP led to crystal deposition. Genes encoding for fibronectin, CD 44, fetuin B, osteopontin, and matrix-gla protein were upregulated while those encoding for heavy chains of inter-alpha-inhibitor 1, 3, and 4, calgranulin B, prothrombin, and Tamm-Horsfall protein were downregulated. HLP-fed rats receiving apocynin had a significant reversal in gene expression profiles: those that were upregulated came down while those that were downregulated stepped up. Apocynin treatment resulted in near complete absence of crystals. Clearly, there are two types of MMs; one is downregulated while the other is upregulated during hyperoxaluria and crystal deposition. Apparently gene and protein expressions of known macromolecular modulators of CaOx crystallization are likely regulated by ROS produced in part through the activation of NADPH oxidase.

  6. Central role of endogenous Toll-like receptor-2 activation in regulating inflammation, reactive oxygen species production, and subsequent neointimal formation after vascular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Shishido, Tetsuro . E-mail: Tetsuro_Shishido@URMC.Rochester.edu; Nozaki, Naoki; Takahashi, Hiroki; Arimoto, Takanori; Niizeki, Takeshi; Koyama, Yo; Abe, Jun-ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Kubota, Isao

    2006-07-14

    Background: It is now evident that inflammation after vascular injury has significant impact on the restenosis after revascularization procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, and bypass grafting. However, the mechanisms that regulate inflammation and repair after vascular injury are incompletely understood. Here, we report that vascular injury-mediated cytokine expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as well as subsequent neointimal formation requires Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) mediated signaling pathway in vivo. Methods and results: Vascular injury was induced by cuff-placement around the femoral artery in non-transgenic littermates (NLC) and TLR-2 knockout (TLR-2KO) mice. After cuff-placement in NLC mice, expression of TLR-2 was significantly increased in both smooth muscle medial layer and adventitia. Interestingly, we found that inflammatory genes expression such as tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were markedly decreased in TLR-2KO mice compared with NLC mice. In addition, ROS production after vascular injury was attenuated in TLR-2KO mice compared with NLC mice. Since we observed the significant role of endogenous TLR-2 activation in regulating inflammatory responses and ROS production after vascular injury, we determined whether inhibition of endogenous TLR-2 activation can inhibit neointimal proliferation after vascular injury. Neointimal hyperplasia was markedly suppressed in TLR-2KO mice compared with WT mice at both 2 and 4 weeks after vascular injury. Conclusions: These findings suggested that endogenous TLR-2 activation might play a central role in the regulation of vascular inflammation as well as subsequent neointimal formation in injured vessels.

  7. Spatial and temporal regulation of the metabolism of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during the early development of pepper (Capsicum annuum) seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Airaki, Morad; Leterrier, Marina; Valderrama, Raquel; Chaki, Mounira; Begara-Morales, Juan C.; Barroso, Juan B.; del Río, Luis A.; Palma, José M.; Corpas, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The development of seedlings involves many morphological, physiological and biochemical processes, which are controlled by many factors. Some reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) are implicated as signal molecules in physiological and phytopathological processes. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a very important crop and the goal of this work was to provide a framework of the behaviour of the key elements in the metabolism of ROS and RNS in the main organs of pepper during its development. Methods The main seedling organs (roots, hypocotyls and green cotyledons) of pepper seedlings were analysed 7, 10 and 14 d after germination. Activity and gene expression of the main enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, ascorbate–glutathione cycle enzymes), NADP-generating dehydrogenases and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase were determined. Cellular distribution of nitric oxide (·NO), superoxide radical (O2·–) and peroxynitrite (ONOO–) was investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Key Results The metabolism of ROS and RNS during pepper seedling development was highly regulated and showed significant plasticity, which was co-ordinated among the main seedling organs, resulting in correct development. Catalase showed higher activity in the aerial parts of the seedling (hypocotyls and green cotyledons) whereas roots of 7-d-old seedlings contained higher activity of the enzymatic components of the ascorbate glutathione cycle, NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase and NADP-malic enzyme. Conclusions There is differential regulation of the metabolism of ROS, nitric oxide and NADP dehydrogenases in the different plant organs during seedling development in pepper in the absence of stress. The metabolism of ROS and RNS seems to contribute significantly to plant development since their components are involved directly or indirectly in many metabolic pathways. Thus, specific molecules such as H2O2 and NO have implications for signalling

  8. c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase signaling axis regulates diallyl trisulfide-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and cell cycle arrest in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Antosiewicz, Jedrzej; Herman-Antosiewicz, Anna; Marynowski, Stanley W; Singh, Shivendra V

    2006-05-15

    We have shown previously that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a critical event in G(2)-M phase cell cycle arrest caused by diallyl trisulfide (DATS), which is a highly promising anticancer constituent of processed garlic. Using DU145 and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells as a model, we now report a novel mechanism involving c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling axis, which is known for its role in regulation of cell survival and apoptosis, in DATS-induced ROS production. The DATS-induced ROS generation, G(2)-M phase cell cycle arrest and degradation, and hyperphosphorylation of Cdc25C were significantly attenuated in the presence of EUK134, a combined mimetic of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Interestingly, the DATS-induced ROS generation and G(2)-M phase cell cycle arrest were also inhibited significantly in the presence of desferrioxamine, an iron chelator, but this protection was not observed with iron-saturated desferrioxamine. DATS treatment caused a marked increase in the level of labile iron that was accompanied by degradation of light chain of iron storage protein ferritin. Interestingly, DATS-mediated degradation of ferritin, increase in labile iron pool, ROS generation, and/or cell cycle arrest were significantly attenuated by ectopic expression of a catalytically inactive mutant of JNK kinase 2 and RNA interference of stress-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (SEK1), upstream kinases in JNK signal transduction pathway. In conclusion, the present study provides experimental evidence to indicate existence of a novel pathway involving JNK signaling axis in regulation of DATS-induced ROS generation.

  9. Role of reactive oxygen species in the signalling cascade of cyclosporine A-mediated up-regulation of eNOS in vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    López-Ongil, S; Hernández-Perera, O; Navarro-Antolín, J; Pérez de Lema, G; Rodríguez-Puyol, M; Lamas, S; Rodríguez-Puyol, D

    1998-01-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) increases eNOS mRNA expression in bovine cultured aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). As some effects of CsA may be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), present experiments were devoted to test the hypothesis that the CsA-induced eNOS up-regulation could be dependent on an increased synthesis of ROS.CsA induced a dose-dependent increase of ROS synthesis, with the two fluorescent probes used, DHR123 (CsA 1 μM: 305±7% over control) and H2DCFDA (CsA 1 μM: 178±6% over control).Two ROS generating systems, xanthine plus xanthine oxidase (XXO) and glucose oxidase (GO), increased the expression of eNOS mRNA in BAEC, an effect which was maximal after 8 h of incubation (XXO: 168±21% of control values. GO: 208±18% of control values). The ROS-dependent increased eNOS mRNA expression was followed by an increase in eNOS activity.The effect of CsA on eNOS mRNA expression was abrogated by catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD). In contrast, the antioxidant PDTC augmented eNOS mRNA expression, both in basal conditions and in the presence of CsA.The potential participation of the transcription factor AP-1 was explored. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were consistent with an increase in AP-1 DNA-binding activity in BAEC treated with CsA or glucose oxidase.The present results support a role for ROS, particularly superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, as mediators of the CsA-induced eNOS mRNA up-regulation. Furthermore, they situate ROS as potential regulators of gene expression in endothelial cells, both in physiological and pathophysiological situations. PMID:9647467

  10. Physiological roles of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Sena, Laura A; Chandel, Navdeep S

    2012-10-26

    Historically, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) were thought to exclusively cause cellular damage and lack a physiological function. Accumulation of ROS and oxidative damage have been linked to multiple pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, cancer, and premature aging. Thus, mROS were originally envisioned as a necessary evil of oxidative metabolism, a product of an imperfect system. Yet few biological systems possess such flagrant imperfections, thanks to the persistent optimization of evolution, and it appears that oxidative metabolism is no different. More and more evidence suggests that mROS are critical for healthy cell function. In this Review, we discuss this evidence following some background on the generation and regulation of mROS.

  11. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide regulate mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and autophagy in evodiamine-treated human cervix carcinoma HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia; Wu, Li-Jun; Tashino, Shin-Ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2008-05-01

    The redox environment of the cell is currently thought to be extremely important to control either apoptosis or autophagy. This study reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generations were induced by evodiamine time-dependently; while they acted in synergy to trigger mitochondria-dependent apoptosis by induction of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) through increasing the Bax/Bcl-2 or Bcl-x(L) ratio. Autophagy was also stimulated by evodiamine, as demonstrated by the positive autophagosome-specific dye monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining as well as the expressions of autophagy-related proteins, Beclin 1 and LC3. Pre-treatment with 3-MA, the specific inhibitor for autophagy, dose-dependently decreased cell viability, indicating a survival function of autophagy. Importantly, autophagy was found to be promoted or inhibited by ROS/NO in response to the severity of oxidative stress. These findings could help shed light on the complex regulation of intracellular redox status on the balance of autophagy and apoptosis in anti-cancer therapies.

  12. Ginkgolide B Exerts Cardioprotective Properties against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species, Akt and Calcium Signaling Pathways In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Deqiang; Zheng, Jianpu; Liu, Zongjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ginkgolide B (GB) on doxorubicin (DOX) induced cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Rat cardiomyocyte cell line H9c2 was pretreated with GB and subsequently subjected to doxorubicin treatment. Cell viability and cell apoptosis were assessed by MTT assay and Hoechst staining, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), Akt phosphorylation and intracellular calcium were equally determined in order to explore the underlying molecular mechanism. To verify the in vivo therapeutic effect of GB, we established a mouse model of cardiotoxicity and determined left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular mass (LVM). The in vitro experimental results indicated that pretreatment with GB significantly decreases the viability and apoptosis of H9c2 cells by decreasing ROS and intracellular calcium levels and activating Akt phosphorylation. In the in vivo study, we recorded an improved LVEF and a decreased LVM in the group of cardiotoxic rats treated with GB. Altogether, our findings anticipate that GB exerts a cardioprotective effect through possible regulation of the ROS, Akt and calcium pathways. The findings suggest that combination of GB with DOX in chemotherapy could help avoid the cardiotoxic side effects of GB. PMID:27973574

  13. Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor-2 Negatively Regulates NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity by Inhibiting Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced NLRP3 Priming

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuting; Zhang, Xin; Ding, Yang; Zhou, Wei; Tao, Lei; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yajing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that protects hosts against a variety of pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms of modulating NLRP3 inflammasome activation, especially at the priming step, are still poorly understood. This study was designed to elucidate the negative regulation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) on the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Results: We reported that Nrf2 activation inhibited NLRP3 expression, caspase-1 cleavage, and subsequent IL-1β generation. Compared with normal cells, Nrf2-deficient cells showed upregulated cleaved caspase-1, which were attributed to the increased transcription of NLRP3 caused by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, priming of the NLRP3 inflammasome was sensitive to the exogenous ROS levels induced by H2O2 or rotenone. Combined with adenosine triphosphate, rotenone triggered higher activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome compared with lipopolysaccharide, suggesting that ROS promoted the priming step. In addition, Nrf2-induced NQO1 was involved in the inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In an in vivo alum-induced peritonitis mouse model, Nrf2 activation suppressed typical IL-1 signaling-dependent inflammation, whereas Nrf2−/− mice exhibited a significant increase in the recruitment of immune cell and the generation of IL-1β compared with wild-type mice. Innovation: We elucidated the effects and possible mechanisms of Nrf2 activation-induced NQO1 expression on NLRP3 inflammasome inactivation and established a novel regulatory role of the Nrf2 pathway in ROS-induced NLRP3 priming. Conclusions: We demonstrated Nrf2 negatively regulating NLRP3 inflammasome activity by inhibiting the priming step and suggested that Nrf2 could be a potential target for some uncontrolled inflammasome activation-associated diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 28–43. PMID:27308893

  14. Baccharis trimera inhibits reactive oxygen species production through PKC and down-regulation p47 (phox) phosphorylation of NADPH oxidase in SK Hep-1 cells.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Glaucy Rodrigues; Rabelo, Ana Carolina Silveira; Meira, Janaína Serenato; Rossoni-Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Castro-Borges, William de; Guerra-Sá, Renata; Batista, Maurício Azevedo; Silveira-Lemos, Denise da; Souza, Gustavo Henrique Bianco de; Brandão, Geraldo Célio; Chaves, Míriam Martins; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2017-02-01

    Baccharis trimera, popularly known as "carqueja", is a native South-American plant possessing a high concentration of polyphenolic compounds and therefore high antioxidant potential. Despite the antioxidant potential described for B. trimera, there are no reports concerning the signaling pathways involved in this process. So, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of B. trimera on the modulation of PKC signaling pathway and to characterize the effect of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase enzyme (NOX) on the generation of reactive oxygen species in SK Hep-1 cells. SK-Hep 1 cells were treated with B. trimera, quercetin, or rutin and then stimulated or not with PMA/ionomycin and labeled with carboxy H2DCFDA for detection of reactive oxygen species by flow cytometer. The PKC expression by Western blot and enzyme activity was performed to evaluate the influence of B. trimera and quercetin on PKC signaling pathway. p47 (phox) and p47 (phox) phosphorylated expression was performed by Western blot to evaluate the influence of B. trimera on p47 (phox) phosphorylation. The results showed that cells stimulated with PMA/ionomycin (activators of PKC) showed significantly increased reactive oxygen species production, and this production returned to baseline levels after treatment with DPI (NOX inhibitor). Both B. trimera and quercetin modulated reactive oxygen species production through the inhibition of PKC protein expression and enzymatic activity, also with inhibition of p47 (phox) phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that B. trimera has a potential mechanism for inhibiting reactive oxygen species production through the PKC signaling pathway and inhibition subunit p47 (phox) phosphorylation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase.

  15. Phytate, reactive oxygen species and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Owen, R W; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H

    1998-05-01

    Reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography methods have been developed and validated which allow an accurate quantification of phytic acid in faeces and food and reactive oxygen species in an in vitro model system and in faecal specimens. When applied to the evaluation of reactive oxygen species generation by faeces, this method has shown that 1:100 dilutions of matrix obtained from stool samples of adenoma patients are capable of generating significant quantities of reactive oxygen species as evinced by the production of diphenols from salicylic acid. Moreover, it has been shown that the major product of HO. attack on salicylic acid is 2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid and not 2, 3-dihydroxy benzoic acid as previously reported. In the presence of the antioxidant ascorbic acid the inhibitory capacity of phytic acid on the generation of reactive oxygen species is completely subverted. Therefore, the kinetics of reactive oxygen species production by faeces is currently under further investigation by high-performance liquid chromatography and chemiluminescence in various patient groups and may give an insight into the role of reactive oxygen species in the aetiology of colorectal cancer.

  16. mGluR5 in the nucleus accumbens shell regulates morphine-associated contextual memory through reactive oxygen species signaling.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chong; Wang, Xinjuan; Ge, Feifei; Li, Yijing; Shen, Fang; Wang, Junkai; Cui, Cailian

    2015-09-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) critically modulates drug and drug-related behaviors. However, the role of mGluR5 in the opiate-induced contextual memory remains unclear. Here, we found that microinfusion of the mGluR5 antagonist 3-((2-Methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP) into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell, but not into the core, significantly attenuated the expression of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. Following the expression of morphine CPP, the protein level of membrane mGluR5 was selectively increased in the NAc shell. In primary striatal neurons, we observed that treatment with the mGluR5 agonist CHPG increased the phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which was dependent on the mGluR5-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway. Moreover, the microinjection of the ROS scavenger Tempol into the NAc shell of rats blocked the expression of morphine CPP. Further, the administration of t-BOOH, a ROS donor, into the NAc shell rescued the retrieval impairment of morphine CPP produced by MTEP. Our previous study demonstrated that the expression of morphine CPP increased the phosphorylation of ERK selectively in the NAc shell. Thus, results of the present study suggest that mGluR5 in the NAc shell, but not in the core, is essential for the retrieval of morphine contextual memory, which is mediated at least in part, through the ROS/ERK signaling pathway. Uncovering the molecular basis of opiate contextual memory will benefit the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of opiate addiction.

  17. Reactive oxygen species and redox compartmentalization.

    PubMed

    Kaludercic, Nina; Deshwal, Soni; Di Lisa, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and signaling are of major importance and regulate a number of processes in physiological conditions. A disruption in redox status regulation, however, has been associated with numerous pathological conditions. In recent years it has become increasingly clear that oxidative and reductive modifications are confined in a spatio-temporal manner. This makes ROS signaling similar to that of Ca(2+) or other second messengers. Some subcellular compartments are more oxidizing (such as lysosomes or peroxisomes) whereas others are more reducing (mitochondria, nuclei). Moreover, although more reducing, mitochondria are especially susceptible to oxidation, most likely due to the high number of exposed thiols present in that compartment. Recent advances in the development of redox probes allow specific measurement of defined ROS in different cellular compartments in intact living cells or organisms. The availability of these tools now allows simultaneous spatio-temporal measurements and correlation between ROS generation and organelle and/or cellular function. The study of ROS compartmentalization and microdomains will help elucidate their role in physiology and disease. Here we will examine redox probes currently available and how ROS generation may vary between subcellular compartments. Furthermore, we will discuss ROS compartmentalization in physiological and pathological conditions focusing our attention on mitochondria, since their vulnerability to oxidative stress is likely at the basis of several diseases.

  18. Skin, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Circadian Clocks

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Mary A.; Nihal, Minakshi; Wood, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Skin, a complex organ and the body's first line of defense against environmental insults, plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis in an organism. This balance is maintained through a complex network of cellular machinery and signaling events, including those regulating oxidative stress and circadian rhythms. These regulatory mechanisms have developed integral systems to protect skin cells and to signal to the rest of the body in the event of internal and environmental stresses. Recent Advances: Interestingly, several signaling pathways and many bioactive molecules have been found to be involved and even important in the regulation of oxidative stress and circadian rhythms, especially in the skin. It is becoming increasingly evident that these two regulatory systems may, in fact, be interconnected in the regulation of homeostasis. Important examples of molecules that connect the two systems include serotonin, melatonin, vitamin D, and vitamin A. Critical Issues: Excessive reactive oxygen species and/or dysregulation of antioxidant system and circadian rhythms can cause critical errors in maintaining proper barrier function and skin health, as well as overall homeostasis. Unfortunately, the modern lifestyle seems to contribute to increasing alterations in redox balance and circadian rhythms, thereby posing a critical problem for normal functioning of the living system. Future Directions: Since the oxidative stress and circadian rhythm systems seem to have areas of overlap, future research needs to be focused on defining the interactions between these two important systems. This may be especially important in the skin where both systems play critical roles in protecting the whole body. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2982–2996. PMID:24111846

  19. Rosacea, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Azelaic Acid

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Rosacea is a common skin condition thought to be primarily an inflammatory disorder. Neutrophils, in particular, have been implicated in the inflammation associated with rosacea and mediate many of their effects through the release of reactive oxygen species. Recently, the role of reactive oxygen species in the pathophysiology of rosacea has been recognized. Many effective agents for rosacea, including topical azelaic acid and topical metronidazole, have anti-inflammatory properties. in-vitro models have demonstrated the potent antioxidant effects of azelaic acid, providing a potential mechanistic explanation for its efficacy in the treatment of rosacea. PMID:20967185

  20. Nebivolol prevents ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species generation and lipoperoxidation in the rat kidney by regulating NADPH oxidase activation and expression.

    PubMed

    do Vale, Gabriel T; Gonzaga, Natália A; Simplicio, Janaina A; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2017-03-15

    We studied whether the β1-adrenergic antagonist nebivolol would prevent ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species generation and lipoperoxidation in the rat renal cortex. Male Wistar rats were treated with ethanol (20% v/v) for 2 weeks. Nebivolol (10mg/kg/day; p.o. gavage) prevented both the increase in superoxide anion (O2(-)) generation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration induced by ethanol in the renal cortex. Ethanol decreased nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentration in the renal cortex, and nebivolol prevented this response. Nebivolol did not affect the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration induced by ethanol. Nebivolol prevented the ethanol-induced increase of catalase (CAT) activity. Both SOD activity and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) were not affected by treatment with nebivolol or ethanol. Neither ethanol nor nebivolol affected the expression of Nox1, Nox4, eNOS, nNOS, CAT, Nox organizer 1 (Noxo1), c-Src, p47(phox) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms in the renal cortex. On the other hand, treatment with ethanol increased Nox2 expression, and nebivolol prevented this response. Finally, nebivolol reduced the expression of protein kinase (PK) Cδ and Rac1. The major finding of our study is that nebivolol prevented ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species generation and lipoperoxidation in the kidney by a mechanism that involves reduction on the expression of Nox2, a catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase. Additionally, we demonstrated that nebivolol reduces NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species by decreasing the expression of PKCδ and Rac1, which are important activators of NADPH oxidase.

  1. Superoxide Dismutases and Reactive Oxygen Species

    SciTech Connect

    Cabelli, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    The 'free radical theory' of aging was introduced over a half-century ago. In this theory, much of the deleterious effects of aging were attributed to the cumulative buildup of damage from reactive oxygen species. When discussing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aerobic systems, both superoxide radicals (O{sub 2}{sup -}) and superoxide dismutases (SODs) are considered to play prominent roles. O{sub 2}{sup -} is formed by attachment of the electron to oxygen (O{sub 2}) that is present in tens to hundreds of micromolar concentration in vivo. SODs are enzymes that serve to eliminate O{sub 2}{sup -} by rapidly converting it to O{sub 2} and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Both the radical and the enzyme will be discussed with the focus on the systems that are present in humans.

  2. Mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Turrens, Julio F

    2003-01-01

    The reduction of oxygen to water proceeds via one electron at a time. In the mitochondrial respiratory chain, Complex IV (cytochrome oxidase) retains all partially reduced intermediates until full reduction is achieved. Other redox centres in the electron transport chain, however, may leak electrons to oxygen, partially reducing this molecule to superoxide anion (O2−•). Even though O2−• is not a strong oxidant, it is a precursor of most other reactive oxygen species, and it also becomes involved in the propagation of oxidative chain reactions. Despite the presence of various antioxidant defences, the mitochondrion appears to be the main intracellular source of these oxidants. This review describes the main mitochondrial sources of reactive species and the antioxidant defences that evolved to prevent oxidative damage in all the mitochondrial compartments. We also discuss various physiological and pathological scenarios resulting from an increased steady state concentration of mitochondrial oxidants. PMID:14561818

  3. Formation and Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuciel, Radoslawa; Mazurkiewicz, Aleksandra

    2004-01-01

    A model of reactive oxygen species metabolism is proposed as a laboratory exercise for students. The superoxide ion in this model is generated during the reaction of oxidation of xanthine, catalyzed by xanthine oxidase. The effect of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and allopurinol on superoxide ion generation and removal in this system is also…

  4. Reactive oxygen species in phagocytic leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Phagocytic leukocytes consume oxygen and generate reactive oxygen species in response to appropriate stimuli. The phagocyte NADPH oxidase, a multiprotein complex, existing in the dissociated state in resting cells becomes assembled into the functional oxidase complex upon stimulation and then generates superoxide anions. Biochemical aspects of the NADPH oxidase are briefly discussed in this review; however, the major focus relates to the contributions of various modes of microscopy to our understanding of the NADPH oxidase and the cell biology of phagocytic leukocytes. PMID:18597105

  5. Antimicrobial Actions of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Everything should be as simple as it can be, but not simpler.—Attributed to Albert Einstein (1) Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by host phagocytes and exert antimicrobial actions against a broad range of pathogens. The observable antimicrobial actions of ROS are highly dependent on experimental conditions. This perspective reviews recent controversies regarding ROS in Salmonella-phagocyte interactions and attempts to reconcile conflicting observations from different laboratories. PMID:21896680

  6. Reactive oxygen species in the immune system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuhui; Bazhin, Alexandr V; Werner, Jens; Karakhanova, Svetlana

    2013-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a group of highly reactive chemicals containing oxygen produced either exogenously or endogenously. ROS are related to a wide variety of human disorders, such as chronic inflammation, age-related diseases and cancers. Besides, ROS are also essential for various biological functions, including cell survival, cell growth, proliferation and differentiation, and immune response. At present there are a number of excellent publications including some reviews about functions of these molecules either in normal cell biology or in pathophysiology. In this work, we reviewed available information and recent advances about ROS in the main immune cell types and gave summary about functions of these highly reactive molecules both in innate immunity as conservative defense mechanisms and in essential immune cells involved in adaptive immunity, and particularly in immune suppression.

  7. An Arabidopsis Zinc Finger Protein Increases Abiotic Stress Tolerance by Regulating Sodium and Potassium Homeostasis, Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Osmotic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Dandan; Li, Hongyan; Xu, Hongyun; Zhang, Wenhui; Zhang, Yiming; Shi, Xinxin; Wang, Yucheng

    2016-01-01

    Plant zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) comprise a large protein family and they are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance. Although Arabidopsis RING/FYVE/PHD ZFP At5g62460 (AtRZFP) is found to bind to zinc, whether it is involved in abiotic stress tolerance is still unknown. In the present study, we characterized the roles of AtRZFP in response to abiotic stresses. The expression of AtRZFP was induced significantly by salt and osmotic stress. AtRZFP positively mediates tolerance to salt and osmotic stress. Additionally, compared with wild-type Arabidopsis plants, plants overexpressing AtRZFP showed reduced reactive oxygen species (ROSs) accumulation, enhanced superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, increased soluble sugars and proline contents, reduced K+ loss, decreased Na+ accumulation, stomatal aperture and the water loss rate. Conversely, AtRZFP knockout plants displayed the opposite physiological changes when exposed to salt or osmotic stress conditions. These data suggested that AtRZFP enhances salt and osmotic tolerance through a series of physiological processes, including enhanced ROSs scavenging, maintaining Na+ and K+ homeostasis, controlling the stomatal aperture to reduce the water loss rate, and accumulating soluble sugars and proline to adjust the osmotic potential. PMID:27605931

  8. CbRCI35, a Cold Responsive Peroxidase from Capsella bursa-pastoris Regulates Reactive Oxygen Species Homeostasis and Enhances Cold Tolerance in Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingqi; Li, Weiwei; Zheng, Ye; Lin, Ping; Yao, Xiaohua; Lin, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature affects gene regulatory networks and alters cellular metabolism to inhibit plant growth. Peroxidases are widely distributed in plants and play a large role in adjusting and controlling reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis in response to abiotic stresses such as low temperature. The Rare Cold-Inducible 35 gene from Capsella bursa-pastoris (CbRCI35) belongs to the type III peroxidase family and has been reported to be a cold responsive gene in plants. Here we performed an expressional characterization of CbRCI35 under cold and ionic liquid treatments. The promoter of CbRCI35 was also cloned and its activity was examined using the GUS reporter system. CbRCI35 protein was localized in the cytoplasm according to sequence prediction and GFP fusion assay. Heterologous expression tests revealed that CbRCI35 conferred enhanced resistance to low temperature and activated endogenous cold responsive signaling in tobacco. Furthermore, in the normal condition the ROS accumulation was moderately enhanced while after chilling exposure superoxide dismutase activity was increased in CbRCI53 transgenic plants. The ROS metabolism related genes expression was altered accordingly. We conclude that CbRCI35 modulates ROS homeostasis and contributes to cold tolerance in plants.

  9. Fucoidan induces Toll-like receptor 4-regulated reactive oxygen species and promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Lin, Tung-Yi; Lu, Mei-Kuang; Leng, Pei-Ju; Tsao, Shu-Ming; Wu, Yu-Chung

    2017-01-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown algae, exhibits anti-cancer activity. However, the effects and mechanism of fucoidan-induced apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that fucoidan prevents tumorigenesis and reduces tumor size in LLC1-xenograft male C57BL/6 mice. Fucoidan induces an ER stress response by activating the PERK-ATF4-CHOP pathway, resulting in apoptotic cell death in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ATF4 knockdown abolishes fucoidan-induced CHOP expression and rescues cell viability. Specifically, fucoidan increases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which increase ATF4 and CHOP in lung cancer cells. Using the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), we found that ROS generation is involved in fucoidan-induced ER stress-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) knockdown, we demonstrated that fucoidan-induced ROS and CHOP expression were attenuated. Our study is the first to identify a novel mechanism for the antitumor activity of fucoidan. We showed that fucoidan inhibits tumor viability by activating the TLR4/ROS/ER stress axis and the downstream PERK-ATF4-CHOP pathway, leading to apoptosis and suppression of lung cancer cell progression. Together, these results indicate that fucoidan is a potential preventive and therapeutic agent for lung cancer that acts via activation of ROS-dependent ER stress pathways. PMID:28332554

  10. Salt-responsive ERF1 regulates reactive oxygen species-dependent signaling during the initial response to salt stress in rice.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Romy; Mieulet, Delphine; Hubberten, Hans-Michael; Obata, Toshihiro; Hoefgen, Rainer; Fernie, Alisdair R; Fisahn, Joachim; San Segundo, Blanca; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Schippers, Jos H M; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2013-06-01

    Early detection of salt stress is vital for plant survival and growth. Still, the molecular processes controlling early salt stress perception and signaling are not fully understood. Here, we identified salt-responsive ERF1 (SERF1), a rice (Oryza sativa) transcription factor (TF) gene that shows a root-specific induction upon salt and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment. Loss of SERF1 impairs the salt-inducible expression of genes encoding members of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and salt tolerance-mediating TFs. Furthermore, we show that SERF1-dependent genes are H2O2 responsive and demonstrate that SERF1 binds to the promoters of MAPK kinase kinase6 (MAP3K6), MAPK5, dehydration-responsive element bindinG2A (DREB2A), and zinc finger protein179 (ZFP179) in vitro and in vivo. SERF1 also directly induces its own gene expression. In addition, SERF1 is a phosphorylation target of MAPK5, resulting in enhanced transcriptional activity of SERF1 toward its direct target genes. In agreement, plants deficient for SERF1 are more sensitive to salt stress compared with the wild type, while constitutive overexpression of SERF1 improves salinity tolerance. We propose that SERF1 amplifies the reactive oxygen species-activated MAPK cascade signal during the initial phase of salt stress and translates the salt-induced signal into an appropriate expressional response resulting in salt tolerance.

  11. CbRCI35, a Cold Responsive Peroxidase from Capsella bursa-pastoris Regulates Reactive Oxygen Species Homeostasis and Enhances Cold Tolerance in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mingqi; Li, Weiwei; Zheng, Ye; Lin, Ping; Yao, Xiaohua; Lin, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature affects gene regulatory networks and alters cellular metabolism to inhibit plant growth. Peroxidases are widely distributed in plants and play a large role in adjusting and controlling reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis in response to abiotic stresses such as low temperature. The Rare Cold-Inducible 35 gene from Capsella bursa-pastoris (CbRCI35) belongs to the type III peroxidase family and has been reported to be a cold responsive gene in plants. Here we performed an expressional characterization of CbRCI35 under cold and ionic liquid treatments. The promoter of CbRCI35 was also cloned and its activity was examined using the GUS reporter system. CbRCI35 protein was localized in the cytoplasm according to sequence prediction and GFP fusion assay. Heterologous expression tests revealed that CbRCI35 conferred enhanced resistance to low temperature and activated endogenous cold responsive signaling in tobacco. Furthermore, in the normal condition the ROS accumulation was moderately enhanced while after chilling exposure superoxide dismutase activity was increased in CbRCI53 transgenic plants. The ROS metabolism related genes expression was altered accordingly. We conclude that CbRCI35 modulates ROS homeostasis and contributes to cold tolerance in plants. PMID:27818675

  12. Fucoidan induces Toll-like receptor 4-regulated reactive oxygen species and promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Lin, Tung-Yi; Lu, Mei-Kuang; Leng, Pei-Ju; Tsao, Shu-Ming; Wu, Yu-Chung

    2017-03-23

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown algae, exhibits anti-cancer activity. However, the effects and mechanism of fucoidan-induced apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that fucoidan prevents tumorigenesis and reduces tumor size in LLC1-xenograft male C57BL/6 mice. Fucoidan induces an ER stress response by activating the PERK-ATF4-CHOP pathway, resulting in apoptotic cell death in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ATF4 knockdown abolishes fucoidan-induced CHOP expression and rescues cell viability. Specifically, fucoidan increases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which increase ATF4 and CHOP in lung cancer cells. Using the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), we found that ROS generation is involved in fucoidan-induced ER stress-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) knockdown, we demonstrated that fucoidan-induced ROS and CHOP expression were attenuated. Our study is the first to identify a novel mechanism for the antitumor activity of fucoidan. We showed that fucoidan inhibits tumor viability by activating the TLR4/ROS/ER stress axis and the downstream PERK-ATF4-CHOP pathway, leading to apoptosis and suppression of lung cancer cell progression. Together, these results indicate that fucoidan is a potential preventive and therapeutic agent for lung cancer that acts via activation of ROS-dependent ER stress pathways.

  13. Reactive oxygen species production in cardiac mitochondria after complex I inhibition: Modulation by substrate-dependent regulation of the NADH/NAD(+) ratio.

    PubMed

    Korge, Paavo; Calmettes, Guillaume; Weiss, James N

    2016-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by isolated complex I is steeply dependent on the NADH/NAD(+) ratio. We used alamethicin-permeabilized mitochondria to study the substrate-dependence of matrix NADH and ROS production when complex I is inhibited by piericidin or rotenone. When complex I was inhibited in the presence of malate/glutamate, membrane permeabilization accelerated O2 consumption and ROS production due to a rapid increase in NADH generation that was not limited by matrix NAD(H) efflux. In the presence of inhibitor, both malate and glutamate were required to generate a high enough NADH/NAD(+) ratio to support ROS production through the coordinated activity of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). With malate and glutamate present, the rate of ROS production was closely related to local NADH generation, whereas in the absence of substrates, ROS production was accelerated by increase in added [NADH]. With malate alone, oxaloacetate accumulation limited NADH production by MDH unless glutamate was also added to promote oxaloacetate removal via AST. α-ketoglutarate (KG) as well as AST inhibition also reversed NADH generation and inhibited ROS production. If malate and glutamate were provided before rather than after piericidin or rotenone, ROS generation was markedly reduced due to time-dependent efflux of CoA. CoA depletion decreased KG oxidation by α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH), such that the resulting increase in [KG] inhibited oxaloacetate removal by AST and NADH generation by MDH. These findings were largely obscured in intact mitochondria due to robust H2O2 scavenging and limited ability to control substrate concentrations in the matrix. We conclude that in mitochondria with inhibited complex I, malate/glutamate-stimulated ROS generation depends strongly on oxaloacetate removal and on the ability of KGDH to oxidize KG generated by AST.

  14. Abscisic acid-regulated responses of aba2-1 under osmotic stress: the abscisic acid-inducible antioxidant defence system and reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Ozfidan, C; Turkan, I; Sekmen, A H; Seckin, B

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the interaction among abscisic acid (ABA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defence system in the transduction of osmotic stress signalling using Arabidopsis thaliana WT (Columbia ecotype, WT) and an ABA-deficient mutant (aba2-1). For this, 50 μm ABA and osmotic stress, induced with 40% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG8000; -0.7 MPa), were applied to WT and aba2-1 for 6, 12 or 24 h. Time course analysis was undertaken for determination of total/isoenzyme activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), NADPH oxidase (NOX; EC 1.6.3.1) activity; scavenging activity of the hydroxyl radical (OH˙), hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ); endogenous ABA and malondialdehyde (MDA). The highest H(2) O(2) and MDA content was found in PEG-treated groups of both genotypes, but with more in aba2-1. ABA treatment under stress reduced the accumulation of H(2) O(2) and MDA, while it promoted activity of SOD, CAT and APX. APX activity was higher than CAT activity in ABA-treated WT and aba2-1, indicating a protective role of APX rather than CAT during osmotic stress-induced oxidative damage. Treatment with ABA also significantly induced increased NOX activity. Oxidative damage was lower in ABA-treated seedlings of both genotypes, which was associated with greater activity of SOD (Mn-SOD1 and 2 and Fe-SOD isoenzymes), CAT and APX in these seedlings after 24 h of stress. These results suggest that osmotic stress effects were overcome by ABA treatment because of increased SOD, CAT, APX and NOX.

  15. Paclitaxel-resistant HeLa cells have up-regulated levels of reactive oxygen species and increased expression of taxol resistance gene 1.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wenxiang; Wang, Yuxia; Sun, Gaoying; Zhang, Xiaojin; Wei, Yongqing; Li, Lu; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-07-01

    This study is to establish a paclitaxel (PTX)-resistant human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell line (HeLa/PTX) and to investigate its redox characteristics and the expression of taxol resistance gene 1 (Txr1). HeLa cells were treated with PTX and effects of PTX on cell proliferation were detected through cell counting and the MTT assay. Levels of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced glutathione (GSH), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) as well as the ratio of GSH to GSSG were measured by the 2,7-difluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) method and the 5,5'dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) method. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined by the nitrite formation method, the molybdate colorimetric method, and the DTNB colorimetric method, respectively. The level of Txr1 mRNA was determined by real-time PCR. Compared with the regular HeLa cells, HeLa/PTX cells were larger in size and had more cytoplasmic granules. The population doubling time for HeLa/PTX cells was 1.32 times of that of HeLa cells (P<0.01). HeLa/PTX cells showed stronger resistance to PTX than HeLa cells with a resistance index of 122.69. HeLa/PTX cells had higher levels of ROS (P<0.01) and Txr1 mRNA (P<0.01), lower level of GSH (P < 0.05), and lower activities of SOD (P<0.01) and GPx (P < 0.05) than HeLa cells. HeLa/PTX cells, with higher levels of ROS and Txr1 mRNA expression, are more resistant to PTX than HeLa cells.

  16. The influence of reactive oxygen species on local redox conditions in oxygenated natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Redox conditions in natural waters are a fundamental control on biogeochemical processes and ultimately many ecosystem functions. While the dioxygen/water redox couple controls redox thermodynamics in oxygenated aquatic environments on geological timescales, it is kinetically inert in the extracellular environment on the much shorter timescales on which many biogeochemical processes occur. Instead, electron transfer processes on these timescales are primarily mediated by a relatively small group of trace metals and stable radicals, including the reactive oxygen species superoxide. Such processes are of critical biogeochemical importance because many of these chemical species are scarce nutrients, but may also be toxic at high concentrations. Furthermore, their bioavailability and potentially toxicity is typically strongly influenced by their redox state. In this paper, I examine to what extent redox conditions in oxygenated natural waters are expected to be reflected in the redox states of labile redox-active compounds that readily exchange electrons with the dioxygen/superoxide redox couple, and potentially with each other. Additionally, I present the hypothesis that that the relative importance of the dioxygen/superoxide and superoxide/hydrogen peroxide redox couples exerts a governing control on local redox conditions in oxygenated natural waters on biogeochemically important timescales. Given the recent discovery of widespread extracellular superoxide production by a diverse range of organisms, this suggests the existence of a fundamental mechanism for organisms to tightly regulate local redox conditions in their extracellular environment in oxygenated natural waters.

  17. Curcumin inhibits apoptosis by regulating intracellular calcium release, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial depolarization levels in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Uğuz, Abdülhadi Cihangir; Öz, Ahmi; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    Neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are incurable progressive neurological disorders caused by the degeneration of neuronal cells and characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. Curcumin, a turmeric product, is an anti-inflammatory agent and an effective reactive oxygen and nitrogen species scavenging molecule. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the main source of oxidative stress, which is claimed to be the major source of neurological disorders. Hence, in this study we aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on Ca(2+) signaling, oxidative stress parameters, mitochondrial depolarization levels and caspase-3 and -9 activities that are induced by the H2O2 model of oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. SH-SY5Y neuronal cells were divided into four groups namely, the control, curcumin, H2O2, and curcumin + H2O2 groups. The dose and duration of curcumin and H2O2 were determined from published data. The cells in the curcumin, H2O2, and curcumin + H2O2 groups were incubated for 24 h with 5 µM curcumin and 100 µM H2O2. Lipid peroxidation and cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentrations were higher in the H2O2 group than in the control group; however, their levels were lower in the curcumin and curcumin + H2O2 groups than in the H2O2 group alone. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) values were lower in the H2O2 group although they were higher in the curcumin and curcumin + H2O2 groups than in the H2O2 group. Caspase-3 activity was lower in the curcumin group than in the H2O2 group. In conclusion, curcumin strongly induced modulator effects on oxidative stress, intracellular Ca(2+) levels, and the caspase-3 and -9 values in an experimental oxidative stress model in SH-SY5Y cells.

  18. Reactive oxygen species and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Taverne, Yannick J H J; Bogers, Ad J J C; Duncker, Dirk J; Merkus, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of free radicals, many hypotheses on the deleterious actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed. However, increasing evidence advocates the necessity of ROS for cellular homeostasis. ROS are generated as inherent by-products of aerobic metabolism and are tightly controlled by antioxidants. Conversely, when produced in excess or when antioxidants are depleted, ROS can inflict damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA. Such a state of oxidative stress is associated with many pathological conditions and closely correlated to oxygen consumption. Although the deleterious effects of ROS can potentially be reduced by restoring the imbalance between production and clearance of ROS through administration of antioxidants (AOs), the dosage and type of AOs should be tailored to the location and nature of oxidative stress. This paper describes several pathways of ROS signaling in cellular homeostasis. Further, we review the function of ROS in cardiovascular pathology and the effects of AOs on cardiovascular outcomes with emphasis on the so-called oxidative paradox.

  19. Complex cellular responses to reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Temple, Mark D; Perrone, Gabriel G; Dawes, Ian W

    2005-06-01

    Genome-wide analyses of yeast provide insight into cellular responses to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Many deletion mutants are sensitive to at least one ROS, but no one oxidant is representative of 'oxidative stress' despite the widespread use of a single compound such as H(2)O(2). This has major implications for studies of pathological situations. Cells have a range of mechanisms for maintaining resistance that involves either induction or repression of many genes and extensive remodeling of the transcriptome. Cells have constitutive defense systems that are largely unique to each oxidant, but overlapping, inducible repair systems. The pattern of the transcriptional response to a particular ROS depends on its concentration, and 'classical' antioxidant systems that are induced by high concentrations of ROS can be repressed when cells adapt to low concentrations of ROS.

  20. Influence of reactive oxygen species on the sterilization of microbes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of reactive oxygen species on living cells, including various microbes, is discussed. A sterilization experiment with bacterial endospores reveals that an argoneoxygen plasma jet very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372), thereby indicating that oxygen radic...

  1. Production and Consumption of Reactive Oxygen Species by Fullerenes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are one of the most important intermediates in chemical, photochemical, and biological processes. To understand the environmental exposure and toxicity of fullerenes better, the production and consumption of ROS (singlet oxygen, superoxide, hydrogen ...

  2. How reactive oxygen species and proline face stress together.

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb, Kilani; Abdelly, Chedly; Savouré, Arnould

    2014-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously generated as a consequence of plant metabolic processes due to incomplete reduction of O2. Previously considered to be only toxic by-products of metabolism, ROS are now known to act as second messengers in intracellular signalling cascades to trigger tolerance of various abiotic and biotic stresses. The accumulation of proline is frequently observed during the exposure of plants to adverse environmental conditions. Interestingly proline metabolism may also contribute to ROS formation in mitochondria, which play notably a role in hypersensitive response in plants, life-span extension in worms and tumor suppression in animals. Here we review current knowledge about the regulation of proline metabolism in response to environmental constraints and highlight the key role of ROS in the regulation of this metabolism. The impact of proline on ROS generation is also investigated. Deciphering and integrating these relationships at the whole plant level will bring new perspectives on how plants adapt to environmental stresses.

  3. REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN PULMONARY VASCULAR REMODELING

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Saurabh; Gross, Christine M.; Sharma, Shruti; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension is a complex multifactorial process that involves the remodeling of pulmonary arteries. This remodeling process encompasses concentric medial thickening of small arterioles, neomuscularization of previously nonmuscular capillary-like vessels, and structural wall changes in larger pulmonary arteries. The pulmonary arterial muscularization is characterized by vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) hyperplasia and hypertrophy. In addition, in uncontrolled pulmonary hypertension, the clonal expansion of apoptosis-resistant endothelial cells leads to the formation of plexiform lesions. Based upon a large number of studies in animal models, the three major stimuli that drive the vascular remodeling process are inflammation, shear stress and hypoxia. Although, the precise mechanisms by which these stimuli impair pulmonary vascular function and structure are unknown, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative damage appears to play an important role. ROS are highly reactive due to their unpaired valence shell electron. Oxidative damage occurs when the production of ROS exceeds the quenching capacity of the anti-oxidant mechanisms of the cell. ROS can be produced from complexes in the cell membrane (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase), cellular organelles (peroxisomes and mitochondria), and in the cytoplasm (xanthine oxidase). Furthermore, low levels of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and L-arginine the rate limiting co-factor and substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), can cause the uncoupling of eNOS, resulting in decreased NO production and increased ROS production. This review will focus on the ROS generation systems, scavenger antioxidants, and oxidative stress associated alterations in vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension. PMID:23897679

  4. Reactive Oxygen Species in Combustion Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, R.; See, S.

    2007-12-01

    Research on airborne particulate matter (PM) has received increased concern in recent years after it was identified as a major component of the air pollution mix that is strongly associated with premature mortality and morbidity. Particular attention has been paid to understanding the potential health impacts of fine particles (PM2.5), which primarily originate from combustion sources. One group of particulate-bound chemical components of health concern is reactive oxygen species (ROS), which include molecules such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ions such as hypochlorite ion (OCl-), free radicals such as hydroxyl radical (·OH) and superoxide anion (·O2-) which is both an ion and a radical. However, the formation of ROS in PM is not clearly understood yet. Furthermore, the concentration of ROS in combustion particles of different origin has not been quantified. The primary objective of this work is to study the effect of transition metals on the production of ROS in PM2.5 by determining the concentrations of ROS and metals. Both soluble and total metals were measured to evaluate their respective associations with ROS. PM2.5 samples were collected from several outdoor and indoor combustion sources, including those emitted from on-road vehicles, food cooking, incense sticks, and cigarette smoke. PM2.5 samples were also collected from the background air in both the ambient outdoor and indoor environments to assess the levels of particulate-bound transition metals and ROS with no combustion activities in the vicinity of sampling locations. Results obtained from this comprehensive study on particulate-bound ROS will be presented and discussed.

  5. Curcumin-loaded nanoparticles induce apoptotic cell death through regulation of the function of MDR1 and reactive oxygen species in cisplatin-resistant CAR human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pei-Ying; Peng, Shu-Fen; Lee, Chao-Ying; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Tsai, Shih-Chang; Shieh, Tzong-Ming; Wu, Tian-Shung; Tu, Ming-Gene; Chen, Michael Yuanchien; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2013-10-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound which possesses anticancer potential. It has been shown to induce cell death in a variety of cancer cells, however, its effect on CAL27‑cisplatin-resistant human oral cancer cells (CAR cells) has not been elucidated to date. The low water solubility of curcumin which leads to poor bioavailability, however, has been highlighted as a major limiting factor. In this study, we utilized water-soluble PLGA curcumin nanoparticles (Cur-NPs), and investigated the effects of Cur-NPs on CAR cells. The results showed Cur-NPs induced apoptosis in CAR cells but exhibited low cytotoxicity to normal human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and normal human oral keratinocytes (OKs). Cur-NPs triggered DNA concentration, fragmentation and subsequent apoptosis. Compared to untreated CAR cells, a more detectable amount of Calcein-AM accumulation was found inside the treated CAR cells. Cur-NPs suppressed the protein and mRNA expression levels of MDR1. Both the activity and the expression levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were elevated in the treated CAR cells. The Cur-NP-triggered apoptosis was blocked by specific inhibitors of pan-caspase (z-VAD-fmk), caspase-3 (z-DEVD-fmk), caspase-9 (z-LEHD-fmk) and antioxidant agent (N-acetylcysteine; NAC). Cur-NPs increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, upregulated the protein expression levels of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-9, cytochrome c, Apaf-1, AIF, Bax and downregulated the protein levels of Bcl-2. Our results suggest that Cur-NPs triggered the intrinsic apoptotic pathway through regulating the function of multiple drug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CAR cells. Cur-NPs could be potentially efficacious in the treatment of cisplatin-resistant human oral cancer.

  6. Regulator of G Protein Signaling 6 (RGS6) Mediates Doxorubicin-induced ATM and p53 Activation by a Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jie; Yang, Jianqi; Maity, Biswanath; Mayuzumi, Daisuke; Fisher, Rory A.

    2011-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DXR), among the most widely used cancer chemotherapy agents, promotes cancer cell death via activation of ATM and the resultant up-regulation of tumor suppressor p53. The exact mechanism by which DXR activates ATM is not fully understood. Here we discovered a novel role for Regulator of G protein Signaling 6 (RGS6) in mediating activation of ATM and p53 by DXR. RGS6 was robustly induced by DXR, and genetic loss of RGS6 dramatically impaired DXR-induced activation of ATM and p53, as well as its in vivo apoptotic actions in heart. The ability of RGS6 to promote p53 activation in response to DXR was independent of RGS6 interaction with G proteins but required ATM. RGS6 mediated activation of ATM and p53 by DXR via a ROS-dependent and DNA damage-independent mechanism. This mechanism represents the primary means by which DXR promotes activation of the ATM-p53-apoptosis pathway that underlies its cytotoxic activity. Our findings contradict the canonical theories that DXR activates ATM primarily by promoting DNA damage either directly or indirectly (via ROS) and that RGS6 function is mediated by its interactions with G proteins. These findings reveal a new mechanism for the chemotherapeutic actions of DXR and identify RGS6 as a novel target for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:21859827

  7. The Arabidopsis KINβγ Subunit of the SnRK1 Complex Regulates Pollen Hydration on the Stigma by Mediating the Level of Reactive Oxygen Species in Pollen.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin-Qi; Liu, Chang Zhen; Li, Dan Dan; Zhao, Ting Ting; Li, Fei; Jia, Xiao Na; Zhao, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Pollen-stigma interactions are essential for pollen germination. The highly regulated process of pollen germination includes pollen adhesion, hydration, and germination on the stigma. However, the internal signaling of pollen that regulates pollen-stigma interactions is poorly understood. KINβγ is a plant-specific subunit of the SNF1-related protein kinase 1 complex which plays important roles in the regulation of plant development. Here, we showed that KINβγ was a cytoplasm- and nucleus-localized protein in the vegetative cells of pollen grains in Arabidopsis. The pollen of the Arabidopsis kinβγ mutant could not germinate on stigma, although it germinated normally in vitro. Further analysis revealed the hydration of kinβγ mutant pollen on the stigma was compromised. However, adding water to the stigma promoted the germination of the mutant pollen in vivo, suggesting that the compromised hydration of the mutant pollen led to its defective germination. In kinβγ mutant pollen, the structure of the mitochondria and peroxisomes was destroyed, and their numbers were significantly reduced compared with those in the wild type. Furthermore, we found that the kinβγ mutant exhibited reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pollen. The addition of H2O2 in vitro partially compensated for the reduced water absorption of the mutant pollen, and reducing ROS levels in pollen by overexpressing Arabidopsis CATALASE 3 resulted in compromised hydration of pollen on the stigma. These results indicate that Arabidopsis KINβγ is critical for the regulation of ROS levels by mediating the biogenesis of mitochondria and peroxisomes in pollen, which is required for pollen-stigma interactions during pollination.

  8. A STRESS-RESPONSIVE NAC1-Regulated Protein Phosphatase Gene Rice Protein Phosphatase18 Modulates Drought and Oxidative Stress Tolerance through Abscisic Acid-Independent Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging in Rice1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    You, Jun; Zong, Wei; Hu, Honghong; Li, Xianghua; Xiao, Jinghua; Xiong, Lizhong

    2014-01-01

    Plants respond to abiotic stresses through a complexity of signaling pathways, and the dephosphorylation mediated by protein phosphatase (PP) is an important event in this process. We identified a rice (Oryza sativa) PP2C gene, OsPP18, as a STRESS-RESPONSIVE NAC1 (SNAC1)-regulated downstream gene. The ospp18 mutant was more sensitive than wild-type plants to drought stress at both the seedling and panicle development stages. Rice plants with OsPP18 suppressed through artificial microRNA were also hypersensitive to drought stress. Microarray analysis of the mutant revealed that genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes were down-regulated in the ospp18 mutant, and the mutant exhibited reduced activities of ROS scavenging enzymes and increased sensitivity to oxidative stresses. Overexpression of OsPP18 in rice led to enhanced osmotic and oxidative stress tolerance. The expression of OsPP18 was induced by drought stress but not induced by abscisic acid (ABA). Although OsPP18 is a typical PP2C with enzymatic activity, it did not interact with SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2 protein kinases, which function in ABA signaling. Meanwhile, the expression of ABA-responsive genes was not affected in the ospp18 mutant, and the ABA sensitivities of the ospp18 mutant and OsPP18-overexpressing plants were also not altered. Together, these findings suggest that OsPP18 is a unique PP2C gene that is regulated by SNAC1 and confers drought and oxidative stress tolerance by regulating ROS homeostasis through ABA-independent pathways. PMID:25318938

  9. The Arabidopsis KINβγ Subunit of the SnRK1 Complex Regulates Pollen Hydration on the Stigma by Mediating the Level of Reactive Oxygen Species in Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ting Ting; Li, Fei; Jia, Xiao Na; Zhao, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Pollen–stigma interactions are essential for pollen germination. The highly regulated process of pollen germination includes pollen adhesion, hydration, and germination on the stigma. However, the internal signaling of pollen that regulates pollen–stigma interactions is poorly understood. KINβγ is a plant-specific subunit of the SNF1-related protein kinase 1 complex which plays important roles in the regulation of plant development. Here, we showed that KINβγ was a cytoplasm- and nucleus-localized protein in the vegetative cells of pollen grains in Arabidopsis. The pollen of the Arabidopsis kinβγ mutant could not germinate on stigma, although it germinated normally in vitro. Further analysis revealed the hydration of kinβγ mutant pollen on the stigma was compromised. However, adding water to the stigma promoted the germination of the mutant pollen in vivo, suggesting that the compromised hydration of the mutant pollen led to its defective germination. In kinβγ mutant pollen, the structure of the mitochondria and peroxisomes was destroyed, and their numbers were significantly reduced compared with those in the wild type. Furthermore, we found that the kinβγ mutant exhibited reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pollen. The addition of H2O2 in vitro partially compensated for the reduced water absorption of the mutant pollen, and reducing ROS levels in pollen by overexpressing Arabidopsis CATALASE 3 resulted in compromised hydration of pollen on the stigma. These results indicate that Arabidopsis KINβγ is critical for the regulation of ROS levels by mediating the biogenesis of mitochondria and peroxisomes in pollen, which is required for pollen–stigma interactions during pollination. PMID:27472382

  10. An Apoplastic H-Type Thioredoxin Is Involved in the Stress Response through Regulation of the Apoplastic Reactive Oxygen Species in Rice1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cui-Jun; Zhao, Bing-Chun; Ge, Wei-Na; Zhang, Ya-Fang; Song, Yun; Sun, Da-Ye; Guo, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are a multigenic family of proteins in plants that play a critical role in redox balance regulation through thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. There are 10 members of the h-type Trxs in rice (Oryza sativa), and none of them has been clearly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that OsTRXh1, a subgroup I h-type Trx in rice, possesses reduction activity in vitro and complements the hydrogen peroxide sensitivity of Trx-deficient yeast mutants. OsTRXh1 is ubiquitously expressed in rice, and its expression is induced by salt and abscisic acid treatments. Intriguingly, OsTRXh1 is secreted into the extracellular space, and salt stress in the apoplast of rice induces its expression at the protein level. The knockdown of OsTRXh1 results in dwarf plants with fewer tillers, whereas the overexpression of OsTRXh1 leads to a salt-sensitive phenotype in rice. In addition, both the knockdown and overexpression of OsTRXh1 decrease abscisic acid sensitivity during seed germination and seedling growth. We also analyzed the levels of hydrogen peroxide produced in transgenic plants, and the results show that more hydrogen peroxide is produced in the extracellular space of OsTRXh1 knockdown plants than in wild-type plants, whereas the OsTRXh1 overexpression plants produce less hydrogen peroxide under salt stress. These results show that OsTRXh1 regulates the redox state of the apoplast and influences plant development and stress responses. PMID:22010108

  11. NSAIDs may regulate EGR-1-mediated induction of reactive oxygen species and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gene (NAG)-1 to initiate intrinsic pathway of apoptosis for the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Vaish, Vivek; Piplani, Honit; Rana, Chandan; Vaiphei, Kim; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the unclear molecular relationship involved in the activation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and NSAID-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) induction as a putative target in NSAIDs-mediated chemoprevention of colorectal cancer. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with a colon-specific pro-carcinogen, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride to achieve the early stages of colorectal cancer. Histopathological examination was performed for the analysis of neoplastic lesions while flow cytometry was performed for the relative quantification of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), differential mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP or ΔΨ(M)), and apoptotic events. Various target biomolecules were analyzed either for their mRNA or protein expression profiles via RT-PCR and quantitative Real-Time PCR, or Western blotting and immunofluorescence, respectively. Enhanced gene as well as protein expression of pro-apoptotic agents was observed with the daily oral administration of two NSAIDs viz. Sulindac (cyclooxygenase (COX)-non-specific) and Celecoxib (a selective COX-2 inhibitor). A significant increase in early growth response-1 (EGR-1) protein expression and nuclear localization in NSAIDs co-administered animals may have positively regulated the expression of NAG-1 with a significant enhancement of intracellular ROS in turn decreasing the ΔΨ(M) to initiate apoptosis. In silico molecular docking analysis also showed that Sulindac and Celecoxib can block the active site pocket of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL, anti-apoptotic transmembrane mitochondrial protein) which could be a putative mechanism followed by these NSAIDs to overcome anti-apoptotic properties of the molecule. NSAIDs-mediated up-regulation of EGR-1 and thereby NAG-1 along with implication of higher ROS load may positively regulate the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis for the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer.

  12. Reactive Oxygen Species: Physiological and Physiopathological Effects on Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Beckhauser, Thiago Fernando; Francis-Oliveira, José; De Pasquale, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian central nervous system, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is counterbalanced by antioxidant defenses. When large amounts of ROS accumulate, antioxidant mechanisms become overwhelmed and oxidative cellular stress may occur. Therefore, ROS are typically characterized as toxic molecules, oxidizing membrane lipids, changing the conformation of proteins, damaging nucleic acids, and causing deficits in synaptic plasticity. High ROS concentrations are associated with a decline in cognitive functions, as observed in some neurodegenerative disorders and age-dependent decay of neuroplasticity. Nevertheless, controlled ROS production provides the optimal redox state for the activation of transductional pathways involved in synaptic changes. Since ROS may regulate neuronal activity and elicit negative effects at the same time, the distinction between beneficial and deleterious consequences is unclear. In this regard, this review assesses current research and describes the main sources of ROS in neurons, specifying their involvement in synaptic plasticity and distinguishing between physiological and pathological processes implicated. PMID:27625575

  13. Role of reactive oxygen species in fungal cellular differentiations.

    PubMed

    Scott, Barry; Eaton, Carla J

    2008-12-01

    Regulated synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by specific fungal NADPH oxidases (Noxs) plays a key role in fungal cellular differentiation and development. Fungi have up to three different Nox isoforms, NoxA, B and C. The NoxA isoform has a key role in triggering the development of fruiting bodies in several sexual species whereas NoxB plays a key role in ascospore germination. The function of NoxC remains unknown. Both NoxA and NoxB are required for the development of fungal infection structures by some plant pathogens. ROS production by NoxA is critical for maintaining a fungal-plant symbiosis. Localised synthesis of ROS is also important in establishing and maintaining polarised hyphal growth. Activation of NoxA/NoxB requires the regulatory subunit, NoxR, and the small GTPase RacA. The BemA scaffold protein may also be involved in the assembly of the Nox complex. By analogy with mammalian systems MAP and PAK kinases may regulate fungal Nox activation. How fungal cells sense and respond to ROS associated with cellular differentiations remains to be discovered.

  14. Reactive oxygen species and the free radical theory of aging.

    PubMed

    Liochev, Stefan I

    2013-07-01

    The traditional view in the field of free radical biology is that free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are toxic, mostly owing to direct damage of sensitive and biologically significant targets, and are thus a major cause of oxidative stress; that complex enzymatic and nonenzymatic systems act in concert to counteract this toxicity; and that a major protective role is played by the phenomenon of adaptation. Another part of the traditional view is that the process of aging is at least partly due to accumulated damage done by these harmful species. However, recent workers in this and in related fields are exploring the view that superoxide radical and reactive oxygen species exert beneficial effects. Thus, such ROS are viewed as involved in cellular regulation by acting as (redox) signals, and their harmful effects are seen mostly as a result of compromised signaling, rather than due to direct damage to sensitive targets. According to some followers of this view, ROS such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide are not just causative agents of aging but may also be agents that increase the life span by acting, for example, as prosurvival signals. The goal of this review is to recall that many of the effects of ROS that are interpreted as beneficial may actually represent adaptations to toxicity and that some of the most extravagant recent claims may be due to misinterpretation, oversimplification, and ignoring the wealth of knowledge supporting the traditional view. Whether it is time to abandon the free radical (oxidative stress) theory of aging is considered.

  15. Balancing the generation and elimination of reactive oxygen species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Rusty; Redman, Regina

    2005-01-01

    Fossil records suggest that bacteria developed the ability to photosynthesize ≈3,500 million years ago (mya), initiating a very slow accumulation of atmospheric oxygen (1). Recent geochemical models suggest that atmospheric oxygen did not accumulate to levels conducive for aerobic life until 500–1,000 mya (2, 3). The oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere resulted in the emergence of aerobic organisms followed by a great diversification of biological species and the eventual evolution of humans.

  16. Reactive oxygen species production by catechol stabilized copper nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Fruk, Ljiljana

    2013-12-07

    Stable Cu nanoparticles (NPs) prepared using catechol containing dopamine-based linkers could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can activate peroxidase enzymes and catalyze the degradation of fluorescent dye pollutants.

  17. The oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite species and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Inigo A.; Brunner, Benjamin; Breuer, Christian; Coleman, Max; Bach, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Sulfite is an important sulfoxy intermediate in oxidative and reductive sulfur cycling in the marine and terrestrial environment. Different aqueous sulfite species exist, such as dissolved sulfur dioxide (SO2), bisulfite (HSO3-), pyrosulfite (S2O52-) and sulfite sensu stricto (SO32-), whereas their relative abundance in solution depends on the concentration and the pH. Conversion of one species into another is rapid and involves in many cases incorporation of oxygen from, or release of oxygen to, water (e.g. SO2 + H2O ↔ HSO3- + H+), resulting in rapid oxygen isotope exchange between sulfite species and water. Consequently, the oxygen isotope composition of sulfite is strongly influenced by the oxygen isotope composition of water. Since sulfate does not exchange oxygen isotopes with water under most earth surface conditions, it can preserve the sulfite oxygen isotope signature that it inherits via oxidative and reductive sulfur cycling. Therefore, interpretation of δO values strongly hinges on the oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite and water which is poorly constrained. This is in large part due to technical difficulties in extraction of sulfite from solution for oxygen isotope analysis.

  18. [Formation of reactive oxygen species during pollen grain germination].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, A V; Matveeva, N P; Polesskaia, O G; Ermakov, I P

    2009-01-01

    The formation of reactive oxygen species in pollen at the early germination stage, which precedes the formation of the pollen tube, was studied. During this period, pollen grain is being hydrated, abruptly increasing its volume, and it passes from the resting state to active metabolism. Fluorescent methods have made it possible to reveal reactive oxygen species in the cytoplasm and inner layer of the pollen wall, intine. The cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species were mostly found in mitochondria, while extracellular ones were localized in aperture zones of intine, as well as in the solution surrounding pollen grains in vitro. The content of extracellular reactive oxygen species decreased after superoxide dismutase (100 units per ml) and diphenylene iodonium (100 microM), which indicates NADPH oxidase as one of possible producent of them. In conditions of suppression of extracellular reactive oxygen species production (100 microM diphenilene iodonium) or their promoted removal (after addition of 10 to 100 microM ascorbic acid), the number of germinating pollen grains increased. This effect disappeared after further increase in the concentration of the listed reagents. The result is evidence of the significance of processes of generation/removal of extracellular reactive oxygen species for pollen germination.

  19. Dynamin 2 and c-Abl are novel regulators of hyperoxia-mediated NADPH oxidase activation and reactive oxygen species production in caveolin-enriched microdomains of the endothelium.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Patrick A; Pendyala, Srikanth; Gorshkova, Irina A; Mambetsariev, Nurbek; Moitra, Jaideep; Garcia, Joe G N; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2009-12-11

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, particularly by the endothelial NADPH oxidase family of proteins, plays a major role in the pathophysiology associated with lung inflammation, ischemia/reperfusion injury, sepsis, hyperoxia, and ventilator-associated lung injury. We examined potential regulators of ROS production and discovered that hyperoxia treatment of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells induced recruitment of the vesicular regulator, dynamin 2, the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Abl, and the NADPH oxidase subunit, p47(phox), to caveolin-enriched microdomains (CEMs). Silencing caveolin-1 (which blocks CEM formation) and/or c-Abl expression with small interference RNA inhibited hyperoxia-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation and association of dynamin 2 with p47(phox) and ROS production. In addition, treatment of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells with dynamin 2 small interfering RNA or the dynamin GTPase inhibitor, Dynasore, attenuated hyperoxia-mediated ROS production and p47(phox) recruitment to CEMs. Using purified recombinant proteins, we observed that c-Abl tyrosine-phosphorylated dynamin 2, and this phosphorylation increased p47(phox)/dynamin 2 association (change in the dissociation constant (K(d)) from 85.8 to 6.9 nm). Furthermore, exposure of mice to hyperoxia increased ROS production, c-Abl activation, dynamin 2 association with p47(phox), and pulmonary leak, events that were attenuated in the caveolin-1 knock-out mouse confirming a role for CEMs in ROS generation. These results suggest that hyperoxia induces c-Abl-mediated dynamin 2 phosphorylation required for recruitment of p47(phox) to CEMs and subsequent ROS production in lung endothelium.

  20. Bilirubin inhibits the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase by scavenging reactive oxygen species generated by the toll-like receptor 4-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Idelman, Gila; Smith, Darcey L H; Zucker, Stephen D

    2015-08-01

    It has been previously shown that bilirubin prevents the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in response to LPS. The present study examines whether this effect is exerted through modulation of Toll-Like Receptor-4 (TLR4) signaling. LPS-stimulated iNOS and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages was assessed by measuring cellular nitrate and superoxide ( [Formula: see text] ) production, respectively. The generation of both nitrate and [Formula: see text] in response to LPS was suppressed by TLR4 inhibitors, indicating that activation of iNOS and Nox is TLR4-dependent. While treatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and bilirubin effectively abolished LPS-mediated [Formula: see text] production, hydrogen peroxide and nitrate release were inhibited by bilirubin and PEG-catalase, but not SOD, supporting that iNOS activation is primarily dependent upon intracellular H2O2. LPS treatment increased nuclear translocation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α), an effect that was abolished by bilirubin. Cells transfected with murine iNOS reporter constructs in which the HIF-1α-specific hypoxia response element was disrupted exhibited a blunted response to LPS, supporting that HIF-1α mediates Nox-dependent iNOS expression. Bilirubin, but not SOD, blocked the cellular production of interferon-β, while interleukin-6 production remained unaffected. These data support that bilirubin inhibits the TLR4-mediated up-regulation of iNOS by preventing activation of HIF-1α through scavenging of Nox-derived reactive oxygen species. Bilirubin also suppresses interferon-β release via a ROS-independent mechanism. These findings characterize potential mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of bilirubin.

  1. Reactive oxygen species and mitochondria: A nexus of cellular homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Dan Dunn, Joe; Alvarez, Luis Aj; Zhang, Xuezhi; Soldati, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are integral components of multiple cellular pathways even though excessive or inappropriately localized ROS damage cells. ROS function as anti-microbial effector molecules and as signaling molecules that regulate such processes as NF-kB transcriptional activity, the production of DNA-based neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and autophagy. The main sources of cellular ROS are mitochondria and NADPH oxidases (NOXs). In contrast to NOX-generated ROS, ROS produced in the mitochondria (mtROS) were initially considered to be unwanted by-products of oxidative metabolism. Increasing evidence indicates that mtROS have been incorporated into signaling pathways including those regulating immune responses and autophagy. As metabolic hubs, mitochondria facilitate crosstalk between the metabolic state of the cell with these pathways. Mitochondria and ROS are thus a nexus of multiple pathways that determine the response of cells to disruptions in cellular homeostasis such as infection, sterile damage, and metabolic imbalance. In this review, we discuss the roles of mitochondria in the generation of ROS-derived anti-microbial effectors, the interplay of mitochondria and ROS with autophagy and the formation of DNA extracellular traps, and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by ROS and mitochondria.

  2. Reactive oxygen species and mitochondria: A nexus of cellular homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Dan Dunn, Joe; Alvarez, Luis AJ; Zhang, Xuezhi; Soldati, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are integral components of multiple cellular pathways even though excessive or inappropriately localized ROS damage cells. ROS function as anti-microbial effector molecules and as signaling molecules that regulate such processes as NF-kB transcriptional activity, the production of DNA-based neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and autophagy. The main sources of cellular ROS are mitochondria and NADPH oxidases (NOXs). In contrast to NOX-generated ROS, ROS produced in the mitochondria (mtROS) were initially considered to be unwanted by-products of oxidative metabolism. Increasing evidence indicates that mtROS have been incorporated into signaling pathways including those regulating immune responses and autophagy. As metabolic hubs, mitochondria facilitate crosstalk between the metabolic state of the cell with these pathways. Mitochondria and ROS are thus a nexus of multiple pathways that determine the response of cells to disruptions in cellular homeostasis such as infection, sterile damage, and metabolic imbalance. In this review, we discuss the roles of mitochondria in the generation of ROS-derived anti-microbial effectors, the interplay of mitochondria and ROS with autophagy and the formation of DNA extracellular traps, and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by ROS and mitochondria. PMID:26432659

  3. Generation of reactive oxygen species by the faecal matrix

    PubMed Central

    Owen, R; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Reactive oxygen species are implicated in the aetiology of a range of human diseases and there is increasing interest in their role in the development of cancer.
AIM—To develop a suitable method for the detection of reactive oxygen species produced by the faecal matrix.
METHODS—A refined high performance liquid chromatography system for the detection of reactive oxygen species is described.
RESULTS—The method allows baseline separation of the products of hydroxyl radical attack on salicylic acid in the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase system, namely 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and catechol. The increased efficiency and precision of the method has allowed a detailed evaluation of the dynamics of reactive oxygen species generation in the faecal matrix. The data show that the faecal matrix is capable of generating reactive oxygen species in abundance. This ability cannot be attributed to the bacteria present, but rather to a soluble component within the matrix. As yet, the nature of this soluble factor is not entirely clear but is likely to be a reducing agent.
CONCLUSIONS—The soluble nature of the promoting factor renders it amenable to absorption, and circumstances may exist in which either it comes into contact with either free or chelated iron in the colonocyte, leading to direct attack on cellular DNA, or else it initiates lipid peroxidation processes whereby membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids are attacked by reactive oxygen species propagating chain reactions leading to the generation of promutagenic lesions such as etheno based DNA adducts.


Keywords: colorectal cancer; faecal matrix; hypoxanthine; phytic acid; reactive oxygen species; xanthine oxidase PMID:10644317

  4. Induction of the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human esophageal cancer cells by DS2, a newly synthetic diterpenoid analog, is regulated by Bax and caused by generation of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Zi, Xiaolin; Zhao, Fei; Yuan, Lin; Zhu, Ying-Li; Fan, Xia-Xia; Zhao, Ning-Min; Li, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Yu-Hua; Liu, Hong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Ent-kaurane diterpene compounds have attracted considerable attention in recent years due to its antitumor, antibacterial, and antiviral activities. However, the clinical development of natural kaurane diterpenes, for example, oridonin for cancer therapy has been hampered by its relatively moderate potency, limited bioavailability. Herein, we report a newly synthetic analog of natural ent-kaurane diterpene, DS2, which exhibits significantly improved activity of antiproliferation against various cancer cell lines relative to oridonin. DS2 treatment triggers the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human esophageal cancer cell lines (EC9706, EC109). Interestingly, normal human esophageal epithelial cells (HEECs) and normal human liver cells (HL-7702) are both significantly more resistant to the growth inhibition by DS2 compared with esophageal cancer cells. The DS2-induced apoptosis in EC9706 cells correlated with the drop of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and activation of caspase-9 and -3. The induction of proapoptotic proteins p21 and Bax were also observed in DS2-treated cells. The DS2-induced apoptosis was significantly attenuated by knockdown of Bax proteins. Meanwhile, the DS2 treatment caused generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human esophageal cancer cells, but not in HEECs, which was attenuated by pretreatment with ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC). More interestingly, the antioxidants pretreatment completely attenuated DS2 mediated loss of the MMP and apoptosis, as well as Bax expression and growth inhibition. In conclusion, the present study reveals that the mitochondria-mediated cell death by DS2 is associated with Bax regulation and ROS generation, and understanding the function and mechanism of DS2 will help us to design better anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27863415

  5. Induction of the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human esophageal cancer cells by DS2, a newly synthetic diterpenoid analog, is regulated by Bax and caused by generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yong-Cheng; Ke, Yu; Zi, Xiaolin; Zhao, Fei; Yuan, Lin; Zhu, Ying-Li; Fan, Xia-Xia; Zhao, Ning-Min; Li, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Yu-Hua; Liu, Hong-Min

    2016-12-27

    Ent-kaurane diterpene compounds have attracted considerable attention in recent years due to its antitumor, antibacterial, and antiviral activities. However, the clinical development of natural kaurane diterpenes, for example, oridonin for cancer therapy has been hampered by its relatively moderate potency, limited bioavailability. Herein, we report a newly synthetic analog of natural ent-kaurane diterpene, DS2, which exhibits significantly improved activity of antiproliferation against various cancer cell lines relative to oridonin. DS2 treatment triggers the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human esophageal cancer cell lines (EC9706, EC109). Interestingly, normal human esophageal epithelial cells (HEECs) and normal human liver cells (HL-7702) are both significantly more resistant to the growth inhibition by DS2 compared with esophageal cancer cells. The DS2-induced apoptosis in EC9706 cells correlated with the drop of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and activation of caspase-9 and -3. The induction of proapoptotic proteins p21 and Bax were also observed in DS2-treated cells. The DS2-induced apoptosis was significantly attenuated by knockdown of Bax proteins. Meanwhile, the DS2 treatment caused generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human esophageal cancer cells, but not in HEECs, which was attenuated by pretreatment with ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC). More interestingly, the antioxidants pretreatment completely attenuated DS2 mediated loss of the MMP and apoptosis, as well as Bax expression and growth inhibition. In conclusion, the present study reveals that the mitochondria-mediated cell death by DS2 is associated with Bax regulation and ROS generation, and understanding the function and mechanism of DS2 will help us to design better anti-cancer drugs.

  6. Reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis by gugulipid extract of Ayurvedic medicine plant Commiphora mukul in human prostate cancer cells is regulated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dong; Zeng, Yan; Prakash, Lakshmi; Badmaev, Vladmir; Majeed, Muhammed; Singh, Shivendra V

    2011-03-01

    Gugulipid (GL), extract of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, has been used to treat a variety of ailments. We report an anticancer effect and mechanism of GL against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment with GL significantly inhibited the viability of human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and its androgen-independent variant (C81) with an IC(50) of ∼1 μM (24-h treatment), at pharmacologically relevant concentrations standardized to its major active constituent z-guggulsterone. The GL-induced growth inhibition correlated with apoptosis induction as evidenced by an increase in cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation and sub-G(0)/G(1)-DNA fraction, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The GL-induced apoptosis was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. The induction of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak and a decrease of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Bcl-2 were observed in GL-treated cells. SV40 immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bax-Bak double-knockout mice were significantly more resistant to GL-induced cell killing compared with wild-type cells. It is interesting to note that a representative normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC) was relatively more resistant to GL-mediated cellular responses compared with prostate cancer cells. The GL treatment caused the activation of JNK that functioned upstream of Bax activation in apoptosis response. The GL-induced conformational change of Bax and apoptosis were significantly suppressed by genetic suppression of JNK activation. In conclusion, the present study indicates that ROS-dependent apoptosis by GL is regulated by JNK signaling axis.

  7. Reactive oxygen species signaling in plants under abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Shuvasish; Panda, Piyalee; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Panda, Sanjib Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Abiotic stresses like heavy metals, drought, salt, low temperature, etc. are the major factors that limit crop productivity and yield. These stresses are associated with production of certain deleterious chemical entities called reactive oxygen species (ROS), which include hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), superoxide radical (O₂(-)), hydroxyl radical (OH(-)), etc. ROS are capable of inducing cellular damage by degradation of proteins, inactivation of enzymes, alterations in the gene and interfere in various pathways of metabolic importance. Our understanding on ROS in response to abiotic stress is revolutionized with the advancements in plant molecular biology, where the basic understanding on chemical behavior of ROS is better understood. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in ROS generation and its potential role during abiotic stress is important to identify means by which plant growth and metabolism can be regulated under acute stress conditions. ROS mediated oxidative stress, which is the key to understand stress related toxicity have been widely studied in many plants and the results in those studies clearly revealed that oxidative stress is the main symptom of toxicity. Plants have their own antioxidant defense mechanisms to encounter ROS that is of enzymic and non-enzymic nature . Coordinated activities of these antioxidants regulate ROS detoxification and reduces oxidative load in plants. Though ROS are always regarded to impart negative impact on plants, some reports consider them to be important in regulating key cellular functions; however, such reports in plant are limited. Molecular approaches to understand ROS metabolism and signaling have opened new avenues to comprehend its critical role in abiotic stress. ROS also acts as secondary messenger that signals key cellular functions like cell proliferation, apoptosis and necrosis. In higher eukaryotes, ROS signaling is not fully understood. In this review we summarize our understanding on ROS

  8. Differential expression of oxygen-regulated genes in bovine blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Harvey, A J; Navarrete Santos, A; Kirstein, M; Kind, K L; Fischer, B; Thompson, J G

    2007-03-01

    Low oxygen conditions (2%) during post-compaction culture of bovine blastocysts improve embryo quality, which is associated with a small yet significant increase in the expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), suggesting a role of oxygen in embryo development mediated through oxygen-sensitive gene expression. However, bovine embryos to at least the blastocyst stage lack a key regulator of oxygen-sensitive gene expression, hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF1alpha). A second, less well-characterized protein (HIF2alpha) is, however, detectable from the 8-cell stage of development. Here we use differential display to determine additional gene targets in bovine embryos in response to low oxygen conditions. While development to the blastocyst stage was unaffected by the oxygen concentration used during post-compaction culture, differential display identified oxygen-regulation of myotrophin and anaphase promoting complex 1 expression, with significantly lower levels observed following culture under 20% oxygen than 2% oxygen. These results further support the hypothesis that the level of gene expression of specific transcripts by bovine embryos alters in response to changes in the oxygen environment post-compaction. Specifically, we have identified two oxygen-sensitive genes that are potentially regulated by HIF2 in the bovine blastocyst.

  9. Regulation of Atmospheric Oxygen During the Proterozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, T.; Schrag, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric oxygen has been close to modern levels throughout the Phanerozoic, but was likely one to two orders of magnitude less abundant before the late Neoproterozoic. We use a simple biogeochemical model of the carbon, iron and sulfur cycles to show that the feedbacks maintaining modern oxygen conditions are inconsistent with stable atmospheric pO2 at 1% of present-day levels. The efficiency of organic carbon burial is oxygen sensitive, making it nearly impossible to balance the phosphorus budget at low pO2 without greatly increasing organic burial and driving the atmosphere back toward modern conditions. This single stable pO2 level is relatively insensitive to changes in carbon and sulfur weathering fluxes, remineralization rate, ballasting effects, and sedimentary nutrient regeneration. A low-oxygen atmosphere is only stable in our model if the flux of phosphorus to the oceans is greatly reduced. This suggests the existence of an undescribed feedback between pO2 and phosphorus inputs. We propose an "iron trap" that removes phosphate ions more efficiently in a low-oxygen environment due to the greater mobility of ferrous iron and the increased adsorption capacity of co-precipitating iron oxides. This hypothesis can be tested through laboratory measurements of the oxygen-dependence of phosphorus uptake from ferrous-rich artificial river water. Simple parameterizations of an oxygen-dependent P flux are able to produce multiple steady states for atmospheric pO2 in the model.

  10. Comparison of two strategies for detection of reactive oxygen species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Weidong; Zhou, Yuanshu; Gu, Yueqing

    2014-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved treatment that was applied to oncology , dermatology, and ophthalmology. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a important role in the efficacy of PDT. Online monitoring of reactive oxygen species is the key to understand effect of PDT treatment. We used Fluorescence probes DPBF and luminescent probe luminal to measure the ROS in cells. And we revaluate the relationship between the amount of light and cell survival. There is strongly correlated between the amount of light and cell kill.

  11. Reactive oxygen species production by catechol stabilized copper nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Fruk, Ljiljana

    2013-11-01

    Stable Cu nanoparticles (NPs) prepared using catechol containing dopamine-based linkers could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can activate peroxidase enzymes and catalyze the degradation of fluorescent dye pollutants.Stable Cu nanoparticles (NPs) prepared using catechol containing dopamine-based linkers could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can activate peroxidase enzymes and catalyze the degradation of fluorescent dye pollutants. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the synthesis of dopamine linkers and Cu NPs, peroxidase activity tests, H2O2 calibration and degradation tests for resorufin, RB and MB. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03563h

  12. Role of reactive oxygen species in myocardial remodeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Shah, Ajay M

    2007-03-01

    Adverse cardiac remodeling is a fundamental process in the progression to chronic heart failure. Although the mechanisms underlying cardiac remodeling are multi-factorial, a significant body of evidence points to the crucial roles of increased reactive oxygen species. This article reviews recent advances in delineating the different sources of production for reactive oxygen species (namely mitochondria, xanthine oxidase, uncoupled nitric oxide synthases, and NADPH oxidases) that may be involved in cardiac remodeling and the aspects of the remodeling process that they affect. These data could suggest new ways of targeting redox pathways for the prevention and treatment of adverse cardiac remodeling.

  13. OXYGEN TRANSPORT IN THE MICROCIRCULATION AND ITS REGULATION

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Roland N.

    2012-01-01

    Cells require energy to carry out their functions and they typically use oxidative phosphorylation to generate the needed ATP. Thus, cells have a continuous need for oxygen which they receive by diffusion from the blood through the interstitial fluid. The circulatory system pumps oxygen-rich blood through a network of increasingly minute vessels, the microcirculation. The structure of the microcirculation is such that all cells have at least one nearby capillary for diffusive exchange of oxygen and red blood cells release the oxygen bound to hemoglobin as they traverse capillaries. This review focuses first on the historical development of techniques to measure oxygen at various sites in the microcirculation, including the blood, interstitium and cells. Next, approaches are described as to how these techniques have been employed to make discoveries about different aspects of oxygen transport. Finally, ways in which oxygen might participate in the regulation of blood flow toward matching oxygen supply to oxygen demand is discussed. Overall, the transport of oxygen to the cells of the body is one of the most critical functions of the cardiovascular system and it is in the microcirculation where the final local determinants of oxygen supply, oxygen demand and their regulation are decided. PMID:23025284

  14. Regulation of atmospheric oxygen during the Proterozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Thomas A.; Schrag, Daniel P.

    2014-02-01

    Many studies suggest that oxygen has remained near modern levels throughout the Phanerozoic, but was much less abundant from the “Great Oxygenation Event” around 2.4 Ga until the late Neoproterozoic around 600 Ma (Kump, 2008). Using a simple model, we show that the maintenance of atmospheric pO2 at ∼1% of present atmospheric levels (PAL) is inconsistent with modern biogeochemical cycling of carbon, sulfur and iron unless new feedbacks are included. Low oxygen conditions are stable in our model if the flux of phosphorus to the oceans was greatly reduced during the Proterozoic. We propose a mechanism to reduce this flux through the scavenging of phosphate ions with an “iron trap” driven by greater surface mobility of ferrous iron in a low pO2 world. Incorporating this feedback leads to two stable equilibria for atmospheric oxygen, the first quantitative hypothesis to explain both Proterozoic and Phanerozoic O2 concentrations.

  15. Reactive oxygen species at the crossroads of inflammasome and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Harijith, Anantha; Ebenezer, David L.; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    Inflammasomes form a crucial part of the innate immune system. These are multi-protein oligomer platforms that are composed of intracellular sensors which are coupled with caspase and interleukin activating systems. Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP) 3, and 6 and NLRC4 and AIM2 are the prominent members of the inflammasome family. Inflammasome activation leads to pyroptosis, a process of programmed cell death distinct from apoptosis through activation of Caspase and further downstream targets such as IL-1β and IL-18 leading to activation of inflammatory cascade. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) serves as important inflammasome activating signals. ROS activates inflammasome through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Dysregulation of inflammasome plays a significant role in various pathological processes. Viral infections such as Dengue and Respiratory syncytial virus activate inflammasomes. Crystal compounds in silicosis and gout also activate ROS. In diabetes, inhibition of autophagy with resultant accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria leads to enhanced ROS production activating inflammasomes. Activation of inflammasomes can be dampened by antioxidants such as SIRT-1. Inflammasome and related cascade could serve as future therapeutic targets for various pathological conditions. PMID:25324778

  16. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS): Beneficial Companions of Plants’ Developmental Processes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rachana; Singh, Samiksha; Parihar, Parul; Mishra, Rohit K.; Tripathi, Durgesh K.; Singh, Vijay P.; Chauhan, Devendra K.; Prasad, Sheo M.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated inevitably in the redox reactions of plants, including respiration and photosynthesis. In earlier studies, ROS were considered as toxic by-products of aerobic pathways of the metabolism. But in recent years, concept about ROS has changed because they also participate in developmental processes of plants by acting as signaling molecules. In plants, ROS regulate many developmental processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation, programmed cell death, seed germination, gravitropism, root hair growth and pollen tube development, senescence, etc. Despite much progress, a comprehensive update of advances in the understanding of the mechanisms evoked by ROS that mediate in cell proliferation and development are fragmentry and the matter of ROS perception and the signaling cascade remains open. Therefore, keeping in view the above facts, an attempt has been made in this article to summarize the recent findings regarding updates made in the regulatory action of ROS at various plant developmental stages, which are still not well-known. PMID:27729914

  17. Reactive oxygen species, nutrition, hypoxia and diseases: Problems solved?

    PubMed Central

    Görlach, Agnes; Dimova, Elitsa Y.; Petry, Andreas; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; Hernansanz-Agustín, Pablo; Rolo, Anabela P.; Palmeira, Carlos M.; Kietzmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Within the last twenty years the view on reactive oxygen species (ROS) has changed; they are no longer only considered to be harmful but also necessary for cellular communication and homeostasis in different organisms ranging from bacteria to mammals. In the latter, ROS were shown to modulate diverse physiological processes including the regulation of growth factor signaling, the hypoxic response, inflammation and the immune response. During the last 60–100 years the life style, at least in the Western world, has changed enormously. This became obvious with an increase in caloric intake, decreased energy expenditure as well as the appearance of alcoholism and smoking; These changes were shown to contribute to generation of ROS which are, at least in part, associated with the occurrence of several chronic diseases like adiposity, atherosclerosis, type II diabetes, and cancer. In this review we discuss aspects and problems on the role of intracellular ROS formation and nutrition with the link to diseases and their problematic therapeutical issues. PMID:26339717

  18. Imaging Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Modifications in Living Systems

    PubMed Central

    Maulucci, Giuseppe; Bačić, Goran; Bridal, Lori; Schmidt, Harald H.H.W.; Tavitian, Bertrand; Viel, Thomas; Utsumi, Hideo; Yalçın, A. Süha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) may regulate signaling, ion channels, transcription factors, and biosynthetic processes. ROS-related diseases can be due to either a shortage or an excess of ROS. Recent Advances: Since the biological activity of ROS depends on not only concentration but also spatiotemporal distribution, real-time imaging of ROS, possibly in vivo, has become a need for scientists, with potential for clinical translation. New imaging techniques as well as new contrast agents in clinically established modalities were developed in the previous decade. Critical Issues: An ideal imaging technique should determine ROS changes with high spatio-temporal resolution, detect physiologically relevant variations in ROS concentration, and provide specificity toward different redox couples. Furthermore, for in vivo applications, bioavailability of sensors, tissue penetration, and a high signal-to-noise ratio are additional requirements to be satisfied. Future Directions: None of the presented techniques fulfill all requirements for clinical translation. The obvious way forward is to incorporate anatomical and functional imaging into a common hybrid-imaging platform. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 939–958. PMID:27139586

  19. Spectroscopically Characterized Synthetic Mononuclear Nickel-Oxygen Species.

    PubMed

    Corona, Teresa; Company, Anna

    2016-09-12

    Iron, copper, and manganese are the predominant metals found in oxygenases that perform efficient and selective hydrocarbon oxidations and for this reason, a large number of the corresponding metal-oxygen species has been described. However, in recent years nickel has been found in the active site of enzymes involved in oxidation processes, in which nickel-dioxygen species are proposed to play a key role. Owing to this biological relevance and to the existence of different catalytic protocols that involve the use of nickel catalysts in oxidation reactions, there is a growing interest in the detection and characterization of nickel-oxygen species relevant to these processes. In this Minireview the spectroscopically/structurally characterized synthetic superoxo, peroxo, and oxonickel species that have been reported to date are described. From these studies it becomes clear that nickel is a very promising metal in the field of oxidation chemistry with still unexplored possibilities.

  20. Molecular and biochemical mechanisms in teratogenesis involving reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Wells, Peter G; Bhuller, Yadvinder; Chen, Connie S; Jeng, Winnie; Kasapinovic, Sonja; Kennedy, Julia C; Kim, Perry M; Laposa, Rebecca R; McCallum, Gordon P; Nicol, Christopher J; Parman, Toufan; Wiley, Michael J; Wong, Andrea W

    2005-09-01

    Developmental pathologies may result from endogenous or xenobiotic-enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which oxidatively damage cellular macromolecules and/or alter signal transduction. This minireview focuses upon several model drugs (phenytoin, thalidomide, methamphetamine), environmental chemicals (benzo[a]pyrene) and gamma irradiation to examine this hypothesis in vivo and in embryo culture using mouse, rat and rabbit models. Embryonic prostaglandin H synthases (PHSs) and lipoxygenases bioactivate xenobiotics to free radical intermediates that initiate ROS formation, resulting in oxidation of proteins, lipids and DNA. Oxidative DNA damage and embryopathies are reduced in PHS knockout mice, and in mice treated with PHS inhibitors, antioxidative enzymes, antioxidants and free radical trapping agents. Thalidomide causes embryonic DNA oxidation in susceptible (rabbit) but not resistant (mouse) species. Embryopathies are increased in mutant mice deficient in the antioxidative enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), or by glutathione (GSH) depletion, or inhibition of GSH peroxidase or GSH reductase. Inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice are partially protected. Inhibition of Ras or NF-kB pathways reduces embryopathies, implicating ROS-mediated signal transduction. Atm and p53 knockout mice deficient in DNA damage response/repair are more susceptible to xenobiotic or radiation embryopathies, suggesting a teratological role for DNA damage, consistent with enhanced susceptibility to methamphetamine in ogg1 knockout mice with deficient repair of oxidative DNA damage. Even endogenous embryonic oxidative stress carries a risk, since untreated G6PD- or ATM-deficient mice have increased embryopathies. Thus, embryonic processes regulating the balance of ROS formation, oxidative DNA damage and repair, and ROS-mediated signal transduction may be important determinants of teratological risk.

  1. Kinetics of oxygen species in an electrically driven singlet oxygen generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azyazov, V. N.; Torbin, A. P.; Pershin, A. A.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Heaven, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The kinetics of oxygen species in the gaseous medium of a discharge singlet oxygen generator has been revisited. Vibrationally excited ozone O3(υ) formed in O + O2 recombination is thought to be a significant agent in the deactivation of singlet oxygen O2(a1Δ), oxygen atom removal and ozone formation. It is shown that the process O3(υ ⩾ 2) + O2(a1Δ) → 2O2 + O is the main O2(a1Δ) deactivation channel in the post-discharge zone. If no measures are taken to decrease the oxygen atom concentration, the contribution of this process to the overall O2(a1Δ) removal is significant, even in the discharge zone. A simplified model for the kinetics of vibrationally excited ozone is proposed. Calculations based on this model yield results that are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. BIOMONITORING OF REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with several disease processes in humans, including cancer, asthma, diabetes, and cardiac disease. We have explored whether ROS can be measured directly in human fluids, and their value as a biomarker of exposure an...

  3. Oxygen sensitivity of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation depends on metabolic conditions.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, David L; Brookes, Paul S

    2009-06-12

    The mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a central role in many cell signaling pathways, but debate still surrounds its regulation by factors, such as substrate availability, [O2] and metabolic state. Previously, we showed that in isolated mitochondria respiring on succinate, ROS generation was a hyperbolic function of [O2]. In the current study, we used a wide variety of substrates and inhibitors to probe the O2 sensitivity of mitochondrial ROS generation under different metabolic conditions. From such data, the apparent Km for O2 of putative ROS-generating sites within mitochondria was estimated as follows: 0.2, 0.9, 2.0, and 5.0 microM O2 for the complex I flavin site, complex I electron backflow, complex III QO site, and electron transfer flavoprotein quinone oxidoreductase of beta-oxidation, respectively. Differential effects of respiratory inhibitors on ROS generation were also observed at varying [O2]. Based on these data, we hypothesize that at physiological [O2], complex I is a significant source of ROS, whereas the electron transfer flavoprotein quinone oxidoreductase may only contribute to ROS generation at very high [O2]. Furthermore, we suggest that previous discrepancies in the assignment of effects of inhibitors on ROS may be due to differences in experimental [O2]. Finally, the data set (see supplemental material) may be useful in the mathematical modeling of mitochondrial metabolism.

  4. Properties of reactive oxygen species by quantum Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Zen, Andrea; Trout, Bernhardt L; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-07-07

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of chemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution, and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular, we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as N(3) - N(4), where N is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  5. Properties of reactive oxygen species by quantum Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zen, Andrea; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-07-01

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of chemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution, and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular, we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as N3 - N4, where N is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  6. Properties of reactive oxygen species by quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Zen, Andrea; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-07-07

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of chemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution, and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular, we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as N{sup 3} − N{sup 4}, where N is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  7. Multiple antioxidant proteins protect Chlorobaculum tepidum against oxygen and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Jubelirer, Sara; Garcia Costas, Amaya M; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A

    2009-11-01

    The genome of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum (Cba.) tepidum, a strictly anaerobic photolithoautotroph, is predicted to encode more than ten genes whose products are potentially involved in protection from reactive oxygen species and an oxidative stress response. The encoded proteins include cytochrome bd quinol oxidase, NADH oxidase, rubredoxin oxygen oxidoreductase, several thiol peroxidases, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, superoxide dismutase, methionine sulfoxide reductase, and rubrerythrin. To test the physiological functions of some of these proteins, ten genes were insertionally inactivated. Wild-type Cba. tepidum cells were very sensitive to oxygen in the light but were remarkably resistant to oxygen in the dark. When wild-type and mutant cells were subjected to air for various times under dark or light condition, significant decreases in viability were detected in most of the mutants relative to wild type. Treatments with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) and methyl viologen resulted in more severe effects in most of the mutants than in the wild type. The results demonstrated that these putative antioxidant proteins combine to form an effective defense against oxygen and reactive oxygen species. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction studies showed that the genes with functions in oxidative stress protection were constitutively transcribed under anoxic growth conditions.

  8. Development of a Fluidic Oxygen Regulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    IMaJ «aa^^ ■"-i*--’L’ "’"’-—"’"lllMini pp Figure 5a. Breadboard of 0_ Regulator Figure 5b. Breadboard of O , Regulator (second view) 12 "’■■- "max i

  9. Hydrazide derivatives produce active oxygen species as hydrazine.

    PubMed

    Timperio, Anna Maria; Rinalducci, Sara; Zolla, Lello

    2005-12-01

    It is well documented that some hydrazines are quite sensitive to oxidation and may serve as the electron donor for the reduction of oxygen, whereas hydrazides are not believed to react directly with oxygen. Data presented in this paper show that both hydrazides and hydrazines share an N-N moiety, which is assumed to react with atmospheric oxygen and produce oxygen radicals, at various degrees of efficiency. Since spectrometric measurements of hydrazide just after solubilization showed that the molecular mass remains constant in the absence of oxygen, we can conclude that hydrazides do not react with the oxygen through a slow spontaneous hydrolytic release of hydrazine. However, hydrazine is more reactive than hydrazide, which requires hours rather than minutes to produce measurable quantities of radical species. Differences were also apparent for various substituted derivatives. The reaction was significantly enhanced by the presence of metal ions. Data reported here demonstrate that hydrazides cause irreversible damage to the prosthetic group of proteins as well as causing degradation of the polypeptide chain into small fragments.

  10. Reactive oxygen species generation and signaling in plants

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Baishnab Charan; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of molecular oxygen into the atmosphere was accompanied by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as side products of many biochemical reactions. ROS are permanently generated in plastids, peroxisomes, mitochiondria, the cytosol and the apoplast. Imbalance between ROS generation and safe detoxification generates oxidative stress and the accumulating ROS are harmful for the plants. On the other hand, specific ROS function as signaling molecules and activate signal transduction processes in response to various stresses. Here, we summarize the generation of ROS in the different cellular compartments and the signaling processes which are induced by ROS. PMID:23072988

  11. Regulation of blood oxygen transport in hibernating mammals.

    PubMed

    Revsbech, Inge G; Fago, Angela

    2017-03-21

    Along with the periodic reductions in O2 requirements of mammalian hibernators during winter, the O2 affinity of the blood of mammalian hibernators is seasonally regulated to help match O2 supply to consumption, contributing to limit tissue oxidative stress, particularly at arousals. Specifically, mammalian hibernators consistently show an overall increase in the blood-O2 affinity, which causes a decreased O2 unloading to tissues, while having similar or lower tissue O2 tensions during hibernation. This overview explores how the decreased body temperature and concentration of red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) that occur in hibernation contribute separately or in combination to the concurrent increase in the O2 affinity of the hemoglobin, the O2 carrier protein of the blood. Most mammalian hemoglobins are responsive to changes in DPG concentrations, including that of the hibernating brown bear, although the smaller hibernators, such as golden-mantled ground squirrel, chipmunks, and dormice, have hemoglobins with low sensitivity to DPG. While the effect of DPG on oxygenation may vary, the decrease in body temperature invariably increases hemoglobin's O2 affinity in all hibernating species. However, the temperature sensitivity of hemoglobin oxygenation is low in hibernators compared to human, apparently due in part to endothermic allosteric quaternary transition in ground squirrels and dissociation of chloride ions in brown bears. A low heat of blood oxygenation in temporal heterotherms, like hibernators, may thus contribute to reduce heat loss, as found in regional heterotherms, like polar mammals, although the significance would be low in winter hibernation.

  12. Oxygen delivery, consumption, and conversion to reactive oxygen species in experimental models of diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Eshaq, Randa S.; Wright, William S.; Harris, Norman R.

    2014-01-01

    Retinal tissue receives its supply of oxygen from two sources – the retinal and choroidal circulations. Decreases in retinal blood flow occur in the early stages of diabetes, with the eventual development of hypoxia thought to contribute to pathological neovascularization. Oxygen consumption in the retina has been found to decrease in diabetes, possibly due to either a reduction in neuronal metabolism or to cell death. Diabetes also enhances the rate of conversion of oxygen to superoxide in the retina, with experimental evidence suggesting that mitochondrial superoxide not only drives the overall production of reactive oxygen species, but also initiates several pathways leading to retinopathy, including the increased activity of the polyol and hexosamine pathways, increased production of advanced glycation end products and expression of their receptors, and activation of protein kinase C. PMID:24936440

  13. Redox signaling regulated by electrophiles and reactive sulfur species

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Motohiro; Kumagai, Yoshito; Ihara, Hideshi; Fujii, Shigemoto; Motohashi, Hozumi; Akaike, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    Redox signaling is a key modulator of oxidative stress induced by nonspecific insults of biological molecules generated by reactive oxygen species. Current redox biology is revisiting the traditional concept of oxidative stress, such that toxic effects of reactive oxygen species are protected by diverse antioxidant systems upregulated by oxidative stress responses that are physiologically mediated by redox-dependent cell signaling pathways. Redox signaling is thus precisely regulated by endogenous electrophilic substances that are generated from reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and its derivative reactive species during stress responses. Among electrophiles formed endogenously, 8-nitroguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP) has unique cell signaling functions, and pathways for its biosynthesis, signaling mechanism, and metabolism in cells have been clarified. Reactive sulfur species such as cysteine hydropersulfides that are abundant in cells are likely involved in 8-nitro-cGMP metabolism. These new aspects of redox biology may stimulate innovative and multidisciplinary research in cell and stem cell biology; infectious diseases, cancer, metabolic syndrome, ageing, and neurodegenerative diseases; and other oxidative stress-related disorders. This review focuses on the most recent progress in the biosynthesis, cell signaling, and metabolism of 8-nitro-cGMP, which is a likely target for drug development and lead to discovery of novel therapeutics for many diseases. PMID:27013774

  14. Reactive Oxygen Species Tune Root Tropic Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Gat

    2016-01-01

    The default growth pattern of primary roots of land plants is directed by gravity. However, roots possess the ability to sense and respond directionally to other chemical and physical stimuli, separately and in combination. Therefore, these root tropic responses must be antagonistic to gravitropism. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in gravitropism of maize and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots has been previously described. However, which cellular signals underlie the integration of the different environmental stimuli, which lead to an appropriate root tropic response, is currently unknown. In gravity-responding roots, we observed, by applying the ROS-sensitive fluorescent dye dihydrorhodamine-123 and confocal microscopy, a transient asymmetric ROS distribution, higher at the concave side of the root. The asymmetry, detected at the distal elongation zone, was built in the first 2 h of the gravitropic response and dissipated after another 2 h. In contrast, hydrotropically responding roots show no transient asymmetric distribution of ROS. Decreasing ROS levels by applying the antioxidant ascorbate, or the ROS-generation inhibitor diphenylene iodonium attenuated gravitropism while enhancing hydrotropism. Arabidopsis mutants deficient in Ascorbate Peroxidase 1 showed attenuated hydrotropic root bending. Mutants of the root-expressed NADPH oxidase RBOH C, but not rbohD, showed enhanced hydrotropism and less ROS in their roots apices (tested in tissue extracts with Amplex Red). Finally, hydrostimulation prior to gravistimulation attenuated the gravistimulated asymmetric ROS and auxin signals that are required for gravity-directed curvature. We suggest that ROS, presumably H2O2, function in tuning root tropic responses by promoting gravitropism and negatively regulating hydrotropism. PMID:27535793

  15. ARSENIC SPECIES CAUSE RELEASE OF IRON FROM FERRITIN GENERATING REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ARSENIC SPECIES CAUSE RELEASE OF IRON FROM FERRITIN GENERATING REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES

    Arsenic-associated cancer (lung, bladder, skin, liver, kidney) remains a significant world- wide public health problem (e.g., Taiwan, Chile, Bangladesh, India, China and Thailand). Rece...

  16. ARSENIC SPECIES CAUSE RELEASE OF IRON FROM FERRITIN GENERATING REACTIVIE OXYGEN SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ARSENIC SPECIES. CAUSE RELEASE OF IRON , FROM FERRITIN GENERATING REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES

    Arsenic-associated cancer (lung, bladder, skin, liver, kidney) remains a significant world- wide public health problem (e.g., Taiwan, Chile, Bangladesh, India, China and Thailand). R...

  17. HIV-1, Reactive Oxygen Species and Vascular Complications

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Kristi M.; Sutliff, Roy L.

    2012-01-01

    Over 1 million people in the United States and 33 million individuals worldwide suffer from HIV/AIDS. Since its discovery, HIV/AIDS has been associated with an increased susceptibility to opportunistic infection due to immune dysfunction. Highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) restore immune function and, as a result, people infected with HIV-1 are living longer. This improved survival of HIV-1 patients has revealed a previously unrecognized risk of developing vascular complications, such as atherosclerosis and pulmonary hypertension. The mechanisms underlying these HIV-associated vascular disorders are poorly understood. However, HIV-induced elevations in reactive oxygen species, including superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, may contribute to vascular disease development and progression by altering cell function and redox-sensitive signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the clinical and experimental evidence demonstrating HIV- and HIV antiretroviral therapy-induced alterations in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and how these effects likely contribute to vascular dysfunction and disease. PMID:22564529

  18. Quantification of reactive oxygen species for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zou; Zhang, Jinde; Lin, Lisheng; Li, Buhong

    2016-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective therapeutic modality that uses a light source to activate light-sensitive photosensitizers to treat both oncologic and nononcological indications. Photosensitizers are excited to the long-lived triplet state, and they react with biomolecules via type I or II mechanism resulted in cell death and tumor necrosis. Free radicals and radical ions are formed by electron transfer reactions (type I), which rapidly react with oxygen leading to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide ions, hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. Singlet molecular oxygen is produced in a Type II reaction, in which the excited singlet state of the photosensitizer generated upon photon absorption by the ground-state photosensitizer molecule undergoes intersystem crossing to a long-lived triplet state. In this talk, the fundmental mechanisms and detection techniques for ROS generation in PDT will be introduced. In particular, the quantification of singlet oxygen generation for pre-clinical application will be highlighted, which plays an essential role in the establishment of robust singlet oxygen-mediated PDT dosimetry.

  19. Multi-species simulation of Trichel pulses in oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán-Olivencia, F. J.; Pontiga, F.; Castellanos, A.

    2014-10-01

    The development of negative corona Trichel pulses in oxygen between a spherical cathode and a plane is investigated using a plasma chemical model of ten selected species, which includes electrons, ions and neutrals. The interaction among these species is described by a model that incorporates the most important plasma chemical processes, such as ionization, electron attachment and detachment, electron impact dissociation and excitation, and clustering. The spatio-temporal evolution of charged and neutral species and their reaction rates are evaluated along different moments during the pulses. The case of the first Trichel pulse is considered separately, since its characteristics clearly differ from the subsequent pulses. The results show that the negative space charge is constituted of different types of ions, depending on the stage of the pulse. Moreover, a spatial segregation of negative ions is observed during the post-pulse period. Regarding neutral species, ozone increases linearly with time, without being considerably affected by the occurrence of pulses.

  20. Mitochondria and Reactive Oxygen Species: Physiology and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Bolisetty, Subhashini; Jaimes, Edgar A.

    2013-01-01

    The air that we breathe contains nearly 21% oxygen, most of which is utilized by mitochondria during respiration. While we cannot live without it, it was perceived as a bane to aerobic organisms due to the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen metabolites by mitochondria and other cellular compartments. However, this dogma was challenged when these species were demonstrated to modulate cellular responses through altering signaling pathways. In fact, since this discovery of a dichotomous role of reactive species in immune function and signal transduction, research in this field grew at an exponential pace and the pursuit for mechanisms involved began. Due to a significant number of review articles present on the reactive species mediated cell death, we have focused on emerging novel pathways such as autophagy, signaling and maintenance of the mitochondrial network. Despite its role in several processes, increased reactive species generation has been associated with the origin and pathogenesis of a plethora of diseases. While it is tempting to speculate that anti-oxidant therapy would protect against these disorders, growing evidence suggests that this may not be true. This further supports our belief that these reactive species play a fundamental role in maintenance of cellular and tissue homeostasis. PMID:23528859

  1. Fires and the rise and regulation of atmospheric oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenton, T. M.

    2012-04-01

    When did oxygen first approach 21% of the atmosphere, and what regulates it there? These are enduring puzzles in Earth system science, and fire science provides a key part of the answers. The results of ignition experiments with natural fuels indicate that to start a fire requires at least 17% oxygen in the atmosphere. Thus, the appearance of charcoal in the fossil record around 420 million years ago in the Silurian Period indicates atmospheric oxygen was >17% then. Here we hypothesise that the first non-vascular plants, which began colonising the land surface around 50 million years beforehand (in the Ordovician Period), caused a rise in atmospheric oxygen concentration to a level >17% sufficient to support fires. We base this on weathering experiments with an analogue for the first non-vascular plants, and modelling with the COPSE model of the coupled phosphorus, carbon and oxygen biogeochemical cycles. The experiments reveal that a non-vascular plant (the moss Physcomitrella patens) hugely amplifies phosphorus weathering by a factor of up to 60. The modelling shows that early plant colonisation could hence have increased phosphorus supply to the ocean, fuelling photosynthetic production and organic carbon burial, which is the long-term source of oxygen to the atmosphere. Atmospheric oxygen is predicted to have risen through the late Ordovician and into the Silurian. Since 370 million years ago, the nearly continuous record of charcoal indicates that oxygen has remained above 17% of the atmosphere. At the same time, the continued persistence of forests means fires have never been so frequent as to prevent trees from regenerating, setting a contested upper limit on oxygen of around 30%. The restriction of oxygen variation within a factor of two suggests remarkable regulation, because the whole oxygen reservoir has been replaced over 100 times in this interval. Fires are a prime candidate for forming part of the regulating mechanism, and giving it a 'set point', as

  2. Lycopene cyclase paralog CruP protects against reactive oxygen species in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Louis M T; Shumskaya, Maria; Tzfadia, Oren; Wu, Shi-Biao; Kennelly, Edward J; Wurtzel, Eleanore T

    2012-07-03

    In photosynthetic organisms, carotenoids serve essential roles in photosynthesis and photoprotection. A previous report designated CruP as a secondary lycopene cyclase involved in carotenoid biosynthesis [Maresca J, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:11784-11789]. However, we found that cruP KO or cruP overexpression plants do not exhibit correspondingly reduced or increased production of cyclized carotenoids, which would be expected if CruP was a lycopene cyclase. Instead, we show that CruP aids in preventing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby reducing accumulation of β-carotene-5,6-epoxide, a ROS-catalyzed autoxidation product, and inhibiting accumulation of anthocyanins, which are known chemical indicators of ROS. Plants with a nonfunctional cruP accumulate substantially higher levels of ROS and β-carotene-5,6-epoxide in green tissues. Plants overexpressing cruP show reduced levels of ROS, β-carotene-5,6-epoxide, and anthocyanins. The observed up-regulation of cruP transcripts under photoinhibitory and lipid peroxidation-inducing conditions, such as high light stress, cold stress, anoxia, and low levels of CO(2), fits with a role for CruP in mitigating the effects of ROS. Phylogenetic distribution of CruP in prokaryotes showed that the gene is only present in cyanobacteria that live in habitats characterized by large variation in temperature and inorganic carbon availability. Therefore, CruP represents a unique target for developing resilient plants and algae needed to supply food and biofuels in the face of global climate change.

  3. Combinatorial Cis-regulation in Saccharomyces Species.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Aaron T; Stormo, Gary D

    2016-01-15

    Transcriptional control of gene expression requires interactions between the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) controlling gene promoters. We developed a sensitive computational method to identify CRE combinations with conserved spacing that does not require genome alignments. When applied to seven sensu stricto and sensu lato Saccharomyces species, 80% of the predicted interactions displayed some evidence of combinatorial transcriptional behavior in several existing datasets including: (1) chromatin immunoprecipitation data for colocalization of transcription factors, (2) gene expression data for coexpression of predicted regulatory targets, and (3) gene ontology databases for common pathway membership of predicted regulatory targets. We tested several predicted CRE interactions with chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in a wild-type strain and strains in which a predicted cofactor was deleted. Our experiments confirmed that transcription factor (TF) occupancy at the promoters of the CRE combination target genes depends on the predicted cofactor while occupancy of other promoters is independent of the predicted cofactor. Our method has the additional advantage of identifying regulatory differences between species. By analyzing the S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus genomes, we identified differences in combinatorial cis-regulation between the species and showed that the predicted changes in gene regulation explain several of the species-specific differences seen in gene expression datasets. In some instances, the same CRE combinations appear to regulate genes involved in distinct biological processes in the two different species. The results of this research demonstrate that (1) combinatorial cis-regulation can be inferred by multi-genome analysis and (2) combinatorial cis-regulation can explain differences in gene expression between species.

  4. Combinatorial Cis-regulation in Saccharomyces Species

    PubMed Central

    Spivak, Aaron T.; Stormo, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional control of gene expression requires interactions between the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) controlling gene promoters. We developed a sensitive computational method to identify CRE combinations with conserved spacing that does not require genome alignments. When applied to seven sensu stricto and sensu lato Saccharomyces species, 80% of the predicted interactions displayed some evidence of combinatorial transcriptional behavior in several existing datasets including: (1) chromatin immunoprecipitation data for colocalization of transcription factors, (2) gene expression data for coexpression of predicted regulatory targets, and (3) gene ontology databases for common pathway membership of predicted regulatory targets. We tested several predicted CRE interactions with chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in a wild-type strain and strains in which a predicted cofactor was deleted. Our experiments confirmed that transcription factor (TF) occupancy at the promoters of the CRE combination target genes depends on the predicted cofactor while occupancy of other promoters is independent of the predicted cofactor. Our method has the additional advantage of identifying regulatory differences between species. By analyzing the S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus genomes, we identified differences in combinatorial cis-regulation between the species and showed that the predicted changes in gene regulation explain several of the species-specific differences seen in gene expression datasets. In some instances, the same CRE combinations appear to regulate genes involved in distinct biological processes in the two different species. The results of this research demonstrate that (1) combinatorial cis-regulation can be inferred by multi-genome analysis and (2) combinatorial cis-regulation can explain differences in gene expression between species. PMID:26772747

  5. Reactive oxygen species produced from chromate pigments and ascorbate.

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Y; Pezerat, H

    1994-01-01

    The reactions of various chromate pigments and ascorbate were investigated by an ESR spin trapping technique. Production of Cr(V) was detected directly and productions of very electrophilic reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected via the oxidation of formate. We demonstrated previously that both dissolved oxygen and Cr (V) were essential in the production of ROS in this system, and that ROS production was inhibited by catalase. We studied here the effect of solubility of different chromate pigments: sodium, calcium, strontium, basic zinc, basic lead supported on silica, and lead and barium chromates on the production of ROS in buffered medium and cell culture medium (Dublecco's Modified Eagle medium + fetal calf serum). Sodium, calcium, basic zinc, and basic lead chromates were active in the production of ROS in presence of cell culture medium, whereas lead and barium chromates were inactive. PMID:7843106

  6. Oxygen-regulated gene expression in murine cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Kind, Karen L; Tam, Kimberley K Y; Banwell, Kelly M; Gauld, Ashley D; Russell, Darryl L; Macpherson, Anne M; Brown, Hannah M; Frank, Laura A; Peet, Daniel J; Thompson, Jeremy G

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is an important component of the environment of the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC), both in vivo within the ovarian follicle and during in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM). Cumulus cells have a key role in supporting oocyte development, and cumulus cell function and gene expression are known to be altered when the environment of the COC is perturbed. Oxygen-regulated gene expression is mediated through the actions of the transcription factors, the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). In the present study, the effect of oxygen on cumulus cell gene expression was examined following in vitro maturation of the murine COC at 2%, 5% or 20% oxygen. Increased expression of HIF-responsive genes, including glucose transporter-1, lactate dehydrogenase A and BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein 3, was observed in cumulus cells matured at 2% or 5%, compared with 20% oxygen. Stabilisation of HIF1α protein in cumulus cells exposed to low oxygen was confirmed by western blot and HIF-mediated transcriptional activity was demonstrated using a transgenic mouse expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of a promoter containing hypoxia response elements. These results indicate that oxygen concentration influences cumulus cell gene expression and support a role for HIF1α in mediating the cumulus cell response to varying oxygen.

  7. Rapid Hydrogen and Oxygen Atom Transfer by a High-Valent Nickel-Oxygen Species.

    PubMed

    Corona, Teresa; Draksharapu, Apparao; Padamati, Sandeep K; Gamba, Ilaria; Martin-Diaconescu, Vlad; Acuña-Parés, Ferran; Browne, Wesley R; Company, Anna

    2016-10-05

    Terminal high-valent metal-oxygen species are key reaction intermediates in the catalytic cycle of both enzymes (e.g., oxygenases) and synthetic oxidation catalysts. While tremendous efforts have been directed toward the characterization of the biologically relevant terminal manganese-oxygen and iron-oxygen species, the corresponding analogues based on late-transition metals such as cobalt, nickel or copper are relatively scarce. This scarcity is in part related to the "Oxo Wall" concept, which predicts that late transition metals cannot support a terminal oxido ligand in a tetragonal environment. Here, the nickel(II) complex (1) of the tetradentate macrocyclic ligand bearing a 2,6-pyridinedicarboxamidate unit is shown to be an effective catalyst in the chlorination and oxidation of C-H bonds with sodium hypochlorite as terminal oxidant in the presence of acetic acid (AcOH). Insight into the active species responsible for the observed reactivity was gained through the study of the reaction of 1 with ClO(-) at low temperature by UV-vis absorption, resonance Raman, EPR, ESI-MS, and XAS analyses. DFT calculations aided the assignment of the trapped chromophoric species (3) as a nickel-hypochlorite species. Despite the fact that the formal oxidation state of the nickel in 3 is +4, experimental and computational analysis indicate that 3 is best formulated as a Ni(III) complex with one unpaired electron delocalized in the ligands surrounding the metal center. Most remarkably, 3 reacts rapidly with a range of substrates including those with strong aliphatic C-H bonds, indicating the direct involvement of 3 in the oxidation/chlorination reactions observed in the 1/ClO(-)/AcOH catalytic system.

  8. Activation mechanism of Gi and Go by reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Motohiro; Schey, Kevin L; Takagahara, Shuichi; Kontani, Kenji; Katada, Toshiaki; Urano, Yasuteru; Nagano, Tetsuo; Nagao, Taku; Kurose, Hitoshi

    2002-03-15

    Reactive oxygen species are proposed to work as intracellular mediators. One of their target proteins is the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (Galpha(i) and Galpha(o)), leading to activation. H(2)O(2) is one of the reactive oxygen species and activates purified Galpha(i2). However, the activation requires the presence of Fe(2+), suggesting that H(2)O(2) is converted to more reactive species such as c*OH. The analysis with mass spectrometry shows that seven cysteine residues (Cys(66), Cys(112), Cys(140), Cys(255), Cys(287), Cys(326), and Cys(352)) of Galpha(i2) are modified by the treatment with *OH. Among these cysteine residues, Cys(66), Cys(112), Cys(140), Cys(255), and Cys(352) are not involved in *OH-induced activation of Galpha(i2). Although the modification of Cys(287) but not Cys(326) is required for subunit dissociation, the modification of both Cys(287) and Cys(326) is necessary for the activation of Galpha(i2) as determined by pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation, conformation-dependent change of trypsin digestion pattern or guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate binding. Wild type Galpha(i2) but not Cys(287)- or Cys(326)-substituted mutants are activated by UV light, singlet oxygen, superoxide anion, and nitric oxide, indicating that these oxidative stresses activate Galpha(i2) by the mechanism similar to *OH-induced activation. Because Cys(287) exists only in G(i) family, this study explains the selective activation of G(i)/G(o) by oxidative stresses.

  9. Manganese Neurotoxicity and the Role of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Finley, Ebany J.; Gavin, Claire E; Aschner, Michael; Gunter, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential dietary nutrient but excess or accumulations can be toxic. Disease states, like manganism, are associated with overexposure or accumulation of Mn and are due to the production of reactive oxygen species, free radicals and toxic metabolites, alteration of mitochondrial function and ATP production and depletion of cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms. This review focuses on all of the preceding mechanisms and the scientific studies that support them as well as provides an overview of the absorption, distribution, and excretion of Mn and the stability and transport of Mn compounds in the body. PMID:23395780

  10. Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in plant biotic interactions.

    PubMed

    Scheler, Claudia; Durner, Jörg; Astier, Jeremy

    2013-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules in plants. Recent progress has been made in defining their role during plant biotic interactions. Over the last decade, their function in disease resistance has been highlighted and focused a lot of investigations. Moreover, NO and ROS have recently emerged as important players of defense responses after herbivore attacks. Besides their role in plant adaptive response development, NO and ROS have been demonstrated to be involved in symbiotic interactions between plants and microorganisms. Here we review recent data concerning these three sides of NO and ROS functions in plant biotic interactions.

  11. Elevated Cytosolic Na+ Increases Mitochondrial Formation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Failing Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kohlhaas, Michael; Liu, Ting; Knopp, Andreas; Zeller, Tanja; Ong, Mei Fang; Böhm, Michael; O'Rourke, Brian; Maack, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Background —Oxidative stress is causally linked to the progression of heart failure, and mitochondria are critical sources of reactive oxygen species in failing myocardium. We previously observed that in heart failure, elevated cytosolic Na+ ([Na+]i) reduces mitochondrial Ca2+ ([Ca2+]m) by accelerating Ca2+ efflux via the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Because the regeneration of antioxidative enzymes requires NADPH, which is indirectly regenerated by the Krebs cycle, and Krebs cycle dehydrogenases are activated by [Ca2+]m, we speculated that in failing myocytes, elevated [Na+]i promotes oxidative stress. Methods and Results —We used a patch-clamp–based approach to simultaneously monitor cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ and, alternatively, mitochondrial H2O2 together with NAD(P)H in guinea pig cardiac myocytes. Cells were depolarized in a voltage-clamp mode (3 Hz), and a transition of workload was induced by β-adrenergic stimulation. During this transition, NAD(P)H initially oxidized but recovered when [Ca2+]m increased. The transient oxidation of NAD(P)H was closely associated with an increase in mitochondrial H2O2 formation. This reactive oxygen species formation was potentiated when mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake was blocked (by Ru360) or Ca2+ efflux was accelerated (by elevation of [Na+]i). In failing myocytes, H2O2 formation was increased, which was prevented by reducing mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux via the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Conclusions —Besides matching energy supply and demand, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake critically regulates mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. In heart failure, elevated [Na+]i promotes reactive oxygen species formation by reducing mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. This novel mechanism, by which defects in ion homeostasis induce oxidative stress, represents a potential drug target to reduce reactive oxygen species production in the failing heart. PMID:20351235

  12. Nanotechnology for Electroanalytical Biosensors of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species.

    PubMed

    Seenivasan, Rajesh; Kolodziej, Charles; Karunakaran, Chandran; Burda, Clemens

    2017-04-10

    Over the past several decades, nanotechnology has contributed to the progress of biomedicine, biomarker discovery, and the development of highly sensitive electroanalytical / electrochemical biosensors for in vitro and in vivo monitoring, and quantification of oxidative and nitrosative stress markers like reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). A major source of ROS and RNS is oxidative stress in cells, which can cause many human diseases, including cancer. Therefore, the detection of local concentrations of ROS (e. g. superoxide anion radical; O2(•-) ) and RNS (e. g. nitric oxide radical; NO(•) and its metabolites) released from biological systems is increasingly important and needs a sophisticated detection strategy to monitor ROS and RNS in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we discuss the nanomaterials-based ROS and RNS biosensors utilizing electrochemical techniques with emphasis on their biomedical applications.

  13. Mechanisms of group A Streptococcus resistance to reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Henningham, Anna; Döhrmann, Simon; Nizet, Victor; Cole, Jason N.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an exclusively human Gram-positive bacterial pathogen ranked among the ‘top 10’ causes of infection-related deaths worldwide. GAS commonly causes benign and self-limiting epithelial infections (pharyngitis and impetigo), and less frequent severe invasive diseases (bacteremia, toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis). Annually, GAS causes 700 million infections, including 1.8 million invasive infections with a mortality rate of 25%. In order to establish an infection, GAS must counteract the oxidative stress conditions generated by the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the infection site by host immune cells such as neutrophils and monocytes. ROS are the highly reactive and toxic byproducts of oxygen metabolism, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (O2•−), hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and singlet oxygen (O2*), which can damage bacterial nucleic acids, proteins and cell membranes. This review summarizes the enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms utilized by GAS to thwart ROS and survive under conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:25670736

  14. Mechanisms of group A Streptococcus resistance to reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Henningham, Anna; Döhrmann, Simon; Nizet, Victor; Cole, Jason N

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an exclusively human Gram-positive bacterial pathogen ranked among the 'top 10' causes of infection-related deaths worldwide. GAS commonly causes benign and self-limiting epithelial infections (pharyngitis and impetigo), and less frequent severe invasive diseases (bacteremia, toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis). Annually, GAS causes 700 million infections, including 1.8 million invasive infections with a mortality rate of 25%. In order to establish an infection, GAS must counteract the oxidative stress conditions generated by the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the infection site by host immune cells such as neutrophils and monocytes. ROS are the highly reactive and toxic byproducts of oxygen metabolism, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (O2•(-)), hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and singlet oxygen (O2*), which can damage bacterial nucleic acids, proteins and cell membranes. This review summarizes the enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms utilized by GAS to thwart ROS and survive under conditions of oxidative stress.

  15. In situ reactive oxygen species production for tertiary wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Guitaya, Léa; Drogui, Patrick; Blais, Jean François

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this research was to develop a new approach for tertiary water treatment, particularly disinfection and removal of refractory organic compounds, without adding any chemical. Hydrogen peroxide can indeed be produced from dissolved oxygen owing to electrochemical processes. Using various current intensities (1.0 to 4.0 A), it was possible to in situ produce relatively high concentration of H2O2 with a specific production rate of 0.05 × 10(-5) M/min/A. Likewise, by using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy method, it was shown that other reactive oxygen species (ROS) including HO(*) radical and O3 could be simultaneously formed during electrolysis. The ROS concentration passed from 0.45 × 10(-5) M after 20 min of electrolysis to a concentration of 2.87 × 10(-5) M after 100 min of electrolysis. The disinfection and the organic matter removal were relatively high during the tertiary treatment of municipal and domestic wastewaters. More than 90 % of organic compounds (chemical oxygen demand) can be removed, whereas 99 % of faecal coliform abatement can be reached. Likewise, the process was also effective in removing turbidity (more than 90 % of turbidity was removed) so that the effluent became more and more transparent.

  16. Do low oxygen environments facilitate marine invasions? Relative tolerance of native and invasive species to low oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Marcelo E; Barneche, Diego R; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2017-02-17

    Biological invasions are one of the biggest threats to global biodiversity. Marine artificial structures are proliferating worldwide and provide a haven for marine invasive species. Such structures disrupt local hydrodynamics, which can lead to the formation of oxygen-depleted microsites. The extent to which native fauna can cope with such low oxygen conditions, and whether invasive species, long associated with artificial structures in flow-restricted habitats, have adapted to these conditions remains unclear. We measured water flow and oxygen availability in marinas and piers at the scales relevant to sessile marine invertebrates (mm). We then measured the capacity of invasive and native marine invertebrates to maintain metabolic rates under decreasing levels of oxygen using standard laboratory assays. We found that marinas reduce water flow relative to piers, and that local oxygen levels can be zero in low flow conditions. We also found that for species with erect growth forms, invasive species can tolerate much lower levels of oxygen relative to native species. Integrating the field and laboratory data showed that up to 30% of available microhabitats within low flow environments are physiologically stressful for native species, while only 18% of the same habitat is physiologically stressful for invasive species. These results suggest that invasive species have adapted to low oxygen habitats associated with manmade habitats, and artificial structures may be creating niche opportunities for invasive species.

  17. Shark cartilage-containing preparation: protection against reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Felzenszwalb, I; Pelielo de Mattos, J C; Bernardo-Filho, M; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A

    1998-12-01

    There is overwhelming evidence to indicate that free radicals cause oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and nucleic acids and are involved in the pathogenesis of several degenerative diseases. Therefore, antioxidants, which can neutralize free radicals, may be of central importance in the prevention of these disease states. The protection that fruits and vegetables provide against disease has been attributed to the various antioxidants contained in them. Recently, an anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of a water-soluble fraction from shark cartilage has been described. Using electrophoretical assays, bacteria survival and transformation and the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome assay, we investigated the putative role of shark cartilage-containing preparation in protecting cells against reactive oxygen species induced DNA damage and mutagenesis. If antimutagens are to have any impact on human disease, it is essential that they are specifically directed against the most common mutagens in daily life. Our data suggest that shark cartilage-containing preparation can play a scavenger role for reactive oxygen species and protects cells against inactivation and mutagenesis.

  18. Generation of reactive oxygen species by raphidophycean phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Oda, T; Nakamura, A; Shikayama, M; Kawano, I; Ishimatsu, A; Muramatsu, T

    1997-10-01

    Chattonella marina, a raphidophycean flagellate, is one of the most toxic red tide phytoplankton and causes severe damage to fish farming. Recent studies demonstrated that Chattonella sp. generates superoxide (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals (.OH), which may be responsible for the toxicity of C. marina. In this study, we found the other raphidophycean flagellates such as Heterosigma akashiwo, Olisthodiscus luteus, and Fibrocapsa japonica also produce O2- and H2O2 under normal growth condition. Among the flagellate species tested, Chattonella has the highest rates of production of O2- and H2O2 as compared on the basis of cell number. This seems to be partly due to differences in their cell sizes, since Chattonella is larger than other flagellate species. The generation of O2- by these flagellate species was also confirmed by a chemiluminescence assay by using 2-methyl-6-(p-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin++ +-3-one (MCLA). All these raphidophycean flagellates inhibited the proliferation of a marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, in a flagellates/bacteria co-culture system, and their toxic effects were suppressed by the addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase. Our results suggest that the generation of reactive oxygen species is a common feature of raphidophycean flagellates.

  19. Structural analysis of an oxygen-regulated diguanylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Tarnawski, Miroslaw; Barends, Thomas R M; Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-11-01

    Cyclic di-GMP is a bacterial second messenger that is involved in switching between motile and sessile lifestyles. Given the medical importance of biofilm formation, there has been increasing interest in understanding the synthesis and degradation of cyclic di-GMPs and their regulation in various bacterial pathogens. Environmental cues are detected by sensing domains coupled to GGDEF and EAL or HD-GYP domains that have diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase activities, respectively, producing and degrading cyclic di-GMP. The Escherichia coli protein DosC (also known as YddV) consists of an oxygen-sensing domain belonging to the class of globin sensors that is coupled to a C-terminal GGDEF domain via a previously uncharacterized middle domain. DosC is one of the most strongly expressed GGDEF proteins in E. coli, but to date structural information on this and related proteins is scarce. Here, the high-resolution structural characterization of the oxygen-sensing globin domain, the middle domain and the catalytic GGDEF domain in apo and substrate-bound forms is described. The structural changes between the iron(III) and iron(II) forms of the sensor globin domain suggest a mechanism for oxygen-dependent regulation. The structural information on the individual domains is combined into a model of the dimeric DosC holoprotein. These findings have direct implications for the oxygen-dependent regulation of the activity of the cyclase domain.

  20. A Quantitative Study of Oxygen as a Metabolic Regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; LaManna, Joseph C.; Cabrera, Marco E.

    1999-01-01

    An acute reduction in oxygen (O2) delivery to a tissue is generally associated with a decrease in phosphocreatine, increases in ADP, NADH/NAD, and inorganic phosphate, increased rates of glycolysis and lactate production, and reduced rates of pyruvate and fatty acid oxidation. However, given the complexity of the human bioenergetic system and its components, it is difficult to determine quantitatively how cellular metabolic processes interact to maintain ATP homeostasis during stress (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and exercise). Of special interest is the determination of mechanisms relating tissue oxygenation to observed metabolic responses at the tissue, organ, and whole body levels and the quantification of how changes in tissue O2 availability affect the pathways of ATP synthesis and the metabolites that control these pathways. In this study, we extend a previously developed mathematical model of human bioenergetics to provide a physicochemical framework that permits quantitative understanding of O2 as a metabolic regulator. Specifically, the enhancement permits studying the effects of variations in tissue oxygenation and in parameters controlling the rate of cellular respiration on glycolysis, lactate production, and pyruvate oxidation. The whole body is described as a bioenergetic system consisting of metabolically distinct tissue/organ subsystems that exchange materials with the blood. In order to study the dynamic response of each subsystem to stimuli, we solve the ordinary differential equations describing the temporal evolution of metabolite levels, given the initial concentrations. The solver used in the present study is the packaged code LSODE, as implemented in the NASA Lewis kinetics and sensitivity analysis code, LSENS. A major advantage of LSENS is the efficient procedures supporting systematic sensitivity analysis, which provides the basic methods for studying parameter sensitivities (i.e., changes in model behavior due to parameter variation

  1. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (primarily oxygenated species) from pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirstine, Wayne; Galbally, Ian; Ye, Yuerong; Hooper, Martin

    1998-05-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from pasture at a site in southeastern Victoria, Australia, were monitored over a 2 year period using a static chamber technique. Fluxes up to 23,000 μg(C) m-2 h-1 were detected, with the higher fluxes originating from clover rather than from grass species. Gas Chromatographic analyses indicated that emissions from both grass and clover were high in oxygenated hydrocarbons including methanol, ethanol, propanone, butanone, and ethanal, and extremely low in isoprene and monoterpenes. In the case of clover, butanone made up 45-50% of the total emissions. When grass and clover were freshly mown, there were significantly enhanced emissions of VOCs. These enhanced emissions included both those oxygenates emitted from uncut pasture and also C6-oxygenates, including (Z)-3-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. Emissions from the undisturbed pasture increased markedly with temperature and the intensity of solar radiation, peaking at midday and ceasing at night. The fluxes, when normalized to a temperature of 30°C and a light intensity of 1000 μE m-2 s-1 were, for grass and clover respectively, about one eighth and two fifths of the equivalent fluxes reported to occur from U.S. woodlands. The annual integrated emission from the pasture was approximately 1.9 g(C) m-2 or 1.3 mg(C) g-1 (dry matter). The large transient fluxes that occurred following physical damaging of the pasture, when integrated over time, could be of the same order as those emissions that were observed from undisturbed pasture. In the case of methanol, and perhaps ethanol, the emissions from grasslands may be significant global sources of these gases.

  2. Reactive Oxygen Species: A Key Hallmark of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been the prime cause of mortality worldwide for decades. However, the underlying mechanism of their pathogenesis is not fully clear yet. It has been already established that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a vital role in the progression of CVDs. ROS are chemically unstable reactive free radicals containing oxygen, normally produced by xanthine oxidase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, lipoxygenases, or mitochondria or due to the uncoupling of nitric oxide synthase in vascular cells. When the equilibrium between production of free radicals and antioxidant capacity of human physiology gets altered due to several pathophysiological conditions, oxidative stress is induced, which in turn leads to tissue injury. This review focuses on pathways behind the production of ROS, its involvement in various intracellular signaling cascades leading to several cardiovascular disorders (endothelial dysfunction, ischemia-reperfusion, and atherosclerosis), methods for its detection, and therapeutic strategies for treatment of CVDs targeting the sources of ROS. The information generated by this review aims to provide updated insights into the understanding of the mechanisms behind cardiovascular complications mediated by ROS. PMID:27774507

  3. [The role of reactive oxygen species and mitochondria in aging].

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Agnieszka; Bartnik, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a biological phenomenon concerning all living multicellular organisms. Many studies have been conducted to identify the mechanisms underlying this process. To date, multiple theories have been proposed to explain the causes of aging. One of them is the free radical theory which postulates that reactive oxygen species (ROS), extremely reactive chemical molecules, are the major cause of the aging process. These free radicals are mainly produced by the mitochondrial respiratory chain as a result of electron transport and the reduction of the oxygen molecule. Toxic effects of ROS on cellular components lead to accumulation of oxidative damage which causes cellular dysfunction with age. The free radical theory has been one of the most popular theories of aging for many years. Scientific research on different model organisms aiming to verify the theory has produced abundant data, supporting the theory or, on the contrary, suggesting strong evidence against it. At present, the free radical theory of aging is no longer considered to be true.

  4. Reactive oxygen species: A radical role in development?

    PubMed

    Hernández-García, David; Wood, Christopher D; Castro-Obregón, Susana; Covarrubias, Luis

    2010-07-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), mostly derived from mitochondrial activity, can damage various macromolecules and consequently cause cell death. This ROS activity has been characterized in vitro, and correlative evidence suggests a role in various pathological conditions. In addition to this passive ROS activity, ROS also participate in cell signaling processes, though the relevance of this function in vivo is poorly understood. Throughout development, elevated cell activity is probably accompanied by highly active metabolism and, consequently, the production of large amounts of ROS. To allow proper development, cells must protect themselves from these potentially damaging ROS. However, to what degree ROS could participate as signaling molecules controlling fundamental and developmentally relevant cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and death is an open question. Here we discuss why available data do not yet provide conclusive evidence on the role of ROS in development, and we review recent methods to detect ROS in vivo and genetic strategies that can be exploited specifically to resolve these uncertainties.

  5. Reactive oxygen species in eradicating acute myeloid leukemic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Fang, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Leukemic stem cells (LSCs) have been proven to drive leukemia initiation, progression and relapse, and are increasingly being used as a critical target for therapeutic intervention. As an essential feature in LSCs, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis has been extensively exploited in the past decade for targeting LSCs in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Most, if not all, agents that show therapeutic benefits are able to alter redox status by inducing ROS, which confers selectivity in eradicating AML stem cells but sparing normal counterparts. In this review, we provide the comprehensive update of ROS-generating agents in the context of their impacts on our understanding of the pathogenesis of AML and its therapy. We anticipate that further characterizing these ROS agents will help us combat against AML in the coming era of LSC-targeting strategy. PMID:27358859

  6. Reactive oxygen species-activated nanomaterials as theranostic agents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kye S; Lee, Dongwon; Song, Chul Gyu; Kang, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from the endogenous oxidative metabolism or from exogenous pro-oxidant exposure. Oxidative stress occurs when there is excessive production of ROS, outweighing the antioxidant defense mechanisms which may lead to disease states. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of the most abundant and stable forms of ROS, implicated in inflammation, cellular dysfunction and apoptosis, which ultimately lead to tissue and organ damage. This review is an overview of the role of ROS in different diseases. We will also examine ROS-activated nanomaterials with emphasis on hydrogen peroxide, and their potential medical implications. Further development of the biocompatible, stimuli-activated agent responding to disease causing oxidative stress, may lead to a promising clinical use. PMID:26328770

  7. Bacterial persistence induced by salicylate via reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiebin; El Meouche, Imane; Dunlop, Mary J.

    2017-01-01

    Persisters are phenotypic variants of regular cells that exist in a dormant state with low metabolic activity, allowing them to exhibit high tolerance to antibiotics. Despite increasing recognition of their role in chronic and recalcitrant infections, the mechanisms that induce persister formation are not fully understood. In this study, we find that salicylate can induce persister formation in Escherichia coli via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Salicylate-induced ROS cause a decrease in the membrane potential, reduce metabolism and lead to an increase in persistence. These effects can be recovered by culturing cells in the presence of a ROS quencher or in an anaerobic environment. Our findings reveal that salicylate-induced oxidative stress can lead to persistence, suggesting that ROS, and their subsequent impact on membrane potential and metabolism, may play a broad role in persister formation. PMID:28281556

  8. Reactive oxygen species, essential molecules, during plant-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Camejo, Daymi; Guzmán-Cedeño, Ángel; Moreno, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continually generated as a consequence of the normal metabolism in aerobic organisms. Accumulation and release of ROS into cell take place in response to a wide variety of adverse environmental conditions including salt, temperature, cold stresses and pathogen attack, among others. In plants, peroxidases class III, NADPH oxidase (NOX) locates in cell wall and plasma membrane, respectively, may be mainly enzymatic systems involving ROS generation. It is well documented that ROS play a dual role into cells, acting as important signal transduction molecules and as toxic molecules with strong oxidant power, however some aspects related to its function during plant-pathogen interactions remain unclear. This review focuses on the principal enzymatic systems involving ROS generation addressing the role of ROS as signal molecules during plant-pathogen interactions. We described how the chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes perceive the external stimuli as pathogen invasion, and trigger resistance response using ROS as signal molecule.

  9. In vitro degradation of tropoelastin by reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, A; Ryu, A; Suzuki, T; Kawada, A; Tajima, S

    1998-09-01

    The effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on elastin molecules (tropoelastin) were studied in vitro. ROS generated by ultraviolet A and hematoporphyrin rapidly degraded tropoelastin within 5 min. Their degradative activity was inhibited by the addition of NaN3. Treatment of tropoelastin with copper sulfate/ascorbic acid resulted in degradation of tropoelastin producing fragments of molecular weight 45, 30 and 10 kDa within 30 min. The degradation of tropoelastin was partially blocked by the addition of mannitol. ROS induced by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system also degraded tropoelastin within 6 h. The degradation was blocked by catalase but not by superoxide dismutase (SOD). ROS generated by copper-ascorbate seems to be unique in that it cleaves relatively specific sites of the tropoelastin molecule. Thus ROS may play a degradative role in elastin metabolism which may cause the elastolytic changes or the deposition of fragmented elastic fibers in photoaged skin or age-related elastolytic disorders.

  10. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Louis S; Pabbidi, Reddy M

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportions. There are two forms of diabetes: type 1 diabetes mellitus is due to auto-immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic β-cells resulting in absolute insulin deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus is due to reduced insulin secretion and or insulin resistance. Both forms of diabetes are characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, leading to the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and microvascular pathology. DPN is characterized by enhanced or reduced thermal, chemical, and mechanical pain sensitivities. In the long-term, DPN results in peripheral nerve damage and accounts for a substantial number of non-traumatic lower-limb amputations. This review will address the mechanisms, especially the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the development and progression of DPN.

  11. Reactive oxygen species-targeted therapeutic interventions for atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Sovari, Ali A.; Dudley, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia that requires medical attention, and its incidence is increasing. Current ion channel blockade therapies and catheter ablation have significant limitations in treatment of AF, mainly because they do not address the underlying pathophysiology of the disease. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a major underlying pathology that promotes AF; however, conventional antioxidants have not shown impressive therapeutic effects. A more careful design of antioxidant therapies and better selection of patients likely are required to treat effectively AF with antioxidant agents. Current evidence suggest inhibition of prominent cardiac sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and targeting subcellular compartments with the highest levels of ROS may prove to be effective therapies for AF. Increased serum markers of oxidative stress may be an important guide in selecting the AF patients who will most likely respond to antioxidant therapy. PMID:22934062

  12. NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species in cardiac pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Cave, Alison; Grieve, David; Johar, Sofian; Zhang, Min; Shah, Ajay M

    2005-01-01

    Chronic heart failure, secondary to left ventricular hypertrophy or myocardial infarction, is a condition with increasing morbidity and mortality. Although the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of this condition remain a subject of intense interest, there is now growing evidence that redox-sensitive pathways play an important role. This article focuses on the involvement of reactive oxygen species derived from a family of superoxide-generating enzymes, termed NADPH oxidases (NOXs), in the pathophysiology of ventricular hypertrophy, the accompanying interstitial fibrosis and subsequent heart failure. In particular, the apparent ability of the different NADPH oxidase isoforms to define the response of a cell to a range of physiological and pathophysiological stimuli is reviewed. If confirmed, these data would suggest that independently targeting different members of the NOX family may hold the potential for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of cardiac disease. PMID:16321803

  13. Cytochrome P450 Reductase: A Harbinger of Diffusible Reduced Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Manoj, Kelath Murali; Gade, Sudeep Kumar; Mathew, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    The bi-enzymatic system of cytochrome P450 (CYP, a hemoprotein) and cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR, a diflavoenzyme) mediate the redox metabolism of diverse indigenous and xenobiotic molecules in various cellular and organ systems, using oxygen and NADPH. Curiously, when a 1∶1 ratio is seen to be optimal for metabolism, the ubiquitous CYP:CPR distribution ratio is 10 to 100∶1 or higher. Further, the NADPH equivalents consumed in these in vitro or in situ assemblies usually far exceeded the amount of substrate metabolized. We aimed to find the rationale to explain for these two oddities. We report here that CPR is capable of activating molecular oxygen on its own merit, generating diffusible reduced oxygen species (DROS). Also, in the first instance for a flavoprotein, CPR is shown to deplete peroxide via diffusible radical mediated process, thereby leading to the formation of water (but without significant evolution of oxygen). We also quantitatively demonstrate that the rate of oxygen activation and peroxide depletion by CPR accounts for the major reactivity in the CYP+CPR mixture. We show unambiguously that CPR is able to regulate the concentration of diffusible reduced oxygen species in the reaction milieu. These findings point out that CPR mediated processes are bound to be energetically ‘wasteful’ and potentially ‘hazardous’ owing to the unavoidable nature of the CPR to generate and deplete DROS. Hence, we can understand that CPR is distributed at low densities in cells. Some of the activities that were primarily attributed to the heme-center of CYP are now established to be a facet of the flavins of CPR. The current approach of modeling drugs to minimize “uncoupling” on the basis of erstwhile hypothesis stands questionable, considering the ideas brought forth in this work. PMID:20967245

  14. A quantitative study of oxygen as a metabolic regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; LaManna, Joseph C.; Cabrera, Marco E.

    2003-01-01

    An acute reduction in oxygen delivery to a tissue is associated with metabolic changes aimed at maintaining ATP homeostasis. However, given the complexity of the human bioenergetic system, it is difficult to determine quantitatively how cellular metabolic processes interact to maintain ATP homeostasis during stress (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and exercise). In particular, we are interested in determining mechanisms relating cellular oxygen concentration to observed metabolic responses at the cellular, tissue, organ, and whole body levels and in quantifying how changes in tissue oxygen availability affect the pathways of ATP synthesis and the metabolites that control these pathways. In this study, we extend a previously developed mathematical model of human bioenergetics, to provide a physicochemical framework that permits quantitative understanding of oxygen as a metabolic regulator. Specifically, the enhancement--sensitivity analysis--permits studying the effects of variations in tissue oxygenation and parameters controlling cellular respiration on glycolysis, lactate production, and pyruvate oxidation. The analysis can distinguish between parameters that must be determined accurately and those that require less precision, based on their effects on model predictions. This capability may prove to be important in optimizing experimental design, thus reducing use of animals.

  15. A Quantitative Study of Oxygen as a Metabolic Regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; LaManna, Joseph C.; Cabera, Marco E.

    2000-01-01

    An acute reduction in oxygen delivery to a tissue is associated with metabolic changes aimed at maintaining ATP homeostasis. However, given the complexity of the human bio-energetic system, it is difficult to determine quantitatively how cellular metabolic processes interact to maintain ATP homeostasis during stress (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and exercise). In particular, we are interested in determining mechanisms relating cellular oxygen concentration to observed metabolic responses at the cellular, tissue, organ, and whole body levels and in quantifying how changes in tissue oxygen availability affect the pathways of ATP synthesis and the metabolites that control these pathways. In this study; we extend a previously developed mathematical model of human bioenergetics, to provide a physicochemical framework that permits quantitative understanding of oxygen as a metabolic regulator. Specifically, the enhancement - sensitivity analysis - permits studying the effects of variations in tissue oxygenation and parameters controlling cellular respiration on glycolysis, lactate production, and pyruvate oxidation. The analysis can distinguish between parameters that must be determined accurately and those that require less precision, based on their effects on model predictions. This capability may prove to be important in optimizing experimental design, thus reducing use of animals.

  16. Radical Oxygen Species, Exercise and Aging: An Update.

    PubMed

    Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Filaire, Edith; McCall, Alan; Fabre, Claudine

    2015-09-01

    It is now well established that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial species. In fact, ROS act as secondary messengers in intracellular signalling cascades; however, they can also induce cellular senescence and apoptosis. Aging is an intricate phenomenon characterized by a progressive decline in physiological functions and an increase in mortality, which is often accompanied by many pathological diseases. ROS are involved in age-associated damage to macromolecules, and this may cause derangement in ROS-mediated cell signalling, resulting in stress and diseases. Moreover, the role of oxidative stress in age-related sarcopenia provides strong evidence for the important contribution of physical activity to limit this process. Regular physical activity is considered a preventive measure against oxidative stress-related diseases. The aim of this review is to summarize the currently available studies investigating the effects of chronic and/or acute physical exercise on the oxidative stress process in healthy elderly subjects. Although studies on oxidative stress and physical activity are limited, the available information shows that acute exercise increases ROS production and oxidative stress damage in older adults, whereas chronic exercise could protect elderly subjects from oxidative stress damage and reinforce their antioxidant defences. The available studies reveal that to promote beneficial effects of physical activity on oxidative stress, elderly subjects require moderate-intensity training rather than high-intensity exercise.

  17. Cell signaling by reactive nitrogen and oxygen species in atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, R. P.; Moellering, D.; Murphy-Ullrich, J.; Jo, H.; Beckman, J. S.; Darley-Usmar, V. M.

    2000-01-01

    The production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species has been implicated in atherosclerosis principally as means of damaging low-density lipoprotein that in turn initiates the accumulation of cholesterol in macrophages. The diversity of novel oxidative modifications to lipids and proteins recently identified in atherosclerotic lesions has revealed surprising complexity in the mechanisms of oxidative damage and their potential role in atherosclerosis. Oxidative or nitrosative stress does not completely consume intracellular antioxidants leading to cell death as previously thought. Rather, oxidative and nitrosative stress have a more subtle impact on the atherogenic process by modulating intracellular signaling pathways in vascular tissues to affect inflammatory cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Furthermore, cellular responses can affect the production of nitric oxide, which in turn can strongly influence the nature of oxidative modifications occurring in atherosclerosis. The dynamic interactions between endogenous low concentrations of oxidants or reactive nitrogen species with intracellular signaling pathways may have a general role in processes affecting wound healing to apoptosis, which can provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  18. The role of reactive oxygen species in mesenchymal stem cell adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation: a review.

    PubMed

    Atashi, Fatemeh; Modarressi, Ali; Pepper, Michael S

    2015-05-15

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The multipotent stem cell component of MSC isolates is able to differentiate into derivatives of the mesodermal lineage including adipocytes, osteocytes, chondrocytes, and myocytes. Many common pathways have been described in the regulation of adipogenesis and osteogenesis. However, stimulation of osteogenesis appears to suppress adipogenesis and vice-versa. Increasing evidence implicates a tight regulation of these processes by reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are short-lived oxygen-containing molecules that display high chemical reactivity toward DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. Mitochondrial complexes I and III, and the NADPH oxidase isoform NOX4 are major sources of ROS production during MSC differentiation. ROS are thought to interact with several pathways that affect the transcription machinery required for MSC differentiation including the Wnt, Hedgehog, and FOXO signaling cascades. On the other hand, elevated levels of ROS, defined as oxidative stress, lead to arrest of the MSC cell cycle and apoptosis. Tightly regulated levels of ROS are therefore critical for MSC terminal differentiation, although the precise sources, localization, levels and the exact species of ROS implicated remain to be determined. This review provides a detailed overview of the influence of ROS on adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in MSCs.

  19. Function of reactive oxygen species during animal development: passive or active?

    PubMed

    Covarrubias, Luis; Hernández-García, David; Schnabel, Denhí; Salas-Vidal, Enrique; Castro-Obregón, Susana

    2008-08-01

    Oxidative stress is considered causal of aging and pathological cell death, however, very little is known about its function in the natural processes that support the formation of an organism. It is generally thought that cells must continuously protect themselves from the possible damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) (passive ROS function). However, presently, ROS are recognized as physiologically relevant molecules that mediate cell responses to a variety of stimuli, and the activities of several molecules, some developmentally relevant, are directly or indirectly regulated by oxidative stress (active ROS function). Here we review recent data that are suggestive of specific ROS functions during development of animals, particularly mammals.

  20. Catabolite and Oxygen Regulation of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Carlson-Banning, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The biogeography of the gut is diverse in its longitudinal axis, as well as within specific microenvironments. Differential oxygenation and nutrient composition drive the membership of microbial communities in these habitats. Moreover, enteric pathogens can orchestrate further modifications to gain a competitive advantage toward host colonization. These pathogens are versatile and adept when exploiting the human colon. They expertly navigate complex environmental cues and interkingdom signaling to colonize and infect their hosts. Here we demonstrate how enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) uses three sugar-sensing transcription factors, Cra, KdpE, and FusR, to exquisitely regulate the expression of virulence factors associated with its type III secretion system (T3SS) when exposed to various oxygen concentrations. We also explored the effect of mucin-derived nonpreferred carbon sources on EHEC growth and expression of virulence genes. Taken together, the results show that EHEC represses the expression of its T3SS when oxygen is absent, mimicking the largely anaerobic lumen, and activates its T3SS when oxygen is available through Cra. In addition, when EHEC senses mucin-derived sugars heavily present in the O-linked and N-linked glycans of the large intestine, virulence gene expression is initiated. Sugars derived from pectin, a complex plant polysaccharide digested in the large intestine, also increased virulence gene expression. Not only does EHEC sense host- and microbiota-derived interkingdom signals, it also uses oxygen availability and mucin-derived sugars liberated by the microbiota to stimulate expression of the T3SS. This precision in gene regulation allows EHEC to be an efficient pathogen with an extremely low infectious dose. PMID:27879335

  1. [Generation of reactive oxygen species in water under exposure of visible or infrared irradiation at absorption band of molecular oxygen].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, S V; Karp, O E; Garmash, S A; Ivanov, V E; Chernikov, A V; Manokhin, A A; Astashev, M E; Iaguzhinskiĭ, L S; Bruskov, V I

    2012-01-01

    It is found that in bidistilled water saturated with oxygen hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals are formed under the influence of visible and infrared radiation in the absorption bands of molecular oxygen. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs under the influence of both solar and artificial light sourses, including the coherent laser irradiation. The oxygen effect, i.e. the impact of dissolved oxygen concentration on production of hydrogen peroxide induced by light, is detected. It is shown that the visible and infrared radiation in the absorption bands of molecular oxygen leads to the formation of 8-oxoguanine in DNA in vitro. Physicochemical mechanisms of ROS formation in water when exposed to visible and infrared light are studied, and the involvement of singlet oxygen and superoxide anion radicals in this process is shown.

  2. Enzymatic Production of Extracellular Reactive Oxygen Species by Marine Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, J. M.; Andeer, P. F.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as intermediates in a myriad of biogeochemically important processes, including cell signaling pathways, cellular oxidative stress responses, and the transformation of both nutrient and toxic metals such as iron and mercury. Abiotic reactions involving the photo-oxidation of organic matter were once considered the only important sources of ROS in the environment. However, the recent discovery of substantial biological ROS production in marine systems has fundamentally shifted this paradigm. Within the last few decades, marine phytoplankton, including diatoms of the genus Thalassiosira, were discovered to produce ample extracellular quantities of the ROS superoxide. Even more recently, we discovered widespread production of extracellular superoxide by phylogenetically and ecologically diverse heterotrophic bacteria at environmentally significant levels (up to 20 amol cell-1 hr-1), which has introduced the revolutionary potential for substantial "dark" cycling of ROS. Despite the profound biogeochemical importance of extracellular biogenic ROS, the cellular mechanisms underlying the production of this ROS have remained elusive. Through the development of a gel-based assay to identify extracellular ROS-producing proteins, we have recently found that enzymes typically involved in antioxidant activity also produce superoxide when molecular oxygen is the only available electron acceptor. For example, large (~3600 amino acids) heme peroxidases are involved in extracellular superoxide production by a bacterium within the widespread Roseobacter clade. In Thalassiosira spp., extracellular superoxide is produced by flavoproteins such as glutathione reductase and ferredoxin NADP+ reductase. Thus, extracellular ROS production may occur via secreted and/or cell surface enzymes that modulate between producing and degrading ROS depending on prevailing geochemical and/or ecological conditions.

  3. The Quantum Biology of Reactive Oxygen Species Partitioning Impacts Cellular Bioenergetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usselman, Robert J.; Chavarriaga, Cristina; Castello, Pablo R.; Procopio, Maria; Ritz, Thorsten; Dratz, Edward A.; Singel, David J.; Martino, Carlos F.

    2016-12-01

    Quantum biology is the study of quantum effects on biochemical mechanisms and biological function. We show that the biological production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in live cells can be influenced by coherent electron spin dynamics, providing a new example of quantum biology in cellular regulation. ROS partitioning appears to be mediated during the activation of molecular oxygen (O2) by reduced flavoenzymes, forming spin-correlated radical pairs (RPs). We find that oscillating magnetic fields at Zeeman resonance alter relative yields of cellular superoxide (O2•‑) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) ROS products, indicating coherent singlet-triplet mixing at the point of ROS formation. Furthermore, the orientation-dependence of magnetic stimulation, which leads to specific changes in ROS levels, increases either mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis rates. Our results reveal quantum effects in live cell cultures that bridge atomic and cellular levels by connecting ROS partitioning to cellular bioenergetics.

  4. The Quantum Biology of Reactive Oxygen Species Partitioning Impacts Cellular Bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Usselman, Robert J.; Chavarriaga, Cristina; Castello, Pablo R.; Procopio, Maria; Ritz, Thorsten; Dratz, Edward A.; Singel, David J.; Martino, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum biology is the study of quantum effects on biochemical mechanisms and biological function. We show that the biological production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in live cells can be influenced by coherent electron spin dynamics, providing a new example of quantum biology in cellular regulation. ROS partitioning appears to be mediated during the activation of molecular oxygen (O2) by reduced flavoenzymes, forming spin-correlated radical pairs (RPs). We find that oscillating magnetic fields at Zeeman resonance alter relative yields of cellular superoxide (O2•−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) ROS products, indicating coherent singlet-triplet mixing at the point of ROS formation. Furthermore, the orientation-dependence of magnetic stimulation, which leads to specific changes in ROS levels, increases either mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis rates. Our results reveal quantum effects in live cell cultures that bridge atomic and cellular levels by connecting ROS partitioning to cellular bioenergetics. PMID:27995996

  5. Endophytic Bacterium-Triggered Reactive Oxygen Species Directly Increase Oxygenous Sesquiterpenoid Content and Diversity in Atractylodes lancea

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jia-Yu; Yuan, Jie; Li, Xia; Ning, Yi-Fan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenous terpenoids are active components of many medicinal plants. However, current studies that have focused on enzymatic oxidation reactions cannot comprehensively clarify the mechanisms of oxygenous terpenoid synthesis and diversity. This study shows that an endophytic bacterium can trigger the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that directly increase oxygenous sesquiterpenoid content and diversity in Atractylodes lancea. A. lancea is a famous but endangered Chinese medicinal plant that contains abundant oxygenous sesquiterpenoids. Geo-authentic A. lancea produces a wider range and a greater abundance of oxygenous sesquiterpenoids than the cultivated herb. Our previous studies have shown the mechanisms behind endophytic promotion of the production of sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbon scaffolds; however, how endophytes promote the formation of oxygenous sesquiterpenoids and their diversity is unclear. After colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens ALEB7B, oxidative burst and oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation in A. lancea occur synchronously. Treatment with exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or singlet oxygen induces oxidative burst and promotes oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation in planta. Conversely, pretreatment of plantlets with the ROS scavenger ascorbic acid significantly inhibits the oxidative burst and oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation induced by P. fluorescens ALEB7B. Further in vitro oxidation experiments show that several oxygenous sesquiterpenoids can be obtained from direct oxidation caused by H2O2 or singlet oxygen. In summary, this study demonstrates that endophytic bacterium-triggered ROS can directly oxidize oxygen-free sesquiterpenoids and increase the oxygenous sesquiterpenoid content and diversity in A. lancea, providing a novel explanation of the mechanisms of oxygenous terpenoid synthesis in planta and an essential complementarity to enzymatic oxidation reactions. PMID:26712554

  6. Hypoxia-Dependent Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in the Pulmonary Circulation: Focus on Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Veit, Florian; Pak, Oleg; Brandes, Ralf P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: An acute lack of oxygen in the lung causes hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, which optimizes gas exchange. In contrast, chronic hypoxia triggers a pathological vascular remodeling causing pulmonary hypertension, and ischemia can cause vascular damage culminating in lung edema. Recent Advances: Regulation of ion channel expression and gating by cellular redox state is a widely accepted mechanism; however, it remains a matter of debate whether an increase or a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs under hypoxic conditions. Ion channel redox regulation has been described in detail for some ion channels, such as Kv channels or TRPC6. However, in general, information on ion channel redox regulation remains scant. Critical Issues and Future Directions: In addition to the debate of increased versus decreased ROS production during hypoxia, we aim here at describing and deciphering why different oxidants, under different conditions, can cause both activation and inhibition of channel activity. While the upstream pathways affecting channel gating are often well described, we need a better understanding of redox protein modifications to be able to determine the complexity of ion channel redox regulation. Against this background, we summarize the current knowledge on hypoxia-induced ROS-mediated ion channel signaling in the pulmonary circulation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 537–552 PMID:25545236

  7. Prostaglandins as negative regulators against lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, and peptidoglycan-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide production through reactive oxygen species-dependent heme oxygenase 1 expression in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chih-Chiang; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Yang, Liang-Yo; Chen, Yen-Chou

    2012-11-01

    -induced events. Moreover, the compound, cyclopentenone (CP), which mimics the CP moiety of 15d, and its analog cyclohexenone were used, and cyclohexenone showed more potent induction of the HO-1 protein with effective inhibition of LPS-, LTA-, and PGN-induced iNOS/NO production than CP in macrophages. Reactive oxygen species-dependent HO-1 protein expression by PGs, which inhibited LPS-, LTA-, and PGN-induced iNOS/NO production, was identified in macrophages.

  8. Reactive oxygen species: role in the development of cancer and various chronic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Waris, Gulam; Ahsan, Haseeb

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen derived species such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical are well known to be cytotoxic and have been implicated in the etiology of a wide array of human diseases, including cancer. Various carcinogens may also partly exert their effect by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) during their metabolism. Oxidative damage to cellular DNA can lead to mutations and may, therefore, play an important role in the initiation and progression of multistage carcinogenesis. The changes in DNA such as base modification, rearrangement of DNA sequence, miscoding of DNA lesion, gene duplication and the activation of oncogenes may be involved in the initiation of various cancers. Elevated levels of ROS and down regulation of ROS scavengers and antioxidant enzymes are associated with various human diseases including various cancers. ROS are also implicated in diabtes and neurodegenerative diseases. ROS influences central cellular processes such as proliferation a, apoptosis, senescence which are implicated in the development of cancer. Understanding the role of ROS as key mediators in signaling cascades may provide various opportunities for pharmacological intervention. PMID:16689993

  9. Reactive oxygen species in response of plants to gravity stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadko, Sergiy

    2016-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) as second messengers can induce stress response of plants. Thioredoxins (Trx) and peroxiredoxins (Prx) can function as sensors and transmitters of the ROS in stress signaling and antioxidant response. 12-14 days old tissue culture of Arabidopsis thaliana have been investigated. Hypergravity stress was induced by centrifugation at 10 and 20 g during 30 and 90 min and than intensity of spontaneous chemiluminescence (SChL/ROS content), Trx and Prx activities were determined. All experiments were repeated from 3 to 5 times and the obtained data were statistically treated. In the tissue culture under development of the stress there were an increase in intensity of SChL and Trx and Prx activities. Thus, under hypergravity stress in the plant occurred early increase in the ROS level and the ROS induced the increase in the Trx and Prx activities. Prx and Trx can also participate in the formation of stress respons as acceptors and transducers of the redox signals. Increase in the activity of these enzymes primarily aimed at increasing of the total antioxidant activity in the cells to prevent of the plant to development of oxidative degradation by ROS.

  10. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cancer: Role of antioxidative nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Gupta, Subash C; Tyagi, Amit K

    2017-02-28

    Extensive research over the past half a century indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in cancer. Although low levels of ROS can be beneficial, excessive accumulation can promote cancer. One characteristic of cancer cells that distinguishes them from normal cells is their ability to produce increased numbers of ROS and their increased dependence on an antioxidant defense system. ROS are produced as a byproduct intracellularly by mitochondria and other cellular elements and exogenously by pollutants, tobacco, smoke, drugs, xenobiotics, and radiation. ROS modulate various cell signaling pathways, which are primarily mediated through the transcription factors NF-κB and STAT3, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, kinases, growth factors, cytokines and other proteins, and enzymes; these pathways have been linked to cellular transformation, inflammation, tumor survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis of cancer. ROS are also associated with epigenetic changes in genes, which is helpful in diagnosing diseases. This review considers the role of ROS in the various stages of cancer development. Finally, we provide evidence that nutraceuticals derived from Mother Nature are highly effective in eliminating cancer cells.

  11. Reactive oxygen species: players in the cardiovascular effects of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Rita C; Carneiro, Fernando S; Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2016-01-01

    Androgens are essential for the development and maintenance of male reproductive tissues and sexual function and for overall health and well being. Testosterone, the predominant and most important androgen, not only affects the male reproductive system, but also influences the activity of many other organs. In the cardiovascular system, the actions of testosterone are still controversial, its effects ranging from protective to deleterious. While early studies showed that testosterone replacement therapy exerted beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, some recent safety studies point to a positive association between endogenous and supraphysiological levels of androgens/testosterone and cardiovascular disease risk. Among the possible mechanisms involved in the actions of testosterone on the cardiovascular system, indirect actions (changes in the lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and hemostatic mechanisms, modulation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), as well as direct actions (modulatory effects on proinflammatory enzymes, on the generation of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide bioavailability, and on vasoconstrictor signaling pathways) have been reported. This mini-review focuses on evidence indicating that testosterone has prooxidative actions that may contribute to its deleterious actions in the cardiovascular system. The controversial effects of testosterone on ROS generation and oxidant status, both prooxidant and antioxidant, in the cardiovascular system and in cells and tissues of other systems are reviewed.

  12. Reactive oxygen species a double-edged sword for mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Catalani, Simona; Galati, Rossella

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that oxidative stress can lead to chronic inflammation which, in turn, could mediate most chronic diseases including cancer. Oxidants have been implicated in the activity of crocidolite and amosite, the most powerful types of asbestos associated to the occurrence of mesothelioma. Currently rates of mesothelioma are rising and estimates indicate that the incidence of mesothelioma will peak within the next 10–15 years in the western world, while in Japan the peak is predicted not to occur until 40 years from now. Although the use of asbestos has been banned in many countries around the world, production of and the potentially hazardous exposure to asbestos is still present with locally high incidences of mesothelioma. Today a new man-made material, carbon nanotubes, has arisen as a concern; carbon nanotubes may display ‘asbestos-like’ pathogenicity with mesothelioma induction potential. Carbon nanotubes resulted in the greatest reactive oxygen species generation. How oxidative stress activates inflammatory pathways leading to the transformation of a normal cell to a tumor cell, to tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, chemoresistance, and radioresistance, is the aim of this review. PMID:26078352

  13. Generation of reactive oxygen species from silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephen S; Cohen, Guy M; Kenyon, Allison J; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Fix, Natalie R; Bangsaruntip, Sarunya; Roberts, Jenny R

    2014-01-01

    Processing and synthesis of purified nanomaterials of diverse composition, size, and properties is an evolving process. Studies have demonstrated that some nanomaterials have potential toxic effects and have led to toxicity research focusing on nanotoxicology. About two million workers will be employed in the field of nanotechnology over the next 10 years. The unknown effects of nanomaterials create a need for research and development of techniques to identify possible toxicity. Through a cooperative effort between National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and IBM to address possible occupational exposures, silicon-based nanowires (SiNWs) were obtained for our study. These SiNWs are anisotropic filamentary crystals of silicon, synthesized by the vapor-liquid-solid method and used in bio-sensors, gas sensors, and field effect transistors. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be generated when organisms are exposed to a material causing cellular responses, such as lipid peroxidation, H2O2 production, and DNA damage. SiNWs were assessed using three different in vitro environments (H2O2, RAW 264.7 cells, and rat alveolar macrophages) for ROS generation and possible toxicity identification. We used electron spin resonance, analysis of lipid peroxidation, measurement of H2O2 production, and the comet assay to assess generation of ROS from SiNW and define possible mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that SiNWs do not appear to be significant generators of free radicals.

  14. Geochemical production of reactive oxygen species from biogeochemically reduced Fe.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sarah A; Solomon, Benson M; Meng, Shengnan; Copeland, Justin M; Shaw, Timothy J; Ferry, John L

    2014-04-01

    The photochemical reduction of Fe(III) complexes to Fe(II) is a well-known initiation step for the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in sunlit waters. Here we show a geochemical mechanism for the same in dark environments based on the tidally driven, episodic movement of anoxic groundwaters through oxidized, Fe(III) rich sediments. Sediment samples were collected from the top 5 cm of sediment in a saline tidal creek in the estuary at Murrell's Inlet, South Carolina and characterized with respect to total Fe, acid volatile sulfides, and organic carbon content. These sediments were air-dried, resuspended in aerated solution, then exposed to aqueous sulfide at a range of concentrations chosen to replicate the conditions characteristic of a tidal cycle, beginning with low tide. No detectable ROS production occurred from this process in the dark until sulfide was added. Sulfide addition resulted in the rapid production of hydrogen peroxide, with maximum concentrations of 3.85 μM. The mechanism of hydrogen peroxide production was tested using a simplified three factor representation of the system based on hydrogen sulfide, Fe(II) and Fe(III). The resulting predictive model for maximum hydrogen peroxide agreed with measured hydrogen peroxide in field-derived samples at the 95% level of confidence, although with a persistent negative bias suggesting a minor undiscovered peroxide source in sediments.

  15. Mechanism of teratogenesis: electron transfer, reactive oxygen species, and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy

    2006-12-01

    Teratogenesis has been a topic of increasing interest and concern in recent years, generating controversy in association with danger to humans and other living things. A veritable host of chemicals is known to be involved, encompassing a wide variety of classes, both organic and inorganic. Contact with these chemicals is virtually unavoidable due to contamination of air, water, ground, food, beverages, and household items, as well as exposure to medicinals. The resulting adverse effects on reproduction are numerous. There is uncertainty regarding the mode of action of these chemicals, although various theories have been advanced, e.g., disruption of the central nervous system (CNS), DNA attack, enzyme inhibition, interference with hormonal action, and insult to membranes, proteins, and mitochondria. This review provides extensive evidence for involvement of oxidative stress (OS) and electron transfer (ET) as a unifying theme. Successful application of the mechanistic approach is made to all of the main classes of toxins, in addition to large numbers of miscellaneous types. We believe it is not coincidental that the vast majority of these substances incorporate ET functionalities (quinone, metal complex, ArNO2, or conjugated iminium) either per se or in metabolites, potentially giving rise to reactive oxygen species (ROS) by redox cycling. Some categories, e.g., peroxides and radiation, appear to generate ROS by non-ET routes. Other mechanisms are briefly addressed; a multifaceted approach to mode of action appears to be the most logical. Our framework should increase understanding and contribute to preventative measures, such as use of antioxidants.

  16. Redox Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    He, Feng; Zuo, Li

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), a major cause of mortality in the world, has been extensively studied over the past decade. However, the exact mechanism underlying its pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in the progression of CVD. Particularly, ROS are commonly engaged in developing typical characteristics of atherosclerosis, one of the dominant CVDs. This review will discuss the involvement of ROS in atherosclerosis, specifically their effect on inflammation, disturbed blood flow and arterial wall remodeling. Pharmacological interventions target ROS in order to alleviate oxidative stress and CVD symptoms, yet results are varied due to the paradoxical role of ROS in CVD. Lack of effectiveness in clinical trials suggests that understanding the exact role of ROS in the pathophysiology of CVD and developing novel treatments, such as antioxidant gene therapy and nanotechnology-related antioxidant delivery, could provide a therapeutic advance in treating CVDs. While genetic therapies focusing on specific antioxidant expression seem promising in CVD treatments, multiple technological challenges exist precluding its immediate clinical applications. PMID:26610475

  17. Salicylic acid signaling inhibits apoplastic reactive oxygen species signaling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are used by plants as signaling molecules during stress and development. Given the amount of possible challenges a plant face from their environment, plants need to activate and prioritize between potentially conflicting defense signaling pathways. Until recently, most studies on signal interactions have focused on phytohormone interaction, such as the antagonistic relationship between salicylic acid (SA)-jasmonic acid and cytokinin-auxin. Results In this study, we report an antagonistic interaction between SA signaling and apoplastic ROS signaling. Treatment with ozone (O3) leads to a ROS burst in the apoplast and induces extensive changes in gene expression and elevation of defense hormones. However, Arabidopsis thaliana dnd1 (defense no death1) exhibited an attenuated response to O3. In addition, the dnd1 mutant displayed constitutive expression of defense genes and spontaneous cell death. To determine the exact process which blocks the apoplastic ROS signaling, double and triple mutants involved in various signaling pathway were generated in dnd1 background. Simultaneous elimination of SA-dependent and SA-independent signaling components from dnd1 restored its responsiveness to O3. Conversely, pre-treatment of plants with SA or using mutants that constitutively activate SA signaling led to an attenuation of changes in gene expression elicited by O3. Conclusions Based upon these findings, we conclude that plants are able to prioritize the response between ROS and SA via an antagonistic action of SA and SA signaling on apoplastic ROS signaling. PMID:24898702

  18. Serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Annalisa; Roscino, Maria Teresa; Minoia, Giuseppe; Trisolini, Carmelinda; Spedicato, Massimo; Mutinati, Maddalena; Pantaleo, Marianna; Jirillo, Felicita; Sciorsci, Raffaele L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the serum concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the different phases of the estrous cycle in the bitch, in order to establish their physiological values. 56 healthy mixed-breed bitches were enrolled at this purpose and divided into 4 groups, standing on the different phases of the estrus cycle. Blood samples were collected in all groups and serum ROS concentrations were determined. Proestral concentrations were statistically higher than anestral ones, and statistically lower than those found in estrus (p<0.001). The highest concentrations of ROS were detected at estrus, that is, in the peri-ovulatory period. This sharp increase in ROS concentrations is related to the acute inflammatory process underlying ovulation and to the increase in immune and metabolic activities, cytological changes and myometrial contractility promoted by the high levels of estrogens. In diestrus, the mean concentration of ROS decreases. This reduction did not show any statistically significant difference with the mean value observed in proestrus. In this phase, in fact, the high concentrations of progesterone, exerting an antioxidant and immunodepressive effect, justify the lower mean concentration of ROS detected. In anestrus, the lowest concentrations of ROS were observed, for the reduced metabolic and endocrine activity occurring in this phase of the estrous cycle. In conclusion our results establish the physiologic levels of ROS during the estrous cycle in the bitch and reflect the endocrine morphologic and metabolic changes occurring during it.

  19. Signaling by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Afanas'ev, Igor B

    2010-06-01

    For many years the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS) and (RNS) in living organisms has been considered to be dangerous phenomenon due to their damaging action on biomolecules. However, present studies demonstrated another important activity of ROS and RNS: their signaling functions in physiological and pathological processes. In this work we discuss the new data concerning a role of ROS and RNS in many enzymatic/gene cascades causing damaging changes during the development of skin diseases and pathological disorders (skin cancer, the toxic effects of irradiation on the skin, and skin wounding). It has been suggested that the enhancement of ROS formation in tumor cells through the inactivation of mitochondrial MnSOD or the activation of NADPH oxidase leads to apoptosis and might be applied for developing a new cancer therapy. On the other hand ROS overproduction might stimulate malignant transformation of melanoma. Role of ROS signaling is also considered in the damaging action of UVA, UVB, and IRA irradiation on the skin and the processes of wound healing. In the last part of review the possibility of the right choice of antioxidants and free radical scavengers for the treatment of skin disease is discussed.

  20. Mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex generates reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Starkov, Anatoly A; Fiskum, Gary; Chinopoulos, Christos; Lorenzo, Beverly J; Browne, Susan E; Patel, Mulchand S; Beal, M Flint

    2004-09-08

    Mitochondria-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to contribute to cell death caused by a multitude of pathological conditions. The molecular sites of mitochondrial ROS production are not well established but are generally thought to be located in complex I and complex III of the electron transport chain. We measured H(2)O(2) production, respiration, and NADPH reduction level in rat brain mitochondria oxidizing a variety of respiratory substrates. Under conditions of maximum respiration induced with either ADP or carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone,alpha-ketoglutarate supported the highest rate of H(2)O(2) production. In the absence of ADP or in the presence of rotenone, H(2)O(2) production rates correlated with the reduction level of mitochondrial NADPH with various substrates, with the exception of alpha-ketoglutarate. Isolated mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDHC) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHC) complexes produced superoxide and H(2)O(2). NAD(+) inhibited ROS production by the isolated enzymes and by permeabilized mitochondria. We also measured H(2)O(2) production by brain mitochondria isolated from heterozygous knock-out mice deficient in dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Dld). Although this enzyme is a part of both KGDHC and PDHC, there was greater impairment of KGDHC activity in Dld-deficient mitochondria. These mitochondria also produced significantly less H(2)O(2) than mitochondria isolated from their littermate wild-type mice. The data strongly indicate that KGDHC is a primary site of ROS production in normally functioning mitochondria.

  1. Ethanol stimulates epithelial sodium channels by elevating reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Bao, Hui-Fang; Song, John Z; Duke, Billie J; Ma, He-Ping; Denson, Donald D; Eaton, Douglas C

    2012-12-01

    Alcohol affects total body sodium balance, but the molecular mechanism of its effect remains unclear. We used single-channel methods to examine how ethanol affects epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in A6 distal nephron cells. The data showed that ethanol significantly increased both ENaC open probability (P(o)) and the number of active ENaC in patches (N). 1-Propanol and 1-butanol also increased ENaC activity, but iso-alcohols did not. The effects of ethanol were mimicked by acetaldehyde, the first metabolic product of ethanol, but not by acetone, the metabolic product of 2-propanol. Besides increasing open probability and apparent density of active channels, confocal microscopy and surface biotinylation showed that ethanol significantly increased α-ENaC protein in the apical membrane. The effects of ethanol on ENaC P(o) and N were abolished by a superoxide scavenger, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy (TEMPOL) and blocked by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Consistent with an effect of ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) on ENaC, primary alcohols and acetaldehyde elevated intracellular ROS, but secondary alcohols did not. Taken together with our previous finding that ROS stimulate ENaC, the current results suggest that ethanol stimulates ENaC by elevating intracellular ROS probably via its metabolic product acetaldehyde.

  2. Are Reactive Oxygen Species Always Detrimental to Pathogens?

    PubMed Central

    Bozza, Marcelo T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are deadly weapons used by phagocytes and other cell types, such as lung epithelial cells, against pathogens. ROS can kill pathogens directly by causing oxidative damage to biocompounds or indirectly by stimulating pathogen elimination by various nonoxidative mechanisms, including pattern recognition receptors signaling, autophagy, neutrophil extracellular trap formation, and T-lymphocyte responses. Thus, one should expect that the inhibition of ROS production promote infection. Increasing evidences support that in certain particular infections, antioxidants decrease and prooxidants increase pathogen burden. In this study, we review the classic infections that are controlled by ROS and the cases in which ROS appear as promoters of infection, challenging the paradigm. We discuss the possible mechanisms by which ROS could promote particular infections. These mechanisms are still not completely clear but include the metabolic effects of ROS on pathogen physiology, ROS-induced damage to the immune system, and ROS-induced activation of immune defense mechanisms that are subsequently hijacked by particular pathogens to act against more effective microbicidal mechanisms of the immune system. The effective use of antioxidants as therapeutic agents against certain infections is a realistic possibility that is beginning to be applied against viruses. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1000–1037. PMID:23992156

  3. Matairesinol inhibits angiogenesis via suppression of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Boram; Kim, Ki Hyun; Jung, Hye Jin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2012-04-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matairesinol suppresses mitochondrial ROS generation during hypoxia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matairesinol exhibits potent anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matairesinol could be a basis for the development of novel anti-angiogenic agents. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) are involved in cancer initiation and progression and function as signaling molecules in many aspects of hypoxia and growth factor-mediated signaling. Here we report that matairesinol, a natural small molecule identified from the cell-based screening of 200 natural plants, suppresses mROS generation resulting in anti-angiogenic activity. A non-toxic concentration of matairesinol inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The compound also suppressed in vitro angiogenesis of tube formation and chemoinvasion, as well as in vivo angiogenesis of the chorioallantoic membrane at non-toxic doses. Furthermore, matairesinol decreased hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} in hypoxic HeLa cells. These results demonstrate that matairesinol could function as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor by suppressing mROS signaling.

  4. Reactive oxygen species: players in the cardiovascular effects of testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Fernando S.; Carvalho, Maria Helena C.; Reckelhoff, Jane F.

    2015-01-01

    Androgens are essential for the development and maintenance of male reproductive tissues and sexual function and for overall health and well being. Testosterone, the predominant and most important androgen, not only affects the male reproductive system, but also influences the activity of many other organs. In the cardiovascular system, the actions of testosterone are still controversial, its effects ranging from protective to deleterious. While early studies showed that testosterone replacement therapy exerted beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, some recent safety studies point to a positive association between endogenous and supraphysiological levels of androgens/testosterone and cardiovascular disease risk. Among the possible mechanisms involved in the actions of testosterone on the cardiovascular system, indirect actions (changes in the lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and hemostatic mechanisms, modulation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), as well as direct actions (modulatory effects on proinflammatory enzymes, on the generation of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide bioavailability, and on vasoconstrictor signaling pathways) have been reported. This mini-review focuses on evidence indicating that testosterone has prooxidative actions that may contribute to its deleterious actions in the cardiovascular system. The controversial effects of testosterone on ROS generation and oxidant status, both prooxidant and antioxidant, in the cardiovascular system and in cells and tissues of other systems are reviewed. PMID:26538238

  5. Soot-driven reactive oxygen species formation from incense burning.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Jones, Tim P; Lung, Shih-Chun C; BéruBé, Kelly A

    2011-10-15

    This study investigated the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated as a function of the physicochemistry of incense particulate matter (IPM), diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and carbon black (CB). Microscopical and elemental analyses were used to determine particle morphology and inorganic compounds. ROS was determined using the reactive dye, Dichlorodihydrofluorescin (DCFH), and the Plasmid Scission Assay (PSA), which determine DNA damage. Two common types of soot were observed within IPM, including nano-soot and micro-soot, whereas DEP and CB mainly consisted of nano-soot. These PM were capable of causing oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner, especially IPM and DEP. A dose of IPM (36.6-102.3μg/ml) was capable of causing 50% oxidative DNA damage. ROS formation was positively correlated to smaller nano-soot aggregates and bulk metallic compounds, particularly Cu. These observations have important implications for respiratory health given that inflammation has been recognised as an important factor in the development of lung injury/diseases by oxidative stress. This study supports the view that ROS formation by combustion-derived PM is related to PM physicochemistry, and also provides new data for IPM.

  6. Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species from Silicon Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Stephen S; Cohen, Guy M; Kenyon, Allison J; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Fix, Natalie R; Bangsaruntip, Sarunya; Roberts, Jenny R

    2014-01-01

    Processing and synthesis of purified nanomaterials of diverse composition, size, and properties is an evolving process. Studies have demonstrated that some nanomaterials have potential toxic effects and have led to toxicity research focusing on nanotoxicology. About two million workers will be employed in the field of nanotechnology over the next 10 years. The unknown effects of nanomaterials create a need for research and development of techniques to identify possible toxicity. Through a cooperative effort between National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and IBM to address possible occupational exposures, silicon-based nanowires (SiNWs) were obtained for our study. These SiNWs are anisotropic filamentary crystals of silicon, synthesized by the vapor–liquid–solid method and used in bio-sensors, gas sensors, and field effect transistors. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be generated when organisms are exposed to a material causing cellular responses, such as lipid peroxidation, H2O2 production, and DNA damage. SiNWs were assessed using three different in vitro environments (H2O2, RAW 264.7 cells, and rat alveolar macrophages) for ROS generation and possible toxicity identification. We used electron spin resonance, analysis of lipid peroxidation, measurement of H2O2 production, and the comet assay to assess generation of ROS from SiNW and define possible mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that SiNWs do not appear to be significant generators of free radicals. PMID:25452695

  7. Reactive Oxygen Species, Apoptosis, Antimicrobial Peptides and Human Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Adenowo, Abiola Fatimah; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2015-01-01

    Excessive free radical generation, especially reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress in the biological system, has been implicated in the pathogenesis and pathological conditions associated with diverse human inflammatory diseases (HIDs). Although inflammation which is considered advantageous is a defensive mechanism in response to xenobiotics and foreign pathogen; as a result of cellular damage arising from oxidative stress, if uncontrolled, it may degenerate to chronic inflammation when the ROS levels exceed the antioxidant capacity. Therefore, in the normal resolution of inflammatory reactions, apoptosis is acknowledged to play a crucial role, while on the other hand, dysregulation in the induction of apoptosis by enhanced ROS production could also result in excessive apoptosis identified in the pathogenesis of HIDs. Apparently, a careful balance must be maintained in this complex environment. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed in this review as an excellent candidate capable of playing prominent roles in maintaining this balance. Consequently, in novel drug design for the treatment and management of HIDs, AMPs are promising candidates owing to their size and multidimensional properties as well as their wide spectrum of activities and indications of reduced rate of resistance. PMID:25850012

  8. NSAIDs and Cardiovascular Diseases: Role of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Rajeshwary; Alajbegovic, Azra; Gomes, Aldrin V.

    2015-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most commonly used drugs worldwide. NSAIDs are used for a variety of conditions including pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and musculoskeletal disorders. The beneficial effects of NSAIDs in reducing or relieving pain are well established, and other benefits such as reducing inflammation and anticancer effects are also documented. The undesirable side effects of NSAIDs include ulcers, internal bleeding, kidney failure, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. Some of these side effects may be due to the oxidative stress induced by NSAIDs in different tissues. NSAIDs have been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in different cell types including cardiac and cardiovascular related cells. Increases in ROS result in increased levels of oxidized proteins which alters key intracellular signaling pathways. One of these key pathways is apoptosis which causes cell death when significantly activated. This review discusses the relationship between NSAIDs and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and the role of NSAID-induced ROS in CVD. PMID:26457127

  9. Redox Mechanism of Reactive Oxygen Species in Exercise

    PubMed Central

    He, Feng; Li, Juan; Liu, Zewen; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Yang, Wenge; Zuo, Li

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that regular exercise can benefit health by enhancing antioxidant defenses in the body. However, unaccustomed and/or exhaustive exercise can generate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress-related tissue damages and impaired muscle contractility. ROS are produced in both aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Mitochondria, NADPH oxidases and xanthine oxidases have all been identified as potential contributors to ROS production, yet the exact redox mechanisms underlying exercise-induced oxidative stress remain elusive. Interestingly, moderate exposure to ROS is necessary to induce body's adaptive responses such as the activation of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Dietary antioxidant manipulation can also reduce ROS levels and muscle fatigue, as well as enhance exercise recovery. To elucidate the complex role of ROS in exercise, this review updates on new findings of ROS origins within skeletal muscles associated with various types of exercises such as endurance, sprint and mountain climbing. In addition, we will examine the corresponding antioxidant defense systems as well as dietary manipulation against damages caused by ROS. PMID:27872595

  10. Formation of protein S-nitrosylation by reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Hlaing, K Htet; Clément, M-V

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, the formation of whole cellular S-nitrosylated proteins (protein-SNOs) by the reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide (O2(•-)) is demonstrated. A spectrum of protein cysteine oxidative modifications was detected upon incubation of serum-starved mouse embryonic fibroblasts with increasing concentrations of exogenous H2O2, ranging from exclusive protein-SNOs at low concentrations to a mixture of protein-SNOs and other protein oxidation at higher concentrations to exclusively non-SNO protein oxidation at the highest concentrations of the oxidant used. Furthermore, formation of protein-SNOs was also detected upon inhibition of the antioxidant protein Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase that results in an increase in intracellular concentration of O2(•-). These results were further validated using the phosphatase and tensin homologue, PTEN, as a model of a protein sensitive to oxidative modifications. The formation of protein-SNOs by H2O2 and O2(•-) was prevented by the NO scavenger, c-PTIO, as well as the peroxinitrite decomposition catalyst, FETPPS, and correlated with the production or the consumption of nitric oxide (NO), respectively. These data suggest that the formation of protein-SNOs by H2O2 or O2(•-) requires the presence or the production of NO and involves the formation of the nitrosylating intermediate, peroxinitrite.

  11. NO accounts completely for the oxygenated nitrogen species generated by enzymic L-arginine oxygenation.

    PubMed Central

    Mülsch, A; Vanin, A; Mordvintcev, P; Hauschildt, S; Busse, R

    1992-01-01

    We have assessed the stoichiometry of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase reaction by using a novel e.p.r. technique. NO generated by crude and partially purified NO synthase from endothelial cells and Escherichia coli-lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages was trapped by a ferrous diethyldithiocarbamate complex dispersed in yeast. The paramagnetic ferrous mononitrosyl dithiocarbamate complex formed exhibited a characteristic e.p.r. signal at g perpendicular = 2.035 and g parallel = 2.02 with a triplet hyperfine structure (hfs) at g perpendicular. NO, 3-morpholinosydnonimine and S-nitroso-L-cysteine, but not nitrite or hydroxylamine, generated a similar e.p.r. signal. NO generated by NO synthase and by SIN-1 accumulated at a constant rate for 1 h, as measured by continuous e.p.r. registration at 37 degrees C. The formation of e.p.r.-detectable NO by NO synthases was inhibited by NG-nitro-L-arginine. Incubation with [15N]NG-L-arginine caused an e.p.r. signal with doublet hfs, indicating that the nitrosyl nitrogen derived exclusively from the guanidino nitrogen. The amount of NO generated by NO synthase as measured by e.p.r. technique was compared with formation of L-[3H]citrulline from L-[3H]arginine. NO and L-citrulline were detected at a 1:1 ratio with both NO synthase preparations. GSH and thiol depletion did not significantly affect NO synthase activity, excluding S-nitrosothiols as intermediates in the NO synthase reaction. We conclude that NO fully accounts for the immediate oxygenated nitrogen species derived from the enzymic oxygenation of L-arginine. PMID:1281408

  12. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation by lunar simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Rickman, Douglas; Schoonen, Martin A.

    2016-05-01

    The current interest in human exploration of the Moon and past experiences of Apollo astronauts has rekindled interest into the possible harmful effects of lunar dust on human health. In comparison to the Apollo-era explorations, human explorers may be weeks on the Moon, which will raise the risk of inhalation exposure. The mineralogical composition of lunar dust is well documented, but its effects on human health are not fully understood. With the aim of understanding the reactivity of dusts that may be encountered on geologically different lunar terrains, we have studied Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation by a suite of lunar simulants of different mineralogical-chemical composition dispersed in water and Simulated Lung Fluid (SLF). To further explore the reactivity of simulants under lunar environmental conditions, we compared the reactivity of simulants both in air and inert atmosphere. As the impact of micrometeorites with consequent shock-induced stresses is a major environmental factor on the Moon, we also studied the effect of mechanical stress on samples. Mechanical stress was induced by hand crushing the samples both in air and inert atmosphere. The reactivity of samples after crushing was analyzed for a period of up to nine days. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in water and SLF was analyzed by an in situ electrochemical probe and hydroxyl radical (•OH) by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and Adenine probe. Out of all simulants, CSM-CL-S was found to be the most reactive simulant followed by OB-1 and then JSC-1A simulant. The overall reactivity of samples in the inert atmosphere was higher than in air. Fresh crushed samples showed a higher level of reactivity than uncrushed samples. Simulant samples treated to create agglutination, including the formation of zero-valent iron, showed less reactivity than untreated simulants. ROS generation in SLF is initially slower than in deionized water (DI), but the ROS formation is sustained for as long as 7

  13. Elevated Cytoplasmic Free Zinc and Increased Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in the Context of Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Stork, Christian J; Li, Yang V

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular zinc release and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported to be common ingredients in numerous toxic signaling mechanisms in neurons. A key source for intracellular zinc release is its liberation from metallothionein-III (MT-III). MT-III binds and regulates intracellular zinc levels under physiological conditions, but the zinc-binding thiols readily react with certain ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) to result in intracellular zinc liberation. Liberated zinc induces ROS and RNS generation by multiple mechanisms, including the induction of mitochondrial ROS production, and also promotes ROS formation outside the mitochondria by interaction with the enzymes NADPH oxidase and 12-lipoxygenase. Of particular relevance to neuronal injury in the context of ischemia and prolonged seizures, the positive feedback cycle between ROS/RNS generation and increasing zinc liberation will be examined.

  14. Reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in osteoclastogenesis, skeletal aging and bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Danielle A; Jiang, Jean X

    2015-07-01

    Osteoclasts are cells derived from bone marrow macrophages and are important in regulating bone resorption during bone homeostasis. Understanding what drives osteoclast differentiation and activity is important when studying diseases characterized by heightened bone resorption relative to formation, such as osteoporosis. In the last decade, studies have indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, are crucial components that regulate the differentiation process of osteoclasts. However, there are still many unanswered questions that remain. This review will examine the mechanisms by which ROS can be produced in osteoclasts as well as how it may affect osteoclast differentiation and activity through its actions on osteoclastogenesis signaling pathways. In addition, the contribution of ROS to the aging-associated disease of osteoporosis will be addressed and how targeting ROS may lead to the development of novel therapeutic treatment options.

  15. Mitochondria, reactive oxygen species, and chronological aging: a message from yeast.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yong

    2011-11-01

    As a major intracellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondria are involved in aging and lifespan regulation. Using the yeast chronological aging model, researchers have identified conserved signaling pathways that affect lifespan by modulating mitochondrial functions. Caloric restriction and a genetic mimetic with reduced target of rapamycin signaling globally upregulate the mitochondrial proteome and respiratory functions. Recent discoveries support the notion that an altered mitochondrial proteome induces mitohormesis. Mitohormesis involves a variety of ROS during several growth stages and extends lifespan in yeast and other organisms. Here we recap recent advances in understanding of ROS as signals that decelerate chronological aging in yeast. We also discuss parallels between yeast and worm hypoxic signaling. In sum, this mini-review covers mitochondrial regulation by nutrient-sensing pathways and the complex underlying interactions of ROS, metabolic pathways, and chronological aging.

  16. Involvement of Cytochrome P450 in Reactive Oxygen Species Formation and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hrycay, Eugene G; Bandiera, Stelvio M

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the involvement of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the formation of reactive oxygen species in biological systems and discusses the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species and CYP enzymes in cancer. Reactive oxygen species are formed in biological systems as byproducts of the reduction of molecular oxygen and include the superoxide radical anion (∙O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (∙OH), hydroperoxyl radical (HOO∙), singlet oxygen ((1)O2), and peroxyl radical (ROO∙). Two endogenous sources of reactive oxygen species are the mammalian CYP-dependent microsomal electron transport system and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. CYP enzymes catalyze the oxygenation of an organic substrate and the simultaneous reduction of molecular oxygen. If the transfer of oxygen to a substrate is not tightly controlled, uncoupling occurs and leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species are capable of causing oxidative damage to cellular membranes and macromolecules that can lead to the development of human diseases such as cancer. In normal cells, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species are maintained in balance with intracellular biochemical antioxidants to prevent cellular damage. Oxidative stress occurs when this critical balance is disrupted. Topics covered in this review include the role of reactive oxygen species in intracellular cell signaling and the relationship between CYP enzymes and cancer. Outlines of CYP expression in neoplastic tissues, CYP enzyme polymorphism and cancer risk, CYP enzymes in cancer therapy and the metabolic activation of chemical procarcinogens by CYP enzymes are also provided.

  17. A case of mistaken identity: are reactive oxygen species actually reactive sulfide species?

    PubMed

    DeLeon, Eric R; Gao, Yan; Huang, Evelyn; Arif, Maaz; Arora, Nitin; Divietro, Alexander; Patel, Shivali; Olson, Kenneth R

    2016-04-01

    Stepwise one-electron reduction of oxygen to water produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are chemically and biochemically similar to reactive sulfide species (RSS) derived from one-electron oxidations of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur. Both ROS and RSS are endogenously generated and signal via protein thiols. Given the similarities between ROS and RSS, we wondered whether extant methods for measuring the former would also detect the latter. Here, we compared ROS to RSS sensitivity of five common ROS methods: redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP), 2', 7'-dihydrodichlorofluorescein, MitoSox Red, Amplex Red, and amperometric electrodes. All methods detected RSS and were as, or more, sensitive to RSS than to ROS. roGFP, arguably the "gold standard" for ROS measurement, was more than 200-fold more sensitive to the mixed polysulfide H2Sn(n = 1-8) than to H2O2 These findings suggest that RSS may be far more prevalent in intracellular signaling than previously appreciated and that the contribution of ROS may be overestimated. This conclusion is further supported by the observation that estimated daily sulfur metabolism and ROS production are approximately equal and the fact that both RSS and antioxidant mechanisms have been present since the origin of life, nearly 4 billion years ago, long before the rise in environmental oxygen 600 million years ago. Although ROS are assumed to be the most biologically relevant oxidants, our results question this paradigm. We also anticipate our findings will direct attention toward development of novel and clinically relevant anti-(RSS)-oxidants.

  18. Oxygen regulated gene expression in facultatively anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Unden, G; Becker, S; Bongaerts, J; Schirawski, J; Six, S

    1994-01-01

    In facultatively anaerobic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, oxygen and other electron acceptors fundamentally influence catabolic and anabolic pathways. E. coli is able to grow aerobically by respiration and in the absence of O2 by anaerobic respiration with nitrate, nitrite, fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide and trimethylamine N-oxide as acceptors or by fermentation. The expression of the various catabolic pathways occurs according to a hierarchy with 3 or 4 levels. Aerobic respiration at the highest level is followed by nitrate respiration (level 2), anaerobic respiration with the other acceptors (level 3) and fermentation. In other bacteria, different regulatory cascades with other underlying principles can be observed. Regulation of anabolism in response to O2 availability is important, too. It is caused by different requirements of cofactors or coenzymes in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism and by the requirement for different O2-independent biosynthetic routes under anoxia. The regulation mainly occurs at the transcriptional level. In E. coli, 4 global regulatory systems are known to be essential for the aerobic/anaerobic switch and the described hierarchy. A two-component sensor/regulator system comprising ArcB (sensor) and ArcA (transcriptional regulator) is responsible for regulation of aerobic metabolism. The FNR protein is a transcriptional sensor-regulator protein which regulates anaerobic respiratory genes in response to O2 availability. The gene activator FhlA regulates fermentative formate and hydrogen metabolism with formate as the inductor. ArcA/B and FNR directly respond to O2, FhlA indirectly by decreased levels of formate in the presence of O2. Regulation of nitrate/nitrite catabolism is effected by two 2-component sensor/regulator systems NarX(Q)/NarL(P) in response to nitrate/nitrite. Co-operation of the different regulatory systems at the target promoters which are in part under dual (or manifold) transcriptional control causes the expression

  19. Reactive Oxygen Species Alter Autocrine and Paracrine Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Zangar, Richard C.; Bollinger, Nikki; Weber, Thomas J.; Tan, Ruimin; Markillie, Lye Meng; Karin, Norman J.

    2011-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the most abundant P450 protein in human liver and intestine and is highly inducible by a variety of drugs and other compounds. The P450 catalytic cycle is known to uncouple and release reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the effects of ROS from P450 and other enzymes in the endo-plasmic reticulum have been poorly studied from the perspective of effects on cell biology. In this study, we expressed low levels of CYP3A4 in HepG2 cells, a human hepatocarcinoma cell line, and examined effects on intracellular levels of ROS and on the secretion of a variety of growth factors that are important in extracellular communication. Using the redox-sensitive dye RedoxSensor red, we demonstrate that CYP3A4 expression increases levels of ROS in viable cells. A customELISA microarray platform was employed to demonstrate that expression of CYP3A4 increased secretion of amphiregulin, intracellular adhesion molecule 1, matrix metalloprotease 2, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor, but suppressed secretion of CD14. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine suppressed all P450-dependent changes in protein secretion except for CD14. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that changes in protein secretion were consistently associated with corresponding changes in gene expression. Inhibition of the NF-{kappa}B pathway blocked P450 effects on PDGF secretion. CYP3A4 expression also altered protein secretion in human mammary epithelial cells and C10 mouse lung cells. Overall, these results suggest that increased ROS production in the endoplasmic reticulum alters the secretion of proteins that have key roles in paracrine and autocrine signaling.

  20. Are mitochondrial reactive oxygen species required for autophagy?

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Jianfei; Maeda, Akihiro; Ji, Jing; Baty, Catherine J.; Watkins, Simon C.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Autophageal and apoptotic pathways were dissected in cytochrome c deficient cells. {yields} Staurosporine (STS)-induced autophagy was not accompanied by ROS generation. {yields} Autophagy was detectable in mitochondrial DNA deficient {rho}{sup 0} cells. {yields} Mitochondrial ROS are not required for the STS-induced autophagy in HeLa cells. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are said to participate in the autophagy signaling. Supporting evidence is obscured by interference of autophagy and apoptosis, whereby the latter heavily relies on ROS signaling. To dissect autophagy from apoptosis we knocked down expression of cytochrome c, the key component of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, in HeLa cells using shRNA. In cytochrome c deficient HeLa1.2 cells, electron transport was compromised due to the lack of electron shuttle between mitochondrial respiratory complexes III and IV. A rapid and robust LC3-I/II conversion and mitochondria degradation were observed in HeLa1.2 cells treated with staurosporine (STS). Neither generation of superoxide nor accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was detected in STS-treated HeLa1.2 cells. A membrane permeable antioxidant, PEG-SOD, plus catalase exerted no effect on STS-induced LC3-I/II conversion and mitochondria degradation. Further, STS caused autophagy in mitochondria DNA-deficient {rho}{sup o} HeLa1.2 cells in which both electron transport and ROS generation were completely disrupted. Counter to the widespread view, we conclude that mitochondrial ROS are not required for the induction of autophagy.

  1. Growth enhancement and gene expression of Arabidopsis thaliana irradiated with active oxygen species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya; Shiratani, Masaharu; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Inoue, Asami; Yasuda, Kaori; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of plant growth enhancement effect and the mechanism of the enhancement induced by plasma irradiation are investigated using various active species in plasma. Active oxygen species in oxygen plasma are effective for growth enhancement of plants. DNA microarray analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana indicates that the genes coding proteins that counter oxidative stresses by eliminating active oxygen species are expressed at significantly high levels. The size of plant cells increases owing to oxygen plasma irradiation. The increases in gene expression levels and cell size suggest that the increase in the expression level of the expansin protein is essential for plant growth enhancement phenomena.

  2. Oxygen Pathway Modeling Estimates High Reactive Oxygen Species Production above the Highest Permanent Human Habitation

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Isaac; Selivanov, Vitaly; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Tegnér, Jesper; Roca, Josep; Wagner, Peter D.; Cascante, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the inner mitochondrial membrane is one of many fundamental processes governing the balance between health and disease. It is well known that ROS are necessary signaling molecules in gene expression, yet when expressed at high levels, ROS may cause oxidative stress and cell damage. Both hypoxia and hyperoxia may alter ROS production by changing mitochondrial Po2 (). Because depends on the balance between O2 transport and utilization, we formulated an integrative mathematical model of O2 transport and utilization in skeletal muscle to predict conditions to cause abnormally high ROS generation. Simulations using data from healthy subjects during maximal exercise at sea level reveal little mitochondrial ROS production. However, altitude triggers high mitochondrial ROS production in muscle regions with high metabolic capacity but limited O2 delivery. This altitude roughly coincides with the highest location of permanent human habitation. Above 25,000 ft., more than 90% of exercising muscle is predicted to produce abnormally high levels of ROS, corresponding to the “death zone” in mountaineering. PMID:25375931

  3. Surface Electrochemistry of Chloro(phthalocyaninato)rhodium(III) species, and Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysis, Formation of a Dimeric Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-20

    rhodium(III) Species, and Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysis , Formation of a Dimeric Species By Y.-H. Tse, P. Seymour, N. Kobayashi, H. Lam, C.C. Leznoff... Electrocatalysis , Formation of a Dimeric Species 12. PERSONAL AuTI𔃾OR(S)* Y.-H. Ise, P. Sey;mour, N. Kobayashi, H. Lam, C.C. Leznoff, and A.B.P. L...Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysis . Formation of a Dimeric Species. Yu-Hong Tse, Penny Seymour, Nagao Kobayashi, 1 Herman Lam, Clifford C. Leznoff. and

  4. Upsides and Downsides of Reactive Oxygen Species for Cancer: The Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species in Tumorigenesis, Prevention, and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Subash C.; Hevia, David; Patchva, Sridevi; Park, Byoungduck; Koh, Wonil

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Extensive research during the last quarter century has revealed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the body, primarily by the mitochondria, play a major role in various cell-signaling pathways. Most risk factors associated with chronic diseases (e.g., cancer), such as stress, tobacco, environmental pollutants, radiation, viral infection, diet, and bacterial infection, interact with cells through the generation of ROS. Recent Advances: ROS, in turn, activate various transcription factors (e.g., nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells [NF-κB], activator protein-1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), resulting in the expression of proteins that control inflammation, cellular transformation, tumor cell survival, tumor cell proliferation and invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Paradoxically, ROS also control the expression of various tumor suppressor genes (p53, Rb, and PTEN). Similarly, γ-radiation and various chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer mediate their effects through the production of ROS. Interestingly, ROS have also been implicated in the chemopreventive and anti-tumor action of nutraceuticals derived from fruits, vegetables, spices, and other natural products used in traditional medicine. Critical Issues: These statements suggest both “upside” (cancer-suppressing) and “downside” (cancer-promoting) actions of the ROS. Thus, similar to tumor necrosis factor-α, inflammation, and NF-κB, ROS act as a double-edged sword. This paradox provides a great challenge for researchers whose aim is to exploit ROS stress for the development of cancer therapies. Future Directions: The various mechanisms by which ROS mediate paradoxical effects are discussed in this article. The outstanding questions and future directions raised by our current understanding are discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 1295–1322. PMID:22117137

  5. Copper elevated embryonic hemoglobin through reactive oxygen species during zebrafish erythrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Ting; Ren, Long; Wu, Jun-Jie; Wang, Weimin; Liu, Jing-Xia

    2016-06-01

    Copper, as an essential trace mineral, can cause diseases such as childhood leukemia at excess levels, but has been applied in anemia therapy for a long time. However, few reports have studied its role during hematopoiesis at the molecular level in an animal model. In this study, by microarray, qRT-PCR, whole-mount in situ hybridization and O-dianisidine staining detections, we revealed the increased expression of hemoglobin in copper-exposed embryos. Secondly, we found that copper-exposed embryos exhibited high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and genes in oxygen binding and oxygen transporting were up-regulated in the embryos. Finally, we found that ROS scavengers NAC, GSH, and DMTU not only inhibited in vivo ROS levels induced by copper, but also significantly decreased high expression of hemoglobin back to almost normal levels in copper exposed embryos, and also helped with copper elimination from the embryos. Our data first demonstrated that ROS mediated copper induced hemoglobin expression in vertebrates, partly revealing the underlying molecular mechanism of copper therapy for anemia. Moreover, we revealed that copper homeostasis was broken by its induced ROS and ROS helped with copper overloading in the body, which could be applied as a novel therapy target for copper-caused diseases.

  6. A Potassium-Dependent Oxygen Sensing Pathway Regulates Plant Root Hydraulics.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Zaigham; Canut, Matthieu; Tournaire-Roux, Colette; Martinière, Alexandre; Boursiac, Yann; Loudet, Olivier; Maurel, Christophe

    2016-09-22

    Aerobic organisms survive low oxygen (O2) through activation of diverse molecular, metabolic, and physiological responses. In most plants, root water permeability (in other words, hydraulic conductivity, Lpr) is downregulated under O2 deficiency. Here, we used a quantitative genetics approach in Arabidopsis to clone Hydraulic Conductivity of Root 1 (HCR1), a Raf-like MAPKKK that negatively controls Lpr. HCR1 accumulates and is functional under combined O2 limitation and potassium (K(+)) sufficiency. HCR1 regulates Lpr and hypoxia responsive genes, through the control of RAP2.12, a key transcriptional regulator of the core anaerobic response. A substantial variation of HCR1 in regulating Lpr is observed at the Arabidopsis species level. Thus, by combinatorially integrating two soil signals, K(+) and O2 availability, HCR1 modulates the resilience of plants to multiple flooding scenarios.

  7. Berberine-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells is initiated by reactive oxygen species generation

    SciTech Connect

    Meeran, Syed M.; Katiyar, Suchitra; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2008-05-15

    Phytochemicals show promise as potential chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents against various cancers. Here we report the chemotherapeutic effects of berberine, a phytochemical, on human prostate cancer cells. The treatment of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) with berberine induced dose-dependent apoptosis but this effect of berberine was not seen in non-neoplastic human prostate epithelial cells (PWR-1E). Berberine-induced apoptosis was associated with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, release of apoptogenic molecules (cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO) from mitochondria and cleavage of caspase-9,-3 and PARP proteins. This effect of berberine on prostate cancer cells was initiated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) irrespective of their androgen responsiveness, and the generation of ROS was through the increased induction of xanthine oxidase. Treatment of cells with allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, inhibited berberine-induced oxidative stress in cancer cells. Berberine-induced apoptosis was blocked in the presence of antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, through the prevention of disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and subsequently release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO. In conclusion, the present study reveals that the berberine-mediated cell death of human prostate cancer cells is regulated by reactive oxygen species, and therefore suggests that berberine may be considered for further studies as a promising therapeutic candidate for prostate cancer.

  8. Role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in age-related inflammatory activation of endothelium.

    PubMed

    Zinovkin, Roman A; Romaschenko, Valeria P; Galkin, Ivan I; Zakharova, Vlada V; Pletjushkina, Olga Yu; Chernyak, Boris V; Popova, Ekaterina N

    2014-08-01

    Vascular aging is accompanied by increases in circulatory proinflammatory cytokines leading to inflammatory endothelial response implicated in early atherogenesis. To study the possible role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this phenomenon, we applied the effective mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1, the conjugate of plastoquinone with dodecyltriphenylphosphonium. Eight months treatment of (CBAxC57BL/6) F1 mice with SkQ1 did not prevent age-related elevation of the major proinflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 in serum, but completely abrogated the increase in adhesion molecule ICAM1 expression in aortas of 24-month-old animals. In endothelial cell culture, SkQ1 also attenuated TNF-induced increase in ICAM1, VCAM, and E-selectin expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, and prevented neutrophil adhesion to the endothelial monolayer. Using specific inhibitors to transcription factor NF-κB and stress-kinases p38 and JNK, we demonstrated that TNF-induced ICAM1 expression depends mainly on NF-κB activity and, to a lesser extent, on p38. SkQ1 had no effect on p38 phosphorylation (activation) but significantly reduced NF-κB activation by inhibiting phosphorylation and proteolytic cleavage of the inhibitory subunit IκBα. The data indicate an important role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in regulation of the NF-κB pathway and corresponding age-related inflammatory activation of endothelium.

  9. Overexpression of stanniocalcin-1 inhibits reactive oxygen species and renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Luping; Belousova, Tatiana; Chen, Minyi; DiMattia, Gabriel; Liu, Dajun; Sheikh-Hamad, David

    2012-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and mitogen-activated protein kinases have important roles in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion kidney injury. Stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) suppresses superoxide generation in many systems through the induction of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and blocks the cytokine-induced rise in endothelial permeability. Here we tested whether transgenic overexpression of STC1 protects from bilateral ischemia/reperfusion kidney injury. This injury in wild-type mice caused a halving of the creatinine clearance; severe tubular vacuolization and cast formation; increased infiltration of macrophages and T cells; higher vascular permeability; greater production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide; and higher ratio of activated extracellular regulated kinase/activated Jun-N-terminal kinase and p38, all compared to sham-treated controls. Mice transgenic for human STC1 expression, however, had resistance to equivalent ischemia/reperfusion injury indicated as no significant change from controls in any of these parameters. Tubular epithelial cells in transgenic mice expressed higher mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 and lower superoxide generation. Pre-treatment of transgenic mice with paraquat, a generator of reactive oxygen species, before injury restored the susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion kidney injury, suggesting that STC1 protects by an anti-oxidant mechanism. Thus, STC1 may be a therapeutic target for ischemia/reperfusion kidney injury.

  10. Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species are required for systemic acquired resistance in plants.

    PubMed

    El-Shetehy, Mohamed; Wang, Caixia; Shine, M B; Yu, Keshun; Kachroo, Aardra; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a form of broad-spectrum disease resistance that is induced in response to primary infection and that protects uninfected portions of the plant against secondary infections by related or unrelated pathogens. SAR is associated with an increase in chemical signals that operate in a collective manner to confer protection against secondary infections. These include, the phytohormone salicylic acid (SA), glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), azelaic acid (AzA) and more recently identified signals nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). NO, ROS, AzA and G3P function in the same branch of the SAR pathway, and in parallel to the SA-regulated branch. NO and ROS function upstream of AzA/G3P and different reactive oxygen species functions in an additive manner to mediate chemical cleavage of the C9 double bond on C18 unsaturated fatty acids to generate AzA. The parallel and additive functioning of various chemical signals provides important new insights in the overlapping pathways leading to SAR.

  11. Active Oxygen Species Generator by Low Pressure Silent Discharge and its Application to Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Ikeda, Akira; Tanimura, Yasuhiro; Ohta, Koji; Yoshiyasu, Hajimu

    We have proposed the new water treatment using the active oxygen species such as an atomic oxygen with the oxidation power that is stronger than ozone. Based on the results of simulations we designed the silent discharge type active oxygen generator with a water ejector, which is operated on the discharge conditions of low pressure of 6.6kPa. and high temperature of about 200°C. The experimental results are as follows. (1) The yield of the active oxygen increases with the increase of the discharge tube temperature and the decrease of the gas pressure. (2) The life time of active oxygen is tens msec. (3) The active oxygen oxidizes efficiently the formic acid compared with ozone. It is assumed from these results that the active oxygen species having a strong oxidation power is generated.

  12. Phosphoinositol 3-phosphate acts as a timer for reactive oxygen species production in the phagosome.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhi Min; Bouchab, Leïla; Hudik, Elodie; Le Bars, Romain; Nüsse, Oliver; Dupré-Crochet, Sophie

    2017-01-17

    Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the phagosome by the NADPH oxidase is critical for mammalian immune defense against microbial infections and phosphoinositides are important regulators in this process. Phosphoinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P) regulates ROS production at the phagosome via p40(phox) by an unknown mechanism. This study tested the hypothesis that PI(3)P controls ROS production by regulating the presence of p40(phox) and p67(phox) at the phagosomal membrane. Pharmacologic inhibition of PI(3)P synthesis at the phagosome decreased the ROS production both in differentiated PLB-985 cells and human neutrophils. It also releases p67(phox), the key cytosolic subunit of the oxidase, and p40(phox) from the phagosome. The knockdown of the PI(3)P phosphatase MTM1 or Rubicon or both increases the level of PI(3)P at the phagosome. That increase enhances ROS production inside the phagosome and triggers an extended accumulation of p67(phox) at the phagosome. Furthermore, the overexpression of MTM1 at the phagosomal membrane induces the disappearance of PI(3)P from the phagosome and prevents sustained ROS production. In conclusion, PI(3)P, indeed, regulates ROS production by maintaining p40(phox) and p67(phox) at the phagosomal membrane.

  13. Reactive oxygen species controllable non-thermal helium plasmas for evaluation of plasmid DNA strand breaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young Kim, Jae; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Ballato, John; Cao, Weiguo; Kim, Sung-O.

    2012-11-01

    Non-thermal, oxygen-rich helium plasmas were investigated to achieve an enhanced reactive oxygen species concentration at low voltage driving conditions. A non-thermal plasma device was fabricated based on a theta-shaped tube, and its potential was investigated for use in topological alteration of plasmid DNA. The optical emission spectra of the plasma showed that the oxygen flow affected the plasma properties, even though an oxygen plasma was not produced. The plasmid DNA strand breaks became more significant with the addition of oxygen flow to the helium in a single hollow, theta-shaped tube with other experimental conditions being unchanged.

  14. Role of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species in the Activation of Cellular Signals, Molecules, and Function.

    PubMed

    Indo, Hiroko P; Hawkins, Clare L; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichiro; Matsui, Hirofumi; Suenaga, Shigeaki; Davies, Michael J; St Clair, Daret K; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Majima, Hideyuki J

    2017-02-08

    Mitochondria are a major source of intracellular energy and reactive oxygen species in cells, but are also increasingly being recognized as a controller of cell death. Here, we review evidence of signal transduction control by mitochondrial superoxide generation via the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and GATA signaling pathways. We have also reviewed the effects of ROS on the activation of MMP and HIF. There is significant evidence to support the hypothesis that mitochondrial superoxide can initiate signaling pathways following transport into the cytosol. In this study, we provide evidence of TATA signal transductions by mitochondrial superoxide. Oxidative phosphorylation via the electron transfer chain, glycolysis, and generation of superoxide from mitochondria could be important factors in regulating signal transduction, cellular homeostasis, and cell death.

  15. Interaction of hyperlipidemia and reactive oxygen species: Insights from the lipid-raft platform

    PubMed Central

    Amiya, Eisuke

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress are closely associated with the development of atherosclerosis, and the most important regulator of ROS production in endothelial cells is NADPH oxidase. Activation of NADPH oxidase requires the assembly of multiple subunits into lipid rafts, which include specific lipid components, including free cholesterol and specific proteins. Disorders of lipid metabolism such as hyperlipidemia affect the cellular lipid components included in rafts, resulting in modification of cellular reactions that produce ROS. In the similar manner, several pathways associating ROS production are affected by the presence of lipid disorder through raft compartments. In this manuscript, we review the pathophysiological implications of hyperlipidemia and lipid rafts in the production of ROS. PMID:28070236

  16. Signaling Networks Involving Reactive Oxygen Species and Ca2+ in Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Although plants never evolved central information processing organs such as brains, plants have evolved distributed information processing systems and are able to sense various environmental changes and reorganize their body plan coordinately without moving. Recent molecular biological studies revealed molecular bases for elementary processes of signal transduction in plants. Though reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly toxic substances produced through aerobic respiration and photosynthesis, plants possess ROS-producing enzymes whose activity is highly regulated by binding of Ca2+. In turn, Ca2+- permeable channel proteins activated by ROS are shown to be localized to the cell membrane. These two components are proposed to constitute a positive feedback loop to amplify cellular signals. Such molecular physiological studies should be important steps to understand information processing systems in plants and future application for technology related to environmental, energy and food sciences.

  17. The Role of Mitochondria in Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Starkov, Anatoly A.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered a major contributor to the etiology of both “normal” senescence and severe pathologies with serious public health implications. Several cellular sources, including mitochondria, are known to produce significant amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may contribute to intracellular oxidative stress. Mitochondria possess at least 10 known sites that are capable of generating ROS, but they also feature a sophisticated multilayered ROS defense system that is much less studied. This review summarizes the current knowledge about major components involved in mitochondrial ROS metabolism and factors that regulate ROS generation and removal at the level of mitochondria. An integrative systemic approach is applied to analysis of mitochondrial ROS metabolism, which is “dissected” into ROS generation, ROS emission, and ROS scavenging. The in vitro ROS-producing capacity of several mitochondrial sites is compared in the metabolic context and the role of mitochondria in ROS-dependent intracellular signaling is discussed. PMID:19076429

  18. Regulatory mechanisms of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species generation and their role in plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Hirofumi; Mase, Keisuke; Yoshioka, Miki; Kobayashi, Michie; Asai, Shuta

    2011-08-01

    Rapid production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in diverse physiological processes, such as programmed cell death, development, cell elongation and hormonal signaling, in plants. Much attention has been paid to the regulation of plant innate immunity by these signal molecules. Recent studies provide evidence that an NADPH oxidase, respiratory burst oxidase homolog, is responsible for pathogen-responsive ROS burst. However, we still do not know about NO-producing enzymes, except for nitrate reductase, although many studies suggest the existence of NO synthase-like activity responsible for NO burst in plants. Here, we introduce regulatory mechanisms of NO and ROS bursts by mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, calcium-dependent protein kinase or riboflavin and its derivatives, flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide, and we discuss the roles of the bursts in defense responses against plant pathogens.

  19. Reactive oxygen species generated from skeletal muscles are required for gecko tail regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing; Wang, Yingjie; Man, Lili; Zhu, Ziwen; Bai, Xue; Wei, Sumei; Liu, Yan; Liu, Mei; Wang, Xiaochuan; Gu, Xiaosong; Wang, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate in various physiological and pathological functions following generation from different types of cells. Here we explore ROS functions on spontaneous tail regeneration using gecko model. ROS were mainly produced in the skeletal muscle after tail amputation, showing a temporal increase as the regeneration proceeded. Inhibition of the ROS production influenced the formation of autophagy in the skeletal muscles, and as a consequence, the length of the regenerating tail. Transcriptome analysis has shown that NADPH oxidase (NOX2) and the subunits (p40phox and p47phox) are involved in the ROS production. ROS promoted the formation of autophagy through regulation of both ULK and MAPK activities. Our results suggest that ROS produced by skeletal muscles are required for the successful gecko tail regeneration. PMID:26853930

  20. Betulin induces reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC7901 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Liu, Xiaokang; Jiang, Dan; Lin, Yingjia; Wang, Yushi; Li, Qing; Liu, Linlin; Jin, Ying-Hua

    2016-09-01

    Betulin, an abundant natural compound, significantly inhibited the cell viability of advanced human gastric cancer SGC7901 cells. Mechanism study demonstrated that betulin induced apoptosis through mitochondrial Bax and Bak accumulation-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Downregulation of the anti-apoptosis proteins Bcl-2 and XIAP was involved during betulin-induced cell apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was generated in cells after betulin treatment in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Addition of antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated betulin-induced ROS generation as well as Bcl-2 and XIAP downregulation. The mitochondrial accumulation of Bax and Bak, as well as caspase activity, was also remarkably inhibited by NAC treatment, indicating that ROS are important signaling intermediates that lead to betulin-induced apoptosis by modulating multiple apoptosis-regulating proteins in SGC7901 cells.

  1. Cross-talk of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in plant programed cell death

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiqin; Loake, Gary J.; Chu, Chengcai

    2013-01-01

    In plants, programed cell death (PCD) is an important mechanism to regulate multiple aspects of growth and development, as well as to remove damaged or infected cells during responses to environmental stresses and pathogen attacks. Under biotic and abiotic stresses, plant cells exhibit a rapid synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and a parallel accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Frequently, these responses trigger a PCD process leading to an intrinsic execution of plant cells. The accumulating evidence suggests that both NO and ROS play key roles in PCD. These redox active small molecules can trigger cell death either independently or synergistically. Here we summarize the recent progress on the cross-talk of NO and ROS signals in the hypersensitive response, leaf senescence, and other kinds of plant PCD caused by diverse cues. PMID:23967004

  2. Computational Models of Reactive Oxygen Species as Metabolic Byproducts and Signal-Transduction Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Elizabeth J.; Smolko, Christian M.; Janes, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are widely involved in intracellular signaling and human pathologies, but their precise roles have been difficult to enumerate and integrate holistically. The context- and dose-dependent intracellular effects of ROS can lead to contradictory experimental results and confounded interpretations. For example, lower levels of ROS promote cell signaling and proliferation, whereas abundant ROS cause overwhelming damage to biomolecules and cellular apoptosis or senescence. These complexities raise the question of whether the many facets of ROS biology can be joined under a common mechanistic framework using computational modeling. Here, we take inventory of some current models for ROS production or ROS regulation of signaling pathways. Several models captured non-intuitive observations or made predictions that were later verified by experiment. There remains a need for systems-level analyses that jointly incorporate ROS production, handling, and modulation of multiple signal-transduction cascades. PMID:27965578

  3. Reactive oxygen species generated from skeletal muscles are required for gecko tail regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Wang, Yingjie; Man, Lili; Zhu, Ziwen; Bai, Xue; Wei, Sumei; Liu, Yan; Liu, Mei; Wang, Xiaochuan; Gu, Xiaosong; Wang, Yongjun

    2016-02-08

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate in various physiological and pathological functions following generation from different types of cells. Here we explore ROS functions on spontaneous tail regeneration using gecko model. ROS were mainly produced in the skeletal muscle after tail amputation, showing a temporal increase as the regeneration proceeded. Inhibition of the ROS production influenced the formation of autophagy in the skeletal muscles, and as a consequence, the length of the regenerating tail. Transcriptome analysis has shown that NADPH oxidase (NOX2) and the subunits (p40(phox) and p47(phox)) are involved in the ROS production. ROS promoted the formation of autophagy through regulation of both ULK and MAPK activities. Our results suggest that ROS produced by skeletal muscles are required for the successful gecko tail regeneration.

  4. The regulatory roles of ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant salt stress responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Smith, J Andrew C; Harberd, Nicholas P; Jiang, Caifu

    2016-08-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most commonly encountered environmental stresses affecting plant growth and crop productivity. Accordingly, plants have evolved a variety of morphological, physiological and biochemical strategies that enable them to adapt to saline growth conditions. For example, it has long been known that salinity-stress increases both the production of the gaseous stress hormone ethylene and the in planta accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there has been significant progress in understanding how the fine-tuning of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling transduction can promote salinity tolerance, and how salinity-induced ROS accumulation also acts as a signal in the mediation of salinity tolerance. Furthermore, recent advances have indicated that ethylene signaling modulates salinity responses largely via regulation of ROS-generating and ROS-scavenging mechanisms. This review focuses on these recent advances in understanding the linked roles of ethylene and ROS in salt tolerance.

  5. Reactive Oxygen Species and Autophagy Modulation in Non-Marine Drugs and Marine Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Fayyaz, Sundas; Hou, Ming-Feng; Li, Kun-Tzu; Tang, Jen-Yang; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming more understandable that an existing challenge for translational research is the development of pharmaceuticals that appropriately target reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated molecular networks in cancer cells. In line with this approach, there is an overwhelmingly increasing list of many non-marine drugs and marine drugs reported to be involved in inhibiting and suppressing cancer progression through ROS-mediated cell death. In this review, we describe the strategy of oxidative stress-based therapy and connect the ROS modulating effect to the regulation of apoptosis and autophagy. Finally, we focus on exploring the function and mechanism of cancer therapy by the autophagy modulators including inhibitors and inducers from non-marine drugs and marine drugs. PMID:25402829

  6. Genotoxicity of volatile and secondary reactive oxygen species generated by photosensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Camoirano, A.; De Flora, S.; Dahl, T.A. Tufts Univ. Veterinary, Boston, MA )

    1993-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species were generated in the gas phase by photosensitization involving illumination of Rose Bengal. Depending on whether the chromophore is dry or solubilized, this system produces either energy-transfer reactions leading to generation of singlet oxygen specifically, or a combination of energy-transfer and electron-transfer reactions, providing both singlet oxygen and reduced forms of oxygen, such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide. In neither case were the reactive species mutagenic in strain TA104 of Salmonella typhimurium, which had been previously shown to be reverted by oxygen species generated by the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system in aqueous medium. However, mixed oxygen species induced an increased lethality in a variety of DNA repair-deficient Escherichia coli strains. This genotoxic effect, mainly reparable by the uvrA and recA mechanisms, was efficiently prevented by the thiol N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Singlet oxygen itself failed to exert direct genotoxic effects, although secondary reactants produced by its reaction with cell components enhanced lethality in some repair-deficient bacteria. Distance-dependence analyses provided measurements of the lifetimes of the oxygen species generated in the gas phase. 35 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Programmed cell death of the megagametophyte during post-germinative growth of white spruce (Picea glauca) seeds is regulated by reactive oxygen species and the ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic system.

    PubMed

    He, Xu; Kermode, Allison R

    2010-10-01

    The megagametophyte of white spruce (Picea glauca) seeds undergoes programmed cell death following seed germination. This process is characterized by distinct morphological and biochemical features, such as DNA fragmentation and the induction of proteases. Biphasic production of hydrogen peroxide was detected in the megagametophyte following seed germination. ROS scavengers or inhibitors of ROS production decreased caspase-like protease activity and slowed the progression of cell death. One catalase (CAT) of white spruce reacted with antibodies directed against cotton-seed CAT. The corresponding CAT gene was cloned and compared with the catalase genes of other plant species. The activity of the white spruce CAT enzyme was stimulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. The phosphorylated CAT was subjected to ubiquitination and degraded by the proteasome. Furthermore, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 inhibited the degradation of CAT and delayed cell death. These results suggest that the interplay of CAT and the ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic system is critical in the control of ROS production and subsequent cell death.

  8. Reactive oxygen species signaling and stomatal movement: Current updates and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rachana; Parihar, Parul; Singh, Samiksha; Mishra, Rohit Kumar; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2017-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a by-product of aerobic metabolism were initially studied in context to their damaging effect but recent decades witnessed significant advancements in understanding the role of ROS as signaling molecules. Contrary to earlier views, it is becoming evident that ROS production is not necessarily a symptom of cellular dysfunction but it might represent a necessary signal in adjusting the cellular machinery according to the altered conditions. Stomatal movement is controlled by multifaceted signaling network in response to endogenous and environmental signals. Furthermore, the stomatal aperture is regulated by a coordinated action of signaling proteins, ROS-generating enzymes, and downstream executors like transporters, ion pumps, plasma membrane channels, which control the turgor pressure of the guard cell. The earliest hallmarks of stomatal closure are ROS accumulation in the apoplast and chloroplasts and thereafter, there is a successive increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) level which rules the multiple kinases activity that in turn regulates the activity of ROS-generating enzymes and various ion channels. In addition, ROS also regulate the action of multiple proteins directly by oxidative post translational modifications to adjust guard cell signaling. Notwithstanding, an active progress has been made with ROS signaling mechanism but the regulatory action for ROS signaling processes in stomatal movement is still fragmentary. Therefore, keeping in view the above facts, in this mini review the basic concepts and role of ROS signaling in the stomatal movement have been presented comprehensively along with recent highlights.

  9. Tuning of Redox Regulatory Mechanisms, Reactive Oxygen Species and Redox Homeostasis under Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Sazzad; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is a crucial environmental constraint which limits biomass production at many sites on a global scale. Saline growth conditions cause osmotic and ionic imbalances, oxidative stress and perturb metabolism, e.g., the photosynthetic electron flow. The plant ability to tolerate salinity is determined by multiple biochemical and physiological mechanisms protecting cell functions, in particular by regulating proper water relations and maintaining ion homeostasis. Redox homeostasis is a fundamental cell property. Its regulation includes control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, sensing deviation from and readjustment of the cellular redox state. All these redox related functions have been recognized as decisive factors in salinity acclimation and adaptation. This review focuses on the core response of plants to overcome the challenges of salinity stress through regulation of ROS generation and detoxification systems and to maintain redox homeostasis. Emphasis is given to the role of NADH oxidase (RBOH), alternative oxidase (AOX), the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) and the malate valve with the malate dehydrogenase isoforms under salt stress. Overwhelming evidence assigns an essential auxiliary function of ROS and redox homeostasis to salinity acclimation of plants. PMID:27242807

  10. Solar light-induced production of reactive oxygen species by single walled carbon nanotubes in water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photosensitizing processes of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) which include photo-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) convert light energy into oxidizing chemical energy that mediates transformations of nanomaterials. The oxidative stress associated with ROS may p...

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN HUMAN PLASMA AND BLOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are commonly associated with diseased states (including asthma, cardiovascular disease, cancer) infections, and exposure to various toxicants in humans. It is of interest in epidemiology studies to characterize the association of oxidative stress in...

  12. The Effect of Oxygen Potential on the Sulfide Capacity for Slags Containing Multivalent Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allertz, Carl; Selleby, Malin; Sichen, Du

    2016-10-01

    The dependence of sulfide capacity on the oxygen partial pressure for slags containing multivalent species was investigated experimentally using a slag containing vanadium oxide. Copper-slag equilibration experiments were carried out at 1873 K (1600 °C) in the approximate oxygen partial pressure range 10-15.4 to 10-9 atm. The sulfide capacity was found to be strongly dependent on the oxygen potential in this slag system, increasing with the oxygen partial pressure. The sulfide capacity changed by more than two orders of magnitude over the oxygen partial pressure range. The effect of changing oxygen partial pressure was found to be much greater than the effect of changing slag composition at a fixed oxygen partial pressure.

  13. Enterovirus 71 Induces Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Generation That is Required for Efficient Replication

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Mei-Ling; Weng, Shiue-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hao; Ho, Hung-Yao

    2014-01-01

    Redox homeostasis is an important host factor determining the outcome of infectious disease. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection has become an important endemic disease in Southeast Asia and China. We have previously shown that oxidative stress promotes viral replication, and progeny virus induces oxidative stress in host cells. The detailed mechanism for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in infected cells remains elusive. In the current study, we demonstrate that mitochondria were a major ROS source in EV71-infected cells. Mitochondria in productively infected cells underwent morphologic changes and exhibited functional anomalies, such as a decrease in mitochondrial electrochemical potential ΔΨm and an increase in oligomycin-insensitive oxygen consumption. Respiratory control ratio of mitochondria from infected cells was significantly lower than that of normal cells. The total adenine nucleotide pool and ATP content of EV71-infected cells significantly diminished. However, there appeared to be a compensatory increase in mitochondrial mass. Treatment with mito-TEMPO reduced eIF2α phosphorylation and viral replication, suggesting that mitochondrial ROS act to promote viral replication. It is plausible that EV71 infection induces mitochondrial ROS generation, which is essential to viral replication, at the sacrifice of efficient energy production, and that infected cells up-regulate biogenesis of mitochondria to compensate for their functional defect. PMID:25401329

  14. Effect of ectomycorrhizal colonization and drought on reactive oxygen species metabolism of Nothofagus dombeyi roots.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Fernandez, Carlos; Gacitúa, Yessy; Olivares, Erick; Saavedra, Isabel; Alberdi, Miren; Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2009-08-01

    Infection with ectomycorrhizal fungi can increase the ability of plants to resist drought stress through morphophysiological and biochemical mechanisms. However, the metabolism of antioxidative enzyme activities in the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis remains poorly understood. This study investigated biomass production, reactive oxygen metabolism (hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde concentration) and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) in pure cultures of the ectomycorrhizal fungi Descolea antartica Sing. and Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch, and non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal roots of Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) roots under well-watered conditions and drought conditions (DC). The studied ectomycorrhizal fungi regulated their antioxidative enzyme metabolism differentially in response to drought, resulting in cellular damage in D. antartica but not in P. tinctorius. Ectomycorrhizal inoculation and water treatment had a significant effect on all parameters studied, including relative water content of the plant. As such, N. dombeyi plants in symbiosis experienced a lower oxidative stress effect than non-mycorrhizal plants under DC. Additionally, ectomycorrhizal N. dombeyi roots showed a greater antioxidant enzyme activity relative to non-mycorrhizal roots, an effect which was further expressed under DC. The association between the non-specific P. tinctorius and N. dombeyi had a more effective reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism than the specific D. antartica-N. dombeyi symbiosis. We conclude that the combination of effective ROS prevention and ROS detoxification by ectomycorrhizal plants resulted in reduced cellular damage and increased plant growth relative to non-mycorrhizal plants under drought.

  15. Effects of Reactive Oxygen Species on Tubular Transport along the Nephron.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2017-03-23

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are oxygen-containing molecules naturally occurring in both inorganic and biological chemical systems. Due to their high reactivity and potentially damaging effects to biomolecules, cells express a battery of enzymes to rapidly metabolize them to innocuous intermediaries. Initially, ROS were considered by biologists as dangerous byproducts of respiration capable of causing oxidative stress, a condition in which overproduction of ROS leads to a reduction in protective molecules and enzymes and consequent damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA. In fact, ROS are used by immune systems to kill virus and bacteria, causing inflammation and local tissue damage. Today, we know that the functions of ROS are not so limited, and that they also act as signaling molecules mediating processes as diverse as gene expression, mechanosensation, and epithelial transport. In the kidney, ROS such as nitric oxide (NO), superoxide (O₂(-)), and their derivative molecules hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and peroxynitrite (ONO₂(-)) regulate solute and water reabsorption, which is vital to maintain electrolyte homeostasis and extracellular fluid volume. This article reviews the effects of NO, O₂(-), ONO₂(-), and H₂O₂ on water and electrolyte reabsorption in proximal tubules, thick ascending limbs, and collecting ducts, and the effects of NO and O₂(-) in the macula densa on tubuloglomerular feedback.

  16. Oxygen-dependent Regulation of Erythropoietin Receptor Turnover and Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Heir, Pardeep; Srikumar, Tharan; Bikopoulos, George; Bunda, Severa; Poon, Betty P.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Raught, Brian; Ohh, Michael

    2016-01-01

    von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a rare familial cancer predisposition syndrome caused by a loss or mutation in a single gene, VHL, but it exhibits a wide phenotypic variability that can be categorized into distinct subtypes. The phenotypic variability has been largely argued to be attributable to the extent of deregulation of the α subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor α, a well established target of VHL E3 ubiquitin ligase, ECV (Elongins/Cul2/VHL). Here, we show that erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) is hydroxylated on proline 419 and 426 via prolyl hydroxylase 3. EPOR hydroxylation is required for binding to the β domain of VHL and polyubiquitylation via ECV, leading to increased EPOR turnover. In addition, several type-specific VHL disease-causing mutants, including those that have retained proper binding and regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor α, showed a severe defect in binding prolyl hydroxylated EPOR peptides. These results identify EPOR as the second bona fide hydroxylation-dependent substrate of VHL that potentially influences oxygen homeostasis and contributes to the complex genotype-phenotype correlation in VHL disease. PMID:26846855

  17. Species-Level Variability in Extracellular Production Rates of Reactive Oxygen Species by Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Robin J.; Roe, Kelly L.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Voelker, Bettina M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological production and decay of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2-) likely have significant effects on the cycling of trace metals and carbon in marine systems. In this study, extracellular production rates of H2O2 and O2- were determined for five species of marine diatoms in the presence and absence of light. Production of both ROS was measured in parallel by suspending cells on filters and measuring the ROS downstream using chemiluminescence probes. In addition, the ability of these organisms to break down O2- and H2O2 was examined by measuring recovery of O2- and H2O2 added to the influent medium. O2- production rates ranged from undetectable to 7.3 × 10−16 mol cell−1 h−1, while H2O2 production rates ranged from undetectable to 3.4 × 10−16 mol cell−1 h−1. Results suggest that extracellular ROS production occurs through a variety of pathways even amongst organisms of the same genus. Thalassiosira spp. produced more O2- in light than dark, even when the organisms were killed, indicating that O2- is produced via a passive photochemical process on the cell surface. The ratio of H2O2 to O2- production rates was consistent with production of H2O2 solely through dismutation of O2- for T. oceanica, while T. pseudonana made much more H2O2 than O2-. T. weissflogii only produced H2O2 when stressed or killed. P. tricornutum cells did not make cell-associated ROS, but did secrete H2O2-producing substances into the growth medium. In all organisms, recovery rates for killed cultures (94–100% H2O2; 10–80% O2-) were consistently higher than those for live cultures (65–95% H2O2; 10–50% O2-). While recovery rates for killed cultures in H2O2 indicate that nearly all H2O2 was degraded by active cell processes, O2- decay appeared to occur via a combination of active and passive processes. Overall, this study shows that the rates and pathways for ROS production and decay vary greatly among diatom species, even

  18. Species-level variability in extracellular production rates of reactive oxygen species by diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Robin; Roe, Kelly; Hansel, Colleen; Voelker, Bettina

    2016-03-01

    Biological production and decay of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2-) likely have significant effects on the cycling of trace metals and carbon in marine systems. In this study, extracellular production rates of H2O2 and O2- were determined for five species of marine diatoms in the presence and absence of light. Production of both ROS was measured in parallel by suspending cells on filters and measuring the ROS downstream using chemiluminescence probes. In addition, the ability of these organisms to break down O2- and H2O2 was examined by measuring recovery of O2- and H2O2 added to the influent medium. O2- production rates ranged from undetectable to 7.3 x 10-16 mol cell-1 hr-1, while H2O2 production rates ranged from undetectable to 3.4 x 10-16 mol cell-1 hr-1. Results suggest that extracellular ROS production occurs through a variety of pathways even amongst organisms of the same genus. Thalassiosira spp. produced more O2- in light than dark, even when the organisms were killed, indicating that O2- is produced via a passive photochemical process on the cell surface. The ratio of H2O¬2 to O2- production rates was consistent with production of H2O2 solely through dismutation of O2- for T. oceanica, while T. pseudonana made much more H2O2 than O2 . T. weissflogii only produced H2O2 when stressed or killed. P. tricornutum cells did not make cell-associated ROS, but did secrete H2O2-producing substances into the growth medium. In all organisms, recovery rates for killed cultures (94-100% H2O2; 10-80% O2-) were consistently higher than those for live cultures (65-95% H2O2; 10-50% O2-). While recovery rates for killed cultures in H2O2 indicate that nearly all H2O2 was degraded by active cell processes, O2- decay appeared to occur via a combination of active and passive processes. Overall, this study shows that the rates and pathways for ROS production and decay vary greatly among diatom species, even between those that are

  19. Combined Treatment With Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) Gamma Ligands and Gamma Radiation Induces Apoptosis by PPARγ-Independent Up-Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Deoxyribonucleic Acid Damage Signals in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Eun Jong; Im, Chang-Nim; Park, Seon Hwa; Moon, Eun-Yi; Hong, Sung Hee

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate possible radiosensitizing activities of the well-known peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ ligand ciglitazone and novel PPARγ ligands CAY10415 and CAY10506 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Methods and Materials: Radiosensitivity was assessed using a clonogenic cell survival assay. To investigate the mechanism underlying PPARγ ligand-induced radiosensitization, the subdiploid cellular DNA fraction was analyzed by flow cytometry. Activation of the caspase pathway by combined PPARγ ligands and γ-radiation treatment was detected by immunoblot analysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and flow cytometry. Results: The 3 PPARγ ligands induced cell death and ROS generation in a PPARγ-independent manner, enhanced γ-radiation–induced apoptosis and caspase-3–mediated poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in vitro. The combined PPARγ ligand/γ-radiation treatment triggered caspase-8 activation, and this initiator caspase played an important role in the combination-induced apoptosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ligands may enhance the γ-radiation-induced DNA damage response, possibly by increasing γ-H2AX expression. Moreover, the combination treatment significantly increased ROS generation, and the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine inhibited the combined treatment-induced ROS generation and apoptotic cell death. Conclusions: Taken together, these results indicated that the combined treatment of PPARγ ligands and γ-radiation synergistically induced DNA damage and apoptosis, which was regulated by ROS.

  20. Characterization of the Oxygen Transmission Rate of Oak Wood Species Used in Cooperage.

    PubMed

    Del Alamo-Sanza, María; Cárcel, Luis Miguel; Nevares, Ignacio

    2017-01-25

    The oxygen that wine receives while aged in barrels is of interest because it defines the reactions that occur during aging and, therefore, the final properties of the wine. This study is intended to make up for the lack of information concerning the oxygen permeability of eight different woods of Quercus alba L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. commonly used. In addition, it shows how oxygen transfer evolves with the liquid contact time during testing under similar aging conditions to those in wine barrels. French oak woods permitted a higher oxygenation rate than American ones in all cases. A decrease in the oxygen entry caused by impregnation of the wood during the process was observed in all of the species studied. This process is determined by the thickness of the flooded wood layer containing free water, although differently in the two species, possibly due to the anatomical structure and the logging process for each.

  1. Marine species in ambient low-oxygen regions subject to double jeopardy impacts of climate change.

    PubMed

    Stortini, Christine H; Chabot, Denis; Shackell, Nancy L

    2016-10-18

    We have learned much about the impacts of warming on the productivity and distribution of marine organisms, but less about the impact of warming combined with other environmental stressors, including oxygen depletion. Also, the combined impact of multiple environmental stressors requires evaluation at the scales most relevant to resource managers. We use the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, characterized by a large permanently hypoxic zone, as a case study. Species distribution models were used to predict the impact of multiple scenarios of warming and oxygen depletion on the local density of three commercially and ecologically important species. Substantial changes are projected within 20-40 years. A eurythermal depleted species already limited to shallow, oxygen-rich refuge habitat (Atlantic cod) may be relatively uninfluenced by oxygen depletion but increase in density within refuge areas with warming. A more stenothermal, deep-dwelling species (Greenland halibut) is projected to lose ~55% of its high-density areas under the combined impacts of warming and oxygen depletion. Another deep-dwelling, more eurythermal species (Northern shrimp) would lose ~4% of its high-density areas due to oxygen depletion alone, but these impacts may be buffered by warming, which may increase density by 8% in less hypoxic areas, but decrease density by ~20% in the warmest parts of the region. Due to local climate variability and extreme events, and that our models cannot project changes in species sensitivity to hypoxia with warming, our results should be considered conservative. We present an approach to effectively evaluate the individual and cumulative impacts of multiple environmental stressors on a species-by-species basis at the scales most relevant to managers. Our study may provide a basis for work in other low-oxygen regions and should contribute to a growing literature base in climate science, which will continue to be of support for resource managers as climate change

  2. Sensitivity of primary fibroblasts in culture to atmospheric oxygen does not correlate with species lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Alison; Seluanov, Michael; Hwang, Chaewon; Tam, Jonathan; Khan, Tanya; Morgenstern, Ari; Wiener, Lauren; Vazquez, Juan M.; Zafar, Hiba; Wen, Robert; Muratkalyeva, Malika; Doerig, Katherine; Zagorulya, Maria; Cole, Lauren; Catalano, Sophia; Lobo Ladd, Aliny AB; Coppi, A. Augusto; Coşkun, Yüksel; Tian, Xiao; Ablaeva, Julia; Nevo, Eviatar; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Zhang, Zhengdong D.; Vijg, Jan; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the way human and mouse fibroblasts experience senescence in culture had long puzzled researchers. While senescence of human cells is mediated by telomere shortening, Parrinello et al. demonstrated that senescence of mouse cells is caused by extreme oxygen sensitivity. It was hypothesized that the striking difference in oxygen sensitivity between mouse and human cells explains their different rates of aging. To test if this hypothesis is broadly applicable, we cultured cells from 16 rodent species with diverse lifespans in 3% and 21% oxygen and compared their growth rates. Unexpectedly, fibroblasts derived from laboratory mouse strains were the only cells demonstrating extreme sensitivity to oxygen. Cells from hamster, muskrat, woodchuck, capybara, blind mole rat, paca, squirrel, beaver, naked mole rat and wild-caught mice were mildly sensitive to oxygen, while cells from rat, gerbil, deer mouse, chipmunk, guinea pig and chinchilla showed no difference in the growth rate between 3% and 21% oxygen. We conclude that, although the growth of primary fibroblasts is generally improved by maintaining cells in 3% oxygen, the extreme oxygen sensitivity is a peculiarity of laboratory mouse strains, possibly related to their very long telomeres, and fibroblast oxygen sensitivity does not directly correlate with species' lifespan. PMID:27163160

  3. Metabolism of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants under low temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Airaki, Morad; Leterrier, Marina; Mateos, Rosa M; Valderrama, Raquel; Chaki, Mounira; Barroso, Juan B; Del Río, Luis A; Palma, José M; Corpas, Francisco J

    2012-02-01

    Low temperature is an environmental stress that affects crop production and quality and regulates the expression of many genes, and the level of a number of proteins and metabolites. Using leaves from pepper (Capsicum annum L.) plants exposed to low temperature (8 °C) for different time periods (1 to 3 d), several key components of the metabolism of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNS and ROS, respectively) were analysed. After 24 h of exposure at 8 °C, pepper plants exhibited visible symptoms characterized by flaccidity of stems and leaves. This was accompanied by significant changes in the metabolism of RNS and ROS with an increase of both protein tyrosine nitration (NO(2) -Tyr) and lipid peroxidation, indicating that low temperature induces nitrosative and oxidative stress. During the second and third days at low temperature, pepper plants underwent cold acclimation by adjusting their antioxidant metabolism and reverting the observed nitrosative and oxidative stress. In this process, the levels of the soluble non-enzymatic antioxidants ascorbate and glutathione, and the activity of the main NADPH-generating dehydrogenases were significantly induced. This suggests that ascorbate, glutathione and the NADPH-generating dehydrogenases have a role in the process of cold acclimation through their effect on the redox state of the cell.

  4. NADPH oxidases, reactive oxygen species, and hypertension: clinical implications and therapeutic possibilities.

    PubMed

    Paravicini, Tamara M; Touyz, Rhian M

    2008-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) influence many physiological processes including host defense, hormone biosynthesis, fertilization, and cellular signaling. Increased ROS production (termed "oxidative stress") has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. A major source for vascular and renal ROS is a family of nonphagocytic NAD(P)H oxidases, including the prototypic Nox2 homolog-based NAD(P)H oxidase, as well as other NAD(P)H oxidases, such as Nox1 and Nox4. Other possible sources include mitochondrial electron transport enzymes, xanthine oxidase, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and uncoupled nitric oxide synthase. NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS plays a physiological role in the regulation of endothelial function and vascular tone and a pathophysiological role in endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, hypertrophy, apoptosis, migration, fibrosis, angiogenesis, and rarefaction, important processes underlying cardiovascular and renal remodeling in hypertension and diabetes. These findings have evoked considerable interest because of the possibilities that therapies against nonphagocytic NAD(P)H oxidase to decrease ROS generation and/or strategies to increase nitric oxide (NO) availability and antioxidants may be useful in minimizing vascular injury and renal dysfunction and thereby prevent or regress target organ damage associated with hypertension and diabetes. Here we highlight current developments in the field of reactive oxygen species and cardiovascular disease, focusing specifically on the recently identified novel Nox family of NAD(P)H oxidases in hypertension. We also discuss the potential role of targeting ROS as a therapeutic possibility in the management of hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  5. Release of proteins from intact chloroplasts induced by reactive oxygen species during biotic and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Verma, Dheeraj; Jin, Shuangxia; Singh, Nameirakpam D; Daniell, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Plastids sustain life on this planet by providing food, feed, essential biomolecules and oxygen. Such diverse metabolic and biosynthetic functions require efficient communication between plastids and the nucleus. However, specific factors, especially large molecules, released from plastids that regulate nuclear genes have not yet been fully elucidated. When tobacco and lettuce transplastomic plants expressing GFP within chloroplasts, were challenged with Erwinia carotovora (biotic stress) or paraquat (abiotic stress), GFP was released into the cytoplasm. During this process GFP moves gradually towards the envelope, creating a central red zone of chlorophyll fluorescence. GFP was then gradually released from intact chloroplasts into the cytoplasm with an intact vacuole and no other visible cellular damage. Different stages of GFP release were observed inside the same cell with a few chloroplasts completely releasing GFP with detection of only red chlorophyll fluorescence or with no reduction in GFP fluorescence or transitional steps between these two phases. Time lapse imaging by confocal microscopy clearly identified sequence of these events. Intactness of chloroplasts during this process was evident from chlorophyll fluorescence emanated from thylakoid membranes and in vivo Chla fluorescence measurements (maximum quantum yield of photosystem II) made before or after infection with pathogens to evaluate their photosynthetic competence. Hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion serve as signal molecules for generation of reactive oxygen species and Tiron, scavenger of superoxide anion, blocked release of GFP from chloroplasts. Significant increase in ion leakage in the presence of paraquat and light suggests changes in the chloroplast envelope to facilitate protein release. Release of GFP-RC101 (an antimicrobial peptide), which was triggered by Erwinia infection, ceased after conferring protection, further confirming this export phenomenon. These results suggest a

  6. Modulation of reactive oxygen species by salicylic acid in Arabidopsis seed germination under high salinity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmin; Park, Chung-Mo

    2010-12-01

    Potential roles of salicylic acid (SA) on seed germination have been explored in many plant species. However, it is still controversial how SA regulates seed germination, mainly because the results have been somewhat variable, depending on plant genotypes used and experimental conditions employed. We found that SA promotes seed germination under high salinity in Arabidopsis. Seed germination of the sid2 mutant, which has a defect in SA biosynthesis, is hypersensitive to high salinity, but the inhibitory effects are reduced in the presence of physiological concentrations of SA. Abiotic stresses, including high salinity, impose oxidative stress on plants. Endogenous contents of H(2)O(2) are higher in the sid2 mutant seeds. However, exogenous application of SA reduces endogenous level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), indicating that SA is involved in plant responses to ROS-mediated damage under abiotic stress conditions. Gibberellic acid (GA), a plant hormone closely associated with seed germination, also reverses the inhibitory effects of high salinity on seed germination and seedling establishment. Under high salinity, GA stimulates SA biosynthesis by inducing the SID2 gene. Notably, SA also induces genes encoding GA biosynthetic enzymes. These observations indicate that SA promotes seed germination under high salinity by modulating antioxidant activity through signaling crosstalks with GA.

  7. The role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in airway epithelial gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, L D; Krunkosky, T M; Voynow, J A; Adler, K B

    1998-01-01

    The body first encounters deleterious inhaled substances, such as allergens, industrial particles, pollutants, and infectious agents, at the airway epithelium. When this occurs, the epithelium and its resident inflammatory cells respond defensively by increasing production of cytokines, mucus, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). As inflammation in the airway increases, additional infiltrating cells increase the level of these products. Recent interest has focused on ROS/RNS as potential modulators of the expression of inflammation-associated genes important to the pathogenesis of various respiratory diseases. ROS/RNS appear to play a variety of roles that lead to changes in expression of genes such as interleukin-6 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1. By controlling this regulation, the reactive species can serve as exogenous stimuli, as intercellular signaling molecules, and as modulators of the redox state in epithelial cells. Unraveling the molecular mechanisms affected by ROS/RNS acting in these capacities should aid in the understanding of how stimulated defense mechanisms within the airway can lead to disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:9788898

  8. Reactive oxygen species induced by cold stratification promote germination of Hedysarum scoparium seeds.

    PubMed

    Su, Liqiang; Lan, Qinying; Pritchard, Hugh W; Xue, Hua; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-12-01

    Seed germination is comprehensively regulated by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are relatively new among these factors. However, the role and underlying mechanisms of ROS in germination regulation remain largely unknown. In this study, we initially found that cold stratification could promote germination and respiration of Hedysarum scoparium seeds, especially at low temperature. We then noted that a ROS environment change induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or methylviologen (MV) could similarly promote seed germination. On the other hand, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) suppressed germination of cold-stratified H. scoparium seeds, indicating a stimulatory role of ROS upon seed germination. An increased accumulation of O2(-) was detected in embryonic axes of cold-stratified seeds, and stratification-induced ROS generation as well as progressive accumulation of ROS during germination was further confirmed at the cellular level by confocal microscopy. Moreover, protein carbonylation in cold-stratified seeds was enhanced during germination, which was reversed by NAC treatment. Finally, the relationship between ROS and abscisic acid (ABA) or gibberellin (GA) in germination regulation was investigated. ABA treatment significantly inhibited germination and reduced the H2O2 content in both cold-stratified and non-cold-stratified seeds. Furthermore, we found that cold stratification mediates the down-regulation of the ABA content and increase of GA, suggesting an interaction between ROS and ABA/GA. These results in H. scoparium shed new light on the positive role of ROS and their cross-talk between plant hormones in seed germination.

  9. Nicorandil prevents sirolimus-induced production of reactive oxygen species, endothelial dysfunction, and thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Ken; Takahari, Youko; Higashijima, Naoko; Serizawa, Kenichi; Yogo, Kenji; Ishizuka, Nobuhiko; Endo, Koichi; Fukuyama, Naoto; Hirano, Katsuya; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2015-03-01

    Sirolimus (SRL) is widely used to prevent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. However, its beneficial effect is hampered by complications of thrombosis. Several studies imply that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in endothelial dysfunction and thrombus formation. The present study investigated the protective effect of nicorandil (NIC), an anti-angina agent, on SRL-associated thrombosis. In human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs), SRL stimulated ROS production, which was prevented by co-treatment with NIC. The preventive effect of NIC on ROS was abolished by 5-hydroxydecanoate but not by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one. NIC also inhibited SRL-induced up-regulation of NADPH oxidase subunit p22(phox) mRNA. Co-treatment with NIC and SRL significantly up-regulated superoxide dismutase 2. NIC treatment significantly improved SRL-induced decrease in viability of HCAECs. The functional relevance of the preventive effects of NIC on SRL-induced ROS production and impairment of endothelial viability was investigated in a mouse model of thrombosis. Pretreatment with NIC inhibited the SRL-induced acceleration of FeCl3-initiated thrombus formation and ROS production in the testicular arteries of mice. In conclusion, NIC prevented SRL-induced thrombus formation, presumably due to the reduction of ROS and to endothelial protection. The therapeutic efficacy of NIC could represent an additional option in the prevention of SRL-related thrombosis.

  10. Alliin Attenuated RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis by Scavenging Reactive Oxygen Species through Inhibiting Nox1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yueqi; Sun, Jingjing; Dou, Ce; Li, Nan; Kang, Fei; Wang, Yuan; Cao, Zhen; Yang, Xiaochao; Dong, Shiwu

    2016-01-01

    The healthy skeleton requires a perfect coordination of the formation and degradation of bone. Metabolic bone disease like osteoporosis is resulted from the imbalance of bone formation and/or bone resorption. Osteoporosis also reflects lower level of bone matrix, which is contributed by up-regulated osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. It is reported that monocytes/macrophage progenitor cells or either hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) gave rise to multinucleated osteoclasts. Thus, inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption generally seems to be a predominant therapy for treating osteoporosis. Recently, more and more natural compounds have been discovered, which have the ability of inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and fusion. Alliin (S-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxides, SACSO) is the major component of aged garlic extract (AGE), bearing broad-spectrum natural antioxidant properties. However, its effects on bone health have not yet been explored. Hence, we designed the current study to explore its effects and role in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast fusion and differentiation. It was revealed that alliin had an inhibitory effect in osteoclasteogenesis with a dose-dependent manner via blocking the c-Fos-NFATc1 signaling pathway. In addition, alliin decreased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and down-regulated the expression of NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1). The overall results revealed that alliin could be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:27657047

  11. Phosphate enhances Fgf23 expression through reactive oxygen species in UMR-106 cells.

    PubMed

    Hori, Michiko; Kinoshita, Yuka; Taguchi, Manabu; Fukumoto, Seiji

    2016-03-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has been shown to work as a phosphotropic hormone. Although FGF23 reduces the serum phosphate level, it has not been established that phosphate directly regulates FGF23 production. In this study, we investigated whether phosphate can enhance Fgf23 expression using the rat osteoblastic cell line UMR-106, which has been shown to express Fgf23 in response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D]. Phosphate increased Fgf23 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D. Phosphate also increased Fgf23 promoter activity, but showed no effect on the half-life of Fgf23 messenger RNA. Phosphonoformic acid and PD98059, an inhibitor of MEK, inhibited the effects of phosphate on Fgf23 expression and promoter activity. In addition, phosphate enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in UMR-106 cells, and hydrogen peroxide enhanced FGF23 production in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Hydrogen peroxide also enhanced Elk1 reporter activity, a target of the MEK-extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Furthermore, the effect of phosphate on ROS production and Fgf23 expression was inhibited by apocynin, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. These results indicate that phosphate directly enhances Fgf23 transcription without affecting the stability of Fgf23 messenger RNA by stimulating NADPH-induced ROS production and the MEK-ERK pathway in UMR-106 cells.

  12. Roles of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Pain

    PubMed Central

    Salvemini, Daniela; Little, Joshua W.; Doyle, Timothy; Neumann, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Peroxynitrite (PN, ONOO−) and its reactive oxygen precursor superoxide (SO, O2·−), are critically important in the development of pain of several etiologies including in the development of pain associated with chronic use of opiates such as morphine (also known as opiate-induced hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance). This is now an emerging field in which considerable progress has been made in terms of understanding the relative contribution of SO, PN, and nitroxidative stress in pain signaling at the molecular and biochemical levels. Aggressive research in this area is poised to provide the pharmacological basis for development of novel non-narcotic analgesics that are based upon the unique ability to selectively eliminate SO and/or PN. As we have a better understanding of the role of SO and PN in pathophysiological settings, targeting PN may be a better therapeutic strategy than targeting SO. This is due to the fact that unlike PN, which has no currently known beneficial role, SO may play a significant role in learning and memory [1]. Thus, the best approach may be to spare SO while directly targeting its downstream product, PN. Over the last 15 years, our team has spearheaded research concerning the roles of SO/PN in pain and these results are currently leading to the development of solid therapeutic strategies in this important area. PMID:21277369

  13. Roles of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in pain.

    PubMed

    Salvemini, Daniela; Little, Joshua W; Doyle, Timothy; Neumann, William L

    2011-09-01

    Peroxynitrite (PN; ONOO⁻) and its reactive oxygen precursor superoxide (SO; O₂•⁻) are critically important in the development of pain of several etiologies including pain associated with chronic use of opiates such as morphine (also known as opiate-induced hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance). This is now an emerging field in which considerable progress has been made in terms of understanding the relative contributions of SO, PN, and nitroxidative stress in pain signaling at the molecular and biochemical levels. Aggressive research in this area is poised to provide the pharmacological basis for development of novel nonnarcotic analgesics that are based upon the unique ability to selectively eliminate SO and/or PN. As we have a better understanding of the roles of SO and PN in pathophysiological settings, targeting PN may be a better therapeutic strategy than targeting SO. This is because, unlike PN, which has no currently known beneficial role, SO may play a significant role in learning and memory. Thus, the best approach may be to spare SO while directly targeting its downstream product, PN. Over the past 15 years, our team has spearheaded research concerning the roles of SO and PN in pain and these results are currently leading to the development of solid therapeutic strategies in this important area.

  14. Reactive Oxygen Species on the Early Earth and Survival of Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balk, Melikea; Mason, Paul; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Smidt, Hauke; Freund, Friedemann; Rothschild, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    An oxygen-rich atmosphere appears to have been a prerequisite for complex, multicellular life to evolve on Earth and possibly elsewhere in the Universe. However it remains unclear how free oxygen first became available on the early Earth. A potentially important, and as yet poorly constrained pathway, is the production of oxygen through the weathering of rocks and release into the near-surface environment. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), as precursors to molecular oxygen, are a key step in this process, and may have had a decisive impact on the evolution of life, present and past. ROS are generated from minerals in igneous rocks during hydrolysis of peroxy defects, which consist of pairs of oxygen anions oxidized to the valence state -1 and during (bio) transformations of iron sulphide minerals. ROS are produced and consumed by intracellular and extracellular reactions of Fe, Mn, C, N, and S species. We propose that, despite an overall reducing or neutral oxidation state of the macroenvironment and the absence of free O2 in the atmosphere, organisms on the early Earth had to cope with ROS in their microenvironments. They were thus under evolutionary pressure to develop enzymatic and other defences against the potentially dangerous, even lethal effects of oxygen and its derived ROS. Conversely it appears that microorganisms learned to take advantage of the enormous reactive potential and energy gain provided by nascent oxygen. We investigate how oxygen might be released through weathering. We test microorganisms in contact with rock surfaces and iron sulphides. We model bacteria such as Deionococcus radiodurans and Desulfotomaculum, Moorella and Bacillus species for their ability to grow or survive in the presence of ROS. We examine how early Life might have adapted to oxygen.

  15. Arginine Decarboxylase expression, polyamines biosynthesis and reactive oxygen species during organogenic nodule formation in hop.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Ana M; Costa, Joana; Santos, Filipa; Seguí-Simarro, José M; Palme, Klaus; Altabella, Teresa; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Pais, Maria S

    2011-02-01

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) is an economically important plant species used in beer production and as a health-promoting medicine. Hop internodes develop upon stress treatments organogenic nodules which can be used for genetic transformation and micropropagation. Polyamines are involved in plant development and stress responses. Arginine decarboxylase (ADC; EC 4·1.1·19) is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of putrescine in plants. Here we show that ADC protein was increasingly expressed at early stages of hop internode culture (12h). Protein continued accumulating until organogenic nodule formation after 28 days, decreasing thereafter. The same profile was observed for ADC transcript suggesting transcriptional regulation of ADC gene expression during morphogenesis. The highest transcript and protein levels observed after 28 days of culture were accompanied by a peak in putrescine levels. Reactive oxygen species accumulate in nodular tissues probably due to stress inherent to in vitro conditions and enhanced polyamine catabolism. Conjugated polyamines increased during plantlet regeneration from nodules suggesting their involvement in plantlet formation and/or in the control of free polyamine levels. Immunogold labeling revealed that ADC is located in plastids, nucleus and cytoplasm of nodular cells. In vacuolated cells, ADC immunolabelling in plastids doubled the signal of proplastids in meristematic cells. Location of ADC in different subcellular compartments may indicate its role in metabolic pathways taking place in these compartments. Altogether these data suggest that polyamines play an important role in organogenic nodule formation and represent a progress towards understanding the role played by these growth regulators in plant morphogenesis.

  16. Detection of reactive oxygen species in isolated, perfused lungs by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Weissmann, Norbert; Kuzkaya, Nermin; Fuchs, Beate; Tiyerili, Vedat; Schäfer, Rolf U; Schütte, Hartwig; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Schermuly, Ralph T; Schudt, Christian; Sydykov, Akylbek; Egemnazarow, Bakytbek; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich

    2005-01-01

    Background The sources and measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in intact organs are largely unresolved. This may be related to methodological problems associated with the techniques currently employed for ROS detection. Electron spin resonance (ESR) with spin trapping is a specific method for ROS detection, and may address some these technical problems. Methods We have established a protocol for the measurement of intravascular ROS release from isolated buffer-perfused and ventilated rabbit and mouse lungs, combining lung perfusion with the spin probe l-hydroxy-3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CPH) and ESR spectroscopy. We then employed this technique to characterize hypoxia-dependent ROS release, with specific attention paid to NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide formation as a possible vasoconstrictor pathway. Results While perfusing lungs with CPH over a range of inspired oxygen concentrations (1–21 %), the rate of CP• formation exhibited an oxygen-dependence, with a minimum at 2.5 % O2. Addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) to the buffer fluid illustrated that a minor proportion of this intravascular ROS leak was attributable to superoxide. Stimulation of the lungs by injection of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) into the pulmonary artery caused a rapid increase in CP• formation, concomitant with pulmonary vasoconstriction. Both the PMA-induced CPH oxidation and the vasoconstrictor response were largely suppressed by SOD. When the PMA challenge was performed at different oxygen concentrations, maximum superoxide liberation and pulmonary vasoconstriction occurred at 5 % O2. Using a NADPH oxidase inhibitor and NADPH-oxidase deficient mice, we illustrated that the PMA-induced superoxide release was attributable to the stimulation of NADPH oxidases. Conclusion The perfusion of isolated lungs with CPH is suitable for detection of intravascular ROS release by ESR spectroscopy. We employed this technique to demonstrate that 1) PMA

  17. Asymmetric dimethylarginine and reactive oxygen species: unwelcome twin visitors to the cardiovascular and kidney disease tables.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Christopher S

    2012-02-01

    Plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine or markers of reactive oxygen species are increased in subjects with risk factors for cardiovascular disease or chronic kidney disease. We tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species generate cellular asymmetric dimethylarginine that together cause endothelial dysfunction that underlies the risk of subsequent disease. Rat preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells transfected with p22(phox) had increased NADPH oxidase activity, enhanced activity and expression of protein arginine methyltransferase, and reduced activity and protein expression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminotransferase and of cationic amino acid transferase 1 resulting in increased cellular levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine. Rats infused with angiotensin II had oxidative stress. The endothelial function of their mesenteric arterioles was changed from vasodilatation to vasoconstriction, accompanied by increased vascular asymmetric dimethylarginine. All of these changes were prevented by Tempol. In vivo silencing of dimethylarginine dimethylaminotransferase 1 increased plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, whereas silencing of dimethylarginine dimethylaminotransferase 2 impaired endothelial function. We suggest that initiation factors, such as angiotensin II, expressed in blood vessels or tissues of subjects with cardiovascular and kidney disease risk factors generate reactive oxygen species from NADPH oxidase that enhances cellular asymmetric dimethylarginine in an amplification loop. This leads to adverse changes in vascular and organ functions, as a consequence of reduced tissue levels of NO and increased reactive oxygen species. Thus, we conclude that reactive oxygen species and asymmetric dimethylarginine form a tightly coupled amplification system that translates cardiovascular/kidney risk into overt disease.

  18. Reactive oxygen species mediate lethality induced by far-UV in Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Gomes, A A; Silva-Júnior, A C T; Oliveira, E B; Asad, L M B O; Reis, N C S C; Felzenszwalb, I; Kovary, K; Asad, N R

    2005-01-01

    The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the induction of DNA damage to Escherichia coli cells caused by UVC (254 nm) irradiation was studied. We verified the expression of the soxS gene induced by UVC (254 nm) and its inhibition by sodium azide, a singlet oxygen (1O2) scavenger. Additional results showed that a water-soluble carotenoid (norbixin) protects against the lethal effects of UVC. These results suggest that UVC radiation can also cause ROS-mediated lethality.

  19. IGF-I enhances cellular senescence via the reactive oxygen species-p53 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Handayaningsih, Anastasia-Evi; Takahashi, Michiko; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Suda, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellular senescence plays an important role in tumorigenesis and aging process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in primary confluent cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These results may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging. -- Abstract: Cellular senescence is characterized by growth arrest, enlarged and flattened cell morphology, the expression of senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal), and by activation of tumor suppressor networks. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a critical role in cellular growth, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and regulation of aging. In the present study, we show that IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in mouse, rat, and human primary cells in the confluent state. IGF-I induced expression of a DNA damage marker, {gamma}H2AX, the increased levels of p53 and p21 proteins, and activated SA-{beta}-gal. In the confluent state, an altered downstream signaling of IGF-I receptor was observed. Treatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcystein (NAC) significantly suppressed induction of these markers, indicating that ROS are involved in the induction of cellular senescence by IGF-I. In p53-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the IGF-I-induced augmentation of SA-{beta}-gal and p21 was inhibited, demonstrating that p53 is required for cellular senescence induced by IGF-I. Thus, these data reveal a novel pathway whereby IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner and may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging.

  20. Selenoprotein P Inhibits Radiation-Induced Late Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation and Normal Cell Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Eckers, Jaimee C.; Kalen, Amanda L.; Xiao, Wusheng; Sarsour, Ehab H.; Goswami, Prabhat C.

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation is a common mode of cancer therapy whose outcome is often limited because of normal tissue toxicity. We have shown previously that the accumulation of radiation-induced late reactive oxygen species (ROS) precedes cell death, suggesting that metabolic oxidative stress could regulate cellular radiation response. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether selenoprotein P (SEPP1), a major supplier of selenium to tissues and an antioxidant, regulates late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated normal human fibroblasts (NHFs). Methods and Materials: Flow cytometry analysis of cell viability, cell cycle phase distribution, and dihydroethidium oxidation, along with clonogenic assays, were used to measure oxidative stress and toxicity. Human antioxidant mechanisms array and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were used to measure gene expression during late ROS accumulation in irradiated NHFs. Sodium selenite addition and SEPP1 overexpression were used to determine the causality of SEPP1 regulating late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated NHFs. Results: Irradiated NHFs showed late ROS accumulation (4.5-fold increase from control; P<.05) that occurs after activation of the cell cycle checkpoint pathways and precedes cell death. The mRNA levels of CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxiredoxin 3, and thioredoxin reductase 1 increased approximately 2- to 3-fold, whereas mRNA levels of cold shock domain containing E1 and SEPP1 increased more than 6-fold (P<.05). The addition of sodium selenite before the radiation treatment suppressed toxicity (45%; P<.05). SEPP1 overexpression suppressed radiation-induced late ROS accumulation (35%; P<.05) and protected NHFs from radiation-induced toxicity (58%; P<.05). Conclusion: SEPP1 mitigates radiation-induced late ROS accumulation and normal cell injury.

  1. Endotoxin Disrupts Circadian Rhythms in Macrophages via Reactive Oxygen Species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yusi; Pati, Paramita; Xu, Yiming; Chen, Feng; Stepp, David W; Huo, Yuqing; Rudic, R Daniel; Fulton, David J R

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock is a transcriptional network that functions to regulate the expression of genes important in the anticipation of changes in cellular and organ function. Recent studies have revealed that the recognition of pathogens and subsequent initiation of inflammatory responses are strongly regulated by a macrophage-intrinsic circadian clock. We hypothesized that the circadian pattern of gene expression might be influenced by inflammatory stimuli and that loss of circadian function in immune cells can promote pro-inflammatory behavior. To investigate circadian rhythms in inflammatory cells, peritoneal macrophages were isolated from mPer2luciferase transgenic mice and circadian oscillations were studied in response to stimuli. Using Cosinor analysis, we found that LPS significantly altered the circadian period in peritoneal macrophages from mPer2luciferase mice while qPCR data suggested that the pattern of expression of the core circadian gene (Bmal1) was disrupted. Inhibition of TLR4 offered protection from the LPS-induced impairment in rhythm, suggesting a role for toll-like receptor signaling. To explore the mechanisms involved, we inhibited LPS-stimulated NO and superoxide. Inhibition of NO synthesis with L-NAME had no effect on circadian rhythms. In contrast, inhibition of superoxide with Tempol or PEG-SOD ameliorated the LPS-induced changes in circadian periodicity. In gain of function experiments, we found that overexpression of NOX5, a source of ROS, could significantly disrupt circadian function in a circadian reporter cell line (U2OS) whereas iNOS overexpression, a source of NO, was ineffective. To assess whether alteration of circadian rhythms influences macrophage function, peritoneal macrophages were isolated from Bmal1-KO and Per-TKO mice. Compared to WT macrophages, macrophages from circadian knockout mice exhibited altered balance between NO and ROS release, increased uptake of oxLDL and increased adhesion and migration. These results

  2. Effects of coordination number of Au catalyst on oxygen species and their catalytic roles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Gen; Zhu, Kong-Jie; Zhang, Lei; Cui, Peng-Fei; Teng, Bo-Tao; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-11-01

    To explore the effects of coordination number of Au nanoparticles on oxygen species and their catalytic roles is very important in gold catalysis. Based on the systematic study of oxygen adsorption on Au(997) by density functional theory calculation, the quantitative correlation for different oxygen species with coverage and Au coordination number is established in theory. The only O adatoms near step area with relatively low Au coordination numbers exist at low coverage (<1/18 ML), O adatoms adsorb at terrace areas with relatively high Au coordination numbers at medium coverage (1/18-2/9 ML); while oxygen islands form at high coverage (>2/9 ML). The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental observations in TDS spectrum. On the basis of Langmuir-Hinschelwood and Eley-Rideal mechanisms for NO oxidation, the activities of the three different oxygen species also exhibit correlation with Au coordination number. The oxygen island shows the highest oxidation activity, followed by the O adatom at terrace surface; while the O adatom near step area has the lowest oxidative performance. This work will shed light into the understanding of gold catalysis.

  3. Super-oxidation of silicon nanoclusters: magnetism and reactive oxygen species at the surface

    SciTech Connect

    Lepeshkin, Sergey; Baturin, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Evgeny; Matsko, Nikita; Uspenskii, Yurii; Naumova, Anastasia; Feya, Oleg; Schoonen, Martin A.; Oganov, Artem R.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation of silicon nanoclusters depending on the temperature and oxygen pressure is explored from first principles using the evolutionary algorithm, and structural and thermodynamic analysis. From our calculations of 90 SinOm clusters we found that under normal conditions oxidation does not stop at the stoichiometric SiO2 composition, as it does in bulk silicon, but goes further placing extra oxygen atoms on the cluster surface. These extra atoms are responsible for light emission, relevant to reactive oxygen species and many of them are magnetic. We argue that the super-oxidation effect is size-independent and discuss its relevance to nanotechnology and miscellaneous applications, including biomedical ones.

  4. The effect of the copper chelator tetraethylenepentamine on reactive oxygen species generation by human hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Prus, Eugenia; Fibach, Eitan

    2007-12-01

    Clinical observations suggest that copper (Cu) plays a role in regulating hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) development. Cu is known to generate oxidative stress in cells which in turn affects proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. To study this role of Cu, we used double staining flow cytometry to measure reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by neonatal cord blood-derived CD34(+)CD38(-) cells. ROS was increased by Cu and was decreased by the Cu chelator tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA). Previously, we showed that TEPA reduces the free Cu content of HPCs and stimulates their ex vivo expansion. The present results suggest that TEPA affects expansion of HPCs by lowering their oxidative stress.

  5. Measuring reactive oxygen and nitrogen species with fluorescent probes: challenges and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Davies, Kelvin J.A.; Dennery, Phyllis A.; Forman, Henry Jay; Grisham, Matthew B.; Mann, Giovanni E.; Moore, Kevin; Roberts, L. Jackson; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this position paper is to present a critical analysis of the challenges and limitations of the most widely used fluorescent probes for detecting and measuring reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Where feasible, we have made recommendations for the use of alternate probes and appropriate analytical techniques that measure the specific products formed from the reactions between fluorescent probes and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. We have proposed guidelines that will help present and future researchers with regard to the optimal use of selected fluorescent probes and interpretation of results. PMID:22027063

  6. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) detection of active oxygen species and organic phases in Martian soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Fun-Dow; Kim, Soon Sam; Liang, Ranty H.

    1989-01-01

    The presence of active oxygen species (O(-), O2(-), O3(-)) and other strong oxidants (Fe2O3 and Fe3O4) was invoked in interpretations of the Viking biological experiments and a model was also suggested for Martian surface chemistry. The non-biological interpretations of the biological results gain futher support as no organic compounds were detected in the Viking pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GCSM) experiments at concentrations as low as 10 ppb. Electron spin resonance (ESR) measures the absorption of microwaves by a paramagnetic and/or ferromagnetic center in the presence of an external field. In many instances, ESR has the advantage of detailed submicroscopic identification of the transient species and/or unstable reaction intermediates in their environments. Since the higly active oxygen species (O(-), O2(-), O3(-), and R-O-O(-)) are all paramagnetic in nature, they can be readily detected in native form by the ESR method. Active oxygen species likely to occur in the Martian surface samples were detected by ESR in UV-irradiated samples containing MgO. A miniaturized ESR spectrometer system can be developed for the Mars Rover Sample Return Mission. The instrument can perform the following in situ Martian samples analyses: detection of active oxygen species; characterization of Martian surface chemistry and photooxidation processes; and searching for organic compounds in the form of free radicals preserved in subsoils, and detection of microfossils with Martian carbonate sediments.

  7. Oxygen Tension Regulates the Expression of Angiogenesis Factor by Macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knighton, David R.; Hunt, Thomas K.; Scheuenstuhl, Heinz; Halliday, Betty J.; Werb, Zena; Banda, Michael J.

    1983-09-01

    When cultured in a hypoxic environment similar to that found in the center of a wound, macrophages secreted active angiogenesis factor into the medium. Under conditions similar to those of well-oxygenated tissue, macrophages did not secrete active angiogenesis factor. Macrophages that secreted the factor at hypoxic conditions stopped secreting it when returned to room air. Thus the control of angiogenesis in wound healing may be the result of macrophages responding to tissue oxygen tension without the necessity of interacting with other cell types or biochemical signals.

  8. Interplay between reactive oxygen species and hormones in the control of plant development and stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiao-Jian; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Jie; Foyer, Christine H; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2015-05-01

    As a consequence of a sessile lifestyle, plants are continuously exposed to changing environmental conditions and often life-threatening stresses caused by exposure to excessive light, extremes of temperature, limiting nutrient or water availability, and pathogen/insect attack. The flexible coordination of plant growth and development is necessary to optimize vigour and fitness in a changing environment through rapid and appropriate responses to such stresses. The concept that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are versatile signalling molecules in plants that contribute to stress acclimation is well established. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of how ROS production and signalling are integrated with the action of auxin, brassinosteroids, gibberellins, abscisic acid, ethylene, strigolactones, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid in the coordinate regulation of plant growth and stress tolerance. We consider the local and systemic crosstalk between ROS and hormonal signalling pathways and identify multiple points of reciprocal control, as well as providing insights into the integration nodes that involve Ca(2+)-dependent processes and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation cascades.

  9. Catalase eliminates reactive oxygen species and influences the intestinal microbiota of shrimp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Ting; Yang, Ming-Chong; Sun, Jie-Jie; Guo, Fang; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2015-11-01

    Intestinal innate immune response is an important defense mechanism of animals and humans against external pathogens. The mechanism of microbiota homeostasis in host intestines has been well studied in mammals and Drosophila. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antimicrobial peptides have been reported to play important roles in homeostasis. However, how to maintain the microbiota homeostasis in crustacean intestine needs to be elucidated. In this study, we identified a novel catalase (MjCAT) involved in ROS elimination in kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus. MjCAT mRNA was widely distributed in hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine. After the shrimp were challenged with pathogenic bacteria via oral infection, the expression level of MjCAT was upregulated, and the enzyme activity was increased in the intestine. ROS level was also increased in the intestine at early time after oral infection and recovered rapidly. When MjCAT was knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi), high ROS level maintained longer time, and the number of bacteria number was declined in the shrimp intestinal lumen than those in the control group, but the survival rate of the MjCAT-RNAi shrimp was declined. Further study demonstrated that the intestinal villi protruded from epithelial lining of the intestinal wall were damaged by the high ROS level in MjCAT-knockdown shrimp. These results suggested that MjCAT participated in the intestinal host-microbe homeostasis by regulating ROS level.

  10. Extracellular ultrathin fibers sensitive to intracellular reactive oxygen species: Formation of intercellular membrane bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Se-Hui; Park, Jin-Young; Joo, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Myeong; Ha, Kwon-Soo

    2011-07-15

    Membrane bridges are key cellular structures involved in intercellular communication; however, dynamics for their formation are not well understood. We demonstrated the formation and regulation of novel extracellular ultrathin fibers in NIH3T3 cells using confocal and atomic force microscopy. At adjacent regions of neighboring cells, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and glucose oxidase induced ultrathin fiber formation, which was prevented by Trolox, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. The height of ROS-sensitive ultrathin fibers ranged from 2 to 4 nm. PMA-induced formation of ultrathin fibers was inhibited by cytochalasin D, but not by Taxol or colchicine, indicating that ultrathin fibers mainly comprise microfilaments. PMA-induced ultrathin fibers underwent dynamic structural changes, resulting in formation of intercellular membrane bridges. Thus, these fibers are formed by a mechanism(s) involving ROS and involved in formation of intercellular membrane bridges. Furthermore, ultrastructural imaging of ultrathin fibers may contribute to understanding the diverse mechanisms of cell-to-cell communication and the intercellular transfer of biomolecules, including proteins and cell organelles.

  11. p53 activation contributes to patulin-induced nephrotoxicity via modulation of reactive oxygen species generation

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Huan; Yin, Shutao; Song, Xinhua; Zhang, Enxiang; Fan, Lihong; Hu, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Patulin is a major mycotoxin found in fungal contaminated fruits and their derivative products. Previous studies showed that patulin was able to induce increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative stress was suggested to play a pivotal role in patulin-induced multiple toxic signaling. The objective of the present study was to investigate the functional role of p53 in patulin-induced oxidative stress. Our study demonstrated that higher levels of ROS generation and DNA damage were induced in wild-type p53 cell lines than that found in either knockdown or knockout p53 cell lines in response to patulin exposure, suggesting p53 activation contributed to patulin-induced ROS generation. Mechanistically, we revealed that the pro-oxidant role of p53 in response to patulin was attributed to its ability to suppress catalase activity through up-regulation of PIG3. Moreover, these in vitro findings were further validated in the p53 wild-type/knockout mouse model. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report addressing the functional role of p53 in patulin-induced oxidative stress. The findings of the present study provided novel insights into understanding mechanisms behind oxidative stress in response to patulin exposure. PMID:27071452

  12. Long-Term Alteration of Reactive Oxygen Species Led to Multidrug Resistance in MCF-7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Juan; Zhang, Li; Liu, Fangfang

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in multidrug resistance (MDR). This study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term ROS alteration on MDR in MCF-7 cells and to explore its underlying mechanism. Our study showed both long-term treatments of H2O2 and glutathione (GSH) led to MDR with suppressed iROS levels in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, the MDR cells induced by 0.1 μM H2O2 treatment for 20 weeks (MCF-7/ROS cells) had a higher viability and proliferative ability than the control MCF-7 cells. MCF-7/ROS cells also showed higher activity or content of intracellular antioxidants like glutathione peroxidase (GPx), GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). Importantly, MCF-7/ROS cells were characterized by overexpression of MDR-related protein 1 (MRP1) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), as well as their regulators NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α), and the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway in upstream. Moreover, several typical MDR mediators, including glutathione S-transferase-π (GST-π) and c-Myc and Protein Kinase Cα (PKCα), were also found to be upregulated in MCF-7/ROS cells. Collectively, our results suggest that ROS may be critical in the generation of MDR, which may provide new insights into understanding of mechanisms of MDR. PMID:28058088

  13. Iron- and ferritin-dependent reactive oxygen species distribution: impact on Arabidopsis root system architecture.

    PubMed

    Reyt, Guilhem; Boudouf, Soukaina; Boucherez, Jossia; Gaymard, Frédéric; Briat, Jean-Francois

    2015-03-01

    Iron (Fe) homeostasis is integrated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and distribution at the root tip participates in the control of root growth. Excess Fe increases ferritin abundance, enabling the storage of Fe, which contributes to protection of plants against Fe-induced oxidative stress. AtFer1 and AtFer3 are the two ferritin genes expressed in the meristematic zone, pericycle and endodermis of the Arabidopsis thaliana root, and it is in these regions that we observe Fe stained dots. This staining disappears in the triple fer1-3-4 ferritin mutant. Fe excess decreases primary root length in the same way in wild-type and in fer1-3-4 mutant. In contrast, the Fe-mediated decrease of lateral root (LR) length and density is enhanced in fer1-3-4 plants due to a defect in LR emergence. We observe that this interaction between excess Fe, ferritin, and root system architecture (RSA) is in part mediated by the H2O2/O2·- balance between the root cell proliferation and differentiation zones regulated by the UPB1 transcription factor. Meristem size is also decreased in response to Fe excess in ferritin mutant plants, implicating cell cycle arrest mediated by the ROS-activated SMR5/SMR7 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors pathway in the interaction between Fe and RSA.

  14. Synergistic triggering of superoxide flashes by mitochondrial Ca2+ uniport and basal reactive oxygen species elevation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tingting; Zhang, Xing; Xu, Jiejia; Jian, Chongshu; Huang, Zhanglong; Ye, Tao; Hu, Keping; Zheng, Ming; Gao, Feng; Wang, Xianhua; Cheng, Heping

    2013-02-15

    Mitochondrial superoxide flashes reflect a quantal, bursting mode of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that arises from stochastic, transient opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in many types of cells and in living animals. However, the regulatory mechanisms and the exact nature of the flash-coupled mPTP remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate a profound synergistic effect between mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniport and elevated basal ROS production in triggering superoxide flashes in intact cells. Hyperosmotic stress potently augmented the flash activity while simultaneously elevating mitochondrial Ca(2+) and ROS. Blocking mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport by knockdown of MICU1 or MCU, newly identified components of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter, or scavenging mitochondrial basal ROS markedly diminished the flash response. More importantly, whereas elevating Ca(2+) or ROS production alone was inefficacious in triggering the flashes, concurrent physiological Ca(2+) and ROS elevation served as the most powerful flash activator, increasing the flash incidence by an order of magnitude. Functionally, superoxide flashes in response to hyperosmotic stress participated in the activation of JNK and p38. Thus, physiological levels of mitochondrial Ca(2+) and ROS synergistically regulate stochastic mPTP opening and quantal ROS production in intact cells, marking the flash as a coincidence detector of mitochondrial Ca(2+) and ROS signals.

  15. Increased reactive oxygen species production during reductive stress: The roles of mitochondrial glutathione and thioredoxin reductases.

    PubMed

    Korge, Paavo; Calmettes, Guillaume; Weiss, James N

    2015-01-01

    Both extremes of redox balance are known to cause cardiac injury, with mounting evidence revealing that the injury induced by both oxidative and reductive stress is oxidative in nature. During reductive stress, when electron acceptors are expected to be mostly reduced, some redox proteins can donate electrons to O2 instead, which increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, the high level of reducing equivalents also concomitantly enhances ROS scavenging systems involving redox couples such as NADPH/NADP+ and GSH/GSSG. Here our objective was to explore how reductive stress paradoxically increases net mitochondrial ROS production despite the concomitant enhancement of ROS scavenging systems. Using recombinant enzymes and isolated permeabilized cardiac mitochondria, we show that two normally antioxidant matrix NADPH reductases, glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase, generate H2O2 by leaking electrons from their reduced flavoprotein to O2 when electron flow is impaired by inhibitors or because of limited availability of their natural electron acceptors, GSSG and oxidized thioredoxin. The spillover of H2O2 under these conditions depends on H2O2 reduction by peroxiredoxin activity, which may regulate redox signaling in response to endogenous or exogenous factors. These findings may explain how ROS production during reductive stress overwhelms ROS scavenging capability, generating the net mitochondrial ROS spillover causing oxidative injury. These enzymes could potentially be targeted to increase cancer cell death or modulate H2O2-induced redox signaling to protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion damage.

  16. Reactive oxygen species in Hevea brasiliensis latex and relevance to Tapping Panel Dryness.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Leclercq, Julie; Montoro, Pascal

    2016-11-29

    Environmental stress can lead to oxidative stress resulting from an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and involves redox adjustments. Natural rubber is synthesized in laticifers, which is a non-photosynthetic tissue particularly prone to oxidative stress. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on the ROS production and ROS-scavenging systems in laticifers. These regulations have been the subject of intense research into a physiological syndrome, called Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD), affecting latex production in Hevea brasiliensis In order to prevent TPD occurrence, monitoring thiol content appeared to be a crucial factor of latex diagnosis. Thiols, ascorbate and γ-tocotrienol are the major antioxidants in latex. They are involved in membrane protection from ROS and likely have an effect on the quality of raw rubber. Some transcription factors might play a role in the redox regulatory network in Hevea, in particular ethylene response factors, which have been the most intensively studied given the role of ethylene on rubber production. Current challenges for rubber research and development with regard to redox systems will involve improving antioxidant capacity using natural genetic variability.

  17. Reactive oxygen species production and Brugia pahangi survivorship in Aedes polynesiensis with artificial Wolbachia infection types.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Elizabeth S; Crain, Philip R; Fu, Yuqing; Howe, Daniel K; Dobson, Stephen L

    2012-01-01

    Heterologous transinfection with the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia has been shown previously to induce pathogen interference phenotypes in mosquito hosts. Here we examine an artificially infected strain of Aedes polynesiensis, the primary vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, which is the causative agent of Lymphatic filariasis (LF) throughout much of the South Pacific. Embryonic microinjection was used to transfer the wAlbB infection from Aedes albopictus into an aposymbiotic strain of Ae. polynesiensis. The resulting strain (designated "MTB") experiences a stable artificial infection with high maternal inheritance. Reciprocal crosses of MTB with naturally infected wild-type Ae. polynesiensis demonstrate strong bidirectional incompatibility. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the MTB strain differ significantly relative to that of the wild-type, indicating an impaired ability to regulate oxidative stress. Following a challenge with Brugia pahangi, the number of filarial worms achieving the infective stage is significantly reduced in MTB as compared to the naturally infected and aposymbiotic strains. Survivorship of MTB differed significantly from that of the wild-type, with an interactive effect between survivorship and blood feeding. The results demonstrate a direct correlation between decreased ROS levels and decreased survival of adult female Aedes polynesiensis. The results are discussed in relation to the interaction of Wolbachia with ROS production and antioxidant expression, iron homeostasis and the insect immune system. We discuss the potential applied use of the MTB strain for impacting Ae. polynesiensis populations and strategies for reducing LF incidence in the South Pacific.

  18. Lycopene induces apoptosis in Candida albicans through reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun

    2015-08-01

    Lycopene, a well-known carotenoid pigment found in tomatoes, has shown various biological functions. In our previous report, we showed that lycopene induces two apoptotic hallmarks, plasma membrane depolarization and G2/M cell cycle arrest, in Candida albicans. In this study, we investigated the ability of lycopene to induce apoptosis, and the mechanism by which it regulates apoptosis. FITC-Annexin V staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) assay showed that lycopene exerted its antifungal activity during the early and late stages of apoptosis in C. albicans. During apoptosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased, and specifically the hydroxyl radicals contributed to the fungal cell death. Furthermore, lycopene treatment caused intracellular Ca(2+) overload and mitochondrial dysfunction, such as mitochondrial depolarization and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm. At last caspase activation was triggered. In summary, lycopene exerted its antifungal effects against C. albicans by inducing apoptosis via ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  19. Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated Prostaglandin E2 Contributes to Acute Response of Epithelial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Wang, Ying; Yu, Wei-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated after tissue injury play a crucial role during wound healing through initiating acute inflammation, clarifying infection and dead tissue, and mediating various intracellular signal transduction. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been identified as one of the major factors responsible for inflammation and tissue repair. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that ROS produced by damaged human keratinocytes induces the synthesis of PGE2. In vitro epithelial wounding model was used to observe the production of ROS and secretion of PGE2 as well as the involved signal pathway. The mechanical injury caused the rapid production of ROS in in vitro cultured keratinocytes, which was significantly blocked by an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. The increased intracellular ROS caused by mechanical injury stimulates PGE2 production in a time-dependent manner via the activation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which was stimulated by phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK). These results indicate ROS-induced ERK activation leading to the activation of COX-2 and the synthesis of PGE2 in human keratinocytes responding to mechanical injury in the acute phase. PMID:28280524

  20. Identification and biological activities of a new antiangiogenic small molecule that suppresses mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Park, Ju Yeol; Jung, Hye Jin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} YCG063 was screened as a new angiogenesis inhibitor which suppresses mitochondrial ROS generation in a phenotypic cell-based screening of a small molecule-focused library. {yields} The compound inhibited in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. {yields} This new small molecule tool will provide a basis for a better understanding of angiogenesis driven under hypoxic conditions. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with multiple cellular functions such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In particular, high levels of mitochondrial ROS in hypoxic cells regulate many angiogenesis-related diseases, including cancer and ischemic disorders. Here we report a new angiogenesis inhibitor, YCG063, which suppressed mitochondrial ROS generation in a phenotypic cell-based screening of a small molecule-focused library with an ArrayScan HCS reader. YCG063 suppressed mitochondrial ROS generation under a hypoxic condition in a dose-dependent manner, leading to the inhibition of in vitro angiogenic tube formation and chemoinvasion as well as in vivo angiogenesis of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) at non-toxic doses. In addition, YCG063 decreased the expression levels of HIF-1{alpha} and its target gene, VEGF. Collectively, a new antiangiogenic small molecule that suppresses mitochondrial ROS was identified. This new small molecule tool will provide a basis for a better understanding of angiogenesis driven under hypoxic conditions.

  1. Mitochondrial metabolism, reactive oxygen species, and macrophage function-fishing for insights.

    PubMed

    Hall, Christopher J; Sanderson, Leslie E; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S

    2014-11-01

    Metabolism and defense mechanisms that protect against pathogens are two fundamental requirements for the survival of multicellular organisms. Research into metabolic disease has revealed these core mechanisms are highly co-dependent. This emerging field of research, termed immunometabolism, focuses on understanding how metabolism influences immunological processes and vice versa. It is now accepted that obesity influences the immune system and that obesity-driven inflammation contributes to many diseases including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease. The immune response requires the reallocation of nutrients within immune cells to different metabolic pathways to satisfy energy demands and the production of necessary macromolecules. One aspect of immunometabolic research is understanding how these metabolic changes help regulate specific immune cell functions. It is hoped that further understanding of the pathways involved in managing this immunological-metabolic interface will reveal new ways to treat metabolic disease. Given their growing status as principle drivers of obesity-associated inflammation, monocytes/macrophages have received much attention when studying the consequences of inflammation within adipose tissue. Less is known regarding how metabolic changes within macrophages (metabolic reprogramming) influence their immune cell function. In this review, we focus on our current understanding of how monocytes/macrophages alter their intracellular metabolism during the immune response and how these changes dictate specific effector functions. In particular, the immunomodulatory functions of mitochondrial metabolism and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. We also highlight how the attributes of the zebrafish model system can be exploited to reveal new mechanistic insights into immunometabolic processes.

  2. Inhibition of ERK Oscillations by Ionizing Radiation and Reactive Oxygen Species

    SciTech Connect

    Shankaran, Harish; Chrisler, William B; Sontag, Ryan L; Weber, Thomas J

    2010-12-28

    The shuttling of activated protein kinases between the cytoplasm and nucleus is an essential feature of normal growth factor signaling cascades. Here we demonstrate that transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) induces oscillations in extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) cytoplasmic-nuclear translocations in human keratinocytes. TGFα-dependent ERK oscillations mediated through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are inhibited by low dose X-irradiation (10 cGy) and low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (0.32–3.26 µM H2O2) used as a model reactive oxygen species (ROS). A fluorescent indicator dye (H2-DCFDA) was used to measure cellular ROS levels following X-irradiation, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and H2O2. X-irradiation did not generate significant ROS production while 0.32 µM H2O2 and TPA induced significant increases in ROS levels with H2O2 > TPA. TPA alone induced transactivation of the EGFR but did not induce ERK oscillations. TPA as a cotreatment did not inhibit TGFα-stimulated ERK oscillations but qualitatively altered TGFα-dependent ERK oscillation characteristics (amplitude, time-period). Collectively, these observations demonstrate that TGFα-induced ERK oscillations are inhibited by ionizing radiation/ROS and perturbed by epigenetic carcinogen in human keratinocytes. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Asbestos-derived reactive oxygen species activate TGF-beta1.

    PubMed

    Pociask, Derek A; Sime, Patricia J; Brody, Arnold R

    2004-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a potent peptide that inhibits epithelial and mesenchymal cell proliferation and stimulates the synthesis of extracellular matrix components. This cytokine is produced in a biologically latent complex bound to a latent-associated peptide (LAP), and it is the disassociation of this complex that regulates TGF-beta activity. A number of mechanisms have been shown to activate TGF-beta1. We show here that reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by the iron in chrysotile or crocidolite asbestos, mediate the biological activity of TGF-beta1. Recombinant human latent TGF-beta1 was activated in a cell free system in the presence of asbestos and ascorbic acid. Latent TGF-beta1 was overexpressed in both A549 and mink lung epithelial cell lines through an adenovirus vector containing the full-length construct for porcine TGF-beta1. This latent TGF-beta1 was activated in a concentration-dependant fashion by introducing asbestos into the cell cultures. This activation was reduced significantly through the use of superoxide dismutase, catalase or deferoxamine. Amino-acid constituents of the LAP were oxidized as demonstrated by the appearance of carbonyls detected by Western analysis. The oxidized LAP could no longer form a complex with TGF-beta1. Our data support the postulate that ROS derived from asbestos provide a mechanism for activating TGF-beta1 in the alveolar environment by oxidizing amino acids in LAP.

  4. Mechanisms Underlying Interferon-γ-Induced Priming of Microglial Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Nicholas G.; Schilling, Tom; Miralles, Francesc; Eder, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Microglial priming and enhanced reactivity to secondary insults cause substantial neuronal damage and are hallmarks of brain aging, traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. It is, thus, of particular interest to identify mechanisms involved in microglial priming. Here, we demonstrate that priming of microglia with interferon-γ (IFN γ) substantially enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following stimulation of microglia with ATP. Priming of microglial ROS production was substantially reduced by inhibition of p38 MAPK activity with SB203580, by increases in intracellular glutathione levels with N-Acetyl-L-cysteine, by blockade of NADPH oxidase subunit NOX2 activity with gp91ds-tat or by inhibition of nitric oxide production with L-NAME. Together, our data indicate that priming of microglial ROS production involves reduction of intracellular glutathione levels, upregulation of NADPH oxidase subunit NOX2 and increases in nitric oxide production, and suggest that these simultaneously occurring processes result in enhanced production of neurotoxic peroxynitrite. Furthermore, IFNγ-induced priming of microglial ROS production was reduced upon blockade of Kir2.1 inward rectifier K+ channels with ML133. Inhibitory effects of ML133 on microglial priming were mediated via regulation of intracellular glutathione levels and nitric oxide production. These data suggest that microglial Kir2.1 channels may represent novel therapeutic targets to inhibit excessive ROS production by primed microglia in brain pathology. PMID:27598576

  5. Challenging the dogma of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species overproduction in diabetic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Melinda T; Sharma, Kumar

    2016-08-01

    The paradigm that high glucose drives overproduction of superoxide from mitochondria as a unifying theory to explain end organ damage in diabetes complications has been tightly held for more than a decade. With the recent development of techniques and probes to measure the production of distinct reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo, this widely held dogma is now being challenged with the emerging view that specific ROS moieties are essential for the function of specific intracellular signaling pathways and represent normal mitochondrial function. This review will provide a balanced overview of the dual nature of ROS, detailing current evidence for ROS overproduction in diabetic kidney disease, with a focus on cell types and sources of ROS. The technical aspects of measurement of mitochondrial ROS, both in isolated mitochondria and emerging in vivo methods will be discussed. The counterargument, that mitochondrial ROS production is reduced in diabetic complications, is consistent with a growing recognition that stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation activity reduces inflammation and fibrosis. It is clear that there is an urgent need to fully characterize ROS production paying particular attention to spatiotemporal aspects and to factor in the relevance of ROS in the regulation of cellular signaling in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. With improved tools and real-time imaging capacity, a greater understanding of the complex role of ROS will be able to guide novel therapeutic regimens.

  6. Cortisol Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Through a Membrane Glucocorticoid Receptor in Rainbow Trout Myotubes.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Marlen B; Aedo, Jorge E; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Valenzuela, Cristian; Molina, Alfredo; Valdés, Juan A

    2017-04-01

    Cortisol is an essential regulator of neuroendocrine stress responses in teleosts. Cortisol predominantly affects target tissues through the genomic pathway, which involves interacting with cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors, and thereby, modulating stress-response gene expressions. Cortisol also produces rapid effects via non-genomic pathways, which do not involve gene transcription. Although cortisol-mediated genomic pathways are well documented in teleosts, non-genomic pathways are not fully understood. Moreover, no studies have focused on the contribution of non-genomic cortisol pathways in compensatory stress responses in fish. In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skeletal myotubes were stimulated with physiological concentrations of cortisol and cortisol-BSA, a membrane-impermeable agent, resulting in an early induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This production was not suppressed by transcription or translation inhibitors, suggesting non-genomic pathway involvement. Moreover, myotube preincubation with RU486 and NAC completely suppressed cortisol- and cortisol-BSA-induced ROS production. Subcellular fractionation analysis revealed the presence of cell membrane glucocorticoid receptors. Finally, cortisol-BSA induced a significant increase in ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation, as well as in CREB-dependent transcriptional activation of the pgc1a gene expression. The obtained results strongly suggest that cortisol acts through a non-genomic glucocorticoid receptor-mediated pathway to induce ROS production and contribute to ERK/CREB/PGC1-α signaling pathway activation as stress compensation mechanisms. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 718-725, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and cell death during myocardial infarction: roles of calcium and reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    Excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytosolic calcium accumulation play major roles in the initiation of programmed cell death during acute myocardial infarction. Cell death may include necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy, and combinations thereof. During ischemia, calcium handling between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofilament is disrupted and calcium is diverted to the mitochondria causing swelling. Reperfusion, while essential for survival, reactivates energy transduction and contractility and causes the release of ROS and additional ionic imbalance. During acute ischemia–reperfusion, the principal death pathways are programmed necrosis and apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway, initiated by the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, respectively. Despite intense investigation, the mechanisms of action and modes of regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization are incompletely understood. Extrinsic apoptosis, necroptosis and autophagy may also contribute to ischemia–reperfusion injury. In this review, the roles of dysregulated calcium and ROS and the contributions of Bcl-2 proteins, as well as mitochondrial morphology in promoting mitochondrial membrane permeability change and the ensuing cell death during myocardial infarction are discussed. PMID:23176689

  8. Regulation of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas and Burkholderia species.

    PubMed

    Fazli, Mustafa; Almblad, Henrik; Rybtke, Morten Levin; Givskov, Michael; Eberl, Leo; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-07-01

    In the present review, we describe and compare the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia. Our current knowledge suggests that biofilm formation is regulated by cyclic diguanosine-5'-monophosphate (c-di-GMP), small RNAs (sRNA) and quorum sensing (QS) in all these bacterial species. The systems that employ c-di-GMP as a second messenger regulate the production of exopolysaccharides and surface proteins which function as extracellular matrix components in the biofilms formed by the bacteria. The systems that make use of sRNAs appear to regulate the production of exopolysaccharide biofilm matrix material in all these species. In the pseudomonads, QS regulates the production of extracellular DNA, lectins and biosurfactants which all play a role in biofilm formation. In B.cenocepacia QS regulates the expression of a large surface protein, lectins and extracellular DNA that all function as biofilm matrix components. Although the three regulatory systems all regulate the production of factors used for biofilm formation, the molecular mechanisms involved in transducing the signals into expression of the biofilm matrix components differ between the species. Under the conditions tested, exopolysaccharides appears to be the most important biofilm matrix components for P.aeruginosa, whereas large surface proteins appear to be the most important biofilm matrix components for P.putida, P.fluorescens, and B.cenocepacia.

  9. Dominant Presence of Oxygenated Organic Species in the Remote Southern Hemisphere Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, H.; Chen, Y.; Staudt, A.; Jacob, D.; Blake, D.; Heikes, B.; Snow, J.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Oxygenated organic species are intimately involved with the fate of nitrogen oxides (NO(sub x)) and hydrogen oxides (HO(sub x)), which are necessary for tropospheric ozone formation. A recent airborne experiment (March-April, 1999) focused over the southern hemisphere (SH) Pacific Ocean (PEM-tropics-B) provided a first opportunity for a detailed characterization of the oxygenated organic composition of the remote southern hemisphere troposphere. Three co-located multi-channel airborne instruments measured a dozen key oxygenated species (carbonyls, alcohols, organic nitrates, organic pernitrates, peroxides) along with a comprehensive suite of C2-C8 Nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC). These measurements reveal that in the tropical SH (0-30 deg south), oxygenated chemical abundances are extremely large and collectively are nearly five times those of NMHC. Even in the NH remote atmospheres their burden is equal to or greater than that of NMHC. The relatively uniform global distribution oxygenates (EPSILON Ox-org) is indicative of the presence of large natural and distributed sources. A global 3-D model, reflecting the present state of science, is unable to correctly simulate the atmospheric distribution and variability of several of these species.

  10. Transcriptional regulation of bacterial virulence gene expression by molecular oxygen and nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jeffrey; Rolfe, Matthew D; Smith, Laura J

    2014-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) and nitric oxide (NO) are diatomic gases that play major roles in infection. The host innate immune system generates reactive oxygen species and NO as bacteriocidal agents and both require O2 for their production. Furthermore, the ability to adapt to changes in O2 availability is crucial for many bacterial pathogens, as many niches within a host are hypoxic. Pathogenic bacteria have evolved transcriptional regulatory systems that perceive these gases and respond by reprogramming gene expression. Direct sensors possess iron-containing co-factors (iron–sulfur clusters, mononuclear iron, heme) or reactive cysteine thiols that react with O2 and/or NO. Indirect sensors perceive the physiological effects of O2 starvation. Thus, O2 and NO act as environmental cues that trigger the coordinated expression of virulence genes and metabolic adaptations necessary for survival within a host. Here, the mechanisms of signal perception by key O2- and NO-responsive bacterial transcription factors and the effects on virulence gene expression are reviewed, followed by consideration of these aspects of gene regulation in two major pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:25603427

  11. Reactive Oxygen Species Derived from NOX3 and NOX5 Drive Differentiation of Human Oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Accetta, Roberta; Damiano, Simona; Morano, Annalisa; Mondola, Paolo; Paternò, Roberto; Avvedimento, Enrico V.; Santillo, Mariarosaria

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are signaling molecules that mediate stress response, apoptosis, DNA damage, gene expression and differentiation. We report here that differentiation of oligodendrocytes (OLs), the myelin forming cells in the CNS, is driven by ROS. To dissect the OL differentiation pathway, we used the cell line MO3-13, which display the molecular and cellular features of OL precursors. These cells exposed 1–4 days to low levels of H2O2 or to the protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol-12-Myristate-13-Acetate (PMA) increased the expression of specific OL differentiation markers: the specific nuclear factor Olig-2, and Myelin Basic Protein (MBP), which was processed and accumulated selectively in membranes. The induction of differentiation genes was associated with the activation of ERK1-2 and phosphorylation of the nuclear cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB). PKC mediates ROS-induced differentiation because PKC depletion or bis-indolyl-maleimide (BIM), a PKC inhibitor, reversed the induction of differentiation markers by H2O2. H2O2 and PMA increased the expression of membrane-bound NADPH oxidases, NOX3 and NOX5. Selective depletion of these proteins inhibited differentiation induced by PMA. Furthermore, NOX5 silencing down regulated NOX3 mRNA levels, suggesting that ROS produced by NOX5 up-regulate NOX3 expression. These data unravel an elaborate network of ROS-generating enzymes (NOX5 to NOX3) activated by PKC and necessary for differentiation of OLs. Furthermore, NOX3 and NOX5, as inducers of OL differentiation, represent novel targets for therapies of demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis, associated with impairment of OL differentiation. PMID:27313511

  12. PKCα promotes generation of reactive oxygen species via DUOX2 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jiajun; Shao, Miaomiao; Liu, Min; Peng, Peike; Li, Lili; Wu, Weicheng; Wang, Lan; Duan, Fangfang; Zhang, Mingming; Song, Shushu; Jia, Dongwei; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Gu, Jianxin

    2015-08-07

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and elevated rates of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have long been considered as a hallmark of almost all types of cancer including HCC. Protein kinase C alpha (PKCα), a serine/threonine kinase among conventional PKC family, is recognized as a major player in signal transduction and tumor progression. Overexpression of PKCα is commonly observed in human HCC and associated with its poor prognosis. However, how PKCα is involved in hepatocellular carcinogenesis remains not fully understood. In this study, we found that among the members of conventional PKC family, PKCα, but not PKCβI or βII, promoted ROS production in HCC cells. PKCα stimulated generation of ROS by up-regulating DUOX2 at post-transcriptional level. Depletion of DUOX2 abrogated PKCα-induced activation of AKT/MAPK pathways as well as cell proliferation, migration and invasion in HCC cells. Moreover, the expression of DUOX2 and PKCα was well positively correlated in both HCC cell lines and patient samples. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that PKCα plays a critical role in HCC development by inducing DUOX2 expression and ROS generation, and propose a strategy to target PKCα/DUOX2 as a potential adjuvant therapy for HCC treatment. - Highlights: • PKCα promotes the generation of ROS in hepatocellular carcinoma. • PKCα induces ROS production by up-regulating DUOX2 at post-transcriptional level. • DUOX2 is required for PKCα-induced AKT/MAPK activation and tumor progression in HCC. • The expression of PKCα is positively correlated with DUOX2 in HCC.

  13. Deoxyamphimedine, a Pyridoacridine Alkaloid, Damages DNA via the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Kathryn M.; Andjelic, Cynthia D.; Tasdemir, Deniz; Concepción, Gisela P.; Ireland, Chris M.; Barrows, Louis R.

    2009-01-01

    Marine pyridoacridines are a class of aromatic chemicals that share an 11H-pyrido[4,3,2-mn]acridine skeleton. Pyridoacridine alkaloids display diverse biological activities including cytotoxicity, fungicidal and bactericidal properties, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and topoisomerase inhibition. These activities are often dependent on slight modifications to the pyridoacridine skeleton. Here we demonstrate that while structurally similar to neoamphimedine and amphimedine, the biological activity of deoxyamphimedine differs greatly. Deoxyamphimedine damages DNA in vitro independent of topoisomerase enzymes through the generation of reactive oxygen species. Its activity was decreased in low oxygen, with the removal of a reducing agent and in the presence of anti-oxidants. Deoxyamphimedine also showed enhanced toxicity in cells sensitive to single or double strand DNA breaks, consistent with the in vitro activity. PMID:19597581

  14. Deoxyamphimedine, a pyridoacridine alkaloid, damages DNA via the production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Kathryn M; Andjelic, Cynthia D; Tasdemir, Deniz; Concepción, Gisela P; Ireland, Chris M; Barrows, Louis R

    2009-05-25

    Marine pyridoacridines are a class of aromatic chemicals that share an 11H-pyrido[4,3,2-mn]acridine skeleton. Pyridoacridine alkaloids display diverse biological activities including cytotoxicity, fungicidal and bactericidal properties, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and topoisomerase inhibition. These activities are often dependent on slight modifications to the pyridoacridine skeleton. Here we demonstrate that while structurally similar to neoamphimedine and amphimedine, the biological activity of deoxyamphimedine differs greatly. Deoxyamphimedine damages DNA in vitro independent of topoisomerase enzymes through the generation of reactive oxygen species. Its activity was decreased in low oxygen, with the removal of a reducing agent and in the presence of anti-oxidants. Deoxyamphimedine also showed enhanced toxicity in cells sensitive to single or double strand DNA breaks, consistent with the in vitro activity.

  15. Release of elicitors from rice blast spores under the action of reactive oxygen species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on secretion of hypothesized elicitors from spores of rice blast causal fungus Magnaporthe grisea were studied. For spore exposure to exogenous ROS, they were germinated for 5 h in 50 µM H2O2 followed by addition of catalase E.C. 1.11.1.6 (to decompose pe...

  16. [Reactive oxygen species and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde in pathogenesis of Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Rybakowska, Iwona; Szreder, Grzegorz; Kaletha, Krystian; Barwina, Małgorzata; Waldman, Wojciech; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species, which plays a role in pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases, seems to be important also in pathogenesis of the Parkinson's disease. Experiments performed recently, revealed in the cerebrum of patients suffering from this disease (induced by the oxidative stress) elevated levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL)--a strong endogenous neurotoxin to dopamine neurons.

  17. Reactive oxygen species in photochemistry of the red fluorescent protein "Killer Red".

    PubMed

    Vegh, Russell B; Solntsev, Kyril M; Kuimova, Marina K; Cho, Soohee; Liang, Yue; Loo, Bernard L W; Tolbert, Laren M; Bommarius, Andreas S

    2011-05-07

    The fluorescent protein aptly named "Killer Red" (KRed) is capable of killing transfected cells and inactivating fused proteins upon exposure to visible light in the presence of oxygen. We have investigated the source of the bioactive species through a variety of photophysical and photochemical techniques. Our results indicate a Type I (electron transfer mediated) photosensitizing mechanism.

  18. Mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species action in relation to boar motility.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flow cytometric assays of viable boar sperm were developed to measure reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation (oxidization of hydroethidine to ethidium), membrane lipid peroxidation (oxidation of lipophilic probe C11-BODIPY581/591), and mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (aggregation of mit...

  19. Effects of reactive oxygen species action on sperm function in spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation have been recognized as problems for sperm survival and fertility. The precise roles and detection of superoxide (SO), hydrogen peroxide (HP), and membrane lipid peroxidation have been problematic because of the low specificity and sens...

  20. Difference in root K+ retention ability and reduced sensitivity of K+-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species confer differential salt tolerance in three Brassica species

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species are known to possess significant inter and intraspecies variability in salinity stress tolerance, but the cell-specific mechanisms conferring this difference remain elusive. In this work, the role and relative contribution of several key plasma membrane transporters to salinity stress tolerance were evaluated in three Brassica species (B. napus, B. juncea, and B. oleracea) using a range of electrophysiological assays. Initial root growth assay and viability staining revealed that B. napus was most tolerant amongst the three species, followed by B. juncea and B. oleracea. At the mechanistic level, this difference was conferred by at least three complementary physiological mechanisms: (i) higher Na+ extrusion ability from roots resulting from increased expression and activity of plasma membrane SOS1-like Na+/H+ exchangers; (ii) better root K+ retention ability resulting from stress-inducible activation of H+-ATPase and ability to maintain more negative membrane potential under saline conditions; and (iii) reduced sensitivity of B. napus root K+-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The last two mechanisms played the dominant role and conferred most of the differential salt sensitivity between species. Brassica napus plants were also more efficient in preventing the stress-induced increase in GORK transcript levels and up-regulation of expression of AKT1, HAK5, and HKT1 transporter genes. Taken together, our data provide the mechanistic explanation for differential salt stress sensitivity amongst these species and shed light on transcriptional and post-translational regulation of key ion transport systems involved in the maintenance of the root plasma membrane potential and cytosolic K/Na ratio as a key attribute for salt tolerance in Brassica species. PMID:27340231

  1. Production of Reactive Oxygen Species by Photosystem II as a Response to Light and Temperature Stress

    PubMed Central

    Pospíšil, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The effect of various abiotic stresses on photosynthetic apparatus is inevitably associated with formation of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this review, recent progress on ROS production by photosystem II (PSII) as a response to high light and high temperature is overviewed. Under high light, ROS production is unavoidably associated with energy transfer and electron transport in PSII. Singlet oxygen is produced by the energy transfer form triplet chlorophyll to molecular oxygen formed by the intersystem crossing from singlet chlorophyll in the PSII antennae complex or the recombination of the charge separated radical pair in the PSII reaction center. Apart to triplet chlorophyll, triplet carbonyl formed by lipid peroxidation transfers energy to molecular oxygen forming singlet oxygen. On the PSII electron acceptor side, electron leakage to molecular oxygen forms superoxide anion radical which dismutes to hydrogen peroxide which is reduced by the non-heme iron to hydroxyl radical. On the PSII electron donor side, incomplete water oxidation forms hydrogen peroxide which is reduced by manganese to hydroxyl radical. Under high temperature, dark production of singlet oxygen results from lipid peroxidation initiated by lipoxygenase, whereas incomplete water oxidation forms hydrogen peroxide which is reduced by manganese to hydroxyl radical. The understanding of molecular basis for ROS production by PSII provides new insight into how plants survive under adverse environmental conditions. PMID:28082998

  2. Salinomycin induces apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant colorectal cancer cells by accumulation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Li, Pu; Xue, Xiaofeng; He, Songbing; Kuang, Yuting; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Shaoji; Zhi, Qiaoming; Guo, Xiaobo

    2013-10-24

    Postoperative chemotherapy for Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is not all effective and the main reason might lie in cancer stem cells (CSCs). Emerging studies showed that CSCs overexpress some drug-resistance related proteins, which efficiently transport the chemotherapeutics out of cancer cells. Salinomycin, which considered as a novel and an effective anticancer drug, is found to have the ability to kill both CSCs and therapy-resistant cancer cells. To explore the potential mechanisms that salinomycin could specifically target on therapy-resistant cancer cells in colorectal cancers, we firstly obtained cisplatin-resistant (Cisp-resistant) SW620 cells by repeated exposure to 5 μmol/l of cisplatin from an original colorectal cancer cell line. These Cisp-resistant SW620 cells, which maintained a relative quiescent state (G0/G1 arrest) and displayed stem-like signatures (up-regulations of Sox2, Oct4, Nanog, Klf4, Hes1, CD24, CD26, CD44, CD133, CD166, Lgr5, ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A3 mRNA expressions) (p < 0.05), were sensitive to salinomycin (p < 0.05). Salinomycin did not show the influence on the cell cycle of Cisp-resistant SW620 cells (p > 0.05), but could induce cell death process (p < 0.05), with increased levels of LDH release and MDA contents as well as down-regulations of SOD and GSH-PX activities (p < 0.05). Our data also showed that the pro-apoptotic genes (Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Caspase-9 and Bax) were up-regulated and the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 were down-regulated in Cisp-resistant SW620 cells (p < 0.05). Accumulated reactive oxygen species and dysregulation of some apoptosis-related genes might ultimately lead to apoptosis in Cisp-resistant SW620 cells. These findings will provide new clues for novel and selective chemotherapy on cisplatin-resistant colorectal cancer cells.

  3. Reactive Oxygen Species Function to Mediate the Fe Deficiency Response in an Fe-Efficient Apple Genotype: An Early Response Mechanism for Enhancing Reactive Oxygen Production

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chaohua; Wu, Ting; Zhai, Longmei; Li, Duyue; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Xuefeng; Ma, Huiqin; Wang, Yi; Han, Zhenhai

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules in plants that contribute to stress acclimation. This study demonstrated that ROS play a critical role in Fe deficiency-induced signaling at an early stage in Malus xiaojinensis. Once ROS production has been initiated, prolonged Fe starvation leads to activation of ROS scavenging mechanisms. Further, we demonstrated that ROS scavengers are involved in maintaining the cellular redox homeostasis during prolonged Fe deficiency treatment. Taken together, our results describe a feedback repression loop for ROS to preserve redox homeostasis and maintain a continuous Fe deficiency response in the Fe-efficient woody plant M. xiaojinensis. More broadly, this study reveals a new mechanism in which ROS mediate both positive and negative regulation of plant responses to Fe deficiency stress. PMID:27899933

  4. Reactive Oxygen Species Function to Mediate the Fe Deficiency Response in an Fe-Efficient Apple Genotype: An Early Response Mechanism for Enhancing Reactive Oxygen Production.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chaohua; Wu, Ting; Zhai, Longmei; Li, Duyue; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Xuefeng; Ma, Huiqin; Wang, Yi; Han, Zhenhai

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules in plants that contribute to stress acclimation. This study demonstrated that ROS play a critical role in Fe deficiency-induced signaling at an early stage in Malus xiaojinensis. Once ROS production has been initiated, prolonged Fe starvation leads to activation of ROS scavenging mechanisms. Further, we demonstrated that ROS scavengers are involved in maintaining the cellular redox homeostasis during prolonged Fe deficiency treatment. Taken together, our results describe a feedback repression loop for ROS to preserve redox homeostasis and maintain a continuous Fe deficiency response in the Fe-efficient woody plant M. xiaojinensis. More broadly, this study reveals a new mechanism in which ROS mediate both positive and negative regulation of plant responses to Fe deficiency stress.

  5. Regulation of gene expression in bovine blastocysts in response to oxygen and the iron chelator desferrioxamine.

    PubMed

    Harvey, A J; Kind, K L; Thompson, J G

    2007-07-01

    Low (2%) oxygen conditions during postcompaction culture of bovine blastocysts improve embryo quality and are associated with small increases in the expression of glucose transporter 1 (SLC2A1), anaphase promoting complex (ANAPC1), and myotrophin (MTPN), suggesting a role for oxygen in the regulation of embryo development, mediated through oxygen-sensitive gene expression. However, bovine embryos, to at least the blastocyst stage, lack detectable levels of the key regulator of oxygen-sensitive gene expression, hypoxia-inducible 1 alpha (HIF1A), while the less well-characterized HIF2 alpha protein is readily detectable. Here we report that other key HIF1 regulated genes are not significantly altered in their expression pattern in bovine blastocysts in response to reduced oxygen concentrations postcompaction-with the exception of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), which was significantly increased following 2% oxygen culture. Antioxidant enzymes have been suggested as potential HIF2 target genes, but their expression was not altered following low-oxygen culture in the bovine blastocyst. The addition of desferrioxamine (an iron chelator and inducer of HIF-regulated gene expression) during postcompaction stages significantly increased SLC2A1, LDHA, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2A), and MTPN gene expression in bovine blastocysts, although development to the blastocyst stage was not significantly affected. These results further suggest that expression of genes, known to be regulated by oxygen via HIF-1 in somatic cells, is not influenced by oxygen during preimplantation postcompaction bovine embryo development. Oxygen-regulated expression of LDHA and SLC2A1 in bovine blastocysts suggests that regulation of these genes may be mediated by HIF2. Furthermore, the effect of a reduced-oxygen environment on gene expression can be mimicked in vitro through the use of desferrioxamine. These results further support our data that the bovine blastocyst stage embryo is unique in

  6. Iron acquisition and regulation systems in Streptococcus species.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ruiguang; Sun, Xuesong

    2014-05-01

    Gram-positive Streptococcus species are responsible for millions of cases of meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas and necrotizing fasciitis. Iron is essential for the growth and survival of Streptococcus in the host environment. Streptococcus species have developed various mechanisms to uptake iron from an environment with limited available iron. Streptococcus can directly extract iron from host iron-containing proteins such as ferritin, transferrin, lactoferrin and hemoproteins, or indirectly by relying on the employment of specialized secreted hemophores (heme chelators) and small siderophore molecules (high affinity ferric chelators). This review presents the most recent discoveries in the iron acquisition system of Streptococcus species - the transporters as well as the regulators.

  7. Selection of functional human sperm with higher DNA integrity and fewer reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Waseem; Velasco, Vanessa; Kingsley, James L.; Shoukat, Muhammad S.; Shafiee, Hadi; Anchan, Raymond M.; Mutter, George L.; Tüzel, Erkan; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-01-01

    Fertilization and reproduction are central to the survival and propagation of a species. Couples who cannot reproduce naturally have to undergo in vitro clinical procedures. An integral part of these clinical procedures includes isolation of healthy sperm from raw semen. Existing sperm sorting methods are not efficient and isolate sperm having high DNA fragmentation and reactive oxygen species, and suffer from multiple manual steps and variations between embryologists. Inspired by in vivo natural sperm sorting mechanisms where vaginal mucus becomes less viscous to form microchannels to guide sperm towards egg, we present a chip that efficiently sorts healthy, motile and morphologically normal sperm without centrifugation. Higher percentage of sorted sperm show significantly lesser reactive oxygen species and DNA fragmentation than the conventional swim-up method. The presented chip is an easy-to-use high throughput sperm sorter that provides standardized sperm sorting assay with less reliance on embryologist’s skills, facilitating reliable operational steps. PMID:24753434

  8. The oxygen-responsive transcriptional regulator FNR of Escherichia coli: the search for signals and reactions.

    PubMed

    Unden, G; Schirawski, J

    1997-07-01

    The FNR (fumarate and nitrate reductase regulation) protein of Escherichia coli is an oxygen-responsive transcriptional regulator required for the switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. In the absence of oxygen, FNR changes from the inactive to the active state. The sensory and the regulatory functions reside in separate domains of FNR. The sensory domain contains a Fe-S cluster, which is of the [4Fe-4S]2+ type under anaerobic conditions. It is suggested that oxygen is supplied to the cytoplasmic FNR by diffusion and inactivates FNR by direct interaction. Reactivation under anoxic conditions requires cellular reductants. In vitro, the Fe-S cluster is converted to a [3Fe-4S]+ or a [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster by oxygen, resulting in FNR inactivation. After prolonged incubation with oxygen, the Fe-S cluster is destroyed. Reassembly of the [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster might require cellular proteins, such as the NifS-like protein of E. coli. In this review, the rationale for regulation of alternative metabolic pathways by FNR and other oxygen-dependent regulators is discussed. Only the terminal reductases of respiration, and not the dehydrogenases, are regulated in such a way as to achieve maximal H+/e- ratios and ATP yields.

  9. Palladium-Based Nanomaterials: A Platform to Produce Reactive Oxygen Species for Catalyzing Oxidation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Long, Ran; Huang, Hao; Li, Yaping; Song, Li; Xiong, Yujie

    2015-11-25

    Oxidation reactions by molecular oxygen (O2 ) over palladium (Pd)-based nanomaterials are a series of processes crucial to the synthesis of fine chemicals. In the past decades, investigations of related catalytic materials have mainly been focused on the synthesis of Pd-based nanomaterials from the angle of tailoring their surface structures, compositions and supporting materials, in efforts to improve their activities in organic reactions. From the perspective of rational materials design, it is imperative to address the fundamental issues associated with catalyst performance, one of which should be oxygen activation by Pd-based nanomaterials. Here, the fundamentals that account for the transformation from O2 to reactive oxygen species over Pd, with a focus on singlet O2 and its analogue, are introduced. Methods for detecting and differentiating species are also presented to facilitate future fundamental research. Key factors for tuning the oxygen activation efficiencies of catalytic materials are then outlined, and recent developments in Pd-catalyzed oxygen-related organic reactions are summarized in alignment with each key factor. To close, we discuss the challenges and opportunities for photocatalysis research at this unique intersection as well as the potential impact on other research fields.

  10. Reactive Oxygen Species and the Aging Eye: Specific Role of Metabolically Active Mitochondria in Maintaining Lens Function and in the Initiation of the Oxidation-Induced Maturity Onset Cataract--A Novel Platform of Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants With Broad Therapeutic Potential for Redox Regulation and Detoxification of Oxidants in Eye Diseases.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2016-01-01

    The aging eye appears to be at considerable risk from oxidative stress. A great deal of research indicates that dysfunctional mitochondria are the primary site of reactive oxygen species (ROS). More than 95% of O2 produced during normal metabolism is generated by the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria are also the major target of ROS. Cataract formation, the opacification of the eye lens, is one of the leading causes of human blindness worldwide, accounting for 47.8% of all causes of blindness. Cataracts result from the deposition of aggregated proteins in the eye lens and lens fiber cell plasma membrane damage, which causes clouding of the lens, light scattering, and obstruction of vision. ROS-induced damage in the lens cell may consist of oxidation of proteins, DNA damage, and/or lipid peroxidation, all of which have been implicated in cataractogenesis. This article is an attempt to integrate how mitochondrial ROS are altered in the aging eye along with those protective and repair therapeutic systems believed to regulate ROS levels in ocular tissues and how damage to these systems contributes to age-onset eye disease and cataract formation. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants might be used to effectively prevent ROS-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane in vivo. As a result of the combination of weak metal chelating, OH and lipid peroxyl radicals scavenging, reducing activities to liberated fatty acid, and phospholipid hydroperoxides, carnosine and carcinine appear to be physiological antioxidants able to efficiently protect the lipid phase of biologic membranes and aqueous environments and act as the antiapoptotic natural drug compounds The authors developed and patented the new ophthalmic compositions, including N-acetylcarnosine, acting as a prodrug of naturally targeted to mitochondria L-carnosine endowed with pluripotent antioxidant activities combined with mitochondria

  11. Oxygen stress reduces zoospore survival of Phytophthora species in a simulated aquatic system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Phytophthora includes a group of agriculturally important pathogens and they are commonly regarded as water molds. They produce motile zoospores that can move via water currents and on their own locomotion in aquatic environments. However, zoosporic response to dissolved oxygen, an important water quality parameter, is not known. Like other water quality parameters, dissolved oxygen concentration in irrigation reservoirs fluctuates dramatically over time. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how zoospore survival may be affected by elevated and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in water to better understand the aquatic biology of these pathogens in irrigation reservoirs. Results Zoospores of P. megasperma, P. nicotianae, P. pini and P. tropicalis were assessed for survival in 10% Hoagland’s solution at a range of dissolved concentrations from 0.9 to 20.1 mg L-1 for up to seven exposure times from 0 to 72 h. Zoospore survival was measured by resultant colony counts per ml. Zoospores of these species survived the best in control Hoagland’s solution at dissolved oxygen concentrations of 5.3 to 5.6 mg L-1. Zoospore survival rates decreased with increasing and decreasing concentration of dissolved oxygen, depending upon Phytophthora species and exposure time. Overall, P. megasperma and P. pini are less sensitive than P. nicotianae and P. tropicalis to hyperoxia and hypoxia conditions. Conclusion Zoospores in the control solution declined over time and this natural decline process was enhanced under hyperoxia and hypoxia conditions. These findings suggest that dramatic fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in irrigation reservoirs contribute to the population decline of Phytophthora species along the water path in the same reservoirs. These findings advanced our understanding of the aquatic ecology of these pathogens in irrigation reservoirs. They also provided a basis for pathogen risk mitigation by prolonging the turnover

  12. Nitrogen Fixation and Molecular Oxygen: Comparative Genomic Reconstruction of Transcription Regulation in Alphaproteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tsoy, Olga V.; Ravcheev, Dmitry A.; Čuklina, Jelena; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation plays a crucial role in the nitrogen cycle. An ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, reducing it to ammonium, was described for multiple species of Bacteria and Archaea. The transcriptional regulatory network for nitrogen fixation was extensively studied in several representatives of the class Alphaproteobacteria. This regulatory network includes the activator of nitrogen fixation NifA, working in tandem with the alternative sigma-factor RpoN as well as oxygen-responsive regulatory systems, one-component regulators FnrN/FixK and two-component system FixLJ. Here we used a comparative genomics approach for in silico study of the transcriptional regulatory network in 50 genomes of Alphaproteobacteria. We extended the known regulons and proposed the scenario for the evolution of the nitrogen fixation transcriptional network. The reconstructed network substantially expands the existing knowledge of transcriptional regulation in nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and can be used for genetic experiments, metabolic reconstruction, and evolutionary analysis. PMID:27617010

  13. Prostaglandins and radical oxygen species are involved in microvascular effects of hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, A; Tesselaar, E; Henricson, J; Sjöberg, F

    2010-01-01

    Hyperoxia causes vasoconstriction in most tissues, by mechanisms that are not fully understood. We investigated microvascular effects of breathing 100% oxygen in healthy volunteers, using iontophoresis to deliver acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Aspirin and vitamin C were used to test for involvement of prostaglandins and radical oxygen species. Forearm skin perfusion was measured using laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Results were analysed using dose-response modelling. The response to ACh was reduced by 30% during oxygen breathing compared to air breathing [0.98 (0.81-1.15) PU vs. 1.45 (1.30-1.60) PU, p < 0.001]. ED(50) values were unchanged [2.25 (1.84-2.75) vs. 2.21 (1.79-2.74), not significant]. Aspirin pre-treatment abolished the difference in response between oxygen breathing and air breathing [maximum: 1.03 (0.90-1.16) vs. 0.89 (0.77-1.01), not significant; ED(50): 1.83 (1.46-2.30) vs. 1.95 (1.65-2.30), not significant]. ACh-mediated vasodilatation during 100% oxygen breathing was partially restored after pre-treatment with vitamin C. Breathing 100% oxygen did not change the microvascular response to SNP [1.45 (1.28-1.62) vs. 1.40 (1.26-1.53), not significant]. These results favour the hypothesis that hyperoxic vasoconstriction is mediated by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Radical oxygen species may be involved as vitamin C, independently of aspirin, partially restored ACh-mediated vasodilatation during hyperoxia.

  14. Mutagenicity of arsenic in mammalian cells: role of reactive oxygen species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hei, T. K.; Liu, S. X.; Waldren, C.

    1998-01-01

    Arsenite, the trivalent form of arsenic present in the environment, is a known human carcinogen that lacked mutagenic activity in bacterial and standard mammalian cell mutation assays. We show herein that when evaluated in an assay (AL cell assay), in which both intragenic and multilocus mutations are detectable, that arsenite is in fact a strong dose-dependent mutagen and that it induces mostly large deletion mutations. Cotreatment of cells with the oxygen radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide significantly reduces the mutagenicity of arsenite. Thus, the carcinogenicity of arsenite can be explained at least in part by it being a mutagen that depends on reactive oxygen species for its activity.

  15. Ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase (FTR) links the regulation of oxygenic photosynthesis to deeply rooted bacteria.

    PubMed

    Balsera, Monica; Uberegui, Estefania; Susanti, Dwi; Schmitz, Ruth A; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Schürmann, Peter; Buchanan, Bob B

    2013-02-01

    Uncovered in studies on photosynthesis 35 years ago, redox regulation has been extended to all types of living cells. We understand a great deal about the occurrence, function, and mechanism of action of this mode of regulation, but we know little about its origin and its evolution. To help fill this gap, we have taken advantage of available genome sequences that make it possible to trace the phylogenetic roots of members of the system that was originally described for chloroplasts-ferredoxin, ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase (FTR), and thioredoxin as well as target enzymes. The results suggest that: (1) the catalytic subunit, FTRc, originated in deeply rooted microaerophilic, chemoautotrophic bacteria where it appears to function in regulating CO(2) fixation by the reverse citric acid cycle; (2) FTRc was incorporated into oxygenic photosynthetic organisms without significant structural change except for addition of a variable subunit (FTRv) seemingly to protect the Fe-S cluster against oxygen; (3) new Trxs and target enzymes were systematically added as evolution proceeded from bacteria through the different types of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms; (4) an oxygenic type of regulation preceded classical light-dark regulation in the regulation of enzymes of CO(2) fixation by the Calvin-Benson cycle; (5) FTR is not universally present in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, and in certain early representatives is seemingly functionally replaced by NADP-thioredoxin reductase; and (6) FTRc underwent structural diversification to meet the ecological needs of a variety of bacteria and archaea.

  16. 9 CFR 83.3 - Interstate movement of live VHS-regulated fish species from VHS-regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-regulated fish species from VHS-regulated areas. 83.3 Section 83.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...-regulated fish species from VHS-regulated areas. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section, live VHS-regulated fish, including fish moved to live fish markets, may only be...

  17. 9 CFR 83.3 - Interstate movement of live VHS-regulated fish species from VHS-regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-regulated fish species from VHS-regulated areas. 83.3 Section 83.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...-regulated fish species from VHS-regulated areas. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section, live VHS-regulated fish, including fish moved to live fish markets, may only be...

  18. Diazoxide prevents reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial damage, leading to anti-hypertrophic effects.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Aline M; Caldas, Francisco R; da Silva, Amanda P; Ventura, Maximiano M; Leite, Iago M; Filgueiras, Ana B; Silva, Claúdio G L; Kowaltowski, Alicia J; Facundo, Heberty T

    2017-01-05

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by wall thickening or chamber enlargement of the heart in response to pressure or volume overload, respectively. This condition will, initially, improve the organ contractile function, but if sustained will render dysfunctional mitochondria and oxidative stress. Mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (mitoKATP) modulate the redox status of the cell and protect against several cardiac insults. Here, we tested the hypothesis that mitoKATP opening (using diazoxide) will avoid isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo by decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial Ca(2+)-induced swelling. To induce cardiac hypertrophy, Swiss mice were treated intraperitoneally with isoproterenol (30 mg/kg/day) for 8 days. Diazoxide (5 mg/kg/day) was used to open mitoKATP and 5-hydroxydecanoate (5 mg/kg/day) was administrated as a mitoKATP blocker. Isoproterenol-treated mice had elevated heart weight/tibia length ratios and increased myocyte cross-sectional areas. Additionally, hypertrophic hearts produced higher levels of H2O2 and had lower glutathione peroxidase activity. In contrast, mitoKATP opening with diazoxide blocked all isoproterenol effects in a manner reversed by 5-hydroxydecanoate. Isolated mitochondria from Isoproterenol-induced hypertrophic hearts had increased susceptibility to Ca(2+)-induced swelling secondary to mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. MitokATP opening was accompanied by lower Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling, an effect blocked by 5-hydroxydecanoate. Our results suggest that mitoKATP opening negatively regulates cardiac hypertrophy by avoiding oxidative impairment and mitochondrial damage.

  19. Estrogen potentiates reactive oxygen species (ROS) tolerance to initiate carcinogenesis and promote cancer malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hui; Gao, Zhen; Wang, Gang; Li, Huizhong; Zheng, JunNian

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen-mediated high reactive oxygen species (ROS) tolerance plays an important role in driving carcinogenesis. ROS overproduction acts as the significant effector to increase genomic instability and transduce redox-related signal pathway. Especially, estrogen-mediated mitochondrial ROS promote the mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the damage to mitochondrial proteins. Moreover, estrogen-mediated ROS contribute to the alteration of energy metabolism and modulate several redox-sensitive proteins responsible for cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis. On the other hand, estrogen simultaneously performs the antioxidative beneficial functions, which protects cancer cells from the potential cytotoxic effects of estrogen-mediated ROS through activation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) antioxidant response. Consequently, estrogen potentiates the high ROS tolerance through increase of ROS production as well as acceleration of ROS elimination, which ultimately results in estrogen-mediated carcinogenesis and malignant transformation. However, this overdependence on antioxidant response system to resist ROS-mediated cytotoxicity also represents the "Achilles' Heel" of estrogen-mediated cancer cells. In other words, the destruction of the high ROS tolerance using antioxidant inhibitors may provide a novel and efficacious measure to selectively eliminate these cancer cells without harming normal cells. Of course, it will be necessary to define the exact situation of ROS homeostasis in the different cellular microenvironment and further decipher the mechanisms of redox regulation, which is consequently used as a new avenue to optimize the clinical therapy for estrogen-mediated cancer.

  20. Hypoxic relaxation of penile arteries: involvement of endothelial nitric oxide and modulation by reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Pawel M.; Bagi, Zsolt; Ahmad, Mansoor; Wolin, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Although obesity-related cardiovascular disease and hypoxia are associated with erectile dysfunction, little is known about the direct effects of hypoxia on penile arteries. In the present study, the effects of acute hypoxia (Po2 = ∼10 Torr, 20 min) were investigated in isolated penile arteries to determine the influence of endothelium removal, nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS), cyclooxygenase (COX), NADPH oxidase, changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS), and a high-fat diet. Hypoxia-relaxed penile arteries contracted with phenylephrine by ∼50%. Relaxation to hypoxia and acetylcholine was reduced by endothelium removal and by inhibition of NOS (Nω-nitro-l-arginine) and COX (indomethacin) but was enhanced by Tempol and by NADPH oxidase inhibition with apocynin and gp91ds-tat. Basal superoxide levels detected by lucigenin chemiluminescence were reduced by Tempol and gp91ds-tat and were enhanced by NOS blockade. Hypoxic relaxant responses were enhanced by catalase and ebselen. Exogenous peroxide evoked relaxations of penile arteries, which were partially inhibited by endothelium removal and by the inhibition of COX and extracellular signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but enhanced by p38 MAPK blockade. The NO-dependent component of relaxation to hypoxia was impaired in penile arteries from high-fat diet-fed, obese rats associated with increased superoxide production. Thus hypoxic relaxation of penile arteries is partially mediated by endothelial NO in a manner that is normally attenuated by endogenous ROS production. Obesity further increases superoxide production and impairs the influence of NO. Therefore, cardiovascular disease involving decreased NO bioavailability and/or enhanced ROS generation may contribute to erectile dysfunction through impairing the relaxation of penile arteries to hypoxia. PMID:20581086

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi Needs a Signal Provided by Reactive Oxygen Species to Infect Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Goes, Grazielle R.; Rocha, Peter S.; Diniz, Aline R. S.; Aguiar, Pedro H. N.; Machado, Carlos R.; Vieira, Leda Q.

    2016-01-01

    Background During Trypanosoma cruzi infection, macrophages produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a process called respiratory burst. Several works have aimed to elucidate the role of ROS during T. cruzi infection and the results obtained are sometimes contradictory. T. cruzi has a highly efficiently regulated antioxidant machinery to deal with the oxidative burst, but the parasite macromolecules, particularly DNA, may still suffer oxidative damage. Guanine (G) is the most vulnerable base and its oxidation results in formation of 8-oxoG, a cellular marker of oxidative stress. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to investigate the contribution of ROS in T. cruzi survival and infection, we utilized mice deficient in the gp91phox (Phox KO) subunit of NADPH oxidase and parasites that overexpress the enzyme EcMutT (from Escherichia coli) or TcMTH (from T. cruzi), which is responsible for removing 8-oxo-dGTP from the nucleotide pool. The modified parasites presented enhanced replication inside murine inflammatory macrophages from C57BL/6 WT mice when compared with control parasites. Interestingly, when Phox KO macrophages were infected with these parasites, we observed a decreased number of all parasites when compared with macrophages from C57BL/6 WT. Scavengers for ROS also decreased parasite growth in WT macrophages. In addition, treatment of macrophages or parasites with hydrogen peroxide increased parasite replication in Phox KO mice and in vivo. Conclusions Our results indicate a paradoxical role for ROS since modified parasites multiply better inside macrophages, but proliferation is significantly reduced when ROS is removed from the host cell. Our findings suggest that ROS can work like a signaling molecule, contributing to T. cruzi growth inside the cells. PMID:27035573

  2. Aging and estrogen alter endothelial reactivity to reactive oxygen species in coronary arterioles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lori S; Chen, Bei; Reyes, Rafael A; Leblanc, Amanda J; Teng, Bunyen; Mustafa, S Jamal; Muller-Delp, Judy M

    2011-06-01

    Endothelium-dependent, nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation can be impaired by reactive oxygen species (ROS), and this deleterious effect of ROS on NO availability may increase with aging. Endothelial function declines rapidly after menopause, possibly because of loss of circulating estrogen and its antioxidant effects. The purpose of the current study was to determine the role of O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2) in regulating flow-induced dilation in coronary arterioles of young (6-mo) and aged (24-mo) intact, ovariectomized (OVX), or OVX + estrogen-treated (OVE) female Fischer 344 rats. Both aging and OVX reduced flow-induced NO production, whereas flow-induced H(2)O(2) production was not altered by age or estrogen status. Flow-induced vasodilation was evaluated before and after treatment with the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic Tempol (100 μM) or the H(2)O(2) scavenger catalase (100 U/ml). Removal of H(2)O(2) with catalase reduced flow-induced dilation in all groups, whereas Tempol diminished vasodilation in intact and OVE, but not OVX, rats. Immunoblot analysis revealed elevated nitrotyrosine with aging and OVX. In young rats, OVX reduced SOD protein while OVE increased SOD in aged rats; catalase protein did not differ in any group. Collectively, these studies suggest that O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2) are critical components of flow-induced vasodilation in coronary arterioles from female rats; however, a chronic deficiency of O(2)(-) buffering by SOD contributes to impaired flow-induced dilation with aging and loss of estrogen. Furthermore, these data indicate that estrogen replacement restores O(2)(-) homeostasis and flow-induced dilation of coronary arterioles, even at an advanced age.

  3. Reactive oxygen species and oocyte aging: role of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Goud, Anuradha P; Goud, Pravin T; Diamond, Michael P; Gonik, Bernard; Abu-Soud, Husam M

    2008-04-01

    Aging of the unfertilized oocyte inevitably occurs following ovulation, limiting its fertilizable life span. However, the mechanisms that regulate oocyte aging are still unclear. We hypothesize that reactive oxygen species such as superoxide (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) are likely candidates that may initiate these changes in the oocyte. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated direct effects of O2- [hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase system generating 0.12 (n=42) and 0.25 (n=45) microM O2-/min], H2O2 (20 or 100 microM, n=60), and HOCl, (1, 10, and 100 microM, n=50) on freshly ovulated or relatively old mouse oocytes, while their sibling oocytes were fixed immediately or cultured under physiological conditions (n=96). The aging process was assessed by the zona pellucida dissolution time (ZPDT), ooplasm microtubule dynamics (OMD), and cortical granule (CG) status. The ZPDT increased 2-fold in relatively old, compared to young, untreated oocytes (P<0.0001). Exposure to O2- increased it even further (P<0.0001). Similarly, more O2- exposed oocytes exhibited increased OMD and major CG loss, with fewer having normal OMD and intact CG compared to untreated controls. Interestingly, young oocytes resisted "aging," when exposed to 20 microM H2O2, while the same enhanced the aging phenomena in relatively old oocytes (P<0.05). Exposure to even very low levels of HOCl induced the aging phenomena in young and relatively old oocytes, and higher concentrations of HOCl compromised oocyte viability. Overall, O2-, H2O2, and HOCl each augment oocyte aging, more so in relatively old oocytes, suggesting compromised antioxidant capacity in aging oocytes.

  4. Proteomic analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related proteins in rice roots.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Gon; Kim, Sun Tae; Kang, Sun Young; Wang, Yiming; Kim, Wook; Kang, Kyu Young

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the rice root proteome, we applied the PEG fractionation technique combined with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis which rendered more well-separated protein spots. Out of the 295 chosen proteins, 93 were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The proteins were classified as relating to metabolism (38.7%), reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related proteins (22.5%), protein processing/degradation (8.6%), stress/defense (7.5%), energy (6.5%) and signal transduction (5.4%). The high percentage of ROS-related proteins found in rice root brings us to assess the roles of ROS on rice root growth. Treatment with ROS quenching chemicals such as reduced glutathione (GSH), diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and ascorbate inhibited root growth dose-dependently. Forty-nine proteins identified were either up- or down-regulated by GSH treatment, of which 14 were ROS-related proteins, such noticeably modulated ones as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutases (SOD) and L-ascorbate peroxidases. The protein levels of four GSTs (NS4, 8, 56 and 57), three APXs (NS46, 49 and 50) and MnSOD (NS45) were strongly reduced by GSH treatment but slightly reduced by ascorbate and DPI. Ascorbate and DPI strongly inhibited expression levels of a catalase A (NP23) and an APX (NS65) but did not affect APXs (NS46, 49 and 50) protein levels. Northern analysis demonstrated that changes in transcript levels of five genes--GST (NS4), GST (NS43), Mn-SOD (NS45), APX (NS50) and APX (NS46/49) in response to ROS quenching chemicals were coherent with patterns shown in two-dimensional electrophoresis analyses. Taken together, we suggest that these proteins may take part in an important role in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis during rice root growth.

  5. Remarkably high activities of testicular cytochrome c in destroying reactive oxygen species and in triggering apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhe; Lin, Hao; Ye, Sheng; Liu, Qin-ying; Meng, Zhaohui; Zhang, Chuan-mao; Xia, Yongjing; Margoliash, Emanuel; Rao, Zihe; Liu, Xiang-jun

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the major reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in sperm. High concentrations of H2O2 in sperm induce nuclear DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation and result in cell death. The respiratory chain of the mitochondrion is one of the most productive ROS generating systems in sperm, and thus the destruction of ROS in mitochondria is critical for the cell. It was recently reported that H2O2 generated by the respiratory chain of the mitochondrion can be efficiently destroyed by the cytochrome c-mediated electron-leak pathway where the electron of ferrocytochrome c migrates directly to H2O2 instead of to cytochrome c oxidase. In our studies, we found that mouse testis-specific cytochrome c (T-Cc) can catalyze the reduction of H2O2 three times faster than its counterpart in somatic cells (S-Cc) and that the T-Cc heme has the greater resistance to being degraded by H2O2. Together, these findings strongly imply that T-Cc can protect sperm from the damages caused by H2O2. Moreover, the apoptotic activity of T-Cc is three to five times greater than that of S-Cc in a well established apoptosis measurement system using Xenopus egg extract. The dramatically stronger apoptotic activity of T-Cc might be important for the suicide of male germ cells, considered a physiological mechanism that regulates the number of sperm produced and eliminates those with damaged DNA. Thus, it is very likely that T-Cc has evolved to guarantee the biological integrity of sperm produced in mammalian testis. PMID:16757556

  6. Reactive oxygen species production and redox state in parthenogenetic and sperm-mediated bovine oocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Morado, S; Cetica, P; Beconi, M; Thompson, J G; Dalvit, G

    2013-05-01

    The knowledge concerning redox and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated regulation of early embryo development is scarce and remains controversial. The aim of this work was to determine ROS production and redox state during early in vitro embryo development in sperm-mediated and parthenogenetic activation of bovine oocytes. Sperm-mediated oocyte activation was carried out in IVF-modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF) with frozen-thawed semen. Parthenogenetic activation was performed in TALP plus ionomycin and then in IVF-mSOF with 6-dimethylaminopurine plus cytochalasin B. Embryos were cultured in IVF-mSOF. ROS and redox state were determined at each 2-h interval (7-24 h from activation) by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and RedoxSensor Red CC-1 fluorochromes respectively. ROS levels and redox state differed between activated and non-activated oocytes (P<0.05 by ANOVA). In sperm-activated oocytes, an increase was observed between 15 and 19 h (P<0.05). Conversely, in parthenogenetically activated oocytes, we observed a decrease at 9 h (P<0.05). In sperm-activated oocytes, ROS fluctuated throughout the 24 h, presenting peaks around 7, 19, and 24 h (P<0.05), while in parthenogenetic activation, peaks were detected at 7, 11, and 17 h (P<0.05). In the present work, we found clear distinctive metabolic patterns between normal and parthenogenetic zygotes. Oxidative activity and ROS production are an integral part of bovine zygote behavior, and defining a temporal pattern of change may be linked with developmental competence.

  7. Mercuric ions inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinase dephosphorylation by inducing reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, Hajo; Engelhardt, Gabriela; Hebel, Silke; Rink, Lothar

    2011-01-01

    Mercury intoxication profoundly affects the immune system, in particular, signal transduction of immune cells. However, the mechanism of the interaction of mercury with cellular signaling pathways, such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), remains elusive. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate three potential ways in which Hg{sup 2+} ions could inhibit MAPK dephosphorylation in the human T-cell line Jurkat: (1) by direct binding to phosphatases; (2) by releasing cellular zinc (Zn{sup 2+}); and (3) by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hg{sup 2+} causes production of ROS, measured by dihydrorhodamine 123, and triggers ROS-mediated Zn{sup 2+} release, detected with FluoZin-3. Yet, phosphatase-inhibition is not mediated by binding of Zn{sup 2+} or Hg{sup 2+}. Rather, phosphatases are inactivated by at least two forms of thiol oxidation; initial inhibition is reversible with reducing agents such as Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine. Prolonged inhibition leads to non-reversible phosphatase oxidation, presumably oxidizing the cysteine thiol to sulfinic- or sulfonic acid. Notably, phosphatases are a particularly sensitive target for Hg{sup 2+}-induced oxidation, because phosphatase activity is inhibited at concentrations of Hg{sup 2+} that have only minor impact on over all thiol oxidation. This phosphatase inhibition results in augmented, ROS-dependent MAPK phosphorylation. MAPK are important regulators of T-cell function, and MAPK-activation by inhibition of phosphatases seems to be one of the molecular mechanisms by which mercury affects the immune system.

  8. Reactive oxygen species promote heat shock protein 90-mediated HBV capsid assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoon Sik Seo, Hyun Wook Jung, Guhung

    2015-02-13

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and has been associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ROS are also an important factor in HCC because the accumulated ROS leads to abnormal cell proliferation and chromosome mutation. In oxidative stress, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and glutathione (GSH) function as part of the defense mechanism. Hsp90 prevents cellular component from oxidative stress, and GSH acts as antioxidants scavenging ROS in the cell. However, it is not known whether molecules regulated by oxidative stress are involved in HBV capsid assembly. Based on the previous study that Hsp90 facilitates HBV capsid assembly, which is an important step for the packing of viral particles, here, we show that ROS enrich Hsp90-driven HBV capsid formation. In cell-free system, HBV capsid assembly was facilitated by ROS with Hsp90, whereas it was decreased without Hsp90. In addition, GSH inhibited the function of Hsp90 to decrease HBV capsid assembly. Consistent with the result of cell-free system, ROS and buthionine sulfoximine (BS), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, increased HBV capsid formation in HepG2.2.15 cells. Thus, our study uncovers the interplay between ROS and Hsp90 during HBV capsid assembly. - Highlights: • We examined H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and GSH modulate HBV capsid assembly. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} facilitates HBV capsid assembly in the presence of Hsp90. • GSH inhibits function of Hsp90 in facilitating HBV capsid assembly. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and GSH induce conformation change of Hsp90.

  9. Reactive oxygen species and cancer paradox: To promote or to suppress?

    PubMed

    Galadari, Sehamuddin; Rahman, Anees; Pallichankandy, Siraj; Thayyullathil, Faisal

    2017-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a group of highly reactive ions and molecules, are increasingly being appreciated as powerful signaling molecules involved in the regulation of a variety of biological processes. Indeed, their role is continuously being delineated in a variety of pathophysiological conditions. For instance, cancer cells are shown to have increased ROS levels in comparison to their normal counterparts. This is partly due to an enhanced metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells. The escalated ROS generation in cancer cells contributes to the biochemical and molecular changes necessary for the tumor initiation, promotion and progression, as well as, tumor resistance to chemotherapy. Therefore, increased ROS in cancer cells may provide a unique opportunity to eliminate cancer cells via elevating ROS to highly toxic levels intracellularly, thereby, activating various ROS-induced cell death pathways, or inhibiting cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy. Such results can be achieved by using agents that either increase ROS generation, or inhibit antioxidant defense, or even a combination of both. In fact, a large variety of anticancer drugs, and some of those currently under clinical trials, effectively kill cancer cells and overcome drug resistance via enhancing ROS generation and/or impeding the antioxidant defense mechanism. This review focuses on our current understanding of the tumor promoting (tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, and chemoresistance) and the tumor suppressive (apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis) functions of ROS, and highlights the potential mechanism(s) involved. It also sheds light on a very novel and an actively growing field of ROS-dependent cell death mechanism referred to as ferroptosis.

  10. Scoparone attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation through controlling reactive oxygen species production and scavenging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jang, Hae-Dong

    2015-02-15

    Scoparone, one of the bioactive components of Artemisia capillaris Thunb, has various biological properties including immunosuppressive, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. This study aims at evaluating the anti-osteoporotic effect of scoparone and its underlying mechanism in vitro. Scoparone demonstrated potent cellular antioxidant capacity. It was also found that scoparone inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38-mediated c-Fos–nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathway. During osteoclast differentiation, the production of general reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions was dose-dependently attenuated by scoparone. In addition, scoparone diminished NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression and activation via the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)–cSrc–phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k) signaling pathway and prevented the disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain system. Furthermore, scoparone augmented the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT). The overall results indicate that the inhibitory effect of scoparone on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is attributed to the suppressive effect on ROS and superoxide anion production by inhibiting Nox1 expression and activation and protecting the mitochondrial electron transport chain system and the scavenging effect of ROS resulting from elevated SOD1 and CAT expression. - Highlights: • Scoparone dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. • Scoparone diminished general ROS and superoxide anions in a dose-dependent manner. • Scoparone inhibited Nox1 expression and

  11. Quantum dot-mediated photoproduction of reactive oxygen species for cancer cell annihilation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Yao; Lee, Yee-Man; Zhao, Dan; Mak, Nai-Ki; Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun; Chan, Wing-Hong; Cheung, Nai-Ho

    2010-01-01

    While semiconductor quantum dots produce little singlet oxygen, they may undergo Type I photoreactions to produce other reactive oxygen species (ROS) to kill cells. CdTe quantum dots coated with thioglycolic acid were used to test that possibility. Some thiol ligands were purposely removed to regenerate the surface electron traps that were passivated by the ligand. This allowed photoinduced electrons to dwell on the surface long enough to be gathered by nearby oxygen molecules to produce ROS. The photocytotoxicity of these quantum dots was tested on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Photokilling was shown to be drug and light dose dependent. Using 0.6 mum quantum dots for incubation and 4.8 J cm(-2) for irradiation, about 80% of the cells were annihilated. These quantum dots promised to be potent sensitizers for photoannihilation of cancer cells.

  12. [Roles of reactive oxygen species in Streptomyces pactum Act12-induced tanshinone production in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots].

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Shun-Cang; Liu, Yan; Liang, Zong-Suo

    2014-06-01

    Our previous research indicated that the Streptomyces pactum Act12 (Act12) had a certain promotional effect on tanshinone accumulation and up-regulated the expression of genes 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots. This study focuses on the roles of reactive oxygen species in S. pactum Act12-induced tanshinone production in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. The 4% Act12, 4% Act12 + CAT and 4% Act12 + SOD were added to S. miltiorrhiza hairy root and subcultured for 21 days, the dry weight, contents of reactive oxygen species, contents of tanshinones and expression of HMGR and DXR were determined at different harvest-time. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots was triggered by 4% Act12 treatment. The relative expressions of genes HMGR and DXR in 4% Act12 treatment were 32.4 and 4.8-fold higher than those in the control. And the total tanshinone in the hairy roots was 10.2 times higher than that of the control. The CAT and SOD could significantly inhibit the ROS accumulation and relative expressions of genes HMGR and DXR in 4% Act12 treatment, which induced the total tanshinone content was decreased by 74.6% comparing with the 4% Act12 treatment. ROS mediated Act12-induced tanshinone production. The Act12 may be via the ROS signal channel to activate the tanshinone biosynthesis pathways. Thereby the tanshinon content in hairy roots was increased.

  13. Identification of different oxygen species in oxide nanostructures with 17O solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Wu, Xin-Ping; Zheng, Sujuan; Zhao, Li; Li, Lei; Shen, Li; Gao, Yuxian; Xue, Nianhua; Guo, Xuefeng; Huang, Weixin; Gan, Zhehong; Blanc, Frédéric; Yu, Zhiwu; Ke, Xiaokang; Ding, Weiping; Gong, Xue-Qing; Grey, Clare P.; Peng, Luming

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured oxides find multiple uses in a diverse range of applications including catalysis, energy storage, and environmental management, their higher surface areas, and, in some cases, electronic properties resulting in different physical properties from their bulk counterparts. Developing structure-property relations for these materials requires a determination of surface and subsurface structure. Although microscopy plays a critical role owing to the fact that the volumes sampled by such techniques may not be representative of the whole sample, complementary characterization methods are urgently required. We develop a simple nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) strategy to detect the first few layers of a nanomaterial, demonstrating the approach with technologically relevant ceria nanoparticles. We show that the 17O resonances arising from the first to third surface layer oxygen ions, hydroxyl sites, and oxygen species near vacancies can be distinguished from the oxygen ions in the bulk, with higher-frequency 17O chemical shifts being observed for the lower coordinated surface sites. H217O can be used to selectively enrich surface sites, allowing only these particular active sites to be monitored in a chemical process. 17O NMR spectra of thermally treated nanosized ceria clearly show how different oxygen species interconvert at elevated temperature. Density functional theory calculations confirm the assignments and reveal a strong dependence of chemical shift on the nature of the surface. These results open up new strategies for characterizing nanostructured oxides and their applications. PMID:26601133

  14. Identification of different oxygen species in oxide nanostructures with (17)O solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Wu, Xin-Ping; Zheng, Sujuan; Zhao, Li; Li, Lei; Shen, Li; Gao, Yuxian; Xue, Nianhua; Guo, Xuefeng; Huang, Weixin; Gan, Zhehong; Blanc, Frédéric; Yu, Zhiwu; Ke, Xiaokang; Ding, Weiping; Gong, Xue-Qing; Grey, Clare P; Peng, Luming

    2015-02-01

    Nanostructured oxides find multiple uses in a diverse range of applications including catalysis, energy storage, and environmental management, their higher surface areas, and, in some cases, electronic properties resulting in different physical properties from their bulk counterparts. Developing structure-property relations for these materials requires a determination of surface and subsurface structure. Although microscopy plays a critical role owing to the fact that the volumes sampled by such techniques may not be representative of the whole sample, complementary characterization methods are urgently required. We develop a simple nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) strategy to detect the first few layers of a nanomaterial, demonstrating the approach with technologically relevant ceria nanoparticles. We show that the (17)O resonances arising from the first to third surface layer oxygen ions, hydroxyl sites, and oxygen species near vacancies can be distinguished from the oxygen ions in the bulk, with higher-frequency (17)O chemical shifts being observed for the lower coordinated surface sites. H2 (17)O can be used to selectively enrich surface sites, allowing only these particular active sites to be monitored in a chemical process. (17)O NMR spectra of thermally treated nanosized ceria clearly show how different oxygen species interconvert at elevated temperature. Density functional theory calculations confirm the assignments and reveal a strong dependence of chemical shift on the nature of the surface. These results open up new strategies for characterizing nanostructured oxides and their applications.

  15. Role of activated oxygen species on the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Wei, C E; Allen, K; Misra, H P

    1989-06-01

    Different scavengers of active oxygen species (superoxide dismutase, catalase, mannitol and dimethylfuran) were tested in the Ames Salmonella assay to determine the role of the reactive oxygen species in the benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) mutagenesis process. Exogenously added superoxide dismutase or catalase at 10-100 micrograms ml-1 top agar, or 3-12 mM mannitol showed no effect on B[a]P mutagenicity in the presence of S9 mix. However, dimethylfuran (DMF), a singlet oxygen scavenger, inhibited in a dose-related manner the mutagenic response of B[a]P in the presence of the microsomal fraction. DMF at 3 and 6 mM inhibited the number of revertants by 69 and 93% for strain TA 100, and 76 and 78% for TA98, respectively. DMF at these levels was neither toxic nor mutagenic to the bacteria. The result indicates that singlet oxygen may play an important role in promoting B[a]P mutagenicity.

  16. Probing oxidative stress: Small molecule fluorescent sensors of metal ions, reactive oxygen species, and thiols

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Lynne M.; Franz, Katherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a common feature shared by many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. Factors that contribute to cellular oxidative stress include elevated levels of reactive oxygen species, diminished availability of detoxifying thiols, and the misregulation of metal ions (both redox-active iron and copper as well as non-redox active calcium and zinc). Deciphering how each of these components interacts to contribute to oxidative stress presents an interesting challenge. Fluorescent sensors can be powerful tools for detecting specific analytes within a complicated cellular environment. Reviewed here are several classes of small molecule fluorescent sensors designed to detect several molecular participants of oxidative stress. We focus our review on describing the design, function and application of probes to detect metal cations, reactive oxygen species, and intracellular thiol-containing compounds. In addition, we highlight the intricacies and complications that are often faced in sensor design and implementation. PMID:23440254

  17. Modulation of pressure-natriuresis by renal medullary reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Paul M; Cowley, Allen W

    2010-04-01

    The renal pressure-natriuresis mechanism is the dominant controller of body fluid balance and long-term arterial pressure. In recent years, it has become clear that the balance of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species within the renal medullary region is a key determinant of the set point of the renal pressure-natriuresis curve. The development of renal medullary oxidative stress causes dysfunction of the pressure-natriuresis mechanism and contributes to the development of hypertension in numerous disease models. The purpose of this review is to point out the known mechanisms within the renal medulla through which reactive oxygen and nitrogen species modulate the pressure-natriuresis response and to update the reader on recent advances in this field.

  18. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species at the Heart of the Matter: New Therapeutic Approaches for Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kornfeld, Opher S.; Hwang, Sunhee; Disatnik, Marie-Hélène; Chen, Che-Hong; Qvit, Nir; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in a variety of age-related diseases including multiple cardiovascular disorders. However, translation of ROS scavengers (anti-oxidants) into the clinic has not been successful. These anti-oxidants grossly reduce total levels of cellular ROS including ROS that participate in physiological signaling. In this review, we challenge the traditional anti-oxidant therapeutic approach that targets ROS directly with novel approaches that improve mitochondrial functions to more effectively treat cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25999419

  19. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defense mechanisms in the oral cavity: a literature review.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Symone M; Opperman, Lynne A; Allen, Edward P; Svoboda, Kathy K H

    2011-01-01

    Through dental procedures and environment, periodontal tissues are exposed to many types of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, various forms of antioxidants have been introduced as an approach to fight dental diseases and improve general gingival health. This article focuses on the classification of antioxidants and the link between oxidative stress and periodontal disease. The protective mechanisms of antioxidants and how routine dental procedures may increase ROS is discussed. The final section reviews the effect of tobacco products on gingival health and disease.

  20. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Excitable Cells: Modulators of Mitochondrial and Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Camara, Amadou K. S.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The mitochondrion is a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Superoxide (O2•−) is generated under specific bioenergetic conditions at several sites within the electron-transport system; most is converted to H2O2 inside and outside the mitochondrial matrix by superoxide dismutases. H2O2 is a major chemical messenger that, in low amounts and with its products, physiologically modulates cell function. The redox state and ROS scavengers largely control the emission (generation scavenging) of O2•−. Cell ischemia, hypoxia, or toxins can result in excess O2•− production when the redox state is altered and the ROS scavenger systems are overwhelmed. Too much H2O2 can combine with Fe2+ complexes to form reactive ferryl species (e.g., Fe(IV) = O•). In the presence of nitric oxide (NO•), O2•− forms the reactant peroxynitrite (ONOO−), and ONOOH-induced nitrosylation of proteins, DNA, and lipids can modify their structure and function. An initial increase in ROS can cause an even greater increase in ROS and allow excess mitochondrial Ca2+ entry, both of which are factors that induce cell apoptosis and necrosis. Approaches to reduce excess O2•− emission include selectively boosting the antioxidant capacity, uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation to reduce generation of O2•− by inducing proton leak, and reversibly inhibiting electron transport. Mitochondrial cation channels and exchangers function to maintain matrix homeostasis and likely play a role in modulating mitochondrial function, in part by regulating O2•− generation. Cell-signaling pathways induced physiologically by ROS include effects on thiol groups and disulfide linkages to modify posttranslationally protein structure to activate/inactivate specific kinase/phosphatase pathways. Hypoxia-inducible factors that stimulate a cascade of gene transcription may be mediated physiologically by ROS. Our knowledge of the role played by ROS and their scavenging systems in

  1. Measurement of Reactive Oxygen Species, Reactive Nitrogen Species, and Redox-Dependent Signaling in the Cardiovascular System: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Griendling, Kathy K; Touyz, Rhian M; Zweier, Jay L; Dikalov, Sergey; Chilian, William; Chen, Yeong-Renn; Harrison, David G; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2016-08-19

    Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are biological molecules that play important roles in cardiovascular physiology and contribute to disease initiation, progression, and severity. Because of their ephemeral nature and rapid reactivity, these species are difficult to measure directly with high accuracy and precision. In this statement, we review current methods for measuring these species and the secondary products they generate and suggest approaches for measuring redox status, oxidative stress, and the production of individual reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. We discuss the strengths and limitations of different methods and the relative specificity and suitability of these methods for measuring the concentrations of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species in cells, tissues, and biological fluids. We provide specific guidelines, through expert opinion, for choosing reliable and reproducible assays for different experimental and clinical situations. These guidelines are intended to help investigators and clinical researchers avoid experimental error and ensure high-quality measurements of these important biological species.

  2. Reactive oxygen species mediate phorbol ester-stimulated cAMP response in human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Ezeamuzie, Charles I; Taslim, Najla

    2006-08-14

    Recently, we showed that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) can cause a direct, PKC-dependent, stimulation of intracellular cAMP in human eosinophils. Since PMA also stimulates the release of reactive oxygen species in these cells, we have investigated whether reactive oxygen species are involved in the cAMP response. Provided eosinophils were incubated for <20 min at 37 degrees C before stimulation, PMA potently stimulated cAMP generation that surpassed that of histamine. Pre-treatment of the cells with the NADPH oxidase inhibitors, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and apocynin, strongly inhibited the cAMP production induced by PMA, but not that induced by histamine. This treatment also strongly inhibited the release of superoxide anions (O(2)(-)). The cAMP response was also inhibited by pre-treatment with the specific peroxide scavenger, ebselen, but not superoxide dismutase, or NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), thus, suggesting the possible involvement of a peroxide rather than O(2)(-) or nitric oxide (NO). These results reveal a novel involvement of intracellular reactive oxygen species in protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent stimulation of cAMP production in human eosinophils.

  3. Inhibition of astrocyte glutamate uptake by reactive oxygen species: role of antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Sorg, O.; Horn, T. F.; Yu, N.; Gruol, D. L.; Bloom, F. E.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The recent literature suggests that free radicals and reactive oxygen species may account for many pathologies, including those of the nervous system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The influence of various reactive oxygen species on the rate of glutamate uptake by astrocytes was investigated on monolayers of primary cultures of mouse cortical astrocytes. RESULTS: Hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite inhibited glutamate uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. Addition of copper ions and ascorbate increased the potency and the efficacy of the hydrogen peroxide effect, supporting the potential neurotoxicity of the hydroxyl radical. The free radical scavenger dimethylthiourea effectively eliminated the inhibitory potential of a mixture containing hydrogen peroxide, copper sulphate, and ascorbate on the rate of glutamate transport into astrocytes. The inhibitory effect of hydrogen peroxide on glutamate uptake was not altered by the inhibition of glutathione peroxidase, whereas the inhibition of catalase by sodium azide clearly potentiated this effect. Superoxide and nitric oxide had no effect by themselves on the rate of glutamate uptake by astrocytes. The absence of an effect of nitric oxide is not due to an inability of astrocytes to respond to this substance, since the same cultures did respond to nitric oxide with a sustained increase in cytoplasmic free calcium. CONCLUSION: These results confirm that reactive oxygen species have a potential neurotoxicity by means of impairing glutamate transport into astrocytes, and they suggest that preventing the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the extracellular space of the brain, especially during conditions that favor hydroxyl radical formation, could be therapeutic. PMID:9260155

  4. Vancomycin induces reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis via mitochondrial cardiolipin peroxidation in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuya; Yano, Takahisa; Hanada, Yuki; Takeshita, Aki; Inagaki, Fumika; Masuda, Satohiro; Matsunaga, Naoya; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2017-04-05

    Vancomycin (VCM) is a first-line antibiotic for serious infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. However, nephrotoxicity is one of the most complaint in VCM therapy. We previously reported that VCM induced apoptosis in a porcine proximal tubular epithelial cell line (LLC-PK1), in which mitochondrial complex I may generate superoxide, leading to cell death. In the present study, VCM caused production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and peroxidation of the mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin that was reversed by administration of the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP). FCCP also significantly suppressed VCM-induced depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and apoptosis. Moreover, the lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E and a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, mitoTEMPO, also significantly suppressed VCM-induced depolarization of mitochondrial membrane and apoptosis, whereas vitamin C, n-acetyl cysteine, or glutathione did not provide significant protection. These findings suggest that peroxidation of the mitochondrial membrane cardiolipin mediated the VCM-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and initiation of apoptosis in LLC-PK1 cells. Furthermore, regulation of mitochondrial function using a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, such as mitoTEMPO, may constitute a potential strategy for mitigation of VCM-induced proximal tubular epithelial cell injury.

  5. Xanthohumol induces generation of reactive oxygen species and triggers apoptosis through inhibition of mitochondrial electron transfer chain complex I.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Chu, Wei; Wei, Peng; Liu, Ying; Wei, Taotao

    2015-12-01

    Xanthohumol is a prenylflavonoid extracted from hops (Humulus lupulus). It possesses anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo, and offers therapeutic benefits for treatment of metabolic syndromes. However, the precise mechanisms underlying its pharmacological effects remain to be elucidated, together with its cellular target. Here, we provide evidence that xanthohumol directly interacts with the mitochondrial electron transfer chain complex I (NADH dehydrogenase), inhibits the oxidative phosphorylation, triggers the production of reactive oxygen species, and induces apoptosis. In addition, we show that as a result of the inhibition of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, xanthohumol exposure causes a rapid decrease of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Furthermore, we showed that xanthohumol up-regulates the glycolytic capacity in cells, and thus compensates cellular ATP generation. Dissection of the multiple steps of aerobic respiration by extracellular flux assays revealed that xanthohumol specifically inhibits the activity of mitochondrial complex I, but had little effect on that of complex II, III and IV. Inhibition of complex I by xanthohumol caused the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which are responsible for the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. We also found that isoxanthohumol, the structural isomer of xanthohumol, is inactive to cells, suggesting that the reactive 2-hydroxyl group of xanthohumol is crucial for its targeting to the mitochondrial complex I. Together, the remodeling of cell metabolism revealed here has therapeutic potential for the use of xanthohumol.

  6. A mutation in the mitochondrial protein UQCRB promotes angiogenesis through the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Junghwa; Jung, Hye Jin; Jeong, Seung Hun; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Han, Jin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • We constructed mitochondrial protein UQCRB mutant stable cell lines on the basis of a human case report. • These mutant cell lines exhibit pro-angiogenic activity with enhanced VEGF expression. • Proliferation of mutant cell lines was regulated by UQCRB inhibitors. • UQCRB may have a functional role in angiogenesis. - Abstract: Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein (UQCRB) is one of the subunits of mitochondrial complex III and is a target protein of the natural anti-angiogenic small molecule terpestacin. Previously, the biological role of UQCRB was thought to be limited to the maintenance of complex III. However, the identification and validation of UQCRB as a target protein of terpestacin enabled the role of UQCRB in oxygen sensing and angiogenesis to be elucidated. To explore the biological role of this protein further, UQCRB mutant stable cell lines were generated on the basis of a human case report. We demonstrated that these cell lines exhibited glycolytic and pro-angiogenic activities via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS)-mediated HIF1 signal transduction. Furthermore, a morphological abnormality in mitochondria was detected in UQCRB mutant stable cell lines. In addition, the proliferative effect of the UQCRB mutants was significantly regulated by the UQCRB inhibitors terpestacin and A1938. Collectively, these results provide a molecular basis for UQCRB-related biological processes and reveal potential key roles of UQCRB in angiogenesis and mitochondria-mediated metabolic disorders.

  7. Biological regulation of atmospheric chemistry en route to planetary oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Izon, Gareth; Zerkle, Aubrey L; Williford, Kenneth H; Farquhar, James; Poulton, Simon W; Claire, Mark W

    2017-03-28

    Emerging evidence suggests that atmospheric oxygen may have varied before rising irreversibly ∼2.4 billion years ago, during the Great Oxidation Event (GOE). Significantly, however, pre-GOE atmospheric aberrations toward more reducing conditions-featuring a methane-derived organic-haze-have recently been suggested, yet their occurrence, causes, and significance remain underexplored. To examine the role of haze formation in Earth's history, we targeted an episode of inferred haze development. Our redox-controlled (Fe-speciation) carbon- and sulfur-isotope record reveals sustained systematic stratigraphic covariance, precluding nonatmospheric explanations. Photochemical models corroborate this inference, showing Δ(36)S/Δ(33)S ratios are sensitive to the presence of haze. Exploiting existing age constraints, we estimate that organic haze developed rapidly, stabilizing within ∼0.3 ± 0.1 million years (Myr), and persisted for upward of ∼1.4 ± 0.4 Myr. Given these temporal constraints, and the elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the Archean, the sustained methane fluxes necessary for haze formation can only be reconciled with a biological source. Correlative δ(13)COrg and total organic carbon measurements support the interpretation that atmospheric haze was a transient response of the biosphere to increased nutrient availability, with methane fluxes controlled by the relative availability of organic carbon and sulfate. Elevated atmospheric methane concentrations during haze episodes would have expedited planetary hydrogen loss, with a single episode of haze development providing up to 2.6-18 × 10(18) moles of O2 equivalents to the Earth system. Our findings suggest the Neoarchean likely represented a unique state of the Earth system where haze development played a pivotal role in planetary oxidation, hastening the contingent biological innovations that followed.

  8. Acute effects of ferumoxytol on regulation of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Cantow, Kathleen; Pohlmann, Andreas; Flemming, Bert; Ferrara, Fabienne; Waiczies, Sonia; Grosenick, Dirk; Niendorf, Thoralf; Seeliger, Erdmann

    2016-01-01

    The superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle ferumoxytol is increasingly used as intravascular contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study details the impact of ferumoxytol on regulation of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation. In 10 anesthetized rats, a single intravenous injection of isotonic saline (used as volume control) was followed by three consecutive injections of ferumoxytol to achieve cumulative doses of 6, 10, and 41 mg Fe/kg body mass. Arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, renal cortical and medullary perfusion and oxygen tension were continuously measured. Regulation of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation was characterized by dedicated interventions: brief periods of suprarenal aortic occlusion, hypoxia, and hyperoxia. None of the three doses of ferumoxytol resulted in significant changes in any of the measured parameters as compared to saline. Ferumoxytol did not significantly alter regulation of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation as studied by aortic occlusion and hypoxia. The only significant effect of ferumoxytol at the highest dose was a blunting of the hyperoxia-induced increase in arterial pressure. Taken together, ferumoxytol has only marginal effects on the regulation of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation. This makes ferumoxytol a prime candidate as contrast agent for renal MRI including the assessment of renal blood volume fraction. PMID:27436132

  9. Inactivation effects of neutral reactive-oxygen species on Penicillium digitatum spores using non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure oxygen radical source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Fengdong, Jia; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2013-10-01

    The effectiveness of atomic and excited molecular oxygen species at inactivating Penicillium digitatum spores was quantitatively investigated by measuring these species and evaluating the spore inactivation rate. To avoid the effects of ultraviolet light and charged species, a non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure radical source, which supplies only neutral radicals, was employed. Ground-state atomic oxygen (O(3Pj)) and excited molecular oxygen (O2(1Δg)) species were measured using vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. The inactivation rate of spores was evaluated using the colony count method. The lifetimes of O(3Pj) and O2(1Δg) in an argon gas ambient at atmospheric pressure were found to be about 0.5 ms and much more than tens of ms, and their spore inactivation rates were about 10-17 cm3 s-1 and much lower than 10-21 cm3 s-1, respectively.

  10. Phosphoprotein SAK1 is a regulator of acclimation to singlet oxygen in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Wakao, Setsuko; Chin, Brian L; Ledford, Heidi K; Dent, Rachel M; Casero, David; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Niyogi, Krishna K

    2014-01-01

    Singlet oxygen is a highly toxic and inevitable byproduct of oxygenic photosynthesis. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of acclimating specifically to singlet oxygen stress, but the retrograde signaling pathway from the chloroplast to the nucleus mediating this response is unknown. Here we describe a mutant, singlet oxygen acclimation knocked-out 1 (sak1), that lacks the acclimation response to singlet oxygen. Analysis of genome-wide changes in RNA abundance during acclimation to singlet oxygen revealed that SAK1 is a key regulator of the gene expression response during acclimation. The SAK1 gene encodes an uncharacterized protein with a domain conserved among chlorophytes and present in some bZIP transcription factors. The SAK1 protein is located in the cytosol, and it is induced and phosphorylated upon exposure to singlet oxygen, suggesting that it is a critical intermediate component of the retrograde signal transduction pathway leading to singlet oxygen acclimation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02286.001 PMID:24859755

  11. Phosphoprotein SAK1 is a regulator of acclimation to singlet oxygen in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Wakao, Setsuko; Chin, Brian L; Ledford, Heidi K; Dent, Rachel M; Casero, David; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Niyogi, Krishna K

    2014-05-23

    Singlet oxygen is a highly toxic and inevitable byproduct of oxygenic photosynthesis. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of acclimating specifically to singlet oxygen stress, but the retrograde signaling pathway from the chloroplast to the nucleus mediating this response is unknown. Here we describe a mutant, singlet oxygen acclimation knocked-out 1 (sak1), that lacks the acclimation response to singlet oxygen. Analysis of genome-wide changes in RNA abundance during acclimation to singlet oxygen revealed that SAK1 is a key regulator of the gene expression response during acclimation. The SAK1 gene encodes an uncharacterized protein with a domain conserved among chlorophytes and present in some bZIP transcription factors. The SAK1 protein is located in the cytosol, and it is induced and phosphorylated upon exposure to singlet oxygen, suggesting that it is a critical intermediate component of the retrograde signal transduction pathway leading to singlet oxygen acclimation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02286.001.

  12. Oxygen-­dependent regulation of bacterial lipid production

    DOE PAGES

    Lemmer, Kimberly C.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Noguera, Daniel R.; ...

    2015-05-02

    Understanding the mechanisms of lipid accumulation in microorganisms is important for several reasons. In addition to providing insight into assembly of biological membranes, lipid accumulation has important applications in the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is an attractive organism to study lipid accumulation, as it has the somewhat unique ability to increase membrane production at low O₂ tensions. Under these conditions, R. sphaeroides develops invaginations of the cytoplasmic membrane to increase its membrane surface area for housing of the membrane-bound components of its photosynthetic apparatus. Here we use fatty acid levels as a reportermore » of membrane lipid content. We show that, under low-O₂ and anaerobic conditions, the total fatty acid content per cell increases 3-fold. We also find that the increases in the amount of fatty acid and photosynthetic pigment per cell are correlated as O₂ tensions or light intensity are changed. To ask if lipid and pigment accumulation were genetically separable, we analyzed strains with mutations in known photosynthetic regulatory pathways. While a strain lacking AppA failed to induce photosynthetic pigment-protein complex accumulation, it increased fatty acid content under low O2 conditions. We also found that an intact PrrBA pathway is required for low O2-induced fatty acid accumulation. In conclusion, our findings suggest a previously unknown role of R. sphaeroides transcriptional regulators in increasing fatty acid and phospholipid accumulation in response to decreased O₂ tension.« less

  13. [Ways of realizing apoptosis of human lymphocytes induced by UV-light and reactive oxygen species].

    PubMed

    Artiukhov, V G; Trubitsyna, M S; Nakvasina, M A; Solov'eva, E V; Lidokhova, O V

    2011-01-01

    Changes of DNA structural condition, the level of membrane Fas-receptor expression, caspase-3 functional activity, concentrations of Ca2+, p53 and cytochrome c proteins of human lymphocytes in dynamics of apoptosis development induced by UV-light (240-390 nm) at doses 151, 1510, 3020 J/m2 and reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion-radical, hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen) have been studied. UV-light and reactive oxygen species have been established to induce fragmentation of lymphocyte DNA after 20 h incubation of the modified cells. It has been shown, that the increase in the expression level of membrane death Fas-receptors is observed during 1-5 h after exposure oflymphocytes to UV-light and ROS compared with intact cells. Also revealed is augmentation of lymphocyte caspase-3 functional activity 4 h after generation of singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide addition, as well as 8 and 24 and 6 and 8 h after UV-irradiation of the cells at doses 151 and 1510 J/m2, correspondingly. Using DNA-comet method made it possible to tape that DNA damages (single-strand breaks) appear 15-20 min after lymphocyte UV-irradiation at doses 1510 and 3020 J/m and addition of hydrogen peroxide in concentration 10(-6) mol/l (C1 type comet) and reach their maximum 6 h after modification of the cells (C2 and C3 type comets). It has been observed, that 6 h after exposure oflymphocytes to hydrogen peroxide and UV-light at doses 1510 and 3020 J/m2, the p53 level of investigated cells raises. It has also been shown that the higher level of calcium in lymphocyte cytosol in conditions of UV-light exposure (1510 J/m2) and exogenous generation of reactive oxygen species is caused by Ca2+ exit from intracellular depots as a result of activating the components of the phosphoinositide mechanism for transferring information into a cell. Ideas about correlation between alterations of the calcium level and initiation of programmed cellular destruction of human

  14. Wolbachia Do Not Induce Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Immune Pathway Activation in Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Jennifer C.; Sinkins, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density Drosophila Wolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species. PMID:26287231

  15. Reactive oxygen species regulatory mechanisms associated with rapid response of MC3T3-E1 cells for vibration stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Gan, Xueqi; Zhu, Zhuoli; Yang, Yang; He, Yuting; Yu, Haiyang

    2016-02-12

    Although many previous studies have shown that refractory period-dependent memory effect of vibration stress is anabolic for skeletal homeostasis, little is known about the rapid response of osteoblasts simply derived from vibration itself. In view of the potential role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating differentiated activity of osteoblasts, whether and how ROS regulates the rapid effect of vibration deserve to be demonstrated. Our findings indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells underwent decreased gene expression of Runx2, Col-I and ALP and impaired ALP activity accompanied by increased mitochondrial fission immediately after vibration loading. Moreover, we also revealed the involvement of ERK-Drp1 signal transduction in ROS regulatory mechanisms responsible for the rapid effect of vibration stress.

  16. Capping Protein Modulates Actin Remodeling in Response to Reactive Oxygen Species during Plant Innate Immunity1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lingyan

    2017-01-01

    Plants perceive microbe-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns to activate innate immune signaling events, such as bursts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The actin cytoskeleton remodels during the first 5 min of innate immune signaling in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) epidermal cells; however, the immune signals that impinge on actin cytoskeleton and its response regulators remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that rapid actin remodeling upon elicitation with diverse microbe-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns represent a conserved plant immune response. Actin remodeling requires ROS generated by the defense-associated NADPH oxidase, RBOHD. Moreover, perception of flg22 by its cognate receptor complex triggers actin remodeling through the activation of RBOHD-dependent ROS production. Our genetic studies reveal that the ubiquitous heterodimeric capping protein transduces ROS signaling to the actin cytoskeleton during innate immunity. Additionally, we uncover a negative feedback loop between actin remodeling and flg22-induced ROS production. PMID:27909046

  17. PKD1 Protein Is Involved in Reactive Oxygen Species-mediated Mitochondrial Depolarization in Cooperation with Protein Kinase Cδ (PKCδ)*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Thianzhou; Sell, Philip; Braun, Ursula; Leitges, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used gene targeting in mice to identify the in vivo functions of PKD1. In addition to phenotypically characterizing the resulting knock-out animals, we also used mouse embryonic fibroblasts to investigate the associated signaling pathways in detail. This study is the first to use genetic deletion to reveal that PKD1 is a key regulator involved in determining the threshold of mitochondrial depolarization that leads to the production of reactive oxygen species. In addition, we also provide clear evidence that PKCδ is upstream of PKD1 in this process and acts as the activating kinase of PKD1. Therefore, our in vivo data indicate that PKD1 functions not only in the context of aging but also during nutrient deprivation, which occurs during specific phases of tumor growth. PMID:25759386

  18. Graphene oxide induces plasma membrane damage, reactive oxygen species accumulation and fatty acid profiles change in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Yu, Qilin; Liang, Chen; Liu, Zhe; Zhang, Biao; Li, Mingchun

    2016-10-01

    During the past couple of years, graphene nanomaterials were extremely popular among the scientists due to the promising properties in many aspects. Before the materials being well applied, we should first focus on their biosafety and toxicity. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of synthesized graphene oxide (GO) against the model industrial organism Pichia pastoris. We found that the synthesized GO showed dose-dependent toxicity to P. pastoris, through cell membrane damage and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. In response to these cell stresses, cells had normal unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) levels but increased contents of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) with up-regulation of UFA synthesis-related genes on the transcriptional level, which made it overcome the stress under GO attack. Two UFA defective strains (spt23Δ and fad12Δ) were used to demonstrate the results above. Hence, this study suggested a close connection between PUFAs and cell survival against GO.

  19. Oxygen-­dependent regulation of bacterial lipid production

    SciTech Connect

    Lemmer, Kimberly C.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2015-05-02

    Understanding the mechanisms of lipid accumulation in microorganisms is important for several reasons. In addition to providing insight into assembly of biological membranes, lipid accumulation has important applications in the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is an attractive organism to study lipid accumulation, as it has the somewhat unique ability to increase membrane production at low O₂ tensions. Under these conditions, R. sphaeroides develops invaginations of the cytoplasmic membrane to increase its membrane surface area for housing of the membrane-bound components of its photosynthetic apparatus. Here we use fatty acid levels as a reporter of membrane lipid content. We show that, under low-O₂ and anaerobic conditions, the total fatty acid content per cell increases 3-fold. We also find that the increases in the amount of fatty acid and photosynthetic pigment per cell are correlated as O₂ tensions or light intensity are changed. To ask if lipid and pigment accumulation were genetically separable, we analyzed strains with mutations in known photosynthetic regulatory pathways. While a strain lacking AppA failed to induce photosynthetic pigment-protein complex accumulation, it increased fatty acid content under low O2 conditions. We also found that an intact PrrBA pathway is required for low O2-induced fatty acid accumulation. In conclusion, our findings suggest a previously unknown role of R. sphaeroides transcriptional regulators in increasing fatty acid and phospholipid accumulation in response to decreased O₂ tension.

  20. UV-B-Induced PR-1 Accumulation Is Mediated by Active Oxygen Species.

    PubMed

    Green, R.; Fluhr, R.

    1995-02-01

    Depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer may result in an increase in the levels of potentially harmful UV-B radiation reaching the surface of the earth. We have found that UV-B is a potent inducer of the plant pathogenesis-related protein PR-1 in tobacco leaves. UV-B fluences required for PR-1 accumulation are similar to those of other UV-B-induced responses. The UV-B-induced PR-1 accumulation was confined precisely to the irradiated area of the leaf but displayed no leaf tissue specificity. A study of some of the possible components of the signal transduction pathway between UV-B and PR-1 induction showed that photosynthetic processes are not essential, and photoreversible DNA damage is not involved. Antioxidants and cycloheximide were able to block the induction of PR-1 by UV-B, and treatment of leaves with a generator of reactive oxygen resulted in the accumulation of PR-1 protein. These results demonstrate an absolute requirement for active oxygen species and protein synthesis in this UV-B signal transduction pathway. In contrast, we also show that other elicitors, notably salicylic acid, are able to elicit PR-1 via nonreactive oxygen species-requiring pathways.

  1. Fluorescence-based assay for reactive oxygen species: A protective role for creatinine

    SciTech Connect

    Glazer, A.N. )

    1988-06-01

    Attack by reactive oxygen species leads to a decay in phycoerythrin fluorescence emission. This phenomenon provides a versatile new assay for small molecules and macromolecules that can function as protective compounds. With 1-2 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} M phycoerythrin, under conditions where peroxyl radical generation is rate-limiting, the fluorescence decay follows apparent zero-order kinetics. On reaction with HO{center dot}, generated with the ascorbate-Cu{sup 2+} system, the fluorescence decays with apparent first-order kinetics. Examination of the major components of human urine in this assay confirms that at physiological concentrations, urate protects against both types of oxygen radicals. A novel finding is that creatinine protects efficiently by a chelation mechanism against radical damage in the ascorbate-Cu{sup 2+} system at creatinine, ascorbate, and Cu{sup 2+} concentrations comparable to those in normal urine. Urate and creatinine provide complementary modes of protection against reactive oxygen species in the urinary tract.

  2. Cytotoxicity of InP/ZnS quantum dots related to reactive oxygen species generation.

    SciTech Connect

    Chibli, H.; Carlini, L.; Park, S.; Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Nadeau, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) quantum dots (QDs) have emerged as a presumably less hazardous alternative to cadmium-based particles, but their cytotoxicity has not been well examined. Although their constituent elements are of very low toxicity to cells in culture, they nonetheless exhibit phototoxicity related to generation of reactive oxygen species by excited electrons and/or holes interacting with water and molecular oxygen. Using spin-trap electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and reporter assays, we find a considerable amount of superoxide and a small amount of hydroxyl radical formed under visible illumination of biocompatible InP QDs with a single ZnS shell, comparable to what is seen with CdTe. A double thickness shell reduces the reactive oxygen species concentration approximately two-fold. Survival assays in five cell lines correspondingly indicate a distinct reduction in toxicity with the double-shell InP QDs. Toxicity varies significantly across cell lines according to the efficiency of uptake, being overall significantly less than what is seen with CdTe or CdSe/ZnS. This indicates that InP QDs are a useful alternative to cadmium-containing QDs, while remaining capable of electron-transfer processes that may be undesirable or which may be exploited for photosensitization applications.

  3. Antimicrobial strategies centered around reactive oxygen species - bactericidal antibiotics, photodynamic therapy and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever, Fatma; de Melo, Wanessa C.M.A.; Avci, Pinar; Vecchio, Daniela; Sadasivam, Magesh; Gupta, Asheesh; Chandran, Rakkiyappan; Karimi, Mahdi; Parizotto, Nivaldo A; Yin, Rui; Tegos, George P; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can attack a diverse range of targets to exert antimicrobial activity, which accounts for their versatility in mediating host defense against a broad range of pathogens. Most ROS are formed by the partial reduction of molecular oxygen. Four major ROS are recognized comprising: superoxide (O2•−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (•OH), and singlet oxygen (1O2), but they display very different kinetics and levels of activity. The effects of O2•− and H2O2 are less acute than those of •OH and 1O2, since the former are much less reactive and can be detoxified by endogenous antioxidants (both enzymatic and non-enzymatic) that are induced by oxidative stress. In contrast, no enzyme can detoxify •OH or 1O2, making them extremely toxic and acutely lethal. The present review will highlight the various methods of ROS formation and their mechanism of action. Antioxidant defenses against ROS in microbial cells and the use of ROS by antimicrobial host defense systems are covered. Antimicrobial approaches primarily utilizing ROS comprise both bactericidal antibiotics, and non-pharmacological methods such as photodynamic therapy, titanium dioxide photocatalysis, cold plasma and medicinal honey. A brief final section covers, reactive nitrogen species, and related therapeutics, such as acidified nitrite and nitric oxide releasing nanoparticles. PMID:23802986

  4. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Oxygen Regulator Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matt R.; Watts, Carly

    2011-01-01

    The advanced spacesuit portable life support system (PLSS) oxygen regulators represent an evolutionary approach to regulator development. Several technology development prototypes have been produced that borrow much of the mechanical regulator design from the well proven Shuttle/ISS Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Secondary Oxygen Regulator, but incorporate a motor-settable pressure set-point feature that facilitates significantly greater operational flexibility. For example, this technology would enable EVA to begin at a higher suit pressure, which would reduce pre-breathe time, and then slowly step down to a lower pressure to increase suit mobility for the duration of the EVA. Comprehensive testing of the prototypes was performed on the component level as well as part of the PLSS 1.0 system level testing. Results from these tests characterize individual prototype performance and demonstrate successful operation during multiple nominal and contingency EVA modes

  5. Photochemistry of Dissolved Black Carbon Released from Biochar: Reactive Oxygen Species Generation and Phototransformation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Heyun; Liu, Huiting; Mao, Jingdong; Chu, Wenying; Li, Qilin; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Qu, Xiaolei; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2016-02-02

    Dissolved black carbon (BC) released from biochar can be one of the more photoactive components in the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool. Dissolved BC was mainly composed of aliphatics and aromatics substituted by aromatic C-O and carboxyl/ester/quinone moieties as determined by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. It underwent 56% loss of absorbance at 254 nm, almost complete loss of fluorescence, and 30% mineralization during a 169 h simulated sunlight exposure. Photoreactions preferentially targeted aromatic and methyl moieties, generating CH2/CH/C and carboxyl/ester/quinone functional groups. During irradiation, dissolved BC generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) including singlet oxygen and superoxide. The apparent quantum yield of singlet oxygen was 4.07 ± 0.19%, 2-3 fold higher than many well-studied DOM. Carbonyl-containing structures other than aromatic ketones were involved in the singlet oxygen sensitization. The generation of superoxide apparently depended on electron transfer reactions mediated by silica minerals in dissolved BC, in which phenolic structures served as electron donors. Self-generated ROS played an important role in the phototransformation. Photobleaching of dissolved BC decreased its ability to further generate ROS due to lower light absorption. These findings have significant implications on the environmental fate of dissolved BC and that of priority pollutants.

  6. A comparative kinetic and mechanistic study between tetrahydrozoline and naphazoline toward photogenerated reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Criado, Susana; García, Norman A

    2010-01-01

    Kinetic and mechanistic aspects of the vitamin B2 (riboflavin [Rf])-sensitized photo-oxidation of the imidazoline derivates (IDs) naphazoline (NPZ) and tetrahydrozoline (THZ) were investigated in aqueous solution. The process appears as important on biomedical grounds, considering that the vitamin is endogenously present in humans, and IDs are active components of ocular medicaments of topical application. Under aerobic visible light irradiation, a complex picture of competitive interactions between sensitizer, substrates and dissolved oxygen takes place: the singlet and triplet ((3)Rf*) excited states of Rf are quenched by the IDs: with IDs concentrations ca. 5.0 mM and 0.02 mM Rf, (3)Rf* is quenched by IDs, in a competitive fashion with dissolved ground state oxygen. Additionally, the reactive oxygen species: O(2)((1)Delta(g)), O(2)(*-), HO(*) and H(2)O(2), generated from (3)Rf* and Rf(*-), were detected with the employment of time-resolved methods or specific scavengers. Oxygen uptake experiments indicate that, for NPZ, only H(2)O(2) was involved in the photo-oxidation. In the case of THZ, O(2)(*-), HO(*) and H(2)O(2) were detected, whereas only HO(*) was unambiguously identified as THZ oxidative agents. Upon direct UV light irradiation NPZ and THZ generate O(2)((1)Delta(g)), with quantum yields of 0.2 (literature value, employed as a reference) and 0.08, respectively, in acetonitrile.

  7. Beyond oxygen: complex regulation and activity of hypoxia inducible factors in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, K.G.; Kind, K.L.; Sferruzzi-Perri, A.N.; Thompson, J.G.; Roberts, C.T.

    2010-01-01

    In the first trimester the extravillous cytotrophoblast cells occlude the uterine spiral arterioles creating a low oxygen environment early in pregnancy, which is essential for pregnancy success. Paradoxically, shallow trophoblast invasion and defective vascular remodelling of the uterine spiral arteries in the first trimester may result in impaired placental perfusion and chronic placental ischemia and hypoxia later in gestation leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes. The hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are key mediators of the response to low oxygen. We aimed to elucidate mechanisms of regulation of HIFs and the role these may play in the control of placental differentiation, growth and function in both normal and pathological pregnancies. The Pubmed database was consulted for identification of the most relevant published articles. Search terms used were oxygen, placenta, trophoblast, pregnancy, HIF and hypoxia. The HIFs are able to function throughout all aspects of normal and abnormal placental differentiation, growth and function; during the first trimester (physiologically low oxygen), during mid-late gestation (where there is adequate supply of blood and oxygen to the placenta) and in pathological pregnancies complicated by placental hypoxia/ischemia. During normal pregnancy HIFs may respond to complex alterations in oxygen, hormones, cytokines and growth factors to regulate placental invasion, differentiation, transport and vascularization. In the ever-changing environment created during pregnancy, the HIFs appear to act as key mediators of placental development and function and thereby are likely to be important contributors to both normal and adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:19926662

  8. Oxygen-Dependent Regulation of Bacterial Lipid Production

    PubMed Central

    Lemmer, Kimberly C.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Noguera, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding the mechanisms of lipid accumulation in microorganisms is important for several reasons. In addition to providing insight into assembly of biological membranes, lipid accumulation has important applications in the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is an attractive organism to study lipid accumulation, as it has the ability to increase membrane production at low O2 tensions. Under these conditions, R. sphaeroides develops invaginations of the cytoplasmic membrane to increase its membrane surface area for housing of the membrane-bound components of its photosynthetic apparatus. Here we use fatty acid levels as a reporter of membrane lipid content. We show that, under low-O2 and anaerobic conditions, the total fatty acid content per cell increases 3-fold. We also find that the increases in the amount of fatty acid and photosynthetic pigment per cell are correlated as O2 tensions or light intensity are changed. To ask if lipid and pigment accumulation were genetically separable, we analyzed strains with mutations in known photosynthetic regulatory pathways. While a strain lacking AppA failed to induce photosynthetic pigment-protein complex accumulation, it increased fatty acid content under low-O2 conditions. We also found that an intact PrrBA pathway is required for low-O2-induced fatty acid accumulation. Our findings suggest a previously unknown role of R. sphaeroides transcriptional regulators in increasing fatty acid and phospholipid accumulation in response to decreased O2 tension. IMPORTANCE Lipids serve important functions in living systems, either as structural components of membranes or as a form of carbon storage. Understanding the mechanisms of lipid accumulation in microorganisms is important for providing insight into the assembly of biological membranes and additionally has important applications in the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. In this study, we

  9. Reactive Oxygen Species Play a Role in the Infection of the Necrotrophic Fungi, Rhizoctonia solani in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Rhonda C.; Kidd, Brendan N.; Hane, James K.; Anderson, Jonathan P.; Singh, Karam B.

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a nectrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes billions of dollars of damage to agriculture worldwide and infects a broad host range including wheat, rice, potato and legumes. In this study we identify wheat genes that are differentially expressed in response to the R. solani isolate, AG8, using microarray technology. A significant number of wheat genes identified in this screen were involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and redox regulation. Levels of ROS species were increased in wheat root tissue following R. solani infection as determined by Nitro Blue Tetrazolium (NBT), 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and titanium sulphate measurements. Pathogen/ROS related genes from R. solani were also tested for expression patterns upon wheat infection. TmpL, a R. solani gene homologous to a gene associated with ROS regulation in Alternaria brassicicola, and OAH, a R. solani gene homologous to oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase which has been shown to produce oxalic acid in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were highly induced in R. solani when infecting wheat. We speculate that the interplay between the wheat and R. solani ROS generating proteins may be important for determining the outcome of the wheat/R. solani interaction. PMID:27031952

  10. Reactive Oxygen Species Play a Role in the Infection of the Necrotrophic Fungi, Rhizoctonia solani in Wheat.

    PubMed

    Foley, Rhonda C; Kidd, Brendan N; Hane, James K; Anderson, Jonathan P; Singh, Karam B

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a nectrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes billions of dollars of damage to agriculture worldwide and infects a broad host range including wheat, rice, potato and legumes. In this study we identify wheat genes that are differentially expressed in response to the R. solani isolate, AG8, using microarray technology. A significant number of wheat genes identified in this screen were involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and redox regulation. Levels of ROS species were increased in wheat root tissue following R. solani infection as determined by Nitro Blue Tetrazolium (NBT), 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and titanium sulphate measurements. Pathogen/ROS related genes from R. solani were also tested for expression patterns upon wheat infection. TmpL, a R. solani gene homologous to a gene associated with ROS regulation in Alternaria brassicicola, and OAH, a R. solani gene homologous to oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase which has been shown to produce oxalic acid in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were highly induced in R. solani when infecting wheat. We speculate that the interplay between the wheat and R. solani ROS generating proteins may be important for determining the outcome of the wheat/R. solani interaction.

  11. C-Phycocyanin inhibits MDR1 through reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase-2 mediated pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Nishanth, Reddy P; Ramakrishna, B S; Jyotsna, Radhika G; Roy, Karnati R; Reddy, Gorla V; Reddy, Pratap K; Reddanna, Pallu

    2010-12-15

    The effects of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC), a biliprotein from Spirulina platensis on the regulation of multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1), a poly glycoprotein in human hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2 were reported. The results revealed that a significant down regulation of MDR1 expression in C-PC treated HepG2 cells was through reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mediated pathways. C-PC in a concentration dependent manner increased the accumulation of doxorubicin in HepG2 cells and enhanced sensitivity of the cells to doxorubicin by 5 folds. The induction of MDR1 expression by PGE₂ and its down regulation by C-PC and DPI (Diphenylene iodonium, NADPH oxidase inhibitor) or by COX-2 knockdown suggest that the enhanced sensitivity of HepG2 cells to doxorubicin by C-PC is mediated by the down regulation of MDR1 expression. Further studies reveal the involvement of NF-κB and AP-1 in the C-PC induced down regulation of MDR1. Also the inactivation of the signal transduction pathways involving Akt, ERK, JNK and p38 by C-PC was observed. The present study thus demonstrates the efficacy of C-PC in overcoming the MDR1 mediated drug resistance in HepG2 cells by the down regulation of reactive oxygen species and COX-2 pathways via the involvement of NF-κB and AP-1.

  12. On the in vivo photochemical rate parameters for PDT reactive oxygen species modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Michele M.; Ghogare, Ashwini A.; Greer, Alexander; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2017-03-01

    Photosensitizer photochemical parameters are crucial data in accurate dosimetry for photodynamic therapy (PDT) based on photochemical modeling. Progress has been made in the last few decades in determining the photochemical properties of commonly used photosensitizers (PS), but mostly in solution or in vitro. Recent developments allow for the estimation of some of these photochemical parameters in vivo. This review will cover the currently available in vivo photochemical properties of photosensitizers as well as the techniques for measuring those parameters. Furthermore, photochemical parameters that are independent of environmental factors or are universal for different photosensitizers will be examined. Most photosensitizers discussed in this review are of the type II (singlet oxygen) photooxidation category, although type I photosensitizers that involve other reactive oxygen species (ROS) will be discussed as well. The compilation of these parameters will be essential for ROS modeling of PDT.

  13. Communication: CO oxidation by silver and gold cluster cations: Identification of different active oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Popolan, Denisia M.; Bernhardt, Thorsten M.

    2011-03-07

    The oxidation of carbon monoxide with nitrous oxide on mass-selected Au{sub 3}{sup +} and Ag{sub 3}{sup +} clusters has been investigated under multicollision conditions in an octopole ion trap experiment. The comparative study reveals that for both gold and silver cations carbon dioxide is formed on the clusters. However, whereas in the case of Au{sub 3}{sup +} the cluster itself acts as reactive species that facilitates the formation of CO{sub 2} from N{sub 2}O and CO, for silver the oxidized clusters Ag{sub 3}O{sub x}{sup +} (n= 1-3) are identified as active in the CO oxidation reaction. Thus, in the case of the silver cluster cations N{sub 2}O is dissociated and one oxygen atom is suggested to directly react with CO, whereas a second kind of oxygen strongly bound to silver is acting as a substrate for the reaction.

  14. Reaction of Paprika Carotenoids, Capsanthin and Capsorubin, with Reactive Oxygen Species.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Azusa; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Maoka, Takashi

    2016-06-15

    The reaction of paprika carotenoids, capsanthin and capsorubin, with reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion radical (·O2(-)), hydroxyl radical (·OH), and singlet oxygen ((1)O2), was analyzed by LC/PDA ESI-MS and ESR spectrometry. Capsanthin formed both the 5,6-epoxide and 5,8-epoxide by reaction with ·O2(-) and ·OH. Furthermore, capsanthin also formed 5,6- and 5,8-endoperoxide on reaction with (1)O2. The same results were obtained in the case of capsanthin diacetate. On the other hand, capsorubin showed higher stability against these ROS. Capsorubin formed 7,8-epoxide on reaction with ·O2(-) and ·OH and 7,8-endoperoxide on reaction with (1)O2.

  15. Reactive oxygen species mediate pollen tube rupture to release sperm for fertilization in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qiaohong; Kita, Daniel; Johnson, Eric A.; Aggarwal, Mini; Gates, Laura; Wu, Hen-Ming; Cheung, Alice Y.

    2014-01-01

    In flowering plants, sperm are transported inside pollen tubes to the female gametophyte for fertilization. The female gametophyte induces rupture of the penetrating pollen tube, resulting in sperm release and rendering them available for fertilization. Here we utilize the Arabidopsis FERONIA (FER) receptor kinase mutants, whose female gametophytes fail to induce pollen tube rupture, to decipher the molecular mechanism of this critical male-female interactive step. We show that FER controls the production of high levels of reactive oxygen species at the entrance to the female gametophyte to induce pollen tube rupture and sperm release. Pollen tube growth assays in vitro and in the pistil demonstrate that hydroxyl free radicals are likely the most reactive oxygen molecules, and they induce pollen tube rupture in a Ca2+-dependent process involving Ca2+ channel activation. Our results provide evidence for a RHO GTPase-based signalling mechanism to mediate sperm release for fertilization in plants.

  16. [Endocellular regulation of oxygen consumption in the neurone of isolated crawfish stretch receptor].

    PubMed

    Zaguskin, S L; Zaguskina, L D; Zaguskina, S S

    2007-01-01

    Morphological correlations of functional regulation of oxygen consumption have been investigated in single of isolated crustacean stretch receptor neuron. The increase in oxygen consumption is promoted by: 1) redistribution of mitochondria and increase in cytochrome oxidase (CO) activity in mitochondria near to the plasmatic membrane; 2) coordination of mitochondria aggregation rhythms with pO2 rhythms in external environment of a cell; 3) reduction of the area with high CO and mitochondria activity, and reduction of the way of oxygen diffusion; 4) increase in CO activity gradient from periphery to the center of the neuron body; 5) carry of oxygen by water current under hydration of the neuron body, and cytoplasm dilution under transition of a part of gel in sol; 6) cyclic changes in the neuron body and hillock sizes ratio determining carry of oxygen by water current into the neuron body, oxygen absorption by mitochondria in the neuron body, and transition of the water released from oxygen from the neuron body into hillock and further into the external environment.

  17. Reactive oxygen species-mediated therapeutic response and resistance in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Singer, E; Judkins, J; Salomonis, N; Matlaf, L; Soteropoulos, P; McAllister, S; Soroceanu, L

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) resistance to therapy is the most common cause of tumor recurrence, which is ultimately fatal in 90% of the patients 5 years after initial diagnosis. A sub-population of tumor cells with stem-like properties, glioma stem cells (GSCs), is specifically endowed to resist or adapt to the standard therapies, leading to therapeutic resistance. Several anticancer agents, collectively termed redox therapeutics, act by increasing intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we investigated mechanisms underlying GSC response and resistance to cannabidiol (CBD), a non-toxic, non-psychoactive cannabinoid and redox modulator. Using primary GSCs, we showed that CBD induced a robust increase in ROS, which led to the inhibition of cell survival, phosphorylated (p)-AKT, self-renewal and a significant increase in the survival of GSC-bearing mice. Inhibition of self-renewal was mediated by the activation of the p-p38 pathway and downregulation of key stem cell regulators Sox2, Id1 and p-STAT3. Following CBD treatment, a subset of GSC successfully adapted, leading to tumor regrowth. Microarray, Taqman and functional assays revealed that therapeutic resistance was mediated by enhanced expression of the antioxidant response system Xc catalytic subunit xCT (SLC7A11 (solute carrier family 7 (anionic amino-acid transporter light chain), member 11)) and ROS-dependent upregulation of mesenchymal (MES) markers with concomitant downregulation of proneural (PN) markers, also known as PN–MES transition. This ‘reprogramming' of GSCs occurred in culture and in vivo and was partially due to activation of the NFE2L2 (NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like)) transcriptional network. Using genetic knockdown and pharmacological inhibitors of SLC7A11, we demonstrated that combining CBD treatment with the inhibition of system Xc resulted in synergistic ROS increase leading to robust antitumor effects, that is, decreased GSC survival, self-renewal, and

  18. Regulating Glucose and pH, and Monitoring Oxygen in a Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Melody M.; Pellis, Neat R.; Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Xu, Yuanhang; Gao, Frank

    2006-01-01

    A system that automatically regulates the concentration of glucose or pH in a liquid culture medium that is circulated through a rotating-wall perfused bioreactor is described. Another system monitors the concentration of oxygen in the culture medium.

  19. Reactive Oxygen Species Generation by Lunar Simulants in Simulated Lung Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonen, M. A.; Kaur, J.; Rickman, D.

    2015-12-01

    The current interest in human exploration of the Moon and other airless planetary bodies has rekindled research into the harmful effects of Lunar dust on human health. Our team has evaluated the spontaneous formation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS; hydroxyl radicals, superoxide, and hydrogen peroxide) of a suite of lunar simulants when dispersed in deionized water. Of these species, hydroxyl radical reacts almost immediately with any biomolecule leading to oxidative damage. Sustained production of OH radical as a result of mineral exposure can initiate or enhance disease. The results in deionized water indicate that mechanical stress and the absence of molecular oxygen and water, important environmental characteristics of the lunar environment, can lead to enhanced production of ROS in general. On the basis of the results with deionized water, a few of the simulants were selected for additional studies to evaluate the formation of hydrogen peroxide, a precursor of hydroxyl radical in Simulated Lung Fluid. These simulants dispersed in deionized water typically produce a maximum in H2O2 within 10 to 40 minutes. However, experiments in SLF show a slow steady increase in H2O2 concentration that has been documented to continue for as long as 7 hours. Control experiments with one simulant demonstrate that the rise in H2O2 depends on the availability of dissolved O2. We speculate that this continuous rise in oxygenated SLF might be a result of metal ion-mediated oxidation of organic components, such as glycine in SLF. Ion-mediated oxidation essentially allows dissolved molecular oxygen to react with dissolved organic compounds by forming a metal-organic complex. Results of separate experiments with dissolved Fe, Ni, and Cu and speciation calculations support this notion.

  20. Increased Expression of Versican in the Inflammatory Response to UVB- and Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Skin Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kunisada, Makoto; Yogianti, Flandiana; Sakumi, Kunihiko; Ono, Ryusuke; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Nishigori, Chikako

    2011-01-01

    Excessive exposure to UV radiation is a major risk factor for developing skin cancer. UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause accumulation of DNA damage products such as 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) in the skin. We have previously shown that mice lacking the repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (Ogg1 knockout mice) are highly susceptible to skin cancer after long-term UVB exposure. To investigate the genes involved, we performed gene profiling of Ogg1 knockout mouse skin after UVB exposure. Among the up-regulated genes in UVB-treated Ogg1 knockout mice, inflammatory response pathway-related genes were most affected. The Vcan gene, which encodes the large extracellular matrix proteoglycan versican, was continuously up-regulated in UVB-treated Ogg1 knockout mice, suggesting that versican is a mediator of skin cancer development. We examined the expression pattern of versican in skin tumors from wild-type mice and UVB-treated Ogg1 knockout mice, and also analyzed 157 sun-related human skin tumors. Versican was strongly expressed in malignant skin tumors in both mice and humans, and especially in Ogg1 knockout mice. Additionally, infiltrating neutrophils strongly colocalized with versican in UVB-treated Ogg1 knockout mouse skin. These data demonstrate that inflammatory responses, particularly neutrophil infiltration and versican up-regulation, are closely involved in UVB/ROS-induced skin tumorigenesis. PMID:22001346

  1. Immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1) promotes endotoxin tolerance by increasing A20 expression in macrophages through reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingke; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chengcai; Han, Chaofeng; Meng, Jun; Liu, Xingguang; Xu, Sheng; Li, Nan; Wang, Qingqing; Shi, Xueyin; Cao, Xuetao

    2013-06-07

    Sepsis-associated immunosuppression (SAIS) is regarded as one of main causes for the death of septic patients at the late stage because of the decreased innate immunity with a more opportunistic infection. LPS-tolerized macrophages, which are re-challenged by LPS after prior exposure to LPS, are regarded as the common model of hypo-responsiveness for SAIS. However, the molecular mechanisms of endotoxin tolerance and SAIS remain to be fully elucidated. In addition, negative regulation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-triggered innate inflammatory response needs further investigation. Here we show that expression of immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1) was highly up-regulated in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of septic patients and in LPS-tolerized mouse macrophages. IRG1 significantly suppressed TLR-triggered production of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-β in LPS-tolerized macrophages, with the elevated expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and A20. Moreover, ROS enhanced A20 expression by increasing the H3K4me3 modification of histone on the A20 promoter domain, and supplement of the ROS abrogated the IRG1 knockdown function in breaking endotoxin tolerance by increasing A20 expression. Our results demonstrate that inducible IRG1 promotes endotoxin tolerance by increasing A20 expression through ROS, indicating a new molecular mechanism regulating hypoinflammation of sepsis and endotoxin tolerance.

  2. The Interrelationship between Abscisic Acid and Reactive Oxygen Species Plays a Key Role in Barley Seed Dormancy and Germination

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Yushi; Aoki, Nozomi; Kasa, Shinsuke; Sakamoto, Masatsugu; Kai, Kyohei; Tomokiyo, Reisa; Watabe, Gaku; Yuasa, Takashi; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Seed dormancy is one of the adaptive responses in the plant life cycle and an important agronomic trait. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) release seed dormancy and promote seed germination in several cereal crops; however, the key regulatory mechanism of ROS-mediated seed dormancy and germination remains controversial. Here, we focused on the relationship between hydrogen peroxide (a ROS) and abscisic acid (ABA) in dormant and non-dormant barley seeds. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) level produced in barley seed embryos after imbibition was higher in non-dormant seeds than in dormant seeds. H2O2 regulated the ABA content in the embryos through ABA-8′-hydroxylase, an ABA catabolic enzyme. Moreover, compared with non-dormant seeds, in dormant seeds the activity of NADPH oxidase, which produces ROS, was lower, whereas the activity of catalase, which is a H2O2 scavenging enzyme, was higher, as was the expression of HvCAT2. Furthermore, precocious germination of isolated immature embryos was suppressed by the transient introduction of HvCAT2 driven by the maize (Zea mays) ubiquitin promoter. HvCAT2 expression was regulated through an ABA-responsive transcription factor (HvABI5) induced by ABA. These results suggest that the changing of balance between ABA and ROS is active in barley seed embryos after imbibition and regulates barley seed dormancy and germination. PMID:28377774

  3. Molecular mechanisms of generation for nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, and role of the radical burst in plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Hirofumi; Asai, Shuta; Yoshioka, Miki; Kobayashi, Michie

    2009-10-31

    Rapid production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the regulation of innate immunity in plants. A potato calcium-dependent protein kinase (StCDPK5) activates an NADPH oxidase StRBOHA to D by direct phosphorylation of N-terminal regions, and heterologous expression of StCDPK5 and StRBOHs in Nicotiana benthamiana results in oxidative burst. The transgenic potato plants that carry a constitutively active StCDPK5 driven by a pathogen-inducible promoter of the potato showed high resistance to late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans accompanied by HR-like cell death and H(2)O(2) accumulation in the attacked cells. In contrast, these plants showed high susceptibility to early blight necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria solani, suggesting that oxidative burst confers high resistance to biotrophic pathogen, but high susceptibility to necrotrophic pathogen. NO and ROS synergistically function in defense responses. Two MAPK cascades, MEK2-SIPK and cytokinesis-related MEK1-NTF6, are involved in the induction of NbRBOHB gene in N. benthamiana. On the other hand, NO burst is regulated by the MEK2-SIPK cascade. Conditional activation of SIPK in potato plants induces oxidative and NO bursts, and confers resistance to both biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens, indicating the plants may have obtained during evolution the signaling pathway which regulates both NO and ROS production to adapt to wide-spectrum pathogens.

  4. The Interrelationship between Abscisic Acid and Reactive Oxygen Species Plays a Key Role in Barley Seed Dormancy and Germination.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yushi; Aoki, Nozomi; Kasa, Shinsuke; Sakamoto, Masatsugu; Kai, Kyohei; Tomokiyo, Reisa; Watabe, Gaku; Yuasa, Takashi; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Seed dormancy is one of the adaptive responses in the plant life cycle and an important agronomic trait. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) release seed dormancy and promote seed germination in several cereal crops; however, the key regulatory mechanism of ROS-mediated seed dormancy and germination remains controversial. Here, we focused on the relationship between hydrogen peroxide (a ROS) and abscisic acid (ABA) in dormant and non-dormant barley seeds. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) level produced in barley seed embryos after imbibition was higher in non-dormant seeds than in dormant seeds. H2O2 regulated the ABA content in the embryos through ABA-8'-hydroxylase, an ABA catabolic enzyme. Moreover, compared with non-dormant seeds, in dormant seeds the activity of NADPH oxidase, which produces ROS, was lower, whereas the activity of catalase, which is a H2O2 scavenging enzyme, was higher, as was the expression of HvCAT2. Furthermore, precocious germination of isolated immature embryos was suppressed by the transient introduction of HvCAT2 driven by the maize (Zea mays) ubiquitin promoter. HvCAT2 expression was regulated through an ABA-responsive transcription factor (HvABI5) induced by ABA. These results suggest that the changing of balance between ABA and ROS is active in barley seed embryos after imbibition and regulates barley seed dormancy and germination.

  5. MINIMAL ROLE FOR REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN DICHLOROACETIC ACID-INDUCED DYSMORPHOLOGY IN MOUSE WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Administration of dichloroacetate (DCA) to pregnant rats produces craniofacial, heart and other defects in their offspring. Exposure of zebrafish to DCA induces malformations and increases superoxide and nitric oxide production suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are as...

  6. Calcium and Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Generation: How to Read the Facts

    PubMed Central

    Adam-Vizi, Vera; Starkov, Anatoly A.

    2011-01-01

    A number of recent discoveries indicate that abnormal Ca2+ signaling, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction are involved in the neuronal damage in Alzheimer’s disease. However, the literature on the interactions between these factors is controversial especially in the interpretation of the cause-effect relationship between mitochondrial damage induced by Ca2+ overload and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this review, we survey the experimental observations on the Ca2+-induced mitochondrial ROS production, explain the sources of controversy in interpreting these results, and discuss the different molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of Ca2+ on the ROS emission by brain mitochondria. PMID:20421693

  7. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes activity of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 (Cyanobacterium) under simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Li, Gen-bao; Liu, Yong-ding; Wang, Gao-hong; Song, Li-rong

    2004-12-01

    It was found that reactive oxygen species in Anabaena cells increased under simulated microgravity provided by clinostat. Activities of intracellular antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase were higher than those in the controlled samples during the 7 days' experiment. However, the contents of glutathione [correction of gluathione], an intracellular antioxidant, decreased in comparison with the controlled samples. The results suggested that microgravity provided by clinostat might break the oxidative/antioxidative balance. It indicated a protective mechanism in algal cells, that the total antioxidant system activity increased, which might play an important role for algal cells to adapt the environmental stress of microgravity.

  8. Generation of reactive oxygen species by interaction between antioxidants used as food additive and metal ions.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yusuke; Oda, Momoko; Tsukuda, Yuri; Nagamori, Yuki; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Ito, Rie; Saito, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Food additives, such as preservatives, sweeteners, coloring agents, and flavoring agents, are widely used in food manufacturing. However, their combined effects on the human body are not known. The purpose of this study was to examine whether combinations of antioxidants and metal ions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under in vitro conditions using electron spin resonance (ESR). Among the metal ions examined, only iron and copper generated ROS in the presence of antioxidants. Moreover, certain phenolic antioxidants having pro-oxidant activity induced DNA oxidation and degradation via the generation of high levels of ROS in the presence of copper ion, resulting in complete degradation of DNA in vitro.

  9. In utero-initiated cancer: the role of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Wan, Joanne; Winn, Louise M

    2006-12-01

    It is becoming more evident that not only can drugs and environmental chemicals interfere with normal fetal development by causing structural malformations, such as limb defects, but that xenobiotic exposure during development can also cause biochemical and functional abnormalities that may ultimately lead to cancer later on in life. Fetal toxicity may be partly mediated by the embryonic bioactivation of xenobiotics to free radical intermediates that can lead to oxidative stress and potentially lead, in some cases, to carcinogenesis. Using a number of examples, this review will focus on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mechanisms pertaining to in utero initiated cancers.

  10. Arginine deiminase modulates endothelial tip cells via excessive synthesis of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Wei; Song, Xiaomin; Zhou, Hao; Luo, Yongzhang

    2011-10-01

    ADI (arginine deiminase), an enzyme that hydrolyses arginine, has been reported as an anti-angiogenesis agent. However, its molecular mechanism is unclear. We have demonstrated for the first time that ADI modulates the angiogenic activity of endothelial tip cells. By arginine depletion, ADI disturbs actin filament in endothelial tip cells, causing disordered migratory direction and decreased migration ability. Furthermore, ADI induces excessive synthesis of ROS (reactive oxygen species), and activates caspase 8-, but not caspase 9-, dependent apoptosis in endothelial cells. These findings provide a novel mechanism by which ADI inhibits tumour angiogenesis through modulating endothelial tip cells.

  11. NQO2 is a reactive oxygen species generating off-target for acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Teemu P; Björklund, Mikael

    2014-12-01

    The analgesic and antipyretic compound acetaminophen (paracetamol) is one of the most used drugs worldwide. Acetaminophen overdose is also the most common cause for acute liver toxicity. Here we show that acetaminophen and many structurally related compounds bind quinone reductase 2 (NQO2) in vitro and in live cells, establishing NQO2 as a novel off-target. NQO2 modulates the levels of acetaminophen derived reactive oxygen species, more specifically superoxide anions, in cultured cells. In humans, NQO2 is highly expressed in liver and kidney, the main sites of acetaminophen toxicity. We suggest that NQO2 mediated superoxide production may function as a novel mechanism augmenting acetaminophen toxicity.

  12. Oxygen-transfer strategy and its regulation effects in serine alkaline protease production by Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Calik, P; Calik, G; Ozdamar, T H

    2000-08-05

    concentration between t = 35-38 h. Under all the oxygen-transfer conditions, the amino acid having the highest concentration and the amino acid that was not excreted to the fermentation broth were lysine and asparagine, respectively; both of which belong to the aspartic acid-group amino acids. Further, this result indicates the requirement of the genetic regulation directed to the aspartic acid-group enzymes for the progress in SAP production in B. licheniformis.

  13. Biological Activities of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species: Oxidative Stress versus Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Weidinger, Adelheid; Kozlov, Andrey V.

    2015-01-01

    In the past, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) were shown to cause oxidative damage to biomolecules, contributing to the development of a variety of diseases. However, recent evidence has suggested that intracellular RONS are an important component of intracellular signaling cascades. The aim of this review was to consolidate old and new ideas on the chemical, physiological and pathological role of RONS for a better understanding of their properties and specific activities. Critical consideration of the literature reveals that deleterious effects do not appear if only one primary species (superoxide radical, nitric oxide) is present in a biological system, even at high concentrations. The prerequisite of deleterious effects is the formation of highly reactive secondary species (hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite), emerging exclusively upon reaction with another primary species or a transition metal. The secondary species are toxic, not well controlled, causing irreversible damage to all classes of biomolecules. In contrast, primary RONS are well controlled (superoxide dismutase, catalase), and their reactions with biomolecules are reversible, making them ideal for physiological/pathophysiological intracellular signaling. We assume that whether RONS have a signal transducing or damaging effect is primarily defined by their quality, being primary or secondary RONS, and only secondly by their quantity. PMID:25884116

  14. Development of a digital adaptive control system for PO2 regulation in a membrane oxygenator.

    PubMed

    Allen, J; Fisher, A C; Gaylor, J D; Razieh, A R

    1992-09-01

    Regulation of gas exchange in artificial lungs (oxygenators) during cardiopulmonary bypass is normally achieved by manual control of the gas composition and flow in response to intermittent sampling of the arterial partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2). Manual control often results in abnormal blood gases which have been implicated in patient morbidity as well as influencing perfusion safety. Fine control of PaO2 and PaCO2 may be achieved by a combination of an in-line blood gas monitoring system and a membrane type oxygenator which is automatically regulated. The overall dynamics of the oxygenation process and control system components are complex and have nonlinear, multivariable and time-varying characteristics. Consequently, an adaptive control system approach is necessary. The implementation of a digital self-tuning control regime for PaO2 is described here. The controller is based on an explicit Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) self-tuning control design which is presented using a polynomial equation approach. The controller performance was investigated in in vitro experiments. The self-tuner performed satisfactorily with various sensor/oxygenator combinations for blood flow and temperature load disturbances. In contrast, a nonadaptive (proportional-integral, PI) type of control system was found to be unsuitable.

  15. mu-opioid receptor-stimulated synthesis of reactive oxygen species is mediated via phospholipase D2.

    PubMed

    Koch, Thomas; Seifert, Anja; Wu, Dai-Fei; Rankovic, Marija; Kraus, Jürgen; Börner, Christine; Brandenburg, Lars-Ove; Schröder, Helmut; Höllt, Volker

    2009-08-01

    We have recently shown that the activation of the rat mu-opioid receptor (MOPr, also termed MOR1) by the mu-agonist [D-Ala(2), Me Phe(4), Glyol(5)]enkephalin (DAMGO) leads to an increase in phospholipase D2 (PLD2) activity and an induction of receptor endocytosis, whereas the agonist morphine which does not induce opioid receptor endocytosis fails to activate PLD2. We report here that MOPr-mediated activation of PLD2 stimulates production of reactive oxygen molecules via NADH/NADPH oxidase. Oxidative stress was measured with the fluorescent probe dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and the role of PLD2 was assessed by the PLD inhibitor D-erythro-sphingosine (sphinganine) and by PLD2-small interfering RNA transfection. To determine whether NADH/NADPH oxidase contributes to opioid-induced production of reactive oxygen species, mu-agonist-stimulated cells were pre-treated with the flavoprotein inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium, or the specific NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin. Our results demonstrate that receptor-internalizing agonists (like DAMGO, beta-endorphin, methadone, piritramide, fentanyl, sufentanil, and etonitazene) strongly induce NADH/NADPH-mediated ROS synthesis via PLD-dependent signaling pathways, whereas agonists that do not induce MOPr endocytosis and PLD2 activation (like morphine, buprenorphine, hydromorphone, and oxycodone) failed to activate ROS synthesis in transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. These findings indicate that the agonist-selective PLD2 activation plays a key role in the regulation of NADH/NADPH-mediated ROS formation by opioids.

  16. Oleic acid increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and decreases endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in cultured endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gremmels, Hendrik; Bevers, Lonneke M; Fledderus, Joost O; Braam, Branko; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Verhaar, Marianne C; Joles, Jaap A

    2015-03-15

    Elevated plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This may be related to FFA-induced elevation of oxidative stress in endothelial cells. We hypothesized that, in addition to mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated reactive oxygen species production contributes to oleic acid (OA)-induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells, due to eNOS uncoupling. We measured reactive oxygen species production and eNOS activity in cultured endothelial cells (bEnd.3) in the presence of OA bound to bovine serum albumin, using the CM-H2DCFDA assay and the L-arginine/citrulline conversion assay, respectively. OA induced a concentration-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species production, which was inhibited by the mitochondrial complex II inhibitor thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA). OA had little effect on eNOS activity when stimulated by a calcium-ionophore, but decreased both basal and insulin-induced eNOS activity, which was restored by TTFA. Pretreatment of bEnd.3 cells with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) prevented OA-induced reactive oxygen species production and restored inhibition of eNOS activity by OA. Elevation of OA levels leads to both impairment in receptor-mediated stimulation of eNOS and to production of mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species and hence endothelial dysfunction.

  17. Total Tanshinones-Induced Apoptosis and Autophagy Via Reactive Oxygen Species in Lung Cancer 95D Cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongwei; Sun, Wen; Zhao, Wenwen; Hao, Wenhui; Leung, Chung-Hang; Lu, Jinjian; Chen, Xiuping

    2015-01-01

    Tanshinones are a group of bioactive constituents isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, a widely prescribed traditional Chinese herb. In the current study, the anticancer properties of total tanshinones (TDT) were evaluated using 95D lung cancer cells. Tanshinone IIA was identified as the main component of TDT. Compared with tanshinone IIA, TDT showed more cytotoxic effects on the 95D cells. Annexin V/7-AAD double staining, the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) (Δψ), the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins, such as cleaved-PARP, cleaved-caspase-3, Bax, and Bad, and the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were evidence of TDT-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, TDT-induced autophagy as demonstrated by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and the up-regulation of autophagy-associated proteins, such as LC3-II, Beclin-1, Atg3, Atg5, Atg7, and Atg12. Autophagy inhibitors, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and bafilomycin A1, enhanced TDT-induced cell death. 3-MA pretreatment enhanced the TDT-induced up-regulation of Bax and cleaved-PARP. In addition, TDT induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was reversed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC). NAC also reversed TDT-induced depolarization of Δψ, MDC staining, up-regulation of Bax, cleaved-PARP, Beclin-1, LC3-II, and cell viability. In conclusion, our findings showed that TDT-induced apoptosis and protective autophagy in 95D cells mediated by increasing intracellular ROS production.

  18. Exceedingly Fast Oxygen Atom Transfer to Olefins via a Catalytically Competent Nonheme Iron Species.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Plana, Joan; Aguinaco, Almudena; Belda, Raquel; García-España, Enrique; Basallote, Manuel G; Company, Anna; Costas, Miquel

    2016-05-17

    The reaction of [Fe(CF3 SO3 )2 (PyNMe3 )] with excess peracetic acid at -40 °C leads to the accumulation of a metastable compound that exists as a pair of electromeric species, [Fe(III) (OOAc)(PyNMe3 )](2+) and [Fe(V) (O)(OAc)(PyNMe3 )](2+) , in fast equilibrium. Stopped-flow UV/Vis analysis confirmed that oxygen atom transfer (OAT) from these electromeric species to olefinic substrates is exceedingly fast, forming epoxides with stereoretention. The impact of the electronic and steric properties of the substrate on the reaction rate could be elucidated, and the relative reactivities determined for the catalytic oxidations could be reproduced by kinetic studies. The observed fast reaction rates and high selectivities demonstrate that this metastable compound is a truly competent OAT intermediate of relevance for nonheme iron catalyzed epoxidations.

  19. Mechanism of artemisinin phytotoxicity action: induction of reactive oxygen species and cell death in lettuce seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Dan-Dan; Ding, Lan; Cui, Hai-Yan; Jin, Hui; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Jian-She; Qin, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Artemisinin has been recognized as an allelochemical that inhibits growth of several plant species. However, its mode of action is not well clarified. In this study, the mechanism of artemisinin phytotoxicity on lettuce seedlings was investigated. Root and shoot elongation of lettuce seedlings were inhibited by artemisinin in a concentration-dependent manner. The compound effectively arrested cell division and caused loss of cell viability in root tips of lettuce. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced by artemisinin. Lipid peroxidation, proline overproduction and reduction of chlorophyll content in lettuce seedlings were found after treatments. These results suggested that artemisinin could induce ROS overproduction, which caused membrane lipids peroxidation and cell death, and impacted mitosis and physiological processes, resulting in growth inhibition of receptor plants.

  20. Heavy-metal-induced reactive oxygen species: phytotoxicity and physicochemical changes in plants.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Muhammad; Pourrut, Bertrand; Dumat, Camille; Nadeem, Muhammad; Aslam, Muhammad; Pinelli, Eric

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the industrial revolution, anthropogenic activities have enhanced there distribution of many toxic heavy metals from the earth's crust to different environmental compartments. Environmental pollution by toxic heavy metals is increasing worldwide, and poses a rising threat to both the environment and to human health.Plants are exposed to heavy metals from various sources: mining and refining of ores, fertilizer and pesticide applications, battery chemicals, disposal of solid wastes(including sewage sludge), irrigation with wastewater, vehicular exhaust emissions and adjacent industrial activity.Heavy metals induce various morphological, physiological, and biochemical dysfunctions in plants, either directly or indirectly, and cause various damaging effects. The most frequently documented and earliest consequence of heavy metal toxicity in plants cells is the overproduction of ROS. Unlike redox-active metals such as iron and copper, heavy metals (e.g, Pb, Cd, Ni, AI, Mn and Zn) cannot generate ROS directly by participating