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Sample records for oxysulfides

  1. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Nanosilver Oxysulfidation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyu; Pennell, Kelly G.; Hurt, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Among the many new engineered nanomaterials, nanosilver is one of the highest priority cases for environmental risk assessment. Recent analysis of field samples from water treatment facilities suggests that silver is converted to silver sulfide, whose very low solubility may limit the bioavailability and adverse impact of silver in the environment. The present study demonstrates that silver nanoparticles react with dissolved sulfide species (HS−, S2−) under relevant but controlled laboratory conditions to produce silver sulfide nanostructures similar to those observed in the field. The reaction is tracked by time-resolved sulfide depletion measurements to yield quantitative reaction rates and stoichiometries. The reaction requires dissolved oxygen, and it is sensitive to pH and natural organic matter. Focusedion-beam analysis of surface films reveals an irregular coarse-grained sulfide phase that allows deep (> 1 μm) conversion of silver surfaces without passivation. At high sulfide concentrations, nanosilver oxysulfidation occurs by a direct particle-fluid reaction. At low sulfide concentration, quantitative kinetic analysis suggests a mechanistic switch to an oxidative dissolution/precipitation mechanism, in which the biologically active Ag+ ion is generated as an intermediate. The environmental transformation pathways for nanosilver will vary depending on the media-specific competing rates of oxidative dissolution and direct oxysulfidation. PMID:21770469

  2. Processing and characterization of new oxysulfide glasses in the Ge-Ga-As-S-O system

    SciTech Connect

    Maurel, C.; Petit, L. Dussauze, M.; Kamitsos, E.I.; Couzi, M.; Cardinal, T.; Miller, A.C.; Jain, H.; Richardson, K.

    2008-10-15

    New oxysulfide glasses have been prepared in the Ge-Ga-As system employing a two-step melting process which involves the processing of the chalcogenide glass (ChG) and its subsequent melting with amorphous GeO{sub 2} powder. Optical characterization of the synthesized oxysulfide glasses has shown that the cut-off wavelength decreases with increasing oxygen content, and this has been correlated to results of Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopies which show the formation of new oxysulfide structural units. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis to probe the bonding environment of oxygen atoms in the oxysulfide glass network, has revealed the preferred formation of Ga-O and Ge-O bonds in comparison to As-O bonds. This work has demonstrated that melting a ChG glass with GeO{sub 2} leads to the formation of new oxysulfide glassy materials. - Graphical abstract: In this paper, we explain how new oxysulfide glasses are prepared in the Ge-Ga-As system employing a two-step process: (1) the processing of the chalcogenide glass (ChG) and (2) the re-melting of the ChG with GeO{sub 2} powder. Raman, infrared and XPS spectroscopies show the formation of new oxysulfide structural units.

  3. Zinc oxysulfide ternary alloy nanocrystals: A bandgap modulated photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Shiv K.; Pandey, Shipra; Pandey, Avinash C.; Mehrotra, G. K.

    2013-06-10

    Herein, we report a green economic route for the synthesis of a series of Zinc Oxysulfide (ZOS) (ZnO{sub 1-x}S{sub x}; 0 {<=} x {>=} 1; x = Sulfur) alloys nanoparticles. The crystallographic features of ZnO, ZOS, and ZnS confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction and validated by Transmission Electron Microscopy reveal the variation of lattice spacing in binary and ternary compositions with homogenous elemental distribution. The photocatalytic analysis of ZOS (0.4) is performed and compared with Degussa P25 to ascertain its photocatalytic activity against methyl orange under irradiation of 365 nm UV-Vis light. A bandgap of 2.7 eV for ZOS (0.4) aptly establishes its prospects for sunlight driven photocatalysis.

  4. Molten iron oxysulfide as a superior sulfur sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1991-01-01

    Slagging combustors with injected lime or limestone are being considered as replacements for conventional coal burners. They have advantages in that they can be staged to reduce NO{sub x} and So{sub x} emissions. Iron oxide, as an alternative to lime or limestone may be effective not only as a desulfurizing agent, but under the right conditions of oxygen potential and after combination with sulfur, the reaction products of coal gases with iron oxide can act as a flux to produce a fluid phase. The thermodynamic conditions for optimum removal of sulfur from the first stage of a coal combustor are being determined by experiment and by use of existing data. Contour plots in which the pounds Of S0{sub 2} per million Btu of calorific power are plotted on isothermal ternary phase diagrams of the iron-oxygen-sulfur system. These contour plots determine the most favorable conditions for coal combustion in the presence of added iron oxide. Lowest S0{sub 2} pressures are close to the phase boundary limit between iron saturation and the oxysulfide liquid phase. Experimental studies in which ceramic containers (99% alumina) were used to contain the liquid were hampered by the tendency for the liquid to flow up and over the walls of containing vessels presumably as a result of surface tension effects. These effects, which make equilibration measurements difficult, may be favorable with respect to producing a high degree of reactivity of the oxysulfide with coal gases and resultant rapid reaction kinetics. As result of this problem, platinum containment vessels containers appear to avoid these surface tension effects. Thermodynamic and kinetic measurements are now being explored by thermogravimetric analysis.

  5. Quantitative study on the chemical solution deposition of zinc oxysulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Reinisch, Michael; Perkins, Craig L.; Steirer, K. Xerxes

    2015-11-21

    Zinc Oxysulfide (ZnOS) has demonstrated potential in the last decade to replace CdS as a buffer layer material since it is a wide-band-gap semiconductor with performance advantages over CdS (Eg = 2.4 eV) in the near UV-range for solar energy conversion. However, questions remain on the growth mechanisms of chemical bath deposited ZnOS. In this study, a detailed model is employed to calculate solubility diagrams that describe simple conditions for complex speciation control using only ammonium hydroxide without additional base. For these conditions, ZnOS is deposited via aqueous solution deposition on a quartz crystal microbalance in a continuous flow cell. Data is used to analyze the growth rate dependence on temperature and also to elucidate the effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) when used as a co-solvent. Activation energies (EA) of ZnOS are calculated for different flow rates and solution compositions. As a result, the measured EA relationships are affected by changes in the primary growth mechanism when DMSO is included.

  6. Quantitative study on the chemical solution deposition of zinc oxysulfide

    DOE PAGES

    Reinisch, Michael; Perkins, Craig L.; Steirer, K. Xerxes

    2015-11-21

    Zinc Oxysulfide (ZnOS) has demonstrated potential in the last decade to replace CdS as a buffer layer material since it is a wide-band-gap semiconductor with performance advantages over CdS (Eg = 2.4 eV) in the near UV-range for solar energy conversion. However, questions remain on the growth mechanisms of chemical bath deposited ZnOS. In this study, a detailed model is employed to calculate solubility diagrams that describe simple conditions for complex speciation control using only ammonium hydroxide without additional base. For these conditions, ZnOS is deposited via aqueous solution deposition on a quartz crystal microbalance in a continuous flow cell.more » Data is used to analyze the growth rate dependence on temperature and also to elucidate the effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) when used as a co-solvent. Activation energies (EA) of ZnOS are calculated for different flow rates and solution compositions. As a result, the measured EA relationships are affected by changes in the primary growth mechanism when DMSO is included.« less

  7. The BiCu{sub 1−x}OS oxysulfide: Copper deficiency and electronic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Berthebaud, D.; Guilmeau, E.; Lebedev, O.I.

    2016-05-15

    An oxysulfide series of nominal compositions BiCu{sub 1−x}OS with x<0.20 has been prepared and its structural properties characterized by combining powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It is found that this oxysulfide, crystallizing in the P4/nmm space group, tends to adopt a constant amount of copper vacancy corresponding to x=0.05 in the BiCu{sub 1−x}OS formula. The presence of Cu vacancies is confirmed by HAADF-STEM analysis showing, in the Cu atomic columns, alternating peaks of different intensities in some very localized regions. For larger Cu deficiencies (x>0.05 in the nominal composition), other types of structural nanodefects are evidenced such as bismuth oxysulfides of the “BiOS” ternary system which might explain the report of superconductivity for the BiCu{sub 1−x}OS oxysulfide. Local epitaxial growth of the BiCuOS oxysulfide on top of CuO is also observed. In marked contrast to the BiCu{sub 1−x}OSe oxyselenide, these results give an explanation to the limited impact of Cu deficiency on the Seebeck coefficient in BiCu{sub 1−x}OS compounds. - Graphical abstract: High resolution TEM image showing a Bi(Cu)OS/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}S interface and corresponding dislocation region. The Bi(Cu)OS structure adopts a rather constant Cu content (near 0.95); starting from BiCuOS leads to the formation of defects such as the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}S oxysulfide.

  8. Molten metal containment vessel with rare earth oxysulfide protective coating thereon and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, Oscar H.; Curtis, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    An improved molten metal containment vessel is disclosed in which wetting of the vessel's inner wall surfaces by molten metal is inhibited by coating at least the inner surfaces of the containment vessel with one or more rare earth oxysulfide or rare earth sulfide compounds to inhibit wetting and or adherence by the molten metal to the surfaces of the containment vessel.

  9. Geometric magnetic frustration in RE{sub 2}O{sub 2}S oxysulfides (RE = Sm, Eu and Gd)

    SciTech Connect

    Biondo, V.; Sarvezuk, P.W.C.; Ivashita, F.F.; Silva, K.L.; Paesano, A.; Isnard, O.

    2014-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Stacked planes in the <001> direction of an oxysulfide structure, showing the triangular nets formed by rare earth cations, which moments present geometric magnetic frustration. - Highlights: • We prepared monophasic RE{sub 2}O{sub 2}S Oxysulfides (RE = Sm, Eu and Gd). • RE{sub 2}O{sub 2}S compounds were characterized regarding structural and magnetic properties. • Mössbauer spectra were obtained for Eu{sub 2}O{sub 2}S and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S at different temperatures. • Oxysulfides present geometric magnetic frustration of the rare-earth sublattice. - Abstract: RE{sub 2}O{sub 2}S oxysulfides (with RE = Sm, Eu and Gd) were prepared and characterized regarding their structural and magnetic properties. The compounds crystallized in the trigonal symmetry (space group P-3m/D{sub 3}{sup 3}d), with the lattice parameter varying linearly with the ionic radius of the RE cation. All these oxysulfides are magnetically frustrated and only the gadolinium sample showed magnetic order down to 3 K. The magnetic frustration is attributed to the spatial distribution of cations over the lattice, where the RE’s magnetic moments occupy the sites forming a triangular plane lattice, perpendicular to the direction. This geometric magnetic frustration was firstly recognized for these oxysulfides.

  10. Molten iron oxysulfide as a superior sulfur sorbent. Final report, [September 1989--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-03-31

    The studies had as original objective the analysis of conditions for using liquid iron oxysulfide as a desulfuring agent during coal gasification. Ancillary was a comparison of iron oxysulfide with lime as sorbents under conditions where lime reacts with S-bearing gases to form Ca sulfate or sulfide. Primary thrust is to determine the thermodynamic requirements for desulfurization by iron additions (e.g., taconite concentrate) during combustion in gasifiers operating at high equivalence ratios. Thermodynamic analysis of lime-oxygen-sulfur system shows why lime is injected into burners under oxidizing conditions; reducing conditions forms CaS, requiring its removal, otherwise oxidation and release of S would occur. Iron as the oxysulfide liquid has a range of stability and can be used as a desulfurizing agent, if the burner/gasifier operates in a sufficiently reducing regime (high equivalence ratio); this operating range is given and is calculable for a coal composition, temperature, stoichiometry. High moisture or hydrogen contents of the coal yield a poorer degree of desulfurization. Kinetic tests on individual iron oxide particles on substrates or Pt cups with a TGA apparatus fail to predict reaction rates within a burner. Preliminary tests on the Dynamic Containment Burner with acetylene give some promise that this system can produce the proper conditions of coal gasification for use of added iron as a sulfur sorbent.

  11. Chemism and kinetics of the oxidation of zinc-calcium oxysulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaeva, R. I.; Selivanov, E. N.; Mansurova, A. N.

    2013-05-01

    The sequence of phase transformations and the kinetics of the solid-phase (heating to 1273 K) oxidation of zinc-calcium oxysulfide CaZnSO with air are determined by thermodynamic, thermogravimetric, mass spectrometric, and X-ray diffraction analyses. The oxidation process is shown to be accompanied by the formation of the CaSO4 and ZnO phases depending on the heating conditions, as well as by the formation of CaO with SO2 evolution. The two-stage oxidation of CaZnSO is interpreted by the Avrami-Erofeev kinetic equations with activation energies of 190 and 422 kJ/mol.

  12. Upconversion emission of erbium-doped lanthanum oxysulfide powders for temperature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balda, Rolindes; Hakmeh, Noha; Merdrignac-Conanec, Odile; Arriandiaga, M. Angeles; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2017-02-01

    In this work we report a detailed spectroscopic study of the near-infrared to visible upconversion luminescence in Erdoped lanthanum oxysulfide crystal powders after excitation of level 4I9/2. The analysis of the decay curves of the upconversion emission indicates that energy transfer upconversion is the main mechanism responsible for the green (4S3/2) and red (4F9/2) upconversion luminescence. The temperature dependence of the green upconverted emission from the two thermally coupled 2H11/2 and 4S3/2 levels has been analyzed in the 230 K- 300 K temperature range in order to check its availability as a temperature sensor.

  13. Isotopically-enriched gadolinium-157 oxysulfide scintillator screens for the high-resolution neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trtik, Pavel; Lehmann, Eberhard H.

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of the production of isotopically-enriched gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator screens for the high spatial-resolution neutron imaging. Approximately 10 g of 157Gd2O2S:Tb was produced in the form of fine powder (particle size approximately 2 μm). The level of 157Gd enrichment was above 88%. Approximately 2.5 μm thick 157Gd2O2S:Tb scintillator screens were produced and tested for the absorption power and the light output. The results are compared to the reference screens based on natGd2O2S:Tb. The isotopically enriched screens provided increase by a factor of 3.8 and 3.6 for the absorption power and the light output, respectively. The potential of the scintillator screens based on 157Gd2O2S phosphor for the purpose of the (high-resolution) neutron imaging is discussed.

  14. Bandgap engineering of colloidal zinc oxysulfide via lattice substitution with sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Shiv K.; Pandey, Shipra; Parashar, Vyom; Yadav, Raghvendra S.; Mehrotra, G. K.; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxysulfide nanocrystals with zinc blende phase are synthesized through a wet-chemical method. An affirmation of the crystal structure, elemental homogeneity and phase transformation is obtained by X-ray diffraction and authenticated by electron micrographic studies. Theoretical observations have strongly supported the thermodynamic solubility limit for its (30%) formation. An anomalous bandgap bowing with modulation in bandgap from 3.74 eV (ZnO) to 3.93 eV (ZnS) was observed with a minimum bandgap of 2.7 eV. Tunable bandgap and a wide range of visible emission ascertain it as a potential material for optoelectronic and solar cell applications due to its large bandgap offsets.Zinc oxysulfide nanocrystals with zinc blende phase are synthesized through a wet-chemical method. An affirmation of the crystal structure, elemental homogeneity and phase transformation is obtained by X-ray diffraction and authenticated by electron micrographic studies. Theoretical observations have strongly supported the thermodynamic solubility limit for its (30%) formation. An anomalous bandgap bowing with modulation in bandgap from 3.74 eV (ZnO) to 3.93 eV (ZnS) was observed with a minimum bandgap of 2.7 eV. Tunable bandgap and a wide range of visible emission ascertain it as a potential material for optoelectronic and solar cell applications due to its large bandgap offsets. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedure, characterization techniques, lattice strain, XPS, TEM/HRTEM, HRSEM, EDAX, bandgap and bowing parameters calculation and PL study for whole composition. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04457b

  15. Oxysulfide LiAlSO: A Lithium Superionic Conductor from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuelong; Xiao, Ruijuan; Li, Hong; Chen, Liquan

    2017-05-01

    Through first-principles calculations and crystal structure prediction techniques, we identify a new layered oxysulfide LiAlSO in orthorhombic structure as a novel lithium superionic conductor. Two kinds of stacking sequences of layers of AlS2O2 are found in different temperature ranges. Phonon and molecular dynamics simulations verify their dynamic stabilities, and wide band gaps up to 5.6 eV are found by electronic structure calculations. The lithium migration energy barrier simulations reveal the collective interstitial-host ion "kick-off" hopping mode with barriers lower than 50 meV as the dominating conduction mechanism for LiAlSO, indicating it to be a promising solid-state electrolyte in lithium secondary batteries with fast ionic conductivity and a wide electrochemical window. This is a first attempt in which the lithium superionic conductors are designed by the crystal structure prediction method and may help explore other mixed-anion battery materials.

  16. Silicon Oxysulfide, OSiS: Rotational Spectrum, Quantum-Chemical Calculations, and Equilibrium Structure.

    PubMed

    Thorwirth, Sven; Mück, Leonie Anna; Gauss, Jürgen; Tamassia, Filippo; Lattanzi, Valerio; McCarthy, Michael C

    2011-06-02

    Silicon oxysulfide, OSiS, and seven of its minor isotopic species have been characterized for the first time in the gas phase at high spectral resolution by means of Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The equilibrium structure of OSiS has been determined from the experimental data using calculated vibration-rotation interaction constants. The structural parameters (rO-Si = 1.5064 Å and rSi-S = 1.9133 Å) are in very good agreement with values from high-level quantum chemical calculations using coupled-cluster techniques together with sophisticated additivity and extrapolation schemes. The bond distances in OSiS are very short in comparison with those in SiO and SiS. This unexpected finding is explained by the partial charges calculated for OSiS via a natural population analysis. The results suggest that electrostatic effects rather than multiple bonding are the key factors in determining bonding in this triatomic molecule. The data presented provide the spectroscopic information needed for radio astronomical searches for OSiS.

  17. Structure and physical properties of the polar oxysulfide CaZnOS.

    PubMed

    Sambrook, Timothy; Smura, Catherine F; Clarke, Simon J; Ok, Kang Min; Halasyamani, P Shiv

    2007-04-02

    The synthesis, structure, and electrical properties of the oxysulfide CaZnOS are reported. The white compound has a band gap of 3.7(1) eV and crystallizes in hexagonal space group P6(3)mc (No. 186) with a = 3.75726(3) A, c = 11.4013(1) A, and Z = 2. The noncentrosymmetric structure, which has few analogues, is composed of isotypic puckered hexagonal ZnS and CaO layers arranged so that ZnS3O tetrahedra are all aligned parallel, resulting in a polar structure. The compound shows type 1 non-phase-matchable second harmonic generation, determined using 1064 nm radiation, with an efficiency approximately 100 times that of alpha-SiO2 and a piezoelectric coefficient of 38 pm V-1. Although polar, CaZnOS is not ferroelectric and the pyroelectric coefficient is very small, approximately 0.0 microC m-2 K-1 between room temperature and 100 degrees C.

  18. Cast Iron Inoculation Enhanced by Supplementary Oxy-sulfides Forming Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riposan, Iulian; Stan, Stelian; Uta, Valentin; Stefan, Ion

    2017-08-01

    Inoculation is one of the most important metallurgical treatments applied to the molten cast iron immediately prior to casting, to promote solidification without excessive eutectic undercooling, which favors carbides formation usually with undesirable graphite morphologies. The paper focused on the separate addition of an inoculant enhancer alloy [S, O, oxy-sulfides forming elements] with a conventional Ca-FeSi alloy, in the production of gray and ductile cast irons. Carbides formation tendency decreased with improved graphite characteristics as an effect of the [Ca-FeSi + Enhancer] inoculation combination, when compared to other Ca/Ca, Ba/Ca, RE-FeSi alloy treatments. Adding an inoculant enhancer greatly enhances inoculation, lowers inoculant consumption up to 50% or more and avoids the need to use more costly inoculants, such as a rare earth bearing alloy. The Inoculation Specific Factor [ISF] was developed as a means to more realistically measure inoculant treatment efficiency. It compares the ratio between the improved characteristic level and total inoculant consumption for this effect. Addition of any of the commercial inoculants plus the inoculant enhancer offered outstanding inoculation power [increased ISF] even at higher solidification cooling rates, even though the total enhancer addition was at a small fraction of the amount of commercial inoculant used.

  19. Neutron imaging detector with 2 μm spatial resolution based on event reconstruction of neutron capture in gadolinium oxysulfide scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussey, Daniel S.; LaManna, Jacob M.; Baltic, Elias; Jacobson, David L.

    2017-09-01

    We report on efforts to improve the achievable spatial resolution in neutron imaging by centroiding the scintillation light from gadolinium oxysulfide scintillators. The current state-of-the-art neutron imaging spatial resolution is about 10 μm, and many applications of neutron imaging would benefit from at least an order of magnitude improvement in the spatial resolution. The detector scheme that we have developed magnifies the scintillation light from a gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator, calculates the center of mass of the scintillation event, resulting in an event-based imaging detector with spatial resolution of about 2 μm.

  20. Molten iron oxysulfide as a superior sulfur sorbent. Technical progress report, June 1, 1991--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1991-12-31

    Slagging combustors with injected lime or limestone are being considered as replacements for conventional coal burners. They have advantages in that they can be staged to reduce NO{sub x} and So{sub x} emissions. Iron oxide, as an alternative to lime or limestone may be effective not only as a desulfurizing agent, but under the right conditions of oxygen potential and after combination with sulfur, the reaction products of coal gases with iron oxide can act as a flux to produce a fluid phase. The thermodynamic conditions for optimum removal of sulfur from the first stage of a coal combustor are being determined by experiment and by use of existing data. Contour plots in which the pounds Of S0{sub 2} per million Btu of calorific power are plotted on isothermal ternary phase diagrams of the iron-oxygen-sulfur system. These contour plots determine the most favorable conditions for coal combustion in the presence of added iron oxide. Lowest S0{sub 2} pressures are close to the phase boundary limit between iron saturation and the oxysulfide liquid phase. Experimental studies in which ceramic containers (99% alumina) were used to contain the liquid were hampered by the tendency for the liquid to flow up and over the walls of containing vessels presumably as a result of surface tension effects. These effects, which make equilibration measurements difficult, may be favorable with respect to producing a high degree of reactivity of the oxysulfide with coal gases and resultant rapid reaction kinetics. As result of this problem, platinum containment vessels containers appear to avoid these surface tension effects. Thermodynamic and kinetic measurements are now being explored by thermogravimetric analysis.

  1. A new continuous two-step molecular precursor route to rare-earth oxysulfides Ln{sub 2}O{sub 2}S

    SciTech Connect

    De Crom, N.

    2012-07-15

    A continuous two-step molecular precursor pathway is designed for the preparation of rare-earth oxysulfides Ln{sub 2}O{sub 2}S (Ln=Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm-Lu). This new route involves a first oxidation step leading to the rare-earth oxysulfate Ln{sub 2}O{sub 2}SO{sub 4} which is subsequently reduced to the rare-earth oxysulfide Ln{sub 2}O{sub 2}S by switching to a H{sub 2}-Ar atmosphere. The whole process occurs at a temperature significantly lower than usual solid state synthesis (T{<=}650 Degree-Sign C) and avoids the use of dangerous sulfur-based gases, providing a convenient route to the synthesis of the entire series of Ln{sub 2}O{sub 2}S. The molecular precursors consist in heteroleptic dithiocarbamate complexes [Ln(Et{sub 2}dtc){sub 3}(phen)] and [Ln(Et{sub 2}dtc){sub 3}(bipy)] (Et{sub 2}dtc=N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate; phen=1,10-phenanthroline; bipy=2,2 Prime -bipyridine) and were synthesized by a new high yield and high purity synthesis route. The nature of the molecular precursor determines the minimum synthesis temperature and influences therefore the purity of the final Ln{sub 2}O{sub 2}S crystalline phase. - Graphical abstract: A continuous two-step molecular precursor pathway was designed for the preparation of rare-earth oxysulfides Ln{sub 2}O{sub 2}S (Ln=Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm-Lu), starting from heteroleptic dithiocarbamate complexes. The influence of the nature of the molecular precursor on the minimum synthesis temperature and on the purity of the final Ln{sub 2}O{sub 2}S crystalline phase is discussed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new high yield and high purity synthesis route of rare earth dithiocarbamates is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These compounds are used as precursors in a continuous process leading to rare-earth oxysulfides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxysulfides are obtained under much more moderate conditions than previously described.

  2. Influence of Upconversion Processes in the Optically-Induced Inhomogeneous Thermal Behavior of Erbium-Doped Lanthanum Oxysulfide Powders.

    PubMed

    Balda, Rolindes; Hakmeh, Noha; Barredo-Zuriarrain, Macarena; Merdrignac-Conanec, Odile; García-Revilla, Sara; Arriandiaga, M Angeles; Fernández, Joaquín

    2016-05-11

    The efficient infrared-to-visible upconversion emission present in Er-doped lanthanum oxysulfide crystal powders is used as a fine thermal sensor to determine the influence of upconversion processes on the laser-induced thermal load produced by the pump laser and to assess the potentialities of this material in order to obtain anti-Stokes laser-induced cooling. The analysis of the upconversion emission and excitation spectra as well as the decay curves indicates that energy transfer upconversion is the main mechanism responsible for the green (⁴S3/2) and red (⁴F9/2) upconversion luminescence. The dependence on temperature of the intensity ratio of upconversion emission from thermally-coupled ²H11/2 and ⁴S3/2 levels of Er(3+) in the 240-300 K temperature range has been used to estimate a relative sensitivity of 1.09 × 10(-2) K(-1). Thermal measurements performed on the powder samples by using a thermal infrared camera exhibit a very inhomogeneous heat distribution at the sample surface due to the random distribution of the pumping energy inside the sample as well as to the random properties of the thermal field. The analysis of both spectroscopic and thermal measurements show that after a transient heating induced by the background absorption, cooling of discrete regions by means of anti-Stokes processes can be observed.

  3. Gadolinium oxysulfide nanoparticles as multimodal imaging agents for T2-weighted MR, X-ray tomography and photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osseni, Sèmiyou. A.; Lechevallier, Sévérine; Verelst, Marc; Perriat, Pascal; Dexpert-Ghys, Jeannette; Neumeyer, David; Garcia, Robin; Mayer, Florian; Djanashvili, Kristina; Peters, Joop A.; Magdeleine, Eddy; Gros-Dagnac, Hélène; Celsis, Pierre; Mauricot, Robert

    2013-12-01

    We have synthesized gadolinium oxysulfide nanoparticles (NPs) doped with other lanthanides (Eu3+, Er3+, Yb3+) via a hydroxycarbonate precursor precipitation route followed by a sulfuration process under a H2S-Ar atmosphere at 750 °C in order to propose new multimodal nanoplatforms for Magnetic Resonance (MR), X-ray and photoluminescence imaging. Gd2O2S:Eu3+ NPs strongly absorb near UV (~300-400 nm) and re-emit strong red light (624 nm). They can be easily internalized by cancer cells, and imaged by epifluorescence microscopy under excitation in the NUV (365 nm). They are not cytotoxic for living cells up to 100 μg mL-1. Consequently, they are well adapted for in vitro imaging on cell cultures. Gd2O2S:Eu3+ NPs also show strong transverse relaxivity and strong X-ray absorption allowing their use as contrast agents for T2-weighted MRI and X-ray tomography. Our study shows that Gd2O2S:Eu3+ NPs are considerably better than commercial Ferumoxtran-10 NPs as negative contrast agents for MRI. Upconversion emission of Gd2O2S:Er; Yb (1; 8%) NPs under infrared excitation (λex = 980 nm) shows mainly red emission (~650-680 nm). Consequently, they are more specifically designed for in vivo deep fluorescence imaging, because both excitation and emission are located inside the ``transparency window'' of biological tissues (650-1200 nm). Magnetic relaxivity and X-ray absorption behaviors of Gd2O2S:Er; Yb NPs are almost similar to Gd2O2S:Eu3+ NPs.We have synthesized gadolinium oxysulfide nanoparticles (NPs) doped with other lanthanides (Eu3+, Er3+, Yb3+) via a hydroxycarbonate precursor precipitation route followed by a sulfuration process under a H2S-Ar atmosphere at 750 °C in order to propose new multimodal nanoplatforms for Magnetic Resonance (MR), X-ray and photoluminescence imaging. Gd2O2S:Eu3+ NPs strongly absorb near UV (~300-400 nm) and re-emit strong red light (624 nm). They can be easily internalized by cancer cells, and imaged by epifluorescence microscopy under

  4. Structural Evolution from Tin Sulfide (Selenide) Layered Structures to Novel 3- and 4-Connected Tin Oxy-sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, John B.; Ko, Younghee; Tan, Kemin; Nellis, David M.; Koch, Stephen

    1995-07-01

    Addition of triethylenetetramine (TETN) and tetramethylammonium (TMA+) to SnS2 and SnSe2 slurries followed by heating at 150°C under autogenous hydrothermal conditions results in novel thio and thio-oxide phases. These materials crystallize in time sequence as the added amines decompose. Initially 2-D frameworks with composition (Sn3X7)2-, X = S or Se are produced. In the case of the sulfides these are shown to transform to 2-D and 3-D oxy-sulfides frameworks which incorporate the decomposed template. The structures of two materials in this sequence have been determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction. The first, Sn3Se7 · C6N4H16CO, designated TETN-SnSe-1, crystallizes after 1 day of digestion in space group Pbca, with a = 23.553(6), b = 14.004(6), and c = 13.967(4) Å. The structure contains SnSe5 coordination polyhedra which form Sn3Se4+4 semicubes; six such semicubes are linked via Se2 bridges to form apertures in the Sn3Se2-7 sheet in (010). Similar structures occur in the TETN-SnS and TMA-SnS systems. The second material, with a framework designated SnOS-SB3, is formed after 5 days of digestion in either the TMA-SnS or TETN-SnS systems and crystallizes in C2/c, with a = 35.62(1), b = 18.468(4), c = 21.858(6) Å, and β = 115.36(1)°. The structure consists of tetrahedral clusters of composition [Sn10S20O4]8-, which are linked via single S bridges at three corners to form a 2-D framework of composition [Sn20S37O8]10-. This is one member of a theoretical structural family with composition [Sn10S20-n/2O4](8-n)-, where 0 ≤ n ≤ 4 and represents the number of connections between clusters.

  5. Effects of the Cu off-stoichiometry on transport properties of wide gap p-type semiconductor, layered oxysulfide LaCuSO

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Yosuke Tanaki, Mai; Okusa, Yuki; Matoba, Masanori; Kamihara, Yoichi; Shibuya, Taizo; Yasuoka, Kenji

    2014-07-14

    Layered oxysulfide LaCu{sub 1−x}SO (x = 0–0.03) was prepared to elucidate the effect of Cu off-stoichiometry on their electrical and thermal transport properties. Electrical resistivity drastically decreases down from ∼10{sup 5} Ω·cm to ∼10{sup −1} Ω·cm as a result of Cu deficiency (x = 0.01) at 300 K. Thermal conductivity of the samples at 300 K, which is dominated by lattice components, is estimated to be 2.3(3) Wm{sup −1}K{sup −1}. Stoichiometric LaCuSO has an optical band gap of 3.1 eV, while broad optical absorption at photon energies of approximately 2.1 eV was observed for Cu-deficient samples. Density functional theory calculation suggests that these broad absorption structures probably originate from the in-gap states generated by the sulfur vacancies created to compensate the charge imbalance due to Cu off-stoichiometry. These results clearly demonstrate that Cu deficiency plays a crucial role in determining the electrical transport properties of Cu-based p-type transparent semiconductors.

  6. New candidates for superconductors: A series of layered oxysulfides (Cu{sub 2}S{sub 2})(Sr{sub n+1}M{sub n}O{sub 3n{minus}1})

    SciTech Connect

    Otzschi, Kenji; Ogino, Hiraku; Shimoyama, Junichi; Kishio, Kohji

    1999-11-01

    The authors have discovered three new layered transition-metal oxysulfides; (Cu{sub 2}S{sub 2})(Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}), (Cu{sub 2}S{sub 2})(Sr{sub 2}NiO{sub 2}) and (Cu{sub 2}S{sub 2})(Sr{sub 3}Sc{sub 2}O{sub 5}), whose compositions are generally formulated as (Cu{sub 2}S{sub 2})(Sr{sub n+1}M{sub n}O{sub 3n{minus}1}). Their structures consist of alternate stackings of perovskite-based MO{sub 2} plane(s) and Cu{sub 2}S{sub 2} layers, showing great similarity to cuprate superconductors when the Cu{sub 2}S{sub 2} layer is considered as the blocking layer. The formation of these phases is limited by the ion size of M and elasticity of the Cu{sub 2}S{sub 2} layer. The newly found (Cu{sub 2}S{sub 2})(Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}) possesses the horizontally extended tetragonal CuO{sub 2} plane, making itself a possible candidate for a new superconductor.

  7. Molten iron oxysulfide as a superior sulfur sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Slagging combustors with injected lime or limestone are being considered as replacements for conventional coal burners. They have advantages in that they can be staged to reduce NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. Iron oxide, as an alternative to lime or limestone may be effective not only as a desulfurizing agent, but, under the right conditions of oxygen potential, it can act as a flux to produce a glassy slag. This glassy slag should be dense and environmentally inert. In this reporting period, the thermodynamic conditions are determined for the operation of the first stage of a combustor which would have as its feed six types of coals. The calculations are made for the four phase equilibrium: FeO(wustite)/Fe/Liquid/Gas over the temperature range 950{degrees} to 1300{degrees}C. The minimum dosage of iron oxide required at equilibrium an the calculated maximum percent sulfur removal are reported. Also given are the expected pounds of S0{sub 2} per million Btu of heat evolution calculated for complete combustion. These preliminary results indicate in the Fe-O-S system that higher temperatures give better results approaching 96 percent sulfur removal from a coal containing (on a dry basis) 3.29% by weight sulfur. In the prior reporting period, a comparison is made between iron oxide and lime as a desulfurizing agent. With lime, the thermodynamic conditions were chosen: a set of conditions where the compound calcium sulfide is the product and a set of conditions where calcium sulfate is the product. The temperature limits of the sulfate forming and sulfide forming reactions were defined.

  8. Bulk superconductivity in bismuth oxysulfide Bi4O4S3.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shiva Kumar; Kumar, Anuj; Gahtori, Bhasker; Shruti; Sharma, Gyaneshwar; Patnaik, Satyabrata; Awana, Veer P S

    2012-10-10

    A very recent report on the observation of superconductivity in Bi(4)O(4)S(3) [Mizuguchi, Y.; http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.3145] could potentially reignite the search for superconductivity in a broad range of layered sulfides. We report here the synthesis of Bi(4)O(4)S(3) at 500 °C by a vacuum encapsulation technique and its basic characterizations. The as-synthesized Bi(4)O(4)S(3) was contaminated with small amounts of Bi(2)S(3) and Bi impurities. The majority phase was found to be tetragonal (space group I4/mmm) with lattice parameters a = 3.9697(2) Å and c = 41.3520(1) Å. Both AC and DC magnetization measurements confirmed that Bi(4)O(4)S(3) is a bulk superconductor with a superconducting transition temperature (T(c)) of 4.4 K. Isothermal magnetization (M-H) measurements indicated closed loops with clear signatures of flux pinning and irreversible behavior. The lower critical field (H(c1)) at 2 K for the new superconductor was found to be ~15 Oe. Magnetotransport measurements showed a broadening of the resistivity (ρ) and a decrease in T(c) (ρ = 0) with increasing magnetic field. The extrapolated upper critical field H(c2)(0) was ~31 kOe with a corresponding Ginzburg-Landau coherence length of ~100 Å . In the normal state, the ρ ~ T(2) dependence was not indicated. Hall resistivity data showed a nonlinear magnetic field dependence. Our magnetization and electrical transport measurements substantiate the appearance of bulk superconductivity in as-synthesized Bi(4)O(4)S(3). On the other hand, Bi heat-treated at the same temperature is not superconducting, thus excluding the possibility of impurity-driven superconductivity in the newly discovered superconductor Bi(4)O(4)S(3).

  9. Enhanced Luminescence of La3+-Doped Gadolinium Oxysulfide with Tunable Crystalline Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yu-Jie; Wang, Li-Xi; Zhang, Qi-Tu; Pan, Shi-Bing

    2017-05-01

    The concentration of La3+ in (La x Gd1-x )2O2S:Tb phosphors prepared by the sulfide fusion method from coprecipitated oxalate precursors has been tuned, and the prominent effect on the crystalline size, particle size, and luminescence properties investigated. First-principles calculations were used to characterize the charge deformation, energy gap, and crystal field. According to density functional theory, the electron density of states in conduction bands increased with increase in the La3+ concentration. The increased electronic density strengthened the repulsion and thus decreased the diffusion so as to decrease the crystalline size from 106.2 nm to 37.3 nm. The particle size of (La x Gd1-x )2O2S:Tb increased from 0.21 μm to 1.25 μm as the La3+ concentration was increased from 15 mol.% to 60 mol.%. The excitation spectrum shifted towards shorter wavelength, enhancing the luminescence intensity of (La x Gd1-x )2O2S:Tb when excited at 254 nm. Furthermore, shorter lifetime was obtained due to lower symmetry as more Gd3+ was substituted by La3+ ions.

  10. Intrinsic oxygen vacancies mediated multi-mechano-responsive piezoluminescence in undoped zinc calcium oxysulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Cong; Zhang, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Min; Yan, Xu; Long, Yun-Ze; Wang, Xusheng

    2017-06-01

    Piezoluminescence has achieved enormous advancement in the field of stress sensors, and mechano-driven lightings and displays; however the existing piezoluminescent materials universally need the external dopants of lanthanide or transition metal ions to create efficient luminescence. Herein, we report a bright piezoluminescence in undoped piezoelectric semiconductor CaZnOS, which is multi-mechano-sensitive to ultrasonic vibration, friction, impact and compression. Our experimental and density functional theory computational investigations indicate that the intrinsic oxygen vacancies of VO 2 +, VO + and VO 0 act as luminescent centers and trap states in multi-colored components of luminescence. In addition to saving resources and protecting environment, our research is expected to open a door for design and development of self-piezoluminescent materials, thereby largely expanding our understanding of piezoluminescent mechanism and promoting further utilization of piezoluminescence.

  11. Enhanced Luminescence of La3+-Doped Gadolinium Oxysulfide with Tunable Crystalline Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yu-Jie; Wang, Li-Xi; Zhang, Qi-Tu; Pan, Shi-Bing

    2017-10-01

    The concentration of La3+ in (La x Gd1- x )2O2S:Tb phosphors prepared by the sulfide fusion method from coprecipitated oxalate precursors has been tuned, and the prominent effect on the crystalline size, particle size, and luminescence properties investigated. First-principles calculations were used to characterize the charge deformation, energy gap, and crystal field. According to density functional theory, the electron density of states in conduction bands increased with increase in the La3+ concentration. The increased electronic density strengthened the repulsion and thus decreased the diffusion so as to decrease the crystalline size from 106.2 nm to 37.3 nm. The particle size of (La x Gd1- x )2O2S:Tb increased from 0.21 μm to 1.25 μm as the La3+ concentration was increased from 15 mol.% to 60 mol.%. The excitation spectrum shifted towards shorter wavelength, enhancing the luminescence intensity of (La x Gd1- x )2O2S:Tb when excited at 254 nm. Furthermore, shorter lifetime was obtained due to lower symmetry as more Gd3+ was substituted by La3+ ions.

  12. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Photoelectric Properties of a New Layered Bismuth Oxysulfide.

    PubMed

    Meng, Sha; Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Ganghua; Wang, Yaoming; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Fuqiang

    2015-06-15

    [Bi2O2]-containing tetragonal compounds have received enormous attention due to unique functions including ferroelectricity, photocatalysis, and superconductivity. Here, a new layered compound Bi9O7.5S6 was synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route. The compound, belonging to a new structure type crystallizes in a rhombohedral system with space group R3̅m (a = 4.0685(1) Å, c = 31.029(5) Å, V = 444.8(1) Å(3), Z = 1). The overall crystal structure consists of alternatively packed unique [Bi2O2] and [BiS2] layers along [001] which are combined with each other by van der Waals interaction. The phase purity of the product is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. XPS analyses indicate +3 for Bi and -2 for S atoms. The temperature dependence of resistivity ρ(T) indicates that the semiconducting sample follows the mechanisms of variable range hopping (VRH) and adiabatic small polaron hopping (SPH). The direct-transition band gap, Eg = 1.27 eV derived from optical absorption spectrum, falls in the optimal region of solar absorber materials. Accordingly, the photoelectric measurement demonstrates the potential for applications for photovoltaic devices.

  13. Anionic Regulated NiFe (Oxy)Sulfide Electrocatalysts for Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo-Quan; Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Tang, Cheng; Cui, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    The construction of active sites with intrinsic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great significance to overcome the limited efficiency of abundant sustainable energy devices such as fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and in water splitting. Anionic regulation of electrocatalysts by modulating the electronic structure of active sites significantly promotes OER performance. To prove the concept, NiFeS electrocatalysts are fabricated with gradual variation of atomic ratio of S:O. With the rise of S content, the overpotential for water oxidation exhibits a volcano plot under anionic regulation. The optimized NiFeS-2 electrocatalyst under anionic regulation possesses the lowest OER overpotential of 286 mV at 10 mA cm(-2) and the fastest kinetics being 56.3 mV dec(-1) to date. The anionic regulation methodology not only serves as an effective strategy to construct superb OER electrocatalysts, but also enlightens a new point of view for the in-depth understanding of electrocatalysis at the electronic and atomic level. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Investigation of charge separation in particulate oxysulfide and oxynitride photoelectrodes by surface photovoltage spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodera, Masanori; Wang, Jiarui; Nail, Benjamin A.; Liu, Jingyuan; Urabe, Haruki; Hisatomi, Takashi; Katayama, Masao; Minegishi, Tsutomu; Osterloh, Frank E.; Domen, Kazunari

    2017-09-01

    Surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) was applied to the analysis of particulate La5Ti2CuS5O7 and SrNbO2N photoelectrodes fabricated by a particle transfer method, as a means of assessing charge separation under illumination. The critical roles of the back contact metals and cocatalyst in generating charge separation and defining various photoelectrochemical properties were confirmed. The results suggests that SPS in conjunction with particle transfer technology potentially allows the identification of the most beneficial photoelectrode components for photoelectrochemical water splitting.

  15. Photoluminescence properties and energy levels of RE (RE = Pr, Sm, Er, Tm) in layered-CaZnOS oxysulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Feng, Ang; Chen, Xiang-Yang; Zhao, Jing-Tai

    2013-12-01

    RE3+ (RE = Pr, Sm, Er, Tm)-activated CaZnOS samples were prepared by a solid-state reaction method at high temperature, and their photoluminescence properties were investigated. Doping with RE3+ (RE = Pr, Sm, Er, Tm) into layered-CaZnOS resulted in typical RE3+ (RE = Pr, Sm, Er, Tm) f-f line absorptions and emissions, as well as the charge transfer band of Sm3+ at about 3.3 eV. The energy level scheme containing the position of the 4f and 5d levels of all divalent and trivalent lanthanide ions with respect to the valence and conduction bands of CaZnOS has been constructed based on the new data presented in this work, together with the data from literature on Ce3+ and Eu2+ doping in CaZnOS. The detailed energy level scheme provides a platform for interpreting the optical spectra and could be used to comment on the valence stability of the lanthanide ions in CaZnOS.

  16. Molten iron oxysulfide as a superior sulfur sorbent. Third quarter technical progress report, March 1, 1990--June 1, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1990-12-31

    Slagging combustors with injected lime or limestone are being considered as replacements for conventional coal burners. They have advantages in that they can be staged to reduce NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. Iron oxide, as an alternative to lime or limestone may be effective not only as a desulfurizing agent, but, under the right conditions of oxygen potential, it can act as a flux to produce a glassy slag. This glassy slag should be dense and environmentally inert. In this reporting period, the thermodynamic conditions are determined for the operation of the first stage of a combustor which would have as its feed six types of coals. The calculations are made for the four phase equilibrium: FeO(wustite)/Fe/Liquid/Gas over the temperature range 950{degrees} to 1300{degrees}C. The minimum dosage of iron oxide required at equilibrium an the calculated maximum percent sulfur removal are reported. Also given are the expected pounds of S0{sub 2} per million Btu of heat evolution calculated for complete combustion. These preliminary results indicate in the Fe-O-S system that higher temperatures give better results approaching 96 percent sulfur removal from a coal containing (on a dry basis) 3.29% by weight sulfur. In the prior reporting period, a comparison is made between iron oxide and lime as a desulfurizing agent. With lime, the thermodynamic conditions were chosen: a set of conditions where the compound calcium sulfide is the product and a set of conditions where calcium sulfate is the product. The temperature limits of the sulfate forming and sulfide forming reactions were defined.

  17. Temperature effect on zinc oxysulfide-Zn(O,S) films synthesized by atomic layer deposition for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bugot, Cathy Schneider, Nathanaëlle; Jubault, Marie; Lincot, Daniel; Donsanti, Frédérique

    2015-01-15

    Thin films of Zn(O,S) were deposited by atomic layer deposition from diethylzinc, water (H{sub 2}O), and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). First, a study on the influence of the H{sub 2}S/(H{sub 2}O+H{sub 2}S) pulse ratio from pure ZnO to pure ZnS was performed at deposition temperature T{sub dep}=120 and 200 °C. Zn(O,S) films had higher S content than expected, and this effect was stronger at T{sub dep}=200 °C. Then, Zn(O,S) films have been synthesized over the range of temperature 120–220 °C at the constant H{sub 2}S/(H{sub 2}O+H{sub 2}S) pulse ratio of 9%. For T{sub dep}<180 °C, high and almost constant S content has been measured in the films. The significant increase of the S/(O+S) atomic ratio for T{sub dep}>180 °C confirmed that exchange reactions occurred between the Zn(O,S) growing films and H{sub 2}S. The grazing incidence x-ray diffraction patterns showed Zn(O,S) films with hexagonal wurtzite structures and with an optimum crystallization for temperatures T{sub dep}=160–180 °C. Indeed, in this temperature range, well crystallized and large grains were obtained which was in good correlation with the film morphology determined by scanning electron microscope; and Hall effect measurements revealed low resistivities, high carrier concentrations (>10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}), and low mobilities. From these results, the authors propose the existence of a temperature range where the properties undergo significant changes while the atomic composition remains constant.

  18. Dual Cation- and Anion-Based Redox Process in Lithium Titanium Oxysulfide Thin Film Cathodes for All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Vincent; Pecquenard, Brigitte; Soulé, Samantha; Martinez, Hervé; Le Cras, Frédéric

    2017-01-25

    A dual redox process involving Ti(3+)/Ti(4+) cation species and S(2-)/(S2)(2-) anion species is highlighted in oxygenated lithium titanium sulfide thin film electrodes during lithium (de)insertion, leading to a high specific capacity. These cathodes for all-solid-state lithium-ion microbatteries are synthesized by sputtering of LiTiS2 targets prepared by different means. The limited oxygenation of the films that is induced during the sputtering process favors the occurrence of the S(2-)/(S2)(2-) redox process at the expense of the Ti(3+)/Ti(4+) one during the battery operation, and influences its voltage profile. Finally, a perfect reversibility of both electrochemical processes is observed, whatever the initial film composition. All-solid-state lithium microbatteries using these amorphous lithiated titanium disulfide thin films and operated between 1.5 and 3.0 V/Li(+)/Li deliver a greater capacity (210-270 mAh g(-1)) than LiCoO2, with a perfect capacity retention (-0.0015% cycle(-1)).

  19. Bandgap narrowing in the layered oxysulfide semiconductor Ba3Fe2O5Cu2S2: Role of FeO2 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhang; Shifeng, Jin; Liwei, Guo; Shijie, Shen; Zhiping, Lin; Xiaolong, Chen

    2016-02-01

    A new layered Cu-based oxychalcogenide Ba3Fe2O5Cu2S2 has been synthesized and its magnetic and electronic properties were revealed. Ba3Fe2O5Cu2S2 is built up by alternatively stacking [Cu2S2]2- layers and iron perovskite oxide [(FeO2)(BaO)(FeO2)]2- layers along the c axis that are separated by barium ions with Fe3+ fivefold coordinated by a square-pyramidal arrangement of oxygen. From the bond valence arguments, we inferred that in layered CuCh-based (Ch = S, Se, Te) compounds the +3 cation in perovskite oxide sheet prefers a square pyramidal site, while the lower valence cation prefers the square planar sites. The studies on susceptibility, transport, and optical reflectivity indicate that Ba3Fe2O5Cu2S2 is an antiferromagnetic semiconductor with a Néel temperature of 121 K and an optical bandgap of 1.03 eV. The measurement of heat capacity from 10 K to room temperature shows no anomaly at 121 K. The Debye temperature is determined to be 113 K. Theoretical calculations indicate that the conduction band minimum is predominantly contributed by O 2p and 3d states of Fe ions that antiferromagnetically arranged in FeO2 layers. The Fe 3d states are located at lower energy and result in a narrow bandgap in comparison with that of the isostructural Sr3Sc2O5Cu2S2. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51472266, 51202286, and 91422303), the Strategic Priority Research Program (B) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07020100) and the ICDD.

  20. High transmittance cadmium oxysulfide Cd(S,O) buffer layer grown by triton X-100 mediated chemical bath deposition for thin-film heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballipinar, Faruk; Rastogi, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Polycrystalline 100-190 nm Cd(S,O) n-type semiconductor thin films of high transparency in the visible range are deposited by a surfactant Triton X-100 mediated chemical bath deposition process. The crystalline structure of the films revealed by X-ray diffraction data shows a cubic-CdO phase signified by (111) and (200) planes alongside the (002), (220), and (110) planes from hexagonal-CdS. The invariance of the 2θ position of the (002) CdS diffraction is interpreted in terms of the growth of the composite film essentially by the formation of a dilute interstitial alloy of CdO and CdS. This is confirmed by Raman spectra which, besides the CdS 1LO and 2LO modes at 300 and 600 cm-1, also show Raman lines from CdO at 1098 cm-1 and 952 cm-1 assigned as overtone of 2LO phonon modes and 556 cm-1 due to band crossing between LO and TO modes of CdO. Optical spectra of Cd(S,O) films show a median transmittance of >85% compared to ˜70% for CdS films in the 550-1000 nm wavelength range. The Cd(S,O) films show optical bandgap varying from 2.34 to 2.26 eV with increasing CdO fraction but retain high sub-bandgap transmission and sharp band edge threshold. The Cd(S,O) films thus offer an alternative to the CdS buffer layer in the heterojunction solar cells, which has major shortcoming of poor stability and high sub-bandgap absorption. The photoluminescence spectra of Cd(S,O) films show three green bands, of which one is the near band edge transition at 511.5 nm, the same as in CdS, the second band at 526.0 nm that red shifted from the CdS position is due to shallow donor-acceptor defects arising from structural change due to CdO, and the third band at 543.6 nm (2.28 eV) originates from direct band transition in CdO. The growth mechanism of Cd(S,O) films is described, which invokes that the Triton X-100 molecule modifies the microenvironment around adsorbed [Cd(NH3)4]2+ species, thereby inducing two concurrent reactions, one with SH- species that cause CdS formation and the other controlled Cd(OH)2 deprotonation reaction that forms CdO.

  1. High-spin cobalt(II) ions in square planar coordination: structures and magnetism of the oxysulfides Sr2CoO2Cu2S2 and Ba2CoO2Cu2S2 and their solid solution.

    PubMed

    Smura, Catherine F; Parker, Dinah R; Zbiri, Mohamed; Johnson, Mark R; Gál, Zoltán A; Clarke, Simon J

    2011-03-02

    The antiferromagnetic structures of the layered oxychalcogenides (Sr(1-x)Ba(x))(2)CoO(2)Cu(2)S(2) (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) have been determined by powder neutron diffraction. In these compounds Co(2+) is coordinated by four oxide ions in a square plane and two sulfide ions at the apexes of an extremely tetragonally elongated octahedron; the polyhedra share oxide vertexes. The magnetic reflections present in the diffraction patterns can in all cases be indexed using a √2a × √2a × c expansion of the nuclear cell, and nearest-neighbor Co(2+) moments couple antiferromagnetically within the CoO(2) planes. The ordered magnetic moment of Co(2+) in Sr(2)CoO(2)Cu(2)S(2) (x = 0) is 3.8(1) μ(B) at 5 K, consistent with high-spin Co(2+) ions carrying three unpaired electrons and with an additional significant unquenched orbital component. Exposure of this compound to moist air is shown to result in copper deficiency and a decrease in the size of the ordered moment to about 2.5 μ(B); there is a strong correlation between the size of the long-range ordered moment and the occupancy of the Cu site. Both the tetragonal elongation of the CoO(4)S(2) polyhedron and the ordered moment in (Sr(1-x)Ba(x))(2)CoO(2)Cu(2)S(2) increase with increasing Ba content, and in Ba(2)CoO(2)Cu(2)S(2), which has Co(2+) in an environment that is close to purely square planar, the ordered moment of 4.5(1) μ(B) at 5 K is over 0.7 μ(B) larger than that in Sr(2)CoO(2)Cu(2)S(2), so the unquenched orbital component in this case is even larger than that observed in octahedral Co(2+) systems such as CoO. The experimental observations of antiferromagnetic ground states and the changes in properties resulting from replacement of Sr by Ba are supported by ab initio calculations on Sr(2)CoO(2)Cu(2)S(2) and Ba(2)CoO(2)Cu(2)S(2). The large orbital moments in these systems apparently result from spin-orbit mixing of the unequally populated d(xz), d(yz), and d(z(2)) orbitals, which are reckoned to be almost degenerate when the CoO(4)S(2) polyhedron reaches its maximum elongation. The magnitudes of the ordered moments in high-spin Co(2+) oxide, oxychalcogenide, and oxyhalide systems are shown to correlate well with the tetragonal elongation of the coordination environment. The large orbital moments lead to an apparently magnetostrictive distortion of the crystal structures below the Neél temperature, with the symmetry lowered from tetragonal I4/mmm to orthorhombic Immm and the size of the distortion correlating well with the size of the long-range ordered moment for all compositions and for temperature-dependent data gathered on Ba(2)CoO(2)Cu(2)S(2).

  2. A Method for Simulating Mammograms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    fluence is attenuated to 1%, 5%, and 10% of the original intensity inside Gadolinium Oxysulfide and Cesium Iodide . The distance values in Table 1 are...50x 50/tm 2 and 17 x 17/UM2 for Gadolinium Oxysulfide and Cesium Iodide . With this table, we can choose the size of a cut-off window. For example, if...absorption on the imaging performance of the detector or intensifying screen. The calculation to a cesium iodide layer with pixel size 17x1 7 microns shows

  3. Effects of rare-earth filters on patient exposure and image contrast

    SciTech Connect

    Mauriello, S.M.; Washburn, D.B.; Matteson, S.R.

    1987-08-01

    Minimizing patient exposure while maintaining a diagnostically acceptable radiograph is a major goal in diagnostic radiography. Rare-earth filters may be the means to achieve this goal due to their band-pass effect. The purpose of this study was to examine the image contrast effects and exposure reductions for various thicknesses of aluminum, samarium, gadolinium, gadolinium oxysulfide, and gadolinium oxysulfide added to 2.5 mm of aluminum. Trials were conducted on an intra-oral dental x-ray unit (range, 65 to 90 kVp). When compared with conventional aluminum, all of the rare-earth filters provided lower radiation exposures, with gadolinium in the metallic or oxysulfide form providing the lowest exposures. Samarium, at a thickness of 0.127 mm, yielded the highest image contrast. Gadolinium or gadolinium oxysulfide added to 2.5 mm of aluminum resulted in a slight loss of contrast when compared with conventional aluminum filtration. This loss may not be clinically significant, and when coupled with the reduced exposure afforded by these filters, they become viable as acceptable alternatives to aluminum filtration.

  4. Pressure/temperature sensitive inorganic phosphors. [La/sub 2/O/sub 2/S:Eu

    SciTech Connect

    Seals, W.O.; Offen, H.W.; Turley, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    Kistler gauges are presently used to monitor pressures generated in various types of experimental tests. When a one-gallon container of stores liquid propellant was impacted by a shaped charge, hydraulic pressures in excess of 100,000 psi were produced. This destroyed the gauges. A class of inorganic phosphors, including rare earth-doped lanthanum oxysulfide (La/sub 2/O/sub 2/S:Eu) and yittrium oxysulfide (Y/sub 2/O/sub 2/S:Eu), show spectral emission characteristics that are strongly pressure dependent. The intensity of the emission lines and fluorescence decay time if individual emission lines show pressure dependence in the range of several kbar to greater than 100 kbar. These properties suggest that these phosphors could be applied as remotely operated pressure transducers. In addition phosphors show temperature dependence. This paper discusses the potential of inorganic phosphors to measure high pressure and also examines temperature effects. 5 refs., 7 figs

  5. Digital Mammography Breast Dosimetry Using Copper-Doped Lithium Fluoride (LiF:MCP) Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLDs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-18

    Amorphous Silicon with Cesium Iodide (CsI)) as its image receptor. This difference in image receptor could result in differences in radiation...with a special cassette. These cassettes contain a low attenuation carbon fiber with a Terbium-activated Gadolinium Oxysulfide (Gd2O2S: Tb) phosphor...film units. The image receptor used in digital mammography units is an amorphous silicon array with a cesium iodide (CsI) solid-state detector. In

  6. Development of non-oxide semiconductors as light harvesting materials in photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    PubMed

    Takata, Tsuyoshi; Domen, Kazunari

    2017-08-15

    Water splitting via photocatalysis and photoelectrolysis is a potential means to produce clean and renewable hydrogen as a storable high-density energy carrier. At present, the main concern is how to develop semiconductor materials for efficiently converting sunlight energy. The present perspective summarises recent developments in the use of new semiconductors as light-harvesting materials. Specifically, non-oxides, oxynitrides and oxysulfides have been demonstrated to be promising materials for water splitting under visible light. The design of such materials and their application to photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting are discussed.

  7. Towards the design of novel cuprate-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Chuck-Hou

    The rapid maturation of materials databases combined with recent development of theories seeking to quantitatively link chemical properties to superconductivity in the cuprates provide the context to design novel superconductors. In this talk, we describe a framework designed to search for new superconductors, which combines chemical rules-of-thumb, insights of transition temperatures from dynamical mean-field theory, first-principles electronic structure tools, materials databases and structure prediction via evolutionary algorithms. We apply the framework to design a family of copper oxysulfides and evaluate the prospects of superconductivity.

  8. Exchange striction driven magnetodielectric effect and potential photovoltaic effect in polar CaOFeS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Lin, Lingfang; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Huang, Xin; An, Ming; Dong, Shuai

    2017-08-01

    CaOFeS is a semiconducting oxysulfide with a polar layered triangular structure. Here a comprehensive theoretical study has been performed to reveal its physical properties, including magnetism, electronic structure, phase transition, magnetodielectric effect, as well as optical absorption. Our calculations confirm the Ising-like G-type antiferromagnetic ground state driven by the next-nearest neighbor exchanges, which breaks the trigonal symmetry and is responsible for the magnetodielectric effect driven by exchange striction. In addition, a large coefficient of visible light absorption is predicted, which leads to promising photovoltaic effect with the maximum light-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency up to 24.2 % .

  9. Thermodynamic Modeling of Sulfide Capacity of Na2O-Containing Oxide Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi-Khoonsari, Elmira; Jung, In-Ho

    2016-10-01

    Thermodynamic modeling of the sulfide dissolution in the Na2O-FetO-CaO-MgO-MnO-Al2O3-SiO2 multicomponent slags was performed to investigate the desulfurization of hot metal using Na2O-containing fluxes. The dissolution behavior of sulfur in the melts was modeled using the modified quasi-chemical model in the quadruplet approximation. This model can take into account the short-range ordering and the reciprocal exchange reaction of cations and anions in oxy-sulfide slags. Experimental sulfide capacity data were well predicted from the model with only three model parameters.

  10. Proton-conducting cerate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, L.R.; Coffey, G.W.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J.

    1996-08-01

    Single-cell solid oxide fuel cells were constructed using strontium cerate as the electrolyte and their performance tested. Like certain zirconates, hafnates, and tantalates, the cerate perovskites are among a class of solid electrolytes that conduct protons at elevated temperatures. Depending on the temperature and chemical environment, these ceramics also support electronic and oxygen ion currents. A maximum power output of {approx}100 mW per cm{sup 2} electrolyte surface area was obtained at 900{degrees}C using 4% hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. A series of rare earth/ceria/zirconia were prepared and their electrical properties characterized. Rare earth dopants included ytterbia, yttria, terbia, and europia. Ionic conductivities were highest for rare earth/ceria and rare earth zirconia compositions; a minimum in ionic conductivity for all series were found for equimolar mixtures of ceria and zirconia. Cerium oxysulfide is of interest in fossil energy applications because of its high chemical stability and refractory nature. An alternative synthesis route to preparing cerium oxysulfide powders has been developed using combustion techniques.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of physical properties of Gd2O2S:Pr3+ semi-nanoflower phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, A.; Rezaee Ebrahim Saraee, Kh.; Shakur, H. R.; Zamani Zeinali, H.

    2016-05-01

    Pure gadolinium oxysulfide phosphor (Gd2O2S) and trivalent praseodymium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide phosphor (Gd2O2S:Pr3+) scintillators with semi-nanoflower crystalline structures were successfully synthesized through a precipitation method and subsequent calcination treatment as a converter for X-ray imaging detectors. The characterization such as the crystal structures and nanostructure of Gd2O2S:Pr3+ scintillator measured by XRD and FeE-SEM experiment. The optical properties of Gd2O2S:Pr3+ scintillator were studied. Luminescence spectra of Gd2O2S:Pr3+ under 320 nm UV excitation show a green emission at near 511 nm corresponding to the 3P0-3H4 of Pr ions. After scintillation properties of synthesized Gd2O2S:Pr3+ scintillator investigated, Gd2O2S:Pr3+ scintillating film fabricated on a glass substrate by a sedimentation method. X-ray imaging of the fabricated scintillators confirmed that the Gd2O2S:Pr3+ scintillator could be used for radiography applications in which good spatial resolution is needed.

  12. Nanostructure-Directed Chemical Sensing: The IHSAB Principle and the Effect of Nitrogen and Sulfur Functionalization on Metal Oxide Decorated Interface Response

    PubMed Central

    Laminack, William I.; Gole, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The response matrix, as metal oxide nanostructure decorated n-type semiconductor interfaces are modified in situ through direct amination and through treatment with organic sulfides and thiols, is demonstrated. Nanostructured TiO2, SnOx, NiO and CuxO (x = 1,2), in order of decreasing Lewis acidity, are deposited to a porous silicon interface to direct a dominant electron transduction process for reversible chemical sensing in the absence of significant chemical bond formation. The metal oxide sensing sites can be modified to decrease their Lewis acidity in a process appearing to substitute nitrogen or sulfur, providing a weak interaction to form the oxynitrides and oxysulfides. Treatment with triethylamine and diethyl sulfide decreases the Lewis acidity of the metal oxide sites. Treatment with acidic ethane thiol modifies the sensor response in an opposite sense, suggesting that there are thiol (SH) groups present on the surface that provide a Brønsted acidity to the surface. The in situ modification of the metal oxides deposited to the interface changes the reversible interaction with the analytes, NH3 and NO. The observed change for either the more basic oxynitrides or oxysulfides or the apparent Brønsted acid sites produced from the interaction of the thiols do not represent a simple increase in surface basicity or acidity, but appear to involve a change in molecular electronic structure, which is well explained using the recently developed inverse hard and soft acids and bases (IHSAB) model. PMID:28348345

  13. Characterizing energy dependence and count rate performance of a dual scintillator fiber-optic detector for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Hoerner, Matthew R. Stepusin, Elliott J.; Hyer, Daniel E.; Hintenlang, David E.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Kilovoltage (kV) x-rays pose a significant challenge for radiation dosimetry. In the kV energy range, even small differences in material composition can result in significant variations in the absorbed energy between soft tissue and the detector. In addition, the use of electronic systems in light detection has demonstrated measurement losses at high photon fluence rates incident to the detector. This study investigated the feasibility of using a novel dual scintillator detector and whether its response to changes in beam energy from scatter and hardening is readily quantified. The detector incorporates a tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator and a gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator, which has a higher sensitivity to scatter x-rays. Methods: The detector was constructed by coupling two scintillators: (1) small cylindrical plastic scintillator, 500 μm in diameter and 2 mm in length, and (2) 100 micron sheet of gadolinium oxysulfide 500 μm in diameter, each to a 2 m long optical fiber, which acts as a light guide to transmit scintillation photons from the sensitive element to a photomultiplier tube. Count rate linearity data were obtained from a wide range of exposure rates delivered from a radiological x-ray tube by adjusting the tube current. The data were fitted to a nonparalyzable dead time model to characterize the time response. The true counting rate was related to the reference free air dose air rate measured with a 0.6 cm{sup 3} Radcal{sup ®} thimble chamber as described in AAPM Report No. 111. Secondary electron and photon spectra were evaluated using Monte Carlo techniques to analyze ionization quenching and photon energy-absorption characteristics from free-in-air and in phantom measurements. The depth/energy dependence of the detector was characterized using a computed tomography dose index QA phantom consisting of nested adult head and body segments. The phantom provided up to 32 cm of acrylic with a compatible 0.6 cm{sup 3} calibrated

  14. Characterizing energy dependence and count rate performance of a dual scintillator fiber-optic detector for computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Hoerner, Matthew R; Stepusin, Elliott J; Hyer, Daniel E; Hintenlang, David E

    2015-03-01

    Kilovoltage (kV) x-rays pose a significant challenge for radiation dosimetry. In the kV energy range, even small differences in material composition can result in significant variations in the absorbed energy between soft tissue and the detector. In addition, the use of electronic systems in light detection has demonstrated measurement losses at high photon fluence rates incident to the detector. This study investigated the feasibility of using a novel dual scintillator detector and whether its response to changes in beam energy from scatter and hardening is readily quantified. The detector incorporates a tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator and a gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator, which has a higher sensitivity to scatter x-rays. The detector was constructed by coupling two scintillators: (1) small cylindrical plastic scintillator, 500 μm in diameter and 2 mm in length, and (2) 100 micron sheet of gadolinium oxysulfide 500 μm in diameter, each to a 2 m long optical fiber, which acts as a light guide to transmit scintillation photons from the sensitive element to a photomultiplier tube. Count rate linearity data were obtained from a wide range of exposure rates delivered from a radiological x-ray tube by adjusting the tube current. The data were fitted to a nonparalyzable dead time model to characterize the time response. The true counting rate was related to the reference free air dose air rate measured with a 0.6 cm(3) Radcal(®) thimble chamber as described in AAPM Report No. 111. Secondary electron and photon spectra were evaluated using Monte Carlo techniques to analyze ionization quenching and photon energy-absorption characteristics from free-in-air and in phantom measurements. The depth/energy dependence of the detector was characterized using a computed tomography dose index QA phantom consisting of nested adult head and body segments. The phantom provided up to 32 cm of acrylic with a compatible 0.6 cm(3) calibrated ionization chamber to measure the

  15. Photoluminescence Under XUV Excitation Plus a Method of Dipole Summation for Local Fields Calculations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez, Eva Lopdrup

    Organic and inorganic phosphors have often been used in detectors as a method of converting soft x-rays into visible light, which can then be detected by such devices as photodiodes and CCD's. However, the energy dependence of photoluminescent efficiency has been poorly known. This dissertation reports measurements of photoluminescence as a function of energy from 11 to 450 eV for the phosphors yttrium oxysulfide (Y_2O _2S:Eu), yttrium oxide (Y_2 O_3:Eu), lanthanum oxysulfide (La_2O_2S:Tm), gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd_2O _2S:Tb), and strontium chlorophosphate (Sr _5Cl(PO_4_)3 :Eu). With inelastic electron scattering spectroscopy, the optical properties of these phosphors have also been measured from 2 to 160 eV. Using the measured absorption and reflection coefficients and a model originally derived by H. B. DeVore for semiconductors, it is shown that the major cause of structure in the soft x-ray efficiency of phosphors in this energy range is surface recombination of charge carriers. The efficiency vs. photon energy and change of efficiency vs. total photon dose of an organic phosphor, para-terphenyl, have also been measured. It is found that the data cannot be modeled with the Birks -Black function for quenching of luminescence. A new variation of the Birks-Black function is developed. This function and an empirical function are used to model the damage data, and show that the damage rate goes as approximately the second power of the energy of the incident photons causing the damage. In the second part of this dissertation, a new method for computing momentum-dependent local fields is described. This method makes it possible to relatively quickly perform the dipole summations necessary for calculating the B(q) function for tetragonal lattices, including complex perovskites. Some results are demonstrated for aspect ratios of a simple lattice and for the perovskite structures of two high-temperature superconductors.

  16. In situ microscopic studies on the structural and chemical behaviors of lithium-ion battery materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Minhua

    2014-12-01

    The direct observation of the microstructural evolution and state-of-charge (SOC) distribution in active materials is crucial to understand the lithiation/delithiation mechanisms during electrochemical cycling of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Owing to their high spatial resolutions and capability to map chemical states by combining other spectroscopic techniques, microscopic techniques including X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy, Raman microscopy, transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) play significant roles in real time monitoring the dynamic changes in the LIB electrodes and materials. This paper reviews the recent progress of using in situ microscopic techniques to study LIB materials, including Si-, Sn-, Ge-, C- and metal oxides-based anode materials, and layered oxysulfide, metal fluorides, LiCoO2, LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2, LiMn2O4, LiFePO4 cathode materials.

  17. Characterization and simulation of linear scintillator arrays for low-energy x-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, L.; Gómez, F.; Badano, A.

    2008-11-01

    Current x-ray imaging in many industrial and medical applications uses different scintillator materials coupled to photodiode arrays. Knowledge of the light distribution and photoelectron signal allows for the improvement of the imaging properties of such devices. We have measured and simulated the pixel scintillation light distribution collected by the photodiode arrays for four commercial scintillator arrays made of cesium iodide, cadmium tungstate and gadolinium oxysulfide with pitches of 0.8 mm and 1.6 mm. We used a collimated low-energy x-ray beam to study the collected signal in each array element and the effective fill factors determined from the photodiode geometry, backing material and radiation transport in the scintillator. A proper description of the optical parameters of these detectors provides excellent agreement of the experimental results with Monte Carlo simulations performed with MANTIS.

  18. Optical fiber sensor for low dose gamma irradiation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrés, Ana I.; Esteban, Ã.`scar; Embid, Miguel

    2016-05-01

    An optical fiber gamma ray detector is presented in this work. It is based on a Terbium doped Gadolinium Oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Tb) scintillating powder which cover a chemically etched polymer fiber tip. This etching improves the fluorescence gathering by the optical fiber. The final diameter has been selected to fulfill the trade-off between light gathering and mechanical strength. Powder has been encapsulated inside a microtube where the fiber tip is immersed. The sensor has been irradiated with different air Kerma doses up to 2 Gy/h with a 137Cs source, and the spectral distribution of the fluorescence intensity has been recorded in a commercial grade CCD spectrometer. The obtained signal-to-noise ratio is good enough even for low doses, which has allowed to reduce the integration time in the spectrometer. The presented results show the feasibility for using low cost equipment to detect/measure ionizing radiation as gamma rays are.

  19. Stability of Cd1–xZnxOyS1–y Quaternary Alloys Assessed with First-Principles Calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Varley, Joel B.; He, Xiaoqing; Rockett, Angus; ...

    2017-02-08

    One route to decreasing the absorption in CdS buffer layers in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin-film photovoltaics is by alloying. Here we use first-principles calculations based on hybrid functionals to assess the energetics and stability of quaternary Cd, Zn, O, and S (Cd1–xZnxOyS1–y) alloys within a regular solution model. Our results identify that full miscibility of most Cd1–xZnxOyS1–y compositions and even binaries like Zn(O,S) is outside typical photovoltaic processing conditions. Finally, the results suggest that the tendency for phase separation of the oxysulfides may drive the nucleation of other phases such as sulfates that have been increasingly observed in oxygenated CdSmore » and ZnS.« less

  20. Laser-induced fluorescence of phosphors for remote cryogenic thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beshears, D. L.; Capps, G. J.; Cates, M. R.; Simmons, C. M.; Schwenterly, S. W.

    1990-01-01

    Remote cryogenic temperature measurements can be made by inducing fluorescence in phosphors with temperature-dependent emissions and measuring the emission lifetimes. The thermographic phosphor technique can be used for making precision, noncontact, cryogenic-temperature measurements in electrically hostile environments, such as high dc electric or magnetic fields. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is interested in using these thermographic phosphors for mapping hot spots on cryogenic tank walls. Europium-doped lanthanum oxysulfide (La2O2S:Eu) and magnesium fluorogermanate doped with manganese (Mg4FGeO6:Mn) are suitable for low-temperature surface thermometry. Several emission lines, excited by a 337-nm ultraviolet laser, provide fluorescence lifetimes having logarithmic dependence with temperature from 4 to above 125 K. A calibration curve for both La2O2S:Eu and Mg4FGeO6:Mn is presented, as well as emission spectra taken at room temperature and 11 K.

  1. Laser-induced fluorescence of phosphors for remote cryogenic thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beshears, D. L.; Capps, G. J.; Cates, M. R.; Simmons, C. M.; Schwenterly, S. W.

    1990-01-01

    Remote cryogenic temperature measurements can be made by inducing fluorescence in phosphors with temperature-dependent emissions and measuring the emission lifetimes. The thermographic phosphor technique can be used for making precision, noncontact, cryogenic-temperature measurements in electrically hostile environments, such as high dc electric or magnetic fields. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is interested in using these thermographic phosphors for mapping hot spots on cryogenic tank walls. Europium-doped lanthanum oxysulfide (La2O2S:Eu) and magnesium fluorogermanate doped with manganese (Mg4FGeO6:Mn) are suitable for low-temperature surface thermometry. Several emission lines, excited by a 337-nm ultraviolet laser, provide fluorescence lifetimes having logarithmic dependence with temperature from 4 to above 125 K. A calibration curve for both La2O2S:Eu and Mg4FGeO6:Mn is presented, as well as emission spectra taken at room temperature and 11 K.

  2. Reinforcement of Zn(O,S) buffer layer for efficient band matching in a kesterite (Cu2ZnSnS4) solar cell and its analysis using simulation tool for the application in energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jani, Margi; Raval, Dhyey; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit; Ray, Abhijit

    2017-05-01

    Zinc oxy-sulfide Zn(O,S) owing to its band gap tailoring property and non-toxicity is widely explored as buffer layer for the development of thin film solar cells. In this work band alignment of Zn(O,S) buffer with low cost chalcogenide absorbers layers such as kesterite (Cu2ZnSnS4) has been investigated. A detail study is presented in order to investigate the consequences of band bending in Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cells using Zn(O,S) as buffer layer on its performance by using one dimensional simulation tool SCAPS. The derived parameters are used to find minimum band offset by tuning the properties of Zn(O,S) buffer layer for better performance. Presented analysis shows that the band-gap variation with sulfur concentration in Zn(O,S) is beneficial to reduces the band offset with the hetero-junction partner material.

  3. Atomic layer deposition of Al-incorporated Zn(O,S) thin films with tunable electrical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Helen Hejin; Jayaraman, Ashwin; Heasley, Rachel; Yang, Chuanxi; Hartle, Lauren; Gordon, Roy G.; Mankad, Ravin; Haight, Richard; Gunawan, Oki; Mitzi, David B.

    2014-11-17

    Zinc oxysulfide, Zn(O,S), films grown by atomic layer deposition were incorporated with aluminum to adjust the carrier concentration. The electron carrier concentration increased up to one order of magnitude from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} with aluminum incorporation and sulfur content in the range of 0 ≤ S/(Zn+Al) ≤ 0.16. However, the carrier concentration decreased by five orders of magnitude from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3} for S/(Zn+Al) = 0.34 and decreased even further when S/(Zn+Al) > 0.34. Such tunable electrical properties are potentially useful for graded buffer layers in thin-film photovoltaic applications.

  4. Improving the Spatial Resolution of Neutron Imaging at Paul Scherrer Institut - The Neutron Microscope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trtik, Pavel; Hovind, Jan; Grünzweig, Christian; Bollhalder, Alex; Thominet, Vincent; David, Christian; Kaestner, Anders; Lehmann, Eberhard H.

    Here we present results stemming from the first prototype of the Neutron Microscope instrument at Paul ScherrerInstitut (PSI). The instrument is based on a very thin gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Tb+) scintillator screen and a magnifying optics. The Neutron Microscope prototype has been tested at the ICON and the BOA beamlines at PSI and sub-10 μm features can be clearly resolved on a focussed ion beam (FIB) enhance test object - a gadolinium-based Siemens star. The spatial resolution of the images of the gadolinium-based Siemensstar assessed by Fourier ring correlation was about 7.6 μm. The outlook for future improvement of the Neutron Microscope system is presented.

  5. Electrical properties of point defects in CdS and ZnS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varley, J. B.; Lordi, V.

    2013-09-01

    We investigate native point defects in CdS and ZnS, which are conventional n-type buffer layers used in thin-film solar cells. Using hybrid functional calculations, we characterize the electrical behavior of these defects and also consider common impurities such as O, H, and their complexes. We find cation vacancies are the dominant compensating acceptors and recombination centers, and their effects are more dramatic in ZnS than in CdS. We also determine the band alignment for conventional Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based solar cells, giving insight into why CdS outperforms ZnS and why Zn oxysulfides are promising due to their improved conduction band offsets.

  6. Laser-induced fluorescence of phosphors for remote cryogenic thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshears, D. L.; Capps, G. J.; Cates, M. R.; Simmons, C. M.; Schwenterly, S. W.

    1990-10-01

    Remote cryogenic temperature measurements can be made by inducing fluorescence in phosphors with temperature-dependent emissions and measuring the emission lifetimes. The thermographic phosphor technique can be used for making precision, noncontact, cryogenic-temperature measurements in electrically hostile environments, such as high dc electric or magnetic fields. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is interested in using these thermographic phosphors for mapping hot spots on cryogenic tank walls. Europium-doped lanthanum oxysulfide (La2O2S:Eu) and magnesium fluorogermanate doped with manganese (Mg4FGeO6:Mn) are suitable for low-temperature surface thermometry. Several emission lines, excited by a 337-nm ultraviolet laser, provide fluorescence lifetimes having logarithmic dependence with temperature from 4 to above 125 K. A calibration curve for both La2O2S:Eu and Mg4FGeO6:Mn is presented, as well as emission spectra taken at room temperature and 11 K.

  7. Laser-induced fluorescence of phosphors for remote cryogenic thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshears, D. L.; Capps, G. J.; Cates, M. R.; Simmons, C. M.; Schwenterly, S. W.

    1990-12-01

    Remote cryogenic temperature measurements can be made by inducing fluorescence in phosphors with temperature-dependent emissions and measuring the emission lifetimes. The thermographic phosphor technique can be used for making precision, noncontact, cryogenic-temperature measurements in electrically hostile environments, such as high dc electric or magnetic fields. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is interested in using these thermographic phosphors for mapping hot spots on cryogenic tank walls. Europium-doped lanthanum oxysulfide (La2O2S:Eu) and magnesium fluorogermanate doped with manganese (Mg4FGeO6:Mn) are suitable for low-temperature surface thermometry. Several emission lines, excited by a 337-nm ultraviolet laser, provide fluorescence lifetimes having logarithmic dependence with temperature from 4 to above 125 K. A calibration curve for both La2O2S:Eu and Mg4FGeO6:Mn is presented, as well as emission spectra taken at room temperature and 11 K.

  8. Band offset in zinc oxy-sulfide/cubic-tin sulfide interface from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K. C., Sanal; Nair, P. K.; Nair, M. T. S.

    2017-02-01

    Zinc oxy-sulfide, ZnOxS1-x, has been found to provide better band alignment in thin film solar cells of tin sulfide of orthorhombic crystalline structure. Here we examine ZnOxS1-x/SnS-CUB interface, in which the ZnOxS1-x thin film was deposited by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering on SnS thin film of cubic (CUB) crystalline structure with a band gap (Eg) of 1.72 eV, obtained via chemical deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provides the valence band maxima of the materials and hence places the conduction band offset of 0.41 eV for SnS-CUB/ZnO0.27S0.73 and -0.28 eV for SnS-CUB/ZnO0.88S0.12 interfaces. Thin films of ZnOxS1-x with 175-240 nm in thickness were deposited from targets prepared with different ZnO to ZnS molar ratios. With the target of molar ratio of 1:13.4, the thin films are of composition ZnO0.27S0.73 with hexagonal crystalline structure and with that of 1:1.7 ratio, it is ZnO0.88S0.12. The optical band gap of the ZnOxS1-x thin films varies from 2.90 eV to 3.21 eV as the sulfur to zinc ratio in the film increases from 0.12:1 to 0.73:1 as determined from X-ray diffraction patterns. Thus, band offsets sought for absorber materials and zinc oxy-sulfide in solar cells may be achieved through a choice of ZnO:ZnS ratio in the sputtering target.

  9. Defect Engineering of Chalcogen-Tailored Oxygen Electrocatalysts for Rechargeable Quasi-Solid-State Zinc-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Hassan, Fathy M; Zhong, Cheng; Lu, Jun; Liu, Han; Yu, Aiping; Chen, Zhongwei

    2017-09-01

    A critical bottleneck limiting the performance of rechargeable zinc-air batteries lies in the inefficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions at the air electrodes. Hybridizing transition-metal oxides with functional graphene materials has shown great advantages due to their catalytic synergism. However, both the mediocre catalytic activity of metal oxides and the restricted 2D mass/charge transfer of graphene render these hybrid catalysts inefficient. Here, an effective strategy combining anion substitution, defect engineering, and the dopant effect to address the above two critical issues is shown. This strategy is demonstrated on a hybrid catalyst consisting of sulfur-deficient cobalt oxysulfide single crystals and nitrogen-doped graphene nanomeshes (CoO0.87 S0.13 /GN). The defect chemistries of both oxygen-vacancy-rich, nonstoichiometric cobalt oxysulfides and edge-nitrogen-rich graphene nanomeshes lead to a remarkable improvement in electrocatalytic performance, where CoO0.87 S0.13 /GN exhibits strongly comparable catalytic activity to and much better stability than the best-known benchmark noble-metal catalysts. In application to quasi-solid-state zinc-air batteries, CoO0.87 S0.13 /GN as a freestanding catalyst assembly benefits from both structural integrity and enhanced charge transfer to achieve efficient and very stable cycling operation over 300 cycles with a low discharge-charge voltage gap of 0.77 V at 20 mA cm(-2) under ambient conditions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Dynamics of near-alpha titanium welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberger, Brett William

    Typically, when gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is employed to join near-alpha titanium alloys, the resulting weld fusion zone (FZ) is much harder than that of the base metal (BM), thereby leading to lost ductility. The aim of this investigation was to improve FZ ductility of Ti-5Al-1Sn-1V-1Zr-0.8Mo by modifying filler metal chemistry. In this regard, metallic yttrium was added to the filler metal and aluminum concentration reduced. It was believed that additions of yttrium would lead to formation of yttria in the weld melt, thereby promoting heterogeneous nucleation. Since oxygen and aluminum both act as alpha-stabilizers, expected pickup of oxygen during the welding process will be offset by the aluminum reduction. Tensile testing indicated that modified filler metal welds showed a dramatic increase in ductility of the FZ. Fracture toughness testing showed that while JIC values decreased in all welds, the tearing modulus, T, in modified filler metal welds was significantly higher than that of matching filler metal welds. Microhardness mapping of the weld zones illustrated that modified filler metal welds were significantly softer than matching filler metal welds. Microstructural examinations were completed through the use of optical, SEM and TEM studies, indicating that there was a presence of nano-particles in the weld FZ. XPS analysis identified these particles as yttrium oxysulfate. WDS analysis across the welds' heat affected zones demonstrated that there is an internal diffusion of oxygen from the BM into the FZ. Research results indicate yttrium oxysulfide particles form in the weld pool, act as a drag force on the solidification front and limit growth of prior-beta grain boundaries. The reduced prior-beta grain size and removal of interstitial oxygen from the matrix in modified filler metal welds, further enhanced by oxidation of yttrium oxysulfide to yttrium oxysulfate, leads to increased ductility in the weld's FZ. Addition of yttrium to the weld also

  11. Nuclear spin lattice relaxation and conductivity studies of the non-Arrhenius conductivity behavior in lithium fast ion conducting sulfide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Benjamin Michael

    Homogeneous xB2O3 + (1-x)B 2S3 glasses were prepared between 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.80. Raman, IR, and 11B NMR spectroscopies show that the boron oxide structures of B2O3, especially the six-membered rings, quickly diminish with increasing sulfide content, whereas the corresponding sulfide structures in B2S3 remain relatively intense as oxide content is increased. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and density measurements show that physical properties of these boron oxysulfide glasses heavily favor the B2S3 properties regardless of the amount of B2O3 added to the system. It is hypothesized that the stability of the thioboroxol ring group relative to that of the BS 3/2 trigonal group is a possible source of this behavior. The formation of mixed boron oxysulfide structures of composition BSzO3-z where 0 < z < 3 is proposed. Structural studies of the ternary xLi2S + (1-x)[0.5 B2S3 + 0.5 GeS2] glasses using IR, Raman, and 11B NMR show that these glasses do not have equal sharing of the lithium atoms between GeS2 and B2S3. The IR spectra indicates that the B2S3 glass network are under-doped in comparison to corresponding compositions in the xLi 2S + (1-x)B2S3 binary system. Additionally, the Raman spectra show that the GeS2 glass network is over-modified. 11Boron static NMR gives evidence that ˜80% of the boron atoms are in tetrahedral coordinated. A super macro tetrahedron is proposed as one of the structures in these glasses in which some of them may contain boron sites substituted by germanium atoms at lower Li2S content. Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation and ionic conductivity measurements of Li doped Li2S + GeS2 + B2S3 glasses were performed to investigate the ion hopping dynamics and the non-Arrhenius conductivity behavior that has been observed in some fast ion conducting glasses. A distribution of activation energies model was used to fit the NSLR results and conductivity results. Comparisons are made to previously studied binary lithium thio-germanate and binary

  12. Effect of Adding Cerium on Microstructure and Morphology of Ce-Based Inclusions Formed in Low-Carbon Steel

    PubMed Central

    Adabavazeh, Z.; Hwang, W. S.; Su, Y. H.

    2017-01-01

    Intra-granular Acicular Ferrite (IAF), as one of the most well-known desirable microstructure of ferrite with a chaotic crystallographic orientation, can not only refine the microstructure and retard the propagation of cleavage crack but also provide excellent combination of strength and toughness in steel. The effect of adding cerium on microstructure and controlling proper cerium-based inclusions in order to improve properties in low-carbon commercial steel (SS400) were investigated. The type of inclusions can be controlled by changing S/O ratio and Ce content. Without Ce modification, MnS is a dominate inclusion. After adding Ce, the stable inclusion phases change from AlCeO3 to Ce2O2S. The optimum amount of cerium, 0.0235 wt.%, lead in proper grain refinement and formation of cerium oxide, oxy-sulfide and sulfide inclusions. Having a high amount of cerium results in increasing the number of inclusions significantly as a result it cannot be effective enough and the inclusions will act like barriers for others. It is found that the inclusions with a size of about 4∼7 μm can serve as heterogeneous nucleation sites for AF formation. Thermodynamic calculations have been applied to predict the inclusion formation in this molten steel as well, which show a good agreement with experimental one. PMID:28485376

  13. Advanced materials for the 3D microbattery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golodnitsky, D.; Yufit, V.; Nathan, M.; Shechtman, I.; Ripenbein, T.; Strauss, E.; Menkin, S.; Peled, E.

    Out recent achievements in the development of three-dimensional (3D) thin film microbatteries on silicon and on microchannel plates (MCP) are presented. In such 3D microbatteries, the battery sandwich-like structure, including electrodes, electrolyte and current collectors, is deposited conformally on all available surfaces, thereby utilizing the dead volume of the substrate. Thin-film molybdenum oxysulfide and iron sulfide cathodes were deposited galvanostatically. XRD, XPS and TOF-SIMS characterizations indicated that the submicron thick MoO yS z films were amorphous, with the stoichiometry of the films varying with depth. Electrodeposited FeS x films have an amorphous, network-like porous structure with nanosize particles. A special flow cell for conformal coating of the perforated substrates was designed. A Li/hybrid polymer electrolyte (HPE)/MoO yS z-on-Si 3D half cell ran at i d = i ch = 10 μA cm -2 and room temperature for 100 charge/discharge cycles with 0.1%/cycle capacity loss and 100% Faradaic efficiency. A 3D half cell on MCP exhibited 20 times higher capacity than that of a planar half cell with the same footprint.

  14. Reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen in the presence of sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, O.; Tsao, L.

    1983-01-14

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emission from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. We studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDTA are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use. 33 figures, 9 tables.

  15. TiO2 nanotubes supported NiW hydrodesulphurization catalysts: Characterization and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palcheva, R.; Dimitrov, L.; Tyuliev, G.; Spojakina, A.; Jiratova, K.

    2013-01-01

    High surface area TiO2 nanotubes (Ti-NT) synthesized by alkali hydrothermal method were used as a support for NiW hydrodesulphurization catalyst. Nickel salt of 12-tungstophosphoric acid - Ni3/2PW12O40 was applied as oxide precursor of the active components. The catalyst was characterized by SBET, XRD, UV-vis DRS, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, TPR and HRTEM. The results obtained were compared with those for the NiW catalysts prepared over high surface area titania and alumina supports. A polytungstate phase evidenced by Raman spectroscopy was observed indicating the destruction of the initial heteropolyanion. The catalytic experiments revealed two times higher thiophene conversion on NiW catalyst supported on Ti-NT than those of catalysts supported on alumina and titania. Increased HDS activity of the NiW catalyst supported on Ti-NT could be related to a higher amount of W oxysulfide entities interacting with Ni sulfide particles as consequence of the electronic effects of the Ti-NT observed with XPS analysis.

  16. A novel structure optical fiber radiation dosimeter for radiotherapy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weimin; Qin, Zhuang; Ma, Yu; Zhao, Wenhui; Hu, Yaosheng; Zhang, Daxin; Chen, Ziyin; Lewis, Elfed

    2016-04-01

    An investigation into a novel in-vivo PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) fiber-optic dosimeter to monitor the dose of ionizing radiation, both for instantaneous and integrating measurements, for radiotherapy applications is proposed. This fiber sensor is designed as an intracorporal X-ray ionizing sensor to enhance the curative effect of radiotherapy. The fiber-optic dosimeter is made in a PMMA fiber, whose core is micromachined to create a small diameter (0.25 to 0.5 mm) hole at one fiber end. An inorganic scintillating material, terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Tb) is chosen as the sensing material, because it can fluoresce on immediately under exposure of ionizing radiation (X-Rays or electron beam). This sensing material is filled and packaged in the small hole by epoxy resin adhesive. This kind of novel structure dosimeter shows high light coupling efficiency compared with other kind of inorganic scintillation dosimeter. This fiber-optic dosimeter shows good repeatability with a maximum deviation of 0.16%. The testing results of the fiber-optic dosimeter are perfectly proportional to the data of IC with R2 as 0.9999. In addition, the fiber sensor shows excellent isotropic in its radial angular dependence. All the experiments indicate that the fiber-optic dosimeter is properly used for patient in-vivo dosimeter such as brachytherapy applications or intraoperative radiation therapy.

  17. Development of x-ray imaging technique for liquid screening at airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, Nurhani binti; Srisatit, Somyot

    2016-01-01

    X-ray imaging technology is a viable option to recognize flammable liquids for the purposes of aviation security. In this study, an X-ray imaging technology was developed whereby, the image viewing system was built with the use of a digital camera coupled with a gadolinium oxysulfide (GOS) fluorescent screen. The camera was equipped with a software for remote control setting of the camera via a USB cable which allows the images to be captured. The image was analysed to determine the average grey level using a software designed by Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. The data was obtained for various densities of liquid thickness of 4.5 cm, 6.0 cm and 7.5 cm respectively for X-ray energies ranging from 70 to 200 kVp. In order to verify the reliability of the constructed calibration data, the system was tested with a few types of unknown liquids. The developed system could be conveniently employed for security screening in order to discriminate between a threat and an innocuous liquid.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of the transit dosimetric response of an a-Si electronic portal imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, S. J.; McNamara, A. L.; Vial, P.; Holloway, L.; Greer, P. B.; Kuncic, Z.

    2014-03-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are x-ray detectors frequently used in radiotherapy imaging and dosimetry applications. EPIDs employ a copper plate and gadolinium oxysulfide phosphor screen with an array of a-Si photodiodes to indirectly detect incident radiation. In this study, a previously developed Monte Carlo (MC) model of an a-Si EPID has been extended for transit dosimetry. The GEANT4 MC toolkit was used to integrate an a-Si EPID model with two phantoms and a 6 MV x-ray source. A solid water phantom was used to simulate EPID transmission factors, field size output factors and relative dose profiles and results were compared to experimental measurements. An anthropomorphic head phantom was used to qualitatively compare simulated and measured portal images of humanoid anatomy. Calculated transmission factors and field size output factors agreed to within 2.0% and 1.9% of experimental measurements, respectively. A comparison of calculated and measured relative dose profiles yielded >98% of points passing a gamma analysis with 3%/3 mm criterion for all field sizes. The simulated anthropomorphic head phantom image shows macroscopic anatomical features and qualitatively agrees with the measured image. Results validate the suitability of the MC model for predicting EPID response in transit dosimetry.

  19. Development of x-ray imaging technique for liquid screening at airport

    SciTech Connect

    Sulaiman, Nurhani binti Srisatit, Somyot

    2016-01-22

    X-ray imaging technology is a viable option to recognize flammable liquids for the purposes of aviation security. In this study, an X-ray imaging technology was developed whereby, the image viewing system was built with the use of a digital camera coupled with a gadolinium oxysulfide (GOS) fluorescent screen. The camera was equipped with a software for remote control setting of the camera via a USB cable which allows the images to be captured. The image was analysed to determine the average grey level using a software designed by Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. The data was obtained for various densities of liquid thickness of 4.5 cm, 6.0 cm and 7.5 cm respectively for X-ray energies ranging from 70 to 200 kVp. In order to verify the reliability of the constructed calibration data, the system was tested with a few types of unknown liquids. The developed system could be conveniently employed for security screening in order to discriminate between a threat and an innocuous liquid.

  20. Use of a laser-induced fluorescence thermal imaging system for film cooling heat transfer measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Chyu, M.K.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes a novel approach based on fluorescence imaging of thermographic phosphor that enables the simultaneous determination of both local film effectiveness and local heat transfer on a film-cooled surface. The film cooling model demonstrated consists of a single row of three discrete holes on a flat plate. The transient temperature measurement relies on the temperature-sensitive fluorescent properties of europium-doped lanthanum oxysulfide (La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:EU{sup 3+}) thermographic phosphor. A series of full-field surface temperatures, mainstream temperatures, and coolant film temperatures were acquired during the heating of a test surface. These temperatures are used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients and the film effectiveness simultaneously. Because of the superior spatial resolution capability for the heat transfer data reduced from these temperature frames, the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging system, the present study observes the detailed heat transfer characteristics over a film-protected surface. The trend of the results agrees with those obtained using other conventional thermal methods, as well as the liquid crystal imaging technique. One major advantage of this technique is the capability to record a large number of temperature frames over a given testing period. This offers multiple-sample consistency.

  1. Effect of the CaO-Al2O3-Based Top Slag on the Cleanliness of Stainless Steel During Secondary Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Pengcheng; Huang, Shuigen; Pandelaers, Lieven; Van Dyck, Joris; Guo, Muxing; Blanpain, Bart

    2013-10-01

    The ladle treatment of a 18 pct Cr-9 pct Ni stainless steel, with desulfurization as its main purpose, was simulated on a laboratory scale. The influence of the top slag chemistry on the steel cleanliness was evaluated. A higher steel cleanliness was obtained with an optimized lime-alumina-based slag than with a lime-fluorspar-based slag. The inclusions were found to be mainly in the form of oxysulfide; the alumina content in the inclusions first increased and subsequently showed a slow drop, while the sulfide content decreased during the treatment. The equilibrium between steel and inclusions was found to be more easily reached than that between slag and steel. A slag-steel kinetic model was used to predict the steel chemistry evolution during the treatment. Furthermore, a slag-steel-inclusions interaction kinetic model was developed to calculate the change of alumina content in the inclusions during the ladle treatment. The sulfide content of inclusions was also calculated and compared with the measured values.

  2. Resistive switching characteristics of Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6/Al devices constructed on plastic substrates.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2012-07-01

    In this study, Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6Al devices are fabricated on plastic substrates using the sputtering method at room temperature. The ratio of O/S in the zinc oxysulfide thin film is confirmed to be 0.4/0.6 from the Auger depth profiling. The Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6/Al devices show unipolar resistive switching behaviors and the ratio of the measured resistance in the low-resistance state (LRS) to that in the high-resistance state (HRS) is above 10(4). The conduction mechanism of the LRS is governed by Ohm's law. On the other hand, in the HRS, the conduction mechanism at low voltages is controlled by Ohm's law, but that at high voltages results from the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism. The Ohmic and Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanisms observed in the LRS and HRS support the filament model of unipolar resistive switching. The memory characteristics of the Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6/Al devices are retained for 10(4) sec without any change.

  3. Thermographic phosphor strain measurements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, S.W.; Capps, G.J.; Smith, D.B.; Cates, M.R.; Gleason, J.; Turley, W.D.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the first phase of research aimed at developing a high-temperature strain gauge for power equipment use based on materials whose fluorescence characteristics are affected by strain. In electric power generating plants, the combined effect of temperature and strain on equipment and structures is a critical factor in safe, efficient operation and component lifetime. For the first part of this project, the pressure responses of phosphor and crystalline materials were surveyed. Next, pressure measurements on some promising materials, YVO{sub 4}:Dy and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb, were performed. The latter phosphor appears to exhibit the greatest change with pressure. Its fluorescence lifetime decreases by a factor of 10 with pressure increase of 20 kbar. In a strain test configuration, a tapered sapphire rod compressed a similar phosphor material, La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu. The intensity level increased, as expected for this material, with compression. Both of the oxysulfide materials possess potential for use in an optical strain gauge for temperatures up to at least 300{degrees}C. It is suggested that a mixture of these two materials may be a useful way to obtain the maximum pressure or strain sensitivity.

  4. Use of a laser-induced fluorescence thermal imaging system for film cooling heat transfer measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Chyu, M.K.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a novel approach based on fluorescence imaging of thermographic phosphor that enables the simultaneous determination of both local film effectiveness and local heat transfer on a film-cooled surface. The film cooling model demonstrated consists of a single row of three discrete holes on a flat plate. The transient temperature measurement relies on the temperature-sensitive fluorescent properties of europium-doped lanthanum oxysulfide (La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu{sup +3}) thermographic phosphor. A series of full-field surface temperatures, mainstream temperatures, and coolant film temperatures were acquired during the heating of a test surface. These temperatures are used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients and the film effectiveness simultaneously. Because of the superior spatial resolution capability for the heat transfer data reduced from these temperature frames, the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging system, the present study observes the detailed heat transfer characteristics over a film-protected surface. The trend of the results agrees with those obtained using other conventional thermal methods, as well as the liquid crystal imaging technique. One major advantage of this technique is the capability to record a large number of temperature frames over a given testing period. This offers multiple-sample consistency.

  5. Three-tier rare-earth imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Brodeur, A.E.; Silberstein, M.J.; Graviss, E.R.; Ferguson, T.L.; Ortmeyer, K.M.; Nalesnik, W.J.

    1981-04-01

    The increased efficiency of gadolinium oxysulfide intensifying screens as compared to calcium tungstate screens depends primarily on increased absorption of x-ray photons coupled with a twofold increase in light output. Whether this increased efficiency can be effectively used in a routine diagnostic department to significantly decrease radiation dose was the subject of this study. Consecutive radiographic examinations (5806) were conducted using these rare earth screens. Each radiographic room used three individual rare earth screen/orthochromatic film combinations in order to obtain different speeds. These were labeled A, B, and C and ranged from par speed high detail to ultra high speed with less detail but correspondingly less patient radiation exposure. The system selected for a particular examination was based on the radiologists' requirements for imaging of anatomic detail. Those examinations requiring less detailed resolution (such as bone alignment through a wet plaster cast) were assigned the fastest speed available. The use of a rare earth/3-tier system resulted in an overall reduction in radiation exposure of about 80%.

  6. Chalcogenide Perovskites for Solar Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Samanthe

    Methylammonium Lead halide perovskites have recently emerged as a promising candidate for realizing high efficient low cost photovoltaic modules. Charge transport properties of the solution processed halide perovskites are comparable to some of the existing absorbers used in the current PV industry which require sophisticated processing techniques. Due to this simple processing required to achieve high efficiencies, halide perovskites have become an active field of research. As a result, perovskite solar cells are rapidly reaching towards theoretical efficiency limit of close to 30%. It's believed that ionicity inherent to perovskite materials is one of the contributing factors for the excellent charge transport properties of perovskites. Despite the growing interest for solar energy harvesting purposes, these halide perovskites have serious limitations such as toxicity and instability that need to be addressed in order to commercialize the solar cells incorporating them. This dissertation focuses on a new class of ionic semiconductors, chalcogenide perovskites for solar energy harvesting purposes. Coming from the family perovskites they are expected to have same excellent charge transport properties inherent to perovskites due to the ionicity. Inspired by few theoretical studies on chalcogenide perovskites, BaZrS3 and its Ti alloys were synthesized by sulfurizing the oxide counterpart. Structural characterizations have confirmed the predicted distorted perovskite phase. Optical characterizations have verified the direct band gap suitable for thin film single junction solar cells. Anion alloying was demonstrated by synthesizing oxysulfides with widely tunable band gap suitable for applications such as solid state lighting and sensing.

  7. Fiber optic temperature sensor using a Y2O2S:Eu thermographic phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Todd V.; Smith, Barton

    1994-03-01

    This report details the development and testing of a thermographic-phosphor-based fiber-optic temperature sensor. The sensor is constructed by removing a region of the fiber jacket and cladding, then coating the exposed core with yttrium oxysulfide doped with a europium activator (Y2O2S:Eu). When photoexcited, the europium in the host lattice emits a sharp-line fluorescence spectrum that is characteristic of the temperature of the host crystal lattice. By measuring fluorescence lifetimes, we can deduce the temperature of an optical fiber that is in thermal contact with the fiber. Two different distributions of Y2O2S:Eu in the cladding region were evaluated with regard to light coupling efficiency. Theoretical waveguide calculations indicate that a thin core/cladding boundary distribution of Y2O2S:Eu couples light more efficiently into the cores guided modes than does a bulk distribution of phosphor in the cladding. The sensor tests showed reproducible response from 20 to 180 degrees Celsius. This technique has several advantages over other fiber optic temperature sensing techniques.

  8. Effects of scintillator on the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of a digital imaging system.

    PubMed

    Farman, Taeko T; Vandre, Robert H; Pajak, John C; Miller, Stuart R; Lempicki, Alex; Farman, Allan G

    2006-02-01

    To compare the effects of scintillator on the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of a charge-coupled device (CCD) digital intraoral radiographic system. Three screens composed of 3 different scintillator materials, namely europium-doped lutetium oxide (Lu2(O3):Eu3+), transparent optical ceramic (TOC), thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI:Tl; CsI), and terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2(O2)S:Tb; GOS) were compared, in turn, in combination with a CCD detector having square pixels with height and width dimensions of 19.5 microm. DQE was investigated using the slanted-slit-derived MTF and surrogate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements derived from calculations of the mean and standard deviations from the mean pixel values of multiple random patches from various uniform exposures. An Irix x-ray generator operated at 70 kVp and 8 mA, with a nominal focal spot size of 0.7 mm and 2.5 mm Al equivalent filtration, was used in making all exposures. Using TOC, the peak DQE was 62% at 5 cycles/mm. For CsI, the peak DQE was 22% at 2 cycles/mm. With GOS, the peak DQE was 10% at 1 cycle/mm. Under identical experimental settings, TOC consistently resulted in higher DQE than CsI and commercially available GOS scintillators combined with the same high-resolution solid-state detector.

  9. Effects of scintillator on the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a digital imaging system.

    PubMed

    Farman, Taeko T; Vandre, Robert H; Pajak, John C; Miller, Stuart R; Lempicki, Alex; Farman, Allan G

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the effects of 2 components (scintillator and x-ray generator) in the imaging chain on the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a charge-coupled device (CCD) digital intraoral radiographic system. Three screens composed of 3 different scintillator materials, namely europium-doped lutetium oxide transparent optical ceramic (TOC), thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI), and terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide (GOS), were compared. Each was used, in turn, in conjunction with a CCD detector having a pixel dimension of 19.5 mum. Two different x-ray generators were also used to evaluate this variable. MTF was investigated using the slanted slit method. The TOC provided a good modulation response for low and middle frequencies, reducing to 0 only at a high cutoff frequency. With CsI and GOS, the system MTF dropped to 0 at a lower cutoff frequency than was the case with TOC. Hence, TOC provided higher spatial resolution than the other 2 scintillators tested under the experimental conditions applied. The differences in MTF attributed to the scintillator type were proportional and consistent. Despite constant pixel dimensions, MTF was affected to a considerable degree by the scintillator applied and the x-ray generator used in conjunction with the same CCD imaging device. TOC shows potential as a possible replacement for CsI and GOS as a scintillator screen material for intraoral digital x-ray imaging using a solid-state detector, providing higher spatial resolution under the given experimental conditions.

  10. Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen in the Presence ofSulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, Oleh; Tsao, Leon

    1983-01-01

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One Mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. The authors studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDT are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use.

  11. Inclusions and Microstructure of Ce-Added Weld Metal Coarse Grain Heat-Affected Zone in Twin-Wire Submerged-Arc Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S. F.; Yan, N.; Chen, Y.

    2016-06-01

    In high heat-input multi-pass twin-wire submerged-arc welding, weld metal of previous pass will be affected by the heat input of subsequent one and form coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ). This study focused on the effects of welding thermal cycle on the inclusions and microstructure of Ce-alloyed weld metal CGHAZ. According to the study of inclusions and microstructure of weld metal CGHAZ, it was found that the composition and type of the inclusions did not change under the effect of welding thermal cycle. Although the inclusions were coarsened slightly, the promoting ability to acicular ferrite (AF) was not deprived after thermal cycling. There are three types of AF in weld metal CGHAZ, which include oxy-sulfides of Ce inclusions-promoted AF, home-position-precipitated AF, and sympathetic AF. Results showed more than 80% of microstructure was AF, which greatly benefited the mechanical properties of weld metal CGHAZ, even though granular bainite and M-A constituents were generated.

  12. Abiotic Synthesis with the C-C Bond Formation in Ethanol from CO2 over (Cu,M)(O,S) Catalysts with M = Ni, Sn, and Co.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyun; Abdullah, Hairus; Kuo, Dong-Hau; Huang, Hsiu-Ni; Fang, Cheng-Chung

    2017-08-30

    We demonstrate copper-based (Cu,M)(O,S) oxysulfide catalysts with M = Ni, Sn, and Co for the abiotic chemical synthesis of ethanol (EtOH) with the C-C bond formation by passing carbon dioxide (CO2) through an aqueous dispersion bath at ambient environment. (Cu,Ni)(O,S) with 12.1% anion vacancies had the best EtOH yield, followed by (Cu,Sn)(O,S) and (Cu,Co)(O,S). The ethanol yield with 0.2 g (Cu,Ni)(O,S) catalyst over a span of 20 h achieved 5.2 mg. The ethanol yield is inversely proportional to the amount of anion vacancy. The kinetic mechanism for converting the dissolved CO2 into the C2 oxygenate is proposed. Molecular interaction, pinning, and bond weakening with anion vacancy of highly strained catalyst, the electron hopping at Cu(+)/Cu(2+) sites, and the reaction orientation of hydrocarbon intermediates are the three critical issues in order to make the ambient chemical conversion of inorganic CO2 to organic EtOH with the C-C bond formation in water realized. On the other hand, Cu(O,S) with the highest amount of 22.7% anion vacancies did not produce ethanol due to its strain energy relaxation opposing to the pinning and weakening of O-H and C-O bonds.

  13. Comparison of fan- and cone-beam imaging capabilities on a portable x-ray imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Timothy A.; Roney, Tim J.; Pink, Robert J.; Noo, Frederic; Clackdoyle, Rolf; Smith, Mike; Jones, Warren F.

    1999-09-01

    Portable systems for x-ray imaging of objects up to 20-cm in diameter have been developed for field inspection of industrial objects. These systems can be configured with either a linear diode array (45-cm long, 1024-elements, 12- bits/element) or a large-area amorphous-silicon (a-Si) detector (30 X 40-cm2, 2304 X 3200-elements, 12- bits/element). Each detector utilizes gadolinium oxysulfide as the scintillation element. X-rays are emitted from an 80 to 300-kVp constant-potential source with a spot size of approximately 1.6-mm. The object can be rotated and the source and detector translated vertically for collection of 'spiral' fanbeam or 'helical' conebeam computed-tomography (CT) data. For low-density objects, the reconstructed spatial resolution of CT data collected with either detector is about the same and the choice of detector is determined by detector parameters such as dynamic range and integration/readout time. For higher-density objects, which need to be imaged at higher energies and for which there is a higher probability of Compton scatter, the linear diode array produces better contrast images of small voids in a scattering medium. A series of experiments designed to test the performance of each detector with and without a scattering medium will be presented.

  14. Composition and structure of the venus atmosphere: results from pioneer venus.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, J H; Hodges, R R; McElroy, M B; Donahue, T M; Kolpin, M

    1979-07-06

    Results from the Pioneer Venus sounder probe neutral mass spectrometer indicate that there is no difference in the isotopic ratios of carbon and oxygen between Venus and Earth to within +/- 5 percent. The mixing ratio of nitrogen is 3.5(+3)(-2) percent with an isotopic ratio within 20 percent of that of Earth. The ratio of argon-36 to argon-40 is 85 percent, and the ratio of argon-38 to argon-36 is 20 percent. The mixing ratios of argon-36 and argon-40 are approximately 40 and 50 parts per million, respectively, with an error of about a factor of 2 (mainly toward a lesser amount) resulting from uncertainty in the response of the ion pump to rare gases. Hydrogen chloride cannot account for more than a few percent of the 36 mass peak, and therefore the large excess of primordial argon is a reasonable conclusion. The ratio of neon-20 to argon-36 of 0.5 +/- 0.3 is definitely terrestrial in character rather than solar. These results indicate that there is a large excess of all primordial noble gases on Venus relative to Earth. There appears to be a considerably higher abundance of sulfur compounds below 20 kilometers than in or above the main cloud layer. The 32 and 60 mass peaks show a sharp increase below 22 kilometers, indicating the possible production of sulfur and carbon oxysulfide (COS) at the expense of sulfur dioxide.

  15. ALD Zn(O,S) Thin Films’ Interfacial Chemical and Structural Configuration Probed by XAS

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The ability to precisely control interfaces of atomic layer deposited (ALD) zinc oxysulfide (Zn(O,S)) buffer layers to other layers allows precise tuning of solar cell performance. The O K- and S K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) of ∼2–4 nm thin Zn(O,S) films reveals the chemical and structural influences of their interface with ZnO, a common electrode material and diffusion barrier in solar cells. We observe that sulfate formation at oxide/sulfide interfaces is independent of film composition, a result of sulfur diffusion toward interfaces. Leveraging sulfur’s diffusivity, we propose an alternative ALD process in which the zinc precursor pulse is bypassed during H2S exposure. Such a process yields similar results to the nanolaminate deposition method and highlights mechanistic differences between ALD sulfides and oxides. By identifying chemical species and structural evolution at sulfide/oxide interfaces, this work provides insights into increasing thin film solar cell efficiencies. PMID:27223620

  16. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of red emitting phosphor La2-x Eux Li0.5 Al0.5 O4 [x = 0.2-2] with K2 NiF4 structure.

    PubMed

    Kasturi, S; Satish Kumar, S; Sivakumar, V

    2017-01-31

    Europium (Eu)(3+) -substituted La2 Li0.5 Al0.5 O4 red emitting phosphors were prepared by a conventional high-temperature solid-state reaction method. Powder X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectra and spectrofluorometry were used as vital characterizing tools for the phosphors. The Eu concentration dependence luminescence properties and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters were investigated and calculated, respectively. All compositions showed an orange red emission (due to the magnetic and electric dipole transitions of the Eu(3+) ion) with the appropriate Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) colour gamut under near ultraviolet or blue ray light excitation. The calculated critical distance showed that the energy transfer occured between Eu to Eu via an exchange mechanism. The Eu1.4 La0.6 Li0.5 Al0.5 O4 composition showed the highest red emission intensity with CIE colour saturation compared with that of the commercial Eu-activated yttrium oxysulfide red phosphor.

  17. Thermal and magnetic properties of regenerator material Gd2O2S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Numazawa, T.; Ura, Y.; Ujiyama, T.; Abe, S.

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic materials play a significant role in improvement of regenerative cryocooler performance, because they have high volumetric specific heat at magnetic transition temperatures. Gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S, GOS) that has an antiferromagnetic transition at 5 K improved the cooling performance of cryocoolers when it was used in colder side of the second stage regenerator operating below 10 K. Small magnetic susceptibility and specific heat insensitive to magnetic field is important in order to reduce influence of magnetic field on the performance of cryocooler. We measured magnetization and specific heat of ceramic GOS in magnetic field up to 5 T. The magnetization of GOS represented typical temperature dependence for antiferromagnetic materials and no metamagnetic transition was observed. As for specific heat of GOS, peak temperature decreased from 5.5 to 5.0 K with increasing magnetic field from 0 to 5 T and the transitions remained sharp in magnetic fields. Thermal conductivity of GOS was observed to have very small magnetic field dependence.

  18. 1D pixelated MV portal imager with structured privacy film: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturin, Pavlo; Shedlock, Daniel; Myronakis, Marios; Berbeco, Ross; Star-Lack, Josh

    2017-03-01

    Modern amorphous silicon flat panel-based electronic portal imaging devices that utilize thin gadolinium oxysulfide scintillators suffer from low quantum efficiencies (QEs). Thick two dimensionally (2D) pixelated scintillator arrays offer an effective but expensive option for increasing QE. To reduce costs, we have investigated the possibility of combining a thick one dimensional (1D) pixelated scintillator (PS) with an orthogonally placed 1D structured optical filter to provide for overall good 2D spatial resolution. In this work, we studied the potential for using a 1D video screen privacy film (PF) to serve as a directional optical attenuator and filter. A Geant4 model of the PF was built based on reflection and transmission measurements taken with a laser-based optical reflectometer. This information was incorporated into a Geant4-based x-ray detector simulator to generate modulation transfer functions (MTFs), noise power spectra (NPS), and detective quantum efficiencies (DQEs) for various 1D and 2D configurations. It was found that the 1D array with PF can provide the MTFs and DQEs of 2D arrays. Although the PF significantly reduced the amount of optical photons detected by the flat panel, we anticipate using a scintillator with an inherently high optical yield (e.g. cesium iodide) for MV imaging, where fluence rates are inherently high, will still provide adequate signal intensities for the imaging tasks associated with radiotherapy.

  19. Effect of corrosive contaminants on lubricating properties of turbine oil

    SciTech Connect

    Spirkin, V.G.; Gil`mutdinov, Sh.K.

    1995-01-01

    In the operation of centrifugal and piston compressors on natural gas transmission lines, it is found that air, moisture, and hydrogen sulfide get into the lubricating oil. These contaminants, especially hydrogen sulfide, affect the lubricating properties of the oil to a great degree; however, this problem, which is directly related to the operating reliability of the moving parts of compressors, has not been studied adequately. Oxygen dissolved in the oil forms an iron oxide film on rubbing metal surfaces, protecting them from wear. When no oxygen is present, the wear becomes much more severe, all the way up to grabbing of the rubbing surfaces and pitting. Oil contaminants that form surface films with a different composition and structure, for example oxysulfide films, have received less attention. Using a procedure that we had developed, in which the oil can be saturated with hydrogen sulfide or other gases, we investigated the effects on wear rate and coefficient of friction from the presence of corrosive contaminants that find their way into turbine oil in the process of natural gas transmission.

  20. Fiber optic temperature sensor using a Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu thermographic phosphor

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.V.; Smith, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    This report details the development and testing of a thermographic-phosphor-based fiber-optic temperature sensor. The sensor is constructed by removing a region of the fiber jacket and cladding, then coating the exposed core with yttrium oxysulfide doped with a europium activator (Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu). When photoexcited, the europium in the host lattice emits a sharp-line fluorescence spectrum that is characteristic of the temperature of the host crystal lattice. By measuring fluorescence lifetimes, we can deduce the temperature of an optical fiber that is in thermal contact with the fiber. Two different distributions of Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu in the cladding region were evaluated with regard to light coupling efficiency. Theoretical waveguide calculations indicate that a thin core/cladding boundary distribution of Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu couples light more efficiently into the cores guided modes than does a bulk distribution of phosphor in the cladding. The sensor tests showed reproducible response from 20 to 180 degrees Celsius. This technique has several advantages over other fiber optic temperature sensing techniques: the temperature measurement is independent of the strain applied to the fiber; the measurements are potentially accurate to within half a degree centigrade; the sensor allows temperature to be measured at precise locations; and the method doesn`t preclude the use of the fiber for the simultaneous measurement of other parameters.

  1. X-ray performance of a wafer-scale CMOS flat panel imager for applications in medical imaging and nondestructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Bo Kyung; Jeon, Seongchae; Seo, Chang-Woo

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a wafer-scale complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based X-ray flat panel detector for medical imaging and nondestructive testing applications. In this study, our proposed X-ray CMOS flat panel imager has been fabricated by using a 0.35 μm 1-poly/4-metal CMOS process. The pixel size is 100 μm×100 μm and the pixel array format is 1200×1200 pixels, which provide a field-of-view (FOV) of 120mm×120 mm. The 14.3-bit extended counting analog-to digital converter (ADC) with built-in binning mode was used to reduce the area and simultaneously improve the image resolution. The different screens such as thallium-doped CsI (CsI:Tl) and terbium gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Tb) scintillators were used as conversion materials for X-rays to visible light photons. The X-ray imaging performance such as X-ray sensitivity as a function of X-ray exposure dose, spatial resolution, image lag and X-ray images of various objects were measured under practical medical and industrial application conditions. This paper results demonstrate that our prototype CMOS-based X-ray flat panel imager has the significant potential for medical imaging and non-destructive testing (NDT) applications with high-resolution and high speed rate.

  2. Imaging responses of on-site CsI and Gd2O2S flat-panel detectors: Dependence on the tube voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Hosang; Chung, Myung Jin; Youn, Seungman; Nam, Jiho; Lee, Jayoung; Park, Dahl; Kim, Wontaek; Ki, Yongkan; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2015-07-01

    One of the emerging issues in radiography is low-dose imaging to minimize patient's exposure. The scintillating materials employed in most indirect flat-panel detectors show a drastic change of X-ray photon absorption efficiency around their K-edge energies that consequently affects image quality. Using various tube voltages, we investigated the imaging performance of most popular scintillators: cesium iodide (CsI) and gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S). The integrated detective quantum efficiencies (iDQE) of four detectors installed in the same hospital were evaluated according to the standardized procedure IEC 62220-1 at tube voltages of 40 - 120 kVp. The iDQE values of the Gd2O2S detectors were normalized by those of CsI detectors to exclude the effects of image postprocessing. The contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were also evaluated by using an anthropomorphic chest phantom. The iDQE of the CsI detector outperformed that of the Gd2O2S detector over all tube voltages. Moreover, we noted that the iDQE of the Gd2O2S detectors quickly rolled off with decreasing tube voltage under 70 kVp. The CNRs of the two scintillators were similar at 120 kVp. At 60 kVp, however, the CNR of Gd2O2S was about half that of CsI. Compared to the Gd2O2S detectors, variations in the DQE performance of the CsI detectors were relatively immune to variations in the applied tube voltages. Therefore, we claim that Gd2O2S detectors are inappropriate for use in low-tube-voltage imaging (e.g., extremities and pediatrics) with low patient exposure.

  3. Improved performance rhenium containing single crystal alloy turbine blades utilizing ppm levels of the highly reactive elements lanthanum and yttrium

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, D.A.; Fullagar, K.P.L.; Bhangu, H.K.; Thomas, M.C.; Burkholder, P.S.; Korinko, P.S.; Harris, K.; Wahl, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    Turbine inlet temperatures have now approached 1650 C at maximum power for the latest large commercial turbofan engines, resulting in high fuel efficiency and thrust levels approaching or exceeding 445 kN (100,000 lbs.). High reliability and durability must be intrinsically designed into these turbine engines to meet operating economic targets and ETOPS certification requirements. Re additions to cast airfoil superalloys not only improve creep and thermomechanical fatigue strength but also environmental properties, including coating performance. It is now known that sulfur (S) at levels <10 ppm but >0.2 ppm in these alloys reduces the adherence of {alpha} alumina protective scales on these materials or their coatings by weakening the Van der Waal`s bond between the scale and the alloy substrate. A team approach has been used to develop an improvement to CMSX-4 alloy which contains 3% Re, by reducing S and phosphorus (P) levels in the alloy to <2 ppm, combined with residual additions of lanthanum (La) + yttrium (Y) in the range 10--30 ppm. Results from cyclic, burner rig dynamic oxidation testing at 1093 C show thirteen times the number of cycles to initial alumina scale spallation for CMSX-4 [La + Y] compared to standard CMSX-4. The La assists with ppm chemistry control of the Y throughout the single crystal turbine blade castings through the formation of a continuous lanthanum oxide film between the molten and solidifying alloy and the ceramic core and prime coat of the shell mold. Y and La tie up the M2 ppm but >0.2 ppm residual S in the alloy as very stable Y and La sulfides and oxysulfides, thus preventing diffusion of the S atoms to the alumina scale layer under high temperature, cyclic oxidizing conditions. La also forms a stable phosphide. CMSX-4 (ULS) (La + Y) HP shroudless turbine blades will commence engine testing in May 1998.

  4. TH-C-17A-07: Visualizing and Quantifying Radiation Therapy in Real-Time Using a Novel Beam Imaging Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, C; Naczynski, D; Xing, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy uses invisible high energy X-rays to treat an invisible tumor. Proper positioning of the treatment beam relative to the patient's anatomy during dose delivery is critically important to the success of treatment. We develop and characterize a novel radiation therapy beam visualization technique for real-time monitoring of patient treatment. Methods: Custom made flexible scintillator sheets were fabricated from gadolinium oxysulfide (GOS) particles that had been doped with terbium within a silicone elastomer matrix. Sheets of several thicknesses ranging from 0.3 to 1mm were prepared and tested. Sheets were exposed to megavoltage X-ray and electron beams from a Varian linac and the resulting optical signal was collected by multiple CMOS cameras placed in the treatment room. Real-time images were collected for different beam energies and dose rates. Signal intensity and SNR were calculated by processing the acquired images. Results: All signals were detectable in the presence of full room lighting and at an integration time of 45ms. Average signal intensity and SNR increased with both sheet thickness and dose rate and decreased with beam energy and incident light. For a given sheet thickness and beam energy the correlation between dose rate and signal intensity was highly linear. Increased sheet thickness or dose rate results in a linear increase in the detected signal. All results are consistent with analytical approximations. Conclusion: The technique offers a means of accurately visualizing a radiation therapy beam shape and fluence in real time. The effects of salient parameters have been characterized and will enable further optimization of the technique as it is implemented into the clinical workflow. The project described was supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health through UL1 TR001085.

  5. Toxicity evaluation of high-fluorescent rare-earth metal nanoparticles for bioimaging applications.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Adame, Luis; Cortez-Espinosa, Nancy; Portales-Pérez, Diana P; Castillo, Claudia; Zhao, Wayne; Juarez, Zaida N; Hernandez, Luis R; Bach, Horacio; Palestino, Gabriela

    2017-04-01

    Research on nanometer-sized luminescent semiconductors and their biological applications in detectors and contrasting agents is an emergent field in nanotechnology. When new nanosize technologies are developed for human health applications, their interaction with biological systems should be studied in depth. Rare-earth elements are used in medical and industrial applications, but their toxic effects are not known. In this work, the biological interaction between terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide nanoparticles (GOSNPs) with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), human-derived macrophages (THP-1), and human cervical carcinoma cell (HeLa) were evaluated. The GOSNPs were synthetized using a hydrothermal method to obtain monodisperse nanoparticles with an average size of 91 ± 9 nm. Characterization techniques showed the hexagonal phase of the Gd2 O2 S:Tb(3+) free of impurities, and a strong green emission at λemi  = 544 nm produced by Tb(3+) was observed. Toxic effects of GOSNPs were evaluated using cell viability, apoptosis, cell-cycle progression, and immunological response techniques. In addition, an Artemia model was used to assess the toxicity in vivo. Results indicated cell apoptosis in both types of cells with less sensitivity for PBMC cells compared to HeLa cells. In addition, no toxic effects were observed in the in vivo model of Artemia. Moreover, GOSNPs significantly reduced the activation and cell-cycle progression of PBMC and HeLa cells, respectively. Interestingly, an increase in proinflammatory cytokines was not observed. Our data suggest that fluorescence applications of GOSNPs for biolabeling are not toxic in primary immune cells and they may have an immunomodulatory effect. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 605-615, 2017.

  6. Electrodeposition of ZnO-doped films as window layer for Cd-free CIGS-based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsin, Fabien; Vénérosy, Amélie; Hildebrandt, Thibaud; Hariskos, Dimitrios; Naghavi, Negar; Lincot, Daniel; Rousset, Jean

    2016-02-01

    The Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film solar cell technology has made a steady progress within the last decade reaching efficiency up to 22.3% on laboratory scale, thus overpassing the highest efficiency for polycrystalline silicon solar cells. High efficiency CIGS modules employ a so-called buffer layer of cadmium sulfide CdS deposited by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD), which presence and Cd-containing waste present some environmental concerns. A second potential bottleneck for CIGS technology is its window layer made of i-ZnO/ZnO:Al, which is deposited by sputtering requiring expensive vacuum equipment. A non-vacuum deposition of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) relying on simpler equipment with lower investment costs will be more economically attractive, and could increase competitiveness of CIGS-based modules with the mainstream silicon-based technologies. In the frame of Novazolar project, we have developed a low-cost aqueous solution photo assisted electrodeposition process of the ZnO-based window layer for high efficiency CIGS-based solar cells. The window layer deposition have been first optimized on classical CdS buffer layer leading to cells with efficiencies similar to those measured with the sputtered references on the same absorber (15%). The the optimized ZnO doped layer has been adapted to cadmium free devices where the CdS is replaced by chemical bath deposited zinc oxysulfide Zn(S,O) buffer layer. The effect of different growth parameters has been studied on CBD-Zn(S,O)-plated co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 substrates provided by the Zentrum für Sonnenenergie-und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW). This optimization of the electrodeposition of ZnO:Cl on CIGS/Zn(S,O) stacks led to record efficiency of 14%, while the reference cell with a sputtered (Zn,Mg)O/ZnO:Al window layer has an efficiency of 15.2%.

  7. High spatial resolution performance of pixelated scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigeta, Kazuki; Fujioka, Nobuyasu; Murai, Takahiro; Hikita, Izumi; Morinaga, Tomohiro; Tanino, Takahiro; Kodama, Haruhito; Okamura, Masaki

    2017-03-01

    In indirect conversion flat panel detectors (FPDs) for digital X-ray imaging, scintillating materials such as Terbiumdoped Gadolinium Oxysulfide (Gadox) convert X-ray into visible light, and an amorphous silicon (a-Si) photodiode array converts the light into electrons. It is, however, desired that the detector spatial resolution is improved because the light spreading inside scintillator causes crosstalk to next a-Si photodiode pixels and the resolution is degraded compared with direct conversion FPDs which directly convert X-ray into electrons by scintillating material such as amorphous selenium. In this study, the scintillator was pixelated with same pixel pitch as a-Si photodiode array by barrier rib structure to limit the light spreading, and the detector spatial resolution was improved. The FPD with pixelated scintillator was manufactured as follows. The barrier rib structure with 127μm pitch was fabricated on a substrate by a photosensitive organic-inorganic paste method, and a reflective layer was coated on the surface of the barrier rib, then the structure was filled up with Gadox particles. The pixelated scintillator was aligned with 127μm pixel pitch of a-Si photodiode array and set as a FPD. The FPD with pixelated scintillator showed high modulation transfer function (MTF) and 0.94 at 1cycle/mm and 0.88 at 2cycles/mm were achieved. The MTF values were almost equal to the maximum value that can be theoretically achieved in the FPD with 127μm pixel pitch of a-Si photodiode array. Thus the FPD with pixelated scintillators has great potential to apply for high spatial resolution applications such as mammography and nondestructive testing.

  8. Tungsten disulfide nanotubes reinforced biodegradable polymers for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lalwani, Gaurav; Henslee, Allan M; Farshid, Behzad; Parmar, Priyanka; Lin, Liangjun; Qin, Yi-Xian; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we have investigated the efficacy of inorganic nanotubes as reinforcing agents to improve the mechanical properties of poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) composites as a function of nanomaterial loading concentration (0.01-0.2 wt.%). Tungsten disulfide nanotubes (WSNTs) were used as reinforcing agents in the experimental group. Single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) were used as positive controls, and crosslinked PPF composites were used as the baseline control. Mechanical testing (compression and three-point bending) shows a significant enhancement (up to 28-190%) in the mechanical properties (compressive modulus, compressive yield strength, flexural modulus and flexural yield strength) of WSNT-reinforced PPF nanocomposites compared to the baseline control. In comparison to the positive controls, significant improvements in the mechanical properties of WSNT nanocomposites were also observed at various concentrations. In general, the inorganic nanotubes (WSNTs) showed mechanical reinforcement better than (up to 127%) or equivalent to that of carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs). Sol fraction analysis showed significant increases in the crosslinking density of PPF in the presence of WSNTs (0.01-0.2 wt.%). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis on thin sections of crosslinked nanocomposites showed the presence of WSNTs as individual nanotubes in the PPF matrix, whereas SWCNTs and MWCNTs existed as micron-sized aggregates. The trend in the surface area of nanostructures obtained by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis was SWCNTs>MWCNTs>WSNTs. The BET surface area analysis, TEM analysis and sol fraction analysis results taken together suggest that chemical composition (inorganic vs. carbon nanomaterials), the presence of functional groups (such as sulfide and oxysulfide) and individual dispersion of the nanomaterials in the polymer matrix (absence of aggregation of the reinforcing agent) are the key parameters

  9. An experimentally supported model for the origin of charge transport barrier in Zn(O,S)/CIGSSe solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, Rou Hua; Li, Xianglin; Walter, Thomas; Teh, Lay Kuan; Hahn, Thomas; Hergert, Frank; Mhaisalkar, Subodh; Wong, Lydia Helena

    2016-01-25

    Zinc oxysulfide buffer layers with [O]:[S] of 1:0, 6:1, 4:1, 2:1, and 1:1 ratios were deposited by atomic layer deposition on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} absorbers and made into finished solar cells. We demonstrate using Time-Resolved Photoluminescence that the minority carrier lifetime of Zn(O,S) buffered solar cells is dependent on the sulfur content of the buffer layer. τ{sub 1} for devices with [O]:[S] of 1:0–4:1 are <10 ns, indicating efficient charge separation in devices with low sulfur content. An additional τ{sub 2} is observed for relaxed devices with [O]:[S] of 2:1 and both relaxed and light soaked devices with [O]:[S] of 1:1. Corroborated with one-dimensional electronic band structure simulation results, we attribute this additional decay lifetime to radiative recombination in the absorber due to excessive acceptor-type defects in sulfur-rich Zn(O,S) buffer layer that causes a buildup in interface-barrier for charge transport. A light soaking step shortens the carrier lifetime for the moderately sulfur-rich 2:1 device when excess acceptors are passivated in the buffer, reducing the crossover in the dark and illuminated I-V curves. However, when a high concentration of excess acceptors exist in the buffer and cannot be passivated by light soaking, as with the sulfur-rich 1:1 device, then cell efficiency of the device will remain low.

  10. X-ray luminescence computed tomography: a sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lun, Michael C.; Zhang, Wei; Li, Changqing

    2017-03-01

    X-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT) is a hybrid molecular imaging modality that uses high energy x-ray photons to excite nanophosphors (e.g. Europium doped Gadolinium Oxysulfide - GOS: Eu3+) emitting optical photons to be measured by a sensitive detector for image reconstruction. XLCT has potentials to combine both the merits of x-ray imaging (high spatial resolution) and optical imaging (high sensitivity), which makes XLCT an attractive imaging modality to image nanophosphor targets deeply embedded in turbid media. In this study, we have evaluated the sensitivity of XLCT with phantom experiments by scanning targets of different phosphor concentrations at different depths. Cylindrical phantoms embedded with a cylindrical target with varying concentrations of GOS: Eu3+ (27.6 mM, 2.76 mM, 276 μM, and 27.6 μM) were scanned inside our lab made XLCT imaging system for varying scanning depths (6, 11, 16, and 21 mm). We found that XLCT is capable of imaging targets of very low concentrations (27.6 μM or 0.01 mg/mL) at significant depths, such as 21 mm. Our results demonstrate that there is also little variation in the reconstructed target size for different imaging depths for XLCT. We have for the first time, compared the sensitivity of XLCT with that of traditional computed tomography (CT) for phosphor targets. We found that XLCT's use of x-ray induced photons provides much higher measurement sensitivity and contrast compared to CT which provides image contrast solely based on x-ray attenuation.

  11. Improving detector spatial resolution using pixelated scintillators with a barrier rib structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Langechuan; Lu, Minghui; Cao, Wanqing; Peng, Luke; Chen, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    Indirect conversion flat panel detectors (FPDs) based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) technology are widely used in digital X-ray imaging. In such FPDs a scintillator layer is used for converting X-rays into visible light photons. However, the lateral spread of these photons inside the scintillator layer reduces spatial resolution of the FPD. In this study, FPDs incorporating pixelated scintillators with a barrier rib structure were developed to limit lateral spread of light photons thereby improving spatial resolution. For the pixelated scintillator, a two-dimensional barrier rib structure was first manufactured on a substrate layer, coated with reflective materials, and filled to the rim with the scintillating material of gadolinium oxysulfide (GOS). Several scintillator samples were fabricated, with pitch size varying from 160 to 280 μm and rib height from 200 to 280 μm. The samples were directly coupled to an a-Si flat panel photodiode array with a pitch of 200 μm to convert optical photons to electronic signals. With the pixelated scintillator, the detector modulation transfer function was shown to improve significantly (by 94% at 2 cycle/mm) compared to a detector using an unstructured GOS layer. However, the prototype does show lower sensitivity due to the decrease in scintillator fill factor. The preliminary results demonstrated the feasibility of using the barrier-rib structure to improve the spatial resolution of FPDs. Such an improvement would greatly benefit nondestructive testing applications where the spatial resolution is the most important parameter. Further investigation will focus on improving the detector sensitivity and exploring its medical applications.

  12. A Hypothesis for Cast Iron Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John

    2009-12-01

    The various microstructures of cast irons are reviewed, including carbidic and graphite forms (flake, compacted, spheroidal, and undercooled, etc.), exploring whether the presence of externally introduced defects in the form of oxide double films (bifilms) in suspension in melts seem to provide, for the first time, a uniform explanation for all the structures and their properties. Silica-rich oxide bifilms provide the substrates on which oxysulfide particles form, nucleating graphite. The presence of the film provides the favored substrate over which graphite grows, which leads to the development of flake graphite. The addition of limited Mg to form compacted graphite destroys all but a remnant of the silica-rich bifilms. The oxide film remnant is stabilized by the presence of the graphite nucleus, which causes the graphite to grow unidirectionally in a filamentary form. The addition of excess Mg destroys all traces of the oxide bifilms, leaving only the original nuclei, around which graphite is now free to entirely enclose, initiating the spherical growth mode. Undercooled graphite is the true coupled growth form, nucleated at even lower temperatures in the absence of favorable film substrates in suspension; the graphite adopts a continuous growth mode in a matrix of austenite. Carbides in mottled and white irons form on the oxide bifilms that often lie along grain and interdendritic boundaries, which explains the apparent brittleness of these strong, hard phases. In most cases of nonspheroidal growth modes (flake and misshaped spheroids), it is proposed that the impairment of the mechanical properties of irons is not strongly determined by graphite morphology but by the presence of oxide bifilms. Spheroidal graphite iron has the potential for high properties because of the absence of bifilms.

  13. Novel applications of diagnostic x-rays in activating photo-agents through x-ray induced visible luminescence from rare-earth particles: an in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abliz, Erkinay; Collins, Joshua E.; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Kumar, Ajith; Bell, Howard; Waynant, Ronald W.; Tata, Darrell B.

    2010-02-01

    Photodynamic agents such as Photofrin II (Photo II) utilized in photodynamic therapy (PDT) possess a remarkable property to become preferentially retained within the tumor's micro-environment. Upon the photo-agent's activation through visible light photon absorption, the agents exert their cellular cytotoxicity through type II and type I mechanistic pathways through extensive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS): singlet oxygen 1O2, superoxide anion O2 -, and hydrogen peroxide H2O2, within the intratumoral environment. Unfortunately, due to shallow visible light penetration depth (~2mm to 5mm) in tissues, the PDT strategy currently has largely been restricted to the treatments of surface tumors, such as the melanomas. Additional invasive strategies through optical fibers are currently utilized in getting the visible light into the intended deep seated targets within the body for PDT. In this communication, we report on a novel strategy in utilizing "soft" energy diagnostic X-rays to indirectly activate Photo II through X-ray induced luminescence from Gadolinium oxysulfide (20 micron dimension) particles doped with Terbium: Gd2O2S:Tb. X-ray induced visible luminescence from Gd2O2S:Tb particles was spectroscopically characterized and the ROS production levels from clinically relevant concentration (10 μg/ml) of Photo II was quantified through changes in the Vitamin C absorbance. ROS kinetics through X-ray induced luminescence was found to be similar to the ROS kinetics from red He-Ne laser exposures used in the clinics. Taken together, in-vitro findings herein provide the basis for future studies in determining the safety and efficacy of this non-invasive X-ray induced luminescence strategy in activating photo-agent in deep seated tumors.

  14. Evaluation of the modulation transfer function of megavoltage X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Jung-Whan; Kim, Ki-Won; Kim, Jung-Min; Choi, In-Seok; Jeong, Hoi-Woun; Son, Soon-Yong; Back, Geum-Mun; Jung, Jae-Hong; Jung, Jae-Yong; Choe, Bo-Young

    2014-12-01

    The modulation transfer function (MTF) must be measured against the requirements of the specific digital imaging application under consideration in order to evaluate the performance of detector equipment and to further develop the detector by performing quality-assurance (QA) procedures. The purpose of this study was to measure the MTF in digital megavoltage images (DMVs) for radiation therapy (RT) by using an edge block. We used 6 megavolts (MVs) of energy for the pre-sampling MTF, along with a photo-stimulating phosphor-based computed radiography (CR) system and a hexalon lead screen that contained a terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide granular phosphor (Gd2O2S:Tb). The DMV MTF was measured at both low and high resolutions according to changes in the dose in monitor units (MUs) by using four different detector combinations: CR-IP (image plate: photo-stimulable phosphor screen), CR-IP-Lead (image plate + lead screen), CR-IP-Regular (fast front screen + image plate + fast front screen) and CR-IP-Fast (fast back screen + image plate + fast front screen). At a low resolution, the MTF 50% and the MTF 10% when using the CR-IP detector increased by about 30% and 46%, in proportion to the increase in the dose from 1 to 20 MU, respectively. At a high resolution, the CR-IP and the CR-IP-Lead detectors showed increases in the MTF of about 8% or 10% when the dose increased from 1 to 20 MU. The present study, therefore, evaluates how edge methods can be helpful in taking MTF measurements during QA tests of a megavoltage imaging (MVI) system.

  15. Platinum Metal-Free Catalysts for Selective Soft Oxidative Methane → Ethylene Coupling. Scope and Mechanistic Observations.

    PubMed

    Peter, Matthias; Marks, Tobin J

    2015-12-09

    Using abundant soft oxidants, a high methane-to-ethylene conversion might be achievable due to the low thermodynamic driving force for over-oxidation. Here we report on the oxidative coupling of methane by gaseous S2 (SOCM). The catalytic properties of Pd/Fe3O4 are compared with those of Fe3O4, and it is found that high ethylene selectivities can be achieved without noble metals; conversion and selectivity on Fe3O4 are stable for at least 48 h at SOCM conditions. SOCM data for 10 oxides are compared, and ethylene selectivities as high as 33% are found; the C2H4/C2H6 ratios of 9-12 observed at the highest S2 conversions are significantly higher than the C2H4/C2H6 ratios usually found in the CH4 coupling with O2. Complementary in-detail analytical studies show that, on Mg, Zr, Sm, W, and La catalysts, which strongly coke during the reaction, lower ethylene selectivities are observed than on Fe, Ti, and Cr catalysts, which only coke to a minor extent. Further catalyst-dependent changes during SOCM in surface area, surface composition, and partial conversion to oxysulfides and sulfides are discussed. Evidence concerning the reaction mechanism is obtained taking into account the selectivity for the different reaction products versus the contact time. CH4 coupling proceeds non-oxidatively with the evolution of H2 on some catalysts, and evidence is presented that C2H4 and C2H2 formation occur via C2H6 and C2H4 dehydrogenation, respectively.

  16. Comparative investigation of the detective quantum efficiency of direct and indirect conversion detector technologies in dedicated breast CT.

    PubMed

    Kuttig, Jan D; Steiding, Christian; Kolditz, Daniel; Hupfer, Martin; Karolczak, Marek; Kalender, Willi A

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the dose saving potential of direct-converting CdTe photon-counting detector technology for dedicated breast CT. We analyzed the modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS) and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of two detector technologies, suitable for breast CT (BCT): a flat-panel energy-integrating detector with a 70 μm and a 208 μm thick gadolinium oxysulfide (GOS) and a 150 μm thick cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator and a photon-counting detector with a 1000 μm thick CdTe sensor. The measurements for GOS scintillator thicknesses of 70 μm and 208 μm delivered 10% pre-sampled MTF values of 6.6 mm(-1) and 3.2 mm(-1), and DQE(0) values of 23% and 61%. The 10% pre-sampled MTF value for the 150 μm thick CsI scintillator 6.9 mm(-1), and the DQE(0) value was 49%. The CdTe sensor reached a 10% pre-sampled MTF value of 8.5 mm(-1) and a DQE(0) value of 85%. The photon-counting CdTe detector technology allows for significant dose reduction compared to the energy-integrating scintillation detector technology used in BCT today. Our comparative evaluation indicates that a high potential dose saving may be possible for BCT by using CdTe detectors, without loss of spatial resolution. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microstructure, texture evolution and magnetic properties of strip-casting non-oriented 6.5 wt.% Si electrical steel doped with cerium

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hao-Ze Liu, Hai-Tao; Liu, Zhen-Yu Wang, Guo-Dong

    2015-05-15

    A 0.3 mm thick non-oriented 6.5 wt.% Si electrical steel sheet doped with cerium is produced by twin-roll strip casting, hot rolling, warm rolling and annealing. A detailed study of the cerium precipitates in the as-cast strip, microstructure and texture evolution at different processing stages is carried out by electron probe micro-analysis, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction analysis. Grain interior distributing precipitates identified as Ce-oxides, Ce-oxysulfides and Ce-phosphides, and boundary distributing Ce-oxides and Ce-phosphides are observed in the as-cast strip. The initial as-cast strip is characterized by a much finer solidification microstructure and dominated by obvious < 001 >//ND texture through the strip thickness. After hot and warm rolling, inhomogeneous microstructure containing large amounts of in-grain shear bands is characterized by mixed < 110 >//RD and < 111 >//ND textures. The texture of the annealed sheet with a relatively large average grain size is far more optimized by the domination of the beneficial cube, rotated cube, (001)< 120 > to (001)< 130 > and Goss texture components, and the elimination of the detrimental γ-fiber texture, leading to a superior magnetic induction and improved iron loss. - Highlights: • An Fe–6.5 wt.% Si as-cast strip doped with cerium was produced. • A thin warm rolled sheet with limited edge cracks was obtained. • Microstructure and texture evolution at each stage were investigated. • Strong λ-fiber and Goss recrystallization textures were formed. • The magnetic properties of the annealed sheet were significantly improved.

  18. Hybrid x-ray/optical luminescence imaging: Characterization of experimental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, C. M.; Sun, C.; Pratx, G.; Rao, R.; Xing, L.

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The feasibility of x-ray luminescence imaging is investigated using a dual-modality imaging system that merges x-ray and optical imaging. This modality utilizes x-ray activated nanophosphors that luminesce when excited by ionizing photons. By doping phosphors with lanthanides, which emit light in the visible and near infrared range, the luminescence is suitable for biological applications. This study examines practical aspects of this new modality including phosphor concentration, light emission linearity, detector damage, and spectral emission characteristics. Finally, the contrast produced by these phosphors is compared to that of x-ray fluoroscopy. Methods: Gadolinium and lanthanum oxysulfide phosphors doped with terbium (green emission) or europium (red emission) were studied. The light emission was imaged in a clinical x-ray scanner with a cooled CCD camera and a spectrophotometer; dose measurements were determined with a calibrated dosimeter. Using these properties, in addition to luminescence efficiency values found in the literature for a similar phosphor, minimum concentration calculations are performed. Finally, a 2.5 cm agar phantom with a 1 cm diameter cylindrical phosphor-filled inclusion (diluted at 10 mg/ml) is imaged to compare x-ray luminescence contrast with x-ray fluoroscopic contrast at a superficial location. Results: Dose to the CCD camera in the chosen imaging geometry was measured at less than 0.02 cGy/s. Emitted light was found to be linear with dose (R{sup 2}=1) and concentration (R{sup 2}=1). Emission peaks for clinical x-ray energies are less than 3 nm full width at half maximum, as expected from lanthanide dopants. The minimum practical concentration necessary to detect luminescent phosphors is dependent on dose; it is estimated that subpicomolar concentrations are detectable at the surface of the tissue with typical mammographic doses, with the minimum detectable concentration increasing with depth and decreasing with dose. In

  19. Crystal Chemistry and Ceramic Processing of Rare Earth Chalcogenide Optical and Electronic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Cheryl Marie

    1990-01-01

    The thesis is concerned with the development of new IR transmitting materials for the 8-14 micrometer atomspheric window. The strategy was to investigate, in detail, the synthesis, crystal chemistry, processing, optical, and electronic properties of the rare earth sulfide as candidate materials. The rare earths crystallize in five known structures. Study of their temperature stabilities during long reaction times showed that alpha (orthorhombic, Pnma) exists as the low temperature form, and gamma (cubic, I| 43d) exists as the high temperature form in the large rare earths. Delta (monoclinic, P2/m) exists in the smaller rare earths from Ho through Tm over all temperature ranges, and episilon (trigonal, R| 3c) forms from Yb and Lu. Beta (tetragonal, I4/acd), which is reported in literature as a mid temperature range, oxygen stabilized rare earth sulfide, appears to be an oxysulfide and is an intermediate step between the oxide and sulfide from La through Nd. Extremely fine-grained precursor oxides were synthesized by evaporative decomposition of solution. An ultrasonic dispersion of aqueous nitrate salts is misted into a hot walled furnace. The 2-5 micrometer resulting oxides were predominantly well-crystallized spherical particles. The sesquisulfides could be readily synthesized by direct reaction of the oxides with flowing H_2S in the presence of graphite. These reactive, fine-grained, EDS-derived sulfides could be sintered into ceramic compacts that achieved 92 -98 percent of theoretical density. Sintering temperatures from 1200^circ-1400 ^circC and time of 80-120 minutes in flowing H_2S produced the best ceramics. This method of preparation is superior to the method using stock 25-35 micrometer starting materials which only received 70-78 percent of theoretical density. The measurement of the electronic absorption edge yielded band gaps of 1.6-2.6 eV. The first-order transverse and longitudinal phonon frequencies obtained by specular reflectance FTIR spectroscopy

  20. Hybrid x-ray/optical luminescence imaging: characterization of experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, C M; Sun, C; Pratx, G; Rao, R; Xing, L

    2010-08-01

    The feasibility of x-ray luminescence imaging is investigated using a dual-modality imaging system that merges x-ray and optical imaging. This modality utilizes x-ray activated nanophosphors that luminesce when excited by ionizing photons. By doping phosphors with lanthanides, which emit light in the visible and near infrared range, the luminescence is suitable for biological applications. This study examines practical aspects of this new modality including phosphor concentration, light emission linearity, detector damage, and spectral emission characteristics. Finally, the contrast produced by these phosphors is compared to that of x-ray fluoroscopy. Gadolinium and lanthanum oxysulfide phosphors doped with terbium (green emission) or europium (red emission) were studied. The light emission was imaged in a clinical x-ray scanner with a cooled CCD camera and a spectrophotometer; dose measurements were determined with a calibrated dosimeter. Using these properties, in addition to luminescence efficiency values found in the literature for a similar phosphor, minimum concentration calculations are performed. Finally, a 2.5 cm agar phantom with a 1 cm diameter cylindrical phosphor-filled inclusion (diluted at 10 mg/ml) is imaged to compare x-ray luminescence contrast with x-ray fluoroscopic contrast at a superficial location. Dose to the CCD camera in the chosen imaging geometry was measured at less than 0.02 cGy/s. Emitted light was found to be linear with dose (R(2)= 1) and concentration (R(2)= 1). Emission peaks for clinical x-ray energies are less than 3 nm full width at half maximum, as expected from lanthanide dopants. The minimum practical concentration necessary to detect luminescent phosphors is dependent on dose; it is estimated that subpicomolar concentrations are detectable at the surface of the tissue with typical mammographic doses, with the minimum detectable concentration increasing with depth and decreasing with dose. In a reflection geometry, x

  1. Nano Ce2O2S with Highly Enriched Oxygen-Deficient Ce(3+) Sites Supported by N and S Dual-Doped Carbon as an Active Oxygen-Supply Catalyst for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Cai, Zhuang; Hao, Liang; Xing, Zipeng; Dai, Ying; Xu, Xin; Pan, Siyu; Duan, Yaqiang; Zou, Jinlong

    2017-07-12

    The design of rare-earth-metal oxide/oxysulfide catalysts with high activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is still a grand challenge at present. In this study, Ce-species (Ce2O2S/CeO2)/N, S dual-doped carbon (Ce-species/NSC) catalysts with promising oxygen storage/release capacities are prepared at different temperatures (800-1000 °C) to enhance the ORR efficiency. Mechanisms for the effects of temperature on crystalline phase transition between CeO2 and Ce2O2S and structure evolution of Ce-species/NSCs are inferred to better understand their catalytic activity. Porous Ce2O2S/NSC (950 °C) catalyst as the air-breathing cathode exhibits a maximum power density of 1087.2 mW m(-2), which is higher than those of other Ce-species/NSCs and commercial Pt/C (989.13 mW m(-2)) in microbial fuel cells. The decline of the power density of Ce2O2S/NSC (950 °C) cathode is 8.7% after 80 days of operation, which is far lower than that of Pt/C (36.7%). Ce2O2S/NSC (950 °C) has a four-electron selectivity toward the ORR and a low charge-transfer resistance (5.49 Ω), contributing to high ORR activity and durability. The promising ORR catalytic activity of Ce2O2S/NSC (950 °C) is attributed to its high specific surface area (338.9 m(2) g(-1)), varied active sites, high electrical conductivity, and sufficient oxygen vacancies in the Ce2O2S skeleton. The high content of Ce(3+) in Ce2O2S/NSC (950 °C) facilitates the formation of more oxygen-deficient Ce(3+) sites that generate more oxygen vacancies to release/store more oxygen to stabilize the available oxygen for the ORR. Thus, this study provides a new perspective for preparation and application of this new type of the ORR catalyst.

  2. WE-D-17A-02: Evaluation of a Two-Dimensional Optical Dosimeter On Measuring Lateral Profiles of Proton Pencil Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hsi, W; Lee, T; Schultz, T; Arjomandy, B; Park, S; Gao, M; Pankuch, M; Boyer, S; Mah, D; Pillainayagam, M; Schreuder, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of a two-dimensional optical dosimeter on measuring lateral profiles for spots and scanned fields of proton pencil beams. Methods: A digital camera with a color image senor was utilized to image proton-induced scintillations on Gadolinium-oxysulfide phosphor reflected by a stainless-steel mirror. Intensities of three colors were summed for each pixel with proper spatial-resolution calibration. To benchmark this dosimeter, the field size and penumbra for 100mm square fields of singleenergy pencil-scan protons were measured and compared between this optical dosimeter and an ionization-chamber profiler. Sigma widths of proton spots in air were measured and compared between this dosimeter and a commercial optical dosimeter. Clinical proton beams with ranges between 80 mm and 300 mm at CDH proton center were used for this benchmark. Results: Pixel resolutions vary 1.5% between two perpendicular axes. For a pencil-scan field with 302 mm range, measured field sizes and penumbras between two detection systems agreed to 0.5 mm and 0.3 mm, respectively. Sigma widths agree to 0.3 mm between two optical dosimeters for a proton spot with 158 mm range; having widths of 5.76 mm and 5.92 mm for X and Y axes, respectively. Similar agreements were obtained for others beam ranges. This dosimeter was successfully utilizing on mapping the shapes and sizes of proton spots at the technical acceptance of McLaren proton therapy system. Snow-flake spots seen on images indicated the image sensor having pixels damaged by radiations. Minor variations in intensity between different colors were observed. Conclusions: The accuracy of our dosimeter was in good agreement with other established devices in measuring lateral profiles of pencil-scan fields and proton spots. A precise docking mechanism for camera was designed to keep aligned optical path while replacing damaged image senor. Causes for minor variations between emitted color lights will be investigated.

  3. The energy transfer phenomena and colour tunability in Y2O2S:Eu(3+)/Dy(3+) micro-fibers for white emission in solid state lighting applications.

    PubMed

    Som, S; Mitra, P; Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Vinod; Terblans, J J; Swart, H C; Sharma, S K

    2014-07-14

    This paper reports on the structural, optical and photometric characterization of an Eu(3+)/Dy(3+) doped yttrium oxysulfide phosphor (Y2O2S:Eu(3+)/Dy(3+)) for near white emission in solid state lighting. A series of Y2O2S phosphors doped with Eu(3+)/Dy(3+) were prepared by the hydrothermal method. The microstructures of the as-synthesized phosphors were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD results reveal that the obtained powder phosphors have a single-phase hexagonal structure and also indicate that the incorporation of the dopants/co-dopants did not affect the crystal structure. The SEM images reveal the morphology of the prepared phosphors as an intense interpenetrating network of interconnected micro-fibers with a diameter of about 0.15 μm. The band gap of the phosphors was calculated from diffuse reflectance spectra using the Kubelka-Munk function. The Eu(3+), Dy(3+) doped and Eu(3+)/Dy(3+) co-doped phosphors illuminated with ultraviolet light showed characteristic red luminescence corresponding to the (5)D0→(7)FJ transitions of Eu(3+) and characteristic blue and yellow luminescence corresponding to the (4)F9/2→(6)H15/2 or (4)F9/2→(6)H13/2 transitions of Dy(3+). The luminescence spectra, the energy transfer efficiency and the decay curves of the phosphors indicated that there exists a strong energy transfer from Dy(3+) to Eu(3+) and this was demonstrated to be a resonant type via a dipole-quadrupole reaction. Furthermore, the critical distance of the Eu(3+) and Dy(3+) ions have also been calculated. By utilizing the principle of energy transfer it was also demonstrated that with an appropriate tuning of the activator content the Y2O2S:Eu(3+)/Dy(3+) phosphors can exhibit a great potential to act as single-emitting component phosphors for white light emission in solid state lighting technology.

  4. Flexible radioluminescence imaging for FDG-guided surgery.

    PubMed

    King, Martin T; Jenkins, Cesare H; Sun, Conroy; Carpenter, Colin M; Ma, Xiaowei; Cheng, Kai; Le, Quynh-Thu; Sunwoo, John B; Cheng, Zhen; Pratx, Guillem; Xing, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Flexible radioluminescence imaging (Flex-RLI) is an optical method for imaging (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid tumors. The authors hypothesize that a gadolinium oxysulfide: terbium (GOS:Tb) flexible scintillator, which loosely conforms to the body contour, can enhance tumor signal-to-background ratio (SBR) compared with RLI, which utilizes a flat scintillator. The purpose of this paper is to characterize flex-RLI with respect to alternative modalities including RLI, beta-RLI (RLI with gamma rejection), and Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI). The photon sensitivity, spatial resolution, and signal linearity of flex-RLI were characterized with in vitro phantoms. In vivo experiments utilizing 13 nude mice inoculated with the head and neck (UMSCC1-Luc) cell line were then conducted in accordance with the institutional Administrative Panel on Laboratory Animal Care. After intravenous injection of (18)F-FDG, the tumor SBR values for flex-RLI were compared to those for RLI, beta-RLI, and CLI using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. With respect to photon sensitivity, RLI, beta-RLI, and flex-RLI produced 1216.2, 407.0, and 98.6 times more radiance per second than CLI. Respective full-width half maximum values across a 0.5 mm capillary tube were 6.9, 6.4, 2.2, and 1.5 mm, respectively. Flex-RLI demonstrated a near perfect correlation with (18)F activity (r = 0.99). Signal uniformity for flex-RLI improved after more aggressive homogenization of the GOS powder with the silicone elastomer during formulation. In vivo, the SBR value for flex-RLI (median 1.29; interquartile range 1.18-1.36) was statistically greater than that for RLI (1.08; 1.02-1.14; p < 0.01) by 26%. However, there was no statistically significant difference in SBR values between flex-RLI and beta-RLI (p = 0.92). Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference in SBR values between flex-RLI and CLI (p = 0.11) in a more limited dataset. Flex-RLI provides high quality images with SBRs comparable to

  5. UT-CT: A National Resource for Applications of High-Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography in the Geological Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, W. D.; Ketcham, R. A.; Rowe, T. B.

    2002-12-01

    An NSF-sponsored (EAR-IF) shared multi-user facility dedicated to research applications of high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) in the geological sciences has been in operation since 1997 at the University of Texas at Austin. The centerpiece of the facility is an industrial CT scanner custom-designed for geological applications. Because the instrument can optimize trade-offs among penetrating ability, spatial resolution, density discrimination, imaging modes, and scan times, it can image a very broad range of geological specimens and materials, and thus offers significant advantages over medical scanners and desktop microtomographs. Two tungsten-target X-ray sources (200-kV microfocal and 420-kV) and three X-ray detectors (image-intensifier, high-sensitivity cadmium tungstate linear array, and high-resolution gadolinium-oxysulfide radiographic line scanner) can be used in various combinations to meet specific imaging goals. Further flexibility is provided by multiple imaging modes: second-generation (translate-rotate), third-generation (rotate-only; centered and variably offset), and cone-beam (volume CT). The instrument can accommodate specimens as small as about 1 mm on a side, and as large as 0.5 m in diameter and 1.5 m tall. Applications in petrology and structural geology include measuring crystal sizes and locations to identify mechanisms governing the kinetics of metamorphic reactions; visualizing relationships between alteration zones and abundant macrodiamonds in Siberian eclogites to elucidate metasomatic processes in the mantle; characterizing morphologies of spiral inclusion trails in garnet to test hypotheses of porphyroblast rotation during growth; measuring vesicle size distributions in basaltic flows for determination of elevation at the time of eruption to constrain timing and rates of continental uplift; analysis of the geometry, connectivity, and tortuosity of migmatite leucosomes to define the topology of melt flow paths, for numerical

  6. A piecewise-focused high DQE detector for MV imaging.

    PubMed

    Star-Lack, Josh; Shedlock, Daniel; Swahn, Dennis; Humber, Dave; Wang, Adam; Hirsh, Hayley; Zentai, George; Sawkey, Daren; Kruger, Isaac; Sun, Mingshan; Abel, Eric; Virshup, Gary; Shin, Mihye; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    Electronic portal imagers (EPIDs) with high detective quantum efficiencies (DQEs) are sought to facilitate the use of the megavoltage (MV) radiotherapy treatment beam for image guidance. Potential advantages include high quality (treatment) beam's eye view imaging, and improved cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) generating images with more accurate electron density maps with immunity to metal artifacts. One approach to increasing detector sensitivity is to couple a thick pixelated scintillator array to an active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) incorporating amorphous silicon thin film electronics. Cadmium tungstate (CWO) has many desirable scintillation properties including good light output, a high index of refraction, high optical transparency, and reasonable cost. However, due to the 0 1 0 cleave plane inherent in its crystalline structure, the difficulty of cutting and polishing CWO has, in part, limited its study relative to other scintillators such as cesium iodide and bismuth germanate (BGO). The goal of this work was to build and test a focused large-area pixelated "strip" CWO detector. A 361 × 52 mm scintillator assembly that contained a total of 28 072 pixels was constructed. The assembly comprised seven subarrays, each 15 mm thick. Six of the subarrays were fabricated from CWO with a pixel pitch of 0.784 mm, while one array was constructed from BGO for comparison. Focusing was achieved by coupling the arrays to the Varian AS1000 AMFPI through a piecewise linear arc-shaped fiber optic plate. Simulation and experimental studies of modulation transfer function (MTF) and DQE were undertaken using a 6 MV beam, and comparisons were made between the performance of the pixelated strip assembly and the most common EPID configuration comprising a 1 mm-thick copper build-up plate attached to a 133 mg/cm(2) gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator screen (Cu-GOS). Projection radiographs and CBCT images of phantoms were acquired. The work also introduces the use of a

  7. Analysis of a free-running synchronization artifact correction for MV-imaging with aSi:H flat panels

    SciTech Connect

    Mooslechner, Michaela; Mitterlechner, Bernhard; Weichenberger, Harald; Sedlmayer, Felix; Deutschmann, Heinz; Huber, Stefan

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Solid state flat panel electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are widely used for megavolt (MV) photon imaging applications in radiotherapy. In addition to their original purpose in patient position verification, they are convenient to use in quality assurance and dosimetry to verify beam geometry and dose deposition or to perform linear accelerator (linac) calibration procedures. However, native image frames from amorphous silicon (aSi:H) detectors show a range of artifacts which have to be eliminated by proper correction algorithms. When a panel is operated in free-running frame acquisition mode, moving vertical stripes (periodic synchronization artifacts) are a disturbing feature in image frames. Especially for applications in volumetric intensity modulated arc therapy (VMAT) or motion tracking, the synchronization (sync) artifacts are the limiting factor for potential and accuracy since they become even worse at higher frame rates and at lower dose rates, i.e., linac pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs). Methods: The authors introduced a synchronization correction method which is based on a theoretical model describing the interferences of the panel's readout clocking with the linac's dose pulsing. Depending on the applied PRF, a certain number of dose pulses is captured per frame which is readout columnwise, sequentially. The interference of the PRF with the panel readout is responsible for the period and the different gray value levels of the sync stripes, which can be calculated analytically. Sync artifacts can then be eliminated multiplicatively in precorrected frames without additional information about radiation pulse timing. Results: For the analysis, three aSi:H EPIDs of various types were investigated with 6 and 15 MV photon beams at varying PRFs of 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 pulses per second. Applying the sync correction at panels with gadolinium oxysulfide scintillators improved single frame flood field image quality drastically

  8. Analysis of a free-running synchronization artifact correction for MV-imaging with aSi:H flat panels.

    PubMed

    Mooslechner, Michaela; Mitterlechner, Bernhard; Weichenberger, Harald; Huber, Stefan; Sedlmayer, Felix; Deutschmann, Heinz

    2013-03-01

    Solid state flat panel electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are widely used for megavolt (MV) photon imaging applications in radiotherapy. In addition to their original purpose in patient position verification, they are convenient to use in quality assurance and dosimetry to verify beam geometry and dose deposition or to perform linear accelerator (linac) calibration procedures. However, native image frames from amorphous silicon (aSi:H) detectors show a range of artifacts which have to be eliminated by proper correction algorithms. When a panel is operated in free-running frame acquisition mode, moving vertical stripes (periodic synchronization artifacts) are a disturbing feature in image frames. Especially for applications in volumetric intensity modulated arc therapy (VMAT) or motion tracking, the synchronization (sync) artifacts are the limiting factor for potential and accuracy since they become even worse at higher frame rates and at lower dose rates, i.e., linac pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs). The authors introduced a synchronization correction method which is based on a theoretical model describing the interferences of the panel's readout clocking with the linac's dose pulsing. Depending on the applied PRF, a certain number of dose pulses is captured per frame which is readout columnwise, sequentially. The interference of the PRF with the panel readout is responsible for the period and the different gray value levels of the sync stripes, which can be calculated analytically. Sync artifacts can then be eliminated multiplicatively in precorrected frames without additional information about radiation pulse timing. For the analysis, three aSi:H EPIDs of various types were investigated with 6 and 15 MV photon beams at varying PRFs of 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 pulses per second. Applying the sync correction at panels with gadolinium oxysulfide scintillators improved single frame flood field image quality drastically [improvement of the signal

  9. A piecewise-focused high DQE detector for MV imaging

    PubMed Central

    Star-Lack, Josh; Shedlock, Daniel; Swahn, Dennis; Humber, Dave; Wang, Adam; Hirsh, Hayley; Zentai, George; Sawkey, Daren; Kruger, Isaac; Sun, Mingshan; Abel, Eric; Virshup, Gary; Shin, Mihye; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Electronic portal imagers (EPIDs) with high detective quantum efficiencies (DQEs) are sought to facilitate the use of the megavoltage (MV) radiotherapy treatment beam for image guidance. Potential advantages include high quality (treatment) beam’s eye view imaging, and improved cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) generating images with more accurate electron density maps with immunity to metal artifacts. One approach to increasing detector sensitivity is to couple a thick pixelated scintillator array to an active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) incorporating amorphous silicon thin film electronics. Cadmium tungstate (CWO) has many desirable scintillation properties including good light output, a high index of refraction, high optical transparency, and reasonable cost. However, due to the 0 1 0 cleave plane inherent in its crystalline structure, the difficulty of cutting and polishing CWO has, in part, limited its study relative to other scintillators such as cesium iodide and bismuth germanate (BGO). The goal of this work was to build and test a focused large-area pixelated “strip” CWO detector. Methods: A 361  ×  52 mm scintillator assembly that contained a total of 28 072 pixels was constructed. The assembly comprised seven subarrays, each 15 mm thick. Six of the subarrays were fabricated from CWO with a pixel pitch of 0.784 mm, while one array was constructed from BGO for comparison. Focusing was achieved by coupling the arrays to the Varian AS1000 AMFPI through a piecewise linear arc-shaped fiber optic plate. Simulation and experimental studies of modulation transfer function (MTF) and DQE were undertaken using a 6 MV beam, and comparisons were made between the performance of the pixelated strip assembly and the most common EPID configuration comprising a 1 mm-thick copper build-up plate attached to a 133 mg/cm2 gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator screen (Cu-GOS). Projection radiographs and CBCT images of phantoms were acquired. The work

  10. Geochemical Exploration Techniques Applicable in the Search for Copper Deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, Maurice A.

    1975-01-01

    Geochemical exploration is an important part of copper-resource evaluation. A large number of geochemical exploration techniques, both proved and untried, are available to the geochemist to use in the search for new copper deposits. Analyses of whole-rock samples have been used in both regional and local geochemical exploration surveys in the search for copper. Analyses of mineral separates, such as biotite, magnetite, and sulfides, have also been used. Analyses of soil samples are widely used in geochemical exploration, especially for localized surveys. It is important to distinguish between residual and transported soil types. Orientation studies should always be conducted prior to a geochemical investigation in a given area in order to determine the best soil horizon and the best size of soil material for sampling in that area. Silty frost boils, caliche, and desert varnish are specialized types of soil samples that might be useful sampling media. Soil gas is a new and potentially valuable geochemical sampling medium, especially in exploring for buried mineral deposits in arid regions. Gaseous products in samples of soil may be related to base-metal deposits and include mercury vapor, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon oxysulfide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, the noble gases, the halogens, and many hydrocarbon compounds. Transported materials that have been used in geochemical sampling programs include glacial float boulders, glacial till, esker gravels, stream sediments, stream-sediment concentrates, and lake sediments. Stream-sediment sampling is probably the most widely used and most successful geochemical exploration technique. Hydrogeochemical exploration programs have utilized hot- and cold-spring waters and their precipitates as well as waters from lakes, streams, and wells. Organic gel found in lakes and at stream mouths is an unproved sampling medium. Suspended material and dissolved gases in any type of water may also be useful

  11. Metal oxide electrocatalysts for alternative energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacquette, Adele Lawren

    This dissertation focuses on the development of metal oxide electrocatalysts with varying applications for alternative energy technologies. Interest in utilizing clean, renewable and sustainable sources of energy for powering the planet in the future has received much attention. This will address the growing concern of the need to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. The facile synthesis of metal oxides from earth abundant metals was explored in this work. The electrocatalysts can be incorporated into photoelectrochemical devices, fuel cells, and other energy storage devices. The first section addresses the utilization of semiconductors that can harness solar energy for water splitting to generate hydrogen. An oxysulfide was studied in order to combine the advantageous properties of the stability of metal oxides and the visible light absorbance of metal chalcogenides. Bi 2O2S was synthesized under facile hydrothermal conditions. The band gap of Bi2O2S was smaller than that of its oxide counterpart, Bi2O3. Light absorption by Bi 2O2S was extended to the visible region (>600 nm) in comparison to Bi2O3. The formation of a composite with In 2O3 was formed in order to create a UV irradiation protective coating of the Bi2O2S. The Bi2O2S/In 2O3 composite coupled with a dye CrTPP(Cl) and cocatalysts Pt and Co3O4 was utilized for water splitting under light irradiation to generate hydrogen and oxygen. The second section focuses on improving the stability and light absorption of semiconductors by changing the shapes and morphologies. One of the limitations of semiconductor materials is that recombination of electron-hole pairs occur within the bulk of the materials instead of migration to the surface. Three-dimensional shapes, such as nanorods, can prevent this recombination in comparison to spherical particles. Hierarchical structures, such as dendrites, cubes, and multipods, were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, in order to reduce recombination and improve

  12. Novel applications of diagnostic X-rays in activating a clinical photodynamic drug: Photofrin II through X-ray induced visible luminescence from "rare-earth" formulated particles.

    PubMed

    Abliz, Erkinay; Collins, Joshua E; Bell, Howard; Tata, Darrell B

    2011-01-01

    In this communication we report on a novel non-invasive methodology in utilizing "soft" energy diagnostic X-rays to indirectly activate a photo-agent utilized in photodynamic therapy (PDT): Photofrin II (Photo II) through X-ray induced luminescence from Gadolinium Oxysulfide (20 micron dimension) particles doped with Terbium: Gd_{2}O_{2}S:Tb. Photodynamic agents such as Photo II utilized in PDT possess a remarkable property to become preferentially retained within the tumor's micro-environment. Upon the photo-agent's activation through (visible light) photon absorption, the agents exert their cellular cytotoxicity through type I and type II pathways through extensive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); namely, singlet oxygen ^{1}O_{2}, superoxide anion O_{2}^{-}, and hydrogen peroxide H_{2}O_{2}, within the intra-tumoral environment. Unfortunately, due to shallow visible light penetration depth (∼ 2 mm to 5 mm) in tissues, the current PDT strategy has largely been restricted to the treatment of surface tumors, such as the melanomas. Additional invasive strategies through optical fibers are currently utilized in getting the visible light into the intended deep seated targets within the body for PDT. X-ray induced visible luminescence from Gd_{2}O_{2}S:Tb particles were spectroscopically characterized, and the potential in-vitro cellular cytotoxicity of Gd_{2}O_{2}S:Tb particles on human glioblastoma cells (due to 48 Hrs Gd_{2}O_{2}S:Tb particle exposure) was screened through the MTS cellular metabolic assay. In-vitro human glioblastoma cellular exposures in presence of Photo II with Gd_{2}O_{2}S:Tb particles were performed in the dark in sterile 96 well tissue culture plates

  13. A novel method for quantification of beam's-eye-view tumor tracking performance.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-Houng; Myronakis, Marios; Rottmann, Joerg; Wang, Adam; Morf, Daniel; Shedlock, Daniel; Baturin, Paul; Star-Lack, Josh; Berbeco, Ross

    2017-09-09

    scintillator thickness and MLI architecture on tumor tracking performance. Quantification of MV images of lung tissue as an inverse power-law with respect to frequency yields exponent values of β = 3.11 and 3.29 for benign and malignant tissues, respectively. Tracking performance with and without fiducials was found to be generally limited by quantum noise, a factor dominated by quantum detective efficiency (QDE). For generic SLI construction, increasing the scintillator thickness (gadolinium oxysulfide - GOS) from a standard 290 μm to 1720 μm reduces noise to about 10%. However, 81% of this reduction is appreciated between 290 and 1000 μm. In comparing MLI and SLI detectors of equivalent individual GOS layer thickness, the improvement in noise is equal to the number of layers in the detector (i.e. 4) with almost no difference in MTF. Further, improvement in tracking performance was slightly less than the square-root of the reduction in noise, approximately 84-90%. In comparing an MLI detector with an SLI with a GOS scintillator of equivalent total thickness, improvement in object detectability is approximately 34-39%. We have presented a novel method for quantification of tumor tracking quality and have applied this model to evaluate the performance of SLI and MLI EPID designs. We showed that improved tracking quality is primarily limited by improvements in NPS. When compared to very thick scintillator SLI, employing MLI architecture exhibits the same gains in QDE, but by mitigating the effect of optical Swank noise, results in more dramatic improvements in tracking performance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Anode materials for sour natural gas solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilovic, Nemanja

    Novel anode catalysts have been developed for sour natural gas solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. Sour natural gas comprises light hydrocarbons, and typically also contains H2S. An alternative fuel SOFC that operates directly on sour natural gas would reduce the overall cost of plant construction and operation for fuel cell power generation. The anode for such a fuel cell must have good catalytic and electrocatalytic activity for hydrocarbon conversion, sulfur-tolerance, resistance to coking, and good electronic and ionic conductivity. The catalytic activity and stability of ABO3 (A= La, Ce and/or Sr, B=Cr and one or more of Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, or Co) perovskites as SOFC anode materials depends on both A and B, and are modified by substituents. The materials have been prepared by both solid state and wet-chemical methods. The physical and chemical characteristics of the materials have been fully characterized using electron microscopy, XRD, calorimetry, dilatometry, particle size and area, using XPS and TGA-DSC-MS. Electrochemical performance was determined using potentiodynamic and potentiostatic cell testing, electrochemical impedance analysis, and conductivity measurements. Neither Ce0.9Sr0.1VO3 nor Ce0.9 Sr0.1Cr0.5V0.5O3 was an active anode for oxidation of H2 and CH4 fuels. However, active catalysts comprising Ce0:9Sr0:1V(O,S)3 and Ce0.9Sr 0.1Cr0.5V0.5(O,S)3 were formed when small concentrations of H2S were present in the fuels. The oxysulfides formed in-situ were very active for conversion of H2S. The maximum performance improved from 50 mW cm-2 to 85 mW cm -2 in 0.5% H2S/CH4 at 850°C with partial substitution of V by Cr in Ce0.9Sr0.1V(O,S)3. Selective conversion of H2S offers potential for sweetening of sour gas without affecting the hydrocarbons. Perovskites La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5X 0.5O3--delta, (henceforth referred to as LSCX, X=Ti, Mn, Fe, Co) are active for conversion of H2, CH4 and 0.5% H2S/CH4. The order of activity in the different fuels depends on

  15. Optimization of phosphor-based detector design for oblique x-ray incidence in digital breast tomosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a volumetric reconstruction of the breast is generated from a limited range of x-ray projections. One trade-off of DBT is resolution loss in the projections due to non-normal (i.e., oblique) x-ray incidence. Although degradation in image quality due to oblique incidence has been studied using empirical data and Monte Carlo simulations, a theoretical treatment has been lacking. The purpose of this work is to extend Swank’s calculations of the transfer functions of turbid granular phosphors to oblique incidence. The model is ultimately used as a tool for optimizing the design of DBT detectors. Methods: A quantum-limited system and 20 keV x-rays are considered. Under these assumptions, the modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise power spectra (NPS) are derived using the diffusion approximation to the Boltzmann equation to model optical scatter within the phosphor. This approach is applicable to a nonstructured scintillator such as gadolinium oxysulfide doped with terbium (Gd2O2S:Tb), which is commonly used in breast imaging and which can reasonably approximate other detector materials. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is then determined from the Nishikawa formulation, where it is written as the product of the x-ray quantum detection efficiency, the Swank factor, and the Lubberts fraction. Transfer functions are calculated for both front- and back-screen configurations, which differ by positioning the photocathode at the exit or entrance point of the x-ray beam, respectively. Results: In the front-screen configuration, MTF and DQE are found to have considerable angular dependence, while NPS is shown to vary minimally with projection angle. As expected, the high frequency MTF and DQE are degraded substantially at large angles. By contrast, all transfer functions for the back-screen configuration have the advantage of significantly less angular dependence. Using these models, we investigated the possibility for

  16. Optimization of phosphor-based detector design for oblique x-ray incidence in digital breast tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: In digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a volumetric reconstruction of the breast is generated from a limited range of x-ray projections. One trade-off of DBT is resolution loss in the projections due to non-normal (i.e., oblique) x-ray incidence. Although degradation in image quality due to oblique incidence has been studied using empirical data and Monte Carlo simulations, a theoretical treatment has been lacking. The purpose of this work is to extend Swank's calculations of the transfer functions of turbid granular phosphors to oblique incidence. The model is ultimately used as a tool for optimizing the design of DBT detectors. Methods: A quantum-limited system and 20 keV x-rays are considered. Under these assumptions, the modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise power spectra (NPS) are derived using the diffusion approximation to the Boltzmann equation to model optical scatter within the phosphor. This approach is applicable to a nonstructured scintillator such as gadolinium oxysulfide doped with terbium (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb), which is commonly used in breast imaging and which can reasonably approximate other detector materials. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is then determined from the Nishikawa formulation, where it is written as the product of the x-ray quantum detection efficiency, the Swank factor, and the Lubberts fraction. Transfer functions are calculated for both front- and back-screen configurations, which differ by positioning the photocathode at the exit or entrance point of the x-ray beam, respectively. Results: In the front-screen configuration, MTF and DQE are found to have considerable angular dependence, while NPS is shown to vary minimally with projection angle. As expected, the high frequency MTF and DQE are degraded substantially at large angles. By contrast, all transfer functions for the back-screen configuration have the advantage of significantly less angular dependence. Using these models, we investigated the

  17. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian

    2013-12-23

    -circuit photocurrent density of the hybrid device (measured in a 2-electrode configuration) increased significantly without assistance of any external bias, i.e. from ≤1 mA/cm{sup 2} to ~5 mA/cm{sup 2}. With the copper chalcopyrite compounds, we have achieved a STH efficiency of 3.7% in a coplanar configuration with 3 a-Si solar cells and one CuGaSe{sub 2} photocathode. This material class exhibited good durability at a photocurrent density level of -4 mA/cm{sup 2} (“5% STH” equivalent) at a fixed potential (-0.45 VRHE). A poor band-edge alignment with the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) potential was identified as the main limitation for high STH efficiency. Three new pathways have been identified to solve this issue. First, PV driver with bandgap lower than that of amorphous silicon were investigated. Crystalline silicon was identified as possible bottom cell. Mechanical stacks made with one Si solar cell and one CuGaSe{sub 2} photocathode were built. A 400 mV anodic shift was observed with the Si cell, leading to photocurrent density of -5 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0VRHE (compared to 0 mA/cm{sup 2} at the same potential without PV driver). We also investigated the use of p-n junctions to shift CuGaSe{sub 2} flatband potential anodically. Reactively sputtered zinc oxy-sulfide thin films was evaluated as n-type buffer and deposited on CuGaSe{sub 2}. Ruthenium nanoparticles were then added as HER catalyst. A 250 mV anodic shift was observed with the p-n junction, leading to photocurrent density at 0VRHE of -1.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Combining this device with a Si solar cell in a mechanical stack configuration shifted the onset potential further (+400 mV anodically), leading to photocurrent density of -7 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0VRHE. Finally, we developed wide bandgap copper chalcopyrite thin film materials. We demonstrated that Se can be substituted with S using a simple annealing step. Photocurrent densities in the 5-6 mA/cm{sub 2} range were obtained with red 2.0eV CuInGaS{sub 2} photocathodes

  18. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    SiO[symbol]) ceramics via solid state sintering of Zr)[symbol] and SiO[symbol] and the effect of dopants on the zircon yield / U. Dhanayake, B. S. B. Karunaratne. Preparation and properties of vanadium doped ZnTe cermet thin films / M. S. Hossain, R. Islam, K. A. Khan. Dynamical properties and electronic structure of lithium-ion conductor / M. Kobayashi ... [et al.]. Cuprous ion conducting Montmorillonite-Polypyrrole nanocomposites / D. M. M. Krishantha ... [et al.]. Frequency dependence of conductivity studies on a newly synthesized superionic solid solution/mixed system: [0.75AgI: 0.25AgCl] / R. K. Nagarch, R. Kumar. Diffuse X-ray and neutron scattering from Powder PbS / X. Lian ... [et al.]. Electron affinity and work function of Pyrolytic MnO[symbol] thin films prepared from Mn(C[symbol]H[symbol]O[symbol])[symbol].4H[symbol]) / A. K. M. Farid Ul Islam, R. Islam, K. A. Khan. Crystal structure and heat capacity of Ba[symbol]Ca[symbol]Nb[symbol]O[symbol] / T. Shimoyama ... [et al.]. XPS and impedance investigations on amorphous vanadium oxide thin films / M. Kamalanathan ... [et al.]. Sintering and mixed electronic-ionic conducting properties of La[symbol]Sr[symbol]NiO[symbol] derived from a polyaminocarboxylate complex precursor / D.-P. Huang ... [et al.]. Preparation and characteristics of ball milled MgH[symbol] + M (M= Fe, VF[symbol] and FeF[symbol]) nanocomposites for hydrogen storage / N. W. B. Balasooriya, Ch. Poinsignon. Structural studies of oxysulfide glasses by X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulation / R. Prasada Rao, M. Seshasayee, J. Dheepa. Synthesis, sintering and oxygen ionic conducting properties of Bi[symbol]V[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] / F. Zhang ... [et al.]. Synthesis and transport characteristics of PbI[symbol]-Ag[symbol]O-Cr[symbol]O[symbol] superioninc system / S. A. Suthanthiraraj, V. Mathew. Electronic conductivity of La[symbol]Sr[symbol]Ga[symbol]Mg[symbol]Co[symbol]O[symbol] electrolytes / K. Yamaji ... [et al.] -- pt. II. Electrode materials