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Sample records for oxytetracycline tylosin sulfadiazin

  1. Withdrawal times of oxytetracycline and tylosin in eggs of laying hens after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Rubén; Cornejo, Javiera; Maddaleno, Aldo; Araya-Jordán, Carolina; Iragüen, Daniela; Pizarro, Nicolás; San Martín, Betty

    2014-06-01

    Antimicrobials administered to laying hens may be distributed into egg white or yolk, indicating the importance of evaluating withdrawal times (WDTs) of the pharmaceutical formulations. In the present study, oxytetracycline and tylosin's WDTs were estimated. The concentration and depletion of these molecules in eggs were linked to their pharmacokinetic and physicochemical properties. Twenty-seven Leghorn hens were used: 12 treated with oxytetracycline, 12 treated with tylosin, and 3 remained as an untreated control group. After completion of therapies, eggs were collected daily and drug concentrations in egg white and yolk were assessed. The yolk was used as the target tissue to evaluate the WDT; the results were 9 and 3 days for oxytetracycline and tylosin, respectively. In particular, oxytetracycline has a good oral bioavailability, a moderate apparent volume of distribution, a molecular weight of 460 g/mol, and is lightly liposoluble. Tylosin, a hydrosoluble compound, with a molecular weight of 916 g/mol, has a low oral bioavailability and a low apparent volume of distribution, too. Present results suggest that the WDTs of the studied antimicrobials are strongly influenced by their oral bioavailability, the distribution, and the molecular weight and solubility, and that these properties also influence the distribution between the egg yolk and white.

  2. [Binding of tylosin, tilmicosin and oxytetracycline to proteins from honeybees, larvae and beehive products].

    PubMed

    Reynaldi, F J; Lacunza, J; Alippi, A M; Rule, R

    2010-01-01

    American Foulbrood (AFB) caused by the spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the most serious disease of bacterial origin affecting larvae and pupae of honeybees. Antibiotics are used in many countries for the control of AFB in high incidence areas, but their misuse may lead to antibiotic resistance of bacterial strains and honey contamination. The objective of the present work was to determine, through a biological method, the protein binding of tylosin, tilmicosin and oxytetracycline to worker jelly; honey; pollen; adult bees and larvae in order to propose their kinetic routes. The sensitivity limit of the technique used was 0.05 μg/ml for tylosin and tilmicosin and 0.01 μg/ml for oxytetracycline, respectively. The method had intra and inter-assay correlation coefficients over 0.90, respectively and a coefficient variation of intra-and inter-assay for all antibiotics and processed samples under 5%. Tylosin and oxytetracycline presented lower percentages of protein binding in tissues and hive products (average 15%) in relation to those observed for tilmicosin (29%). In conclusion, tylosin is useful for AFB control in honey bee colonies due to its chemical characteristics, antimicrobial activity and levels of protein binding in bees, larvae, and beehive products.

  3. Comparative evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of sulfadiazine-trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin and florfenicol on Staphylococcus aureus-induced arthritis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, N; Shomali, T; Namazi, F; Marzban, M; Mohammadi, M; Boroojeni, A Motamedi

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and veterinary pathogen that causes economic loss in the poultry industry. This study aimed to compare therapeutic efficacy of 4 commonly used antibiotics in poultry on S. aureus-induced arthritis in broilers. Sixty broilers, 8 weeks of age, were assigned at random into 7 groups as follows: (1) negative control (n = 5); (2) vehicle control (n = 5); (3) sulfadiazine-trimethoprim, 250 ml/1000 l drinking water (n = 10); (4) oxytetracycline 20%, 1 mg/l drinking water (n = 10); (5) florfenicol 10%, 1/1000 v/v in drinking water (n = 10); (6) enrofloxacin 10%, 1/1000 v/v in drinking water (n = 10) and (7) positive control (n = 10). Birds in group 2 were injected with 1 ml of sterile TSB medium into the right tibiotarsal joint on d 0 while other birds (except group 1) were challenged with 1 ml of 1.2 × 10(10) CFU/ml suspension of S. aureus bacteria. Antibiotic therapy was started from d 4 post challenge and continued for 5 d. At the end, birds were weighed and clinical severity of arthritis was determined. After blood collection, birds were slaughtered and tibiotarsal and hip joints were evaluated grossly. The content of inflammatory exudates of tibiotarsal joint and the degree of femoral head necrosis were recorded. Mucin clot test and histopathological evaluation were performed on right tibiotarsal joint. Serum interleukin 6 was also assayed. Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim had higher therapeutic efficiency with regard to most of the assayed criteria, whereas none of the antibiotics significantly affected femoral head necrosis and body weight. These data will help clinicians to have better antibiotic choice in field conditions.

  4. In vitro susceptibilities of field isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae to oxytetracycline, tylosin, enrofloxacin, spiramycin and lincomycin-spectinomycin.

    PubMed

    Loria, G R; Sammartino, C; Nicholas, R A J; Ayling, R D

    2003-08-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of tetracycline, enrofloxacin, tylosin, spiramycin and a lincomycin:spectinomycin 1:2 combination, against 24 Sicilian isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae, the causative organism of contagious agalactia were determined in vitro by a broth dilution method. Enrofloxacin was the most effective antimicrobial in vitro with a range of MIC values from 0.125 to 0.500 microg/ml and an MIC(50) of 0.203 and MIC(90) of 0.365 microg/ml. Using the MIC(50) and MIC(90) values the remaining four antimicrobials are ranked in order of in vitro effectiveness as follows: tylosin (MIC(50)0.292; MIC(90)0.525 microg/ml) was slightly more effective than tetracycline (MIC(50)0.296; MIC(90)0.533 microg/ml), followed by lincomycin:spectinomycin (MIC(50)0.521; MIC(90)0.938 microg/ml) and spiramycin (MIC(50)1.583; MIC(90)2.850 microg/ml). MIC values above 1.000 microg/ml were obtained using tetracycline, tylosin and spiramycin for some M. agalactiae isolates.

  5. Silver Sulfadiazine

    MedlinePlus

    Silver sulfadiazine, a sulfa drug, is used to prevent and treat infections of second- and third-degree ... Silver sulfadiazine comes in a cream. Silver sulfadiazine usually is applied once or twice a day. Follow ...

  6. Mutagenicity of oxytetracycline.

    PubMed

    Blitek, D; Pieńkowska, K; Gajcy, H; Koziorowska, J

    1983-04-01

    Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, potassium nitrite and a combination of this antibiotic with the nitrite were tested for their mutagenicity in the host-mediated assay with mice as the host animals. The Salmonella typhimurium strain used was his G46. The bacteria were injected intraperitoneally, and the test compounds were administered by a stomach tube. Neither oxytetracycline nor potassium nitrite were mutagenic for strain G46, but the combination of the compounds administered in the highest tolerated doses proved to be mutagenic for this Salmonella strain. The mutagenicity of the compounds was further evaluated by the micronucleus test in the bone marrow of Swiss mice. The test compounds were administered p.o., half the dose 30 h and the rest 6 h before the animals were killed. Oxytetracycline and the combination of oxytetracycline with potassium nitrite induced a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes. Dose-response experiments with oxytetracycline and with the combination of the antibiotic with nitrite revealed an apparent no-effect level at 2 X 50 to 2 X 500 mg/kg. At higher doses both oxytetracycline and oxytetracycline with nitrite significantly influenced the ratio of erythrocytes to nucleated cells. The findings were compared with data obtained with dimethylnitrosamine included in both kinds of experiment.

  7. 21 CFR 522.2640 - Tylosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tylosin. 522.2640 Section 522.2640 Food and Drugs..., AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2640 Tylosin. (a... contains 50 to 200 milligrams of tylosin activity (as tylosin base). Tylosin conforms to the appropriate...

  8. 21 CFR 522.2640 - Tylosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tylosin. 522.2640 Section 522.2640 Food and Drugs..., AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2640 Tylosin. (a... contains 50 to 200 milligrams of tylosin activity (as tylosin base). Tylosin conforms to the appropriate...

  9. 21 CFR 522.2640 - Tylosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tylosin. 522.2640 Section 522.2640 Food and Drugs..., AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2640 Tylosin. (a... contains 50 to 200 milligrams of tylosin activity (as tylosin base). Tylosin conforms to the appropriate...

  10. 21 CFR 522.2640 - Tylosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tylosin. 522.2640 Section 522.2640 Food and Drugs..., AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2640 Tylosin. (a... contains 50 to 200 milligrams of tylosin activity (as tylosin base). Tylosin conforms to the appropriate...

  11. Effect of diet and tylosin on chronic diarrhea in beagles.

    PubMed

    Westermarck, Elias; Frias, Rafael; Skrzypczak, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Seven beagles in a colony of dogs had chronic diarrhea for at least 30 days. The dogs were subsequently treated with tylosin 20 mg/kg BW q24h PO for 10 days. During the treatment period, the feces became firmer but remained loose. When the treatment was discontinued, the diarrhea reappeared in 3 weeks. The feces remained abnormally loose in all dogs treated with metronidazole, trimethoprim-sulfadiazine, or doxycycline and prednisone. The diet was then changed for 10 days from a highly digestible moist pet food to a dry food developed for normal adult dogs. The feces again became firmer, although still loose in some dogs. The period was then extended to 3 month, but the fecal consistency continued to fluctuate from ideal to diarrhea. The dogs were treated a 2nd time with tylosin 20 mg/kg BW q24h PO for 10 days. The feces then became significantly firmer and remained so throughout a 3-month follow-up. We conclude that the combination of diet and tylosin was more effective than either agent alone in control of chronic diarrhea.

  12. 21 CFR 558.450 - Oxytetracycline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... by Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli susceptible to oxytetracycline. Feed continuously... sacculitis (air sac infection) caused by E. coli susceptible to oxytetracycline. Feed continuously for 5 d... bacterial enteritis caused by E. coli and Salmonella choleraesuis susceptible to oxytetracycline...

  13. 21 CFR 558.450 - Oxytetracycline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... by Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli susceptible to oxytetracycline. Feed continuously... sacculitis (air sac infection) caused by E. coli susceptible to oxytetracycline. Feed continuously for 5 d... bacterial enteritis caused by E. coli and Salmonella choleraesuis susceptible to oxytetracycline...

  14. 21 CFR 558.450 - Oxytetracycline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli susceptible to oxytetracycline. Feed continuously... sacculitis (air sac infection) caused by E. coli susceptible to oxytetracycline. Feed continuously for 5 d... bacterial enteritis caused by E. coli and Salmonella choleraesuis susceptible to oxytetracycline...

  15. 21 CFR 558.450 - Oxytetracycline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... by Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli susceptible to oxytetracycline. Feed continuously... sacculitis (air sac infection) caused by E. coli susceptible to oxytetracycline. Feed continuously for 5 d... bacterial enteritis caused by E. coli and Salmonella choleraesuis susceptible to oxytetracycline...

  16. Determination of erythromycin and tylosin residues in honey by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Granja, Rodrigo; Niño, Alfredo Montes; Zucchetti, Roberto; Niño, Rosario Montes; Patel, Raj; Salerno, Alessandro Gonzalez

    2009-01-01

    Antibiotics are used in apiculture to protect bees against a variety of brood diseases. As a result of the development of resistance to oxytetracycline, erythromycin and tylosin are increasingly used for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. Therefore, Brazilian authorities have added these antibiotics to the National Regulatory Monitoring Program for the control of residues in honey. An analytical method has been developed for the determination of residues of erythromycin and tylosin in honey. The procedure involves solid-phase extraction of diluted honey samples with Bond Elut cartridges, followed by LC/MS with electrospray positive ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Two characteristic transitions were monitored for both drugs. Average analyte recoveries of erythromycin and tylosin ranged from 99 to 109% from sets of replicate honey samples fortified with drug concentrations of 5, 10, 15, and 20 microg/kg. The method decision limits were determined to be 1.27 and 0.59 microg/kg for erythromycin and tylosin, respectively. The detection capabilities were 5 and 5.2 microg/kg for erythromycin and tylosin, respectively.

  17. The International Standard for Oxytetracycline

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J. H.; Lightbown, J. W.; Mussett, M. V.; Perry, W. L. M.

    1955-01-01

    The first attempt to set up an international standard for oxytetracycline, using oxytetracycline hydrochloride, failed because of difficulties in obtaining a preparation whose moisture content was uniform after distribution into ampoules. A preparation of dihydrate of oxytetracycline base was obtained instead, and was compared in an international collaborative assay with a sample of oxytetracycline hydrochloride, which was the current working standard of Chas. Pfizer & Co., Inc., USA. The results of the collaborative assay showed that the potency of the dihydrate was uniform, and that it was a suitable preparation for use as the International Standard. Evidence was obtained, however, that the reference preparation at the time of examination was less potent than had been originally supposed, and that it was hydrated. The potency of the proposed international standard was recalculated after allowance for water in the reference preparation, and the resulting biological potency agreed well with that to be expected on the basis of the physicochemical properties of the preparation. It was agreed, therefore, that the recalculated values should be used, and the preparation of oxytetracycline base dihydrate used in the collaborative assay is established as the International Standard for Oxytetracycline with a potency of 900 International Units per mg. PMID:13284563

  18. The international standard for oxytetracycline.

    PubMed

    HUMPHREY, J H; LIGHTBOWN, J W; MUSSETT, M V; PERRY, W L

    1955-01-01

    The first attempt to set up an international standard for oxytetracycline, using oxytetracycline hydrochloride, failed because of difficulties in obtaining a preparation whose moisture content was uniform after distribution into ampoules. A preparation of dihydrate of oxytetracycline base was obtained instead, and was compared in an international collaborative assay with a sample of oxytetracycline hydrochloride, which was the current working standard of Chas. Pfizer & Co., Inc., USA. The results of the collaborative assay showed that the potency of the dihydrate was uniform, and that it was a suitable preparation for use as the International Standard.Evidence was obtained, however, that the reference preparation at the time of examination was less potent than had been originally supposed, and that it was hydrated. The potency of the proposed international standard was recalculated after allowance for water in the reference preparation, and the resulting biological potency agreed well with that to be expected on the basis of the physicochemical properties of the preparation. It was agreed, therefore, that the recalculated values should be used, and the preparation of oxytetracycline base dihydrate used in the collaborative assay is established as the International Standard for Oxytetracycline with a potency of 900 International Units per mg.

  19. Kinetics of a sulfadiazine-trimethoprim combination.

    PubMed

    Bergan, T; Vik-Mo, H; Anstad, U

    1977-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a combination of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim has been studied in 16 patients with varying degrees of reduced renal function. In normal renal function, the serum half-life (t1/2) of active sulfadiazine, total sulfadiazine, and trimethoprim were quite close: 7.7, 9.6, and 12.1 hr, respectively. There was a gradual increase in serum t1/2 with reduction in renal function for both active and total sulfadiazine and for trimethoprim. With accurate determinations of endogenous renal clearance, t1/2 estimates may be made from regression curves presented. The relative distribution in the body was unrelated to renal function. It was similar for the two fractions of sulfonamide and higher for trimethoprim. The means were 0.371, 0.176, and 1.104 L/kg, respectively, for active and total sulfadiazine, and trimethoprim.

  20. 21 CFR 556.500 - Oxytetracycline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... total tetracycline residues (chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline) is 25 micrograms per... chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline, in tissues and milk as follows: (1) 2 parts per million (ppm... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline. 556.500 Section 556.500 Food...

  1. 21 CFR 529.1660 - Oxytetracycline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications—(1) Each gram of powder contains 366 milligrams (mg) oxytetracycline hydrochloride. (2) Each gram of powder contains 753 mg oxytetracycline hydrochloride. (b) Sponsors. See sponsors in... fish in a solution containing 200 to 700 mg oxytetracycline hydrochloride (buffered) per liter of water...

  2. The side effects of silver sulfadiazine.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Frederick W

    2009-01-01

    Silver sulfadiazine cream has an enviable safety record in burn treatment. However, it side effects, exemplified by allergic reactions to its sulfadiazine moiety, silver staining of the treated burn wound, hyperosmolality, methemoglobinemia, and hemolysis due to a congential lack of glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase, may be missed or misinterpreted. Early post burn leukopenia, once thought to be a side effect of the use of silver sulfadiazine in burn wound therapy, is no longer regarded as such since it has been found to occur with the use of other burn topical agents. Its presence is no longer an indication to discontinue silver sulfadiazine burn wound therapy. Because these side effects are uncommon, any one physician or burn facility usually has limited experience in diagnosing and treating them.

  3. Sulfadiazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... bacteria that cause infections, especially urinary tract infections. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other ... This branded product is no longer on the market. Generic alternatives may be available.

  4. Transport of tylosin and tylosin-resistance genes in subsurface drainage water from manured fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal agriculture appears to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, but few studies have quantified gene transport in agricultural fields. The transport of tylosin, tylosin-resistance genes (erm B, F, A) and tylosin-resistant Enterococcus were measured in tile drainage water from ...

  5. Tylosin susceptibility of Staphylococci from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kadlec, Kristina; Kaspar, Heike; Mankertz, Joachim; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

    2014-07-16

    Although the 16-membered macrolide tylosin is commonly used for the treatment of bovine mastitis, little information is currently available about the susceptibility of mastitis pathogens to tylosin. In the present study, 112 Staphylococcus aureus and 110 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) spp. isolates from cases of bovine mastitis were tested by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion with 30 μg tylosin disks. Susceptibility to erythromycin was tested by broth microdilution and disk diffusion using 15 μg disks. Both test populations showed bimodal distributions of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters with eleven S. aureus and eight CoNS isolates showing tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml and no zones of growth inhibition around the tylosin 30 μg disks. All 19 isolates with tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml were also resistant to erythromycin. For six additional erythromycin-resistant isolates, tylosin MICs of 1-8 μg/ml were observed. One S. aureus and two CoNS isolates showed inducible macrolide resistance. PCR analysis of the 25 erythromycin-resistant staphylococcal isolates identified the resistance genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T), mph(C) and msr(A) alone or in different combinations. An excellent correlation between the results of the different tylosin susceptibility tests (broth microdilution versus disk diffusion) was seen for S. aureus and CoNS isolates. Since tylosin does not induce the expression of the aforementioned erm genes, isolates with an inducible resistance phenotype may - if only tylosin is tested - be falsely classified as tylosin-susceptible. Thus, erythromycin should be tested in parallel and tylosin should only be used for the treatment of infections caused by erythromycin-susceptible staphylococci. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... containing 125 or 250 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Oxytetracycline is the antibiotic substance produced by growth of Streptomyces rimosus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other... continuation of compatible antibiotic therapy following parenteral oxytetracycline administration where...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... containing 125 or 250 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Oxytetracycline is the antibiotic substance produced by growth of Streptomyces rimosus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other... continuation of compatible antibiotic therapy following parenteral oxytetracycline administration where...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... containing 125 or 250 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Oxytetracycline is the antibiotic substance produced by growth of Streptomyces rimosus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other... continuation of compatible antibiotic therapy following parenteral oxytetracycline administration where...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... containing 125 or 250 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Oxytetracycline is the antibiotic substance produced by growth of Streptomyces rimosus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other... continuation of compatible antibiotic therapy following parenteral oxytetracycline administration where rapidly...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... containing 125 or 250 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Oxytetracycline is the antibiotic substance produced by growth of Streptomyces rimosus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other... continuation of compatible antibiotic therapy following parenteral oxytetracycline administration where rapidly...

  11. Eight salt forms of sulfadiazine.

    PubMed

    Buist, Amanda R; Dennany, Lynn; Kennedy, Alan R; Manzie, Craig; McPhie, Katherine; Walker, Brandon

    2014-09-01

    Proton transfer to the sulfa drug sulfadiazine [systematic name: 4-amino-N-(pyrimidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide] gave eight salt forms. These are the monohydrate and methanol hemisolvate forms of the chloride (2-{[(4-azaniumylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanidyl}pyrimidin-1-ium chloride monohydrate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · Cl(-) · H2O, (I), and 2-{[(4-azaniumylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanidyl}pyrimidin-1-ium chloride methanol hemisolvate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · Cl(-) · (0.5)CH(3)OH, (II)); a bromide monohydrate (2-{[(4-azaniumylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanidyl}pyrimidin-1-ium bromide monohydrate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · Br(-) · H2O, (III)), which has a disordered water channel; a species containing the unusual tetraiodide dianion [bis(2-{[(4-azaniumylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanidyl}pyrimidin-1-ium) tetraiodide, 2C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · I4(2-), (IV)], where the [I4](2-) ion is located at a crystallographic inversion centre; a tetrafluoroborate monohydrate (2-{[(4-azaniumylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanidyl}pyrimidin-1-ium tetrafluoroborate monohydrate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · BF(4)(-) · H2O, (V)); a nitrate (2-{[(4-azaniumylphenyl)sulfonyl]azanidyl}pyrimidin-1-ium nitrate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · NO(3)(-), (VI)); an ethanesulfonate {4-[(pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfamoyl]anilinium ethanesulfonate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · C(2)H(5)SO(3)(-), (VII)}; and a dihydrate of the 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate {4-[(pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfamoyl]anilinium 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate dihydrate, C(10)H(11)N(4)O(2)S(+) · HOC(6)H(4)SO(3)(-) · 2H2O, (VIII)}. All these structures feature alternate layers of cations and of anions where any solvent is associated with the anion layers. The two sulfonate salts are protonated at the aniline N atom and the amide N atom of sulfadiazine, a tautomeric form of the sulfadiazine cation that has not been crystallographically described before. All the other salt forms are instead protonated at the aniline group and on one N atom of the pyrimidine ring. Whilst all eight species are based upon

  12. Induction of sulfadiazine resistance in vitro in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Doliwa, C; Escotte-Binet, S; Aubert, D; Velard, F; Schmid, A; Geers, R; Villena, I

    2013-02-01

    We induced sulfadiazine resistance in two sulfadiazine sensitive strains of Toxoplasma gondii, RH (Type I) and ME-49 (Type II) in vitro by using drug pressure. At first, sulfadiazine susceptibility of the two sensitive strains and two naturally resistant strains of T. gondii was evaluated on Vero cells using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The IC(50) values of sulfadiazine were 77 μg/mL for RH, 51 μg/mL for ME-49 and higher than 1000 μg/mL for the two natural resistant strains. Secondly, induced resistance of the strains by gradually increase sulfadiazine concentration was verified by this test, which resulted IC(50) values at higher than 1000 μg/mL. In conclusion we developed in vitro two sulfadiazine resistant strains called RH-R(SDZ) and ME-49-R(SDZ). These strains resistant to sulfadiazine would be useful to characterize resistance mechanisms to sulfadiazine.

  13. Transport and persistence of tylosin-resistant enterococci, erm genes, and tylosin in soil and drainage water from fields receiving swine manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land application of manure from tylosin-treated swine introduces tylosin-resistant enterococci, erm genes, which confer resistance to tylosin, and tylosin. This study documents the occurrence and transport of tylosin-resistant enterococci, erm genes, and tylosin in tile-drained chisel plow and no-ti...

  14. 21 CFR 522.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine. 522.2610 Section... § 522.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) contains: (1) 40 milligrams (mg) trimethoprim suspended in a solution containing 200 mg sulfadiazine; or (2) 80...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2215 - Sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine suspension. 520.2215... Sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of suspension contains 250 milligrams (mg) sulfadiazine (as the sodium salt) and 12.5 mg pyrimethamine. (b) Sponsor. See No. 055246...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2215 - Sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine suspension. 520.2215... Sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of suspension contains 250 milligrams (mg) sulfadiazine (as the sodium salt) and 12.5 mg pyrimethamine. (b) Sponsor. See No. 055246...

  17. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30 milligrams (5 milligrams of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20 milligrams of trimethoprim and...

  18. 21 CFR 520.2215 - Sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine suspension. 520.2215... Sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of suspension contains 250 milligrams (mg) sulfadiazine (as the sodium salt) and 12.5 mg pyrimethamine. (b) Sponsor. See No. 055246...

  19. 21 CFR 522.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine. 522.2610 Section... § 522.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) contains: (1) 40 milligrams (mg) trimethoprim suspended in a solution containing 200 mg sulfadiazine; or (2) 80...

  20. 21 CFR 520.2613 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder. 520.2613... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of powder contains 67 milligrams of trimethoprim and 333 milligrams of sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 and 058711 in § 510.600(c) of...

  1. 21 CFR 520.2613 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder. 520.2613... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of powder contains 67 milligrams of trimethoprim and 333 milligrams of sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 and 058711 in § 510.600(c) of...

  2. 21 CFR 522.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine. 522.2610 Section... § 522.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) contains: (1) 40 milligrams (mg) trimethoprim suspended in a solution containing 200 mg sulfadiazine; or (2) 80...

  3. 21 CFR 520.2215 - Sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine suspension. 520.2215... Sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of suspension contains 250 milligrams (mg) sulfadiazine (as the sodium salt) and 12.5 mg pyrimethamine. (b) Sponsor. See No. 068718...

  4. 21 CFR 520.2611 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine paste. 520.2611... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine paste. (a) Specifications. Each gram (g) of paste contains 67 milligrams (mg) trimethoprim and 333 mg sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsors. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of this chapter: (1)...

  5. 21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. 520... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of oral suspension contains 60 milligrams of drug (10 milligrams of trimethoprim and 50 milligrams of sulfadiazine). (b)...

  6. 21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. 520... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of oral suspension contains 60 milligrams of drug (10 milligrams of trimethoprim and 50 milligrams of sulfadiazine). (b)...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2611 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine paste. 520.2611... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine paste. (a) Specifications. Each gram (g) of paste contains 67 milligrams (mg) trimethoprim and 333 mg sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsors. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of this chapter: (1)...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2613 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder. 520.2613... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of powder contains 67 milligrams of trimethoprim and 333 milligrams of sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 and 058711 in § 510.600(c) of...

  9. 21 CFR 520.2613 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder. 520.2613... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of powder contains 67 milligrams of trimethoprim and 333 milligrams of sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 and 058711 in § 510.600(c) of...

  10. 21 CFR 520.2611 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine paste. 520.2611... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine paste. (a) Specifications. Each gram (g) of paste contains 67 milligrams (mg) trimethoprim and 333 mg sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsors. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of this chapter: (1)...

  11. 21 CFR 522.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine. 522.2610 Section... § 522.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) contains: (1) 40 milligrams (mg) trimethoprim suspended in a solution containing 200 mg sulfadiazine; or (2) 80...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine suspension. 520.2612... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of suspension contains: (1) 10 milligrams (mg) trimethoprim and 50 mg sulfadiazine; or (2) 400 mg combined active ingredients...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. 520... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of oral suspension contains 60 milligrams of drug (10 milligrams of trimethoprim and 50 milligrams of sulfadiazine). (b)...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30 milligrams (5 milligrams of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20 milligrams of trimethoprim and...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2613 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder. 520.2613... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of powder contains 67 milligrams of trimethoprim and 333 milligrams of sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 and 058711 in § 510.600(c) of...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30 milligrams (5 milligrams of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20 milligrams of trimethoprim and...

  17. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30 milligrams (5 milligrams of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20 milligrams of trimethoprim and...

  18. 21 CFR 520.2611 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine paste. 520.2611... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine paste. (a) Specifications. Each gram (g) of paste contains 67 milligrams (mg) trimethoprim and 333 mg sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsors. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of this chapter: (1)...

  19. 21 CFR 520.2611 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine paste. 520.2611... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine paste. (a) Specifications. Each gram (g) of paste contains 67 milligrams (mg) trimethoprim and 333 mg sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsors. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of this chapter: (1)...

  20. 21 CFR 522.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine. 522.2610 Section... § 522.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) contains: (1) 40 milligrams (mg) trimethoprim suspended in a solution containing 200 mg sulfadiazine; or (2) 80...

  1. 21 CFR 520.2215 - Sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine suspension. 520.2215... Sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of suspension contains 250 milligrams (mg) sulfadiazine (as the sodium salt) and 12.5 mg pyrimethamine. (b) Sponsor. See No. 055246...

  2. [Acute renal failure due to sulfadiazine crystalluria].

    PubMed

    de la Prada Alvarez, F J; Prados Gallardo, A M; Tugores Vázquez, A; Uriol Rivera, M; Morey Molina, A

    2007-05-01

    Focal necrotizing encephalitis due to Toxoplasma gondii infection represents one of the most common opportunistic infection in patients with the acquired inmunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and the treatment is commonly with a combination sulphadiazine, and pyrimethamine. A major side effect of sulfadiazine therapy is the occurrence of crystallization in the urinary collecting system. We report a patient with AIDS and Toxoplasmic encephalitis treated with sulfadiazine who developed acute renal failure. Renal ultrasound demonstrated echogenic areas within the renal parenchyma, presumed to be sulfa crystals. Renal failure and ultrasound findings resolved rapidly with hydratation and administration of alkali. Patients infected with AIDS frequently have characteristic that increase intratubular crystal precipitation and they require treatment with one or more of the drugs that are associated with crystal-induced renal failure. Controlled alkalinization of the urine and high fluid intake are recommended for prophylaxis of crystalluria. The literature concerning crystalluria and renal failure due to sulfadiazine is reviewed.

  3. 21 CFR 556.500 - Oxytetracycline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... total tetracycline residues (chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline) is 25 micrograms per..., finfish, and lobster. Tolerances are established for the sum of residues of the tetracyclines including chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline, in tissues and milk as follows: (1) 2 parts per million (ppm...

  4. 21 CFR 556.500 - Oxytetracycline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... total tetracycline residues (chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline) is 25 micrograms per..., finfish, and lobster. Tolerances are established for the sum of residues of the tetracyclines including chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline, in tissues and milk as follows: (1) 2 parts per million (ppm...

  5. 21 CFR 556.500 - Oxytetracycline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... total tetracycline residues (chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline) is 25 micrograms per..., finfish, and lobster. Tolerances are established for the sum of residues of the tetracyclines including chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline, in tissues and milk as follows: (1) 2 parts per million (ppm...

  6. 21 CFR 556.500 - Oxytetracycline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... total tetracycline residues (chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline) is 25 micrograms per..., finfish, and lobster. Tolerances are established for the sum of residues of the tetracyclines including chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline, in tissues and milk as follows: (1) 2 parts per million (ppm...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2640 - Tylosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....625(f)(1)(vi)(c) of this chapter. (4) Honey bees—(i) Amount. Mix 200 milligrams tylosin in 20 grams... larvae). (iii) Limitations. The drug should be fed early in the spring or fall and consumed by the...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2640 - Tylosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...)(vi)(c) of this chapter. (4) Honey bees—(i) Amount. Mix 200 milligrams tylosin in 20 grams... larvae). (iii) Limitations. The drug should be fed early in the spring or fall and consumed by the...

  9. Tylosin abatement in water by photocatalytic process.

    PubMed

    Alatrache, A; Laoufi, N A; Pons, M N; Van Deik, J; Zahraa, O

    2010-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of a macrolide (tylosin) has been studied using immobilized titanium dioxide as photocatalyst in a laboratory reactor under UV illumination (365 nm). The degradation of the antibiotic and of the reaction intermediary product was monitored by UV spectrophotometry and HPLC. Three photocatalysts (P25 from Degussa and PC105 and PC500 from Millennium) immobilized on glass plates were compared. A slightly better degradation was obtained with P25. Then the tylosin degradation kinetics were investigated with the P25 photocatalyst. The kinetic model of Langmuir-Hinshelwood is satisfactorily obeyed at initial time and in the course of the reaction. Adsorption and apparent rate constants were determined. These results suggest that, although an intermediary by-product was detected during the reaction, complete degradation of tylosin can be achieved, which confirms the feasibility of such a photocatalytic treatment for tylosin elimination from wastewater.

  10. Molecular mechanics conformational analysis of tylosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Petko M.

    1998-01-01

    The conformations of the 16-membered macrolide antibiotic tylosin were studied with molecular mechanics (AMBER∗ force field) including modelling of the effect of the solvent on the conformational preferences (GB/SA). A Monte Carlo conformational search procedure was used for finding the most probable low-energy conformations. The present study provides complementary data to recently reported analysis of the conformations of tylosin based on NMR techniques. A search for the low-energy conformations of protynolide, a 16-membered lactone containing the same aglycone as tylosin, was also carried out, and the results were compared with the observed conformation in the crystal as well as with the most probable conformations of the macrocyclic ring of tylosin. The dependence of the results on force field was also studied by utilizing the MM3 force field. Some particular conformations were computed with the semiempirical molecular orbital methods AM1 and PM3.

  11. Tylosin depletion from edible pig tissues.

    PubMed

    Prats, C; El Korchi, G; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-12-01

    The depletion of tylosin from edible pig tissues was studied following 5 days of intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 10 mg/kg of tylosin to 16 crossbreed pigs. Animals were slaughtered at intervals after treatment and samples of muscle, kidney, liver, skin+fat, and injection site were collected and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seven days after the completion of treatment, the concentration of tylosin in kidney, skin+fat, and at the injection site was higher than the European Union maximal residue limit (MRL) of 100 microg/kg. Tylosin residues in all tissues were below the quantification limit (50 microg/kg) at 10 and 14 days post-treatment.

  12. Tylosin-resistant Enterococci, erm genes, and tylosin in drained fields receiving swine manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of tylosin at subtherapeutic levels by the swine industry provides selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance in gastrointestinal bacteria. The land application of swine manure to drained agricultural fields might introduce elevated levels of total and tylosin-resistant ...

  13. Tylosin-responsive chronic diarrhea in dogs.

    PubMed

    Westermarck, Elias; Skrzypczak, Teresa; Harmoinen, Jaana; Steiner, Jõrg M; Ruaux, Craig G; Williams, David A; Eerola, Erkki; Sundbäck, Pernilla; Rinkinen, Minna

    2005-01-01

    Fourteen dogs had shown chronic or intermittent diarrhea for more than 1 year. Diarrhea had been successfully treated with tylosin for at least 6 months but recurred when treatment was withdrawn on at least 2 occasions. Tylosin-responsive diarrhea (TRD) affects typically middle-aged, large-breed dogs and clinical signs indicate that TRD affects both the small and large intestine. Treatment with tylosin eliminated diarrhea in all dogs within 3 days and in most dogs within 24 hours. Tylosin administration controlled diarrhea in all dogs, but after it was discontinued, diarrhea reappeared in 12 (85.7%) of 14 dogs within 30 days. Prednisone given for 3 days did not completely resolve diarrhea. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG did not prevent the relapse of diarrhea in any of 9 dogs so treated. The etiology of TRD, a likely form of antibiotic-responsive diarrhea (ARD) is unclear. The following reasons for chronic diarrhea were excluded or found to be unlikely: parasites, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, inflammatory bowel disease, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, enteropathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Yersinia spp., or Lawsoni intracellularis), and Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin and Clostridium difficile A toxin. A possible etiologic factor is a specific enteropathogenic organism that is a common resident in the canine gastrointestinal tract and is sensitive to tylosin but difficult to eradicate. Additional studies are required to identify the specific cause of TRD.

  14. Interaction between tylosin and bentonite clay from a pharmacokinetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Devreese, Mathias; Osselaere, Ann; Goossens, Joline; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2012-12-01

    The interaction between bentonite and tylosin was investigated in broiler chickens, based on pharmacokinetic characteristics obtained in vivo. Simultaneous oral administration of bentonite and tylosin significantly lowered plasma levels of tylosin and reduced the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-inf)), maximal plasma concentration (C(max)), time to maximal plasma concentration (T(max)) and relative oral bioavailability. The results prove unambiguously the binding of tylosin by bentonite. Simultaneous administration of tylosin (in the drinking water or feed) and bentonite (mixed in the feed as a mycotoxin binder) should therefore be avoided. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of tylosin feeding rate profile in production of acetyl-isovaleryl tylosin (AIV) from tylosin by Streptomyces thermotolerans YN554.

    PubMed

    Huang, G; Okabe, M; Kahar, P; Tsunekawa, H; Park, Y

    2001-01-01

    An optimal feed rate profile of a substrate (tylosin) for a novel antibiotic, acetyl-isovaleryl tylosin (AIV) production process was investigated. In the first step of optimization, a kinetic model for production of AIV from tylosin by Streptomyces thermotolerans was established properly using the least square method, followed by the confirmation that the proposed model could be used to predict the production process of AIV from tylosin. An objective function, state equations and an inequality constraint with respect to the tylosin feeding rate profile were applied to maximize the amount of AIV produced from tylosin in a fed-batch culture. The optimized tylosin feeding rate profile was determined using a direct iterative search algorithm based on the modified complex method. The simulation of AIV production at the optimal tylosin feeding profile indicates that the final amount of AIV is expected to be about 30% higher than that at the conventional constant tylosin feeding rate, which was also confirmed experimentally using a 30-l jar fermentor.

  16. Studies on kinetics of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim excretion in man.

    PubMed

    Stachowska, B; Seńczuk, W

    1987-02-01

    The kinetics of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim excretion was determined. The examinations were performed on 10 healthy people. The compounds were given orally once, in the form of pure substances, applying three different doses: 80, 240 and 720 mg of sulfadiazine and 20, 60 and 180 mg of trimethoprim. In order to estimate the contents of sulfadiazine in urine, Bratton-Marshall's method was applied while the colorimetric method according to Vachek and Kakac was used in estimating the contents of trimethoprim. This method was adapted by Klimowicz to determine trimethoprim in blood and it was modified in our laboratory. It was stated that about 44 per cent of the administered dose of sulfadiazine and about 56 per cent of trimethoprim were excreted with urine in the form of unchanged compounds. The excretion processes of both compounds can be described in the way accepted for one-compartment kinetic models. The value of the half-life of sulfadiazine excretion is 8.4 hours while that of trimethoprim is 6 hours. The constant of loss is 0.083 for sulfadiazine and 0.118 for trimethoprim. The given formulae allow to calculate the rate of excretion of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim with urine at any time after being administered. The tests proposed to calculate the accepted drug doses, which are based on measuring the excretion rate of the unchanged substances with urine, so that they may be applied in controlled therapy and in poison therapy.

  17. Degradation behavior of sulfadiazine in soils under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Yang, Li-Hua; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, Feng; Tao, Ran; Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Peng, Ping'an

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the degradation of sulfadiazine in three soils and also determined its sorption and hydrolysis behaviors as well. At the spike concentration of 10 mg/kg, the half-lives for sulfadiazine in the aerobic nonsterile soils ranged from 12 days to 18 days. Sulfadiazine was more persistent in the anoxic soils with the half-lives ranging between 57 days and 237 days and soil microorganisms played little role in the dissipation process under anoxic conditions. The decline in sulfadiazine concentrations was also observed in the sterile soils under aerobic conditions. Hydrolysis could not explain this phenomena as hydrolysis of sulfadiazine was pH dependent. Sulfadiazine only hydrolyzed to a very limited degree at acidic pH. Increased sorption was observed for sulfadiazine in soil 1 (pH 4.3) when the contact time increased to 14 days, but no significant increase in sorption was found for soil 2 (pH 7.2) and soil 3 (pH 8.5).

  18. Ultrasonic degradation of sulfadiazine in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Lastre-Acosta, Arlen Mabel; Cruz-González, Germán; Nuevas-Paz, Lauro; Jáuregui-Haza, Ulises Javier; Teixeira, Antonio Carlos Silva Costa

    2015-01-01

    Advanced oxidation methods, like ultrasound (US), are a promising technology for the degradation of emerging pollutants in water matrices, such as sulfonamide antibiotics. Nevertheless, few authors report the degradation of sulfonamides by high-frequency US (>100 kHz), and limited information exist concerning the use of ultrasonic-driven processes in the case of sulfadiazine (SDZ). In this study, SDZ degradation was investigated with the aim to evaluate the influence of initial concentration, pH and US frequency, and power. Ultrasonic frequencies of 580, 862, and 1,142 kHz at different power values and SDZ initial concentrations of 25, 50, and 70 mg L(-1) were used. The results show that SDZ degradation followed pseudo first-order reaction kinetics with k values and percent removals decreasing for increasing solute initial concentration. Higher SDZ percent removals and removal rates were observed for the lowest operating frequency (580 kHz), higher dissipated power, and in slightly acidic solution (pH 5.5). Addition of the radical scavenger n-butanol confirmed that hydroxyl radical-mediated reactions at the interface of the cavitation bubbles are the prevailing degradation mechanism, which is directly related to the pKa-dependent speciation of SDZ molecules. Finally, addition of H2O2 had a detrimental effect on SDZ degradation, whereas the addition of the Fenton reagent showed a positive effect, revealing to be a promising alternative for the removal of sulfadiazine.

  19. 21 CFR 558.625 - Tylosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) For liquid feeds stored in recirculating tank systems: Recirculate immediately prior to use for not... in mechanical, air, or other agitation-type tank systems: Agitate immediately prior to use for not... respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum. (c) Limitations. As tylosin phosphate; withdraw 5...

  20. 76 FR 17025 - New Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 520 and 529 New Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new...

  1. Aerobic degradation and photolysis of tylosin in water and soil.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Coats, Joel R

    2007-05-01

    Veterinary antibiotics enter the environment through the application of organic fertilizers to cropland. In this study, the aerobic degradation of tylosin, a widely used antibiotic in the production of livestock and poultry, was conducted in water and in soil in an effort to further investigate its environmental fate. Tylosin is a macrolide antibiotic, which consists of four factors (A, B, C, D). Water and soil were sampled at selected times and analyzed for tylosin and its degradation products by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with product identification confirmed by HPLC-mass spectrometry. Tylosin A is degraded with a half-life of 200 d in the light in water, and the total loss of tylosin A in the dark is 6% of the initial spiked amount during the experimental period. Tylosin C and D are relatively stable except in ultrapure water in the light. Slight increases of tylosin B after two months and formation of two photoreaction isomers of tylosin A were observed under exposure to light. However, tylosin probably would degrade faster if the experimental containers did not prevent ultraviolet transmission. In soil, tylosin A has a dissipation half-life of 7 d, and tylosin D is slightly more stable, with a dissipation half-life of 8 d in unsterilized and sterilized soil. Sorption and abiotic degradation are the major factors influencing the loss of tylosin in the environment, and no biotic degradation was observed at the test concentration either in pond water or in an agronomic soil, as determined by comparing dissipation profiles in sterilized and unsterilized conditions.

  2. Occurrence of tylosin in swine wastewater in Mexico.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Liliana; Garzón-Zúñiga, Marco Antonio; Buelna, Gerardo; Moeller-Chávez, Gabriela Eleonora; Noyola, Adalberto; Avilez-Flores, Martha; Estrada-Arriaga, Edson B

    2013-01-01

    This study determined a tylosin concentration in swine wastewater located in a Mexican pig farm, during different stages of the pigs' growth. The detection of antibiotics in swine wastewater is complex due to its high concentration of solids. Analytical method was developed for detection of tylosin in swine wastewater and swine slurry. Average recoveries of tylosin in the liquid and solid phase were greater than 51 and 44%, respectively, with a greater total recovery of 95%. The results indicated the presence of tylosin in swine wastewater and slurry at concentrations greater than the ones reported in the literature. In grab samples of swine wastewater, the tylosin detected showed concentrations of 56, 72 and 8.6 μg L(-1), in breeding-gestation, nursery pigs, and grow-finishing area, respectively. In composite samples, the concentration of tylosin was 11.8 μg L(-1) for the breeding-gestation area and 2.4 μg L(-1) for the grow-finishing area. For slurry, the concentration of tylosin was 20.6 and 17.8 μg L(-1), for the breeding-gestation and grow-finishing area, respectively. This study presents the detection of a high concentration of tylosin in breeding-gestation and nursery pigs. Traces of tylosin in wastewater from grow-finishing stage were found although the animals were not receiving antibiotics.

  3. Study of the stability of tylosin A in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Paesen, J; Cypers, W; Pauwels, K; Roets, E; Hoogmartens, J

    1995-08-01

    The decomposition of the 16-membered ring macrolide antibiotic tylosin A in aqueous buffers has been investigated in the pH range 2-13, by means of a liquid chromatographic assay with ultraviolet detection at 280 nm. In acidic medium, tylosin A is converted into tylosin B, while in neutral and alkaline medium, tylosin A aldol is formed together with a number of polar decomposition products of unknown identity. The decomposition kinetics have been studied as a function of the type and concentration of the buffer, ionic strength, pH and temperature.

  4. Genetics of Streptomyces rimosus, the Oxytetracycline Producer

    PubMed Central

    Petković, Hrvoje; Cullum, John; Hranueli, Daslav; Hunter, Iain S.; Perić-Concha, Nataša; Pigac, Jasenka; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Vujaklija, Dušica; Long, Paul F.

    2006-01-01

    From a genetic standpoint, Streptomyces rimosus is arguably the best-characterized industrial streptomycete as the producer of oxytetracycline and other tetracycline antibiotics. Although resistance to these antibiotics has reduced their clinical use in recent years, tetracyclines have an increasing role in the treatment of emerging infections and noninfective diseases. Procedures for in vivo and in vitro genetic manipulations in S. rimosus have been developed since the 1950s and applied to study the genetic instability of S. rimosus strains and for the molecular cloning and characterization of genes involved in oxytetracycline biosynthesis. Recent advances in the methodology of genome sequencing bring the realistic prospect of obtaining the genome sequence of S. rimosus in the near term. PMID:16959966

  5. Inhibitory effects of the macrolide antimicrobial tylosin on anaerobic treatment.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Toshio; Zilles, Julie L; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2008-09-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was operated using a glucose-based synthetic wastewater to study the effects of tylosin, a macrolide antimicrobial commonly used in swine production, on treatment performance. The experimental period was divided into three consecutive phases with different influent tylosin concentrations (0, 1.67, and 167 mg/L). The addition of 1.67 mg/L tylosin to the reactor had negligible effects on the overall treatment performance, that is, total methane production and effluent chemical oxygen demand did not change significantly (P < 0.05), yet analyses of individual ASBR cycles revealed a decrease in the rates of both methane production and propionate uptake after tylosin was added. The addition of 167 mg/L tylosin to the reactor resulted in a gradual decrease in methane production and the accumulation of propionate and acetate. Subsequent inhibition of methanogenesis was attributed to a decrease in the pH of the reactor. After the addition of 167 mg/L tylosin to the reactor, an initial decrease in the rate of glucose uptake during the ASBR cycle followed by a gradual recovery was observed. In batch tests, the specific biogas production with the substrate butyrate was completely inhibited in the presence of tylosin. This study indicated that tylosin inhibited propionate- and butyrate-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria and fermenting bacteria resulting in unfavorable effects on methanogenesis.

  6. Silver sulfadiazine nanosystems for burn therapy.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Meenakshi; Nagarsenker, Mangal

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate stable silver sulfadiazine (SSD) nanosuspensions and nanogels suitable for topical delivery with a view to increase bactericidal activity in burn therapy. SSD nanosuspensions were formulated using the microprecipitation-high-pressure homogenization technique. An optimized microsuspension of 0.5% SSD formulated with 6% Cremophor EL and 4% Lauroglycol 90 was subjected to 30 cycles of 1,000-bar pressure to give a nanosuspension with an average particle size of 367.85 nm. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that ovoid- to rectangular-shaped SSD particles were present as clusters. It was evident through X-ray diffraction studies that SSD was present in amorphous state both in microprecipitate and in nanosuspension. SSD (0.5%) nanogels were prepared using 1% Carbopol 974 P for topical delivery of nanosized SSD. In vitro release studies demonstrated that SSD release was faster from solutions and nanosuspensions compared to gel formulation owing to the influence of the gel matrix on SSD release. The bacterial inhibitory efficiency of SSD nanosuspension was as good as that of SSD solution against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In vivo studies revealed that a nanogel containing 0.5% SSD was more effective in wound healing compared to 0.5% and 1% marketed cream.

  7. Sorption of tylosin A, D, and A-aldol and degradation of tylosin A in soils.

    PubMed

    Sassman, Stephen A; Sarmah, Ajit K; Lee, Linda S

    2007-08-01

    Heightened concerns regarding the potential impact on soil and water quality of veterinary antibiotics warrant a better understanding of the environmental fate of antibiotics in soil. Sorption of the macrolides tylosin A (TA), tylosin D, and TA-aldol was measured in several soils and evaluated with respect to soil pH, organic matter content, percentage clay, and cation-exchange capacity (CEC). Tylosin and related compounds exhibit similar sorption characteristics and generally are strongly sorbed, with sorption being well and positively correlated to surface area, clay content, and CEC. Sorption coefficients normalized by CEC were within a narrow range (10(4.1+/-0.21 L/molc) for all but one soil; however, good extraction recoveries with only methanol for most soils suggested that hydrophobic processes also contribute to sorption. Aerobic degradation of TA over a three-month period in two freshly collected agricultural soils and 60Co-irradiated soils indicated that both abiotic and microbial processes contribute to TA transformation. The abiotic process was much slower and dominated in the first two weeks, followed by rapid microbial degradation within 3 d. Three primary degradation products were identified using liquid chromatography with full-scan mass spectrometry, with unconfirmed identifications of TA having the aldehyde group oxidized to an acid (m/z = 932) in both soils and tyslosin B (m/z = 772) as well as tylosin B having the aldehyde group oxidized to an acid (m/z = 788) in the sandy soil.

  8. The prolonged release of oxytetracycline hydrochloride from ethylcellulose microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Mesiha, M S; Aboutaleb, A E

    1982-07-01

    Oxytetracycline hydrochloride microcapsules were prepared by separation of ethylcellulose from cyclohexane solution following cooling. Incomplete release was found when testing the dissolution rate in water. Interaction of the polymer with oxytetracycline was elucidated by IR spectroscopy. More release of the drug in water agreed with the diffusional model, but in acid it was more complex.

  9. Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Antagonists and Oxytetracycline

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the Northwest United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of the pathogen arose. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the durability of inhibitory activity of oxytetracycline is ...

  10. 21 CFR 522.1660 - Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms. 522.1660... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1660 Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms....

  11. 21 CFR 522.1660 - Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms. 522.1660... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1660 Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms....

  12. 21 CFR 522.1660 - Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms. 522.1660... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1660 Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms....

  13. 21 CFR 522.1660 - Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms. 522.1660... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1660 Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms....

  14. 21 CFR 522.1660 - Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms. 522.1660... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1660 Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms....

  15. 21 CFR 558.455 - Oxytetracycline and neomycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... by M. gallisepticum and Escherichia coli susceptible to oxytetracycline. Feed continuously for 7 to... (air-sac- infection) caused by E. coli susceptible to oxytetracycline. Feed continuously for 5 d; do... treatment of bacterial enteritis caused by E. coli and Salmonella choleraesuis and treatment of...

  16. 21 CFR 558.455 - Oxytetracycline and neomycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by M. gallisepticum and Escherichia coli susceptible to oxytetracycline. Feed continuously for 7 to... (air-sac- infection) caused by E. coli susceptible to oxytetracycline. Feed continuously for 5 d; do... treatment of bacterial enteritis caused by E. coli and Salmonella choleraesuis and treatment of...

  17. 21 CFR 558.455 - Oxytetracycline and neomycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... by M. gallisepticum and Escherichia coli susceptible to oxytetracycline. Feed continuously for 7 to... (air-sac- infection) caused by E. coli susceptible to oxytetracycline. Feed continuously for 5 d; do... treatment of bacterial enteritis caused by E. coli and Salmonella choleraesuis and treatment of...

  18. 21 CFR 558.455 - Oxytetracycline and neomycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... by M. gallisepticum and Escherichia coli susceptible to oxytetracycline. Feed continuously for 7 to... (air-sac- infection) caused by E. coli susceptible to oxytetracycline. Feed continuously for 5 d; do... treatment of bacterial enteritis caused by E. coli and Salmonella choleraesuis and treatment of...

  19. Sulfadiazines prevent plaque formation and gingivitis in beagles.

    PubMed

    Howell, T H; Reddy, M S; Weber, H P; Li, K L; Alfano, M C; Vogel, R; Tanner, A C; Williams, R C

    1990-07-01

    The effect of zinc sulfadiazine (ZnSD) and silver sulfadiazine (AgSD) on developing plaque formation and gingivitis was studied in 12 beagle dogs over a 14-week period. Plaque and gingival indices were used to measure plaque formation and gingivitis. During a 2-wk baseline period each dog was brought to optimal gingival health with prophylaxis and tooth brushing. Thereafter, 4 dogs were treated twice daily with topical application of 3.0% zinc sulfadiazine; 4 dogs were treated with 2.0% silver sulfadiazine while 4 dogs treated with placebo gel served as controls over a 12-wk treatment period. At wk 2 of treatment, all three groups of dogs showed an increase in plaque build-up on their teeth from baseline. By wk 6, plaque accumulation on the teeth was significantly less in dogs treated with either ZnSD or AgSD compared to control dogs. At wk 2 of treatment, gingival inflammation was increased from baseline in all three groups. Thereafter, over the course of the 12-wk treatment period, gingival inflammation in the ZnSD and the AgSD treated dogs was significantly less than the placebo treated dogs. The data indicate that both ZnSD and AgSD inhibit developing plaque formation in beagles. This significant inhibition of plaque formation was accompanied by a significant reduction in gingival inflammation.

  20. 21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... count is recommended. The drug should not be used in patients showing marked liver parenchymal damage or... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. 520.2612 Section 520.2612 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  1. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate after a single oral and i.v. administration in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ji, L-W; Dong, L-L; Ji, H; Feng, X-W; Li, D; Ding, R-L; Jiang, S-X

    2014-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate were carried out in broiler chickens according to a principle of single dose, random, parallel design. The two formulations of tylosin were given orally and intravenously at a dose level of 10 mg/kg b.w to chicken after an overnight fasting (n = 10 chickens/group). Serial blood samples were collected at different time points up to 24 h postdrug administration. A high performance liquid chromatography method was used for the determination of tylosin concentrations in chicken plasma. The tylosin plasma concentration's time plot of each chicken was analyzed by the 3P97 software. The pharmacokinetics of tylosin was best described by a one-compartmental open model 1st absorption after oral administration. After intravenous administration the pharmacokinetics of tylosin was best described by a two-compartmental open model, and there were no significant differences between tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate. After oral administration, there were significant differences in the Cmax (0.18 ± 0.01, 0.44 ± 0.09) and AUC (0.82 ± 0.05, 1.57 ± 0.25)between tylosin phosphate and tylosin tartrate. The calculated oral bioavailability (F) of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate were 25.78% and 13.73%, respectively. Above all, we can reasonably conclude that, the absorption of tylosin tartrate is better than tylosin phosphate after oral administration.

  2. Bioavailability and dissolution of different formulations of oxytetracycline preparations.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, A; Barber, H E; Calvey, T N

    1975-01-01

    1 The concentration of oxytetracycline in plasma was studied by microbiological assay after oral administration of five different preparations of the antibiotic. None of these preparations had been studied previously. 2 There was a statistically significant correlation between the time required for 50% dissolution at pH 2 and biological availability, as assessed by the peak plasma level or the area under the plasma concentration-time curve. 3 The mean bioavailability of oxytetracycline was greatest with preparations of the hydrochloride, and with film-coated tablets of the dihydrate. In contrast, sugar-coated tablets of oxytetracycline dihydrate were associated with poorer dissolution characteristics and reduced biological availability. PMID:10944

  3. Bioavailability and dissolution of different formulations of oxytetracycline preparations.

    PubMed

    Hart, A; Barber, H E; Calvey, T N

    1975-06-01

    1 The concentration of oxytetracycline in plasma was studied by microbiological assay after oral administration of five different preparations of the antibiotic. None of these preparations had been studied previously. 2 There was a statistically significant correlation between the time required for 50% dissolution at pH 2 and biological availability, as assessed by the peak plasma level or the area under the plasma concentration-time curve. 3 The mean bioavailability of oxytetracycline was greatest with preparations of the hydrochloride, and with film-coated tablets of the dihydrate. In contrast, sugar-coated tablets of oxytetracycline dihydrate were associated with poorer dissolution characteristics and reduced biological availability.

  4. Electrochemical determination of oxytetracycline in veterinary drugs.

    PubMed

    Kurzawa, Marzanna; Kowalczyk-Marzec, Agnieszka

    2004-01-27

    Conductometric, potentiometric and cyclic voltammetric (CV) titration methods are proposed for determination of oxytetracycline (OTC), commonly used in veterinary. The electrochemical titration of OTC hydrochloride with NH(4)Mo(7)O(24), NaVO(3), NaOH, AgNO(3) and FeCl(3) as titrants are reported. The proposed methods were found to be highly precise, having a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) below 1.0%. Proposed electrochemical titrations were successfully applied to the assay of commercial preparations: Tetrox, Tetramutin OT and Neox, containing the above-mentioned antibiotics. The validity of the methods was tested by the recovery studies of standard addition to pharmaceuticals and results were found to be satisfactory.

  5. Marine fungi isolated from Chilean fjord sediments can degrade oxytetracycline.

    PubMed

    Ahumada-Rudolph, R; Novoa, V; Sáez, K; Martínez, M; Rudolph, A; Torres-Diaz, C; Becerra, J

    2016-08-01

    Salmon farming is the main economic activity in the fjords area of Southern Chile. This activity requires the use of antibiotics, such as oxytetracycline, for the control and prevention of diseases, which have a negative impact on the environment. We analyzed the abilities of endemic marine fungi to biodegrade oxytetracycline, an antibiotic used extensively in fish farming. We isolated marine fungi strains from sediment samples obtained from an area of fish farming activity. The five isolated strains showed an activity on oxytetracycline and were identified as Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma deliquescens, Penicillium crustosum, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Talaromyces atroroseus by a scanning electron microscopy and characterized by molecular techniques. Results showed significant degradation in the concentration of oxytetracycline at the first 2 days of treatment for all strains analyzed. At 21 days of treatment, the concentration of oxytetracycline was decreased 92 % by T. harzianum, 85 % by T. deliquescens, 83 % by P. crustosum, 73 % by R. mucilaginosa, and 72 % by T. atroroseus, all of which were significantly higher than the controls. Given these results, we propose that fungal strains isolated from marine sediments may be useful tools for biodegradation of antibiotics, such as oxytetracycline, in the salmon industry.

  6. Chemical oxidation of sulfadiazine by the Fenton process: kinetics, pathways, toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Feng; Zhou, Shi-Biao; Xiao, An-Guo; Li, Wen-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated sulfadiazine oxidation by the Fenton process under various reaction conditions. The reaction conditions tested in the experiments included the initial pH value of reaction solutions, and the dosages of ferrous ions and hydrogen peroxide. Under the reaction conditions with pH 3, 0.25 mM of ferrous ion and 2 mM of hydrogen peroxide, a removal efficiency of nearly 100% was achieved for sulfadiazine. A series of intermediate products including 4-OH-sulfadiazine/or 5-OH-sulfadiazine, 2-aminopyrimidine, sulfanilamide, formic acid, and oxalic acid were identified. Based on these products, the possible oxidation pathway of sulfadiazine by Fenton's reagent was proposed. The toxicity evaluation of reaction solutions showed increased antimicrobial effects following the Fenton oxidation process. The results from this study suggest that the Fenton oxidation process could remove sulfadiazine, but also increase solution toxicity due to the presence of more toxic products.

  7. Essential role of endogenously synthesized tylosin for induction of ermSF in Streptomyces fradiae.

    PubMed Central

    Memili, E; Weisblum, B

    1997-01-01

    We compared ermSF induction in wild-type Streptomyces fradiae NRRL B-2702 and that in GS-14, a tylA mutant which cannot synthesize tylosin. Our findings suggest that (i) endogenously synthesized tylosin plays an obligatory role in ermSF induction and (ii) tylosin, or a biosynthetic intermediate beyond tylactone, has an "autocrine" function that induces ErmSF synthesis, thereby enabling S. fradiae to resist higher levels of tylosin. PMID:9145902

  8. Pharmacokinetics and tissue concentrations of tylosin in selected avian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, D.; Bush, M.; Carpenter, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Tissue and plasma concentrations and the biological half-life of tylosin in avian species of a variety of body sizes and metabolic rates were studied. The species chosen were eastern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus virginianus), pigeons (Columba livia), greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida), and emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). In the 1st phase of this study, tylosin was administered IM to quail, pigeons, and emus at a dosage rate of 25 mg/kg of body weight and to cranes at a dosage rate of 15 mg/kg. The average peak plasma concentrations of tylosin in quail, pigeons, cranes, and emus were 4.31, 5.63, 3.62, and 3.26 microgram/ml, respectively. These peak concentrations occurred at 0.5 to 1.5 hours after administration. The biological half-life of tylosin averaged 1.2 hours in quail, pigeons, and cranes, and was 4.7 hours in emus. In the 2nd phase of this study, tylosin concentrations in the tissues of quail, pigeons, and cranes were markedly higher than were plasma concentrations at corresponding sampling times. Six hours after antibiotic administration, tissue concentrations of tylosin in all species remained within the minimum inhibitory concentration for most pathogenic organisms. Dosage regimens of 25 mg of tylosin/kg 4 times daily for quail and pigeons, 15 mg/kg 3 times daily for cranes, and 25 mg/kg 3 times daily for emus would be needed to establish and maintain therapeutic tissue concentrations.

  9. 75 FR 69585 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Sulfadiazine and Pyrimethamine Suspension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ..., LLC, to Pegasus Laboratories, Inc. DATES: This rule is effective November 15, 2010. FOR FURTHER... REBALANCE (sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine) Antiprotozoal Oral Suspension to Pegasus Laboratories, Inc., 8809...

  10. Kinetics of oxytetracycline reaction with a hydrous manganese oxide.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Kennedy F; Pedersen, Joel A

    2006-12-01

    Tetracycline antibiotics comprise a class of broad spectrum antimicrobial agents finding application in human therapy, animal husbandry, aquaculture, and fruit crop production. To better understand the processes affecting these antibiotics in soils and sediments, the kinetics of oxytetracycline transformation by a hydrous manganese oxide (MnO2) were investigated as a function of reactant concentration, pH, and temperature. Oxytetracycline was rapidly degraded by MnO2. Initial reaction rates exhibited pronounced pH-dependence, increasing as pH decreased. Reaction of oxytetracycline with MnO2 was accompanied by generation of Mn(II) ions, suggesting oxidative transformation of the antibiotic. At pH 5.6, apparent reaction orders for oxytetracycline and MnO2 were 0.7 and 0.8. Reaction order with respect to H+ was 0.6 between pH 4 and 9. Initial reaction rates increased by a factor of approximately 2.4 for 10 degrees C temperature increases; the apparent activation energy (60 kJ x mol(-1)) was consistent with a surface-controlled reaction. Reactivity of tetracycline antibiotics toward MnO2 increased in the following order: rolitetracyline oxytetracycline < or =tetracycline approximately meclocycline < chlortetracycline. The initial rate of chlortetracycline degradation by MnO2 was substantially larger than that of the other tetracycline antibiotics investigated. MnO2 reactivity toward oxytetracycline decreased with time; a retarded rate equation was used to describe oxytetracycline reaction with MnO2 under declining rate conditions. This study indicates that natural manganese oxides in soils and sediments are likely to promote appreciable degradation of tetracycline antibiotics, and that reaction rates are strongly dependent on reaction time scale and solution conditions.

  11. Antibiotic disposition in experimental pneumonic pasteurellosis: gentamicin and tylosin.

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, G E; Barto, P B; Martin, B

    1986-01-01

    The effects of severe respiratory disease on the disposition of antibiotics were evaluated using two drugs chosen because of their widely differing solubility characteristics. The experiments were carried out in series, using five calves for each drug. The drugs were given to seven week old calves before and after induction of pneumonia by bilateral intrapulmonary administration of 3 mL of 5 X 10(7) colony forming units of Pasteurella haemolytica. Following inoculation, the calves developed clinical signs of pneumonia and were given gentamicin (5 mg/kg) or tylosin (10 mg/kg) 48, 60 and 72 hours after Pasteurella administration. There was a statistically significant decrease in distribution rate but not elimination rate of gentamicin. For tylosin, there was a significant increase in elimination rate. These results indicate the kinetics of tylosin but not gentamicin are sufficiently altered as to support a need for increased frequency of administration with severe respiratory disease in calves. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3756673

  12. Transport and persistence of tylosin-resistant enterococci, genes, and tylosin in soil and drainage water from fields receiving Swine manure.

    PubMed

    Garder, Jason L; Moorman, Thomas B; Soupir, Michelle L

    2014-07-01

    Land application of manure from tylosin-treated swine introduces tylosin, tylosin-resistant enterococci, and erythromycin resistant rRNA methylase () genes, which confer resistance to tylosin. This study documents the persistence and transport of tylosin-resistant enterococci, genes, and tylosin in tile-drained chisel plow and no-till agricultural fields treated with liquid swine manure in alternating years. Between 70 and 100% of the enterococci in manure were resistant to tylosin and B concentrations exceeded 10 copies g manure, while the mean F concentrations exceeded 10 copies g manure (T was not detected). The mean concentration of tylosin was 73 ng g manure. Soil collected from the manure injection band closely following application contained >10 copies g soil of both B and F in 2010 and >10 copies g soil after the 2011 application compared to 3 × 10 to 3 × 10 copies g soil in the no-manure control plots. Gene abundances declined over the subsequent 2-yr period to levels similar to those in the no-manure controls. Concentrations of enterococci in tile water were low, while tylosin-resistant enterococci were rarely detected. In approximately 75% of tile water samples, B was detected, and F was detected in 30% of tile water samples, but levels of these genes were not elevated due to manure application, and no difference was found between tillage practices. These results show that tylosin usage increased the short-term occurrence of tylosin-resistant enterococci, genes, and tylosin in soils but had minimal effect on tile drainage water quality in years of average to below average precipitation.

  13. Degradation of incurred tylosin to desmycosin--implications for residue analysis of honey.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Thomas S; Pernal, Stephen F; Noot, Donald K; Melathopoulos, Adony P; van den Heever, Johan P

    2007-03-14

    As a result of the application of tylosin to honey bee colonies for the control of American foulbrood disease, antibiotic residues may exist in honey destined for human consumption. It has been recognized that the parent compound, tylosin A, degrades in acidic media such as honey to yield the antimicrobially active degradation product, desmycosin. Data is presented documenting levels of incurred tylosin and desmycosin in honey resulting from simulated therapeutic applications of a commercial formulation of tylosin during the fall. It is demonstrated that honey destined for human consumption should be analyzed for both tylosin A and desmycosin (tylosin B) rather than the parent antibiotic alone. An analytical method that permits the simultaneous determination of tylosin A and desmycosin in honey using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is also presented.

  14. Residues of oxytetracycline in cultured rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Sharafati-Chaleshtori, R; Mardani, G; Rafieian-Kopaei, M; Sharafati-Chaleshtori, A; Drees, F

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays, antibiotics are widely used in aquatic animals to control and treatment of infections or as food supplement for growth increase and animal output. With increasing use of veterinary drugs in food production, there is global consideration about the consumption of antimicrobial residues in aquatic foods and their effects on human health. This study was aimed to evaluate the Oxytetracycline (OTC) residues in Rainbow trout meat in Shahre-kord (Iran) markets before and after frying. After randomized collection of 50 samples of fish in Shahre-kord markets in a six months period were examined. The prepared samples were examined for OTC residues using HPLC analytical method before and after frying. Results showed that 3 (6%) of the samples before frying and 12 (24%) after frying were having lower than Maximum residual limits (MRLs) in Codex alimentarius. However, mean OTC residues before and after frying samples were above MRLs. The mean amounts of OTC were 2260 +/- 1090 and 1110 +/- 930 ng g(-1) before and after frying, respectively. These findings show that the frying of fish reduces OTC residual. Nevertheless, the usage of OTC should be reduced to an acceptable level in fishery industry.

  15. Hyaluronate depolymerization following thermal decomposition of oxytetracycline.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, T; Yomota, C; Okada, S

    2001-01-01

    Depolymerization of sodium hyaluronate (HA) by tetracyclines was investigated. Reduction in HA molecular weight was followed by size exclusion chromatography with a low angle laser light scattering detector. On mixing with oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC) solution and incubating at 37 degrees C, HA was gradually depolymerized. OTC, a representative antibiotic, is known as a photosensitizer, and phototoxic side effects relevant to radicals have been reported. However, HA depolymerization required no irradiation. As time passed, OTC solution incubated at 37 degrees C got colored reddish brown, even in the dark. With reversed-phase HPLC separation, several peaks derived from decomposed OTC appeared. One of the peaks had an absorbance in the visible range. A quantitative correlation between the discoloration and the HA depolymerization rate was obtained. On the other hand, when samples were incubated below 25 degrees C, change of color was slight, and practically no HA depolymerization was observed after up to 4 h. Oxygen depletion by nitrogen saturation or addition of mannitol also prevented the depolymerization. Under anaerobic conditions, the color of the solution did not change, whereas it turned red under aerobic conditions in the presence of mannitol. The mannitol did not inhibit the OTC decomposition, but it preserved HA from damage. On the basis of the known decomposition of OTC and the results of HPLC separation, anhydrooxytetracycline can be proposed as the derivative causing HA depolymerization.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline hydrochloride in rabbits.

    PubMed

    McElroy, D E; Ravis, W R; Clark, C H

    1987-08-01

    Pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline HCl (OTC) was studied in rabbits. After 10 mg of OTC/kg of body weight was administered IV, the distribution half-life was 0.06 hour, terminal half-life was 1.32 hours, volume of distribution area was 0.861 L/kg, and total body clearance was 0.434 L/kg/h. After 10 mg of OTC/kg was given IM, the absorption half-life was 2.09 hours, extent of absorption was 71.4%, and total body clearance of the absorbed fraction was 0.576 L/kg/h. Based on these kinetic data, a dosage of 15 mg of OTC/kg, every 8 hours was developed. This dose given IM for 7 consecutive days resulted in observed steady-state maximum and minimum concentrations (mean +/- SD) of 4.7 +/- 0.3 micrograms/ml and 3.2 +/- 0.6 micrograms/ml, respectively. Twice this dose (30 mg of OTC/kg, every 8 hours) given IM caused anorexia and diarrhea.

  17. Sorption of tylosin on clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Chen; Huang, Weilin; Dang, Zhi; Shu, Xiaohua

    2013-11-01

    The equilibrium sorption of tylosin (TYL) on kaolinite and montmorillonite was measured at different solution pH using batch reactor systems. The results showed that all the sorption isotherms were nonlinear and that the nonlinearity decreased as the solution pH increased for a given clay. At a specific aqueous concentration, the single-point sorption distribution coefficient (KD) of TYL decreased rapidly as the solution pH increased. A speciation-dependent sorption model that accounted for the contributions of the cationic and neutral forms of TYL fit the data well, suggesting that the sorption may be dominated by both ion exchange and hydrophobic interactions. The isotherm data also fit well to a dual mode model that quantifies the contributions of a site-limiting Langmuir component (ion exchange) and a non-specific linear partitioning component (hydrophobic interactions). X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the interlayers of montmorillonite were expanded due to the uptake of TYL. TYL molecules likely form a monolayer surface coverage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of tylosin photoreaction products and comparison of ELISA and HPLC methods for their detection in water.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Fulton, Bruce; Henderson, Keri; Coats, Joel

    2008-04-15

    Tylosin is a widely used macrolide antibiotic for therapeutics and growth promotion in swine, beef cattle, and poultry production. Through various routes such as manure application, emission, inappropriate disposal, etc., tylosin enters the environment. The fate of tylosin in the environment is not yet fully understood. In this study, two photoreaction products of tylosin in water were identified as isotylosin A alcohol (E,Z) and isotylosin A aldol (E,Z). Tylosin A, B, C, D, isotylosin A alcohol, and isotylosin A aldol were purified, and immunological cross-reactivities of these tylosin-related compounds were tested with a specificity of 26% for tylosin B, 19% for tylosin C, 106% for tylosin D, 121% for isotylosin A alcohol, and 46% for isotylosin A aldol, compared to 100% for tylosin A. Competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for tylosin detection in water was compared with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method by analyzing the same water samples from a study of tylosin dissipation in water. ELISA kits detect the other tylosin-related compounds besides tylosin A, which can result in differences in tylosin determination in water.

  19. Obstructive nephropathy due to sulfa crystals in two HIV seropositive patients treated with sulfadiazine.

    PubMed

    Colebunders, R; Depraetere, K; De Droogh, E; Kamper, A; Corthout, B; Bottiau, E

    1999-08-01

    Two HIV seropositive patients receiving sulfadiazine for presumed cerebral toxoplasmosis who developed an obstructive nephropathy are described. Ultrasound examination showed respectively a bilateral hydro-ureteronephrosis in one patient and unilateral hydro-ureteronephrosis in the other. The obstructive nephropathy resolved in both patients with alkalic hydration and discontinuation of the sulfadiazine.

  20. Factors Which Influence Synergism by Neomycin and Oxytetracycline

    PubMed Central

    Williams, B. J.

    1971-01-01

    Six strains of enteropathogenic gram-negative bacteria were tested for susceptibility to neomycin or oxytetracycline alone and combined in fixed ratios. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the combination was less than one-half of that expected if the antibiotic activities were simply additive. Neomycin alone was more effective against bacteria multiplying in the presence of abundant oxygen, whereas oxytetracycline alone was more effective against bacteria multiplying in relatively anaerobic environments; when combined, the antibiotics complemented each other by their opposing optima for activity. Oxygen concentration, pH, and neomycin activity are related, and the depression of acid production by oxytetracycline is believed to be partially responsible for the synergistic activity of this pair of antibiotics. Images PMID:4930276

  1. Production and characterization of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices.

    PubMed

    Zepon, Karine Modolon; Petronilho, Fabricia; Soldi, Valdir; Salmoria, Gean Vitor; Kanis, Luiz Alberto

    2014-11-01

    The production and evaluation of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices are reported herein. The matrices were melt extruded under nine different conditions, altering the temperature and the screw speed values. The surface morphology of the matrices was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The micrographs revealed the presence of non-melted silver sulfadiazine microparticles in the matrices extruded at lower temperature and screw speed values. The thermal properties were evaluated and the results for both the biopolymer and the drug indicated no thermal degradation during the melt extrusion process. The differential scanning analysis of the extrudate matrices showed a shift to lower temperatures for the silver sulfadiazine melting point compared with the non-extruded drug. The starch/cellulose acetate matrices containing silver sulfadiazine demonstrated significant inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In vivo inflammatory response tests showed that the extrudate matrices, with or without silver sulfadiazine, did not trigger chronic inflammatory processes.

  2. Zinc Pyrithione Improves the Antibacterial Activity of Silver Sulfadiazine Ointment.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Catlyn; Brooks, Lauren; Ebsworth-Mojica, Katherine; Didione, Louis; Wucher, Benjamin; Dewhurst, Stephen; Krysan, Damian; Dunman, Paul M; Wozniak, Rachel A F

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus are commonly associated with biofilm-associated wound infections that are recalcitrant to conventional antibiotics. As an initial means to identify agents that may have a greater propensity to improve clearance of wound-associated bacterial pathogens, we screened a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug library for members that display bactericidal activity toward 72-h-established P. aeruginosa biofilms using an adenylate kinase reporter assay for bacterial cell death. A total of 34 compounds displayed antibiofilm activity. Among these, zinc pyrithione was also shown to reduce levels of A. baumannii and S. aureus biofilm-associated bacteria and exhibited an additive effect in combination with silver sulfadiazine, a leading topical therapeutic for wound site infections. The improved antimicrobial activity of zinc pyrithione and silver sulfadiazine was maintained in an ointment formulation and led to improved clearance of P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, and S. aureus in a murine model of wound infection. Taken together, these results suggest that topical zinc pyrithione and silver sulfadiazine combination formulations may mitigate wound-associated bacterial infections and disease progression. IMPORTANCE Topical antimicrobial ointments ostensibly mitigate bacterial wound disease and reliance on systemic antibiotics. Yet studies have called into question the therapeutic benefits of several traditional topical antibacterials, accentuating the need for improved next-generation antimicrobial ointments. Yet the development of such agents consisting of a new chemical entity is a time-consuming and expensive proposition. Considering that drug combinations are a mainstay therapeutic strategy for the treatment of other therapeutic indications, one alternative approach is to improve the performance of conventional antimicrobial ointments by the addition of a well-characterized and FDA

  3. Zinc Pyrithione Improves the Antibacterial Activity of Silver Sulfadiazine Ointment

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Catlyn; Brooks, Lauren; Ebsworth-Mojica, Katherine; Didione, Louis; Wucher, Benjamin; Dewhurst, Stephen; Krysan, Damian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus are commonly associated with biofilm-associated wound infections that are recalcitrant to conventional antibiotics. As an initial means to identify agents that may have a greater propensity to improve clearance of wound-associated bacterial pathogens, we screened a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug library for members that display bactericidal activity toward 72-h-established P. aeruginosa biofilms using an adenylate kinase reporter assay for bacterial cell death. A total of 34 compounds displayed antibiofilm activity. Among these, zinc pyrithione was also shown to reduce levels of A. baumannii and S. aureus biofilm-associated bacteria and exhibited an additive effect in combination with silver sulfadiazine, a leading topical therapeutic for wound site infections. The improved antimicrobial activity of zinc pyrithione and silver sulfadiazine was maintained in an ointment formulation and led to improved clearance of P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, and S. aureus in a murine model of wound infection. Taken together, these results suggest that topical zinc pyrithione and silver sulfadiazine combination formulations may mitigate wound-associated bacterial infections and disease progression. IMPORTANCE Topical antimicrobial ointments ostensibly mitigate bacterial wound disease and reliance on systemic antibiotics. Yet studies have called into question the therapeutic benefits of several traditional topical antibacterials, accentuating the need for improved next-generation antimicrobial ointments. Yet the development of such agents consisting of a new chemical entity is a time-consuming and expensive proposition. Considering that drug combinations are a mainstay therapeutic strategy for the treatment of other therapeutic indications, one alternative approach is to improve the performance of conventional antimicrobial ointments by the addition of a well-characterized and FDA

  4. Silver sulfadiazine therapy in widespread bullous disorders: potential for toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mintz, Emily M; George, Dornechia E; Hsu, Sylvia

    2008-03-15

    Silver sulfadiazine (SSD) cream, most known for its use in the treatment of extensive burn wounds, is commonly used in the management of erosions in bullous disorders. The beneficial antibacterial effect of SSD use is not without risk, as silver toxicity has been well documented in burn patients. Renal insufficiency accelerates silver accumulation and thus toxicity. Data on silver toxicity in patients with primary blistering disorders is scarce; however the literature regarding silver toxicity in burn patients may be applicable to patients with bullous diseases. Hence we recommend that clinicians exercise caution when prescribing protracted wound care with SSD for blistering disorders.

  5. 75 FR 76259 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Tylosin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Tylosin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration... powder in drinking water of chickens, turkeys, swine, and honey bees for the treatment or control of...

  6. 78 FR 19986 - New Animal Drugs; Enrofloxacin; Tilmicosin; Tylosin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 522, and 558 New Animal Drugs; Enrofloxacin; Tilmicosin; Tylosin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule, technical amendment. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to...

  7. 76 FR 59023 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Tylosin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Tylosin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original abbreviated new animal...

  8. A Second Tylosin Resistance Determinant, Erm B, in Arcanobacterium pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Jost, B. Helen; Trinh, Hien T.; Songer, J. Glenn; Billington, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Arcanobacterium pyogenes, a common inhabitant of the mucosal surfaces of livestock, is also a pathogen associated with a variety of infections. In livestock, A. pyogenes is exposed to antimicrobial agents used for prophylaxis and therapy, notably tylosin, a macrolide used extensively for the prevention of liver abscessation in feedlot cattle in the United States. Many, but not all, tylosin-resistant A. pyogenes isolates carry erm(X), suggesting the presence of other determinants of tylosin resistance. Oligonucleotide primers designed for conserved regions of erm(B), erm(C), and erm(T) were used to amplify a 404-bp fragment from a tylosin-resistant A. pyogenes isolate, OX-7. DNA sequencing revealed that the PCR product was 100% identical to erm(B) genes, and the erm(B) gene region was cloned in Escherichia coli. The A. pyogenes Erm B determinant had the most DNA identity with an Erm B determinant carried by the Clostridium perfringens plasmid pIP402. However, the A. pyogenes determinant lacked direct repeat DR1 and contained a deletion in DR2. Flanking the A. pyogenes erm(B) gene were partial and entire genes similar to those found on the Enterococcus faecalis multiresistance plasmid pRE25. This novel architecture suggests that the erm(B) element may have arisen by recombination of two distinct genetic elements. Ten of 32 tylosin-resistant isolates carried erm(B), as determined by DNA hybridization, and all 10 isolates carried a similar element. Insertion of the element was site specific, as PCR and Southern blotting analysis revealed that the erm(B) element was inserted into orfY, a gene of unknown function. However, in three strains, this insertion resulted in a partial duplication of orfY. PMID:14982756

  9. 40 CFR 180.337 - Oxytetracycline; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues. 180.337 Section 180.337 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.337 Oxytetracycline; tolerance for residues. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  10. 21 CFR 522.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... intramuscularly per injection site may result in antibiotic residues beyond the withdrawal time. Discontinue... oxytetracycline per bird per day diluted with 1 part of the drug to 3 parts of sterile water; to chickens 2 to...

  11. 21 CFR 522.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... intramuscularly per injection site may result in antibiotic residues beyond the withdrawal time. Discontinue... oxytetracycline per bird per day diluted with 1 part of the drug to 3 parts of sterile water; to chickens 2 to...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... intramuscularly per injection site may result in antibiotic residues beyond the withdrawal time. Discontinue... oxytetracycline per bird per day diluted with 1 part of the drug to 3 parts of sterile water; to chickens 2 to...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... intramuscularly per injection site may result in antibiotic residues beyond the withdrawal time. Discontinue... oxytetracycline per bird per day diluted with 1 part of the drug to 3 parts of sterile water; to chickens 2 to...

  14. 21 CFR 522.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... intramuscularly per injection site may result in antibiotic residues beyond the withdrawal time. Discontinue... oxytetracycline per bird per day diluted with 1 part of the drug to 3 parts of sterile water; to chickens 2 to...

  15. Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Antagonists and Oxytetracycline

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of Erwinia amylovora arose. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the duration of inhibitory activity of o...

  16. Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Bacterial Antagonists and Oxytetracycline

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of Erwinia amylovora were prevalent. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the duration of inhibitory acti...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1660d - Oxytetracycline powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Control and treatment of bacterial enteritis caused by Escherichia coli and Salmonella choleraesuis and... gallisepticum and E. coli susceptible to oxytetracycline; control of fowl cholera caused by Pasteurella.... Control and treatment of bacterial enteritis caused by E. coli and bacterial pneumonia (shipping...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1660d - Oxytetracycline powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Control and treatment of bacterial enteritis caused by Escherichia coli and Salmonella choleraesuis and... gallisepticum and E. coli susceptible to oxytetracycline; control of fowl cholera caused by Pasteurella.... Control and treatment of bacterial enteritis caused by E. coli and bacterial pneumonia (shipping...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1660d - Oxytetracycline powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Control and treatment of bacterial enteritis caused by Escherichia coli and Salmonella choleraesuis and... gallisepticum and E. coli susceptible to oxytetracycline; control of fowl cholera caused by Pasteurella.... Control and treatment of bacterial enteritis caused by E. coli and bacterial pneumonia (shipping...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1660d - Oxytetracycline powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Control and treatment of bacterial enteritis caused by Escherichia coli and Salmonella choleraesuis and... gallisepticum and E. coli susceptible to oxytetracycline; control of fowl cholera caused by Pasteurella.... Control and treatment of bacterial enteritis caused by E. coli and bacterial pneumonia (shipping...

  1. Tylosin detection in animal feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with enzymatic hydrolysis of the tylosin urea adduct.

    PubMed

    Van Poucke, Christof; Dumoulin, Fréderic; De Keyser, Kirsten; Elliott, Chris; Van Peteghem, Carlos

    2004-05-19

    When the use of tylosin as a feed additive was forbidden by Council Regulation 2821/98, the necessity of a chemical confirmation method for the monitoring of the ban was created. Recently a method was developed for the detection of tylosin in animal feed by means of LC-MS/MS. During the validation high deviating values for the decision limit, detection capability, and repeatability for tylosin in cattle feed were observed, and the presence of urea and the formation of a tylosin urea adduct (TUA) were suggested as possible explanations. In this study two hydrolysis approaches for the TUA adduct were compared, namely, a chemical hydrolysis and an enzymatic hydrolysis with urease. The latter yielded a more complete hydrolysis of urea and was used for further validation. The recovery increased by approximately 15-25% depending on the amount of urea present in the feed (0.5-2%). The decision limit and detection capability were hardly influenced by the enzymatic hydrolysis.

  2. Environmental behavior of sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, and their metabolites.

    PubMed

    Biošić, Martina; Mitrevski, Marija; Babić, Sandra

    2017-04-01

    Sulfonamides are one of the most frequently used antibiotics worldwide. Therefore, processes that determine their fate in the environment are of great interest. In the present work, biodegradation as biotic process and hydrolysis and photolysis as abiotic processes were investigated. In biodegradation experiments, it was found out that sulfonamides (sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine) and their N (4)-acetylated metabolites were not readily biodegradable. The results showed that decrease of concentrations were in the range from 4% for sulfadiazine to 22% for N (4)-acetylsulfamethazine. Hydrolytic experiments examined at pH values normally found in the environment also showed their resistance. However, photolysis proved to be significant process for decreasing concentrations of sulfonamides and their metabolites in three various aqueous matrices (Milli-Q water, river water, and synthetic wastewater). In addition, influence of ubiquitous water constituents (Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), PO4(3-), and humic acids) was also investigated, showing their different impact on photolysis of investigated pharmaceuticals. The results showed that photolysis followed first-order kinetics in all cases. The obtained results are very important for assesing the environmental fate of sulfonamides and their metabolites in the aquatic environment.

  3. Hybrid Nanostructures Containing Sulfadiazine Modified Chitosan as Antimicrobial Drug Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Munteanu, Bogdanel Silvestru; Dumitriu, Raluca Petronela; Profire, Lenuta; Sacarescu, Liviu; Hitruc, Gabriela Elena; Stoleru, Elena; Dobromir, Marius; Matricala, Ana Lavinia; Vasile, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan (CH) nanofibrous structures containing sulfadiazine (SDZ) or sulfadiazine modified chitosan (SCH) in the form of functional nanoparticles attached to nanofibers (hybrid nanostructures) were obtained by mono-axial and coaxial electrospinning. The mono-axial design consisted of a SDZ/CH mixture solution fed through a single nozzle while the coaxial design consisted of SCH and CH solutions separately supplied to the inner and outer nozzle (or in reverse order). The CH ability to form nanofibers assured the formation of a nanofiber mesh, while SDZ and SCH, both in form of suspensions in the electrospun solution, assured the formation of active nanoparticles which remained attached to the CH nanofiber mesh after the electrospinning process. The obtained nanostructures were morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The SDZ release profiles and kinetics were analyzed. The SDZ or SCH nanoparticles loosely attached at the surface of the nanofibers, provide a burst release in the first 20 min, which is important to stop the possible initial infection in a wound, while the SDZ and SCH from the nanoparticles which are better confined (or even encapsulated) into the CH nanofibers would be slowly released with the erosion/disruption of the CH nanofiber mesh. PMID:28335334

  4. Photolysis of 14C-sulfadiazine in water and manure.

    PubMed

    Sukul, Premasis; Lamshöft, Marc; Zühlke, Sebastian; Spiteller, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Photolysis of 14C-sulfadiazine in aqueous solution under simulated sunlight followed first-order kinetics. The impact of H2O2, humic acid, fulvic acid and acetone to enhance the photodegradation of sulfadiazine (SDZ) was studied. Six photoproducts, 4-OH-SDZ, 5-OH-SDZ, N-formyl-SDZ, 4-[2-iminopyrimidine-1(2H)-yl] aniline, 2-aminopyrimidine, and aniline were identified. Extrusion of SO2 was found to be the main degradation process during irradiation. These photoproducts can occur in water and soil upon sunlight exposure, when soil is treated with SDZ contained in manure. Due to photodegradation the experimental half-life of the SDZ in water was 32h and in the presence of photosensitizers the half-life values were 19.3-31.4h, 17.2-31.4h, 12.6-29.8h, and 3.8-30.7h for H2O2, humic acid, fulvic acid, and acetone, respectively depending on the concentration of the photosensitizers. The presence of photosensitizers markedly reduced SDZ persistence, indicating that indirect photolytic processes are important factors governing the photodegradation of SDZ in aqueous environments. Investigation revealed further persistence behavior of SDZ in manure. The half-life value of SDZ in manure was 158h.

  5. A novel green chemistry method for nonaqueous extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography detection of first-, second-, and third-generation tetracyclines, 4-epitetracycline, and tylosin in animal feeds.

    PubMed

    Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio; Sánchez, Jorge; García, Fernando; Rodríguez, César

    2012-07-25

    Although tetracyclines and macrolides are common additives for animal nutrition, methods for their simultaneous determination in animal feeds are nonexistent. By coupling an organic extraction and solid-phase extraction cleanup to a high-performance liquid chromatography separation and a nonaqueous postcolumn derivatization, we succeeded in detecting from 0.2 to 24.0 μg kg(-1) of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, tigecycline, and 4-epitetracycline in this complex and heterogeneous matrix. Minocycline and tylosin could also be detected with our procedure, but using UV spectrophotometry (1.5 ≤ LOD ≤ 1.9 mg kg(-1)). Linear responses with correlation coefficients between 0.996 and 0.999 were obtained for all analytes in the 0.5-10 mg kg(-1) concentration range. Average recoveries between 59 and 97% and between 98 and 102% were obtained for the tetracyclines and tylosin, respectively. Replicate standard deviations were typically below 5%. When this method was applied to 20 feeds marketed in Costa Rica, we detected labeling inconsistencies, banned mixtures of tetracyclines, and tetracycline concentrations that contravene international regulation.

  6. Effects of the Antibiotics Growth Promoter Tylosin on Swine Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungman; Guevarra, Robin Becina; Nguyen, Son Giang; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Jeong, Dong Kee; Unno, Tatsuya

    2016-05-28

    Tylosin has been used as a livestock feed additive and antibiotic growth promoter for many years. However, the mode of action by which tylosin enhances animal growth is unclear. We used high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to investigate the effects of tylosin as a feed additive on swine gut microbiota. No significant difference in the rate of weight increase was observed between control and tylosin-treated pigs during a 10-week feeding trial. However, tylosin-treated pigs showed rapid increases in the relative abundance of the phylum Firmicutes. Increases in Firmicutes species are associated with (so-called) obese-type gut microbiota. The abundance of species of four families of the phylum Firmicutes (Streptococcaceae, Peptococcaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, and Clostridiaceae) correlated positively with host weight gain. The abundance of Streptococcaceae family bacteria was least affected by tylosin treatment. Distribution analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed that both control and tylosin-treated pigs exhibited similar OTU alterations during growth. However, the tylosin-treated group showed distinctive alterations in gut microbiota when the host weighed approximately 60 kg, whereas similar alterations occurred at around 80 kg in the control group. Our results suggest that use of tylosin accelerates maturation of swine gut microbiota rather than altering its composition.

  7. Determination of tylosin residues in different animal tissues by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Prats, C; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-01-05

    A HPLC method to determine and quantify tylosin residues from calves, pigs and poultry is reported. This procedure permitted tylosin to be separated from muscle, liver, kidney and fat after a simple extraction with chloroform or ethyl acetate under basic conditions. The analytical methodology showed a high specificity and sensitivity and an adequate precision and accuracy with a limit of quantification of 50 microg/kg. Eight calves were administered 20 mg/kg/day of tylosin for 5 days and slaughtered at 7 and 14 days post-administration. Results showed that at the 14th day tylosin levels were lower than the MRL in all target tissues.

  8. Effect of tylosin on dogs with suspected tylosin-responsive diarrhea: a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The macrolid antibiotic tylosin has been widely used to treat canine chronic diarrhea, although its efficacy is based on anecdotal reports and experimental studies in dogs and not on strong scientific evidence. The term tylosin-responsive diarrhea (TRD) refers to diarrheal disorders responding to tylosin therapy within a few days. In TRD, the stool remains normal as long as tylosin treatment continues, but diarrhea reappears in many dogs within weeks after discontinuation. The aim of our trial was to assess the effect of tylosin on fecal consistency compared with a placebo treatment in dogs with suspected TRD and additionally to establish whether tylosin in dogs with recurrent diarrhea is as effective as empirical studies and anecdotal reports suggest. Methods Subjects comprised 71 client-owned dogs that, according to the owners, had previously been treated successfully with tylosin due to recurrent diarrhea of unknown etiology. At the initial examination, where there were no signs of diarrhea, the dogs were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to a tylosin or placebo group. During a two-month follow-up the owners evaluated the fecal consistency according to previously published guidelines. When diarrhea recurred, either tylosin (25 mg/kg q 24 h, 7 days) or placebo treatment was initiated orally. Treatment outcome was evaluated as the mean of fecal consistency scores assigned during the last three days of the treatment period. To test for differences between the tylosin and placebo group in the proportion of responders, Pearson's Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were applied. Results Sixty-one dogs met the selection criteria and were followed for two months. During the follow-up 27 dogs developed diarrhea and either tylosin or placebo treatment was started. The proportion of dogs with normal fecal consistency at the end of treatment was 85% (17/20) in the tylosin group and 29% (2/7) in the placebo group (Pearson's Chi-squared test p = 0.0049 and

  9. Effect of tylosin on dogs with suspected tylosin-responsive diarrhea: a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kilpinen, Susanne; Spillmann, Thomas; Syrjä, Pernilla; Skrzypczak, Teresa; Louhelainen, Maria; Westermarck, Elias

    2011-04-14

    The macrolid antibiotic tylosin has been widely used to treat canine chronic diarrhea, although its efficacy is based on anecdotal reports and experimental studies in dogs and not on strong scientific evidence. The term tylosin-responsive diarrhea (TRD) refers to diarrheal disorders responding to tylosin therapy within a few days. In TRD, the stool remains normal as long as tylosin treatment continues, but diarrhea reappears in many dogs within weeks after discontinuation. The aim of our trial was to assess the effect of tylosin on fecal consistency compared with a placebo treatment in dogs with suspected TRD and additionally to establish whether tylosin in dogs with recurrent diarrhea is as effective as empirical studies and anecdotal reports suggest. Subjects comprised 71 client-owned dogs that, according to the owners, had previously been treated successfully with tylosin due to recurrent diarrhea of unknown etiology. At the initial examination, where there were no signs of diarrhea, the dogs were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to a tylosin or placebo group. During a two-month follow-up the owners evaluated the fecal consistency according to previously published guidelines. When diarrhea recurred, either tylosin (25 mg/kg q 24 h, 7 days) or placebo treatment was initiated orally. Treatment outcome was evaluated as the mean of fecal consistency scores assigned during the last three days of the treatment period. To test for differences between the tylosin and placebo group in the proportion of responders, Pearson's Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were applied. Sixty-one dogs met the selection criteria and were followed for two months. During the follow-up 27 dogs developed diarrhea and either tylosin or placebo treatment was started. The proportion of dogs with normal fecal consistency at the end of treatment was 85% (17/20) in the tylosin group and 29% (2/7) in the placebo group (Pearson's Chi-squared test p = 0.0049 and Fisher's exact test two

  10. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride in the horse: serum, synovial, peritoneal and urine concentrations after single dose intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Brown, M P; Stover, S M; Kelly, R H; Farver, T B; Knight, H D

    1981-03-01

    Six adult mares were given a single intravenous injection of oxytetracycline HCl (50 mg/ml) at a dosage of 5 mg/kg. Serum, synovial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and urine oxytetracycline concentrations were measured serially over a 48-h period. The highest measured serum oxytetracycline concentration was 8.01 mcg/ml at 1/2 h. Oxytetracycline was detected in synovial fluid and peritoneal fluid, which obtained mean peak oxytetracycline concentrations of 4.43 mcg/ml and 4.20 mcg/ml, at 1/2 h and 1 h, respectively. These concentrations steadily declined in parallel with serum concentrations and were not measurable at 48 h. Urine oxytetracycline concentration was relatively high, with a peak concentration of 1565.2 mcg/ml at 1/2 h after drug administration.

  11. Application of multiwalled carbon nanotubes/ionic liquid modified electrode for amperometric determination of sulfadiazine.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiaoping; Zhu, Yan; Ma, Jingying

    2012-12-01

    A highly sensitive amperometric sulfadiazine sensor based on coating multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and N-octyl-pyridinium-hexafluorophosphate (OPPF(6)) ionic liquid composite on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode is described. The MWCNTs/OPPF(6) composite contributed new properties to electrochemical sensors by combining the advantages of both ionic liquids and MWCNTs. Compared with bare GC electrode, the electrocatalytic activity of MWCNTs/OPPF(6) generated a greatly improved electrochemical detection of sulfadiazine including low oxidation potential, high current responses, and good anti-fouling performance. The oxidation peak currents of sulfadiazine obtained on the MWCNTs/OPPF(6) coated GC electrode were proportional to the concentration of sulfadiazine within the range of 3.3-35.4 μM with a detection limit of 0.21 μM.

  12. Cost/benefit analysis of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine-impregnated venous catheters for femoral access.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Lecuona, María; Jiménez, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Lisset; Diosdado, Sara; Marca, Lucía; Mora, María L

    2014-10-01

    Sixty-four patients with chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine-impregnated catheters had a lower rate of catheter-related bloodstream infection and lower central venous catheter-related costs per catheter day than 190 patients with a standard catheter.

  13. Biosynthesis of glycosylated derivatives of tylosin in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Han, Ah Reum; Park, Sung Ryeol; Park, Je Won; Lee, Eun Yeol; Kim, Dong-Myung; Kim, Byung-Gee; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2011-06-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae YJ028, bearing a deletion of the entire biosynthetic gene cluster encoding the pikromycin polyketide synthases and desosamine biosynthetic enzymes, was used as a bioconversion system for combinatorial biosynthesis of glycosylated derivatives of tylosin. Two engineered deoxysugar biosynthetic pathways for the biosynthesis of TDP-3-O-demethyl-D-chalcose or TDP-Lrhamnose in conjunction with the glycosyltransferaseauxiliary protein pair DesVII/DesVIII were expressed in a S. venezuelae YJ028 mutant strain. Supplementation of each mutant strain capable of producing TDP-3-O-demethyl- D-chalcose or TDP-L-rhamnose with tylosin aglycone tylactone resulted in the production of the 3-O-demethyl- D-chalcose, D-quinovose, or L-rhamnose-glycosylated tylactone.

  14. Production of a monoclonal antibody against oxytetracycline and its application for oxytetracycline residue detection in shrimp*

    PubMed Central

    Wongtangprasert, Tossapon; Natakuathung, Wirongrong; Pimpitak, Umaporn; Buakeaw, Anumart; Palaga, Tanapat; Komolpis, Kittinan; Khongchareonporn, Nanthika

    2014-01-01

    A novel monoclonal antibody (MAb) against oxytetracycline (OTC) was generated and characterized. The MAb was used in the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA)-based detection system. An OTC-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugate was prepared and used in the immunization of mice. A conventional somatic cell fusion technique was used to generate MAb-secreting hybridomas denoted 2-4F, 7-3G, and 11-11A. An indirect competitive ELISA (icELISA) was applied to measure the sensitivity and specificity of each MAb in terms of its 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and percentage of cross-reactivity, respectively. MAb 2-4F exhibited the highest sensitivity, with an IC50 of 7.01 ng/ml. This MAb showed strong cross-reactivity to rolitetracycline, but no cross-reactivity to other unrelated antibiotics. When MAb 2-4F was used to detect OTC from shrimp samples, the recoveries were in the range of 82%–118% for an intra-assay and 96%–113% for an inter-assay. The coefficients of variation of the assays were 3.9%–13.9% and 5.5%–14.9%, respectively. PMID:24510709

  15. Oral tylosin administration is associated with an increase of faecal enterococci and lactic acid bacteria in dogs with tylosin-responsive diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Kilpinen, Susanne; Rantala, Merja; Spillmann, Thomas; Björkroth, Johanna; Westermarck, Elias

    2015-09-01

    The term tylosin-responsive diarrhoea (TRD) is used for canine recurrent diarrhoea cases for which no underlying cause can be found after extensive diagnostic investigations, but which show a response to the antibiotic tylosin in a few days. The objective of this prospective, one-arm longitudinal trial was to assess the effects of oral tylosin administration on the faecal levels of potentially probiotic bacteria, such as Enterococcus spp. and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), in dogs with TRD. This trial included 14 client-owned suspected TRD dogs that were on tylosin treatment and had firm faeces. Treatment was then terminated and dogs were followed up for up to 2 months to determine the recurrence of diarrhoea. Once diarrhoea started, dogs received tylosin (orally, 25 mg/kg, once daily for 7 days). At the end of the treatment period, stools were firm again in 11 dogs (TRD dogs); three dogs continued having diarrhoea and were excluded from the study. Faecal samples were collected at all three time-points for culture of LAB and enterococci. In TRD dogs, the colony counts of Enterococcus spp. (P = 0.003), LAB (P = 0.037), tylosin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (P <0.001) and LAB (P <0.001) were significantly higher when the dogs were on tylosin treatment and had normal faecal consistency compared to when they had diarrhoea following discontinuation of tylosin. In conclusion, cessation of diarrhoea in TRD dogs with tylosin treatment could be mediated by selection of a specific lactic acid population, the Enterococcus spp., due to their potential probiotic properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of biochar amendment on tylosin adsorption-desorption and transport in two different soils.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang Yoon; Wang, Jim J; Dodla, Syam K; Eberhardt, Thomas L; Groom, Les

    2012-01-01

    The role of biochar as a soil amendment on the adsorption-desorption and transport of tylosin, a macrolide class of veterinary antibiotic, is little known. In this study, batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetics and transport of tylosin in forest and agricultural corn field soils amended with hardwood and softwood biochars. Tylosin adsorption was rapid at initial stages, followed by slow and continued adsorption. Amounts of adsorption increased as the biochar amendment rate increased from 1 to 10%. For soils with the hardwood biochar, tylosin adsorption was 10 to 18% higher than that when using the softwood biochar. Adsorption kinetics was well described by Elovich equation ( ≥ 0.921). As the percent of biochar was increased, the rates of initial reactions were generally increased, as indicated by increasing α value at low initial tylosin concentration, whereas the rates during extended reaction times were generally increased, as indicated by decreasing β value at high initial tylosin concentration. A considerably higher amount of tylosin remained after desorption in the corn field soil than in the forest soil regardless of the rate of biochar amendment, which was attributed to the high pH and silt content of the former. The breakthrough curves of tylosin showed that the two soils with biochar amendment had much greater retardation than those of soils without biochar. The CXTFIT model for the miscible displacement column study described well the peak arrival time as well as the maximum concentration of tylosin breakthrough curves but showed some underestimation at advanced stages of tylosin leaching, especially in the corn field soil. Overall, the results indicate that biochar amendments enhance the retention and reduce the transport of tylosin in soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Reaction of antibiotic sulfadiazine with manganese dioxide in aqueous phase: Kinetics, pathways and toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Feng; Yang, Li-Ming; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Cheng-Bin; Zheng, Li-Ying; Luo, Sheng-Lian

    2017-01-28

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are often detected in terrestrial and aquatic environment, but little is known about abiotic degradation of these antibiotics. In the present study, the degradation of the sulfonamide antibiotic sulfadiazine by a synthesized δ-MnO2 was investigated. The initial reaction rate of sulfadiazine oxidized by manganese dioxide increased as the solution pH decreased by weakening electrostatic attraction between sulfadiazine and MnO2 and enhancing the reduction potential of MnO2. The presence of metal ions (Mn(2+), Na(+) and Ca(2+)), especially Mn(2+), decreased the initial reaction rate by competitively adsorbing and reacting with MnO2. Two different products were identified during the reaction of sulfadiazine with MnO2 and the transformation of parent compound started with the formation of sulfadiazine radicals. Furthermore, toxicity assay results showed that the toxicity of products produced by bacteria decreased with elapse of reaction time. Results from the present study indicate that manganese dioxides in environmental matrix could be helpful in dissipation of sulfadiazine released into the environment.

  18. [Stability and distribution of oxytetracycline HCI during manufacture and storage of pig feed under field conditions].

    PubMed

    Counotte, G H; Eefting, T; Bosch, A

    1984-05-01

    The distribution of oxytetracycline hydrochloride in two batches of 4,000 kg of pig-rearing pellets (400 ppm) was studied. The stability of oxytetracycline in this feed was also determined. The concentration of oxytetracycline in the feed was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography. The premix contained more oxytetracycline (27 per cent) than the proportion stated. The results show that the first 1,000 kg of feed contained less (350 mg/kg) oxytetracycline than the other 7,000 kg (435 mg/kg). After producing 8,000 kg of feed with oxytetracycline, 4,000 kg of feed not containing oxytetracycline was produced. Still, this feed was found to contain 13 mg/kg of oxytetracycline. When the feed was stored for 150 days at a temperature of from 1 to 2 degrees C and again for 270 days at 20 to 25 degrees C, it contained 86.5 per cent of the oxytetracycline present after production of the feed.

  19. Aspartate aminotransferase and tylosin biosynthesis in Streptomyces fradiae.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S H; Lee, K J

    1993-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase as well as valine dehydrogenase and threonine dehydratase was required for the biosynthesis of tylosin in Streptomyces fradiae NRRL 2702. The biosynthesis of these enzymes and tylosin production were repressed by high concentrations of ammonium ions. The change in specific tylosin production rates in batch cultures with different initial concentrations of ammonium ions showed patterns similar to those of the specific production rates of aspartate aminotransferase, valine dehydrogenase, and threonine dehydratase. Aspartate aminotransferase has been purified by acetone precipitation, DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite, and preparative electrophoresis chromatographies. The purified enzyme (120 kDa) consisted of two subunits identical in molecular mass (54 kDa) and showed homogeneity, giving one band with a pI of 4.2 upon preparative isoelectric focusing. The enzyme was specific for L-aspartate in the forward reaction; the Km values were determined to be 2.7 mM for L-aspartate, 0.7 mM for 2-oxyglutarate, 12.8 mM for L-glutamate, and 0.15 mM for oxaloacetate. The enzyme was somewhat thermostable, having a maximum activity at 55 degrees C, and had a broad pH optimum that ranged from 5.5 to 8.0. The mode of action was a ping-pong-bi-bi mechanism. Images PMID:8481008

  20. Adsorption mechanisms and the effect of oxytetracycline on activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiancai; Liu, Dongfang; Zhang, Guowei; Frigon, Matthew; Meng, Xianrong; Li, Kexun

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption mechanisms and the effect of Oxytetracycline (OTC) onto activated sludge were studied. The results show that the adsorption of Oxytetracycline (OTC) onto activated sludge was coincident with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The Freundlich model had the best fit which suggested that chemical adsorption mechanism was dominant. The influences including pH and metal ions on the OTC were examined. It was demonstrated that the adsorption process was highly pH-dependant, which indicate that cationic exchange mechanisms may play an important role in the adsorption process. Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Cd(2+) ions more or less inhibited the adsorption of OTC on activated sludge while Cu(2+) enhanced the adsorption ability. The phenomenon may reflect the result that a surface complexation mechanism could involved in the adsorption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors affecting serum oxytetracycline levels in beef calves.

    PubMed

    Mercer, H D; Rollins, L D; Carter, G G; Gural, R P; Bourne, D W; Dittert, L W

    1977-08-01

    Fifteen Aberdeen Angus steers, 295-364 kg, were dosed with either 4.4 or 11 mg of oxytetracycline hydrochloride/kg im. The antimicrobial activity of the serum was determined periodically, and the resulting data were treated statistically to determine the sources of variation. Variance in serum levels of oxytetracycline activity was attributed to dose, time of bleeding, order of dosing, animal, and assay. The total variance component was proportionately greater for the 11-mg/kg dose than for the 4.4-mg/kg dose. Animal variance increased with the higher dose level of oxytetracycline. The influence of dose on serum level was tested by applying a t test to the mean serum levels and their standard deviations at each bleeding time. The 4.4- and 11-mg/kg serum levels were significantly different (p less than 0.01) at all bleeding times. The 4.4-mg/kg serum levels mutliplied by 2.5 were not significantly different (p less than 0.05) from the 11-mg/kg serum levels at all bleeding times.

  2. Comparative pharmacokinetics of doxycycline and oxytetracycline in patients with hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Wójcicki, J; Kalinowski, W; Gawrońska-Szklarz, B

    1985-01-01

    This study examines the pharmacokinetics of lipophilic drug doxycycline (Vibramycin) and water-soluble antibiotic oxytetracycline hydrochloride (Oxyterracyna) in patients with hyperlipidemia type IIa and type IV according to Fredrickson. Antibiotics were administered orally as a single dose and determined in plasma by a fluorimetric method. The calculations were performed by aid of a computer. Increased concentrations of doxycycline were found; they were higher in type IIa, as compared with type IV. Area under the curve (AUC) and peak concentrations as well as rate constant for elimination in subjects with type IV were significantly elevated; volumes of distribution and total body clearance were markedly diminished. Decreased concentrations of oxytetracycline, area under the curve, peak concentration and rate constant for elimination were observed in patients with type IV. In both types of hyperlipidemia volume of distribution was increased and half-life in patients with type IV was significantly prolonged. The findings show that hyperlipidemia can be an important factor of drug action. Alterations of pharmacokinetics of lipophilic doxycycline and hydrophilic oxytetracycline were contrasting.

  3. Topical 1% oxytetracycline hydrochloride versus placebo in oral mucosa biopsy.

    PubMed

    López-Jornet, Pia; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Martinez-Canovas, Ascensión; Sidrach-Cardona, Miriam

    2012-07-01

    Oral surgical procedures produce side effects such as pain and inflammation, the magnitude of which depends on the degree of tissue damage produced. To explore the effectiveness and safety of the topical application of 1% oxytetracycline hydrochloride after biopsy of the oral mucosa. A randomized, double-blind, placebo- and no treatment-controlled study was conducted in 90 patients with lesions needing histopathologic analysis. The patients were divided into three groups. Group I (control) received no treatment; in group II, the site of surgical intervention was treated topically with 1% oxytetracycline hydrochloride three times a day for 1 week; and in group III, the patients were treated in the same way but with placebo. Using a visual analog scale, we determined the time of maximum postoperative pain. Maximum pain intensity was recorded in the placebo group, with peak pain occurring 24 hours after surgery. The pain subsequently tended to decrease gradually over the 1-week period of the study. The maximum level of pain was significantly lower in group II than in the controls. No adverse effects were recorded. Topical 1% oxytetracycline hydrochloride decreases pain symptoms after oral mucosa biopsy. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Oxytetracycline residues in retail chicken eggs in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olatoye, Olufemi; Kayode, Saraye Taiwo

    2012-01-01

    Oxytetracycline residues in chicken eggs from five markets within Ibadan metropolis were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography following solid-phase extraction. Recovery of oxytetracycline was 80.5%-87.8%, whereas 75.2% of the samples contained detectable oxytetracycline with an overall mean residue concentration of 479.0 µg kg(-1). Residue concentrations from Iwo Road, Apata, Challenge, Ojoo and Bodija markets were 421, 460, 468, 568 and 476 µg kg(-1), respectively. Eggs from Ojoo market had the highest levels, whereas 68.8% of the samples contained residues above the Codex Alimentarius Commission maximum residue limit. The results are of public health interest as they indicate that a greater proportion of eggs being consumed in Ibadan could contain residues above the maximum residue limit, for which unregulated access and indiscriminate use of antibiotics by poultry farmers could be responsible. National surveillance of eggs and other animal products for antibiotic residue and appropriate regulation of antibiotic is recommended to ensure food safety for consumers.

  5. Laboratory evaluation of mobility and sorption for the veterinary antibiotic, tylosin, in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Coats, Joel R

    2009-09-01

    Veterinary medicines, including antibiotics, are utilized in large quantities in intensive livestock farming. It is evidenced that tylosin, one of the most frequently used antibiotics, is only partially metabolized in animals and not completely degraded in the manure storage stage before application to the farmland. In order to assess the mobility of tylosin in soil, a soil-column leaching study and a simple batch sorption experiment were conducted in the laboratory. Tylosin had strong sorption to various soils, with sorption distribution coefficients ranging from 42 to 65 ml/g. The range of concentrations in leachate was detected from non-detectable to 0.27 ng/mL after four simulated rainfall events in one month, and leachability of tylosin is dependent on soil properties and manure amendment. Percentage of clay, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, and manure amendment were positively correlated with sorption, and negatively correlated with mobility of tylosin in soil. The majority of tylosin was not recovered in the testing system, indicating that tylosin was most likely mineralized, or irreversibly bound to solid particles since no major degradation products were detected. Some trace level tylosin residues from manure-applied farmlands may be the major source to surface water systems through soil erosion and preferential flow processes.

  6. Effect of biochar amendment on tylosin adsorption-desorption and transport in two different soils

    Treesearch

    Chang Yoon Jeong; Jim J. Wang; Syam K. Dodla; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Les Groom

    2012-01-01

    The role of biochar as a soil amendment on the adsorption¨C desorption and transport of tylosin, a macrolide class of veterinary antibiotic, is little known. In this study, batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetics and transport of tylosin in forest and agricultural corn field soils amended with hardwood and softwood biochars....

  7. Concurrent in vitro release of silver sulfadiazine and bupivacaine from semi-interpenetrating networks for wound management.

    PubMed

    Kleinbeck, Kyle R; Bader, Rebecca A; Kao, Weiyuan John

    2009-01-01

    In situ photopolymerized semi-interpenetrating networks (sIPNs) composed of poly(ethylene glycol) and gelatin are promising multifunctional matrices for a regenerative medicine approach to dermal wound treatment. In addition to previously demonstrated efficacy in critical defects, sIPNs also function as drug delivery matrices for compounds loaded as either soluble or covalently linked components. Simultaneous release of silver sulfadiazine and bupivacaine from the sIPN would provide multiple-hit management of dermal wounds that minimizes infection, and manages pain along with sIPN absorption of exudates and facilitation of epidermal regrowth. We characterized the release of soluble silver sulfadiazine and bupivacaine and compared it with an established release model. Efficacy of released silver sulfadiazine was confirmed in vitro on Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bupivacaine loaded without silver sulfadiazine showed incomplete release, whereas simultaneous loading with silver sulfadiazine facilitated 100% bupivacaine release. Silver sulfadiazine released at 98% without bupivacaine and 96% with bupivacaine. Silver sulfadiazine released onto bacterial cultures inhibited all three strains dose dependently. sIPNs effectively release bupivacaine and silver sulfadiazine while maintaining the antimicrobial activity of silver sulfadiazine. Drug loaded sIPNs have potential to improve wound management by providing multi-drug delivery along with an effective wound treatment.

  8. Impact of sulfadiazine on performance and microbial community of a sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating synthetic mariculture wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiwei; Chang, Qingbo; Li, Shanshan; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian; Guo, Liang; Zhao, Yangguo; Jin, Chunji; Zheng, Dong; Xu, Qiaoyan

    2017-03-22

    The impact of sulfadiazine on the performance, microbial activity and microbial community of a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) were evaluated in treating mariculture wastewater due to the application of sulfadiazine as an antibiotic in mariculture. The COD and nitrogen removals kept stable at 0-6mg/L sulfadiazine and were inhibited at 10-35mg/L sulfadiazine. The microbial activities related to organic matter and nitrogen removals reduced with an increase in sulfadiazine concentration. The presence of sulfadiazine could affect the production and chemical composition of loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) in the biofilm. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that sulfadiazine could impact on the microbial richness and diversity of SBBR treating mariculture wastewater. The relative abundances of Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira, Paracoccus, Hyphomicrobium, Rhodanobacter, Thauera and Steroidobacter decreased with an increase in sulfadiazine concentration, indicating that the presence of sulfadiazine decreased the relative abundance of some nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria.

  9. Effect of albendazole administration on pharmacokinetic aspects of tylosin in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Atef, M; Ramadan, A; Darwish, A S; Fahim, Aisha M M

    2009-08-01

    Tylosin concentrations and its disposition kinetics in serum, urine, and milk of lactating goats following a single intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injection (10 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) were carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).The concentration-time curve of tylosin after i.v. injection could be described by a two-compartment open model. Tylosin was rapidly distributed and eliminated from goat's bodies with t(1/2(beta)) value of 1.25 h. The V((d)) was less than one litre/kg and the MRT was 1.40 h. Concomitant administration with albendazole decreased tylosin concentrations in serum after its i.v. injection and the MRT was 1.17 h. The AUC and AUMC showed a significant decrease in goats given albendazole prior to injection as compared with those given tylosin only. Following i.m. administration, the absorption half-life and the corresponding t(max) revealed rapid absorption rate with systemic bioavailability (F%) of 76.2 %. Albendazole when given concurrently with tylosin decreased its serum concentrations due to lower bioavailability (43.25 %). Following i.v. or i.m. injection, tylosin was excreted rapidly in urine in concentration much higher than those determined in serum and milk. Tylosin administered in goats pretreated with albendazole was excreted at lower concentration in urine, with a significant decrease from 1(st) to 10(th) hours as compared with animals given tylosin only. Following i.v. or i.m. administration of tylosin, the drug was excreted in high concentrations in milk. A significant decrease in milk concentrations was reported in goats pretreated with albendazole.

  10. Tolerance of the antibiotic tylosin on treatment performance of an up-flow anaerobic stage reactor (UASR).

    PubMed

    Chelliapan, S; Wilby, T; Sallis, P J; Yuzir, A

    2011-01-01

    Tylosin has been considered inhibiting COD removal in anaerobic digestion. In this study it is proven that this is not always the case. Accordingly, elevated concentrations of Tylosin (100-800mgL-1) could be tolerated by the anaerobic system. The influence of Tylosin concentrations on an up-flow anaerobic stage reactor (UASR) was assessed using additions of Tylosin phosphate concentrate. Results showed high efficiency for COD removal (average 93%) when Tylosin was present at concentrations ranging from 0 to 400 mg L-1. However, at Tylosin concentrations of 600 and 800 mg L-1 treatment efficiency declined to 85% and 75% removal respectively. The impact of Tylosin concentrations on archaeal activity were investigated and the analysis revealed that archaeal cells dominated the reactor, confirming that there was no detectable inhibition of the methanogens at Tylosin levels between 100 and 400mg L-1. Nevertheless, the investigation showed a slight reduction in the number of methanogens at Tylosin levels of 600 and 800 mg L-1. These results demonstrated that the methanogens were well adapted to Tylosin. It would not be expected that the process performance of the UASR would be affected, not even at a level well in excess of those appearing in real wastewater from a Tylosin production site.

  11. 21 CFR 524.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1662 Section 524.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. ...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms. 522.1662 Section 522.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms. 522.1662 Section 522.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or...

  14. 21 CFR 522.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms. 522.1662 Section 522.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or...

  15. 21 CFR 522.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms. 522.1662 Section 522.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or...

  16. 21 CFR 522.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms. 522.1662 Section 522.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or...

  17. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline and penicillin G in tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    McLelland, D J; Barker, I K; Crawshaw, G; Hinds, L A; Spilsbury, L; Johnson, R

    2011-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline and penicillin G was investigated in tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii). Groups of eight healthy tammar wallabies were administered i.v. oxytetracycline hydrochloride (40 mg/kg), i.m. long-acting-oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg), i.v. sodium penicillin G (30 mg/kg), or i.m. procaine/benzathine penicillin G (30 mg/kg). Plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were comparable to those reported for eutherians of equivalent size and suggest that the practice of adjusting allometrically scaled doses to account for the lower metabolic rate of marsupials may not be valid. Long-acting oxytetracycline and penicillin G both demonstrated depot effects. However, the plasma concentrations achieved question the therapeutic efficacy of the long-acting preparations. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Short-term extractability of sulfadiazine after application to soils.

    PubMed

    Müller, Tanja; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Focks, Andreas; Siemens, Jan; Klasmeier, Jörg; Matthies, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The long-term environmental fate of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) in soils is determined by a reversible sequestration into a residual fraction and an irreversible formation of non-extractable residues (NER), which can be described as first-order rate processes. However, the concentration dynamics of the resulting fractions of SDZ in soil show an unexplained rapid reduction of extractability during the first 24 h. We therefore investigated the short-term extractability of SDZ in two different soils under different SDZ application procedures over 24 h: with and without manure, for air-dried and for moist soils. In all batches, we observed an instantaneous loss of extractability on a time scale of minutes as well as kinetically determined sequestration and NER formation over 24 h. Data evaluation with a simple kinetic model led to the conclusion that application with manure accelerated the short-term formation of NER, whereas sequestration was very similar for all batches.

  19. Niosomally encapsulated silver sulfadiazine gel for burn treatment.

    PubMed

    Dharashivkar, Sanket S; Sahasrabuddhe, Sangeeta H; Saoji, Ashok N

    2015-01-01

    Silver sulfadiazine (SSD) is the antibacterial of choice for the treatment of burn. The current marketed formulation of SSD is 1% w/w water soluble cream, which requires frequent applications, which is very painful to patients. Niosomes were prepared by a thin film hydration method. The in vitro antimicrobial efficiency of niosomal SSD (18 ± 0.5 mm) was as good as that of marketed cream (17 ± 0.5 mm) against Staphylococcus aureus even when used in half the concentration (0.5%) of marketed cream (1%). Further SSD (0.5% w/w) niosomal gel was prepared using 1.6% carbopol 934. It was evident through in vitro permeation studies that SSD release was considerably retarded from both niosomes and niosomal gel in comparison with marketed cream thereby decreasing the dosing frequency. In-vivo study demonstrated that a niosomal gel containing 0.5% w/w SSD was more effective in burn wound healing compared to 1% w/w marketed cream even when applied once a day.

  20. Disposition kinetics of tylosin administered intravenously and intramuscularly to pigs.

    PubMed

    Prats, C; El Korchi, G; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-10-01

    The distribution of tylosin was studied using a crossover design, in six pigs following i.v. and i.m. administration of 10 mgkg(-1) b.w. Plasma samples were analysed by HPLC and UV absorbance detection. After i.v. administration, t(1/2beta) was 271.3 min, V(d) 14.6 Lkg(-1), V(ss) 9.7 Lkg(-1) and CL 26.8 mLmin(-1)kg(-1). After i.m. administration, a C(max) of 1 microgmL(-1) was reached at 90 min. Mean absorption time was 1988.7 min and bioavailability was 95%.

  1. Size-selective toxicity effects of the antimicrobial tylosin on estuarine phytoplankton communities.

    PubMed

    Kline, Allison; Pinckney, James L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the lethal and sublethal effects of the antimicrobial tylosin on natural estuarine phytoplankton communities. Bioassays were used in experimental treatments with final concentrations of 5 to 1000 μg tylosin l(-1). Maximum percent inhibition ranged from 57 to 85% at concentrations of 200-400 μg tylosin l(-1). Half maximum inhibition concentrations of tylosin were ca. 5x lower for small phytoplankton (<20 μm) relative to larger phytoplankton (>20 μm) and suggests that small phytoplankton are more sensitive to tylosin exposure. Sublethal effects occurred at concentrations as low as 5 μg tylosin l(-1). Environmental concentrations of tylosin (e.g., 0.2-3 μg l(-1)) may have a significant sublethal effect that alters the size structure and composition of phytoplankton communities. The results of this study highlight the potential importance of cell size on toxicity responses of estuarine phytoplankton. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of the presence of the antimicrobial tylosin in swine waste on anaerobic treatment.

    PubMed

    Angenent, Largus T; Mau, Margit; George, Usha; Zahn, James A; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2008-05-01

    An anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), seeded with a biomass inoculum that previously had not been exposed to the macrolide antimicrobial tylosin (mixture of Tylosin A, B, C, and D), was operated for 3 months with swine waste without Tylosin A and for 9 months with swine waste containing Tylosin A at an average concentration of 1.6 mg/L. When swine waste with tylosin was fed to the ASBR, methane production and volatile solids removal did not appear to be inhibited and a methane yield of 0.47 L methane per gram volatile solids fed to the ASBR was observed. Throughout the operating period, Tylosin A levels in ASBR biomass and effluent were below the detection limit of 0.01 mg/L. However, during the first 3 months of operation, the levels of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB)-resistant bacteria in the ASBR biomass increased substantially as determined by hybridizations with oligonucleotide probes designed to target MLSB-resistant bacteria. Since no Tylosin A was present in the swine waste during the initial 3 months, the presence of MLSB-resistant bacteria in the swine waste was likely the reason for the increase in resistance. Subsequently, the levels of MLSB-resistant bacteria in ASBR biomass stabilized with an average of 44.9% for the 9 months of operation with swine waste containing Tylosin A. The level of MLSB-resistant bacteria in the swine waste fed to the ASBR during this period averaged 18.0%. The results indicate that anaerobic treatment of a waste stream containing tylosin was effective (based on reactor performance) and that the level of resistant bacteria in the ASBR was substantially higher than in the waste stream fed to this system.

  3. Tylosin production by Streptomyces fradiae using raw cornmeal in airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dubok; Choi, On You; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Chung, Dong-Ok; Shin, Dae-Yewn

    2007-07-01

    Using a 50-l airlift bioreactor, for the effective production of tylosin from Streptomyces fradiae TM-224 using raw cornmeal as the energy source, various environmental factors were studied in flask cultures. The maximum tylosin concentration was obtained at 32 degrees C and pH between 7.0 and 7.5. When seed was inoculated after 24 h of culture, the maximum tylosin concentration, 5.7 g/l, was obtained after 4 days of culture. Various concentrations of raw cornmeal were tested to investigate the optimum initial concentration for the tylosin production. An initial raw cornmeal concentration of 80 g/l gave the highest tylosin concentration, 5.8 g/l, after 5 days of culture. Of the various nitrogen sources, soybean meal and fish meal were found to be the most effective for the production of tylosin. In particular, with the optimal mixing ratio, 12 g/l of soybean meal to 14 g/l of fish meal, 7.2 g/l of tylosin was obtained after 5 days of culture. To compare raw cornmeal and glucose for the production oftylosin in the 50-1 airlift bioreactor for 10 days, fed-batch cultures were carried out under the optimum culture conditions. When raw corn meal was used as the energy source, the tylosin production increased with increasing culture time. The maximum tylosin concentration after 10 days of culture was 13.5 g/l, with a product yield from raw cornmeal of 0.123 g/g of consumed carbon source, which was about 7.2 times higher than that obtained when glucose was used as the carbon source.

  4. Preparation and evaluation of oxytetracycline hydrochloride microbeads for delayed release.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Sunita; Tyagi, Lalit

    2008-04-01

    Oxytetracycline HCl microbeads were prepared with sodium alginate and pectin using ionic gelation method and evaluated for morphology, flow properties, drug content and in vitro drug release study. SEM confirmed spherical structure of microbeads with rough and porous surfaces and microbeads possessed average particle size range of 639.86 to 685.74 microm. In vitro drug release study was carried out in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) for first 2 h and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) for next 6 h. Selected formulation was coated using enteric polymer cellulose acetate phthalate to minimize burst drug release along with delayed drug release in intestinal medium.

  5. [Effectiveness of oxytetracycline and chingamin on cold injury in rats].

    PubMed

    Aleutskiĭ, N N; Buiuklinskaia, O V; Malykh, E A; Nazarenko, N A

    1995-01-01

    The preventive and therapeutical effects of oxytetracycline hydrochloride, 10 mg/kg b.w., and chingamine, 50 mg/kg b.w., were studied in frostbites caused by ethyl chloride. The experiments were conducted on adult albino Wistar rats. The two drugs given orally twice a day for 15 days or more prevented the development of frost bite; clinical, biochemical, and histological parameters becoming normal. Chingamine was found to be more effective, which makes it promising for further experimental and clinical studies.

  6. Immunomodulating effects of black seed and oxytetracycline in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Al-Ankari, A S

    2005-01-01

    Chronic administration of oxytetracycline (OXT) (incorporated at a level of 0.05 g per kg of feed for 50 days) to pigeons, significantly decreased total leukocyte and lymphocyte counts, increased heterophil:lymphocyte ratio and lysosomal enzyme activity, and decreased reticuloendothelial system function compared with controls. Coadministration of black seed (BS) at a level of 2.5% with OXT completely blocked the effects elicited by OXT and produced immunostimulant effects in pigeons. The addition of BS to feed of pigeons could act as an immunoprotective agent when chronic administration of antibiotics are considered.

  7. Performance comparison of biofilm and suspended sludge from a sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating mariculture wastewater under oxytetracycline stress.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dong; Gao, Mengchun; Wang, Zhe; She, Zonglian; Jin, Chunji; Chang, Qingbo

    2016-09-01

    The performance, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and microbial community of a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) were investigated in treating mariculture wastewater under oxytetracycline stress. The chemical oxygen demand and [Formula: see text]-N removal efficiencies of the SBBR decreased with the increase of oxytetracycline concentration, and no obvious [Formula: see text]-N and [Formula: see text]-N accumulation in the effluent appeared at less than 10 mg L(-1) oxytetracycline. The specific oxygen utilization rate of the suspended sludge was more than that of the biofilm at different oxytetracycline concentrations. The specific ammonium oxidation rate (SAOR) of the biofilm was more easily affected by oxytetracycline than that of the suspended sludge, whereas the effect of oxytetracycline on the specific nitrite oxidation rate (SNOR) of the biofilm was less than that of the suspended sludge. The specific nitrate reduction rate of both the biofilm and suspended sludge was higher than the sum of the SAOR and SNOR at different oxytetracycline concentrations. The protein and polysaccharide contents in the EPS of the biofilm and suspended sludge increased with the increase of oxytetracycline concentration. The appearance of oxytetracycline in the influent could affect the chemical composition of the loosely bound EPS and tightly bound EPS. The amino, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups might be involved with interaction between EPS and oxytetracycline. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles indicated that the variation of oxytetracycline concentration in the influent could affect the microbial communities of both the biofilm and suspended sludge.

  8. Highly water-dispersible silver sulfadiazine decorated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone and its antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Wu, Longlong; Li, Binjie; Zhao, Yanbao; Qu, Peng

    2016-03-01

    Highly water-dispersible silver sulfadiazine (SSD) was prepared by liquid phase method with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a surface modification agent. The structure and morphology of the PVP-modified silver sulfadiazine (P-SSD) were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry. The produced particles are ginkgo leaf-like architecture with the sizes of micron-nanometer. Due to hydrophilic PVP decorated on the surface, the P-SSD has excellent dispersion in water over a period of 24h, which is obviously stable by comparison to that of the commercial silver sulfadiazine (C-SSD). In addition, the P-SSD exhibits good antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).

  9. No long-term persistence of bacterial pollution-induced community tolerance in tylosin-polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Demoling, Louise Aldén; Bååth, Erland

    2008-09-15

    Pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of soil bacteria to the antibiotic tylosin was studied over 95 days. Tylosin was added at increasing concentrations, together with different amounts of alfalfa to study the effects of substrate addition on PICT and bacterial growth in soil. The leucine incorporation technique was used to estimate bacterial growth and as a detection method in the PICT concept. Direct inhibition of the bacterial growth rates, resulting in a dose-response curve, was found above 50 mg of tylosin kg(-1) of soil two days after tylosin addition (IC50 value of 960 mg tylosin kg(-1)). After 10 days of exposure to at least 50 mg of tylosin kg(-1), the PICT was observed and correlated to inhibition of bacterial growth by tylosin. A return of the PICT to control levels was found over time, and after 95 days at 1500 mg of tylosin kg(-1), essentially no PICT was found, as compared to the unpolluted control soil. The return of PICT to pre-exposure levels was not totally reflected in the recovery of bacterial growth. Alfalfa addition did not affect the inhibitory effect of tylosin on bacterial growth rates; neither did it alter the PICT. Since tylosin is relatively rapidly degraded in soil, our results indicate that the PICT will return to prepollution levels when the selective pressure of the toxicant is removed and will thus be a useful technique for monitoring remediation measures.

  10. Transport of sulfadiazine in soil columns — Experiments and modelling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrhan, Anne; Kasteel, Roy; Simunek, Jirka; Groeneweg, Joost; Vereecken, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Antibiotics, such as sulfadiazine, reach agricultural soils directly through manure of grazing livestock or indirectly through the spreading of manure or sewage sludge on the field. Knowledge about the fate of antibiotics in soils is crucial for assessing the environmental risk of these compounds, including possible transport to the groundwater. Transport of 14C-labelled sulfadiazine was investigated in disturbed soil columns at a constant flow rate of 0.26 cm h - 1 near saturation. Sulfadiazine was applied in different concentrations for either a short or a long pulse duration. Breakthrough curves of sulfadiazine and the non-reactive tracer chloride were measured. At the end of the leaching period the soil concentration profiles were determined. The peak maxima of the breakthrough curves were delayed by a factor of 2 to 5 compared to chloride and the decreasing limbs are characterized by an extended tailing. However, the maximum relative concentrations differed as well as the eluted mass fractions, ranging from 18 to 83% after 500 h of leaching. To identify relevant sorption processes, breakthrough curves of sulfadiazine were fitted with a convective-dispersive transport model, considering different sorption concepts with one, two and three sorption sites. Breakthrough curves can be fitted best with a three-site sorption model, which includes two reversible kinetic and one irreversible sorption site. However, the simulated soil concentration profiles did not match the observations for all of the used models. Despite this incomplete process description, the obtained results have implications for the transport behavior of sulfadiazine in the field. Its leaching may be enhanced if it is frequently applied at higher concentrations.

  11. Comparison of silver nylon wound dressing and silver sulfadiazine in partial burn wound therapy.

    PubMed

    Abedini, Fereydoon; Ahmadi, Abdollah; Yavari, Akram; Hosseini, Vahid; Mousavi, Sarah

    2013-10-01

    The study aims to perform a comparative assessment of two types of burn wound treatment. To do the assessment, patients with partial thickness burn wounds with total body surface area <40% were simple randomised to treat with nanocrystalline silver nylon wound dressing or silver sulfadiazine cream. Efficacy of treatment, use of analgesics, number of wound dressing change, wound infection and final hospitalisation cost were evaluated. The study showed silver nylon wound dressing significantly reduced length of hospital stay, analgesic use, wound infection and inflammation compared with silver sulfadiazine. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  12. Study of treatment of congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection in rhesus monkeys with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine.

    PubMed Central

    Schoondermark-van de Ven, E; Galama, J; Vree, T; Camps, W; Baars, I; Eskes, T; Meuwissen, J; Melchers, W

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of the combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine for the treatment of congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection in rhesus monkeys was studied. The dosage regimen for pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine was established by pharmacokinetic studies in two monkeys. Those studies showed that the distributions of both drugs followed a one-compartment model. The serum elimination half-lives were found to be 5.2 h for sulfadiazine and 44.4 h for pyrimethamine. Sulfadiazine reached a maximum concentration in serum of 58.7 micrograms/ml, whereas a maximum concentration in serum of 0.22 micrograms/ml was found for pyrimethamine. Ten monkeys were infected intravenously with T. gondii at day 90 of pregnancy, which is comparable to the second trimester of organogenetic development in humans. Treatment was administered to six monkeys, in whose fetuses infection was diagnosed antenatally. From the moment that fetal infection was proven, the monkeys were treated throughout pregnancy with 1 mg of pyrimethamine per kg of body weight per day and 50 mg of sulfadiazine per kg of body weight per day orally. The therapy was supplemented with 3.5 mg of folinic acid once a week. No toxic side effects were found with this drug regimen. The parasite was no longer detectable in the next consecutive amniotic fluid sample, taken 10 to 13 days after treatment was started. Furthermore, T. gondii was also not found in the neonate at birth. The parasite was still present at birth in three of four untreated fetuses that served as controls. Both drugs crossed the placenta very well. Concentrations in fetal serum varied from 0.05 to 0.14 micrograms/ml for pyrimethamine and from 1.0 to 5.4 micrograms/ml for sulfadiazine. In addition, pyrimethamine was found to accumulate in the brain tissue, with concentrations being three to four times higher than the corresponding concentrations in serum. Thirty percent of the sulfadiazine was found to reach the brain tissue when compared with the

  13. Sulfadiazine uptake and effects in common hazel (Corylus avellana L.).

    PubMed

    Michelini, Lucia; Meggio, Franco; Reichel, Rüdiger; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Pitacco, Andrea; Scattolin, Linda; Montecchio, Lucio; Alberghini, Sara; Squartini, Andrea; Ghisi, Rossella

    2015-09-01

    Soil contamination by antibiotics is a possible consequence of animal husbandry waste, sewage sludge, and reclaimed water spreading in agriculture. In this study, 1-year-old hazel plants (Corylus avellana L.) were grown in pots for 64 days in soil spiked with sulfadiazine (SDZ) in the range 0.01-100 mg kg(-1) soil. Leaf gas exchanges, fluorescence parameters and plant growth were measured regularly during the experiment, whereas plant biomass, sulfonamide concentrations in soil and plant tissues, and the quantitative variation of culturable bacterial endophytes in leaf petiole were analyzed at the end of the trial. During the experiment, photosynthesis and leaf transpiration as well as fluorescence parameters were progressively reduced by the antibiotic. Effects were more evident for leaf transpiration and for the highest SDZ spiking concentrations, whereas growth analyses did not reveal negative effects of the antibiotic. At the end of the trial, a high number of culturable endophytic bacteria in the leaf petiole of plants treated with 0.1 and 0.01 mg kg(-1) were observed, and SDZ was extractable from soil and plant roots for spiking concentrations ≥1 mg kg(-1). Inside plants, the antibiotic was mainly stored at the root level with bioconcentration factors increasing with the spiking dose, and the hydroxylated derivate 4-OH-SDZ was the only metabolite detected. Overall results show that 1-year-old hazel plants can contribute to the reduction of sulfonamide concentrations in the environment, however, sensitive reactions to SDZ can be expected at the highest contamination levels.

  14. Sequestration of manure-applied sulfadiazine residues in soils.

    PubMed

    Förster, M; Laabs, V; Lamshöft, M; Groeneweg, J; Zühlke, S; Spiteller, M; Krauss, M; Kaupenjohann, M; Amelung, W

    2009-03-15

    It is not the total but the (bio)accessible concentration of veterinary medicines that determines their toxicity in the environment. We elucidate the changes in (bio)accessibility of manure-applied sulfadiazine (SDZ) with increasing contact time in soil. Fattening pigs were medicated with 14C-labeled SDZ, and the contaminated manure (fresh and aged) was amended to 2 soil types (Cambisol, Luvisol) and incubated for 218 days at 10 degrees C in the dark. Antibiotic residues of different bioaccessibility were approached by sequential extractions with 0.01 M CaCl2 (CaCl2 fraction), methanol (MeOH fraction), and finally acetonitrile/water (residual fraction, microwave extraction at 150 degrees C). In each fraction, total radioactivity, SDZ, and its major metabolites were quantified. The results showed that both SDZ and,to a lesser extent 4-hydroxysulfadiazine (4-OH-SDZ) were rapidly reformed from N-acetylsulfadiazine (N-ac-SDZ) during the first 2-4 weeks after fresh manure application, i.e., the N-acetylated metabolite does not sequester in soil to a significant extent Yet, the water and methanol extractable SDZ and 4-OH-SDZ also dissipated rapidly (DT50 = 6.0-32 days) for the fresh manure treatment with similar rate constants for both soil types. In the residual fractions, however, the concentrations of both compounds increased with time. We conclude that the residual fraction comprises the sequestered pool of SDZ and its hydroxylated metabolite. There they are entrapped and may persist in soil for several years. Including the residual fraction into fate studies thus yields dissipation half-lives of SDZ which exceed those previously reported for sulfonamides by a factor of about 100.

  15. Antibiotic aerosolization: tissue and plasma oxytetracycline concentrations in turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Van Alstine, W G; Dyer, D C

    1985-01-01

    Oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC) was delivered by aerosol to healthy 3-week-old turkeys. Trachea, lung, and plasma were evaluated for OTC levels at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after aerosol exposure. In Expt. 1, 15 poults in a modified Horsfall unit were exposed to 1 g OTC/m3 of air using a DeVilbiss ultrasonic nebulizer. In Expt. 2, 25,000 poults in a commercial confinement unit were exposed to 0.075 g of OTC/m3 of air using a Fogmaster fogger. In each case, initially high tracheal and lung OTC concentrations were obtained. OTC levels in the trachea fell to less than 1 microgram/g between 4 and 8 hours postexposure. Plasma OTC levels remained low throughout both experiments. Oxytetracycline was still detectable in room air 60 min after aerosol exposure and before ventilation was restored. This method of administration may have promise for use in respiratory infections, but additional studies are needed to further define the use of aerosol therapy in poultry production units.

  16. Accumulation of oxytetracycline and norfloxacin from saline soil by soybeans.

    PubMed

    Boonsaner, M; Hawker, D W

    2010-03-01

    Soil of former shrimp aquaculture facilities in Thailand may be contaminated by antibiotics (e.g. oxytetracycline and norfloxacin) and have elevated salinity. Therefore, reuse of this land can be problematic. The utility of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) for phytoremediation was investigated. The rate of germination and seedling emergence in prepared contaminated soil (conductivity 17.7 dS m(-1) from adding 70 mg sodium chloride g(-1) dry weight, 105 mg kg(-1) dry weight oxytetracycline and 55 mg kg(-1) dry weight norfloxacin) in sunlight was approximately 80% that of uncontaminated soil. This reduction was largely due to the high salinity. The antibiotics of interest degraded relatively rapidly in soil (half-life <10h for both) but loss was slower in deionised water. Accumulation of the antibiotics from deionised water by soybean resulted in little effect on growth rate and maximum levels in plants were observed after two days exposure, followed by declining concentrations. For soybean plants grown in saline soil, 90% removal of NaCl from soil adjacent to plant roots was observed, most within two days. Wilting and defoliation occurred, but plants recovered after 10 days and maximum salt levels in plants exceeded 20,000 mg g(-1) dry weight with translocation from root to shoot tissue noted. Soybean plants also accumulated the antibiotics from prepared contaminated saline soil, but translocation from the roots was not observed. The results showed that soybean can be valuable for phytoremediation in these situations.

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetics of tylosin or florfenicol after a single intramuscular administration at two different doses of tylosin-florfenicol combination in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hee; Gebru, Elias; Chang, Zhi-Qiang; Choi, Jae-Young; Hwang, Mi-Hyun; Kang, Eun-Hee; Lim, Jong-Hwan; Yun, Hyo-In; Park, Seung-Chun

    2008-01-01

    Clinical pharmacokinetic profiles were investigated following intramuscular (i.m.) administration to pigs with a commercial tylosin-florfenicol combination product at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg tylosin and 5 mg/kg florfenicol or 10 mg/kg tylosin and 20 mg/kg florfenicol. The quantitation limit (QL) of florfenicol was 0.1 microg/ml, the inter-day and intra-day precision (CV%) were both beow 10%. The quantitation limit (QL) of tylosin was 0.05 microg/mL. The pharmacokinetic characteristics after i.m. doses were fitted by a one compartment open model. A fourfold decrease in the normal dose of each drug (20 mg/kg to 5 mg/kg for florfenicol, and 10 mg/kg to 2.5 mg/kg for tylosin) resulted in a corresponding two fold decrease in each drug of the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and the area under curve (AUC) values.

  18. Tylosin effect on methanogenesis in an anaerobic biomass from swine wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Liliana; Garzón-Zúñiga, Marco Antonio; Buelna, Gerardo; Estrada-Arriaga, Edson Baltazar

    2016-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations of tylosin on methane production was investigated: first methanogenesis in a biomass without contact with the antibiotic, and later the ability of the sludge to adapt to increasing concentrations of tylosin. Results showed that, for biomass that had no contact with the antibiotic, the presence of tylosin inhibits the generation of methane even at concentrations as small as 0.01 mg L(-1), and samples at concentrations above 0.5 mg L(-1) produced practically no methane, whereas, in the digesters acclimated in the presence of tylosin at a concentration of 0.01 to 0.065 mg L(-1), methanogenesis is not inhibited in the presence of antibiotic and the generation of methane is improved. This behaviour suggests the microorganisms have developed not only resistance to the antibiotic but also an ability to metabolize it.

  19. Airborne allergic contact dermatitis from tylosin in pharmacy compounders and cross-sensitization to macrolide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Malaiyandi, Viba; Houle, Marie Claude; Skotnicki-Grant, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Tylosin is a broad-spectrum macrolide antibiotic that is restricted to veterinary use. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by tylosin has been reported in the literature from the farming industry and veterinary medicine. It is also reported as the most common antibiotic to cause ACD in the previously mentioned occupational settings. We present 2 cases of airborne ACD from tylosin among veterinary pharmaceutical compounding technicians. To our knowledge, only one other case of patch test-confirmed tylosin ACD has been reported in the manufacturing setting. Based on our results, cross-sensitization to other clinically relevant macrolides does not appear to be a concern. Our cases highlight the importance of patch testing among pharmaceutical compounders where the incidence of an airborne contact may be greater, given that the exposure is to the powdered form of potential allergens.

  20. A quantum dot-based immunoassay for screening of tylosin and tilmicosin in edible animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Le, Tao; Zhu, Liqian; Yang, Xian

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, indirect competitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-FLISA) based on quantum dots (QDs) as the fluorescent marker was developed for the detection of tylosin and tilmicosin in edible animal tissues. The end point fluorescent detection system was carried out using QDs conjugated with goat anti-mouse secondary antibody. The limits of detection (LODs) for the determination of tylosin and tilmicosin were 0.02 and 0.04 μg kg(-1), respectively. This detection method was used to analyse spiked samples and the recoveries ranged from 83.5% to 98.7% for tylosin and from 81.8% to 98.2% for tilmicosin. In real porcine tissue sample analysis, the results of ic-FLISA were similar to those obtained from an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) to an HPLC method indicating its potential for tylosin and tilmicosin screening in edible animal tissues.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of a florfenicol-tylosin combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Young; Gebru, Elias; Lee, Joong-Su; Kim, Jong-Choon; Park, Seung-Chun

    2011-04-01

    A pharmacokinetic study of a commercial florfenicol-tylosin (2:1) combination product was conducted in six beagle dogs after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration at doses of 10 mg/kg (florfenicol) and 5 mg/kg (tylosin). Serum drug concentrations were determined by a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using UV detection. A rapid and nearly complete absorption of both drugs with a mean IM bioavailability of 103.9% (florfenicol) and 92.6% (tylosin), prolonged elimination half-life, and high tissue penetration with steady state volume of distribution of 2.63 l/kg (florfenicol) and 1.98 l/kg (tylosin) were observed. Additional studies, including pharmacodynamic and toxicological evaluation are required before recommendations can be made regarding the clinical application of the product in dogs.

  2. Sublethal effects of the antibiotic tylosin on estuarine benthic microalgal communities.

    PubMed

    Pinckney, James L; Hagenbuch, Isaac M; Long, Richard A; Lovell, Charles R

    2013-03-15

    Pharmaceuticals are common chemical contaminants in estuaries receiving effluent from wastewater and sewage treatment facilities. The purpose of this research was to examine benthic microalgal (BMA) community responses to sublethal exposures to tylosin, a common and environmentally persistent antibiotic. Bioassays, using concentrations of 0.011-218 μmol tylosin l(-1), were performed on intertidal muddy sediments from North Inlet Estuary, SC. Exposure to tylosin resulted in a reduction in total BMA biomass and primary productivity. Furthermore, exposure seemed to retard diatom growth while having a minimal effect on cyanobacteria biomass. Estuarine systems receiving chronic inputs of trace concentrations of tylosin, as well as other antibiotics, may experience significant reductions in BMA biomass and primary productivity. Given the well-documented role of BMA in the trophodynamics of estuaries, these impacts will likely be manifested in higher trophic levels with possible impairments of the structure and function of these sensitive systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 76 FR 11490 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Phenylbutazone; Pyrantel; Tylosin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ....485 (011490). Douglas Ave., Des Moines, BN-10 BANMINTH IA 50322. Premix (pyrantel tartrate). Truow...., Chattanooga, TN (tylosin phosphate). 37406. Southern Micro-Blenders, Inc., 3801 NADA 135-243, Swine Guard-BN...

  4. Effects of tylosin on serum cytokine levels in healthy and lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Er, Ayse; Yazar, Enver; Uney, Kamil; Elmas, Muammer; Altan, Feray; Cetin, Gul

    2010-03-01

    The effects of different doses of tylosin on serum cytokine concentrations were investigated in healthy and lipopolysaccharide-treated mice. The mice were divided into seven groups. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected into the positive control group. The other six groups received three different tylosin doses concurrently without or with LPS: 10 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg + LPS, 100 mg/kg + LPS and 500 mg/kg + LPS. After treatment, serum samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours. Serum tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 1beta (IL1beta) and IL10 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Tylosin doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg induced no cytokine production in the healthy mice. Tylosin at 500 mg/kg had no effect on TNFalpha or IL1beta production, but it induced IL10 production in healthy mice. All doses of tylosin reduced the elevated TNFalpha and IL1beta in LPS-treated mice but increased their IL10 levels. In conclusion, these data suggest that tylosin has an immunomodulatory effect at the dose recommended for use against infection.

  5. Effect of antimicrobial compounds tylosin and chlortetracycline during batch anaerobic swine manure digestion.

    PubMed

    Stone, James J; Clay, Sharon A; Zhu, Zhenwei; Wong, Kwok L; Porath, Laura R; Spellman, Garth M

    2009-10-01

    Tylosin and chlortetracycline (CTC) are antimicrobial chemicals that are fed to >45% of the US swine herds at therapeutic and sub-therapeutic dosages to enhance growth rates and treat swine health problems. These compounds are poorly absorbed during digestion so that the bioactive compound or metabolites are excreted. This study investigated the degradation and stabilization of swine manure that contained no additives and compared the observed processes with those of manure containing either tylosin or CTC. The batch anaerobic incubation lasted 216 days. The breakdown of insoluble organic matter through anaerobic hydrolysis reactions was faster for manure containing CTC compared with tylosin or no-antimicrobial treatments. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation, including acetate, butyrate, and propionate, was greater for CTC-containing manure compared to tylosin and no-antimicrobial treatments. The relative abundance of two aceticlastic methanogens, Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae spp., were less for CTC manure than manure with no-antimicrobial treatment. In addition, generation of methane and carbon dioxide was inhibited by 27.8% and 28.4%, respectively, due to the presence of CTC. Tylosin effects on manure degradation were limited, however the relative abundance of Methanosarcinaceae spp. was greater than found in the CTC or no-antimicrobial manures. These data suggest that acetate and other C-1 VFA compounds would be effectively utilized during methanogenesis in the presence of tylosin.

  6. Effects of the antimicrobial tylosin on the microbial community structure of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Toshio; Li, Xu; Zilles, Julie L; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2011-02-01

    The effects of the antimicrobial tylosin on a methanogenic microbial community were studied in a glucose-fed laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) exposed to stepwise increases of tylosin (0, 1.67, and 167 mg/L). The microbial community structure was determined using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and phylogenetic analyses of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene clone libraries of biomass samples. During the periods without tylosin addition and with an influent tylosin concentration of 1.67 mg/L, 16S rRNA gene sequences related to Syntrophobacter were detected and the relative abundance of Methanosaeta species was high. During the highest tylosin dose of 167 mg/L, 16S rRNA gene sequences related to Syntrophobacter species were not detected and the relative abundance of Methanosaeta decreased considerably. Throughout the experimental period, Propionibacteriaceae and high GC Gram-positive bacteria were present, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and FISH analyses, respectively. The accumulation of propionate and subsequent reactor failure after long-term exposure to tylosin are attributed to the direct inhibition of propionate-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria closely related to Syntrophobacter and the indirect inhibition of Methanosaeta by high propionate concentrations and low pH. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Age-related alterations in trimethoprim-sulfadiazine disposition following oral or parenteral administration in calves.

    PubMed Central

    Guard, C L; Schwark, W S; Friedman, D S; Blackshear, P; Haluska, M

    1986-01-01

    Age-related changes in the absorption and distribution patterns of trimethoprim/sulfadiazine were studied following oral or subcutaneous administration of 15 mg/kg of the drug combination in calves. Following oral administration, the time course of trimethoprim/sulfadiazine appearance and dissipation in serum, synovial fluid and urine was followed for periods up to 48 hours in calves one day, one week and six weeks of age. The profiles of drug appearance-disappearance in these body fluids were also determined after subcutaneous administration in seven week old calves. The peak serum and synovial fluid levels of trimethoprim/sulfadiazine achieved following oral administration were substantially lower with increasing maturation. In ruminating (six and seven week old) calves, subcutaneous or oral administration of the combination led to high serum levels of sulfadiazine but little or no serum trimethoprim was detected in animals at this age. The data indicate that, while therapeutic concentrations and optimum ratios of the drugs may be achieved for extended time periods in neonatal life, this dosage is unable to produce optimum serum and synovial fluid concentrations as the calves mature. PMID:3742370

  8. Pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Baert, K; De Baere, S; Croubels, S; De Backer, P

    2003-05-01

    Sulfonamides and trimethoprim are chemotherapeutics that are extensively used in various animal species. Little information about the pharmacokinetics of these compounds in chickens exists in the literature. In this study, a new commercial formulation of sulfadiazine in combination with trimethoprim was administered both intravenously and orally, according to a crossover design, to healthy, 7-week-old broilers. The plasma concentrations of the drugs were determined by validated high-performance liquid chromatographic methods, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. After intravenous or oral administration of trimethoprim (6.67 mg/kg body weight) and sulfadiazine (33.34 mg/kg body weight), both active substances were rapidly eliminated from the plasma. There was a mean half-life of 1.61 h for trimethoprim and 3.2 h for sulfadiazine. The apparent volumes of distribution (2.2 and 0.43 L/kg, respectively, indicated that the tissue distribution of trimethoprim was more extensive than that of sulfadiazine. The oral bioavailability was approximately 80% for both components.

  9. Pathogenicity and phenotypic sulfadiazine resistance of Toxoplasma gondii isolates obtained from livestock in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Claudio Bs; Meurer, Ywlliane Sr; Andrade, Joelma Ma; Costa, Maria Esm; Andrade, Milena Mc; Silva, Letícia A; Lanza, Daniel Cf; Vítor, Ricardo Wa; Andrade-Neto, Valter F

    2016-06-03

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative protozoan agent of toxoplasmosis, which is a common infection that is widely distributed worldwide. Studies revealed stronger clonal strains in North America and Europe and genetic diversity in South American strains. Our study aimed to differentiate the pathogenicity and sulfadiazine resistance of three T. gondii isolates obtained from livestock intended for human consumption. The cytopathic effects of the T. gondii isolates were evaluated. The pathogenicity was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using a CS3 marker and in a rodent model in vivo. Phenotypic sulfadiazine resistance was measured using a kinetic curve of drug activity in Swiss mice. IgM and IgG were measured by ELISA, and the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene sequence was analysed. The cytopathic effects and the PCR-RFLP profiles from chickens indicated a different infection source. The Ck3 isolate displayed more cytopathic effects in vitro than the Ck2 and ME49 strains. Additionally, the Ck2 isolate induced a differential humoral immune response compared to ME49. The Ck3 and Pg1 isolates, but not the Ck2 isolate, showed sulfadiazine resistance in the sensitivity assay. We did not find any DHPS gene polymorphisms in the mouse samples. These atypical pathogenicity and sulfadiazine resistance profiles were not previously reported and served as a warning to local health authorities.

  10. Development and characterization of a hydrogel containing silver sulfadiazine for antimicrobial topical applications.

    PubMed

    Jodar, Karin S P; Balcão, Victor M; Chaud, Marco V; Tubino, Matthieu; Yoshida, Valquíria M H; Oliveira, José M; Vila, Marta M D C

    2015-07-01

    Development and optimization of a hydrogel with impregnated silver sulfadiazine was pursued, for antimicrobial topical applications. The selected hydrogel exhibited a homogeneous appearance, with whitish colloration and devoid of any fractures or cracks. The content in impregnated silver sulfadiazine was within established limits (1%, w/w) with a standard deviation of up to 1.28%. The hydrogel presented a good characteristic in relation to release of the active antimicrobial principle, verified through swelling tests and antimicrobial activity. The swelling tests indicated a higher increase in weight during the first 6 h of contact with a moist environment, with a maximum value of 266.00 ± 0.81, and with maintenance of the original shape of the hydrogel. The impregnated silver sulfadiazine presented antimicrobial activity, as expected, indicating a prolonged release of the drug. The infrared spectra of the hydrogel with impregnated silver sulfadiazine indicated that the drug did not engage in any bonds with the polymeric matrix, which otherwise could have reduced its antimicrobial activity. The mechanical resistance tests produced good results, indicating that the hydrogels may be utilized in different locations of the human body with skin lesions.

  11. Sulfadiazine-Induced Obstructive Nephropathy Presenting with Upper Urinary Tract Extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Kabha, Maharan; Dekalo, Snir; Barnes, Sophie; Mintz, Ishay; Matzkin, Haim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Obstructive nephropathy is an uncommon side effect of sulfadiazine, which is used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. We present a case of acute renal colic and urine extravasation of a patient shortly after she was started on this medication. Case Presentation: A 31-year-old female presented with acute renal colic 2 weeks after starting treatment with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine for ocular toxoplasmosis. Results: A noncontrast computed tomography revealed left hydronephrosis and fluid located around the kidney and in the left gutter. There were no urinary stones. Administration of intravenous contrast revealed significant urine extravasation at the level of the ureteropelvic junction. Intravenous contrast injection confirmed that the extravasation consisted of urine leakage at the ureteropelvic junction. Her clinical condition improved with the insertion of an internal stent, which was left in place for 4 weeks. A retrograde pyelography performed at the time of the internal stent removal ruled out persistent extravasation and filling defects in the left upper urinary tract. Considering the clinical circumstances and the imaging results, it appears that this is a first reported case of sulfadiazine-induced obstructive uropathy associated with urine extravasation. Conclusion: Although rare, obstructive uropathy related to sulfadiazine medication should be promptly suspected, diagnosed, and treated. Patients should be instructed to substantially increase their liquid intake while on that medication. PMID:27704057

  12. Effects of sulfadiazine and amprolium on Neospora caninum (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) infections in mice.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S; Dubey, J P

    1990-04-01

    An immunosuppressed mouse model was used to determine the effects of amprolium and sulfadiazine on experimental Neospora caninum infections. Both drugs were given in the drinking water. Neither drug was effective in treating infections when given 7 days after inoculation of tachyzoites, when clinical signs of disease had developed. Amprolium did not prevent deaths or development of clinical signs when given in the drinking water at 1 mg/ml or 5 mg/ml 3 days after inoculation of tachyzoites. Sulfadiazine in drinking water was not effective when given at 0.5 mg/ml but was effective in preventing deaths and clinical disease when given at 1 mg/ml 3 days after inoculation with tachyzoites. Most mice (6 of 10) treated for 3 days with 1 mg/ml sulfadiazine in drinking water developed encephalitis after drug treatment was stopped. Treatment for 14 days with 1 mg/ml sulfadiazine in drinking water was needed to protect 90% of inoculated mice.

  13. Pathogenicity and phenotypic sulfadiazine resistance ofToxoplasma gondii isolates obtained from livestock in northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Claudio BS; Meurer, Ywlliane SR; Andrade, Joelma MA; Costa, Maria ESM; Andrade, Milena MC; Silva, Letícia A; Lanza, Daniel CF; Vítor, Ricardo WA; Andrade-Neto, Valter F

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative protozoan agent of toxoplasmosis, which is a common infection that is widely distributed worldwide. Studies revealed stronger clonal strains in North America and Europe and genetic diversity in South American strains. Our study aimed to differentiate the pathogenicity and sulfadiazine resistance of three T. gondiiisolates obtained from livestock intended for human consumption. The cytopathic effects of the T. gondii isolates were evaluated. The pathogenicity was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using a CS3 marker and in a rodent model in vivo. Phenotypic sulfadiazine resistance was measured using a kinetic curve of drug activity in Swiss mice. IgM and IgG were measured by ELISA, and the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene sequence was analysed. The cytopathic effects and the PCR-RFLP profiles from chickens indicated a different infection source. The Ck3 isolate displayed more cytopathic effects in vitro than the Ck2 and ME49 strains. Additionally, the Ck2 isolate induced a differential humoral immune response compared to ME49. The Ck3 and Pg1 isolates, but not the Ck2 isolate, showed sulfadiazine resistance in the sensitivity assay. We did not find any DHPS gene polymorphisms in the mouse samples. These atypical pathogenicity and sulfadiazine resistance profiles were not previously reported and served as a warning to local health authorities. PMID:27276184

  14. Photodegradation of antibiotics on soil surfaces: laboratory studies on sulfadiazine in an ozone-controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Wolters, André; Steffens, Markus

    2005-08-15

    Among the processes affecting transport and degradation of antibiotics released to the environment during application of manure and slurry to agricultural land, photochemical transformations are of particular interest. Drying-out of the top soil layer under field conditions enables sorption of surface-applied antibiotics to soil dust, thus facilitating direct, indirect, and sensitized photodegradation at the soil/atmosphere interface. For studying various photochemical transformation processes of sulfadiazine, a photovolatility chamber designed in accordance with the requirements of the USEPA Guideline and 161-3 was used. Application of 14C-labeled sulfadiazine enabled complete mass balances and allowed for investigating the impact of various surfaces (glass and soil dust) and environmental factors, i.e., irradiation and atmospheric ozone, on photodegradation and volatilization. Volatilization was shown to be a negligible process. Even after increasing the air temperature up to 35 degrees C only minor amounts of sulfadiazine and transformation products (0.01-0.28% of applied radioactivity) volatilized. Due to direct and indirect photodegradation, the highest extent of mineralization to 14CO2 (3.9%), the formation of degradation products and of nonextractable soil residues was measured in irradiated soil dust experiments using ozone concentrations of 200 ppb. However, even in the dark significant mineralization was observed when ozone was present, indicating ozone-controlled transformation of sulfadiazine to occur at the soil surface.

  15. Dynamics of Anaplasma marginale in splenectomised calves treated with either imidocarb or oxytetracycline.

    PubMed

    Kuttler, K L

    1986-05-01

    Neither imidocarb dipropionate (at 5 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly once or twice at a seven-day interval) nor oxytetracycline hydrochloride (at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly once or twice at a seven-day interval) given to animals in the prepatent period of anaplasmosis, prevented the eventual onset of infection. Both compounds delayed the onset of detectable parasitaemia but this action was more noticeable with oxytetracycline. Oxytetracycline given twice significantly reduced the severity of the primary infection but the secondary infection was more severe. Neither compound showed prophylactic properties even though both are effective in extending the prepatent period and, in the case of oxytetracycline, reducing the severity of infection.

  16. Effect of pH on the toxicity and bioconcentration of sulfadiazine on Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Anskjær, Gitte Gotholdt; Rendal, Cecilie; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2013-05-01

    The antimicrobial sulfonamide sulfadiazine has in the last decades been detected in environmental water bodies, both surface and ground water. Since pH in the environment may vary considerably, this study examined the toxicity of the amphoter sulfadiazine towards Daphnia magna at pH levels of 6.0, 7.5 and 8.5, thus taking the impact of speciation into consideration, contrary to earlier eco-toxicity studies conducted at standard conditions. Toxicity tests were performed using the standard ISO 6341 test procedure modified to accommodate the three pH levels and the toxicity was expressed as EC50. After 48 h the EC50 was determined to be 27.2, 188 and 310 mg L(-1) at pH 6.0, 7.5 and 8.5, respectively, thus demonstrating a significant effect of pH on the toxicity of sulfadiazine. Furthermore, the bioconcentration factor (dry weight) was determined to be 50 and 36 at pH 6.0 and 8.5, respectively. The higher toxicity at the lower pHs was assumed to be caused by the higher fraction of un-ionized sulfadiazine at the lower pHs. However, the one and a half fold higher bioconcentration at pH 6.0 relative to pH 8.5 does not match the more than ten times higher toxicity at pH 6.0. When comparing the fraction of neutral compound to toxicity and bioconcentration results neither toxicity nor bioconcentration can be ascribed solely to the unionized fraction of sulfadiazine.

  17. Oral absorption profiles of sulfonamides in Shiba goats: a comparison among sulfadimidine, sulfadiazine and sulfanilamide

    PubMed Central

    ELBADAWY, Mohamed; ISHIHARA, Yusuke; ABOUBAKR, Mohamed; SASAKI, Kazuaki; SHIMODA, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    The oral pharmacokinetics of three sulfonamides, sulfadimidine (pKa 7.5), sulfadiazine (pKa 6.5) and sulfanilamide (pKa 10.5), with different rates of unionization in rumen juice, were compared in Shiba goats to clarify the relationship between drug absorption profiles after their oral administration as well as their degree of unionization in the rumen. Sulfonamides were administered either into the left jugular vein or orally to five male goats at doses of 10 mg/kg body weight, using a crossover design with at least a 3-week washout period. The Tmax of sulfadimidine, sulfadiazine and sulfanilamide reached 2.0 ± 1.2, 6.0 ± 0.0, and 7.8 ± 1.6 hr, respectively, after their oral administration, and this was followed by their slow elimination due to a slow rate of drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. The MAT and t1/2ka of sulfadiazine (13.2 ± 2.0 and 10.9 ± 1.08 hr) were significantly longer than those of sulfanilamide (9.09 ± 1.67 and 7.46 ± 1.70 hr) and sulfadimidine (7.52 ± 0.85 and 5.17 ± 0.66 hr). These results suggest that the absorption rates of highly unionized drugs (such as sulfanilamide and sulfadimidine) from the forestomach of goats may be markedly higher than less unionized ones (such as sulfadiazine). The mean oral bioavailability of sulfadiazine was high (83.9 ± 17.0%), whereas those of sulfadimidine and sulfanilamide were low (44.9 ± 16.4% and 49.2 ± 2.11%, respectively). PMID:27010464

  18. Electro-Fenton pretreatment for the improvement of tylosin biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Ferrag-Siagh, Fatiha; Fourcade, Florence; Soutrel, Isabelle; Aït-Amar, Hamid; Djelal, Hayet; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of an electro-Fenton process to treat tylosin (TYL), a non-biodegradable antibiotic, was examined in a discontinuous electrochemical cell with divided cathodic and anodic compartments. Only 15 min electrolysis was needed for total tylosin degradation using a carbon felt cathode and a platinum anode; while 6 h electrolysis was needed to achieve high oxidation and mineralization yields, 96 and 88 % respectively. Biodegradability improvement was shown since BOD₅/COD increased from 0 initially to 0.6 after 6 h electrolysis (for 100 mg L(-1) initial TYL). With the aim of combining electro-Fenton with a biological treatment, an oxidation time in the range 2 to 4 h has been however considered. Results of AOS (average oxidation state) and COD/TOC suggested that the pretreatment could be stopped after 2 h rather than 4 h; while in the same time, the increase of biodegradability between 2 and 4 h suggested that this latter duration seemed more appropriate. In order to conclude, biological cultures have been therefore carried out for various electrolysis times. TYL solutions electrolyzed during 2 and 4 h were then treated with activated sludge during 25 days, showing 57 and 67% total organic carbon (TOC) removal, respectively, namely 77 and 88% overall TOC removal if both processes were considered. Activated sludge cultures appeared, therefore, in agreement with the assessment made from the analysis of physico-chemical parameters (AOS and COD/TOC), since the gain in terms of mineralization expected from increasing electrolysis duration appeared too low to balance the additional energy consumption.

  19. [Effect of crystallinity on the rate of solution of oxytetracycline hydrochloride].

    PubMed

    Grakovskaia, L K; Nesterova, L Ia

    1982-11-01

    The crystal structure of 2 forms of oxytetracycline hydrochloride prepared with the method of crystallization from various solvents was studied. It was shown that these forms were 2 polymorphic modifications of the antibiotic with different crystal structures. The modification prepared with the method of crystallization from methanol was characterized by better dissolution in water. Its dissolution rate constant was 3 times as higher which makes this crystalline modification of oxytetracycline hydrochloride preferable for preparation of the antibiotic pharmaceutical forms with high bioavailability levels.

  20. Comparative toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of tetracycline and oxytetracycline in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Dietz, D D; Abdo, K M; Haseman, J K; Eustis, S L; Huff, J E

    1991-08-01

    Two-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of oxytetracycline hydrochloride and tetracycline hydrochloride, two structurally similar and widely used antibiotics, were performed in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Rats and mice were continuously exposed via their diet to the following levels of antibiotic: oxytetracycline HCl--rats 0, 25,000, or 50,000 ppm; mice 0,6,300, or 12,500 ppm; tetracycline HCl--rats and mice 0, 12,500, or 25,000 ppm. On a milligram per kilogram of body weight basis these exposures represent doses that are 20 to 140 times daily human therapeutic doses. Dose-related increased survival was noted among oxytetracycline-treated male rats and tetracycline-treated female rats and male mice, while treatment-related reduced body weight gain occurred in oxytetracycline- and tetracycline-treated mice. Microscopic changes included fatty metamorphosis and focal cellular change in livers of oxytetracycline-treated male rats and basophilic cytoplasmic and clear cell change in livers of tetracycline-treated male rats. The only neoplastic changes were a marginally increased trend in pheochromocytoma of the adrenal medulla (equivocal evidence only) among oxytetracycline-exposed male rats (12/50 controls, 19/50 low dose, 24/50 high dose) and an increased incidence of pituitary adenoma or adenocarcinoma among high-dose oxytetracycline-treated female rats (20/50 controls, 32/50 high dose). Although oxytetracycline and tetracycline appeared to increase the incidence of pituitary hyperplasia in high-dose male and female rats, respectively, the total incidence of proliferative changes (hyperplasia, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma) was not affected by antibiotic exposure. The results from these studies therefore support the notion that neither antibiotic is carcinogenic in rodents. There were several negative trends suggesting possible protective effects by both these tetracycline analogs against certain spontaneous neoplastic and non-neoplastic changes.

  1. The fermentative production of oxytetracycline on industrial by-products by Streptomyces rimosus 12907.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zeid, A A; Eissa, A I; El-Dewany, A I; El-Hamid, M M; Fouad, M; Fahmi, M; Yassein, M

    1977-01-01

    Three strains of Streptomyces rimosus were grown on four different media. The one suitable for the production of oxytetracycline by Streptomyces rimosus 12907 was modified by black strap molasses, fodder yeast (40% total protein) and rice bran. The volume of the fermentation medium was sealed up in a 1200-litre fermentor aerated with sterile air obtained from a system used in the purification of air. 850 g crude oxytetracycline was obtained when the fermented medium (700 litres) was extracted with 1-butanol.

  2. Aptamer-based cantilever array sensors for oxytetracycline detection.

    PubMed

    Hou, Hui; Bai, Xiaojing; Xing, Chunyan; Gu, Ningyu; Zhang, Bailin; Tang, Jilin

    2013-02-19

    We present a new method for specific detection of oxytetracycline (OTC) at nanomolar concentrations based on a microfabricated cantilever array. The sensing cantilevers in the array are functionalized with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of OTC-specific aptamer, which acts as a recognition molecule for OTC. While the reference cantilevers in the array are functionalized with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol SAMs to eliminate the influence of environmental disturbances. The cantilever sensor shows a good linear relationship between the deflection amplitude and the OTC concentration in the range of 1.0-100 nM. The detection limit of the cantilever array sensor is as low as 0.2 nM, which is comparable to some traditional methods. Other antibiotics such as doxycycline and tetracycline do not cause significant deflection of the cantilevers. It is demonstrated that the cantilever array sensors can be used as a powerful tool to detect drugs with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  3. [Degradation of oxytetracycline with ozonation in acetic acid solvent].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Yin; Li, Xiao-Rong; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Jiang-Peng; Wang, Guo-Xiang

    2012-12-01

    Use acetic acid as the media of ozone degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), and effects of the initial dosing ratio of ozone/OTC, ozone flow, free radical scavenger, metal ions on the removal rate of OTC were investigated respectively. The results showed that acetic acid had a high ozone stability and solubility. OTC had a high removal rate and degradation rate in acetic acid solution. With the increase of OTC dosage, the removal rate of OTC decreased in acetic acid. Removal rate of OTC was increased distinctly when ozone flow increased properly. It was also observed that free radical scavenger had a significantly negative effect on OTC ozonation degradation in acetic acid. Furthermore the main reactions of OTC ozone oxidation were direct oxidation and indirect oxidation in acetic acid. When Fe3+ and Co2+ were existent in acetic acid, the degradation of OTC was inhibited significantly.

  4. Field assessment of oxytetracycline exposure to the freshwater macrophytes Egeria densa Planch. and Ceratophyllum demersum L.

    PubMed

    Hanson, M L; Knapp, C W; Graham, D W

    2006-06-01

    In a microcosm study, two aquatic macrophytes, Egeria densa and Ceratophyllum demersum were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 5, 20, 50, and 250 microg/L oxytetracycline (n=3), plus 20 microg/L oxytetracycline amended with additional nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Responses were monitored bi-weekly over a six-week exposure period. Both plant species exhibited a significant decline in growth in the 250 microg/L oxytetracycline and the N- and P-amended units. Decreased light penetration resulting from accumulating oxytetracycline by-products appears to be the primary modifier in the growth of these plants. Increased susceptibility to oxytetracycline exposure was noted in some paired plantings (e.g., E. densa root development), relative to individual plants in these treatments, however, no clear explanation for this response is available. Based on the toxicity data generated in this study, we estimate that current concentrations of oxytetracycline in freshwater environments do not pose a direct risk to E. densa and C. demersum.

  5. Determination of oxytetracycline residues in cattle meat marketed in the Kilosa district, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kimera, Zuhura I; Mdegela, Robinson H; Mhaiki, Consolatha J N; Karimuribo, Esron D; Mabiki, Faith; Nonga, Hezron E; Mwesongo, James

    2015-11-27

    Oxytetracycline is used to treat various diseases in cattle. However, its use may be associated with unacceptable residue levels in food. Oxytetracycline residues in tissues from indigenous cattle were determined in a cross-sectional study conducted in the Kilosa district, Tanzania, between November 2012 and April 2013. A total of 60 tissue samples, including muscle, liver and kidney, were collected from slaughterhouses and butchers and analysed for oxytetracycline using high-performance liquid chromatography. Oxytetracycline residues were found in 71.1% of the samples, of which 68.3% were above acceptable regulatory levels. The mean concentration of oxytetracycline across tissues was 3401.1 μg/kg ± 879.3 μg/kg; concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney were 2604.1 μg/kg ± 703.7 μg/kg, 3434.4 μg/kg ± 606.4 μg/kg and 3533.1 μg/kg ± 803.6 μg/kg, respectively. High levels of oxytetracycline residue in meat from indigenous cattle may pose a health threat to consumers in Kilosa. The findings possibly reflect a general lack of implementation of recommended withdrawal periods, ignorance about drug use and lack of extension services. Strict regulation of the use of antimicrobial drugs in the livestock industry and associated testing of animal-derived food sources prior to marketing are required.

  6. Electrocatalytic response of poly(cobalt tetraaminophthalocyanine)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes-Nafion modified electrode toward sulfadiazine in urine.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiao-ping; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Yan-zhen

    2012-06-01

    A highly sensitive amperometric sulfadiazine sensor fabricated by electrochemical deposition of poly(cobalt tetraaminophthalocyanine) (poly(Co(II)TAPc)) on the surface of a multi-walled carbon nanotubes-Nafion (MWCNTs-Nafion) modified electrode is described. This electrode showed a very attractive performance by combining the advantages of Co(II)TAPc, MWCNTs, and Nafion. Compared with the bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and the MWCNTs-Nafion modified electrode, the electrocatalytic activity of poly(Co(II)TAPc)-coated MWCNTs-Nafion GCE generated greatly improved electrochemical detections toward sulfadiazine including low oxidation potential, high current responses, and good anti-fouling performance. The oxidation peak currents of sulfadiazine obtained on the new modified electrode increased linearly while increasing the concentration of sulfadiazine from 0.5 to 43.5 μmol/L with the detection limit of 0.17 μmol/L.

  7. Capillary electrophoresis with field-amplified sample stacking for rapid and sensitive determination of sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuqin; Cui, Yingjie; Jia, Baoxiu; Wang, Hao; Liu, Caihong; Qi, Yongxiu

    2012-09-01

    A new capillary electrophoresis method with field-amplified sample stacking (FASS) was developed for the analysis of sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole. After optimization of the separation and concentration conditions, the two compounds can be separated within 7 min and quantified with high sensitivity, with detection limits of 0.48 ng/mL for sulfadiazine and 0.76 ng/mL for sulfamethoxazole. This resulted in a 300-1500-fold improvement in concentration sensitivity relative to conventional capillary electrophoresis methods. The method was useful for qualitative and quantitative analysis of sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole in their preparations with recovery of 99.0%-102% for sulfadiazine and 99.5% - 99.7% for sulfamethoxazole.

  8. Effects of the macrolide drug tylosin on chronic diarrhea in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Blackwood, Rebecca S; Tarara, Ross P; Christe, Kari L; Spinner, Abigail; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2008-02-01

    Diarrhea is the gastrointestinal disease most frequently encountered in captive rhesus macaques. The precise pathogenic mechanisms underlying chronic diarrhea in nonhuman primates are not well understood, but a persistent inflammatory component has been implicated strongly. This study evaluated the inflammatory changes in the colon of macaques with diarrhea and assessed the efficacy of a 10-d course of tylosin in a cohort of 21 animals with chronic diarrhea. Stool quality was evaluated daily, and fecal consistency was scored. Colonoscopies were performed; biopsy samples were characterized histologically and assayed for expression of TNFalpha mRNA. Blood samples collected pre-, mid-, and post-treatment were assayed for C-reactive protein (CRP). The results indicated that 63% of the animals receiving tylosin showed improvement in stool quality, compared with 10% in the sham-treated group. Histologically, 82% of animals in the tylosin-treated group had a reduction in the severity of colonic lesions post-treatment, compared with 40% of animals in the sham group. The amount of TNFalpha mRNA before treatment did not differ from that afterward in either tylosin- or sham-treated animals. CRP levels serially decreased in tylosin-treated monkeys; the average post-treatment CRP value for tylosin-treated animals was 11.96 +/- 3.86 microg/ml compared with 26.48 +/- 4.86 microg/ml for sham-treated controls. In conclusion, tylosin significantly improved the fecal consistency score, significantly decreased colonic inflammation, and significantly decreased serum CRP levels post-treatment in rhesus macaques with chronic diarrhea.

  9. Effects of the Macrolide Drug Tylosin on Chronic Diarrhea in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Blackwood, Rebecca S; Tarara, Ross P; Christe, Kari L; Spinner, Abigail; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2008-01-01

    Diarrhea is the gastrointestinal disease most frequently encountered in captive rhesus macaques. The precise pathogenic mechanisms underlying chronic diarrhea in nonhuman primates are not well understood, but a persistent inflammatory component has been implicated strongly. This study evaluated the inflammatory changes in the colon of macaques with diarrhea and assessed the efficacy of a 10-d course of tylosin in a cohort of 21 animals with chronic diarrhea. Stool quality was evaluated daily, and fecal consistency was scored. Colonoscopies were performed; biopsy samples were characterized histologically and assayed for expression of TNFα mRNA. Blood samples collected pre-, mid-, and post-treatment were assayed for C-reactive protein (CRP). The results indicated that 63% of the animals receiving tylosin showed improvement in stool quality, compared with 10% in the sham-treated group. Histologically, 82% of animals in the tylosin-treated group had a reduction in the severity of colonic lesions post-treatment, compared with 40% of animals in the sham group. The amount of TNFα mRNA before treatment did not differ from that afterward in either tylosin- or sham-treated animals. CRP levels serially decreased in tylosin-treated monkeys; the average post-treatment CRP value for tylosin-treated animals was 11.96 ± 3.86 μg/ml compared with 26.48 ± 4.86 μg/ml for sham-treated controls. In conclusion, tylosin significantly improved the fecal consistency score, significantly decreased colonic inflammation, and significantly decreased serum CRP levels post-treatment in rhesus macaques with chronic diarrhea. PMID:19793461

  10. Subtherapeutic tylosin phosphate in broiler feed affects Campylobacter on carcasses during processing.

    PubMed

    Berrang, M E; Ladely, S R; Meinersmann, R J; Fedorka-Cray, P J

    2007-06-01

    Tylosin phosphate is an antimicrobial drug approved for use in broiler feed at subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion. Erythromycin is often the drug of choice for treating humans with campylobacteriosis. Both tylosin and erythromycin are classified as macrolide drugs and cross-resistance between these antimicrobials occurs. Commercial broiler chicks were placed in isolation grow-out chambers and colonized with Campylobacter jejuni. From 14 d of age through grow-out, broilers were fed ad libitim a diet that included 22 ppm of tylosin phosphate (20 g/ton). Control broilers received the same diet without tylosin phosphate. At 42 d of age, broilers were processed in a pilot plant with equipment that closely modeled commercial conditions. Carcass rinses were collected after feather removal, after inside and outside washing, and after immersion chilling. Campylobacter numbers recovered from carcasses after feather removal did not differ according to feed type (3.53 log cfu/mL of rinse for control carcasses, and 3.60 log cfu/mL of rinse for those fed medicated feed). Likewise, medicated feed did not affect Campylobacter numbers on carcasses after inside-outside washing (3.11 and 3.07 log cfu/mL of rinse). However, carcasses of broilers fed tylosin phosphate had lower numbers of Campylobacter after chilling (1.45 log cfu/mL of rinse) than control carcasses (2.31 log cfu/mL of rinse). No Campylobacter isolated from control carcasses were resistant to erythromycin; all Campylobacter recovered from carcasses fed tylosin phosphate were resistant to erythromycin. Application of tylosin phosphate in feed results in lower numbers of Campylobacter on chilled carcasses; however, the Campylobacter that do remain are resistant to erythromycin.

  11. Comparison of conventional and long-acting oxytetracyclines in prevention of induced Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae infection of growing swine.

    PubMed Central

    Kiorpes, A L; Bäckström, L R; Collins, M T; Kruse, G O

    1989-01-01

    These experiments tested the hypothesis that long-acting oxytetracycline (oxytetracycline-LA) was more effective than regular oxytetracycline in preventing porcine pleuropneumonia when administered either 24 or 48 h prior to experimental challenge with virulent strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Two experiments (1 and 2) were conducted using growing pigs (average weight 12-15 kg). Antibiotic treatments were administered once intramuscularly at 20 mg/kg body weight; controls received an equivalent volume of saline. Clinical signs were recorded over seven days, and mortality rates and pathological lesions were analyzed using analysis of variance. Serum oxytetracycline levels were compared 48 and 72 h postinjection. All pigs developed clinical disease following experimental infection. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was recovered from 42% of experiment 1 pigs and all of experiment 2 pigs. The data showed that both oxytetracycline and oxytetracycline-LA given at the same dose protected pigs against experimental infection when given 24 h prior to challenge, and there was no difference between the efficacy of the two drugs in this experiment. When administered 48 h prior to challenge, only oxytetracycline-LA reduced the clinical signs and pathological changes following A. pleuropneumoniae challenge. Between 48 and 72 h postinjection, oxytetracycline-LA blood levels were significantly greater compared to oxytetracycline-treated pigs. PMID:2531629

  12. Transfer of tylosin resistance between Enterococcus spp. during continuous-flow culture of feral or domestic porcine gut microbes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mixed populations of domesticated and feral pig gut microbes (RPCF and FC, respectively) were grown in continuous culture to investigate the effects of tylosin on antimicrobial resistance. Cultures established in steady state were inoculated with 9.7 log10 colony forming units (CFU) of a tylosin-re...

  13. Effect of parenteral administration of erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin on abomasal emptying rate in suckling calves.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mohammad; Constable, Peter D

    2007-12-01

    To determine the effect of parenteral administration of erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin on abomasal emptying rate in suckling calves. 8 male Holstein-Friesian calves < 35 days old. Calves received each of 4 treatments in random order (2 mL of saline [0.9% NaCl] solution, IM [control treatment]; erythromycin, 8.8 mg/kg, IM; tilmicosin, 10 mg/kg, SC; and tylosin, 17.6 mg/kg, IM). Calves were fed 2 L of milk replacer containing acetaminophen (50 mg/kg) 30 minutes later. Jugular venous blood samples and transabdominal ultrasonographic abomasal dimensions were obtained periodically after suckling. Abomasal emptying rate was assessed on the basis of the time to maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration and ultrasonographic determination of the halftime of abomasal emptying. One-tailed Dunnett post tests were conducted whenever the F value for group was significant. Emptying rate was faster for erythromycin, tilimicosin, and tylosin than for the control treatment, as determined on the basis of time to maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration. Ultrasonography indicated that the half-time of abomasal emptying was significantly shorter for erythromycin than for the control treatment. Tylosin and tilmicosin accelerated the abomasal emptying rate, but not significantly, relative to the emptying rate for the control treatment. Administration of erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin at the label dosage increased abomasal emptying rate in calves. The clinical importance of an increase in abomasal emptying rate in cattle remains to be determined.

  14. Effects of Tylosin Use on Erythromycin Resistance in Enterococci Isolated from Swine

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Charlene R.; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J.; Barrett, John B.; Ladely, Scott R.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of tylosin on erythromycin-resistant enterococci was examined on three farms; farm A used tylosin for growth promotion, farm B used tylosin for treatment of disease, and farm C did not use tylosin for either growth promotion or disease treatment. A total of 1,187 enterococci were isolated from gestation, farrowing, suckling, nursery, and finishing swine from the farms. From a subset of those isolates (n = 662), 59% (124 out of 208), 28% (80 out of 281), and 2% (4 out of 170) were resistant to erythromycin (MIC ≥ 8 μg/ml) from farms A, B, and C, respectively. PCR analysis and Southern blotting revealed that 95% (65 out of 68) of isolates chosen from all three farms for further study were positive for ermB, but all were negative for ermA and ermC. By using Southern blotting, ermB was localized to the chromosome in 56 of the isolates while 9 isolates from farms A and B contained ermB on two similar-sized plasmid bands (12 to 16 kb). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the isolates were genetically diverse and represented a heterogeneous population of enterococci. This study suggests that although there was resistance to a greater number of enterococcal isolates on a farm where tylosin was used as a growth promotant, resistant enterococci also existed on a farm where no antimicrobial agents were used. PMID:15240302

  15. A high prevalence of tylosin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Bahraminia, Farhad; Emadi, Seyed Reza; Emaneini, Mohammad; Farzaneh, Nima; Rad, Mehrnaz; Khoramian, Babak

    2017-01-01

    The macrolides appear to have considerable effects for treatment of bovine mastitis because of excellent diffusion into the mammary gland, long half-life, low protein binding, high intracellular concentration and lipid solubility. Acquired resistance to macrolides in Staphylococcus aureus is primarily related to target-site modification through acquisition of an erm gene. In the present study the prevalence of both phenotypic and genotypic tylosin resistance in S. aureus isolates (n = 103) from subclinical mastitis in nine dairy farms belonging to three different province of Iran were investigated. Overall, ermA, ermB and ermC was found in 7.80%, 32.00%, and 20.40% of S.aureus isolates, respectively. A very high percent of isolates (56.90%) were resistant to tylosin. MIC90 and MIC50 values were 64 and 32 µg mL(-1), respectively. Most of tylosin resistant isolates did not harbour any erm gene but ermB was dominant gene among 58 tylosin resistant isolates of S. aureus. In overall, tylosin resistance was prevalent in S. aureus isolates obtained from bovine mastitis in Iran.

  16. A high prevalence of tylosin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Bahraminia, Farhad; Emadi, Seyed Reza; Emaneini, Mohammad; Farzaneh, Nima; Rad, Mehrnaz; Khoramian, Babak

    2017-01-01

    The macrolides appear to have considerable effects for treatment of bovine mastitis because of excellent diffusion into the mammary gland, long half-life, low protein binding, high intracellular concentration and lipid solubility. Acquired resistance to macrolides in Staphylococcus aureus is primarily related to target-site modification through acquisition of an erm gene. In the present study the prevalence of both phenotypic and genotypic tylosin resistance in S. aureus isolates (n = 103) from subclinical mastitis in nine dairy farms belonging to three different province of Iran were investigated. Overall, ermA, ermB and ermC was found in 7.80%, 32.00%, and 20.40% of S.aureus isolates, respectively. A very high percent of isolates (56.90%) were resistant to tylosin. MIC90 and MIC50 values were 64 and 32 µg mL-1, respectively. Most of tylosin resistant isolates did not harbour any erm gene but ermB was dominant gene among 58 tylosin resistant isolates of S. aureus. In overall, tylosin resistance was prevalent in S. aureus isolates obtained from bovine mastitis in Iran. PMID:28785387

  17. Evaluation of Veterinary-Specific Interpretive Criteria for Susceptibility Testing of Streptococcus equi Subspecies with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim-Sulfadiazine

    PubMed Central

    Kanellos, Theo; Guardabassi, Luca; Boucher, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antimicrobial susceptibility test results for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with Streptococcus equi subspecies are interpreted based on human data for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The veterinary-specific data generated in this study support a single breakpoint for testing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and/or trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with S. equi. This study indicates trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as an acceptable surrogate for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with S. equi. PMID:27847375

  18. Evaluation of Veterinary-Specific Interpretive Criteria for Susceptibility Testing of Streptococcus equi Subspecies with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim-Sulfadiazine.

    PubMed

    Sadaka, Carmen; Kanellos, Theo; Guardabassi, Luca; Boucher, Joseph; Watts, Jeffrey L

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility test results for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with Streptococcus equi subspecies are interpreted based on human data for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The veterinary-specific data generated in this study support a single breakpoint for testing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and/or trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with S. equi This study indicates trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as an acceptable surrogate for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with S. equi. Copyright © 2016 Sadaka et al.

  19. Genetic Studies of Sulfadiazine-resistant and Methionine-requiring Neisseria Isolated From Clinical Material

    PubMed Central

    Catlin, B. Wesley

    1967-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleate (DNA) preparations were extracted from Neisseria meningitidis (four isolates from spinal fluid and blood) and N. gonorrhoeae strains, all of which were resistant to sulfadiazine upon primary isolation. These DNA preparations, together with others from in vitro mutants of N. meningitidis and N. perflava, were examined in transformation tests by using as recipient a drug-susceptible strain of N. meningitidis (Ne 15 Sul-s Met+) which was able to grow in a methionine-free defined medium. The sulfadiazine resistance typical of each donor was introduced into the uniform constitution of this recipient. Production of p-aminobenzoic acid was not significantly altered thereby. Transformants elicited by DNA from the N. meningitidis clinical isolates were resistant to at least 200 μg of sulfadiazine/ml, and did not show a requirement for methionine (Sul-r Met+). DNA from six strains of N. gonorrhoeae, which were isolated during the period of therapeutic use of sulfonamides, conveyed lower degrees of resistance and, invariably, a concurrent methionine requirement (Sul-r/Met−). The requirement of these transformants, and that of in vitro mutants selected on sulfadiazine-agar, was satisfied by methionine, but not by vitamin B12, homocysteine, cystathionine, homoserine, or cysteine. Sul-r Met+ and Sul-r/Met− loci could coexist in the same genome, but were segregated during transformation. On the other hand, the dual Sul-r/Met− properties were not separated by recombination, but were eliminated together. DNA from various Sul-r/Met− clones tested against recipients having nonidentical Sul-r/Met− mutant sites yielded Sul-s Met+ transformants. The met locus involved is genetically complex, and will be a valuable tool for studies of genetic fine structure of members of Neisseria, and of genetic homology between species. Images PMID:4962305

  20. Tylosin and chlortetracycline effects during swine manure digestion: influence of sodium azide.

    PubMed

    Stone, James J; Clay, Sharon A; Spellman, Garth M

    2010-12-01

    The antibiotics tylosin and chlortetracycline (CTC), which are commonly used in pig production, were studied to determine their effects on swine manure digestion in the presence and absence of biocide sodium azide. CTC enhanced initial hydrolysis reactions through volatile suspended solids production, while inhibiting methane and carbon dioxide production. Tylosin did not affect methane and carbon dioxide production; however, the relative abundance of both hydrogen utilizing and acetate-only utilizing microbial populations was significantly compromised. Sodium azide in the absence of antibiotics enhanced metabolic output and initial biomass production, and this observation suggests that populations of Methanobacteriales and Methanosaetaceae spp. appeared to contain sufficient periplasmic bound reductase to effectively utilize acetate and hydrogen in the presence of sodium azide. However, the combination of sodium azide and either CTC or tylosin was a very effective metabolic inhibitor, inhibiting methane and carbon dioxide production and VSS consumption compared to their no-azide counterpart. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of topical zinc oxide and silver sulfadiazine in burn wounds: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Kemal; Karahan, Omer; Okuş, Ahmet; Unlü, Yaşar; Eryılmaz, Mehmet Ali; Ay, Serden; Sevinç, Barış

    2012-09-01

    We aimed to compare the effects of topical zinc oxide and topical silver sulfadiazine in the treatment of partial-thickness burn wounds. The study was conducted with 20 New Zealand rabbits, and burn wounds were created by a brass probe. The animals were randomly divided into two groups. The burns were treated with zinc oxide (Group O) or silver sulfadiazine (Group S) with daily application. The wound healing process was followed both clinically and histopathologically. We determined the days at which 50% and 80% re-epithelization was observed. The mean time for 50% and 80% re-epithelization was 21.4 and 25.4 days in Group O and 25.8 and 30.2 days in Group S, respectively (p<0.001). The mean score for wound colonization was lower in Group O. The difference was statistically significant at weeks 2, 3, 4, and 6 (p<0.001). In the histopathological examination, the thicknesses of the epidermis, dermis and scar tissue were 0.12 mm, 3.80 mm and 244 mm in Group O, and 0.16 mm, 4.76 mm and 3.16 mm in Group S, respectively (p<0.001). In this experimental burn study, zinc oxide was more effective than silver sulfadiazine in terms of epithelization, dermis maturation and scar formation.

  2. Structural mediation on polycation nanoparticles by sulfadiazine to enhance DNA transfection efficiency and reduce toxicity.

    PubMed

    Long, Xingwen; Zhang, Zhihui; Han, Shangcong; Tang, Minjie; Zhou, Junhui; Zhang, Jianhua; Xue, Zhenyi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Rongxin; Deng, Liandong; Dong, Anjie

    2015-04-15

    Reducing the toxicity while maintaining high transfection efficiency is an important issue for cationic polymers as gene carriers in clinical application. In this paper, a new zwitterionic copolymer, polycaprolactone-g-poly(dimethylaminoethyl methyacrylate-co-sulfadiazine methacrylate) (PC-SDZ) with unique pH-sensitivity, was designed and prepared. The incorporation of sulfadiazine into poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) chains successfully mediates the surface properties including compacter shell structure, lower density of positive charges, stronger proton buffer capability, and enhanced hydrophobicity, which lead to reduction in toxicity and enhancements in stability, cellular uptake, endosome escape, and transfection efficiency for the PC-SDZ2 nanoparticles (NPs)/DNA complexes. Excellent transfection efficiency at the optimal N/P ratio of 10 was observed for PC-SDZ2 NPs/DNA complexes, which was higher than that of the commercial reagent-branched polyethylenimine (PEI). The cytotoxicity was evaluated by CCK8 measurement, and the results showed significant reduction in cytotoxicity even at high concentration of complexes after sulfadiazine modification. Therefore, this work may demonstrate a new way of structural mediation of cationic polymer carriers for gene delivery with high efficiency and low toxicity.

  3. Degradation of tetracycline and sulfadiazine during continuous thermophilic composting of pig manure and sawdust.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Zhao, Zhenyong; Li, Yunchun; Chen, Yumei; Leung, Kelvin S-Y; Wong, Jonathan W-C

    2013-01-01

    During composting, the thermophilic phase resulted in high degradation of antibiotics in the composting mass; thus temperature is considered as the major factor for degradation of antibiotics. Therefore, to achieve complete removal of antibiotics, the effect of continuous thermophilic composting on the degradation of antibiotics and their effect on antibiotic resistant bacteria in the pig manure were evaluated. Pig manure was mixed with sawdust, spiked with tetracycline (10 and 100 mg/kg) and sulfadiazine (2 and 20mg/kg) on dry weight (DW) basis and composted at 55 degrees C for six weeks. Based on the organic decomposition, the antibiotics did not affect the composting process significantly, but negatively influenced the bacterial population. Tetracycline clearly exhibited a negative but marginal influence on carbon decomposition at 100 mg/kg level. The bacterial population initially decreased steeply approximately 2 logs and slowly increased thereafter. Sulfadiazine and tetracycline resistant bacterial populations were stable/marginally increased after an initial decrease of about 2 or 3-5 logs, respectively. Sulfadiazine was not detectable after three days; whereas, approximately 8% of tetracycline was detected after 42 days of composting with a t(1/2) of approximately 11 days, irrespective of the initial concentration. The presence of tetracycline in the compost after 42 days of thermophilic composting indicates the involvement of a mesophilic microbial-mediated degradation; however, further studies are required to confirm the direct microbial involvement in the degradation of antibiotics.

  4. Effect of aloe cream versus silver sulfadiazine for healing burn wounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Khorasani, Ghasemali; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Zamani, Peyman; Ghasemi, Maryam; Ahmadi, Amirhossein

    2010-01-01

    The management of burn injury remains a problem and it is the major cause of death and disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Aloe vera cream in the treatment of thermal burn wounds and to compare these results with silver sulfadiazine in rats. Animals were divided into four groups. Animals were administered topical cream (Aloe vera powdered gel 0.5% and silver sulfadiazine) at 24 h of burn injury induced by hot water. On special days, according to study protocol, wound size was determined and skin sample histopathology performed in animal groups administered topical therapies. On day 25, the mean wound size was 5.5, 4, 0.78 and 4.1 cm2 in control, base, aloe and silver group, respectively. The wound size was significantly smaller in aloe group as compared with other groups. Histologic comparison showed aloe to increase reepithelialization in burn wounds significantly as compared with other cream-treated wounds. The results of this study showed aloe cream to significantly increase reepithelialization in burn wounds as compared with silver sulfadiazine.

  5. Solid-state encapsulation of Ag and sulfadiazine on zeolite Y carrier.

    PubMed

    Mavrodinova, Vesselina; Popova, Margarita; Yoncheva, Krassimira; Mihály, Judith; Szegedi, Ágnes

    2015-11-15

    A new simplified procedure for encapsulation of antibacterial silver nanoparticles by Solid-state Ion Exchange (SSIE) procedure over zeolite Y, followed by deposition of sulfadiazine (SD) by dry mixing was examined for the preparation of topical antibacterial formulations. The ion-exchange and adsorptive properties of the zeolite matrix were utilized for the bactericidal Ag deposition and loading of antibiotic sulfadiazine. Assessment of the encapsulation efficiency of both active components loaded by solid and liquid deposition methods was made by X-ray diffraction, TEM, FT-IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SD release kinetics was also determined. Sustained delivery of sulfadiazine has been observed from the Ag-modified zeolites compared to the parent HY material. It was found that if SD was loaded in solution, part of the zeolite silver ions was released and interacted with SD, forming AgSD. By solid-state SD deposition, the reaction between the drug and the silver was restricted within the limits of inter-atomic interaction, and total but prolonged drug release occurred. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Complex evaluation of ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of antimicrobials oxytetracycline and flumequine used in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Zounková, Radka; Klimešová, Zdeňka; Nepejchalová, Leona; Hilscherová, Klára; Bláha, Luděk

    2011-05-01

    Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of widely used veterinary antimicrobials oxytetracycline and flumequine was studied with six model organisms (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Lemna minor, Daphnia magna, Escherichia coli). Overall median effective concentration (EC50) values ranged from 0.22 mg/L to 86 mg/L. Pseudomonas putida was the most sensitive organism (EC50 values for 16-h growth inhibition were 0.22 and 0.82 mg/L for oxytetracycline and flumequine, respectively), followed by duckweed Lemna minor (7-d growth inhibition, EC50 2.1 and 3.0 mg/L) and green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (4-d growth inhibition, EC50 3.1 and 2.6 mg/L). The least sensitive organism was Daphnia magna (48-h immobilization, lowest-observed-effect concentration [LOEC] of oxytetracycline of 400 mg/L). Oxytetracycline showed limited genotoxicity (SOS-chromotest with Escherichia coli, minimal genotoxic concentration of 500 mg/L), and flumequine was genotoxic at 0.25 mg/L. Based on the reported measured concentrations (MECs) and predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs), oxytetracycline may be concluded to be of ecotoxicological concern (calculated risk quotient = 8), whereas flumequine seems to represent lower risk.

  7. Thermostability of oxytetracycline, tetracycline, and doxycycline at ultrahigh temperatures.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Mounir; Lázaro, Regina; Pérez, Consuelo; Condón, Santiago; Pagán, Rafael

    2008-04-23

    The thermostability parameters of three tetracycline antibiotics at high and ultrahigh temperatures (110-140 degrees C) as well as the influence of treatment medium pH and water activity on their thermotolerance have been investigated. The thermal degradation of the three antibiotics followed a first-order reaction kinetic within the 1.5-2 log(10) cycles investigated. A linear relationship was observed between the log of the DT values and the treatment temperature. The temperature dependence of the DT values was similar for the three molecules (z=28+/-2 degrees C). DT values of doxycycline were approximately 1.5 and 3 times higher than those of tetracycline and oxytetracycline, respectively. Changes in the treatment medium pH (7.0-4.0) and water activity (0.99-0.93) scarcely varied the antibiotics' thermal stability. Only when doxycycline was heat-treated at pH 4.0 did its thermal resistance increase by 3 times. The thermostability parameters obtained would allow the effect of different cooking and sterilization procedures to be estimated. Whereas low-temperature-long-time treatments (conventional sterilization) would destroy >98% of the initial concentration of the residues of the three antibiotics, high-temperature-short-time treatments (UHT) would leave unaltered residues in the 50-90% range.

  8. Chlortetracycline and Oxytetracycline Residues in Poultry Tissues and Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, W. E.; Weiser, H. H.; Winter, A. R.

    1965-01-01

    A pad-plate method of assaying residual amounts of chlortetracycline (CTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) using Bacillus cereus 213 was used to determine amounts of antibiotic left in tissues and eggs of poultry fed 1,000 and 200 ppm of CTC and OTC in basal feed mixtures. The effects of various methods of cooking the tissues and eggs and the potentiating effect of terephthalic acid (TPA) were studied. It was found that normal methods of roasting, frying, and autoclaving poultry tissue destroyed all residual CTC and OTC, even with the potentiating effect of TPA. The largest amounts of residual antibiotic were found in the liver, then breast, and then thigh tissue when assayed for CTC. Tissue assays for CTC revealed that it was not taken up as extensively as CTC and the largest amounts were found in the liver, then breast. OTC residue was seldom found in the thigh tissue. Terephthalic acid in 0.5% concentration increased the concentration found in all cases. Cooking by poaching and scrambling eggs did not destroy the antibiotic in all cases. PMID:14264853

  9. Pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Nolan, M W; Smith, S A; Jones, D

    2007-10-01

    The American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, is regularly cultured and maintained in research laboratories and public aquaria. Rising concerns over the health of these captive animals makes the diagnosis and treatment of pathological conditions in L. polyphemus essential. This study investigated the kinetics of oxytetracyline following either intravascular or oral dosing. Oxytetracylcine is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used in the treatment of various bacterial diseases of aquatic animals. A noncompartmental model was developed to describe the pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline (OTC) in the horseshoe crab. The following parameters were determined for a single intravascular bolus of 25 mg/kg OTC: AUC = 9524.60 microg.h/mL, MRT = 443.65 h, Clb = 0.044 mL/min/kg, Vd(ss) = 1.164 L/kg, t(1/2) = 128.3 h, Cmax = 55.90 microg/mL, C(ave) = 27.39 microg/mL. Following a single oral bolus of 25 mg/kg, these parameters were calculated: AUC = 5861.81 microg.h/mL, MRT = 395.89 h, Clb = 0.071 mL/min/kg, Vd(ss) = 1.688 L/kg, t(1/2) = 210.0 h, Cmax = 7.83 microg/mL, C(ave) = 2.89 microg/mL, F = 61.56%.

  10. Dissipation kinetics of oxytetracycline, tetracycline, and chlortetracycline residues in soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanzhu; Wang, Haijiao; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Guangyu; Sun, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The dissipation of different residual states of tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) including oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), and chlortetracycline (CTC) laboratory microcosm systems was investigated in this study. The residues were fractionated by stepwise extractions into aqueous state (KCl solution extracts), organic state (MeOH extracts), residual state I (citric acid-sodium citrate buffer and ethyl acetate extracts) and residual state II (acetonitrile-EDTA-McIlvaine buffer extracts) for accurate evaluation of TCs pollution. The antibiotics in the aqueous state were hardly detected, whereas the antibiotics in the organic state dissipated relatively fast (not detectable within 15 days after application) and followed simple first-order kinetics (SFOK) (R (2) from 0.929 to 0.990). While first-order double-exponential decay model (FODED) (R (2) from 0.840 to 0.999) and availability-adjusted first-order model (AAFO) (R (2) from 0.939 to 0.999) had a better fit on the dissipation of both residue state I and II than SFOK. TCs in these states were likely sequestered into a dormant undegradable phase since no degradation product was detected during the entire experiment. In addition, the overall 50 % dissipation values (i.e., stability) of the three TCs were OTC > TC > CTC. The TCs tend to dissipate faster in the high water content and organic matter soil.

  11. Oxytetracycline analysis in honey using a specific portable analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoying; Schwartz, Daniel; Braden, S.; Nunez, Alberto

    2007-09-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) residue in honey is detected using a portable analyzer designed to specifically target tetracycline (TC) drugs based on europium-sensitized luminescence (ESL). A 385 nm light emitting diode (LED) is used as the excitation source and a photomultiplier tube as the light detector. OTC is extracted from honey and cleaned up by solid phase extraction (SPE) using Strata X-WC weak cation exchange cartridges. To the eluate Eu(III) is added to form a Eu-TC chelate at pH 8.5. Efficient intrachelate energy transfer allows sensitive OTC detection at λ ex=385 nm and λ em=610 nm. After a 25-µs time delay, the ESL signal is integrated over a 25-1000 µs interval. The signal intensity reveals a linear relationship (R2=0.972) to OTC concentrations in the 10-200 ng/g range. The limit-of-detection is 6.7 ng/g with an average 5.8% relative standard deviation. The background signal corresponds to ~10 ppb. This instrumentation and method combination enables field analysis that is especially useful for beekeeping industry.

  12. Analysis of oxytetracycline in water using a portable analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoying; Braden, Susan; Qin, Feng

    2006-10-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is extensively used in aquaculture worldwide for preventive and therapeutic purposes. Most of the drug, however, is discharged into the marine environment due to leaching from medicated feed and poor gastrointestinal (GI) absorption. Without exposure to sun light OTC has a long lifetime in the marine environment, therefore it is important to monitor and study its occurrence, distribution, fate and impact on the ecosystem. A portable tetracycline (TC) analyzer was developed in this laboratory for this purpose based on europium-sensitized luminescence. In this study, an assay method is developed for OTC analysis in water using this instrument. Water samples are filtered with glass wool; and solid phase extraction (SPE) is performed using Oasis HLB cartridges for OTC extraction and cleanup. Following reagent application, the samples are excited by 385 nm LED pulses; and time-resolved luminescence (TRL) is measured at 610 nm by a photomultiplier tube. A 0-3 ppm linear dynamic range (r2 = 0.9988) and a 0.021 ppb limit of detection were achieved with a typical <5% relative standard deviation.

  13. Probing the In Vitro Cytotoxicity of the Veterinary Drug Oxytetracycline

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Zhenxing; Liu, Rutao; You, Hong; Ma, Shanshan; Cui, Hao; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the anti-oxidative defense system, the structure (hemolysis rate and morphology) and function (ATP enzyme activity) of human red blood cells (hRBCs) to investigate the possible toxic mechanism of OTC to hRBCs. The experimental results indicate that OTC can cause a decline in the function of the antioxidant defense system of hRBCs, resulting in oxidative stress. OTC can bring about morphological changes to hRBCs, and further leads to hemolysis, when the concentration of OTC is over 8×10−5 M (about 164 µg/ml). At a low OTC concentration, below 4×10−5 M (82 µg/ml), OTC can enhance the activity of ATP enzyme of hRBCs, known as hormesis. However, at a high concentration, above 4×10−5 M (about 82 µg/ml), the ATP enzymatic activity was inhibited, affecting the function of hRBCs. The estalished mechanism of toxicity of OTC to hRBCs can facilitate a deeper understanding of the toxicity of OTC in vivo. PMID:25019386

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli selected by tylosin treatment at a pig farm.

    PubMed

    Juntunen, P; Heiska, H; Olkkola, S; Myllyniemi, A-L; Hänninen, M-L

    2010-11-20

    Limited knowledge is available regarding the dynamics of macrolide resistance under farm conditions with natural Campylobacter populations. We examined the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli at a large pig farm. Faeces were sampled from untreated sows and piglets (n=57), weaned pigs treated with tylosin (n=68) and pigs of the same group 3-5 weeks after withdrawal of tylosin (n=15). Additionally, 48 weaned pigs were sampled after tylosin had not been administered for 7 months at the farm. MICs for seven antimicrobials were determined, isolates were genotyped by PFGE and mutations conferring macrolide resistance were identified. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent was higher (P<0.001) in the isolates from the treated pigs (30 of 56) than in those from the untreated animals (2 of 40). Resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid and streptomycin was higher (P<0.05) in the isolates from the treated pigs than in those from the untreated animals. All 14 erythromycin-resistant isolates studied (MIC ≥ 512 μg/ml) contained mutation A2075G in 23S rRNA. Resistance against at least one antimicrobial was significantly lower (P<0.05) when tylosin had not been administered for 7 months. Resistance to erythromycin and streptomycin also decreased (P<0.05). PFGE analysis revealed a change of genotypes induced by tylosin treatment. In conclusion, tylosin treatment of pigs selected for a high-level of resistance to erythromycin and resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and streptomycin also increased in C. coli isolates within a few days. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stepwise binding of tylosin and erythromycin to Escherichia coli ribosomes, characterized by kinetic and footprinting analysis.

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, Alexandros D; Kouvela, Ekaterini C; Dinos, George P; Kalpaxis, Dimitrios L

    2008-02-22

    Erythromycin and tylosin are 14- and 16-membered lactone ring macrolides, respectively. The current work shows by means of kinetic and chemical footprinting analysis that both antibiotics bind to Escherichia coli ribosomes in a two-step process. The first step established rapidly, involves a low-affinity binding site placed at the entrance of the exit tunnel in the large ribosomal subunit, where macrolides bind primarily through their hydrophobic portions. Subsequently, slow conformational changes mediated by the antibiotic hydrophilic portion push the drugs deeper into the tunnel, in a high-affinity site. Compared with erythromycin, tylosin shifts to the high-affinity site more rapidly, due to the interaction of the mycinose sugar of the drug with the loop of H35 in domain II of 23 S rRNA. Consistently, mutations of nucleosides U2609 and U754 implicated in the high-affinity site reduce the shift of tylosin to this site and destabilize, respectively, the final drug-ribosome complex. The weak interaction between tylosin and the ribosome is Mg2+ independent, unlike the tight binding. In contrast, both interactions between erythromycin and the ribosome are reduced by increasing concentrations of Mg2+ ions. Polyamines attenuate erythromycin affinity for the ribosome at both sequential steps of binding. In contrast, polyamines facilitate the initial binding of tylosin, but exert a detrimental, more pronounced, effect on the drug accommodation at its final position. Our results emphasize the role of the particular interactions that side chains of tylosin and erythromycin establish with 23 S rRNA, which govern the exact binding process of each drug and its response to the ionic environment.

  16. Circadian serum concentrations of tylosin in broilers after feed or water medication.

    PubMed

    Lilia, G; Aguilera, R; Cortés-Cuevas, A; Rosario, C; Sumano, H

    2008-09-01

    1. Because tylosin is a time-dependent antibacterial agent, and because feeding and drinking of broilers decreases in late afternoon and ceases in the dark, it was hypothesised that serum concentrations of this drug are greatly reduced during the dark period. 2. The trial was carried out in a commercial poultry house, under standard broiler husbandry conditions, with food and water withdrawn from 22:00 until 07:00 h next morning and exposed to a natural light cycle of 13L:11D. 3. Broilers were given tylosin tartrate, in either feed or water, for 5 d as follows: 100, 200 and 300 ppm in feed, equivalent to 12.6, 25.2 and 37.8 mg/kg/d, respectively; and 200 and 400 mg/l in drinking water, equivalent to 51 to 102 mg/kg/d, respectively. 4. At 07:00 h on d 4, and for the next 40 h, hourly serum samples were obtained and analysed for tylosin by means of a microbiological assay. 5. Day vs night concentrations of tylosin expressed as area under the curve (AUC) in all groups revealed greater values during the day. The highest AUC and AUC(24)/minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio were obtained in the group medicated with 400 mg/l and the corresponding lowest values were found in the group medicated with 100 ppm in feed. 6. In conclusion, tylosin did not reach therapeutic serum concentrations during the dark period, at all dose rates tested when administered in feed or water. A sustained release form of this drug is needed to solve this inadequacy of tylosin medication in broilers.

  17. Aquatic microcosm assessment of the effects of tylosin on Lemna gibba and Myriophyllum spicatum.

    PubMed

    Brain, Richard A; Bestari, Ketut Jim; Sanderson, Hans; Hanson, Mark L; Wilson, Christian J; Johnson, David J; Sibley, Paul K; Solomon, Keith R

    2005-02-01

    Tylosin is a macrolide antibiotic commonly used for therapeutic treatment and prophylaxis in livestock. As part of a larger ecotoxicological study, the potential phytotoxic effects of tylosin on the rooted macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum and the floating macrophyte Lemna gibba were assessed under semi-field conditions using 15 12 000-L microcosms. Concentrations of 0, 10, 30, 300 microg/L (n = 3), and 600, 1000, and 3000 microg/L (n = 1) were evaluated as part of separate ANOVA and regression analyses over an exposure period of 35 days. Fate of tylosin was monitored over time in the highest three treatments, where dissipation followed pseudo-first order kinetics with associated half-lives ranging from 9 to 10 days. For both M. spicatum and L. gibba, tylosin was found to cause no biologically significant changes to any endpoint assessed compared to controls at a Type I error rate of 0.1. However, subsequent power analyses revealed that there was generally insufficient power to declare that there were no significant differences at a Type II error rate of 0.2. Conclusions concerning biologically significant impacts were therefore further assessed based on other statistical criteria including comparisons of percent differences between replicated treatments and controls, minimum significant and minimum detectable differences, and coefficients of variation. Based on these criteria, at an ecological effect size of >20% change, tylosin was concluded to elicit no biologically or ecologically significant toxicity to M. spicatum or L. gibba. A hazard quotient assessment indicated that tylosin poses little risk to either species of macrophyte, with an HQ value calculated to be nearly three orders of magnitude below 1 (0.002).

  18. Bacterial flora of liver abscesses in crossbred beef cattle and Holstein steers fed finishing diets with or without tylosin.

    PubMed

    Amachawadi, R G; Purvis, T J; Lubbers, B V; Homm, J W; Maxwell, C L; Nagaraja, T G

    2017-08-01

    Holstein steers raised for beef production consistently have a higher prevalence and more severe form of liver abscesses than cattle of beef breeds. A study was conducted to compare bacterial flora of liver abscesses collected from multiple abattoirs from 4 groups of cattle, arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, consisting of crossbred cattle and Holstein steers, and each group fed a finishing diet supplemented with or without tylosin. A total of 383 liver abscess samples, consisting of 94 and 81 from crossbred cattle and 89 and 119 from Holstein steers fed finishing diets with or without tylosin, respectively, were subjected for anaerobic and aerobic bacterial isolations. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of tylosin to the predominant bacterial species were determined. The likelihood chi-square test was performed to assess unadjusted differences in bacterial prevalence proportions between the 2 types of cattle (crossbred and Holstein steers) and feed type (tylosin or no tylosin). There was no interaction between cattle type and tylosin inclusion on the prevalence of any of the bacterial species isolated. Liver abscesses from Holstein steers yielded a higher total number of isolates compared to liver abscesses from crossbred cattle (1060 vs. 788). subsp. was isolated from all abscesses. The prevalence of subsp. was 19.1% and was not affected by the cattle type or tylosin. The prevalence of was higher ( < 0.01) in crossbred cattle (73.7%) compared to Holstein steers (29.8%). Also, the prevalence of was higher in abscesses from tylosin-fed (66.1%) cattle than no tylosin-fed cattle (35%). The overall prevalence of was 25.3% and was similar ( = 0.58) between cattle type, but the prevalence was lower ( < 0.01) in tylosin-fed (16.9%) compared to no tylosin-fed group (33%). Mean MIC of tylosin for and were similar across both cattle types and tylosin inclusion. Although bacterial flora of liver abscesses from Holstein steers appeared to be more diverse than

  19. Efficacy of tylosin tablets for the treatment of pyoderma due to Staphylococcus intermedius infection in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D W; Miller, W H; Cayatte, S M; Bagladi, M S

    1994-01-01

    Tylosin tablets (20 mg/kg, q12h) were administered orally to 21 dogs with superficial or deep staphylococcal pyodermas. Response to therapy was excellent in 90.5% of the dogs, and in vitro susceptibility testing correlated perfectly with therapeutic response. Duration of therapy varied from 17 to 91 days, with an average of 33 days. Relapses occurred in 28.6% of the dogs within a three-month period. No side effects were reported. Under the conditions of the study, tylosin was an effective and safe antibiotic for the treatment of staphylococcal pyoderma in dogs. PMID:7994702

  20. CONFLEX/MM3 search/minimization study of the conformations of the macrolide antibiotic tylosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Petko M.

    2002-03-01

    The conformations of the 16-membered macrolide antibiotic tylosin were studied with the MM3 force field. The CONFLEX conformational search procedure was used for finding low-energy conformations. The computed data are indicative for the existence of several conformations in equilibrium. The intramolecular hydrogen bonds play an important role for the preferred geometry of the macroring and the conformations of the side chains. The present results provide further insight into the most probable conformations of tylosin and compliment an earlier analysis based on NMR techniques.

  1. Placebo controlled trial of fusidic acid gel and oxytetracycline for recurrent blepharitis and rosacea.

    PubMed Central

    Seal, D V; Wright, P; Ficker, L; Hagan, K; Troski, M; Menday, P

    1995-01-01

    A prospective, randomised, double blind, partial crossover, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to compare the performance of topical fusidic acid gel (Fucithalmic) and oral oxytetracycline as treatment for symptomatic chronic blepharitis. Treatment success was judged both by a reduction in symptoms and clinical examination before and after therapy. Seventy five per cent of patients with blepharitis and associated rosacea were symptomatically improved by fusidic acid gel and 50% by oxytetracycline, but fewer (35%) appeared to benefit from the combination. Patients with chronic blepharitis of other aetiologies did not respond to fusidic acid gel but 25% did benefit from oxytetracycline and 30% from the combination. Our results demonstrate the need to investigate patients with blepharitis for concomitant rosacea as they respond well to targeted therapy. PMID:7880791

  2. Effect of Various Conditions on Accumulation of Oxytetracycline in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Izaki, Kazuo; Arima, Kei

    1965-01-01

    Izaki, Kazuo (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan), and Kei Arima. Effect of various conditions on accumulation of oxytetracycline in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 89:1335–1339. 1965.—Accumulation of large amounts of oxytetracycline occurred in Escherichia coli when the cells were incubated with high concentrations of oxytetracycline (100 to 400 μg/ml) in nutrient broth or in a medium containing glucose, K2HPO4, and MgSO4. In the absence of glucose or MgSO4, the accumulation was very small. The optimal pH for accumulation was about 6.5. Manganous ion could replace Mg++ in promoting the accumulation, though with decreased effectiveness. Malate and succinate were effective promoters of accumulation as well as glucose. Accumulation was inhibited at low temperatures or in the presence of metabolic inhibitors such as 2,4-dinitrophenol or sodium azide. Images PMID:14293007

  3. Stability of oxytetracycline hydrochloride in eye-drops, prepared in pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Izer, K; Török, I; Pintér-Magyar, G

    1994-03-01

    In the ophthalmological practice the so-called "Oxytetracycline-eye-drop" is frequently used, prepared in pharmacies ex tempore with a short self-life (3 days). In this paper a TLC-densitometric method is described for the determination of the degradation products of oxytetracycline HCl (OTC) formed in the "Oxytetracycline-eye-drop". A chloroform-methanol-water (65 + 25 + 5 v/v) solvent system is applied on silica gel TLC plate, predeveloped with saturated disodium ethylenediamine-tetraacetate aqueous solution. UV densitometry at 254 nm is used for quantitative determination. The chemical stability of OTC in different eye-drops as well as the effects of the pH and the mode of the preparation and storage conditions on the decomposition process are discussed.

  4. EFFECT OF VARIOUS CONDITIONS ON ACCUMULATION OF OXYTETRACYCLINE IN ESCHERICHIA COLI.

    PubMed

    IZAKI, K; ARIMA, K

    1965-05-01

    Izaki, Kazuo (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan), and Kei Arima. Effect of various conditions on accumulation of oxytetracycline in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 89:1335-1339. 1965.-Accumulation of large amounts of oxytetracycline occurred in Escherichia coli when the cells were incubated with high concentrations of oxytetracycline (100 to 400 mug/ml) in nutrient broth or in a medium containing glucose, K(2)HPO(4), and MgSO(4). In the absence of glucose or MgSO(4), the accumulation was very small. The optimal pH for accumulation was about 6.5. Manganous ion could replace Mg(++) in promoting the accumulation, though with decreased effectiveness. Malate and succinate were effective promoters of accumulation as well as glucose. Accumulation was inhibited at low temperatures or in the presence of metabolic inhibitors such as 2,4-dinitrophenol or sodium azide.

  5. A comparative study on the effects of tylosin on select bacteria during continuous flow culture of mixed populations of gut microflora derived from a feral and a domestic pig.

    PubMed

    Ramlachan, Nicole; Anderson, Robin C; Andrews, Kathleen; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J

    2008-02-01

    Continuous flow cultures of feral (culture FC) and domesticated (culture RPCF) pig gut microflora were established in steady state. Cultures were continuously infused with 25 or 100 microg tylosin/mL and sampled at intervals to assess effects on total culturable anaerobes, Bacteroides and Enterococcus via plating to agar supplemented without or with 100 microg tylosin/mL, the latter to assess bacterial sensitivity to tylosin. Endogenous tylosin-insensitive anaerobes within the cultures, while similar prior to tylosin administration, responded differently during tylosin administration, with concentrations in RPCF cultures becoming enriched more than in FC cultures. Tylosin-insensitive anaerobes in RPCF cultures persisted at increased concentrations after cessation of tylosin administration whereas concentrations in FC cultures decreased slightly. Concentrations of Bacteroides and endogenous Enterococcus recovered on medium without tylosin decreased to near or below detectable levels in FC cultures administered 25 or 100 microg tylosin/mL. Tylosin-insensitive Bacteroides were enriched to >5 log10 CFU/mL in RPCF cultures after 25 microg tylosin/mL but not at 100 microg tylosin/mL. Populations of endogenous tylosin-insensitive Enterococcus were enriched in RPCF but not FC cultures administered 25 or 100 microg tylosin/mL. In cultures administered 100 microg tylosin/mL, an exogenous-sourced E. faecium possessing tylosin resistance maintained itself only in the presence of tylosin. These results indicate that under the conditions of these tests, antibiotic exposure may enrich for antibiotic-insensitive bacteria populations of endogenous or exogenous origin but that the ability of an exogenous tylosin-resistant E. faecium to persist is reduced in the absence of the antibiotic, likely due to exclusion by native flora.

  6. Effects of tylosin administration on C-reactive protein concentration and carriage of Salmonella enterica in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeun Bum; Singer, Randall S; Borewicz, Klaudyna; White, Bryan A; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Johnson, Timothy J; Espejo, Luis A; Isaacson, Richard E

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of tylosin on C-reactive protein concentration, carriage of Salmonella enterica, and antimicrobial resistance genes in commercial pigs. 120 pigs on 2 commercial farms. A cohort of sixty 10-week-old pigs in 4 pens/farm (15 pigs/pen) was randomly selected. Equal numbers of pigs were given feed containing tylosin (40 μg/g of feed) for 0, 6, or 12 weeks. C-reactive protein concentrations were measured, microbial culture for S enterica in feces was performed, and antimicrobial resistance genes in feces were quantified. No significant associations were detected between C-reactive protein concentration or S enterica status and tylosin treatment. During the 12 weeks of tylosin administration, increased levels of 6 antimicrobial resistance genes did not occur. Treatment of pigs with tylosin did not affect C-reactive protein concentration or reduce carriage or load of S enterica. There was no evidence that pigs receiving tylosin had increased carriage of the 6 antimicrobial resistance genes measured. S enterica is a public health concern. Use of the antimicrobial growth promoter tylosin did not pose a public health risk by means of increased carriage of S enterica.

  7. Change in colony morphology and kinetics of tylosin production after UV and gamma irradiation mutagenesis of Streptomyces fradiae NRRL-2702.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Shazia; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Afzal Ghauri, Muhammad; Iqbal, Ruqia; Mukhtar Khalid, Ahmad; Muddassar, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Tylosin is a macrolide antibiotic used as veterinary drug and growth promoter. Attempts were made for hyper production of tylosin by a strain of Streptomyces fradiae NRRL-2702 through irradiation mutagenesis. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of wild-type strain caused development of six morphologically altered colony types on agar plates. After screening using Bacillus subtilis bioassay only morphological mutants indicated the production of tylosin. An increase of 2.7+/-0.22-fold in tylosin production (1500mg/l) in case of mutant UV-2 in complex medium was achieved as compared to wild-type strain (550mg/l). Gamma irradiation of mutant UV-2 using (60)Co gave one morphologically altered colony type gamma-1, which gave 2500mg/l tylosin yield in complex medium. Chemically defined media promoted tylosin production upto 3800mg/l. Maximum value of q(p) (3.34mg/gh) was observed by mutant gamma-1 as compared to wild strain (0.81mg/gh). Moreover, UV irradiation associated changes were unstable with loss of tylosin activity whereas mutant gamma-1 displayed high stability on subsequent culturing.

  8. Comparison of side effects of oxytetracycline and talc pleurodesis: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Gözübüyük, Alper; Ozpolat, Berkant; Ciçek, Ali Fuat; Caylak, Hasan; Yücel, Orhan; Kavaklı, Kuthan; Gürkök, Sedat; Genç, Onur

    2010-12-13

    Chemical pleurodesis is widely recommended in the treatment of refractory pleural effusion or pulmonary air leak of different etiologies. Although several agents have been used, many questions have remained unanswered about their toxicity. Talc is the most commonly used agent for the treatment, with rare, serious complications reported. Oxytetracycline pleurodesis in clinical practice has been described in a few studies, but literature reveals no experimental studies using this agent. We performed a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded, controlled study to evaluate the changes in lung histology and systemic response to pleurodesis with oxytetracycline and talc in acute and subacute phases in a rat model. Forty-two male albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups and 3 subgroups with 7 animals in each. Group 1 was given oxytetracycline, 35 mg/kg; Group 2 was given talc slurry, 60 mg/kg in 0.5 mL saline solution, and Group 3 was given only 0.5 mL saline intrapleurally. In subgroups "a" the nimls were sacrificed at the postoperative 72nd hour and, in subgroups "b", on the postoperative day 7. The surfaces were graded by microscopic examination. Oxytetracycline produced alveolar collapse, hemorrhage, edema, inflammation at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7, while talc produced significant edema, inflammation, proliferation, fibrosis at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, proliferation, and fibrosis on the postoperative day 7 (p < 0.0042). Talc produced significant edema compared to oxytetracycline on the postoperative day 7. On contralateral side, oxytetracycline and talc produced significant hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7 (p < 0.0042). Both agents were shown to produce pulmonary lesions. In acute phase, the pulmonary side effects of oxytetracycline were more pronounced, whereas the side effects of talc were prolonged to subacute phase. We propose that the occasional side effects in

  9. Comparison of side effects of oxytetracycline and talc pleurodesis: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemical pleurodesis is widely recommended in the treatment of refractory pleural effusion or pulmonary air leak of different etiologies. Although several agents have been used, many questions have remained unanswered about their toxicity. Talc is the most commonly used agent for the treatment, with rare, serious complications reported. Oxytetracycline pleurodesis in clinical practice has been described in a few studies, but literature reveals no experimental studies using this agent. We performed a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded, controlled study to evaluate the changes in lung histology and systemic response to pleurodesis with oxytetracycline and talc in acute and subacute phases in a rat model. Methods Forty-two male albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups and 3 subgroups with 7 animals in each. Group 1 was given oxytetracycline, 35 mg/kg; Group 2 was given talc slurry, 60 mg/kg in 0.5 mL saline solution, and Group 3 was given only 0.5 mL saline intrapleurally. In subgroups "a" the nimls were sacrificed at the postoperative 72nd hour and, in subgroups "b", on the postoperative day 7. The surfaces were graded by microscopic examination. Results Oxytetracycline produced alveolar collapse, hemorrhage, edema, inflammation at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7, while talc produced significant edema, inflammation, proliferation, fibrosis at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, proliferation, and fibrosis on the postoperative day 7 (p < 0,0042). Talc produced significant edema compared to oxytetracycline on the postoperative day 7. On contralateral side, oxytetracycline and talc produced significant hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7 (p < 0.0042). Conclusions Both agents were shown to produce pulmonary lesions. In acute phase, the pulmonary side effects of oxytetracycline were more pronounced, whereas the side effects of talc were prolonged to subacute phase. We propose

  10. Toxoplasma gondii: the effect of fluconazole combined with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine against acute toxoplasmosis in murine model.

    PubMed

    Martins-Duarte, Érica S; de Souza, Wanderley; Vommaro, Rossiane C

    2013-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important opportunistic pathogen for immunocompromised patients and responsible for toxoplasmic encephalitis, which is often lethal. Treatment for this infection is limited to a restricted therapeutic arsenal. In this work we tested the combination of fluconazole with the current treatment for acute toxoplasmosis on the murine model in vivo. Different experimental groups were treated with combinations of sulfadiazine plus pyrimethamine with fluconazole and pyrimethamine with fluconazole. Fluconazole is an important antifungal triazole used against others CNS related opportunistic pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida spp. The combinations of fluconazole plus sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine or fluconazole plus pyrimethamine were remarkably effective against T. gondii in vivo. The 10-day treatment with 10mg/kg/day of fluconazole combined with 40/1mg/kg/day sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine resulted in 93% survival of CF1 mice acutely infected with the highly virulent T. gondii RH strain, versus 36% of mice treated with just sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. Combinations of fluconazole with lower doses of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine or with just pyrimethamine were also efficient in reducing the mortality of mice compared with the treatment without fluconazole. The results obtained are promising for the treatment of human toxoplasmosis and point to the need to extend these studies to other murine models.

  11. Sorption of tylosin and sulfamethazine on solid humic acid.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuetao; Tu, Bei; Ge, Jianhua; Yang, Chen; Song, Xiaomei; Dang, Zhi

    2016-05-01

    Tylosin (TYL) and sulfamethazine (SMT) are ionizable and polar antimicrobial compounds, which have seeped into the environment in substantial amounts via fertilizing land with manure or sewage. Sorption of TYL and SMT onto humic acid (HA) may affect their environmental fate. In this study, the sorption of TYL and SMT on HA at different conditions (pH, ionic strength) was investigated. All sorption isotherms fitted well to the Henry and Freundlich models and they were highly nonlinear with values of n between 0.5 and 0.8, which suggested that the HA had high heterogeneity. The sorption of TYL and SMT on HA decreased with increasing pH (2.0-7.5), implying that the primary sorption mechanism could be due to cation exchange interactions between TYL(+)/SMT(+) species and the functional groups of HA. Increasing ionic strength resulted in a considerable reduction in the Kd values of TYL and SMT, hinting that interactions between H bonds and π-π EDA might be an important factor in the sorption of TYL and SMT on HA. Results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis further demonstrated that carboxyl groups and O-alkyl structures in the HA could interact with TYL and SMT via ionic interactions and H bonds, respectively. Overall, this work gives new insights into the mechanisms of sorption of TYL and SMT on HA and hence aids us in assessing the environmental risk of TYL and SMT under diverse conditions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Calibration and controlled flume evaluation of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) for tylosin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, the occurrence and fate of emerging contaminants such as antibiotics in the environment have become a concern. One of these is tylosin, a macrolide antibiotic that is used extensively in the swine industry as a growth promoter. The monitoring of these emerging contaminants for asses...

  13. Characterization of impurities in tylosin using dual liquid chromatography combined with ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Shruti; Van Schepdael, Ann; Hoogmartens, Jos; Adams, Erwin

    2013-03-15

    Investigation of unknown impurities in a tylosin sample was performed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Separation was performed according to the recently described LC-UV method of Ashenafi et al. (2011) [14]. This method was reported to have a good selectivity as it was able to separate the four main components of tylosin from the already known and 23 unknown impurities. However, as this method uses a mobile phase with non-volatile constituents, direct characterization of these impurities using LC/MS was not possible. The impurity fractions were therefore first collected and then desalted before sending them to the MS. Identification of the impurities in the tylosin sample was performed with a quadruple ion trap (IT) MS, with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source in the positive ion mode. The structure of the impurities was deduced by comparing their fragmentation pattern with those of the main components of tylosin. As several peaks in the LC-UV method contained multiple compounds, using this method in total 41 new impurities were (partly) characterized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative erythromycin and tylosin susceptibility testing of streptococci from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kaspar, Heike; Kadlec, Kristina; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

    2016-10-15

    Tylosin, a 16-membered macrolide, is - besides other indications - used for the treatment of bovine mastitis. So far, there is only limited information available on the tylosin susceptibility of streptococci isolated from mastitis. The aim of the present study was to comparatively investigate 303 streptococci from bovine mastitis, including 101 Streptococcus agalactiae, 100 Streptococcus dysgalactiae and 102 Streptococcus uberis, for their tylosin and erythromycin susceptibility by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion. Both tests followed the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). For erythromycin, the results were interpreted using the CLSI-approved clinical breakpoints. Moreover, erythromycin-resistant isolates were tested for the presence of macrolide resistance genes and for inducible macrolide resistance. In general, both testing methods showed a good correlation for the three streptococcal species, although for the erythromycin susceptibility testing 11 S. uberis isolates fell into the very major error category. All but one of the erythromycin-resistant isolates harbored at least one macrolide resistance gene, with the erm(B) gene being most common. Moreover, single isolates of S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae proved to be inducibly macrolide-resistant. Since inducible macrolide resistance can easily switch to constitutive resistance, tylosin should not be used for the treatment of infections caused by inducibly resistant streptococci. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chlortetracycline and tylosin runoff from soils treated with antimicrobial containing manure.

    PubMed

    Hoese, A; Clay, S A; Clay, D E; Oswald, J; Trooien, T; Thaler, R; Carlson, C G

    2009-05-01

    This study assessed the runoff potential of tylosin and chlortetracycline (CTC) from soils treated with manure from swine fed rations containing the highest labeled rate of each chemical. Slurry manures from the swine contained either CTC at 108 microg/g or tylosin at 0.3 microg/g. These manures were surface applied to clay loam, silty clay loam, and silt loam soils at a rate of 0.22 Mg/ha. In one trial, tylosin was applied directly to the soil surface to examine runoff potential of water and chemical when manure was not present. Water was applied using a sprinkler infiltrometer 24-hr after manure application with runoff collected incrementally every 5 min for about 45 min. A biofilm crust formed on all manure-treated surfaces and infiltration was impeded with > 70% of the applied water collected as runoff. The total amount of CTC collected ranged from 0.9 to 3.5% of the amount applied whereas tylosin ranged from 8.4 to 12%. These data indicate that if surface-applied manure contains antimicrobials, runoff could lead to offsite contamination.

  16. Efficacy of tylosin tartrate on canine Staphylococcus intermedius isolates in vitro.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian A; Mortensen, Joel E; McKeever, Tricia M; Logas, Dawn B; McKeever, Patrick J

    2010-01-01

    In the past 5 years, the incidence of canine skin infections caused by resistant strains of Staphylococcus (pseud)intermedius has increased. Many older antibiotics are used to treat these infections because the sensitivity can be demonstrated in vitro. Additionally, many of these older drugs are efficacious and unlikely to induce multidrug resistance. More than a decade ago, the antibiotic tylosin tartrate was reported to be efficacious in vitro and in vivo against Staphylococcus intermedius. The purpose of this study was to determine whether S. (pseud)intermedius isolated from untreated pyoderma cases at veterinary referral centers across the United States are sensitive in vitro to this antibiotic. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for tylosin tartrate and other commonly used antibiotics were determined for 103 isolates. Most (82.61%) of the isolates not exposed to antibiotics in the 3 months before submission were sensitive to tylosin tartrate. These findings suggest that tylosin tartrate warrants further study as a first-line option for the treatment of dogs initially presenting with pyoderma.

  17. Sub-MIC Tylosin Inhibits Streptococcus suis Biofilm Formation and Results in Differential Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Yang, Yanbei; Zhao, Yulin; Zhao, Honghai; Bai, Jingwen; Chen, Jianqing; Zhou, Yonghui; Wang, Chang; Li, Yanhua

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S.suis) is an important zoonotic pathogen that causes severe diseases in humans and pigs. Biofilms of S. suis can induce persistent infections that are difficult to treat. In this study, the effect of tylosin on biofilm formation of S. suis was investigated. 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and 1/4 MIC of tylosin were shown to inhibit S. suis biofilm formation in vitro. By using the iTRAQ strategy, we compared the protein expression profiles of S. suis grown with sub-MIC tylosin treatment and with no treatment. A total of 1501 proteins were identified by iTRAQ. Ninety-six differentially expressed proteins were identified (Ratio > ±1.5, p < 0.05). Several metabolism proteins (such as phosphoglycerate kinase) and surface proteins (such as ABC transporter proteins) were found to be involved in biofilm formation. Our results indicated that S. suis metabolic regulation, cell surface proteins, and virulence proteins appear to be of importance in biofilm growth with sub-MIC tylosin treatment. Thus, our data revealed the rough regulation of biofilm formation that may provide a foundation for future research into mechanisms and targets. PMID:27065957

  18. 77 FR 26161 - New Animal Drugs; Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid; Gamithromycin; Tylosin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Crystalline Free Acid; Gamithromycin; Tylosin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... Supplement adding 522.313a yes CE a Division of Pfizer, crystalline free acid) treatment of acute Inc., 235... follows: Sec. 522.313a Ceftiofur crystalline free acid. * * * * * (e) * * * (2) * * * (i) Amount. For...

  19. Sub-MIC Tylosin Inhibits Streptococcus suis Biofilm Formation and Results in Differential Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Yang, Yanbei; Zhao, Yulin; Zhao, Honghai; Bai, Jingwen; Chen, Jianqing; Zhou, Yonghui; Wang, Chang; Li, Yanhua

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S.suis) is an important zoonotic pathogen that causes severe diseases in humans and pigs. Biofilms of S. suis can induce persistent infections that are difficult to treat. In this study, the effect of tylosin on biofilm formation of S. suis was investigated. 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and 1/4 MIC of tylosin were shown to inhibit S. suis biofilm formation in vitro. By using the iTRAQ strategy, we compared the protein expression profiles of S. suis grown with sub-MIC tylosin treatment and with no treatment. A total of 1501 proteins were identified by iTRAQ. Ninety-six differentially expressed proteins were identified (Ratio > ±1.5, p < 0.05). Several metabolism proteins (such as phosphoglycerate kinase) and surface proteins (such as ABC transporter proteins) were found to be involved in biofilm formation. Our results indicated that S. suis metabolic regulation, cell surface proteins, and virulence proteins appear to be of importance in biofilm growth with sub-MIC tylosin treatment. Thus, our data revealed the rough regulation of biofilm formation that may provide a foundation for future research into mechanisms and targets.

  20. Narrow grass hedges reduce tylosin and associated antimicrobial resistance genes in agricultural runoff.

    PubMed

    Soni, Bhavneet; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Snow, Daniel D; Gilley, John E; Woodbury, Bryan L; Marx, David B; Li, Xu

    2015-05-01

    Agricultural runoff from areas receiving livestock manure can potentially contaminate surface water with antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of narrow grass hedges (NGHs) on reducing the transport of antimicrobials and ARGs in runoff after land application of swine manure slurry. Plot-scale rainfall simulation tests were conducted on 0.75 m by 4.0 m plots designed to test three treatment factors: manure amendment (control plots receiving no manure vs. amended plots receiving manure based on 3 times N requirement), NGH (plots with a NGH vs. plots without a NGH), and rainfall events (days 1-3). Runoff generated during three 30-min simulated rainfall events was sampled and analyzed for antimicrobials and ARGs. Manure amendment was responsible for the presence of antimicrobial tylosin ( < 0.0001) and tylosin resistance gene (B) ( < 0.0001) in runoff. Narrow grass hedges proved to be effective in reducing tylosin ( < 0.0001) and (B) ( < 0.0347) in runoff. Manure amendment was responsible for the introduction of tylosin ( < 0.0482) and (B) ( = 0.0128) into the soil; however, it had no significant impact on the abundance of the 16S rRNA gene in soil. Results from this study suggest that NGHs could be a best management practice to control the transport of antimicrobials and ARGs in agricultural runoff.

  1. Monitoring of tylosin and sulfamethazine in a tile drained agricultural Watershed using (POCIS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The seasonal occurrence, fate, and transport of agricultural emerging contaminants (AECs) was evaluated in the South Fork watershed of the Iowa River (SFIR) using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) over a three year period. The AECs of concern were tylosin (TYL) and sulfamethazine (...

  2. Identification of novel tylosin analogues generated by a wblA disruption mutant of Streptomyces ansochromogenes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cheng; Liao, Guojian; Zhang, Jihui; Tan, Huarong

    2015-11-02

    Streptomyces, as the main source of antibiotics, has been intensively exploited for discovering new drug candidates to combat the evolving pathogens. Disruption of wblA, an actinobacteria-specific gene controlling major developmental transition, can cause the alteration of phenotype and morphology in many species of Streptomyces. One wblA homologue was found in Streptomyces ansochromogenes 7100 by using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. It is interesting to identify whether novel secondary metabolites could be produced by the wblA disruption mutant as evidenced in other Streptomyces. The wblA disruption mutant of S. ansochromogenes 7100 (ΔwblA) was constructed by homologous recombination. ΔwblA failed to produce spores and nikkomycin, the major product of S. ansochromogenes 7100 (wild-type strain) during fermentation. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus was observed with fermentation broth of ΔwblA but not with that of the wild-type strain. To identify the antibacterial compounds, the two compounds (compound 1 and compound 2) produced by ΔwblA were characterized as 16-membered macrolides by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The chemical structure of these compounds shows similarity with tylosin, and the bioassays indicated that the two compounds inhibited the growth of a number of gram-positive bacteria. It is intriguing that they displayed much higher activity than tylosin against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Two novel tylosin analogues (compound 1 and 2) were generated by ΔwblA. Bioassays showed that compound 1 and 2 displayed much higher activity than tylosin against Streptococcus pneumoniae, implying that these two compounds might be used to widen the application of tylosin.

  3. Interspecific differences in growth response and tolerance to the antibiotic sulfadiazine in ten clonal wetland plants in South China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinfeng; Xu, Huilian; Sun, Yingbo; Huang, Lili; Zhang, Peixia; Zou, Chunping; Yu, Bo; Zhu, Genfa; Zhao, Chaoyi

    2016-02-01

    Pollution caused by residual antibiotics is a worldwide environmental issue. Antibiotic residues often occur in aquatic ecosystems, posing threats to the health of aquatic organisms. The effects of antibiotic residues on the growth of crop plants and on human health are reasonably well known. However, less is known about antibiotic effects on wetland plants. Therefore, we studied the response and tolerance of ten clonal wetland plants grown in soil spiked with sulfadiazine at 10 mg kg(-1) (an environmentally relevant concentration) and 100 mg kg(-1). At 10 mg kg(-1), ramet number was the least affected trait, while root number was the most affected among plant species. Plant shoot and total biomass were reduced in all species except in Cyperus malaccensis var. brevifolius and Panicum repens. Chlorophyll content was reduced in Alocasia macrorrhiza, Saururus chinensis, and Commelina diffusa. In general, Panicum paludosum and C. malaccensis var. brevifolius showed the least reduction of growth parameters, whereas growth of both A. macrorrhiza and S. chinensis was severely reduced. At 100 mg kg(-1), negative responses occurred in all species. Comprehensive tolerance analysis revealed that P. paludosum and C. malaccensis var. brevifolius were the species most resistant to sulfadiazine. These species are potential candidates for sulfadiazine polluted wetland restoration. A. macrorrhiza and S. chinensis were the most susceptible species and they should be protected from sulfadiazine pollution. Relative plant shoot biomass and height were the most useful indicators for evaluating plant tolerance to sulfadiazine. Plant tolerance to sulfadiazine was associated with the differences of plants in height and shoot biomass.

  4. Randomized Controlled Trial of Polyhexanide/Betaine Gel Versus Silver Sulfadiazine for Partial-Thickness Burn Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wattanaploy, Saruta; Chinaroonchai, Kusuma; Namviriyachote, Nantaporn; Muangman, Pornprom

    2017-03-01

    Silver sulfadiazine is commonly used in the treatment of partial-thickness burns, but it sometimes forms pseudo-eschar and delays wound healing. Polyhexanide/betaine gel, a new wound cleansing and moisturizing product, has some advantages in removing biofilm and promotes wound healing. This study was designed to compare clinical efficacy of polyhexanide/betaine gel with silver sulfadiazine in partial-thickness burn treatment. From September 2013 to May 2015, 46 adult patients with partial-thickness burn ≥10% total body surface area that were admitted to the Burn Unit of Siriraj Hospital within 48 hours after injury were randomly allocated into 2 groups. One group was treated with polyhexanide/betaine gel, and the other group was treated with silver sulfadiazine. Both groups received daily dressing changes and the same standard care given to patients with burns in this center. Healing times in the polyhexanide/betaine gel group and silver sulfadiazine group were 17.8 ± 2.2 days and 18.8 ± 2.1 days, respectively ( P value .13). There were no significant differences in healing times, infection rates, bacterial colonization rates, and treatment cost in both groups. The pain score of the polyhexanide/betaine gel group was significantly less than the silver sulfadiazine group at 4 to 9 days after treatment ( P < .001). The satisfactory assessment result of the polyhexanide/betaine gel group was better than that in the silver sulfadiazine group. These data indicate the need for adequately designed studies to elicit the full potential of polyhexanide gel as a wound dressing for partial-thickness burn wounds.

  5. Efficacy of two low-dose oral tylosin regimens in controlling the relapse of diarrhea in dogs with tylosin-responsive diarrhea: a prospective, single-blinded, two-arm parallel, clinical field trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite its wide acceptance as a treatment for canine chronic enteropathies, the macrolide antibiotic tylosin lacks official oral dosage recommendations. Not even textbooks share consensus about the dose; daily recommendations vary from 25 to 80 mg/kg and dosing intervals from one to three times daily. The objective of this prospective, single-blinded, two-arm parallel, clinical field trial was to determine whether doses of 5 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg tylosin administered orally once daily for seven days would have a similar effect on fecal consistency in diarrhea relapses to that of a 25 mg/kg dose of tylosin administered once daily for seven days, a dosage that has proved effective in controlling canine tylosin-responsive diarrhea (TRD). A further objective was to compare the efficacy of the 5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg tylosin dosages. Fifteen client-owned dogs diagnosed with TRD that had responded to a dose of 25 mg/kg tylosin once daily for seven days were enrolled in the study. After a relapse of diarrhea the dogs were allocated into two groups receiving tylosin orally in doses of either 5 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg once daily for seven days. The owners were blinded to the dosage. The elimination of diarrhea was the main criterion in assessing treatment success. The mean fecal consistency score of the last three treatment days for all dosages, including 25 mg/kg, as evaluated by the owners according to a standardized fecal scoring system, served as the primary outcome measures. Results All eight dogs responded to the 5 mg/kg dose, and six of seven dogs responded to the 15 mg/kg dose. The mean fecal consistency scores at the 25 mg/kg tylosin dosage were no significantly different from scores at the 5 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg tylosin dosages (P = 0.672, P = 0.345). Conclusions Interestingly, 14/15 (93%) of the dogs responding to a dose of 25 mg/kg tylosin once daily for seven days also responded to the lower dosages at diarrhea relapse. The data indicate

  6. Azithromycin versus Sulfadiazine and Pyrimethamine for non-vision-threatening toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Balaskas, Konstantinos; Vaudaux, Jean; Boillat-Blanco, Noémie; Guex-Crosier, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of this pilot study is to compare the efficacy and tolerance of azithromycin alone as opposed to standard treatment with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine for active, non-vision-threatening toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Material/Methods We conducted a prospective, randomized, institutional clinical study comparing azithromycin to sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine for active, non-vision-threatening toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Nineteen out of 75 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria and were randomized into 2 treatment regimens. Nine patients were treated with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine and 10 patients with azithromycin at a dose of 500 mg qd. Main outcome measures assessed were time to sharpening of lesion borders, time to lesion scarring, time to disease inactivity, and treatment tolerance. Results Azithromycin monotherapy achieved lesion scarring and disease inactivity in all but 1 patient. Although no statistically significant difference was found between the 2 patient groups as regards main outcome measures for treatment efficacy, all median times to endpoints (days) were longer for the azithromycin group – time to sharpening of lesion borders on clinical evaluation (25.5 vs. 24) and masked evaluation of photographs (30.5 vs. 24), time to lesion scarring on clinical evaluation (73 vs. 47) and masked evaluation of photographs (71.5 vs. 36) and time to disease inactivity (73 vs. 49). Treatment tolerance was significantly better for the azithromycin group (p=0.0005). Conclusions Azithromycin monotherapy at a dose of 500 mg per day was shown to be effective and well-tolerated for the treatment of active, non-vision-threatening toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Duration of treatment was clinically longer for the azithromycin group. PMID:22534709

  7. In Vitro Susceptibility of Various Genotypic Strains of Toxoplasma gondii to Pyrimethamine, Sulfadiazine, and Atovaquone▿

    PubMed Central

    Meneceur, Pascale; Bouldouyre, Marie-Anne; Aubert, Dominique; Villena, Isabelle; Menotti, Jean; Sauvage, Virginie; Garin, Jean-François; Derouin, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and atovaquone are widely used for the treatment of severe toxoplasmosis. Their in vitro activities have been almost exclusively demonstrated on laboratory strains belonging to genotype I. We determined the in vitro activities of these drugs against 17 strains of Toxoplasma gondii belonging to various genotypes and examined the correlations among 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s), growth kinetics, strain genotypes, and mutations on drug target genes. Growth kinetics were determined in THP-1 cell cultures using real-time PCR. IC50s were determined in MRC-5 cell cultures using a T. gondii-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay performed on cultures. Mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), and cytochrome b genes were determined by sequencing. Pyrimethamine IC50s ranged between 0.07 and 0.39 mg/liter, with no correlation with the strain genotype but a significant correlation with growth kinetics. Several mutations found on the DHFR gene were not linked to lower susceptibility. Atovaquone IC50s were in a narrow range of concentrations (mean, 0.06 ± 0.02 mg/liter); no mutation was found on the cytochrome b gene. IC50s for sulfadiazine ranged between 3 and 18.9 mg/liter for 13 strains and were >50 mg/liter for three strains. High IC50s were not correlated to strain genotypes or growth kinetics. A new mutation of the DHPS gene was demonstrated in one of these strains. In conclusion, we found variability in the susceptibilities of T. gondii strains to pyrimethamine and atovaquone, with no evidence of drug resistance. A higher variability was found for sulfadiazine, with a possible resistance of three strains. No relationship was found between drug susceptibility and strain genotype. PMID:18212105

  8. 21 CFR 524.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bacterial infections in superficial wounds, cuts, and abrasions, treatment of allergic dermatoses, including... propellant such that a 1-second spray treatment will deliver approximately 2.5 milligrams of oxytetracycline.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for relief of discomfort and continued treatment...

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Short- and Long-acting Formulations of Oxytetracycline After Intramuscular Administration in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Gberindyer, Aondover F; Okpeh, Ene R; Semaka, Asaaga A

    2015-12-01

    Both short- and long-acting formulations of oxytetracycline are commonly used in veterinary medicine to treat animals infected with gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, rickettsiae, mycoplasma, and chlamydiae. To compare pharmacokinetics of short- and long-acting oxytetracycline in chickens, injectable formulations from the same pharmaceutical company were administered to healthy 6-week-old broiler chickens in accordance to the labeled instructions. Fourteen chickens were separated into 2 groups: chickens in group A (n = 7) were administered the short-acting formulation (10 mg/kg IM q24h) for 4 consecutive days, whereas those in group B (n = 7) were treated with a single dose (20 mg/kg IM) of the long-acting formulation. Blood samples were collected into heparinized tubes before and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 24 hours after initial treatment. Thereafter, blood samples were taken every 24 hours up to 120 hours. Plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline were determined by competitive enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, and pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained. Both formulations delivered therapeutic plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline for approximately 100% of their respective dosing intervals as recommended. However, considering the additional labor, patient stress, and mortalities associated with handling, in addition to rejection of the carcass due to tissue necrosis resulting from multiple injections, we recommend use of the long-acting instead of the short-acting injectable formulation in broiler chickens.

  10. Simple colorimetric detection of doxycycline and oxytetracycline using unmodified gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Fan, Shumin; Li, Zhigang; Xie, Yuanzhe; Wang, Rui; Ge, Baoyu; Wu, Jing; Wang, Ruiyong

    2014-08-01

    The interaction between tetracycline antibiotics and gold nanoparticles was studied. With citrate-coated gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probe, a simple and rapid detection method for doxycycline and oxytetracycline has been developed. This method relies on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles. In weakly acidic buffer medium, doxycycline and oxytetracycline could rapidly induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles, resulting in red-to-blue (or purple) colour change. The experimental parameters were optimized with regard to pH, the concentration of the gold nanoparticles and the reaction time. Under optimal experimental conditions, the linear range of the colorimetric sensor for doxycycline/oxytetracycline was 0.06-0.66 and 0.59-8.85 μg mL-1, respectively. The corresponding limit of detection for doxycycline and oxytetracycline was 0.0086 and 0.0838 μg mL-1, respectively. This assay was sensitive, selective, simple and readily used to detect tetracycline antibiotics in food products.

  11. Semi-micro determination of water content for the bulk samples of Oxytetracycline, Tetracycline and Chlortetracycline.

    PubMed

    Khan, N H; Roets, E; Hoogmartens, J

    1990-07-01

    The semi-micro analysis of the bulk commercial samples of Oxytetracycline, Tetracycline and Chlortetracycline for their water content using Karl Fischer reagent is described. All the samples analysed comply with the limits laid down in European Pharmacopoeia or United States Pharmacopoeia.

  12. Persistent Oxytetracycline Exposure Induces an Inflammatory Process That Improves Regenerative Capacity in Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Barros-Becker, Francisco; Romero, Jaime; Pulgar, Alvaro; Feijóo, Carmen G.

    2012-01-01

    Background The excessive use of antibiotics in aquaculture can adversely affect not only the environment, but also fish themselves. In this regard, there is evidence that some antibiotics can activate the immune system and reduce their effectiveness. None of those studies consider in detail the adverse inflammatory effect that the antibiotic remaining in the water may cause to the fish. In this work, we use the zebrafish to analyze quantitatively the effects of persistent exposure to oxytetracycline, the most common antibiotic used in fish farming. Methodology We developed a quantitative assay in which we exposed zebrafish larvae to oxytetracycline for a period of 24 to 96 hrs. In order to determinate if the exposure causes any inflammation reaction, we evaluated neutrophils infiltration and quantified their total number analyzing the Tg(mpx:GFP)i114 transgenic line by fluorescence stereoscope, microscope and flow cytometry respectively. On the other hand, we characterized the process at a molecular level by analyzing several immune markers (il-1β, il-10, lysC, mpx, cyp1a) at different time points by qPCR. Finally, we evaluated the influence of the inflammation triggered by oxytetracycline on the regeneration capacity in the lateral line. Conclusions Our results suggest that after 48 hours of exposure, the oxytetracycline triggered a widespread inflammation process that persisted until 96 hours of exposure. Interestingly, larvae that developed an inflammation process showed an improved regeneration capacity in the mechanosensory system lateral line. PMID:22590621

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Erythromycin- and Oxytetracycline-Sensitive Nocardia seriolae Strain U-1 (NBRC 110359)

    PubMed Central

    Sukeda, Masaki; Shimizu, Masato; Yamane, Jin; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Oshima, Syun-ichirou

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the emergence of macrolide- and oxytetracycline-resistant strains of Nocardia seriolae has previously been reported. Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of N. seriolae strain U-1, isolated in 2011 from a diseased yellowtail in Kagoshima Prefecture. The draft genome does not have any genes responsible for macrolide and tetracycline resistance. PMID:26798107

  14. The effect of streptomycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and phenylbutazone on spermatogenesis in bulls.

    PubMed Central

    Barth, A D; Wood, M R

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether declining semen quality associated with health problems may be due to certain antibiotic or anti-inflammatory treatments, semen was collected 3 times per week for up to 42 d from 6 normal bulls after treatment with oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, dihydrostreptomycin, or phenylbutazone. No adverse effects on semen quality were observed. PMID:10051958

  15. Intra-amniotic injection of oxytetracycline hydrochloride for termination of mid-trimester pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Faktor, J H; Frenkel, Y; Mashiach, S; Serr, D M

    1988-01-01

    Seventy-eight women underwent induced mid-trimester abortion. Fifty-two women aborted after an intra-amniotic injection of 1 g oxytetracycline hydrochloride. The control group comprised 16 women who received an intra-amniotic injection of hypertonic saline and 9 women with prostaglandin F2 alpha. All but 2 women aborted after one injection. Thirty-five women of the oxytetracycline hydrochloride group received intravenous oxytocin after the appearance of uterine contractions, 17 did not. The mean injection abortion interval in the women who received intravenous oxytocin was 38.6 +/- 2.7 h, whereas in the group without oxytocin it was 31.3 +/- 2.3 h. There is no statistically significant difference between these two groups (p less than 0.2). The mean injection abortion interval in the hypertonic saline group was 18.4 +/- 2.2 h. In the F2 alpha group it was 13.2 +/- 1.3 h. There is no statistically significant difference between hypertonic saline and prostaglandins (p less than 0.2). The mean injection abortion interval is significantly shorter in the F2 alpha and hypertonic saline groups as compared to the oxytetracycline hydrochloride group (p less than 0.001). It is advisable therefore to use oxytetracycline hydrochloride only in cases when the use of F2 alpha or hypertonic saline is contraindicated.

  16. [Comparative kinetics of oxytetracycline and oxyglucocycline cotent in tissues of the ENT organs].

    PubMed

    Pluzhnikov, M S; Gevorkian, E A

    1976-10-01

    The kinetics of oxytetracycline and oxyglucocycline levels (calculated for oxytetracycline) was studied on 80 patients with chronic inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory organs, the antibiotics being administered intramuscularly. After a single injection of oxytetrachcline hydrochloride in a dose of 1500 Units/kg body weight its levels in the blood serum and certain tissues of the ENT organs were rather low. When the dose was 3000 Units/kg the maximum antibiotic level in the blood level reached 1 Unit/ml. The drug was detected in the bacteriostatic concentrations in the blood serum and tissues within 12 hours. When the dose of oxyglucocycline was 1500 Units/kg the rate of its absorption was 4 times higher than that of oxytetracycline absorption. However, the character of its distribution in the blood and tissues of the ENT organs did not differ from distribution of oxytetracycline as dependent on the duration of the injection period. The both pharmaceutical forms had a tendency to some retention of the drugs in the tissues of the palatine tonsils. Because of better absorption and retention in the tonsils tissue oxyglucocycline may be recommended for therapy of inflammatory processes in the lymphadenoid apparatus of the pharynx.

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetics of ampicillin trihydrate, gentamicin sulphate and oxytetracycline hydrochloride in Nubian goats and desert sheep.

    PubMed

    Elsheikh, H A; Osman, I A; Ali, B H

    1997-08-01

    In this investigation the pharmacokinetics of three commonly used antibiotics, ampicillin trihydrate (10 mg/kg), gentamicin sulphate (3 mg/kg) and oxytetracycline hydrochloride (5 mg/kg), given intravenously, were each studied in five Nubian goats and five desert sheep. The pharmacokinetic parameters were described by a two-compartment open model. The results indicated that there were significant differences between the two species in some kinetic parameters of ampicillin and oxytetracycline but not gentamicin. Ampicillin elimination half life (t[1/2beta]) in goats (1.20 h) was shorter than that in sheep (2.48 h), and its clearance (Cl) significantly higher in goats (2921 mL/h x kg) compared to sheep (262 mL/h x kg) (P < 0.01). Ampicillin volume of distribution (Vd[area]) was found to be significantly larger in goats (5673 mL/kg) than in sheep (992 mL/kg) (P < 0.01). For oxytetracycline, the t(1/2beta) in goats (3.89 h) was significantly shorter than that in sheep (6.30 h) and the Cl value in goats (437 mL/h x kg) was significantly higher than in sheep (281 mL/h x kg). The results suggest that when treating sheep and goats, the pharmacokinetic differences between the two species must be considered in order to optimize the therapeutic doses of ampicillin and oxytetracycline.

  18. Effects of oxytetracycline and amoxicillin on development and biomarkers activities of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rhaul; McDonough, Sakchai; Ladewig, Jessica C L; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Nogueira, António J A; Domingues, Inês

    2013-11-01

    Antibiotics have been widely used in human and veterinary medicine to treat or prevent diseases. Residues of antibiotics have been found in aquatic environments, but their effects on fish have been not properly investigated. This work aimed to assess the sub-lethal effects of oxytetracycline and amoxicillin on zebrafish development and biomarkers. Embryos and adults were exposed during 96 h to amoxicillin and oxytetracycline following OECD guidelines. Tissues of adults and pools of embryos were used for catalase, glutathione-S-transferases and lactate dehydrogenase determinations. Amoxicillin caused premature hatching (48 h-EC50=132.4 mg/l) whereas oxytetracycline cause delayed hatching of embryos (72 h-EC50=127.6 mg/l). Moreover, both antibiotics inhibited catalase and induced glutathione-S-transferases in zebrafish adults. However, only oxytetracycline induced lactate dehydrogenase. Short-term effects of antibiotics were observed at high doses (mg/l) indicating that physiological impairment in fish populations is unlike to occur. However, effects of chronic exposures to low doses of ABs must be investigated.

  19. Analysis of oxytetracycline residue in salmon muscle using a portable analyzer based on Eu III luminescence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxytetracycline (OTC), one of tetracycline (TC) antibiotics, is the most prominent therapeutant in aquaculture worldwide. In this work, OTC residue in salmon muscle is determined by europium-sensitized luminescence (ESL) using an LED-based portable analyzer. OTC is extracted in EDTA-McIlvaine buff...

  20. 76 FR 3488 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline and Flunixin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 522 Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New... veterinary prescription use of a combination drug injectable solution containing oxytetracycline and flunixin...--IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part...

  1. Microbial shifts in the swine distal gut in response to the treatment with antimicrobial growth promoter, tylosin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeun Bum; Borewicz, Klaudyna; White, Bryan A; Singer, Randall S; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Tu, Zheng Jin; Isaacson, Richard E

    2012-09-18

    Antimicrobials have been used extensively as growth promoters (AGPs) in agricultural animal production. However, the specific mechanism of action for AGPs has not yet been determined. The work presented here was to determine and characterize the microbiome of pigs receiving one AGP, tylosin, compared with untreated pigs. We hypothesized that AGPs exerted their growth promoting effect by altering gut microbial population composition. We determined the fecal microbiome of pigs receiving tylosin compared with untreated pigs using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries. The data showed microbial population shifts representing both microbial succession and changes in response to the use of tylosin. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of sequences showed that tylosin caused microbial population shifts in both abundant and less abundant species. Our results established a baseline upon which mechanisms of AGPs in regulation of health and growth of animals can be investigated. Furthermore, the data will aid in the identification of alternative strategies to improve animal health and consequently production.

  2. The effects of the antibiotics ampicillin, florfenicol, sulfamethazine, and tylosin on biogas production and their degradation efficiency during anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Shannon M; Ullman, Jeffrey L; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J; Frear, Craig

    2013-12-01

    The impacts of four common animal husbandry antibiotics (ampicillin, florfenicol, sulfamethazine, and tylosin) on anaerobic digestion (AD) treatment efficiency and the potential for antibiotic degradation during digestion were evaluated. Sulfamethazine and ampicillin exhibited no impact on total biogas production up to 280 and 350 mg/L, respectively, although ampicillin inhibited biogas production rates during early stages of AD. Tylosin reduced biogas production by 10-38% between 130 and 913 mg/L. Florfenicol reduced biogas by ≈ 5%, 40% and 75% at 6.4, 36 and 210 mg/L, respectively. These antibiotic concentrations are higher than commonly seen for mixed feedlot manure, so impacts on full scale AD should be minimal. Antibiotic degradation products were found, confirming AD effectively degraded ampicillin, florfenicol, and tylosin, although some products were persistent throughout the process. Contamination of AD solid and liquid effluents with sulfamethazine and antibiotic transformation products from florfenicol and tylosin could present an environmental concern. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. In vitro and in vivo susceptibility of the honeybee bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae to the antibiotic tylosin.

    PubMed

    Alippi, Adriana M; Albo, Graciela N; Reynaldi, Francisco J; De Giusti, Marisa R

    2005-08-10

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of tylosin were determined to 67 strains of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the causal agent of American Foulbrood (AFB) disease, from different geographical origins. MIC values obtained ranged from 0.0078 to 0.5 microg/ml. These very low values imply that no resistance to tylosin was found in any isolate of the Foulbrood pathogen. The measurement of diseased larvae with AFB-clinical symptoms in three different field studies demonstrated that tylosin treatment could be effective in vivo. No negative effects in colonies were noted at any dosage rates or forms of application. These studies demonstrate that tylosin, as tartrate, can be used to treat AFB in honeybee colonies.

  4. Solid state characterisation of silver sulfadiazine loaded on montmorillonite/chitosan nanocomposite for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Aguzzi, Carola; Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Cristina; Cerezo, Pilar; Rossi, Silvia; Ferrari, Franca; Caramella, Carla; Viseras, César

    2014-01-01

    Biopolymer chitosan/montmorillonite nanocomposites loaded with silver sulfadiazine for wound healing purposes were prepared via intercalation solution technique. Structure and morphology of loaded nanocomposites were studied and compared with pure components and unloaded nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersion X-ray analysis, thermal and elemental analysis were employed for the characterisation. The results confirmed that the drug was effectively loaded in the three-dimensional nanocomposite structures, in which chitosan chains were adsorbed in monolayers into the clay mineral interlayer spaces.

  5. Assessment of oxytetracycline and tetracycline antibiotics in manure samples in different cities of Khuzestan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Nadali; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Naimabadi, Abolfazl; Goudarzi, Gholamreza

    2015-11-01

    Tetracyclines (TCs), a class of antibiotics with a broad spectrum, are the most frequently used antibiotics in animal production. The major concern is that the widespread use of the antibiotics may lead to the emergence of new strains of bacteria that are resistant to these antibiotics. The objective of this study was to determine the residual levels of oxytetracycline and tetracycline in 80 animal manure samples that were collected from the livestock and poultry feedlots in Khuzestan Province. The residual levels of the antibiotics in the samples were extracted by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) method and subsequently were measured by liquid chromatography. Recoveries from the spiked poultry manure samples ranged from 65 to 113% for tetracycline and 86 to 132% for oxytetracycline. Relative standard deviations of the recoveries were less than 5.7% within the same day. Method detection limit (MDL) measured for oxytetracycline and tetracycline in the manure were 0.011 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Analysis of the collected 50 chickens and 30 cow manure samples showed that the highest concentration of tetracycline was related to Behbahan City (5.36 mg/kg) and the lowest concentration was detected for Ramhormoz (0.05 mg/kg). The highest and lowest concentrations of oxytetracycline were respectively observed for Behbahan (13.77 mg/kg) and Ramhormoz (0.047 mg/kg). Based on the results, in chicken manure, there was significant statistical difference between the residual TC concentrations among five cities (p(value) < 0.05). However, no significant relationship was observed between oxytetracyclin (OTC) residual concentrations among five cities (p(value) > 0.05).

  6. A comparison of prophylactic efficacy of tilmicosin and a new formulation of oxytetracycline in feedlot calves

    PubMed Central

    Schunicht, Oliver C.; Guichon, P. Timothy; Booker, Calvin W.; Jim, G. Kee; Wildman, Brian K.; Hill, Bruce W.; Ward, Tracy I.; Bauck, Stewart W.; Jacobsen, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Two replicated-pen field studies were performed under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the administration of long-acting oxytetracycline at 30 mg/kg body weight (BW) versus tilmicosin at 10 mg/kg BW to feedlot calves upon arrival at the feedlot. Ten thousand nine hundred and eighty-nine, recently weaned, auction market derived, crossbred beef steer and bull calves were randomly allocated upon arrival at the feedlot to one of 2 experimental groups as follows: oxytetracycline, which received intramuscular long-acting oxytetracycline (300 mg/mL formulation) at a rate of 30 mg/kg BW; or tilmicosin, which received subcutaneous tilmicosin (300 mg/mL formulation) at a rate of 10 mg/kg BW. There were 20 pens in each experimental group. In Study 1 and in the combined analysis, the initial undifferentiated fever (UF) treatment rate was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the oxytetracycline group as compared with the tilmicosin group. There were no significant (P ≥ 0.05) differences in first UF relapse, second UF relapse, third UF relapse, overall chronicity, overall rail, overall mortality, bovine respiratory disease (BRD) mortality, hemophilosis mortality, arthritis mortality, or miscellaneous mortality rates between the experimental groups in either study or in the combined analysis. In addition, there were no significant (P ≥ 0.05) differences in initial weight, final weight, weight gain, days on feed, daily dry matter intake, average daily gain, or the dry matter intake to gain ratio between the experimental groups in either study or in the combined analyses. In the economic analysis, there was a net economic advantage of $5.22 CDN per animal in the oxytetracycline group, due to a lower prophylactic cost, even though the UF therapeutic cost was higher. PMID:12001501

  7. Preparation and characterisation of in-house reference material of tylosin in honey and results of a proficiency test.

    PubMed

    Bohm, Detlef A; Stachel, Carolin S; Hackenberg, Rudolf; Gowik, Petra

    2011-08-26

    The analysis of incurred material from animals treated with pharmacologically active substances is an efficient way to check the accuracy of a method. Tylosin A was chosen for the preparation of that material because it is highly effective in controlling active infections of American Foulbrood (AFB), a global threat to apiculture, but residues in honey are not allowed according to European legislation. For this reason an in-house reference material of honey containing the macrolide tylosin A and its degradation product desmycosin (tylosin B) was prepared. After the treatment of a beehive with the appropriate macrolide tylosin A, the honey samples were collected. The incurred honey material was diluted by mixing with blank honey. Concentrations of 25.81 μg kg(-1) for tylosin A and of 19.28 μg kg(-1) for its degradation product desmycosin (tylosin B) were reached. The homogeneity was checked by analysing 12 bottles in duplicate. The stability was tested at different defined temperatures and storage conditions. The reference material described above was homogeneous and stable. Samples of this in-house reference material were used for the realisation of a proficiency test with international participation. All participants accomplished satisfying results with the exception of one laboratory. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Production of tylosin in solid-state fermentation by Streptomyces fradiae NRRL-2702 and its gamma-irradiated mutant (gamma-1).

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Shazia; Rashid, Nosheen; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Ghauri, Muhammad Afzal

    2009-11-01

    To develop solid-state fermentation system (SSF) for hyper production of tylosin from a mutant gamma-1 of Streptomyces fradiae NRRL-2702 and its parent strain. Various agro-industrial wastes were screened to study their effect on tylosin production in SSF. Wheat bran as solid substrate gave the highest production of 2500 microg of tylosin g(-1) substrate by mutant gamma-1 against parent strain (300 microg tylosin g(-1) substrate). The tylosin yield was further improved to 4500 microg g(-1) substrate [70% moisture, 10% inoculum (v/w), pH 9.2, 30 degrees C, supplemental lactose and sodium glutamate on day 9]. Wild-type strain displayed less production of tylosin (655 microg of tylosin g(-1) substrate) in SSF even after optimization of process parameters. The study has shown that solid-state fermentation system significantly enhanced the tylosin yield by mutant gamma-1. This study proved to be very useful and resulted in 6.87 +/- 0.30-fold increase in tylosin yield by this mutant when compared to that of wild-type strain.

  9. Validation of two ELISA kits for the screening of tylosin and streptomycin in honey according to the European decision 2002/657/EC.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Valérie; Hedou, Celine; Verdon, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics are mixed with the food of bees to fight against diseases. No maximum residue limits have been set for honey. Recommended concentrations (RCs) have been published by European Union Reference Laboratories for tylosin and streptomycin. The objective of this project was to select and validate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for the screening of tylosin and streptomycin/dihydrostreptomycin residues to be implemented in the French honey control plan. Four ELISA kits for tylosin and five ELISA kits for streptomycin were evaluated. At the end, one kit each was selected and validated for tylosin (TECNA AB620) and streptomycin (Europroxima). Both ELISA kits for tylosin and streptomycin are specific, robust, fast and easy-to-use tests. The detection capability CC β of tylosin A was less than or equal to 10 µg kg(-1) (half the RC). The CC β of desmycosin (the hydrolysed product of tylosin A in acidic conditions) is approximately 200 µg kg(-1), which is five times the RC for tylosin (20 µg kg(-1)). Thus, this kit is fit for the screening of tylosin A but is unsuitable to detect desmycosin. The detection capability CC β of streptomycin was less than or equal to 10 µg kg(-1) (one fourth the RC). The cross-reactivity with dihydrostreptomycin was equal to 136%. Both ELISA kits were applicable to a wide variety of honey (single flower and multiflower, different floral origins, different geographic origins, different consistencies [liquid or solid] and different colours).

  10. Voltammetric sensor based on carbon paste electrode modified with molecular imprinted polymer for determination of sulfadiazine in milk and human serum.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Susan; Motaharian, Ali

    2013-12-01

    A new sensitive voltammetric sensor for determination of sulfadiazine is described. The developed sensor is based on carbon paste electrode modified with sulfadiazine imprinted polymer (MIP) as a recognition element. For comparison, a non-imprinted polymer (NIP) modified carbon paste electrode was prepared. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) methods were performed to study the binding event and electrochemical behavior of sulfadiazine at the modified carbon paste electrodes. The determination of sulfadiazine after its extraction onto the electrode surface was carried out by DPV at 0.92 V vs. Ag/AgCl owing to oxidation of sulfadiazine. Under the optimized operational conditions, the peak current obtained at the MIP modified carbon paste electrode was proportional to the sulfadiazine concentration within the range of 2.0×10(-7)-1.0×10(-4) mol L(-1) with a detection limit and sensitivity of 1.4×10(-7) mol L(-1) and 4.2×10(5) μA L mol(-1), respectively. The reproducibility of the developed sensor in terms of relative standard deviation was 2.6%. The sensor was successfully applied for determination of sulfadiazine in spiked cow milk and human serum samples with recovery values in the range of 96.7-100.9%.

  11. Comparison of topical sucralfate and silver sulfadiazine cream in second degree burns in rats.

    PubMed

    Beheshti, Akram; Shafigh, Younes; Zangivand, Amir-Abdollah; Samiee-Rad, Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Shafigh, Navid

    2013-01-01

    The most prevalent topical treatment for partial thickness burns is silver sulfadiazine 1% (SSD). Recent studies have shown that the healing of partial thickness burns is delayed with the use of SSD. One of the potential burn dressings is sucralfate. With this study the authors have aimed to analyze comparatively the effects of sucralfate and SSD on second degree burn wounds in rats. Forty-eight male rats were divided into three equal groups. A burn model was constituted on the back of all rats. The burned areas in the first, second and third groups were covered daily with sucralfate, SSD and cold cream (control), respectively. At the end of the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day, the rats were anesthetized and the burned skin tissue samples were collected for histopathological examination. At the end of the study, the epidermis and horny layer was completely formed in the SSD and sucralfate group; however the appendix of skin was just formed in the sucralfate group. Also the percentage of wound healing was calculated at 76%, 91% and 100% respectively in the control, silver sulfadiazine and sucralfate groups. Sucralfate is known to have multiple beneficial effects on wound healing. Using topical sucralfate accelerates the burn wound healing process in comparison with both the control and SSD groups and can be used as an adjunctive or alternative agent in the future.

  12. Dynamics of transformation of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine in two soils.

    PubMed

    Sittig, Stephan; Kasteel, Roy; Groeneweg, Joost; Hofmann, Diana; Thiele, Björn; Köppchen, Stephan; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary antibiotics administered to livestock can be unintentionally released into the environment, for example by the application of manure to soils. The fate of such antibiotics in soils is mostly determined by sorption and degradation processes, including transformation. There is a need to further examine the combined transformation and sorption behavior of these emerging pollutants in soils. Long-term batch sorption experiments with the (14)C-radiolabeled antibiotic sulfadiazine enabled us to simultaneously trace the sorption and transformation dynamics of sulfadiazine. The parent compound and the transformation products were analyzed in the liquid phase and in the extracts from the solid phase after a sequential extraction. We found that of up to six transformation products were formed during degradation and that these products exhibited quite different dynamics in the two soils. Transformation products were formed rapidly and were extractable from the solid phase. We observed identical sets of the transformation products in both phases. The input concentration influenced the course of transformation of the parent substance. We present a detailed analysis including a mathematical description and derive regulatory kinetic endpoints for predicting environmental concentrations.

  13. UV photolysis for relieved inhibition of sulfadiazine (SD) to biomass growth.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shihui; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Yongming; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2015-05-01

    UV photolysis was used to relieve inhibition of biomass growth by sulfadiazine (SD), a broad-spectrum anti-microbial. To investigate the effects of SD on biomass growth, three substrates-glucose alone (G), glucose plus sulfadiazine (G+SD), and glucose plus photolyzed SD (G+PSD)-were used to culture the bacteria acclimated to glucose. The biomass was strongly inhibited when SD was added into the glucose solution, but inhibition was relieved to a significant degree when the SD was treated with UV irradiation as a pretreatment. The biomass growth kinetics were described well by the Monod model when glucose was used as a substrate alone, but the kinetics followed a hybrid Aiba model for non-competitive inhibition when SD was added to the solution. When photolyzed SD was added to glucose solution to replace original SD, the growth still followed Aiba inhibition, but inhibition was significantly relieved: the maximum specific growth rate (μ max) increased by 17 %, and the Aiba inhibition concentration increased by 60 %. Aniline, a major product of UV photolysis, supported the growth of the glucose-biodegrading bacteria. Thus, UV photolysis of SD significantly relieved inhibition by lowering the SD concentration and by generating a biodegradable product.

  14. Determination of sulfadiazine based on its derivatization with fluorescamine by self-ordered ring fluorescence microscopic imaging technique.

    PubMed

    Yang, Le; Liu, Ying

    2012-09-01

    A self-ordered ring (SOR) fluorescence microscopic imaging technique has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of sulfadiazine based on its derivatization with fluorescamine. In the presence of HAc-NaAc buffer solution (pH 3.12) and polyvinyl alcohol-124 (PVA-124), the droplet containing fluorescamine derivatized sulfadiazine can form a SOR on the solid support after solvent evaporation with the diameter of 1.86 mm and its ring belt width of 54.9 microm. The quantitative analysis of sulfadiazine is achieved with the linear range of 7.8 x 10(-14)-1.8 x 10(-12) mol x ring(-1) (3.9 x 10(-7)-9.0 x 10(-6) mol x L(-1) and detection limit of 7.8 x 10(-5) mol x ring(-1) (3.9 x 10(-8) mol x L(-1)) when 0.2 microL droplet was spotted. The technique has been satisfactorily applied to the determination of sulfadiazine in the tablet, synthetic sample and residues in six different milk samples with the recoveries of 91.0%-105.8%, respectively, and RSDs less than 4.4%.

  15. Sulfadiazine resistance in Toxoplasma gondii: no involvement of overexpression or polymorphisms in genes of therapeutic targets and ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Doliwa, Christelle; Escotte-Binet, Sandie; Aubert, Dominique; Sauvage, Virginie; Velard, Frédéric; Schmid, Aline; Villena, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Several treatment failures have been reported for the treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis, chorioretinitis, and congenital toxoplasmosis. Recently we found three Toxoplasma gondii strains naturally resistant to sulfadiazine and we developed in vitro two sulfadiazine resistant strains, RH-R(SDZ) and ME-49-R(SDZ), by gradual pressure. In Plasmodium, common mechanisms of drug resistance involve, among others, mutations and/or amplification within genes encoding the therapeutic targets dhps and dhfr and/or the ABC transporter genes family. To identify genotypic and/or phenotypic markers of resistance in T. gondii, we sequenced and analyzed the expression levels of therapeutic targets dhps and dhfr, three ABC genes, two Pgp, TgABC.B1 and TgABC.B2, and one MRP, TgABC.C1, on sensitive strains compared to sulfadiazine resistant strains. Neither polymorphism nor overexpression was identified. Contrary to Plasmodium, in which mutations and/or overexpression within gene targets and ABC transporters are involved in antimalarial resistance, T. gondii sulfadiazine resistance is not related to these toxoplasmic genes studied.

  16. Sulfadiazine resistance in Toxoplasma gondii: no involvement of overexpression or polymorphisms in genes of therapeutic targets and ABC transporters

    PubMed Central

    Doliwa, Christelle; Escotte-Binet, Sandie; Aubert, Dominique; Sauvage, Virginie; Velard, Frédéric; Schmid, Aline; Villena, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Several treatment failures have been reported for the treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis, chorioretinitis, and congenital toxoplasmosis. Recently we found three Toxoplasma gondii strains naturally resistant to sulfadiazine and we developed in vitro two sulfadiazine resistant strains, RH-RSDZ and ME-49-RSDZ, by gradual pressure. In Plasmodium, common mechanisms of drug resistance involve, among others, mutations and/or amplification within genes encoding the therapeutic targets dhps and dhfr and/or the ABC transporter genes family. To identify genotypic and/or phenotypic markers of resistance in T. gondii, we sequenced and analyzed the expression levels of therapeutic targets dhps and dhfr, three ABC genes, two Pgp, TgABC.B1 and TgABC.B2, and one MRP, TgABC.C1, on sensitive strains compared to sulfadiazine resistant strains. Neither polymorphism nor overexpression was identified. Contrary to Plasmodium, in which mutations and/or overexpression within gene targets and ABC transporters are involved in antimalarial resistance, T. gondii sulfadiazine resistance is not related to these toxoplasmic genes studied. PMID:23707894

  17. Randomized clinical study of Hydrofiber dressing with silver or silver sulfadiazine in the management of partial-thickness burns.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Daniel M; Foster, Kevin N; Blome-Eberwein, Sigri A; Twomey, John A; Herndon, David N; Luterman, Arnold; Silverstein, Paul; Antimarino, Jeffrey R; Bauer, Gregory J

    2006-01-01

    This prospective, randomized study compared protocols of care using either AQUACEL Ag Hydrofiber (ConvaTec, a Bristol-Myers Squibb company, Skillman, NJ) dressing with silver (n = 42) or silver sulfadiazine (n = 42) for up to 21 days in the management of partial-thickness burns covering 5% to 40% body surface area (BSA). AQUACEL Ag dressing was associated with less pain and anxiety during dressing changes, less burning and stinging during wear, fewer dressing changes, less nursing time, and fewer procedural medications. Silver sulfadiazine was associated with greater flexibility and ease of movement. Adverse events, including infection, were comparable between treatment groups. The AQUACEL Ag dressing protocol tended to have lower total treatment costs (Dollars 1040 vs. Dollars 1180) and a greater rate of re-epithelialization (73.8% vs 60.0%), resulting in cost-effectiveness per burn healed of Dollars 1,409.06 for AQUACEL Ag dressing and Dollars 1,967.95 for silver sulfadiazine. A protocol of care with AQUACEL(R) Ag provided clinical and economic benefits compared with silver sulfadiazine in patients with partial-thickness burns.

  18. Co-transport of chlordecone and sulfadiazine in the presence of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Batch and saturated soil column experiments were conducted to investigate sorption and mobility of two 14C-labeled contaminants, the hydrophobic chlordecone (CLD) and the readily water-soluble sulfadiazine (SDZ), in the absence or presence of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Th...

  19. Tylosin content in meat and honey samples over a two-year period in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kolanović, Božica S; Bilandžić, Nina; Varenina, Ivana; Božić, Durđica

    2014-01-01

    A total of 646 meat and 96 honey samples were examined over a 2-year period for the presence of tylosin residues. ELISA method used was validated according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC established for qualitative screening methods. The CCβ values were 32.1 µg kg⁻¹ in muscle and 24.4 µg kg⁻¹ in honey. The recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 66.4-118.6%, with a coefficient of variation between 12.6% and 18.6%. All the investigated samples showed no presence of tylosin. Calculated estimated daily intakes show exposure levels lower than the acceptable daily intakes set by World Health Organization.

  20. Persistent lactic acidosis after chronic topical application of silver sulfadiazine in a pediatric burn patient: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Willis, Monte S; Cairns, Bruce A; Purdy, Ashley; Bortsov, Andrey V; Jones, Samuel W; Ortiz-Pujols, Shiara M; Willis, Tina M Schade; Joyner, Benny L

    2013-01-01

    A 3-year old male who sustained 2(nd) and 3(rd) degree burns that covered approximately 60% TBSA presented to a large adult and pediatric verified burn center. On hospital day (HD) 26 of his stay, Candida fungemia was identified by blood culture, delaying operative management until HD 47. On HD 47, after his first operative intervention, the patient developed a persistent metabolic and lactic acidosis. On HD 66, a search for a cause of his osmol gap of 56 mOsm/kg revealed a potential source-propylene glycol. Previous studies have implicated the propylene glycol emulsifier in the silver sulfadiazine that was being applied to his skin as a rare cause of lactic acidosis in severely burned patients. Within 24 hours of stopping the silver sulfadiazine therapy, his lactic acidosis and osmol gap resolved; within 72 hours his metabolic acidosis resolved. Silver sulfadiazine is commonly used adjunct therapy in the treatment of 2(nd) and 3(rd) degree burns and generally has few adverse reactions. The absorption of propylene glycol systemically can rarely occur when applied to extensive burns, presumably due to the disruption of the skin barrier; the half-life of PG is 10 hours and can be prolonged with renal disease because ~50% of the sulfadiazine is excreted in the urine unchanged. When propylene glycol is present systemically, it is metabolized to lactic acid in the liver, which can cause a lactic acidosis. Several commonly used drugs also use propylene glycol as an emulsifier, including IV preparations of lorazepam, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, and phenytoin. In all of these clinical scenarios, including severe burn patients that are being treated with silver sulfadiazine, both lactic acid and propylene glycol levels should be measured to monitor for this rare, potentially serious co-morbidity.

  1. Milk and blood pharmacokinetics of tylosin and tilmicosin following parenteral administrations to cows.

    PubMed

    Avci, Tulay; Elmas, Muammer

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the pharmacokinetics of tylosin and tilmicosin in serum and milk in healthy Holstein breed cows (n = 12) and reevaluate the amount of residue in milk. Following the intramuscular administration of tylosin, the maximum concentrations (C max) in serum and milk were found to be 1.30 ± 0.24 and 4.55 ± 0.23 µg/mL, the time required to reach the peak concentration (t max) was found to be 2nd and 4th h, and elimination half-lives (t 1/2β ) were found to be 20.46 ± 2.08 and 26.36 ± 5.55 h, respectively. Following the subcutaneous administration of tilmicosin, the C max in serum and milk were found to be 0.86 ± 0.20 and 20.16 ± 1.13 µg/mL, the t max was found to be 1st and 8th h, and the t 1/2β were found to be 29.94 ± 6.65 and 43.02 ± 5.18 h, respectively. AUCmilk/AUCserum and C max-milk/C max-serum rates, which are indicators for determining the rate of drugs that pass into milk, were, respectively, calculated as 5.01 ± 0.72 and 3.61 ± 0.69 for tylosin and 23.91 ± 6.38 and 20.16 ± 1.13 for tilmicosin. In conclusion, it may be stated that milk concentration of tylosin after parenteral administration is higher than expected like tilmicosin and needs more withdrawal period for milk than reported.

  2. Milk and Blood Pharmacokinetics of Tylosin and Tilmicosin following Parenteral Administrations to Cows

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Tulay; Elmas, Muammer

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the pharmacokinetics of tylosin and tilmicosin in serum and milk in healthy Holstein breed cows (n = 12) and reevaluate the amount of residue in milk. Following the intramuscular administration of tylosin, the maximum concentrations (C max) in serum and milk were found to be 1.30 ± 0.24 and 4.55 ± 0.23 µg/mL, the time required to reach the peak concentration (t max) was found to be 2nd and 4th h, and elimination half-lives (t 1/2β) were found to be 20.46 ± 2.08 and 26.36 ± 5.55 h, respectively. Following the subcutaneous administration of tilmicosin, the C max in serum and milk were found to be 0.86 ± 0.20 and 20.16 ± 1.13 µg/mL, the t max was found to be 1st and 8th h, and the t 1/2β were found to be 29.94 ± 6.65 and 43.02 ± 5.18 h, respectively. AUCmilk/AUCserum and C max-milk/C max-serum rates, which are indicators for determining the rate of drugs that pass into milk, were, respectively, calculated as 5.01 ± 0.72 and 3.61 ± 0.69 for tylosin and 23.91 ± 6.38 and 20.16 ± 1.13 for tilmicosin. In conclusion, it may be stated that milk concentration of tylosin after parenteral administration is higher than expected like tilmicosin and needs more withdrawal period for milk than reported. PMID:25177733

  3. Development of macrolide-resistant Campylobacter in broilers administered subtherapeutic or therapeutic concentrations of tylosin.

    PubMed

    Ladely, Scott R; Harrison, Mark A; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Berrang, Mark E; Englen, Mark D; Meinersmann, Richard J

    2007-08-01

    The use of antimicrobials in food animal production, particularly those commonly used to treat infections in humans, has become a source of debate in recent years. However, limited data are available regarding the development of resistance following the subtherapeutic or therapeutic administration of antimicrobials in animal production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the administration of therapeutic and subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin on the erythromycin susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from the ceca of treated broilers. In three replicated studies, day-of-hatch chicks were exposed to macrolide-susceptible C. jejuni or C. coli. At 2 weeks of age, tylosin was administered at subtherapeutic (22 ppm, continuously in the diet) or therapeutic concentrations (529 ppm, in the drinking water for 5 days). Broilers were sacrificed weekly. Total and erythromycin-resistant Campylobacter spp. were enumerated from individual ceca plus cecal contents. Overall erythromycin resistance was observed at a higher frequency (P < 0.01) among C. coli isolates (70.8%) than among C. jejuni isolates (36.8%) following tylosin administration. Across Campylobacter species, erythromycin resistance was observed at a higher frequency (P < 0.001) when tylosin was administered at subtherapeutic (62.7%) than at therapeutic (11.4%) concentrations. Subtherapeutic administration resulted in the recovery of 83.3 and 56.1% erythromycin-resistant isolates compared with only 33.3 and 7.9% of the isolates expressing erythromycin resistance following the administration of therapeutic concentrations for C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. Further studies are needed to determine the factors involved in the apparent difference in the acquisition of macrolide resistance in C. coli compared with C. jejuni.

  4. Microbiological screening test validation for detection of tylosin excretion in milk of cows with low and high somatic cell counts.

    PubMed

    Litterio, N J; Calvinho, L F; Flores, M M; Tarabla, H D; Boggio, J C

    2007-02-01

    Antibiotic residues in milk above tolerance levels interfere with dairy product processing and pose potential health risks to consumers. Residue avoidance programmes include, among other components, the observance of withdrawal times indicated in label instructions. Persistence of antibiotics in milk following treatment is influenced by drug, dosage, route of administration, body weight and mammary gland health status. Compositional changes that take place during intramammary infection (IMI) can affect antibiotic excretion in milk, thus modifying milk withdrawal time. The objectives of this study were to validate sensitivity and specificity of a qualitative microbiological method (Charm AIM-96) to detect tylosin in bovine composite milk and to determine the influence of subclinical IMI in tylosin excretion following intramuscular administration. For test validation, two groups of approximately 120 cows were used; one received a single intramuscular injection of tylosin tartrate at a dose of 20 mg/kg, while the other group remained as untreated control. Test sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 94.1% respectively. To determine the influence of subclinical IMI in tylosin excretion, two groups of seven cows, one with somatic cell counts (SCC) < or =250 000 cells/ml and the other with SCC > or =900 000, were administered a single intramuscular injection of tylosin tartrate at a dose of 20 mg/kg. Milk samples were obtained every 12 h for 10 days following treatment. Milk tylosin excretion averaged between 5 and 9 days for cows with low and high SCC respectively (P < 0.0001). Compositional changes in cows with high SCC most likely affect the pharmacokinetic characteristics of tylosin, extending the presence of the antibiotic in milk, thus influencing milk withdrawal times.

  5. Degradation of sulfadiazine by Microbacterium lacus strain SDZm4, isolated from lysimeters previously manured with slurry from sulfadiazine-medicated pigs.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Wolfgang; Herbst, Michael; Hofmann, Diana; Koeppchen, Stephan; Kummer, Sirgit; Thiele, Björn; Groeneweg, Joost

    2013-04-01

    Sulfadiazine (SDZ)-degrading bacterial cultures were enriched from the topsoil layer of lysimeters that were formerly treated with manure from pigs medicated with (14)C-labeled SDZ. The loss of about 35% of the applied radioactivity after an incubation period of 3 years was attributed to CO2 release due to mineralization processes in the lysimeters. Microcosm experiments with moist soil and soil slurries originating from these lysimeters confirmed the presumed mineralization potential, and an SDZ-degrading bacterium was isolated. It was identified as Microbacterium lacus, denoted strain SDZm4. During degradation studies with M. lacus strain SDZm4 using pyrimidine-ring labeled SDZ, SDZ disappeared completely but no (14)CO2 was released during 10 days of incubation. The entire applied radioactivity (AR) remained in solution and could be assigned to 2-aminopyrimidine. In contrast, for parallel incubations but with phenyl ring-labeled SDZ, 56% of the AR was released as (14)CO2, 16% was linked to biomass, and 21% remained as dissolved, not yet identified (14)C. Thus, it was shown that M. lacus extensively mineralized and partly assimilated the phenyl moiety of the SDZ molecule while forming equimolar amounts of 2-aminopyrimidine. This partial degradation might be an important step in the complete mineralization of SDZ by soil microorganisms.

  6. Degradation of Sulfadiazine by Microbacterium lacus Strain SDZm4, Isolated from Lysimeters Previously Manured with Slurry from Sulfadiazine-Medicated Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Michael; Hofmann, Diana; Koeppchen, Stephan; Kummer, Sirgit; Thiele, Björn; Groeneweg, Joost

    2013-01-01

    Sulfadiazine (SDZ)-degrading bacterial cultures were enriched from the topsoil layer of lysimeters that were formerly treated with manure from pigs medicated with 14C-labeled SDZ. The loss of about 35% of the applied radioactivity after an incubation period of 3 years was attributed to CO2 release due to mineralization processes in the lysimeters. Microcosm experiments with moist soil and soil slurries originating from these lysimeters confirmed the presumed mineralization potential, and an SDZ-degrading bacterium was isolated. It was identified as Microbacterium lacus, denoted strain SDZm4. During degradation studies with M. lacus strain SDZm4 using pyrimidine-ring labeled SDZ, SDZ disappeared completely but no 14CO2 was released during 10 days of incubation. The entire applied radioactivity (AR) remained in solution and could be assigned to 2-aminopyrimidine. In contrast, for parallel incubations but with phenyl ring-labeled SDZ, 56% of the AR was released as 14CO2, 16% was linked to biomass, and 21% remained as dissolved, not yet identified 14C. Thus, it was shown that M. lacus extensively mineralized and partly assimilated the phenyl moiety of the SDZ molecule while forming equimolar amounts of 2-aminopyrimidine. This partial degradation might be an important step in the complete mineralization of SDZ by soil microorganisms. PMID:23396336

  7. The effect of polymorphism on powder compaction and dissolution properties of chemically equivalent oxytetracycline hydrochloride powders.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, W; de Villiers, M M; Wurster, D E; Swanepoel, E; Dekker, T G; Lötter, A P

    1999-09-01

    In South Africa, oxytetracycline is identified as an essential drug; many generic products are on the market, and many more are being developed. In this study, six oxytetracycline hydrochloride powders were obtained randomly from manufacturers, and suppliers were compared. It was found that compliance to a pharmacopoeial monograph was insufficient to ensure the optimum dissolution performance of a simple tablet formulation. Comparative physicochemical raw material analysis showed no major differences with regard to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, powder dissolution, and particle size. However, the samples could be divided into two distinct types with respect to X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and thus polymorphism. The two polymorphic forms had different dissolution properties in water or 0.1 N hydrochloride acid. This difference became substantial when the dissolution from tablets was compared. The powders containing form A were less soluble than that containing form B.

  8. Efficacy of two low-dose oral tylosin regimens in controlling the relapse of diarrhea in dogs with tylosin-responsive diarrhea: a prospective, single-blinded, two-arm parallel, clinical field trial.

    PubMed

    Kilpinen, Susanne; Spillmann, Thomas; Westermarck, Elias

    2014-08-06

    Despite its wide acceptance as a treatment for canine chronic enteropathies, the macrolide antibiotic tylosin lacks official oral dosage recommendations. Not even textbooks share consensus about the dose; daily recommendations vary from 25 to 80 mg/kg and dosing intervals from one to three times daily. All eight dogs responded to the 5 mg/kg dose, and six of seven dogs responded to the 15 mg/kg dose. The mean fecal consistency scores at the 25 mg/kg tylosin dosage were no significantly different from scores at the 5 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg tylosin dosages (P=0.672, P=0.345). Interestingly, 14/15 (93%) of the dogs responding to a dose of 25 mg/kg tylosin once daily for seven days also responded to the lower dosages at diarrhea relapse. The data indicate that a suitable dose of tylosin for treating diarrhea relapse in canine TRD could be as low as 5 mg/kg once daily for seven days.

  9. Kinetics of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline adsorption and desorption on two acid soils.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Bermúdez-Couso, Alipio; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Fernández-Sanjurjo, Maria J; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to quantify retention/release of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline on two soils, paying attention to sorption kinetics and to implications of the adsorption/desorption processes on transfer of these pollutants to the various environmental compartments. We used the stirred flow chamber (SFC) procedure to achieve this goal. All three antibiotics showed high affinity for both soils, with greater adsorption intensity for soil 1, the one with the highest organic matter and Al and Fe oxides contents. Desorption was always <15%, exhibiting strong hysteresis in the adsorption/desorption processes. Adsorption was adequately modeled using a pseudo first-order equation with just one type of adsorption sites, whereas desorption was better adjusted considering both fast and slow sorption sites. The adsorption maximum (qmax) followed the sequence tetracycline > oxytetracycline > chlortetracycline in soil 1, with similar values for the three antibiotics and the sequence tetracycline > chlortetracycline > oxytetracycline in soil 2. The desorption sequences were oxytetracycline > tetracycline > chlortetracycline in soil 1 and oxytetracycline > chlortetracycline > tetracycline in soil 2. In conclusion, the SFC technique has yielded new kinetic data regarding tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline adsorption/desorption on soils, indicating that it can be used to shed further light on the retention and transport processes affecting antibiotics on soils and other media, thus increasing knowledge on the behavior and evolution of these pharmaceutical residues in the environment.

  10. Development of silver sulfadiazine loaded bacterial cellulose/sodium alginate composite films with enhanced antibacterial property.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wei; Liu, Hui; Liu, Xiufeng; Wang, Shuxia; Wu, Jimin; Zhang, Rui; Min, Huihua; Huang, Min

    2015-11-05

    Sodium alginate (SA) and bacterial cellulose (BC) are widely used in many applications such as scaffolds and wound dressings due to its biocompatibility. Silver sulfadiazine (AgSD) is a topical antibacterial agents used as a topical cream on burns. In the study, novel BC/SA-AgSD composites were prepared and characterized by SEM, FTIR and TG analyses. These results indicate AgSD successfully impregnated into BC/SA matrix. The swelling behaviors in different pH were studied and the results showed pH-responsive swelling behaviors. The antibacterial performances of BC/SA-AgSD composites were evaluated with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of BC/SA-AgSD composites was performed on HEK 293 cells. The experimental results showed BC/SA-AgSD composites have excellent antibacterial activities and good biocompatibility, thus confirming its utility as potential wound dressings.

  11. Supramolecular aggregates formed by sulfadiazine and sulfisomidine inclusion complexes with α- and β-cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Rajendiran, N; Venkatesh, G; Saravanan, J

    2014-08-14

    Sulfadiazine (SDA) and sulfisomidine (SFM) inclusion complexes with two cyclodextrins (α-CD and β-CD) are studied in aqueous as well as in solid state. The inclusion complexes are characterized by UV-visible, fluorescence, time correlated single photon counting, FTIR, DSC, PXRD and (1)H NMR techniques. The self assembled SDA/CD and SFM/CD inclusion complexes form different types of nano and microstructures. The self assembled nanoparticle morphologies are studied using SEM and TEM techniques. SDA/α-CD complex is formed hierarchal morphology, SDA/β-CD and SFM/β-CD complexes form the nanosheet self assembly. However, SFM/α-CD complex forms nanoporous sheet self assembly. van der Waals, hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interaction play a vital role in the self assembling process.

  12. Burn-wound healing effect of gelatin/polyurethane nanofiber scaffold containing silver-sulfadiazine.

    PubMed

    Heo, Dong Nyoung; Yang, Dae Hyeok; Lee, Jung Bok; Bae, Min Soo; Kim, Jung Ho; Moon, Seong Hwan; Chun, Heoung Jae; Kim, Chun Ho; Lim, Ho-Nam; Kwon, Il Keun

    2013-03-01

    Despite the fact that advances of burn treatment have led to reduction in the morbidity caused by burns, burn infection is still a serious problem. In this study, we designed blended synthetic and natural polymers nanofiber scaffolds using polyurethane (PU) and gelatin, which were prepared by an electrospinning method. Silver-sulfadiazine (SSD) was co-mixed to the blended polymer solution for being incorporated into the nanofibers after the electrospinning, followed by examination of burn-wound healing effect. The nanofiber scaffolds containing SSD should not only serve as a substrate for skin regeneration, but may also deliver suitable drugs, within a controlled manner during healing. The SSD release was able to prevent the growth of a wide array of bacteria and accelerate the wound healing by preventing infection. Therefore it could accelerate the burn-wound closure rate. We confirmed that PU/gelatin nanofiber scaffolds containing SSD lead to enhanced regeneration of burn-wounds.

  13. Topical petrolatum gel alone versus topical silver sulfadiazine with standard gauze dressings for the treatment of superficial partial thickness burns in adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Genuino, Glenn Angelo S; Baluyut-Angeles, Kathrina Victoria; Espiritu, Andre Paolo T; Lapitan, Marie Carmela M; Buckley, Brian S

    2014-11-01

    Non-extensive superficial partial thickness burns constitute a major proportion of burns. Conventional treatment involves regular changing of absorptive dressings including the application of a topical antimicrobial, commonly silver sulfadiazine. A systematic review has found insufficient evidence to support or refute such antimicrobial prophylaxis. Another review compared silver sulfadiazine dressings with other occlusive and non-antimicrobial dressings and found insufficient evidence to guide practice. Other research has suggested that dressings with petrolatum gel are as effective as silver sulfadiazine. Single-center, randomized, controlled parallel group trial comparing conventional silver sulfadiazine dressings with treatment with petrolatum gel alone. Consenting adults 18-45 years old with superficial partial thickness burns≤10% total body surface area seen within 24h of the injury were randomized to daily dressing either with petrolatum gel without top dressings or conventional silver sulfadiazine treatment with gauze dressings. Primary outcomes were blinded assessment of time to complete re-epithelialization, wound infection or allergic contact dermatitis. Secondary outcomes included assessment of ease, time and pain of dressing changes. 26 patients were randomized to petrolatum and 24 to silver sulfadiazine dressings. Follow up data available for 19 in each group. Mean time to re-epithelialization was 6.2 days (SD 2.8) in the petrolatum group and 7.8 days (SD 2.1) in the silver sulfadiazine group (p=0.050). No wound infection or dermatitis was observed in either group. Scores for adherence to wound, ease of dressing removal and time required to change dressings were significantly better in the petrolatum treatment arm (p<0.01). Petrolatum gel without top dressings may be at least as effective as silver sulfadiazine gauze dressings with regard to time to re-epithelialization, and incidence of infection and allergic contact dermatitis. Petrolatum gel

  14. Impact of subtherapeutic administration of tylosin and chlortetracycline on antimicrobial resistance in farrow-to-finish swine.

    PubMed

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2013-07-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents in swine production at subtherapeutic concentrations for the purpose of growth promotion remains controversial due to the potential impact on public health. Beginning at weaning (3 weeks), pigs received either nonmedicated feed or feed supplemented with subtherapeutic levels of either tylosin (11-44 ppm) or chlortetracycline (5.5 ppm). After only 3 weeks, pigs given feed supplemented with tylosin had significantly higher levels of tylosin-resistant anaerobes (P < 0.0001) compared with the control group, increasing from 11.8% to 89.6%, a level which was stable for the duration of the study, even after a 2-week withdrawal prior to slaughter. Tylosin-fed pigs had a higher incidence of detection for erm(A), erm(F), and erm(G), as well as significantly (P < 0.001) higher concentrations of erm(B) in their feces. The continuous administration of chlortetracycline-supplemented feed, however, had no significant effect on the population of chlortetracycline-resistant anaerobes in comparison with nontreated pigs (P > 0.05). The resistance genes tet(O), tet(Q), and erm(B) were detected in all pigs at each sampling time, while tet(G), tet(L), and tet(M) were also frequently detected. Neither chlortetracycline nor tylosin increased the growth rate of pigs. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Vancomycin, Tylosin, and Chlortetracycline on Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Colonization of Broiler Chickens During Grow-Out.

    PubMed

    Hume, Michael E; Donskey, Curtis J

    2017-01-27

    Broiler chickens may serve as reservoirs for human colonization by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). We examined the effects of vancomycin and two commonly used antimicrobial feed additives on VRE colonization in broiler chickens during grow-out. Chicks received unsupplemented feed or feed containing vancomycin, chlortetracycline, or tylosin from day of hatch to grow-out at 6 weeks. At 3 days of age, chicks received by crop gavage 10(7) colony-forming units (CFUs) of a human or poultry VRE isolate. Cecal contents were monitored weekly for VRE, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and bacterial denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile methods. Vancomycin promoted persistent and high-level colonization with human- and poultry-derived VRE to grow-out in comparison with controls, while treatment with chlortetracycline and tylosin did not. Colonization by the poultry isolate in control, chlortetracycline, and tylosin groups persisted throughout the grow-out period with low concentrations present at 6 weeks, whereas the human isolate decreased to an undetectable level by week 6. Vancomycin resulted in significant reductions in cecal acetic acid and butyric acid in comparison with controls, but chlortetracycline and tylosin did not. DGGE profiles contained two main clusters with all vancomycin profiles in a smaller cluster and all other profiles in a larger cluster. These results demonstrate that vancomycin, but not chlortetracycline or tylosin, disrupted the indigenous microbiota and SCFA patterns of broiler chickens and promoted colonization by VRE.

  16. Development of a quantum dot-based immunochromatography test strip for rapid screening of oxytetracycline and 4-epi-oxytetracycline in edible animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yong; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Xian; Le, Tao

    2017-03-01

    A rapid and sensitive immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS) was developed in a competitive format with the quantum dot-conjugated monoclonal antibody specifically to determine the residues of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its metabolite 4-epi-oxytetracycline (4-epi-OTC). Using an ICTS reader, the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was found to be 3.41 ± 0.29 ng ml(-)(1) of OTC in phosphate-buffered saline samples and the detection limit was 0.44 ± 0.05 ng ml(-)(1). The visual cut-off level of the ICTS is 25 ng ml(-)(1). The recoveries from tissue samples spiked with OTC of 50-600 μg kg(-)(1) were 74.2-107.2%, with coefficients of variation below 15%. The method was used to analyse incurred tissue samples, and there was good correlation (R(2) = 0.999) between the ICTS and high-performance liquid chromatography. These results indicate that ICTS is suitable for the rapid and quantitative detection of OTC and 4-epi-OTC residues in edible animal tissues.

  17. Determination of Oxytetracycline and 4-Epi-Oxytetracycline Residues in Feathers and Edible Tissues of Broiler Chickens Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Javiera; Pokrant, Ekaterina; Krogh, Magdalena; Briceño, Cristóbal; Hidalgo, Héctor; Maddaleno, Aldo; Araya-Jordán, Carolina; Martín, Betty San

    2017-04-01

    Antibiotics have been widely used in poultry production for the treatment of bacterial diseases. However, drug residues can remain in products derived from animals after the cessation of the drug therapies. Feathers, in particular, have shown an affinity for antibiotics such as tetracycline, suggesting the persistence of these drugs in nonedible tissue. After the birds are slaughtered, feathers are ground into feather meals, which are used as organic fertilizer or an ingredient in animal diets, thereby entering into the food chain and becoming a potential risk for public health. To evaluate the depletion of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its metabolite 4-epi-oxytetracycline (4-epi-OTC) in the muscles, liver, and feathers, 64 broiler chickens, bred under controlled conditions, were treated orally with a commercial formulation of 10% OTC for 7 days. The analytes were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OTC and 4-epi-OTC were found in the feathers for 46 days, whereas they were found in the muscle and liver for only 12 and 6 days, respectively. These results prove that the analytes remain in feathers in higher concentrations than they do in edible tissues after treatment with tetracyclines. Thus, feather meals represent a potential source of antimicrobial residue contamination in the food chain.

  18. Sulfadiazine-selective determination in aquaculture environment: selective potentiometric transduction by neutral or charged ionophores.

    PubMed

    Almeida, S A A; Heitor, A M; Montenegro, M C B S M; Sales, M G F

    2011-09-15

    Solid-contact sensors for the selective screening of sulfadiazine (SDZ) in aquaculture waters are reported. Sensor surfaces were made from PVC membranes doped with tetraphenylporphyrin-manganese(III) chloride, α-cyclodextrin, β-cyclodextrin, or γ-cyclodextrin ionophores that were dispersed in plasticizer. Some membranes also presented a positive or a negatively charged additive. Phorphyrin-based sensors relied on a charged carrier mechanism. They exhibited a near-Nernstian response with slopes of 52 mV decade(-1) and detection limits of 3.91×10(-5) mol L(-1). The addition of cationic lipophilic compounds to the membrane originated Nernstian behaviours, with slopes ranging 59.7-62.0 mV decade(-1) and wider linear ranges. Cyclodextrin-based sensors acted as neutral carriers. In general, sensors with positively charged additives showed an improved potentiometric performance when compared to those without additive. Some SDZ selective membranes displayed higher slopes and extended linear concentration ranges with an increasing amount of additive (always <100% ionophore). The sensors were independent from the pH of test solutions within 2-7. The sensors displayed fast response, always <15s. In general, a good discriminating ability was found in real sample environment. The sensors were successfully applied to the fast screening of SDZ in real waters samples from aquaculture fish farms. The method offered the advantages of simplicity, accuracy, and automation feasibility. The sensing membrane may contribute to the development of small devices allowing in locus measurements of sulfadiazine or parent-drugs.

  19. Degradation of Oxytetracycline, Streptomycin, Sulphathiazole and Chloramphenicol Residues in Different Types of Honey.

    PubMed

    Gačić, Milica; Bilandžić, Nina; Šipušić, Đurđica Ivanec; Petrović, Marinko; Kos, Blaženka; Vahčić, Nada; Šušković, Jagoda

    2015-06-01

    Some of the most frequently used antibiotics in apiculture for the treatment of bacterial brood diseases are oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulphathiazole and streptomycin. Therefore, the aim of this research is to determine the degradation kinetics of the residua these antibiotics leave behind in different types of honey stored in dark at 25 °C. The examined honey samples (N=74) originating from the Croatian market had satisfactory physicochemical properties and pollen characteristics. Quantitative analyses of antibiotic residues were done using HPLC and ELISA methods. No antibiotic residues were found in any of the tested acacia, chestnut, floral, meadow and honeydew honey samples (N=74). In the next step, each of the tested honey samples was supplemented with one of the following antibiotics (in mg/kg): oxytetracycline 10, chloramphenicol 200, sulphathiazole 200 or streptomycin 0.5. Relatively high mass fractions of antibiotics have been added to the honey because the stability of each antibiotic is highly dependent on the spiked antibiotic mass fraction and also on its chemical structure. During a 6-month storage in the dark at 25 °C, the dynamics of degradation of the studied antibiotics was proven to differ dependent on the type of honey into which the antibiotic was added. The half-life of oxytetracycline in the acacia, floral, meadow and honeydew honey stored in the dark at 25 °C was 15, 16, 17 and 19 days, respectively, while in the chestnut honey the decomposition failed to be seen even after 60 days of storage. In all examined honey samples, the half-life of chloramphenicol and sulphathiazole was proven to be longer than 6 months. The fastest decomposition was seen of oxytetracycline added into the acacia honey, followed by streptomycin and sulphathiazole added into the same, while the longest decomposition delay was seen when chloramphenicol was added into the floral honey. According to the results obtained using a linear model of degradation

  20. Degradation of Oxytetracycline, Streptomycin, Sulphathiazole and Chloramphenicol Residues in Different Types of Honey

    PubMed Central

    Gačić, Milica; Bilandžić, Nina; Šipušić, Đurđica Ivanec; Petrović, Marinko; Vahčić, Nada; Šušković, Jagoda

    2015-01-01

    Summary Some of the most frequently used antibiotics in apiculture for the treatment of bacterial brood diseases are oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulphathiazole and streptomycin. Therefore, the aim of this research is to determine the degradation kinetics of the residua these antibiotics leave behind in different types of honey stored in dark at 25 °C. The examined honey samples (N=74) originating from the Croatian market had satisfactory physicochemical properties and pollen characteristics. Quantitative analyses of antibiotic residues were done using HPLC and ELISA methods. No antibiotic residues were found in any of the tested acacia, chestnut, floral, meadow and honeydew honey samples (N=74). In the next step, each of the tested honey samples was supplemented with one of the following antibiotics (in mg/kg): oxytetracycline 10, chloramphenicol 200, sulphathiazole 200 or streptomycin 0.5. Relatively high mass fractions of antibiotics have been added to the honey because the stability of each antibiotic is highly dependent on the spiked antibiotic mass fraction and also on its chemical structure. During a 6-month storage in the dark at 25 °C, the dynamics of degradation of the studied antibiotics was proven to differ dependent on the type of honey into which the antibiotic was added. The half-life of oxytetracycline in the acacia, floral, meadow and honeydew honey stored in the dark at 25 °C was 15, 16, 17 and 19 days, respectively, while in the chestnut honey the decomposition failed to be seen even after 60 days of storage. In all examined honey samples, the half-life of chloramphenicol and sulphathiazole was proven to be longer than 6 months. The fastest decomposition was seen of oxytetracycline added into the acacia honey, followed by streptomycin and sulphathiazole added into the same, while the longest decomposition delay was seen when chloramphenicol was added into the floral honey. According to the results obtained using a linear model of

  1. Comparison of topical application of oxytetracycline and four nonantibiotic solutions for treatment of papillomatous digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, J; Shearer, J K; Elliott, J B

    1999-03-01

    To compare efficacy of topical treatment with oxytetracycline solution or 1 of 4 nonantibiotic solutions among dairy cows with papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD). Randomized field trial. 66 cows in a single herd. Cows were randomly assigned to be treated with oxytetracycline solution; a commercial formulation of soluble copper, peroxide compound, and a cationic agent; 5% copper sulfate solution; acidified ionized copper solution; hydrogen peroxide-peroxyacetic acid solution; or tap water. Cows were examined 14 and 30 days after initial treatment. During each examination, pain and lesion scores were recorded. On the basis of pain and lesion scores, oxytetracycline and the commercial formulation appeared equally effective for treatment of PDD and significantly more effective than 5% copper sulfate solution, acidified ionized copper solution, hydrogen peroxide-peroxyacetic acid solution, and tap water. Proportions of cows with signs of pain or visible lesions after treatment were significantly lower for cows treated with oxytetracycline or the commercial formulation than for cows in the other groups. Oxytetracycline and a commercial formulation of soluble copper, peroxide compound, and a cationic agent appeared to be effective for treatment of PDD in dairy cows.

  2. Residues of sulfadiazine and doxycycline in broiler liver and muscle tissue due to cross-contamination of feed.

    PubMed

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Huyghebaert, G; Delahaut, P; Daeseleire, E; Croubels, S

    2012-01-01

    Veterinary drugs, such as antimicrobial compounds, are widely used in poultry and may lead to the presence of residues in matrices of animal origin, such as muscle and liver tissue. In this study, broilers received an experimental feed containing sulfadiazine or doxycycline at cross-contamination levels of 2.5, 5 and 10% of the therapeutic dose in feed. Breast and thigh muscle and liver samples were collected during treatment and depletion period and analysed via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Concentrations reached a plateau phase 3-5 days after the start of experimental feeding. A rapid depletion of residues was noted after withdrawal of the experimental feed. No significant differences in measured concentrations were observed between the various muscle types. Residue concentrations for some experimental groups; the 10% group of sulfadiazine and the 5 and 10% group of doxycycline, however, exceeded their corresponding maximum residue limits (MRLs).

  3. The effects of honey compared to silver sulfadiazine for the treatment of burns: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Zoriah; Abdul Rasool Hassan, Bassam

    2017-02-01

    Evidence from animal studies and trials suggests that honey may accelerate wound healing. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of honey compared with silver dressings on the healing of burn wounds. Relevant databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of honey compared with silver sulfadiazine (SSD) were searched. The quality of the selected trials was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. The primary endpoints considered were wound healing time and the number of infected wounds rendered sterile. Nine RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Based on moderate quality evidence there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups, favoring honey in healing time (MD -5.76days, 95% CI -8.14 to -3.39) and the proportions of infected wounds rendered sterile (RR 2.59; 95% CI 1.58-2.88). The available evidence suggests that honey dressings promote better wound healing than silver sulfadiazine for burns.

  4. Effect of in-feed administration and withdrawal of tylosin phosphate on antibiotic resistance in enterococci isolated from feedlot steers

    PubMed Central

    Beukers, Alicia G.; Zaheer, Rahat; Cook, Shaun R.; Stanford, Kim; Chaves, Alexandre V.; Ward, Michael P.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2015-01-01

    Tylosin phosphate is a macrolide commonly administered to cattle in North America for the control of liver abscesses. This study investigated the effect of in-feed administration of tylosin phosphate to cattle at subtherapeutic levels and its subsequent withdrawal on macrolide resistance using enterococci as an indicator bacterium. Fecal samples were collected from steers that received no antibiotics and steers administered tylosin phosphate (11 ppm) in-feed for 197 days and withdrawn 28 days before slaughter. Enterococcus species isolated from fecal samples were identified through sequencing the groES-EL intergenic spacer region and subject to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, identification of resistance determinants and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiling. Tylosin increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of eryR and tylR enterococci within the population. Just prior to its removal, the proportion of eryR and tylR resistant enterococci began decreasing and continued to decrease after tylosin was withdrawn from the diet until there was no difference (P > 0.05) between treatments on d 225. This suggests that antibiotic withdrawal prior to slaughter contributes to a reduction in the proportion of macrolide resistant enterococci entering the food chain. Among the 504 enterococci isolates characterized, Enterococcus hirae was found to predominate (n = 431), followed by Enterococcus villorum (n = 32), Enterococcus faecium (n = 21), Enterococcus durans (n = 7), Enterococcus casseliflavus (n = 4), Enterococcus mundtii (n = 4), Enterococcus gallinarum (n = 3), Enterococcus faecalis (n = 1), and Enterococcus thailandicus (n = 1). The diversity of enterococci was greater in steers at arrival than at exit from the feedlot. Erythromycin resistant isolates harbored the erm(B) and/or msrC gene. Similar PFGE profiles of eryR E. hirae pre- and post-antibiotic treatment suggest that increased abundance of eryR enterococci after administration of tylosin phosphate reflects

  5. Effect of in-feed administration and withdrawal of tylosin phosphate on antibiotic resistance in enterococci isolated from feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Beukers, Alicia G; Zaheer, Rahat; Cook, Shaun R; Stanford, Kim; Chaves, Alexandre V; Ward, Michael P; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-01-01

    Tylosin phosphate is a macrolide commonly administered to cattle in North America for the control of liver abscesses. This study investigated the effect of in-feed administration of tylosin phosphate to cattle at subtherapeutic levels and its subsequent withdrawal on macrolide resistance using enterococci as an indicator bacterium. Fecal samples were collected from steers that received no antibiotics and steers administered tylosin phosphate (11 ppm) in-feed for 197 days and withdrawn 28 days before slaughter. Enterococcus species isolated from fecal samples were identified through sequencing the groES-EL intergenic spacer region and subject to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, identification of resistance determinants and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiling. Tylosin increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of ery(R) and tyl(R) enterococci within the population. Just prior to its removal, the proportion of ery(R) and tyl(R) resistant enterococci began decreasing and continued to decrease after tylosin was withdrawn from the diet until there was no difference (P > 0.05) between treatments on d 225. This suggests that antibiotic withdrawal prior to slaughter contributes to a reduction in the proportion of macrolide resistant enterococci entering the food chain. Among the 504 enterococci isolates characterized, Enterococcus hirae was found to predominate (n = 431), followed by Enterococcus villorum (n = 32), Enterococcus faecium (n = 21), Enterococcus durans (n = 7), Enterococcus casseliflavus (n = 4), Enterococcus mundtii (n = 4), Enterococcus gallinarum (n = 3), Enterococcus faecalis (n = 1), and Enterococcus thailandicus (n = 1). The diversity of enterococci was greater in steers at arrival than at exit from the feedlot. Erythromycin resistant isolates harbored the erm(B) and/or msrC gene. Similar PFGE profiles of ery(R) E. hirae pre- and post-antibiotic treatment suggest that increased abundance of ery(R) enterococci after administration of tylosin phosphate

  6. Land application of tylosin and chlortetracycline swine manure: Impacts to soil nutrients and soil microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Stone, James J; Dreis, Erin K; Lupo, Christopher D; Clay, Sharon A

    2011-01-01

    The land application of aged chortetracycle (CTC) and tylosin-containing swine manure was investigated to determine associated impacts to soil microbial respiration, nutrient (phosphorus, ammonium, nitrate) cycling, and soil microbial community structure under laboratory conditions. Two silty clay loam soils common to southeastern South Dakota were used. Aerobic soil respiration results using batch reactors containing a soil-manure mixture showed that interactions between soil, native soil microbial populations, and antimicrobials influenced CO(2) generation. The aged tylosin treatment resulted in the greatest degree of CO(2) inhibition, while the aged CTC treatment was similar to the no-antimicrobial treatment. For soil columns in which manure was applied at a one-time agronomic loading rate, there was no significant difference in soil-P behavior between either aged CTC or tylosin and the no-antimicrobial treatment. For soil-nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate), the aged CTC treatment resulted in rapid ammonium accumulation at the deeper 40cm soil column depth, while nitrate production was minimal. The aged CTC treatment microbial community structure was different than the no-antimicrobial treatment, where amines/amide and carbohydrate chemical guilds utilization profile were low. The aged tylosin treatment also resulted in ammonium accumulation at 40 cm column depth, however nitrate accumulation also occurred concurrently at 10 cm. The microbial community structure for the aged tylosin was also significantly different than the no-antimicrobial treatment, with a higher degree of amines/amides and carbohydrate chemical guild utilization compared to the no-antimicrobial treatment. Study results suggest that land application of CTC and tylosin-containing manure appears to fundamentally change microbial-mediated nitrogen behavior within soil A horizons.

  7. Assessing effect of three herbal medicines in second and third degree burns in rats and comparison with silver sulfadiazine ointment.

    PubMed

    Akhoondinasab, Mohammad Reza; Khodarahmi, Ali; Akhoondinasab, Motahhare; Saberi, Mohsen; Iranpour, Maryam

    2015-02-01

    Assessing effect of three herbal medicines on healing of deep second and third degree burns in rats and their comparison with silver sulfadiazine group. 40 rats were randomly assigned to one of the four groups, each group 10 rats. A deep second degree burn and a third degree burn were induced on the lower back and upper back of each rat under standard burning procedure, respectively. The burns were daily dressed with Robacin in group 1, silver sulfadiazine in group 2, aloe vera extract in group 3, and Rimojen in group 4. Responses to the treatment were assessed by digital photography during the treatment until day 32. Histological parameters (PMN, epithelialization, fibrosis, and angiogenesis) were assessed after the scar biopsy at the end of the research. On the basis of the taken photos, the wound had better healing in Robacin group. Also, speed of healing was better in aloe vera group than silver sulfadiazine and Rimojen groups. In terms of wound surface area maximal improvement was observed at the same time in the second and third degree burn wounds in Robacin group, in the second degree wound of aloe vera and Rimojen groups, and in the third degree wound of aloe vera and silver sulfadiazine groups. In pathological respects, epithelialization was more evident in both wounds of aloe vera group and third degree burn of Robacin group. In both wounds of Robacin group (second and third degree), the extend of angiogenesis and fibrosis was significantly less than other groups; but, inflammation was at a less level in third degree of silver, second degree of Rimogen and aloe vera, and third degree of aloe vera groups. In histological survey, minimal rate of angiogenesis and fibrosis was seen in Robacin group, which indicated less wound scar in this group. Healing speed of the burn wound was also higher in Robacin group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Sulfadiazine modified PDMS as a model material with the potential for the mitigation of posterior capsule opacification (PCO).

    PubMed

    Amoozgar, Bahram; Morarescu, Diana; Sheardown, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Cataract surgery, while the most common surgical procedure performed, leads to posterior capsule opacification in approximately 30% of cases. Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been shown to play important roles in the cellular processes leading to posterior capsule opacification. Delivery of inhibitors to MMPs may have the potential to inhibit the initial cascade of events that lead to PCO. However, delivery of these molecules via tethering has proven difficult. In this work, sulfadiazine was tethered to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via a polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer as a potential MMPI mimic. Surface characterization using a variety of methods demonstrated successful modification with the antibiotic. The surfaces were examined with lens epithelial cells to determine their effect on these cellular processes, including cell transdifferentiation and production of extracellular matrix components. The presence of TGF-β2 in the cell culture media was found to stimulate the production of ECM components such as collagen, fibronectin, and laminin, as well as alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and the migration marker Rho by HLE-B3 and FHL124 cells. In all cases, these effects were decreased but not completely eradicated by the presence of sulfadiazine on the PDMS surfaces. While the level of inhibition necessary for inhibition of PCO in vivo is unknown, these results suggest that IOL surface modification with sulfadiazine has the potential to reduce cellular changes associated with PCO. Furthermore, the results demonstrate for the first time that changes consistent with inhibition of fibrosis may be elicited by surfaces modified with sulfadiazine.

  9. Application of silver sulfadiazine cream with early surgical intervention in patients suffering from combined burn-blast injury facial tattoos.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein

    2012-01-01

    Severe combined burn-blast injury is a great challenge to surgical teams due to its high mortality. It also results in unsightly traumatic tattoos. The aims of these case reports were to clarify the clinical characteristic of the dynamite explosion burn-blast facial injuries and discuss appropriate management of these patients. We report two patients suffering from facial burn-blast injury following dynamite explosion in which after primary stabilization, silver sulfadiazine cream was applied to the wounds and 12 hours later the wounds were cleaned under general anesthesia with vigorous saline solution irrigation and brushing. The foreign particles were meticulously removed from wounds and simultaneous repairing of defects was done with nylon 6-0 sutures. We conclude application of silver sulfadiazine cream on facial burn-blast injury tattoos several hours before surgical removal of particles is highly efficacious in facilitating particle removal and attaining a good result following surgical intervention, and primary repair. Treatment of combined burn-blast tattoos is different from other types of tattoos not associated with burns. Debridement and removal of foreign particles under general anesthesia from skin immediately and primary reconstruction of wounds is essential. We recommend application of the topical agent silver sulfadiazine to wounds about 12 hours before surgical intervention.

  10. Application of Silver Sulfadiazine Cream With Early Surgical Intervention in Patients Suffering From Combined Burn-Blast Injury Facial Tattoos

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein

    2012-01-01

    Severe combined burn-blast injury is a great challenge to surgical teams due to its high mortality. It also results in unsightly traumatic tattoos. The aims of these case reports were to clarify the clinical characteristic of the dynamite explosion burn-blast facial injuries and discuss appropriate management of these patients. We report two patients suffering from facial burn-blast injury following dynamite explosion in which after primary stabilization, silver sulfadiazine cream was applied to the wounds and 12 hours later the wounds were cleaned under general anesthesia with vigorous saline solution irrigation and brushing. The foreign particles were meticulously removed from wounds and simultaneous repairing of defects was done with nylon 6-0 sutures. We conclude application of silver sulfadiazine cream on facial burn-blast injury tattoos several hours before surgical removal of particles is highly efficacious in facilitating particle removal and attaining a good result following surgical intervention, and primary repair. Treatment of combined burn-blast tattoos is different from other types of tattoos not associated with burns. Debridement and removal of foreign particles under general anesthesia from skin immediately and primary reconstruction of wounds is essential. We recommend application of the topical agent silver sulfadiazine to wounds about 12 hours before surgical intervention. PMID:24829894

  11. Niosomes containing hydroxyl additives as percutaneous penetration enhancers: effect on the transdermal delivery of sulfadiazine sodium salt.

    PubMed

    Muzzalupo, Rita; Tavano, Lorena; Lai, Francesco; Picci, Nevio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the transdermal permeation of sulfadiazine sodium, employing synergistic combination of surfactants (in the form of niosomes) and additives with different number of hydroxylic groups, (following referred to as "alcohol"), as component of the bilayer. In particular the effect of different concentration of each alcohol (ethanol, propylene glycol or glycerol, from 5%, to 40% v/v) on niosomes size and distribution, drug entrapment efficiencies and ex vivo drug percutaneous permeation were evaluated, identifying formulations giving the best performances. The findings revealed that the presence of alcohol critically affect the physico-chemical properties of niosomes, with regards to dimensions, drug encapsulation and permeation. Vesicular size increased with the amount of alcohol and at the same alcohol concentration, follow the sequence ethanol>propylene glycol>glycerol. Loaded niosomes were larger than empty ones. Low E% values were found for ethanol, even less in propylene glycol and glycerol based samples, confirming that the chemical structure of the alcohol and its physico-chemical properties, affected the sulfadiazine entrapment efficiency. The comparative evaluation of percutaneous permeation profiles showed that the cumulative amount of permeated drug increases with alcohol concentration up to 20% v/v. Higher concentration (40% v/v) resulted in a strong decrease of the potential skin permeation. Best performances were obtained with glycerol. In all cases ex vivo sulfadiazine percutaneous permeations are controlled and improved respect to the corresponding free drug solutions and traditional niosomes used as controls.

  12. Comparison of Healing Effect of Aloe Vera Extract and Silver Sulfadiazine in Burn Injuries in Experimental Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Akhoondinasab, Mohammad Reza; Akhoondinasab, Motahhare; Saberi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Wound healing is widely discussed in the medical literature. This study compared the healing effect of aloe vera extract and silver sulfadiazine in burn injuries in experimental rat model. METHODS Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups, each group 8 rats. A deep second-degree burn on the lower back and 3rd degree burn on upper back of each rat were created with a standard burning procedure. Burns were dressed daily with aloe vera extract in group 2 and silver sulfadiazine in group 1. Response to treatment was assessed by digital photography during treatment until day 32. Histological parameters (PMN, epithelialization, fibrosis and angiogenesis) were assessed after biopsy of scar at the end of research. RESULTS Wound healing was more visible in aloe vera group. Also the speed of healing in aloe vera group was better than silver sulfadiazine group. CONCLUSIONS Based on our findings, aloe vera can be a therapy of choice for burn injuries. PMID:25489521

  13. Clinical Evaluation of Tylosin as a Treatment of Vibrionic Dysentery in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Doornenbal, H.

    1965-01-01

    A 5 year history of swine dysentery and treatment has been described. In 1964, a severe outbreak diagnosed as Vibrionic dysentery in 166 litters farrowed from January — March caused a death loss of 30.3 per cent of the total number weaned. This outbreak was not checked with an organic arsenic, sodium arsanilate, which had previously been relatively effective. A subsequent farrow of 133 litters (June — August, 1964) was infected and again sodium arsanilate was ineffective. Microscopic examination of smears of representative fecal samples revealed the presence of a heavy concentration of vibrio-like organisms. Two test-barns, housing 140 and 172 pigs respectively, were treated with tylosin-tartrate, using one side of each barn as a control, while the other side was being treated. Subsequently, the control sides were treated. Both levels of tylosin used, 1 gm and 2 gm per U.S. gallon of water, resulted in the disappearance of fluid feces within 48 hours of treatment. Soft, granular feces were still present 6-9 days after the start of treatment at the 1 gm level, while in case of the 2 gm level of tylosin, all feces were normal on the third day after medication started. Microscopic examination of feces collected on the third day of treatment still revealed the presence of some vibrio-like organisms. However, these organisms could not be detected in examination of feces collected between 10 to 25 days after treatment. In this test there was no recurrence of dysentery. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:14300858

  14. Tylosin Resistance in Arcanobacterium pyogenes Is Encoded by an Erm X Determinant

    PubMed Central

    Jost, B. Helen; Field, Adam C.; Trinh, Hien T.; Songer, J. Glenn; Billington, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    Arcanobacterium pyogenes, a commensal on the mucous membranes of many economically important animal species, is also a pathogen, causing abscesses of the skin, joints, and visceral organs as well as mastitis and abortion. In food animals, A. pyogenes is exposed to antimicrobial agents used for growth promotion, prophylaxis, and therapy, notably tylosin, a macrolide antibiotic used extensively for the prevention of liver abscessation in feedlot cattle in the United States. Of 48 A. pyogenes isolates, 11 (22.9%) exhibited inducible or constitutive resistance to tylosin (MIC of ≥128 μg/ml). These isolates also exhibited resistance to other macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics, suggesting a macrolide-lincosamide resistance phenotype. Of the 11 resistant isolates, genomic DNA from nine hybridized to an erm(X)-specific probe. Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the A. pyogenes erm(X) gene indicated that it was >95% similar to erm(X) genes from Corynebacterium and Propionibacterium spp. Eight of the erm(X)-containing A. pyogenes isolates exhibited inducible tylosin resistance, which was consistent with the presence of a putative leader peptide upstream of the erm(X) open reading frame. For at least one A. pyogenes isolate, 98-4277-2, erm(X) was present on a plasmid, pAP2, and was associated with the insertion sequence IS6100. pAP2 also carried genes encoding the repressor-regulated tetracycline efflux system determinant Tet 33. The repA gene from pAP2 was nonfunctional in Escherichia coli and at least one A. pyogenes isolate, suggesting that there may be host-encoded factors required for replication of this plasmid. PMID:14576111

  15. Influence of subtherapeutic levels of a combination of neomycin and oxytetracycline on Salmonella typhimurium in swine, calves, and chickens.

    PubMed

    Girard, A E; English, A R; Evangelisti, D G; Lynch, J E; Solomons, I A

    1976-07-01

    Subtherapeutic levels of oxytetracycline plus neomycin in animal feeds did not bring about increases in the quantity, prevalence, or shedding of Salmonella typhimurium in swine, calves, or chickens. In fact, the medication generally reduced the proportion of animals carrying S. typhimurium. The medicated groups were fed rations containing oxytetracycline plus neomycin commencing 5 days prior to oral inoculation with S. typhimurium and continuing through a 28-day postinoculation period. Colonization of S. typhimurium occurred in all three animal species, as evidenced by clinical signs of infection and/or colony counts in feces. Only from swine and on only one occasion was a single resistant colony isolated. It is concluded that no evidence has been obtained which would implicate the continuous low-level feeding of oxytetracycline and neomycin for a 4-week period to a potential increased incidence of disease in animals or as a hazard to humans.

  16. Influence of Subtherapeutic Levels of a Combination of Neomycin and Oxytetracycline on Salmonella typhimurium in Swine, Calves, and Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Girard, A. E.; English, A. R.; Evangelisti, D. G.; Lynch, J. E.; Solomons, I. A.

    1976-01-01

    Subtherapeutic levels of oxytetracycline plus neomycin in animal feeds did not bring about increases in the quantity, prevalence, or shedding of Salmonella typhimurium in swine, calves, or chickens. In fact, the medication generally reduced the proportion of animals carrying S. typhimurium. The medicated groups were fed rations containing oxytetracycline plus neomycin commencing 5 days prior to oral inoculation with S. typhimurium and continuing through a 28-day postinoculation period. Colonization of S. typhimurium occurred in all three animal species, as evidenced by clinical signs of infection and/or colony counts in feces. Only from swine and on only one occasion was a single resistant colony isolated. It is concluded that no evidence has been obtained which would implicate the continuous low-level feeding of oxytetracycline and neomycin for a 4-week period to a potential increased incidence of disease in animals or as a hazard to humans. PMID:791090

  17. Anti-infective external coating of central venous catheters: a randomized, noninferiority trial comparing 5-fluorouracil with chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine in preventing catheter colonization.

    PubMed

    Walz, J Matthias; Avelar, Rui L; Longtine, Karen J; Carter, Kent L; Mermel, Leonard A; Heard, Stephen O

    2010-11-01

    The antimetabolite drug, 5-fluorouracil, inhibits microbial growth. Coating of central venous catheters with 5-fluorouracil may reduce the risk of catheter infection. Our objective was to compare the safety and efficacy of central venous catheters externally coated with 5-fluorouracil with those coated with chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine. Prospective, single-blind, randomized, active-controlled, multicentered, noninferiority trial. Twenty-five US medical center intensive care units. A total of 960 adult patients requiring central venous catheterization for up to 28 days. Patients were randomized to receive a central venous catheter externally coated with either 5-fluorouracil (n = 480) or chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine (n = 480). The primary antimicrobial outcome was a dichotomous measure (<15 colony-forming units or ≥ 15 colony-forming units) for catheter colonization determined by the roll plate method. Secondary antimicrobial outcomes included local site infection and catheter-related bloodstream infection. Central venous catheters coated with 5-fluorouracil were noninferior to chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine coated central venous catheters with respect to the incidence of catheter colonization (2.9% vs. 5.3%, respectively). Local site infection occurred in 1.4% of the 5-fluorouracil group and 0.9% of the chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine group. No episode of catheter-related bloodstream infection occurred in the 5-fluorouracil group, whereas two episodes were noted in the chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine group. Only Gram-positive organisms were cultured from 5-fluorouracil catheters, whereas Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and Candida were cultured from the chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine central venous catheters. Adverse events were comparable between the two central venous catheter coatings. Our results suggest that central venous catheters externally coated with 5-fluorouracil are a safe and effective

  18. Oxytetracycline depletion from skin-on fillet tissue of coho salmon fed oxytetracycline medicated feed in freshwater at temperatures less than 9°C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Stehly, Guy R.; Gingerich, William H.; Evered, Joy A.

    2001-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent approved in the USA for treating certain bacterial diseases in salmonids cultured in freshwater at temperatures greater than or equal to 9°C. This study was conducted to provide the information necessary to expand the OTC label to include treatment of diseased salmonids cultured in freshwater at temperatures below 9°C. The study was designed to treat juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) with OTC-medicated feed and determine the depletion of OTC from the skin-on fillet tissue. Oxytetracycline depletion was evaluated in juvenile coho salmon (weight range, 13–62 g) fed OTC-medicated feed at a rate of 88.2 mg OTC/kg body weight/day for 10 days. Pairs of skin-on fillets were taken from individual fish on days 4 and 10 during the treatment phase and on days 1, 4, 8, 14, and 19 during the depletion phase. Water temperatures during the study period ranged from 4.1°C to 8.5°C. The OTC concentrations in medicated feed and skin-on fillets were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography methods. The maximum mean OTC concentration in fillet tissue was 932 ng/g, 1 day after the last treatment and decreased to 32 ng/g 19 days after the last treatment. The log-linear loss of OTC from the fillet tissue was biphasic with a terminal phase half-life of 4.9 days.

  19. Determination of oxytetracycline/oxytetracycline hydrochloride in animal feed, fish feed, and veterinary medicinal products by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Thiex, Nancy J; Larson, Richard

    2009-01-01

    A method for determining oxytetracycline (OTC) in animal feed, fish feed, and veterinary medicinal products at medicated use and contamination levels was collaboratively studied. The method is applicable to the analysis of animal feeds and mineral premixes containing levels > or =2 mg/kg, and fish feed containing levels > or =10 mg/kg. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC.HCI) is extracted from ground feed material in acid-methanol solution using mechanical agitation. After centrifugation for 5 min at 1230 x g, an aliquot of the extract is diluted with water andlor acid-methanol so that the concentration of OTC.HCI is approximately the same as that in the working standard, and the solutions contain at least 50% water. Injectable veterinary medicinal materials (also called animal remedy materials) are diluted with water andlor extractant to reach the target concentration. The extracts are filtered and analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection with excitation at 390 nm and emission at 512 nm. Twenty-eight test samples of medicated feeds, supplements, and drug premixes, including 4 test samples for trace-level analysis, were sent to 17 collaborators in Canada, The Netherlands, and the United States. Results were received from 11 laboratories. The RSDr values (within-laboratory repeatability) ranged from 1.26 to 9.21%; RSDR values (among-laboratory reproducibility) ranged from 2.14 to 12.9%, and HorRat values ranged from 0.54 to 3.02. It is recommended that this method be adopted AOAC Official First Action.

  20. Effect of redox potential and pH status on degradation and adsorption behavior of tylosin in dairy lagoon sediment suspension.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad; Wang, Jim J; DeLaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong Cheol; Dodla, Syam K; Hernandez, Amy B

    2013-06-01

    Veterinary antibiotics are the most heavily used pharmaceuticals in intensive animal farming operation. Their presence in the environment through application of manure and lagoon water as fertilizer in agricultural fields has generated a growing concern in recent years due to potential threat to the ecosystem and the risk they pose to human and animal health. Among the antibiotics, tylosin, a macrolide class of antibiotics, has been widely used for disease prevention and growth promotion in swine, cattle/dairy, and poultry production. To understand degradation and sorption behavior of tylosin A, a laboratory microcosm incubation study was conducted on dairy lagoon sediments suspension under different pH (5.5, 7.0, 8.5) and redox potentials (Eh at -100 mV, 0 mV, +250 mV, +350 mV). Sorption and degradation of tylosin was strongly influenced by sediment pH and redox conditions. Under acidic (pH 5.5) and reduced (Eh -100 mV) condition, tylosin persisted in the solution phase of dairy lagoon sediment suspension much longer with resident time of 77 d. Under oxidized (Eh +350 mV) condition, microbial degradation was much greater causing 68-75% of tylosin loss from the solution at pH 5.5 and 32-75% at pH 7.0 during the 20 d incubation. At pH 8.5, abiotic transformation of tylosin A into unknown degradates rather than sediment adsorption and microbial degradation was the major mechanism controlling tylosin disappearance from the solution regardless of the status of redox potentials. Overall, the results suggested that under reduced condition with low pH, tylosin will be persisted in the lagoon effluents and residue of tylosin may enter agricultural fields through the application of lagoon slurry as fertilizer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of long-acting oxytetracycline alone or in combination with streptomycin for treatment of Brucella ovis infection of rams.

    PubMed

    Marín, C M; Jiménez de Bagués, M P; Barberán, M; Blasco, J M

    1989-04-01

    Twenty-four rams inoculated with Brucella ovis by conjunctival and preputial routes were treated with a long-acting oxytetracycline alone or in combination with dihydrostreptomycin sulfate. The combined treatment eliminated Brucella ovis from 11 of 12 (91.6%) treated rams. Only 4 of 12 (33.3%) rams treated with oxytetracycline alone were bacteriologically negative. Neither treatment resolved clinical epididymitis in 2 rams affected before treatment. Many rams had pathologic lesions in the epididymis and ampullae, which limited the efficacy of antibiotic treatment.

  2. The effects of neomycin and oxytetracycline alone or combined upon the incidence of salmonellosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Williams, B J

    1985-08-01

    Chickens were orally inoculated with Salmonella typhimurium and fed rations medicated with either 200 g/ton neomycin sulfate, 200 g/ton oxytetracycline, or a combination of 200 g/ton neomycin sulfate plus 200 g/ton oxytetracycline for 16 days. The incidence of salmonellosis was lower in chickens fed the combined antibiotics, and the numbers of viable S. typhimurium in feces were significantly fewer than in chickens receiving only one antibiotic. Chickens fed the combination also gained significantly more weight on less feed than those fed only one antibiotic.

  3. Safety of oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F) administered in feed to hybrid striped bass, walleyes, and yellow perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Wolf, J.C.; Schleis, S.M.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F, a medicated premix containing oxytetracycline at 220 g/kg) is approved in the United States to control certain systemic bacterial diseases of salmon and catfish when fed at a rate of 55-82.5 mg per kilogram of bodyweight per day for 10 d. Although oxytetracycline may also control certain systemic bacterial infections in coolwater or scaled warmwater fish, no safety data for such species are available. Our objective was to determine the safety of oxytetracycline administered in feed at nominal doses of 0, 82.5, 248, or 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 to yellow perch Perca flavescens and hybrid striped bass (striped bass Morone saxatilis x white bass M. chrysops) for 10 d and to walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) for 20 d. Yellow perch and hybrid striped bass consumed 50% to 100% of the diet, whereas walleye feed consumption was occasionally less than 50% of the diet. Feed or fecal material was present in the gastrointestinal tract of all necropsied walleyes except for one control fish. The single growth effect was that hybrid striped bass offered a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 were significantly smaller than untreated controls. Oxytetracycline-related histopathological findings were limited to walleyes and were of low severity. The histopathological findings included decreased hematopoietic-lymphopoietic (H&L) tissue in the anterior kidneys, diffuse hyperplasia of the gill filament epithelium, and a decreased prevalence of fish with eosinophilic droplets in their renal tubular epithelial cells. Although the incidence of decreased H&L tissue tended to increase in proportion to oxytetracycline dose, this finding was statistically significant only for fish that received a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1. Given the pathogenicity of the types of bacteria that are controlled by oxytetracycline treatment and the long history of its use in major aquaculture species, the relative risk of the minor oxytetracycline

  4. Efficacy of identifying stocked crappies in a Tennessee reservoir through oxytetracycline marking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isermann, D.A.; Bettoli, P.W.; Sammons, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) immersion was used to identify black-nosed crappies, a morphological variation of black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, stocked into Normandy Reservoir, Tennessee, during fall 1997. The technique effectively marked 97% of the treated fish. Analysis of one otolith per fish by one reader successfully identified 98% of marked and unmarked fish in a blind test. Marks were formed before annulus formation and were not obscured by annulus-related autofluorescence, suggesting that OTC can be effectively used late in the year (October and November) in Tennessee.

  5. Persistence of oxytetracycline residues in milk after the intrauterine treatment of lactating cows for endometritis.

    PubMed

    Tan, X; Huang, Y-J; Jiang, Y-W; Hu, S-H

    2007-10-27

    Milk samples were collected at one day intervals after the last dose from 31 cows that had received an intrauterine infusion of oxytetracycline once daily between one and five times. The tetrazolium chloride assay was used to determine whether there were significant residues of the antibiotic in the samples. A single treatment resulted in residues for between one and eight days, and the period tended to be longer in the cows that had received more than one dose. Of the 31 cows, six remained tetracycline-positive for more than five days after their last dose of the drug.

  6. Rejection of Tetracycline and Oxytetracycline in Water by a Nanofiltration Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiying; Sun, Xiuli; Wang, Qing; Xu, Jingjing; Lu, Junyu

    2010-11-01

    The removal of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) by a nanofiltration (NF) membrane was studied using synthetic solutions. The effects of operation parameters (recovery and flux), feed concentration and salinity on the rejection of tetracyclines and their adsorption on membranes were investigated. TC was observed to show a high adsorptive affinity for the membrane. Almost 80% of TC and 70% of OTC were adsorbed on the membrane surface after stirring for 2000 min and over 50% of them had been adsorbed just 120 min after stir. High removal efficiencies (>90%) were observed for TC and OTC with NF membrane. Rejection ratio of OTC by NF was slightly higher than that of TC.

  7. Influence of nine surfactants on the activity of oxytetracycline hydrochloride against Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.

    PubMed

    Lal, O P; Teotia, T P

    1975-12-01

    The effect of nine surfactants on the activity of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OCT) was investigated against Lipaphis erysimi Kalt feeding on cabbage plants. All the surfactants, except Emulgator EL and Emulgator IP, at 0.1% increased the efficacy of OTC at 0.25% and the maximum reduction of 83.93% in fertility was observed for the combination OTC+Arkopal N-110. The nymphal development was delayed by various treatments. The treated adults were lighter in weight and smaller in size compared to the control insects. No photoxicity was observed in any case.

  8. The dissolution kinetics of sulfamethoxazol, trimethoprim and oxytetracycline hydrochloride from multicomponent solid dispersion capsules ("Sulfoxytrim").

    PubMed

    Zuń, M; Czarnecki, W

    2000-01-01

    Release profiles and dissolution kinetics of active substance, viz. sulfamethoxazol (SMO), trimethoprim (TMP), and oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC) from capsulated multicomponent dispersions was studied in a flow-cell apparatus at 37 degrees C by using a dissolution medium of 0.1 mol/l HCl. The results revealed that the relative dissolution efficiency (DE) and dissolution profiles of one active ingredient were affected by the presence of the two others. Vitamin C added caused the decreased the dissolution rate constants (K) and DE--values of all the active substances studied.

  9. Influence of three different colloidal systems on the oxytetracycline-lecithin behavior.

    PubMed

    Faustino-Vega, A; Alvarez-Polo, M A; Gasca, B; Bernad-Bernad, M J

    2009-08-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a wide spectrum antibiotic, but it is known to be degradated when it is stored under adverse conditions. It is classified as short-acting based on serum half-lives of 6-8 h. The stabilizing effect of colloidal carrier systems and their ability to sustain drug release for OTC was investigated using solid dispersion, liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles with lecithin. Analysis of chemical stability showed that OTC is more resistant in colloid systems than in the free form. The characterization results show clear differences between the prepared systems. Release studies show that a sustained release is achieved when the OTC is formulated in these carriers.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim following intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration in ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Abu-Basha, E A; Gehring, R; Hantash, T M; Al-Shunnaq, A F; Idkaidek, N M

    2009-06-01

    A pharmacokinetic and bioavailability study of sulfadiazine combined with trimethoprim (sulfadiazine/trimethoprim) was carried out in fifteen healthy young ostriches after intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and oral administration at a total dose of 30 mg/kg body weight (bw) (25 and 5 mg/kg bw of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim, respectively). The study followed a single dose, three periods, cross-over randomized design. The sulfadiazine/trimethoprim combination was administered to ostriches after an overnight fasting on three treatment days, each separated by a 2-week washout period. Blood samples were collected at 0 (pretreatment), 0.08, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after drug administration. Following i.v. administration, the elimination half-life (t(1/2beta)), the mean residence time (MRT), volume of distribution at steady-state (V(d(ss))), volume of distribution based on terminal phase (V(d(z))), and the total body clearance (Cl(B)) were (13.23 +/- 2.24 and 1.95 +/- 0.19 h), (10.06 +/- 0.33 and 2.17 +/- 0.20 h), (0.60 +/- 0.08, and 2.35 +/- 0.14 L/kg), (0.79 +/- 0.12 and 2.49 +/- 0.14 L/kg) and (0.69 +/- 0.03 and 16.12 +/- 1.38 mL/min/kg), for sulfadiazine and trimethoprim, respectively. No significant difference in C(max) (35.47 +/- 2.52 and 37.50 +/- 3.39 microg/mL), t(max) (2.47 +/- 0.31 and 2.47 +/- 0.36 h), t((1/2)beta) (11.79 +/- 0.79 and 10.96 +/- 0.56 h), V(d(z))/F (0.77 +/- 0.06 and 0.89 +/- 0.07 L/kg), Cl(B)/F (0.76 +/- 0.04 and 0.89 +/- 0.07) and MRT (12.39 +/- 0.40 and 12.08 +/- 0.36 h) were found in sulfadiazine after i.m. and oral dosing, respectively. There were also no differences in C(max) (0.71 +/- 0.06 and 0.78 +/- 0.10 microg/mL), t(max) (2.07 +/- 0.28 and 3.27 +/- 0.28 h), t((1/2)beta) (3.30 +/- 0.25 and 3.83 +/- 0.33 h), V(d(z))/F (6.2 +/- 0.56 and 6.27 +/- 0.77 L/kg), Cl(B)/F (21.9 +/- 1.46 and 18.83 +/- 1.72) and MRT (3.68 +/- 0.19 and 4.34 +/- 0.14 h) for trimethoprim after i.m. and oral dosing, respectively. The

  11. Efficacy of in-feed medication with tylosin for the treatment and control of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections.

    PubMed

    Vicca, J; Maes, D; Jonker, L; de Kruif, A; Haesebrouck, F

    2005-05-07

    The efficacy of in-feed medication with tylosin for the treatment of enzootic pneumonia was examined in an experimental Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection model. One group of 10 conventional M. hyopneumoniae-free pigs was inoculated intratracheally with a highly virulent field isolate of M. hyopneumoniae; a second group of 10 pigs was inoculated in the same way and after 12 days was given tylosin at 100 mg/kg feed for 21 days; a third group of 10 pigs was inoculated with sterile culture medium, and these pigs were not given tylosin. The pigs were examined daily for clinical signs and each pig was given a respiratory disease score. Thirty-three days after they had been infected the pigs were euthanased, the lung lesions were quantified and samples of lung were processed for immunofluorescence testing for M. hyopneumoniae. The mean (sd) respiratory disease and lung lesion scores were significantly higher (P<0.05) in both the infected groups than in the uninfected group. Between 23 and 33 days after infection the mean respiratory disease score of the pigs treated with tylosin was 0.54 (0.22), significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of the infected pigs which were left untreated, 1.54 (0.46); similarly, their average lung lesion score, 1.72 (1.20), was significantly lower than that of the untreated pigs, 5.27 (3.85).

  12. Microbial shifts in the swine distal gut in response to the treatment with antimicrobial growth promoter, tylosin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeun Bum; Borewicz, Klaudyna; White, Bryan A.; Singer, Randall S.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Tu, Zheng Jin; Isaacson, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobials have been used extensively as growth promoters (AGPs) in agricultural animal production. However, the specific mechanism of action for AGPs has not yet been determined. The work presented here was to determine and characterize the microbiome of pigs receiving one AGP, tylosin, compared with untreated pigs. We hypothesized that AGPs exerted their growth promoting effect by altering gut microbial population composition. We determined the fecal microbiome of pigs receiving tylosin compared with untreated pigs using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries. The data showed microbial population shifts representing both microbial succession and changes in response to the use of tylosin. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of sequences showed that tylosin caused microbial population shifts in both abundant and less abundant species. Our results established a baseline upon which mechanisms of AGPs in regulation of health and growth of animals can be investigated. Furthermore, the data will aid in the identification of alternative strategies to improve animal health and consequently production. PMID:22955886

  13. Effects of tylosin, tilmicosin and tulathromycin on inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Er, Ayse; Yazar, Enver

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides through kinetic parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. Rats were divided into four groups: lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS + tylosin, LPS + tilmicosin and LPS + tulathromycin. BALF samples were collected at sampling times. TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2α (PGM) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analysed. Area under the curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values of inflammatory mediators were determined by a pharmacokinetic computer programme. When inflammatory mediator concentrations were compared between the LPS group and other groups for each sampling time, the three macrolides had no pronounced depressor effect on cytokine levels, but they depressed PGM and CRP levels. In addition, tylosin and tilmicosin decreased the AUC0-24 level of TNF, while tilmicosin decreased the AUC0-24 level of IL-10. Tylosin and tulathromycin decreased the AUC0-24 of PGM, and all three macrolides decreased the AUC0-24 of CRP. Especially tylosin and tulathromycin may have more expressed anti-inflammatory effects than tilmicosin, via depressing the production of inflammatory mediators in the lung. The AUC may be used for determining the effects of drugs on inflammation. In this study, the antiinflammatory effects of these antibiotics were evaluated with kinetic parameters as a new and different approach.

  14. Caffeine and sulfadiazine interact differently with human serum albumin: A combined fluorescence and molecular docking study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mullah Muhaiminul; Sonu, Vikash K.; Gashnga, Pynsakhiat Miki; Moyon, N. Shaemningwar; Mitra, Sivaprasad

    2016-01-01

    The interaction and binding behavior of the well-known drug sulfadiazine (SDZ) and psychoactive stimulant caffeine (CAF) with human serum albumin (HSA) was monitored by in vitro fluorescence titration and molecular docking calculations under physiological condition. The quenching of protein fluorescence on addition of CAF is due to the formation of protein-drug complex in the ground state; whereas in case of SDZ, the experimental results were explained on the basis of sphere of action model. Although both these compounds bind preferentially in Sudlow's site 1 of the protein, the association constant is approximately two fold higher in case of SDZ (∼4.0 × 104 M-1) in comparison with CAF (∼9.3 × 102 M-1) and correlates well with physico-chemical properties like pKa and lipophilicity of the drugs. Temperature dependent fluorescence study reveals that both SDZ and CAF bind spontaneously with HSA. However, the binding of SDZ with the protein is mainly governed by the hydrophobic forces in contrast with that of CAF; where, the interaction is best explained in terms of electrostatic mechanism. Molecular docking calculation predicts the binding of these drugs in different location of sub-domain IIA in the protein structure.

  15. Comparison of purified olive oil and silver sulfadiazine in the treatment of partial thickness porcine burns.

    PubMed

    Gurfinkel, Reuven; Palivatkel-Naim, Merav; Gleisinger, Ronen; Rosenberg, Lior; Singer, Adam J

    2012-01-01

    Burns are widespread in the developed world, and expensive burn dressings are not universally available. Most burn patients suffer from a partial thickness burn that can be treated conservatively. Nevertheless, the ideal dressing for the burn wound has not been identified. We performed an animal experiment to compare the healing of partial thickness burns treated with silver sulfadiazine (SSD) and olive oil. A randomized controlled animal experiment was conducted on 3 anesthetized domestic pigs in which 51 partial thickness burns were created using a metal bar heated to 400°C and applied to the dorsum of the animals for 20 seconds. The burns were treated every other day with SSD cream (n = 16), purified olive oil (n = 20), or no topical therapy at all (n = 15). Assessment of wound healing was done by drawing and scanning the margins of the wound at the endpoint of the experiment. The remaining open wound area was then calculated using Scion Image version beta 4.0.2 (Scion, Frederick, Md), and the results were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA test. Burns treated with SSD healed faster than control burns (P < .05). There were no differences in the healing rates of wounds treated with olive oil versus controls or SSD. There were no wound infections in any of the 3 study groups. Treatment of partial thickness burns with purified olive oil did not result in faster healing when compared with SSD or dry gauze in a porcine model. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Chitosan/polyurethane blended fiber sheets containing silver sulfadiazine for use as an antimicrobial wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jin; Heo, Dong Nyoung; Moon, Ji-Hoi; Park, Ha Na; Ko, Wan-Kyu; Bae, Min Soo; Lee, Jung Bok; Park, Se Woong; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Chang Hoon; Jung, Bock-Young; Kwon, Il Keun

    2014-10-01

    Electrospun chitosan (CTS) nanofibers have been well known for use as a wound dressing in the biomedical field. Nevertheless, fatal bacterial infections are still a serious problem when CTS nanofibers are used for wound treatment. In this study, we designed a novel wound dressing based on blending the chitosan with polyurethane (CTS/PU) containing silver sulfadiazine (AgSD) in order to enhance both antibacterial activity and mechanical strength. This fiber sheet was produced using the electrospinning (ELSP) technique. The CTS/PU containing AgSD fiber sheet was characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The physicochemical properties of the CTS/PU/AgSD fiber sheets were also characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The electrospun fibers were morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For an in vitro evaluation, the CTS/PU/AgSD fiber sheets were tested for their antibacterial activity against gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The results indicate that CTS/PU/AgSD fiber sheets have strong antimicrobial activity as displayed by inhibition of bacterial growth and prevention of infection during the healing process. These results indicate that this material would be good for use as a wound dressing material.

  17. Using chitosan nanoparticles as drug carriers for the development of a silver sulfadiazine wound dressing.

    PubMed

    El-Feky, Gina S; Sharaf, Samar S; El Shafei, Amira; Hegazy, Aisha A

    2017-02-20

    Burn wounds environment favors the growth of micro-organisms causing delay in wound healing. The traditional treatment with antimicrobial creams offer inaccurate doses. In the present study, a dressing coated with silver sulfadiazine (SSD) loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) for the controlled-release of SSD into burn wound to control bacterial growth was investigated. CSNPs were formulated with different concentrations of chitosan and CM-β-CD and loaded with SSD complexed in 1:1 molar ratio with CM-β-CD, CSNPs were assessed for their particle size, polydispersity index, morphology and association efficiency. The formula showing the best characteristics was selected for the preparation of SSD loaded CSNPs wound dressing through a padding process with/without the use of cross-linker. The dressing was characterized for its physical properties, in addition, FTIR, X-ray, SEM and in vitro release were used for characterization. The dressing was proven effective for the inhibition of the growth of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as well as candida on an infected wound.

  18. Antimicrobial disposition in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid of horses. Part I. Sulfadiazine and trimethoprim.

    PubMed

    Winther, L; Guardabassi, L; Baptiste, K E; Friis, C

    2011-06-01

    Sulfadiazine (SDZ) and trimethoprim (TMP) concentrations were examined in plasma and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF), following intravenous and oral administration and compared to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of common bacterial isolates from equine lower airway infections. SDZ/TMP (25/5 mg/kg) was administered intravenously, intragastric or per os to fed horses, and blood samples were collected before and 11 times, over 24 h, after administration. PELF samples were collected via a tampon device four times after drug administration and analysed for drug concentrations. Additionally, MICs of SDZ and TMP alone and in combination were determined in a selection of clinical respiratory isolates. Bioavailability was 74% for SDZ and 46% for TMP after paste administration in fed horses. The degree of penetration of SDZ and TMP into PELF, as described by AUC(PELF) /AUC(plasma) ratios, was 0.68 and 0.72, respectively, after intravenous administration. After oral administration, the degree of penetration for SDZ and TMP was 0.92 and 0.46, respectively. MIC measurements using SDZ/TMP ratios of 5:1 and 10:1 did not affect the interpretation of the results. The results indicate that clinically relevant drug concentrations of mainly TMP are difficult to maintain in PELF, especially after oral administration of SDZ/TMP.

  19. Photodegradation mechanism of sulfadiazine catalyzed by Fe(III), oxalate and algae under UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junwei; Ma, Li

    2013-01-01

    Photodegradation mechanism of sulfadiazine (SD) in a solution containing Fe(III), oxalate and algae were investigated in this study. The results indicated that the degradation of SD was slow in a solution containing Fe(III) or oxalate, whereas it was markedly enhanced when Fe(III) and oxalate coexisted. The optimal pH for formation of *OH was 4; a higher or lower pH resulted in a decrease in formation of OH. A moderate increase of oxalate concentration was beneficial to the formation of *OH and the degradation of SD, and the algae enhanced the degradation rate of SD in a solution containing Fe(III) and oxalate. Also, the degradation rate of SD rapidly decreased at low initial concentrations but slowly decreased at high initial concentrations, and pseudo-first order kinetics described the degradation process of SD well. A possible reaction mechanism in solution containing Fe(III), oxalate and algae was proposed, and attack by *OH was the main pathway of SD degradation in the photocatalytic reaction.

  20. Effect of silk fibroin nanofibers containing silver sulfadiazine on wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Lim; Kim, Min Hee; Jung, Ju-Young; Min, Byung Moo; Park, Won Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the promising applications of silk fibroin (SF) in biomedical engineering is its use as a scaffolding material for skin regeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine the wound healing effect of SF nanofibrous matrices containing silver sulfadiazine (SSD) wound dressings. Methods An SF nanofibrous matrix containing SSD was prepared by electrospinning. The cell attachment and spreading of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and normal human epidermal fibroblasts (NHEF) to SF nanofibers containing three different concentrations of SSD contents (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 wt%) were determined. In addition, a rat wound model was used in this study to determine the wound healing effect of SF nanofibers containing SSD compared with that of Acticoat™, a commercially available wound dressing. Results The number of NHEK and NHEF attached to SF nanofibers containing SSD decreased when the concentration of SSD increased. The number of attached NHEF cells was lower than that of attached NHEK cells. The SF matrix with 1.0 wt% SSD produced faster wound healing than Acticoat, although 1.0 wt% SSD inhibited the attachment of epidermal cells to SF nanofibers in vitro. Conclusion The cytotoxic effects of SF nanofibers with SSD should be considered in the development of silver-release dressings for wound healing through its antimicrobial activity. It is challenging to design wound dressings that maximize antimicrobial activity and minimize cellular toxicity. PMID:25484581

  1. Toxicity of sulfadiazine and copper and their interaction to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yonggang; Yu, Wantai; Ma, Qiang; Zhou, Hua; Jiang, Chunming

    2017-08-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the single and combined effect of different concentrations of sulfadiazine (SDZ) (1 and 10mgkg(-1)) and copper (Cu) (20 and 200mgkg(-1)) stresses on growth, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidant enzyme activities of wheat seedlings and their accumulation. High SDZ or Cu level significantly inhibited the growth of wheat seedlings, but the emergence rate was only inhibited by high SDZ level. The presence of Cu reduced the accumulation of SDZ, whereas the effect of SDZ on the accumulation of Cu depended on their concentrations. Low Cu level significantly increased the chlorophyll content, while high Cu level or both SDZ concentrations resulted in a significant decrease in the chlorophyll content as compared to the control. Additionally, H2O2 and MDA contents increased with the elevated SDZ or Cu level. The activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase were also stimulated by SDZ or Cu except for the aerial part treated by low Cu level and root treated by high SDZ level. The joint toxicity data showed that the toxicity of SDZ to wheat seedlings was generally alleviated by the presence of Cu, whereas the combined toxicity of SDZ and Cu was larger than equivalent Cu alone. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Sunlight-induced transformation of sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole in surface waters and wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Bahnmüller, Sabrina; von Gunten, Urs; Canonica, Silvio

    2014-06-15

    Sulfadiazine (SD) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) are widely used sulfonamide antibiotics, which are present as contaminants in surface waters and are known to undergo phototransformation. This kinetic study was conducted to identify the processes responsible for their phototransformation in sunlit surface waters. Water samples from the Thur River (Switzerland) and from a pilot wastewater treatment plant, as well as aqueous solutions of two well-characterized natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracts, namely Suwannee River and Pony Lake fulvic acids (SRFA, PLFA), were examined. Both sulfonamides were found to undergo direct and indirect phototransformation, with contributions of excited triplet states of DOM and of effluent organic matter (EfOM) and possibly of hydroxyl radical and other unidentified reactive species. Under simulated sunlight, SMX mainly reacted through direct phototransformation, with a certain contribution of indirect phototransformation occurring for a wastewater effluent. The behavior of SD was found to be more diverse. For river waters, wastewater effluents and PLFA solutions, indirect phototransformation was predominant, while for SRFA solutions direct phototransformation prevailed. The rates of phototransformation of SD were interpreted as the result of a complex interplay between the photosensitizing and the inhibitory effect of DOM/EfOM, with an additional component related to the nitrite ion as a source of photoproduced hydroxyl radical. For typical conditions found in surface waters comparable to the Thur River, phototransformation half-lives on the order of 3-13 d were estimated for the two studied sulfonamides.

  3. Do drying and rewetting cycles modulate effects of sulfadiazine spiked manure in soil?

    PubMed

    Jechalke, Sven; Radl, Viviane; Schloter, Michael; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia

    2016-05-01

    Naturally occurring drying-rewetting events in soil have been shown to affect the dissipation of veterinary antibiotics entering soil by manure fertilization. However, knowledge of effects on the soil microbial community structure and resistome is scarce. Here, consequences of drying-rewetting cycles on effects of sulfadiazine (SDZ) in soil planted with Dactylis glomerata L. were investigated in microcosms. Manure containing SDZ or not was applied to the pregrown grass and incubated for 56 days in a climate chamber. Water was either added daily or reduced during two drying events of 7 days, each followed by a recovery phase. Total community DNA was analyzed to reveal the effects on the bacterial community structure and on the abundance of sul1, sul2, intI1 ,intI2, qacE+qacEΔ1, traN and korB genes relative to 16S rRNA genes. 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE fingerprints indicated that drying-rewetting cycles modulated the effects of SDZ on the bacterial community structure in the soil. Furthermore, the SDZ treatment increased the relative abundance of sulfonamide resistance and integrase genes compared to the control. However, this increase was not different between moisture regimes, indicating that drying-rewetting had only a negligible effect on the selection of the resistome by SDZ in the manured soil.

  4. Biological uptake and depuration of sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongxia; Liu, Sisi; Chen, Jingwen; Jiang, Jingqiu; Xie, Qing; Quan, Xie

    2015-02-01

    Sulfonamides, a class of the most commonly used antibiotics, are being increasingly released into the aquatic environment and have recently caused considerable concerns. However, knowledge on their fate and ecotoxicological effects upon aquatic organisms is not understood yet. This work investigated mainly the bioconcentration kinetics (uptake/depuration) of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by exposure in different concentrations under semi-static conditions for 48 d. The uptake rate (k1), growth-corrected depuration rate (k 2g), and biological half-lives (t1/2) of two sulfonamides in liver and muscle were determined and they were 0.135-9.84 L kg(-1)d(-1), 0.0361-0.838 d(-1), 8.3-19.2d, respectively. With exposure concentrations increasing, the uptake rates in liver and muscle decreased obviously but the depuration rates were not closely related with the exposure concentrations. SDZ exhibited higher uptake but lower excretion rates in almost all the liver and muscle than SMZ, resulting in both higher BCFs and half-lives for SDZ. The growth-corrected bioconcentration factors (BCF kg) were measured to be 1.65-165.73 L kg(-1)ww and their averages were in good consistency with the values predicted by previous models within one log unit. The work presented here was the first to model bioconcentration of SMZ and SDZ from water by laboratory-exposed fish.

  5. Interaction of Sulfadiazine with Model Water Soluble Proteins: A Combined Fluorescence Spectroscopic and Molecular Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mullah Muhaiminul; Moyon, N Shaemningwar; Gashnga, Pynsakhiat Miki; Mitra, Sivaprasad

    2014-03-01

    The binding behavior of antibacterial drug sulfadiazine (SDZ) with water soluble globular proteins like bovine as well as human serum albumin (BSA and HSA, respectively) and lysozyme (LYS) was monitored by fluorescence titration and molecular docking calculations. The experimental data reveal that the quenching of the intrinsic protein fluorescence in presence of SDZ is due to the strong interaction in the drug binding site of the respective proteins. The Stern-Volmer plot shows positive deviation at higher quencher concentration for all the proteins and was explained in terms of a sphere of action model. The calculated fluorophore-quencher distances vary within 4 ~ 11 Å in different cases. Fluorescence experiments at different temperature indicate thermodynamically favorable binding of SDZ with the proteins with apparently strong association constant (~10(4)-10(5) M(-1)) and negative free energy of interaction within the range of -26.0 ~ -36.8 kJ mol(-1). The experimental findings are in good agreement with the respective parameters obtained from best energy ranked molecular docking calculation results of SDZ with all the three proteins.

  6. Plasmid-mediated fitness advantage of Acinetobacter baylyi in sulfadiazine-polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Jechalke, Sven; Kopmann, Christoph; Richter, Mona; Moenickes, Sylvia; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia

    2013-11-01

    LowGC-type plasmids conferring resistance to sulfonamides have been frequently isolated from manure and manured soil. However, knowledge on the dynamics of plasmid-carrying populations in soil and their response to the presence of sulfonamides is scarce. Here, we investigated effects of the sulfonamide resistance conferring plasmid pHHV216 on the fitness of Acinetobacter baylyi BD413 in soil after application of manure with or without the sulfonamide antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ). The persistence of A. baylyi BD413 pHHV216 in competition to its plasmid-free variant was followed in soil microcosms. CFU counts showed a decrease in A. baylyi BD413 in manured soils over the experimental period of 32 days by about 0.5 log units. The proportion of the plasmid-carrying populations decreased from 50 to < 40% in the absence of SDZ, while the proportion of plasmid-carrying BD413 increased from 50 to about 65% with SDZ added. The data suggest that SDZ introduced via manure into soil was bioaccessible, providing a fitness advantage for the plasmid-carrying population of BD413 in soil, while the plasmid conferred a fitness disadvantage when selective pressure by SDZ was absent. In future, this method may be used as a tool for the assessment of bioavailability of antibiotics in soil.

  7. Development of sulfadiazine-decorated PLGA nanoparticles loaded with 5-fluorouracil and cell viability.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Pedro Pires Goulart; Oliveira, Sheila Rodrigues; de Castro Rodrigues, Gabrielle; Gontijo, Savio Morato Lacerda; Lula, Ivana Silva; Cortés, Maria Esperanza; Denadai, Ângelo Márcio Leite; Sinisterra, Rubén Dario

    2015-01-08

    The aim of this work was to synthesize sulfadiazine-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (SUL-PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for the efficient delivery of 5-fluorouracil to cancer cells. The SUL-PLGA conjugation was assessed using FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, elemental analysis and TG and DTA analysis. The SUL-PLGA NPs were characterized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Additionally, the zeta potential, drug content, and in vitro 5-FU release were evaluated. We found that for the SUL-PLGA NPs, Dh = 114.0 nm, ZP = -32.1 mV and the encapsulation efficiency was 49%. The 5-FU was released for up to 7 days from the NPs. Cytotoxicity evaluations of 5-FU-loaded NPs (5-FU-SUL-PLGA and 5-FU-PLGA) on two cancer cell lines (Caco-2, A431) and two normal cell lines (fibroblast, osteoblast) were compared. Higher cytotoxicity of 5-FU-SUL-PLGA NPs were found to both cancer cell lines when compared to normal cell lines, demonstrating that the presence of SUL could significantly enhance the cytotoxicity of the 5-FU-SUL-PLGA NPs when compared with 5-FU-PLGA NPs. Thus, the development of 5-FU-SUL-PLGA NPs to cancer cells is a promising strategy for the 5-FU antitumor formulation in the future.

  8. Elucidating triplet-sensitized photolysis mechanisms of sulfadiazine and metal ions effects by quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Se; Song, Xuedan; Hao, Ce; Gao, Zhanxian; Chen, Jingwen; Qiu, Jieshan

    2015-03-01

    Sulfadiazine (SDZ) mainly proceeds triplet-sensitized photolysis with dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the aquatic environment. However, the mechanisms underlying the triplet-sensitized photolysis of SDZ with DOM have not been fully worked out. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of triplet-sensitized photolysis of SDZ(0) (neutral form) and SDZ(-) (anionic form) with four DOM analogues, i.e., fluorenone (FL), thioxanthone (TX), 2-acetonaphthone (2-AN), and 4-benzoylbenzoic acid (CBBP), and three metal ions (i.e., Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and Zn(2+)) effects using quantum chemical calculations. Results indicated that the triplet-sensitized photolysis mechanism of SDZ(0) with FL, TX, and 2-AN was hydrogen transfer, and with CBBP was electron transfer along with proton transfer (for complex SDZ(0)-CBBP2) and hydrogen transfer (for complex SDZ(0)-CBBP1). The triplet-sensitized photolysis mechanisms of SDZ(-) with FL, TX, and CBBP was electron transfer along with proton transfer, and with 2-AN was hydrogen transfer. The triplet-sensitized photolysis product of both SDZ(0) and SDZ(-) was a sulfur dioxide extrusion product (4-(2-iminopyrimidine-1(2H)-yl)aniline), but the formation routs of the products for SDZ(0) and SDZ(-) were different. In addition, effects of the metal ions on the triplet-sensitized photolysis of SDZ(0) and SDZ(-) were different. The metal ions promoted the triplet-sensitized photolysis of SDZ(0), but inhibited the triplet-sensitized photolysis of SDZ(-).

  9. Caffeine and sulfadiazine interact differently with human serum albumin: A combined fluorescence and molecular docking study.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mullah Muhaiminul; Sonu, Vikash K; Gashnga, Pynsakhiat Miki; Moyon, N Shaemningwar; Mitra, Sivaprasad

    2016-01-05

    The interaction and binding behavior of the well-known drug sulfadiazine (SDZ) and psychoactive stimulant caffeine (CAF) with human serum albumin (HSA) was monitored by in vitro fluorescence titration and molecular docking calculations under physiological condition. The quenching of protein fluorescence on addition of CAF is due to the formation of protein-drug complex in the ground state; whereas in case of SDZ, the experimental results were explained on the basis of sphere of action model. Although both these compounds bind preferentially in Sudlow's site 1 of the protein, the association constant is approximately two fold higher in case of SDZ (∼4.0×10(4)M(-1)) in comparison with CAF (∼9.3×10(2)M(-1)) and correlates well with physico-chemical properties like pKa and lipophilicity of the drugs. Temperature dependent fluorescence study reveals that both SDZ and CAF bind spontaneously with HSA. However, the binding of SDZ with the protein is mainly governed by the hydrophobic forces in contrast with that of CAF; where, the interaction is best explained in terms of electrostatic mechanism. Molecular docking calculation predicts the binding of these drugs in different location of sub-domain IIA in the protein structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbial response to repeated treatments of manure containing sulfadiazine and chlortetracycline in soil.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hua; Han, Yu L; Yin, Yuan M; Jin, Xiang X; Wang, Shao Y; Tang, Fei F; Cai, Lin; Yu, Yun L

    2014-01-01

    Substantive addition of antibiotic-contaminated manure to agricultural soil may lead to "persistent" residues of antibiotics and may affect soil health. Therefore, this study examines the effects of repeated manure treatments containing sulfadiazine (SDZ) and chlortetracycline (CTC) residues, both individually and combined, on the functional diversity and structure of soil microbial communities in the soils under laboratory conditions. The average well color development (AWCD), Simpson diversity index (1/D, dominant populations), Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H', richness), and McIntosh diversity index (U, evenness) in the antibiotics-treated soils decreased in the first 60-day treatment and then gradually recovered or even exceeded the initial level in the unamended soils with increasing treatment frequency. A total of 11 specific bands in temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) profiles were observed and sequence analyzed for five repeated treatments, and most of them belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. These results indicate that repeated treatments of manure containing SDZ and CTC residues can alter soil microbial community structure, although they have a temporary suppression effect on soil microbial functional diversity.

  11. Impregnation of silver sulfadiazine into bacterial cellulose for antimicrobial and biocompatible wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Luan, Jiabin; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Yudong; Song, Wenhui; Wang, Guojie; Guo, Jia; Ding, Xun

    2012-12-01

    Silver sulfadiazine (SSD) is a useful antimicrobial agent for wound treatment. However, recent findings indicate that conventional SSD cream has several drawbacks for use in treatments. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a promising material for wound dressing due to its outstanding properties of holding water, strength and degradability. Unfortunately, BC itself exhibits no antimicrobial activity. A combination of SSD and BC is envisaged to form a new class of wound dressing with both antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility, which has not been reported to date. To achieve antimicrobial activity, SSD particles were impregnated into BC by immersing BC into SSD suspension after ultrasonication, namely SSD-BC. Parameters influencing SSD-BC impregnation were systematically studied. Optimized conditions of sonication time for no less than 90 min and the proper pH value between 6.6 and 9.0 were suggested. The absorption of SSD onto the BC nanofibrous network was revealed by XRD and SEM analyses. The SSD-BC membranes exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus evaluated by the disc diffusion method. In addition, the favorable biocompatibility of SSD-BC was verified by MTT colorimetry, epidermal cell counting method and optical microscopy. The results demonstrate the potential of SSD-BC membranes as a new class of antimicrobial and biocompatible wound dressing.

  12. Wound dressings based on silver sulfadiazine solid lipid nanoparticles for tissue repairing.

    PubMed

    Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; D'Autilia, Francesca; Rossi, Silvia; Ferrari, Franca; Grisoli, Pietro; Sorrenti, Milena; Catenacci, Laura; Del Fante, Claudia; Perotti, Cesare; Caramella, Carla

    2013-05-01

    The management of difficult to heal wounds can considerably reduce the time required for tissue repairing and promote the healing process, minimizing the risk of infection. Silver compounds, especially silver sulfadiazine (AgSD), are often used to prevent or to treat wound colonization, also in presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, AgSD has been shown to be cytotoxic in vitro toward fibroblasts and keratinocytes and consequently to retard wound healing in vivo. Recently, platelet lysate (PL) has been proposed in clinical practice for the healing of persistent lesions. The aim of the present work was the development of wound dressings based on AgSD loaded in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), to be used in association with PL for the treatment for skin lesions. SLN were based on chondroitin sulfate and sodium hyaluronate, bioactive polymers characterized by well-known tissue repairing properties. The encapsulation of AgSD in SLN aimed at preventing the cytotoxic effect of the drug on normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) and at enabling the association of the drug with PL. SLN were loaded in wound dressings based on hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) or chitosan glutamate (CS glu). These polymers were chosen to obtain a sponge matrix with suitable elasticity and softness and, moreover, with good bioadhesive behavior on skin lesions. Dressings based on chitosan glutamate showed antimicrobial activity with and without PL. Even though further in vivo evaluation could be envisaged, chitosan based dressings demonstrated to be a suitable prototype for the treatment for skin lesions.

  13. Composite alginate and gelatin based bio-polymeric wafers containing silver sulfadiazine for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Boateng, Joshua; Burgos-Amador, Rocio; Okeke, Obinna; Pawar, Harshavardhan

    2015-08-01

    Lyophilized wafers comprising sodium alginate (SA) and gelatin (GE) (0/100, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75, 0/100 SA/GE, respectively) with silver sulfadiazine (SSD, 0.1% w/w) have been developed for potential application on infected chronic wounds. Polymer-drug interactions and physical form were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively, while morphological structure was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Functional characteristics [(mechanical hardness and adhesion using texture analyzer, and swelling capacity)] of blank wafers were determined in order to select the optimal formulations for drug loading. Finally, the in vitro drug dissolution properties of two selected drug loaded wafers were investigated. There was an increase in hardness and a decrease in mucoadhesion with increasing GE content. FTIR showed hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction between carboxyl of SA and amide of GE but no interaction between the polymers and drug was observed, with XRD showing that SSD remained crystalline during gel formulation and freeze-drying. The results suggest that 75/25 SA/GE formulations are the ideal formulations due to their uniformity and optimal mucoadhesivity and hydration. The drug loaded wafers showed controlled release of SSD over a 7h period which is expected to reduce bacterial load within infected wounds.

  14. How UV photolysis accelerates the biodegradation and mineralization of sulfadiazine (SD).

    PubMed

    Pan, Shihui; Yan, Ning; Liu, Xinyue; Wang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yongming; Liu, Rui; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2014-11-01

    Sulfadiazine (SD), one of broad-spectrum antibiotics, exhibits limited biodegradation in wastewater treatment due to its chemical structure, which requires initial mono-oxygenation reactions to initiate its biodegradation. Intimately coupling UV photolysis with biodegradation, realized with the internal loop photobiodegradation reactor, accelerated SD biodegradation and mineralization by 35 and 71 %, respectively. The main organic products from photolysis were 2-aminopyrimidine (2-AP), p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS), and aniline (An), and an SD-photolysis pathway could be identified using C, N, and S balances. Adding An or ABS (but not 2-AP) into the SD solution during biodegradation experiments (no UV photolysis) gave SD removal and mineralization rates similar to intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation. An SD biodegradation pathway, based on a diverse set of the experimental results, explains how the mineralization of ABS and An (but not 2-AP) provided internal electron carriers that accelerated the initial mono-oxygenation reactions of SD biodegradation. Thus, multiple lines of evidence support that the mechanism by which intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation accelerated SD removal and mineralization was through producing co-substrates whose oxidation produced electron equivalents that stimulated the initial mono-oxygenation reactions for SD biodegradation.

  15. Evaluation of Sulfadiazine Degradation in Three Newly Isolated Pure Bacterial Cultures.

    PubMed

    Mulla, Sikandar I; Sun, Qian; Hu, Anyi; Wang, Yuwen; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed to assess the biodegradation of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and characterization of heavy metal resistance in three pure bacterial cultures and also their chemotactic response towards 2-aminopyrimidine. The bacterial cultures were isolated from pig manure, activated sludge and sediment samples, by enrichment technique on SDZ (6 mg L-1). Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the microorganisms were identified within the genera of Paracoccus, Methylobacterium and Kribbella, which were further designated as SDZ-PM2-BSH30, SDZ-W2-SJ40 and SDZ-3S-SCL47. The three identified pure bacterial strains degraded up to 50.0, 55.2 and 60.0% of SDZ (5 mg L-1), respectively within 290 h. On the basis of quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography, 2-aminopyrimidine and 4-hydroxy-2-aminopyrimidine were identified as the main intermediates of SDZ biodegradation. These bacteria were also able to degrade the metabolite, 2-aminopyrimidine, of the SDZ. Furthermore, SDZ-PM2-BSH30, SDZ-W2-SJ40 and SDZ-3S-SCL47 also showed resistance to various heavy metals like copper, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, nickel and zinc. Additionally, all three bacteria exhibited positive chemotaxis towards 2-aminopyrimidine based on the drop plate method and capillary assay. The results of this study advanced our understanding about the microbial degradation of SDZ, which would be useful towards the future SDZ removal in the environment.

  16. Silver sulfadiazine loaded chitosan/chondroitin sulfate films for a potential wound dressing application.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, André R; Lopes, Laís C; Caleare, Angelo O; Britta, Elizandra A; Nakamura, Celso V; Rubira, Adley F; Muniz, Edvani C

    2013-03-01

    Silver sulfadiazine (AgSD) loaded chitosan/chondroitin sulfate (CHI/CS) films were formed to be applied as a potential wound dressing material. The liquid uptake capacity of both, CHI/CS and CHI/CS/AgSD, films exhibited a pH-dependent behavior. Tensile tests showed that the amount of CS used to form the films and the further incorporation of AgSD affect the mechanical properties of the films. In vitro AgSD-release assays showed that the CHI/CS mass ratio influences the AgSD release rate. All the investigated CHI/CS/AgSD films sustain the AgSD release up to 96h at physiological pH. Antibacterial activity and cell viability assays showed that all the CHI/CS/AgSD films have activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus but they were not toxic to Vero cells. The results presented in this work indicate that the CHI/CS/AgSD exhibits potential to be applied as a wound dressing material. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Transfer of flubendazole and tylosin from feed at cross-contamination levels to various poultry matrices.

    PubMed

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Delahaut, P; Pierret, G; De Backer, P; Daeseleire, E; Croubels, S

    2012-09-01

    Residues of veterinary drugs and feed additives used extensively in animal husbandry are sometimes found in edible matrices. In this study, broilers received experimental feed, containing either flubendazole or tylosin, at cross-contamination levels of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% of the therapeutic dose to determine the transfer ratio of these molecules from feed to poultry matrices. Breast and thigh muscle and liver samples were collected during treatment and depletion periods and then analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The parent molecule flubendazole and its 2 major metabolites were quantified. After 3 to 5 d, a plateau phase was reached, and a few days after withdrawal of the experimental feed, a depletion of residues was noted. Significant difference between both muscle types was noted for flubendazole. Strong metabolization of flubendazole in the liver was seen. For tylosin, no residue concentrations above the limit of quantification could be detected in muscle. None of the residue concentrations for either molecule exceeded the corresponding maximum residue limits.

  18. Proteomic analysis of tylosin-resistant Mycoplasma gallisepticum reveals enzymatic activities associated with resistance.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xi; Wu, Congming; Cui, Yaowen; Kang, Mengjiao; Li, Xiaowei; Ding, Shuangyang; Shen, Jianzhong

    2015-11-20

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a significant pathogenic bacterium that infects poultry, causing chronic respiratory disease and sinusitis in chickens and turkeys, respectively. M. gallisepticum infection poses a substantial economic threat to the poultry industry, and this threat is made worse by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. The mechanisms of resistance are often difficult to determine; for example, little is known about antibiotic resistance of M. gallisepticum at the proteome level. In this study, we performed comparative proteomic analyses of an antibiotic (tylosin)-resistant M. gallisepticum mutant and a susceptible parent strain using a combination of two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry. Thirteen proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the resistant strain compared to the susceptible strain. Most of these proteins were related to catalytic activity, including catalysis that promotes the formylation of initiator tRNA and energy production. Elongation factors Tu and G were over-expressed in the resistant strains, and this could promote the binding of tRNA to ribosomes and catalyze ribosomal translocation, the coordinated movement of tRNA, and conformational changes in the ribosome. Taken together, our results indicate that M. gallisepticum develops resistance to tylosin by regulating associated enzymatic activities.

  19. An improved liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of tylosin and its impurities.

    PubMed

    Ashenafi, Dunge; Hoogmartens, Jos; Adams, Erwin

    2011-10-01

    A selective reversed-phase (RP) liquid chromatographic (LC) method coupled with UV for the determination of tylosin and its related substances is described. The gradient method uses a Capcell pak C18 ACR column (25 cm×4.6 mm id, 5 μm) maintained at a temperature of 60°C. The mobile phases consist of acetonitrile, phosphate buffer pH 5.5 and water: (A; 27.5:10:62.5 v/v/v) and (B; 50:10:40 v/v/v). The flow rate is 1.0 mL/min and UV detection is performed at 280 nm. It allows the separation of all known and 22 other unknown related substances (≥0.02%) from the main compound and from one another. The method shows good precision, sensitivity, linearity (between 0.2 μg/mL and 1.25 mg/mL) and robustness. The limit of quantification is 0.2 μg/mL, corresponding to 0.020%. Seven bulk tylosin samples containing a large number of impurities were examined using this method. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Proteomic analysis of tylosin-resistant Mycoplasma gallisepticum reveals enzymatic activities associated with resistance

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xi; Wu, Congming; Cui, Yaowen; Kang, Mengjiao; Li, Xiaowei; Ding, Shuangyang; Shen, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a significant pathogenic bacterium that infects poultry, causing chronic respiratory disease and sinusitis in chickens and turkeys, respectively. M. gallisepticum infection poses a substantial economic threat to the poultry industry, and this threat is made worse by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. The mechanisms of resistance are often difficult to determine; for example, little is known about antibiotic resistance of M. gallisepticum at the proteome level. In this study, we performed comparative proteomic analyses of an antibiotic (tylosin)-resistant M. gallisepticum mutant and a susceptible parent strain using a combination of two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry. Thirteen proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the resistant strain compared to the susceptible strain. Most of these proteins were related to catalytic activity, including catalysis that promotes the formylation of initiator tRNA and energy production. Elongation factors Tu and G were over-expressed in the resistant strains, and this could promote the binding of tRNA to ribosomes and catalyze ribosomal translocation, the coordinated movement of tRNA, and conformational changes in the ribosome. Taken together, our results indicate that M. gallisepticum develops resistance to tylosin by regulating associated enzymatic activities. PMID:26584633

  1. Characterization of the Two Methylation Steps Involved in the Biosynthesis of Mycinose in Tylosin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunji; Song, Myoung Chong; Kim, Myoun Su; Beom, Ji Yoon; Lee, Eun Yeol; Kim, Dong-Myung; Nam, Sang-Jip; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2016-08-26

    The S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferases TylE and TylF catalyze the last two methylation reactions in the tylosin biosynthetic pathway of Streptomyces fradiae. It has long been known that the TylE-catalyzed C2‴-O-methylation of the 6-deoxy-d-allose bound to demethylmacrocin or demethyllactenocin precedes the TylF-catalyzed C3‴-O-methylation of the d-javose (C2‴-O-methylated 6-deoxy-d-allose) attached to macrocin or lactenocin. This study reveals the unexpected substrate promiscuity of TylE and TylF responsible for the biosynthesis of d-mycinose (C3‴-O-methylated d-javose) in tylosin through the identification of a new minor intermediate 2‴-O-demethyldesmycosin (2; 3‴-methyl-demethyllactenocin), which lacks a 2‴-O-methyl group on the mycinose moiety of desmycosin, along with 2‴-O-demethyltylosin (1; 3‴-methyl-demethylmacrocin) that was previously detected from the S. fradiae mutant containing a mutation in the tylE gene. These results unveil the unique substrate flexibility of TylE and TylF and demonstrate their potential for the engineered biosynthesis of novel glycosylated macrolide derivatives.

  2. Effects of in-feed copper and tylosin supplementations on copper and antimicrobial resistance in faecal enterococci of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Amachawadi, R G; Scott, H M; Aperce, C; Vinasco, J; Drouillard, J S; Nagaraja, T G

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to investigate whether in-feed supplementation of copper, at elevated level, co-selects for macrolide resistance in faecal enterococci. The study was conducted in cattle (n = 80) with a 2 × 2 factorial design of copper (10 or 100 mg kg(-1) of feed) and tylosin (0 or 10 mg kg(-1) of feed). Thirty-seven isolates (4·6%; 37/800) of faecal enterococci were positive for the tcrB and all were Enterococcus faecium. The prevalence was higher among cattle fed diets with copper and tylosin (8·5%) compared to control (2·0%), copper (4·5%) and tylosin (3·5%) alone. All tcrB-positive isolates were positive for erm(B) and tet(M) genes. Median copper minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for tcrB-positive and tcrB-negative enterococci were 20 and 4 mmol l(-1) , respectively. Feeding of elevated dietary copper and tylosin alone or in combination resulted in an increased prevalence of tcrB and erm(B)-mediated copper and tylosin-resistant faecal enterococci in feedlot cattle. In-feed supplementation of elevated dietary copper has the potential to co-select for macrolide resistance. Further studies are warranted to investigate the factors involved in maintenance and dissemination of the resistance determinants and their co-selection mechanism in relation to feed-grade antimicrobials' usage in feedlot cattle. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Degradation of oxytetracycline and its impacts on biogas-producing microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Coban, Halil; Ertekin, Emine; Ince, Orhan; Turker, Gokhan; Akyol, Çağrı; Ince, Bahar

    2016-07-01

    The effect of veterinary antibiotics in anaerobic digesters is a concern where methane production efficiency is highly dependent on microbial community structure. In this study, both anaerobic degradation of a common veterinary antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC), and its effects on an anaerobic digester microbial community were investigated. Qualitative and quantitative molecular tools were used to monitor changes in microbial community structure during a 60-day batch incubation period of cow manure with the addition of different concentrations of the antibiotic. Molecular data were interpreted by a further redundancy analysis as a multivariate statistics approach. At the end of the experiment, approximately 48, 33, and 17 % of the initially added 50, 100, and 200 mg l(-1) of OTC was still present in the serum bottles which reduced the biogas production via accumulation of some of the volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Biogas production was highly correlated with Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales gene copy numbers, and those parameters were negatively affected with oxytetracycline and VFA concentrations.

  4. Impact of 4-epi-oxytetracycline on the gut microbiota and blood metabolomics of Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hongxing; Xiao, Hailong; Zhang, Kai; Lu, Zhenmei

    2016-01-01

    The impact of 4-epi-oxytetracycline (4-EOTC), one of the main oxytetracycline (OTC) metabolites, on the gut microbiota and physiological metabolism of Wistar rats was analyzed to explore the dynamic alterations apparent after repeated oral exposure (0.5, 5.0 or 50.0 mg/kg bw) for 15 days as shown by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and UPLC-Q-TOF/MS analysis. Both principal component analysis and cluster analysis showed consistently altered patterns with distinct differences in the treated groups versus the control groups. 4-EOTC treatment at 5.0 or 50.0 mg/kg increased the relative abundance of the Actinobacteria, specifically Bifidobacteriaceae, and improved the synthesis of lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC), as shown by the lipid biomarkers LysoPC(16:0), LysoPC(18:3), LysoPC(20:3), and LysoPC(20:4). The metabolomic analysis of urine samples also identified four other decreased metabolites: diacylglycerol, sphingomyelin, triacylglycerol, and phosphatidylglycerol. Notably, the significant changes observed in these biomarkers demonstrated the ongoing disorder induced by 4-EOTC. Blood and urine analysis revealed that residual 4-EOTC accumulated in the rats, even two weeks after oral 4-EOTC administration, ceased. Thus, through thorough analysis, it can be concluded that the alteration of the gut microbiota and disorders in blood metabolomics are correlated with 4-EOTC treatment. PMID:26976662

  5. Effect of dehydration on the pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline hydrochloride administered intravenously in goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Elsheikh, H A; Osman Intisar, A M; Eltayeb, I B; Salam Abdullah, A

    1998-09-01

    1. The effects of various levels of dehydration induced by water deprivation were studied in six Nubian goats on the pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline after intravenous administration (5 mg/kg). 2. In goats that had lost an average of 7.6% body weight after 2 days of water deprivation, the elimination rate constant of the drug was significantly decreased (P<0.01) and the total body clearance was significantly slower (P<0.001). No statistically significant changes were observed in the pharmacokinetic parameters describing the distribution of the drug at this dehydration level. 3. Water deprivation for 3 or 4 days resulted in a level of dehydration at which the goats lost an average of 10.3% or 12.7% of their body weight, respectively; significant changes were observed in the pharmacokinetic distribution and elimination parameters of oxytetracycline. The volume of distribution at steady state was significantly decreased (P<0.01). Significantly slower total body clearance (P<0.001) and subsequent prolongation of the elimination half-life were found at these dehydration levels. 4. The alterations caused by dehydration on the disposition kinetics of the drug should be considered for better definition of dosage regimens for sick, dehydrated animals.

  6. Molecular characterizations of oxytetracycline resistant bacteria and their resistance genes from mariculture waters of China.

    PubMed

    Dang, Hongyue; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Song, Linsheng; Chang, Yaqing; Yang, Guanpin

    2006-11-01

    Oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria were isolated from a mariculture farm in China, and accounted for 32.23% and 5.63% of the total culturable microbes of the sea cucumber and the sea urchin rearing waters respectively. Marine vibrios, especially strains related to Vibrio splendidus or V. tasmaniensis, were the most abundant resistant isolates. For oxytetracycline resistance, tet(A), tet(B) and tet(D) genes were detected in both sea cucumber and sea urchin rearing ponds. The dominant resistance type for V. tasmaniensis-like strains was the combination of both tet(A) and tet(B) genes, while the major resistance type for V. splendidus-like strains was a single tet(D) gene. Most of the sea cucumber tet-positive isolates harbored a chloramphenicol-resistance gene, either cat IV or cat II, while only a few sea urchin tet-positive isolates harbored a cat gene, actually cat IV. The coexistence of tet and cat genes in the strains isolated from the mariculture farm studied was helpful in explaining some of the multi-resistance mechanisms.

  7. Transport of oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and ivermectin in surface runoff from irrigated pasture.

    PubMed

    Bair, Daniel A; Popova, Ina E; Tate, Kenneth W; Parikh, Sanjai J

    2017-09-02

    The transport of oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and ivermectin from manure was assessed via surface runoff on irrigated pasture. Surface runoff plots in the Sierra Foothills of Northern California were used to evaluate the effects of irrigation water application rates, pharmaceutical application conditions, vegetative cover, and vegetative filter strip length on the pharmaceutical discharge in surface runoff. Experiments were designed to permit the maximum potential transport of pharmaceuticals to surface runoff water, which included pre-irrigation to saturate soil, trimming grass where manure was applied, and laying a continuous manure strip perpendicular to the flow of water. However, due to high sorption of the pharmaceuticals to manure and soil, less than 0.1% of applied pharmaceuticals were detected in runoff water. Results demonstrated an increase of pharmaceutical transport in surface runoff with increased pharmaceutical concentration in manure, the concentration of pharmaceuticals in runoff water remained constant with increased irrigation flow rate, and no appreciable decrease in pharmaceutical runoff was produced with the vegetative filter strip length increased from 30.5 to 91.5 cm. Most of the applied pharmaceuticals were retained in the manure or within the upper 5 cm of soil directly beneath the manure application sites. As this study evaluated conditions for high transport potential, the data suggest that the risk for significant chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and ivermectin transport to surface water from cattle manure on irrigated pasture is low.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline after intramuscular administration with lidocaine in sheep, comparison with a conventional formulation.

    PubMed

    Moreno, L; Serrano, J M; Guimerá, M E; Carceles, C M

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic behaviour of oxytetracycline (OTC) was studied in 11 sheep after intravenous and intramuscular administration at a single dosage of 20 mg kg(-1) bodyweight. A conventional formulation was injected by the intravenous route and two different preparations were administered by the intramuscular route: a conventional formulation (T-100) and an aqueous solution of OTC with lidocaine (1 per cent) (OTC-L). The objective was to determine whether there are differences between both formulations in the disposition kinetics of OTC after intramuscular administration to sheep. After intravenous administration of the conventional formulation, plasma oxytetracycline concentrations were best fitted to an open two-compartment model. Mean apparent volume of distribution was 0.77+/-0.02 litre kg(-1) and the harmonic mean half-life was three hours. The OTC transfer process between central and peripheral compartments was fast and that did not influence the elimination process. After intramuscular administrations of both formulations, half-lives were longer than after intravenous administration (mean values of 14.1 and 58.2 hours for T-100 and OTC-L respectively). In both cases, a biphasic absorption, a 'flip-flop' model and a complete bioavailability were found. OTC-L provided therapeutic plasma concentrations over 0.5 microg ml(-1) (the minimum inhibitory concentration for most susceptible pathogens) for a longer period of time than T-100 (72 hours compared with 36 or 48 hours).

  9. Development of an efficient extraction method for oxytetracycline in animal manure for high performance liquid chromatography analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxytetracycline (2-(amino-hydroxy-methylidene)-4-dimethylamino-5,6,10,11,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-4,4a,5,5a-tetrahydrotetracene- 1,3,12-trione) is a majormember of the tetracycline antibiotics family ofwhich are widely administered to animals in concentrated animal feeding operations for purposes o...

  10. Reverse micelle-based microencapsulation of oxytetracycline hydrochloride into poly-d,l-lactide-co-glycolide microspheres.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunjoo; Lee, Beom-Jin; Sah, Hongkee

    2007-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to solubilize oxytetracycline hydrochloride (HCl) in reverse micelles to prepare poly-d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) microspheres and to explore parameters affecting its encapsulation efficiency. Oxytetracycline HCl was dissolved in the reverse micelles consisting of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, water, and ethyl formate. A PLGA polymer was then dissolved in the reverse micellar solution, and a modified solvent quenching procedure was carried out to prepare PLGA microspheres. Encapsulation efficiencies of oxytetracycline HCl ranged from 2.3 +/- 0.2 to 24.9 +/- 4.6%, depending on experimental conditions. Important parameters affecting its encapsulation efficiency included the amounts of water used to prepare the reverse micelles and PLGA polymer. With regard to microsphere morphology, the reverse micellar process produced the microspheres with smooth and pore-free surfaces. In particular, their internal matrices did not possess hollow cavities that were frequently observed when a typical double emulsion technique was used to make microspheres. In summary, it was possible to encapsulate oxytetracycline HCl into PLGA microspheres via the ethyl formate-based reverse micellar technique. We also anticipate that the use of ethyl formate could avoid environmental and human toxicity issues associated with methylene chloride.

  11. Determination of oxytetracycline residue in shrimp using a portable time-resolved analyzer and HPLC-MS/MS validation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is the most prominent antibiotic in shrimp aquaculture. In this work, OTC residue in shrimp muscle is determined using a portable analyzer built in this laboratory based on europium-sensitized luminescence (ESL). First, OTC is extracted in McIlvaine buffer at pH 4.0 with 0.1 ...

  12. The Genome Sequence of an Oxytetracycline-Resistant Isolate of the Fish Pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis Harbors a Multidrug Resistance Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Bohle, Harry; Henríquez, Patricio; Grothusen, Horst; Navas, Esteban; Bustamante, Fernando; Bustos, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The amount of antibiotics needed to counteract frequent piscirickettsiosis outbreaks is a major concern for the Chilean salmon industry. Resistance to antibiotics may contribute to this issue. To understand the genetics underlying Piscirickettsia salmonis-resistant phenotypes, the genome of AY3800B, an oxytetracycline-resistant isolate bearing a multidrug resistance plasmid, is presented here. PMID:28153906

  13. Rapid screening of oxytetracycline residue in catfish muscle by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and europium-sensitized luminescence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) residue in catfish muscle was screened by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and europium-sensitized luminescence (ESL). After extraction in EDTA, HCl, and acetonitrile, cleanup was carried out by DLLME, and ESL was measured at microgram = 385 nm and wavelength = ...

  14. Adsorption and oxidation of SO₂in a fixed-bed reactor using activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and impregnated with copper.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Baohua; Yu, Lei; Song, Hanning; Li, Yaqi; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Bin; Duan, Erhong

    2015-02-01

    The SO₂removal ability (including adsorption and oxidation ability) of activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and impregnated with copper was investigated. The activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and modified with copper was characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The effects of the catalysts, SO₂concentration, weight hourly space velocity, and temperature on the SO₂adsorption and oxidation activity were evaluated. Activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and used as catalyst supports for copper oxide catalysts provided high catalytic activity for the adsorbing and oxidizing of SO₂from flue gases.

  15. A prospective, randomized trial of silver containing hydrofiber dressing versus 1% silver sulfadiazine for the treatment of partial thickness burns.

    PubMed

    Muangman, Pornprom; Pundee, Chanin; Opasanon, Supaporn; Muangman, Saipin

    2010-08-01

    Silver sulfadiazine has been used as a topical burn wound treatment for many years. Pain associated with dressing changes is a common problem in burn wounds. Aquacel Ag, a hydrofiber dressing coated with ionic silver has been reported to reduce burn wound infection and promote antimicrobial activity. The purpose of this study was to show the benefits of Aquacel Ag for the treatment of partial thickness burns. This prospective randomized study was conducted in 70 patients who had partial thickness burns less than 15% of total body surface area and were treated at Siriraj outpatient burn clinic during December 2006-February 2008. Patients were divided into two groups: Aquacel Ag-treated group with dressing changes every 3 days (35 patients) and 1% silver sulfadiazine-treated group, with daily dressing changes (35 patients). There was no difference in demographic data including age, gender, burn percentage between groups. Time-to-wound healing pain score during dressing change and cost of treatment were compared between both groups. Time-to-wound closure was significantly shorter in the Aquacel Ag-treated group (10 +/- 3 versus 13.7 +/- 4 days, P < 0.02) as well as pain scores at days 1, 3 and 7 (4.1 +/- 2.1, 2.1 +/- 1.8, 0.9 +/- 1.4 versus 6.1 +/- 2.3, 5.2 +/- 2.1, 3.3 +/- 1.9, respectively, P < 0.02). Total cost of treatment was 52 +/- 29 US dollars for the Aquacel Ag-treated group versus 93 +/- 36 US dollars for the silver sulfadiazine-treated group. This study showed that Aquacel Ag increased time to healing, decreased pain symptoms and increased patient convenience because of limiting the frequency of replacement of the dressing at lower total cost. This study confirms the efficacy of Aquacel Ag for the treatment of partial thickness burns at an outpatient clinic.

  16. A conceptual model describing the fate of sulfadiazine and its metabolites observed in manure-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Zarfl, Christiane; Klasmeier, Jörg; Matthies, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Sulfadiazine (SDZ) belongs to the chemical class of sulfonamides, one of the most important groups of antibiotics applied in animal husbandry in Europe. These antibiotics end up in the soil after manure from treated animals is applied as fertilizer. They can inhibit soil microbial functions and enhance the spread of resistance genes among soil microorganisms. In order to assess the exposure of soil microorganisms to SDZ, a conceptual kinetic model for the prediction of temporally resolved antibiotic concentrations in soil was developed. The model includes transformation reactions, reversible sequestration and the formation of non-extractable residues (NER) from SDZ and its main metabolites N(4)-acetyl-sulfadiazine (N-ac-SDZ) and 4-hydroxy-sulfadiazine (OH-SDZ). The optimum model structure and rate constants of SDZ kinetics and its metabolites were determined by fitting different model alternatives to sequential extraction data of a manure-amended Cambisol soil. N-ac-SDZ is degraded to SDZ with a half-life of 4d, whereas OH-SDZ is not. Though, based on the available data, the hydroxylation of SDZ seems to be negligible, it is still included in the model structure since this process has been observed in recent studies. Sequestration into a residual fraction has similar kinetics for SDZ, N-ac-SDZ and OH-SDZ and is one order of magnitude faster than the reverse translocation. The irreversible formation of NER is restricted to SDZ and OH-SDZ. The model shows good agreement when applied to extraction data measured independently for a Luvisol soil. The combination of sequential extraction data and the conceptual kinetic model enables us to gain further insight into the long-term fate and exposure of sulfonamides in soil.

  17. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic integration and modelling of oxytetracycline administered alone and in combination with carprofen in calves.

    PubMed

    Brentnall, C; Cheng, Z; McKellar, Q A; Lees, P

    2013-06-01

    The pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of oxytetracycline were investigated, when administered both alone and in the presence of carprofen, in healthy calves. The study comprised a four treatment, four sequences, and four period cross-over design and used a tissue cage model, which permitted the collection of serum, inflamed tissue cage fluid (exudate) and non-inflamed tissue cage fluid (transudate). There were no clinically relevant differences in the PK profile of oxytetracycline when administered alone and when administered with carprofen. PK-PD integration was undertaken for a pathogenic strain of Mannheimia haemolytic (A1 76/1), by correlating in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and time-kill data with in vivo PK data obtained in the cross-over study. Based on in vitro susceptibility in cation adjusted Mueller Hinton Broth (CAMHB) and in vivo determined PK variables, ratios of maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under curve (AUC) to MIC and time for which concentration exceeded MIC (T>MIC) were determined. The CAMHB MIC data satisfied integrated PK/PD relationships predicted to achieve efficacy for approximately 48 h after dosing; mean values for serum were 5.13 (Cmax/MIC), 49.3 h (T>MIC) and 126.6 h (AUC(96h)/MIC). Similar findings were obtained when oxytetracycline was administered in the presence of carprofen, with PK-PD indices based on MIC determined in CAMHB. However, PK-PD integration of data, based on oxytetracycline MICs determined in the biological fluids, serum, exudate and transudate, suggest that it possesses, at most, limited direct killing activity against the M. haemolytica strain A1 76/1; mean values for serum were 0.277 (Cmax/MIC), 0 h (T>MIC) and 6.84 h (AUC(96h)/MIC). The data suggest that the beneficial therapeutic effects of oxytetracycline may depend, at least in part, on actions other than direct inhibition of bacterial growth.

  18. Evaluation of Sulfadiazine Degradation in Three Newly Isolated Pure Bacterial Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Mulla, Sikandar I.; Sun, Qian; Hu, Anyi; Wang, Yuwen; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed to assess the biodegradation of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and characterization of heavy metal resistance in three pure bacterial cultures and also their chemotactic response towards 2-aminopyrimidine. The bacterial cultures were isolated from pig manure, activated sludge and sediment samples, by enrichment technique on SDZ (6 mg L-1). Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the microorganisms were identified within the genera of Paracoccus, Methylobacterium and Kribbella, which were further designated as SDZ-PM2-BSH30, SDZ-W2-SJ40 and SDZ-3S-SCL47. The three identified pure bacterial strains degraded up to 50.0, 55.2 and 60.0% of SDZ (5 mg L-1), respectively within 290 h. On the basis of quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography, 2-aminopyrimidine and 4-hydroxy-2-aminopyrimidine were identified as the main intermediates of SDZ biodegradation. These bacteria were also able to degrade the metabolite, 2-aminopyrimidine, of the SDZ. Furthermore, SDZ-PM2-BSH30, SDZ-W2-SJ40 and SDZ-3S-SCL47 also showed resistance to various heavy metals like copper, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, nickel and zinc. Additionally, all three bacteria exhibited positive chemotaxis towards 2-aminopyrimidine based on the drop plate method and capillary assay. The results of this study advanced our understanding about the microbial degradation of SDZ, which would be useful towards the future SDZ removal in the environment. PMID:27755578

  19. Distribution of orally administered trimethoprim and sulfadiazine into noninfected subcutaneous tissue chambers in adult ponies.

    PubMed

    van Duijkeren, E; Ensink, J M; Meijer, L A

    2002-08-01

    The distribution of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfadiazine (SDZ) into subcutaneously implanted noninfected tissue chambers was studied in healthy adult ponies. Six ponies were given an oral TMP/SDZ paste formulation at a dose of 5 mg/kg TMP and 25 mg/kg SDZ at 12 h intervals for 2 days in order to reach steady-state concentrations. Plasma concentrations and tissue chamber fluid (TCF) concentrations of both drugs were measured at regular intervals during a period commencing 24 h after the last oral administration. The peak concentration of TMP (mean +/- SD) was 2.92 +/- 0.86 microg/mL for plasma and 1.09 +/- 0.25 microg/mL for TCF. For SDZ, the mean peak concentration was 40.20 +/- 14.74 microg/mL for plasma and 23.48 +/- 5.84 microg/mL for TCF. TMP peak concentrations in plasma were reached at 3.17 +/- 03.48 h and those in TCF at 7.33 +/- 03.72 h. SDZ peak concentrations in plasma were reached at 1.83 +/- 02.04 h and those in TCF at 8.00 +/- 03.10 h. Concentrations of TMP and SDZ in TCF remained above the generally accepted breakpoint for susceptibility (0.5/9.5 for the TMP/SDZ combination) for 12 h. Therefore, in ponies oral administration of TMP/SDZ at a dose rate of 30 mg/kg given twice daily in the form of a paste should be appropriate for effective treatment of infections caused by susceptible bacteria.

  20. Antimicrobial Wound Dressing Containing Silver Sulfadiazine With High Biocompatibility: In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Mina; Shamloo, Amir; Aghababaei, Zahra; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Moravvej, Hamideh

    2016-08-01

    Many patients all over the world suffer from acute wounds caused by traumas or burns. In most crucial cases, skin regeneration cannot be promoted spontaneously, and skin grafts are applied as the main treatment. However, this therapy has some drawbacks which motivate researchers to develop wound dressings. In this study, electrospun mats consisting of polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) incorporated with silver sulfadiazine (SSD) are proposed to be used as antimicrobial wound dressings with the capability of cell seeding. Various amounts of SSD were loaded into PVA nanofibers, and the effects of SSD particles on the morphological characteristics of nanofibers, mechanical behaviors, and physical properties of the mats were studied for the first time. The cellular viability, antimicrobial properties of the scaffolds, and release behavior of silver were also examined. Finally, the best concentration of SSD was determined based on the quality of nanofibers, antibacterial features, and the ability of cellular attachment and proliferation. Fibronectin was also coated to enhance the biocompatibility of the selective scaffold. It was shown that the mats have appropriate mechanical properties with good handling ability in wet environment and also have a hydrophilic surface to adhere to the wound bed. Results indicate that SSD particles increase the fiber diameter and hydrophilic properties, while they weaken the mechanical characteristics of the mats. Furthermore, 5 wt% SSD/PVA was determined as the best concentration of SSD as it results in a desirable fiber quality for the mats with enough antimicrobial properties and acceptable cell proliferation on the surface. Coating fibronectin was also introduced as an effective method to increase the biocompatibility of the scaffolds incorporated with SSD particles. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Sulfadiazine binds and unfolds bovine serum albumin: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Sajih Ali, Mohd

    2013-11-01

    Sulfonamide derivatives, such as sulfadiazine (SD) are used as antibiotics and, very recently, anti-amyloid properties of these have been reported. We have evaluated binding of SD with bovine serum albumin (BSA) followed by unfolding of protein. Studies were accomplished at physiological conditions of temperature (37 °C) and pH (7.4), employing UV, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopies. In presence of drug, UV spectrum of BSA was altered from the spectrum of native BSA due to the interaction between albumin and drug. Excitation of protein at 295 nm showed that fluorescence quenching of BSA by SD is a result of the formation of SD–BSA complex. The data were analyzed using Stern–Volmer and Lineweaver–Burk methods. From both methods it was evaluated that the quenching involved in BSA–SD binding was static. BSA had only one binding site for SD. Synchronous fluorescence spectra have shown a red shift and advocated that hydrophobicity around both Trp and Tyr residues was decreased. CD results revealed that the conformation of macromolecule remain undisturbed at low concentrations (up to 20 μM of the SD) and there was small perturbation in the secondary structure from 20 to 50 μM of SD followed by a large change and consequent unfolding on further increase in the drug concentration. Both synchronous and CD measurements were consistent to each other. FTIR spectra revealed the shifting of amide I band which is also an indication of conformational change of the protein.

  2. Dynamics of soil bacterial communities in response to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guo-Chun; Radl, Viviane; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Jechalke, Sven; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) which were applied together with manure at three different time points over a period of 133 days. Samples were taken 3 and 60 days after each manure application. The effects of SDZ on soil bacterial communities were explored by barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. Samples with high concentration of SDZ were analyzed on day 193 only. Repeated inputs of SDZ, especially at a high concentration, caused pronounced changes in bacterial community compositions. By comparison with the initial soil, we could observe an increase of the disturbance and a decrease of the stability of soil bacterial communities as a result of SDZ manure application compared to the manure treatment without SDZ. The number of taxa significantly affected by the presence of SDZ increased with the times of manure application and was highest during the treatment with high SDZ-concentration. Numerous taxa, known to harbor also human pathogens, such as Devosia, Shinella, Stenotrophomonas, Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Leifsonia, Gemmatimonas, were enriched in the soil when SDZ was present while the abundance of bacteria which typically contribute to high soil quality belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Lysobacter, Hydrogenophaga, and Adhaeribacter decreased in response to the repeated application of manure and SDZ.

  3. The Healing Effect of Arnebia Euchroma Ointment versus Silver Sulfadiazine on Burn Wounds in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Ebrahim; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Akbari, Jafar; Enayati-Fard, Reza; Azizi, Sohail; Azadbakht, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Burn is still a majordevastating condition in emergency medicine departments among both genders and all age groups in all developed and developing countries, leading to physical, psychological scars and economical burden. The present study aimed to determine the healing effect of topical treatment with Arnebia euchroma on second-degree burn wound in rats. METHODS Fifty rats were divided into 4 equal groups receiving the ointment base, normal saline (NS), standard 1% silver sulfadiazine (SSD), and 5% and 10% Arnebia euchroma ointments (AEO). The mean of burn area, percentage of wound contraction, histopathological and bacteriological assessments in the injured area were dtermined during the study. RESULTS Average area of wound on the 10th day was 10.2±2.3, 8.4±2.6, 12.4±2.5, 5.9±2.2 and 5.7±2 cm2 for ointment base, NS, 1% SSD, and 5% and 10% AEO, respectively. Wound size was significantly lower in 10% AEO than 1% SSD and control groups on the 10th day post-burn injury. On day 11, the percentage of wound contraction in 5% and 10% AEO was 53.9%±14.7% and 55.9±10.5% which was more than 1% SSD (15.3±10.8%). The collagen fibers were well formed and horizontally-oriented in 5% and 10% AEO groups when compared with other groups. CONCLUSION Arnebia euchroma ointment was an effective treatment for healing of burn wounds in comparison with SSD and can be regarded as an alternative topical treatment for burn wounds. PMID:26284182

  4. Occurrence and Dissipation of the Antibiotics Sulfamethoxazole, Sulfadiazine, Trimethoprim, and Enrofloxacin in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Dang Giang, Chau; Sebesvari, Zita; Renaud, Fabrice; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Hoang Minh, Quang; Amelung, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    The Mekong Delta in Vietnam has seen a rapid development and intensification of aquaculture in the last decades, with a corresponding widespread use of antibiotics. This study provides information on current antibiotic use in freshwater aquaculture, as well as on resulting antibiotic concentrations in the aquatic environment of the Mekong Delta. Two major production steps, fish hatcheries and mature fish cultivation, were surveyed (50 fish farm interviews) for antibiotic use. Different water sources, including surface water, groundwater and piped water (164 water samples) were systematically screened for antibiotic residues. To better understand antibiotic fate under tropical conditions, the dissipation behavior of selected antibiotics in the aquatic environment was investigated for the first time in mesocosm experiments. None of the investigated antibiotics were detected in groundwater and piped water samples. Surface water, which is still often used for drinking and domestic purposes by local populations, contained median concentrations of 21 ng L-1 sulfamethoxazole (SMX), 4 ng L-1 sulfadiazine (SDZ), 17 ng L-1 trimethoprim (TRIM), and 12 ng L-1 enrofloxacin (ENRO). These concentrations were lower than the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), suggesting limited antibiotic-related risk to aquatic ecosystems in the monitored systems. The dissipation half-lives of the studied antibiotics ranged from <1 to 44 days, depending on the availability of sunlight and sediment. Among the studied antibiotics TRIM was the most persistent in water systems. TRIM was not susceptible to photodegradation, while the dissipation of ENRO and SDZ was influenced by photolysis. The recorded dissipation models gave good predictions of the occurrence and concentrations of TRIM, ENRO and SDZ in surface water. In summary, the currently measured concentrations of the investigated antibiotics are unlikely to cause immediate risks to the

  5. The Healing Effect of Arnebia Euchroma Ointment versus Silver Sulfadiazine on Burn Wounds in Rat.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Ebrahim; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Akbari, Jafar; Enayati-Fard, Reza; Azizi, Sohail; Azadbakht, Masoud

    2015-07-01

    Burn is still a majordevastating condition in emergency medicine departments among both genders and all age groups in all developed and developing countries, leading to physical, psychological scars and economical burden. The present study aimed to determine the healing effect of topical treatment with Arnebia euchroma on second-degree burn wound in rats. Fifty rats were divided into 4 equal groups receiving the ointment base, normal saline (NS), standard 1% silver sulfadiazine (SSD), and 5% and 10% Arnebia euchroma ointments (AEO). The mean of burn area, percentage of wound contraction, histopathological and bacteriological assessments in the injured area were dtermined during the study. Average area of wound on the 10(th) day was 10.2±2.3, 8.4±2.6, 12.4±2.5, 5.9±2.2 and 5.7±2 cm(2) for ointment base, NS, 1% SSD, and 5% and 10% AEO, respectively. Wound size was significantly lower in 10% AEO than 1% SSD and control groups on the 10(th) day post-burn injury. On day 11, the percentage of wound contraction in 5% and 10% AEO was 53.9%±14.7% and 55.9±10.5% which was more than 1% SSD (15.3±10.8%). The collagen fibers were well formed and horizontally-oriented in 5% and 10% AEO groups when compared with other groups. Arnebia euchroma ointment was an effective treatment for healing of burn wounds in comparison with SSD and can be regarded as an alternative topical treatment for burn wounds.

  6. Evaluation of genipin-crosslinked chitosan hydrogels as a potential carrier for silver sulfadiazine nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Gan, Hui; Meng, Zhiyun; Gu, Ruolan; Wu, Zhuona; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Sun, Wenzhong; Li, Jian; Zheng, Ying; Sun, Tao; Dou, Guifang

    2016-12-01

    In the present study genipin crosslinked chitosan (CHI) hydrogels, which had been constructed and reported in our previous studies (Gao et al., 2014 [22]), were further evaluated for their advantage as a carrier for silver sulfadiazine (AgSD) nanocrystal systems. Firstly, AgSD nanocrystals with a mean particle size of 289nm were prepared by wet milling method and encapsulated into genipin crosslinked CHI hydrogels. AgSD nanocrystals displayed a uniform distribution and very good physical stability in the hydrogel network. Swelling-dependent release pattern was found for AgSD nanocrystals from hydrogels and the release profile could be well fitted with Peppas equation. When AgSD nanocrystals were encapsulated in hydrogels their fibroblast cytotoxicity decreased markedly, and their antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were still comparable to unencapsulated AgSD nanocrystals. In vivo evaluation in excision and burn cutaneous wound models in mice showed that AgSD nanocrystal hydrogels markedly decreased the expression of inflammatory cytokine IL-6, but increased the levels of growth factors VEGF-A and TGF-β1. Histopathologically, the wounds treated by hydrogels containing AgSD nanocrystals showed the best healing state compared with commercial AgSD cream, hydrogels containing AgSD bulk powders and blank hydrogels. The wounds treated by AgSD nanocrystal hydrogels were dominated by marked fibroblast proliferation, new blood vessels and thick regenerated epithelial layer. Sirius Red staining assay indicated that AgSD nanocrystal hydrogels resulted in more collagen deposition characterized by a large proportion of type I fibers. Our study suggested that genipin-crosslinked CHI hydrogel was a potential carrier for local antibacterial nanomedicines. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Impaired wound healing in diabetes: the rationale for clinical use of hyaluronic acid plus silver sulfadiazine.

    PubMed

    Prosdocimi, M; Bevilacqua, C

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes-related chronic cutaneous lesions are a serious and common problem, as well as a major cause for hospital admissions, although no general consensus has been reached on the best available treatment for this frequent pathological condition. The primary objective of this review is to analyze the most recent evidence supporting the clinical use of a formulation containing hyaluronic acid (HA) and silver sulfadiazine (SSD) in the diabetic patient. This formulation has been widely used in cutaneous lesions of various etiology, both acute and chronic. The mechanisms underlying tissue repair are altered in the diabetic patient with respect to a healthy individual, namely for a diminished response of the keratinocytes and a reduced capacity of the endothelial cells to form new vessels (neoangiogenesis). Since HA favours the tissue repair process through various mechanisms, among these an increased angiogenic response and an activation of the keratinocytes, its application in diabetic lesions is a rational choice. SSD has been widely used in acute cutaneous lesions, particularly in burns, where it is considered the "gold standard" by which other treatments are measured. The efficacy of SSD in terms of antibacterial activity spectrum on various types of microorganisms, with a favourable safety profile, supports the potential use of SSD in diabetic lesions, where the presence of infection caused by bacteria resistant to most available antibiotics, but not to SSD, is rather frequent. In conclusion, the combined use of HA and SSD in the diabetic patient proves a rational choice and is potentially capable of improving the general clinical situation, on the basis of the synergic effect to control infection and accelerate the tissue repair process.

  8. Occurrence and Dissipation of the Antibiotics Sulfamethoxazole, Sulfadiazine, Trimethoprim, and Enrofloxacin in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen Dang Giang, Chau; Sebesvari, Zita; Renaud, Fabrice; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Hoang Minh, Quang; Amelung, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    The Mekong Delta in Vietnam has seen a rapid development and intensification of aquaculture in the last decades, with a corresponding widespread use of antibiotics. This study provides information on current antibiotic use in freshwater aquaculture, as well as on resulting antibiotic concentrations in the aquatic environment of the Mekong Delta. Two major production steps, fish hatcheries and mature fish cultivation, were surveyed (50 fish farm interviews) for antibiotic use. Different water sources, including surface water, groundwater and piped water (164 water samples) were systematically screened for antibiotic residues. To better understand antibiotic fate under tropical conditions, the dissipation behavior of selected antibiotics in the aquatic environment was investigated for the first time in mesocosm experiments. None of the investigated antibiotics were detected in groundwater and piped water samples. Surface water, which is still often used for drinking and domestic purposes by local populations, contained median concentrations of 21 ng L-1 sulfamethoxazole (SMX), 4 ng L-1 sulfadiazine (SDZ), 17 ng L-1 trimethoprim (TRIM), and 12 ng L-1 enrofloxacin (ENRO). These concentrations were lower than the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), suggesting limited antibiotic-related risk to aquatic ecosystems in the monitored systems. The dissipation half-lives of the studied antibiotics ranged from <1 to 44 days, depending on the availability of sunlight and sediment. Among the studied antibiotics TRIM was the most persistent in water systems. TRIM was not susceptible to photodegradation, while the dissipation of ENRO and SDZ was influenced by photolysis. The recorded dissipation models gave good predictions of the occurrence and concentrations of TRIM, ENRO and SDZ in surface water. In summary, the currently measured concentrations of the investigated antibiotics are unlikely to cause immediate risks to the

  9. Effect of essential oils, tylosin, and monensin on finishing steer performance, carcass characteristics, liver abscesses, ruminal fermentation, and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Meyer, N F; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Greenquist, M A; Luebbe, M K; Williams, P; Engstrom, M A

    2009-07-01

    A feedlot (Exp. 1) experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of an essential oil mixture (EOM), experimental essential oil mixture (EXP), tylosin, and monensin (MON) on performance, carcass characteristics, and liver abscesses. A metabolism experiment (Exp. 2) was conducted to evaluate the effects of EOM, EXP, and MON on ruminal fermentation and digestibility in finishing steers. In Exp. 1, 468 yearling steers (398 +/- 34 kg initial BW) were used in 50 pens (10 pens/treatment) and received their respective dietary treatments for 115 d. Five dietary treatments were compared in Exp. 1: 1) control, no additives (CON); 2) EOM, 1.0 g/steer daily; 3) EXP, 1.0 g/steer daily; 4) EOM, 1.0 g/steer daily plus tylosin, 90 mg/steer daily (EOM+T); and 5) monensin, 300 mg/steer daily plus tylosin, 90 mg/steer daily (MON+T). Compared with CON, steers fed MON+T had decreased DMI (P < 0.01), and steers fed EOM+T and MON+T had improved G:F (P 0.58). There was a trend (P = 0.09) for a treatment effect on 12th-rib fat thickness, which resulted in a significant increase in calculated yield grade for the EOM+T treatment. No other carcass characteristics were affected by treatment (P >/= 0.10). Prevalence of total liver abscesses was reduced for steers fed tylosin compared with no tylosin (P < 0.05). In Exp. 2, 8 ruminally fistulated steers (399 +/- 49 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square designed experiment. Treatments were 1) CON, 2) EOM, 3) EXP, and 4) MON with feeding rates similar to Exp. 1. There were no differences in DMI, OM intake, and apparent total tract DM or OM digestibilities among treatments (P > 0.30). Feed intake patterns were similar among feed additive treatments (P > 0.13). Total VFA (P = 0.10) and acetate (P = 0.06) concentrations tended to be affected by treatment with EOM numerically greater than CON. Average ruminal pH ranged from 5

  10. Development and validation of a method for the simultaneous extraction and separate measurement of oxytetracycline, florfenicol, oxolinic acid and flumequine from marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Norambuena, Luis; Gras, Nuri; Contreras, Sergio

    2013-08-15

    A simple and rapid method for the detection and extraction of oxolinic acid, flumequine, florfenicol and oxytetracycline from marine sediments was developed and validated. The analytes were extracted from the marine sediment using a solution of oxalic acid diluted in methanol with sonication before detection by HPLC using a diode-array detector (florfenicol and oxytetracycline) and fluorescence (oxolinic acid and flumequine). The quantification limits (QL) were 100 ng/g for oxytetracycline and florfenicol and 5 ng/g for oxolinic acid and flumequine. The coefficients of variation of the repeatability and intermediate precision were less than 10% in all of the analytes. The calibration curves were linear between 50 and 500 ng/ml for oxytetracycline and florfenicol and 1 and 20 ng/ml for oxolinic acid and flumequine. The recuperation rate for the analytes was above 86%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Toxicological Implications and Inflammatory Response in Human Lymphocytes Challenged with Oxytetracycline

    PubMed Central

    Di Cerbo, A.; Palatucci, A. T.; Rubino, V.; Centenaro, S.; Giovazzino, A.; Fraccaroli, E.; Cortese, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Guidetti, G.; Canello, S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibiotics are widely used in zoo technical and veterinary practices as feed supplementation to ensure wellness of farmed animals and livestock. Several evidences have been suggesting both the toxic role for tetracyclines, particularly for oxytetracycline (OTC). This potential toxicity appears of great relevance for human nutrition and for domestic animals. This study aimed to extend the evaluation of such toxicity. The biologic impact of the drug was assessed by evaluating the proinflammatory effect of OTC and their bone residues on cytokine secretion by in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Our results showed that both OTC and OTC‐bone residues significantly induced the T lymphocyte and non‐T cell secretion of interferon (IFN)‐γ, as cytokine involved in inflammatory responses in humans as well as in animals. These results may suggest a possible implication for new potential human and animal health risks depending on the entry of tetracyclines in the food‐processing chain. PMID:26537863

  12. [Characterization of isolates of Paenibacillus larvae with biochemical type and oxytetracycline resistance].

    PubMed

    Alippi, A M

    1996-01-01

    A collection of 91 isolates from different geographical origins of Paenibacillus larvae, the etiologic agent of American Foulbrood disease of honey bees, was characterized according to its biochemical type and susceptibility to oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC), the most commonly used antibiotic for the control of the disease. The majority of the Argentinian strains corresponded to the biochemical type II while only one culture from Río Negro (Argentina), one from Buenos Aires (Argentina) and one from Córdoba (Argentina) presented characteristics of type V. In relation to their response to OTC it was found a 48% resistance within the collection of Argentinian strains; for this group, the values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were 10-15 micrograms/ml, while the susceptible ones presented MIC values under 5 micrograms/ml. All the isolates from France, Italy, New Zealand, Sweden, USA, Poland, Czech Republic and Germany were susceptible with MIC values under 5 micrograms/ml.

  13. Effect of five daily intravenous treatments with oxytetracycline hydrochloride on the carrier status of bovine anaplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Magonigle, R A; Renshaw, H W; Vaughn, H W; Stauber, E H; Frank, F W

    1975-12-15

    Intravenous administration of oxytetracycline hydrochloride at the rate of 22 mg/kg daily for 5 days was effective in rendering parasite-free 11 adult cattle that were naturally infected Anaplasma marginale carriers. The treatment did not cause any noticeable distress or side effect. Through 12 posttreatment months, the efficacy of the treatment procedure was evaluated by serologic tests and subinoculation of blood into susceptible splenectomized calves. Results of the rapid card agglutination test were positive for 5 cattle at 2 months after treatment, but negative for all cattle at 4 through 12 months. Complement-fixation titers were variable and transient in posttreatment serologic studies. After subinoculation of blood into splenectomized calves (at 4 and 12 months after chemotherapy), serologic, hematologic, or clinical evidence of infection with A marginale was not seen during a 60-day observation period.

  14. The joint inhibitory effects of phenol, copper (II), oxytetracycline (OTC) and sulfide on Anammox activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang-Feng; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2012-12-01

    A batch test was employed to analyze the joint toxicity of copper (II) and oxytetracycline (OTC), OTC and sulfide, phenol and sulfide (S(2-)), phenol and copper (II), and OTC, copper (II) and substrate on an Anammox mixed culture. The joint toxicity of OTC and copper (II) on the Anammox mixed culture was antagonistic, whereas the interaction between OTC and S(2-) and between phenol and S(2-) was generally synergistic. The joint toxicity of phenol and copper (II) was dependent on the level of phenol: the joint toxicity was antagonistic at a high phenol level of 300 mg L(-1), whereas the joint toxicity was synergistic at a low phenol level of 75 mg L(-1). The joint toxic effect of OTC, copper (II) and NO(2)(-)-N on the Anammox activity can be ranked in the following order: NO(2)(-)-N>copper (II)>OTC.

  15. Development and evaluation of silver sulfadiazine loaded microsponge based gel for partial thickness (second degree) burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Mahesh; Ghosh, Animesh

    2017-01-01

    Silver sulfadiazine has been frequently used as an antibacterial agent for topical treatment of partial thickness burn wounds. In this study, we present the preparation of silver sulfadiazine microsponges by w/o/w emulsion solvent evaporation method. Formulation variables were optimized by using 3(2) factorial design. The optimized microsponges were characterized by FTIR, DSC, PXRD, particle size analysis, SEM analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry studies. Viscosity, texture analysis and ex vivo drug deposition study of optimized microsponge loaded gel were also evaluated. The safety of the optimized gel was assessed by MTT assay using epidermal keratinocyte (HaCaT) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3) cell lines. In vitro antibacterial studies were carried out to compare the antibacterial inhibitory efficiency of the optimized gel against the commercial product. The efficacy of the optimized gel was evaluated by the partial thickness (second degree) burn wound model in mice. Optimized microsponge loaded gel enhanced the drug retaining capacity in the skin layers, by 3 fold higher to that of a commercial product. The antibacterial inhibitory efficiency of optimized gel was similar to the commercial product against the Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Optimized gel showed reduced frequency of application, no skin irritation, low cytotoxicity on dermal cell lines and enhanced wound contraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Treatment of subclinical congenital toxoplasmosis by sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine continuously during 1 year: apropos of 46 cases].

    PubMed

    Kieffer, F; Thulliez, P; Brézin, A; Nobre, R; Romand, S; Yi-Gallimard, E; Voyer, M; Magny, J F

    2002-01-01

    In France, most of children suffering from congenital toxoplasmosis have an infraclinic or moderate type at birth. This study aimed at evaluating, on the mid term, tolerance and results of postnatal treatment previously given in severe toxoplasmosis. A retrospective study considered 46 children with a mild or moderate congenital toxoplasmosis treated over 12 months with sulfadiazine-pyrimethamine and treatment was completed since three months. Five children suffered from a lesion of chorioretinitis during treatment and two after. After a mean follow-up of 27.1 months, ten children (21.7% 95%CI [12.1-35.9]) had at least one ocular injury. Specific IgG titers and immune load were diminished to become almost non-existent at the end of the year of treatment (respectively p < 10(-5) and p = 0.0005). No thrombocytopenia was observed. Twenty-three children (50%) had at least one episode of neutropenia < 1000/mm3, 14 had only one, nine presented two or more installment. None was followed by an infection. This therapeutic pathway is more demanding but shorter than those usually offered when associating pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine. Yet, it does give identical result on the mid term. Longer follow-up is needed to appreciate. Active molecule on cysts should be introduced.

  17. Toxic responses of swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) larvae exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of oxytetracycline.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xianyun; Wang, Zhuqing; Gao, Baoquan; Liu, Ping; Li, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is the most commonly used antibiotics for bacterial treatment in crustacean farming in China, and because of their intensive use, the potential harmful effects on aquatic organisms are of great concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the antioxidant system, detoxification progress, and biomolecule damage in Portunus trituberculatus larvae. In this study, larvae that belonged to four zoeal stages were exposed to four different concentrations of OTC (0, 0.3, 3, and 30 μg/L) for 3 days. The results showed that the exposure to OTC significantly suppressed the antioxidant system of, especially, zoea I (Z1) and zoea II (Z2) larvae. OTC inhibited the transcriptional expression of phase I (CYP2 and CYP3) and phase II detoxification genes (GST) in a dose-dependent manner and altered the expressions of their corresponding enzymes, namely, aminopyrine N-demethylase, erythromycin N-demethylase, and glutathione S-transferase. Moreover, 0.3 μg/L OTC activated the transcription of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter subfamily B (ABCB) and subfamily G (ABCG) in the Z1 and Z2 larvae, while 3 and 30 μg/L OTC suppressed all of them. Additionally, malondialdehyde content exhibited a dose- and zoea-effect relationship to some extent, but no significant differences were observed in the F values of the Z3 and Z4 larvae, except for the 30 μg/L OTC treatment. Thus, the Z3 and Z4 larvae were less sensitive to OTC exposure than the Z1 and Z2 larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of nonionic surfactant Brij 35 on the fate and transport of oxytetracycline antibiotic in soil.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Eman M; Prasher, Shiv O; Patel, Ramanbhai M

    2013-02-15

    In many parts of the world, river water is used for irrigation. Treated, partially treated, and even untreated water from wastewater treatment plants is discharged directly into rivers, thereby degrading the quality of the water. Consequently, irrigation water may contain surfactants which may affect the fate and transport of chemicals such as pesticides and antibiotics in agricultural soils. A field lysimeter study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the nonionic surfactant, Brij 35, on the fate and transport of an antibiotic, Oxytetracycline, commonly used in cattle farms. Nine PVC lysimeters, 1.0 m long × 0.45 m diameter, were packed with a sandy soil to a bulk density of 1.35 Mg m(-3). Cattle manure, containing Oxytetracycline, was applied at the surface of the lysimeters at the recommended rate of 10 t/ha. Each of three aqueous Brij 35 solutions, 0, 0.5 and 5 g L(-1) (i.e., 'good,' 'poor' and 'very poor' quality irrigation water) were each applied to the lysimeters in triplicate. Over a 90 day period, soil and leachate samples were collected and analyzed. Batch experiment results showed that the presence of the nonionic surfactant Brij 35 significantly reduced the sorption coefficient of OTC from 23.55 mL g(-1) in the aqueous medium to 19.49, 12.49 and 14.53 in the presence of Brij 35 at concentrations of 0.25, 2.5 and 5 g L(-1), respectively. Lysimeter results indicted the significant downward movement of OTC at depths of 60 cm into soil profile and leachate in the presence of surfactant. Thus, the reuse of wastewater containing surfactants might enhance the mobility of contaminants and increase ground water pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biliary elimination kinetics and tissue concentrations of oxytetracycline after intravenous administration in hens.

    PubMed

    Serrano, J M; Moreno, L; Rosado, I; Guimerá, E; Escudero, E

    1999-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of the biliary elimination of oxytetracycline (OTC) and tissue concentrations in certain organs were studied in 10 Leghorn hens. The animals were anaesthetized using xylazine/ketamine administered by the intramuscular (i.m.) route and were immobilized for right laparotomy. Both bile ducts were cannulated and a dose of 20 mg/kg of oxytetracycline hydrochloride was administered intravenously (i.v.). Samples of bile excreted were taken at predetermined intervals during 6 h. At 6 h animals were slaughtered and tissue samples of blood, liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen, heart, lung and pectoral muscle were taken. The values for OTC biliary elimination rate times were best fitted to a one-exponential equation. The maximum value for OTC biliary excretion rate (3.69+/-0.6 microg/min/kg) was reached at approximately 17.5 min (time to maximum concentration (tmax)). The first-order rate constant for the biliary excretion (k) and the half-life (t1/2) were 6.7x10(-3) min(-1) and 110.55 min, respectively. The mean value of area under the biliary excretion rate time curve (AUC) indicated that 839.77 microg/kg body weight (b.w.) were eliminated by the biliary route. The cumulative biliary excretion data indicated that approximately 4.20% of the dose was eliminated by this route, 3.28% being eliminated during the first 6 h and 0.92% thereafter. The highest mean concentrations were found in the kidney (35.82 microg/kg) and liver (16.77 microg/g). Significant differences were found between the concentrations of the various tissues studied. Plasma concentration was lower than that of the other tissues (except lung).

  20. Prevalence and effect of oxytetracycline on congenital fetlock knuckling in neonatal dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Fazili, Mujeeb R; Bhattacharyya, Hiranya K; Mir, Manzoor u R; Hafiz, Abdul; Tufani, Noore A

    2014-11-12

    Musculoskeletal system deformities were observed in 24 (34.3%) of 70 neonatal dairy calves that presented with different congenital abnormalities. Among them, 19 calves (27.1%), the majority of which were crossbred Jersey calves of either gender with mean (± s.e.) body weight 22.00 kg ± 1.17 kg and aged 7.11 ± 1.16 days, were presented for treatment of congenital knuckling. Five of the knuckling calves had additional concurrent congenital conditions and were excluded from the present study. All of the remaining 14 calves showing moderate, bilateral fetlock knuckling had a wooden or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) splint applied to the palmar or plantar aspect of the affected limbs. All of the animals received a dose of the analgesic tolfenamic acid intramuscularly, and were randomly allocated to two equal groups. Calves of Group I additionally received oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg intravenous daily for 3 days). The condition resolved satisfactorily in 83.3% and 80.0% calves from the two groups, respectively. The left and right fetlock angle (mean ± SE) reduced significantly (p ≤ 0.01) from 50.57° ± 4.20° to 4.00° ± 2.27° and 48.71° ± 2.37° to 5.33° ± 3.03°, respectively in animals of Group I. In Group II calves, the angles showed reduction from 50.86° ± 2.94° to 4.20° ± 2.75° and from 48.71° ± 3.14° to 6.80° ± 3.34°, respectively. From the present study, it was concluded that bilateral moderate fetlock knuckling in the neonatal dairy calves can be managed satisfactorily with early application of splints. Supplementary use of oxytetracycline at repeated doses of low toxicity had only a marginally beneficial effect.

  1. Effects of monensin and tylosin in finishing diets containing corn wet distillers grains with solubles with differing corn processing methods.

    PubMed

    Meyer, N F; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Benton, J R; Luebbe, M K; Laudert, S B

    2013-05-01

    A total of 3,632 crossbred steers were used in 3 separate randomized complete-block designed finishing experiments. Data from Exp. 1 were analyzed separately whereas data were combined for Exp. 2 and 3, based on corn processing method used [Exp.1 = equal combination of dry-rolled and high-moisture (DRC:HMC); Exp. 2 and 3 = steam-flaked (SFC)]. Steers were fed 1 of 5 treatments to evaluate the effects of monensin and tylosin in feedlot diets containing 25% corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS; DM basis). Treatments included: 1) corn-based diet (no WDGS) with 360 mg/d monensin and 90 mg/d tylosin (CORN+MT), 2) 25% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS-CON), 3) 25% WDGS with 360 mg/d monensin (WDGS+M), 4) WDGS with monensin and tylosin at same levels as treatment 1, and 5) WDGS with 480 mg/d monensin and 90 mg/d tylosin (WDGS+HIMT). In Exp. 1, WDGS+MT increased (P < 0.01) ADG (6.5%), G:F (6.9%), and HCW (3.0%) compared with CORN+MT. Alternatively, in Exp. 2 and 3, WDGS+MT had no effect on ADG (P = 0.18), decreased (P < 0.01) G:F by 3.2%, and did not affect HCW (P = 0.57) compared with CORN+MT. In Exp. 1, addition of monensin to a WDGS diet increased G:F by 3.1% (P = 0.03) and tended to increase G:F in Exp. 2 and 3 (P = 0.09) compared with WDGS-CON. For all experiments, addition of monensin and tylosin in a diet containing WDGS increased G:F (P < 0.01) and reduced total and severe liver abscesses (P < 0.01) compared with WDGS-CON. Additionally, HCW was increased in Exp. 2 and 3 (P < 0.01) and tended to increase in Exp. 1 (P = 0.09) when monensin and tylosin were fed in a WDGS diet compared with WDGS-CON. Feeding WDGS+MT reduced total liver abscesses by 79.3% (Exp. 1) and 57.6% (Exp. 2 and 3) compared with WDGS-CON. Compared with WDGS+MT, minimal differences were observed when monensin was fed at 480 mg/steer daily with tylosin in diets containing WDGS. Inclusion of WDGS in finishing steer diets did not alter effectiveness of monensin with tylosin in

  2. Tylosin and chlorotetracycline decrease the duration of fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 by swine.

    PubMed

    Cornick, Nancy A

    2010-07-14

    Previously we have shown that experimentally infected swine, fed an antibiotic-free diet, can become colonized and shed Escherichia coli O157:H7 for at least 2 months. However, in epidemiological studies this organism is only rarely recovered from domestic swine and the basis for this discrepancy is not clear. In this report we demonstrate that significantly fewer pigs fed diets containing subtherapeutic levels of either tylosin or chlorotetracycline shed E. coli O157:H7 for longer than 2 weeks compared to those fed an antibiotic-free diet. In contrast to tylosin and chlorotetracycline, the addition of bacitracin methylene disalicylate to the diet did not influence the recovery of E. coli O157:H7. These results suggest that some antibiotics may alter the gastrointestinal tract flora in ways that create a less favorable environment for E. coli O157:H7 in swine. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of dietary zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers fed with and without monensin and tylosin.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, J L; Krehbiel, C R; Cranston, J J; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M N; Swingle, R S; Montgomery, T H

    2009-03-01

    A feedlot experiment was conducted under commercial conditions in the Texas Panhandle using 3,757 feedlot steers (average of 94 steers/pen) to evaluate the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride with or without monensin and tylosin on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design. Treatments were arranged as a 2 (no zilpaterol vs. zilpaterol) x 2 (monensin and tylosin withdrawn vs. monensin and tylosin fed during the final 35 d on feed) factorial. Steers were fed for a total of 161 to 167 d, and treatments were administered during the final 35 d that cattle were on feed. When included in the diet, zilpaterol, monensin, and tylosin were supplemented at 8.3, 33.1, and 12.2 mg/kg (DM basis), respectively. Zilpaterol was included in the diet for 30 d at the end of the finishing period and withdrawn from the diet for the last 5 or 6 d cattle were on feed. Cattle were harvested and carcass data collected. There were no zilpaterol x monensin/tylosin interactions (P >or= 0.12) for ADG or G:F. Feeding zilpaterol increased ADG (P < 0.001) by 0.20 kg and G:F (P < 0.001) by 0.029 kg/kg during the last 35 d on feed. Likewise, when feedlot variables were measured throughout the entire 161- to 167-d feeding trial, ADG (3.4%; P < 0.001) and G:F (3.9%; P < 0.001) were increased. Feeding zilpaterol increased (P < 0.001) dressing percent and HCW and decreased (P < 0.001) total liver abscess rate compared with controls. In addition, zilpaterol increased (P < 0.001) LM area by an average of 8.0 cm(2). There was a zilpaterol x monensin/tylosin interaction (P = 0.03) for marbling score. Zilpaterol decreased (P < 0.001) marbling score regardless of monensin and tylosin treatment, although withdrawal of monensin and tylosin for 35 d decreased marbling to a greater extent (31 vs. 17 degrees). Zilpaterol decreased (i.e., improved; P < 0.001) calculated yield grade regardless of monensin and tylosin treatment, but

  4. Identification of the specified impurities of silver sulfadiazine using a screening of degradation products in different stress physico-chemical media.

    PubMed

    Cioroiu, Bogdan I; Lazar, Mihai I; Bello-López, Miguel A; Fernandez-Torres, Rut

    2013-11-15

    Determination of silver sulfadiazine degradation products in several stress media was carried out by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detector (DAD) and hybrid mass spectrometer triple quadrupole-linear trap. The optimal chromatographic method used a Hypercarb column with a stationary phase 100% carbon, a mobile phase composed by a mixture 45:55 formic acid 1% solution and acetonitrile and detection at 275 nm. Structure elucidation was carried out on the mass spectrometry system using same chromatographic conditions and based on MS/MS techniques. Under these conditions up to 9 possible impurities were demonstrated to be degradation products respecting silver sulfadiazine evolution under different stress conditions: temperature, acid, basic, oxidation, reduction and catalyzed photodegradation. Sulfacetamide, sulfanilic acid (4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid), aniline, pyrimidin-2-amine, 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide, 4-methylidenesulfanilaniline, 4-aminophenol, 4-amino-n-methyl benzenesulfonamide and benzenesulfonic acid were identified by mass spectrometry in order to cover the possible degradation paths of silver sulfadiazine. Kinetics were also evaluated to obtain the prediction of shelf life of the substance. The linearity domain for the method was between 0.0005 mg/ml and 0.25mg/ml for each compound. Recovery factors in accuracy determination were between 95 and 105% relative to target concentrations of silver sulfadiazine and the quantitation limit was 0.00025 mg/ml.

  5. Photodegradation mechanism of sulfonamides with excited triplet state dissolved organic matter: a case of sulfadiazine with 4-carboxybenzophenone as a proxy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingjie; Wei, Xiaoxuan; Chen, Jingwen; Xie, Hongbin; Zhang, Ya-nan

    2015-06-15

    Excited triplet states of dissolved organic matter ((3)DOM*) are important players for photodegradation sulfonamide antibiotics (SAs) in sunlit natural waters. However, the triplet-mediated reaction mechanism was poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the reaction adopting sulfadiazine as a representative SA and 4-carboxybenzophenone (CBBP)as a proxy of DOM. Results showed that the excited triplet state of CBBP ((3)CBBP*) is responsible for the photodegradation of sulfadiazine. The reaction of (3)CBBP* with substructure model compounds verified there are two reaction sites (amino-or sulfonyl-N atoms) of sulfadiazine. Density functional theory calculations were performed, which unveiled that electrons transfer from the N reaction sites to the carbonyl oxygen atom of (3)CBBP* moiety, followed by proton transfers, leading to the formation of sulfadiazine radicals. Laser flash photolysis experiments were performed to confirm the mechanism. Thus, this study identified that the photodegradation mechanism of SAs initiated by (3)DOM*, which is important for understanding the photochemical fate, predicting the photoproducts, and assessing the ecological risks of SAs in the aquatic environment.

  6. A comparative study of the effects of topical application of Aloe vera, thyroid hormone and silver sulfadiazine on skin wounds in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tarameshloo, Mahsa; Norouzian, Mohsen; Zarein-Dolab, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Gazor, Roohollah

    2012-03-01

    Many research studies report the healing effects of Aloe Vera, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine. However, the effects of these therapeutic agents are not well understood and have not been compared in one study. This study aimed at investigating the effects of topical application of an Aloe vera gel, a thyroid hormone cream and a silver sulfadiazine cream on the healing of skin wounds surgically induced in Wistar rats for determining the treatment of choice. In a randomized controlled trial, twelve male rats, aged 120 days and with a mean weight of 250 to 300 g, were divided randomly into 5 groups based on drug treatments: Aloe vera gel (AV), thyroid hormone cream (TC), silver sulfadiazine 1% (S), vehicle (V) and control. To evaluate the efficacy of each treatment technique, a biomechanical approach was used to assess tensile stress after 14 days of treatment. Tensile stress was significantly improved in the Aloe vera gel group as compared with the other four groups (P≤0.05). While the other treatment options resulted in better healing than the control group, this difference was not significant. We conclude that Aloe vera topical application accelerated the healing process more than thyroid hormone, silver sulfadiazine and vehicle in surgically induced incisions in rats.

  7. A comparative study of the effects of topical application of Aloe vera, thyroid hormone and silver sulfadiazine on skin wounds in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Norouzian, Mohsen; Zarein-Dolab, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Gazor, Roohollah

    2012-01-01

    Many research studies report the healing effects of Aloe Vera, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine. However, the effects of these therapeutic agents are not well understood and have not been compared in one study. This study aimed at investigating the effects of topical application of an Aloe vera gel, a thyroid hormone cream and a silver sulfadiazine cream on the healing of skin wounds surgically induced in Wistar rats for determining the treatment of choice. In a randomized controlled trial, twelve male rats, aged 120 days and with a mean weight of 250 to 300 g, were divided randomly into 5 groups based on drug treatments: Aloe vera gel (AV), thyroid hormone cream (TC), silver sulfadiazine 1% (S), vehicle (V) and control. To evaluate the efficacy of each treatment technique, a biomechanical approach was used to assess tensile stress after 14 days of treatment. Tensile stress was significantly improved in the Aloe vera gel group as compared with the other four groups (P≤0.05). While the other treatment options resulted in better healing than the control group, this difference was not significant. We conclude that Aloe vera topical application accelerated the healing process more than thyroid hormone, silver sulfadiazine and vehicle in surgically induced incisions in rats. PMID:22474470

  8. Branched-chain fatty acids produced by mutants of Streptomyces fradiae, putative precursors of the lactone ring of tylosin.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, M L; Paschal, J W; Leeds, J P; Kirst, H A; Wind, J A; Miller, F D; Turner, J R

    1990-01-01

    Three branched-chain fatty acids (7-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylnona-2,4-dienoic acid [compound 1], its 7-epimer [compound 2], and 7-keto-4,6-dimethylnona-2,4-dienoic acid [compound 3]) and a ketone (9-hydroxy-6,8-dimethylundeca-4,6-dien-3-one [compound 4]) were isolated from the culture broth of mutants of Streptomyces fradiae which were blocked in the biosynthesis of the macrolide antibiotic tylosin. Two phenotypic classes of mutants of this organism which were blocked in the addition of mycaminose to tylactone (compound 6) accumulated these compounds. These compounds were not produced by mutants which were blocked in lactone synthesis, in steps beyond mycaminose addition, or by the wild-type strain. Synthesis of these compounds, like synthesis of tylosin, was inhibited by the addition of cerulenin. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 were partially interconvertible by these mutants; but they were not produced from the degradation of tylactone and they were not directly incorporated into tylosin by intact cells. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were equivalent to that of a predicted intermediate (S. Yue, J. S. Duncan, Y. Yamamoto, and C. R. Hutchinson, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109:1253-1255, 1987) in the biosynthesis of tylactone. The ketone (compound 4) reported previously (N. D. Jones, M. O. Chaney, H. A. Kirst, G. M. Wild, R. H. Baltz, R. L. Hamill, and J. W. Paschal, J. Antibiot. 35:420-425, 1982) appears to be the decarboxylation product of the intermediate following that represented by compound 1. This represents the first report of the isolation of putative precursors of tylactone from tylosin-producing organisms. PMID:2221862

  9. [Amino acid and peptide derivatives of the tylosin family of macrolide antibiotics modified at the aldehyde group].

    PubMed

    Sumbatian, N V; Kuznetsova, I V; Karpenko, V V; Fedorova, N V; Chertkov, V A; Korshunova, G A; Bogdanov, A A

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen new functionally active amino acid and peptide derivatives of the antibiotics tylosin, desmycosin, and 5-O-mycaminosyltylonolide were synthesized in order to study the interaction of the growing polypeptide chain with the ribosomal tunnel. The conjugation of various amino acids and peptides with a macrolide aldehyde group was carried out by two methods: direct reductive amination with the isolation of the intermediate Schiff bases or through binding via oxime using the preliminarily obtained derivatives of 2-aminooxyacetic acid.

  10. Effects of Tylosin on Bacterial Mucolysis, Clostridium perfringens Colonization, and Intestinal Barrier Function in a Chick Model of Necrotic Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Collier, C. T.; van der Klis, J. D.; Deplancke, B.; Anderson, D. B.; Gaskins, H. R.

    2003-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a worldwide poultry disease caused by the alpha toxin-producing bacterium Clostridium perfringens. Disease risk factors include concurrent coccidial infection and the dietary use of cereal grains high in nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP), such as wheat, barley, rye, and oats. Outbreaks of NE can be prevented or treated by the use of in-feed antibiotics. However, the current debate regarding the prophylactic use of antibiotics in animal diets necessitates a better understanding of factors that influence intestinal colonization by C. perfringens as well as the pathophysiological consequences of its growth. We report a study with a chick model of NE, which used molecular (16S rRNA gene [16S rDNA]) and culture-based microbiological techniques to investigate the impact of the macrolide antibiotic tylosin phosphate (100 ppm) and a dietary NSP (pectin) on the community structure of the small intestinal microbiota relative to colonization by C. perfringens. The effects of tylosin and pectin on mucolytic activity of the microbiota and C. perfringens colonization and their relationship to pathological indices of NE were of particular interest. The data demonstrate that tylosin reduced the percentage of mucolytic bacteria in general and the concentration of C. perfringens in particular, and these responses correlated in a temporal fashion with a reduction in the occurrence of NE lesions and an improvement in barrier function. The presence of pectin did not significantly affect the variables measured. Thus, it appears that tylosin can control NE through its modulation of C. perfringens colonization and the mucolytic activity of the intestinal microbiota. PMID:14506046

  11. Fate of the antibiotic sulfadiazine in natural soils: Experimental and numerical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Irina; Sittig, Stephan; Šimůnek, Jirka; Groeneweg, Joost; Pütz, Thomas; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-06-01

    Based on small-scale laboratory and field-scale lysimeter experiments, the sorption and biodegradation of sulfonamide sulfadiazine (SDZ) were investigated in unsaturated sandy and silty-clay soils. Sorption and biodegradation were low in the laboratory, while the highest leaching rates were observed when SDZ was mixed with manure. The leaching rate decreased when SDZ was mixed with pure water, and was smallest with the highest SDZ concentrations. In the laboratory, three transformation products (TPs) developed after an initial lag phase. However, the amount of TPs was different for different mixing-scenarios. The TP 2-aminopyrimidine was not observed in the laboratory, but was the most prevalent TP at the field scale. Sorption was within the same range at the laboratory and field scales. However, distinctive differences occurred with respect to biodegradation, which was higher in the field lysimeters than at the laboratory scale. While the silty-clay soil favored sorption of SDZ, the sandy, and thus highly permeable, soil was characterized by short half-lives and thus a quick biodegradation of SDZ. For 2-aminopyrimidine, half-lives of only a few days were observed. Increased field-scale biodegradation in the sandy soil resulted from a higher water and air permeability that enhanced oxygen transport and limited oxygen depletion. Furthermore, low pH was more important than the organic matter and clay content for increasing the biodegradation of SDZ. A numerical analysis of breakthrough curves of bromide, SDZ, and its TPs showed that preferential flow pathways strongly affected the solute transport within shallow parts of the soil profile at the field scale. However, this effect was reduced in deeper parts of the soil profile. Due to high field-scale biodegradation in several layers of both soils, neither SDZ nor 2-aminopyrimidine was detected in the discharge of the lysimeter at a depth of 1 m. Synthetic 50 year long simulations, which considered the application of

  12. Rechargeable microbial anti-adhesive polymethyl methacrylate incorporating silver sulfadiazine-loaded mesoporous silica nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jeong-Ki; El-Fiqi, Ahmed; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ae; Kim, Hae-Won; Lee, Hae-Hyoung

    2017-10-01

    Even though polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin is widely used as a dental material, it has poor microbial anti-adhesive properties, which accelerates oral infections. In this investigation, silver-sulfadiazine (AgSD)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Ag-MSNs) were incorporated into PMMA to introduce long-term microbial anti-adhesive effects and to make PMMA a rechargeable resin. After characterization of the Ag-MSNs in terms of their mesoporous characteristics and drug loading capacity, the 3 point flexural test and hardness were evaluated in PMMA incorporating Ag-MSNs (0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5%). Anti-adhesive effects were observed for Candida albicans and Streptococcus oralis with experimental specimens for up to 28days and after recharging with AgSD. A typical spherical morphology and high mesoporosity were observed for the MSNs used for loading AgSD. Incorporation of Ag-MSNs into PMMA (0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5%) sustained its flexural strength but increased its surface hardness. Anti-adhesive effects were observed after 1h of exposure to both microbial species, and the effects accelerated with increasing Ag-MSN incorporation into PMMA. Long-term microbial anti-adhesive effects were observed for up to 14 days, and further long-term (7 days) anti-adhesive effects were observed after reloading the Ag-MSN-incorporated PMMA (aged for 28 days) with AgSD; these effects were largely caused by released silver ions and partially by changes in surface hydrophilicity. No cytotoxicity to keratinocytes was observed. The improved mechanical properties and the prolonged microbial anti-adhesive effects, which lasted after reloading of the drug, suggest the potential usefulness of Ag-MSN-incorporated PMMA as a microbial anti-adhesive dental material. Ag-MSN-incorporated PMMA can be used as a microbial anti-adhesive dental material for dentures, orthodontic devices and provisional restorative materials. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  13. Fate of the antibiotic sulfadiazine in natural soils: Experimental and numerical investigations.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Irina; Sittig, Stephan; Šimůnek, Jirka; Groeneweg, Joost; Pütz, Thomas; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Based on small-scale laboratory and field-scale lysimeter experiments, the sorption and biodegradation of sulfonamide sulfadiazine (SDZ) were investigated in unsaturated sandy and silty-clay soils. Sorption and biodegradation were low in the laboratory, while the highest leaching rates were observed when SDZ was mixed with manure. The leaching rate decreased when SDZ was mixed with pure water, and was smallest with the highest SDZ concentrations. In the laboratory, three transformation products (TPs) developed after an initial lag phase. However, the amount of TPs was different for different mixing-scenarios. The TP 2-aminopyrimidine was not observed in the laboratory, but was the most prevalent TP at the field scale. Sorption was within the same range at the laboratory and field scales. However, distinctive differences occurred with respect to biodegradation, which was higher in the field lysimeters than at the laboratory scale. While the silty-clay soil favored sorption of SDZ, the sandy, and thus highly permeable, soil was characterized by short half-lives and thus a quick biodegradation of SDZ. For 2-aminopyrimidine, half-lives of only a few days were observed. Increased field-scale biodegradation in the sandy soil resulted from a higher water and air permeability that enhanced oxygen transport and limited oxygen depletion. Furthermore, low pH was more important than the organic matter and clay content for increasing the biodegradation of SDZ. A numerical analysis of breakthrough curves of bromide, SDZ, and its TPs showed that preferential flow pathways strongly affected the solute transport within shallow parts of the soil profile at the field scale. However, this effect was reduced in deeper parts of the soil profile. Due to high field-scale biodegradation in several layers of both soils, neither SDZ nor 2-aminopyrimidine was detected in the discharge of the lysimeter at a depth of 1m. Synthetic 50 year long simulations, which considered the application of

  14. Short Communication - Study on quality and efficacy of commercial tylosin and doxycycline products against local isolates of mycoplasma in broilers.

    PubMed

    Riazuddin, -; Khan, Sarzamin; Imtiaz, Naila; Aslam, Saima; Ahmad, Shakoor; Khan, Hamayun; Rabbani, Masood; Muhammad, Javed; Tanveer, Zafar Iqbal; Ali, Sakhawat

    2017-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the quality and efficacy of commercially available preparations of tylosin and doxycycline available in the local market at Peshawar for poultry. In vitro and in vivo, tests were conducted to check the quality of these antimicrobial drugs. In vitro quality control test was performed by High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and micro dilution method. In vivo, efficacy of the test drugs was checked in broilers infected with Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Results of HPLC indicated that test drug-2 contains doxycycline hydrochloride within specified limits but contain high quantity of active ingredient (Tylosin tartrate 120%). Recovery percentage of test drugs (3, 4, 5) were below the pharmacopoeial limit, which contained low quantity of tylosin tartrate (85%, 87.5%, 85%) respectively however, percent recovery of doxycycline were in the appropriate limits. All the tested drugs were effective against Mycoplasma gallisepticum and showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 1.9μg/ml. The in vivo result indicated that all tested drugs decreased morbidity and mortality in infected chicks. The birds treated with test drugs (3 and 5) showed mortality of 9.5%, which was slightly higher than the other test groups. The current study suggested that there are incidences of substandard drugs in Pakistan and the drug regularity authorities should take strict actions against the manufacturing companies.

  15. Evaluation of the Presence and Levels of Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Sulfaquinoxaline and Oxytetracycline in Broiler Chickens after Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Guilherme Resende; Lanza, Isabela Pereira; Ribeiro, Ana Cláudia dos Santos Rossi; Lana, Ângela Maria Quintão; Lara, Leonardo José Camargos

    2016-01-01

    The depletion times of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin as well as sulfaquinoxaline and oxytetracycline were evaluated in broiler chickens that had been subjected to pharmacological treatment. The presence and residue levels of these drugs in muscle tissue were evaluated using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method that was validated in this work. The results showed the presence of all antimicrobial residues; however, the presence of residues at concentrations higher than the drugs’ maximum residue limit (MRL) of 100 μg kg-1 was found only during the treatment period for oxytetracycline and until two days after discontinuation of the medication for enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and sulfaquinoxaline. It was concluded that the residues of all antimicrobials were rapidly metabolized from the broiler muscles; after four days of withdrawal, the levels were lower than the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method for the studied analytes. PMID:27846314

  16. [Preparation of β-In2S3 and Catalytic Degradation of Oxytetracycline Under Solar Light Irradiation].

    PubMed

    Ai, Cui-ling; Zhou, Dan-dan; Zhang, Rong-rong; Shao, Xiang-wen; Lei, Ying-jie

    2015-08-01

    The preparation of beta-In2S3 nanomaterial was carried out by reacting In (NO3)3 with thioacetamide through hydrothermal process at 120 degrees C for 12 h. The size and morphology of In2S3 were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) while the degradation efficiency was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of oxytetracycline under natural sunlight. The results revealed that beta-In2S3 nanoparticles are made up of nanosheets with a length of 15-30 nm and with high efficient catalytic performance, in which more than 98% of the initial oxytetracycline (30 mg x L(-1)) was degraded in 4 h. Furthermore, the prepared pG-In2 S3 can be recycled and kept efficient catalytic performance above 85% even after reusing for four times, which reflected the good stability and relative photocatalytic activity of In2S3.

  17. Effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride with and without monensin and tylosin on carcass cutability and meat palatability of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Hilton, G G; Montgomery, J L; Krehbiel, C R; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M N; Blanton, J R; Miller, M F

    2009-04-01

    An experiment was conducted using 200 beef carcasses to evaluate the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride with or without monensin and tylosin on carcass cutability and meat sensory variables. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with treatments arranged as a 2 (no zilpaterol vs. zilpaterol) x 2 (monensin and tylosin withdrawn vs. monensin and tylosin fed) factorial. Cattle (n=3,757) were fed zilpaterol hydrochloride, a beta(2)-adrenergic agonist, for 30 d at the end of the finishing period and withdrawn from zilpaterol hydrochloride for the last 5 d on feed. Five carcasses (weighing between 305 and 421 kg and free of slaughter defects) were selected from each of 40 feedlot treatment pens. Strip loins from the left sides were collected for sensory analysis and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) testing, and the rib was collected for 9th, 10th, 11th-rib dissections. A subsample of 3 carcass right sides per pen was fabricated into boneless subprimals according to Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications. Carcasses from zilpaterol-fed steers had greater (P

  18. [Prevention of neonatal conjunctivitis. A comparative clinical and bacteriologic study of 2 eyedrops: silver nitrate and oxytetracycline chlorhydrate].

    PubMed

    Brussieux, J; Boisivon, A; Théron, H P; Faidherbe, C; Machado, N; Michelon, B

    1991-11-01

    This study carried out at the Saint-Germain-en-Laye Hospital maternity ward included all the neonates delivered between February and September 1989 who exhibited no abnormal manifestations during their stay in the ward, except for ocular symptoms in some subjects. Nine hundred neonates were enrolled. Each day, one of two eyedrop preparations for the prevention of neonatal ocular infections was selected at random. Investigators were blinded to the preparation used. Study subjects were evaluated twice, between D1 and D7 (900 infants) and between D15 and D30 (407 infants). Ocular findings were classified as follows: normal, minimally abnormal (isolated swelling of the eyelids, clear discharge), or frankly abnormal (conjunctivitis, purulent discharge). A bacteriologic study was performed in all patients with minimally abnormal or abnormal findings. Between D1 and D7, ocular symptoms were significantly (p less than 0.05) more prevalent in neonates treated with silver nitrate than in neonates treated with oxytetracycline hydrochloride. This difference was no longer present between D15 and D30. Bacteriologic studies recovered no gonococci. One enfant in the oxytetracycline group had bacteriologically confirmed Chlamydia trachomatis ocular infection. The other organisms recovered were mainly Staphylococcus aureus and non-hemolytic streptococci. In inclusion, no currently available eyedrop preparation offers complete protection against C. trachomatis but tolerance is considerably better with oxytetracycline hydrochlorate than with silver nitrate.

  19. Lack of lysosomal fusion with phagosomes containing Ehrlichia risticii in P388D1 cells: abrogation of inhibition with oxytetracycline.

    PubMed Central

    Wells, M Y; Rikihisa, Y

    1988-01-01

    Fusion of lysosomes with phagosomes containing Ehrlichia risticii, an obligate intracellular parasite, was evaluated in P388D1 murine macrophagelike cells. Lysosomes in cells ranging in infectivity from 30 to 70% were labeled cytochemically with acid phosphatase or via endocytosis of thorium dioxide or cationized ferritin to document phagosome-lysosome (P-L) fusion in untreated cells and cells treated with oxytetracycline. Regardless of the marker used, P-L fusion was generally not observed in E. risticii-containing vacuoles in untreated cells, while significantly greater P-L fusion with ehrlichia-containing vacuoles was observed after oxytetracycline treatment. When latex beads were introduced into uninfected cell cultures, P-L fusion was observed with vacuoles containing latex. Fusion of lysosomes with latex-containing vacuoles in cells was significantly greater than fusion of lysosomes with ehrlichia-containing vacuoles in the same infected cells. These findings indicate that E. risticii is able to inhibit P-L fusion, whereas oxytetracycline deprives organisms of this ability. Images PMID:3182078

  20. Resistance to the macrolide antibiotic tylosin is conferred by single methylations at 23S rRNA nucleotides G748 and A2058 acting in synergy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingfu; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The macrolide antibiotic tylosin has been used extensively in veterinary medicine and exerts potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Tylosin-synthesizing strains of the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces fradiae protect themselves from their own product by differential expression of four resistance determinants, tlrA, tlrB, tlrC, and tlrD. The tlrB and tlrD genes encode methyltransferases that add single methyl groups at 23S rRNA nucleotides G748 and A2058, respectively. Here we show that methylation by neither TlrB nor TlrD is sufficient on its own to give tylosin resistance, and resistance is conferred by the G748 and A2058 methylations acting together in synergy. This synergistic mechanism of resistance is specific for the macrolides tylosin and mycinamycin that possess sugars extending from the 5- and 14-positions of the macrolactone ring and is not observed for macrolides, such as carbomycin, spiramycin, and erythromycin, that have different constellations of sugars. The manner in which the G748 and A2058 methylations coincide with the glycosylation patterns of tylosin and mycinamycin reflects unambiguously how these macrolides fit into their binding site within the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit. PMID:12417742

  1. Development and validation of a potentiometric biosensor assay for tylosin with demonstrated applicability for the detection of two other antimicrobial growth-promoter compounds in feedstuffs.

    PubMed

    Stead, S L; Wolodko-Cierniak, K B; Richmond, S F; Sharman, M; Driver, P; Teale, P; Leonardova, O; Purvis, D

    2011-01-01

    A potentiometric biosensor assay based on a commercially available polyclonal antibody was developed to detect tylosin residues in animal feed. The method can be used as a rapid (less than 45 min) laboratory-based procedure or as a portable field-test for the simultaneous measurement of up to 12 different samples. For both procedures the qualitative detection capability (CCβ) for tylosin was determined as 0.2 mg kg(-1) in a range of animal feeds with a measurement repeatability at concentrations between 0.2 and 4 mg kg(-1) of ≤13% coefficient of variation (%CV). The field-test format was capable of detecting tylosin residues at operating (external air) temperatures ranging between +4 and 37°C, although some reduction in signal was observed at the lower temperatures. The laboratory-based tylosin assay was evaluated using 16 medicated and 22 non-medicated feeds and was found to give comparable data with a confirmatory method based upon liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The potential to develop a multi-probe format assay for the simultaneous detection of tylosin, spiramycin and virginiamycin was also demonstrated. Cross-validation in a second laboratory showed the assay to be transferable, reliable and robust.

  2. Resistance to the macrolide antibiotic tylosin is conferred by single methylations at 23S rRNA nucleotides G748 and A2058 acting in synergy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingfu; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2002-11-12

    The macrolide antibiotic tylosin has been used extensively in veterinary medicine and exerts potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Tylosin-synthesizing strains of the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces fradiae protect themselves from their own product by differential expression of four resistance determinants, tlrA, tlrB, tlrC, and tlrD. The tlrB and tlrD genes encode methyltransferases that add single methyl groups at 23S rRNA nucleotides G748 and A2058, respectively. Here we show that methylation by neither TlrB nor TlrD is sufficient on its own to give tylosin resistance, and resistance is conferred by the G748 and A2058 methylations acting together in synergy. This synergistic mechanism of resistance is specific for the macrolides tylosin and mycinamycin that possess sugars extending from the 5- and 14-positions of the macrolactone ring and is not observed for macrolides, such as carbomycin, spiramycin, and erythromycin, that have different constellations of sugars. The manner in which the G748 and A2058 methylations coincide with the glycosylation patterns of tylosin and mycinamycin reflects unambiguously how these macrolides fit into their binding site within the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit.

  3. Uptake and Accumulation of Pharmaceuticals in Lettuce Under Surface and Overhead Irrigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalsod, G.; Chuang, Y. H.; Jeon, S.; Gui, W.; Li, H.; Guber, A.; Zhang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are being widely detected in wastewater and surface waters. As fresh water becomes scarcer, interests in using reclaimed water for crop irrigation is intensified. Since reclaimed waters often carry trace levels of pharmaceuticals, accumulation of pharmaceuticals in food crops could increase the risk of human exposure. This study aims to investigate uptake and accumulations of pharmaceuticals in greenhouse-grown lettuce under contrasting irrigation practices (i.e., overhead and surface irrigations). Lettuce was irrigated with water spiked with 11 commonly used pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, carbadox, trimethoprim, lincomycin hydrochloride, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, monensin sodium, and tylosin). Weekly sampling of lettuce roots, shoots, and soils were continued for 5 weeks, and the samples were freeze dried, extracted for pharmaceuticals and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Preliminary results indicate that higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals were found in overhead irrigated lettuce compared to surface irrigated lettuce. For carbamezapine, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, and monensin sodium, their concentrations generally increased in lettuce shoots in the overhead treatment over time. However, acetaminophen was found at higher concentrations in both shoots and roots, indicating that acetaminophen can be easily transported in the plant system. This study provides insight on developing better strategies for using reclaimed water for crop irrigations, while minimizing the potential risks of pharmaceutical contamination of vegetables.

  4. Effect of topical silver sulfadiazine on plasma copper, zinc and silver concentrations in a burn rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Shippee, R.; Boosalis, M.; McClain, C.; Becker, W.; Watiwat, S. )

    1991-03-15

    One percent silver sulfadiazine cream (AgSD) is routinely used as a topical agent to prevent wound infection in burned patients. This report describes the effect of such topical therapy on plasma copper, silver and zinc concentrations in burned rats. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats received full thickness burns of 30% of the total body surface and were maintained for seven days on Purina Rat Chow and deionized water ad libitum. Twelve sham burned animals were similarly maintained. The wounds in six burned and a similar area in six sham burned animals were treated daily with 3 gms of AgSD, beginning on the day of injury. Blood was drawn on the seventh postburn day and analyzed for plasma copper, silver and zinc, using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Silver absorption was associated with decreased plasma copper concentration in both burned and sham burned animals. Zinc concentrations did not differ significantly.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of a tridentate Schiff base derived from cephalothin and sulfadiazine, and its transition metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Anacona, J R; Noriega, Natiana; Camus, Juan

    2015-02-25

    Metal(II) coordination compounds of a cephalothin Schiff base (H2L) derived from the condensation of cephalothin antibiotic with sulfadiazine were synthesized. The Schiff base ligand, mononuclear [ML(H2O)3] (M(II)=Mn,Co,Ni,Zn) complexes and magnetically diluted dinuclear copper(II) complex [CuL(H2O)3]2 were characterized by several techniques, including elemental and thermal analysis, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements, electronic, FT-IR, EPR and (1)H NMR spectral studies. The cephalothin Schiff base ligand H2L behaves as a dianionic tridentate NOO chelating agent. The biological applications of complexes have been studied on two bacteria strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) by agar diffusion disc method.

  6. Synergy of nitric oxide and silver sulfadiazine against gram-negative, gram-positive, and antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Privett, Benjamin J; Deupree, Susan M; Backlund, Christopher J; Rao, Kavitha S; Johnson, C Bryce; Coneski, Peter N; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2010-12-06

    The synergistic activity between nitric oxide (NO) released from diazeniumdiolate-modified proline (PROLI/NO) and silver(I) sulfadiazine (AgSD) was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis using a modified broth microdilution technique and a checkerboard-type assay. The combination of NO and AgSD was defined as synergistic when the fractional bactericidal concentration (FBC) was calculated to be <0.5. Gram-negative species were generally more susceptible to the individual antimicrobial agents than the Gram-positive bacteria, while Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to combination therapy. The in vitro synergistic activity of AgSD and NO observed against a range of pathogens strongly supports future investigation of this therapeutic combination, particularly for its potential use in the treatment of burns and chronic wounds.

  7. Transport and transformation of sulfadiazine in soil columns packed with a silty loam and a loamy sand.

    PubMed

    Unold, M; Kasteel, R; Groeneweg, J; Vereecken, H

    2009-01-07

    Concerning the transport of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) little is known about its possible degradation during transport. Also its sorption behaviour is not yet completely understood. We investigated the transport of SDZ in soil columns with a special emphasis on the detection of transformation products in the outflow of the soil columns and on modelling of the concentration distribution in the soil columns afterwards. We used disturbed soil columns near saturation, packed with a loamy sand and a silty loam. SDZ was applied as a 0.57 mg L(-1) solution at a constant flow rate of 0.25 cm h(-1) for 68 h. Breakthrough curves (BTC) of SDZ and its transformation products 4-(2-iminopyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)aniline and 4-hydroxy-SDZ were measured for both soils. For the silty loam we additionally measured a BTC for an unknown transformation product which we only detected in the outflow samples of this soil. After the leaching experiments the (14)C-concentration was quantified in different layers of the soil columns. The transformation rates were low with mean SDZ mass fractions in the outflow samples of 95% for the loamy sand compared to 97% for the silty loam. The formation of 4-(2-iminopyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)aniline appears to be light dependent and did probably not occur in the soils, but afterwards. In the soil columns most of the (14)C was found near the soil surface. The BTCs in both soils were described well by a model with one reversible (kinetic) and one irreversible sorption site. Sorption kinetics played a more prominent role than sorption capacity. The prediction of the (14)C -concentration profiles was improved by applying two empirical models other than first order to predict irreversible sorption, but also these models were not able to describe the (14)C concentration profiles correctly. Irreversible sorption of sulfadiazine still is not well understood.

  8. Effects of copper and aluminum on the adsorption of sulfathiazole and tylosin on peat and soil.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhiguo; Yang, Shuang; Li, Lingyun; Li, Chunmei; Zhang, Shuzhen; Shan, Xiao-quan; Wen, Bei; Guo, Baoyuan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) on the adsorption of sulfathiazole (STZ) and tylosin (T) to peat and soil were investigated using a batch equilibration method. Results show that Cu suppressed STZ adsorption onto peat and soil at pH < 5.0 because of the electrostatic competition, while increased STZ adsorption at pH > 5.0 due to the formation of STZ-Cu complexes and/or Cu bridge. In contrast, Al only decreased STZ adsorption at pH < 6.0, and exerted slight effect on STZ adsorption at >6.0. As for T, both Cu and Al suppressed its adsorption over the entire pH range owing to three reasons: 1) electrostatic competition between Cu/Al and T(+); 2) Cu/Al adsorption made the soil and peat surface less negatively charged, which was unfavorable for T(+) adsorption; 3) the shrunken pore size of peat and soil retarded the diffusion of large-sized T into these pores. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrolysis of amphenicol and macrolide antibiotics: Chloramphenicol, florfenicol, spiramycin, and tylosin.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Shannon M; Ullman, Jeffrey L; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotics that enter the environment can present human and ecological health risks. An understanding of antibiotic hydrolysis rates is important for predicting their environmental persistence as biologically active contaminants. In this study, hydrolysis rates and Arrhenius constants were determined as a function of pH and temperature for two amphenicol (chloramphenicol and florfenicol) and two macrolide (spiramycin and tylosin) antibiotics. Antibiotic hydrolysis rates in pH 4-9 buffer solutions at 25°C, 50°C, and 60°C were quantified, and degradation products were characterized. All of the antibiotics tested remained stable and exhibited no observable hydrolysis under ambient conditions typical of aquatic ecosystems. Acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis occurred at elevated temperatures (50-60°C), and hydrolysis rates increased considerably below pH 5 and above pH 8. Hydrolysis rates also increased approximately 1.5- to 2.9-fold for each 10°C increase in temperature. Based on the degradation product masses found, the functional groups that underwent hydrolysis were alkyl fluoride, amide, and cyclic ester (lactone) moieties; some of the resultant degradation products may remain bioactive, but to a lesser extent than the parent compounds. The results of this research demonstrate that amphenicol and macrolide antibiotics persist in aquatic systems under ambient temperature and pH conditions typical of natural waters. Thus, these antibiotics may present a risk in aquatic ecosystems depending on the concentration present. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Heterologous expression of tylosin polyketide synthase and production of a hybrid bioactive macrolide in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Jung, Won Seok; Lee, Sang Kil; Hong, Jay Sung Joong; Park, Sung Ryeol; Jeong, Soon Jeong; Han, Ah Reum; Sohng, Jae Kyung; Kim, Byung Gee; Choi, Cha Yong; Sherman, David H; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2006-10-01

    Tylosin polyketide synthase (Tyl PKS) was heterologously expressed in an engineered strain of Streptomyces venezuelae bearing a deletion of pikromycin PKS gene cluster using two compatible low-copy plasmids, each under the control of a pikAI promoter. The mutant strain produced 0.5 mg/l of the 16-membered ring macrolactone, tylactone, after a 4-day culture, which is a considerably reduced culture period to reach the maximum production level compared to other Streptomyces hosts. To improve the production level of tylactone, several precursors for ethylmalonyl-CoA were fed to the growing medium, leading to a 2.8-fold improvement (1.4 mg/ml); however, switching the pikAI promoter to an actI promoter had no observable effect. In addition, a small amount of desosamine-glycosylated tylactone was detected from the extract of the mutant strain, revealing that the native glycosyltransferase DesVII displayed relaxed substrate specificity in accepting the 16-membered ring macrolactone to produce the glycosylated tylactone. These results demonstrate a successful attempt for a heterologous expression of Tyl PKS in S. venezuelae and introduce S. venezuelae as a rapid heterologous expression system for the production of secondary metabolites.

  11. Kinetics and mechanism investigation on the destruction of oxytetracycline by UV-254nm activation of persulfate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiqing; He, Xuexiang; Fu, Yongsheng; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2016-03-15

    Oxytetracycline (OTC), an important broad-spectrum antibiotic, has been detected extensively in various environmental systems, which may have a detrimental impact on ecosystem and human health through the development of drug resistant bacteria and pathogens. In this study, the degradation of OTC was evaluated by UV-254nm activated persulfate (PS). The observed UV fluence based pseudo first-order rate constant (kobs) was found to be the highest at near neutral pH conditions (pH 5.5-8.5). Presence of various natural water constituents had different effects on OTC degradation, with a significant enhancement in the presence of bicarbonate or Cu(2+). Limited elimination of total organic carbon (TOC) and PS was observed during the mineralization of OTC. Transformation byproducts in the presence and absence of hydroxyl radical scavenging agent tert-butanol (t-BuOH) were identified using ultra-high definition accurate-mass quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF/MS). Potential OTC degradation mechanism was subsequently proposed revealing four different reaction pathways by SO4(-) reaction including hydroxylation (+16Da), demethylation (-14Da), decarbonylation (-28Da) and dehydration (-18Da). This study suggests that UV-254nm/PS is a promising treatment technology for the control of water pollution caused by emerging contaminants such as OTC.

  12. Rapid screening test for detection of oxytetracycline residues in milk using lateral flow assay.

    PubMed

    Naik, Laxmana; Sharma, Rajan; Mann, Bimlesh; Lata, Kiran; Rajput, Y S; Surendra Nath, B

    2017-03-15

    A rapid, semi-quantitative lateral flow assay (LFA) was developed to screen the oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotics residues in milk samples. In this study a competitive immuno-assay format was established. Colloidal gold nano-particles (GNP) were prepared and used as labelling material in LFA. Polyclonal antibodies were generated against OTC molecule (anti-OTC), purified and the quality was assessed by enzyme linked immuno sorbet assay. For the first time membrane components required for LFA in milk system was optimized. GNP and anti-OTC stable conjugate preparation method was standardized, and then these components were placed over the conjugate pad. OTC coupled with carrier protein was placed on test line; species specific secondary antibodies were placed on the control line of the membrane matrix. Assay was validated by spiking OTC to antibiotic free milk samples and results could be accomplished within 5min. without need of any equipment. The visual detection limit was 30ppb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transfer of oxytetracycline from swine manure to three different aquatic plants: implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Boonsaner, Maliwan; Hawker, Darryl W

    2015-03-01

    Little is known regarding the potential for pharmaceuticals including antibiotics to be accumulated in edible aquatic plants and enter the human food chain. This work investigates the transfer of a widely used veterinary antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC), from swine manure to aquatic plants by firstly characterizing desorption from swine manure to water and fitting data to both nonlinear and linear isotherms. Bioconcentration of OTC from water was then quantified with aquatic plants of contrasting morphology and growth habit viz. watermeal (Wolffia globosa Hartog and Plas), cabomba (Cabomba caroliniana A. Gray) and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.). Watermeal and water spinach are widely consumed in Southeast Asia. The OTC desorption and bioconcentration data were used to provide the first quantitative estimates of human exposure to OTC from a manure-water-aquatic plant route. Results show that under certain conditions (plants growing for 15d in undiluted swine manure effluent (2% w/v solids) and an initial OTC swine manure concentration of 43mgkg(-1) (dry weight)), this pathway could provide a significant fraction (>48%) of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for OTC. While effluent dilution, lower OTC manure concentrations and not all plant material consumed being contaminated would be expected to diminish the proportion of the ADI accumulated, uptake from aquatic plants should not be ignored when determining human exposure to antibiotics such as OTC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Liquid chromatographic determination of oxytetracycline in edible fish fillets from six species of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, J.R.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The approved use of oxytetracycline (OTC) in U.S. Aquaculture is limited to specific diseases in salmonids and channel catfish. OTC may also be effective in controlling diseases in other fish species important to public aquaculture, but before approved use of OTC can be augmented, an analytical method for determining OTC in fillet tissue from multiple species of fish will be required to support residue depletion studies. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a liquid chromatographic (LC) method that is accurate, precise, and sensitive for OTC in edible fillets from multiple species of fish. Homogenized fillet tissues from walleye, Atlantic salmon, striped bass, white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and channel catfish were fortified with OTC at nominal concentrations of 10, 20, 100, 1000, and 5000 ng/g. In tissues fortified with OTC at 100, 1000, and 5000 ng/g, mean recoveries ranged from 83 to 90%, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0.9 to 5.8%. In all other tissues, mean recoveries ranged from 59 to 98%, and RSDs ranged from 3.3 to 20%. Method quantitation limits ranged from 6 to 22 ng/g for the 6 species. The LC parameters produced easily integratable OTC peaks without coelution of endogenous compounds. The method is accurate, precise, and sensitive for OTC in fillet tissue from 6 species of fish from 5 phylogenetically diverse groups.

  15. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Edwardsiella tarda in response to oxytetracycline stress in biofilm.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lina; Chen, Huarong; Lin, Wenxiong; Lin, Xiangmin

    2017-01-06

    Edwardsiella tarda is a virulent fish pathogen that causes extensive economic losses in the aquaculture industry worldwide. The antibiotic resistance status of E. tarda is high, especially in the biofilm status; however, the mechanisms underlying its resistance remain largely unknown. In this study, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics methods were used to compare the differential expression of E. tarda in response to oxytetracycline (OXY) stress in biofilm. Additional bioinformatics analysis demonstrated an increasing abundance of translation-related proteins, especially ribosomal subunits, and a decreasing abundance of key metabolic pathways underlying the adaptation of E. tarda to OXY in biofilm. We performed Western blotting and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses to validate selected proteomics results, and measured enzyme activity to verify the antibiotic resistance functions of central metabolic pathways. In addition, we examined the antibiotic susceptibility of a mutant of an NADP-dependent malic enzyme (MaeB), which is involved in the bacterial tricarboxylic acid cycle, and found significantly increased resistance to OXY in biofilm. Our findings demonstrate the importance of central metabolic pathways in the antibiotic resistance of E. tarda to bacterial biofilms and provide insight into the prevention of this resistance, which would aid in disease control.

  16. Loosely bound oxytetracycline in riverine sediments from two tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    The fate of antibiotics that bind to riverine sediment is not well understood. A solution used in geochemical extraction schemes to determine loosely bound species in sediments, 1 M MgCl2 (pH 8), was chosen to determine loosely bound, and potentially bioavailable, tetracycline antibiotics (TCs), including oxytetracycline (5-OH tetracycline) (OTC) in sediment samples from two rivers on the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay. Bottom sediments were collected at sites upstream from, at, and downstream from municipal sewage-treatment plants (STPs) situated on two natural waterways, Yellow Bank Stream, MD, and the Pocomoke River, MD. Concentrations of easily desorbed OTC ranged from 0.6 to approximately 1.2 ??g g-1 dry wt sediment in Yellow Bank Stream and from 0.7 to approximately 3.3 ??g g-1 dry wt sediment in the Pocomoke River. Concentrations of easily desorbable OTC were generally smaller in sediment upstream than in sediment downstream from the STP in the Pocomoke River. STPs and poultry manure are both potential sources of OTC to these streams. OTC that is loosely bound to sediment is subject to desorption. Other researchers have found desorbed TCs to be biologically active compounds.

  17. Sorption of ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline zwitterions to soils and soil minerals: influence of compound structure.

    PubMed

    Carrasquillo, Anthony J; Bruland, Gregory L; MacKay, Allison A; Vasudevan, Dharni

    2008-10-15

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) zwitterions sorbed to a greater extent than ciprofloxacin (CIP) zwitterions onto goethite and soils with moderate-to-low effective cation exchange capacities (ECEC < 10 cmol(c)/kg) because adjacent pairs of hydroxyl groups on the OTC molecule (absent in CIP) facilitated greater surface complexation to soil metal oxides and aluminosilicate edge sites. CIP sorbed to a higher extentthan OTC onto aluminosilicates and onto soils with "high" ECEC values (>10 cmol(c)/kg). The sorption of heterocyclic compounds structurally similar to CIP indicated that both positive charge localization on the cationic amine and the extent of charge delocalization to the heterocyclic ring influenced molecular orientation within the montmorillonite interlayers, van der Waals interactions, and the potential for sorption. The sorption of compounds structurally similar to OTC revealed that greater positive charge localization on the cationic amine facilitated sorption to montmorillonite, whereas ortho substituted anionic and cationic groups on a zwitterionic molecule resulted in unfavorable Coulombic interactions between the anionic moiety and the negatively charged surface and hindered sorption. Thus, greater CIP zwitterion sorption to aluminosilicates and "high" ECEC soils resulted from greater distance between the anionic and cationic groups, which maximized Coulombic attraction to the surface.

  18. Oxytetracycline pharmacokinetics in rainbow trout during and after an orally administered medicated feed regimen.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ron A; Pelsor, Francis R; Kane, Andrew S; Reimschuessel, Renate

    2012-06-01

    The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic predictor of antimicrobial activity for tetracyclines is reported to be the area under the concentration-time curve at steady state (AUC(ss)) divided by the minimal inhibitory concentration of the targeted pathogen. Here, we estimate AUC(ss) values for oxytetracycline (OTC) in serum of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss by using a destructive sampling study design. Seventy-two rainbow trout were fed OTC-medicated feed at 74.7 +/- 1.5 mg/kg (mean +/- SD) body weight (BW) by oral gavage for 10 consecutive days. Serum was collected from nine fish at 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, and 22 d after dosing began. Serum OTC concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with a 0.01-microg/mL limit of detection. The average OTC AUC(ss) was 29.2 microg x h/mL and was estimated using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling and bootstrap resampling techniques. The elimination half-life was estimated as 85.0 h, and the fraction of steady state achieved was estimated as 0.85. The calculated AUC(ss) (24.8 microg x h/mL) following 10 d of oral dosing with 75 mg OTC/kg BW was less than the estimated AUC(ss). Results suggest that the pharmacokinetics of OTC exposure, including the AUC(ss), is better evaluated by using multiday dosimetry than by using a standard single-dose protocol.

  19. Bioremediation of oxytetracycline in seawater by living and dead biomass of the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Santaeufemia, Sergio; Torres, Enrique; Mera, Roi; Abalde, Julio

    2016-12-15

    Due to its use, a large amount of Oxytetracycline (OTC) is released into water, which has a detrimental impact on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Although there are different physicochemical methods (mainly photodegradation) to remove OTC, there is increasing interest in the use of bioremediation. The sorption characteristics of OTC using living and dead biomass of the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum have been investigated in this study. Kinetics, isotherms and maximum elimination capacity were tested and discussed. Kinetic studies showed that the OTC removal by living biomass followed a sigmoidal model. However, the dead biomass followed a pseudo-first order model. The living biomass showed higher efficiency than the dead biomass with maximum sorption capacities of 29.18mgg(-1) and 4.54mgg(-1), respectively. Combination of living biomass and photodegradation under the culture conditions eliminated 13.2mgL(-1) of OTC during 11h of culture and with an initial OTC concentration of 15mgL(-1). With an initial OTC concentration of 2.5mgL(-1), 97% of OTC was removed. This removal was mainly caused by bioremediation than by photodegradation. The results proved the potential practical application of the living P. tricornutum biomass for a low-cost and efficient removal of OTC from seawater.

  20. The effect of cooking on veterinary drug residues in food: 4. Oxytetracycline.

    PubMed

    Rose, M D; Bygrave, J; Farrington, W H; Shearer, G

    1996-04-01

    The heat stability of oxytetracycline (OTC) in water and vegetable oil was investigated. Results showed that the drug was unstable in water at 100 degrees C with a half-life of about 2 min, but more stable in oil at 180 degrees C where the half-life was about 8 min. The effect of a range of cooking processes including microwaving, boiling, roasting, grilling, braising and frying on OTC residues in incurred animal tissues was investigated. Substantial net reductions in OTC of 35-94% were observed, with temperature during cooking having the largest impact on the loss. Migration from the tissue into the surrounding liquid or meat juices was observed during the cooking processes. Diode-array analysis of heat-treated OTC standard solutions indicated that no individual closely related compound such as 4-epioxytetracycline, alpha- or beta-apooxytetracycline formed a significant proportion of the breakdown products. OTC was not evenly distributed throughout the tissue, but the effects of this were minimized by selecting adjacent samples for cooking and for the raw control. The findings of this investigation showed that the effect of cooking on residues of OTC should be considered before data obtained from measurements on raw tissue are used for consumer exposure estimates and dietary intake calculations.

  1. Copper/Zinc-Superoxide Dismutase Is Required for Oxytetracycline Resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Simon V.; Malkapuram, Srividya; Mateus, Carolina; Babb, Kimberly S.

    2000-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, along with other eukaryotes, is resistant to tetracyclines. We found that deletion of SOD1 (encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase) rendered S. cerevisiae hypersensitive to oxytetracycline (OTC): a sod1Δ mutant exhibited a >95% reduction in colony-forming ability at an OTC concentration of 20 μg ml−1, whereas concentrations of up to 1,000 μg ml−1 had no effect on the growth of the wild type. OTC resistance was restored in the sod1Δ mutant by complementation with wild-type SOD1. The effect of OTC appeared to be cytotoxic and was not evident in a ctt1Δ (cytosolic catalase) mutant or in the presence of tetracycline. SOD1 transcription was not induced by OTC, suggesting that constitutive SOD1 expression is sufficient for wild-type OTC resistance. OTC uptake levels in wild-type and sod1Δ strains were similar. However, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were both enhanced during exposure of the sod1Δ mutant, but not the wild type, to OTC. We propose that Sod1p protects S. cerevisiae against a mode of OTC action that is dependent on oxidative damage. PMID:10613865

  2. Turbidimetric microbiological determination of oxytetracycline hydrochloride in finished feeds and a feed premix: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Brennecke, D L; Reed, S J; Waisner, D L

    1980-09-01

    New automated and manual turbidimetric microbiological assay methods for oxytetracycline (OTC) in finished feeds and a feed premix were submitted to 17 collaborating laboratories for comparison with the official AOAC method. Six finished feeds of 50 and 100 g/ton levels and one premix containing 20 g OTC/lb were sent to the collaborators. Results were received from 12 laboratories. Six laboratories provided results derived from the Autoturb System and 7 laboratories poerformed the turbidimetric analyses manually. All 12 laboratories assayed the samples by the AOAC cylinder-plate method. Ranges of recoveraies expressed as percent were 89.5-102.0, 91.2-97.0, and 91.4-96.0 for the AOAC, Autoturb turbidimetric, and manual turbidimetric methods, respectively. Average recoveries were 96.3, 93.4, and 93.6%, respectively. The mean relative standard deviation values were 5.7, 6.3, and 7.2, respectively. There was little significant difference between the turbidimetric methods and the AOAC method; however, the turbidimetric methods were faster.

  3. Construction and characterization of potentiometric sensor for the determination of oxytetracycline hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian Xiang; Zhang, Xu; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2004-04-01

    The construction and performance of plastic membrane (PME) oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC)-selective electrodes, based on three types of ion-pairs, OTC-tetraphenylborate (TPB), OTC-phosphotungstate (PT) and OTC-silicotungstate (SiT), as the electroactive substance in a plasticized PVC membrane with dibutylphthalate (DBP), were described. Furthermore, internal solid contact sensors (ISCS) OTC-selective sensors, based on a conducting polypyrrole (PPy) film immobilized on a platinum or glassy carbon electrode surface casted by a plasticized PVC membrane were constructed and evaluated. A novel optimization methodology in a numerical expression, comprehensive quality index (CQI) for a sensor, was used to optimize the composition of the membrane in the preparation of PME and screen the parameter of electropolymerization in the preparation of ISCS. Several PMEs and ISCSs were fully characterized and evaluated. An ISCS (Pt/PPy/PVC (OTC-TPB)) showed an excellent Nernstian response over the linear concentration range of 4.0 x 10(-7)-5.0 x 10(-2) M with the slope of 60.6 mV per decade (at 25 degrees C). The limit of detection was 1.0 x 10(-7) M of OTC (0.03 ppm). The response time was <25 s. The sensor was successfully used for the analysis of OTC in pharmaceutical formulation by using direct potentiometry.

  4. Bioequivalence study of two long-acting oxytetracycline formulations in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, N; Yildirim, M

    2006-11-01

    Two commercially available long-acting oxytetracycline hydrochloride formulations (Primamycin LA (Pfizer) and Terralent 20% LA (I.E. Ulagay)) were administered by the intramuscular route to 20 clinically healthy sheep at a dose of 20 mg/kg. The study was performed in a two-period crossover design. Plasma samples were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mean maximum concentrations (C (max)) was 8.00 +/- 2.05 microg/ml and 8.61 +/- 1.42 micro/ml, respectively. The mean area under the concentration time curve (AUC) values were 154.95 +/- 50.37(microg h)/ml and 161.70 +/- 47.02(microg h)/ml, respectively. The 90%confidence intervals for the ratio of C (max) and AUC values for the test and reference product are with in the interval 70-143% for C (max) and interval 80--125% for AUC proposed by EMEA. It was concluded that Primamycin LA and Terralent 20% LA formulations are bioequivalent in their rate and extent of drug absorbtion.

  5. Treatment with oxytetracycline hydrochloride in the prevention of atrophic rhinitis in baby pigs.

    PubMed

    de Jong, M F; Oosterwoud, R A

    1977-02-15

    Atrophic rhinitis (AR) caused serious losses in a breeding herd including approximately 120 sows. The extent to which piglets were affected by AR was assessed by determining the degree of shortening of the upper jaw. Animals showing a crooked nose or grade two or more of shortening of the upper jaw were considered to be clinically positive. Grades three and four of the upper jaw were observed in those animals which were severely affected by Atrophic rhinitis. Treatment of all piglets up to about eight weeks of age by the antibiotic oxytetracycline hydrochloride directed against the bacteria Bordetella bronchisepica and Pasteurella multocida was successful in reducing the proportion of clinically affected piglets from 30 per cent to 0 per cent within eight weeks. There was found to be a positive relationship between the proportion of piglets infected with the two above bacteria at an age of about five weeks and the incidence of shortening of the upper jaw at an age of about eight weeks. The proportion of piglets with shortening of the upper jaw rose following a marked increase in the number of piglets in farrowing and flat-deck houses and as a result of the supply of inadequately medicated feed.

  6. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride vital labelling revisited: the case of Dicentrarchus labrax and Diplodus puntazzo.

    PubMed

    Morales-Nin, B; Grau, A; Pérez-Mayol, S; Pastor, E; Palmer, M

    2011-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the optimal oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC) dosage for otolith marking in Dicentrarchus labrax and Diplodus puntazzo. Adult reared individuals of these two species were marked with OTC intraperitoneal injections at three recommended doses (25, 45 and 60 mg kg(-1) fish) and a blank. Fishes were monitored for 36-49 days from when they were marked. The effectiveness of the otolith marking was inversely related to the OTC dosage. The injections were found to have deleterious effects at the highest dosages: (1) mortality was nearly 0% during the first 4 days but then it suddenly rose to 85-100% depending on the fish and treatment, (2) no daily growth increments were formed after marking and (3) no or negative somatic growth was observed. These results suggest that most of the current studies using OTC marking for estimating mortality of wild fishes use an observation period between marking the fishes and releasing that is too short to allow the deleterious effects of OTC to be detected. Species-specific experiments for assessing the long-term mortality should be undertaken when OTC marking is used on wild fishes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. The efficacy of mass-marking channel catfish fingerlings by immersion in oxytetracycline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been extensively used for marking a variety of fish species, but has never been successfully used to mark channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Channel catfish fingerlings (~ 25 mm TL) obtained from the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation at Byron Fish Hatchery were kept in Living Streams (791 to 1,018 L) equipped with recirculation units. Marking trials consisted of immersing channel catfish in one of three concentrations (250, 450, and 700 mg/L) OTC hydrochloride [HCl] for 6 hours. Samples of channel catfish were obtained from each group at 1-week and 4-week postimmersion. Lapilli otoliths and pectoral spines were removed to assess mark presence with an epi-fluorescent compound microscope. After one week, no marks were detected on pectoral spines for all treatments, mark detection on otoliths depended on concentration, but never exceeded 43% (700 mg/L). After four weeks, all otoliths and pectoral spines were determined marked for 700 mg/L OTC, 20% for fish immersed in 450 mg/L OTC, and 0% were marked after four weeks at the 250 mg/L OTC. Results show, channel catfish fingerlings can be successfully marked with immersion in OTC at 700 mg/L for at least 6 hours.

  8. Adsorptive removal of trace oxytetracycline from water by acid-modified zeolite: influencing factors.

    PubMed

    An, Wenhao; Xiao, Hua; Yu, Man; Chen, Xiaoyang; Xu, Yuxin; Zhou, Wenmin

    2013-01-01

    Because of the wide use of antibiotics in the livestock industry, trace tetracycline antibiotics are frequently detected in swine wastewater and water bodies near pig farms. Based on natural zeolite, modified zeolite was synthesized by treatment with nitric acid. As one kind of typical tetracyclines, oxytetracycline (OTC) was chosen as the target adsorbate. Removal of trace OTC by modified zeolite and the effects of several main water matrices on OTC adsorption were studied in detail. OTC removal efficiency by acid-modified zeolite was about 90%, compared to less than 20% by natural zeolite. In general, in acidic conditions the removal efficiency of OTC by modified zeolite was about 90%, which was much higher than 20-35% in alkaline conditions. An increase in ionic strength from 0.01 to 1.0 M led to a decrease in adsorption efficiency from 90 to 27%. The presence of 10.0 mg L(-1) dissolved humic acid accelerated sorption of OTC on modified zeolite, while 100.0 mg L(-1) humic acid resulted in the opposite effect. An increase in temperature contributed to enhancing the adsorption efficiency.

  9. The Effect of Water Hardness on Mortality of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) During Exposure to Oxytetracycline.

    PubMed

    Hundt, Matthias; Schreiber, Benjamin; Eckmann, Reiner; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore; Wünneman, Hannah; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Marking of fish otoliths with oxytetracycline and tetracycline is a widely used method to evaluate the effectiveness of stocking operations. Available protocols for the labeling of fish specify a number of factors influencing mark quality and potential risk for fish during marking. This study investigates the influence of water hardness on mortality of freshwater fish during marking with OTC. In order to pursue this question complexation of OTC with Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) cations was measured spectrophotometrically. Furthermore, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were immersed in OTC solutions (1200 mg/L; 48 h immersion) combined with varying levels of water hardness (5.5, 15.5, 25.5, 32.5°dH). The amount of OTC-Mg-Ca-complexes was positively correlated to water hardness. Moreover, it could be demonstrated that mortality of zebrafish during marking varied as a factor of water hardness. Highest mortalities occurred at the lowest (5.5°dH) and the highest (32.5°dH) tested levels during marking with OTC.

  10. Disposition of oxytetracycline in pigs after i.m. administration of two long-acting formulations.

    PubMed

    El Korchi, G; Prats, C; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2001-08-01

    Two commercially available long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC) formulations were administered by the intramuscular (i.m.) route to six healthy pigs at the recommended dose of 30 mg/kg. After 2 h the mean maximum concentration (C(max)) reached values of 8.1 +/- 2.2 and 15.4 +/- 11.1 microg/mL, respectively. These concentrations remained higher than 0.5 microg/mL for more than 5 days after drug administration. The area under the concentration time curve (AUC09 days) of each formulation was 255 +/- 76.5 and 399.2 +/- 123 microg. h/mL, respectively, and the mean residence time (MRT) was around 3 days for both formulations. No significant differences were observed between the pharmacokinetic parameters of the two formulations, showing the bioequivalence of the two formulations studied according to the criteria established by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products (CVMP).

  11. Effects of thermophilic composting on oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, and their corresponding resistance genes in swine manure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Ben, Weiwei; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Qiang, Zhimin

    2015-09-01

    Environmental contamination caused by residual antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in concentrated animal feeding operations has drawn increasing attention. This study investigated the removal of oxytetracycline (OTC) and sulfamethazine (SMN) as well as the behavior of their corresponding ARGs through a series of simulated composting tests with swine manure. The results indicate that the composting piles became fully mature after 32 days when the thermophilic stage was maintained at 55 °C for 3.5 days. At an initial spiked concentration of 50 (SMN) and 32 mg kg(-1) (OTC), their removal efficiency could reach 89.8% and 100%, respectively. An abiotic process was mainly responsible for the degradation of SMN, whereas both abiotic and biotic processes were responsible for the degradation of OTC. Among all the studied ARGs, only the tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) encoding ribosomal protection proteins remained relatively stable throughout the composting process, while those encoding efflux pump (EFP) and enzymatic inactivation (EI) proteins and sulfonamide resistance genes (SRGs) obviously increased when the composting was complete. The addition of antibiotics inhibited the microbial activity in the early stage of composting but promoted the proliferation of ARGs particularly in the mesophilic stage. Integron-mediated horizontal gene transfers played an important role in the proliferation of most ARG types studied (i.e., EFP TRGs, EI TRG and SRGs). In summary, thermophilic composting of swine manure could remove the studied antibiotics effectively, but failed to prevent the proliferation of their corresponding ARGs.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in goats: modifications induced by a long-acting formulation.

    PubMed

    Escudero, E; Carceles, C M; Serrano, J M

    1994-12-03

    The pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline were studied in goats, after the intravenous and intramuscular injection of a conventional and long-acting formulation. The antibiotic was distributed according to an open two-compartment model. The apparent volume of distribution (Vz) and the central compartment volume (Vc) were 1.443 litres/kg and 0.453 litre/kg, respectively, and the total body clearance was 0.156 litre/kg/hour. The mean half-lives (T1/2 lambda z) of the conventional formulation after intravenous and intramuscular administration were six hours 28 minutes and 10 hours 38 minutes, respectively, whereas the long-acting formulation had half-lives of six hours 36 seconds and 29 hours, respectively, after intravenous and intramuscular injection. From the results of these single administrations two intramuscular dosage regimens can be proposed that achieve minimum concentrations of over 0.5 mg/litre (the minimum inhibitory concentration for most susceptible pathogens): with the conventional formulation by administering an initial dose of 10 mg/kg and a maintenance dose of 8.5 mg/kg every 24 hours, and with the long-acting formulation by administering an initial dose of 20 mg/kg and a maintenance dose of 14 mg/kg every 48 hours.

  13. The bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. bioaccumulates oxytetracycline, flumequine and oxolinic acid in the freshwater environment.

    PubMed

    Delépée, Raphaël; Pouliquen, Hervé; Le Bris, Hervé

    2004-04-25

    In recent years, the fate of pharmacological substances in the aquatic environment have been more and more studied. Oxolinic acid (OA), flumequine (FLU) and oxytetracycline (OTC) are commonly used antibacterial agents. A large amount of these drugs is released into water directly by dissolved fraction and indirectly in urine and feces. Monitoring these compounds in the freshwater environment is difficult because of the lack of suitable indicators. The aim of this work was to evaluate the OA, FLU and OTC bioaccumulation abilities of Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw., known for heavy metal bioaccumulation. The experiment described was decomposed for two times: a 10-days accumulation period during which bryophytes were in contact with antibiotics and a 15-days post-exposure period during which bryophytes were in water with no antibiotic. This experiment showed that this bryophyte strongly accumulates OA, FLU and OTC in freshwater. Bioaccumulation factors (ratio of concentrations in bryophyte and water) ranged between 75 and 450. Moreover, OA, FLU and OTC persisted in the bryophyte for a long time with clearance between 0.19 and 3.04 ng/g/day. Mean residence times ranged between 18 and 59 days. Accumulation and decontamination mechanism models were proposed.

  14. A Cathodic "Signal-off" Photoelectrochemical Aptasensor for Ultrasensitive and Selective Detection of Oxytetracycline.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kai; Liu, Yong; Yang, Yaohua; Zhang, Jingdong

    2015-12-15

    A novel cathodic "signal-off" strategy was proposed for photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensing of oxytetracycline (OTC). The PEC sensor was constructed by employing a p-type semiconductor BiOI doped with graphene (G) as photoactive species and OTC-binding aptamer as a recognition element. The morphological structure and crystalline phases of obtained BiOI-G nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The UV-visible absorption spectroscopic analysis indicated that doping of BiOI with graphene improved the absorption of materials in the visible light region. Moreover, graphene could facilitate the electron transfer of BiOI modified electrode. As a result, the cathodic photocurrent response of BiOI under visible light irradiation was significantly promoted when a suitable amount of graphene was doped. When amine-functionalized OTC-binding aptamer was immobilized on the BiOI-G modified electrode, a cathodic PEC aptasensor was fabricated, which exhibited a declined photocurrent response to OTC. Under the optimized conditions, the photocurrent response of aptamer/BiOI-G/FTO was linearly proportional to the concentration of OTC ranging from 4.0 to 150 nM, with a detection limit (3S/N) of 0.9 nM. This novel PEC sensing strategy demonstrated an ultrasensitive method for OTC detection with high selectivity and good stability.

  15. Improvement of oxytetracycline production mediated via cooperation of resistance genes in Streptomyces rimosus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shouliang; Wang, Xuefeng; Shi, Mingxin; Yuan, Fang; Wang, Huizhuan; Jia, Xiaole; Yuan, Fang; Sun, Jinliang; Liu, Tiejun; Yang, Keqian; Zhang, Yuxiu; Fan, Keqiang; Li, Zilong

    2017-09-01

    Increasing the self-resistance levels of Streptomyces is an effective strategy to improve the production of antibiotics. To increase the oxytetracycline (OTC) production in Streptomyces rimosus, we investigated the cooperative effect of three co-overexpressing OTC resistance genes: one gene encodes a ribosomal protection protein (otrA) and the other two express efflux proteins (otrB and otrC). Results indicated that combinational overexpression of otrA, otrB, and otrC (MKABC) exerted a synergetic effect. OTC production increased by 179% in the recombinant strain compared with that of the wild-type strain M4018. The resistance level to OTC was increased by approximately two-fold relative to the parental strain, thereby indicating that applying the cooperative effect of self-resistance genes is useful to improve OTC production. Furthermore, the previously identified cluster-situated activator OtcR was overexpressed in MKABC in constructing the recombinant strain MKRABC; such strain can produce OTC of approximately 7.49 g L(-1), which represents an increase of 19% in comparison with that of the OtcR-overexpressing strain alone. Our work showed that the cooperative overexpression of self-resistance genes is a promising strategy to enhance the antibiotics production in Streptomyces.

  16. The effect of the macrolide antibiotic tylosin on microbial diversity in the canine small intestine as demonstrated by massive parallel 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Suchodolski, Jan S; Dowd, Scot E; Westermarck, Elias; Steiner, Jörg M; Wolcott, Randy D; Spillmann, Thomas; Harmoinen, Jaana A

    2009-10-02

    Recent studies have shown that the fecal microbiota is generally resilient to short-term antibiotic administration, but some bacterial taxa may remain depressed for several months. Limited information is available about the effect of antimicrobials on small intestinal microbiota, an important contributor to gastrointestinal health. The antibiotic tylosin is often successfully used for the treatment of chronic diarrhea in dogs, but its exact mode of action and its effect on the intestinal microbiota remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tylosin on canine jejunal microbiota. Tylosin was administered at 20 to 22 mg/kg q 24 hr for 14 days to five healthy dogs, each with a pre-existing jejunal fistula. Jejunal brush samples were collected through the fistula on days 0, 14, and 28 (14 days after withdrawal of tylosin). Bacterial diversity was characterized using massive parallel 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Pyrosequencing revealed a previously unrecognized species richness in the canine small intestine. Ten bacterial phyla were identified. Microbial populations were phylogenetically more similar during tylosin treatment. However, a remarkable inter-individual response was observed for specific taxa. Fusobacteria, Bacteroidales, and Moraxella tended to decrease. The proportions of Enterococcus-like organisms, Pasteurella spp., and Dietzia spp. increased significantly during tylosin administration (p < 0.05). The proportion of Escherichia coli-like organisms increased by day 28 (p = 0.04). These changes were not accompanied by any obvious clinical effects. On day 28, the phylogenetic composition of the microbiota was similar to day 0 in only 2 of 5 dogs. Bacterial diversity resembled the pre-treatment state in 3 of 5 dogs. Several bacterial taxa such as Spirochaetes, Streptomycetaceae, and Prevotellaceae failed to recover at day 28 (p < 0.05). Several bacterial groups considered to be sensitive to tylosin increased in their proportions

  17. The effect of the macrolide antibiotic tylosin on microbial diversity in the canine small intestine as demonstrated by massive parallel 16S rRNA gene sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that the fecal microbiota is generally resilient to short-term antibiotic administration, but some bacterial taxa may remain depressed for several months. Limited information is available about the effect of antimicrobials on small intestinal microbiota, an important contributor to gastrointestinal health. The antibiotic tylosin is often successfully used for the treatment of chronic diarrhea in dogs, but its exact mode of action and its effect on the intestinal microbiota remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tylosin on canine jejunal microbiota. Tylosin was administered at 20 to 22 mg/kg q 24 hr for 14 days to five healthy dogs, each with a pre-existing jejunal fistula. Jejunal brush samples were collected through the fistula on days 0, 14, and 28 (14 days after withdrawal of tylosin). Bacterial diversity was characterized using massive parallel 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Results Pyrosequencing revealed a previously unrecognized species richness in the canine small intestine. Ten bacterial phyla were identified. Microbial populations were phylogenetically more similar during tylosin treatment. However, a remarkable inter-individual response was observed for specific taxa. Fusobacteria, Bacteroidales, and Moraxella tended to decrease. The proportions of Enterococcus-like organisms, Pasteurella spp., and Dietzia spp. increased significantly during tylosin administration (p < 0.05). The proportion of Escherichia coli-like organisms increased by day 28 (p = 0.04). These changes were not accompanied by any obvious clinical effects. On day 28, the phylogenetic composition of the microbiota was similar to day 0 in only 2 of 5 dogs. Bacterial diversity resembled the pre-treatment state in 3 of 5 dogs. Several bacterial taxa such as Spirochaetes, Streptomycetaceae, and Prevotellaceae failed to recover at day 28 (p < 0.05). Several bacterial groups considered to be sensitive to tylosin increased in their

  18. Runoff losses of excreted chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin from surface-applied and soil-incorporated beef cattle feedlot manure.

    PubMed

    Amarakoon, Inoka D; Zvomuya, Francis; Cessna, Allan J; Degenhardt, Dani; Larney, Francis J; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-03-01

    Veterinary antimicrobials in land-applied manure can move to surface waters via rain or snowmelt runoff, thus increasing their dispersion in agro-environments. This study quantified losses of excreted chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin in simulated rain runoff from surface-applied and soil-incorporated beef cattle ( L.) feedlot manure (60 Mg ha, wet wt.). Antimicrobial concentrations in runoff generally reflected the corresponding concentrations in the manure. Soil incorporation of manure reduced the concentrations of chlortetracycline (from 75 to 12 μg L for a 1:1 mixture of chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine and from 43 to 17 μg L for chlortetracycline alone) and sulfamethazine (from 3.9 to 2.6 μg L) in runoff compared with surface application. However, there was no significant effect of manure application method on tylosin concentration (range, 0.02-0.06 μg L) in runoff. Mass losses, as a percent of the amount applied, for chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine appeared to be independent of their respective soil sorption coefficients. Mass losses of chlortetracycline were significantly reduced with soil incorporation of manure (from 6.5 to 1.7% when applied with sulfamethazine and from 6.5 to 3.5% when applied alone). Mass losses of sulfamethazine (4.8%) and tylosin (0.24%) in runoff were not affected by manure incorporation. Although our results confirm that cattle-excreted veterinary antimicrobials can be removed via surface runoff after field application, the magnitudes of chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine losses were reduced by soil incorporation of manure immediately after application.

  19. Identification and quantification method of spiramycin and tylosin in feedingstuffs with HPLC-UV/DAD at 1 ppm level.

    PubMed

    Civitareale, C; Fiori, M; Ballerini, A; Brambilla, G

    2004-10-29

    The use of the two macrolides antibiotics Spiramycin (S) and Tylosin (T) as growth promoters in animal feeding has been recently withdrawn in the European Union due to a concern about the outbreaks of farmacoresistance fenomena as a possible hazard for humans. For feed additives monitoring purposes, an analytical method has been developed for their extraction, purification and identification in different animal feedingstuffs (pelleted beef, pig, poultry feeds and calves milk replacer) at a minimum performance required limit (MRPL) of 1 microg g(-1) (ppm). Such limit has been established according to the lowest dosage of additives still able to elicit an appreciable growth promoting effect. Blank feeds were spiked at two concentration levels, 1.0 and 2.5 ppm in six replicates. After methanolic extraction, samples were cleaned up on SPE CN columns and extracts analysed in HPLC-UV/DAD, using a gradient elution. Detection limits, calculated as the tree time mean noise of 20 blank feeds, were 176 and 118 ng g(-1) for S and T, respectively. Results show good repeatability (CV% not exceeding the value of 15) and mean recovery in the range of 99-74% and 81-53% for S and T, respectively, at 1 ppm. When the standards were injected up to 250 ng the chromatographic method can resolve the components of analytes (Spiramycin I, II and III; Tylosin A and B) but can not resolve the components on real feed samples at the spiked levels considered. For this reason the identification and quantification of analytes on matrix were carried out considering the main compound of the drugs (Spiramycin I and Tylosin A). As a verification, the overlapping of UV spectra in the range 220-350 nm between analytical standards and the compounds in the matrix were considered.

  20. Determination of amprolium, carbadox, monensin, and tylosin in surface water by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenlu; Huang, Min; Rumbeiha, Wilson; Li, Hui

    2007-01-01

    Antibiotics present in the environment are recently considered as emerging contaminants, and have raised increasing concerns about their potential risks to ecosystems and human health. In addition to the utilization for treatment, antibiotics are also routinely added as supplements in livestock feed to promote animal growth. A portion of the administered dose used for these purposes can be excreted into animal manure, and land application of the animal manure as plant fertilizers enhances the dissemination of antibiotics in the environment. It is a common practice to simultaneously administer multiple classes of antibiotics to livestock in an animal production farm. This study attempts to develop a protocol to determine four commonly used veterinary pharmaceuticals, amprolium, carbadox, monensin, and tylosin, in surface runoff from a livestock farm. A single-cartridge solid-phase extraction procedure was developed to simultaneously extract these veterinary antibiotics from surface water which were subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The extraction recoveries of spiked samples ranged from 89 to 113%, and the limits of quantitation were 8, 25, 1, and 35 ng/L for amprolium, carbodox, monensin, and tylosin, respectively. In the surface runoff from a livestock farm, amprolium was most frequently detected with the concentration range of 10-288 ng/L. Monensin was frequently detected with concentrations up to 37 ng/L. Tylosin was detected in two out of eleven samples, and carbadox was not detected in the surface runoff. The results indicate that the developed analytical method can be utilized to determine multiple classes of veterinary antibiotics present in surface runoff originating from animal farms. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.