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Sample records for oxytocin receptor antagonist

  1. Correlation between myometrial receptor affinity, lipophilicity and antagonistic potency of oxytocin analogues in the rat.

    PubMed

    Atke, A; Vilhardt, H; Melin, P

    1988-08-01

    Purified myometrial plasma membrane fractions were prepared from rats treated with oestradiol to induce oestrus. The binding affinities of 11 antagonistic oxytocin analogues to the oxytocin receptor of the plasma membranes were measured. Furthermore, lipophilicity of the peptides was assessed by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography. No significant correlation was found between lipophilicity of the analogues and values for antagonistic potencies or binding affinities. Also, receptor-binding affinity did not correlate with in-vitro antagonistic activity whereas a significant correlation was obtained between binding affinities and in-vivo antagonistic potency for analogues void of partial agonist properties. It is concluded that neither receptor affinity nor lipophilicity in the analogues can predict the potency of the antagonists in vitro. However, receptor affinity was found to be a relatively good predictor of the in-vivo potency, while the usefulness of measuring antagonistic potency in vitro is questioned.

  2. Role of oxytocin in the initiation of term and preterm labor in rats: changes in oxytocin receptor density and plasma oxytocin concentration and the effect of an oxytocin antagonist, L-366,509.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Akahane, M; Minami, K; Moro, M; Ajisawa, Y; Inoue, Y; Kawarabayashi, T

    1999-03-01

    Our purpose was to compare the functional roles of oxytocin in term and preterm labor in rats by both biochemical and pharmacologic means. We determined the myometrial oxytocin receptor density and the maternal plasma concentrations of oxytocin and progesterone on gestational days 18, 20, and 22 (morning) and at the onset of delivery (day 22 afternoon) in rats with labor at term and at the onset of delivery (day 20 afternoon) in rats in preterm labor induced by the combined use of bilateral ovariectomy and estradiol injection. We also evaluated the effects of an oxytocin antagonist, L-366,509, on the initiation of both term and preterm labor. The number of tritiated oxytocin binding sites in myometrial membranes rapidly increased on gestational day 22 (morning) in rats with term labor. Plasma progesterone level decreased in an inverse fashion. A rapid increase in circulating oxytocin concentration was observed at the onset of delivery in rats in labor at term. Both the plasma oxytocin concentration and the receptor density had the same values in rats with preterm labor as in rats with term labor. L-366,509 delayed the initiation of labor in rats with term and preterm labor in a dose-dependent manner. It is confirmed biochemically and pharmacologically that oxytocin plays an important role in the initiation of both term and preterm labor in rats. The oxytocin antagonist examined was able to delay term and preterm labor, so it might prove useful in clinical practice for the treatment of preterm labor.

  3. Effects of oxytocin and an oxytocin receptor antagonist on retention of a nose-poke habituation response in mice.

    PubMed

    Boccia, M M; Baratti, C M

    1999-01-01

    The present study describes the use of nose-poke habituation as a memory task in mice and demonstrates that it is sensitive to oxytocin (OT) and an oxytocin receptor antagonist (AOT) administered after the learning trial. Habituation of nose-poke behavior of mice was defined as a reduction in number of nose-pokes compared to baseline, and was measured in a hole-board apparatus to which male Swiss mice were exposed on two consecutive days for 5 min, respectively. Immediate post-training subcutaneous administration of OT (2.00 micrograms/kg) impaired retention performance, whereas AOT (0.20 microgram/kg) enhanced it. Neither the impairing effects of OT (2.00 micrograms/kg) nor the enhancing effects of AOT (0.20 microgram/kg) were seen when the training treatment interval was 180 min, suggesting that both treatments influenced the storage of recently acquired information. The effects of OT (2.00 micrograms/kg) on retention were prevented by AOT (0.02 microgram/kg) administered immediately after training but 10 min prior OT treatment. This dose of antagonist did not affect retention by itself which suggest that impairing effects of OT on retention are probably due to an interaction of the neuropeptide with specific receptors. The actions of OT and AOT on retention were not due to enduring proactive effects of the compounds on performance during the retention test, since when given to untrained mice did not modify their spontaneous activities in the hole-board when recorded 24 h later. We suggest that nose-poke habituation learning can be a suitable method to investigate the mnestic effects of drugs, and that oxytocin negatively modulates memory storage of this form of learning elicited by stimuli repeatedly presented without reinforcement.

  4. Differential Effects of Oxytocin Receptor Antagonists, Atosiban and Nolasiban, on Oxytocin Receptor–Mediated Signaling in Human Amnion and Myometrium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hye; Pohl, Oliver; Chollet, Andre; Gotteland, Jean-Pierre; Fairhurst, Adam D. J.; Bennett, Phillip R.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most established roles of oxytocin (OT) is in inducing uterine contractions and labor. Apart from inducing contractions, our recent studies showed that OT can also activate proinflammatory pathways in both human myometrial and amnion cells, which suggests that the proinflammatory role of OT should be taken into account when developing tocolytics targeting the OT/oxytocin receptor (OTR) system. The OTR antagonist, atosiban, is currently used therapeutically for the treatment of preterm labor. We previously showed that atosiban fails to inhibit the proinflammatory effects of OT in human amnion; atosiban alone activates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinases, thus upregulating downstream prolabor genes. In contrast with our findings with atosiban, the presence of the orally active OTR antagonist, nolasiban, reduced the effect of OT on NF-κB and p38 kinase activation in both myometrial and amnion cells. Consistent with the activation of these inflammatory mediators, OT led to increases in the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and phosphorylated cytosolic phospholipase A2, which was reflected in prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Inhibition of NF-κB activation by nolasiban also translated to suppression of downstream prolabor gene expression, such as cyclooxygenase-2, C-C motif chemokine ligand 2, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8. We also demonstrated that nolasiban treatment alone has no significant stimulatory effect on both the myometrium and amnion. In conclusion, our findings indicate that nolasiban possesses promising potential as a novel tocolytic agent for both acute and maintenance therapy, as it inhibits both myometrial contractions and the proinflammatory effects of OT without the biased agonist effects. PMID:28188254

  5. The oxytocin receptor antagonist, Atosiban, activates pro-inflammatory pathways in human amnion via G(αi) signalling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hye; MacIntyre, David A; Hanyaloglu, Aylin C; Blanks, Andrew M; Thornton, Steven; Bennett, Phillip R; Terzidou, Vasso

    2016-01-15

    Oxytocin (OT) plays an important role in the onset of human labour by stimulating uterine contractions and promoting prostaglandin/inflammatory cytokine synthesis in amnion via oxytocin receptor (OTR) coupling. The OTR-antagonist, Atosiban, is widely used as a tocolytic for the management of acute preterm labour. We found that in primary human amniocytes, Atosiban (10 μM) signals via PTX-sensitive Gαi to activate transcription factor NF-κB p65, ERK1/2, and p38 which subsequently drives upregulation of the prostaglandin synthesis enzymes, COX-2 and phospho-cPLA2 and excretion of prostaglandins (PGE2) (n = 6; p < 0.05, ANOVA). Moreover, Atosiban treatment increased expression and excretion of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and CCL5. We also showed that OT-simulated activation of NF-κB, ERK1/2, and p38 and subsequent prostaglandin and inflammatory cytokine synthesis is via Gαi-2 and Gαi-3 but not Gαq, and is not inhibited by Atosiban. Activation or exacerbation of inflammation is not a desirable effect of tocolytics. Therefore therapeutic modulation of the OT/OTR system for clinical management of term/preterm labour should consider the effects of differential G-protein coupling of the OTR and the role of OT or selective OTR agonists/antagonists in activating proinflammatory pathways.

  6. The combination tocolytic effect of magnesium sulfate and an oxytocin receptor antagonist in myometrium from singleton and twin pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Arrowsmith, Sarah; Neilson, James; Wray, Susan

    2016-12-01

    Preterm birth at <37 weeks of gestation is the most common and costly complication of pregnancy and remains the leading cause of neonatal morbidity, death, and reduced achievement in surviving infants. Magnesium sulfate is 1 class of tocolytics for threatened preterm labor; however, its clinical efficacy has been questioned. Twin pregnancies are at increased risk of preterm delivery compared with singleton gestations, which suggests that there is twin-specific risk to preterm delivery in twins. The prevention strategies that are applied to singleton pregnancies, however, have not been shown to be effective in twin pregnancies. The purpose of this study was to compare the relaxant effect of magnesium sulfate on spontaneous and oxytocin-augmented contractions of human myometrium from singleton and twin pregnancies and to examine whether the effect of oxytocin on magnesium sulfate's potency could be reversed with the use of the oxytocin receptor antagonist, atosiban. Myometrium was obtained at the time of prelabor cesarean section (36-40 weeks of gestation) from women with singleton (n=23) or twin (n=12) pregnancy. Isometric tension recordings were made on myometrial strips that were mounted in organ baths that were superfused with physiologic saline solution. Strips were exposed to rising concentrations of magnesium sulfate, and the effect on spontaneous contractions or stimulated with oxytocin (0.5 nmol/L) and in the presence or absence of atosiban (100 nmol/L) was recorded. The contractile characteristics after each application of magnesium sulfate, which included amplitude of contraction and activity integral, were measured. Concentration-response curves were fitted with the use of nonlinear regression and comparison of the negative logarithm of the 50% reduction in activity values. Magnesium sulfate exerted an equal concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on spontaneous myometrial contractions from both singleton and twin myometrium (P>.05). The application of

  7. Oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in cancer cells and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Cassoni, P; Sapino, A; Marrocco, T; Chini, B; Bussolati, G

    2004-04-01

    The hypothalamic nonapeptide oxytocin plays a crucial role in many reproductive and behavioural functions. However, in recent years, an additional new role for oxytocin has been identified in neoplastic pathology. In tumours, oxytocin acts as a growth regulator, through the activation of a specific G-coupled transmembrane receptor, the oxytocin receptor. In vitro, oxytocin inhibits proliferation of neoplastic cells of either epithelial (mammary and endometrial), nervous or bone origin, all expressing oxytocin receptor. Furthermore, an oxytocin growth-inhibiting effect was also tested and confirmed in vivo in mouse and rat mammary carcinomas. In neoplastic cells derived from two additional oxytocin target tissues, trophoblast and endothelium, oxytocin was found to promote cell proliferation, an effect opposite to that previously described in all other neoplastic oxytocin-responsive cells. The signal transduction pathways coupled to the biological effects of oxytocin are different in oxytocin growth-inhibited or growth-stimulated cells, and may depend on the membrane localization of the oxytocin receptor itself. The inhibitory effect of oxytocin is apparently mediated by activation of the cAMP-protein kinase A pathway, a nonconventional oxytocin signalling pathway, whereas the mitogenic effect is coupled to the increase of intracellular [Ca(2+)] and tyrosine phosphorylation, 'classical' oxytocin transducers. Moreover, the oxytocin receptor localization in lipid rafts enriched in caveolin-1 turns the inhibition of cell growth into a proliferative response, eliciting different epidermal growth factor receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase activation patterns. This unexpected role of oxytocin (and oxytocin analogues) in regulating cell proliferation, as well as the widespread expression of oxytocin receptors in neoplastic tissues of different origin, opens up new perspectives on the biological role of the oxytocin-oxytocin receptor system in cancer.

  8. Oxytocin receptor signalling.

    PubMed

    Devost, Dominic; Wrzal, Paulina; Zingg, Hans H

    2008-01-01

    The great diversity of the expression sites and proposed function of the oxytocin (OXT) receptor (OXTR) is paralleled by a diversity of its signalling pathways, many of which have still remained unexplored. We have used different approaches to discover novel pathways. By means of a phosphoproteomics approach, we have detected several distinct OXT-induced changes in tyrosine as well as threonine phosphorylation states of intracellular protein in myometrial cells. The most prominent change involved dephosphorylation of a 95-kDa phosphothreonine moiety. By N-terminal amino acid microsequence analysis, this moiety was shown to correspond to eukaryotic translation factor eEF2. This protein is a key regulator of protein synthesis and mediates, upon dephosphorylation, the translocation step of peptide chain elongation. These findings define a novel mechanism by which OXT assumes a so far unrecognized trophic function. We next elucidated the intracellular pathway(s) involved. We found that this effect is not mediated by any of the known pathways known to induce eEF2 dephosphorylation (mTOR, ERK1/2 or p38) but by protein kinase C. Consistent with this idea, we also found that direct stimulation of protein kinase C with a phorbol ester induced eEF2 dephosphorylation in myometrial cells. Using phosphoERK antibodies, we discovered by Western blotting that OXT induced phosphorylation of a higher molecular weight ERK-related protein. We were able to show that this band corresponded to "big MAP kinase1" or ERK5. ERK5 is part of a distinct MAPK cascade and promotes expression of the myosin light chain gene and plays an obligatory role in muscle cell development and differentiation. The role of ERK5 in myometrium has remained unexplored, but it is likely to represent an important novel pathway mediating OXT's effects on smooth muscle function. Further elucidation of these novel signalling pathways will have significant relevance for the development of novel pathway-specific OXTR

  9. Oxytocin releases atrial natriuretic peptide by combining with oxytocin receptors in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Gutkowska, Jolanta; Jankowski, Marek; Lambert, Chantal; Mukaddam-Daher, Suhayla; Zingg, Hans H.; McCann, Samuel M.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that the central nervous system induces release of the cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) by release of oxytocin from the neurohypophysis. The presence of specific transcripts for the oxytocin receptor was demonstrated in all chambers of the heart by amplification of cDNA by the PCR using specific oligonucleotide primers. Oxytocin receptor mRNA content in the heart is 10 times lower than in the uterus of female rats. Oxytocin receptor transcripts were demonstrated by in situ hybridization in atrial and ventricular sections and confirmed by competitive binding assay using frozen heart sections. Perfusion of female rat hearts for 25 min with Krebs–Henseleit buffer resulted in nearly constant release of ANP. Addition of oxytocin (10−6 M) significantly stimulated ANP release, and an oxytocin receptor antagonist (10−7 and 10−6 M) caused dose-related inhibition of oxytocin-induced ANP release and in the last few minutes of perfusion decreased ANP release below that in control hearts, suggesting that intracardiac oxytocin stimulates ANP release. In contrast, brain natriuretic peptide release was unaltered by oxytocin. During perfusion, heart rate decreased gradually and it was further decreased significantly by oxytocin (10−6 M). This decrease was totally reversed by the oxytocin antagonist (10−6 M) indicating that oxytocin released ANP that directly slowed the heart, probably by release of cyclic GMP. The results indicate that oxytocin receptors mediate the action of oxytocin to release ANP, which slows the heart and reduces its force of contraction to produce a rapid reduction in circulating blood volume. PMID:9326674

  10. Molecular modeling of interactions of the non-peptide antagonist YM087 with the human vasopressin V1a, V2 receptors and with oxytocin receptors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giełdoń, Artur; Kaźmierkiewicz, Rajmund; Ślusarz, Rafał; Ciarkowski, Jerzy

    2001-12-01

    The nonapeptide hormones arginine vasopressin (CYFQNCPRG-NH2, AVP) and oxytocin (CYIQNCPLG-NH2, OT), control many essential functions in mammals. Their main activities include the urine concentration (via stimulation of AVP V2 receptors, V2R, in the kidneys), blood pressure regulation (via stimulation of vascular V1a AVP receptors, V1aR), ACTH control (via stimulation of V1b receptors, V1bR, in the pituitary) and labor and lactation control (via stimulation of OT receptors, OTR, in the uterus and nipples, respectively). All four receptor subtypes belong to the GTP-binding (G) protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. This work consists of docking of YM087, a potent non-peptide V1aR and V2R - but not OTR - antagonist, into the receptor models based on relatively new theoretical templates of rhodopsin (RD) and opiate receptors, proposed by Mosberg et al. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA). It is simultaneously demonstrated that this RD template satisfactorily compares with the first historical GPCR structure of bovine rhodopsin (Palczewski et al., 2000) and that homology-modeling of V2R, V1aR and OTR using opiate receptors as templates is rational, based on relatively high (20-60%) sequence homology among the set of 4 neurophyseal and 4 opiate receptors. YM087 was computer-docked to V1aR, V2R and OTR using the AutoDock (Olson et al., Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, USA) and subsequently relaxed using restrained simulated annealing and molecular dynamics, as implemented in AMBER program (Kollman et al., University of California, San Francisco, USA). From about 80 diverse configurations, sampled for each of the three ligand/receptor systems, 3 best energy-relaxed complexes were selected for mutual comparisons. Similar docking modes were found for the YM087/V1aR and YM087/V2R complexes, diverse from those of the YM087/OTR complexes, in agreement with the molecular affinity data.

  11. Inhibition of premature labor in sheep by a combined treatment of nimesulide, a prostaglandin synthase type 2 inhibitor, and atosiban, an oxytocin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Grigsby, P L; Poore, K R; Hirst, J J; Jenkin, G

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the selective prostaglandin synthase type 2 inhibitor nimesulide, alone or in combination with the oxytocin receptor antagonist atosiban, on the progression of glucocorticoid-induced premature labor in sheep. Effects on circulating maternal and fetal prostaglandin concentrations and on fetal well-being were also examined. Premature labor was induced in ewes with long-term catheterized fetuses by infusion of dexamethasone (1 mg/d) starting at 138 +/- 1 days' gestation. Ewes also received an infusion of either nimesulide and atosiban (20.0 and 4.12 mg/kg per day, respectively; n = 5), nimesulide alone (20.0 mg/kg per day; n = 5), or vehicle only (n = 9). Plasma 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F(2)(alpha) and prostaglandin E(2) concentrations were measured before and during infusions in plasma samples obtained from the maternal and fetal carotid arteries and the utero-ovarian vein. No fetuses from ewes treated with nimesulide and atosiban were delivered during treatment. These animals were killed electively 98.0 +/- 6.8 hours after the commencement of dexamethasone induction. This was significantly longer than the delivery times for those ewes treated with nimesulide alone (71.2 +/- 3.9 hours; n = 5) and for vehicle-treated ewes (51.4 +/- 1.7 hours; n = 9). Both maternal and fetal plasma 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and prostaglandin E(2) concentrations in nimesulide and atosiban-treated ewes and in nimesulide-treated ewes decreased during treatment. In contrast, vehicle-treated ewes showed a significant increase in maternal and fetal plasma 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and prostaglandin E(2) concentrations during dexamethasone induction. Uterine electromyographic activity observed in nimesulide and atosiban-treated ewes was significantly suppressed with respect to activities in both vehicle- and nimesulide-treated ewes during the treatment period. All fetuses were alive at

  12. The 3D Structure of the Binding Pocket of the Human Oxytocin Receptor for Benzoxazine Antagonists, Determined by Molecular Docking, Scoring Functions and 3D-QSAR Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jójárt, Balázs; Martinek, Tamás A.; Márki, Árpád

    2005-05-01

    Molecular docking and 3D-QSAR studies were performed to determine the binding mode for a series of benzoxazine oxytocin antagonists taken from the literature. Structural hypotheses were generated by docking the most active molecule to the rigid receptor by means of AutoDock 3.05. The cluster analysis yielded seven possible binding conformations. These structures were refined by using constrained simulated annealing, and the further ligands were aligned in the refined receptor by molecular docking. A good correlation was found between the estimated Δ G bind and the p K i values for complex F. The Connolly-surface analysis, CoMFA and CoMSIA models q CoMFA 2 = 0.653, q CoMSA 2 = 0.630 and r pred,CoMFA 2 = 0.852 , r pred,CoMSIA 2 = 0.815) confirmed the scoring function results. The structural features of the receptor-ligand complex and the CoMFA and CoMSIA fields are in closely connected. These results suggest that receptor-ligand complex F is the most likely binding hypothesis for the studied benzoxazine analogs.

  13. Vasopressin and oxytocin in normal reproduction and in the pathophysiology of preterm labour and primary dysmenorrhoea. Development of receptor antagonists for therapeutic use in these conditions.

    PubMed

    Akerlund, M

    2004-01-01

    Vasopressin and oxytocin are synthesised in the hypothalamus and released to the blood stream via the posterior lobe of the hypophysis. Research during later years has shown that these peptides are also produced in other parts of the brain. The secretion to plasma is stimulated by oestrogen, an effect which is counteracted by progestagen. During delivery the fetus can also produce substantial amounts of vasopressin and oxytocin. Additionally, the uterus itself may be a source of these hormones and we have recently found oxytocin mRNA in the endometrium of non-pregnant women with the highest levels around the time of ovulation. In the onset of labour preterm and at term pregnancy vasopressin and oxytocin are centrally involved and in primary dysmenorrhoea the former hormone seems to play a key role in the mechanisms of increased contractions and reduced blood flow in the uterus of the condition. In women with the latter condition the plasma concentration of vasopressin is several-fold higher than that in healthy control persons. Both in pregnant and non-pregnant women the myometrium is activated via specific vasopressin V1a and oxytocin receptors. This vasopressin receptor is different from the vasopressin V1b receptor of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis, which is important in mood changes and V2 receptor of the kidneys mediating fluid reabsorption. At the onset of labour preterm and at term the vasopressin V1a and oxytocin receptors are elevated to a moderate degree. In non-pregnant women the receptor density varies over the menstrual cycle and increase markedly at the onset of menstruation. Substances, which block the uterine vasopressin V1a and oxytocin receptors inhibit preterm labour and primary dysmenorrhoea.

  14. An oxytocin receptor in anococcygeus muscles isolated from male mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, A.

    1986-01-01

    The nature of the neurohypophyseal peptide receptor in the anococcygeus muscles from male mice was investigated. The rank order of potency of naturally occurring peptides was oxytocin greater than Arg-vasotocin greater than Arg-vasopressin greater than Lys-vasopressin, which is similar to that found in the uterus and mammary gland. Selective agonists on the oxytocin (OT) receptors of the uterus and mammary gland (Thr4-OT; Gly7-OT; Thr4-Gly7-OT) were also potent agonists in the mouse anococcygeus. Competitive antagonists of uterine responses to oxytocin (dP-TyrMe-Thr4-OT; dP-TyrMe-OT; dP-Thr4-OT; dp-Orn8-OT) were also competitive antagonists of oxytocin-induced contractions of the mouse anococcygeus. It is concluded that the neurohypophyseal peptide receptor of the male mouse anococcygeus is of the oxytocin type; antagonist pA2 values suggest that this receptor resembles, but may not be identical to, the uterine oxytocin receptor. Possible physiological and pharmacological implications of these observations are discussed. PMID:3011170

  15. Pharmacologic characterization of the oxytocin receptor in human uterine smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Tahara, Atsuo; Tsukada, Junko; Tomura, Yuichi; Wada, Koh-ichi; Kusayama, Toshiyuki; Ishii, Noe; Yatsu, Takeyuki; Uchida, Wataru; Tanaka, Akihiro

    2000-01-01

    [3H]-oxytocin was used to characterize the oxytocin receptor found in human uterine smooth muscle cells (USMC). Specific binding of [3H]-oxytocin to USMC plasma membranes was dependent upon time, temperature and membrane protein concentration. Scatchard plot analysis of equilibrium binding data revealed the existence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites with an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.76 nM and a maximum receptor density (Bmax) of 153 fmol mg−1 protein. The Hill coefficient (nH) did not differ significantly from unity, suggesting binding to homogenous, non-interacting receptor populations. Competitive inhibition of [3H]-oxytocin binding showed that oxytocin and vasopressin (AVP) receptor agonists and antagonists displaced [3H]-oxytocin in a concentration-dependent manner. The order of potencies for peptide agonists and antagonists was: oxytocin>[Asu1,6]-oxytocin>AVP= atosiban>d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP>[Thr4,Gly7]-oxytocin>dDAVP, and for nonpeptide antagonists was: L-371257>YM087>SR 49059>OPC-21268>SR 121463A>OPC-31260. Oxytocin significantly induced concentration-dependent increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and hyperplasia in USMC. The oxytocin receptor antagonists, atosiban and L-371257, potently and concentration-dependently inhibited oxytocin-induced [Ca2+]i increase and hyperplasia. In contrast, the V1A receptor selective antagonist, SR 49059, and the V2 receptor selective antagonist, SR 121463A, did not potently inhibit oxytocin-induced [Ca2+]i increase and hyperplasia. The potency order of antagonists in inhibiting oxytocin-induced [Ca2+]i increase and hyperplasia was similar to that observed in radioligand binding assays. In conclusion, these data provide evidence that the high-affinity [3H]-oxytocin binding site found in human USMC is a functional oxytocin receptor coupled to [Ca2+]i increase and cell growth. Thus human USMC may prove to be a valuable tool in further investigation of the

  16. OXYTOCIN INDUCES SOCIAL COMMUNICATION BY ACTIVATING ARGININEVASOPRESSIN V1A RECEPTORS AND NOT OXYTOCIN RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    SONG, Zhimin; MCCANN, Katharine E.; MCNEILL, John K.; LARKIN, Tony E.; HUHMAN, Kim L.; ALBERS, H. Elliott

    2014-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) and their receptors are very similar in structure. As a result, at least some of the effects of these peptides may be the result of crosstalk between their canonical receptors. The present study investigated this hypothesis by determining whether the induction of flank marking, a form of social communication in Syrian hamsters, by OT is mediated by the OT receptor or the AVP V1a receptor. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of OT or AVP induced flank marking in a dose-dependent manner although the effects of AVP were approximately 100 times greater than those of OT. Injections of highly selective V1a receptor agonists but not OT receptor agonists induced flank marking, and V1a receptor antagonists but not OT receptor antagonists significantly inhibited the ability of OT to induce flank marking. Lastly, injection of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), a peptide that stimulates OT but not AVP release, significantly increased odor-induced flank marking, and these effects were blocked by a V1a receptor antagonist. These data demonstrate that OT induces flank marking by activating AVP V1a and not OT receptors, suggesting that the V1a receptor should be considered to be an OT receptor as well as an AVP receptor. PMID:25173438

  17. Antinociceptive role of oxytocin in the nucleus raphe magnus of rats, an involvement of mu-opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Wen; Lundeberg, Thomas; Yu, Long-Chuan

    2003-10-15

    Recent studies showed that oxytocin plays an important role in nociceptive modulation in the central nervous system. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of oxytocin in antinociception in the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) of rats and the possible interaction between oxytocin and the opioid systems. Intra-NRM injection of oxytocin induced dose-dependent increases in hindpaw withdrawal latencies (HWLs) to noxious thermal and mechanical stimulation in rats. The antinociceptive effect of oxytocin was significantly attenuated by subsequent intra-NRM injection of the oxytocin antagonist 1-deamino-2-D-Tyr-(Oet)-4-Thr-8-Orn-oxytocin. Intra-NRM injection of naloxone dose-dependently antagonized the increased HWLs induced by preceding intra-NRM injection of oxytocin, indicating an involvement of opioid receptors in oxytocin-induced antinociception in the NRM of rats. Furthermore, the antinociceptive effect of oxytocin was dose-dependently attenuated by subsequent intra-NRM injection of the mu-opioid antagonist beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA), but not by the kappa-opioid antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) or the delta-opioid antagonist naltrindole. The results demonstrated that oxytocin plays an antinociceptive role in the NRM of rats through activating the oxytocin receptor. Moreover, mu-opioid receptors, not kappa and delta receptors, are involved in the oxytocin-induced antinociception in the NRM of rats.

  18. Evidence for an interaction between CB1 cannabinoid and oxytocin receptors in food and water intake.

    PubMed

    Verty, A N A; McFarlane, J R; McGregor, I S; Mallet, P E

    2004-09-01

    Oxytocin and CB(1) cannabinoid receptors independently modulate food intake. Although an interaction between oxytocin and cannabinoid systems has been demonstrated with respect to the cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome, the interaction between these systems in modulating food intake has not yet been examined. The present study had three primary purposes: (1) to determine whether oxytocin and a CB(1) receptor antagonist block food and fluid intake in a supra-additive manner, (2) to determine the relative position of the CB(1) receptors in the chain of control of food intake in relation to the oxytocin system, and (3) to determine whether the increase in fluid intake induced by an oxytocin antagonist is mediated via cannabinoid receptors. Rats were habituated to the test environment and injection procedure, and then received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of various combinations of the oxytocin receptor antagonist tocinoic acid, the cannabionid receptor agonist delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), oxytocin, or the cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR 141716. Food and water intake and locomotor activity were then measured for 120 min. When administrated alone, SR 141716 and oxytocin dose-dependently attenuated baseline food intake, while oxytocin but not SR 141716 reduced water intake. Sub-anorectic doses of SR 141716 and oxytocin attenuated baseline feeding beyond what would be expected by the sum of the individual drug effects without affecting baseline water intake. THC stimulated feeding but not water intake. THC-induced feeding was not blocked by oxytocin, however, the oxytocin did attenuate water intake during such feeding. SR 141716 dose-dependently reduced tocinoic-acid-stimulated food intake and partially attenuated water intake. Locomotor activity was not significantly affected by any drug treatments, suggesting that effects on feeding were not due to a non-specific reduction in motivated behaviour. These findings reveal an interaction between

  19. Phospholipase C-delta1 and oxytocin receptor signalling: evidence of its role as an effector.

    PubMed

    Park, E S; Won, J H; Han, K J; Suh, P G; Ryu, S H; Lee, H S; Yun, H Y; Kwon, N S; Baek, K J

    1998-04-01

    Although the oxytocin receptor modulates intracellular Ca2+ ion levels in myometrium, the identities of signal molecules have not been clearly clarified. Our previous studies on oxytocin receptor signalling demonstrated that 80 kDa Ghalpha is a signal mediator [Baek, Kwon, Lee, Kim, Muralidhar and Im (1996) Biochem. J. 315, 739-744]. To elucidate the effector in the oxytocin receptor signalling pathway, we evaluated the oxytocin-mediated activation of phospholipase C (PLC) by using solubilized membranes from human myometrium and a three-component preparation containing the oxytocin receptor-Ghalpha-PLC-delta1 complex. PLC-delta1 activity in the three-component preparation, as well as PLC activity in solubilized membranes, was increased by oxytocin in the presence of Ca2+ and activated Ghalpha (GTP-bound Ghalpha). Furthermore the stimulated PLC-delta1 activity resulting from activation of Ghalpha via the oxytocin receptor was significantly attenuated by the selective oxytocin antagonist desGly-NH2d(CH2)5[Tyr(Me)2,Thr4]ornithine vasotocin or GDP. Consistent with these observations, co-immunoprecipitation and co-immunoadsorption of PLC-delta1 in the three-component preparation by anti-Gh7alpha antibody resulted in the PLC-delta1 being tightly coupled to activated Ghalpha on stimulation of the oxytocin receptor. These results indicate that PLC-delta1 is the effector for Ghalpha-mediated oxytocin receptor signalling.

  20. Estrogen increases renal oxytocin receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, N L; Young, W S; Lolait, S J

    1995-04-01

    Estrogens have been implicated in the sodium and fluid imbalances associated with the menstrual cycle and late pregnancy. An estrogen-dependent role for renal oxytocin receptors in fluid homeostasis is suggested by the present findings which demonstrate that estradiol benzoate treatment increases the expression of the oxytocin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid and 125I-OTA binding to oxytocin receptors in the renal cortex and medullary collecting ducts of ovariectomized female rats. Moreover, estradiol induced high levels of oxytocin receptor expression in outer stripe proximal tubules of ovariectomized female and adrenalectomized male rats. Proximal tubule induction was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the antiestrogen tamoxifen, but cortical expression of oxytocin receptors in macula densa cells was unaffected by tamoxifen. These data demonstrate cell-specific regulation of oxytocin receptor expression in macula densa and proximal tubule cells, and suggest a important role for these receptors in mediating estrogen-induced alterations in renal fluid dynamics by possibly affecting glomerular filtration and water and solute reabsorption during high estrogen states.

  1. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Agonists and Antagonists as Research Tools and Potential Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Manning, M; Misicka, A; Olma, A; Bankowski, K; Stoev, S; Chini, B; Durroux, T; Mouillac, B; Corbani, M; Guillon, G

    2012-01-01

    We recently reviewed the status of peptide and nonpeptide agonists and antagonists for the V1a, V1b and V2 receptors for arginine vasopressin (AVP) and the oxytocin receptor for oxytocin (OT). In the present review, we update the status of peptides and nonpeptides as: (i) research tools and (ii) therapeutic agents. We also present our recent findings on the design of fluorescent ligands for V1b receptor localisation and for OT receptor dimerisation. We note the exciting discoveries regarding two novel naturally occurring analogues of OT. Recent reports of a selective VP V1a agonist and a selective OT agonist point to the continued therapeutic potential of peptides in this field. To date, only two nonpeptides, the V2/V1a antagonist, conivaptan and the V2 antagonist tolvaptan have received Food and Drug Administration approval for clinical use. The development of nonpeptide AVP V1a, V1b and V2 antagonists and OT agonists and antagonists has recently been abandoned by Merck, Sanofi and Pfizer. A promising OT antagonist, Retosiban, developed at Glaxo SmithKline is currently in a Phase II clinical trial for the prevention of premature labour. A number of the nonpeptide ligands that were not successful in clinical trials are proving to be valuable as research tools. Peptide agonists and antagonists continue to be very widely used as research tools in this field. In this regard, we present receptor data on some of the most widely used peptide and nonpeptide ligands, as a guide for their use, especially with regard to receptor selectivity and species differences. PMID:22375852

  2. A Distributed Network for Social Cognition Enriched for Oxytocin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mitre, Mariela; Marlin, Bianca J.; Schiavo, Jennifer K.; Morina, Egzona; Norden, Samantha E.; Hackett, Troy A.; Aoki, Chiye J.

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin is a neuropeptide important for social behaviors such as maternal care and parent–infant bonding. It is believed that oxytocin receptor signaling in the brain is critical for these behaviors, but it is unknown precisely when and where oxytocin receptors are expressed or which neural circuits are directly sensitive to oxytocin. To overcome this challenge, we generated specific antibodies to the mouse oxytocin receptor and examined receptor expression throughout the brain. We identified a distributed network of female mouse brain regions for maternal behaviors that are especially enriched for oxytocin receptors, including the piriform cortex, the left auditory cortex, and CA2 of the hippocampus. Electron microscopic analysis of the cerebral cortex revealed that oxytocin receptors were mainly expressed at synapses, as well as on axons and glial processes. Functionally, oxytocin transiently reduced synaptic inhibition in multiple brain regions and enabled long-term synaptic plasticity in the auditory cortex. Thus modulation of inhibition may be a general mechanism by which oxytocin can act throughout the brain to regulate parental behaviors and social cognition. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Oxytocin is an important peptide hormone involved in maternal behavior and social cognition, but it has been unclear what elements of neural circuits express oxytocin receptors due to the paucity of suitable antibodies. Here, we developed new antibodies to the mouse oxytocin receptor. Oxytocin receptors were found in discrete brain regions and at cortical synapses for modulating excitatory-inhibitory balance and plasticity. These antibodies should be useful for future studies of oxytocin and social behavior. PMID:26911697

  3. Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Matera, Maria Gabriella; Cazzola, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Parasympathetic activity is increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma and appears to be the major reversible component of airway obstruction. Therefore, treatment with muscarinic receptor antagonists is an effective bronchodilator therapy in COPD and also in asthmatic patients. In recent years, the accumulating evidence that the cholinergic system controls not only contraction by airway smooth muscle but also the functions of inflammatory cells and airway epithelial cells has suggested that muscarinic receptor antagonists could exert other effects that may be of clinical relevance when we must treat a patient suffering from COPD or asthma. There are currently six muscarinic receptor antagonists licenced for use in the treatment of COPD, the short-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (SAMAs) ipratropium bromide and oxitropium bromide and the long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) aclidinium bromide, tiotropium bromide, glycopyrronium bromide and umeclidinium bromide. Concerns have been raised about possible associations of muscarinic receptor antagonists with cardiovascular safety, but the most advanced compounds seem to have an improved safety profile. Further beneficial effects of SAMAs and LAMAs are seen when added to existing treatments, including LABAs, inhaled corticosteroids and phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors. The importance of tiotropium bromide in the maintenance treatment of COPD, and likely in asthma, has spurred further research to identify new LAMAs. There are a number of molecules that are being identified, but only few have reached the clinical development.

  4. Desensitization of oxytocin receptors in human myometrium.

    PubMed

    Phaneuf, S; Asbóth, G; Carrasco, M P; Liñares, B R; Kimura, T; Harris, A; Bernal, A L

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the possible mechanisms by which oxytocin might regulate oxytocin receptor (OTR) density. Exposure of cultured myometrial cells to oxytocin for a prolonged period caused desensitization: the steady-state level of oxytocin binding was 210 x 10(3) binding sites/cell, but this was time-dependently reduced to 20.1 x 10(3) sites/cell by exposing the cells to oxytocin for up to 20 h. In contrast, Western blotting data showed that the total amount of OTR protein was not affected by oxytocin treatment for up to 24 h. Flow cytometry experiments demonstrated that OTRs were not internalized during this treatment. However, RNase protection assays and Northern analysis showed that in cultured myometrial cells OTR mRNA was reduced by oxytocin treatment to reach a new low steady-state concentration. Analysis of this mRNA in myometrial biopsies from 17 patients undergoing emergency Caesarean section showed how it decreased with advancing labour. Samples obtained after 12 h of labour contained approximately 50 times less OTR mRNA than samples obtained from patients in labour for less than 12 h. We speculate that this decrease in OTR mRNA represents in-vivo OTR desensitization.

  5. Involvement of histaminergic and noradrenergic receptors in the oxytocin-induced food intake in neonatal meat-type chicks.

    PubMed

    Mirnaghizadeh, Seyed Vahid; Zendehdel, Morteza; Babapour, Vahab

    2017-03-01

    Oxytocin neurons have a physiological role in food intake and energy balance. Several studies have shown that central histaminergic and adrenergic systems synapse on oxytocin neurons but there is no information for their interaction on food intake regulation in birds. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of α-fluoromethylhistidine (α-FMH, histidine decarboxylase inhibitor), chlorpheniramine (histamine H1 receptors antagonist), famotidine (histamine H2 receptors antagonist), thioperamide (histamine H3 receptors antagonist), prazosin (α1 receptor antagonist), yohimbine (α2 receptor antagonist), metoprolol (β1 adrenergic receptor antagonist), ICI 118,551 (β2 adrenergic receptor antagonist) and SR59230R (β3 adrenergic receptor antagonist) on oxytocin-induced hypophagia in 3-h food-deprived (FD3) neonatal broiler chicken. In Experiment 1, 3 h-fasted chicks were given an ICV injection of saline, α-FMH (250 nmol), oxytocin (10 μg) and co-injection of α-FMH + oxytocin. Experiments 2-9 were similar to experiment 1 except birds were injected with chlorpheniramine (300 nmol), famotidine (82 nmol), thioperamide (300 nmol), prazosin (10 nmol), yohimbine (13 nmol), metoprolol (24 nmol), ICI 118,551(5 nmol) and SR59230R (20 nmol) instead of α-FMH, respectively. After injection cumulative food intake was measured until 120 min post injection. According to the results, ICV injection of oxytocin significantly decreased food intake in broiler chickens (P < 0.001). ICV injection of α-FMH significantly attenuated hypophagic effect of oxytocin (P < 0.001). Also, co-injection of chlorpheniramine plus oxytocin significantly decreased the effect of oxytocin on food intake (P < 0.001). Co-administration of thioperamide and oxytocin significantly amplified hypophagic effect of oxytocin in chickens (P < 0.001). In addition, ICI 118,551 attenuated hypophagic effect of oxytocin (P < 0.001); while

  6. Design, synthesis and pharmacological characterization of a potent radioiodinated and photoactivatable peptidic oxytocin antagonist.

    PubMed

    Carnazzi, E; Aumelas, A; Mouillac, B; Breton, C; Guillou, L; Barberis, C; Seyer, R

    2001-08-30

    Using a segment strategy, we have synthesized four iodinated photoactivatable cyclic peptidic ligands of oxytocin, bearing a beta-mercapto-betabeta-cyclopentamethylene propionic group (Pmp) on their N-terminus. All the syntheses were RP-HPLC monitored, and the compounds were HPLC purified. They were characterized by 1H NMR, MALDI-TOF, or FAB mass spectrometries. The affinities of Pmp-Tyr(Me)-Ile-Thr-Asn-Cys-Gly-Orn-Phe(3I,4N3)-NH2 (20), Pmp-Tyr-Ile-Thr-Asn-Cys-Gly-Orn-Phe(3I,4N3)-NH2 (21), Pmp-Tyr(Me)-Ile-Thr-Asn-Cys-Pro-Orn-Phe(3I,4N3)-NH2 (22), and Pmp-Tyr-Ile-Thr-Asn-Cys-Pro-Orn-Phe(3I,4N3)-NH2 (23) were evaluated as inhibition constants (K(i), in nM) for the human oxytocin receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells by displacement of a radioiodinated disulfide-cyclized antagonist (Elands et al. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 1987, 147, 197-207). The most potent of them, compound 22, was synthesized by another method in order to allow its radiolabeling by 125I. Its dissociation constant (K(d)) for the human oxytocin receptor, directly measured in saturation studies, was 0.25 +/- 0.04 nM, and its antagonist properties were determined by inactivation of phospholipase C, thus obtaining an inactivation constant (K(inact)) of 0.18 +/- 0.02 nM, evaluated by inositol phosphate accumulation. This compound is a very good tool for the mapping of peptidic antagonist binding sites in the human oxytocin receptor.

  7. Oxytocin decreases colonic motility of cold water stressed rats via oxytocin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Xi, Tao-Fang; Li, Yu-Xian; Wang, Hai-Hong; Qin, Ying; Zhang, Jie-Ping; Cai, Wen-Ting; Huang, Meng-Ting; Shen, Ji-Qiao; Fan, Xi-Min; Shi, Xuan-Zheng; Xie, Dong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether cold water intake into the stomach affects colonic motility and the involvement of the oxytocin-oxytocin receptor pathway in rats. METHODS: Female Sprague Dawley rats were used and some of them were ovariectomized. The rats were subjected to gastric instillation with cold (0-4 °C, cold group) or room temperature (20-25 °C, control group) saline for 14 consecutive days. Colon transit was determined with a bead inserted into the colon. Colonic longitudinal muscle strips were prepared to investigate the response to oxytocin in vitro. Plasma concentration of oxytocin was detected by ELISA. Oxytocin receptor expression was investigated by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was used to locate oxytocin receptors. RESULTS: Colon transit was slower in the cold group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Colonic smooth muscle contractile response to oxytocin decreased, and the inhibitory effect of oxytocin on muscle contractility was enhanced by cold water intake (0.69 ± 0.08 vs 0.88 ± 0.16, P < 0.05). Atosiban and tetrodotoxin inhibited the effect of oxytocin on colonic motility. Oxytocin receptors were located in the myenteric plexus, and their expression was up-regulated in the cold group (P < 0.05). Cold water intake increased blood concentration of oxytocin, but this effect was attenuated in ovariectomized rats (286.99 ± 83.72 pg/mL vs 100.56 ± 92.71 pg/mL, P < 0.05). However, in ovariectomized rats, estradiol treatment increased blood oxytocin, and the response of colonic muscle strips to oxytocin was attenuated. CONCLUSION: Cold water intake inhibits colonic motility partially through oxytocin-oxytocin receptor signaling in the myenteric nervous system pathway, which is estrogen dependent. PMID:25152590

  8. Oxytocin decreases colonic motility of cold water stressed rats via oxytocin receptors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Xi, Tao-Fang; Li, Yu-Xian; Wang, Hai-Hong; Qin, Ying; Zhang, Jie-Ping; Cai, Wen-Ting; Huang, Meng-Ting; Shen, Ji-Qiao; Fan, Xi-Min; Shi, Xuan-Zheng; Xie, Dong-Ping

    2014-08-21

    To investigate whether cold water intake into the stomach affects colonic motility and the involvement of the oxytocin-oxytocin receptor pathway in rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats were used and some of them were ovariectomized. The rats were subjected to gastric instillation with cold (0-4 °C, cold group) or room temperature (20-25 °C, control group) saline for 14 consecutive days. Colon transit was determined with a bead inserted into the colon. Colonic longitudinal muscle strips were prepared to investigate the response to oxytocin in vitro. Plasma concentration of oxytocin was detected by ELISA. Oxytocin receptor expression was investigated by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was used to locate oxytocin receptors. Colon transit was slower in the cold group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Colonic smooth muscle contractile response to oxytocin decreased, and the inhibitory effect of oxytocin on muscle contractility was enhanced by cold water intake (0.69 ± 0.08 vs 0.88 ± 0.16, P < 0.05). Atosiban and tetrodotoxin inhibited the effect of oxytocin on colonic motility. Oxytocin receptors were located in the myenteric plexus, and their expression was up-regulated in the cold group (P < 0.05). Cold water intake increased blood concentration of oxytocin, but this effect was attenuated in ovariectomized rats (286.99 ± 83.72 pg/mL vs 100.56 ± 92.71 pg/mL, P < 0.05). However, in ovariectomized rats, estradiol treatment increased blood oxytocin, and the response of colonic muscle strips to oxytocin was attenuated. Cold water intake inhibits colonic motility partially through oxytocin-oxytocin receptor signaling in the myenteric nervous system pathway, which is estrogen dependent.

  9. Correlation between oxytocin neuronal sensitivity and oxytocin receptor binding: An electrophysiological and autoradiographical study comparing rat and guinea pig hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Raggenbass, M.; Tribollet, E.; Dubois-Dauphin, M.; Dreifuss, J.J. )

    1989-01-01

    In transverse hippocampal slices from rat and guinea pig brains, the authors obtained unitary extracellular recordings from nonpyramidal neurones located in or near the stratum pyramidale in the CA1 field and in the transition region between the CA1 and the subiculum. In rats, these neurones responded to oxytocin at 50-1,000 nM by a reversible increase in firing rate. The oxytocin-induced excitation was suppressed by a synthetic structural analogue that acts as a potent, selective antioxytocic on peripheral receptors. Nonpyramidal neurones were also excited by carbachol at 0.5-10 {mu}M. The effect of this compound was postsynaptic and was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. In guinea pigs, by contrast, nonpyramidal neurones were unaffected by oxytocin, although they were excited by carbachol. Light microscopic autoradiography, carried out using a radioiodinated selective antioxytocic as a ligand, revealed labeling in the subiculum and in the CA1 area of the hippocampus of rats, whereas no oxytocin-binding sites were detected in the hippocampus of guinea pigs. The results indicate (i) that a hippocampal action of oxytocin is species-dependent and (ii) that a positive correlation exists between neuronal responsiveness to oxytocin and the presence in the hippocampus of high-affinity binding sites for this peptide.

  10. 17β-estradiol upregulates oxytocin and the oxytocin receptor in C2C12 myotubes

    PubMed Central

    Berio, Enrica; Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca Tiziana

    2017-01-01

    Background The endocrinology of skeletal muscle is highly complex and many issues about hormone action in skeletal muscle are still unresolved. Aim of the work is to improve our knowledge on the relationship between skeletal muscle and 17β-estradiol. Methods The skeletal muscle cell line C2C12 was treated with 17β-estradiol, the oxytocin peptide and a combination of the two hormones. The mRNA levels of myogenic regulatory factors, myosin heavy chain, oxytocin, oxytocin receptor and adipogenic factors were analysed in C2C12 myotubes. Results It was demonstrated that C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes express oxytocin and its receptor, in particular the receptor levels physiologically increase in differentiated myotubes. Myotubes treated with 17β-estradiol overexpressed oxytocin and oxytocin receptor genes by approximately 3- and 29-fold, respectively. A decrease in the expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 (0.62-fold), a fat metabolism-associated gene, was observed in oxytocin-treated myotubes. On the contrary, fatty acid binding protein 4 was upregulated (2.66-fold) after the administration of the combination of 17β-estradiol and oxytocin. 17β-estradiol regulates oxytocin and its receptor in skeletal muscle cells and they act in a synergic way on fatty acid metabolism. Discussion Oxytocin and its receptor are physiologically regulated along differentiation. 17β-estradiol regulates oxytocin and its receptor in skeletal muscle cells. 17β-estradiol and oxytocin act in a synergic way on fatty acid metabolism. A better understanding of the regulation of skeletal muscle homeostasis by estrogens and oxytocin peptide could contribute to increase our knowledge of muscle and its metabolism. PMID:28382233

  11. Oxytocin receptors: ligand binding, signalling and cholesterol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gimpl, Gerald; Reitz, Julian; Brauer, Sabine; Trossen, Conny

    2008-01-01

    The G protein coupled oxytocin receptor (OTR) reveals some specific molecular and physiological characteristics. Ligand-receptor interaction has been analysed by photoaffinity labelling, site-directed mutagenesis, the construction of receptor chimeras and molecular modelling. Major results of these studies will be summarized. The N-terminus of the OTR is mainly involved in agonist binding. Notably, antagonists that are derived from the ground structure of oxytocin, bind the receptor at distinct sites partly non-overlapping with the agonist binding site. OTRs are able to couple to different G proteins, with a subsequent stimulation of phospholipase C-beta isoforms. In dependence on G protein coupling, OTRs can transduce growth-inhibitory or proliferatory signals. Some evidence is provided that OTRs are also present in form of dimeric or oligomeric complexes at the cell surface. The affinity of the receptor for ligands is strongly dependent on the presence of divalent cations (Mg(2+)) and cholesterol that both act like positive allosteric modulators. While the high-affinity state of the receptor for agonists requires divalent cations and cholesterol, the high-affinity state for antagonists is only dependent on a sufficient amount of cholesterol. Cholesterol affects ligand-binding affinity, receptor signalling and stability. Since the purification of the OTR has never been achieved, alternative methods to study the receptor in its native environment are necessary. Promising strategies for the site-specific labelling of the OTR will be presented. The employment of diverse reporter molecules introduced at different positions within the OTR might allow us in the near future to measure conformational changes of the receptor in its native lipid environment.

  12. An interaction of oxytocin receptors with metabotropic glutamate receptors in hypothalamic astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kuo, J; Hariri, O R; Micevych, P

    2009-12-01

    Hypothalamic astrocytes play a critical role in the regulation and support of many different neuroendocrine events, and are affected by oestradiol. Both nuclear and membrane oestrogen receptors (ERs) are expressed in astrocytes. Upon oestradiol activation, membrane-associated ER signals through the type 1a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1a) to induce an increase of free cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Because the expression of oxytocin receptors (OTRs) is modulated by oestradiol, we tested whether oestradiol also influences oxytocin signalling. Oxytocin at 1, 10, and 100 nm induced a [Ca(2+)](i) flux measured as a change in relative fluorescence [DeltaF Ca(2+) = 330 +/- 17 relative fluorescent units (RFU), DeltaF Ca(2+) = 331 +/- 22 RFU, and DeltaF Ca(2+) = 347 +/- 13 RFU, respectively] in primary cultures of female post-pubertal hypothalamic astrocytes. Interestingly, OTRs interacted with mGluRs. The mGluR1a antagonist, LY 367385 (20 nm), blocked the oxytocin (1 nm)-induced [Ca(2+)](i) flux (DeltaF Ca(2+) = 344 +/- 19 versus 127 +/- 11 RFU, P < 0.001). Conversely, the mGluR1a receptor agonist, (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenyl-glycine (100 nm), increased the oxytocin (1 nm)-induced [Ca(2+)](i) response (DeltaF Ca(2+) = 670 +/- 31 RFU) compared to either compound alone (P < 0.001). Because both oxytocin and oestradiol rapidly signal through the mGluR1a, we treated hypothalamic astrocytes sequentially with oxytocin and oestradiol to determine whether stimulation with one hormone affected the subsequent [Ca(2+)](i) response to the second hormone. Oestradiol treatment did not change the subsequent [Ca(2+)](i) flux to oxytocin (P > 0.05) and previous oxytocin exposure did not affect the [Ca(2+)](i) response to oestradiol (P > 0.05). Furthermore, simultaneous oestradiol and oxytocin stimulation failed to yield a synergistic [Ca(2+)](i) response. These results suggest that the OTR signals through the mGluR1a to release Ca(2+) from intracellular stores and

  13. Oxytocin differently regulates pressor responses to stress in WKY and SHR rats: the role of central oxytocin and V1a receptors.

    PubMed

    Wsol, A; Szczepanska-Sadowska, E; Kowalewski, S; Puchalska, L; Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, A

    2014-01-01

    The role of central oxytocin in the regulation of cardiovascular parameters under resting conditions and during acute stress was investigated in male normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY; n = 40) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 28). In Experiment 1, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded in WKY and SHR rats at rest and after an air-jet stressor during intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusions of vehicle, oxytocin or oxytocin receptor (OTR) antagonist. In Experiment 2, the effects of vehicle, oxytocin and OTR antagonist were determined in WKY rats after prior administration of a V1a vasopressin receptor (V1aR) antagonist. Resting MABP and HR were not affected by any of the ICV infusions either in WKY or in SHR rats. In control experiments (vehicle), the pressor response to stress was significantly higher in SHR. Oxytocin enhanced the pressor response to stress in the WKY rats but reduced it in SHR. During V1aR blockade, oxytocin infusion entirely abolished the pressor response to stress in WKY rats. Combined blockade of V1aR and OTR elicited a significantly greater MABP response to stress than infusion of V1a antagonist and vehicle. This study reveals significant differences in the regulation of blood pressure in WKY and SHR rats during alarming stress. Specifically, the augmentation of the pressor response to stress by exogenous oxytocin in WKY rats is caused by its interaction with V1aR, and endogenous oxytocin regulates the magnitude of the pressor response to stress in WKY rats by simultaneous interaction with OTR and V1aR.

  14. Oxytocin, its antagonist Atosiban, and preterm labor: a role for placental nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Nanetti, Laura; Raffaelli, Francesca; Giulietti, Alessia; Sforza, Giulia; Raffaele Giannubilo, Stefano; Ciavattini, Andrea; Tranquilli, Andrea Luigi; Mazzanti, Laura; Vignini, Arianna

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand the role played by Atosiban, an oxytocin receptor antagonist, on trophoblastic human cells, and the molecular bases of its efficacy and safety in the treatment of preterm labor. NO, peroxinitrite production and NOS expression have been evaluated on placenta obtained from term and preterm labors. We studied trophoblast cells isolated from selected placental tissue from 20 controls and 20 preterm patients after cesarean sections. Each sample was studied at basal state and after 2 hours incubation with oxytocin and Atosiban. Significant variations of NO levels, peroxynitrite production and iNOS and eNOS expression both in the preterm, term samples and in each of the considered groups were observed. In the control group Atosiban re-established NO levels that were reduced after incubation with oxytocin, while in preterm samples NO levels were not only re-established but, after incubation with Atosiban, significantly increased compared to basal levels. This confirms the beneficial role of Atosiban in prolonging the pregnancy of spontaneous labor at very early gestational periods. In conclusion, Atosiban might be an effective drug to prevent preterm labor, in the therapeutic approach to this pathology.

  15. Myometrial oxytocin receptor expression and intracellular pathways.

    PubMed

    Yulia, A; Johnson, M R

    2014-06-01

    Oxytocin (OT) signalling plays a fundamental role in the mechanisms of parturition. OT is one of the most frequently used drugs in obstetrics, promoting uterine contractions for labor induction and augmentation and to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Expression of the oxytocin receptor (OTR) in the human myometrium is tightly regulated during pregnancy and its levels have been shown to peak upon labour onset and to fall sharply in advanced labour and the postpartum period, when the uterus become refractive to OT. However, uterine sensitivity to OT varies between pregnant women, probably reflecting differences in their myometrial OTR expression. Control of OTR expression is mediated by a combination of steroid hormone stimulation, stretch, and inflammation. This review summarises current knowledge regarding the complex regulation of myometrial OTR expression and its associated intracellular signaling pathways.

  16. Novel oxytocin receptor variants in laboring women requiring high doses of oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Reinl, Erin L; Goodwin, Zane A; Raghuraman, Nandini; Lee, Grace Y; Jo, Erin Y; Gezahegn, Beakal M; Pillai, Meghan K; Cahill, Alison G; de Guzman Strong, Cristina; England, Sarah K

    2017-08-01

    Although oxytocin commonly is used to augment or induce labor, it is difficult to predict its effectiveness because oxytocin dose requirements vary significantly among women. One possibility is that women requiring high or low doses of oxytocin have variations in the oxytocin receptor gene. To identify oxytocin receptor gene variants in laboring women with low and high oxytocin dosage requirements. Term, nulliparous women requiring oxytocin doses of ≤4 mU/min (low-dose-requiring, n = 83) or ≥20 mU/min (high-dose-requiring, n = 104) for labor augmentation or induction provided consent to a postpartum blood draw as a source of genomic DNA. Targeted-amplicon sequencing (coverage >30×) with MiSeq (Illumina) was performed to discover variants in the coding exons of the oxytocin receptor gene. Baseline relevant clinical history, outcomes, demographics, and oxytocin receptor gene sequence variants and their allele frequencies were compared between low-dose-requiring and high-dose-requiring women. The Scale-Invariant Feature Transform algorithm was used to predict the effect of variants on oxytocin receptor function. The Fisher exact or χ(2) tests were used for categorical variables, and Student t tests or Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used for continuous variables. A P value < .05 was considered statistically significant. The high-dose-requiring women had greater rates of obesity and diabetes and were more likely to have undergone labor induction and required prostaglandins. High-dose-requiring women were more likely to undergo cesarean delivery for first-stage arrest and less likely to undergo cesarean delivery for nonreassuring fetal status. Targeted sequencing of the oxytocin receptor gene in the total cohort (n = 187) revealed 30 distinct coding variants: 17 nonsynonymous, 11 synonymous, and 2 small structural variants. One novel variant (A243T) was found in both the low- and high-dose-requiring groups. Three novel variants (Y106H, A240_A249del, and P

  17. Non-peptide oxytocin receptor ligands and hamster circadian wheel running rhythms.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Robert L

    2014-10-17

    The synchronization of circadian rhythms in sleep, endocrine and metabolic functions with the environmental light cycle is essential for health, and dysfunction of this synchrony is thought to play a part in the development of many neurological disorders. There is a demonstrable need to develop new therapeutics for the treatment of neurological disorders such as depression and schizophrenia, and oxytocin is currently being investigated for this purpose. There are no published reports describing activity of oxytocin receptor ligands on mammalian circadian rhythms and that, then, is the purpose of this study. Non-peptide oxytocin receptor ligands that cross the blood brain barrier were systemically injected in hamsters to determine their ability to modulate light-induced phase advances and delays of circadian wheel running rhythms. The oxytocin receptor agonist WAY267464 (10 mg/kg) inhibited light induced phase advances of wheel running rhythms by 55%, but had no effect on light-induced phase delays. In contrast, the oxytocin receptor antagonist WAY162720 (10 mg/kg) inhibited light-induced phase delays by nearly 75%, but had no effect on light-induced phase advances. Additionally, WAY162720 was able to antagonize the inhibitory effects of WAY267464 on light-induced phase advances. These results are consistent for a role of oxytocin in the phase-delaying effects of light on circadian activity rhythms early in the night. Therefore, oxytocin may prove to be useful in developing therapeutics for the treatment of mood disorders with a concomitant dysfunction in circadian rhythms. Investigators should also be cognizant that oxytocin ligands may negatively affect circadian rhythms during clinical trials for other conditions.

  18. Role of oxytocin/oxytocin receptor system in regulation of cell growth and neoplastic processes.

    PubMed

    Strunecká, A; Hynie, S; Klenerová, V

    2009-01-01

    Novel sites of oxytocin receptor expression have recently been detected in central nervous system, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, various carcinoma cells, etc. These and other discoveries have greatly expanded the classical biological roles of oxytocin, which are stimulation of uterine smooth muscle contraction at parturition and milk ejection during lactation. It is becoming clear that the great diversity of oxytocin actions in the brain and peripheral organs is paralleled by activation of a diversity of signalling pathways. On the other hand, until now only one single oxytocin receptor type has been detected. This receptor belongs to G protein-coupled receptors and in dependence on cell conditions it binds to different G proteins; this phenomenon is called receptor-G protein promiscuity. Thus, in the same cells oxytocin can activate multiple responses at the same time. Recently, the oxytocinergic system has also been implicated in the growth modulation of various neoplastic cells, where it may inhibit or stimulate cell proliferation in dependence on cell type and activated metabolic pathways. The discovery of novel oxytocin receptor-linked signalling cascades brings interesting knowledge opening new avenues for research in oncology and molecular pharmacology with perspectives of finding new therapeutic agents.

  19. Oxytocin receptors and parturition. I. Control of oxytocin receptor concentration in the rat myometrium at term.

    PubMed

    Alexandrova, M; Soloff, M S

    1980-03-01

    Rat myometrium exhibited a marked rise in the concentration of oxytocin (OT) receptors during parturition. The elevation began several hours before labor, was maximal during labor, and declined several hours later. In the perinatal period, the change in OT receptor concentration was proportional to the ratio of plasma estradiol to progesterone levels. Several hours before the increase in OT receptor concentration, there was a proportional increase in estrogen receptor concentration in both the cytosol and nuclear fractions of the myometrium. In view of the known action of estrogens in increasing the concentration of OT receptors in rat uterus, we propose that the following sequence of events occurs in the initiation of labor in the rat. The decline in serum progesterone permits estradiol to stimulate the synthesis of estrogen receptors in the myometrium. This increased concentration of estrogen receptors and their occupancy by estradiol stimulates the appearance of more OT receptors, which then trigger labor by interacting with circulating OT.

  20. A nonsteroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Miner, Jeffrey N; Tyree, Curtis; Hu, Junlian; Berger, Elaine; Marschke, Keith; Nakane, Masaki; Coghlan, Michael J; Clemm, Dave; Lane, Ben; Rosen, Jon

    2003-01-01

    Selective intracellular receptor antagonists are used clinically to ameliorate hormone-dependent disease states. Patients with Cushing's syndrome have high levels of the glucocorticoid, cortisol, and suffer significant consequences from this overexposure. High levels of this hormone are also implicated in exacerbating diabetes and the stress response. Selectively inhibiting this hormone may have clinical benefit in these disease states. To this end, we have identified the first selective, nonsteroidal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist. This compound is characterized by a tri-aryl methane core chemical structure. This GR-specific antagonist binds with nanomolar affinity to the GR and has no detectable binding affinity for the highly related receptors for mineralocorticoids, androgens, estrogens, and progestins. We demonstrate that this antagonist inhibits glucocorticoid-mediated transcriptional regulation. This compound binds competitively with steroids, likely occupying a similar site within the ligand-binding domain. Once bound, however, the compound fails to induce critical conformational changes in the receptor necessary for agonist activity.

  1. Oxytocin: its mechanism of action and receptor signalling in the myometrium.

    PubMed

    Arrowsmith, S; Wray, S

    2014-06-01

    Oxytocin is a nonapeptide hormone that has a central role in the regulation of parturition and lactation. In this review, we address oxytocin receptor (OTR) signalling and its role in the myometrium during pregnancy and in labour. The OTR belongs to the rhodopsin-type (Class 1) of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily and is regulated by changes in receptor expression, receptor desensitisation and local changes in oxytocin concentration. Receptor activation triggers a number of signalling events to stimulate contraction, primarily by elevating intracellular calcium (Ca(2+) ). This includes inositol-tris-phosphate-mediated store calcium release, store-operated Ca(2+) entry and voltage-operated Ca(2+) entry. We discuss each mechanism in turn and also discuss Ca(2+) -independent mechanisms such as Ca(2+) sensitisation. Because oxytocin induces contraction in the myometrium, both the activation and the inhibition of its receptor have long been targets in the management of dysfunctional and preterm labours, respectively. We discuss current and novel OTR agonists and antagonists and their use and potential benefit in obstetric practice. In this regard, we highlight three clinical scenarios: dysfunctional labour, postpartum haemorrhage and preterm birth.

  2. The design of orally bioavailable 2, 5-diketopiperazine oxytocin antagonists: from concept to clinical candidate for premature labor.

    PubMed

    Borthwick, Alan D; Liddle, John

    2011-07-01

    A short, efficient and highly stereoselective synthesis has been developed for a series of 6-indanyl-3-alkyl-7-aryl/heterocyclic-(3R, 6R, 7R)-2, 5-diketopiperazine amides that are potent and selective oxytocin (OT) antagonists. Property-based design using an estimate of human oral absorption enabled focus to be directed to those templates with the greatest chance of delivering high bioavailability in humans. This led to the 2', 4'-difluorophenyl dimethylamide 40, a highly potent (pK(i) =9.2) and selective OT antagonist (>1,000-fold selectivity vs. the human vasopressin receptors V1a, V2, and V1b) with good oral bioavailability (>50%) in the rat and dog. Increased solubility and an improved Cyp450 profile was achieved with a range of 2'-substituted 7-(1',3'-oxazol-4'-yl)-(3R,6R,7R)-2,5-diketopiperazine amides and branching at the α-carbon of the 3-butyl group led to a superior rat pharmacokinetic profile that resulted in the discovery of the 2'-methyl-1',3'-oxazol-4'-yl morpholine amide derivative 74 GSK221149A (Retosiban), which had the best oral exposure and bioavailability in the rat. Retosiban has sub-nanomolar affinity (K(i) =0.65 nM) for the oxytocin receptor with >1400-fold selectivity over the closely related vasopressin receptors. It has good solubility, low protein binding and has a good Cyp450 profile with no significant inhibition IC(50) >100 µM. Retosiban is >15-fold more potent at the human oxytocin receptor than atosiban (a marketed i.v, peptide OT antagonist) and it has been shown to be an effective tocolytic by i.v. and by oral administration in rats, and was selected for progression as a potential clinical candidate for preterm labor. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Signaling in dopamine D2 receptor-oxytocin receptor heterocomplexes and its relevance for the anxiolytic effects of dopamine and oxytocin interactions in the amygdala of the rat.

    PubMed

    de la Mora, Miguel Pérez; Pérez-Carrera, Diana; Crespo-Ramírez, Minerva; Tarakanov, Alexander; Fuxe, Kjell; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O

    2016-11-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor (D2R)-oxytocin receptor (OTR) interactions exist within heterocomplexes with facilitatory effects on D2R recognition and Gi/o coupling. In this work the hypothesis is tested using cotransfected HEK293 cells whether allosteric reciprocal D2R-OTR interactions can enhance signaling of D2R-OTR heterocomplexes along the CREB, MAPK and PLC pathways and whether the anxiolytic effects of OT may involve facilitatory D2R-OTR interactions within the central amygdaloid nucleus (CeA). Oxytocin enhanced the D2-like agonist quinpirole induced inhibition of the AC-PKA-pCREB signaling cascade and increased its signaling over the RAS-MAPK-pELK pathway. Quinpirole enhanced the oxytocin induced increases in the activity of the PLCbeta-IP3-calcineurin and RAS-MAPK-pELK cascades. Bilateral infusion of oxytocin (0.9-150ng/side) into the CeA of the rat elicited anxiolytic effects in the Shock-Probe Burying test, an unconditioned model of fear/anxiety. This action was not observed when oxytocin (25ng/side) was simultaneously co-infused with raclopride (neither 250 nor 500ng/side), a D2/D3 antagonist, into the CeA. Based on the current findings, the blockade of the anxiolytic effects of oxytocin by the simultaneous intra-CeA administration of raclopride can be explained by a lack of facilitatory protomer interactions in D2R-OTR heterocomplexes. Dysfunction and/or disruption of such interactions in the central amygdala may lead to anxiety development. Restoration of such interactions may represent a new strategy for development of novel anxiolytic drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of oxytocin receptor function by direct binding of progesterone.

    PubMed

    Grazzini, E; Guillon, G; Mouillac, B; Zingg, H H

    1998-04-02

    The steroid hormone progesterone (P4) is essential for establishing and maintaining pregnancy in mammals. One of its functions includes maintenance of uterine quiescence by decreasing uterine sensitivity to the uterotonic peptide hormone oxytocin. Although it is generally held that steroid hormones such as P4 act at a genomic level by binding to nuclear receptors and modulating the expression of specific target genes, we show here that the effect of P4 on uterine sensitivity to oxytocin involves direct, non-genomic action of P4 on the uterine oxytocin receptor (OTR), a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. P4 inhibits oxytocin binding to OTR-containing membranes in vitro, binds with high affinity to recombinant rat OTR expressed in CHO cells, and suppresses oxytocin-induced inositol phosphate production and calcium mobilization. These effects are highly steroid- and receptor-specific, because binding and signalling functions of the closely related human OTR are not affected by P4 itself but by the P4 metabolite 5beta-dihydroprogesterone. Our findings provide the first evidence for a direct interaction between a steroid hormone and a G-protein-coupled receptor and define a new level of crosstalk between the peptide- and steroid-hormone signalling pathways.

  5. Oxytocin and vasopressin: distinct receptors in myometrium

    SciTech Connect

    Guillon, G.; Balestre, M.N.; Roberts, J.M.; Bottari, S.P.

    1987-06-01

    The binding characteristics of (/sup 3/H)oxytocin (( /sup 3/H)OT) and (/sup 3/H)lysine vasopressin (( /sup 3/H)LVP) to nonpregnant human myometrium were investigated. Binding of both radioligands was saturable, time dependent, and reversible. Whereas (/sup 3/H)OT was found to bind to a single class of sites with high affinity (Kd, 1.5 +/- 0.4 (+/- SEM) nM) and low capacity (maximum binding (Bmax), 34 +/- 6 fmol/mg protein), (/sup 3/H)LVP bound to two classes of sites, one with high affinity (Kd, 2.2 +/- 0.1 nM) and low capacity (Bmax, 198 +/- 7 fmol/mg protein) and another with low affinity (Kd, 655 +/- 209 nM) and high capacity (Bmax, 5794 +/- 1616 fmol/mg protein). The binding of the labeled peptides also displayed a marked difference in sensitivity to Mg2+ and guanine nucleotides. These differences in binding characteristics as well as the differences in potency of analogs in competing for (/sup 3/H)OT and (/sup 3/H)LVP binding indicate the presence of distinct receptors for OT and vasopressin in human myometrium. Pharmacological characterization of the high affinity binding sites for (/sup 3/H)LVP indicated that these are of the V1 subtype. Although, as suggested by others, vasopressin and OT can bind to the same sites, the presence of distinct receptors for both peptides provides an explanation for the previously reported difference in myometrial responsiveness to OT and vasopressin.

  6. Oxytocin receptor gene variation predicts subjective responses to MDMA.

    PubMed

    Bershad, Anya K; Weafer, Jessica J; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Wardle, Margaret C; Miller, Melissa A; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-12-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") enhances desire to socialize and feelings of empathy, which are thought to be related to increased oxytocin levels. Thus, variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) may influence responses to the drug. Here, we examined the influence of a single OXTR nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on responses to MDMA in humans. Based on findings that carriers of the A allele at rs53576 exhibit reduced sensitivity to oxytocin-induced social behavior, we hypothesized that these individuals would show reduced subjective responses to MDMA, including sociability. In this three-session, double blind, within-subjects study, healthy volunteers with past MDMA experience (N = 68) received a MDMA (0, 0.75 mg/kg, and 1.5 mg/kg) and provided self-report ratings of sociability, anxiety, and drug effects. These responses were examined in relation to rs53576. MDMA (1.5 mg/kg) did not increase sociability in individuals with the A/A genotype as it did in G allele carriers. The genotypic groups did not differ in responses at the lower MDMA dose, or in cardiovascular or other subjective responses. These findings are consistent with the idea that MDMA-induced sociability is mediated by oxytocin, and that variation in the oxytocin receptor gene may influence responses to the drug.

  7. MDMA ('Ecstasy'), oxytocin and vasopressin modulate social preference in rats: A role for handling and oxytocin receptors.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Linnet; Hicks, Callum; Caminer, Alex; Couto, Kalliu; Narlawar, Rajeshwar; Kassiou, Michael; McGregor, Iain S

    In laboratory rats, peripheral administration of the neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) induces similar prosocial effects (i.e. increased adjacent lying) to the party drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), which are sensitive to vasopressin V1A receptor (V1AR) antagonism. Here, we employed a social preference paradigm to further compare the prosocial effects of OT, AVP and MDMA. We also investigated the possible involvement of the V1AR and oxytocin receptor (OTR) in rodent social preference. The social preference paradigm measures investigation times towards an empty wire cage (presented for 4min) followed by an identical cage containing a novel rat (also presented for 4min). Social preference is defined as greater investigation time towards the inhabited cage than the empty cage. Results indicated that well-handled rats exhibited no social preference at baseline, while intraperitoneally injected MDMA (5mg/kg), OT (0.5mg/kg) and AVP (0.005mg/kg) increased social preference. However, this effect was primarily due to reduced investigation of the empty cage. In contrast, rats that received minimal prior handling displayed a social preference at baseline, while MDMA (5mg/kg), OT (0.5mg/kg) and AVP (0.005mg/kg) reduced investigation times towards both the empty and inhabited cages. Lower doses of MDMA, OT and AVP were ineffective. The OTR antagonist Compound 25 (C25, 5mg/kg), but not the V1AR antagonist SR49059 (1mg/kg), reduced the baseline social preference seen in minimally-handled rats and prevented the social preference induced by OT and AVP (but not MDMA) in well-handled rats. Overall, these results further confirm prosocial actions of MDMA, OT and AVP, which are dependent on handling history. These findings also indicate that social preference is sensitive to OTR rather than V1AR modulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of an extracellular segment of the oxytocin receptor providing agonist-specific binding epitopes.

    PubMed

    Hawtin, S R; Howard, H C; Wheatley, M

    2001-03-01

    The effects of the peptide hormone oxytocin are mediated by oxytocin receptors (OTRs) expressed by the target tissue. The OTR is a member of the large family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Defining differences between the interaction of agonists and antagonists with the OTR at the molecular level is of fundamental importance, and is addressed in this study. Using truncated and chimaeric receptor constructs, we establish that a small 12-residue segment in the distal portion of the N-terminus of the human OTR provides important epitopes which are required for agonist binding. In contrast, this segment does not contribute to the binding site for antagonists, whether peptide or non-peptide. It does, however, have a role in agonist-induced OTR signalling. Oxytocin is also an agonist at the vasopressin V(1a) receptor (V(1a)R). A chimaeric receptor (V(1a)R(N)-OTR) was engineered in which the N-terminus of the OTR was substituted by the corresponding, but unrelated, sequence from the N-terminus of the V(1a)R. We show that the V(1a)R N-terminus present in V(1a)R(N)-OTR fully restored both agonist binding and intracellular signalling to a dysfunctional truncated OTR construct. The N-terminal segment does not, however, contribute to receptor-selective agonism between the OTR and the V(1a)R. Our data establish a key role for the distal N-terminus of the OTR in providing agonist-specific binding epitopes.

  9. Intracellular calcium elevation induced by extracellular application of cyclic-ADP-ribose or oxytocin is temperature-sensitive in rodent NG108-15 neuronal cells with or without exogenous expression of human oxytocin receptors.

    PubMed

    Amina, S; Hashii, M; Ma, W-J; Yokoyama, S; Lopatina, O; Liu, H-X; Islam, M S; Higashida, H

    2010-05-01

    ADP-ribosyl cyclase and/or CD38 are activated after oxytocin receptor stimulation in the hypothalamus and pituitary in adult mice, leading to facilitation of oxytocin secretion. Although cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (cADPR) primarily acts as an intracellular second messenger, it has been suggested that extracellular cADPR stimulates intracellular ryanodine receptors after internalisation via the nucleotide-transporting capacity of CD38 in fibroblasts and astrocytes. However, little is known about whether extracellular cADPR activates neurones. To address this question, we used a model neuronal cell line, NG108-15 mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid cells possessing CD38 but not oxytocin receptors, and measured cytosolic free calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)). Extracellular application of cADPR to NG108-15 cells elevated [Ca(2+)](i) at 35 degrees C. The elevation was significantly enhanced when measured at 40 degrees C. The cADPR and heat-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase were blocked under extracellular Ca(2+)-free conditions and by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, an antagonist of melastatin-related transient receptor potential channel 2 (TRPM2) cation channels. Reverse transcriptation-polymerase chain reaction analyses indicated that TRPM2 channels were expressed in NG108-15 cells. Application of oxytocin elevated [Ca(2+)](i) in NG108-15 cells transformed to transiently express cloned human oxytocin receptors. The oxytocin-induced [Ca(2+)](i) response was also enhanced by heat. These results indicate that the extracellular application of cADPR, together with heat, activates cation influx downstream of oxytocin receptor signalling in NG108-15 neuronal cells, and suggest the possible involvement of TRPM2 channels in oxytocin release in the mammalian brain.

  10. The progesterone receptor antagonist, onapristone has differential effects on the timing and control of the luteolytic mechanism depending on timing of administration in sheep.

    PubMed

    Mann, G E; Wathes, D C; Robinson, R S

    2013-08-25

    Cyclic ewes were treated with control vehicle or progesterone receptor antagonist (onapristone; 100mg i.m. twice daily) during either early (day 3-5) or late (day 12-14) luteal phase and plasma samples collected for hormone analysis and to determine endogenous and oxytocin induced PGF2α release. On day 14 and 17, ewes were euthanised and reproductive tracts collected for ovarian morphology and endometrium for oxytoxin and steroid hormone receptor analysis. Early treatment increased LH, but not progesterone or oestradiol, while late treatment elevated all three hormones. Early treatment delayed the up-regulation of endometrial oxytocin receptors and responsiveness to oxytocin challenge, delaying luteolysis. Late treatment advanced development of oxytocin receptors and responsiveness to oxytocin though not timing of luteolysis. Patterns of hormone receptor mRNA were differentially disrupted by treatments. Results provide mechanistic insight into hormonal control of the oestrous cycle and identify the ability of the luteolytic mechanism to dissociate from functional luteolysis.

  11. Cyclic AMP Effectors Regulate Myometrial Oxytocin Receptor Expression.

    PubMed

    Yulia, Angela; Singh, Natasha; Lei, Kaiyu; Sooranna, Suren R; Johnson, Mark R

    2016-11-01

    The factors that initiate human labor are poorly understood. We have tested the hypothesis that a decline in cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) function leads to the onset of labor. Initially, we identified myometrial cAMP/PKA-responsive genes (six up-regulated and five down-regulated genes) and assessed their expression in myometrial samples taken from different stages of pregnancy and labor. We found that the oxytocin receptor (OTR) was one of the cAMP-repressed genes, and, given the importance of OTR in the labor process, we studied the mechanisms involved in greater detail using small interfering RNA, chemical agonists, and antagonists of the cAMP effectors. We found that cAMP-repressed genes, including OTR, increased with the onset of labor. Our in vitro studies showed that cAMP acting via PKA reduced OTR expression but that in the absence of PKA, cAMP acts via exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) to increase OTR expression. In early labor myometrial samples, PKA levels and activity declined and Epac1 levels increased, perhaps accounting for the increase in myometrial OTR mRNA and protein levels at this time. In vitro exposure of myometrial cells to stretch and IL-1β increased OTR levels and reduced basal and forskolin-stimulated cAMP and PKA activity, as judged by phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein levels, but neither stretch nor IL-1β had any effect on PKA or EPAC1 levels. In summary, there is a reduction in the activity of the cAMP/PKA pathway with the onset of human labor potentially playing a critical role in regulating OTR expression and the transition from myometrial quiescence to activation.

  12. SSR126768A (4-chloro-3-[(3R)-(+)-5-chloro-1-(2,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-3-methyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-3-yl]-N-ethyl-N-(3-pyridylmethyl)-benzamide, hydrochloride): a new selective and orally active oxytocin receptor antagonist for the prevention of preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Serradeil-Le Gal, Claudine; Valette, Gérard; Foulon, Loïc; Germain, Guy; Advenier, Charles; Naline, Emmanuel; Bardou, Marc; Martinolle, Jean-Pierre; Pouzet, Brigitte; Raufaste, Danielle; Garcia, Corinne; Double-Cazanave, Eléonore; Pauly, Maxime; Pascal, Marc; Barbier, Alain; Scatton, Bernard; Maffrand, Jean-Pierre; Le Fur, Gérard

    2004-04-01

    4-chloro-3-[(3R)-(+)-5-chloro-1-(2,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-3-methyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-3-yl]-N-ethyl-N-(3-pyridylmethyl)benzamide, hydrochloride (SSR126768A), a new potent and selective, orally active oxytocin (OT) receptor antagonist was characterized in several biochemical and pharmacological models. In binding studies, SSR126768A showed nanomolar affinity for rat and human recombinant and native OT receptors (K(i) = 0.44 nM) and exhibited much lower affinity for V(1a), V(1b), and V(2) receptors. In addition, it did not interact with a large number of other receptors, enzymes, and ion channels (1 microM). In autoradiographic experiments performed on at-term human pregnant uterus sections, SSR126768A dose dependently displaced [I(125)]d(CH(2))(5)[Tyr(Me)(2), Thr(4), Orn(8) (125)I-Tyr-NH(2)(9)]VT in situ labeling to OT receptors highly expressed in these tissues. In functional studies, SSR126768A behaved as a full antagonist and potently antagonized OT-induced intracellular Ca(2+) increase (K(i) = 0.50 nM) and prostaglandin release (K(i) = 0.45 nM) in human uterine smooth muscle cells. In rat isolated myometrium, OT-induced uterine contractions were competitively antagonized by SSR126768A (pA(2) = 8.47). Similarly, in human pregnant myometrial strips, SSR126768A inhibited the contractile uterine response to OT. In conscious telemetrated rats, oral administration of SSR126768A (1-10 mg/kg) produced a competitive inhibition of the dose response to OT on uterine contractions up to 24 h at 3 mg/kg p.o.; no tachyphylaxis was observed after 4-day repeated treatment. Finally, SSR126768A (30 mg/kg p.o.) significantly delayed parturition in pregnant rats in labor similar to ritodrine (10 mg/kg p.o.). Thus, SSR126768A is a potent, highly selective, orally active OT receptor antagonist with a long duration of action. This molecule could find therapeutic application as a tocolytic agent for acute and chronic oral management of preterm labor.

  13. Myometrial oxytocin receptor mRNA concentrations at preterm and term delivery - the influence of external oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Liedman, Ragner; Hansson, Stefan Rocco; Igidbashian, Sarah; Akerlund, Mats

    2009-03-01

    The hormonal system for induction of term and preterm labour is not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated myometrial gene expressions for neurohypophyseal hormones and their receptors, prostaglandin F(2alpha) and ovarian steroid receptors in women delivered by Caesarean section. Myometrial tissue for real time PCR was collected from 39 women delivered at term before and after the onset of labour and preterm. Women delivered electively at term had significantly higher oxytocin receptor mRNA expressions (2.52 +/- 0.37 oxytocin receptor/actin; median +/- SEM) than those delivered with ongoing labour at term (1.01 +/- 0.34; p = 0.015) and those at preterm (1.08 +/- 0.25; p = 0.004). Sub-analyses revealed that the difference at term pregnancies solely was related to patients receiving oxytocin during labour (p = 0.007). These patients had higher oxytocin peptide mRNA levels than those without labour at term (p = 0.009). PGF(2alpha) receptor mRNA concentrations were 27.80 +/- 3.55, 11.46 +/- 2.87 and 19.54 +/- 5.52 PGF receptor/actin, respectively, for the groups. Women without labour at term had higher concentration than those with labour (p = 0.005). Our results suggest that oxytocin, its receptor and the PGF(2alpha) receptor are involved in the regulation of labour through a paracrine mechanism.

  14. Activation of Supraoptic Oxytocin Neurons by Secretin Facilitates Social Recognition.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Yuki; Yoshida, Masahide; Takashima, Akihide; Takanami, Keiko; Yoshida, Shoma; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Nishijima, Ichiko; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Yamagata, Takanori; Onaka, Tatsushi

    2017-02-01

    Social recognition underlies social behavior in animals, and patients with psychiatric disorders associated with social deficits show abnormalities in social recognition. Oxytocin is implicated in social behavior and has received attention as an effective treatment for sociobehavioral deficits. Secretin receptor-deficient mice show deficits in social behavior. The relationship between oxytocin and secretin concerning social behavior remains to be determined. Expression of c-Fos in oxytocin neurons and release of oxytocin from their dendrites after secretin application were investigated. Social recognition was examined after intracerebroventricular or local injection of secretin, oxytocin, or an oxytocin receptor antagonist in rats, oxytocin receptor-deficient mice, and secretin receptor-deficient mice. Electron and light microscopic immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to determine whether oxytocin neurons extend their dendrites into the medial amygdala. Supraoptic oxytocin neurons expressed the secretin receptor. Secretin activated supraoptic oxytocin neurons and facilitated oxytocin release from dendrites. Secretin increased acquisition of social recognition in an oxytocin receptor-dependent manner. Local application of secretin into the supraoptic nucleus facilitated social recognition, and this facilitation was blocked by an oxytocin receptor antagonist injected into, but not outside of, the medial amygdala. In the medial amygdala, dendrite-like thick oxytocin processes were found to extend from the supraoptic nucleus. Furthermore, oxytocin treatment restored deficits of social recognition in secretin receptor-deficient mice. The results of our study demonstrate that secretin-induced dendritic oxytocin release from supraoptic neurons enhances social recognition. The newly defined secretin-oxytocin system may lead to a possible treatment for social deficits. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. The regulation of oxytocin receptor gene expression during adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yi, K J; So, K H; Hata, Y; Suzuki, Y; Kato, D; Watanabe, K; Aso, H; Kasahara, Y; Nishimori, K; Chen, C; Katoh, K; Roh, S G

    2015-05-01

    Although it has been reported that oxytocin stimulates lipolysis in adipocytes, changes in the expression of oxytocin receptor (OTR) mRNA in adipogenesis are still unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of OTR mRNA during adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in adipocytes. OTR mRNA was highly expressed in adipocytes prepared from mouse adipose tissues compared to stromal-vascular cells. OTR mRNA expression was increased during the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. OTR expression levels were higher in subcutaneous and epididymal adipose tissues of 14-week-old male mice compared to 7-week-old male mice. Levels of OTR mRNA expression were higher in adipose tissues at four different sites of mice fed a high-fat diet than in those of mice fed a normal diet. The OTR expression level was also increased by refeeding for 4 h after fasting for 16 h. Oxytocin significantly induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, a new regulatory mechanism is demonstrated for oxytocin to control the differentiation and fat accumulation in adipocytes via activation of OTR as a part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adipose axis.

  16. Oxytocin Reduces Cocaine Seeking and Reverses Chronic Cocaine-Induced Changes in Glutamate Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Luyi; Sun, Wei-Lun; Young, Amy B.; Lee, Kunhee; McGinty, Jacqueline F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxytocin, a neurohypophyseal neuropeptide, is a potential mediator and regulator of drug addiction. However, the cellular mechanisms of oxytocin in drug seeking remain unknown. Methods: In the present study, we used a self-administration/reinstatement model to study the effects of oxytocin on cocaine seeking and its potential interaction with glutamate function at the receptor level. Results: Systemic oxytocin dose-dependently reduced cocaine self-administration during various schedules of reinforcement, including fixed ratio 1, fixed ratio 5, and progressive ratio. Oxytocin also attenuated reinstatement to cocaine seeking induced by cocaine prime or conditioned cues. Western-blot analysis indicated that oxytocin increased phosphorylation of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor GluA1 subunit at the Ser 845 site with or without accompanying increases in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, in several brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdala, and dorsal hippocampus. Immunoprecipitation of oxytocin receptor and GluA1 subunit receptors further demonstrated a physical interaction between these 2 receptors, although the interaction was not influenced by chronic cocaine or oxytocin treatment. Oxytocin also attenuated sucrose seeking in a GluA1- or extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-independent manner. Conclusions: These findings suggest that oxytocin mediates cocaine seeking through interacting with glutamate receptor systems via second messenger cascades in mesocorticolimbic regions. PMID:25539504

  17. Oxytocin differentially modulates compromise and competitive approach but not withdrawal to antagonists from own vs. rivaling other groups.

    PubMed

    Ten Velden, Femke S; Baas, Matthijs; Shalvi, Shaul; Kret, Mariska E; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2014-09-11

    In humans, oxytocin promotes cognitive and motivational tendencies that benefit the groups on which humans depend for their survival and prosperity. Here we examined decision making in an incentivized two-player poker game with either an in-group or out-group antagonist. Sixty nine healthy males received 24 IU oxytocin or matching placebo, and played four rounds of a simplified poker game. On each round they received either low or high value cards to create differences in competitive strength, and then responded to a bet placed by their (simulated) (in-group or out-group) antagonist. Under placebo, participants withdrew and competed depending on their own (low vs. high) competitive strength, regardless of their antagonist's group membership. Under oxytocin, however, participants settled more and competed less with an in-group as compared to an out-group antagonist; withdrawal was unaffected by group membership. We conclude that oxytocin sensitizes humans to the group membership of their interaction partner, rendering them relatively more benevolent and less competitive towards those seen as belonging to their own group. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav.

  18. Oxytocin receptor blockade reduces acquisition but not retrieval of taste aversion and blunts responsiveness of amygdala neurons to an aversive stimulus.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Pawel K; Waas, Joseph R; Brooks, Lydia L; Herisson, Florence; Levine, Allen S

    2013-12-01

    When gastrointestinal sickness induced by toxin injection is associated with exposure to novel food, the animal acquires a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Malaise is accompanied by a surge in oxytocin release and in oxytocin neuronal activity; however, it is unclear whether oxytocin is a key facilitator of aversion or merely its marker. Herein we investigated whether blockade of the oxytocin receptor with the blood-brain barrier penetrant oxytocin receptor antagonist L-368,899 is detrimental for the acquisition and/or retrieval of lithium chloride (LiCl)-dependent CTA to a saccharin solution in mice. We also examined whether L-368,899 given prior to LiCl affects neuronal activity defined through c-Fos immunohistochemistry in select brain sites facilitating CTA acquisition. L-368,899 given prior to LiCl caused a 30% increase in saccharin solution intake in a two-bottle test, but when the antagonist was administered before the two-bottle test, it failed to diminish the retrieval of an existing CTA. LiCl administration increased c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract and basolateral and central (CNA) nuclei of the amygdala. L-368,899 injected before LiCl reduced the number of c-Fos positive CNA neurons and brought it down to levels similar to those observed in mice treated only with L-368,899. We conclude that oxytocin is one of the key components in acquisition of LiCl-induced CTA and the aversive response can be alleviated by the oxytocin receptor blockade. Oxytocin receptor antagonism blunts responsiveness of CNA to peripherally injected LiCl. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Constitutive and ligand-induced nuclear localization of oxytocin receptor.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, Conan G; Bussolati, Gianni; Bosco, Martino; Kimura, Tadashi; Pizzorno, Marie C; Chernin, Mitchell I; Cassoni, Paola; Novak, Josef F

    2007-01-01

    Oxytocin receptor (OTR) is a membrane protein known to mediate oxytocin (OT) effects, in both normal and neoplastic cells. We report here that human osteosarcoma (U2OS, MG63, OS15 and SaOS2), breast cancer (MCF7), and primary human fibroblastic cells (HFF) all exhibit OTR not only on the cell membrane, but also in the various nuclear compartments including the nucleolus. Both an OTR-GFP fusion protein and the native OTR appear to be localized to the nucleus as detected by transfection and/or confocal immunofluorescence, respectively. Treatment with oxytocin causes internalization of OTR and the resulting vesicles accumulate in the vicinity of the nucleus and some of the perinuclear OTR enters the nucleus. Western blots indicate that OTR in the nucleus and on the plasma membrane are likely to be the same biochemical and immunological entities. It appears that OTR is first visible in the nucleoli and subsequently disperses within the nucleus into 4-20 spots while some of the OTR diffuses throughout the nucleoplasm. The behaviour and kinetics of OTR-GFP and OTR are different, indicating interference by GFP in both OTR entrance into the nucleus and subsequent relocalization of OTR within the nucleus. There are important differences among the tested cells, such as the requirement of a ligand for transfer of OTR in nuclei. A constitutive internalization of OTR was found only in osteosarcoma cells, while the nuclear localization in all other tested cells was dependent on ligand binding. The amount of OTR-positive material within and in the vicinity of the nucleus increased following a treatment with oxytocin in both constitutive and ligand-dependent type of cells. The evidence of OTR compartmentalization at the cell nucleus (either ligand-dependent or constitutive) in different cell types suggests still unknown biological functions of this protein or its ligand and adds this G-protein-coupled receptor to other heptahelical receptors displaying this atypical and unexpected

  20. The oxytocin antagonist d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)2-Orn8-vasotocin reduces non-contact penile erections in male rats.

    PubMed

    Melis, M R; Spano, M S; Succu, S; Argiolas, A

    1999-04-23

    Male rats show four to six penile erection episodes when put for 80 min in the presence of an inaccessible receptive female. These non-contact penile erections were reduced dose-dependently by d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)2-Orn8-vasotocin, a potent and selective oxytocin receptor antagonist, when given into the lateral ventricles (0.1, 0.5 and 1 microg), but not when given into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (0.1 and 1 microg). In contrast, non-contact erections were reduced by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, given into the lateral ventricles (50, 100 and 200 microg), or into the paraventricular nucleus (10 and 20 microg). The present results show that central oxytocin is involved in the expression of penile erection induced not only by drugs but also by sexual physiological stimuli.

  1. Newborn Analgesia Mediated by Oxytocin during Delivery.

    PubMed

    Mazzuca, Michel; Minlebaev, Marat; Shakirzyanova, Anastasia; Tyzio, Roman; Taccola, Giuliano; Janackova, Sona; Gataullina, Svetlana; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Giniatullin, Rashid; Khazipov, Rustem

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms controlling pain in newborns during delivery are poorly understood. We explored the hypothesis that oxytocin, an essential hormone for labor and a powerful neuromodulator, exerts analgesic actions on newborns during delivery. Using a thermal tail-flick assay, we report that pain sensitivity is two-fold lower in rat pups immediately after birth than 2 days later. Oxytocin receptor antagonists strongly enhanced pain sensitivity in newborn, but not in 2-day-old rats, whereas oxytocin reduced pain at both ages suggesting an endogenous analgesia by oxytocin during delivery. Similar analgesic effects of oxytocin, measured as attenuation of pain-vocalization induced by electrical whisker pad stimulation, were also observed in decerebrated newborns. Oxytocin reduced GABA-evoked calcium responses and depolarizing GABA driving force in isolated neonatal trigeminal neurons suggesting that oxytocin effects are mediated by alterations of intracellular chloride. Unlike GABA signaling, oxytocin did not affect responses mediated by P2X3 and TRPV1 receptors. In keeping with a GABAergic mechanism, reduction of intracellular chloride by the diuretic NKCC1 chloride co-transporter antagonist bumetanide mimicked the analgesic actions of oxytocin and its effects on GABA responses in nociceptive neurons. Therefore, endogenous oxytocin exerts an analgesic action in newborn pups that involves a reduction of the depolarizing action of GABA on nociceptive neurons. Therefore, the same hormone that triggers delivery also acts as a natural pain killer revealing a novel facet of the protective actions of oxytocin in the fetus at birth.

  2. The oxytocin receptor gene and social perception.

    PubMed

    Melchers, Martin; Montag, Christian; Felten, Andrea; Reuter, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Social perception is an important prerequisite for successful social interaction, because it helps to gain information about behaviors, thoughts, and feelings of interaction partners. Previous pharmacological studies have emphasized the relevance of the oxytocin system for social perception abilities, while knowledge on genetic contributions is still scarce. In the endeavor to fill this gap in the literature, the current study searches for associations between participants' social perception abilities as measured by the interpersonal perception task (IPT) and the rs2268498 polymorphism on the OXTR-gene, which has repeatedly been linked to processes relevant to social functioning. N = 105 healthy participants were experimentally tested with the IPT and genotyped for the rs2268498 polymorphism. T-allele carriers (TT and TC genotypes) exhibited significantly better performance in the IPT than carriers of the CC-genotype. This difference was also significant for the subscales measuring the strength of social bonding (kinship and intimacy). As in previous studies, T-allele carriers exhibited better performance in measures of social processing indicating that the rs2268498 polymorphism is an important candidate for understanding the genetic basis of social functioning.

  3. Synthesis of oxytocin antagonists containing conformationally constrained amino acids in position 2.

    PubMed

    Tóth, G K; Bakos, K; Penke, B; Pávó, I; Varga, C; Török, G; Péter, A; Fülöp, F

    1999-03-08

    Analogues of oxytocin containing D-Trp, 2-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-1-carboxylic acid (Atc) or 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-1-carboxylic acid (Car) with R or S configurations in position 2 were synthetized, and their receptor bindings were tested on isolated guinea-pig uterus, rat liver and rat kidney inner medulla plasma membranes. The peptides were synthetized in the solid phase by using racemates of Car and Atc. The resulting diastereomeric mixtures were separated by means of RP-HPLC. The binding to the oxytocin receptor was somewhat decreased for the Atc isomers and dramatically decreased for both R- and S-Car, while the D-Trp-containing analogue displayed a relatively high receptor affinity. However, the V1 receptor affinities were almost the same as those of the parent peptide for the Car-containing analogues and dramatically decreased for the S-Atc substituted analogue, which has a relatively high OT/V1 receptor selectivity of 44.5.

  4. Body temperature and cardiac changes induced by peripherally administered oxytocin, vasopressin and the non-peptide oxytocin receptor agonist WAY 267,464: a biotelemetry study in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, C; Ramos, L; Reekie, T; Misagh, G H; Narlawar, R; Kassiou, M; McGregor, I S

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose There is current interest in oxytocin (OT) as a possible therapeutic in psychiatric disorders. However, the usefulness of OT may be constrained by peripheral autonomic effects, which may involve an action at both OT and vasopressin V1A receptors. Here, we characterized the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory effects of OT, vasopressin (AVP) and the non-peptide OT receptor agonist WAY 267,464 in rats, and assessed the relative involvement of the OT and V1A receptors in these effects. Experimental Approach Biotelemetry in freely moving male Wistar rats was used to examine body temperature and heart rate after OT (0.01 – 1 mg kg−1; i.p.), AVP (0.001 – 0.1 mg kg−1; i.p.) or WAY 267,464 (10 and 100 mg kg−1; i.p.). The actions of the OT receptor antagonist Compound 25 (C25, 5 and 10 mg kg−1) and V1A receptor antagonist SR49059 (1 and 10 mg kg−1) were studied, as well as possible V1A receptor antagonist effects of WAY 267,464. Key Results OT and AVP dose-dependently reduced body temperature and heart rate. WAY 267,464 had similar, but more modest, effects. SR49059, but not C25, prevented the hypothermia and bradycardia induced by OT and AVP. WAY 267,464 (100 mg·kg−1) prevented the effects of OT, and to some extent AVP. Conclusions and Implications Peripherally administered OT and AVP have profound cardiovascular and thermoregulatory effects that appear to principally involve the V1A receptor rather than the OT receptor. Additionally, WAY 267,464 is not a simple OT receptor agonist, as it has functionally relevant V1A antagonist actions. PMID:24641248

  5. Oxytocin receptors in dioestrous and anoestrous canine uteri.

    PubMed

    Tamminen, T M; Sahlin, L; Masironi, B; Taponen, J; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O; Katila, T

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to localize oxytocin receptors (OTR) and measure mRNA expression of OTR in the canine uterus with and without the influence of progesterone. Uterine samples were taken from nine anoestrous and eight dioestrous bitches during ovariohysterectomy. Histological changes were evaluated in haematoxylin and eosin (HE)-stained samples. Purified polyclonal antibody for OTR was used in immunohistochemistry to localize receptors in uterine layers. Relative mRNA concentration of OTR was evaluated with real-time PCR from full-thickness uterine samples taken from the middle horn and the body. Myometrial smooth muscle cells, endometrial luminal epithelium (LE) and deep and superficial glandular epithelium were positively stained for oxytocin receptors in non-pregnant animals. No significant difference in staining intensity was detected between uterine middle horn and body. However, the staining intensity of LE was significantly higher in dioestrous than in anoestrous uteri (p < .05). Leucocytes and endothelium of blood vessels were also positively stained for OTR. Real-time PCR showed no significant differences in OTR mRNA expression between the middle horn and the body of the uterus, or between anoestrous and dioestrous uterus. No correlation was noted between OTR mRNA expression and blood progesterone concentration. In conclusion, despite the apparent inactivity, the uterus of the non-pregnant bitch expresses OTR. The distribution or relative expression of OTR does not differ between uterine horn and body in dioestrus or anoestrus except in LE. LE may have more oxytocin-dependent activity during dioestrus than anoestrus.

  6. Associations between Vocal Symptoms and Genetic Variants in the Oxytocin Receptor and Arginine Vasopressin 1A Receptor Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jämsen, Sofia Holmqvist; Johansson, Ada; Westberg, Lars; Santtila, Pekka; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Simberg, Susanna

    Purpose: Oxytocin and arginine vasopressin are associated with different aspects of the stress response. As stress is regarded as a risk factor for vocal symptoms, we wanted to explore the association between the oxytocin receptor gene ("OXTR") and arginine vasopressin 1A receptor gene ("AVPR1A") single-nucleotide polymorphisms…

  7. Oxytocin efficacy is modulated by dosage and oxytocin receptor genotype in young adults with high-functioning autism: a 24-week randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Kosaka, H; Okamoto, Y; Munesue, T; Yamasue, H; Inohara, K; Fujioka, T; Anme, T; Orisaka, M; Ishitobi, M; Jung, M; Fujisawa, T X; Tanaka, S; Arai, S; Asano, M; Saito, D N; Sadato, N; Tomoda, A; Omori, M; Sato, M; Okazawa, H; Higashida, H; Wada, Y

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that long-term oxytocin administration can alleviate the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, factors influencing its efficacy are still unclear. We conducted a single-center phase 2, pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, clinical trial in young adults with high-functioning ASD, to determine whether oxytocin dosage and genetic background of the oxytocin receptor affects oxytocin efficacy. This trial consisted of double-blind (12 weeks), open-label (12 weeks) and follow-up phases (8 weeks). To examine dose dependency, 60 participants were randomly assigned to high-dose (32 IU per day) or low-dose intranasal oxytocin (16 IU per day), or placebo groups during the double-blind phase. Next, we measured single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). In the intention-to-treat population, no outcomes were improved after oxytocin administration. However, in male participants, Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scores in the high-dose group, but not the low-dose group, were significantly higher than in the placebo group. Furthermore, we examined whether oxytocin efficacy, reflected in the CGI-I scores, is influenced by estimated daily dosage and OXTR polymorphisms in male participants. We found that >21 IU per day oxytocin was more effective than ⩽21 IU per day, and that a SNP in OXTR (rs6791619) predicted CGI-I scores for ⩽21 IU per day oxytocin treatment. No severe adverse events occurred. These results suggest that efficacy of long-term oxytocin administration in young men with high-functioning ASD depends on the oxytocin dosage and genetic background of the oxytocin receptor, which contributes to the effectiveness of oxytocin treatment of ASD. PMID:27552585

  8. Oxytocin efficacy is modulated by dosage and oxytocin receptor genotype in young adults with high-functioning autism: a 24-week randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, H; Okamoto, Y; Munesue, T; Yamasue, H; Inohara, K; Fujioka, T; Anme, T; Orisaka, M; Ishitobi, M; Jung, M; Fujisawa, T X; Tanaka, S; Arai, S; Asano, M; Saito, D N; Sadato, N; Tomoda, A; Omori, M; Sato, M; Okazawa, H; Higashida, H; Wada, Y

    2016-08-23

    Recent studies have suggested that long-term oxytocin administration can alleviate the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, factors influencing its efficacy are still unclear. We conducted a single-center phase 2, pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, clinical trial in young adults with high-functioning ASD, to determine whether oxytocin dosage and genetic background of the oxytocin receptor affects oxytocin efficacy. This trial consisted of double-blind (12 weeks), open-label (12 weeks) and follow-up phases (8 weeks). To examine dose dependency, 60 participants were randomly assigned to high-dose (32 IU per day) or low-dose intranasal oxytocin (16 IU per day), or placebo groups during the double-blind phase. Next, we measured single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). In the intention-to-treat population, no outcomes were improved after oxytocin administration. However, in male participants, Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scores in the high-dose group, but not the low-dose group, were significantly higher than in the placebo group. Furthermore, we examined whether oxytocin efficacy, reflected in the CGI-I scores, is influenced by estimated daily dosage and OXTR polymorphisms in male participants. We found that >21 IU per day oxytocin was more effective than ⩽21 IU per day, and that a SNP in OXTR (rs6791619) predicted CGI-I scores for ⩽21 IU per day oxytocin treatment. No severe adverse events occurred. These results suggest that efficacy of long-term oxytocin administration in young men with high-functioning ASD depends on the oxytocin dosage and genetic background of the oxytocin receptor, which contributes to the effectiveness of oxytocin treatment of ASD.

  9. Regulation of the macrophage oxytocin receptor in response to inflammation.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Angela; Sun-Suslow, Ni; Mendez, Armando J; Hernandez, Rosa I; Wagner, Klaus V; McCabe, Philip M

    2017-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation in macrophages. In the current study, we examined the role of inflammation on the expression of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR). We hypothesized that OXTR expression is increased during the inflammation through a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-mediated pathway, thus responding as an acute-phase protein. Inflammation was induced by treating macrophages (human primary, THP-1, and murine) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and monitored by expression of IL-6. Expression of OXTR and vasopressin receptors was assessed by qPCR, and OXTR expression was confirmed by immunoblotting. Inflammation upregulated OXTR transcription 10- to 250-fold relative to control in THP-1 and human primary macrophages and increased OXTR protein expression. In contrast, vasopressin receptor-2 mRNA expression was reduced following LPS treatment. Blocking NF-κB activation prevented the increase in OXTR transcription. OT treatment of control cells and LPS-treated cells increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, demonstrating activation of the OXTR/Gαq/11 signaling pathway. OT activation of OXTR reduced secretion of IL-6 in LPS-activated macrophages. Collectively, these findings suggest that OXTR is an acute-phase protein and that its increased expression is regulated by NF-κB and functions to attenuate cellular inflammatory responses in macrophages.

  10. Septal oxytocin administration impairs peer affiliation via V1a receptors in female meadow voles.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Allison M J; Christensen, Jennifer D; LaFlamme, Elyssa M; Grunberg, Diana M; Beery, Annaliese K

    2016-06-01

    The peptide hormone oxytocin (OT) plays an important role in social behaviors, including social bond formation. In different contexts, however, OT is also associated with aggression, social selectivity, and reduced affiliation. Female meadow voles form social preferences for familiar same-sex peers under short, winter-like day lengths in the laboratory, and provide a means of studying affiliation outside the context of reproductive pair bonds. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the actions of OT in the lateral septum (LS) may decrease affiliative behavior, including greater density of OT receptors in the LS of meadow voles that huddle less. We infused OT into the LS of female meadow voles immediately prior to cohabitation with a social partner to determine its effects on partner preference formation. OT prevented the formation of preferences for the partner female. Co-administration of OT with a specific OT receptor antagonist did not reverse the effect, but co-administration of OT with a specific vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR) antagonist did, indicating that OT in the LS likely acted through V1aRs to decrease partner preference. Receptor autoradiography revealed dense V1aR binding in the LS of female meadow voles. These results suggest that the LS is a brain region that may be responsible for inhibitory effects of OT administration on affiliation, which will be important to consider in therapeutic administrations of OT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Oxytocin receptor dynamics in the brain across development and species.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Radhika; Hammock, Elizabeth A D

    2017-02-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) signaling through the OXT receptor plays a significant role in a variety of physiological processes throughout the lifespan. OXT's effects depend on the tissue distribution of the receptor. This tissue specificity is dynamic and changes across development, and also varies with sex, experience, and species. The purpose of this review is to highlight these themes with examples from several life stages and several species. Important knowledge gaps will also be emphasized. Understanding the effective sites of action for OXT via its receptor will help refine hypotheses about the roles of this important neuropeptide in the experience-dependent development and expression of species-typical social behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 143-157, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Hypertension and exercise training differentially affect oxytocin and oxytocin receptor expression in the brain.

    PubMed

    Martins, Adriano S; Crescenzi, Alessandra; Stern, Javier E; Bordin, Silvana; Michelini, Lisete C

    2005-10-01

    We have previously shown that exercise training activates nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) oxytocinergic projections, resulting in blunted exercise tachycardia. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of hypertension and training on oxytocin (OT) and OT receptor expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and projection areas (dorsal brain stem [DBS]). Male, normotensive, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats were trained (55% maximal exercise capacity, 3 months) or kept sedentary, and pressure was measured weekly. DBS sections were processed for immunohistochemistry (polyclonal guinea pig anti-OT) or in situ hybridization for OT and OT receptor (35S-oligonucleotide probes). Other groups of rats had brains removed and frozen to isolate the DBS and PVN; samples were processed for OT and OT receptor cDNA reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplification with beta-actin as the housekeeping gene. Training was equally effective in improving running distance in both groups, with pressure reduction only in SHR (-10%, P<0.05). In trained WKY, baseline bradycardia (P<0.05) occurred simultaneously with increased NTS OT immunostaining and mRNA expression (+3.5-fold), without any change in OT receptor mRNA expression. PVN OT mRNA and DBS OT receptor mRNA expressions were significantly lower in SHR versus WKY (-39% and -56%, respectively). Training did not alter DBS OT receptor density in the SHR group but increased OT mRNA in both PVN and DBS areas (+78% and +45%, respectively). Our results show a marked hypertension-induced reduction in OT receptor mRNA expression, not altered by training. In contrast, training increased OT mRNA expression in sedentary and hypertensive rats, which may facilitate training-induced cardiac performance.

  13. Differential regulation of oxytocin receptor in various adipose tissue depots and skeletal muscle types in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Gajdosechova, L; Krskova, K; Olszanecki, R; Zorad, S

    2015-07-01

    Multifunctional peptide oxytocin currently undergoes intensive research due to its proposed anti-obesity properties. Until now, little is known about regulation of oxytocin receptor in metabolically active tissues in obesity. The aim of the present study was to measure expression of oxytocin receptor upon obese phenotype with respect to the variety among adipose tissue and skeletal muscles with distinct anatomical localisation. Total homogenates were prepared from epididymal, retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissues as well as quadriceps and soleus muscle from lean and obese Zucker rats. Oxytocin receptor protein was determined by immunoblot. Interestingly, elevated oxytocin receptor was observed in epididymal adipose tissue of obese rats in contrast to its downregulation in subcutaneous and no change in retroperitoneal fat. In lean animals, oxytocin receptor protein was expressed at similar levels in all adipose depots. This uniformity was not observed in the case of skeletal muscle in which fibre type composition seems to be determinant of oxytocin receptor expression. Quadriceps muscle with the predominance of glycolytic fibres exhibits higher oxytocin receptor expression than almost exclusively oxidative soleus muscle. Oxytocin receptor protein levels were decreased in both skeletal muscles analysed upon obese phenotype. The present work demonstrates that even under identical endocrine circumstances, oxytocin receptor is differentially regulated in adipose tissue of obese rats depending on fat depot localisation. These results also imply which tissues may be preferentially targeted by oxytocin treatment in metabolic disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Oxytocin reduces cocaine seeking and reverses chronic cocaine-induced changes in glutamate receptor function.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Luyi; Sun, Wei-Lun; Young, Amy B; Lee, Kunhee; McGinty, Jacqueline F; See, Ronald E

    2014-10-31

    Oxytocin, a neurohypophyseal neuropeptide, is a potential mediator and regulator of drug addiction. However, the cellular mechanisms of oxytocin in drug seeking remain unknown. In the present study, we used a self-administration/reinstatement model to study the effects of oxytocin on cocaine seeking and its potential interaction with glutamate function at the receptor level. Systemic oxytocin dose-dependently reduced cocaine self-administration during various schedules of reinforcement, including fixed ratio 1, fixed ratio 5, and progressive ratio. Oxytocin also attenuated reinstatement to cocaine seeking induced by cocaine prime or conditioned cues. Western-blot analysis indicated that oxytocin increased phosphorylation of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor GluA1 subunit at the Ser 845 site with or without accompanying increases in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, in several brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdala, and dorsal hippocampus. Immunoprecipitation of oxytocin receptor and GluA1 subunit receptors further demonstrated a physical interaction between these 2 receptors, although the interaction was not influenced by chronic cocaine or oxytocin treatment. Oxytocin also attenuated sucrose seeking in a GluA1- or extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-independent manner. These findings suggest that oxytocin mediates cocaine seeking through interacting with glutamate receptor systems via second messenger cascades in mesocorticolimbic regions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Endometrial prostaglandin synthases, ovarian steroids, and oxytocin receptors in mares with oxytocin-induced luteal maintenance.

    PubMed

    Rebordão, Maria R; Galvão, António; Pinto-Bravo, Pedro; Pinheiro, Joana; Gamboa, Sandra; Silva, Elisabete; Mateus, Luísa; Ferreira-Dias, Graça

    2017-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) has been used to prolong the luteal phase in mares, but its mechanism of action is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic exogenous OXT administration to mid-luteal phase mares on luteal maintenance. Also, endometrial expression of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), prostaglandin F2α, E2 and I2 synthases (AKR1C3, PTGES, and PTGIS), oxytocin receptor (OXTR), progesterone receptor (PGR), and estrogen receptors 1 (ESR1) and 2 (ESR2) were assessed in mares experiencing luteal maintenance 2 weeks after chronic exogenous OXT administration. Control mares (n = 5; C group) received 6 mL of saline im, whereas OXT (60 units/mare) was administered im (n = 6; OXT group), every 12 hours, on days 7 to 14 postovulation. After endometrial biopsy in groups C (Day 10) and OXT (Day 24), luteolysis occurred within 3 or 6 days, respectively. Luteal maintenance took place in 4 of 6 (67%) of OXT-treated mares. Progesterone in C group was the highest on biopsy day (P < 0.05). In OXT mares, PTGS2, ESR1 (P < 0.05), PTGES, PTGIS, PGR, and ESR2 (P < 0.01) gene transcription decreased, whereas OXTR increased (P < 0.05) in comparison with the C group. In OXT-treated mares, endometrial ESR2 protein expression decreased (P < 0.05), but OXTR increased (P < 0.05) compared with control animals. In both experimental groups, PTGS2 was mainly immunolocalized in surface epithelium, whereas AKR1C3, PTGES, PTGIS, and PGR were in surface and glandular epithelia. ESR1 and ESR2 were found in glandular epithelium and OXTR in stromal cells. High immunolabeling for PTGES, PTGIS, PGR, and OXTR and low for ESR2 was detected in endometrium of OXT-group mares with extended diestrus. Prolonged luteal function associated with chronic OXT treatment may be related to different spatial expression of OXTR and PGR in the endometrium. The observed reduction of endometrial ESR2 may be responsible for the maintenance of PGR in luminal and glandular

  16. Functional characterisation of an ovine endometrial oxytocin receptor cDNA transiently expressed in Cos-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Riley, P R; Abayasekara, D R; Stewart, H J; Flint, A P

    1996-06-01

    The entire coding region of an ovine endometrial oxytocin receptor (OTR) cDNA was generated by PCR, subcloned into the SV40 major late promoter expression vector pSVLJ and transiently expressed in Cos-7 cells. A specific OTR antagonist, 125I-labelled d(CH2)5 [Tyr(Me)2,Thr4,Tyr-NH2(9)]-vasotocin (OTA), was used to describe the binding kinetics of the expressed receptor which had a Kd of 4.5 nM and Bmax of 2.4 nM/mg protein (6.8 x 10(5) receptor molecules/transfected cell). The functional properties of the expressed OTR were determined by measuring oxytocin-induced phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis. Oxytocin increased PI turnover in OTR transfected cells fourfold in excess of residual endogenous activity, and stimulated phospholipase C (PLC) activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, confirming that the expressed OTR cDNA was functional. Arginine vasopressin also stimulated PI turnover in a dose-dependent manner; thresholds of responses to oxytocin and arginine vasopressin were 10(-9) M and 10(-7) M respectively. OTA did not increase PI turnover and competitively inhibited the oxytocin-induced response. Direct activation of the pathway by aluminium fluoride and guanosine (3'-O-thio)-triphosphate (GTP gamma S) confirmed that the OTR was G-protein linked. Co-incubation of GTP gamma S with oxytocin shifted the PI-response threshold from 10(-7) M to 10(-9) M and significantly increased the level of response, suggesting that maximum PI turnover was agonist-dependent. The G-protein involved in mediating the signal transduction pathway was pertussis toxin-insensitive and, therefore, probably a member of the Gq subfamily. The PLC inhibitor, U73122, had no effect on oxytocin-induced PI turnover, consistent with the response in endometrial tissue. These data suggest that the signalling pathway mediated by expressed OTR is similar to that attributed to OTR occupancy in ovine endometrium.

  17. Differential contributions of vasopressin V1A and oxytocin receptors in the amygdala to pain-related behaviors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cragg, Bryce; Ji, Guangchen

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplastic changes in the amygdala account for emotional-affective aspects of pain and involve neuropeptides such as calcitonin gene-related peptide and corticotropin-releasing factor. Another neuropeptide system, central arginine vasopressin, has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, but its role in pain-related emotional expression and neuroplasticity remains to be determined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that arginine vasopressin in the amygdala contributes to pain-related emotional-affective responses, using stereotaxic applications of arginine vasopressin and antagonists for G-protein coupled vasopressin V1A and oxytocin receptors in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. In normal animals, arginine vasopressin increased audible and ultrasonic vocalizations and anxiety-like behavior (decreased open-arm preference in the elevated plus maze). The facilitatory effects were blocked by a selective V1A antagonist (SR 49059, Relcovaptan) but not by an oxytocin receptor antagonist (L-371,257). L-371,257 had some facilitatory effects on vocalizations. Arginine vasopressin had no effect in arthritic rats (kaolin/carrageenan knee joint pain model). SR 49059 inhibited vocalizations and anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus maze) in arthritic, but not normal, rats and conveyed anxiolytic properties to arginine vasopressin. Arginine vasopressin, SR 49059, and L-371,257 had no significant effects on spinal reflexes. We interpret the data to suggest that arginine vasopressin through V1A in the amygdala contributes to emotional-affective aspects of pain (arthritis model), whereas oxytocin receptors may mediate some inhibitory effects of the vasopressin system. PMID:27837170

  18. High-affinity neuropeptide Y receptor antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, A J; Matthews, J E; Slepetis, R J; Jansen, M; Viveros, O H; Tadepalli, A; Harrington, W; Heyer, D; Landavazo, A; Leban, J J

    1995-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most abundant peptide transmitters in the mammalian brain. In the periphery it is costored and coreleased with norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals. However, the physiological functions of this peptide remain unclear because of the absence of specific high-affinity receptor antagonists. Three potent NPY receptor antagonists were synthesized and tested for their biological activity in in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo functional assays. We describe here the effects of these antagonists inhibiting specific radiolabeled NPY binding at Y1 and Y2 receptors and antagonizing the effects of NPY in human erythroleukemia cell intracellular calcium mobilization perfusion pressure in the isolated rat kidney, and mean arterial blood pressure in anesthetized rats. PMID:7568074

  19. High-affinity neuropeptide Y receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Daniels, A J; Matthews, J E; Slepetis, R J; Jansen, M; Viveros, O H; Tadepalli, A; Harrington, W; Heyer, D; Landavazo, A; Leban, J J; Spaltenstein, A

    1995-09-26

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most abundant peptide transmitters in the mammalian brain. In the periphery it is costored and coreleased with norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals. However, the physiological functions of this peptide remain unclear because of the absence of specific high-affinity receptor antagonists. Three potent NPY receptor antagonists were synthesized and tested for their biological activity in in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo functional assays. We describe here the effects of these antagonists inhibiting specific radiolabeled NPY binding at Y1 and Y2 receptors and antagonizing the effects of NPY in human erythroleukemia cell intracellular calcium mobilization perfusion pressure in the isolated rat kidney, and mean arterial blood pressure in anesthetized rats.

  20. Oxytocin receptor binding in the hypothalamus during gestation in rats.

    PubMed

    Bealer, Steven L; Lipschitz, David L; Ramoz, Gina; Crowley, William R

    2006-07-01

    Central oxytocin receptors (OTR) may be involved in adaptations of the brain oxytocin (OT) system during gestation, which are critical for systemic release of OT during parturition and lactation. We used quantitative autoradiography to determine changes in OTR binding in numerous brain sites during the course of gestation in the rat. Furthermore, to evaluate the importance of ovarian steroids in mediating pregnancy-related changes in OTR binding, we measured binding in ovariectomized animals treated with progesterone and/or estrogen, and in pregnant animals treated with exogenous progesterone during late gestation. We found that OTR binding was significantly increased in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) by midgestation (day 15) compared with control. In addition, there was a further significant increase in OTR binding in these nuclei by late gestation (day 20). The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and the medial preoptic area (MPOA) also showed significant gestation-associated increases in OTR binding, which were similar during mid- and late pregnancy. Treatment with exogenous progesterone throughout pregnancy did not alter the increase in OTR binding characteristic of late gestation in any of these brain sites. Finally, estrogen treatment in ovariectomized animals resulted in increased OTR binding in the SON, BNST, and MPOA, but not the PVN. These data demonstrate that OTR binding in the hypothalamus is increased during mid- and late-gestation, compared with ovariectomized control animals, which may be mediated by increased estradiol.

  1. Pharmacological analysis of calcium antagonist receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    This work focuses on two aspects of the action of calcium antagonist drugs, namely, the interaction of drugs with receptors for verapamil-like calcium antagonists, and the interactions of drugs with voltage-sensitive calcium fluxes in rat brain synaptosomes. From binding studies I have found that the ligand of choice for labeling the verapamil receptor is (-)(/sup 3/H)desmethoxy-verapamil. This drug labels potently, reversibly and stereoselectively two receptors in membranes prepared from rat brain and rabbit skeletal muscle tissues. In equilibrium studies dihydropyridine calcium antagonists interact in a non-competitive fashion, while many non-DHPs are apparently competitive. In-depth kinetic studies in skeletal muscle membranes indicate that the two receptors are linked in a negative heterotropic fashion, and that low-affinity binding of (-) (/sup 3/H)desmethoxy-verapamil may be to the diltiazem receptor. However, these studies were not able to distinguish between the hypothesis that diltiazem binds to spatially separate, allosterically coupled receptors, and the hypothesis that diltiazem binds to a subsite of the verapamil receptor.

  2. Agonist selectivity in the oxytocin/vasopressin receptor family: new insights and challenges.

    PubMed

    Chini, B; Manning, M

    2007-08-01

    The design and development of selective agonists acting at the OT (oxytocin)/AVP (vasopressin) receptors has been and continues to be a difficult task because of the great similarity among the different receptor subtypes as well as the high degree of chemical similarity between the active ligands. In recent decades, at least a thousand synthetic peptides have been synthesized and examined for their ability to bind to and activate the different OT/AVP receptors; an effort that has led to the identification of several receptor subtype-selective agonists in the rat. However, owing to species differences between rat and human AVP/OT receptors, these peptides do not exhibit the same selectivities in human receptor assays. Furthermore, the discovery of receptor promiscuity, which is the ability of a single receptor subtype to couple to several different G-proteins, has led to the definition of a completely new class of compounds, referred to here as coupling-selective ligands, which may activate, within a single receptor subtype, only a specific signalling pathway. Finally, the accumulating evidence that GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) do not function as monomers, but as dimers/oligomers, opens up the design of another class of specific ligands, bivalent ligands, in which two agonist and/or antagonist moieties are joined by a spacer of the appropriate length to allow the simultaneous binding at the two subunits within the dimer. The pharmacological properties and selectivity profiles of these bivalent ligands, which remain to be investigated, could lead to highly novel research tools and potential therapeutic agents.

  3. Oxytocin-like receptors mediate pair bonding in a socially monogamous songbird

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, James D.; Goodson, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Although many species form socially monogamous pair bonds, relevant neural mechanisms have been described for only a single species, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In this species, pair bonding is strongly dependent upon the nonapeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin, in females and males, respectively. Because monogamy has evolved many times in multiple lineages, data from additional species are required to determine whether similar peptide mechanisms modulate bonding when monogamy evolves independently. Here we test the hypothesis that OT-like receptor activation is required for pair bond formation in the socially monogamous zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Males and females were administered chronic intracerebroventricular infusions of saline or an OT receptor antagonist and were observed twice daily for 3 days in a colony environment. A variety of affiliative, aggressive and other behaviours were quantified. The antagonist produced significant and selective effects on pair bonding (latency to pair; number of sessions paired; stable pairing) and the associated behaviour of allopreening. Importantly, findings for males follow the trends of females; this yields main effects of treatment in two-way ANOVAs, although within-sex analyses are significant only for females. These data provide evidence for both convergent evolution and species diversity in the neuroendocrine mechanisms of pair bonding. PMID:23173212

  4. Emerging cardiovascular indications of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Parviz, Yasir; Iqbal, Javaid; Pitt, Bertram; Adlam, David; Al-Mohammad, Abdallah; Zannad, Faiez

    2015-04-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism is a well-established treatment modality for patients with hypertension, heart failure, and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) post-myocardial infarction (MI). There are emerging data showing potential benefits of MR antagonists in other cardiovascular conditions. Studies have shown association between MR activation and the development of myocardial fibrosis, coronary artery disease, metabolic syndrome, and cerebrovascular diseases. This review examines the preclinical and clinical data of MR antagonists for novel indications including heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), arrhythmia, sudden cardiac death, valvular heart disease, metabolic syndrome, renal disease, and stroke. MR antagonists are not licensed for these conditions yet; however, emerging data suggest that indication for MR antagonists are likely to broaden; further studies are warranted.

  5. Expression of oxytocin receptor in diabetic rat penis.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Wang, T; Guo, S; Rao, K; Liu, J; Ye, Z

    2012-05-01

    Oxytocin receptor (OTR) expressed in the rat penis and mediated the contractility of the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle both in vitro and in vivo, and OTR could maintain penile detumescence; however, the expression of OTR in diabetic rat penis remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the expression of OTR in diabetic rat penis. The experimental rats were randomly divided into control group and STZ-diabetic rats group. The expressions of mRNA and protein were examined by real-time quantitative PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry respectively. Erectile function was evaluated by measuring intracavernous pressure following electrostimulation of the cavernous nerves. mRNA and protein expression of OTR significantly increased in diabetic rats group compared with the control group. Erectile function of diabetic rats group significantly decreased compared with the control group. Our data showed that the expression of OTR significantly increased in diabetic rats group and OTR may involve in the development of diabetic erectile dysfunction.

  6. The nonpeptide oxytocin receptor agonist WAY 267,464: receptor-binding profile, prosocial effects and distribution of c-Fos expression in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Hicks, C; Jorgensen, W; Brown, C; Fardell, J; Koehbach, J; Gruber, C W; Kassiou, M; Hunt, G E; McGregor, I S

    2012-07-01

    Previous research suggests that the nonpeptide oxytocin receptor (OTR) agonist WAY 267,464 may only partly mimic the effects of oxytocin in rodents. The present study further explored these differences and related them to OTR and vasopressin 1a receptor (V(1a) R) pharmacology and regional patterns of c-Fos expression. Binding data for WAY 267,464 and oxytocin were obtained by displacement binding assays on cellular membranes, while functional receptor data were generated by luciferase reporter assays. For behavioural testing, adolescent rats were tested in a social preference paradigm, the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and for locomotor activity changes following WAY 267,464 (10 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) or oxytocin (0.1 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.). The higher doses were also examined for their effects on regional c-Fos expression. Results showed that WAY 267,464 had higher affinity (K(i) ) at the V(1a) R than the OTR (113 versus 978 nm). However, it had no functional response at the V(1a) R and only a weak functional effect (EC(50) ) at the OTR (881 nm). This suggests WAY 267,464 is an OTR agonist with weak affinity and a possible V(1a) R antagonist. Oxytocin showed high binding at the OTR (1.0 nm) and V(1a) R (503 nm), with a functional EC(50) of 9.0 and 59.7 nm, respectively, indicating it is a potent OTR agonist and full V(1a) R agonist. WAY 267,464 (100 mg/kg), but not oxytocin, significantly increased the proportion of time spent with a live rat, over a dummy rat, in the social preference test. Neither compound affected EPM behaviour, whereas the higher doses of WAY 267,464 and oxytocin suppressed locomotor activity. WAY 267,464 and oxytocin produced similar c-Fos expression in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, central amygdala, lateral parabrachial nucleus and nucleus of the solitary tract, suggesting a commonality of action at the OTR with the differential doses employed. However, WAY 267,464 caused greater c-Fos expression in the medial amygdala and the supraoptic

  7. Melanocortin Receptor Agonists Facilitate Oxytocin-Dependent Partner Preference Formation in the Prairie Vole.

    PubMed

    Modi, Meera E; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Barrett, Catherine E; Kittelberger, Kara A; Smith, Daniel G; Landgraf, Rainer; Young, Larry J

    2015-07-01

    The central melanocortin (MC) system has been widely studied for its effects on food intake and sexual behavior. However, the MC system, and more specifically the MC4 receptor (MC4R), also interacts with neurochemical systems that regulate socioemotional behaviors, including oxytocin (OT) and dopamine. In monogamous prairie voles, OT and dopamine interact to promote partner preference formation, a laboratory measure of an enduring social bond between mates. Here we investigated the effects of MC receptor activation on partner preference formation in prairie voles, as well as the interaction between the MC and OT systems during this process. Peripheral administration of the brain penetrant MC3/4R receptor peptide agonist, Melanotan II (MTII), and the highly selective, small-molecule MC4R agonist, Pf-446687, enhanced partner preference formation in the prairie vole, but not in the non-monogamous meadow vole. MTII-induced partner preferences were enduring, as they were present 1 week after drug manipulation. The prosocial effects of MCR agonists may be mediated, in part, through modulation of OT, as coadministration of an OT receptor antagonist prevented MTII-induced partner preferences. MTII also selectively activated hypothalamic OT neurons and potentiated central OT release. As OT has been shown to enhance some aspects of social cognition in humans, our data suggest that the MC4R may be a viable therapeutic target for enhancing social function in psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, potentially through activation of the OT system.

  8. Melanocortin Receptor Agonists Facilitate Oxytocin-Dependent Partner Preference Formation in the Prairie Vole

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Meera E; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Barrett, Catherine E; Kittelberger, Kara A; Smith, Daniel G; Landgraf, Rainer; Young, Larry J

    2015-01-01

    The central melanocortin (MC) system has been widely studied for its effects on food intake and sexual behavior. However, the MC system, and more specifically the MC4 receptor (MC4R), also interacts with neurochemical systems that regulate socioemotional behaviors, including oxytocin (OT) and dopamine. In monogamous prairie voles, OT and dopamine interact to promote partner preference formation, a laboratory measure of an enduring social bond between mates. Here we investigated the effects of MC receptor activation on partner preference formation in prairie voles, as well as the interaction between the MC and OT systems during this process. Peripheral administration of the brain penetrant MC3/4R receptor peptide agonist, Melanotan II (MTII), and the highly selective, small-molecule MC4R agonist, Pf-446687, enhanced partner preference formation in the prairie vole, but not in the non-monogamous meadow vole. MTII-induced partner preferences were enduring, as they were present 1 week after drug manipulation. The prosocial effects of MCR agonists may be mediated, in part, through modulation of OT, as coadministration of an OT receptor antagonist prevented MTII-induced partner preferences. MTII also selectively activated hypothalamic OT neurons and potentiated central OT release. As OT has been shown to enhance some aspects of social cognition in humans, our data suggest that the MC4R may be a viable therapeutic target for enhancing social function in psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, potentially through activation of the OT system. PMID:25652247

  9. Oxytocin Increases Neurite Length and Expression of Cytoskeletal Proteins Associated with Neuronal Growth.

    PubMed

    Lestanova, Z; Bacova, Z; Kiss, A; Havranek, T; Strbak, V; Bakos, J

    2016-06-01

    Neuropeptide oxytocin acts as a growth and differentiation factor; however, its effects on neurite growth are poorly understood. The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate time effects of oxytocin on expression of nestin and MAP2; (2) to measure the effect of oxytocin on gene expression of β-actin, vimentin, cofilin, and drebrin; and (3) to measure changes in neurite length and number in response to oxytocin/oxytocin receptor antagonist L-371,257. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to 1 μM oxytocin resulted in a significant increase in gene expression and protein levels of nestin after 12, 24, and 48 h. Oxytocin treatment induced no changes in gene expression of MAP2; however, a decrease of protein levels was observed in all time intervals. Gene expression of β-actin, vimentin, and drebrin increased in response to oxytocin. Oxytocin induced significant elongation of neurites after 12, 24, and 48 h. No change in neurite length was observed in the presence of the combination of retinoic acid and oxytocin receptor antagonist L-371,257. Oxytocin treatment for 12 h increased the number of neurites. Overall, the present data suggest that oxytocin contributes to the regulation of expression of cytoskeletal proteins associated with growth of neuronal cones and induces neurite elongation mediated by oxytocin receptors at least in certain types of neuronal cells.

  10. NMDA Receptor Antagonists for Treatment of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ates-Alagoz, Zeynep; Adejare, Adeboye

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a psychiatric disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. Individuals battling this disorder commonly experience high rates of relapse, persistent residual symptoms, functional impairment, and diminished well-being. Medications have important utility in stabilizing moods and daily functions of many individuals. However, only one third of patients had considerable improvement with a standard antidepressant after 2 months and all patients had to deal with numerous side effects. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor family has received special attention because of its critical role in psychiatric disorders. Direct targeting of the NMDA receptor could result in more rapid antidepressant effects. Antidepressant-like effects of NMDA receptor antagonists have been demonstrated in different animal models. MK-801 (a use-dependent channel blocker), and CGP 37849 (an NMDA receptor antagonist) have shown antidepressant properties in preclinical studies, either alone or combined with traditional antidepressants. A recent development is use of ketamine clinically for refractory depression. The purpose of this review is to examine and analyze current literature on the role of NMDA receptor antagonists for treatment of depression and whether this is a feasible route in drug discovery. PMID:24276119

  11. Medicinal Chemistry of Competitive Kainate Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) receptors belong to the group of ionotropic glutamate receptors and are expressed throughout in the central nervous system (CNS). The KA receptors have been shown to be involved in neurophysiological functions such as mossy fiber long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic plasticity and are thus potential therapeutic targets in CNS diseases such as schizophrenia, major depression, neuropathic pain and epilepsy. Extensive effort has been made to develop subtype-selective KA receptor antagonists in order to elucidate the physiological function of each of the five subunits known (GluK1−5). However, to date only selective antagonists for the GluK1 subunit have been discovered, which underlines the strong need for continued research in this area. The present review describes the structure−activity relationship and pharmacological profile for 10 chemically distinct classes of KA receptor antagonists comprising, in all, 45 compounds. To the medicinal chemist this information will serve as reference guidance as well as an inspiration for future effort in this field. PMID:22778857

  12. Medicinal chemistry of competitive kainate receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Ann M; Bunch, Lennart

    2011-02-16

    Kainic acid (KA) receptors belong to the group of ionotropic glutamate receptors and are expressed throughout in the central nervous system (CNS). The KA receptors have been shown to be involved in neurophysiological functions such as mossy fiber long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic plasticity and are thus potential therapeutic targets in CNS diseases such as schizophrenia, major depression, neuropathic pain and epilepsy. Extensive effort has been made to develop subtype-selective KA receptor antagonists in order to elucidate the physiological function of each of the five subunits known (GluK1-5). However, to date only selective antagonists for the GluK1 subunit have been discovered, which underlines the strong need for continued research in this area. The present review describes the structure-activity relationship and pharmacological profile for 10 chemically distinct classes of KA receptor antagonists comprising, in all, 45 compounds. To the medicinal chemist this information will serve as reference guidance as well as an inspiration for future effort in this field.

  13. Genomic and non-genomic mechanisms of oxytocin receptor regulation.

    PubMed

    Zingg, H H; Grazzini, E; Breton, C; Larcher, A; Rozen, F; Russo, C; Guillon, G; Mouillac, B

    1998-01-01

    Our recent studies have shown that regulation of uterine oxytocin (OT) binding involves at least two different mechanism: Estradiol (E2)-induced upregulation is accompanied by an increase in OT receptor (OTR) mRNA accumulation, implying that the E2 effect is mediated via increased OTR gene transcription and/or OTR mRNA stabilization. In contrast, P (P)-induced OTR down-regulation occurs via a novel non-genomic mechanism, involving a direct interaction of P with the OTR at the level of the cell membrane. We found that P specifically binds to the OTR and inhibits its ligand binding and signalling functions. Physiological levels of P repress in vitro the ligand binding capacity (Bmax) of the OTR by > 50%. When expressed in CHO cells, the OTR provides a high affinity (Kd: 20nM) membrane binding site for P. OT-induced inositol phosphate production and intracellular calcium mobilization is inhibited 85% and 90%, respectively, by P. These effects are specific as signalling and binding functions of the closely related V1a vasopressin receptor remain unaffected by P, and as other, related steroids are devoid of any effect on OTR binding or signalling functions. The present observation of a specific interaction of a steroid with a G-protein-linked receptor defines a new mechanism of non-genomic steroid action and uncovers a novel level of crosstalk between steroid and peptide hormone action.

  14. Oxytocin and Estrogen Receptor β in the Brain: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Rodriguez, Alexandra; Mani, Shaila K.; Handa, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide synthesized primarily by neurons of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. These neurons have axons that project into the posterior pituitary and release OT into the bloodstream to promote labor and lactation; however, OT neurons also project to other brain areas where it plays a role in numerous brain functions. OT binds to the widely expressed OT receptor (OTR), and, in doing so, it regulates homeostatic processes, social recognition, and fear conditioning. In addition to these functions, OT decreases neuroendocrine stress signaling and anxiety-related and depression-like behaviors. Steroid hormones differentially modulate stress responses and alter OTR expression. In particular, estrogen receptor β activation has been found to both reduce anxiety-related behaviors and increase OT peptide transcription, suggesting a role for OT in this estrogen receptor β-mediated anxiolytic effect. Further research is needed to identify modulators of OT signaling and the pathways utilized and to elucidate molecular mechanisms controlling OT expression to allow better therapeutic manipulations of this system in patient populations. PMID:26528239

  15. Agonists and antagonists for P2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Costanzi, Stefano; Joshi, Bhalchandra V.; Besada, Pedro; Shin, Dae Hong; Ko, Hyojin; Ivanov, Andrei A.; Mamedova, Liaman

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has identified nucleotide agonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors and nucleotide antagonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y12 and P2X1 receptors. Selective non-nucleotide antagonists have been reported for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y6, P2Y12, P2Y13, P2X2/3/P2X3 and P2X7 receptors. For example, the dinucleotide INS 37217 (Up4dC) potently activates the P2Y2 receptor, and the non-nucleotide antagonist A-317491 is selective for P2X2/3/P2X3 receptors. Nucleotide analogues in which the ribose moiety is substituted by a variety of novel ring systems, including conformation-ally locked moieties, have been synthesized as ligands for P2Y receptors. The focus on conformational factors of the ribose-like moiety allows the inclusion of general modifications that lead to enhanced potency and selectivity. At P2Y1,2,4,11 receptors, there is a preference for the North conformation as indicated with (N)-methanocarba analogues. The P2Y1 antagonist MRS2500 inhibited ADP-induced human platelet aggregation with an IC50 of 0.95 nM. MRS2365, an (N)-methanocarba analogue of 2-MeSADP, displayed potency (EC50) of 0.4 nM at the P2Y1 receptor, with >10 000-fold selectivity in comparison to P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors. At P2Y6 receptors there is a dramatic preference for the South conformation. Three-dimensional structures of P2Y receptors have been deduced from structure activity relationships (SAR), mutagenesis and modelling studies. Detailed three-dimensional structures of P2X receptors have not yet been proposed. PMID:16805423

  16. Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists: Effects on Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Buels, Kalmia S.

    2014-01-01

    In healthy lungs, muscarinic receptors control smooth muscle tone, mucus secretion, vasodilation, and inflammation. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, cholinergic mechanisms contribute to increased bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion that limit airflow. This chapter reviews neuronal and nonneuronal sources of acetylcholine in the lung and the expression and role of M1, M2, and M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes in lung physiology. It also discusses the evidence for and against the role of parasympathetic nerves in asthma, and the current use and therapeutic potential of muscarinic receptor antagonists in COPD and asthma. PMID:22222705

  17. Neonatal oxytocin treatment modulates oxytocin receptor, atrial natriuretic peptide, nitric oxide synthase and estrogen receptor mRNAs expression in rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Perry, Adam; Partoo, Leila; Papademeteriou, Eros; Azizi, Feridoun; Carter, C. Sue; Cushing, Bruce S.

    2007-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in reproductive functions, induction of maternal behavior as well as endocrine and neuroendocrine regulation of the cardiovascular system. Here we demonstrate that neonatal manipulation of OT can modulate the mRNAs expression for OT receptor (OTR), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the heart. On the first day of postnatal life, female and male rats were randomly assigned to receive one of following treatments; (a) 50 µl i.p. injection of 7 µg OT, (b) 0.7 µg of OT antagonist (OTA), or (c) isotonic saline (SAL). Hearts were collected either on postnatal day 1 or day 21 (D1 or D21) and the mRNAs expression of OTR, ANP, inducible NOS (iNOS), eNOS, ERα and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) were compared by age, treatment, and sex utilizing Real Time PCR. OT treatment significantly increased heart OTR, ANP and eNOS mRNAs expression on D1 in both males and females, ERα increased only in females. While there were significant changes in the relative expression of all types of mRNA between D1 and D21 there were no significant treatment effects observed in D21 animals. OTA treatment significantly decreased basal ANP and eNOS mRNAs expression on D1 in both sexes. The results indicate that during the early postnatal period OT can have an immediate effect on the expression OTR, ANP, eNOS, and ERα mRNAs and that these effects are mitigated by D21. Also with the exception of ERα mRNA, the effects are the same in both sexes. PMID:17537544

  18. Oxytocin receptor activity in the ventrocaudal periaqueductal gray modulates anxiety-related behavior in postpartum rats.

    PubMed

    Figueira, Rayson J; Peabody, Mitchell F; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2008-06-01

    Postpartum rats are less anxious than diestrous virgin females, a phenomenon requiring that mothers have recent contact with their infants. Oxytocin (OT) is one of many neurochemicals released intracerebrally while mothers interact with infants, and we investigated whether OT receptor activity in the ventrocaudal periaqueductal gray (cPAGv) contributes to mothers' reduced anxiety. Infusion of the highly specific OT receptor antagonist, desGly-NH2,d(CH2)5[D-Tyr2,Thr-sup-4]OVT, into the cPAGv reduced the percentage of time dams spent in the open arms of an elevated plus-maze, but had no effect on the open-arm behavior of diestrous virgins. Conversely, after separating dams from their litters for 4 hr to increase anxiety, a lower (2 ng) but not higher (5 ng) dose of OT infused into each hemisphere of the cPAGv doubled the percentage of time dams spent in open arms, but did not do so in virgins. OTergic manipulations inconsistently affected risk-assessment behaviors (stretch-attend postures, head dips) in both virgins and dams. Therefore, OT receptor activation in the cPAGv is an important consequence of contact with infants that reduces some anxiety-related behaviors in mother rats. (Copyright) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Development of a human vasopressin V1a-receptor antagonist from an evolutionary-related insect neuropeptide

    PubMed Central

    Di Giglio, Maria Giulia; Muttenthaler, Markus; Harpsøe, Kasper; Liutkeviciute, Zita; Keov, Peter; Eder, Thomas; Rattei, Thomas; Arrowsmith, Sarah; Wray, Susan; Marek, Ales; Elbert, Tomas; Alewood, Paul F.; Gloriam, David E.; Gruber, Christian W.

    2017-01-01

    Characterisation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) relies on the availability of a toolbox of ligands that selectively modulate different functional states of the receptors. To uncover such molecules, we explored a unique strategy for ligand discovery that takes advantage of the evolutionary conservation of the 600-million-year-old oxytocin/vasopressin signalling system. We isolated the insect oxytocin/vasopressin orthologue inotocin from the black garden ant (Lasius niger), identified and cloned its cognate receptor and determined its pharmacological properties on the insect and human oxytocin/vasopressin receptors. Subsequently, we identified a functional dichotomy: inotocin activated the insect inotocin and the human vasopressin V1b receptors, but inhibited the human V1aR. Replacement of Arg8 of inotocin by D-Arg8 led to a potent, stable and competitive V1aR-antagonist ([D-Arg8]-inotocin) with a 3,000-fold binding selectivity for the human V1aR over the other three subtypes, OTR, V1bR and V2R. The Arg8/D-Arg8 ligand-pair was further investigated to gain novel insights into the oxytocin/vasopressin peptide-receptor interaction, which led to the identification of key residues of the receptors that are important for ligand functionality and selectivity. These observations could play an important role for development of oxytocin/vasopressin receptor modulators that would enable clear distinction of the physiological and pathological responses of the individual receptor subtypes. PMID:28145450

  20. Development of a human vasopressin V1a-receptor antagonist from an evolutionary-related insect neuropeptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giglio, Maria Giulia; Muttenthaler, Markus; Harpsøe, Kasper; Liutkeviciute, Zita; Keov, Peter; Eder, Thomas; Rattei, Thomas; Arrowsmith, Sarah; Wray, Susan; Marek, Ales; Elbert, Tomas; Alewood, Paul F.; Gloriam, David E.; Gruber, Christian W.

    2017-02-01

    Characterisation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) relies on the availability of a toolbox of ligands that selectively modulate different functional states of the receptors. To uncover such molecules, we explored a unique strategy for ligand discovery that takes advantage of the evolutionary conservation of the 600-million-year-old oxytocin/vasopressin signalling system. We isolated the insect oxytocin/vasopressin orthologue inotocin from the black garden ant (Lasius niger), identified and cloned its cognate receptor and determined its pharmacological properties on the insect and human oxytocin/vasopressin receptors. Subsequently, we identified a functional dichotomy: inotocin activated the insect inotocin and the human vasopressin V1b receptors, but inhibited the human V1aR. Replacement of Arg8 of inotocin by D-Arg8 led to a potent, stable and competitive V1aR-antagonist ([D-Arg8]-inotocin) with a 3,000-fold binding selectivity for the human V1aR over the other three subtypes, OTR, V1bR and V2R. The Arg8/D-Arg8 ligand-pair was further investigated to gain novel insights into the oxytocin/vasopressin peptide-receptor interaction, which led to the identification of key residues of the receptors that are important for ligand functionality and selectivity. These observations could play an important role for development of oxytocin/vasopressin receptor modulators that would enable clear distinction of the physiological and pathological responses of the individual receptor subtypes.

  1. Local oxytocin expression and oxytocin receptor binding in the male rat brain is associated with aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Calcagnoli, Federica; de Boer, Sietse F; Beiderbeck, Daniela I; Althaus, Monika; Koolhaas, Jaap M; Neumann, Inga D

    2014-03-15

    We recently demonstrated in male wild-type Groningen rats that enhancing brain oxytocin (OXT) levels acutely produces marked pro-social explorative and anti-aggressive effects. Moreover, these pharmacologically-induced changes are moderated by the individual's aggressive phenotype, suggesting an inverse relationship between aggressiveness and tonic endogenous OXT signaling properties. Aim of the present study was to verify the hypothesis that variations in OXT expression and/or OXT receptor (OXTR) binding in selected brain regions are associated with different levels or forms of aggression. To this end, male resident wild-type Groningen rats that repeatedly contested and dominated intruder conspecifics were categorized as being low aggressive, highly aggressive or excessively aggressive. Their brains were subsequently collected and quantified for OXT mRNA expression and OXTR binding levels. Our results showed that OXT mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), but not in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), negatively correlates with the level of offensiveness. In particular, the excessively aggressive group showed a significantly lower OXT mRNA expression in the PVN as compared to both low and highly aggressive groups. Further, the excessively aggressive animals showed the highest OXTR binding in the central amygdala (CeA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). These findings demonstrate that male rats with excessively high levels and abnormal forms of aggressive behavior have diminished OXT transcription and enhanced OXTR binding capacities in specific nodes of the social behavioral brain circuitry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, F. Ivy; Carlezon, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) belong to the G-protein coupled class of receptors (GPCRs). They are activated by the endogenous opioid peptide dynorphin (DYN) and expressed at particularly high levels within brain areas implicated in modulation of motivation, emotion, and cognitive function. Chronic activation of KORs in animal models has maladaptive effects including increases in behaviors that reflect depression, the propensity to engage in drug-seeking behavior, and drug craving. The fact that KOR activation has such a profound influence on behaviors often triggered by stress has led to interest in selective KOR antagonists as potential therapeutic agents. This perspective provides a description of preclinical research conducted in the development of several different classes of selective KOR antagonists, a summary of the clinical studies conducted thus far, and recommendations for the type of work needed in the future to determine if these agents would be useful as pharmacotherapies for neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:23360448

  3. Pitocin and autism: An analysis of oxytocin receptor desensitization in the fetus.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Mark M

    2016-02-01

    The risk of Pitocin as a cause of autism attributable to oxytocin receptor desensitization in the brain of the fetus is evaluated in terms of a mathematical model. A composite unit, D, for oxytocin receptor desensitization levels is established with the form ((IU-h)/ml)E-3, where IU is the international unit for oxytocin. The desensitization values for oxytocin receptor desensitization at a concentration of 10 nmol of oxytocin per liter for 3, 4.2 and 6h corresponding to 0%, 50% and 100% desensitization are calculated to be 15 D, 21 D, and 30 D, respectively. The permeability of the blood-brain barrier in the fetus to oxytocin is discussed, and the upper limit of the concentration of Pitocin in the placenta, and its possible diffusion into the blood and brain of the fetus, is calculated for a routine dose of 6 milli U per minute of Pitocin over a 12h labor. This dose of Pitocin is shown to result in a desensitization value in units of D that is more than a factor of 10 below the 0% desensitization value of 15 D. This indicates that routine doses of Pitocin are not a significant cause of autism attributable to oxytocin receptor desensitization. This is consistent with the findings of a major epidemiological study of the association of Pitocin with autism in Denmark entitled, "Oxytocin-augmented labor and risk for males", Behavioral Brain Research, May 1, 2015; 284:207-212, which found no association between the use of Pitocin during labor and the incidence of autism for females, and a modest association for males.

  4. Cloning of Octopus cephalotocin receptor, a member of the oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Atsuhiro; Takuwa-Kuroda, Kyoko; Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Furukawa, Yasuo; Matsushima, Osamu; Minakata, Hiroyuki

    2003-11-01

    We reported that the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, in common with vertebrates, possesses two members of the oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily: octopressin (OP) and cephalotocin (CT). This was the first observation of its kind in invertebrates. As OP and CT have different biological activities, the presence of specific receptors has been proposed. We cloned the cDNA of an orphan receptor from Octopus brain and found it to encode a polypeptide of 397 amino acids that displays sequences characteristic of G-protein coupled receptors. The orphan receptor showed high homology to receptors of the oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily and seemed to conserve the agonist-binding pocket common to the oxytocin and vasopressin receptors. Xenopus oocytes that express the orphan receptor responded to the application of CT by an induction of membrane Cl(-) currents coupled to the inositol phosphate/Ca(2+) pathway. OP and the other members of the oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily did not activate this receptor. HPLC fractionation of the Octopus brain extract combined with an oocyte assay yielded a single substance that was identical to CT. On the basis of these results, we conclude that the cloned receptor is the CT receptor (CTR). Expression of CTR mRNA in Octopus was detected in the central and the peripheral nervous systems, the pancreas, the oviduct and the ovary. This receptor may mediate physiological functions of CT in Octopus such as neurotransmission, reproduction and metabolism.

  5. Oxytocin and its receptors are synthesized in the rat vasculature.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, M; Wang, D; Hajjar, F; Mukaddam-Daher, S; McCann, S M; Gutkowska, J

    2000-05-23

    Produced and released by the heart, oxytocin (OT) acts on its cardiac receptors to decrease the cardiac rate and force of contraction. We hypothesized that it might also be produced in the vasculature and regulate vascular tone. Consequently, we prepared acid extracts of the pulmonary artery and vena cava of female rats. OT concentrations in dog and sheep aortae were equivalent to those of rat aorta (2745 +/- 180 pg/mg protein), indicating that it is present in the vasculature of several mammalian species. Reverse-phase HPLC of aorta and vena cava extracts revealed a single peak corresponding to the amidated OT nonapeptide. Reverse-transcribed PCR confirmed OT synthesis in these tissues. Using the selective OT receptor ligand compound VI, we detected a high number of OT-binding sites in the rat vena cava and aorta. Furthermore, OT receptor (OTR) mRNA was found in the vena cava, pulmonary vein, and pulmonary artery with lower levels in the aorta, suggesting vessel-specific OTR distribution. The abundance of OTR mRNA in the vena cava and pulmonary vein was associated with high atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA. In addition, we have demonstrated that diethylstilbestrol treatment of immature female rats increased OT significantly in the vena cava but not in the aorta and augmented OTR mRNA in both the aorta (4-fold) and vena cava (2-fold), implying regulation by estrogen. Altogether, these data suggest that the vasculature contains an intrinsic OT system, which may be involved in the regulation of vascular tone as well as vascular regrowth and remodeling.

  6. Oxytocin and its receptors are synthesized in the rat vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Jankowski, Marek; Wang, Donghao; Hajjar, Fadi; Mukaddam-Daher, Suhayla; McCann, Samuel M.; Gutkowska, Jolanta

    2000-01-01

    Produced and released by the heart, oxytocin (OT) acts on its cardiac receptors to decrease the cardiac rate and force of contraction. We hypothesized that it might also be produced in the vasculature and regulate vascular tone. Consequently, we prepared acid extracts of the pulmonary artery and vena cava of male rats. OT concentrations in dog and sheep aortae were equivalent to those of rat aorta (2745 ± 180 pg/mg protein), indicating that it is present in the vasculature of several mammalian species. Reverse-phase HPLC of aorta and vena cava extracts revealed a single peak corresponding to the amidated OT nonapeptide. Reverse-transcribed PCR confirmed OT synthesis in these tissues. Using the selective OT receptor ligand compound VI, we detected a high number of OT-binding sites in the rat vena cava and aorta. Furthermore, OT receptor (OTR) mRNA was found in the vena cava, pulmonary vein, and pulmonary artery with lower levels in the aorta, suggesting vessel-specific OTR distribution. The abundance of OTR mRNA in the vena cava and pulmonary vein was associated with high atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA. In addition, we have demonstrated that diethylstilbestrol treatment of immature female rats increased OT significantly in the vena cava but not in the aorta and augmented OTR mRNA in both the aorta (4-fold) and vena cava (2-fold), implying regulation by estrogen. Altogether, these data suggest that the vasculature contains an intrinsic OT system, which may be involved in the regulation of vascular tone as well as vascular regrowth and remodeling. PMID:10811917

  7. Raphe serotonin neuron-specific oxytocin receptor knockout reduces aggression without affecting anxiety-like behavior in male mice only

    PubMed Central

    Pagani, Jerome H.; Williams Avram, Sarah K.; Cui, Zhenzhong; Song, June; Mezey, Éva; Senerth, Julia M.; Baumann, Michael H.; Young, W. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin and oxytocin influence aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors, though it is unclear how the two may interact. That the oxytocin receptor is expressed in the serotonergic raphe nuclei suggests a mechanism by which the two neurotransmitters may cooperatively influence behavior. We hypothesized that oxytocin acts on raphe neurons to influence serotonergically-mediated anxiety-like, aggressive and parental care behaviors. We eliminated expression of the oxytocin receptor in raphe neurons by crossing mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the serotonin transporter promoter (Slc6a4) with our conditional oxytocin receptor knockout line. The knockout mice generated by this cross are normal across a range of behavioral measures: there are no effects for either sex on locomotion in an open-field, olfactory habituation/dishabituation or, surprisingly, anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated O and plus mazes. There was a profound deficit in male aggression: only one of 11 raphe oxytocin receptor knockouts showed any aggressive behavior, compared to eight of 11 wildtypes. In contrast, female knockouts displayed no deficits in maternal behavior or aggression. Our results show that oxytocin, via its effects on raphe neurons, is a key regulator of resident-intruder aggression in males but not maternal aggression. Furthermore, this reduction in male aggression is quite different from the effects reported previously after forebrain or total elimination of oxytocin receptors. Finally, we conclude that when constitutively eliminated, oxytocin receptors expressed by serotonin cells do not contribute to baseline anxiety-like behaviors or maternal care. PMID:25677455

  8. Drug delivery to the human and mouse uterus using immunoliposomes targeted to the oxytocin receptor.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jonathan W; Hua, Susan; Ilicic, Marina; Tolosa, Jorge M; Butler, Trent; Robertson, Sarah; Smith, Roger

    2017-03-01

    The ability to provide safe and effective pharmacotherapy during obstetric complications, such as preterm labor or postpartum hemorrhage, is hampered by the systemic toxicity of therapeutic agents leading to adverse side effects in the mother and fetus. Development of novel strategies to target tocolytic and uterotonic agents specifically to uterine myocytes would improve therapeutic efficacy while minimizing the risk of side effects. Ligand-targeted liposomes have emerged as a reliable and versatile platform for targeted drug delivery to specific cell types, tissues or organs. Our objective was to develop a targeted drug delivery system for the uterus utilizing an immunoliposome platform targeting the oxytocin receptor. We conjugated liposomes to an antibody that recognizes an extracellular domain of the oxytocin receptor. We then examined the ability of oxytocin receptor-targeted liposomes to deliver contraction-blocking (nifedipine, salbutamol and rolipram) or contraction-enhancing (dofetilide) agents to strips of spontaneously contracting myometrial tissue in vitro (human and mouse). We evaluated the ability of oxytocin receptor-targeted liposomes to localize to uterine tissue in vivo, and assessed if targeted liposomes loaded with indomethacin were capable of preventing lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm birth in mice. Oxytocin receptor-targeted liposomes loaded with nifedipine, salbutamol or rolipram consistently abolished human myometrial contractions in vitro, while oxytocin receptor-targeted liposomes loaded with dofetilide increased contraction duration. Nontargeted control liposomes loaded with these agents had no effect. Similar results were observed in mouse uterine strips. Following in vivo administration to pregnant mice, oxytocin receptor-targeted liposomes localized specifically to the uterine horns and mammary tissue. Targeting increased localization to the uterus 7-fold. Localization was not detected in the maternal brain or fetus. Targeted

  9. Barusiban, a new highly potent and long-acting oxytocin antagonist: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic comparison with atosiban in a cynomolgus monkey model of preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Reinheimer, Torsten M; Bee, Walter H; Resendez, John C; Meyer, Julie K; Haluska, George J; Chellman, Gary J

    2005-04-01

    Preterm labor (PTL) represents a significant unmet clinical need that affects up to 20% of all pregnancies and is a leading cause of preterm delivery and associated neonatal morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic options are limited, with existing drug therapy (tocolytics) compromised by side effects and limited efficacy. Because oxytocin (OT) is likely to be involved causally in PTL, this study compared two OT receptor antagonists, barusiban and atosiban, for their tocolytic effects. OT was given to instrumented pregnant cynomolgus monkeys to induce contractions and simulate PTL. Barusiban or atosiban was then given iv (bolus or infusion) to evaluate inhibitory effects on uterine contractions, measured by telemetric recording of intrauterine pressure. Both antagonists had high efficacy (96-98% inhibition of intrauterine pressure) and rapid onset of action (0.5-1.5 h). Barusiban was three to four times more potent than atosiban, which was attributed to its higher affinity and selectivity for the OT receptor. Barusiban also had a much longer duration of action (>13-15 h, compared with 1-3 h for atosiban). The inhibitory effects of barusiban were reversible within 1.5-2.5 h by high-dose OT infusion. Overall, barusiban's improved potency, long duration of action, and reversibility may provide an improved tocolytic for treatment of PTL.

  10. Immunohistochemical localization of oxytocin receptors in human brain.

    PubMed

    Boccia, M L; Petrusz, P; Suzuki, K; Marson, L; Pedersen, C A

    2013-12-03

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) regulates rodent, primate and human social behaviors and stress responses. OT binding studies employing (125)I-d(CH2)5-[Tyr(Me)2,Thr4,Tyr-NH2(9)] ornithine vasotocin ((125)I-OTA), has been used to locate and quantify OT receptors (OTRs) in numerous areas of the rat brain. This ligand has also been applied to locating OTRs in the human brain. The results of the latter studies, however, have been brought into question because of subsequent evidence that (125)I-OTA is much less selective for OTR vs. vasopressin receptors in the primate brain. Previously we used a monoclonal antibody directed toward a region of the human OTR to demonstrate selective immunostaining of cell bodies and fibers in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area and ventral septum of a cynomolgus monkey (Boccia et al., 2001). The present study employed the same monoclonal antibody to study the location of OTRs in tissue blocks containing cortical, limbic and brainstem areas dissected from fixed adult, human female brains. OTRs were visualized in discrete cell bodies and/or fibers in the central and basolateral regions of the amygdala, medial preoptic area (MPOA), anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus, olfactory nucleus, vertical limb of the diagonal band, ventrolateral septum, anterior cingulate and hypoglossal and solitary nuclei. OTR staining was not observed in the hippocampus (including CA2 and CA3), parietal cortex, raphe nucleus, nucleus ambiguus or pons. These results suggest that there are some similarities, but also important differences, in the locations of OTRs in human and rodent brains. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) utilizing a monoclonal antibody provides specific localization of OTRs in the human brain and thereby provides opportunity to further study OTR in human development and psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcriptional regulation of the bovine oxytocin receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Telgmann, Ralph; Bathgate, Ross A D; Jaeger, Stefanie; Tillmann, Gina; Ivell, Richard

    2003-03-01

    The oxytocin receptor (OTR) is expressed in the cow uterus at high levels at estrus and at term of pregnancy. This expression appears to be controlled mostly at the transcriptional level and correlates with increasing estrogen concentration and progesterone withdrawal. Approximately 3200 base pairs of the upstream region of the bovine OTR gene were cloned and analyzed using a combination of bioinformatic, electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA), and transfection analyses. Using nuclear proteins from high- and low-expressing tissues, EMSA indicated no significant quantitative or qualitative changes in specific DNA-protein binding, suggesting that transcription is probably controlled by signalling systems targeting constitutive factors. Using various cell types, including primary and immortalized ruminant endometrial epithelial cells, as hosts for transfection of promoter-reporter constructs showed that endogenous activity resided only in the longest, i.e., 3.2-kb, construct but not in those shorter than 1.0 kb. While estrogen appears to be important in vivo, no effect of estradiol was found on any construct directly; only when the longest 3.2-kb construct was used in combination with some cotransfected steroid receptor cofactors, e.g., SRC1e, was an estradiol-dependent effect observed. A putative interferon-responsive element (IRE) was found at approximately -2,400 from the transcription start site. This element was shown to bind mouse IRF1 and IRF2 as well as similar proteins from bovine endometrial and myometrial nuclear extracts. This element also responded to these factors when cotransfected into various cell types. The bovine equivalents to IRF1 and IRF2 were molecularly cloned from endometrial tissue and shown to be expressed in a temporal fashion, supporting the role of interferon-tau in maternal recognition of pregnancy. Of many factors tested or analyzed, these components of the IFN system are the only ones found to significantly influence the transcription

  12. Investigation of orexin-2 selective receptor antagonists: Structural modifications resulting in dual orexin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Skudlarek, Jason W; DiMarco, Christina N; Babaoglu, Kerim; Roecker, Anthony J; Bruno, Joseph G; Pausch, Mark A; O'Brien, Julie A; Cabalu, Tamara D; Stevens, Joanne; Brunner, Joseph; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Wuelfing, W Peter; Garson, Susan L; Fox, Steven V; Savitz, Alan T; Harrell, Charles M; Gotter, Anthony L; Winrow, Christopher J; Renger, John J; Kuduk, Scott D; Coleman, Paul J

    2017-03-15

    In an ongoing effort to explore the use of orexin receptor antagonists for the treatment of insomnia, dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) were structurally modified, resulting in compounds selective for the OX2R subtype and culminating in the discovery of 23, a highly potent, OX2R-selective molecule that exhibited a promising in vivo profile. Further structural modification led to an unexpected restoration of OX1R antagonism. Herein, these changes are discussed and a rationale for selectivity based on computational modeling is proposed.

  13. Time course of the estradiol-dependent induction of oxytocin receptor binding in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.E.; Ball, G.F.; Coirini, H.; Harbaugh, C.R.; McEwen, B.S.; Insel, T.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Oxytocin (OT) transmission is involved in the steroid-dependent display of sexual receptivity in rats. One of the biochemical processes stimulated by the ovarian steroid 17 beta-estradiol (E2) that is relevant to reproduction is the induction of OT receptor binding in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). The purpose of these experiments was to determine if E2-induced changes in OT receptor binding in the VMN occur within a time frame relevant to cyclic changes in ovarian steroid secretion. OT receptor binding was measured in the VMN of ovariectomized rats implanted for 0-96 h with E2-containing Silastic capsules. The rate of decay of OT receptor binding was measured in another group of animals 6-48 h after capsule removal. Receptors were labeled with the specific OT receptor antagonist ({sup 125}I)d(CH2)5(Tyr(Me)2,Thr4,Tyr-NH2(9))OVT, and binding was measured with quantitative autoradiographic methods. In addition, plasma E2 levels and uterine weights were assessed in animals from each treatment condition. Significant increases in E2-dependent OT receptor binding and uterine weight occurred within 24 h of steroid treatment. After E2 withdrawal, OT receptor binding and uterine weight decreased significantly within 24 h. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that steroid modulation of OT receptor binding is necessary for the induction of sexual receptivity.

  14. Rational discovery of novel nuclear hormone receptor antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schapira, Matthieu; Raaka, Bruce M.; Samuels, Herbert H.; Abagyan, Ruben

    2000-02-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) are potential targets for therapeutic approaches to many clinical conditions, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological diseases. The crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of agonist-bound NRs enables the design of compounds with agonist activity. However, with the exception of the human estrogen receptor-, the lack of antagonist-bound "inactive" receptor structures hinders the rational design of receptor antagonists. In this study, we present a strategy for designing such antagonists. We constructed a model of the inactive conformation of human retinoic acid receptor- by using information derived from antagonist-bound estrogen receptor-α and applied a computer-based virtual screening algorithm to identify retinoic acid receptor antagonists. Thus, the currently available crystal structures of NRs may be used for the rational design of antagonists, which could lead to the development of novel drugs for a variety of diseases.

  15. Neuroanatomical distribution of oxytocin and vasopressin 1a receptors in the socially monogamous coppery titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus)

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Sara M.; Walum, Hasse; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Smith, Aaron L.; Goodman, Mark M.; Bales, Karen L.; Young, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The coppery titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus) is a socially monogamous New World primate that has been studied in the field and the laboratory to investigate the behavioral neuroendocrinology of primate pair bonding and parental care. Arginine vasopressin has been shown to influence male titi monkey pair-bonding behavior, and studies are currently underway to examine the effects of oxytocin on titi monkey behavior and physiology. Here, we use receptor autoradiography to identify the distribution of arginine vasopressin 1a (AVPR1a) and oxytocin receptors (OXTR) in hemispheres of titi monkey brain (n=5). AVPR1a are diffuse and widespread throughout the brain, but the OXTR distribution is much more limited, with the densest binding being in the hippocampal formation (dentate gyrus, CA1 field) and the presubiculum (layers I and III). Moderate OXTR binding was detected in the nucleus basalis of Meynert, pulvinar, superior colliculus, layer 4C of primary visual cortex, periaqueductal gray, pontine gray, nucleus prepositus, and spinal trigeminal nucleus. OXTR mRNA overlapped with OXTR radioligand binding, confirming that the radioligand was detecting OXTR protein. AVPR1a binding is present throughout the cortex, especially in cingulate, insular, and occipital cortices, as well as in the caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, central amygdala, endopiriform nucleus, hippocampus (CA4 field), globus pallidus, lateral geniculate nucleus, infundibulum, habenula, periaqueductal gray, substantia nigra, olivary nucleus, hypoglossal nucleus, and cerebellum. Furthermore, we show that, in titi monkey brain, the OXTR antagonist ALS-II-69 is highly selective for OXTR and that the AVPR1a antagonist SR49059 is highly selective for AVPR1a. Based on these results and the fact that both ALS-II-69 and SR49059 are non-peptide, small-molecule antagonists that should be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier, these two compounds emerge as excellent candidates for the pharmacological

  16. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and endothelial function

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Bradley A.; Leopold, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperaldosteronism has been associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired vascular reactivity in patients with hypertension or congestive heart failure. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists spironolactone and eplerenone have been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality, in part, by ameliorating the adverse effects of aldosterone on vascular function. Although spironolactone and eplerenone are increasingly utilized in patients with cardiovascular disease, widespread clinical use is limited by the development of gynecomastia with spironolactone and hyperkalemia with both agents. This suggests that the development of newer agents with favorable side effect profiles is warranted. PMID:18729003

  17. Comparative Perspectives on Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Research in Rodents and Primates: Translational Implications

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Sara M.; Young, Larry J.

    2016-01-01

    In the last several decades, sophisticated experimental techniques have been used to determine the neurobiology of the oxytocin and vasopressin systems in rodents. Using a suite of methodologies, including electrophysiology, site-specific selective pharmacology, receptor autoradiography, in vivo microdialysis, and genetic and optogenetic manipulations, we have gained unprecedented knowledge about how these neuropeptides engage neural circuits to regulate behaviour, particularly social behaviour. Based on this foundation of information from rodent studies, we have started generating new hypotheses and frameworks about how the oxytocin and vasopressin systems could be acting in humans to influence social cognition. However, despite the recent inundation of publications using intranasal oxytocin in humans, we still know very little about the neurophysiology of the oxytocin system in primates more broadly. Furthermore, the design and analysis of these human studies have remained largely uninformed of the potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying their findings. Although the methods available for studying the oxytocin and vasopressin systems in humans are incredibly limited as a result of practical and ethical considerations, there is great potential to fill the gaps in our knowledge by developing better nonhuman primate models of social functioning. Behavioural pharmacology and receptor autoradiography have been used to study the oxytocin and vasopressin systems in nonhuman primates, and there is now great potential to broaden our understanding of the neurobiology of these systems. In this review, we discuss comparative findings in receptor distributions in rodents and primates, with perspectives on the functionality of conserved regions of expression in these distinct mammalian clades. We also identify specific ways that established technologies can be used to answer basic research questions in primates. Finally, we highlight areas of future research in nonhuman

  18. Comparative Perspectives on Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Research in Rodents and Primates: Translational Implications.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Sara M; Young, Larry J

    2016-04-01

    In the last several decades, sophisticated experimental techniques have been used to determine the neurobiology of the oxytocin and vasopressin systems in rodents. Using a suite of methodologies, including electrophysiology, site-specific selective pharmacology, receptor autoradiography, in vivo microdialysis, and genetic and optogenetic manipulations, we have gained unprecedented knowledge about how these neuropeptides engage neural circuits to regulate behaviour, particularly social behaviour. Based on this foundation of information from rodent studies, we have started generating new hypotheses and frameworks about how the oxytocin and vasopressin systems could be acting in humans to influence social cognition. However, despite the recent inundation of publications using intranasal oxytocin in humans, we still know very little about the neurophysiology of the oxytocin system in primates more broadly. Furthermore, the design and analysis of these human studies have remained largely uninformed of the potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying their findings. Although the methods available for studying the oxytocin and vasopressin systems in humans are incredibly limited as a result of practical and ethical considerations, there is great potential to fill the gaps in our knowledge by developing better nonhuman primate models of social functioning. Behavioural pharmacology and receptor autoradiography have been used to study the oxytocin and vasopressin systems in nonhuman primates, and there is now great potential to broaden our understanding of the neurobiology of these systems. In this review, we discuss comparative findings in receptor distributions in rodents and primates, with perspectives on the functionality of conserved regions of expression in these distinct mammalian clades. We also identify specific ways that established technologies can be used to answer basic research questions in primates. Finally, we highlight areas of future research in

  19. Oxytocin receptors in guinea pig myometrium near term and during labor.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, J C; Pliska, V; Lutz, R A

    2000-02-01

    Oxytocin receptors in myometrium of women, rats, and rabbits rise markedly before the onset of labor, suggesting a role in the initiation of labor. In guinea pigs, a previous study reported no such rise by one-point determination of oxytocin binding. The purpose of this study was to use a more rigorous method to determine whether the binding characteristics of myometrial oxytocin receptors change in relation to labor in guinea pigs. Competitive binding studies were carried out in microsomes from inner and outer myometrium between 42 days of gestation and labor. Binding to analogs was also tested. Data were analyzed with affinity spectra and LIGAND. Oxytocin bound to one site with a dissociation constant of 6.3 +/- 0.65 x 10(-9) M. Binding capacity was 1.0 +/- 0.1 x 10(-12) mol/mg protein. The Hill coefficient was near unity. No significant changes occurred with gestation or labor in dissociation constant, binding capacity, or Hill coefficient (all P >/= 0.2, nested ANOVA). Binding capacity was higher in the outer than in the inner layer (1.2 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.8 +/- 0.1 x 10(-12) mol/mg protein, P = 0.02), but the dissociation constants were similar. Differences existed in the dissociation constants of the analogs tested. The main conclusion is that oxytocin receptors are unlikely to have a regulatory role in the initiation of labor in guinea pigs.

  20. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Kis, Anna; Bence, Melinda; Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Adám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system.

  1. Polymorphism and genetic mapping of the human oxytocin receptor gene on chromosome 3

    SciTech Connect

    Michelini, S.; Urbanek, M.; Goldman, D.

    1995-06-19

    Centrally administered oxytocin has been reported to facilitate affiliative and social behaviors, in functional harmony with its well-known peripheral effects on uterine contraction and milk ejection. The biological effects of oxytocin could be perturbed by mutations occurring in the sequence of the oxytocin receptor gene, and it would be of interest to establish the position of this gene on the human linkage map. Therefore we identified a polymorphism at the human oxytocin receptor gene. A portion of the 3{prime} untranslated region containing a 30 bp CA repeat was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), revealing a polymorphism with two alleles occurring with frequencies of 0.77 and 0.23 in a sample of Caucasian CEPH parents (n = 70). The CA repeat polymorphism we detected was used to map the human oxytocin receptor to chromosome 3p25-3p26, in a region which contains several important genes, including loci for Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) and renal cell carcinoma. 53 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. HIGH AFFINITY ACYLATING ANTAGONISTS FOR MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Baumgold, Jesse; Karton, Yishai; Malka, Naftali; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The muscarinic antagonists pirenzepine and telenzepine were derivitized as alkylamino derivatives at a site on the molecules corresponding to a region of bulk tolerance in receptor binding. The distal primary amino groups were coupled to the cross-linking reagent meta-phenylene diisothiocyanate, resulting in two isothiocyanate derivatives that were found to inhibit muscarinic receptors irreversibly and in a dose-dependent fashion. Preincubation of rat forebrain membranes with an isothiocyanate derivative followed by radioligand binding using [3H]N-methylscopolamine diminished the Bmax value, but did not affect the Kd value. The receptor binding site was not restored upon repeated washing, indicating that irreversible inhibition had occurred. IC50 values for the irreversible inhibition at rat forebrain muscarinic receptors were 0.15 nM and 0.19 nM, for derivatives of pirenzepine and telenzepine, respectively. The isothiocyanate derivative of pirenzepine was non-selective as an irreversible muscarinic inhibitor, and the corresponding derivative prepared from telenzepine was 5-fold selective for forebrain (mainly m1) vs. heart (m2) muscarinic receptors. PMID:1625525

  3. Estradiol upregulates the expression of oxytocin receptor in colon in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mei; Qin, Junfang; Wang, Chao; Ye, Yanfang; Wang, Shuanglian; Xie, Dongping; Wang, Paulus S; Liu, Chuanyong

    2009-05-01

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of estradiol on the excitatory effect of oxytocin (OT) on colon motility. Female Wistar rats were used, and some of them were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with vehicle or estradiol (E(2)). A plastic balloon made of condom was inserted into colon to monitor the change of colonic pressure in vivo. Longitudinal muscle strips of distal colon were prepared to monitor the spontaneous contraction of colon in vitro. Expression of OT receptor (OTR) was investigated by Western blot analysis. Expression of OTR mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry was used to locate OTR. In OVX rats, pretreatment of E(2) (4-100 microg/kg sc) dose-dependently increased the excitatory effect of OT on colon motility both in vivo and in vitro and increased the expression of OTR and OTR mRNA in colon. Systemic administration of OT excited the colon motility in vivo in rats at perioda of proestrus and estrus but did not influence it at diestrus period, when the concentration of plasma E(2) was lowest in the estrous cycle. Pretreatment of atosiban, the specific OTR antagonist, and TTX, the blocker of voltage-dependent sodium channel on nerve fiber, attenuated the excitatory effect of OT on colon motility. OTR was located in myenteric plexus of colon. These results suggested that E(2) increased the excitatory effect of OT on colon motility by upregulating the expression of OTR in myenteric plexus.

  4. Regulation of oxytocin receptor responsiveness by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 in human myometrial smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Willets, Jonathon M; Brighton, Paul J; Mistry, Rajendra; Morris, Gavin E; Konje, Justin C; Challiss, R A John

    2009-08-01

    Oxytocin plays an important role in the progression, timing, and modulation of uterine contraction during labor and is widely used as an uterotonic agent. We investigated the mechanisms regulating oxytocin receptor (OTR) signaling in human primary myometrial smooth muscle cells and the ULTR cell-line. Oxytocin produced concentration-dependent increases in both total [(3)H]inositol phosphate accumulation and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)); however, responses were greater and more reproducible in the ULTR cell line. Assessment of phospholipase C activity in single cells revealed that the OTR desensitizes rapidly (within 5 min) in the presence of oxytocin (100 nm). To characterize OTR desensitization further, cells were stimulated with a maximally effective concentration of oxytocin (100 nm, 30 sec) followed by a variable washout period and a second identical application of oxytocin. This brief exposure to oxytocin caused a marked decrease (>70%) in OTR responsiveness to rechallenge and was fully reversed by increasing the time period between agonist challenges. To assess involvement of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) in OTR desensitization, cells were transfected with small interfering RNAs to cause specific > or =75% knockdown of GRKs 2, 3, 5, or 6. In both primary myometrial and ULTR cells, knockdown of GRK6 largely prevented oxytocin-induced OTR desensitization; in contrast, selective depletion of GRKs 2, 3, or 5 was without effect. These data indicate that GRK6 recruitment is a cardinal effector of OTR responsiveness and provide mechanistic insight into the likely in vivo regulation of OTR signaling in uterine smooth muscle.

  5. Local oxytocin tempers anxiety by activating GABAA receptors in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam S.; Tabbaa, Manal; Lei, Kelly; Eastham, Patrick; Butler, Michael J.; Linton, Latanya; Altshuler, Randy; Liu, Yan; Wang, Zuoxin

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) is released in various hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic brain areas in response to anxiogenic stimuli to regulate aspects of emotionality and stress coping. We examined the anxiolytic action of Oxt in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) while appraising if Oxt recruits GABA neurons to inhibit the behavioral, hormonal, and neuronal response to stress in female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Voles received an injection of Oxt in the PVN either before or after an elevated platform stress to determine a time-course for the effects of Oxt on the hormonal stress response. Subsequently, we evaluated if ante-stress injections of Oxt affected anxiety-like behaviors as well as neuronal activity in the PVN, using real-time in-vivo retrodialysis and immunohistochemistry with c-Fos expression as a biomarker of neural activity. In addition, we exposed voles to Oxt and a GABAA receptor antagonist, concurrently, to evaluate the impact of pharmacological blockade of GABAA receptors on the anxiolytic effects of Oxt. Elevated platform stress amplified anxiety-like behaviors and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity—catalyzing corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) neuronal activity and augmenting corticosterone release in circulation. Ante-stress Oxt injections in the PVN blocked these stress effects while promoting PVN GABA activity and release. Post-stress Oxt treatments were ineffective. The anxiolytic effects of Oxt were hindered by concurrent pharmacological blockade of GABAA receptors. Together, our data demonstrate ante-stress treatments of Oxt in the PVN inhibit stress activation of the HPA axis through recruitment of GABAergic neurons, providing insights to the local circuitry and potential therapeutically-relevant mechanisms. PMID:26415118

  6. Genetic imaging of the association of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms with positive maternal parenting

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Kalina J.; Decety, Jean; Liu, Chunyu; Chen, Qi; Martz, Meghan E.; Jacob, Suma; Hipwell, Alison E.; Lee, Steve S.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Well-validated models of maternal behavior in small-brain mammals posit a central role of oxytocin in parenting, by reducing stress and enhancing the reward value of social interactions with offspring. In contrast, human studies are only beginning to gain insights into how oxytocin modulates maternal behavior and affiliation. Methods: To explore associations between oxytocin receptor genes and maternal parenting behavior in humans, we conducted a genetic imaging study of women selected to exhibit a wide range of observed parenting when their children were 4–6 years old. Results: In response to child stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), hemodynamic responses in brain regions that mediate affect, reward, and social behavior were significantly correlated with observed positive parenting. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs53576 and rs1042778) in the gene encoding the oxytocin receptor were significantly associated with both positive parenting and hemodynamic responses to child stimuli in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and hippocampus. Conclusions: These findings contribute to the emerging literature on the role of oxytocin in human social behavior and support the feasibility of tracing biological pathways from genes to neural regions to positive maternal parenting behaviors in humans using genetic imaging methods. PMID:24550797

  7. Genetic imaging of the association of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms with positive maternal parenting.

    PubMed

    Michalska, Kalina J; Decety, Jean; Liu, Chunyu; Chen, Qi; Martz, Meghan E; Jacob, Suma; Hipwell, Alison E; Lee, Steve S; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waldman, Irwin D; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2014-01-01

    Well-validated models of maternal behavior in small-brain mammals posit a central role of oxytocin in parenting, by reducing stress and enhancing the reward value of social interactions with offspring. In contrast, human studies are only beginning to gain insights into how oxytocin modulates maternal behavior and affiliation. To explore associations between oxytocin receptor genes and maternal parenting behavior in humans, we conducted a genetic imaging study of women selected to exhibit a wide range of observed parenting when their children were 4-6 years old. In response to child stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), hemodynamic responses in brain regions that mediate affect, reward, and social behavior were significantly correlated with observed positive parenting. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs53576 and rs1042778) in the gene encoding the oxytocin receptor were significantly associated with both positive parenting and hemodynamic responses to child stimuli in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and hippocampus. These findings contribute to the emerging literature on the role of oxytocin in human social behavior and support the feasibility of tracing biological pathways from genes to neural regions to positive maternal parenting behaviors in humans using genetic imaging methods.

  8. Oxytocin receptors expressed and coupled to Ca2+ signalling in a human vascular smooth muscle cell line.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, H; Hirasawa, A; Horie, K; Saita, Y; Iida, E; Honda, K; Tsujimoto, G

    1996-03-01

    1. In a human vascular smooth muscle cell line (HVSMC), binding experiments with [3H]-arginine8-vasopressin (AVP) have shown the existence of a homogeneous population of binding sites with affinity (Kd value) of 0.65 nM and a maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 122 fmol mg-1 protein. 2. Nonlabelled compounds compete for [3H]-AVP binding in the HVSMC membrane with an order of potency of oxytocin > lyspressin > or = AVP > Thr4, Gly7-oxytocin > (beta-mercapto-beta-beta-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl-O-Me Tyr2, Arg8) vasopressin > desmopressin > OPC21268 > OPC31260. This order was markedly different from that observed in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (A10), a well-established V1A receptor system. 3. In HVSMC both oxytocin and AVP increased inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) production and [Ca2+]i response, but the efficacy of the responses was greater for oxytocin than AVP. 4. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay detected only oxytocin receptor but not V1A or V2 receptors in HVSMC, whereas only V1A receptors were found in A10 cells. 5. In conclusion, in HVSMC only oxytocin receptors are expressed among the vasopressin receptor family, and they coupled to phosphatidyl inositol (PI) turnover/Ca2+ signalling. This unexpected observation should provide new insight into the functional role of the oxytocin receptor in a human vascular smooth muscle cell line.

  9. Dopamine-oxytocin interactions in penile erection.

    PubMed

    Baskerville, T A; Allard, J; Wayman, C; Douglas, A J

    2009-12-03

    Dopamine and oxytocin have established roles in the central regulation of penile erection in rats; however, the neural circuitries involved in a specific erectile context and the interaction between dopamine and oxytocin mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The medial preoptic area (MPOA), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus may serve as candidate sites because they contain oxytocin cells, receive dopaminergic inputs and have been implicated in mediating masculine sexual behavior. Double immunofluorescence revealed that substantial numbers of oxytocin cells in the MPOA, SON and PVN possess dopamine D(2), D(3) and D(4) receptors. In anaesthetized rats, using intracavernous pressure as a physiological indicator of erection, blockade of lumbosacral oxytocin receptors (UK, 427843) reduced erectile responses to a nonselective dopamine agonist (apomorphine), suggesting that dopamine recruits a paraventriculospinal oxytocin pathway. In conscious males in the absence of a female, penile erection elicited by a D(2)/D(3) (Quinelorane) but not D(4) (PD168077) agonist was associated with activation of medial parvocellular PVN oxytocin cells. In another experiment where males were given full access to a receptive female, a D(4) (L-745870) but not D(2) or D(3) antagonist (L-741626; nafadotride) inhibited penile erection (intromission), and this was correlated with SON magnocellular oxytocin neuron activation. Together, the data suggest dopamine's effects on hypothalamic oxytocin cells during penile erection are context-specific. Dopamine may act via different parvocellular and magnocellular oxytocin subpopulations to elicit erectile responses, depending upon whether intromission is performed. This study demonstrates the potential existence of interaction between central dopamine and oxytocin pathways during penile erection, with the SON and PVN serving as integrative sites.

  10. Oxytocin receptor and vasopressin receptor 1a genes are respectively associated with emotional and cognitive empathy.

    PubMed

    Uzefovsky, F; Shalev, I; Israel, S; Edelman, S; Raz, Y; Mankuta, D; Knafo-Noam, A; Ebstein, R P

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is the ability to recognize and share in the emotions of others. It can be considered a multifaceted concept with cognitive and emotional aspects. Little is known regarding the underlying neurochemistry of empathy and in the current study we used a neurogenetic approach to explore possible brain neurotransmitter pathways contributing to cognitive and emotional empathy. Both the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) genes contribute to social cognition in both animals and humans and hence are prominent candidates for contributing to empathy. The following research examined the associations between polymorphisms in these two genes and individual differences in emotional and cognitive empathy in a sample of 367 young adults. Intriguingly, we found that emotional empathy was associated solely with OXTR, whereas cognitive empathy was associated solely with AVPR1a. Moreover, no interaction was observed between the two genes and measures of empathy. The current findings contribute to our understanding of the distinct neurogenetic pathways involved in cognitive and emotional empathy and underscore the pervasive role of both oxytocin and vasopressin in modulating human emotions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A common oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism modulates intranasal oxytocin effects on the neural response to social cooperation in humans.

    PubMed

    Feng, C; Lori, A; Waldman, I D; Binder, E B; Haroon, E; Rilling, J K

    2015-09-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) can modulate social-emotional functioning and related brain activity in humans. Consequently, OT has been discussed as a potential treatment for psychiatric disorders involving social behavioral deficits. However, OT effects are often heterogeneous across individuals. Here we explore individual differences in OT effects on the neural response to social cooperation as a function of the rs53576 polymorphism of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Previously, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which healthy men and women were randomized to treatment with intranasal OT or placebo. Afterwards, they were imaged with functional magnetic resonance imaging while playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game with same-sex partners. Within the left ventral caudate nucleus, intranasal OT treatment increased activation to reciprocated cooperation in men, but tended to decrease activation in women. Here, we show that these sex differences in OT effects are specific to individuals with the rs53576 GG genotype, and are not found for other genotypes (rs53576 AA/AG). Thus, OT may increase the reward or salience of positive social interactions for male GG homozygotes, while decreasing those processes for female GG homozygotes. These results suggest that rs53576 genotype is an important variable to consider in future investigations of the clinical efficacy of intranasal OT treatment.

  12. A common oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism modulates intranasal oxytocin effects on the neural response to social cooperation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chunliang; Lori, Adriana; Waldman, Irwin D.; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Haroon, Ebrahim; Rilling, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) can modulate social-emotional functioning and related brain activity in humans. Consequently, OT has been discussed as a potential treatment for psychiatric disorders involving social behavioral deficits. However, OT effects are often heterogeneous across individuals. Here we explore individual differences in OT effects on the neural response to social cooperation as a function of the rs53576 polymorphism of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Previously, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which healthy men and women were randomized to treatment with intranasal OT or placebo. Afterwards, they were imaged with fMRI while playing an iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma Game with same-sex partners. Within the left ventral caudate nucleus, intranasal OT treatment increased activation to reciprocated cooperation in men, but tended to decrease activation in women. Here, we show that these sex differences in OT effects are specific to individuals with the rs53576 GG genotype, and are not found for other genotypes (rs53576 AA/AG). Thus, OT may increase the reward or salience of positive social interactions for male GG homozygotes, while decreasing those processes for female GG homozygotes. These results suggest that rs53576 genotype is an important variable to consider in future investigations of the clinical efficacy of intranasal OT treatment. PMID:26178189

  13. Intranasal oxytocin and a polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene are associated with human-directed social behavior in golden retriever dogs.

    PubMed

    Persson, Mia E; Trottier, Agaia J; Bélteky, Johan; Roth, Lina S V; Jensen, Per

    2017-08-17

    The oxytocin system may play an important role in dog domestication from the wolf. Dogs have evolved unique human analogue social skills enabling them to communicate and cooperate efficiently with people. Genomic differences in the region surrounding the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene have previously been associated with variation in dogs' communicative skills. Here we have utilized the unsolvable problem paradigm to investigate the effects of oxytocin and OXTR polymorphisms on human-directed contact seeking behavior in 60 golden retriever dogs. Human-oriented behavior was quantified employing a previously defined unsolvable problem paradigm. Behaviors were tested twice in a repeated, counterbalanced design, where dogs received a nasal dose of either oxytocin or saline 45min before each test occasion. Buccal DNA was analysed for genotype on three previously identified SNP-markers associated with OXTR. The same polymorphisms were also genotyped in 21 wolf blood samples to explore potential genomic differences between the species. Results showed that oxytocin treatment decreased physical contact seeking with the experimenter and one of the three polymorphisms was associated with degree of physical contact seeking with the owner. Dogs with the AA-genotype at this locus increased owner physical contact seeking in response to oxytocin while the opposite effect was found in GG-genotype individuals. Hence, intranasal oxytocin treatment, an OXTR polymorphism and their interaction are associated with dogs' human-directed social skills, which can explain previously described breed differences in oxytocin response. Genotypic variation at the studied locus was also found in wolves indicating that it was present even at the start of dog domestication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists: pharmacological opportunities, clinical experience, and translational prognosis.

    PubMed

    Janero, David R; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2009-03-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid (CB) (endocannabinoid) signaling system is involved in a variety of (patho)physiological processes, primarily by virtue of natural, arachidonic acid-derived lipids (endocannabinoids) that activate G protein-coupled CB1 and CB2 receptors. A hyperactive endocannabinoid system appears to contribute to the etiology of several disease states that constitute significant global threats to human health. Consequently, mounting interest surrounds the design and profiling of receptor-targeted CB antagonists as pharmacotherapeutics that attenuate endocannabinoid transmission for salutary gain. Experimental and clinical evidence supports the therapeutic potential of CB1 receptor antagonists to treat overweight/obesity, obesity-related cardiometabolic disorders, and substance abuse. Laboratory data suggest that CB2 receptor antagonists might be effective immunomodulatory and, perhaps, anti-inflammatory drugs. One CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, rimonabant, has emerged as the first-in-class drug approved outside the United States for weight control. Select follow-on agents (taranabant, otenabant, surinabant, rosonabant, SLV-319, AVE1625, V24343) have also been studied in the clinic. However, rimonabant's market withdrawal in the European Union and suspension of rimonabant's, taranabant's, and otenabant's ongoing development programs have highlighted some adverse clinical side effects (especially nausea and psychiatric disturbances) of CB1 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists. Novel CB1 receptor ligands that are peripherally directed and/or exhibit neutral antagonism (the latter not affecting constitutive CB1 receptor signaling) may optimize the benefits of CB1 receptor antagonists while minimizing any risk. Indeed, CB1 receptor-neutral antagonists appear from preclinical data to offer efficacy comparable to or better than that of prototype CB1 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists, with less propensity to induce nausea. Continued

  15. Oxytocin mediates stress-induced analgesia in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, D A; Wei, F; Wang, G D; Li, P; Kim, S J; Vogt, S K; Muglia, L J; Zhuo, M

    2002-01-01

    As a neurohormone and as a neurotransmitter, oxytocin has been implicated in the stress response. Descending oxytocin-containing fibres project to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, an area important for processing nociceptive inputs. Here we tested the hypothesis that oxytocin plays a role in stress-induced analgesia and modulates spinal sensory transmission. Mice lacking oxytocin exhibited significantly reduced stress-induced antinociception following both cold-swim (10 °C, 3 min) and restraint stress (30 min). In contrast, the mice exhibited normal behavioural responses to thermal and mechanical noxious stimuli and morphine-induced antinociception. In wild-type mice, intrathecal injection of the oxytocin antagonist dOVT (200 μm in 5 μl) significantly attenuated antinociception induced by cold-swim. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that, in the mouse, oxytocin-containing neurones in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus are activated by stress. Furthermore, oxytocin-containing fibres were present in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. To test whether descending oxytocin-containing fibres could alter nociceptive transmission, we performed intracellular recordings of dorsal horn neurones in spinal slices from adult mice. Bath application of oxytocin (1 and 10 μm) inhibited excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) evoked by dorsal root stimulation. This effect was reversed by the oxytocin antagonist dOVT (1 μm). Whole-cell recordings of dorsal horn neurones in postnatal rat slices revealed that the effect of oxytocin could be blocked by the addition of GTP-γ-S to the recording pipette, suggesting activation of postsynaptic oxytocin receptors. We conclude that oxytocin is important for both cold-swim and restraint stress-induced antinociception, acting by inhibiting glutamatergic spinal sensory transmission. PMID:11956346

  16. Intracerebroventricular administration of the prolactin (PRL) receptor antagonist, S179D PRL, disrupts parturition in rats.

    PubMed

    Nephew, B C; Amico, J; Cai, H M; Walker, A M; Bridges, R S

    2007-07-01

    The prolactin (PRL) receptor antagonist S179D PRL delays the onset of maternal behavior in steroid-primed nulliparous female rats. The present study investigated the role of the neural PRL system in the process of parturition. A preliminary study indicated that S179D PRL treatments administered by ALZET minipump to the lateral ventricle severely disrupted parturition. To examine the likely causes of this disruption, a group of timed-pregnant catheterized rats was continuously infused with S-179D PRL (0.001 and 0.1 ng/h) or vehicle control to the lateral ventricles for 3 days (gestation days 21-23), and serial blood samples were taken throughout this period. Effects of the treatments on parturition were recorded, and blood samples were assayed for PRL, progesterone, and oxytocin. Significantly fewer S179D PRL-treated rats successfully delivered by 1500 h on day 23 of gestation when compared with controls. The higher dose of S179D PRL also significantly suppressed the prepartum rise in PRL throughout the prepartum period, while the lower dose only affected plasma PRL during the first 24 h of treatment. No significant effects of the antagonist on plasma progesterone or oxytocin were detected. We conclude that disruption of parturition by S179D PRL is not caused by significant alterations in the plasma concentrations of progesterone or oxytocin. S179D PRL may indirectly act on parturition through the modulation of prepartum PRL. These findings suggest a previously unrecognized role for PRL in the regulation of parturition.

  17. Severity of eating disorder symptoms related to oxytocin receptor polymorphisms in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Summer F; Valencia, Celeste; Lutter, Michael; McAdams, Carrie J

    2015-08-30

    Oxytocin is a peptide hormone important for social behavior and differences in psychological traits have been associated with variants of the oxytocin receptor gene in healthy people. We examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) correlated with clinical symptoms in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and healthy comparison (HC) women. Subjects completed clinical assessments and provided DNA for analysis. Subjects were divided into four groups: HC, subjects currently with anorexia nervosa (AN-C), subjects with a history of anorexia nervosa but in long-term weight recovery (AN-WR), and subjects with bulimia nervosa (BN). Five SNPs of the oxytocin receptor were examined. Minor allele carriers showed greater severity in most of the psychiatric symptoms. Importantly, the combination of having had anorexia and carrying either of the A alleles for two SNPS in the OXTR gene (rs53576, rs2254298) was associated with increased severity specifically for ED symptoms including cognitions and behaviors associated both with eating and appearance. A review of psychosocial data related to the OXTR polymorphisms examined is included in the discussion. OXTR polymorphisms may be a useful intermediate endophenotype to consider in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa.

  18. Severity of eating disorder symptoms related to oxytocin receptor polymorphisms in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Summer F.; Valencia, Celeste; Lutter, Michael; McAdams, Carrie J.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin is a peptide hormone important for social behavior, and differences in psychological traits have been associated with variants of the oxytocin receptor gene in healthy people. We examined whether small nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) correlated with clinical symptoms in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and healthy comparison (HC) women. Subjects completed clinical assessments and provided DNA for analysis. Subjects were divided into four groups: HC, subjects currently with anorexia nervosa (AN-C), subjects with a history of anorexia nervosa but in long-term weight recovery (AN-WR), and subjects with bulimia nervosa (BN). Five SNPs of the oxytocin receptor were examined. Minor allele carriers showed greater severity in most of the psychiatric symptoms. Importantly, the combination of having had anorexia and carrying either of the A alleles for two SNPS in the OXTR gene (rs53576, rs2254298) was associated with increased severity specifically for ED symptoms including cognitions and behaviors associated both with eating and appearance. A review of psychosocial data related to the OXTR polymorphisms examined is included in the discussion. OXTR polymorphisms may be a useful intermediate endophenotype to consider in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa. PMID:26106053

  19. Multiple Targeting Approaches on Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Khanfar, Mohammad A.; Affini, Anna; Lutsenko, Kiril; Nikolic, Katarina; Butini, Stefania; Stark, Holger

    2016-01-01

    With the very recent market approval of pitolisant (Wakix®), the interest in clinical applications of novel multifunctional histamine H3 receptor antagonists has clearly increased. Since histamine H3 receptor antagonists in clinical development have been tested for a variety of different indications, the combination of pharmacological properties in one molecule for improved pharmacological effects and reduced unwanted side-effects is rationally based on the increasing knowledge on the complex neurotransmitter regulations. The polypharmacological approaches on histamine H3 receptor antagonists on different G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes as well as on NO-signaling mechanism are described, supported with some lead structures. PMID:27303254

  20. Multiple Targeting Approaches on Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Khanfar, Mohammad A; Affini, Anna; Lutsenko, Kiril; Nikolic, Katarina; Butini, Stefania; Stark, Holger

    2016-01-01

    With the very recent market approval of pitolisant (Wakix®), the interest in clinical applications of novel multifunctional histamine H3 receptor antagonists has clearly increased. Since histamine H3 receptor antagonists in clinical development have been tested for a variety of different indications, the combination of pharmacological properties in one molecule for improved pharmacological effects and reduced unwanted side-effects is rationally based on the increasing knowledge on the complex neurotransmitter regulations. The polypharmacological approaches on histamine H3 receptor antagonists on different G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes as well as on NO-signaling mechanism are described, supported with some lead structures.

  1. Inhibitory effect of galanin on adrenaline- and noradrenaline-induced increased oxytocin secretion in rat neurohypophyseal cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Radács, Marianna; Molnár, Andor H; László, Ferenc A; Varga, Csaba; László, Ferenc; Gálfi, Márta

    2010-09-01

    The effects of the interactions between the 29 amino acid-containing peptide galanin and adrenaline or noradrenaline on the secretion of oxytocin were studied in 13- to 14-day cultures of isolated rat neurohypophyseal tissue. The alpha-receptor antagonist corynanthine blocked the adrenaline-induced increase of oxytocin secretion. When the beta-receptor antagonist propranolol was added before the noradrenaline treatment, the antagonist prevented the noradrenaline-induced enhancement of oxytocin release. Following the addition of galanin, the extent of oxytocin secretion into the supernatant medium decreased. Adrenaline and noradrenaline treatments increased the oxytocin level. Preincubation with galanin reduced the adrenaline- and noradrenaline-induced oxytocin level elevations. The blocking effect of galanin was prevented by previous treatment with the galanin receptor antagonist galantid (M15). When adrenaline or noradrenaline treatment was applied before galanin addition, the oxytocin secretion remained enhanced. The present results indicate that the changes in oxytocin secretion induced by the adrenergic system can be directly influenced by the galaninergic system. The interactions between the adrenergic and galaninergic systems from the aspect of oxytocin secretion can occur at the level of the posterior pituitary, independently of the hypothalamus.

  2. Discovery of Novel Triazole-Based Opioid Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Keenan, Susan M.; Peng, Youyi; Nair, Anil C.; Yu, Seong Jae; Howells, Richard D.; Welsh, William J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the computer-aided design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of a novel family of δ opioid receptor (DOR) antagonists containing a 1,2,4-triazole core structure that are structurally distinct from other known opioid receptor active ligands. Among those δ antagonists sharing this core structure, 8 exhibited strong binding affinity (Ki = 50 nM) for the DOR and appreciable selectivity for δ over μ and opioid receptors (δ/μ = 80; δ/κ > 200). PMID:16821764

  3. Hypothalamic oxytocin mediates social buffering of the stress response

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam S.; Wang, Zuoxin

    2013-01-01

    Background While stressful life events can enhance the risk of mental disorders, positive social interactions can propagate good mental health and normal behavioral routines. Still, the neural systems that promote these benefits are undetermined. Oxytocin is a hormone involved in social behavior and stress; thus, we focus on the impact that social buffering has on the stress response and the governing effects of oxytocin. Methods Female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) were exposed to 1 hr immobilization stress then recovered alone or with their male partner to characterize the effect of social contact on the behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine stress response. In addition, we treated immobilized females recovering alone with oxytocin, or vehicle, and females recovering with their male partner with a selective oxytocin receptor antagonist, or vehicle. Group sizes varied from 6 to 8 voles (n = 98 total). Results We found that 1 hr immobilization increased anxiety-like behaviors and circulating levels of corticosterone, a stress hormone, in females recovering alone, but not the females recovering with their male partner. This social buffering by the male partner on biobehavioral responses to stress was accompanied by increased oxytocin release in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Intra-PVN oxytocin injections reduced behavioral and corticosterone responses to immobilization whereas injections of an oxytocin receptor antagonist blocked the effects of the social buffering. Conclusions Together, our data demonstrate that PVN oxytocin mediates the social buffering effects on the stress response, and thus may be a target for treatment of stress-related disorders. PMID:24183103

  4. Oxytocin-induced analgesia and scratching are mediated by the vasopressin-1A receptor in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Schorscher-Petcu, Ara; Sotocinal, Susana; Ciura, Sorana; Dupré, Anouk; Ritchie, Jennifer; Sorge, Robert E.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Hu, Shuang-Bao; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Young, Larry J.; Tribollet, Eliane; Quirion, Rémi; Mogil, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) contribute to the regulation of diverse cognitive and physiological functions including nociception. Indeed, OXT has been reported to be analgesic when administered directly into the brain, the spinal cord or systemically. Here, we characterized the phenotype of oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin-1A receptor (V1AR) null mutant mice in a battery of pain assays. Surprisingly, OTR knockout mice displayed a pain phenotype identical to their wildtype littermates. Moreover, systemic administration of OXT dose-dependently produced analgesia in both wildtype and OTR knockout mice in three different assays, the radiant heat paw-withdrawal test, the von Frey test of mechanical sensitivity and the formalin test of inflammatory nociception. In contrast, OXT-induced analgesia was completely absent in V1AR knockout mice. In wildtype mice, OXT-induced analgesia could be fully prevented by pretreatment with a V1AR but not an OTR antagonist. Receptor binding studies demonstrated that the distribution of OXT and AVP binding sites in mouse lumbar spinal cord resembles the pattern observed in rat. AVP binding sites diffusely label the lumbar spinal cord, while OXT binding sites cluster in the substantia gelatinosa of the dorsal horn. In contrast, quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that V1AR but not OTR mRNA is abundantly expressed in mouse dorsal root ganglia, where it localizes to small- and medium-diameter cells as shown by single cell RT-PCR. Hence, V1ARs expressed in dorsal root ganglia might represent a previously unrecognized target for the analgesic action of OXT and AVP. PMID:20554879

  5. Genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene is associated with Asperger Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Di Napoli, Agnese; Warrier, Varun; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction, alongside unusually repetitive behaviors and narrow interests. ASC are highly heritable and have complex patterns of inheritance where multiple genes are involved, alongside environmental and epigenetic factors. Asperger Syndrome (AS) is a subgroup of these conditions, where there is no history of language or cognitive delay. Animal models suggest a role for oxytocin (OXT) and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genes in social-emotional behaviors, and several studies indicate that the oxytocin/oxytocin receptor system is altered in individuals with ASC. Previous studies have reported associations between genetic variations in the OXTR gene and ASC. The present study tested for an association between nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OXTR gene and AS in 530 individuals of Caucasian origin, using SNP association test and haplotype analysis. There was a significant association between rs2268493 in OXTR and AS. Multiple haplotypes that include this SNP (rs2268493-rs2254298, rs2268490-rs2268493-rs2254298, rs2268493-rs2254298-rs53576, rs237885-rs2268490-rs2268493-rs2254298, rs2268490-rs2268493-rs2254298-rs53576) were also associated with AS. rs2268493 has been previously associated with ASC and putatively alters several transcription factor-binding sites and regulates chromatin states, either directly or through other variants in linkage disequilibrium (LD). This study reports a significant association of the sequence variant rs2268493 in the OXTR gene and associated haplotypes with AS.

  6. Common polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with human social recognition skills

    PubMed Central

    Skuse, David H.; Lori, Adriana; Cubells, Joseph F.; Lee, Irene; Conneely, Karen N.; Puura, Kaija; Lehtimäki, Terho; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Young, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin are evolutionarily conserved regulators of social perception and behavior. Evidence is building that they are critically involved in the development of social recognition skills within rodent species, primates, and humans. We investigated whether common polymorphisms in the genes encoding the oxytocin and vasopressin 1a receptors influence social memory for faces. Our sample comprised 198 families, from the United Kingdom and Finland, in whom a single child had been diagnosed with high-functioning autism. Previous research has shown that impaired social perception, characteristic of autism, extends to the first-degree relatives of autistic individuals, implying heritable risk. Assessments of face recognition memory, discrimination of facial emotions, and direction of gaze detection were standardized for age (7–60 y) and sex. A common SNP in the oxytocin receptor (rs237887) was strongly associated with recognition memory in combined probands, parents, and siblings after correction for multiple comparisons. Homozygotes for the ancestral A allele had impairments in the range −0.6 to −1.15 SD scores, irrespective of their diagnostic status. Our findings imply that a critical role for the oxytocin system in social recognition has been conserved across perceptual boundaries through evolution, from olfaction in rodents to visual memory in humans. PMID:24367110

  7. Central oxytocin receptors mediate mating-induced partner preferences and enhance correlated activation across forebrain nuclei in male prairie voles

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Zachary V.; Walum, Hasse; Jamal, Yaseen A.; Xiao, Yao; Keebaugh, Alaine C.; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Young, Larry J.

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a deeply conserved nonapeptide that acts both peripherally and centrally to modulate reproductive physiology and sociosexual behavior across divergent taxa, including humans. In vertebrates, the distribution of the oxytocin receptor (OTR) in the brain is variable within and across species, and OTR signaling is critical for a variety of species-typical social and reproductive behaviors, including affiliative and pair bonding behaviors in multiple socially monogamous lineages of fishes, birds, and mammals. Early work in prairie voles suggested that the endogenous OT system modulates mating-induced partner preference formation in females but not males; however, there is significant evidence that central OTRs may modulate pair bonding behavior in both sexes. In addition, it remains unclear how transient windows of central OTR signaling during sociosexual interaction modulate neural activity to produce enduring shifts in sociobehavioral phenotypes, including the formation of selective social bonds. Here we re-examine the role of the central OT system in partner preference formation in male prairie voles using a selective OTR antagonist delivered intracranially. We then use the same antagonist to examine how central OTRs modulate behavior and immediate early gene (Fos) expression, a metric of neuronal activation, in males during brief sociosexual interaction with a female. Our results suggest that, as in females, OTR signaling is critical for partner preference formation in males and enhances correlated activation across sensory and reward processing brain areas during sociosexual interaction. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that central OTR signaling facilitates social bond formation by coordinating activity across a pair bonding neural network. PMID:26643557

  8. Central oxytocin receptors mediate mating-induced partner preferences and enhance correlated activation across forebrain nuclei in male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Zachary V; Walum, Hasse; Jamal, Yaseen A; Xiao, Yao; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Young, Larry J

    2016-03-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a deeply conserved nonapeptide that acts both peripherally and centrally to modulate reproductive physiology and sociosexual behavior across divergent taxa, including humans. In vertebrates, the distribution of the oxytocin receptor (OTR) in the brain is variable within and across species, and OTR signaling is critical for a variety of species-typical social and reproductive behaviors, including affiliative and pair bonding behaviors in multiple socially monogamous lineages of fishes, birds, and mammals. Early work in prairie voles suggested that the endogenous OT system modulates mating-induced partner preference formation in females but not males; however, there is significant evidence that central OTRs may modulate pair bonding behavior in both sexes. In addition, it remains unclear how transient windows of central OTR signaling during sociosexual interaction modulate neural activity to produce enduring shifts in sociobehavioral phenotypes, including the formation of selective social bonds. Here we re-examine the role of the central OT system in partner preference formation in male prairie voles using a selective OTR antagonist delivered intracranially. We then use the same antagonist to examine how central OTRs modulate behavior and immediate early gene (Fos) expression, a metric of neuronal activation, in males during brief sociosexual interaction with a female. Our results suggest that, as in females, OTR signaling is critical for partner preference formation in males and enhances correlated activation across sensory and reward processing brain areas during sociosexual interaction. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that central OTR signaling facilitates social bond formation by coordinating activity across a pair bonding neural network.

  9. Selective nonpeptidic fluorescent ligands for oxytocin receptor: design, synthesis, and application to time-resolved FRET binding assay.

    PubMed

    Karpenko, Iuliia A; Margathe, Jean-François; Rodriguez, Thiéric; Pflimlin, Elsa; Dupuis, Elodie; Hibert, Marcel; Durroux, Thierry; Bonnet, Dominique

    2015-03-12

    The design and the synthesis of the first high-affinity fluorescent ligands for oxytocin receptor (OTR) are described. These compounds enabled the development of a TR-FRET based assay for OTR, readily amenable to high throughput screening. The validation of the assay was achieved by competition experiments with both peptide and nonpeptide OTR ligands as competitors. These probes represent the first selective fluorescent ligands for the oxytocin G protein-coupled receptor.

  10. Oxytocin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Human Directed Social Behavior in Dogs (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Ádám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (−212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5′ and 3′ UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3′ and 5′ UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene–behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system. PMID:24454713

  11. Treatment with oestrogen-receptor agonists or oxytocin in conjunction with exercise protects against myocardial infarction in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Erman Caner; Abueid, Leyla; Ercan, Feriha; Süleymanoğlu, Selami; Ağırbaşlı, Mehmet; Yeğen, Berrak Ç

    2016-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? Could the activation of oxytocin or oestrogen receptors be protective against myocardial injury after ovariectomy? If so, would exercising have an additional ameliorating effect? What is the main finding and its importance? The results revealed that when accompanied by exercise, both oestrogen receptor agonists and oxytocin improved cardiac dysfunction, inhibited the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced myocardial injury in ovariectomized female rats, suggesting a new approach for protecting postmenopausal women against ischaemia-induced myocardial injury. To investigate the putative protective effects of oxytocin or oestrogen receptor agonists against myocardial injury of ovariectomized sedentary or exercised rats, female Sprague-Dawley rats assigned to sham-operated control and ovariectomized (OVX) groups were kept sedentary or undertook swimming exercise for 4 weeks and were treated with saline, an oestrogen receptor (ER) β (DPN) or ERα agonist (PPT) or oxytocin. Ovariectomy increased weight gain and anxiety in sedentary rats, whereas exercise prevented weight gain. When accompanied by exercise, both ER agonists and oxytocin inhibited weight gain and anxiety; oxytocin, in the absence or presence of exercise, increased the left ventricular diastolic dimensions and ejection fraction, whereas ER agonists also increased left ventricular diameter when given to exercised rats. Upon the induction of myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion in the OVX rats, plasma creatine kinase-(muscle-brain) was depressed by PPT and oxytocin, whereas DPN, PPT and OT reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations. The increased tumour necrosis factor-α concentration in OVX rats was also suppressed by exercise or DPN, PPT or oxytocin treatments, whereas the interleukin-6 concentration was diminished by all the treatments when given in conjunction with exercise. Disorganization of cardiac muscle fibres was reduced in all

  12. Neonatal oxytocin alters subsequent estrogen receptor alpha protein expression and estrogen sensitivity in the female rat.

    PubMed

    Perry, Adam N; Paramadilok, Auratip; Cushing, Bruce S

    2009-12-14

    In most species, the effects of oxytocin (OT) on female reproductive behavior are dependent upon estrogen, which increases both OT and OT receptor expression. It is also becoming apparent that OT neurotransmission can influence estrogen signaling, especially during development, as neonatal OT manipulations in prairie voles alter ERalpha expression and estrogen-dependent behaviors. We tested the hypothesis that OT developmentally programs ERalpha expression and estrogen sensitivity in female Sprague-Dawley rats, a species previously used to establish the estrogen-dependence of OT signaling in adulthood. OT treatment for the first postnatal week significantly increased ERalpha-immunoreactivity in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), but not in the medial preoptic area (MPOA). Conversely, neonatal OT antagonist (OTA) treatment significantly reduced ERalpha-immunoreactivity in the MPOA, but not in the VMH. Both treatments increased OT-immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and reduced estrogen sensitivity, indicated by reduced sexual receptivity following chronic estradiol benzoate (EB) administration. Behavioral deficits in OTA-treated females were apparent during both paced and non-paced tests with 0.5 microg EB (but not 5.0 or 10.0 microg EB), whereas deficits in OT-treated females were only observed during the initial paced test with 0.5 and 5.0 microg EB (but not 10.0 microg EB). The current results demonstrate that OT can positively regulate ERalpha expression within the MPOA and VMH during development; however, endogenous OT selectively programs ERalpha expression within the MPOA. Thus, exogenous OT or OTA exposure during development may have long-term consequences on behavior through stable changes in ERalpha and OT expression.

  13. Lack of Association between Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Gene Polymorphisms and Alexithymia: Evidence from Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Koh, Min Jung; Kim, Wonji; Kang, Jee In; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Se Joo

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with structural and functional alterations in brain regions, which involve social-emotional processing. Therefore, oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms may contribute to individual differences in alexithymia, which is considered to be a dysfunction of emotional processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between oxytocin receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes and alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. We recruited 355 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (234 men, 121 women). Alexithymia was measured by using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. We performed single-marker and haplotype association analyses with eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs237885, rs237887, rs2268490, rs4686301, rs2254298, rs13316193, rs53576, and rs2268498) in the oxytocin receptor gene. There were no significant associations between any of the eight single nucleotide polymorphism of the oxytocin receptor gene and alexithymia. In addition, a six-locus haplotype block (rs237885-rs237887-rs2268490-rs4686301-rs2254298-rs13316193) was not significantly associated with alexithymia. These findings suggest that genetic variations in the oxytocin receptor gene may not explain a significant part of alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  14. Discovery of novel selective hypotensive vasopressin peptides that exhibit little or no functional interactions with known oxytocin/vasopressin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Chan, W Y; Wo, N C; Stoev, S; Cheng, L L; Manning, M

    1998-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (VP) has both vasoconstricting and vasodilating action. We report here the discovery of four novel selective hypotensive VP analogues: d(CH2)5[D-Tyr(Et)2,Arg3,Val4]AVP; d(CH2)5[D-Tyr(Et)2,Lys3,Val4]AVP and their iodinatable Tyr-NH29 analogues.Bioassays in rats for activities characteristic of neurohypophysial peptides showed that the four VP peptides possessed little or no V1a, V2 or oxytocin (OT) receptor agonistic or antagonistic activities.In anaesthetized rats, these peptides (0.05–0.10 mg kg−1 i.v.) elicited a marked fall in arterial blood pressure.Blockade of cholinoceptors, adrenoceptors and bradykinin B2 receptors, and inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis had little effect on their vasodepressor action.Classical V1a, V2 and OT receptor antagonists did not block the vasodepressor response.L-NAME, 0.2 mg kg−1 min−1, markedly suppressed the hypotensive response to ACh but not the vasodepressor response to the hypotensive VP peptides. However, the duration of the vasodepressor response was shortened. Very high doses of L-NAME attenuated both the vasodepressor response and the duration of action.These findings indicate that the vasodepressor action of these VP peptides is independent of the peripheral autonomic, bradykinin and PG systems and is not mediated by the known classical OT/VP receptors. NO does not appear to have an important role in their vasodepressor action.The discovery of these novel VP peptides could lead to the development of new tools for the investigation of the complex cardiovascular actions of VP and the introduction of a new class of hypotensive agents. The two iodinatable hypotensive VP peptides could be radiolabelled as potential markers for the localization of the receptor system involved. PMID:9831918

  15. Allosteric interactions between the oxytocin receptor and the β2-adrenergic receptor in the modulation of ERK1/2 activation are mediated by heterodimerization.

    PubMed

    Wrzal, Paulina K; Devost, Dominic; Pétrin, Darlaine; Goupil, Eugénie; Iorio-Morin, Christian; Laporte, Stéphane A; Zingg, Hans H; Hébert, Terence E

    2012-01-01

    The oxytocin receptor (OTR) and the β(2)-adrenergic receptor (β(2)AR) are key regulators of uterine contraction. These two receptors are targets of tocolytic agents used to inhibit pre-term labor. Our recent study on the nature of OTR- and β(2)AR-mediated ERK1/2 activation in human hTERT-C3 myometrial cells suggested the presence of an OTR/β(2)AR hetero-oligomeric complex (see companion article). The goal of this study was to investigate potential allosteric interactions between OTR and β(2)AR and establish the nature of the interactions between these receptors in myometrial cells. We found that OTR-mediated ERK1/2 activation was attenuated significantly when cells were pretreated with the β(2)AR agonist isoproterenol or two antagonists, propranolol or timolol. In contrast, pretreatment of cells with a third β(2)AR antagonist, atenolol resulted in an increase in OTR-mediated ERK1/2 activation. Similarly, β(2)AR-mediated ERK1/2 activation was strongly attenuated by pretreatment with the OTR antagonists, atosiban and OTA. Physical interactions between OTR and β(2)AR were demonstrated using co-immunoprecipitation, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and protein-fragment complementation (PCA) assays in HEK 293 cells, the latter experiments indicating the interactions between the two receptors were direct. Our analyses suggest physical interactions between OTR and β(2)AR in the context of a new heterodimer pair lie at the heart of the allosteric effects.

  16. Expression and Developmental Regulation of Oxytocin (OT) and Oxytocin Receptors (OTR) in the Enteric Nervous System (ENS) and Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Martha G.; Tamir, Hadassah; Gross, Kara J.; Chen, Jason; Anwar, Muhammad; Gershon, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Although oxytocin (OT) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) are known for roles in parturition and milk let-down, they are not hypothalamus-restricted. OT is important in nurturing and opposition to stress. Transcripts encoding OT and OTR have been reported in adult human gut, and OT affects intestinal motility. We tested the hypotheses that OT is endogenous to the enteric nervous system (ENS) and that OTR signaling may participate in enteric neurophysiology. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed OT and OTR transcripts in adult mouse and rat gut and in precursors of enteric neurons immunoselected from fetal rats. Enteric OT and OTR expression continued through adulthood but was developmentally regulated, peaking at postnatal day 7. Coincidence of the immunoreactivities of OTR and the neural marker Hu was 100% in the P3 and 71% in the adult myenteric plexus, when submucosal neurons were also OTR-immunoreactive. Co-localization with NeuN established that intrinsic primary afferent neurons are OTR-expressing. Because OTR transcripts and protein were detected in the nodose ganglia, OT signaling might also affect extrinsic primary afferent neurons. Although OT immunoreactivity was found only in ~1% of myenteric neurons, extensive OT-immunoreactive varicosities surrounded many others. Villus enterocytes were OTR-immunoreactive through postnatal day 17; however, by postnatal day 19, immunoreactivity waned to become restricted to crypts and concentrated at crypt-villus junctions. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed plasmalemmal OTR at enterocyte adherens junctions. We suggest that OT and OTR signaling might be important in ENS development and function and might play roles in visceral sensory perception and neural modulation of epithelial biology. PMID:19003903

  17. Expression and developmental regulation of oxytocin (OT) and oxytocin receptors (OTR) in the enteric nervous system (ENS) and intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Welch, Martha G; Tamir, Hadassah; Gross, Kara J; Chen, Jason; Anwar, Muhammad; Gershon, Michael D

    2009-01-10

    Although oxytocin (OT) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) are known for roles in parturition and milk let-down, they are not hypothalamus-restricted. OT is important in nurturing and opposition to stress. Transcripts encoding OT and OTR have been reported in adult human gut, and OT affects intestinal motility. We tested the hypotheses that OT is endogenous to the enteric nervous system (ENS) and that OTR signaling may participate in enteric neurophysiology. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed OT and OTR transcripts in adult mouse and rat gut and in precursors of enteric neurons immunoselected from fetal rats. Enteric OT and OTR expression continued through adulthood but was developmentally regulated, peaking at postnatal day 7. Coincidence of the immunoreactivities of OTR and the neural marker Hu was 100% in the P3 and 71% in the adult myenteric plexus, when submucosal neurons were also OTR-immunoreactive. Co-localization with NeuN established that intrinsic primary afferent neurons are OTR-expressing. Because OTR transcripts and protein were detected in the nodose ganglia, OT signaling might also affect extrinsic primary afferent neurons. Although OT immunoreactivity was found only in approximately 1% of myenteric neurons, extensive OT-immunoreactive varicosities surrounded many others. Villus enterocytes were OTR-immunoreactive through postnatal day 17; however, by postnatal day 19, immunoreactivity waned to become restricted to crypts and concentrated at crypt-villus junctions. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed plasmalemmal OTR at enterocyte adherens junctions. We suggest that OT and OTR signaling might be important in ENS development and function and might play roles in visceral sensory perception and neural modulation of epithelial biology.

  18. Phenylacetamides as selective alpha-1A adrenergic receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Patane, M A; DiPardo, R M; Newton, R C; Price, R P; Broten, T P; Chang, R S; Ransom, R W; Di Salvo, J; Nagarathnam, D; Forray, C; Gluchowski, C; Bock, M G

    2000-08-07

    A novel class of potent and selective alpha-1a receptor antagonists has been identified. The structures of these antagonists were derived from truncating the 4-aryl dihydropyridine subunit present in known alpha-1a antagonists. The design principles which led to the discovery of substituted phenylacetamides, the synthesis and SAR of key analogues, and the results of select in vitro and in vivo studies are described.

  19. Prostanoid receptor antagonists: development strategies and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Jones, RL; Giembycz, MA; Woodward, DF

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the primary products of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)/prostaglandin synthase(s), which occurred between 1958 and 1976, was followed by a classification system for prostanoid receptors (DP, EP1, EP2 …) based mainly on the pharmacological actions of natural and synthetic agonists and a few antagonists. The design of potent selective antagonists was rapid for certain prostanoid receptors (EP1, TP), slow for others (FP, IP) and has yet to be achieved in certain cases (EP2). While some antagonists are structurally related to the natural agonist, most recent compounds are ‘non-prostanoid’ (often acyl-sulphonamides) and have emerged from high-throughput screening of compound libraries, made possible by the development of (functional) assays involving single recombinant prostanoid receptors. Selective antagonists have been crucial to defining the roles of PGD2 (acting on DP1 and DP2 receptors) and PGE2 (on EP1 and EP4 receptors) in various inflammatory conditions; there are clear opportunities for therapeutic intervention. The vast endeavour on TP (thromboxane) antagonists is considered in relation to their limited pharmaceutical success in the cardiovascular area. Correspondingly, the clinical utility of IP (prostacyclin) antagonists is assessed in relation to the cloud hanging over the long-term safety of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Aspirin apart, COX inhibitors broadly suppress all prostanoid pathways, while high selectivity has been a major goal in receptor antagonist development; more targeted therapy may require an intermediate position with defined antagonist selectivity profiles. This review is intended to provide overviews of each antagonist class (including prostamide antagonists), covering major development strategies and current and potential clinical usage. PMID:19624532

  20. Cloning and identification of an oxytocin/vasopressin-like receptor and its ligand from insects.

    PubMed

    Stafflinger, Elisabeth; Hansen, Karina K; Hauser, Frank; Schneider, Martina; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2008-03-04

    More than 20 years ago, an oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptide, CLITNCPRGamide, was isolated from the locust, Locusta migratoria [Proux JP, et al. (1987) Identification of an arginine vasopressin-like diuretic hormone from Locusta migratoria. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 149:180-186]. However, no similar peptide could be identified in other insects, nor could its prohormone be cloned, or its physiological actions be established. Here, we report that the recently sequenced genome from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum contains a gene coding for an oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptide, identical to the locust peptide, which we named inotocin (for insect oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptide) and a gene coding for an inotocin G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). We cloned the Tribolium inotocin preprohormone and the inotocin GPCR and expressed the GPCR in CHO cells. This GPCR is strongly activated by low concentrations of inotocin (EC(50), 5 x 10(-9) M), demonstrating that it is the inotocin receptor. Quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) showed that in adult Tribolium, the receptor is mainly expressed in the head and much less in the hindgut and Malpighian tubules, suggesting that the inotocin/receptor couple does not play a role in water homeostasis. Surprisingly, qPCR also showed that the receptor is 30x more expressed in the first larval stages than in adult animals. The inotocin/receptor couple can also be found in the recently sequenced genome from the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis but not in any other holometabolous insect with a completely sequenced genome (12 Drosophila species, the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, the silk worm Bombyx mori, and the honey bee Apis mellifera), suggesting that this neuropeptide system is confined to basal holometabolous insects. Furthermore, we identified an oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptide and receptor in the recently sequenced genome from the water flea Daphnia pulex (Crustacea). To our

  1. CXCR2 receptor antagonists: a medicinal chemistry perspective.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Michael P; Yu, Younong

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated leukocyte recruitment is believed to be a key contributor to various acute and chronic inflammatory disorders which can lead to serious pathological consequences. Chemokines are small molecular weight proteins that have been shown to be imperative in the direction of leukocytes to the sites of inflammation. In humans, several of these chemokines (CXCL8 and CXCL1) are elevated in inflammatory disorders such as asthma, arthritis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These chemokines modulate their downstream effects thru G-protein coupled receptors, such as CXCR2, making the identification of small-molecule antagonists of this receptor attractive towards developing novel therapies to treat inflammatory conditions. Since the first report of a CXCR2 receptor antagonist in 1998, there has been a considerable effort conducted mainly in the pharmaceutical industry to identify novel classes of CXCR2 receptor antagonists. Over a dozen distinct classes of CXCR2 receptor antagonists have been reported in the literature to date with a number of these compounds having reached mid-stage clinical trials. This review will provide a broad overview the medicinal chemistry efforts over the past 15 years towards the identification of CXCR2 receptor antagonists. The discussion will focus upon the early preclinical space covering the structure activity relationships (SAR), pharmacology, as well in preclinical in vivo evaluation for the different series of CXCR2 receptor antagonists. In addition, the available clinical data for the most advanced compounds in the clinic will be discussed and along with a perspective of the area moving forward.

  2. A Constructive Replication of the Association between the Oxytocin Receptor Genotype and Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Klump, Kelly L.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral genetic studies have robustly indicated that parenting behaviors are heritable – that is, individual differences in parenting are at least partially a function of genetic differences between persons. Few studies, however, have sought to identify the specific genetic variants that are associated with individual differences in parenting. Genes that influence the oxytocin system are of particular interest, given the growing body of evidence that points to the role of oxytocin for social behaviors, including parenting. The current study conducted examinations of associations between a variant in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR rs53576) and parental warmth, control, and negativity in a sample of 1,000 twin children and their parents (N=500 families) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry to constructively replicate and extend prior work (Bakermans-Kranenburg & van IJzendoorn, 2008; Michalska et al., 2014). Analyses were conducted both at the level of the child and the level of the parent, allowing us to examine both child-driven (via evocative gene-environment correlation) and parent-driven genetic effects on parenting. Mothers’ OXTR genotype predicted her warmth towards her children, even after controlling for child genotype. This association was not found for fathers. These findings add to the growing body of evidence linking oxytocin functioning to parental behavior and also highlight potential etiological differences in parenting across mothers and fathers. PMID:25419912

  3. Amygdala responses to salient social cues vary with oxytocin receptor genotype in youth

    PubMed Central

    Marusak, Hilary A.; Furman, Daniella J.; Kuruvadi, Nisha; Shattuck, David W.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Joshi, Anand A.; Etkin, Amit; Thomason, Moriah E.

    2015-01-01

    Depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder are linked to altered limbic morphology, dysregulated neuroendocrine function, and heightened amygdala responses to salient social cues. Oxytocin appears to be a potent modulator of amygdala reactivity and neuroendocrine responses to psychosocial stress. Given these stress regulatory effects, there is increasing interest in understanding the role of oxytocin in vulnerability to stress-related clinical disorders. The present study examines the impact of a common functional variant within the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene (rs2254298) on structure and function of the amygdala in a high-risk sample of urban, low-income, minority youth with a high incidence of early life stress (ELS). Compared to G/G homozygotes, youth carrying the OXTR A-allele showed increased amygdala volume, reduced behavioral performance, and heightened amygdala response during two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks that involved viewing socially-relevant face stimuli. Higher amygdala response was related to ELS in A-alleles carriers but not G/G homozygotes. These findings underscore a series of relationships among a common oxytocin system gene variant, ELS exposure, and structure and function of the amygdala in early life. Heightened amygdala response to salient social cues in OXTR A-allele carriers may elevate risk for emotional psychopathology by increasing amygdala involvement in disambiguating environmental cues, particularly for individuals with ELS. PMID:26477647

  4. Epigenetic regulation of the oxytocin receptor gene: implications for behavioral neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Kumsta, Robert; Hummel, Elisabeth; Chen, Frances S; Heinrichs, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Genetic approaches have improved our understanding of the neurobiological basis of social behavior and cognition. For instance, common polymorphisms of genes involved in oxytocin signaling have been associated with sociobehavioral phenotypes in healthy samples as well as in subjects with mental disorders. More recently, attention has been drawn to epigenetic mechanisms, which regulate genetic function and expression without changes to the underlying DNA sequence. We provide an overview of the functional importance of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) promoter methylation and summarize studies that have investigated the role of OXTR methylation in behavioral phenotypes. There is first evidence that OXTR methylation is associated with autism, high callous-unemotional traits, and differential activation of brain regions involved in social perception. Furthermore, psychosocial stress exposure might dynamically regulate OXTR. Given evidence that epigenetic states of genes can be modified by experiences, especially those occurring in sensitive periods early in development, we conclude with a discussion on the effects of traumatic experience on the developing oxytocin system. Epigenetic modification of genes involved in oxytocin signaling might be involved in the mechanisms mediating the long-term influence of early adverse experiences on socio-behavioral outcomes.

  5. Common oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism and social support interact to reduce stress in humans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Frances S.; Kumsta, Robert; von Dawans, Bernadette; Monakhov, Mikhail; Ebstein, Richard P.; Heinrichs, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin has played an essential role in the regulation of social behavior and attachment throughout mammalian evolution. Because recent studies in humans have shown that oxytocin administration reduces stress responses and increases prosocial behavior, we investigated whether a common single nucleotide polymorphism (rs53576) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) might interact with stress-protective effects of social support. Salivary cortisol samples and subjective stress ratings were obtained from 194 healthy male participants before, during, and after a standardized psychosocial laboratory stress procedure. Participants were randomly assigned either to prepare alone or to receive social support from their female partner or close female friend while preparing for the stressful task. Differential stress responses between the genotype groups were observed depending on the presence or absence of social support. Only individuals with one or two copies of the G allele of rs53576 showed lower cortisol responses to stress after social support, compared with individuals with the same genotype receiving no social support. These results indicate that genetic variation of the oxytocin system modulates the effectiveness of positive social interaction as a protective buffer against a stressful experience. PMID:22123970

  6. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism modulates the effects of social support on heart rate variability

    PubMed Central

    Kanthak, Magdalena K.; Chen, Frances S.; Kumsta, Robert; Hill, LaBarron K.; Thayer, Julian F.; Heinrichs, Markus

    2017-01-01

    A large body of empirical research has demonstrated stress-buffering effects of social support. However, recent studies suggest that genetic variation of the oxytocin system (specifically, a common single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, of the oxytocin receptor gene) modulates the efficacy of social support. The timing and neurobiological basis of this genetic modulation were investigated using a standardized, laboratory-based psychological stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G). To index potential stress buffering effects of social support mediated by the oxytocin system, heart rate variability (HRV) was obtained before and during the TSST-G from 40 healthy participants. Results indicate that social support is associated with higher HRV only in G allele carriers. Specifically, social support increased heart rate variability during direct social interaction and only in individuals with at least one copy of the G allele of rs53576. These findings support the idea that the stress-attenuating effects of social support are modulated by genetic variation of the oxytocin system. PMID:26903384

  7. Chronic Methamphetamine Self-Administration Dysregulates Oxytocin Plasma Levels and Oxytocin Receptor Fibre Density in the Nucleus Accumbens Core and Subthalamic Nucleus of the Rat.

    PubMed

    Baracz, S J; Parker, L M; Suraev, A S; Everett, N A; Goodchild, A K; McGregor, I S; Cornish, J L

    2016-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin attenuates reward and abuse for the psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH). Recent findings have implicated the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and subthalamic nucleus (STh) in oxytocin modulation of acute METH reward and relapse to METH-seeking behaviour. Surprisingly, the oxytocin receptor (OTR) is only modestly involved in both regions in oxytocin attenuation of METH-primed reinstatement. Coupled with the limited investigation of the role of the OTR in psychostimulant-induced behaviours, we primarily investigated whether there are cellular changes to the OTR in the NAc core and STh, as well as changes to oxytocin plasma levels, after chronic METH i.v. self-administration (IVSA) and after extinction of drug-taking. An additional aim was to examine whether changes to central corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and plasma corticosterone levels were also apparent because of the interaction of oxytocin with stress-regulatory mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to lever press for i.v. METH (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule or received yoked saline infusions during 2-h sessions for 20 days. An additional cohort of rats underwent behavioural extinction for 15 days after METH IVSA. Subsequent to the last day of IVSA or extinction, blood plasma was collected for enzyme immunoassay, and immunofluorescence was conducted on NAc core and STh coronal sections. Rats that self-administered METH had higher oxytocin plasma levels, and decreased OTR-immunoreactive (-IR) fibres in the NAc core than yoked controls. In animals that self-administered METH and underwent extinction, oxytocin plasma levels remained elevated, OTR-IR fibre density increased in the STh, and a trend towards normalisation of OTR-IR fibre density was evident in the NAc core. CRF-IR fibre density in both brain regions and corticosterone plasma levels did not change across treatment groups. These findings demonstrate that oxytocin systems, both centrally

  8. Vasopressin-receptor antagonist therapy in patients with hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Vachharajani, Tushar; Vachharajani, Vidula

    2007-07-01

    Hyponatraemia often complicates the treatment of underlying conditions in patients who are seriously ill. Arginine vasopressin receptor antagonists block the action of arginine vasopressin and correct sodium and water imbalance in patients with euvolaemic or hypervolaemic hyponatraemia.

  9. Efficacy of oxytocin antagonist infusion in improving in vitro fertilization outcomes on the day of embryo transfer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seul Ki; Han, E-Jung; Kim, Sun Mie; Jee, Byung Chul; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Uterine contraction induced by the embryo transfer (ET) process has an adverse effect on embryo implantation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oxytocin antagonist supplementation on the day of ET on in vitro fertilization outcomes via a meta-analysis. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Four online databases (Embase, Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane Library) were searched through May 2015 for RCTs that investigated oxytocin antagonist supplementation on the day of ET. Studies were selected according to predefined inclusion criteria and meta-analyzed using RevMan 5.3. Only RCTs were included in this study. The main outcome measures were the clinical pregnancy rate, the implantation rate, and the miscarriage rate. Results A total of 123 studies were reviewed and assessed for eligibility. Three RCTs, which included 1,020 patients, met the selection criteria. The implantation rate was significantly better in patients who underwent oxytocin antagonist infusion (19.8%) than in the control group (11.3%) (n=681; odds ratio [OR], 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25–2.96). No significant difference was found between the two groups in the clinical pregnancy rate (n=1,020; OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 0.92–2.67) or the miscarriage rate (n=456; OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.44–1.33). Conclusion The results of this meta-analysis of the currently available literature suggest that the administration of an oxytocin antagonist on the day of ET improves the implantation rate but not the clinical pregnancy rate or miscarriage rate. Additional, large-scale, prospective, randomized studies are necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:28090463

  10. Efficacy of oxytocin antagonist infusion in improving in vitro fertilization outcomes on the day of embryo transfer: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seul Ki; Han, E-Jung; Kim, Sun Mie; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Jee, Byung Chul; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2016-12-01

    Uterine contraction induced by the embryo transfer (ET) process has an adverse effect on embryo implantation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oxytocin antagonist supplementation on the day of ET on in vitro fertilization outcomes via a meta-analysis. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Four online databases (Embase, Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane Library) were searched through May 2015 for RCTs that investigated oxytocin antagonist supplementation on the day of ET. Studies were selected according to predefined inclusion criteria and meta-analyzed using RevMan 5.3. Only RCTs were included in this study. The main outcome measures were the clinical pregnancy rate, the implantation rate, and the miscarriage rate. A total of 123 studies were reviewed and assessed for eligibility. Three RCTs, which included 1,020 patients, met the selection criteria. The implantation rate was significantly better in patients who underwent oxytocin antagonist infusion (19.8%) than in the control group (11.3%) (n=681; odds ratio [OR], 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-2.96). No significant difference was found between the two groups in the clinical pregnancy rate (n=1,020; OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 0.92-2.67) or the miscarriage rate (n=456; OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.44-1.33). The results of this meta-analysis of the currently available literature suggest that the administration of an oxytocin antagonist on the day of ET improves the implantation rate but not the clinical pregnancy rate or miscarriage rate. Additional, large-scale, prospective, randomized studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

  11. [Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: different or equivalent?].

    PubMed

    Mounier-Vehier, C; Devos, P

    ARA-II: Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA-II) belong to a recent class of antihypertensive drugs whose mechanism of action is similar to converting enzyme inhibitors (CEI). ARA-II are particularly interesting due to the excellent clinical and biological tolerance, similar to placebo, and their antihypertensive efficacy, comparable with classical drug classes. PUBLISHED TRIALS: A meta-analysis, published by Conlin in the American Journal of Hypertension, suggests that ARA-II, specifically losartan, valsartan, irbesartan and candesartan, have an equipotent blood pressure lowering effect. The careful lecture of this meta-analysis however discloses a faulty methodology from which no valid conclusion can be drawn. Since this early publication, several other comparative studies have been published. These multicentric, randomized double-blind studies enrolled a sufficient number of patients and demonstrated a clinical difference between certain ARA-II at usual dosages. CLINICAL PRACTICE: These studies do have an impact on everyday practice. For the practitioner, the goal is to obtain and then maintain a long-term and optimal reduction in the blood pressure level (reduction or prevention of target-organ disorders and cardiovascular complications of high blood pressure). This reduction in the cardiovascular risk will also depend directly on tolerance and compliance to the antihypertensive treatment. This element must also be considered in assessing treatment efficacy, independent of the blood pressure lowering effect. The results of several other studies will be published in 2001-2003. These large-scale studies on ARA-II related morbidity and mortality will be most useful in determining the role of these drugs in different therapeutic strategies compared with other drug classes.

  12. Epigenetic modification of the oxytocin receptor gene influences the perception of anger and fear in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Puglia, Meghan H; Lillard, Travis S; Morris, James P; Connelly, Jessica J

    2015-03-17

    In humans, the neuropeptide oxytocin plays a critical role in social and emotional behavior. The actions of this molecule are dependent on a protein that acts as its receptor, which is encoded by the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). DNA methylation of OXTR, an epigenetic modification, directly influences gene transcription and is variable in humans. However, the impact of this variability on specific social behaviors is unknown. We hypothesized that variability in OXTR methylation impacts social perceptual processes often linked with oxytocin, such as perception of facial emotions. Using an imaging epigenetic approach, we established a relationship between OXTR methylation and neural activity in response to emotional face processing. Specifically, high levels of OXTR methylation were associated with greater amounts of activity in regions associated with face and emotion processing including amygdala, fusiform, and insula. Importantly, we found that these higher levels of OXTR methylation were also associated with decreased functional coupling of amygdala with regions involved in affect appraisal and emotion regulation. These data indicate that the human endogenous oxytocin system is involved in attenuation of the fear response, corroborating research implicating intranasal oxytocin in the same processes. Our findings highlight the importance of including epigenetic mechanisms in the description of the endogenous oxytocin system and further support a central role for oxytocin in social cognition. This approach linking epigenetic variability with neural endophenotypes may broadly explain individual differences in phenotype including susceptibility or resilience to disease.

  13. Oxytocin and vasopressin receptor polymorphisms interact with circulating neuropeptides to predict human emotional reactions to stress

    PubMed Central

    Moons, Wesley G.; Way, Baldwin M.; Taylor, Shelley E.

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) and a polymorphism (rs53576) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) have been independently associated with stress reactivity, whereas oxytocin’s sister peptide, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and polymorphisms in the vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR1A) have been independently associated with aggressive behavior. In this study, 68 men and 98 women were genotyped for the OXTR rs53576 polymorphism and the AVPR1A RS1 polymorphism. Baseline and post-stressor levels of plasma OT, plasma AVP, positive affect, and anger were assessed. Women, but not men, with high levels of post-stressor OT and the GG genotype of rs53576 felt the most positive affect after the stressor. Men, but not women, with high levels of post-stressor AVP and with the 320allele of the RS1 polymorphism reported more post-stressor anger than non-carriers. These data constitute the first evidence that oxytocin and vasopressin receptor genes interact with levels of OT and AVP to predict sex-specific emotional stress responses. PMID:24660771

  14. Antagonists of the kappa opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Mariangela; Guerrero, Miguel; Rosen, Hugh; Roberts, Edward

    2014-05-01

    The research community has increasingly focused on the development of OPRK antagonists as pharmacotherapies for the treatment of depression, anxiety, addictive disorders and other psychiatric conditions produced or exacerbated by stress. Short-acting OPRK antagonists have been recently developed as a potential improvement over long-acting prototypic ligands including nor-BNI and JDTic. Remarkably the short-acting LY2456302 is undergoing phase II clinical trials for the augmentation of the antidepressant therapy in treatment-resistant depression. This Letter reviews relevant chemical and pharmacological advances in the identification and development of OPRK antagonists.

  15. Contribution of oxytocin receptor polymorphisms to amygdala activation in schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bettella, Francesco; Brandt, Christine Lycke; Quintana, Daniel S.; Nerhus, Mari; Bjella, Thomas; Djurovic, Srdjan; Westlye, Lars T.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Melle, Ingrid; Tesli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Oxytocin has been proposed to mediate amygdala dysfunction associated with altered emotion processing in schizophrenia, but the contribution of oxytocin pathway genes is yet to be investigated. Aims To identify potential different contributions of three oxytocin receptor polymorphisms (rs53576, rs237902 and rs2254298) between patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SCZ), affective spectrum disorders (AD) and healthy controls (HC). Method In a total of 346 participants (104 with SCZ, 100 with AD, and 142 HC) underwent genotyping and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an emotional faces matching paradigm. Genetic association analyses were performed to test the possible effects on task-induced BOLD amygdala response to fearful/angry faces. Results In participants with SCZ, the rs237902 G allele was associated with low amygdala activation (left hemisphere: b=−4.99, Bonferroni corrected P=0.04) and interaction analyses showed that this association was disorder specific (left hemisphere: Bonferroni corrected P=0.003; right hemisphere: Bonferroni corrected P=0.03). There were no associations between oxytocin polymorphisms and amygdala activation in the total sample, among AD patients or HC. Conclusions Rs237902 was associated with amygdala activation in response to fearful/angry faces only in patients with SCZ. Our findings indicate that the endogenous oxytocin system could serve as a contributing factor in biological underpinnings of emotion processing and that this contribution is disorder specific. Declaration of interest O.A.A. received speaker’s honoraria from GSK, Otsuka, Lundbeck. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27847593

  16. Recent advances in CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jos H M; Kruse, Chris G

    2004-07-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists are currently the subject of intensive research due to their highly promising therapeutic prospects. Novel chemical entities having CB1 antagonistic properties have recently been disclosed by several pharmaceutical companies and some academic research groups, some of which are close structural analogs of the leading compound rimonabant (SR-141716A; Sanofi-Synthélabo). A considerable number of these CB1 antagonists are bioisosteres that are derived from rimonabant by the replacement of the pyrazole moiety with an alternative heterocycle. As well as these achiral compounds, Solvay Pharmaceuticals have disclosed a novel class of chiral pyrazolines that are potent and CB1/CB2 subtype-selective cannabinoid receptor antagonists, in which the interactions with the CB1 receptor are highly stereoselective.

  17. Solution structures and molecular interactions of selective melanocortin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chul-Jin; Yun, Ji-Hye; Lim, Sung-Kil; Lee, Weontae

    2010-12-01

    The solution structures and inter-molecular interaction of the cyclic melanocortin antagonists SHU9119, JKC363, HS014, and HS024 with receptor molecules have been determined by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. While SHU9119 is known as a nonselective antagonist, JKC363, HS014, and HS024 are selective for the melanocortin subtype-4 receptor (MC4R) involved in modulation of food intake. Data from NMR and molecular dynamics suggest that the conformation of the Trp9 sidechain in the three MC4R-selective antagonists is quite different from that of SHU9119. This result strongly supports the concept that the spatial orientation of the hydrophobic aromatic residue is more important for determining selectivity than the presence of a basic, "arginine-like" moiety responsible for biological activity. We propose that the conformation of hydrophobic residues of MCR antagonists is critical for receptor-specific selectivity.

  18. NK-1 receptor antagonists: a new paradigm in pharmacological therapy.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M; Coveñas, R

    2011-01-01

    The neuropeptide substance P (SP) shows a widespread distribution in both the central and peripheral nervous systems and it is known that after binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors, SP regulates many biological functions in the central nervous system such as emotional behaviour, stress, depression, anxiety, emesis, migraine, alcohol addiction and neurodegeneration. SP has been also implicated in pain, inflammation, hepatotoxicity and in virus proliferation, and it plays an important role in cancer (e.g., tumour cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and the migration of tumour cells for invasion and metastasis). By contrast, it is known that after binding to NK-1 receptors, NK-1 receptor antagonists specifically inhibit the above-mentioned biological functions mediated by SP. Thus, these antagonists exert an anxyolitic, antidepressant, antiemetic, antimigraine, antialcohol addiction or neuroprotector effect in the central nervous system, and they play a role in analgesic, antiinflammatory, hepatoprotector processes and in antivirus proliferation. Regarding cancer, NK-1 receptor antagonists exert an antitumour action (inducing tumour cell death by apoptosis), and induce antiangiogenesis and inhibit the migration of tumour cells. It is also known that NK-1 receptors have a widespread distribution and that they are overexpressed in tumour cells. Thus, NK-1 receptor antagonists are molecularly targeted agents. In general, current drugs have a single therapeutic effect, although less commonly they may exert several. However, the data reported above indicate that NK-1 receptor antagonists are promising drugs, exerting many therapeutic effects (the action of such antagonists is dose-dependent and, depending on the concentration, has more positive effects). In this review, we update the multiple therapeutic effects exerted by NK-1 receptor antagonists.

  19. Combining Elements from Two Antagonists of Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 Generates More Potent Peptidomimetic Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Holdfeldt, André; Nielsen, Christina; Hansen, Anna Mette; Perez-Gassol, Iris; Dahlgren, Claes; Forsman, Huamei; Franzyk, Henrik

    2017-08-24

    Structural optimization of a peptidomimetic antagonist of formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) was explored by an approach involving combination of elements from the two most potent FPR2 antagonists described: a Rhodamine B-conjugated 10-residue gelsonin-derived peptide (i.e., PBP10, RhB-QRLFQVKGRR-OH) and the palmitoylated α-peptide/β-peptoid hybrid Pam-(Lys-βNspe)6-NH2. This generated an array of hybrid compounds from which a new subclass of receptor-selective antagonists was identified. The most potent representatives displayed activity in the low nanomolar range. The resulting stable and potent FPR2-selective antagonists (i.e., RhB-(Lys-βNphe)n-NH2; n = 4-6) are expected to become valuable tools in further elucidation of the physiological role of FPR2 in health and disease.

  20. Oxytocin receptor density is associated with male mating tactics and social monogamy

    PubMed Central

    Ophir, Alexander G.; Gessel, Ana; Zheng, Da-Jiang; Phelps, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its well-described role in female affiliation, the influence of oxytocin on male pairbonding is largely unknown. However, recent human studies indicate that this nonapeptide has a potent influence on male behaviors commonly associated with monogamy. Here we investigated the distribution of oxytocin receptors (OTR) throughout the forebrain of the socially monogamous male prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Because males vary in both sexual and spatial fidelity, we explored the extent to which OTR predicted monogamous or non-monogamous patterns of space use, mating success and sexual fidelity in free-living males. We found that monogamous males expressed higher OTR density in the nucleus accumbens than non-monogamous males, a result that mirrors species differences in voles with different mating systems. OTR density in the posterior portion of the insula predicted mating success. Finally, OTR in the hippocampus and septohippocampal nucleus, which are nuclei associated with spatial memory, predicted patterns of space use and reproductive success within mating tactics. Our data highlight the importance of oxytocin receptor in neural structures associated with pairbonding and socio-spatial memory in male mating tactics. The role of memory in mating systems is often neglected, despite the fact that mating tactics impose an inherently spatial challenge for animals. Identifying mechanisms responsible for relating information about the social world with mechanisms mediating pairbonding and mating tactics is crucial to fully appreciate the suite of factors driving mating systems. PMID:22285648

  1. The localization of oxytocin receptors in the islets of Langerhans in the rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motoaki; Honda, Yuko; Li, Ming-Zi; Masuko, Sadahiko; Murata, Yuzo

    2013-05-10

    In this study, oxytocin receptors (OTRs) in the islets of Langerhans were detected using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical technique. Indeed, OTR mRNA was expressed in the rat pancreas. Double immunohistochemical staining for OTR and either glucagon or insulin demonstrated their co-localization in A-cells or B-cells, respectively. OTR-immunoreactivity in A-cells was stronger than that of B-cells. All A-cells and 94.8% of B-cells were OTR-immunoreactive. We reveal the statistically significant relations of OTR with A-cells and B-cells in the islets of Langerhans. This is the first demonstration of the OTR localization in the islets of Langerhans immunohistochemically. It suggests that oxytocin (OT) is involved in the release of insulin and glucagon.

  2. No Association between Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Gene Polymorphisms and Experimentally Elicited Social Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Apicella, Coren L.; Cesarini, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Dawes, Christopher T.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Wallace, Björn; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Westberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Background Oxytocin (OXT) has been implicated in a suite of complex social behaviors including observed choices in economic laboratory experiments. However, actual studies of associations between oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variants and experimentally elicited social preferences are rare. Methodology/Principal Findings We test hypotheses of associations between social preferences, as measured by behavior in two economic games, and 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the OXTR gene in a sample of Swedish twins (n = 684). Two standard economic games, the dictator game and the trust game, both involving real monetary consequences, were used to elicit such preferences. After correction for multiple hypothesis testing, we found no significant associations between any of the 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and behavior in either of the games. Conclusion We were unable to replicate the most significant association reported in previous research between the amount donated in a dictator game and an OXTR genetic variant. PMID:20585395

  3. The role of melatonin membrane receptors in melatonin-dependent oxytocin secretion from the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system - an in vitro and in vivo approach.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Marlena; Wolak, Monika; Bojanowska, Ewa; Piera, Lucyna; Roszczyk, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin exerts its biological role acting mainly via G protein-coupled membrane MT1 and MT2 receptors. To determine whether a response of oxytocinergic neurons to different concentrations of melatonin is mediated through membrane MT1 and/or MT2 receptors, the effect of melatonin receptors antagonists, i.e. luzindole (a non-selective antagonist of both MT1 and MT2 receptors) and 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (4-P-PDOT - a selective antagonist of MT2 receptor), on melatonin-dependent oxytocin (OT) secretion from the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial (H-N) system, has been studied both in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro experiment, male rats served as donors of the H-N explants, which were placed in 1 ml of normal Krebs-Ringer fluid (nKRF) heated to 37oC. The H-N explants were incubated successively in nKRF {fluid B1} and incubation fluid as B1 enriched with appropriate concentration of melatonin, i.e. 10-9 M, 10-7 M, or 10-3 M and luzindole or 4-P-PDOT, or their vehicles (0.1% ethanol or DMSO) {fluid B2}. After 20 minutes of incubation in fluid B1 and then B2, the media were collected and immediately frozen before OT estimation by the RIA. The OT secretion was determined by using the B2/B1 ratio for each H-N explant. During in vivo experiment, rats were given an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of 5 mL luzindole or 4-P-PDOT, or their solvent (0.1% DMSO) and 10 minutes later the next i.c.v. infusion of 5 mL of either melatonin solution (10-7 M) or its vehicle (0.1 % ethanol in 0.9% sodium chloride). Melatonin at a concentration of 10-3 M significantly stimulated, while at a concentration of 10-9 M had no effect on, oxytocin secretion from the rat H-N system in vitro, also when luzindole or 4-P-PDOT was present in a medium. On the other hand, melatonin at a concentration of 10-7 M diminished this neurohormone output from an isolated H-N system and into the blood. Luzindole significantly suppressed such melatonin action, while 4-P-PDOT did not change the

  4. Functional interactions between the oxytocin receptor and the β2-adrenergic receptor: implications for ERK1/2 activation in human myometrial cells.

    PubMed

    Wrzal, Paulina K; Goupil, Eugénie; Laporte, Stéphane A; Hébert, Terence E; Zingg, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    The Gq-coupled oxytocin receptor (OTR) and the Gs-coupled β(2)-adrenergic receptor (β(2)AR) are both expressed in myometrial cells and mediate uterine contraction and relaxation, respectively. The two receptors represent important pharmacological targets as OTR antagonists and β(2)AR agonists are used to control pre-term uterine contractions. Despite their physiologically antagonistic effects, both receptors activate the MAP kinases ERK1/2, which has been implicated in uterine contraction and the onset of labor. To determine the signalling pathways involved in mediating the ERK1/2 response, we assessed the effect of blockers of specific G protein-associated pathways. In human myometrial hTERT-C3 cells, inhibition of Gαi as well as inhibition of the Gαq/PKC pathway led to a reduction of both OTR- and β(2)AR-mediated ERK1/2 activation. The involvement of Gαq/PKC in β(2)AR-mediated ERK1/2 induction was unexpected. To test whether the emergence of this novel signalling mechanism was dependent on OTR expression in the same cell, we conducted experiments in HEK 293 cells that were transfected with the β(2)AR alone or co-transfected with the OTR. Using this approach, we found that β(2)AR-mediated ERK1/2 responses became sensitive to PKC inhibition only in cells co-transfected with the OTR. Inhibitor studies indicated the involvement of an atypical PKC isoform in this process. We confirmed the specific involvement of PKCζ in this pathway by assessing PKCζ translocation to the cell membrane. Consistent with our inhibitor studies, we found that β(2)AR-mediated PKCζ translocation was dependent on co-expression of OTR. The present demonstration of a novel β(2)AR-coupled signalling pathway that is dependent on OTR co-expression is suggestive of a molecular interaction between the two receptors.

  5. Oxytocin receptor expression in human term and preterm gestational tissues prior to and following the onset of labour.

    PubMed

    Wathes, D C; Borwick, S C; Timmons, P M; Leung, S T; Thornton, S

    1999-04-01

    Oxytocin receptor (OTR) mRNA expression has previously been demonstrated in human myometrium, decidua, chorion and amnion but the effect of gestational age and the onset of labour has not been determined in these individual tissues. Spatial OTR mRNA expression was examined by in situ hybridization and ligand binding was confirmed using autoradiography with the iodinated oxytocin antagonist d(CH2)5[Tyr(Me)2,Thr4,Tyr-NH29]-vasotocin (125I-OTA). Tissue was collected at term (>37 weeks of gestation) or preterm (24-36 weeks of gestation) caesarean section and classified as labour (contractions every 5 min associated with cervical dilatation) or non-labour. OTR mRNA expression was measured as optical density units from autoradiographs. There was a highly significant (P<0.001) effect of tissue type on expression of OTR mRNA with expression greatest in myometrium, low in decidua and chorion and not detected in placenta. Similar results were obtained with the 125I-OTA-binding studies, indicating that the message was translated. Amnion had an apparently high level of both hybridization and 125I-OTA binding in some samples, but a lack of specificity prevented quantification of the signal in this tissue type. Term myometrium (labour and non-labour) had significantly higher (P<0.01) OTR mRNA expression than preterm myometrium, but there was no further increase in mRNA concentration associated with labour onset. In contrast, 125I-OTA binding in myometrium was already high at 33 weeks and did not increase further either later in pregnancy or with labour. In decidua there was no effect of gestational age or labour onset on OTR mRNA expression or 125I-OTA binding. In summary, OTR mRNA expression in the myometrium increased in late pregnancy whereas decidual expression was much lower and did not rise at term.

  6. Pharmacophore development for antagonists at α1 adrenergic receptor subtypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremner, J. B.; Coban, B.; Griffith, R.

    1996-12-01

    Many receptors, including α1 adrenergic receptors, have a range of subtypes. This offers possibilities for the development of highly selective antagonists with potentially fewer detrimental effects. Antagonists developed for α1A receptors, for example, would have potential in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. As part of the molecular design process, structural features necessary for the selective affinity for α1A and α1B adrenergic receptors have been investigated. The molecular modelling software (particularly the Apex module) of Molecular Simulations, Inc. was used to develop pharmacophore models for these two subtypes. Low-energy conformations of a set of known antagonists were used as input, together with a classification of the receptor affinity data. The biophores proposed by the program were evaluated and pharmacophores were proposed. The pharmacophore models were validated by testing the fit of known antagonists, not included in the training set. The critical structural feature for selectivity between the α1A and α1B adrenergic receptor sites is the distance between the basic nitrogen atom and the centre of an aromatic ring system. This will be exploited in the design and synthesis of structurally new selective antagonists for these sites.

  7. Gene expression of estrogen and oxytocin receptors in the uterus of pregnant and parturient bitches.

    PubMed

    Veiga, G A L; Milazzotto, M P; Nichi, M; Lúcio, C F; Silva, L C G; Angrimani, D S R; Vannucchi, C I

    2015-04-01

    In the canine species, the precise mechanisms of pregnancy maintenance and the initiation of parturition are not completely understood. The expression of genes encoding the receptors for estrogen (ERα mRNA) and oxytocin (OTR mRNA) was studied in the endometrium and myometrium during pregnancy and parturition in dogs. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify the levels of ERα mRNA and OTR mRNA in the uterus of bitches during early (up to 20 days of gestation), mid (20 to 40 days) and late pregnancy (41 to 60 days), and parturition (first stage of labor). All tissues expressed ERα and OTR mRNA, and are thus possibly able to respond to eventual estrogen and oxytocin hormonal stimuli. No statistically significant differences in the expression of ERα mRNA were verified in the endometrium and myometrium throughout pregnancy and parturition, but expression of OTR mRNA increased at both parturition and late pregnancy. We concluded that the increase of endometrial and myometrial OTR mRNA expression in dogs is not an event dependent on estrogenic stimulation. Moreover, the contractility response of the canine uterus to oxytocin begins during pregnancy and maintains myometrial activity. The expression of OTR mRNA in canine uterine tissues varied over time, which supports an interpretation that the sensitivity and response to hormone therapy varies during the course of pregnancy and labor. Further studies are needed to elucidate the factors underlying the synthesis of uterine oxytocin receptors and the possible role of ERβ rather than ERα in the uterine tissues during pregnancy and parturition in dogs.

  8. Gene expression of estrogen and oxytocin receptors in the uterus of pregnant and parturient bitches

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, G.A.L.; Milazzotto, M.P.; Nichi, M.; Lúcio, C.F.; Silva, L.C.G.; Angrimani, D.S.R.; Vannucchi, C.I.

    2015-01-01

    In the canine species, the precise mechanisms of pregnancy maintenance and the initiation of parturition are not completely understood. The expression of genes encoding the receptors for estrogen (ERα mRNA) and oxytocin (OTR mRNA) was studied in the endometrium and myometrium during pregnancy and parturition in dogs. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify the levels of ERα mRNA and OTR mRNA in the uterus of bitches during early (up to 20 days of gestation), mid (20 to 40 days) and late pregnancy (41 to 60 days), and parturition (first stage of labor). All tissues expressed ERα and OTR mRNA, and are thus possibly able to respond to eventual estrogen and oxytocin hormonal stimuli. No statistically significant differences in the expression of ERα mRNA were verified in the endometrium and myometrium throughout pregnancy and parturition, but expression of OTR mRNA increased at both parturition and late pregnancy. We concluded that the increase of endometrial and myometrial OTR mRNA expression in dogs is not an event dependent on estrogenic stimulation. Moreover, the contractility response of the canine uterus to oxytocin begins during pregnancy and maintains myometrial activity. The expression of OTR mRNA in canine uterine tissues varied over time, which supports an interpretation that the sensitivity and response to hormone therapy varies during the course of pregnancy and labor. Further studies are needed to elucidate the factors underlying the synthesis of uterine oxytocin receptors and the possible role of ERβ rather than ERα in the uterine tissues during pregnancy and parturition in dogs. PMID:25714892

  9. Activation of presynaptic oxytocin receptors enhances glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus of prenatally restraint stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Mairesse, Jérôme; Gatta, Eleonora; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Marrocco, Jordan; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Soichot, Marion; Deruyter, Lucie; Camp, Gilles Van; Bouwalerh, Hammou; Fagioli, Francesca; Pittaluga, Anna; Allorge, Delphine; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Maccari, Stefania

    2015-12-01

    Oxytocin receptors are known to modulate synaptic transmission and network activity in the hippocampus, but their precise function has been only partially elucidated. Here, we have found that activation of presynaptic oxytocin receptor with the potent agonist, carbetocin, enhanced depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus with no effect on GABA release. This evidence paved the way for examining the effect of carbetocin treatment in "prenatally restraint stressed" (PRS) rats, i.e., the offspring of dams exposed to repeated episodes of restraint stress during pregnancy. Adult PRS rats exhibit an anxious/depressive-like phenotype associated with an abnormal glucocorticoid feedback regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and, remarkably, with a reduced depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus. Chronic systemic treatment with carbetocin (1mg/kg, i.p., once a day for 2-3 weeks) in PRS rats corrected the defect in glutamate release, anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, and abnormalities in social behavior, in the HPA response to stress, and in the expression of stress-related genes in the hippocampus and amygdala. Of note, carbetocin treatment had no effect on these behavioral and neuroendocrine parameters in prenatally unstressed (control) rats, with the exception of a reduced expression of the oxytocin receptor gene in the amygdala. These findings disclose a novel function of oxytocin receptors in the hippocampus, and encourage the use of oxytocin receptor agonists in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders in adult life.

  10. Triterpenes from Alisma orientalis act as androgen receptor agonists, progesterone receptor antagonists, and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiang-Ru

    2014-08-01

    Alisma orientalis, a well-known traditional medicine, exerts numerous pharmacological effects including anti-diabetes, anti-hepatitis, and anti-diuretics but its bioactivity is not fully clear. Androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are three members of nuclear receptor superfamily that has been widely targeted for developing treatments for essential diseases including prostate cancer and breast cancer. In this study, two triterpenes, alisol M 23-acetate and alisol A 23-acetate from Alisma orientalis were determined whether they may act as androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR), or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulators. Indeed, in the transient transfection reporter assays, alisol M 23-acetate and alisol A 23-acetate transactivated AR in dose-dependent manner, while they transrepressed the transactivation effects exerted by agonist-activated PR and GR. Through molecular modeling docking studies, they were shown to respectively interact with AR, PR, or GR ligand binding pocket fairly well. All these results indicate that alisol M 23-acetate and alisol A 23-acetate from Alisma orientalis might possess therapeutic effects through their modulation of AR, PR, and GR pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-NMDA receptor antagonist-induced drinking in rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Z.; Johnson, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    Glutamate has been implicated in the central control of mechanisms that maintain body fluid homeostasis. The present studies demonstrate that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of the non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3 dione (CNQX) induce drinking in rats. The dipsogenic effect of i.c.v. DNQX was antagonized by the non-NMDA receptor agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA). The water intake induced by DNQX was also blocked by pretreatment with a NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, but not by angiotensin type 1 (AT1) or acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonists (losartan and atropine). The results indicate that non-NMDA receptors may exert a tonic inhibitory effect within brain circuits that control dipsogenic activity and that functional integrity of NMDA receptors may be required for the non-NMDA receptor antagonists to induce water intake. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. Non-NMDA receptor antagonist-induced drinking in rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Z.; Johnson, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    Glutamate has been implicated in the central control of mechanisms that maintain body fluid homeostasis. The present studies demonstrate that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of the non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3 dione (CNQX) induce drinking in rats. The dipsogenic effect of i.c.v. DNQX was antagonized by the non-NMDA receptor agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA). The water intake induced by DNQX was also blocked by pretreatment with a NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, but not by angiotensin type 1 (AT1) or acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonists (losartan and atropine). The results indicate that non-NMDA receptors may exert a tonic inhibitory effect within brain circuits that control dipsogenic activity and that functional integrity of NMDA receptors may be required for the non-NMDA receptor antagonists to induce water intake. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. Endothelin receptor antagonists for subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jia; Shi, Zhenghong; Yang, Kehu; Tian, Jin Hui; Jiang, Lei

    2012-09-12

    A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition where blood leaks out of blood vessels over the surface of the brain. Delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) and the related feature of vasospasm, where patients experience a delayed deterioration, have long been recognized as the leading potentially treatable cause of death and disability in patients with SAH. Endothelin is a potent, long-lasting endogenous vasoconstrictor that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of DIND. Therefore, endothelin receptor antagonists (ETAs) have emerged as a promising therapeutic option for SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm. To assess the efficacy and tolerability of ETAs for SAH. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (December 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1950 to December 2011), EMBASE (1946 to December 2011) and the Chinese Biomedical Database (1978 to December 2011). In an effort to identify further published, unpublished and ongoing trials we searched additional Chinese databases, ongoing trials registers, Google Scholar and Medical Matrix, handsearched journals, scanned reference lists, and contacted researchers and pharmaceutical companies. We only included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared an ETA with placebo for SAH in adult (18 years of age or older) patients who met the diagnostic criteria for SAH based on clinical symptoms, with confirmation on computerized tomography scan results or angiography. Two review authors independently selected RCTs according to the inclusion criteria. We resolved disagreements by discussion with a third review author. Two review authors independently selected relevant articles and assessed their eligibility according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. We resolved disagreements by discussion with a third review author. We used the random-effects model and expressed the results as

  14. Novel arylpiperazines as selective alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Murray, W V; Jolliffe, L; Pulito, V

    2000-05-15

    A novel series of arylpiperazines has been synthesized and identified as antagonists of alpha1a adrenergic receptor (alpha1a-AR) implicated in benign prostatic hyperplasia. These compounds selectively bind to membrane bound alpha1a-AR with K(i)s as low as 0.66 nM. As such, these potentially represent a viable treatment for BPH without the side effects associated with known alpha1-adrenergic antagonists.

  15. Oxytocin alleviates orofacial mechanical hypersensitivity associated with infraorbital nerve injury through vasopressin-1A receptors of the rat trigeminal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Asako; Shinoda, Masamichi; Katagiri, Ayano; Takeda, Mamoru; Suzuki, Tatsuro; Asaka, Junichi; Yeomans, David C; Iwata, Koichi

    2017-04-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) is a neuropeptide hormone synthesized and secreted by hypothalamic neurons and has been reported to play a significant role in pain modulation. However, the mechanisms underlying OXT's antinociceptive effect on neuropathic pain are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the peripheral effect of OXT on mechanical hypersensitivity induced by partial ligation of the infraorbital nerve (PNL) in rats. Mechanical hypersensitivity in the whisker pad skin after PNL was attenuated by the direct administration of OXT into the trigeminal ganglion (TG). The proportion of vasopressin-1A receptor (V1A-R)-immunoreactive, but not OXT-receptor-immunoreactive, neurons significantly increased among TG neurons innervating the whisker pad skin after PNL. In a patch-clamp recording from TG neurons isolated from PNL rats, the resting membrane potential of OXT-treated neurons was significantly decreased, and the current thresholds of OXT-treated neurons for spike generation (rheobases) were significantly greater than those of vehicle-treated neurons. In addition, OXT increased voltage-gated K channel currents in PNL animals. Furthermore, intra-TG administration of a selective V1A-R antagonist reversed the OXT-induced alleviation of mechanical hypersensitivity, and coapplication of the antagonist opposed OXT's effects on the resting membrane potential, rheobase, and K current. These findings suggest that OXT is effective at suppressing TG neuronal hyperexcitability after nerve injury, likely by modulation of voltage-gated K channels through V1A-R. This signaling mechanism represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of orofacial neuropathic pain.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of antagonist and agonist interactions with dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Duarte, E P; Oliveira, C R; Carvalho, A P

    1988-03-01

    The binding of [3H]spiperone to dopamine D-2 receptors and its inhibition by antagonists and agonists were examined in microsomes derived from the sheep caudate nucleus, at temperatures between 37 and 1 degree C, and the thermodynamic parameters of the binding were evaluated. The affinity of the receptor for the antagonists, spiperone and (+)-butaclamol, decreased as the incubation temperature decreased; the affinity for haloperidol did not further decrease at temperatures below 15 degrees C. The binding of the antagonists was associated with very large increases in entropy, as expected for hydrophobic interactions. The enthalpy and entropy changes associated with haloperidol binding were dependent on temperature, in contrast to those associated with spiperone and (+)-butaclamol. The magnitude of the entropy increase associated with the specific binding of the antagonists did not correlate with the degree of lipophilicity of these drugs. The data suggest that, in addition to hydrophobic forces, other forces are also involved in the antagonist-dopamine receptor interactions, and that a conformational change of the receptor could occur when the antagonist binds. Agonist binding data are consistent with a two-state model of the receptor, a high-affinity state (RH) and a low-affinity state (RL). The affinity of dopamine binding to the RH decreased with decreasing temperatures below 20 degrees C, whereas the affinity for the RL increased at low temperatures. In contrast, the affinity of apomorphine for both states of receptor decreased as the temperature decreased from 30 to 8 degrees C. A clear distinction between the energetics of high-affinity and low-affinity agonist binding was observed. The formation of the high-affinity complex was associated with larger increases in enthalpy and entropy than the interaction with the low-affinity state was. The results suggest that the interaction of the receptor with the G-proteins, induced or stabilized by the binding of

  17. Exogenous and evoked oxytocin restores social behavior in the Cntnap2 mouse model of autism.

    PubMed

    Peñagarikano, Olga; Lázaro, María T; Lu, Xiao-Hong; Gordon, Aaron; Dong, Hongmei; Lam, Hoa A; Peles, Elior; Maidment, Nigel T; Murphy, Niall P; Yang, X William; Golshani, Peyman; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2015-01-21

    Mouse models of neuropsychiatric diseases provide a platform for mechanistic understanding and development of new therapies. We previously demonstrated that knockout of the mouse homolog of CNTNAP2 (contactin-associated protein-like 2), in which mutations cause cortical dysplasia and focal epilepsy (CDFE) syndrome, displays many features that parallel those of the human disorder. Because CDFE has high penetrance for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we performed an in vivo screen for drugs that ameliorate abnormal social behavior in Cntnap2 mutant mice and found that acute administration of the neuropeptide oxytocin improved social deficits. We found a decrease in the number of oxytocin immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in mutant mice and an overall decrease in brain oxytocin levels. Administration of a selective melanocortin receptor 4 agonist, which causes endogenous oxytocin release, also acutely rescued the social deficits, an effect blocked by an oxytocin antagonist. We confirmed that oxytocin neurons mediated the behavioral improvement by activating endogenous oxytocin neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus with Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD). Last, we showed that chronic early postnatal treatment with oxytocin led to more lasting behavioral recovery and restored oxytocin immunoreactivity in the PVN. These data demonstrate dysregulation of the oxytocin system in Cntnap2 knockout mice and suggest that there may be critical developmental windows for optimal treatment to rectify this deficit. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. The Differential Impact of Oxytocin Receptor Gene in Violence-Exposed Boys and Girls.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Livia C; Jones, Christopher W; Drury, Stacy S; Theall, Katherine P

    2017-03-21

    Childhood violence exposure is a prevalent public health problem. Understanding the lasting impact of violence requires an enhanced appreciation for the complex effects of violence across behavioral, physiologic, and molecular outcomes. This subject matched, cross-sectional study of 80 children explored the impact of violence exposure across behavioral, physiologic, and cellular outcomes. Externalizing behavior, diurnal cortisol rhythm, and telomere length (TL) were examined in a community recruited cohort of Black youth. Given evidence that genetic variation contributes to individual differences in response to the environment, we further tested whether a polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR rs53576) moderated associations between violence and youth outcomes. Exposure to violence was directly associated with increased externalizing behavior, but no direct association of violence was found with cortisol or TL. Oxytocin genotype, however, moderated the association between violence and both cortisol and TL, suggesting that pathways linked to oxytocin may contribute to individual differences in the physiologic and molecular consequences of violence exposure. Sex differences with OXTR in cortisol and TL outcomes were also detected. Taken together, these findings suggest that there are complex pathways through which violence exposure impacts children, and that these pathways differ by both genetic variation and the sex of the child.

  19. The association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6) genes with oxytocin dosing requirements and labor outcomes.

    PubMed

    Grotegut, Chad A; Ngan, Emily; Garrett, Melanie E; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Ashley-Koch, Allison E; Swamy, Geeta K

    2017-09-01

    Oxytocin is a potent uterotonic agent that is widely used for induction and augmentation of labor. Oxytocin has a narrow therapeutic index and the optimal dosing for any individual woman varies widely. The objective of this study was to determine whether genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) or in the gene encoding G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6), which regulates desensitization of the oxytocin receptor, could explain variation in oxytocin dosing and labor outcomes among women being induced near term. Pregnant women with a singleton gestation residing in Durham County, NC, were prospectively enrolled as part of the Healthy Pregnancy, Healthy Baby cohort study. Those women undergoing an induction of labor at 36 weeks or greater were genotyped for 18 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in OXTR and 7 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in GRK6 using TaqMan assays. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between maternal genotype and maximal oxytocin infusion rate, total oxytocin dose received, and duration of labor. Logistic regression was used to test for the association of maternal genotype with mode of delivery. For each outcome, backward selection techniques were utilized to control for important confounding variables and additive genetic models were used. Race/ethnicity was included in all models because of differences in allele frequencies across populations, and Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was used. DNA was available from 482 women undergoing induction of labor at 36 weeks or greater. Eighteen haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms within OXTR and 7 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms within GRK6 were examined. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in OXTR showed nominal significance with maximal infusion rate of oxytocin, and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in OXTR were associated with total oxytocin dose received. One single-nucleotide polymorphism in

  20. Peripherally Administered Non-peptide Oxytocin Antagonist, L368,899®, Accumulates in Limbic Brain Areas: A New Pharmacological Tool for the Study of Social Motivation in Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Boccia, Maria L.; Goursaud, Anne-Pierre S.; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Anderson, Kenneth D.; Pedersen, Cort A.

    2009-01-01

    Central administration of oxytocin (OT) antagonists inhibits maternal and sexual behavior in non-primates, providing the strongest experimental evidence that endogenous OT facilitates these behaviors. While there have been a few reports that ICV administration of OT increases social behaviors in monkeys, no studies to date have assessed the effects of OT antagonists. Therefore, we studied in rhesus monkeys whether L368,899®, a non-peptide antagonist produced by Merck that selectively blocks the human uterine OT receptor, penetrates the CNS after peripheral administration and alters female maternal and sexual behavior. In two studies in four male monkeys, L368,899 was injected iv (1 mg/kg) after which (1) CSF samples were collected at intervals over 4 h and (2) brains were collected at 60 min. Assay of samples confirmed that iv-administered L368,899 entered CSF and accumulated in the hypothalamus, septum, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus, but not other areas. An adult female monkey was tested for interest in either an infant or sexual behavior, receiving a different iv treatment prior to each test (1 or 3 mg/kg of L368,899 or saline) OT antagonist treatment reduced or eliminated interest in the infant and sexual behavior. These results, although preliminary, are the first to directly implicate endogenous OT in activation of primate maternal interest and sexual behavior. While it remains to be empirically demonstrated that peripherally administered L368,899 blocks central OT receptors, our behavioral findings suggest that this non-peptide antagonist may facilitate testing OT involvement in a variety of social and other behaviors in primates. PMID:17583705

  1. Dynamic changes in oxytocin receptor expression and activation at parturition in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Meddle, Simone L; Bishop, Valerie R; Gkoumassi, Effimia; van Leeuwen, Fred W; Douglas, Alison J

    2007-10-01

    Oxytocin plays a pivotal role in rat parturition, acting within the brain to facilitate its own release in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus, and to stimulate maternal behavior. We investigated oxytocin receptor (OTR) expression and activation perinatally. Using a (35)S-labeled riboprobe complementary to OTR mRNA, OTR expression was quantified in proestrus virgin, 21- and 22-day pregnant, parturient (90 min. from pup 1 birth), and postpartum (4-12 h from parturition) rats. Peak OTR mRNA expression was observed at parturition in the SON, brainstem regions, medial preoptic area (mPOA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BnST), and olfactory bulbs, but there was no change in the paraventricular nucleus and lateral septum. OTR mRNA expression was increased on the day of expected parturition in the SON and brainstem, suggesting that oxytocin controls the pathway mediating input from uterine signals. Likewise, OTR mRNA expression was increased in the mPOA and BnST during labor/birth. In the olfactory bulbs and medial amygdala, parturition induced increased OTR mRNA expression compared with pre-parturition, reflecting their immediate response to new stimuli at birth. Postpartum OTR expression in all brain regions returned to levels observed in virgin rats. Parturition significantly increased the number of double-immunolabeled cells for Fos and OTR within the SON, brainstem, BnST, and mPOA regions compared with virgin rats. Thus, there are dynamic region-dependent changes in OTR-expressing cells at parturition. This altered OTR distribution pattern in the brain perinatally reflects the crucial role oxytocin plays in orchestrating both birth and maternal behavior.

  2. Oxytocin receptor gene methylation: converging multilevel evidence for a role in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Christiane; Dannlowski, Udo; Bräuer, David; Stevens, Stephan; Laeger, Inga; Wittmann, Hannah; Kugel, Harald; Dobel, Christian; Hurlemann, René; Reif, Andreas; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Heindel, Walter; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Arolt, Volker; Gerlach, Alexander L; Hoyer, Jürgen; Deckert, Jürgen; Zwanzger, Peter; Domschke, Katharina

    2015-05-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a commonly occurring and highly disabling disorder. The neuropeptide oxytocin and its receptor (OXTR) have been implicated in social cognition and behavior. This study-for the first time applying a multilevel epigenetic approach-investigates the role of OXTR gene methylation in categorical, dimensional, and intermediate neuroendocrinological/neural network phenotypes of social anxiety. A total of 110 unmedicated patients with SAD and matched 110 controls were analyzed for OXTR methylation by direct sequencing of sodium bisulfite-converted DNA extracted from whole blood. Furthermore, OXTR methylation was investigated regarding SAD-related traits (Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS)), salivary cortisol response during the Trier social stress test (TSST), and amygdala responsiveness to social phobia related verbal stimuli using fMRI. Significantly decreased OXTR methylation particularly at CpG Chr3: 8 809 437 was associated with (1) the categorical phenotype of SAD (p<0.001, Cohen's d=0.535), (2) increased SPS and SIAS scores (p<0.001), (3) increased cortisol response to the TSST (p=0.02), and (4) increased amygdala responsiveness during social phobia-related word processing (right: p(corr)<0.001; left: p(corr)=0.005). Assuming that decreased OXTR methylation confers increased OXTR expression, the present finding may reflect a compensatory upregulation for pathologically reduced oxytocin levels or a causally relevant increased OXTR activation in SAD and related traits. OXTR methylation patterns might thus serve as peripheral surrogates of oxytocin tone and aid in establishing accessible biomarkers of SAD risk allowing for indicated preventive interventions and personalized treatment approaches targeting the oxytocin system.

  3. Impact of estrogen receptor α gene and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms on female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Armeni, Anastasia K; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Marioli, Dimitra; Koika, Vassiliki; Michaelidou, Euthychia; Mourtzi, Niki; Iconomou, Gregoris

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, research attention has increasingly been paid to the neurobiological component of sexual behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of estrogen receptor α (ERA) gene polymorphism (rs2234693-PvuII) (T→C substitution) and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (rs53576) (G→A substitution) with sexuality parameters of young, healthy women. One hundred thirty-three Greek heterosexual women, students in higher education institutions, 20–25 years of age, sexually active, with normal menstrual cycles (28–35 days), were recruited in the study. Exclusion criteria were chronic and/or major psychiatric diseases, use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid diseases as well as drugs that are implicated in hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis. T allele (wildtype) of rs2234693 (PvuII) polymorphism of ERA gene was correlated with increased levels of arousal and lubrication, whereas A allele (polymorphic) of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphism was correlated with increased arousal levels. The simultaneous presence of both T allele of rs2234693 (PvuII) and A allele of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphisms (T + A group) was correlated with increased arousal, orgasm levels as well as female sexual function index full score. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the interaction between ERA and OXTR with regard to sexual function in women. Female sexuality is a complex behavioral trait that encompasses both biological and psychological components. It seems that variability in female sexual response stems from genetic variability that characterizes endocrine, neurotransmitter and central nervous system influences. PMID:28069897

  4. Impact of estrogen receptor α gene and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms on female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Armeni, Anastasia K; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Marioli, Dimitra; Koika, Vassiliki; Michaelidou, Euthychia; Mourtzi, Niki; Iconomou, Gregoris; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, research attention has increasingly been paid to the neurobiological component of sexual behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of estrogen receptor α (ERA) gene polymorphism (rs2234693-PvuII) (T→C substitution) and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (rs53576) (G→A substitution) with sexuality parameters of young, healthy women. One hundred thirty-three Greek heterosexual women, students in higher education institutions, 20-25 years of age, sexually active, with normal menstrual cycles (28-35 days), were recruited in the study. Exclusion criteria were chronic and/or major psychiatric diseases, use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid diseases as well as drugs that are implicated in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. T allele (wildtype) of rs2234693 (PvuII) polymorphism of ERA gene was correlated with increased levels of arousal and lubrication, whereas A allele (polymorphic) of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphism was correlated with increased arousal levels. The simultaneous presence of both T allele of rs2234693 (PvuII) and A allele of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphisms (T + A group) was correlated with increased arousal, orgasm levels as well as female sexual function index full score. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the interaction between ERA and OXTR with regard to sexual function in women. Female sexuality is a complex behavioral trait that encompasses both biological and psychological components. It seems that variability in female sexual response stems from genetic variability that characterizes endocrine, neurotransmitter and central nervous system influences.

  5. Mixed antagonistic effects of bilobalide at rho1 GABAC receptor.

    PubMed

    Huang, S H; Duke, R K; Chebib, M; Sasaki, K; Wada, K; Johnston, G A R

    2006-01-01

    Bilobalide was found to be a moderately potent antagonist with a weak use-dependent effect at recombinant human rho(1) GABA(C) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp methodology. Antagonism of bilobalide at homomeric rho(1) GABA(C) receptors appeared to be mixed. At low concentration, bilobalide (3 microM) caused a parallel right shift and surmountable GABA maximal response of the GABA dose-response curve characteristic of a competitive antagonist. At high concentrations, bilobalide (10-100 microM) caused nonparallel right shifts and reduced maximal GABA responses of GABA dose-response curves characteristic of a noncompetitive antagonist. The potency of bilobalide appears to be dependent on the concentrations of GABA and was more potent at lower GABA concentrations. The mechanism of action of bilobalide at rho(1) GABA(C) receptors appears to be similar to that of the chloride channel blocker picrotoxinin.

  6. Third Generation Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; Why We Need a Fourth

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Sanchez, Elise

    2015-01-01

    The first mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, spironolactone, was developed almost 60 years ago to treat primary aldosteronism and pathological edema. Its use waned in part due to its lack of selectivity. Subsequently knowledge of the scope of MR function was expanded along with clinical evidence of the therapeutic importance of MR antagonists to prevent the ravages of inappropriate MR activation. Forty-two years elapsed between the first and MR-selective second generation of MR antagonists. Fifteen years later, despite serious shortcomings of the existing antagonists, a third generation antagonist has yet to be marketed. Progress has been slowed by the lack of appreciation of the large variety of cell types that express the MR and its diverse cell-type-specific actions, as well as its uniquely complex interactions actions at the molecular level. New MR antagonists should preferentially target the inflammatory and fibrotic effects of MR and perhaps its excitatory effects on sympathetic nervous system, but not the renal tubular epithelium or neurons of the cortex and hippocampus. This review briefly describes efforts to develop a third generation MR antagonist and why fourth generation antagonists and selective agonists based on structural determinants of tissue and ligand-specific MR activation should be contemplated. PMID:26466326

  7. Dual modulation of inward rectifier potassium currents in olfactory neuronal cells by promiscuous G protein coupling of the oxytocin receptor.

    PubMed

    Gravati, Marta; Busnelli, Marta; Bulgheroni, Elisabetta; Reversi, Alessandra; Spaiardi, Paolo; Parenti, Marco; Toselli, Mauro; Chini, Bice

    2010-09-01

    Oxytocin receptor is a seven transmembrane receptor widely expressed in the CNS that triggers G(i) or G(q) protein-mediated signaling cascades leading to the regulation of a variety of neuroendocrine and cognitive functions. We decided to investigate whether and how the promiscuous receptor/G protein coupling affects neuronal excitability. As an experimental model, we used the immortalized gonadotropin-releasing hormone-positive GN11 cell line displaying the features of immature, migrating olfactory neurons. Using RT-PCR analysis, we detected the presence of oxytocin receptors whose stimulation by oxytocin led to the accumulation of inositol phosphates and to the inhibition of cell proliferation, and the expression of several inward rectifier (IR) K+ channel subtypes. Moreover, electrophysiological and pharmacological inspections using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings evidenced that in GN11 cells, IR channel subtypes are responsive to oxytocin. In particular, we found that: (i) peptide activation of receptor either inhibited or stimulated IR conductances, and (ii) IR current inhibition was mediated by a pertussis toxin-resistant G protein presumably of the G(q/11) subtype, and by phospholipase C, whereas IR current activation was achieved via receptor coupling to a pertussis toxin-sensitive G(i/o) protein. The findings suggest that neuronal excitability might be tuned by a single peptide receptor that mediates opposing effects on distinct K+ channels through the promiscuous coupling to different G proteins.

  8. Endothelin receptor antagonists influence cardiovascular morphology in uremic rats.

    PubMed

    Nabokov, A V; Amann, K; Wessels, S; Münter, K; Wagner, J; Ritz, E

    1999-02-01

    In is generally held that renal failure results in blood pressure (BP)-independent structural changes of the myocardium and the vasculature. The contribution, if any, of endothelin (ET) to these changes has been unknown. We morphometrically studied random samples of the left ventricle myocardium and small intramyocardial arteries in subtotally (5/6) nephrectomized (SNx) male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with either the selective ETA receptor antagonist BMS182874 (30 mg/kg/day) or the nonselective ETA/ETB receptor antagonist Ro46-2005 (30 mg/kg/day) in comparison with either sham-operated rats, untreated SNx, or SNx rats treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor trandolapril (0.1 mg/kg/day). Eight weeks later, systolic BP was lower in trandolapril-treated SNx compared with untreated SNx animals. No decrease in BP was seen following either ET receptor antagonist at the dose used. A significantly increased volume density of the myocardial interstitium was found in untreated SNx rats as compared with sham-operated controls. Such interstitial expansion was prevented by trandolapril and either ET receptor antagonist. SNx caused a substantial increase in the wall thickness of small intramyocardial arteries. The increase was prevented by trandolapril or BMS182874 treatment. The arteriolar wall:lumen ratio was significantly lower in all treated groups when compared with untreated SNx. In contrast, only trandolapril, but not the ET receptor antagonists, attenuated thickening of the aortic media in SNx animals. The ETA-selective and ETA/ETB-nonselective receptor antagonists appear to prevent development of myocardial fibrosis and structural changes of small intramyocardial arteries in experimental chronic renal failure. This effect is independent of systemic BP.

  9. Drug discovery and chemokine receptor antagonists: eppur si muove!

    PubMed

    Terricabras, Emma; Benjamim, Claudia; Godessart, Nuria

    2004-11-01

    The blockade of leukocyte migration has been demonstrated to be a valid option for the treatment of several autoimmune diseases. Chemokines play an active role in regulating cell infiltration into inflammatory sites and disrupting chemokine-receptor interactions has emerged as an alternative therapeutic approach. Pharmaceutical companies have developed an intense activity in the drug discovery of chemokine receptor antagonists in the last 10 years. Potent and selective compounds have been obtained and some of them are currently being evaluated in the clinic. The success of these trials will demonstrate whether the blockade of a single receptor is of therapeutic benefit. Alternative approaches, such as pan-receptor antagonists or inhibitors of the signalling pathways evoked by chemokines, are also being explored. In the meantime, new relationships between chemokines and receptors will be revealed, increasing our knowledge of such a fascinating field.

  10. Characterization of receptors mediating contraction of the rat isolated small mesenteric artery and aorta to arginine vasopressin and oxytocin

    PubMed Central

    Stam, Wiro B; Van der Graaf, Pieter H; Saxena, Pramod R

    1998-01-01

    The exact nature of the receptor subtype(s) involved in the action of arg-vasopressin (AVP) on the rat aorta and small mesenteric artery (SMA) is controversial. Therefore, we have studied the effects of the selective V1A receptor antagonists, OPC 21268 and SR 49059, and the oxytocin (OT) receptor antagonist, atosiban, on the AVP- and OT-induced contractions of the two vessels.AVP and OT displayed similar intrinsic activities in the rat aorta and SMA, but AVP was ∼130 fold and ∼500 fold more potent than OT, respectively. In the rat aorta, Hill slopes (nH) were similar for OT and AVP. However, in rat SMA, the OT concentration-effect (E/[A]) curve was significantly steeper than the AVP E/[A] curve (nH,=3.3±0.20, 2.3±0.15; P<0.001).In the aorta OPC 21268, SR 49059 and atosiban competitively antagonized the AVP and OT E/[A] curves. Except for atosiban and SR 49059 against AVP, competitive antagonism was also observed in the SMA. Atosiban caused concentration-dependent steepening of the AVP E/[A] curve, whereas SR 49059 decreased the upper asymptote.Schild analysis yielded affinities indicative of V1A receptor involvement in both vessels: pKB/pA2=9.20–9.48, 7.56–7.71 and 6.19–6.48 for SR 49059, OPC 21268 and atosiban, respectively.Neither AVP nor OT relaxed U46619 pre-contracted aorta or SMA in the presence of SR 49059, suggesting no interference of a vasodilatory component.Despite predominant involvement of V1A receptors in both vessels, the different Hill slopes of AVP and OT E/[A] curves as well as the steepening of the AVP E/[A] curves by atosiban are indicative of receptor heterogeneity in the rat SMA. PMID:9831926

  11. Discovery of Tertiary Sulfonamides as Potent Liver X Receptor Antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Zuercher, William J.; Buckholz†, Richard G.; Campobasso, Nino; Collins, Jon L.; Galardi, Cristin M.; Gampe, Robert T.; Hyatt, Stephen M.; Merrihew, Susan L.; Moore, John T.; Oplinger, Jeffrey A.; Reid, Paul R.; Spearing, Paul K.; Stanley, Thomas B.; Stewart, Eugene L.; Willson, Timothy M.

    2010-08-12

    Tertiary sulfonamides were identified in a HTS as dual liver X receptor (LXR, NR1H2, and NR1H3) ligands, and the binding affinity of the series was increased through iterative analogue synthesis. A ligand-bound cocrystal structure was determined which elucidated key interactions for high binding affinity. Further characterization of the tertiary sulfonamide series led to the identification of high affinity LXR antagonists. GSK2033 (17) is the first potent cell-active LXR antagonist described to date. 17 may be a useful chemical probe to explore the cell biology of this orphan nuclear receptor.

  12. Rat uterine oxytocin receptor and estrogen receptor α and β mRNA levels are regulated by estrogen through multiple estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Murata, Takuya; Narita, Kazumi; Ichimaru, Toru

    2014-03-07

    Estrogen action is mediated through several types of receptors (ERs), such as ERα, ERβ and putative membrane ERs. Oxytocin receptor (OTR) and ER expression levels in the rat uterus are regulated by estrogen; however, which types of ERs are involved has not been elucidated. This study examined OTR, ERα and ERβ levels in ovariectomized rats treated with 17β-estradiol (E2), an ERα agonist (PPT), an ERβ agonist (DPN) or estren (Es). E2 and PPT increased OTR mRNA levels and decreased ERα and ERβ mRNA levels 3 and 6 h posttreatment. DPN decreased ERα and ERβ mRNA levels at 3 and 6 h, while OTR mRNA levels increased at 3 h and decreased at 6 h. OTR mRNA levels increased 3 h after the Es treatment and then declined until 6 h. ERα and ERβ mRNA levels decreased by 3 h and remained low until 6 h posttreatment with Es. The ER antagonist ICI182,780 (ICI) suppressed the increases in OTR mRNA levels induced 3 h after the Es treatment. However, ICI and tamoxifen (Tam) had no significant effect on ERα and ERβ mRNA levels in the Es-treated or vehicle-treated group. In intact rats, proestrus-associated increases in OTR mRNA levels were antagonized by both ICI and Tam. However, decreases in ERα and ERβ mRNA levels were not antagonized by Tam and ICI, respectively. Therefore, uterine OTR gene expression is upregulated by estrogen through the classical nuclear (or non-nuclear) ERs, ERα and ERβ, while the levels of these ERs are downregulated by estrogen through multiple pathways including Es-sensitive nonclassical ERs.

  13. Oxytocin: Crossing the Bridge between Basic Science and Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Viero, Cedric; Shibuya, Izumi; Kitamura, Naoki; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Katoh, Akiko; Ueta, Yoichi; Zingg, Hans H; Chvatal, Alexandr; Sykova, Eva; Dayanithi, Govindan

    2010-01-01

    Is oxytocin the hormone of happiness? Probably not. However, this small nine amino acid peptide is involved in a wide variety of physiological and pathological functions such as sexual activity, penile erection, ejaculation, pregnancy, uterus contraction, milk ejection, maternal behavior, osteoporosis, diabetes, cancer, social bonding, and stress, which makes oxytocin and its receptor potential candidates as targets for drug therapy. In this review, we address the issues of drug design and specificity and focus our discussion on recent findings on oxytocin and its heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptor OTR. In this regard, we will highlight the following topics: (i) the role of oxytocin in behavior and affectivity, (ii) the relationship between oxytocin and stress with emphasis on the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis, (iii) the involvement of oxytocin in pain regulation and nociception, (iv) the specific action mechanisms of oxytocin on intracellular Ca2+ in the hypothalamo neurohypophysial system (HNS) cell bodies, (v) newly generated transgenic rats tagged by a visible fluorescent protein to study the physiology of vasopressin and oxytocin, and (vi) the action of the neurohypophysial hormone outside the central nervous system, including the myometrium, heart and peripheral nervous system. As a short nine amino acid peptide, closely related to its partner peptide vasopressin, oxytocin appears to be ideal for the design of agonists and antagonists of its receptor. In addition, not only the hormone itself and its binding to OTR, but also its synthesis, storage and release can be endogenously and exogenously regulated to counteract pathophysiological states. Understanding the fundamental physiopharmacology of the effects of oxytocin is an important and necessary approach for developing a potential pharmacotherapy. PMID:20626426

  14. Variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with differences in moral judgment

    PubMed Central

    Chaponis, Jonathan; Siburian, Richie; Gallagher, Patience; Ransohoff, Katherine; Wikler, Daniel; Perlis, Roy H.; Greene, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgments are produced through the coordinated interaction of multiple neural systems, each of which relies on a characteristic set of neurotransmitters. Genes that produce or regulate these neurotransmitters may have distinctive influences on moral judgment. Two studies examined potential genetic influences on moral judgment using dilemmas that reliably elicit competing automatic and controlled responses, generated by dissociable neural systems. Study 1 (N = 228) examined 49 common variants (SNPs) within 10 candidate genes and identified a nominal association between a polymorphism (rs237889) of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and variation in deontological vs utilitarian moral judgment (that is, judgments favoring individual rights vs the greater good). An association was likewise observed for rs1042615 of the arginine vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR1A). Study 2 (N = 322) aimed to replicate these findings using the aforementioned dilemmas as well as a new set of structurally similar medical dilemmas. Study 2 failed to replicate the association with AVPR1A, but replicated the OXTR finding using both the original and new dilemmas. Together, these findings suggest that moral judgment is influenced by variation in the oxytocin receptor gene and, more generally, that single genetic polymorphisms can have a detectable effect on complex decision processes. PMID:27497314

  15. Variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with differences in moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Regan M; Chaponis, Jonathan; Siburian, Richie; Gallagher, Patience; Ransohoff, Katherine; Wikler, Daniel; Perlis, Roy H; Greene, Joshua D

    2016-12-01

    Moral judgments are produced through the coordinated interaction of multiple neural systems, each of which relies on a characteristic set of neurotransmitters. Genes that produce or regulate these neurotransmitters may have distinctive influences on moral judgment. Two studies examined potential genetic influences on moral judgment using dilemmas that reliably elicit competing automatic and controlled responses, generated by dissociable neural systems. Study 1 (N = 228) examined 49 common variants (SNPs) within 10 candidate genes and identified a nominal association between a polymorphism (rs237889) of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and variation in deontological vs utilitarian moral judgment (that is, judgments favoring individual rights vs the greater good). An association was likewise observed for rs1042615 of the arginine vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR1A). Study 2 (N = 322) aimed to replicate these findings using the aforementioned dilemmas as well as a new set of structurally similar medical dilemmas. Study 2 failed to replicate the association with AVPR1A, but replicated the OXTR finding using both the original and new dilemmas. Together, these findings suggest that moral judgment is influenced by variation in the oxytocin receptor gene and, more generally, that single genetic polymorphisms can have a detectable effect on complex decision processes.

  16. Oxytocin and vasopressin: linking pituitary neuropeptides and their receptors to social neurocircuits

    PubMed Central

    Baribeau, Danielle A.; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin and vasopressin are pituitary neuropeptides that have been shown to affect social processes in mammals. There is growing interest in these molecules and their receptors as potential precipitants of, and/or treatments for, social deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder. Numerous behavioral-genetic studies suggest that there is an association between these peptides and individual social abilities; however, an explanatory model that links hormonal activity at the receptor level to complex human behavior remains elusive. The following review summarizes the known associations between the oxytocin and vasopressin neuropeptide systems and social neurocircuits in the brain. Following a micro- to macro- level trajectory, current literature on the synthesis and secretion of these peptides, and the structure, function and distribution of their respective receptors is first surveyed. Next, current models regarding the mechanism of action of these peptides on microcircuitry and other neurotransmitter systems are discussed. Functional neuroimaging evidence on the acute effects of exogenous administration of these peptides on brain activity is then reviewed. Overall, a model in which the local neuromodulatory effects of pituitary neuropeptides on brainstem and basal forebrain regions strengthen signaling within social neurocircuits proves appealing. However, these findings are derived from animal models; more research is needed to clarify the relevance of these mechanisms to human behavior and treatment of social deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26441508

  17. Combination decongestion therapy in hospitalized heart failure: loop diuretics, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and vasopressin antagonists.

    PubMed

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Mentz, Robert J; Greene, Stephen J; Senni, Michele; Sato, Naoki; Nodari, Savina; Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Congestion is the most common reason for admissions and readmissions for heart failure (HF). The vast majority of hospitalized HF patients appear to respond readily to loop diuretics, but available data suggest that a significant proportion are being discharged with persistent evidence of congestion. Although novel therapies targeting congestion should continue to be developed, currently available agents may be utilized more optimally to facilitate complete decongestion. The combination of loop diuretics, natriuretic doses of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and vasopressin antagonists represents a regimen of currently available therapies that affects early and persistent decongestion, while limiting the associated risks of electrolyte disturbances, hemodynamic fluctuations, renal dysfunction and mortality.

  18. Oxytocin receptor knockout mice display deficits in the expression of autism-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pobbe, Roger L H; Pearson, Brandon L; Defensor, Erwin B; Bolivar, Valerie J; Young, W Scott; Lee, Heon-Jin; Blanchard, D Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    A wealth of studies has implicated oxytocin (Oxt) and its receptors (Oxtr) in the mediation of social behaviors and social memory in rodents. It has been suggested that failures in this system contribute to deficits in social interaction that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the current analyses, we investigated the expression of autism-related behaviors in mice that lack the ability to synthesize the oxytocin receptor itself, Oxtr knockout (KO) mice, as compared to their wild-type (WT) littermates. In the visible burrow system, Oxtr KO mice showed robust reductions in frontal approach, huddling, allo-grooming, and flight, with more time spent alone, and in self-grooming, as compared to WT. These results were corroborated in the three-chambered test: unlike WT, Oxtr KO mice failed to spend more time in the side of the test box containing an unfamiliar CD-1 mouse. In the social proximity test, Oxtr KO mice showed clear reductions in nose to nose and anogenital sniff behaviors oriented to an unfamiliar C57BL/6J (B6) mouse. In addition, our study revealed no differences between Oxtr WT and KO genotypes in the occurrence of motor and cognitive stereotyped behaviors. A significant genotype effect was found in the scent marking analysis, with Oxtr KO mice showing a decreased number of scent marks, as compared to WT. Overall, the present data indicate that the profile for Oxtr KO mice, including consistent social deficits, and reduced levels of communication, models multiple components of the ASD phenotype. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior.

  19. Variation in the Oxytocin Receptor Gene Predicts Brain Region-Specific Expression and Social Attachment.

    PubMed

    King, Lanikea B; Walum, Hasse; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Eyrich, Nicholas W; Young, Larry J

    2016-07-15

    Oxytocin (OXT) modulates several aspects of social behavior. Intranasal OXT is a leading candidate for treating social deficits in patients with autism spectrum disorder, and common genetic variants in the human OXTR gene are associated with emotion recognition, relationship quality, and autism spectrum disorder. Animal models have revealed that individual differences in Oxtr expression in the brain drive social behavior variation. Our understanding of how genetic variation contributes to brain OXTR expression is very limited. We investigated Oxtr expression in monogamous prairie voles, which have a well-characterized OXT system. We quantified brain region-specific levels of Oxtr messenger RNA and oxytocin receptor protein with established neuroanatomic methods. We used pyrosequencing to investigate allelic imbalance of Oxtr mRNA, a molecular signature of polymorphic genetic regulatory elements. We performed next-generation sequencing to discover variants in and near the Oxtr gene. We investigated social attachment using the partner preference test. Our allelic imbalance data demonstrate that genetic variants contribute to individual differences in Oxtr expression, but only in particular brain regions, including the nucleus accumbens, where oxytocin receptor signaling facilitates social attachment. Next-generation sequencing identified one polymorphism in the Oxtr intron, near a putative cis-regulatory element, explaining 74% of the variance in striatal Oxtr expression specifically. Males homozygous for the high expressing allele display enhanced social attachment. Taken together, these findings provide convincing evidence for robust genetic influence on Oxtr expression and provide novel insights into how noncoding polymorphisms in OXTR might influence individual differences in human social cognition and behavior. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of oxytocin, progesterone, and estrogen receptors in the reproductive tract of bitches with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Prapaiwan, N; Manee-In, S; Olanratmanee, E; Srisuwatanasagul, S

    2017-02-01

    Canine pyometra is considered a serious and life-threatening condition. Due to the relationship among sex steroid hormones, oxytocin receptor (OTR) expression, and canine pyometra pathogenesis, this study aimed to investigate the expression of oxytocin, progesterone, and estrogen receptors in the reproductive tissues of canines with pyometra by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. A total of 27 pyometra bitches were classified into open- and closed-cervix pyometra groups based on the presence of vaginal discharge. Moreover, 15 normal bitches in the luteal phase served as a control group. The results showed that OTR gene expression in the ovary of pyometra bitches was higher than that of normal bitches, whereas the level of OTR gene expression in the cervix of pyometra bitches was less than that of normal bitches (P < 0.05). Conversely, a lower OTR H-score in ovarian follicles was observed in pyometra bitches compared with normal bitches, whereas a higher percentage of OTR-positive immunostaining in uteri and cervices were found in pyometra bitches compared with normal bitches (P < 0.05). Moreover, the H-scores of estrogen receptor alpha in uteri and cervices of pyometra bitches were less than that of normal bitches (P < 0.05). However, the localization of the OTR and sex steroid receptors between groups of pyometra bitches was not different. Our findings suggest that pyometra pathogenesis is associated with a change in expression of OTR and sex steroid receptors in the canine reproductive tract. However, cervical dilation in bitches with pyometra was not influenced by the expression of OTR and sex steroid receptors.

  1. Enhanced Chronic Pain Management Utilizing Chemokine Receptor Antagonists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    treatment; Analgesia; Nociception; Antinociception; Inflammation ; Chemokines; Chemokine receptor antagonists; Opioid analgesics; Animal models of pain...multiplex quantitative analysis of protein levels of these molecules. 2. KEYWORDS: Pain treatment; Analgesia; Nociception; Antinociception; Inflammation ...with a circulating water bath (Model 9500, Fisher Scientific; Pittsburgh, PA). Rats were held over the bath with their tails submerged

  2. Endothelin receptor antagonists and cardiovascular diseases of aging.

    PubMed

    Love, M P; McMurray, J J

    2001-01-01

    Our understanding of the role of the endothelin system in human cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology has evolved very rapidly since the initial description of its constituent parts in 1988. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is the predominant endothelin isoform in the human cardiovascular system and has potent vasoconstrictor, mitogenic and antinatriuretic properties which have implicated it in the pathophysiology of a number of cardiovascular diseases. The effects of ET-1 have been shown to be mediated by 2 principal endothelin receptor subtypes: ET(A) and ET(B). The development of a range of peptidic and nonpeptidic endothelin receptor antagonists represents an exciting breakthrough in human cardiovascular therapeutics. Two main classes of endothelin receptor antagonist have been developed for possible human therapeutic use: ET(A)-selective and nonselective antagonists. Extensive laboratory and clinical research with these agents has highlighted their promise in various cardiovascular diseases. Randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trials have yielded very encouraging results in patients with hypertension and chronic heart failure with more preliminary data suggesting a possible role in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis and stroke. Much more research is needed, however, before endothelin receptor antagonists can be considered for clinical use.

  3. [Medical economics evaluation of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist drugs].

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Junpei; Hirano, Shigeki; Fukui, Aiko; Funabashi, Kazuaki; Deguchi, Yuko; Yamada, Susumu; Naito, Kazuyuki

    2010-10-01

    At Komaki City Hospital, the drug cost in connection with cancer chemotherapy was re-examined as part of improved management along with the introduction of DPC in July 2008. With due attention to the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, both the change from injections to oral drugs and the change from brand-name drugs to generic drugs were tried between July 2008 and June 2009. After that, in order to examine the economic impact of these changes, we investigated and analyzed the number of medications, the cost of medicine purchased, and the average drug cost per medication of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists between April 2008 and September 2009. As a result, the cost of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists purchased decreased greatly, and the impact of the improvement was mainly due to the change to oral drugs, and partially to the change to generic drugs. Therefore, from the viewpoint of hospital economic improvement in DPC, it was thought that the change to oral drugs(5-HT3 receptor antagonists)is given top priority.

  4. Novel benzopolycyclic amines with NMDA receptor antagonist activity.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Elena; Sureda, Francesc X; Vázquez, Santiago

    2014-05-01

    A new series of benzopolycyclic amines active as NMDA receptor antagonists were synthesized. Most of them exhibited increased activity compared with related analogues previously published. All the tested compounds were more potent than clinically approved amantadine and one of them displayed a lower IC50 value than memantine, an anti-Alzheimer's approved drug.

  5. Neuronal histamine and expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin and oxytocin in the hypothalamus: relative importance of H1 and H2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, A; Larsen, P J; Knigge, U; Jørgensen, H; Warberg, J

    1998-08-01

    Centrally administered histamine (HA) stimulates the secretion of the pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides ACTH and beta-endorphin as well as prolactin. The effect of HA on secretion of these adenohypophysial hormones is indirect and may involve activation of hypothalamic neurons containing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) or oxytocin (OT). We studied the effect of activating central HA receptors by central infusion of HA, HA agonists or antagonists on expression of CRH, AVP and OT mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei. Intracerebroventricular infusion of HA (270 nmol), the H1-receptor agonist 2-thiazolylethylamine or the H2-receptor agonist 4-methylhistamine increased the level of CRH mRNA in the PVN, and OT mRNA in the SON. In contrast, none of these compounds had any effect on expression of AVP mRNA in the PVN or SON. Administration of the H1-receptor antagonist mepyramine or the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine had no effect on basal expression of CRH, AVP or OT mRNA in the PVN and/or SON except for a slight inhibitory effect of cimetidine on CRH mRNA expression in the PVN. Pretreatment with mepyramine or cimetidine before HA administration inhibited the HA-induced increase in OT mRNA levels but had no effect on the HA-induced increase in CRH mRNA levels in the PVN. We conclude that HA stimulates hypothalamic CRH and OT neurons by increasing mRNA levels, and this effect seems to be mediated via activation of both HA H1 and H2 receptors.

  6. The muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and atropine are competitive antagonists at 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Martin; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Scopolamine is a high affinity muscarinic antagonist that is used for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are used for the same purpose and are structurally related to scopolamine. To examine whether 5-HT3 receptors are affected by scopolamine we examined the effects of this drug on the electrophysiological and ligand binding properties of 5-HT3A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells, respectively. 5-HT3 receptor-responses were reversibly inhibited by scopolamine with an IC50 of 2.09 μM. Competitive antagonism was shown by Schild plot (pA2 = 5.02) and by competition with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists [(3)H]granisetron (Ki = 6.76 μM) and G-FL (Ki = 4.90 μM). The related molecule, atropine, similarly inhibited 5-HT evoked responses in oocytes with an IC50 of 1.74 μM, and competed with G-FL with a Ki of 7.94 μM. The reverse experiment revealed that granisetron also competitively bound to muscarinic receptors (Ki = 6.5 μM). In behavioural studies scopolamine is used to block muscarinic receptors and induce a cognitive deficit, and centrally administered concentrations can exceed the IC50 values found here. It is therefore possible that 5-HT3 receptors are also inhibited. Studies that utilise higher concentrations of scopolamine should be mindful of these potential off-target effects.

  7. Oxytocin receptors in brain cortical regions are reduced in haploinsufficient (+/-) reeler mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wensheng; Pappas, George D; Carter, C Sue

    2005-06-01

    Both oxytocin (OT) and reelin are particularly significant during development and the absence of either may interfere with normal brain development. In addition, reelin is critical to the development of the GABAergic system and GABA modulates the release of OT. Availability of the reelin haploinsufficient (+/-) reeler mouse (HRM) provides a model for examining the role of reelin in the development of the OT system and especially in the expression of the OT receptor (OTR). In this study we used immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization in HRM versus wild-type (+/-) mice (WTM) to quantify OTR abundance in regions of the brain cortex. Our findings reveal that the oxytocin receptor (OTR), measured either by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization, is significantly lower in HRM. Areas showing significant deficits included the piriform cortex, neocortex, retrosplenial cortex and certain regions of the hippocampus. Both reelin and OT play a role in regulating affect and mood. Down-regulation of reelin has been strongly correlated with schizophrenia and it is proposed that HRM may serve as a model for neural deficits seen in both schizophrenia and autism. We report that HRM show regionally specific reductions in OTRs, especially in cortical areas, which previously have been implicated in social memory and cognitive functions. These findings offer support for the more general hypothesis that down-regulation of reelin, of either genetic or epigenetic origin, through associated reductions in the OTRs, contributes to the deficiencies in social behavior that are characteristic of both schizophrenia and autism.

  8. IMPACT OF GESTATIONAL COCAINE TREATMENT OR PRENATAL COCAINE EXPOSURE ON EARLY POSTPARTUM OXYTOCIN mRNA LEVELS AND RECEPTOR BINDING IN THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, M.S.; Cox, E.T.; Jarrett, T.M.; Williams, S.K.; Walker, C.H.; Johns, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research reported decreased oxytocin levels in specific brain regions correlated with disruptions in maternal care following gestational cocaine treatment in rats. Similarly, prenatal exposure to cocaine impaired subsequent maternal behavior in adulthood, but behavioral alterations were not associated with decreases in oxytocin levels in the same brain regions as were found in their cocaine-treated rat dams. To determine if other aspects of the oxytocin system are disrupted by cocaine treatment or prenatal exposure to cocaine during critical time points associated with maternal care, oxytocin mRNA transcription and receptor binding were examined on postpartum day two in relevant brain regions following gestational treatment with, or prenatal exposure to, either cocaine or saline. We hypothesized that oxytocin mRNA levels and receptor binding would be differentially affected by cocaine in the early postpartum period of dams and their offspring. Our findings indicate that gestational cocaine treatment resulted in significant increases in oxytocin mRNA levels in only the paraventricular nucleus of cocaine-treated dams, with almost significant increases in both generations in the supraoptic nucleus, but no significant effects of cocaine on receptor binding in either generation of dams. These findings indicate that in addition to oxytocin levels, cocaine treatment or prenatal exposure primarily affects oxytocin mRNA synthesis, with little effect on receptor binding in specific brain regions associated with maternal behavior in the early postpartum period of the rat. PMID:18579201

  9. Small molecule antagonists for chemokine CCR3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Willems, Lianne I; Ijzerman, Ad P

    2010-09-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR3 is believed to play a role in the development of allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis. Despite the conflicting results that have been reported regarding the importance of eosinophils and CCR3 in allergic inflammation, inhibition of this receptor with small molecule antagonists is thought to provide a valuable approach for the treatment of these diseases. This review describes the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of small molecule CCR3 antagonists as reported in the scientific and patent literature. Various chemical classes of small molecule CCR3 antagonists have been described so far, including (bi)piperidine and piperazine derivatives, N-arylalkylpiperidine urea derivatives and (N-ureidoalkyl)benzylpiperidines, phenylalanine derivatives, morpholinyl derivatives, pyrrolidinohydroquinazolines, arylsulfonamides, amino-alkyl amides, imidazole- and pyrimidine-based antagonists, and bicyclic diamines. The (N-ureidoalkyl)benzylpiperidines are the best studied class in view of their generally high affinity and antagonizing potential. For many of these antagonists subnanomolar IC(50) values were reported for binding to CCR3 along with the ability to effectively inhibit intracellular calcium mobilization and eosinophil chemotaxis induced by CCR3 agonist ligands in vitro.

  10. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the endothelin receptor antagonist macitentan.

    PubMed

    Sidharta, P N; Treiber, A; Dingemanse, J

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease of the lung vascular system, which leads to right-sided heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. Treatments to regulate the pulmonary vascular pressure target the prostacyclin, nitric oxide, and endothelin (ET) pathways. Macitentan, an oral, once-daily, dual ETA and ETB receptor antagonist with high affinity and sustained receptor binding is the first ET receptor antagonist to show significant reduction of the risk of morbidity and mortality in PAH patients in a large-scale phase III study with a long-term outcome. Here we present a review of the available clinical pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship, and drug-drug interaction data of macitentan in healthy subjects, patients with PAH, and in special populations.

  11. Scaffold variations in amine warhead of histamine H₃ receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Wingen, Kerstin; Stark, Holger

    2013-12-01

    The histamine H₃ receptor (H₃R) is involved in numerous regulatory neurotransmission processes and there-fore, is a prominent target for centrally occurring disease with some promising clinical candidates. Previous research resulted in the identification of a core pharmacophore blueprint for H₃R antagonists/inverse agonists, which when inserted in a molecule, mostly ensures acceptable affinity. Nevertheless, variations of scaffold and peripheral areas can increase potency and pharmacokinetic profile of drug candidates. The variations in amine scaffolds of antagonists for this aminergic GPCR are of special importance.

  12. Hyperglycemia of Diabetic Rats Decreased by a Glucagon Receptor Antagonist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David G.; Ulichny Goebel, Camy; Hruby, Victor J.; Bregman, Marvin D.; Trivedi, Dev

    1982-02-01

    The glucagon analog [l-Nα-trinitrophenylhistidine, 12-homoarginine]-glucagon (THG) was examined for its ability to lower blood glucose concentrations in rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. In vitro, THG is a potent antagonist of glucagon activation of the hepatic adenylate cyclase assay system. Intravenous bolus injections of THG caused rapid decreases (20 to 35 percent) of short duration in blood glucose. Continuous infusion of low concentrations of the inhibitor led to larger sustained decreases in blood glucose (30 to 65 percent). These studies demonstrate that a glucagon receptor antagonist can substantially reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic animals without addition of exogenous insulin.

  13. The ventromedial hypothalamus oxytocin induces locomotor behavior regulated by estrogen.

    PubMed

    Narita, Kazumi; Murata, Takuya; Matsuoka, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that excitation of neurons in the rat ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) induced locomotor activity. An oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) exists in the VMH and plays a role in regulating sexual behavior. However, the role of Oxtr in the VMH in locomotor activity is not clear. In this study we examined the roles of oxytocin in the VMH in running behavior, and also investigated the involvement of estrogen in this behavioral change. Microinjection of oxytocin into the VMH induced a dose-dependent increase in the running behavior in male rats. The oxytocin-induced running activity was inhibited by simultaneous injection of Oxtr-antagonist, (d(CH2)5(1), Try(Me)(2), Orn(8))-oxytocin. Oxytocin injection also induced running behavior in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Pretreatment of the OVX rats with estrogen augmented the oxytocin-induced running activity twofold, and increased the Oxtr mRNA in the VMH threefold. During the estrus cycle locomotor activity spontaneously increased in the dark period of proestrus. The Oxtr mRNA was up-regulated in the proestrus afternoon. Blockade of oxytocin neurotransmission by its antagonist before the onset of the dark period of proestrus decreased the following nocturnal locomotor activity. These findings demonstrate that Oxtr in the VMH is involved in the induction of running behavior and that estrogen facilitates this effect by means of Oxtr up-regulation, suggesting the involvement of oxytocin in the locomotor activity of proestrus female rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxytocin reversed MK-801-induced social interaction and aggression deficits in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Fernanda Francine; Gaspary, Karina Vidarte; Siebel, Anna Maria; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2016-09-15

    Changes in social behavior occur in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. The interaction between individuals is an essential aspect and an adaptive response of several species, among them the zebrafish. Oxytocin is a neuroendocrine hormone associated with social behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of MK-801, a non-competitive antagonist of glutamate NMDA receptors, on social interaction and aggression in zebrafish. We also examined the modulation of those effects by oxytocin, the oxytocin receptor agonist carbetocin and the oxytocin receptor antagonist L-368,899. Our results showed that MK-801 induced a decrease in the time spent in the segment closest to the conspecific school and in the time spent in the segment nearest to the mirror image, suggesting an effect on social behavior. The treatment with oxytocin after the exposure to MK-801 was able to reestablish the time spent in the segment closest to the conspecific school, as well as the time spent in the segment nearest to the mirror image. In addition, in support of the role of the oxytocin pathway in modulating those responses, we showed that the oxytocin receptor agonist carbetocin reestablished the social and aggressive behavioral deficits induced by MK-801. However, the oxytocin receptor antagonist L-368,899 was not able to reverse the behavioral changes induced by MK-801. This study supports the critical role for NMDA receptors and the oxytocinergic system in the regulation of social behavior and aggression which may be relevant for the mechanisms associated to autism and schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxytocin, vasopressin and estrogen receptor gene expression in relation to social recognition in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Clipperton-Allen, Amy E.; Lee, Anna W.; Reyes, Anny; Devidze, Nino; Phan, Anna; Pfaff, Donald W.; Choleris, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Inter- and intra-species differences in social behavior and recognition-related hormones and receptors suggest that different distribution and/or expression patterns may relate to social recognition. We used qRT-PCR to investigate naturally occurring differences in expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), ER-beta (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR), oxytocin (OT) and receptor, and vasopressin (AVP) and receptors in proestrous female mice. Following four 5 min exposures to the same two conspecifics, one was replaced with a novel mouse in the final trial (T5). Gene expression was examined in mice showing high (85–100%) and low (40–60%) social recognition scores (i.e., preferential novel mouse investigation in T5) in eight socially-relevant brain regions. Results supported OT and AVP involvement in social recognition, and suggest that in the medial preoptic area, increased OT and AVP mRNA, together with ERα and ERβ gene activation, relate to improved social recognition. Initial social investigation correlated with ERs, PR and OTR in the dorsolateral septum, suggesting that these receptors may modulate social interest without affecting social recognition. Finally, increased lateral amygdala gene activation in the LR mice may be associated with general learning impairments, while decreased lateral amygdala activity may indicate more efficient cognitive mechanisms in the HR mice. PMID:22079582

  16. Chronic methamphetamine treatment induces oxytocin receptor up-regulation in the amygdala and hypothalamus via an adenosine A2A receptor-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zanos, Panos; Wright, Sherie R; Georgiou, Polymnia; Yoo, Ji Hoon; Ledent, Catherine; Hourani, Susanna M; Kitchen, Ian; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; Bailey, Alexis

    2014-04-01

    There is mounting evidence that the neuropeptide oxytocin is a possible candidate for the treatment of drug addiction. Oxytocin was shown to reduce methamphetamine self-administration, conditioned place-preference, hyperactivity and reinstatement in rodents, highlighting its potential for the management of methamphetamine addiction. Thus, we hypothesised that the central endogenous oxytocinergic system is dysregulated following chronic methamphetamine administration. We tested this hypothesis by examining the effect of chronic methamphetamine administration on oxytocin receptor density in mice brains with the use of quantitative receptor autoradiographic binding. Saline (4ml/kg/day, i.p.) or methamphetamine (1mg/kg/day, i.p.) was administered daily for 10 days to male, CD1 mice. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of oxytocin receptors was carried out with the use of [(125)I]-vasotocin in brain sections of these animals. Chronic methamphetamine administration induced a region specific upregulation of oxytocin receptor density in the amygdala and hypothalamus, but not in the nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen. As there is evidence suggesting an involvement of central adenosine A2A receptors on central endogenous oxytocinergic function, we investigated whether these methamphetamine-induced oxytocinergic neuroadaptations are mediated via an A2A receptor-dependent mechanism. To test this hypothesis, autoradiographic oxytocin receptor binding was carried out in brain sections of male CD1 mice lacking A2A receptors which were chronically treated with methamphetamine (1mg/kg/day, i.p. for 10 days) or saline. Similar to wild-type animals, chronic methamphetamine administration induced a region-specific upregulation of oxytocin receptor binding in the amygdala and hypothalamus of A2A receptor knockout mice and no genotype effect was observed. These results indicate that chronic methamphetamine use can induce profound neuroadaptations of the oxytocinergic receptor

  17. μ Opioid receptor: novel antagonists and structural modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaserer, Teresa; Lantero, Aquilino; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Spetea, Mariana; Schuster, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    The μ opioid receptor (MOR) is a prominent member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and the molecular target of morphine and other opioid drugs. Despite the long tradition of MOR-targeting drugs, still little is known about the ligand-receptor interactions and structure-function relationships underlying the distinct biological effects upon receptor activation or inhibition. With the resolved crystal structure of the β-funaltrexamine-MOR complex, we aimed at the discovery of novel agonists and antagonists using virtual screening tools, i.e. docking, pharmacophore- and shape-based modeling. We suggest important molecular interactions, which active molecules share and distinguish agonists and antagonists. These results allowed for the generation of theoretically validated in silico workflows that were employed for prospective virtual screening. Out of 18 virtual hits evaluated in in vitro pharmacological assays, three displayed antagonist activity and the most active compound significantly inhibited morphine-induced antinociception. The new identified chemotypes hold promise for further development into neurochemical tools for studying the MOR or as potential therapeutic lead candidates.

  18. μ Opioid receptor: novel antagonists and structural modeling

    PubMed Central

    Kaserer, Teresa; Lantero, Aquilino; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Spetea, Mariana; Schuster, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The μ opioid receptor (MOR) is a prominent member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and the molecular target of morphine and other opioid drugs. Despite the long tradition of MOR-targeting drugs, still little is known about the ligand-receptor interactions and structure-function relationships underlying the distinct biological effects upon receptor activation or inhibition. With the resolved crystal structure of the β-funaltrexamine-MOR complex, we aimed at the discovery of novel agonists and antagonists using virtual screening tools, i.e. docking, pharmacophore- and shape-based modeling. We suggest important molecular interactions, which active molecules share and distinguish agonists and antagonists. These results allowed for the generation of theoretically validated in silico workflows that were employed for prospective virtual screening. Out of 18 virtual hits evaluated in in vitro pharmacological assays, three displayed antagonist activity and the most active compound significantly inhibited morphine-induced antinociception. The new identified chemotypes hold promise for further development into neurochemical tools for studying the MOR or as potential therapeutic lead candidates. PMID:26888328

  19. Ghrelin-Induced Enhancement of Vasopressin and Oxytocin Secretion in Rat Neurohypophyseal Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Gálfi, M; Radács, M; Molnár, Zs; Budai, I; Tóth, G; Pósa, A; Kupai, K; Szalai, Z; Szabó, R; Molnár, H A; Gardi, J; László, Ferenc A; Varga, Cs

    2016-12-01

    The effects of ghrelin on vasopressin and oxytocin secretion were studied in 13-14-day cell cultures of isolated rat neurohypophyseal tissue. The vasopressin and oxytocin contents of the supernatant were determined by radioimmunoassay after a 1- or 2-h incubation. Significantly increased levels of vasopressin and oxytocin production were detected in the cell culture media following ghrelin administration, depending on the ghrelin doses. The oxytocin level proved to be more elevated than that of vasopressin. The increase of vasopressin and oxytocin secretion could be totally blocked by previous administration of the ghrelin receptor antagonist ([D-Lys(3)]-growth hormone-releasing peptide-6). Application of the ghrelin receptor antagonist after ghrelin administration proved ineffective. The results indicate that vasopressin and oxytocin release is influenced directly by the ghrelin system, and the effects of ghrelin on vasopressin and oxytocin secretion from the neurohypophyseal tissue in rats can occur at the level of the posterior pituitary. Our observations lend support to the view that neurohypophysis contains ghrelin receptors.

  20. Antagonistic action of pitrazepin on human and rat GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Demuro, Angelo; Martinez-Torres, Ataulfo; Francesconi, Walter; Miledi, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Pitrazepin, 3-(piperazinyl-1)-9H-dibenz(c,f) triazolo(4,5-a)azepin is a piperazine antagonist of GABA in a variety of electrophysiological and in vitro binding studies involving GABA and glycine receptors. In the present study we have investigated the effects of pitrazepin, and the GABAA antagonist bicuculline, on membrane currents elicited by GABA in Xenopus oocytes injected with rat cerebral cortex mRNA or cDNAs encoding α1β2 or α1β2γ2S human GABAA receptor subunits.The three types of GABAA receptors expressed were reversibly antagonized by bicuculline and pitrazepin in a concentration-dependent manner. GABA dose-current response curves for the three types of receptors were shifted to the right, in a parallel manner, by increasing concentrations of pitrazepin.Schild analyses gave pA2 values of 6.42±0.62, n=4, 6.41±1.2, n=5 and 6.21±1.24, n=6, in oocytes expressing rat cerebral cortex, α1β2 or α1β2γ2S human GABAA receptors respectively (values are given as means±s.e.mean), and the Hill coefficients were all close to unity. All this is consistent with the notion that pitrazepin acts as a competitive antagonist of these GABAA receptors; and that their antagonism by pitrazepin is not strongly dependent on the subunit composition of the receptors here studied.Since pitrazepin has been reported to act also at the benzodiazepine binding site, we studied the effect of the benzodiazepine antagonist Ro 15-1788 (flumazenil) on the inhibition of α1β2γ2S receptors by pitrazepin. Co-application of Ro 15-1788 did not alter the inhibiting effect of pitrazepin. Moreover, pitrazepin did not antagonize the potentiation of GABA-currents by flunitrazepam. All this suggests that pitrazepin does not affect the GABA receptor-chloride channel by interacting with the benzodiazepine receptor site. PMID:10369456

  1. Labor and inflammation increase the expression of oxytocin receptor in human amnion.

    PubMed

    Terzidou, Vasso; Blanks, Andrew M; Kim, Sung Hye; Thornton, Steven; Bennett, Phillip R

    2011-03-01

    The oxytocin/oxytocin receptor (OXT/OXTR) system plays an important role in the regulation of parturition. The amnion is a major source of prostaglandins and inflammatory cytokine synthesis, which increase both before and during labor. Amnion is a noncontractile tissue; therefore, the role played by OXT/OXTR in this tissue will be fundamentally different from the role played in myometrial contractions. In the present study, we demonstrate increased OXTR mRNA and protein concentrations in human amnion epithelial cells associated with the onset of labor. We show that incubation of primary human amnion epithelial cells with IL1B results in a rapid, transient up-regulation of OXTR mRNA expression, which peaks in prelabor samples after 6 h. Incubation of prelabor amnion epithelial cells with OXT results in a marked increase of prostaglandin E(2) synthesis, and we demonstrate that OXT activates the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase signal transduction pathway to stimulate up-regulation of cyclo-oxygenase 2 in human amnion epithelial cells. The increased ability of human amnion to produce prostaglandins in response to OXT treatment suggests a complementary role for the OXT/OXTR system in the activation of human amnion and the onset of labor.

  2. Association of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in Caucasian children and adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Suma; Brune, Camille W; Carter, C S; Leventhal, Bennett L; Lord, Catherine; Cook, Edwin H

    2007-04-24

    The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been studied in autism because of the role of oxytocin (OT) in social cognition. Linkage has also been demonstrated to the region of OXTR in a large sample. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a haplotype constructed from them in OXTR have been associated with autism in the Chinese Han population. We tested whether these associations replicated in a Caucasian sample with strictly defined autistic disorder. We genotyped the two previously associated SNPs (rs2254298, rs53576) in 57 Caucasian autism trios. Probands met clinical, ADI-R, and ADOS criteria for autistic disorder. Significant association was detected at rs2254298 (p=0.03) but not rs53576. For rs2254298, overtransmission of the G allele to probands with autistic disorder was found which contrasts with the overtransmission of A previously reported in the Chinese Han sample. In both samples, G was more frequent than A. However, in our Caucasian autism trios and the CEU Caucasian HapMap samples the frequency of A was less than that reported in the Chinese Han and Chinese in Bejing HapMap samples. The haplotype test of association did not reveal excess transmission from parents to affected offspring. These findings provide support for association of OXTR with autism in a Caucasian population. Overtransmission of different alleles in different populations may be due to a different pattern of linkage disequilibrium between the marker rs2254298 and an as yet undetermined susceptibility variant in OXTR.

  3. How Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Act on Prosociality: The Mediation Role of Moral Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Siyuan; Wu, Nan; Su, Yanjie

    2017-01-01

    Prosociality is related to numerous positive outcomes, and mechanisms underlying individual differences in prosociality have been widely discussed. Recently, research has found converging evidence on the influence of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene on prosociality. Meanwhile, moral reasoning, a key precursor for social behavior, has also been associated with variability in OXTR gene, thus the relationship between OXTR and prosociality is assumed to be mediated by moral evaluation. The current study examines the relationship in question, and includes gender as a potential moderator. Self-reported prosociality on Prosocial Tendencies Measure and evaluation on the moral acceptability of behaviors in stories from 790 Chinese adolescents (32.4% boys) were analyzed for the influence of their OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results showed that SNP at site rs2254298 was indirectly associated with prosocial behaviors via moral evaluation of behaviors, and this effect was moderated by gender. Our findings suggest an indirect association between genetic variations in OXTR and prosociality through moral evaluation, indicating the potential pathway from genetic variability to prosociality through level of moral development. We also provide some evidence that the role of oxytocin system may to some extent depend on gender. These findings may promote our understanding of the genetic and biological roots of prosociality and morality. PMID:28377734

  4. Depression in early adolescence: Contributions from relational aggression and variation in the oxytocin receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Shauna C; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Tackett, Jennifer L

    2017-09-04

    Interpersonal stress arising from relational aggression (RA)-the intentional effort to harm others via rejection and exclusion-may increase risk for depression in youth. Biological vulnerabilities related to the hormone oxytocin, which affects social behavior and stress responses, may exacerbate this risk. In a community sample of 307 youth (52% female; age range = 10-14 years), we tested whether (1) the association between RA and subsequent depressive symptoms was mediated through social problems and (2) a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs53576) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) moderated this indirect association between RA and depression, where GG homozygotes are predicted to be more sensitive to the effects of social problems than A-allele carriers. Youth-reported RA and depressive symptoms were measured using a structured interview and a questionnaire, respectively. DNA was extracted from saliva collected with Oragene kits. Consistent with the interpersonal theory of depression, the association between relational aggression and subsequent depressive symptoms was mediated by social problems. This indirect effect was further moderated by rs53576 genotype, such that GG homozygotes showed a stronger mediation effect than A-carriers. These results suggest that rs53576 variants confer vulnerability for depression within the context of interpersonal risk factors, such that youth with the GG genotype may be particularly sensitive to the social consequences resulting from RA. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Attachment style and oxytocin receptor gene variation interact in influencing social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Notzon, S; Domschke, K; Holitschke, K; Ziegler, C; Arolt, V; Pauli, P; Reif, A; Deckert, J; Zwanzger, P

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety has been suggested to be promoted by an insecure attachment style. Oxytocin is discussed as a mediator of trust and social bonding as well as a modulator of social anxiety. Applying a gene-environment (G × E) interaction approach, in the present pilot study the main and interactive effects of attachment styles and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variation were probed in a combined risk factor model of social anxiety in healthy probands. Participants (N = 388; 219 females, 169 males; age 24.7 ± 4.7 years) were assessed for anxiety in social situations (Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory) depending on attachment style (Adult Attachment Scale, AAS) and OXTR rs53576 A/G genotype. A less secure attachment style was significantly associated with higher social anxiety. This association was partly modulated by OXTR genotype, with a stronger negative influence of a less secure attachment style on social anxiety in A allele carriers as compared to GG homozygotes. The present pilot data point to a strong association of less secure attachment and social anxiety as well as to a gene-environment interaction effect of OXTR rs53576 genotype and attachment style on social anxiety possibly constituting a targetable combined risk marker of social anxiety disorder.

  6. Cryptic sexual dimorphism in spatial memory and hippocampal oxytocin receptors in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Rice, Marissa A; Hobbs, Lauren E; Wallace, Kelly J; Ophir, Alexander G

    2017-08-30

    Sex differences are well documented and are conventionally associated with intense sex-specific selection. For example, spatial memory is frequently better in males, presumably due to males' tendency to navigate large spaces to find mates. Alternatively, monogamy (in which sex-specific selection is relatively relaxed) should diminish or eliminate differences in spatial ability and the mechanisms associated with this behavior. Nevertheless, phenotypic differences between monogamous males and females persist, sometimes cryptically. We hypothesize that sex-specific cognitive demands are present in monogamous species that will influence neural and behavioral phenotypes. The effects of these demands should be observable in spatial learning performance and neural structures associated with spatial learning and memory. We analyzed spatial memory performance, hippocampal volume and cell density, and hippocampal oxytocin receptor (OTR) expression in the socially monogamous prairie vole. Compared to females, males performed better in a spatial memory and spatial learning test. Although we found no sex difference in hippocampal volume or cell density, male OTR density was significantly lower than females, suggesting that performance may be regulated by sub-cellular mechanisms within the hippocampus that are less obvious than classic neuroanatomical features. Our results suggest an expanded role for oxytocin beyond facilitating social interactions, which may function in part to integrate social and spatial information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxytocin receptor is differentially expressed in mouse endometrium and embryo during blastocyst implantation.

    PubMed

    Beretsos, Panagiotis; Loutradis, Dimitris; Koussoulakos, Stauros; Margaritis, Loukas H; Kiapekou, Erasmia; Mastorakos, George; Papaspirou, Irini; Makris, Nikolaos; Makrigiannakis, Antonis; Antsaklis, Aris

    2006-12-01

    The oxytocin (OT)-oxytocin receptor (OTR) system of the mammalian uterus has mainly been studied in relation to its involvement in the onset of labor. The aim of this study was to elucidate the in vivo expression and localization pattern of OTR in the mouse endometrium and embryo during implantation, as well as OTR mRNA expression in the in vitro developing mouse embryo. The expression of OTR or OT was detected immunohistochemically in uterine tissue sections of 5- to 8-week-old female mice between days 4 and 10 of an established pregnancy. In addition, the expression of OTR mRNA was detected by means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in mouse oocytes and embryos up to the blastocyst stage. The mean ratios of normalized expression levels of OTR gene in all samples were also calculated. The recorded increase in OTR mRNA immediately after fertilization could mean a possible role of OT in this process, as OTR mRNA gradually decreased after the four-cell stage of pre-embryonic development. The differential expression of OTR during embryonic apposition and embryonic invasion/placentation in the mouse uterus suggests a potential role of OT in the implantation process of the mouse. It is possible that the interaction of OTR with the hormones included in the ovulation induction regiments utilized today in in vitro fertilization (IVF) could be affecting the receptivity/quality of the implanting endometrium.

  8. Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) Polymorphism, Perceived Social Support, and Psychological Symptoms in Maltreated Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the detrimental consequences of child maltreatment on developmental processes, some individuals show remarkable resilience, with few signs of psychopathology, while others succumb to dysfunction. Given that oxytocin has been shown to be involved in social affiliation, attachment, social support, trust, empathy, and other social or reproductive behaviors, we chose to examine the possible moderation of maltreatment effects on perceived social support and on psychological symptoms by a common SNP (rs53576) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). We studied adolescents (N = 425) aged approximately 13-15, including participants with objectively documented maltreatment histories (N = 263) and a non-maltreated comparison group from a comparable low-socioeconomic status background (N = 162). There was a significant genotype by maltreatment interaction such that maltreated adolescents with the G/G genotype perceived significantly lower social support compared to maltreated A-carriers, with no effect of genotype in the comparison group. Maltreated G/Gs also reported higher levels of Internalizing symptoms than A-carriers, even though they did not differ from them on objective measures of maltreatment (type, duration, or severity). G/G homozygotes may be more attuned to negative social experiences such as family maltreatment, while maltreated A-carriers were indistinguishable from non-maltreated adolescents in levels of mental health symptoms. PMID:24621832

  9. Association of the Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) in Caucasian Children and Adolescents with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Suma; Brune, Camille W.; Carter, C. S.; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Lord, Catherine; Cook, Edwin H.

    2009-01-01

    Background The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been studied in autism because of the role of oxytocin (OT) in social cognition. Linkage has also been demonstrated to the region of OXTR in a large sample. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a haplotype constructed from them in OXTR have been associated with autism in the Chinese Han population. We tested whether these associations replicated in a Caucasian sample with strictly defined autistic disorder. Methods We genotyped the two previously associated SNPs (rs2254298, rs53576) in 57 Caucasian autism trios. Probands met clinical, ADI-R, and ADOS criteria for autistic disorder. Results Significant association was detected at rs2254298 (p = 0.03) but not rs53576. For rs2254298, overtransmission of the G allele to probands with autistic disorder was found which contrasts with the overtransmission of A previously reported in the Chinese Han sample. In both samples, G was more frequent than A. However, in our Caucasian autism trios and the CEU Caucasian HapMap samples the frequency of A was less than that reported in the Chinese Han and Chinese in Bejing HapMap samples. The haplotype test of association did not reveal excess transmission from parents to affected offspring. Conclusions These findings provide support for association of OXTR with autism in a Caucasian population. Overtransmission of different alleles in different populations may be due to a different pattern of linkage disequilibrium between the marker rs2254298 and an as yet undetermined susceptibility variant in OXTR. PMID:17383819

  10. Labor and Inflammation Increase the Expression of Oxytocin Receptor in Human Amnion1

    PubMed Central

    Terzidou, Vasso; Blanks, Andrew M.; Kim, Sung Hye; Thornton, Steven; Bennett, Phillip R.

    2010-01-01

    The oxytocin/oxytocin receptor (OXT/OXTR) system plays an important role in the regulation of parturition. The amnion is a major source of prostaglandins and inflammatory cytokine synthesis, which increase both before and during labor. Amnion is a noncontractile tissue; therefore, the role played by OXT/OXTR in this tissue will be fundamentally different from the role played in myometrial contractions. In the present study, we demonstrate increased OXTR mRNA and protein concentrations in human amnion epithelial cells associated with the onset of labor. We show that incubation of primary human amnion epithelial cells with IL1B results in a rapid, transient up-regulation of OXTR mRNA expression, which peaks in prelabor samples after 6 h. Incubation of prelabor amnion epithelial cells with OXT results in a marked increase of prostaglandin E2 synthesis, and we demonstrate that OXT activates the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase signal transduction pathway to stimulate up-regulation of cyclo-oxygenase 2 in human amnion epithelial cells. The increased ability of human amnion to produce prostaglandins in response to OXT treatment suggests a complementary role for the OXT/OXTR system in the activation of human amnion and the onset of labor. PMID:20926803

  11. An oxytocin receptor polymorphism predicts amygdala reactivity and antisocial behavior in men

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Corral-Frías, Nadia S.; Vannucci, Bianca; Bogdan, Ryan; Knodt, Annchen R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2016-01-01

    Variability in oxytocin (OXT) signaling is associated with individual differences in sex-specific social behavior across species. The effects of OXT signaling on social behavior are, in part, mediated through its modulation of amygdala function. Here, we use imaging genetics to examine sex-specific effects of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR; rs1042778, rs53576 and rs2254298) on threat-related amygdala reactivity and social behavior in 406 Caucasians. Analyses revealed that among men but not women, OXTR rs1042778 TT genotype was associated with increased right amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions, which was uniquely related to higher levels of antisocial behavior among men. Moderated meditation analysis suggested a trending indirect effect of OXTR rs1042778 TT genotype on higher antisocial behavior via increased right amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions in men. Our results provide evidence linking genetic variation in OXT signaling to individual differences in amygdala function. The results further suggest that these pathways may be uniquely important in shaping antisocial behavior in men. PMID:27036876

  12. Aryl biphenyl-3-ylmethylpiperazines as 5-HT7 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeeyeon; Kim, Youngjae; Tae, Jinsung; Yeom, Miyoung; Moon, Bongjin; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L; Lee, Kangho; Rhim, Hyewhon; Choo, Il Han; Chong, Youhoon; Keum, Gyochang; Nam, Ghilsoo; Choo, Hyunah

    2013-11-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7 R) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of depression and neuropathic pain. The 5-HT7 R antagonist SB-269970 exhibited antidepressant-like activity, whereas systemic administration of the 5-HT7 R agonist AS-19 significantly inhibited mechanical hypersensitivity and thermal hyperalgesia. In our efforts to discover selective 5-HT7 R antagonists or agonists, aryl biphenyl-3-ylmethylpiperazines were designed, synthesized, and biologically evaluated against the 5-HT7 R. Among the synthesized compounds, 1-([2'-methoxy-(1,1'-biphenyl)-3-yl]methyl)-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (28) was the best binder to the 5-HT7 R (pKi =7.83), and its antagonistic property was confirmed by functional assays. The selectivity profile of compound 28 was also recorded for the 5-HT7 R over other serotonin receptor subtypes, such as 5-HT1 R, 5-HT2 R, 5-HT3 R, and 5-HT6 R. In a molecular modeling study, the 2-methoxyphenyl moiety attached to the piperazine ring of compound 28 was proposed to be essential for the antagonistic function.

  13. Oxytocin receptor elicits different EGFR/MAPK activation patterns depending on its localization in caveolin-1 enriched domains.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, Valeria; Reversi, Alessandra; Taverna, Elena; Rosa, Patrizia; Francolini, Maura; Cassoni, Paola; Parenti, Marco; Chini, Bice

    2003-09-04

    We have recently shown that oxytocin inhibits cell proliferation when the vast majority of oxytocin receptors are excluded from caveolin-1-enriched microdomains, and that, on the contrary, it has a mitogenic effect when the receptors are targeted to these plasma membrane domains. In this study, we investigated whether the receptors located inside and outside caveolar microdomains initiate different signalling pathways and how this may lead to opposite effects on cell proliferation. Our data indicate that, depending on their localization, oxytocin receptors transactivate EGFR and activate ERK1/2 using different signalling intermediates. The final outcome is a different temporal pattern of EGFR and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which is more persistent when the receptors are located outside caveolar microdomains and inhibit cell growth, and very transient when they are located in caveolar microdomains and stimulate cell growth. Finally, only the activation of receptors located outside caveolar microdomains correlates with the activation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1), thus suggesting that the antiproliferative OTR effects may, in this case, be achieved by a sustained activation of EGFR and MAPK leading to the induction of this cell cycle regulator.

  14. Optimization of amide-based EP3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lee, Esther C Y; Futatsugi, Kentaro; Arcari, Joel T; Bahnck, Kevin; Coffey, Steven B; Derksen, David R; Kalgutkar, Amit S; Loria, Paula M; Sharma, Raman

    2016-06-01

    Prostaglandin E receptor subtype 3 (EP3) antagonism may treat a variety of symptoms from inflammation to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Previously, most EP3 antagonists were large acidic ligands that mimic the substrate, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). This manuscript describes the optimization of a neutral small molecule amide series with improved lipophilic efficiency (LipE) also known as lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) ((a) Nat. Rev. Drug Disc.2007, 6, 881; (b) Annu. Rep. Med. Chem.2010, 45, 380).

  15. Human glucagon receptor antagonists based on alkylidene hydrazides.

    PubMed

    Ling, Anthony; Plewe, Michael; Gonzalez, Javier; Madsen, Peter; Sams, Christian K; Lau, Jesper; Gregor, Vlad; Murphy, Doug; Teston, Kimberly; Kuki, Atsuo; Shi, Shenghua; Truesdale, Larry; Kiel, Dan; May, John; Lakis, James; Anderes, Kenna; Iatsimirskaia, Eugenia; Sidelmann, Ulla G; Knudsen, Lotte B; Brand, Christian L; Polinsky, Alex

    2002-02-25

    A series of alkylidene hydrazide derivatives containing an alkoxyaryl moiety was optimized. The resulting hydrazide-ethers were competitive antagonists at the human glucagon receptor. Pharmacokinetic experiments showed fast clearance of most of the compounds tested. A representative compound [4-hydroxy-3-cyanobenzoic acid (4-isopropylbenzyloxy-3,5-dimethoxymethylene)hydrazide] with an IC50 value of 20 nM was shown to reduce blood glucose levels in fasted rats.

  16. Can angiotensin receptor antagonists prevent restenosis after stent placement?

    PubMed

    Peters, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Restenosis rates after coronary stent implantation in complex lesions are between 30 and 50%. Neointimal hyperplasia promoted by complex interaction between cellular and acellular elements, such as cytokines and growth factors, is thought to be the primary process responsible for restenosis. The risk of in-stent restenosis is increased in patients with a history of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, in long lesions, in total occlusions, in patients with diabetes mellitus, in small vessels, in the proximal parts of the left anterior descending coronary artery and in cases of stent oversizing. In-stent restenosis represents a serious economic burden on society because treatment strategies include expensive approaches such as cutting-balloon angioplasty, rotational atherectomy and brachytherapy. A number of pharmacological agents, including ACE inhibitors, have been unsuccessful in preventing restenosis. Alternative procedures such as brachytherapy, radioactive stents and drug-eluting stents are under evaluation. Although sirolimus- or paclitaxel-eluting stents have been associated with very low restenosis rates over durations of 6 to 12 months, the long-term efficacy and tolerability of this approach is currently being investigated. Although ACE inhibitors have failed in reducing restenosis rates, the selective angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor antagonist valsartan has shown encouraging results in the single-center Valsartan for Prevention of Restenosis after Stenting of Type B2/C lesions trial (ValPREST). The ValPREST trial is the first randomized, placebo-controlled study to have evaluated the effect of an angiotensin receptor antagonist on in-stent restenosis in a moderate number of patients. Compared with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers exert additional effects on the pathophysiological processes which lead to restenosis. Angiotensin receptor antagonists may affect several mechanisms involved in neointimal

  17. A synthetic peptide derivative that is a cholecystokinin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lignon, M F; Galas, M C; Rodriguez, M; Laur, J; Aumelas, A; Martinez, J

    1987-05-25

    So far, there are no known peptidic effective receptor antagonists of both peripheral and central effects of cholecystokinin (CCK). Here, we describe a synthetic peptide derivative of CCK, t-butyloxycarbonyl-Tyr(SO3-)-Met-Gly-D-Trp-Nle-Asp 2-phenylethyl ester 1 (where Nle is norleucine), which is a potent CCK receptor antagonist. In rat and guinea pig dispersed pancreatic acini, this peptide derivative did not alter amylase secretion, but was able to antagonize the stimulation caused by cholecystokinin-related agonists. It caused a parallel rightward shift in the dose-response curve for the stimulation of amylase secretion with half-maximal inhibition of CCK-8-stimulated amylase release at a concentration of about 0.1 microM. Compound 1 was able to inhibit the binding of labeled CCK-9 (the C-terminal nonapeptide of CCK) to rat and guinea pig pancreatic acini (IC50 = 5 X 10(-8) M) as well as to guinea pig cerebral cortical membranes (IC50 = 5 X 10(-7) M). These results indicate that Compound 1 is a potent competitive CCK receptor antagonist.

  18. Discovery of new muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists from Scopolia tangutica

    PubMed Central

    Du, Nana; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Xiuli; Wang, Jixia; Zhao, Jianqiang; He, Jian; Zhou, Han; Mei, Lijuan; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-01-01

    Scopolia tangutica (S. tangutica) is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant used for antispasmodics, anesthesia, analgesia and sedation. Its pharmacological activities are mostly associated with the antagonistic activity at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchRs) of several known alkaloids such as atropine and scopolamine. With our recent identification of four hydroxycinnamic acid amides from S. tangutica, we hypothesized that this plant may contain previously unidentified alkaloids that may also contribute to its in vivo effect. Herein, we used a bioassay-guided multi-dimension separation strategy to discover novel mAchR antagonists from S. tangutica. The core of this approach is to use label-free cell phenotypic assay to first identify active fractions, and then to guide purification of active ligands. Besides four tropanes and six cinnamic acid amides that have been previously isolated from S. tangutica, we recently identified two new tropanes, one new cinnamic acid amide, and nine other compounds. Six tropane compounds purified from S. tangutica for the first time were confirmed to be competitive antagonists of muscarinic receptor 3 (M3), including the two new ones 8 and 12 with IC50 values of 1.97 μM and 4.47 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the cinnamic acid amide 17 displayed 15-fold selectivity for M1 over M3 receptors. These findings will be useful in designing lead compounds for mAchRs and elucidating mechanisms of action of S. tangutica. PMID:28387362

  19. [5-HT3 receptor antagonist als analgetics in rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Müller, W; Fiebich, B L; Stratz, T

    2006-10-01

    Various rheumatic diseases like fibromyalgia, systemic inflammatory rheumatic disorders and localized diseases, such as arthritides and activated arthroses, tendinopathies and periarthropathies, as well as trigger points can be improved considerably by treatment with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron. Particularly in the latter group of diseases, local injections have done surprisingly rapid analgesic action. This effect matches that of local anesthetics, but lasts considerably longer and is comparable to local injections of local anesthetics combined with corticosteroids. The action of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists can be attributed to an antinociceptive effect that occurs at the same time as an antiphlogistic and probably also an immunosuppressive effect. Whereas an inhibited release of substance P from the nociceptors, and possibly some other neurokins as well, seems to be the most likely explanation for the antinociceptive action, the antiphlogistic effect is primarily due to an inhibited formation of various different phlogistic substances; in some conditions, like systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases, for example, the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may exert an immunosuppressive effect in addition to this.

  20. The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) localizes to human chromosome 3p25 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and PCR analysis of somatic cell hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, C.F. Jr.; Clancy, T.E.; Quan, R.

    1995-04-10

    The human oxytocin receptor regulates parturition and myometrial contractility, breast milk let-down, and reproductive behaviors in the mammalian central nervous system. Kimura et al. recently identified a human oxytocin receptor cDNA by means of expression cloning from a human myometrial cDNA library. To elucidate further the molecular mechanisms that regulate oxytocin receptor gene expression and to define the expected Mendelian inheritance of possible human disease states, we must determine the number of genes, their localization, and their organization and structure. We summarize below our data indicating that the human oxytocin receptor gene is localized to 3p25 and exists as a single copy in the haploid genome. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  1. A prototypical Sigma-1 receptor antagonist protects against brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Schetz, John A; Perez, Evelyn; Liu, Ran; Chen, Shiuhwei; Lee, Ivan; Simpkins, James W

    2007-11-21

    Previous studies indicate that the Sigma-1 ligand 4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine (PPBP) protects the brain from ischemia. Less clear is whether protection is mediated by agonism or antagonism of the Sigma-1 receptor, and whether drugs already in use for other indications and that interact with the Sigma-1 receptor might also prevent oxidative damage due to conditions such as cerebral ischemic stroke. The antipsychotic drug haloperidol is an antagonist of Sigma-1 receptors and in this study it potently protects against oxidative stress-related cell death in vitro at low concentrations. The protective potency of haloperidol and a number of other butyrophenone compounds positively correlate with their affinity for a cloned Sigma-1 receptor, and the protection is mimicked by a Sigma-1 receptor-selective antagonist (BD1063), but not an agonist (PRE-084). In vivo, an acute low dose (0.05 mg/kg s.c.) of haloperidol reduces by half the ischemic lesion volume induced by a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. These in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical results suggest that a low dose of acutely administered haloperidol might have a novel application as a protective agent against ischemic cerebral stroke and other types of brain injury with an ischemic component.

  2. Interaction of a vasopressin antagonist with vasopressin receptors in the septum of the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsa, D.M.; Brot, M.D.; Shewey, L.M.; Meyers, K.M.; Szot, P.; Miller, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of d(CH2)5-Tyr(Me)-arginine-8-vasopressin, an antagonist of peripheral pressoric (V1-type) vasopressin receptors, to label vasopressin binding sites in the septum of the rat brain was evaluated. Using crude membrane preparations from the septum, /sup 3/H-arginine-8-vasopressin (AVP) specifically labels a single class of binding sites with a Kd of 2.9 nM and maximum binding site concentration of 19.8 fmole/mg protein. /sup 3/H-Antag also labels a single class of membrane sites but with higher affinity (Kd = 0.47 nM) and lower capacity (10.1 fmole/mg protein) than /sup 3/H-AVP. The rank order of potency of various competitor peptides for /sup 3/H-AVP and /sup 3/H-Antag binding was similar. Oxytocin was 100-1,000 fold less potent than AVP in competing for binding with both ligands. /sup 3/H-AVP and /sup 3/H-Antag showed similar labeling patterns when incubated with septal tissue slices. Unlabeled Antag also effectively antagonized vasopressin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in septal tissue slices.

  3. Developmental expression of oxytocin receptors in the neonatal medulla oblongata and pons.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yuzo; Li, Ming-Zi; Masuko, Sadahiko

    2011-09-20

    The distribution of oxytocin receptors (OTRs) in the postnatal brain stem of rats was examined by immunohistochemistry. Fibrous or rounded shaped OTR-immunoreactive structures were distributed densely in sensory nuclei, such as the gracile nucleus, the solitary nucleus, and the spinal trigeminal nucleus, evenly in the reticular formation of the medulla oblongata and pons, and moderately in the locus coeruleus during the neonatal period, but disappeared by postnatal day 10. Few OTR-immunoreactive structures were distributed in motor nuclei. Many rounded OTR-immunoreactive structures were discovered layered and partially overlapping with GM-130-immunoreacivity in the neuronal Golgi apparatus, which was confirmed by electron microscopy. The present study suggests that a transient type of OTR may be functioning in neuronal development during the neonatal period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex, Receptors, and Attachment: A Review of Individual Factors Influencing Response to Oxytocin

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Kai S.

    2012-01-01

    As discussed in the larger review in this special issue (MacDonald and Feifel), intranasal oxytocin (OT) is demonstrating a growing potential as a therapeutic agent in psychiatry. Importantly, research suggests that a variety of individual factors may influence a person’s response to OT. In this mini-review, I provide a review of three: (1) sex and hormonal status; (2) genetic variation in aspects of the OT system (i.e., OT receptors); and (3) attachment history. Each of these factors will be important to monitor as we strive to develop a richer understanding of OT’s role in human development, brain-based disease, and the potential for individualized, OT-targeted treatments. PMID:23335876

  5. Investigation of an F-18 oxytocin receptor selective ligand via PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron L; Freeman, Sara M; Voll, Ronald J; Young, Larry J; Goodman, Mark M

    2013-10-01

    The compound 1-(1-(2-(2-(2-fluoroethoxy)-4-(piperidin-4-yloxy)phenyl)acetyl)piperidin-4-yl)-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one (1) was synthesized and positively evaluated in vitro for high potency and selectivity with human oxytocin receptors. The positron emitting analogue, [F-18]1, was synthesized and investigated in vivo via PET imaging using rat and cynomolgus monkey models. PET imaging studies in female Sprague-Dawley rats suggested [F-18]1 reached the brain and accumulated in various regions of the brain, but washed out too rapidly for adequate quantification and localization. In vivo PET imaging studies in a male cynomolgus monkey suggested [F-18]1 had limited brain penetration while specific uptake of radioactivity significantly accumulated within the vasculature of the cerebral ventricles in areas representative of the choroid plexus. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Associations between oxytocin receptor genotypes and social cognitive performance in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael C; Horan, William P; Nurmi, Erika L; Rizzo, Shemra; Li, Wendy; Sugar, Catherine A; Green, Michael F

    2014-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia often show substantial deficits in social cognitive abilities, which are strongly associated with social functioning. To advance our understanding of the genetic variation that is associated with social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, we genotyped 74 schizophrenia outpatients who completed social cognitive performance measures assessing mentalizing, social perception, and emotional intelligence, as well as clinical symptoms. We assessed seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) previously found to show replicable associations with socio-emotional processes. For one of the seven SNPs, rs2268493, the 'T' allele was significantly associated with poorer performance on a composite social cognition index, as well as specific tests of mentalizing and social perception. None of the SNPs were associated with clinical symptoms. Though the sample size is small, these findings provide initial support for the involvement of genetic variants of the OXTR in social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia.

  7. Simultaneous prenatal ethanol and nicotine exposure affect ethanol consumption, ethanol preference and oxytocin receptor binding in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah K; Cox, Elizabeth T; McMurray, Matthew S; Fay, Emily E; Jarrett, Thomas M; Walker, Cheryl H; Overstreet, David H; Johns, Josephine M

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol consumption and smoking during pregnancy are common, despite the known adverse effects on the fetus. The teratogenicity of each drug independently is well established; however, the effects of concurrent exposure to ethanol and nicotine in preclinical models remain unclear. This study examined the impact of simultaneous prenatal exposure to both ethanol and nicotine on offspring ethanol preference behaviors and oxytocin system dynamics. Rat dams were given liquid diet (17% ethanol derived calories (EDC)) on gestational day (GD) 5 and 35% EDC from GD 6-20 and concurrently an osmotic minipump delivered nicotine (3-6mg/kg/day) from GD 4-postpartum day 10. Offspring were tested for ethanol preference during adolescence (postnatal day (PND) 30-43) and again at adulthood (PND 60-73), followed by assays for oxytocin mRNA expression and receptor binding in relevant brain regions. Prenatal exposure decreased ethanol preference in males during adolescence, and decreased consumption and preference in females during adulthood compared to controls. Oxytocin receptor binding in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus was increased in adult prenatally exposed males only. Prenatal exposure to these drugs sex-specifically decreased ethanol preference behavior in offspring unlike reports for either drug separately. The possible role of oxytocin in reduction of ethanol consumption behavior is highlighted.

  8. Simultaneous Prenatal Ethanol and Nicotine Exposure Affect Ethanol Consumption, Ethanol Preference and Oxytocin Receptor Binding in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sarah K.; Cox, Elizabeth T.; McMurray, Matthew S.; Fay, Emily E.; Jarrett, Thomas M.; Walker, Cheryl H.; Overstreet, David H.; Johns, Josephine M.

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol consumption and smoking during pregnancy are common, despite the known adverse effects on the fetus. The teratogenicity of each drug independently is well established; however, the effects of concurrent exposure to ethanol and nicotine in preclinical models remain unclear. This study examined the impact of simultaneous prenatal exposure to both ethanol and nicotine on offspring ethanol preference behaviors and oxytocin system dynamics. Rat dams were given liquid diet (17% ethanol derived calories(EDC)) on gestational day (GD) 5 and 35% EDC fromGD 6-20 and concurrently an osmotic minipump delivered nicotine (3-6 mg/kg/day) from GD 4 - postpartum day 10. Offspring were tested for ethanol preference during adolescence (postnatal day (PND) 30-43) and again at adulthood (PND 60-73), followed by assays for oxytocin mRNA expression and receptor binding in relevant brain regions. Prenatal exposure decreased ethanol preference in males during adolescence, and decreased consumption and preference in females during adulthood compared to controls. Oxytocin receptor binding in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus was increased in adult prenatally exposed males only. Prenatal exposure to these drugs sex-specifically decreased ethanol preference behavior in offspring unlike reports for either drug separately. The possible role of oxytocin in reduction of ethanol consumption behavior is highlighted. PMID:19539752

  9. Maternal oxytocin triggers a transient inhibitory switch in GABA signaling in the fetal brain during delivery.

    PubMed

    Tyzio, Roman; Cossart, Rosa; Khalilov, Ilgam; Minlebaev, Marat; Hübner, Christian A; Represa, Alfonso; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Khazipov, Rustem

    2006-12-15

    We report a signaling mechanism in rats between mother and fetus aimed at preparing fetal neurons for delivery. In immature neurons, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter. We found that, shortly before delivery, there is a transient reduction in the intracellular chloride concentration and an excitatory-to-inhibitory switch of GABA actions. These events were triggered by oxytocin, an essential maternal hormone for labor. In vivo administration of an oxytocin receptor antagonist before delivery prevented the switch of GABA actions in fetal neurons and aggravated the severity of anoxic episodes. Thus, maternal oxytocin inhibits fetal neurons and increases their resistance to insults during delivery.

  10. Intergenerational transmission of alloparental behavior and oxytocin and vasopressin receptor distribution in the prairie vole

    PubMed Central

    Perkeybile, Allison M.; Delaney-Busch, Nathanial; Hartman, Sarah; Grimm, Kevin J.; Bales, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the early environment has the potential to permanently alter offspring behavior and development. We have previously shown that naturally occurring variation in biparental care of offspring in the prairie vole is related to differences in social behavior of the offspring. It was not, however, clear whether the behavioral differences seen between offspring receiving high compared to low amounts of parental care were the result of different care experiences or were due to shared genetics with their high-contact or low-contact parents. Here we use cross-fostering methods to determine the mode of transmission of alloparental behavior and oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR) binding from parent to offspring. Offspring were cross-fostered or in-fostered on postnatal day 1 and parental care received was quantified in the first week postpartum. At weaning, offspring underwent an alloparental care test and brains were then collected from all parents and offspring to examine OTR and V1aR binding. Results indicate that alloparental behavior of offspring was predicted by the parental behavior of their rearing parents. Receptor binding for both OTR and V1aR tended to be predicted by the genetic mothers for female offspring and by the genetic fathers for male offspring. These findings suggest a different, sex-dependent, role of early experience and genetics in shaping behavior compared to receptor distribution and support the notion of sex-dependent outcomes. PMID:26257619

  11. Alpha-1-adrenergic receptor blockade modifies insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) activity in rat prostate and modulates oxytocin functions.

    PubMed

    Saníger, Marcela Arrazola; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; de la Chica, Susana; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Mayas, María Dolores; Manuel Martínez-Martos, José

    2011-08-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is one of the important paracrine factors that prostate synthesizes. OT maintains its resting tone and stimulates its contractile activity. However, the involvement of OT in modulating cell proliferation of the prostate is being investigated. In fact, alterations in OT concentrations accompany both benign prostatic hyperplasia/hypertrophy and carcinoma of the prostate. The enzyme Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is the main responsible of OT levels regulation through its catabolism. To date, the long-acting selective α(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist doxazosin is widely used to the treatment of BPH. Thus, our aim was to analyze the effects of doxazosin on IRAP specific activity and its putative effects on prostate OT regulation and functions. Fifteen male Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously with 10 mg/Kg doxazosin during 15 days and fifteen controls were treated with the vehicle only. After the treatment period, prostate was removed to obtain soluble and membrane-bound fractions. Soluble and membrane-bound IRAP specific activities were assayed fluorometrically using leucyl-ß-naphthylamide as substrate. Prostate OT content was assayed by enzyme immunoassay. Doxazosin treatment significantly increased membrane-bound IRAP specific activity in rat prostate by 59.4%, whereas no changes were observed in the soluble fraction. Treatment with doxazosin also significantly increased OT concentration by 26.3%. In vivo administration of doxazosin to male rats modify both prostatic IRAP activity and OT levels. Because there is now evidence that OT plays a physiological role in the regulation of growth and muscular contractility within the gland, more attention should be paid to IRAP activity, which could represent a new target for the regulation of the functions of OT under physiological or pathological conditions such as BPH and prostate cancer.

  12. Oxytocin and social functioning.

    PubMed

    Jones, Candace; Barrera, Ingrid; Brothers, Shaun; Ring, Robert; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2017-06-01

    Social anxiety is a form of anxiety characterized by continuous fear of one or more social or performance situations. Although multiple treatment modalities (cognitive behavioral therapy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors/selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines) exist for social anxiety, they are effective for only 60% to 70% of patients. Thus, researchers have looked for other candidates for social anxiety treatment. Our review focuses on the peptide oxytocin as a potential therapeutic option for individuals with social anxiety. Animal research both in nonprimates and primates supports oxytocin's role in facilitation of prosocial behaviors and its anxiolytic effects. Human studies indicate significant associations between social anxiety and oxytocin receptor gene alleles, as well as social anxiety and oxytocin plasma levels. In addition, intranasal administration of oxytocin in humans has favorable effects on social anxiety symptomology. Other disorders, including autism, schizophrenia, and anorexia, have components of social anxiety in their pathophysiology. The therapeutic role of oxytocin for social dysfunction in these disorders is discussed.

  13. Functionalized Congeners of P2Y1 Receptor Antagonists:

    SciTech Connect

    de Castro, Sonia; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Hong, Kunlun; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Costanzi, Stefano; Hechler, Béatrice; Gachet, Christian; Harden, T. Kendall; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    The P2Y{sub 1} receptor is a prothrombotic G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by ADP. Preference for the North (N) ring conformation of the ribose moiety of adenine nucleotide 3',5'-bisphosphate antagonists of the P2Y{sub 1} receptor was established by using a ring-constrained methanocarba (a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) ring as a ribose substitute. A series of covalently linkable N{sup 6}-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2'-deoxyadenosine-3',5'-bisphosphates containing extended 2-alkynyl chains was designed, and binding affinity at the human (h) P2Y{sub 1} receptor determined. The chain of these functionalized congeners contained hydrophilic moieties, a reactive substituent, or biotin, linked via an amide. Variation of the chain length and position of an intermediate amide group revealed high affinity of carboxylic congener 8 (K{sub i} 23 nM) and extended amine congener 15 (K{sub i} 132 nM), both having a 2-(1-pentynoyl) group. A biotin conjugate 18 containing an extended {epsilon}-aminocaproyl spacer chain exhibited higher affinity than a shorter biotinylated analogue. Alternatively, click coupling of terminal alkynes of homologous 2-dialkynyl nucleotide derivatives to alkyl azido groups produced triazole derivatives that bound to the P2Y{sub 1} receptor following deprotection of the bisphosphate groups. The preservation of receptor affinity of the functionalized congeners was consistent with new P2Y{sub 1} receptor modeling and ligand docking. Attempted P2Y{sub 1} antagonist conjugation to PAMAM dendrimer carriers by amide formation or palladium-catalyzed reaction between an alkyne on the dendrimer and a 2-iodopurine-derivatized nucleotide was unsuccessful. A dialkynyl intermediate containing the chain length favored in receptor binding was conjugated to an azide-derivatized dendrimer, and the conjugate inhibited ADP-promoted human platelet aggregation. This is the first example of attaching a strategically functionalized P2Y receptor antagonist to a PAMAM dendrimer to

  14. Muscarinic Receptor Agonists and Antagonists: Effects on Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Many epithelial and endothelial cells express a cholinergic autocrine loop in which acetylcholine acts as a growth factor to stimulate cell growth. Cancers derived from these tissues similarly express a cholinergic autocrine loop and ACh secreted by the cancer or neighboring cells interacts with M3 muscarinic receptors expressed on the cancer cells to stimulate tumor growth. Primary proliferative pathways involve MAPK and Akt activation. The ability of muscarinic agonists to stimulate, and M3 antagonists to inhibit tumor growth has clearly been demonstrated for lung and colon cancer. The ability of muscarinic agonists to stimulate growth has been shown for melanoma, pancreatic, breast, ovarian, prostate and brain cancers, suggesting that M3 antagonists will also inhibit growth of these tumors as well. As yet no clinical trials have proven the efficacy of M3 antagonists as cancer therapeutics, though the widespread clinical use and low toxicity of M3 antagonists support the potential role of these drugs as adjuvants to current cancer therapies. PMID:22222710

  15. Characterization of a novel non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qun-Yi; Zhang, Meng; Hallis, Tina M.; DeRosier, Therese A.; Yue, Jian-Min; Ye, Yang; Mais, Dale E.; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2010-01-15

    Selective antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are desirable for the treatment of hypercortisolemia associated with Cushing's syndrome, psychic depression, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and glaucoma. NC3327, a non-steroidal small molecule with potent binding affinity to GR (K{sub i} = 13.2 nM), was identified in a high-throughput screening effort. As a full GR antagonist, NC3327 greatly inhibits the dexamethasone (Dex) induction of marker genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, but has a minimal effect on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a GR responsive pro-inflammatory gene. Interestingly, the compound recruits neither coactivators nor corepressors to the GR complex but competes with glucocorticoids for the interaction between GR and a coactivator peptide. Moreover, NC3327 does not trigger GR nuclear translocation, but significantly blocks Dex-induced GR transportation to the nucleus, and thus appears to be a 'competitive' GR antagonist. Therefore, the non-steroidal compound, NC3327, may represent a new class of GR antagonists as potential therapeutics for a variety of cortisol-related endocrine disorders.

  16. NMDA receptor antagonists extend the sensitive period for imprinting.

    PubMed

    Parsons, C H; Rogers, L J

    2000-03-01

    Filial imprinting in the domestic chick occurs during a sensitive period of development. The exact timing of this period can vary according to the methods used to measure imprinting. Using our imprinting paradigm, we have shown that normal, dark-reared chicks lose the ability to imprint after the second day post-hatching. Further, we reported that chicks treated 10 h after hatching with a mixture of the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine (55 mg/kg) and the alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist xylazine (6 mg/kg) were able to imprint on day 8 after hatching, whereas controls treated with saline did not imprint. We now show that the effect of the ketamine-xylazine mixture can be mimicked by treating chicks with ketamine alone or with another noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (5 mg/kg). Treating chicks with a single dose of ketamine (55 mg/kg) or with a single dose of xylazine (6 mg/kg) failed to produce the effect on the sensitive period. However, prolonging the action of ketamine by treating chicks with two doses of ketamine (at 10 and 12 h after hatching) did allow imprinting on day 8. In contrast, prolonging the action of xylazine had no effect on the sensitive period for imprinting. Chicks treated with MK-801 were also able to imprint on day 8. Thus, we have evidence that the NMDA receptor system is involved in the mechanisms that control the sensitive period for imprinting.

  17. Inhibitory effect of oxytocin on accelerated colonic motility induced by water-avoidance stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, M; Konagaya, T; Nogimori, T; Yoneda, M; Kasugai, K; Ohira, H; Kaneko, H

    2009-08-01

    Recent studies have indicated that brain and gut activities are interrelated and exposure to several stressors, such as water-avoidance stress, stimulates the motor function of the gut through corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-signalling pathways in the brain. Central oxytocin is known to attenuate stress responses, including CRF expression in the brain. Here, we examined whether central oxytocin attenuated the acceleration of colonic motility induced by water-avoidance stress. A force transducer was attached to the distal colon of male rat, and the colonic motility and faecal pellet output were recorded while the rats were exposed to water-avoidance stress. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of oxytocin (5, 50 and 500 pmol) and the oxytocin receptor antagonist tocinoic acid (25 microg) were administered before exposure to water-avoidance stress, and the effect of oxytocin on colonic motor function was determined. Centrally administered oxytocin inhibited the accelerated colonic motility induced by water-avoidance stress. The effective dose ranged between 5 and 50 pmol on i.c.v. injection. Oxytocin also decreased the number of CRF-positive cells in the paraventricular nucleus and corticosterone release. The inhibitory effect of oxytocin on accelerated colonic motility was blocked by pretreatment with oxytocin receptor antagonist. Furthermore, centrally administered tocinoic acid enhanced the acceleration of colonic motility. These results suggested that endogenous central oxytocin may contribute to the regulation of colonic function and inhibit the brain CRF-signalling pathways targeting the gut, resulting in the inhibition of stress-induced colonic contractions.

  18. Oxytocin in the nucleus accumbens core reduces reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Baracz, Sarah J; Everett, Nicholas A; McGregor, Iain S; Cornish, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    The psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive illicit drug. Systemic administration of the neuropeptide oxytocin modulates METH-related reward and METH-seeking behaviour. Recent findings demonstrated a reduction in METH-induced reward by oxytocin administration into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. It is not known, however, if oxytocin acts in this region to reduce relapse to METH-seeking behaviour. Using the drug reinstatement paradigm in rats experienced at METH self-administration, we aimed to determine whether oxytocin pre-treatment within the NAc core would reduce relapse to METH use and if this could be reversed by the co-administration of the oxytocin receptor (OTR) antagonist desGly-NH2,d(CH2)5[D-Tyr2,Thr4]OVT. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent surgery to implant an intravenous jugular vein catheter and bilateral microinjection cannulae in the NAc core. Rats were then trained to self-administer intravenous METH (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) by lever press during 2-hour fixed ratio 1 scheduled sessions for 20 days. Following extinction of lever press activity, the effect of microinjecting saline, oxytocin (0.5 pmol, 1.5 pmol, 4.5 pmol) or co-administration of oxytocin (1.5 pmol) and desGly-NH2,d(CH2)5[D-Tyr2,Thr4]OVT (1 nmol, 3 nmol) in the NAc core (500 nl/side) was examined on METH-primed (1 mg/kg, i.p.) reinstatement of drug-seeking behaviour. Our results showed oxytocin directly administered into the NAc core decreased METH-primed reinstatement in a dose-dependent manner. Co-administration of the selective OTR antagonist did not specifically reverse the inhibitory effects of oxytocin on METH priming, suggesting mediation by receptors other than the OTR. These findings highlight an important modulatory effect of oxytocin in the NAc core on relapse to METH seeking.

  19. The neurogenetics of nice: receptor genes for oxytocin and vasopressin interact with threat to predict prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Michael J; Holman, E Alison; Buffone, Anneke

    2012-05-01

    Oxytocin, vasopressin, and their receptor genes influence prosocial behavior in the laboratory and in the context of close relationships. These peptides may also promote social engagement following threat. However, the scope of their prosocial effects is unknown. We examined oxytocin receptor (OXTR) polymorphism rs53576, as well as vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) polymorphisms rs1 and rs3 in a national sample of U.S. residents (n = 348). These polymorphisms interacted with perceived threat to predict engagement in volunteer work or charitable activities and commitment to civic duty. Specifically, greater perceived threat predicted engagement in fewer charitable activities for individuals with A/A and A/G genotypes of OXTR rs53576, but not for G/G individuals. Similarly, greater perceived threat predicted lower commitment to civic duty for individuals with one or two short alleles for AVPR1a rs1, but not for individuals with only long alleles. Oxytocin, vasopressin, and their receptor genes may significantly influence prosocial behavior and may lie at the core of the caregiving behavioral system.

  20. Vasopressin receptor antagonists, heart failure, and polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Torres, Vicente E

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of nonpeptide orally bioavailable vasopressin antagonists devoid of agonistic activity (vaptans) has made possible the selective blockade of vasopressin receptor subtypes for therapeutic purposes. Vaptans acting on the vasopressin V2 receptors (aquaretics) have attracted attention as a possible therapy for heart failure and polycystic kidney disease. Despite a solid rationale and encouraging preclinical testing, aquaretics have not improved clinical outcomes in randomized clinical trials for heart failure. Additional clinical trials with select population targets, more flexible dosing schedules, and possibly a different drug type or combination (balanced V1a/V2 receptor antagonism) may be warranted. Aquaretics are promising for the treatment of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and have been approved in Japan for this indication. More studies are needed to better define their long-term safety and efficacy and optimize their utilization.

  1. Crystal Structure of Antagonist Bound Human Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Chrencik, Jill E.; Roth, Christopher B.; Terakado, Masahiko; Kurata, Haruto; Omi, Rie; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Warshaviak, Dora; Nakade, Shinji; Asmar-Rovira, Guillermo; Mileni, Mauro; Mizuno, Hirotaka; Griffith, Mark T.; Rodgers, Caroline; Han, Gye Won; Velasquez, Jeffrey; Chun, Jerold; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lipid biology continues to emerge as an area of significant therapeutic interest, particularly as the result of an enhanced understanding of the wealth of signaling molecules with diverse physiological properties. This growth in knowledge is epitomized by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which functions through interactions with six cognate G protein-coupled receptors. Herein we present three crystal structures of LPA1 in complex with antagonist tool compounds selected and designed through structural and stability analysis. Structural analysis combined with molecular dynamics identified a basis for ligand access to the LPA1 binding pocket from the extracellular space contrasting with the proposed access for the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor. Characteristics of the LPA1 binding pocket raise the possibility of promiscuous ligand recognition of phosphorylated endocannabinoids. Cell-based assays confirmed this hypothesis, linking the distinct receptor systems through metabolically related ligands with potential functional and therapeutic implications for treatment of disease. PMID:26091040

  2. The neuroanatomical distribution of oxytocin receptor binding and mRNA in the male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Freeman, Sara M; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Smith, Aaron L; Goodman, Mark M; Young, Larry J

    2014-07-01

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an important primate model for social cognition, and recent studies have begun to explore the impact of oxytocin on social cognition and behavior. Macaques have great potential for elucidating the neural mechanisms by which oxytocin modulates social cognition, which has implications for oxytocin-based pharmacotherapies for psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. Previous attempts to localize oxytocin receptors (OXTR) in the rhesus macaque brain have failed due to reduced selectivity of radioligands, which in primates bind to both OXTR and the structurally similar vasopressin 1a receptor (AVPR1A). We have developed a pharmacologically-informed competitive binding autoradiography protocol that selectively reveals OXTR and AVPR1A binding sites in primate brain sections. Using this protocol, we describe the neuroanatomical distribution of OXTR in the macaque. Finally, we use in situ hybridization to localize OXTR mRNA. Our results demonstrate that OXTR expression in the macaque brain is much more restricted than AVPR1A. OXTR is largely limited to the nucleus basalis of Meynert, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, the superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus, the trapezoid body, and the ventromedial hypothalamus. These regions are involved in a variety of functions relevant to social cognition, including modulating visual attention, processing auditory and multimodal sensory stimuli, and controlling orienting responses to visual stimuli. These results provide insights into the neural mechanisms by which oxytocin modulates social cognition and behavior in this species, which, like humans, uses vision and audition as the primary modalities for social communication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adenosine receptor antagonists alter the stability of human epileptic GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Roseti, Cristina; Martinello, Katiuscia; Fucile, Sergio; Piccari, Vanessa; Mascia, Addolorata; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Quarato, Pier Paolo; Manfredi, Mario; Esposito, Vincenzo; Cantore, Gianpaolo; Arcella, Antonella; Simonato, Michele; Fredholm, Bertil B.; Limatola, Cristina; Miledi, Ricardo; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    We examined how the endogenous anticonvulsant adenosine might influence γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor stability and which adenosine receptors (ARs) were involved. Upon repetitive activation (GABA 500 μM), GABAA receptors, microtransplanted into Xenopus oocytes from neurosurgically resected epileptic human nervous tissues, exhibited an obvious GABAA-current (IGABA) run-down, which was consistently and significantly reduced by treatment with the nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist CGS15943 (100 nM) or with adenosine deaminase (ADA) (1 units/ml), that inactivates adenosine. It was also found that selective antagonists of A2B (MRS1706, 10 nM) or A3 (MRS1334, 30 nM) receptors reduced IGABA run-down, whereas treatment with the specific A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX (10 nM) was ineffective. The selective A2A receptor antagonist SCH58261 (10 nM) reduced or potentiated IGABA run-down in ≈40% and ≈20% of tested oocytes, respectively. The ADA-resistant, AR agonist 2-chloroadenosine (2-CA) (10 μM) potentiated IGABA run-down but only in ≈20% of tested oocytes. CGS15943 administration again decreased IGABA run-down in patch-clamped neurons from either human or rat neocortex slices. IGABA run-down in pyramidal neurons was equivalent in A1 receptor-deficient and wt neurons but much larger in neurons from A2A receptor-deficient mice, indicating that, in mouse cortex, GABAA-receptor stability is tonically influenced by A2A but not by A1 receptors. IGABA run-down from wt mice was not affected by 2-CA, suggesting maximal ARs activity by endogenous adenosine. Our findings strongly suggest that cortical A2–A3 receptors alter the stability of GABAA receptors, which could offer therapeutic opportunities. PMID:18809912

  4. Potential Clinical Implications of the Urotensin II Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tsoukas, Philip; Kane, Emilie; Giaid, Adel

    2011-01-01

    Urotensin II (UII) binds to its receptor, UT, playing an important role in the heart, kidneys, pancreas, adrenal gland, and central nervous system. In the vasculature, it acts as a potent endothelium-independent vasoconstrictor and endothelium-dependent vasodilator. In disease states, however, this constriction-dilation equilibrium is disrupted. There is an upregulation of the UII system in heart disease, metabolic syndrome, and kidney failure. The increase in UII release and UT expression suggest that UII system may be implicated in the pathology and pathogenesis of these diseases by causing an increase in acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) activity leading to smooth muscle cell proliferation and foam cell infiltration, insulin resistance (DMII), as well as inflammation, high blood pressure, and plaque formation. Recently, UT antagonists such as SB-611812, palosuran, and most recently a piperazino-isoindolinone based antagonist have been developed in the hope of better understanding the UII system and treating its associated diseases.

  5. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms: Role in Social and Psychiatric Traits

    PubMed Central

    Aspé-Sánchez, Mauricio; Moreno, Macarena; Rivera, Maria Ignacia; Rossi, Alejandra; Ewer, John

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are two phylogenetically conserved neuropeptides that have been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors. Although a large body of research, ranging from rodents to humans, has reported on the effects of OXT and AVP administration on affiliative and trust behaviors, and has highlighted the genetic contributions of OXT and AVP receptor polymorphisms to both social behaviors and to diseases related to social deficits, the consequences of peptide administration on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of receptor polymorphisms on receptor function, are still unclear. Despite the exciting advances that these reports have brought to social neuroscience, they remain preliminary and suffer from the problems that are inherent to monogenetic linkage and association studies. As an alternative, some studies are using polygenic approaches, and consider the contributions of other genes and pathways, including those involving DA, 5-HT, and reelin, in addition to OXT and AVP; a handful of report are also using genome-wide association studies. This review summarizes findings on the associations between OXT and AVP receptor polymorphism, social behavior, and psychiatric diseases. In addition, we discuss reports on the interactions of OXT and AVP receptor genes and genes involved in other pathways (such as those of dopamine, serotonin, and reelin), as well as research that has shed some light on the impact of gene polymorphisms on the volume, connectivity, and activation of specific neural structures, differential receptor expression, and plasma levels of the OXT and AVP peptides. We hope that this effort will be helpful for understanding the studies performed so far, and for encouraging the inclusion of other candidate genes not explored to date. PMID:26858594

  6. Disadvantage of Social Sensitivity: Interaction of Oxytocin Receptor Genotype and Child Maltreatment on Brain Structure.

    PubMed

    Dannlowski, Udo; Kugel, Harald; Grotegerd, Dominik; Redlich, Ronny; Opel, Nils; Dohm, Katharina; Zaremba, Dario; Grögler, Anne; Schwieren, Juliane; Suslow, Thomas; Ohrmann, Patricia; Bauer, Jochen; Krug, Axel; Kircher, Tilo; Jansen, Andreas; Domschke, Katharina; Hohoff, Christa; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Heinrichs, Markus; Arolt, Volker; Heindel, Walter; Baune, Bernhard T

    2016-09-01

    Oxytocin has received much attention as a prosocial and anxiolytic neuropeptide. In human studies, the G-allele of a common variant (rs53576) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been associated with protective properties such as reduced stress response and higher receptiveness for social support. In contrast, recent studies suggest a detrimental role of the rs53576 G-allele in the context of childhood maltreatment. To further elucidate the role of OXTR, gene by maltreatment interactions on brain structure and function were investigated. Three hundred nine healthy participants genotyped for OXTR rs53576 underwent structural as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging during a common emotional face-matching task. Childhood maltreatment was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Gray matter volumes were investigated by means of voxel-based morphometry across the entire brain. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data revealed a strong interaction of rs53576 genotype and CTQ scores, mapping specifically to the bilateral ventral striatum. GG homozygotes but not A-allele carriers showed strong gray matter reduction with increasing CTQ scores. In turn, lower ventral striatum gray matter volumes were associated with lower reward dependence, a prosocial trait. Furthermore, the G-allele was associated with increased amygdala responsiveness to emotional facial expressions. The findings suggest that the G-allele constitutes a vulnerability factor for specific alterations of limbic brain structure in individuals with adverse childhood experiences, complemented by increased limbic responsiveness to emotional interpersonal stimuli. While oxytocinergic signaling facilitates attachment and bonding in supportive social environments, this attunement for social cues may turn disadvantageous under early adverse conditions. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and children's social cognition at 18 months.

    PubMed

    Wade, M; Hoffmann, T J; Wigg, K; Jenkins, J M

    2014-09-01

    At 18 months, children engage in a variety of social behaviors that reflect their nascent ability to understand the intentions of other people (e.g. joint attention, empathy, cooperation and self-recognition). Although numerous contextual factors have been shown to predict social cognition in young children, the genetic underpinnings of social-cognitive traits has been understudied in this age group. Owing to the known effects of oxytocin on adult social cognition and psychopathology, this study hypothesized that variability in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) would be associated with social cognition in children at 18 months. Participants consisted of 350 children (182 males; 168 females) who were part of an ongoing longitudinal study that aimed to assess environmental and genetic contributions to children's cognitive and socio-emotional functioning. At 18 months, social cognition was measured using previously validated and developmentally sensitive tasks assessing children's joint attention, empathy, cooperation and self-recognition. Five potentially functional OXTR variants were genotyped: rs1042778, rs2254298, rs11131149, rs237897 and rs237899. A family-based association design was used to control for population admixture and stratification, and additional non-genomic covariates were controlled. Results showed that variability in rs11131149 was significantly associated with social cognition (P=0.009), with more copies of the major allele related to higher social cognition, and more copies of the minor (risk) allele associated with lower social cognition. A haplotype consisting of rs11131149-rs2254298 was also associated with social cognition (P=0.020). Implications for normative and pathological development are discussed, and key areas for future research are proposed.

  8. Association between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and mesolimbic responses to rewards

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been significant progress in identifying genes that confer risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, the heterogeneity of symptom presentation in ASDs impedes the detection of ASD risk genes. One approach to understanding genetic influences on ASD symptom expression is to evaluate relations between variants of ASD candidate genes and neural endophenotypes in unaffected samples. Allelic variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene confer small but significant risk for ASDs for which the underlying mechanisms may involve associations between variability in oxytocin signaling pathways and neural response to rewards. The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the influence of allelic variability in the OXTR gene on neural responses to monetary rewards in healthy adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods The moderating effects of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1042778, rs2268493 and rs237887) of the OXTR gene on mesolimbic responses to rewards were evaluated using a monetary incentive delay fMRI task. Results T homozygotes of the rs2268493 SNP demonstrated relatively decreased activation in mesolimbic reward circuitry (including the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, insula, thalamus and prefrontal cortical regions) during the anticipation of rewards but not during the outcome phase of the task. Allelic variation of the rs1042778 and rs237887 SNPs did not moderate mesolimbic activation during either reward anticipation or outcomes. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that the OXTR SNP rs2268493, which has been previously identified as an ASD risk gene, moderates mesolimbic responses during reward anticipation. Given previous findings of decreased mesolimbic activation during reward anticipation in ASD, the present results suggest that OXTR may confer ASD risk via influences on the neural systems that support reward anticipation. PMID:24485285

  9. Carbobenzoxy amino acids: Structural requirements for cholecystokinin receptor antagonist activity

    SciTech Connect

    Maton, P.N.; Sutliff, V.E.; Jensen, R.T.; Gardner, J.D.

    1985-04-01

    The authors used dispersed acini prepared from guinea pig pancreas to examine 28 carbobenzoxy (CBZ) amino acids for their abilities to function as cholecystokinin receptor antagonists. All amino acid derivatives tested, except for CBZ-alanine, CBZ-glycine, and N alpha-CBZ- lysine, were able to inhibit the stimulation of amylase secretion caused by the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin. In general, there was a good correlation between the ability of a carbobenzoxy amino acid to inhibit stimulated amylase secretion and the ability of the amino acid derivative to inhibit binding of /sup 125/I-cholecystokinin. The inhibition of cholecystokinin-stimulated amylase secretion was competitive, fully reversible, and specific for those secretagogues that interact with the cholecystokinin receptor. The potencies with which the various carbobenzoxy amino acids inhibited the action of cholecystokinin varied 100-fold and CBZ-cystine was the most potent cholecystokinin receptor antagonist. This variation in potency was primarily but not exclusively a function of the hydrophobicity of the amino acid side chain.

  10. Safety profile of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists: Spironolactone and eplerenone.

    PubMed

    Lainscak, Mitja; Pelliccia, Francesco; Rosano, Giuseppe; Vitale, Cristiana; Schiariti, Michele; Greco, Cesare; Speziale, Giuseppe; Gaudio, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    Spironolactone was first developed over 50 years ago as a potent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist with undesirable side effects; it was followed a decade ago by eplerenone, which is less potent but much more mineralocorticoid receptor-specific. From a marginal role as a potassium-sparing diuretic, spironolactone has been shown to be an extraordinarily effective adjunctive agent in the treatment of progressive heart failure. Also, spironolactone is safe and protective in arterial hypertension, particularly in patients with so-called resistant hypertension. Eplerenone is the second oral aldosterone antagonist available for the treatment of arterial hypertension and heart failure. Treatment with eplerenone has been associated with decreased blood pressure and improved survival for patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Due to the selectivity of eplerenone for the aldosterone receptor, severe adverse effects such as gynecomastia and vaginal bleeding seem to be less likely in patients who take eplerenone than in those who take spironolactone. The most common and potentially dangerous side effect of spironolactone--hyperkalemia--is also observed with eplerenone but the findings from clinical trials do not indicate more hyperkalemia induced drug withdrawals. Treatment with eplerenone should be initiated at a dosage of 25mg once daily and titrated to a target dosage of 50mg once daily preferably within 4 weeks. Serum potassium levels and renal function should be assessed prior to initiating eplerenone therapy, and periodic monitoring is recommended, especially in patients at high risk of developing hyperkalemia.

  11. Internalization of the chemokine receptor CCR4 can be evoked by orthosteric and allosteric receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ajram, Laura; Begg, Malcolm; Slack, Robert; Cryan, Jenni; Hall, David; Hodgson, Simon; Ford, Alison; Barnes, Ashley; Swieboda, Dawid; Mousnier, Aurelie; Solari, Roberto

    2014-04-15

    The chemokine receptor CCR4 has at least two natural agonist ligands, MDC (CCL22) and TARC (CCL17) which bind to the same orthosteric site with a similar affinity. Both ligands are known to evoke chemotaxis of CCR4-bearing T cells and also elicit CCR4 receptor internalization. A series of small molecule allosteric antagonists have been described which displace the agonist ligand, and inhibit chemotaxis. The aim of this study was to determine which cellular coupling pathways are involved in internalization, and if antagonists binding to the CCR4 receptor could themselves evoke receptor internalization. CCL22 binding coupled CCR4 efficiently to β-arrestin and stimulated GTPγS binding however CCL17 did not couple to β-arrestin and only partially stimulated GTPγS binding. CCL22 potently induced internalization of almost all cell surface CCR4, while CCL17 showed only weak effects. We describe four small molecule antagonists that were demonstrated to bind to two distinct allosteric sites on the CCR4 receptor, and while both classes inhibited agonist ligand binding and chemotaxis, one of the allosteric sites also evoked receptor internalization. Furthermore, we also characterize an N-terminally truncated version of CCL22 which acts as a competitive antagonist at the orthosteric site, and surprisingly also evokes receptor internalization without demonstrating any agonist activity. Collectively this study demonstrates that orthosteric and allosteric antagonists of the CCR4 receptor are capable of evoking receptor internalization, providing a novel strategy for drug discovery against this class of target.

  12. Oxytocin Inhibits the Membrane Depolarization-Induced Increase in Intracellular Calcium in Capsaicin Sensitive Sensory Neurons: A Peripheral Mechanism of Analgesic Action

    PubMed Central

    Hobo, Shotaro; Hayashida, Ken-ichiro; Eisenach, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lumbar intrathecal injection of oxytocin produces antinociception in rats and analgesia in humans. Classically, oxytocin receptors couple to stimulatory G proteins, increase inositol-3-phosphate production, and result in neuronal excitation. Most work to date has focused on a spinal site of oxytocin to excite γ-aminobutyric acid interneurons to produce analgesia. Here we ask whether oxytocin might also affect primary sensory afferents by modulating high voltage-gated calcium channels, such as it does in the brain. Methods Dorsal root ganglion cells from adult rats were acutely dissociated and cultured, and changes in intracellular calcium determined by fluorescent microscopy using an indicator dye. The effects of oxytocin alone and in the presence of transient depolarization from increased extracellular KCl concentration were determined, then the pharmacology of these effects were studied. Cells from injured dorsal root ganglion cells after spinal nerve ligation were also studied. Results Oxytocin produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the increase in intracellular calcium from membrane depolarization, an effect blocked more efficiently by oxytocin- than vasopressin-receptor selective antagonists. Oxytocin-induced inhibition was present in cells responding to capsaicin, and when internal stores of calcium were depleted with thapsigargin. Oxytocin produced similar inhibition in cells from animals with spinal nerve ligation. Conclusions These data suggest that oxytocin produces antinociception after intrathecal delivery in part by reducing excitatory neurotransmitter release from the central terminals of nociceptors. PMID:22104073

  13. Oxytocin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Oxytocin injection is used to begin or improve contractions during labor. Oxytocin also is used to reduce bleeding after childbirth. ... other medications or procedures to end a pregnancy. Oxytocin is in a class of medications called oxytocic ...

  14. Histamine and prostaglandin interaction in regulation of oxytocin and vasopressin secretion.

    PubMed

    Knigge, U; Kjaer, A; Kristoffersen, U; Madsen, K; Toftegaard, C; Jørgensen, H; Warberg, J

    2003-10-01

    Prostaglandins and histamine in the hypothalamus are involved in the regulation of oxytocin and vasopressin secretion, and appear to be involved in the mediation of pituitary hormone responses to immunochallenges. Therefore, we investigated in conscious male rats: (i) whether blockade of H1 or H2 receptors affected the oxytocin and vasopressin responses to prostaglandins and (ii) whether blockade of prostaglandin synthesis affected the oxytocin and vasopressin responses to histamine or to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in order to determine any interaction between prostaglandins and histamine in the hypothalamus. Oxytocin secretion was dose-dependently stimulated by intracerebroventricular infusion of 1 or 5 microg of PGE1, PGE2 or PGF2alpha, with PGE2 being the most potent of the compounds used. Prior central infusion of the H1 receptor antagonist mepyramine or the H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine significantly inhibited the oxytocin response to all three prostaglandins by approximately 50%. Vasopressin secretion was increased by PGE1 but not by PGE2 or PGF2alpha. The stimulatory effect of PGE1 was almost annihilated by prior administration of mepyramine or cimetidine. Central infusion of histamine or immunochallenge with LPS administered intraperitoneally increased oxytocin and vasopressin secretion four- and two-fold, respectively. Pretreatment with systemic injection of the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin dose-dependently reduced the oxytocin response and prevented the vasopressin response to histamine or LPS. We conclude that histamine and PGE1, PGE2 or PGF2alpha interact in the regulation of oxytocin secretion, whereas histamine and only PGE1 interact in the regulation of vasopressin secretion. Furthermore, histamine as well as LPS may affect oxytocin and vasopressin neurones via activation of prostaglandins, probably in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus.

  15. New perspectives on glutamate receptor antagonists as antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chihye

    2012-03-01

    Classical antidepressants elevate the monoamine levels in the brain by preventing re-uptake of monoamines after release. Treatment of depression with monoamine re-uptake inhibitors is associated with low clinical efficacy and remission rate due to the delayed onset of therapeutic responses. Therefore, the development of alternative antidepressants is essential for successful treatment of this disease. Recently, glutamate receptor antagonists including ketamine and 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) have received wide attention as fast-acting therapeutic alternatives for treatment of depression.

  16. Substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines as selective antagonists for the orexin 1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Perrey, David A; German, Nadezhda A; Gilmour, Brian P; Li, Jun-Xu; Harris, Danni L; Thomas, Brian F; Zhang, Yanan

    2013-09-12

    Increasing evidence implicates the orexin 1 (OX1) receptor in reward processes, suggesting OX1 antagonism could be therapeutic in drug addiction. In a program to develop an OX1 selective antagonist, we designed and synthesized a series of substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines and determined their potency in OX1 and OX2 calcium mobilization assays. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed limited steric tolerance and a preference for electron deficiency at the 7-position. Pyridylmethyl groups were shown to be optimal for activity at the acetamide position. Computational studies resulted in a pharmacophore model and confirmed the SAR results. Compound 72 significantly attenuated the development of place preference for cocaine in rats.

  17. Substituted Tetrahydroisoquinolines as Selective Antagonists for the Orexin 1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Perrey, David A.; German, Nadezhda A.; Gilmour, Brian P.; Li, Jun-Xu; Harris, Danni L.; Thomas, Brian F.; Zhang, Yanan

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence implicates the orexin 1 (OX1) receptor in reward processes, suggesting OX1 antagonism could be therapeutic in drug addiction. In a program to develop an OX1 selective antagonist, we designed and synthesized a series of substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines and determined their potency in OX1 and OX2 calcium mobilization assays. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed limited steric tolerance and preference for electron deficiency at the 7-position. Pyridylmethyl groups were shown to be optimal for activity at the acetamide position. Computational studies resulted in a pharmacophore model and confirmed the SAR results. Compound 72 significantly attenuated the development of place preference for cocaine in rats. PMID:23941044

  18. Examining the role of oxytocin in the interoceptive effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') using a drug discrimination paradigm in the rat.

    PubMed

    Broadbear, Jillian H; Tunstall, Brendan; Beringer, Katherine

    2011-04-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') use results in distinctive mood changes of a prosocial nature, most likely through its enhancement of serotonin (5HT) neurotransmission. Activation of 5HT-1A postsynaptic receptors has been shown to stimulate the release of oxytocin in the central nervous system where it regulates aspects of mood and behavior. Using a drug discrimination paradigm, we examined whether modulation of oxytocin receptor activity would affect conditioned behavioral responses to MDMA. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats (n=24) were trained to reliably differentiate between MDMA and a related stimulant, amphetamine (AMP), and saline using a three-lever drug discrimination paradigm. The extent to which substitution with carbetocin (an oxytocin analog) or co-administration with atosiban (an oxytocin receptor antagonist) affected drug-appropriate responding was evaluated. The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine was included as a negative control. The results supported the hypotheses that substitution with an oxytocin analog (carbetocin) would partially generalize to the MDMA training cue, whereas blocking oxytocin receptors with atosiban would result in a selective disruption of MDMA--but not AMP-appropriate responding. These findings were specific to the oxytocin receptor ligands as imipramine pre-treatment did not affect drug-appropriate responding. The results of this study implicate oxytocin receptor activation as a key MDMA-specific interoceptive cue in male and female rats and support the conclusion that this is one of the features of MDMA's subjective effects that distinguishes it from AMP.

  19. Chimpanzee sociability is associated with vasopressin (Avpr1a) but not oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) variation.

    PubMed

    Staes, Nicky; Koski, Sonja E; Helsen, Philippe; Fransen, Erik; Eens, Marcel; Stevens, Jeroen M G

    2015-09-01

    The importance of genes in regulating phenotypic variation of personality traits in humans and animals is becoming increasingly apparent in recent studies. Here we focus on variation in the vasopressin receptor gene 1a (Avpr1a) and oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and their effects on social personality traits in chimpanzees. We combine newly available genetic data on Avpr1a and OXTR allelic variation of 62 captive chimpanzees with individual variation in personality, based on behavioral assessments. Our study provides support for the positive association of the Avpr1a promoter region, in particular the presence of DupB, and sociability in chimpanzees. This complements findings of previous studies on adolescent chimpanzees and studies that assessed personality using questionnaire data. In contrast, no significant associations were found for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ss1388116472 of the OXTR and any of the personality components. Most importantly, our study provides additional evidence for the regulatory function of the 5' promoter region of Avpr1a on social behavior and its evolutionary stable effect across species, including rodents, chimpanzees and humans. Although it is generally accepted that complex social behavior is regulated by a combination of genes, the environment and their interaction, our findings highlight the importance of candidate genes with large effects on behavioral variation.

  20. Infusion of oxytocin induces successful delivery in prostanoid FP-receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Masaki; Yoshida, Masahide; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Kimura, Tadashi; Tonomura, Yutaka; Takayanagi, Yuki; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2008-02-13

    The dramatic increase of oxytocin (OT) receptor (OTR) in the myometrium as well as circulating progesterone withdrawal has been thought to be the most important factor in the induction and accomplishment of parturition since delivery fails in prostaglandin F2alpha receptor (FP) knockout (FP KO) mice. The expression levels of OTR mRNA/protein were not dramatically increased in the near-term uteri of FP KO mice. However, OT-induced myometrial contractions and the concentration-response curves in FP KO in vitro were almost similar to those in wild-type (WT) mice. OT-infusion (0.3 U/day) enabled FP KO mice to experience successful delivery, and furthermore the duration until the onset was hastened by a higher dose of OT (3 U/day). The plasma progesterone levels of FP KO females were maintained at high levels, but decreased during labor by OT-infusion (3 U/day). These results suggest that OT has potentials to induce strong myometrial contractions in uterus with low expression levels of OTR and luteolysis in ovary, which enabled FP KO females to undergo successful delivery.

  1. Oxytocin and arginine vasopressin receptor evolution: implications for adaptive novelties in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Paré, Pamela; Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa R.; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Vargas-Pinilla, Pedro; Viscardi, Lucas Henriques; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Henkes, Luiz E.; Bortolini, Maria Catira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and arginine vasopressin receptors (AVPR1a, AVPR1b, and AVPR2) are paralogous genes that emerged through duplication events; along the evolutionary timeline, owing to speciation, numerous orthologues emerged as well. In order to elucidate the evolutionary forces that shaped these four genes in placental mammals and to reveal specific aspects of their protein structures, 35 species were selected. Specifically, we investigated their molecular evolutionary history and intrinsic protein disorder content, and identified the presence of short linear interaction motifs. OXTR seems to be under evolutionary constraint in placental mammals, whereas AVPR1a, AVPR1b, and AVPR2 exhibit higher evolutionary rates, suggesting that they have been under relaxed or experienced positive selection. In addition, we describe here, for the first time, that the OXTR, AVPR1a, AVPR1b, and AVPR2 mammalian orthologues preserve their disorder content, while this condition varies among the paralogues. Finally, our results reveal the presence of short linear interaction motifs, indicating possible functional adaptations related to physiological and/or behavioral taxa-specific traits. PMID:27505307

  2. Localization of oxytocin receptors in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) neocortex.

    PubMed

    Duchemin, Auriane; Seelke, Adele M H; Simmons, Trenton C; Freeman, Sara M; Bales, Karen L

    2017-02-15

    Early experience and social context interact to alter the phenotype of complex social behaviors. These early experiences can also result in alterations to cortical organization and connections. Given the ability of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) to modulate social and reproductive behavior, OT is likely involved in these cortical processes. However, little is known about the distribution of OT and OT receptors (OTR) within the neocortex. Using autoradiographic and neuroanatomical techniques, we characterized the cortical distribution of OT receptors (OTR) in prairie voles, a socially monogamous rodent species. We found that OTR density was low in the primary sensory areas (including primary somatosensory and auditory regions) but was quite high in association regions (including temporal and parietal association areas, and prelimbic regions). In the primary motor area as well as the temporal and parietal association areas, we observed differences in OTR density across cortical layers. Specifically, cortical layers 2/3 and 5 exhibited greater OTR density than layer 4. Our results point to a role for OT in integrating sensory and motor in the prairie vole brain, providing a complementary mechanism for the modulation of social interactions. Given the ability of early social experience and developmental manipulations of OT to affect the brain and behavior, these results suggest a novel mechanism for how OT may influence cortical organization.

  3. Neuroanatomical distribution of oxytocin receptor binding in the female rabbit forebrain: Variations across the reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Angeles; Young, Larry J; Triana-Del Río, Rodrigo; LaPrairie, Jamie L; González-Mariscal, Gabriela

    2015-12-10

    Oxytocin receptors (OTR) have been characterized in the brains of several mammals, including rodents, carnivores, and primates. Their species-specific distribution in the brain has been associated with species differences in social organization, including mating strategy and parenting behavior. In several species, the density of OTR binding in specific brain regions varies according to reproductive condition, including ovarian cycle, pregnancy and lactation. Rabbits are induced ovulators, polygamous, and monoparental but their distribution and regulation of brain OTR has not been described. Here we used receptor autoradiography to quantitatively characterize OTR binding in the brains of estrous, ovariectomized, late pregnant, and lactating does. Intense binding occurred in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), preoptic area (POA), lateral septum (LS; dorsal and ventral), hippocampus, and medial amygdala. Variations among the experimental groups were seen only in PFC, POA, LS. Ovariectomy increased OTR density in PFC but had the opposite effect in POA. Lactating does had significantly reduced OTR density, relative to late pregnancy, in PFC and POA. Our results are consistent with a possible role of OT in modulating social and maternal behavior in rabbits since the brain regions sensitive to OT have been implicated in social interaction, learning and memory, olfactory processing and maternal behavior.

  4. Transactivation of the proximal promoter of human oxytocin gene by TR4 orphan receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-P.; Lee, Y.-F.; Chang, C.; Lee, H.-J. . E-mail: hjlee@mail.ndhu.edu.tw

    2006-12-08

    The human testicular receptor 4 (TR4) shares structural homology with members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Some other members of this superfamily were able to regulate the transcriptional activity of the human oxytocin (OXT) promoter by binding to the first DR0 regulatory site. However, little investigation was conducted systematically in the study of the second dDR4 site of OXT proximal promoter, and the relationship between the first and the second sites of OXT promoter. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that TR4 could increase the proximal promoter activity of the human OXT gene via DR0, dDR4, and OXT (both DR0 and dDR4) elements, respectively. TR4 might induce OXT gene expression through the OXT element in a dose-dependent manner. However, there is no synergistic effect between DR0 and dDR4 elements during TR4 transactivation. Taken together, these results suggested that TR4 should be one of important regulators of OXT gene expression.

  5. Identification of a novel receptor for an invertebrate oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily peptide: molecular and functional evolution of the oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Tsuyoshi; Kanda, Atsuhiro; Minakata, Hiroyuki; Matsushima, Osamu; Satake, Honoo

    2004-08-15

    Annetocin is structurally related to an OT (oxytocin)/VP (vasopressin) family peptide, which has been isolated from the earthworm Eisenia foetida and has been shown to induce OT-like egg-laying behaviour. We now report the identification of an endogenous AnR (annetocin receptor). The deduced AnR precursor displays high sequence similarity with OT/VP receptors. Genomic analysis of the AnR gene revealed that the intron-inserted position is conserved between the AnR gene and the mammalian OT/VP receptor genes. These results indicate that AnR and mammalian OT/VP receptors share a common ancestor gene. Administration of annetocin to the AnR expressed in Xenopus oocytes induced a calcium-dependent signal transduction. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis and in situ hybridization showed that the AnR gene is expressed specifically in the nephridia located in the clitellum region, although the nephridia are distributed throughout the worm body. This result suggests that annetocin induces egg-laying behaviour through its action on the nephridia. This is the first description concerning the functional correlation between an invertebrate OT/VP-related peptide and egg-laying behaviour.

  6. Cangrelor: a novel P2Y12 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Norgard, Nicholas B

    2009-08-01

    Antiplatelet therapy is critical in the prevention of thrombotic complications of acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary interventions. Current antiplatelet agents (aspirin, clopidogrel and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists) have demonstrated the capacity to reduce major adverse cardiac events. However, these agents have limitations that compromise their clinical utility. The platelet P2Y12 receptor plays a central role in platelet function and is a focus in the development of antiplatelet therapies. Cangrelor is a potent, competitive inhibitor of the P2Y12 receptor that is administered by intravenous infusion and rapidly achieves near complete inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. This investigational drug has been studied for use during coronary procedures and the management of patients experiencing acute coronary syndrome and is undergoing evaluation for use in the prevention of perioperative stent thrombosis.

  7. Brain region-specific methylation in the promoter of the murine oxytocin receptor gene is involved in its expression regulation.

    PubMed

    Harony-Nicolas, Hala; Mamrut, Shimrat; Brodsky, Leonid; Shahar-Gold, Hadar; Barki-Harrington, Liza; Wagner, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin is a nine amino acid neuropeptide that is known to play a critical role in fetal expulsion and breast-feeding, and has been recently implicated in mammalian social behavior. The actions of both central and peripheral oxytocin are mediated through the oxytocin receptor (Oxtr), which is encoded by a single gene. In contrast to the highly conserved expression of oxytocin in specific hypothalamic nuclei, the expression of its receptor in the brain is highly diverse among different mammalian species or even within individuals of the same species. The diversity in the pattern of brain Oxtr expression among mammals is thought to contribute to the broad range of social systems and organizations. Yet, the mechanisms underlying this diversity are poorly understood. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism that regulates gene transcription, and has been linked to reduced expression levels of the Oxtr in individuals with autism. Here we hypothesize that DNA methylation is involved in the expression regulation of Oxtr in the mouse brain. By combining bisulfite DNA conversion and Next-Generation Sequencing we found that specific CpG sites are differentially methylated between distinct brain regions expressing different levels of Oxtr mRNA. Some of these CpG sites are located within putative binding sites of transcription factors known to regulate Oxtr expression, including estrogen receptor α (ERα) and SP1. Specifically, methylation of the SP1 site was found to positively correlate with Oxtr expression. Furthermore, we revealed that the methylation levels of these sites in the various brain regions predict the relationship between ERα and Oxtr mRNA levels. Collectively, our results suggest that brain region-specific expression of the mouse Oxtr gene is epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation of its promoter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists in Preventing Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng; Zhang, Hao; Du, Bo-Xiang; Xu, Feng-Ying; Zou, Zui; Sui, Bo; Shi, Xue-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Newly developed neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonists have been recently tried in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to explore whether NK-1R antagonists were effective in preventing PONV. The PRISMA statement guidelines were followed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that tested the preventive effects of NK-1R antagonists on PONV were identified by searching EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library databases followed by screening. Data extraction was performed using a predefined form and trial quality was assessed using a modified Jadad scale. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of PONV. Meta-analysis was performed for studies using similar interventions. Network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to compare the anti-vomiting effects of placebo, ondansetron, and aprepitant at different doses. Fourteen RCTs were included. Meta-analysis found that 80 mg of aprepitant could reduce the incidences of nausea (3 RCTs with 224 patients, pooled risk ratio (RR) = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.47 to 0.75), and vomiting (3 RCTs with 224 patients, pooled RR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.37) compared with placebo. Neither 40 mg (3 RCTs with 1171 patients, RR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.60) nor 125 mg (2 RCTs with 1058 patients, RR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.78) of aprepitant showed superiority over 4 mg of ondansetron in preventing postoperative vomiting. NMA did not find a dose-dependent effect of aprepitant on preventing postoperative vomiting. Limited data suggested that NK-1R antagonists, especially aprepitant were effective in preventing PONV compared with placebo. More large-sampled high-quality RCTs are needed. PMID:25984662

  9. Is All Radiation-Induced Emesis Ameliorated by 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    5 - HT3 receptor antagonists ;~// 9-72 Bernard M.I Rabin 0’) and Gregory L. Kingt2) -) Behavioral Sciences and 2 PhYSzo~o~y Dcpiarlrnvni . Arm,. ii - R...RY Exposing ferrets to gamuma rays or X-rays produces vomiting that can be attenuated by 5 - HT3 receptor antagonists and by subdiaphraqmatic vagotomy...Pretreating ferrets with serotonin type-3 ( 5 - HT3 ) receptor antagonists or performing bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy reliably attenuates the

  10. Evodiamine as a novel antagonist of aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hui; Tu, Yongjiu; Zhang, Chun; Fan, Xia; Wang, Xi; Wang, Zhanli; Liang, Huaping

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Evodiamine interacted with the AhR. {yields} Evodiamine inhibited the specific binding of [{sup 3}H]-TCDD to the AhR. {yields} Evodiamine acts as an antagonist of the AhR. -- Abstract: Evodiamine, the major bioactive alkaloid isolated from Wu-Chu-Yu, has been shown to interact with a wide variety of proteins and modify their expression and activities. In this study, we investigated the interaction between evodiamine and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Molecular modeling results revealed that evodiamine directly interacted with the AhR. Cytosolic receptor binding assay also provided the evidence that evodiamine could interact with the AhR with the K{sub i} value of 28.4 {+-} 4.9 nM. In addition, we observed that evodiamine suppressed the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced nuclear translocation of the AhR and the expression of CYP1A1 dose-dependently. These results suggested that evodiamine was able to bind to the AhR as ligand and exhibit antagonistic effects.

  11. Classification and virtual screening of androgen receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiazhong; Gramatica, Paola

    2010-05-24

    Computational tools, such as quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), are highly useful as screening support for prioritization of substances of very high concern (SVHC). From the practical point of view, QSAR models should be effective to pick out more active rather than inactive compounds, expressed as sensitivity in classification works. This research investigates the classification of a big data set of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs)-androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, mainly aiming to improve the external sensitivity and to screen for potential AR binders. The kNN, lazy IB1, and ADTree methods and the consensus approach were used to build different models, which improve the sensitivity on external chemicals from 57.1% (literature) to 76.4%. Additionally, the models' predictive abilities were further validated on a blind collected data set (sensitivity: 85.7%). Then the proposed classifiers were used: (i) to distinguish a set of AR binders into antagonists and agonists; (ii) to screen a combined estrogen receptor binder database to find out possible chemicals that can bind to both AR and ER; and (iii) to virtually screen our in-house environmental chemical database. The in silico screening results suggest: (i) that some compounds can affect the normal endocrine system through a complex mechanism binding both to ER and AR; (ii) new EDCs, which are nonER binders, but can in silico bind to AR, are recognized; and (iii) about 20% of compounds in a big data set of environmental chemicals are predicted as new AR antagonists. The priority should be given to them to experimentally test the binding activities with AR.

  12. A non-peptide oxytocin receptor agonist, WAY-267,464, alleviates novelty-induced hypophagia in mice: insights into changes in c-Fos immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Pawel K; Ulrich, Christine; Ling, Nicholas; Allen, Kerry; Levine, Allen S

    2014-09-01

    Anxiety caused by the novelty of food or of the environment where the food is presented leads to suppression of consumption (hyponeophagia) reflected by an increased latency to begin feeding and decreased food intake. Studies suggest that some anxiolytics, mainly benzodiazepines and SSRIs, resolve hyponeophagia. Though the neurohormone oxytocin (OT) affects both anxiety responsiveness and feeding-related homeostasis, the link between OT and hyponeophagia has not been established. The current experiments examined the effect of OT receptor stimulation on hyponeophagia in mice and associated changes in brain activity. We found that the OT receptor agonist, WAY-267,464, at 10 and 30 mg/kg b. wt. IP, reduced the latency to approach food and increased the amount of food eaten in hyponeophagia tests differing in animals' motivation to eat (hunger, reward) and the anxiogenic context of environmental novelty (illumination and type of the cage). This effect was abolished by the pretreatment with the OT receptor antagonist, L-368,899, at 10mg/kg b. wt. The antagonist also suppressed social transmission of preference for novel food. Mice subjected to novelty conditions causing hypophagia showed significant changes in c-Fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, lateral septum, cingulate and piriform cortex and in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral division, posterolateral part (STLP). The pretreatment with WAY-267,464 restored c-Fos levels in the STLP to values detected in control animals subjected to non-anxiogenic conditions. We conclude that OT plays a role in shaping the magnitude of the novelty stress-provoked hypophagia and the activity of the relevant neural networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mu opioid modulation of oxytocin secretion in late pregnant and parturient rats. Involvement of noradrenergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Selim; Yilmaz, Bayram; Canpolat, Sinan; Sandal, Suleyman; Ozcan, Mete; Kumru, Selahattin; Kelestimur, Haluk

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated effects of micro- and kappa-opioid agonists and antagonists on plasma oxytocin levels and noradrenaline content in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of 20-day pregnant rats. beta-Endorphin, oxytocin, estrogen and progesterone profiles in late pregnant and parturient rats were also sought. Stage of estrous cycle was monitored by vaginal smear, and pro-estrous animals were left overnight with male. In the first set of experiments, pregnant rats were monitored and decapitated on days 20 and 21 and after the delivery of second pup. In the second set, 20-day pregnant rats were intracerebroventricularly infused with morphine (50 microg/10 microl), U50,488H (kappa-agonist; 50 microg/10 microl), clocinnamox (micro-antagonist; 50 microg/10 microl) and norbinaltorphimine (kappa-antagonist; 50 microg/10 microl). Controls received saline alone. Serum estrogen and progesterone levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay, and plasma oxytocin and beta-endorphin by radioimmunoassay. Noradrenaline and its metabolite (3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol) were determined in micropunched hypothalamic nuclei by HPLC-ECD. In parturient rats, oxytocin levels were increased (p < 0.05) and beta-endorphin decreased (p < 0.01) compared to 20-day pregnant animals. Serum progesterone concentrations progressively declined towards parturition (p < 0.001). Clocinnamox raised oxytocin levels (p < 0.01) while U50,488H caused decreases (p < 0.05). Noradrenaline content was elevated by clocinnamox in the SON (p < 0.01) and PVN (p < 0.05) compared to control values. Other agonists and antagonists had no significant effect on the noradrenergic neurotransmission or oxytocin secretion. We suggest that noradrenaline may mediate the inhibitory effects of micro-opioids on oxytocin release. Our findings have also shown that kappa-opioid receptors are not involved in modulation of oxytocin neurons in late pregnant rats. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. The Timing of the Excitatory-to-Inhibitory GABA Switch Is Regulated by the Oxytocin Receptor via KCC2

    PubMed Central

    Leonzino, Marianna; Busnelli, Marta; Antonucci, Flavia; Verderio, Claudia; Mazzanti, Michele; Chini, Bice

    2016-01-01

    Summary Oxytocin and its receptor (Oxtr) play a crucial role in the postnatal transition of neuronal GABA neurotransmission from excitatory to inhibitory, a developmental process known as the GABA switch. Using hippocampal neurons from Oxtr-null mice, we show that (1) Oxtr is necessary for the correct timing of the GABA switch by upregulating activity of the chloride cotransporter KCC2, (2) Oxtr, in a very early and narrow time window, directly modulates the functional activity of KCC2 by promoting its phosphorylation and insertion/stabilization at the neuronal surface, and (3) in the absence of Oxtr, electrophysiological alterations are recorded in mature neurons, a finding consistent with a reduced level of KCC2 and increased susceptibility to seizures observed in adult Oxtr-null mice. These data identify KCC2 as a key target of oxytocin in postnatal events that may be linked to pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:27052180

  15. Peripheral Administration of a Long-Acting Peptide Oxytocin Receptor Agonist Inhibits Fear-Induced Freezing

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Meera E.; Majchrzak, Mark J.; Fonseca, Kari R.; Doran, Angela; Osgood, Sarah; Vanase-Frawley, Michelle; Feyfant, Eric; McInnes, Heather; Darvari, Ramin; Buhl, Derek L.

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) modulates the expression of social and emotional behaviors and consequently has been proposed as a pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric diseases, including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia; however, endogenous OT has a short half-life in plasma and poor permeability across the blood-brain barrier. Recent efforts have focused on the development of novel drug delivery methods to enhance brain penetration, but few efforts have aimed at improving its half-life. To explore the behavioral efficacy of an OT analog with enhanced plasma stability, we developed PF-06655075 (PF1), a novel non–brain-penetrant OT receptor agonist with increased selectivity for the OT receptor and significantly increased pharmacokinetic stability. PF-06478939 was generated with only increased stability to disambiguate changes to selectivity versus stability. The efficacy of these compounds in evoking behavioral effects was tested in a conditioned fear paradigm. Both central and peripheral administration of PF1 inhibited freezing in response to a conditioned fear stimulus. Peripheral administration of PF1 resulted in a sustained level of plasma concentrations for greater than 20 hours but no detectable accumulation in brain tissue, suggesting that plasma or cerebrospinal fluid exposure was sufficient to evoke behavioral effects. Behavioral efficacy of peripherally administered OT receptor agonists on conditioned fear response opens the door to potential peripheral mechanisms in other behavioral paradigms, whether they are mediated by direct peripheral activation or feed-forward responses. Compound PF1 is freely available as a tool compound to further explore the role of peripheral OT in behavioral response. PMID:27217590

  16. Guanidinoethyl sulphonate is a glycine receptor antagonist in striatum.

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, Olga A; Chepkova, Aisa N; Haas, Helmut L

    2002-11-01

    1. Guanidinoethyl sulphonate (GES) is an analogue of taurine and an inhibitor of taurine transport. Interactions of GES with GABA(A) and glycine receptors are studied by whole cell recording and fast drug application in isolated striatal neurons of the mouse. 2. We confirm that GES is a weak agonist at GABA(A) receptors, and is able to antagonize GABA-evoked responses. GES did not gate GlyR. 3. GES antagonized glycine responses in a concentration-dependent and surmountable manner. Glycine dose-response curves were shifted to the right by GES (0.5 mM), yielding EC(50)s and Hill coefficients of 62 micro M and 2.5 in control, 154 micro M and 1.3 in the presence of GES. 4. GlyR-mediated taurine responses were competitively antagonized by GES. Taurine dose-response curves, in contrast to the glycine dose-response curves were shifted by GES to the right in a parallel manner. 5. The GlyR-block by GES was not voltage-dependent. 6. In contrast to our findings in the mouse, in rat striatal neurons which lack expression of the alpha3 GlyR subunit, GES shifted the glycine dose-response curve to the right in a parallel way without affecting the maximal response. Subtype-specificity of the GES action at GlyR must await further investigation in artificial expression systems. 7. We conclude that GES is a competitive antagonist at GlyR. The antagonistic action of GES at inhibitory ionotropic receptors can explain its epileptogenic action. Care must be taken with the interpretation of data on GES evoked taurine release.

  17. Natural variation in maternal care and cross-tissue patterns of oxytocin receptor gene methylation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Beery, Annaliese K.; McEwen, Lisa M.; MacIsaac, Julia L; Francis, Darlene D.; Kobor, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first report of maternal care effects on DNA methylation in rats, epigenetic modifications of the genome in response to life experience have become the subject of intense focus across many disciplines. Oxytocin receptor expression varies in response to early experience, and both oxytocin signaling and methylation status of the oxytocin receptor gene (Oxtr) in blood have been related to disordered social behavior. It is unknown whether Oxtr methylation varies in response to early life experience, and whether currently employed peripheral measures of Oxtr methylation reflect variation in the brain. We examined the effects of early life rearing experience via natural variation in maternal licking and grooming during the first week of life on behavior, physiology, gene expression, and epigenetic regulation of Oxtr across blood and brain tissues (mononucleocytes, hippocampus, striatum, and hypothalamus). Rats reared by “high” licking-grooming (HL) and “low” licking-grooming (LL) rat dams exhibited differences across study outcomes: LL offspring were more active in behavioral arenas, exhibited lower body mass in adulthood, and showed reduced corticosterone responsivity to a stressor. Oxtr methylation was significantly lower at multiple CpGs in the blood of LL versus HL rats, but no differences were found in the brain. Across groups, Oxtr transcript levels in the hypothalamus were associated with reduced corticosterone secretion in response to stress, congruent with the role of oxytocin signaling in this region. Methylation of specific CpGs at a high or low level was consistent across tissues, especially within the brain. However, individual variation in methylation relative to these global patterns was not consistent across tissues. These results suggest that blood Oxtr methylation may reflect early experience of maternal care, and that Oxtr methylation across tissues is highly concordant for specific CpGs, but that inferences across tissues are not

  18. Natural variation in maternal care and cross-tissue patterns of oxytocin receptor gene methylation in rats.

    PubMed

    Beery, Annaliese K; McEwen, Lisa M; MacIsaac, Julia L; Francis, Darlene D; Kobor, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Since the first report of maternal care effects on DNA methylation in rats, epigenetic modifications of the genome in response to life experience have become the subject of intense focus across many disciplines. Oxytocin receptor expression varies in response to early experience, and both oxytocin signaling and methylation status of the oxytocin receptor gene (Oxtr) in blood have been related to disordered social behavior. It is unknown whether Oxtr DNA methylation varies in response to early life experience, and whether currently employed peripheral measures of Oxtr methylation reflect variation in the brain. We examined the effects of early life rearing experience via natural variation in maternal licking and grooming during the first week of life on behavior, physiology, gene expression, and epigenetic regulation of Oxtr across blood and brain tissues (mononucleocytes, hippocampus, striatum, and hypothalamus). Rats reared by "high" licking-grooming (HL) and "low" licking-grooming (LL) rat dams exhibited differences across study outcomes: LL offspring were more active in behavioral arenas, exhibited lower body mass in adulthood, and showed reduced corticosterone responsivity to a stressor. Oxtr DNA methylation was significantly lower at multiple CpGs in the blood of LL versus HL males, but no differences were found in the brain. Across groups, Oxtr transcript levels in the hypothalamus were associated with reduced corticosterone secretion in response to stress, congruent with the role of oxytocin signaling in this region. Methylation of specific CpGs at a high or low level was consistent across tissues, especially within the brain. However, individual variation in DNA methylation relative to these global patterns was not consistent across tissues. These results suggest that blood Oxtr DNA methylation may reflect early experience of maternal care, and that Oxtr methylation across tissues is highly concordant

  19. DNA methylation of the oxytocin receptor gene predicts neural response to ambiguous social stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Allison; Connelly, Jessica J.; Morris, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Oxytocin and its receptor (OXTR) play an important role in a variety of social perceptual and affiliative processes. Individual variability in social information processing likely has a strong heritable component, and as such, many investigations have established an association between common genetic variants of OXTR and variability in the social phenotype. However, to date, these investigations have primarily focused only on changes in the sequence of DNA without considering the role of epigenetic factors. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism by which cells control transcription through modification of chromatin structure. DNA methylation of OXTR decreases expression of the gene and high levels of methylation have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This link between epigenetic variability and social phenotype allows for the possibility that social processes are under epigenetic control. We hypothesized that the level of DNA methylation of OXTR would predict individual variability in social perception. Using the brain's sensitivity to displays of animacy as a neural endophenotype of social perception, we found significant associations between the degree of OXTR methylation and brain activity evoked by the perception of animacy. Our results suggest that consideration of DNA methylation may substantially improve our ability to explain individual differences in imaging genetic association studies. PMID:23087634

  20. Alcohol and aggressive behavior in men--moderating effects of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Johansson, A; Bergman, H; Corander, J; Waldman, I D; Karrani, N; Salo, B; Jern, P; Algars, M; Sandnabba, K; Santtila, P; Westberg, L

    2012-03-01

    We explored if the disposition to react with aggression while alcohol intoxicated was moderated by polymorphic variants of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Twelve OXTR polymorphisms were genotyped in 116 Finnish men [aged 18-30, M = 22.7, standard deviation (SD) = 2.4] who were randomly assigned to an alcohol condition in which they received an alcohol dose of 0.7 g pure ethanol/kg body weight or a placebo condition. Aggressive behavior was measured using a laboratory paradigm in which it was operationalized as the level of aversive noise administered to a fictive opponent. No main effects of the polymorphisms on aggressive behavior were found after controlling for multiple testing. The interactive effects between alcohol and two of the OXTR polymorphisms (rs4564970 and rs1488467) on aggressive behavior were nominally significant and remained significant for the rs4564970 when controlled for multiple tests. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental study suggesting interactive effects of specific genetic variants and alcohol on aggressive behavior in humans.

  1. Oxytocin receptor genetic and epigenetic variation: association with child abuse and adult psychiatric symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Smearman, Erica L.; Almli, Lynn M.; Conneely, Karen N.; Brody, Gene H.; Sales, Jessica M.; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J.; Smith, Alicia K.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood abuse can alter biological systems and increase risk for adult psychopathology. Epigenetic mechanisms, alterations in DNA structure that regulate the gene expression, are a potential mechanism underlying this risk. While abuse associates with methylation of certain genes, particularly those in the stress response system, no study to date has evaluated abuse and methylation of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR). However, studies support a role for OXTR in the link between abuse and adverse adult outcomes, showing that abuse can confer greater risk for psychiatric symptoms in those with specific OXTR genotypes. Our study therefore sought to (1) assess the role of epigenetics in the link between abuse and psychopathology and (2) to begin to integrate the genetic and epigenetic literature by exploring associations between OXTR genotypes and DNA CpG methylation. Data on 18 OXTR CpG sites, 44 SNPs, childhood abuse, and adult depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed in 393 African American adults (age = 41±12.8). Overall, 68% of genotypes associated with methylation of nearby CpG sites, with a subset surviving multiple test correction. Child abuse associated with higher methylation of two CpG sites yet did not survive correction or serve as a mediator of psychopathology. However, abuse interacted with CpG methylation to predict psychopathology. These findings suggest a role for OXTR in understanding the influence of early environments on adult psychiatric symptoms. PMID:26822448

  2. Social cognition, face processing, and oxytocin receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms in typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Slane, Mylissa M; Lusk, Laina G; Boomer, K B; Hare, Abby E; King, Margaret K; Evans, David W

    2014-07-01

    Recent research has provided evidence of a link between behavioral measures of social cognition (SC) and neural and genetic correlates. Differences in face processing and variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene have been associated with SC deficits and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) traits. Much work has examined the qualitative differences between those with ASD and typically developing (TD) individuals, but very little has been done to quantify the natural variation in ASD-like traits in the typical population. The present study examines this variation in TD children using a multidimensional perspective involving behavior assessment, neural electroencephalogram (EEG) testing, and OXTR genotyping. Children completed a series of neurocognitive assessments, provided saliva samples for sequencing, and completed a face processing task while connected to an EEG. No clear pattern emerged for EEG covariates or genotypes for individual OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, SNPs rs2254298 and rs53576 consistently interacted such that the AG/GG allele combination of these SNPs was associated with poorer performance on neurocognitive measures. These results suggest that neither SNP in isolation is risk-conferring, but rather that the combination of rs2254298(A/G) and rs53576(G/G) confers a deleterious effect on SC across several neurocognitive measures.

  3. Oxytocin Receptor Genetic and Epigenetic Variations: Association With Child Abuse and Adult Psychiatric Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Smearman, Erica L; Almli, Lynn M; Conneely, Karen N; Brody, Gene H; Sales, Jessica M; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J; Smith, Alicia K

    2016-01-01

    Childhood abuse can alter biological systems and increase risk for adult psychopathology. Epigenetic mechanisms, alterations in DNA structure that regulate the gene expression, are a potential mechanism underlying this risk. While abuse associates with methylation of certain genes, particularly those in the stress response system, no study to date has evaluated abuse and methylation of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR). However, studies support a role for OXTR in the link between abuse and adverse adult outcomes, showing that abuse can confer greater risk for psychiatric symptoms in those with specific OXTR genotypes. This study therefore sought to (a) assess the role of epigenetics in the link between abuse and psychopathology and (b) begin to integrate the genetic and epigenetic literature by exploring associations between OXTR genotypes and DNA CpG methylation. Data on 18 OXTR CpG sites, 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms, childhood abuse, and adult depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed in 393 African American adults (age = 41 ± 12.8 years). Overall, 68% of genotypes were associated with methylation of nearby CpG sites, with a subset surviving multiple test correction. Child abuse associated with higher methylation of two CpG sites yet did not survive correction or serve as a mediator of psychopathology. However, abuse interacted with CpG methylation to predict psychopathology. These findings suggest a role for OXTR in understanding the influence of early environments on adult psychiatric symptoms. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Neural correlate of autistic-like traits and a common allele in the oxytocin receptor gene

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yuki; Suga, Motomu; Tochigi, Mamoru; Abe, Osamu; Yahata, Noriaki; Kawakubo, Yuki; Liu, Xiaoxi; Kawamura, Yoshiya; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2014-01-01

    Sub-clinical autistic-like traits (ALTs) are continuously distributed in the general population and genetically linked to autism. Although identifying the neurogenetic backgrounds of ALTs might enhance our ability to identify those of autism, they are largely unstudied. Here, we have examined the neuroanatomical basis of ALTs and their association with the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) rs2254298A, a known risk allele for autism in Asian populations which has also been implicated in limbic–paralimbic brain structures. First, we extracted a four-factor structure of ALTs, as measured using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, including ‘prosociality’, ‘communication’, ‘details/patterns’ and ‘imagination’ in 135 neurotypical adults (79 men, 56 women) to reduce the genetic heterogeneity of ALTs. Then, in the same population, voxel-based morphometry revealed that lower ‘prosociality’, which indicates strong ALTs, was significantly correlated to smaller regional grey matter volume in the right insula in males. Males with lower ‘prosociality’ also had less interregional structural coupling between the right insula and the ventral anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, males with OXTR rs2254298A had significantly smaller grey matter volume in the right insula. These results show that decreased volume of the insula is a neuroanatomical correlate of ALTs and a potential intermediate phenotype linking ALTs with OXTR in male subjects. PMID:23946005

  5. Interaction between oxytocin receptor polymorphism and interdependent culture values on human empathy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Siyang; Ma, Yina; Liu, Yi; Li, Bingfeng; Wang, Chenbo; Shi, Zhenhao; Li, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Wenxia; Rao, Yi; Han, Shihui

    2015-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the association between oxytocin receptor polymorphism (OXTR rs53576) and emotion-related behavioral/psychological tendencies differs between individuals from East Asian and Western cultures. What remains unresolved is which specific dimension of cultural orientations interacts with OXTR rs53576 to shape these tendencies and whether such gene × culture interactions occurs at both behavioral and neural level. This study investigated whether and how OXTR rs53576 interacts with interdependence-a key dimension of cultural orientations that distinguish between East Asian and Western cultures-to affect human empathy that underlies altruistic motivation and prosocial behavior. Experiment 1 measured interdependence, empathy trait and OXTR rs53576 genotypes of 1536 Chinese participants. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a stronger association between interdependence and empathy trait in G allele carriers compared with A/A homozygotes of OXTR rs53576. Experiment 2 measured neural responses to others' suffering by scanning A/A and G/G homozygous of OXTR rs53576 using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed stronger associations between interdependence and empathic neural responses in the insula, amygdala and superior temporal gyrus in G/G compared with A/A carriers. Our results provide the first evidence for gene × culture interactions on empathy at both behavioral tendency and underlying brain activity. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Normal maternal behavior, but increased pup mortality, in conditional oxytocin receptor knockout females.

    PubMed

    Macbeth, Abbe H; Stepp, Jennifer E; Lee, Heon-Jin; Young, W Scott; Caldwell, Heather K

    2010-10-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) and the Oxt receptor (Oxtr) are implicated in the onset of maternal behavior in a variety of species. Recently, we developed two Oxtr knockout lines: a total body knockout (Oxtr-/-) and a conditional Oxtr knockout (OxtrFB/FB) in which the Oxtr is lacking only in regions of the forebrain, allowing knockout females to potentially nurse and care for their biological offspring. In the current study, we assessed maternal behavior of postpartum OxtrFB/FB females toward their own pups and maternal behavior of virgin Oxtr-/- females toward foster pups and compared knockouts of both lines to wildtype (Oxtr+/+) littermates. We found that both Oxtr-/- and OxtrFB/FB females appear to have largely normal maternal behaviors. However, with first litters, approximately 40% of the OxtrFB/FB knockout dams experienced high pup mortality, compared to fewer than 10% of the Oxtr+/+ dams. We then went on to test whether or not this phenotype occurred in subsequent litters or when the dams were exposed to an environmental disturbance. We found that regardless of the degree of external disturbance, OxtrFB/FB females lost more pups on their first and second litters compared to wildtype females. Possible reasons for higher pup mortality in OxtrFB/FB females are discussed.

  7. Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Indirectly Predict Prosocial Behavior Through Perspective Taking and Empathic Concern.

    PubMed

    Christ, Christa C; Carlo, Gustavo; Stoltenberg, Scott F

    2016-04-01

    Engaging in prosocial behavior can provide positive outcomes for self and others. Prosocial tendencies contribute to the propensity to engage in prosocial behavior. The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has also been associated with prosocial tendencies and behaviors. There has been little research, however, investigating whether the relationship between OXTR and prosocial behaviors is mediated by prosocial tendencies. This relationship may also vary among different types of prosocial behavior. The current study examines the relationship between OXTR, gender, prosocial tendencies, and both altruistic and public prosocial behavior endorsement. Students at a midwestern university (N = 398; 89.2% Caucasian; Mage  = 20.76; 26.6% male) provided self-report measures of prosocial tendencies and behaviors and buccal cells for genotyping OXTR polymorphisms. Results indicated that OXTR single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2268498 genotype significantly predicted empathic concern, whereas gender moderated the association between several other OXTR SNPs and prosocial tendencies. Increased prosocial tendencies predicted increased altruistic prosocial behavior endorsement and decreased public prosocial behavior endorsement. Our findings suggest an association between genetic variation in OXTR and endorsement of prosocial behavior indirectly through prosocial tendencies, and that the pathway is dependent on the type of prosocial behavior and gender. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Distress of ostracism: oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism confers sensitivity to social exclusion.

    PubMed

    McQuaid, Robyn J; McInnis, Opal A; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2015-08-01

    A single-nucleotide polymorphism on the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), rs53576, involving a guanine (G) to adenine (A) substitution has been associated with altered prosocial features. Specifically, individuals with the GG genotype (i.e. the absence of the polymorphism) display beneficial traits including enhanced trust, empathy and self-esteem. However, because G carriers might also be more socially sensitive, this may render them more vulnerable to the adverse effects of a negative social stressor. The current investigation, conducted among 128 white female undergraduate students, demonstrated that relative to individuals with AA genotype, G carriers were more emotionally sensitive (lower self-esteem) in response to social ostracism promoted through an on-line ball tossing game (Cyberball). Furthermore, GG individuals also exhibited altered blood pressure and cortisol levels following rejection, effects not apparent among A carriers. The data support the view that the presence of the G allele not only promotes prosocial behaviors but also favors sensitivity to a negative social stressor.

  9. Oxytocin receptor gene and racial ingroup bias in empathy-related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Siyang; Li, Bingfeng; Ma, Yina; Zhang, Wenxia; Rao, Yi; Han, Shihui

    2015-04-15

    The human brain responds more strongly to racial ingroup than outgroup individuals' pain. This racial ingroup bias varies across individuals and has been attributed to social experiences. What remains unknown is whether the racial ingroup bias in brain activity is associated with a genetic polymorphism. We investigated genetic associations of racial ingroup bias in the brain activity to racial ingroup and outgroup faces that received painful or non-painful stimulations by scanning A/A and G/G homozygous of the oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (OXTR rs53576) using functional MRI. We found that G/G compared to A/A individuals showed stronger activity in the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor area (ACC/SMA) in response to racial ingroup members' pain, whereas A/A relative to G/G individuals exhibited greater activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in response to racial outgroup members' pain. Moreover, the racial ingroup bias in ACC/SMA activity positively predicted participants' racial ingroup bias in implicit attitudes and NAcc activity to racial outgroup individuals' pain negatively predicted participants' motivations to reduce racial outgroup members' pain. Our results suggest that the two variants of OXTR rs53576 are associated with racial ingroup bias in brain activities that are linked to implicit attitude and altruistic motivation, respectively.

  10. Identification of oxytocin receptor in the dorsal horn and nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Moreno-López, Y; Martínez-Lorenzana, G; Condés-Lara, M; Rojas-Piloni, G

    2013-04-01

    Oxytocin (OT) secreted by the hypothalamo-spinal projection exerts antinociceptive effects in the dorsal horn. Electrophysiological evidence indicates that OT could exert these effects by activating OT receptors (OTR) directly on dorsal horn neurons and/or primary nociceptive afferents in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). However, little is known about the identity of the dorsal horn and DRG neurons that express the OTR. In the dorsal horn, we found that the OTR is expressed principally in neurons cell bodies. However, neither spino-thalamic dorsal horn neurons projecting to the contralateral thalamic ventral posterolateral nucleus (VPL) and posterior nuclear group (Po) nor GABaergic dorsal horn neurons express the OTR. The OTR is not expressed in skin nociceptive terminals or in dorsal horn nociceptive fibers. In the DRG, however, the OTR is expressed predominantly in non-peptidergic C-fiber cell bodies, but not in peptidergic or mechanoreceptor afferents or in skin nociceptive terminals. Our results suggest that the antinociceptive effects of OT are mediated by direct activation of dorsal horn neurons and peripheral actions on nociceptive, non-peptidergic C-afferents in the DRG.

  11. Genetic Diversity in Oxytocin Ligands and Receptors in New World Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Dongren; Lu, Guoqing; Moriyama, Hideaki; Mustoe, Aaryn C.; Harrison, Emily B.; French, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) is an important neurohypophyseal hormone that influences wide spectrum of reproductive and social processes. Eutherian mammals possess a highly conserved sequence of OXT (Cys-Tyr-Ile-Gln-Asn-Cys-Pro-Leu-Gly). However, in this study, we sequenced the coding region for OXT in 22 species covering all New World monkeys (NWM) genera and clades, and characterize five OXT variants, including consensus mammalian Leu8-OXT, major variant Pro8-OXT, and three previously unreported variants: Ala8-OXT, Thr8-OXT, and Phe2-OXT. Pro8-OXT shows clear structural and physicochemical differences from Leu8-OXT. We report multiple predicted amino acid substitutions in the G protein-coupled OXT receptor (OXTR), especially in the critical N-terminus, which is crucial for OXT recognition and binding. Genera with same Pro8-OXT tend to cluster together on a phylogenetic tree based on OXTR sequence, and we demonstrate significant coevolution between OXT and OXTR. NWM species are characterized by high incidence of social monogamy, and we document an association between OXTR phylogeny and social monogamy. Our results demonstrate remarkable genetic diversity in the NWM OXT/OXTR system, which can provide a foundation for molecular, pharmacological, and behavioral studies of the role of OXT signaling in regulating complex social phenotypes. PMID:25938568

  12. Interaction between oxytocin receptor polymorphism and interdependent culture values on human empathy

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Siyang; Ma, Yina; Liu, Yi; Li, Bingfeng; Wang, Chenbo; Shi, Zhenhao; Li, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Wenxia; Rao, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the association between oxytocin receptor polymorphism (OXTR rs53576) and emotion-related behavioral/psychological tendencies differs between individuals from East Asian and Western cultures. What remains unresolved is which specific dimension of cultural orientations interacts with OXTR rs53576 to shape these tendencies and whether such gene × culture interactions occurs at both behavioral and neural level. This study investigated whether and how OXTR rs53576 interacts with interdependence—a key dimension of cultural orientations that distinguish between East Asian and Western cultures—to affect human empathy that underlies altruistic motivation and prosocial behavior. Experiment 1 measured interdependence, empathy trait and OXTR rs53576 genotypes of 1536 Chinese participants. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a stronger association between interdependence and empathy trait in G allele carriers compared with A/A homozygotes of OXTR rs53576. Experiment 2 measured neural responses to others’ suffering by scanning A/A and G/G homozygous of OXTR rs53576 using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed stronger associations between interdependence and empathic neural responses in the insula, amygdala and superior temporal gyrus in G/G compared with A/A carriers. Our results provide the first evidence for gene × culture interactions on empathy at both behavioral tendency and underlying brain activity. PMID:25680993

  13. Distress of ostracism: oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism confers sensitivity to social exclusion

    PubMed Central

    McInnis, Opal A.; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2015-01-01

    A single-nucleotide polymorphism on the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), rs53576, involving a guanine (G) to adenine (A) substitution has been associated with altered prosocial features. Specifically, individuals with the GG genotype (i.e. the absence of the polymorphism) display beneficial traits including enhanced trust, empathy and self-esteem. However, because G carriers might also be more socially sensitive, this may render them more vulnerable to the adverse effects of a negative social stressor. The current investigation, conducted among 128 white female undergraduate students, demonstrated that relative to individuals with AA genotype, G carriers were more emotionally sensitive (lower self-esteem) in response to social ostracism promoted through an on-line ball tossing game (Cyberball). Furthermore, GG individuals also exhibited altered blood pressure and cortisol levels following rejection, effects not apparent among A carriers. The data support the view that the presence of the G allele not only promotes prosocial behaviors but also favors sensitivity to a negative social stressor. PMID:25564674

  14. Association of Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) rs53576 Polymorphism with Sociality: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yajun; Li, Rena; Broster, Lucas S.; Zhou, Chenglin; Yang, Suyong

    2015-01-01

    A common variant in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), rs53576, has been broadly linked to socially related personality traits and behaviors. However, the pattern of published results is inconsistent. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to comprehensively evaluate the association. The literature was searched for relevant studies and effect sizes between individuals homozygous for the G allele (GG) and individuals with A allele carriers (AA/AG). Specifically, two indices of sociality were evaluated independently: i) general sociality (24 samples, n = 4955), i.e., how an individual responds to other people in general; and ii) close relationships (15 samples, n = 5262), i.e., how an individual responds to individuals with closed connections (parent-child or romantic relationship). We found positive association between the rs53576 polymorphism and general sociality (Cohen’s d = 0.11, p = .02); G allele homozygotes had higher general sociality than the A allele carriers. However, the meta-analyses did not detect significant genetic association between rs53576 and close relationships (Cohen’s d = 0.01, p = .64). In conclusion, genetic variation in the rs53576 influences general sociality, which further implies that it is worthy to systematically examine whether the rs53576 is a valid genetic marker for socially related psychiatric disorders. PMID:26121678

  15. Polymorphism of the Oxytocin Receptor Gene Modulates Behavioral and Attitudinal Trust among Men but Not Women.

    PubMed

    Nishina, Kuniyuki; Takagishi, Haruto; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    A relationship between the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and behavioral and attitudinal trust has been suggested, but the nature of this relationship has not yet been established. We obtained behavioral trust data from 470 Japanese participants (242 women) aged 20-59 years, together with their levels of general trust and personality traits (NEO-FFI). Saliva buccal swabs were collected from 411 of these 470 participants and used for genotyping of OXTR rs53576. Our participants were found to have more AA alleles (40%) than GG alleles (12%). The GG men were more trusting and also rated higher on attitudinal trust than AA men, and this difference did not diminish when personality traits were controlled for. However, this pattern was not observed among women. In addition, controlling for attitudinal trust reduced the difference in behavioral trust among men to a non-significant level, but the difference in attitudinal trust remained significant when behavioral trust was controlled. These results indicate that the OXTR genotype affects attitudinal trust as part of an individual's relatively stable disposition, and further affects behavioral trust through changes in attitudinal trust.

  16. Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor activation stimulates oxytocin release from the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system while melatonin inhibits this process.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Marlena; Boczek-Leszczyk, Emilia

    2010-01-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its agonist and antagonist on oxytocin (OT) release from the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial (H-N) system. An additional aim was to determine whether the possible response of oxytocinergic neurons to these peptides could be modified by melatonin through a cAMP-dependent mechanism. The results show that the highly selective GnRH agonist (i.e., [Des-Gly(10),d-His(Bzl)(6),Pro-NHEt(9)]-LHRH; Histrelin) stimulates the secretion of OT from an isolated rat H-N system. Melatonin significantly inhibited basal and histrelin-induced release of OT in vitro, and displayed no significant influence on OT release in the presence of GnRH or its antagonist. Addition of melatonin to a medium containing forskolin resulted in significant reduction of OT secretion from the H-N system. On the other hand, addition of forskolin to a medium containing both histrelin and melatonin did not further alter the inhibitory influence of melatonin on the histrelin-dependent secretion of OT in vitro. Intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion (experiment in vivo) of a GnRH antagonist resulted in substantial inhibition of OT release, thus revealing the stimulatory action of endogenous GnRH. In melatonin-treated animals, blood plasma OT levels were not changed in comparison to the vehicle. Our present data strongly suggests that activation of the GnRH receptor in the hypothalamus is involved in stimulation of OT secretion from the rat H-N system. It has also been shown, under experimental in vitro conditions, that melatonin fully suppresses the response of oxytocinergic neurons to the GnRH agonist - histrelin. The effect of melatonin on OT release is mediated by the cAMP-dependent mechanism, although other mechanisms of action are also possible.

  17. The abnormal expression of oxytocin receptors in the uterine junctional zone in women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Miaomaio; Li, Xuqing; Guo, Peipei; Yu, Zhaojuan; Xu, Yuting; Wei, Zhaolian

    2017-01-03

    The junctional zone (JZ), also called as the endometrial-myometrial junction, is related to peristaltic-like movements in the non-pregnant uterus. Hyperperistalsis and dysperistalsis of uterus constructions might underlie many important disorders such as dysmenorrhea, infertility, endometriosis, implantation failure. The major proteins for uterine contraction of the non-pregnant uterus may be Oxytocin (OT) and oxytocin receptor (OTR). The objective of this study was to inspect the expression of OTR in isthmic and mid-fundal parts of the uterine junctional zone at different stages of the follicular cycle in patients with and without endometriosis. Uterine biopsies containing endometrium and junctional zone were collected from the isthmic and mid-fundal parts of the anterior wall after hysterectomy. The OTR expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. In the control uterus, OTR expression in the isthmic region was significantly higher than in the fundal region in the proliferative phase (p < 0.05) but significantly lower in the secretory phase (p < 0.05). And the expression of OTR in the proliferative phase was significantly higher than that in the secretory phase in both isthmic and fundal regions (p = 0.000 and 0.049, respectively). However, in endometriosis uteri, OTR expression in the isthmic region showed no significant difference with that in the fundal region in both proliferative and secretory phases (p = 0.597 and 0.736, respectively). In both isthmic and fundal regions, OTR expression was not significantly different between the proliferative phase and secretory phase (p = 0.084 and 0.222, respectively). OTR expression in fundal regions of revised ASRM I and II endometriosis were lower than that of revised ASRM III and IV (p = 0.049). In the fundal region of JZ, the expression of OTR in ovarian endometriosis was significantly lower than that in deep infiltrating endometriosis (p = 0.046). The expression level of OTR in the

  18. Human labour is associated with a decline in myometrial chemokine receptor expression: the role of prostaglandins, oxytocin and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Hua, Renyi; Pease, James E; Cheng, Weiwei; Sooranna, Suren R; Viney, Jonathan M; Nelson, Scott M; Myatt, Les; Bennett, Philip R; Johnson, Mark R

    2013-01-01

    Human labour is an inflammatory process with a heavy infiltration of immune cells into the myometrium and cervix induced by local chemokine production. Myometrial cells also express chemokine receptors, but there is little information about their behaviour or function during pregnancy and labour. We studied the behaviour of the receptors (CCR2, CXCR1 and CXCR2) for the CCL2 and CXCL8 in human myometrium, because both have been shown to be important in labour. We found that there was a significant decline in the mRNA expression of all three receptors in the upper segment and a similar trend in the lower segment with the onset of term labour (TL). Chemokine receptor mRNA expression was increased by stretch, reduced by oxytocin and PGF(2α) acting via phospholipase C (PLC). CXCR2 declined with exposure to CXCL8, consistent with the negative relationship observed in labouring myometrial tissue. The mRNA changes were confirmed by western analysis and flow cytometry. These data show that myometrial chemokine receptor expression is reduced with the onset of term labour probably in response to the increased activity of chemokines, oxytocin and PGF(2α) . © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Involvement of nigral oxytocin in locomotor activity: A behavioral, immunohistochemical and lesion study in male rats.

    PubMed

    Angioni, Laura; Cocco, Cristina; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria; Sanna, Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    Oxytocin is involved in the control of different behaviors, from sexual behavior and food consumption to empathy, social and affective behaviors. An imbalance of central oxytocinergic neurotransmission has been also associated with different mental pathologies, from depression, anxiety and anorexia/bulimia to schizophrenia, autism and drug dependence. This study shows that oxytocin may also play a role in the control of locomotor activity. Accordingly, intraperitoneal oxytocin (0.5-2000μg/kg) reduced locomotor activity of adult male rats. This effect was abolished by d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin, an oxytocin receptor antagonist, given into the lateral ventricles at the dose of 2μg/rat, which was ineffective on locomotor activity. Oxytocin (50-200ng/site) also reduced and d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin (2μg/site) increased locomotor activity when injected bilaterally into the substantia nigra, a key area in the control of locomotor activity. Conversely, the destruction of nigral neurons bearing oxytocin receptors by the recently characterized neurotoxin oxytocin-saporin injected into the substantia nigra, increased basal locomotor activity. Since oxytocin-saporin injected into the substantia nigra caused a marked reduction of neurons immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (e.g., nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons) and for vesicular glutamate transporters VGluT1, VGluT2 and VGluT3 (e.g., glutamatergic neurons), but not for glutamic acid decarboxylase (e.g., GABAergic neurons), together these findings suggest that oxytocin influences locomotor activity by acting on receptors localized presynaptically in nigral glutamatergic nerve terminals (which control the activity of nigral GABAergic efferent neurons projecting to brain stem nuclei controlling locomotor activity), rather than on receptors localized in the cell bodies/dendrites of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of New Agonists and Antagonists of the Insect Odorant Receptor Co-Receptor Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sisi; Luetje, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insects detect attractive and aversive chemicals using several families of chemosensory receptors, including the OR family of olfactory receptors, making these receptors appealing targets for the control of insects. Insect ORs are odorant-gated ion channels, comprised of at least one common subunit (the odorant receptor co-receptor subunit, Orco) and at least one variable odorant specificity subunit. Each of the many ORs of an insect species is activated or inhibited by an unique set of odorants that interact with the variable odorant specificity subunits, making the development of OR directed insect control agents complex and laborious. However, several N-,2-substituted triazolothioacetamide compounds (VUAA1, VU0450667 and VU0183254) were recently shown to act directly on the highly conserved Orco subunit, suggesting that broadly active compounds can be developed. We have explored the chemical space around the VUAA1 structure in order to identify new Orco ligands. Principal Findings We screened ORs from several insect species, using heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes and an electrophysiological assay, with a panel of 22 compounds structurally related to VUAA1. By varying the nitrogen position in the pyridine ring and altering the moieties decorating the phenyl ring, we identified two new agonists and a series of competitive antagonists. Screening smaller compounds, similar to portions of the VUAA1 structure, also yielded competitive antagonists. Importantly, we show that Orco antagonists inhibit odorant activation of ORs from several insect species. Detailed examination of one antagonist demonstrated inhibition to be through a non-competitive mechanism. Conclusions A similar pattern of agonist and antagonist sensitivity displayed by Orco subunits from different species suggests a highly conserved binding site structure. The susceptibility to inhibition of odorant activation by Orco antagonism is conserved across disparate insect species

  1. Double Dissociation of the Roles of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 and Oxytocin Receptor in Discrete Social Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mesic, Ivana; Guzman, Yomayra F; Guedea, Anita L; Jovasevic, Vladimir; Corcoran, Kevin A; Leaderbrand, Katherine; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Contractor, Anis; Radulovic, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions in vertebrates are complex phenomena based on affective and cognitive processes. Multiple brain regions and neurotransmitter systems are involved in the expression of social behaviors, but their individual roles in specific aspects of social interactions are not well understood. Here we investigated how Gq-protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) and oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) affect social affiliation and social memory. We used conditional genetic approaches in which the genes coding for these receptors were knocked out in the lateral septum by infusion of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors containing Cre recombinase (AAV-Cre). Social behavior was assessed 2 weeks later using a three-chamber paradigm for sociability and preference for social novelty. Septal deletion of mGluR5 abolished sociability while leaving preference for social novelty intact. In contrast, deletion of Oxtr did not affect sociability but significantly impaired preference for social novelty. Nonsocial behaviors or memories, including novel object recognition or fear conditioning, were not affected by these genetic manipulations. Immunohistochemical analyses of the distribution of mGluR5 and Oxtr revealed non-overlapping localization of these receptors within the lateral septum, suggesting that not only different neurotransmitters but also different neuronal types contribute to sociability versus preference for social novelty. Our findings identify highly specialized roles of lateral septal mGluR5 and Oxtr in the the regulation of discrete social behaviors, and suggest that deficits in social interactions, which accompany many mental illnesses, would benefit from comprehensive treatments targeting different components of social functioning. PMID:25824423

  2. Endocannabinoid receptor deficiency affects maternal care and alters the dam's hippocampal oxytocin receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression.

    PubMed

    Schechter, M; Weller, A; Pittel, Z; Gross, M; Zimmer, A; Pinhasov, A

    2013-10-01

    Maternal care is the newborn's first experience of social interaction, and this influences infant survival, development and social competences throughout life. We recently found that postpartum blocking of the endocannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1R) altered maternal behaviour. In the present study, maternal care was assessed by the time taken to retrieve pups, pups' ultrasonic vocalisations (USVs) and pup body weight, comparing CB1R deleted (CB1R KO) versus wild-type (WT) mice. After culling on postpartum day 8, hippocampal expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and stress-mediating factors were evaluated in CB1R KO and WT dams. Comparisons were also performed with nulliparous (NP) CB1R KO and WT mice. Compared to WT, CB1R KO dams were slower to retrieve their pups. Although the body weight of the KO pups did not differ from the weight of WT pups, they emitted fewer USVs. This impairment of the dam-pup relationship correlated with a significant reduction of OXTR mRNA and protein levels among CB1R KO dams compared to WT dams. Furthermore, WT dams exhibited elevated OXTR mRNA expression, as well as increased levels of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors, compared to WT NP mice. By contrast, CB1R KO dams showed no such elevation of OXTR expression, alongside lower BDNF and mineralocorticoid receptors, as well as elevated corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA levels, when compared to CB1R KO NP. Thus, it appears that the disruption of endocannabinoid signalling by CB1R deletion alters expression of the OXTR, apparently leading to deleterious effects upon maternal behaviour.

  3. NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine impairs feature integration in visual perception.

    PubMed

    Meuwese, Julia D I; van Loon, Anouk M; Scholte, H Steven; Lirk, Philipp B; Vulink, Nienke C C; Hollmann, Markus W; Lamme, Victor A F

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent interactions between neurons in the visual cortex are crucial for the integration of image elements into coherent objects, such as in figure-ground segregation of textured images. Blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in monkeys can abolish neural signals related to figure-ground segregation and feature integration. However, it is unknown whether this also affects perceptual integration itself. Therefore, we tested whether ketamine, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, reduces feature integration in humans. We administered a subanesthetic dose of ketamine to healthy subjects who performed a texture discrimination task in a placebo-controlled double blind within-subject design. We found that ketamine significantly impaired performance on the texture discrimination task compared to the placebo condition, while performance on a control fixation task was much less impaired. This effect is not merely due to task difficulty or a difference in sedation levels. We are the first to show a behavioral effect on feature integration by manipulating the NMDA receptor in humans.

  4. Orexin receptor antagonists as therapeutic agents for insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Equihua, Ana C.; De La Herrán-Arita, Alberto K.; Drucker-Colin, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Insomnia is a common clinical condition characterized by difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or non-restorative sleep with impairment of daytime functioning. Currently, treatment for insomnia involves a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBTi) and pharmacological therapy. Among pharmacological interventions, the most evidence exists for benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor agonist drugs (GABAA receptor), although concerns persist regarding their safety and their limited efficacy. The use of these hypnotic medications must be carefully monitored for adverse effects. Orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides have been shown to regulate transitions between wakefulness and sleep by promoting cholinergic/monoaminergic neural pathways. This has led to the development of a new class of pharmacological agents that antagonize the physiological effects of orexin. The development of these agents may lead to novel therapies for insomnia without the side effect profile of hypnotics (e.g., impaired cognition, disturbed arousal, and motor balance difficulties). However, antagonizing a system that regulates the sleep-wake cycle may create an entirely different side effect profile. In this review, we discuss the role of orexin and its receptors on the sleep-wake cycle and that of orexin antagonists in the treatment of insomnia. PMID:24416019

  5. Orexin receptor antagonists as therapeutic agents for insomnia.

    PubMed

    Equihua, Ana C; De La Herrán-Arita, Alberto K; Drucker-Colin, Rene

    2013-12-25

    Insomnia is a common clinical condition characterized by difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or non-restorative sleep with impairment of daytime functioning. Currently, treatment for insomnia involves a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBTi) and pharmacological therapy. Among pharmacological interventions, the most evidence exists for benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor agonist drugs (GABAA receptor), although concerns persist regarding their safety and their limited efficacy. The use of these hypnotic medications must be carefully monitored for adverse effects. Orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides have been shown to regulate transitions between wakefulness and sleep by promoting cholinergic/monoaminergic neural pathways. This has led to the development of a new class of pharmacological agents that antagonize the physiological effects of orexin. The development of these agents may lead to novel therapies for insomnia without the side effect profile of hypnotics (e.g., impaired cognition, disturbed arousal, and motor balance difficulties). However, antagonizing a system that regulates the sleep-wake cycle may create an entirely different side effect profile. In this review, we discuss the role of orexin and its receptors on the sleep-wake cycle and that of orexin antagonists in the treatment of insomnia.

  6. Bovine pancreatic polypeptide as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, G.Z.; Lu, L.; Qian, J.; Xue, B.G.

    1987-03-01

    In dispersed acini from rat pancreas, it was found that bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP) and its C-fragment hexapeptide amide (PP-6), at concentrations of 0.1 and 30 ..mu..M, respectively, could significantly inhibit amylase secretion stimulated by carbachol, and this inhibition by BPP was dose dependent. /sup 45/Ca outflux induced by carbachol was also inhibited by BPP or PP-6, but they had no effect on cholecystokinin octapeptide- (CCK-8) or A23187-stimulated /sup 45/Ca outflux. BPP was also capable of displacing the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidinyl benzilate to its receptors, and it possessed a higher affinity (K/sub i/35nM) than carbachol (K/sub i/ 1.8 ..mu..M) in binding with M-receptors. It is concluded from this study that BPP acts as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat pancreatic acini. In addition, BPP inhibited the potentiation of amylase secretion caused by the combination of carbachol plus secretin or vasoactive intestinal peptide. This may be a possible explanation of the inhibitory effect of BPP on secretin-induced pancreatic enzyme secretion shown in vivo, since pancreatic enzyme secretion stimulated by secretin under experimental conditions may be the result of potentiation of enzyme release produced by the peptide in combination with a cholinergic stimulant.

  7. Potential Clinical Implications of the Urotensin II Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Tsoukas, Philip; Kane, Émilie; Giaid, Adel

    2011-01-01

    Urotensin II (UII) binds to its receptor, UT, playing an important role in the heart, kidneys, pancreas, adrenal gland, and central nervous system. In the vasculature, it acts as a potent endothelium-independent vasoconstrictor and endothelium-dependent vasodilator. In disease states, however, this constriction–dilation equilibrium is disrupted. There is an upregulation of the UII system in heart disease, metabolic syndrome, and kidney failure. The increase in UII release and UT expression suggest that UII system may be implicated in the pathology and pathogenesis of these diseases by causing an increase in acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) activity leading to smooth muscle cell proliferation and foam cell infiltration, insulin resistance (DMII), as well as inflammation, high blood pressure, and plaque formation. Recently, UT antagonists such as SB-611812, palosuran, and most recently a piperazino-isoindolinone based antagonist have been developed in the hope of better understanding the UII system and treating its associated diseases. PMID:21811463

  8. Uterine and placental expression of canine oxytocin receptor during pregnancy and normal and induced parturition.

    PubMed

    Gram, A; Boos, A; Kowalewski, M P

    2014-06-01

    Oxytocin (OT) plays an important role as an inducer of uterine contractility, acting together with its receptor (OTR) to increase synthesis of prostaglandins. Although OT is commonly used in the treatment for dystocia and uterine inertia in the bitch, little attention has been paid to the role of OT in mechanisms regulating parturition in the dog, so that knowledge about the expression of OTR in the canine uterus and placenta is sparse. Consequently, the expression and cellular localization of OTR were investigated in canine utero/placental compartments and interplacental sites throughout pregnancy and at normal and antigestagen-induced parturition, by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot and in situ hybridization. The utero/placental and interplacental expression of OTR was constant from pre-implantation until mid-gestation, with a significant increase observed at prepartum luteolysis. In antigestagen-treated mid-pregnant dogs, OTR was upregulated in both interplacental and utero/placental samples. Besides clear myometrial signals, cellular localization of OTR was evident in the endometrial surface epithelial, stromal and vascular endothelial cells. Weaker signals were observed in superficial and deep uterine glandular epithelial cells. Placental OTR was localized in maternal decidual cells and capillary pericytes. Finally, OTR was colocalized with the progesterone receptor (PGR) in maternal decidual cells, coinciding with previously reported increased availability of prostaglandins in the foetal part of the placenta during normal and induced parturition. These findings suggest involvement of OTR in the signalling cascade leading to the prepartum release of prostaglandins from the pregnant canine uterus. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Antisocial behavior and polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene: findings in two independent samples.

    PubMed

    Hovey, D; Lindstedt, M; Zettergren, A; Jonsson, L; Johansson, A; Melke, J; Kerekes, N; Anckarsäter, H; Lichtenstein, P; Lundström, S; Westberg, L

    2016-07-01

    The quantitative genetic contribution to antisocial behavior is well established, but few, if any, genetic variants are established as risk factors. Emerging evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) may modulate interpersonal aggression. We here investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OXT receptor gene (OXTR) are associated with the expression of antisocial behavior. A discovery sample, including both sexes, was drawn from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS; n=2372), and a sample from the Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD; n=1232) was used for replication. Eight SNPs in OXTR, selected on previous associations with social and antisocial behavior, were genotyped in the participants of CATSS. Significant polymorphisms were subsequently genotyped in TCHAD for replication. Participants completed self-assessment questionnaires-Life History of Aggression (LHA; available only in CATSS), and Self-Reported Delinquency (SRD; available in both samples)-designed to capture antisocial behavior as continuous traits. In the discovery sample, the rs7632287 AA genotype was associated with higher frequency of antisocial behavior in boys, and this was then replicated in the second sample. In particular, overt aggression (directly targeting another individual) was strongly associated with this genotype in boys (P=6.2 × 10(-7) in the discovery sample). Meta-analysis of the results for antisocial behavior from both samples yielded P=2.5 × 10(-5). Furthermore, an association between rs4564970 and LHA (P=0.00013) survived correction in the discovery sample, but there was no association with the SRD in the replication sample. We conclude that the rs7632287 and rs4564970 polymorphisms in OXTR may independently influence antisocial behavior in adolescent boys. Further replication of our results will be crucial to understanding how aberrant social behavior arises, and would support the OXT receptor as one

  10. Oxytocin receptor binding sites in the periphery of the neonatal mouse

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Maria A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) is a pleiotropic regulator of physiology and behavior. An emerging body of evidence demonstrates a role for OXT in the transition to postnatal life of the infant. To identify potential sites of OXT action via the OXT receptor (OXTR) in the newborn mouse, we performed receptor autoradiography on 20 μm sagittal sections of whole postnatal day 0 male and female mice on a C57BL/6J background using the 125iodinated ornithine vasotocin analog ([125I]-OVTA) radioligand. A competitive binding assay on both wild-type (WT) and OXTR knockout (OXTR KO) tissue was used to assess the selectivity of [125I]-OVTA for neonatal OXTR. Radioactive ligand (0.05 nM [125I]-OVTA) was competed against concentrations of 0 nM, 10 nM, and 1000 nM excess unlabeled OXT. Autoradiographs demonstrated the high selectivity of the radioligand for infant peripheral OXTR. Specific ligand binding activity for OXTR was observed in the oronasal cavity, the eye, whisker pads, adrenal gland, and anogenital region in the neonatal OXTR WT mouse, but was absent in neonatal OXTR KO. Nonspecific binding was observed in areas with a high lipid content such as the scapular brown adipose tissue and the liver: in these regions, binding was present in both OXTR WT and KO mice, and could not be competed away with OXT in either WT or KO mice. Collectively, these data confirm novel OXT targets in the periphery of the neonate. These peripheral OXTR sites, coupled with the immaturity of the neonate’s own OXT system, suggest a role for exogenous OXT in modulating peripheral physiology and development. PMID:28235051

  11. SB-334867-A: the first selective orexin-1 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Smart, D; Sabido-David, C; Brough, S J; Jewitt, F; Johns, A; Porter, R A; Jerman, J C

    2001-01-01

    The pharmacology of various peptide and non-peptide ligands was studied in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing human orexin-1 (OX1) or orexin-2 (OX2) receptors by measuring intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) using Fluo-3AM. Orexin-A and orexin-B increased [Ca2+]i in CHO-OX1 (pEC50=8.38±0.04 and 7.26±0.05 respectively, n=12) and CHO-OX2 (pEC50=8.20±0.03 and 8.26±0.04 respectively, n=8) cells. However, neuropeptide Y and secretin (10 pM – 10 μM) displayed neither agonist nor antagonist properties in either cell-line. SB-334867-A (1-(2-Methyylbenzoxanzol-6-yl)-3-[1,5]naphthyridin-4-yl-urea hydrochloride) inhibited the orexin-A (10 nM) and orexin-B (100 nM)-induced calcium responses (pKB=7.27±0.04 and 7.23±0.03 respectively, n=8), but had no effect on the UTP (3 μM)-induced calcium response in CHO-OX1 cells. SB-334867-A (10 μM) also inhibited OX2 mediated calcium responses (32.7±1.9% versus orexin-A). SB-334867-A was devoid of agonist properties in either cell-line. In conclusion, SB-334867-A is a non-peptide OX1 selective receptor antagonist. PMID:11250867

  12. Adenosine receptor antagonist and augmented vasodilation during hypoxic exercise.

    PubMed

    Casey, Darren P; Madery, Brandon D; Pike, Tasha L; Eisenach, John H; Dietz, Niki M; Joyner, Michael J; Wilkins, Brad W

    2009-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that adenosine contributes to augmented skeletal muscle vasodilation during hypoxic exercise. In separate protocols, subjects performed incremental rhythmic forearm exercise (10% and 20% of maximum) during normoxia and normocapnic hypoxia (80% arterial O2 saturation). In protocol 1 (n = 8), subjects received an intra-arterial administration of saline (control) and aminophylline (adenosine receptor antagonist). In protocol 2 (n = 10), subjects received intra-arterial phentolamine (alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist) and combined phentolamine and aminophylline administration. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; in ml x min(-1).100 mmHg(-1)) was calculated from forearm blood flow (in ml/min) and blood pressure (in mmHg). In protocol 1, the change in FVC (DeltaFVC; change from normoxic baseline) during hypoxic exercise with saline was 172 +/- 29 and 314 +/- 34 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1) (10% and 20%, respectively). Aminophylline administration did not affect DeltaFVC during hypoxic exercise at 10% (190 +/- 29 ml x min(-1)x100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.4) or 20% (287 +/- 48 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.3). In protocol 2, DeltaFVC due to hypoxic exercise with phentolamine infusion was 313 +/- 30 and 453 +/- 41 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1) (10% and 20% respectively). DeltaFVC was similar at 10% (352 +/- 39 ml min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.8) and 20% (528 +/- 45 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.2) hypoxic exercise with combined phentolamine and aminophylline. In contrast, DeltaFVC to exogenous adenosine was reduced by aminophylline administration in both protocols (P < 0.05 for both). These observations suggest that adenosine receptor activation is not obligatory for the augmented hyperemia during hypoxic exercise in humans.

  13. Variation in the β-endorphin, oxytocin, and dopamine receptor genes is associated with different dimensions of human sociality.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Eiluned; Wlodarski, Rafael; Machin, Anna; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2017-05-16

    There is growing evidence that the number and quality of social relationships have substantial impacts on health, well-being, and longevity, and, at least in animals, on reproductive fitness. Although it is widely recognized that these outcomes are mediated by a number of neuropeptides, the roles these play remain debated. We suggest that an overemphasis on one neuropeptide (oxytocin), combined with a failure to distinguish between different social domains, has obscured the complexity involved. We use variation in 33 SNPs for the receptor genes for six well-known social neuropeptides in relation to three separate domains of sociality (social disposition, dyadic relationships, and social networks) to show that three neuropeptides (β-endorphin, oxytocin, and dopamine) play particularly important roles, with each being associated predominantly with a different social domain. However, endorphins and dopamine have a much wider compass than oxytocin (whose effects are confined to romantic/reproductive relationships and often do not survive control for other neuropeptides). In contrast, vasopressin, serotonin, and testosterone play only limited roles.

  14. Cumulative risk on the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) underpins empathic communication difficulties at the first stages of romantic love.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Inna; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Ebstein, Richard P; Feldman, Ruth

    2014-10-01

    Empathic communication between couples plays an important role in relationship quality and individual well-being and research has pointed to the role of oxytocin in providing the neurobiological substrate for pair-bonding and empathy. Here, we examined links between genetic variability on the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and empathic behaviour at the initiation of romantic love. Allelic variations on five OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with susceptibility to disorders of social functioning were genotyped in 120 new lovers: OXTRrs13316193, rs2254298, rs1042778, rs2268494 and rs2268490. Cumulative genetic risk was computed by summing risk alleles on each SNP. Couples were observed in support-giving interaction and behaviour was coded for empathic communication, including affective congruence, maintaining focus on partner, acknowledging partner's distress, reciprocal exchange and non-verbal empathy. Hierarchical linear modelling indicated that individuals with high OXTR risk exhibited difficulties in empathic communication. OXTR risk predicted empathic difficulties above and beyond the couple level, relationship duration, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Findings underscore the involvement of oxytocin in empathic behaviour during the early stages of social affiliation, and suggest the utility of cumulative risk and plasticity indices on the OXTR as potential biomarkers for research on disorders of social dysfunction and the neurobiology of empathy. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Implementation of a fluorescence-based screening assay identifies histamine H3 receptor antagonists clobenpropit and iodophenpropit as subunit-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kasper B; Mullasseril, Praseeda; Dawit, Sara; Kurtkaya, Natalie L; Yuan, Hongjie; Vance, Katie M; Orr, Anna G; Kvist, Trine; Ogden, Kevin K; Le, Phuong; Vellano, Kimberly M; Lewis, Iestyn; Kurtkaya, Serdar; Du, Yuhong; Qui, Min; Murphy, T J; Snyder, James P; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2010-06-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate a slow, Ca(2+)-permeable component of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and play a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity, neuronal development, and several neurological diseases. We describe a fluorescence-based assay that measures NMDA receptor-mediated changes in intracellular calcium in a BHK-21 cell line stably expressing NMDA receptor NR2D with NR1 under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter (Tet-On). The assay selectively identifies allosteric modulators by using supramaximal concentrations of glutamate and glycine to minimize detection of competitive antagonists. The assay is validated by successfully identifying known noncompetitive, but not competitive NMDA receptor antagonists among 1800 screened compounds from two small focused libraries, including the commercially available library of pharmacologically active compounds. Hits from the primary screen are validated through a secondary screen that used two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings on recombinant NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. This strategy identified several novel modulators of NMDA receptor function, including the histamine H3 receptor antagonists clobenpropit and iodophenpropit, as well as the vanilloid receptor transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) antagonist capsazepine. These compounds are noncompetitive antagonists and the histamine H3 receptor ligand showed submicromolar potency at NR1/NR2B NMDA receptors, which raises the possibility that compounds can be developed that act with high potency on both glutamate and histamine receptor systems simultaneously. Furthermore, it is possible that some actions attributed to histamine H3 receptor inhibition in vivo may also involve NMDA receptor antagonism.

  16. Interleukin-36-receptor antagonist deficiency and generalized pustular psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Marrakchi, Slaheddine; Guigue, Philippe; Renshaw, Blair R; Puel, Anne; Pei, Xue-Yuan; Fraitag, Sylvie; Zribi, Jihen; Bal, Elodie; Cluzeau, Céline; Chrabieh, Maya; Towne, Jennifer E; Douangpanya, Jason; Pons, Christian; Mansour, Sourour; Serre, Valérie; Makni, Hafedh; Mahfoudh, Nadia; Fakhfakh, Faiza; Bodemer, Christine; Feingold, Josué; Hadj-Rabia, Smail; Favre, Michel; Genin, Emmanuelle; Sahbatou, Mourad; Munnich, Arnold; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Sims, John E; Turki, Hamida; Bachelez, Hervé; Smahi, Asma

    2011-08-18

    Generalized pustular psoriasis is a life-threatening disease of unknown cause. It is characterized by sudden, repeated episodes of high-grade fever, generalized rash, and disseminated pustules, with hyperleukocytosis and elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein, which may be associated with plaque-type psoriasis. We performed homozygosity mapping and direct sequencing in nine Tunisian multiplex families with autosomal recessive generalized pustular psoriasis. We assessed the effect of mutations on protein expression and conformation, stability, and function. We identified significant linkage to an interval of 1.2 megabases on chromosome 2q13-q14.1 and a homozygous missense mutation in IL36RN, encoding an interleukin-36-receptor antagonist (interleukin-36Ra), an antiinflammatory cytokine. This mutation predicts the substitution of a proline residue for leucine at amino acid position 27 (L27P). Homology-based structural modeling of human interleukin-36Ra suggests that the proline at position 27 affects both the stability of interleukin-36Ra and its interaction with its receptor, interleukin-1 receptor-like 2 (interleukin-1 receptor-related protein 2). Biochemical analyses showed that the L27P variant was poorly expressed and less potent than the nonvariant interleukin-36Ra in inhibiting a cytokine-induced response in an interleukin-8 reporter assay, leading to enhanced production of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-8 in particular) by keratinocytes from the patients. Aberrant interleukin-36Ra structure and function lead to unregulated secretion of inflammatory cytokines and generalized pustular psoriasis. (Funded by Agence Nationale de la Recherche and Société Française de Dermatologie.).

  17. Straub tail reaction in mice treated with σ(1) receptor antagonist in combination with methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Kitanaka, Junichi; Kitanaka, Nobue; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Tanaka, Koh-Ichi; Nishiyama, Nobuyoshi; Takemura, Motohiko

    2012-10-30

    Straub tail reaction (STR) was observed in male ddY mice after simultaneous administration with BMY 14802 (a non-specific σ receptor antagonist) and methamphetamine (METH). The intensity and duration of STR depended on the dose of BMY 14802. The tail reaction was inhibited completely by (+)-SKF 10,047 (a putative σ(1) receptor agonist) and partially by PB 28 (a putative σ(2) receptor agonist). The STR was mimicked in mice treated with BD 1047 (a putative σ(1) receptor antagonist), but not SM-21, a putative σ(2) receptor antagonist, in combination with METH. STR evoked with BD 1047 plus METH was inhibited by (+)-SKF 10,047. STR induced by BMY 14802 and METH was abolished by naloxone (a relatively non-selective opioid receptor antagonist) or U-50,488H (a selective κ-agonist), suggesting that the STR may be mediated by activation of opioid receptor system.

  18. Effects of N-acetylimidazole on oxytocin binding in bovine mammary tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X.; Gorewit, R.C.; Currie, W.B. )

    1990-01-01

    The effects of N-acetylimidazole on specific binding of oxytocin to microsomal fractions of bovine mammary gland were studied. N-acetylimidazole suppressed oxytocin binding, with time and concentration dependence. Decreased oxytocin binding activity appeared to be due to decreased affinity of the hormone for its receptor. Acetylation of oxytocin, rather than of oxytocin receptors, seemed to be responsible for the decreased binding.

  19. Drug discrimination analysis of NMDA receptor channel blockers as nicotinic receptor antagonists in rats.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, E S; Danysz, W; Bespalov, A Y

    2005-04-01

    Antagonists acting at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors inhibit various phenomena associated with exposures to nicotine (e.g., tolerance, sensitization, dependence, and intravenous self-administration). These effects are often discussed in terms of nicotine-induced glutamate release with subsequent glutamate-dependent stimulation of dopamine metabolism and neuronal plasticity in brain areas critically involved in drug-addiction mechanisms. However, it is also well established that certain types of NMDA receptor antagonists (channel blockers) potently bind to nicotinic receptors and may act as nicotinic receptor antagonists. The present study aimed to evaluate the discriminative-stimulus effects of the NMDA receptor channel blockers (+)MK-801, dextromethorphan, and memantine in rats trained to discriminate nicotine from its vehicle. Adult male Wistar rats were trained to discriminate 0.6 mg/kg nicotine from saline under a two-lever, fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food reinforcement. During test sessions, injections of (+)MK-801 (0.03--0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), dextromethorphan (30 mg/kg, s.c.), or memantine (1--10 mg/kg, i.p.) were co-administered with s.c. nicotine (0.075--0.6 mg/kg; interaction tests) or saline (generalization tests). Additional interaction and generalization tests were conducted with the selective nicotinic receptor antagonists mecamylamine (0.1--3 mg/kg, s.c.) and MRZ 2/621 (0.3--10 mg/kg, i.p.), and the mGlu5 receptor antagonist MPEP (3--10 mg/kg, i.p.). In generalization tests, none of the compounds produced any appreciable levels of substitution for nicotine. The nicotine discriminative-stimulus control was dose dependently attenuated by mecamylamine (ED(50)=0.67 mg/kg) and MRZ 2/621 (ED(50)=9.7 mg/kg). Both agents produced a marked downward shift in the nicotine dose-response curve. Memantine and MPEP slightly attenuated nicotine discriminative-stimulus effects, while (+)MK-801 and dextromethorphan did not affect the

  20. Histamine and histamine receptor antagonists in cancer biology.

    PubMed

    Blaya, Bruno; Nicolau-Galmés, Francesca; Jangi, Shawkat M; Ortega-Martínez, Idoia; Alonso-Tejerina, Erika; Burgos-Bretones, Juan; Pérez-Yarza, Gorka; Asumendi, Aintzane; Boyano, María D

    2010-07-01

    Histamine has been demonstrated to be involved in cell proliferation, embryonic development, and tumour growth. These various biological effects are mediated through the activation of specific histamine receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4) that differ in their tissue expression patterns and functions. Although many in vitro and in vivo studies of the modulatory roles of histamine in tumour development and metastasis have been reported, the effect of histamine in the progression of some types of tumours remains controversial; however, recent findings on the role of histamine in the immune system have shed new light on this question. This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding the roles of histamine and its receptors in tumour biology. We report our recent observations of the anti-tumoural effect of H1 histamine antagonists on experimental and human melanomas. We have found that in spite of exogenous histamine stimulated human melanoma cell proliferation, clonogenic ability and migration activity in a dose-dependent manner, the melanoma tumour growth was not modulated by in vivo histamine treatment. On the contrary, terfenadine-treatment in vitro induced melanoma cell death by apoptosis and in vivo terfenadine treatment significantly inhibited tumour growth in murine models. These observations increase our understanding of cancer biology and may inspire novel anticancer therapeutic strategies.

  1. Vasopressin receptor antagonists and their role in clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Narayen, Girish; Mandal, Surya Narayan

    2012-03-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality in hospitalized patients. Its treatment is based not only on extracellular fluid volume status of patients but also on its pathogenetic mechanisms. Conventional treatment of hyponatremia like fluid restriction, which is useful in euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia, has very poor patient compliance over long term. Vasopressin receptor antagonists (Vaptans) are a new group of nonpeptide drugs which have been used in various clinical conditions with limited success. Whereas conivaptan is to be administered intravenously, the other vaptans like tolvaptan, lixivaptan, and satavaptan are effective as oral medication. They produce aquaresis by their action on vasopressin type 2 (V2R) receptors in the collecting duct and thus increase solute free water excretion. Vaptans are being used as an alternative to fluid restriction in euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremic patients. Efficacy of vaptans is now well accepted for management of correction of hyponatremia over a short period. However, its efficacy in improving the long-term morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic hyponatremia due to cirrhosis and heart failure is yet to be established. Vaptans have not become the mainstay treatment of hyponatremia yet.

  2. Management of hyperkalaemia consequent to mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonist therapy.

    PubMed

    Roscioni, Sara S; de Zeeuw, Dick; Bakker, Stephan J L; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J

    2012-12-01

    Mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists (MRAs) reduce blood pressure and albuminuria in patients treated with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-II-receptor blockers. The use of MRAs, however, is limited by the occurrence of hyperkalaemia, which frequently occurs in patients older than 65 years with impaired kidney function, and/or diabetes. Patients with these characteristics might still benefit from MRA therapy, however, and should not be excluded from this treatment option. This limitation raises the question of how to optimize the therapeutic use of MRAs in this population of patients. Understanding the individual variability in patients' responses to MRAs, in terms of albuminuria, blood pressure and serum potassium levels, might lead to targeted intervention. MRA use might be restricted to patients with high levels of mineralocorticoid activity, evaluated by circulating renin and aldosterone levels or renal excretion of potassium. In addition, reviewing the patient's diet and concomitant medications might prove useful in reducing the risk of developing subsequent hyperkalaemia. If hyperkalaemia does develop, treatment options exist to decrease potassium levels, including administration of calcium gluconate, insulin, β(2)-agonists, diuretics and cation-exchange resins. In combination with novel aldosterone blockers, these strategies might offer a rationale with which to optimize therapeutic intervention and extend the population of patients who can benefit from use of MRAs.

  3. Inhibition of radiation-induced polyuria by histamine receptor antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Donlon, M.A.; Melia, J.A.; Helgeson, E.A.; Wolfe, W.W.

    1986-03-01

    In previous studies the authors have demonstrated that gamma radiation results in polyuria, which is preceded by polydypsia. This suggests that the increased thirst elicited by radiation causes increased urinary volume (UV). Histamine, which is released following radiation exposure, also elicits drinking by nonirradiated rats when administered exogenously. In this study the authors have investigated both the role of water deprivation and the effect of histamine receptor antagonists (HRA) on radiation-induced polyuria. Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually in metabolic cages. Water was allowed ad libitum except in deprivation experiments where water was removed for 24 hr immediately following radiation. Cimetidine (CIM), an H2 HRA, and dexbromopheniramine (DXB), an H1 HRA, were administered i.p. (16 and 1 mg/kg, respectively) 30 min prior to irradiation (950 rads from a cobalt source). UV was determined at 24-hr intervals for 3 days preceding irradiation and 24 hr postirradiation. UV in DXB treated rats was significantly reduced 24 hr postirradiation (CON = 427 +/- 54%; DXB = 247 +/- 39% of preirradiated CON) compared to postirradiation control values. CIM did not affect postirradiation UV. These data suggest that radiation-induced polyuria is caused by polydypsia which is, in part, mediated by histamine induced by an H1 receptor.

  4. Vasopressin receptor antagonists and their role in clinical medicine

    PubMed Central

    Narayen, Girish; Mandal, Surya Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality in hospitalized patients. Its treatment is based not only on extracellular fluid volume status of patients but also on its pathogenetic mechanisms. Conventional treatment of hyponatremia like fluid restriction, which is useful in euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia, has very poor patient compliance over long term. Vasopressin receptor antagonists (Vaptans) are a new group of nonpeptide drugs which have been used in various clinical conditions with limited success. Whereas conivaptan is to be administered intravenously, the other vaptans like tolvaptan, lixivaptan, and satavaptan are effective as oral medication. They produce aquaresis by their action on vasopressin type 2 (V2R) receptors in the collecting duct and thus increase solute free water excretion. Vaptans are being used as an alternative to fluid restriction in euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremic patients. Efficacy of vaptans is now well accepted for management of correction of hyponatremia over a short period. However, its efficacy in improving the long-term morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic hyponatremia due to cirrhosis and heart failure is yet to be established. Vaptans have not become the mainstay treatment of hyponatremia yet. PMID:22470853

  5. The Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Contributes to Prosocial Fund Allocations in the Dictator Game and the Social Value Orientations Task

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Salomon; Lerer, Elad; Shalev, Idan; Uzefovsky, Florina; Riebold, Mathias; Laiba, Efrat; Bachner-Melman, Rachel; Maril, Anat; Bornstein, Gary; Knafo, Ariel; Ebstein, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Economic games observe social decision making in the laboratory that involves real money payoffs. Previously we have shown that allocation of funds in the Dictator Game (DG), a paradigm that illustrates costly altruistic behavior, is partially determined by promoter-region repeat region variants in the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor gene (AVPR1a). In the current investigation, the gene encoding the related oxytocin receptor (OXTR) was tested for association with the DG and a related paradigm, the Social Values Orientation (SVO) task. Methodology/Principal Findings Association (101 male and 102 female students) using a robust-family based test between 15 single tagging SNPs (htSNPs) across the OXTR was demonstrated with both the DG and SVO. Three htSNPs across the gene region showed significant association with both of the two games. The most significant association was observed with rs1042778 (p = 0.001). Haplotype analysis also showed significant associations for both DG and SVO. Following permutation test adjustment, significance was observed for 2–5 locus haplotypes (p<0.05). A second sample of 98 female subjects was subsequently and independently recruited to play the dictator game and was genotyped for the three significant SNPs found in the first sample. The rs1042778 SNP was shown to be significant for the second sample as well (p = 0.004, Fisher's exact test). Conclusions The demonstration that genetic polymorphisms for the OXTR are associated with human prosocial decision making converges with a large body of animal research showing that oxytocin is an important social hormone across vertebrates including Homo sapiens. Individual differences in prosocial behavior have been shown by twin studies to have a substantial genetic basis and the current investigation demonstrates that common variants in the oxytocin receptor gene, an important element of mammalian social circuitry, underlie such individual differences. PMID:19461999

  6. Social instability stress in adolescent male rats reduces social interaction and social recognition performance and increases oxytocin receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Travis E; Baumbach, Jennet L; Marcolin, Marina L; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2017-09-17

    Social experiences in adolescence are essential for displaying context-appropriate social behaviors in adulthood. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in adolescence had reduced social interactions with unfamiliar peers compared with non-stressed controls (CTL). Here we determined whether SS altered social recognition and social reward and brain oxytocin and vasopressin receptor density in adolescence. We confirmed that SS rats spent less time interacting with unfamiliar peers than did CTL rats (p=0.006). Furthermore, CTL rats showed a preference for novel over familiar conspecifics in a social recognition test whereas SS rats did not, which may reflect reduced recognition, impaired memory, or reduced preference for novelty in SS rats. The reward value of social interactions was not affected by SS based on conditioned place preference tests and based on the greater time SS rats spent investigating stimulus rats than did CTL rats when the stimulus rat was behind wire mesh (p=0.03). Finally, oxytocin receptor binding density was higher in the dorsal lateral septum and nucleus accumbens shell in SS rats compared with CTL rats (p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively). No effect of SS was found for vasopressin 1a receptor binding density in any of the brain regions analyzed. We discuss the extent to which the differences in social behavior exhibited after social instability in adolescence involve changes in social salience and social competency, and the possibility that changes in oxytocin signaling in the brain underlie the differences in social behavior. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distributions of oxytocin and vasopressin 1a receptors in the Taiwan vole and their role in social monogamy.

    PubMed

    Chappell, A R; Freeman, S M; Lin, Y K; LaPrairie, J L; Inoue, K; Young, L J; Hayes, L D

    2016-06-01

    Social monogamy is a mating strategy rarely employed by mammalian species. Laboratory studies in socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) demonstrate that oxytocin and vasopressin act within the mesolimbic dopamine pathway to facilitate pair-bond formation. Species differences in oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR) distribution in this pathway are associated with species differences in mating strategy. Here we characterize the neuroanatomical distribution of OTR and V1aR binding sites in naturally occurring populations of Taiwan voles (M. kikuchii), which purportedly display social monogamy. Live trapping was conducted at two sites in 2009-2010 and receptor autoradiography for OTR and V1aR was performed on brains from 24 animals. OTR binding in two brain regions where OTR signaling regulates pair-bonding were directly compared with that of prairie voles. Our results show that like prairie voles, Taiwan voles exhibit OTR in the prefrontal cortex, insular cortex, claustrum, nucleus accumbens, caudate-putamen, dorsal lateral septal nucleus, central amygdala, and ventromedial hypothalamus. Unlike prairie voles, Taiwan voles exhibit OTR binding in the CA3 pathway of the hippocampus, as well as the indusium griseum, which has only previously been documented in tuco-tucos (Ctenomys haigi, C. sociabilis), Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber). V1aR binding was present in the ventral pallidum, lateral septum, nucleus basalis, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, hippocampus, medial amygdala, and anterior, ventromedial and dorsomedial hypothalamus. Marked individual differences in V1aR binding were noted in the cingulate cortex and several thalamic nuclei, remarkably similar to prairie voles. While pharmacological studies are needed to determine whether oxytocin and vasopressin are involved in pair-bond formation in this species, our results lay a foundation for future investigations into the

  8. Dihydromorphine-peptide hybrids with delta receptor agonistic and mu receptor antagonistic actions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.B.; Medzihradsky, F.; Woods, J.H.

    1986-03-05

    The actions of two morphine derivatives with short peptide side chains were evaluated upon the contraction of the isolated mouse vas deferens and upon displacement of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat brain membranes. NIH-9833 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl) was a potent agonist upon the vas deferens. Its EC50 for inhibition of the twitch was 1.2 +/- 0.1 nM. Both naltrexone (10/sup -7/ M) a relatively nonselective opioid antagonist, and ICI-174864 (10/sup -/' M) a highly selective delta receptor antagonist, blocked the actions of NIH-9833 which indicates that this drug is a delta receptor agonist. In contrast, NIH-9835 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-glycyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl), which differs from NIH-9835 by the presence of a single amino acid residue, was devoid of opioid agonistic activity but was a potent antagonist of the inhibitory actions on the vas deferens of morphine and sufentanil. NIH-9833 and NIH-9835 were potent displacers of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat cerebral membranes with EC50's of 0.58 nM and 1.7 nM, respectively. The observation that addition of a single glycyl group changes a dihydromorphine-peptide analog from a potent delta receptor agonist to an equally potent mu receptor antagonist suggests that the two receptor sites might be structurally quite similar.

  9. Levels of central oxytocin and glucocorticoid receptor and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xufeng; Yan, Yating; Tai, Fadao; Wu, Ruiyong; Hao, Ping; Fang, Qianqian; Zhang, Shuwei

    2014-11-01

    Sociability is the prerequisite to social living. Oxytocin and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis mediate various social behaviors across different social contexts in different rodents. We hypothesized that they also mediate levels of non-reproductive social behavior. Here we explored naturally occurring variation in sociability through a social preference test and compared central oxytocin, glucocorticoid receptors, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability. We found that low-social voles showed higher levels of anxiety-like behavior in open field tests, and had more serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone than high-social voles. High-social individuals had more glucocorticoid receptor positive neurons in the hippocampus and more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than low-social individuals. Within the same level of sociability, females had more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than males. These results indicate that naturally occurring social preferences are associated with higher levels of central oxytocin and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptor and lower levels of anxiety and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone.

  10. Polymorphisms in oxytocin and α1a adrenergic receptor genes and their effects on production traits in dairy buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Daniele Neves; de Camargo, Gregório Miguel Ferreira; Dias da Silva Fonseca, Patrícia; Cardoso, Diercles Francisco; Hurtado-Lugo, Naudin Alejandro; Aspilcueta-Borquis, Rúsbel Raul; Tonhati, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    The use of molecular markers may auxiliary the buffalo breeding. The oxytocin (OXT) and the adrenergic receptor α1A (ADRA1A) may be involved in milk ejection in ruminants. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of polymorphisms in the OXT and ADRA1A genes and their associations with milk production traits. A total of 220 buffaloes were genotyped using PCR-RFLP for both genes. The SNP identified in the ADRA1A gene was associated with protein percentage in dairy buffaloes. This is the first report of such association in the literature, which has not been studied in other species.

  11. Use of Enterally Delivered Angiotensin II Type Ia Receptor Antagonists to Reduce the Severity of Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Okawada, Manabu; Koga, Hiroyuki; Larsen, Scott D.; Showalter, Hollis D.; Turbiak, Anjanette J.; Jin, Xiaohong; Lucas, Peter C.; Lipka, Elke; Hillfinger, John; Kim, Jae Seung

    2011-01-01

    Background Renin-angiotensin system blockade reduces inflammation in several organ systems. Having found a fourfold increase in angiotensin II type Ia receptor expression in a dextran sodium sulfate colitis model, we targeted blockade with angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists to prevent colitis development. Because hypotension is a major complication of angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists use, we hypothesized that use of angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists compounds which lack cell membrane permeability, and thus enteric absorption, would allow for direct enteral delivery at far higher concentrations than would be tolerated systemically, yet retain efficacy. Methods Based on the structure of the angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist losartan, deschloro-losartan was synthesized, which has extremely poor cell membrane permeability. Angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist efficacy was evaluated by determining the ability to block NF-κB activation in vitro. Dextran sodium sulfate colitis was induced in mice and angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist efficacy delivered transanally was assessed. Results In vitro, deschloro-losartan demonstrated near equal angiotensin II type Ia receptor blockade compared to losartan as well as another angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist, candesartan. In the dextran sodium sulfate model, each compound significantly improved clinical and histologic scores and epithelial cell apoptosis. Abundance of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL6 mRNA were significantly decreased with each compound. In vitro and in vivo intestinal drug absorption, as well as measures of blood pressure and mucosal and colonic blood flow, showed significantly lower uptake of deschloro-losartan compared to losartan and candesartan. Conclusions This study demonstrated efficacy of high-dose angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonists in this colitis model. We postulate that a specially designed angiotensin II type Ia receptor antagonist with

  12. Environmental stress, oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism, and mental health following collective stress.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Holman, E Alison

    2013-04-01

    We examined whether the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs53576 genotype buffers the combined impact of negative social environments (e.g., interpersonal conflict/constraint) and economic stress on post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and impaired daily functioning following collective stress (September 11th terrorist attacks). Saliva was collected by mail and used to genotype 704 respondents. Participants completed Web-based assessments of pre-9/11 mental health, acute stress 9-23 days after 9/11, the quality of social environments 1 year post-9/11, economic stress 18 months post-9/11, and PTS symptoms and impaired functioning 2 and 3 years post-9/11. Interactions between negative social environments and economic stress were examined separately based on OXTR rs53576 genotype (GG vs. any A allele). For individuals with an A allele, a negative social environment significantly increased PTS symptoms without regard to the level of economic stress experienced. However, for respondents with a GG genotype, negative social environments predicted elevated PTS symptoms only for those also experiencing high economic stress. Gender moderated associations between negative social environments, economic stress, and impaired functioning. The functioning of females was most affected by negative social environments regardless of genotype and economic stress, whereas the functioning of males was differentially susceptible to economic stress depending on OXTR genotype and negative social environments. These findings suggest that it is important to consider the combined impact of gender and ongoing stress in different domains as moderators of genetic vulnerability following collective stress.

  13. Impairments in the initiation of maternal behavior in oxytocin receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Rich, Megan E; deCárdenas, Emily J; Lee, Heon-Jin; Caldwell, Heather K

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) acting through its single receptor subtype, the Oxtr, is important for the coordination of physiology and behavior associated with parturition and maternal care. Knockout mouse models have been helpful in exploring the contributions of Oxt to maternal behavior, including total body Oxt knockout (Oxt -/-) mice, forebrain conditional Oxtr knockout (Oxtr FB/FB) mice, and total body Oxtr knockout (Oxtr -/-) mice. Since Oxtr -/- mice are unable to lactate, maternal behavior has only been examined in virgin females, or in dams within a few hours of parturition, and there have been no studies that have examined their anxiety-like and depression-like behavior following parturition. To improve our understanding of how the absence of Oxt signaling affects maternal behavior, mood and anxiety, we designed a study using Oxtr -/- mice that separated nursing behavior from other aspects of maternal care, such as licking and grooming by thelectomizing (i.e. removing the nipples) of Oxtr +/+ mice and sham-thelectomizing Oxtr -/- mice, and pairing both genotypes with a wet nurse. We then measured pup abandonment, maternal behavior, and postpartum anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors. We hypothesized that genetic disruption of the Oxtr would impact maternal care, mood and anxiety. Specifically, we predicted that Oxtr -/- dams would have impaired maternal care and increased anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in the postpartum period. We found that Oxtr -/- dams had significantly higher levels of pup abandonment compared to controls, which is consistent with previous work in Oxtr FB/FB mice. Interestingly, Oxtr -/- dams that initiated maternal care did not differ from wildtype controls in measures of maternal behavior. We also did not find any evidence of altered anxiety-like or depressive-like behavior in the postpartum period of Oxtr -/- dams. Thus, our data suggest that Oxt lowers the threshold for the initiation of maternal behavior.

  14. Anticonvulsive effect of nonimidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Bassem; Kuder, Kamil; Subramanian, Dhanasekaran; Shafiullah, Mohamed; Stark, Holger; Lażewska, Dorota; Adem, Abdu; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2014-06-01

    To determine the potential of histamine H3 receptor (H3R) ligands as new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), aromatic ether, and diether derivatives (1-12) belonging to the nonimidazole class of ligands, with high in-vitro binding affinity at human H3R, were tested for their in-vivo anticonvulsive activity in the maximal electroshock (MES)-induced and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled seizure models in rats. The anticonvulsive effects of a systemic injection of 1-12 on MES-induced and PTZ-kindled seizures were evaluated against the reference AED phenytoin (PHT) and the structurally related H3R antagonist/inverse agonist pitolisant (PIT). Among the most promising ligands 2, 4, 5, and 11, there was a significant and dose-dependent reduction in the duration of tonic hind limb extension (THLE) in MES-induced seizure subsequent to administration of 4 and 5 [(5, 10, and 15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)]. The protective effects observed for the 1-(3-(3-(4-chlorophenyl)propoxy)propyl)-3-methylpiperidine derivative 11 at 10 mg/kg, i.p. were significantly greater than those of PIT, and were reversed by pretreatment with the central nervous system penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR) (10 mg/kg). Moreover, the protective action of the reference AED PHT, at a dose of 5 mg/kg (without considerable protection in the MES model), was significantly augmented when coadministered with derivative 11 (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Surprisingly, pretreatment with derivative 7 (10 mg/kg, i.p.), an ethylphenoxyhexyl-piperidine derivative without considerable protection in the MES model, potently altered PTZ-kindled seizure, significantly prolonged myoclonic latency time, and clearly shortened the total seizure time when compared with control, PHT, and PIT. These interesting results highlight the potential of H3R ligands as new AEDs or as adjuvants to available AED therapeutics.

  15. Plasma oxytocin concentrations following MDMA or intranasal oxytocin in humans.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Francis, Sunday M; Lee, Royce; de Wit, Harriet; Jacob, Suma

    2014-08-01

    MDMA (±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 'ecstasy') is reportedly used recreationally because it increases feelings of sociability and interpersonal closeness. Prior work suggests that the pro-social effects of MDMA may be mediated by release of oxytocin. A direct examination of plasma levels of oxytocin after acute doses of oxytocin and MDMA, in the same individuals, would provide further evidence for the idea that MDMA produces its pro-social effects by increasing oxytocin. Fourteen healthy MDMA users participated in a 4-session, double-blind study in which they received oral MDMA (0.75 and 1.5mg/kg), intranasal oxytocin (20IU or 40IU), and placebo. Plasma oxytocin concentrations, as well as cardiovascular and subjective effects were assessed before and at several time points after drug administration. MDMA (1.5mg/kg only) increased plasma oxytocin levels to a mean peak of 83.7pg/ml at approximately 90-120min, compared to 18.6pg/ml after placebo. Intranasal oxytocin (40IU, but not 20IU) increased plasma oxytocin levels to 48.0pg/ml, 30-60min after nasal spray administration. MDMA dose-dependently increased heart rate, blood pressure, feelings of euphoria (e.g., 'High' and 'Like Drug'), and feelings of sociability, whereas oxytocin had no cardiovascular or subjective effects. The subjective and cardiovascular responses to MDMA were not related to plasma oxytocin levels, although the N was small for this analysis. Future studies examining the effects of oxytocin antagonists on responses to MDMA will help to determine the mechanism by which MDMA produces pro-social effects.

  16. Plasma oxytocin concentrations following MDMA or intranasal oxytocin in humans

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Francis, Sunday M.; Lee, Royce; de Wit, Harriet; Jacob, Suma

    2014-01-01

    MDMA (±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ‘ecstasy’) is reportedly used recreationally because it increases feelings of sociability and interpersonal closeness. Prior work suggests that the pro-social effects of MDMA may be mediated by release of oxytocin. A direct examination of plasma levels of oxytocin after acute doses of oxytocin and MDMA, in the same individuals, would provide further evidence for the idea that MDMA produces its prosocial effects by increasing oxytocin. Fourteen healthy MDMA users participated in a 4-session, double-blind study in which they received oral MDMA (0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg), intranasal oxytocin (20 IU or 40 IU), and placebo. Plasma oxytocin concentrations, as well as cardiovascular and subjective effects were assessed before and at several time points after drug administration. MDMA (1.5 mg/kg only) increased plasma oxytocin levels to a mean peak of 83.7 pg/ml at approximately 90–120 minutes, compared to 18.6 pg/ml after placebo. Intranasal oxytocin (40 IU, but not 20 IU) increased plasma oxytocin levels to 48.0 pg/ml, 30–60 min after nasal spray administration. MDMA dose-dependently increased heart rate, blood pressure, feelings of euphoria (e.g., ‘High’ and ‘Like Drug’), and feelings of sociability, whereas oxytocin had no cardiovascular or subjective effects. The subjective and cardiovascular responses to MDMA were not related to plasma oxytocin levels, although the N was small for this analysis. Future studies examining the effects of oxytocin antagonists on responses to MDMA will help to determine the mechanism by which MDMA produces pro-social effects. PMID:24882155

  17. Heterocyclic 1,7-disubstituted indole sulfonamides are potent and selective human EP3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hategan, Georgeta; Polozov, Alexandre M; Zeller, Wayne; Cao, Hua; Mishra, Rama K; Kiselyov, Alex S; Ramirez, Jose; Halldorsdottir, Gudrún; Andrésson, Thornorkell; Gurney, Mark E; Singh, Jasbir

    2009-12-01

    We have developed a pharmacophore model for the EP(3) receptor antagonists based on its endogenous ligand PGE(2). This ligand-based design yielded a series of novel peri-substituted [4.3.0] bicyclic aromatics featuring 1-alklyaryl 7-heterocyclic sulfonamide substituents. The synthesized molecules are potent antagonists of human EP(3) receptor in vitro and show inhibition of rat platelets aggregation. Optimized derivatives display high selectivity over IP, FP, and other EP receptor panels.

  18. Mechanisms of Radiosensitization by the Neurotensin Receptor Antagonist SR48692 in Prostate Cancer Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Neurotensin Receptor Antagonist SR48692 in Prostate Cancer Models PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jaroslaw Dziegielewski, Ph.D...Receptor Antagonist 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER SR48692 in Prostate Cancer Models 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0114 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...neurotensin receptor by SR48692 drug could sensitize cancer cells to radiation. SR48692 activity was measured in PC3, C42 and LNCaP prostate cancer

  19. The effects of histamine H3-receptor antagonists on amygdaloid kindled seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Kakinoki, H; Ishizawa, K; Fukunaga, M; Fujii, Y; Kamei, C

    1998-07-15

    The effects of histamine H3-receptor antagonists, thioperamide, and clobenpropit on amygdaloid kindled seizures were investigated in rats. Both intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of H3-antagonists resulted in a dose-related inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures. An inhibition induced by thioperamide was antagonized by an H3-agonist [(R)-alpha-methylhistamine] and H1-antagonists (diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine). On the other hand, an H2-antagonist (cimetidine and ranitidine) caused no antagonistic effect. Metoprine, an inhibitor of N-methyltransferase was also effective in inhibiting amygdaloid kindled seizure, and this effect was augmented by thioperamide treatment.

  20. Anticonvulsant effects of isomeric nonimidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Bassem; Saad, Ali; Schwed, Johannes Stephan; Weizel, Lilia; Walter, Miriam; Stark, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Phenytoin (PHT), valproic acid, and modern antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), eg, remacemide, loreclezole, and safinamide, are only effective within a maximum of 70%-80% of epileptic patients, and in many cases the clinical use of AEDs is restricted by their side effects. Therefore, a continuous need remains to discover innovative chemical entities for the development of active and safer AEDs. Ligands targeting central histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) for epilepsy might be a promising therapeutic approach. To determine the potential of H3Rs ligands as new AEDs, we recently reported that no anticonvulsant effects were observed for the (S)-2-(4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)benzylamino)propanamide (1). In continuation of our research, we asked whether anticonvulsant differences in activities will be observed for its R-enantiomer, namely, (R)-2-(4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)benzylamino)propaneamide (2) and analogs thereof, in maximum electroshock (MES)-, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, and strychnine (STR)-induced convulsion models in rats having PHT and valproic acid (VPA) as reference AEDs. Unlike the S-enantiomer (1), the results show that animals pretreated intraperitoneally (ip) with the R-enantiomer 2 (10 mg/kg) were moderately protected in MES and STR induced models, whereas proconvulsant effect was observed for the same ligand in PTZ-induced convulsion models. However, animals pretreated with intraperitoneal doses of 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg of structurally bulkier (R)-enantiomer (3), in which 3-piperidinopropan-1-ol in ligand 2 was replaced by (4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)phenyl)methanol, and its (S)-enantiomer (4) significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced convulsions or exhibited full protection in MES and PTZ convulsions model, respectively. Interestingly, the protective effects observed for the (R)-enantiomer (3) in MES model were significantly greater than those of the standard H3R inverse agonist/antagonist pitolisant, comparable with those observed for PHT, and

  1. Anticonvulsant effects of isomeric nonimidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Bassem; Saad, Ali; Schwed, Johannes Stephan; Weizel, Lilia; Walter, Miriam; Stark, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Phenytoin (PHT), valproic acid, and modern antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), eg, remacemide, loreclezole, and safinamide, are only effective within a maximum of 70%–80% of epileptic patients, and in many cases the clinical use of AEDs is restricted by their side effects. Therefore, a continuous need remains to discover innovative chemical entities for the development of active and safer AEDs. Ligands targeting central histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) for epilepsy might be a promising therapeutic approach. To determine the potential of H3Rs ligands as new AEDs, we recently reported that no anticonvulsant effects were observed for the (S)-2-(4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)benzylamino)propanamide (1). In continuation of our research, we asked whether anticonvulsant differences in activities will be observed for its R-enantiomer, namely, (R)-2-(4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)benzylamino)propaneamide (2) and analogs thereof, in maximum electroshock (MES)-, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, and strychnine (STR)-induced convulsion models in rats having PHT and valproic acid (VPA) as reference AEDs. Unlike the S-enantiomer (1), the results show that animals pretreated intraperitoneally (ip) with the R-enantiomer 2 (10 mg/kg) were moderately protected in MES and STR induced models, whereas proconvulsant effect was observed for the same ligand in PTZ-induced convulsion models. However, animals pretreated with intraperitoneal doses of 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg of structurally bulkier (R)-enantiomer (3), in which 3-piperidinopropan-1-ol in ligand 2 was replaced by (4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)phenyl)methanol, and its (S)-enantiomer (4) significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced convulsions or exhibited full protection in MES and PTZ convulsions model, respectively. Interestingly, the protective effects observed for the (R)-enantiomer (3) in MES model were significantly greater than those of the standard H3R inverse agonist/antagonist pitolisant, comparable with those observed for PHT, and

  2. Development of selective agonists and antagonists of P2Y receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Andrei A.; de Castro, Sonia; Harden, T. Kendall; Ko, Hyojin

    2008-01-01

    Although elucidation of the medicinal chemistry of agonists and antagonists of the P2Y receptors has lagged behind that of many other members of group A G protein-coupled receptors, detailed qualitative and quantitative structure–activity relationships (SARs) were recently constructed for several of the subtypes. Agonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y2, and P2Y6 receptors and nucleotide antagonists selective for P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors are now known. Selective nonnucleotide antagonists were reported for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y6, P2Y11, P2Y12, and P2Y13 receptors. At the P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors, nucleotide agonists (5′-diphosphate derivatives) were converted into antagonists of nanomolar affinity by altering the phosphate moieties, with a focus particularly on the ribose conformation and substitution pattern. Nucleotide analogues with conformationally constrained ribose-like rings were introduced as selective receptor probes for P2Y1 and P2Y6 receptors. Screening chemically diverse compound libraries has begun to yield new lead compounds for the development of P2Y receptor antagonists, such as competitive P2Y12 receptor antagonists with antithrombotic activity. Selective agonists for the P2Y4, P2Y11, and P2Y13 receptors and selective antagonists for P2Y4 and P2Y14 receptors have not yet been identified. The P2Y14 receptor appears to be the most restrictive of the class with respect to modification of the nucleobase, ribose, and phosphate moieties. The continuing process of ligand design for the P2Y receptors will aid in the identification of new clinical targets. PMID:18600475

  3. Initial investigation of three selective and potent small molecule oxytocin receptor PET ligands in New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron L; Freeman, Sara M; Barnhart, Todd E; Abbott, David H; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Kukis, David L; Bales, Karen L; Goodman, Mark M; Young, Larry J

    2016-07-15

    The neuropeptide oxytocin is part of a neuroendocrine system that has physiological effects ranging from ensuring uterine myometrial contractions at parturition and post-partum mammary gland milk ejection to the modulation of neural control of social relationships. This initial study was performed to investigate the potential use of positron emission tomography (PET) for localizing oxytocin receptors in two New World primates. Three biomarkers for PET (1-3) that are known to have high affinity and selectivity for the human oxytocin receptor were investigated in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) via PET imaging. Brain penetration, and uptake in the salivary gland area were both observed with biomarkers 2 and 3. No brain penetration was observed with 1, but uptake was observed more specifically in several peripheral endocrine glands compared to 2 or 3. Biomarker 2, which displayed the best brain penetration of the three biomarkers in the marmoset, was then investigated in the monogamous coppery titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus) in a brain scan and a limited full body scan. No significant brain penetration of 2 was observed in the titi monkey, but significant uptake was observed in various locations throughout the periphery. Metabolism of 2 was suspected to have been significant based upon HPLC analysis of blood draws, but parent compound was still present near the end of the scan. Follow-up investigations will focus on next generation biomarkers bearing improved binding characteristics and brain penetrability as well as investigating tissue in regions where biomarker uptake was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Involvement of the orphan nuclear receptor SF-1 in the effect of PCBs, DDT and DDE on the secretion of steroid hormones and oxytocin from bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Mlynarczuk, J; Wrobel, M H; Ziolkowska, A; Kotwica, J

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolite (DDE) belong to estrogen-like endocrine disruptors. However, though their activity is approximately 1000-fold lower than the activity of estradiol (E2), this steroid's high concentration in follicular fluid and incubation media does not inhibit the influence of these xenobiotics. It was hypothesized that these xenobiotics might affect Steroidogenic Factor-1 (SF-1) and impair ovary function. To test this hypothesis, granulosa cells were obtained from ovarian follicles >1 or <1cm in diameter, which were treated with PCB-77, PCB-153, DDT or DDE (each at 10ng/ml), alone or jointly with an SF-1 antagonist (F0160). Treatment with the SF-1 antagonist inhibited (P<0.05) the secretion of P4 from cells of both sizes of follicles, as induced (P<0.05) by an SF-1 activator (HxP), DDE or PCB-153. All xenobiotics and HxP stimulated (P<0.05) the synthesis and secretion of oxytocin (OT). However, the effect on mRNA expression for NP-I/OT, which is OT precursor, was inhibited (P<0.05) by F0160 in all cultures treated with PCB-77, except for granulosa cells derived from follicles <1cm. Moreover, F0160 inhibited the effect on OT secretion of HxP, as well as all xenobiotics except for PCB-77 and DDE, in granulosa cells derived from follicles <1cm. Xenobiotic treatment did not affect (P>0.05) the expression for SF-1 mRNA. It is suggested that the SF-1 receptor may be involved in the adverse effects of xenobiotics on P4 secretion as well as the synthesis and secretion of OT.

  5. Estrogen receptor β and oxytocin interact to modulate anxiety-like behavior and neuroendocrine stress reactivity in adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Kudwa, Andrea E; McGivern, Robert F; Handa, Robert J

    2014-04-22

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated in response to stressors and is controlled by neurons residing in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Although gonadal steroid hormones can influence HPA reactivity to stressors, the exact mechanism of action is not fully understood. It is known, however, that estrogen receptor β (ERβ) inhibits HPA reactivity and decreases anxiety-like behavior in rodents. Since ERβ is co-expressed with oxytocin (OT) in neurons of the PVN, an ERβ-selective agonist was utilized to test the whether ERβ decreases stress-induced HPA reactivity and anxiety-like behaviors via an OTergic pathway. Adult gonadectomized male and female rats were administered diarylpropionitrile, or vehicle, peripherally for 5days. When tested for anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze (EPM), diarylpropionitrile-treated males and females significantly increased time on the open arm of the EPM compared to vehicle controls indicating that ERβ reduces anxiety-like behaviors. One week after behavioral evaluation, rats were subjected to a 20minute restraint stress. Treatment with diarylpropionitrile reduced CORT and ACTH responses in both males and females. Subsequently, another group of animals was implanted with cannulae directed at the lateral ventricle. One week later, rats underwent the same protocol as above but with the additional treatment of intracerebroventricular infusion with an OT antagonist (des Gly-NH2 d(CH2)5 [Tyr(Me)(2), Thr(4)] OVT) or VEH, 20min prior to behavioral evaluation. OT antagonist treatment blocked the effects of diarylpropionitrile on the display of anxiety-like behaviors and plasma CORT levels. These data indicate that ERβ and OT interact to modulate the HPA reactivity and the display of anxiety-like behaviors.

  6. Amino acids in the COOH-terminal region of the oxytocin receptor third intracellular domain are important for receptor function.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Miao; Parish, Bridgette; Murtazina, Dilyara A; Ku, Chun-Ying; Sanborn, Barbara M

    2007-04-01

    Previously, residue K6.30 in the COOH-terminal region of the third intracellular domain (3iC) of the oxytocin (OT) receptor (OTR) was identified as important for receptor function leading to phospholipase C activation in both OTR and the vasopressin V(2) receptor (V(2)R) chimera V(2)ROTR3iC. Substitution of either A6.28K or V6.30K in wild-type V(2)R did not recapitulate the increase in phosphatidylinositide (PI) turnover observed in V(2)ROTR3iC. Hence, the role of K6.30 may be context-specific. Deletion of two NH(2)-terminal OTR3iC segments in the V(2)ROTR3iC chimera did not diminish vasopressin-stimulated PI turnover, whereas deletion of RVSSVKL (residues 6.19-6.25) reduced receptor expression. Deletion of this sequence in wild-type OTR reduced expression by 50% without affecting affinity for [(3)H]OT. This OTR mutant was unable to activate PI turnover or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation. The effects of alanine substitution for individual residues in RVSSVKL indicated differential importance for OTR function. The R6.19A substitution lost high-affinity sites for [(3)H]OT and the ability to stimulate PI turnover. Affinity for [(3)H]OT and membrane expression was not affected by any other substitutions. OTR-V6.20A and OTR-K6.24A mutants functioned as well as wild-type OTR, whereas OTR S6.21A, S6.22A, and V6.23A mutants exhibited impaired abilities to activate PI turnover (20-40% of OTR), and the OTR-L6.25A mutant exhibited constitutive activity. In conclusion, specific amino acids in the RVSSVKL segment in the COOH-terminal region of the third intracellular domain of OTR influence the ability of OTR to activate G protein-mediated actions.

  7. Angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonists inhibit platelet adhesion and aggregation by nitric oxide release.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Leszek; Matys, Tomasz; Chabielska, Ewa; Buczko, Włodzimierz; Malinski, Tadeusz

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated the process of nitric oxide (NO) release from platelets after stimulation with different angiotensin II type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonists and its effect on platelet adhesion and aggregation. Angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist-stimulated NO release in platelets was compared with that in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by using a highly sensitive porphyrinic microsensor. In vitro and ex vivo effects of angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonists on platelet adhesion to collagen and thromboxane A2 analog U46619-induced aggregation were evaluated. Losartan, EXP3174, and valsartan alone caused NO release from platelets and endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner in the range of 0.01 to 100 micro mol/L, which was attenuated by NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. The angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonists had more than 70% greater potency in NO release in platelets than in endothelial cells. The degree of inhibition of platelet adhesion (collagen-stimulated) and aggregation (U46619-stimulated) elicited by losartan, EXP3174, and valsartan, either in vitro or ex vivo, closely correlated with the NO levels produced by each of these drugs alone. The inhibiting effects of angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonists on collagen-stimulated adhesion and U46619-stimulated aggregation of platelets were significantly reduced by pretreatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Neither the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319, the cyclooxygenase synthase inhibitor indomethacin, nor the selective thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist SQ29,548 had any effect on angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist-stimulated NO release in platelets and endothelial cells. The presented studies clearly indicate a crucial role of NO in the arterial antithrombotic effects of angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonists.

  8. Histamine H4 receptor antagonists as potent modulators of mammalian vestibular primary neuron excitability

    PubMed Central

    Desmadryl, G; Gaboyard-Niay, S; Brugeaud, A; Travo, C; Broussy, A; Saleur, A; Dyhrfjeld-Johnsen, J; Wersinger, E; Chabbert, C

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Betahistine, the main histamine drug prescribed to treat vestibular disorders, is a histamine H3 receptor antagonist. Here, we explored the potential for modulation of the most recently cloned histamine receptor (H4 receptor) to influence vestibular system function, using a selective H4 receptor antagonist JNJ 7777120 and the derivate compound JNJ 10191584. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH RT-PCR was used to assess the presence of H4 receptors in rat primary vestibular neurons. In vitro electrophysiological recordings and in vivo behavioural approaches using specific antagonists were employed to examine the effect of H4 receptor modulation in the rat vestibular system. KEY RESULTS The transcripts of H4 and H3 receptors were present in rat vestibular ganglia. Application of betahistine inhibited the evoked action potential firing starting at micromolar range, accompanied by subsequent strong neuronal depolarization at higher concentrations. Conversely, reversible inhibitory effects elicited by JNJ 10191584 and JNJ 7777120 began in the nanomolar range, without inducing neuronal depolarization. This effect was reversed by application of the selective H4 receptor agonist 4-methylhistamine. Thioperamide, a H3/H4 receptor antagonist, exerted effects similar to those of H3 and H4 receptor antagonists, namely inhibition of firing at nanomolar range and membrane depolarization above 100 µM. H4 receptor antagonists significantly alleviated the vestibular deficits induced in rats, while neither betahistine nor thioperamide had significant effects. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS H4 receptor antagonists have a pronounced inhibitory effect on vestibular neuron activity. This result highlights the potential role of H4 receptors as pharmacological targets for the treatment of vestibular disorders. PMID:22624822

  9. G-protein coupled receptors & autism -- reflections on a double-edged sword at the example of the oxytocin receptor system.

    PubMed

    Rojas Walh, Roy U

    2007-07-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) tend to desensitize/internalize when exposed to excess agonist.Previously, we have supported the argument that in the case of the oxytocin receptor (OTR), excess agonist (oxytocin, OT) at birth could be implicated with behavioural disorders of the autistic spectrum. In this review, more recent evidence for this hypothesis is summarized, and it is juxtaposed against reports where exogenous OT was found beneficial in alleviating certain undesired behaviours. Facing this dichotomy, we suggest possible in silico drug discovery approaches to mitigate undesired side effect of OT administration/OTR desensitization, especially in the light of potentially emerging agonist therapies. For this, the most important structural features of OTR are reviewed, and we highlight here the need for higher level of theory studies at the easier approachable extracellular receptor side, where loop 3(e3) and the N-terminated strain of OTR appear to offer targets of particular interest for the development of an agent that conditions the action of excess OT. Another approach, based on the development of new agonists with an improved receptor activation to receptor phosphorylation ratio, is also discussed. Finally, the issue of OTR desensitization is put into the broader context of GPCR desensitization and possible implications for behavioural disorders, and the case is made for the usefulness of computational studies in this area.

  10. No Evidence that MDMA-Induced Enhancement of Emotional Empathy Is Related to Peripheral Oxytocin Levels or 5-HT1a Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kuypers, Kim P. C.; de la Torre, Rafael; Farre, Magi; Yubero-Lahoz, Samanta; Dziobek, Isabel; Van den Bos, Wouter; Ramaekers, Johannes G.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effect of MDMA on measures of empathy and social interaction, and the roles of oxytocin and the 5-HT1A receptor in these effects. The design was placebo-controlled within-subject with 4 treatment conditions: MDMA (75 mg), with or without pindolol (20 mg), oxytocin nasal spray (40 IU+16 IU) or placebo. Participants were 20 healthy poly-drug MDMA users, aged between 18–26 years. Cognitive and emotional empathy were assessed by means of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and the Multifaceted Empathy Test. Social interaction, defined as trust and reciprocity, was assessed by means of a Trust Game and a Social Ball Tossing Game. Results showed that MDMA selectively affected emotional empathy and left cognitive empathy, trust and reciprocity unaffected. When combined with pindolol, these effects remained unchanged. Oxytocin did not affect measures of empathy and social interaction. Changes in emotional empathy were not related to oxytocin plasma levels. It was concluded that MDMA (75 mg) selectively enhances emotional empathy in humans. While the underlying neurobiological mechanism is still unknown, it is suggested that peripheral oxytocin does not seem to be the main actor in this; potential candidates are the serotonin 2A and the vasopressin 1A receptors. Trial Registration MDMA & PSB NTR 2636 PMID:24972084

  11. No evidence that MDMA-induced enhancement of emotional empathy is related to peripheral oxytocin levels or 5-HT1a receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, Kim P C; de la Torre, Rafael; Farre, Magi; Yubero-Lahoz, Samanta; Dziobek, Isabel; Van den Bos, Wouter; Ramaekers, Johannes G

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effect of MDMA on measures of empathy and social interaction, and the roles of oxytocin and the 5-HT1A receptor in these effects. The design was placebo-controlled within-subject with 4 treatment conditions: MDMA (75 mg), with or without pindolol (20 mg), oxytocin nasal spray (40 IU+16 IU) or placebo. Participants were 20 healthy poly-drug MDMA users, aged between 18-26 years. Cognitive and emotional empathy were assessed by means of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and the Multifaceted Empathy Test. Social interaction, defined as trust and reciprocity, was assessed by means of a Trust Game and a Social Ball Tossing Game. Results showed that MDMA selectively affected emotional empathy and left cognitive empathy, trust and reciprocity unaffected. When combined with pindolol, these effects remained unchanged. Oxytocin did not affect measures of empathy and social interaction. Changes in emotional empathy were not related to oxytocin plasma levels. It was concluded that MDMA (75 mg) selectively enhances emotional empathy in humans. While the underlying neurobiological mechanism is still unknown, it is suggested that peripheral oxytocin does not seem to be the main actor in this; potential candidates are the serotonin 2A and the vasopressin 1A receptors. Trial registration: MDMA & PSB NTR 2636.

  12. Peripheral 5-HT2-like receptors. Can they be classified with the available antagonists?

    PubMed Central

    Leff, P.; Martin, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Interactions between 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and the so-called 5-HT2 receptor antagonists ketanserin, spiperone, trazodone and methysergide were studied in isolated preparations of the rabbit aorta, rat jugular vein, and rat caudal artery. Trazodone and spiperone were apparently simple competitive antagonists since they produced antagonism that was surmountable over the concentration range studied and, in each tissue, their apparent affinity appeared to be independent of the antagonist concentration. Furthermore, concentration-ratios obtained with the two antagonists in combination suggested that antagonism was additive, implying mutual competition with a single population of 5-HT receptors. Ketanserin was a non-surmountable antagonist of 5-HT in the rat caudal artery and methysergide demonstrated surmountable, competitive antagonism only in the rabbit aorta. Antagonist dissociation constants estimated for apparently competitive interactions showed that ketanserin, spiperone and trazodone expressed affinities which differed according to the tissue used. In the case of trazodone, affinity estimates differed by as much as 12 fold. These discrepancies were independent of the 5-HT receptor agonist used and could not be attributed to an inadequate equilibration of the antagonist. These results can be interpreted in two ways: either the receptors in the different tissues are heterogeneous or the antagonists used here must be considered as unreliable probes for the classification of 5-HT2-like receptors. PMID:2943354

  13. A comprehensive patents review on cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonists as antiobesity agents.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mayank Kumar; Murumkar, Prashant R; Barmade, Mahesh A; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a rapidly expanding worldwide health problem. Various targets are investigated presently for the treatment of obesity, but there remains an unmet need for an effective drug therapy with acceptable efficacy levels and reduced side effects. Targeting peripherally located cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors is an attractive strategy as these receptors play a vital role in energy homeostasis. CB1 receptor antagonists constitute one of the most important categories of compounds of interest for the control of obesity. In this review, the authors focus on recent advances (since 2007) in diverse chemical classes of patented compounds belonging to the category of CB1 receptor antagonists. Safer CB1 receptor antagonists for the treatment of obesity can be discovered by developing such compounds that act peripherally. Increasing the polar service area, decreasing the lipophilicity and designing of neutral antagonists and allosteric inhibitors are some interesting strategies that could offer promising results.

  14. Alvimopan: a peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Leslie, John B

    2007-09-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI), a transient cessation of coordinated bowel motility after surgery, is an important factor in extending the length of hospital stay. The etiology of POI is multifactorial, and related to both the surgical and anesthetic pathways chosen. Additionally, opioids used to manage non-cancer-related and cancer-related chronic pain may also decrease gastrointestinal (GI) motility resulting in opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OBD). Postoperative ileus has been associated with prolonged hospital stay and readmission, and thus may increase the overall hospital costs per patient with POI. Alvimopan, a peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonist, accelerated time to GI recovery and reduced postoperative hospital length of stay in phase III POI clinical trials and improved symptoms of OBD compared with placebo in phase II/III clinical trials. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is currently evaluating alvimopan for the management of POI after bowel resection. Alvimopan may provide clinically meaningful benefits to patients and may lower the economic burden of POI to the healthcare system.

  15. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists for Treatment of Hypertension and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Sica, Domenic A.

    2015-01-01

    Spironolactone and eplerenone are both mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists. These compounds block both the epithelial and nonepithelial actions of aldosterone, with the latter assuming increasing clinical relevance. Spironolactone and eplerenone both affect reductions in blood pressure either as mono- or add-on therapy; moreover, they each afford survival benefits in diverse circumstances of heart failure and the probability of renal protection in proteinuric chronic kidney disease. However, as use of mineralocorticoid-blocking agents has expanded, the hazards inherent in taking such drugs have become more apparent. Whereas the endocrine side effects of spironolactone are in most cases little more than a cosmetic annoyance, the potassium-sparing effects of both spironolactone and eplerenone can prove disastrous, even fatal, if sufficient degrees of hyperkalemia emerge. For most patients, however, the risk of developing hyperkalemia in and of itself should not discourage the sensible clinician from bringing these compounds into play. Hyperkalemia should always be considered a possibility in patients receiving either of these medications; therefore, anticipatory steps should be taken to minimize the likelihood of its occurrence if long-term therapy of these agents is being considered. PMID:27057293

  16. Applicability of DPI formulations for novel neurokinin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Kumon, M; Yabe, Y; Kasuya, Y; Suzuki, M; Kusai, A; Yonemochi, E; Terada, K

    2008-05-22

    A novel triple neurokinin receptor antagonist (TNRA) could have pharmaceutical efficacy for asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. TNRA is potentially developed as inhalation medicine. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the applicability of dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation for TNRA. DPI formulation containing lactose was used for this feasibility study. Mechanofusion process for surface modification was applied on lactose particles to prepare four different DPI formulations. The mixture of TNRA and lactose was administered to rats intratracheally using an insufflator. The deposition pattern and blood concentration profile of TNRA were evaluated. Although there was no significant difference in deposition on deep lungs between the four formulations, DPI formulations containing mechanofusion-processed lactose showed longer T(max) and t(1/2) and higher AUC(0-infinity) and MRT compared to that containing intact lactose. On the other hand, the contact angle measurement showed that the mechanofusion process decreased the polar part of the surface energy of the lactose. Therefore, the prolongation of the wetting of the formulated powder mixture seemed to delay the dissolution of TNRA deposited in respiratory tract. It was concluded that DPI formulation containing mechanofusion-processed lactose could be suitable for inhalation of TNRA.

  17. Effects of cholecystokinin receptor antagonist loxiglumide on rat exocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Nakano, S; Tachibana, I; Otsuki, M

    1994-07-01

    Effects of long-term administration of the cholecystokinin receptor antagonist loxiglumide on exocrine pancreas were studied in adult rats. Plasma concentrations of loxiglumide at 8 h after a single subcutaneous injection of 50 mg/kg body weight of loxiglumide were 3.2 +/- 0.8 microgram/ml, which were comparable to those at 12 h after oral administration of the same dose (3.7 +/- 0.9 microgram/ml). Eight hours' prior subcutaneous injection of loxiglumide (50 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppressed pancreatic exocrine secretion stimulated by an intravenous bolus injection of 50 ng/kg body weight caerulein compared with the control rats. Based on these results, in the first experiment, loxiglumide at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight was given subcutaneously three times a day (low dose) for 6 days to adult rats fed a standard laboratory diet. Low dose of loxiglumide significantly decreased pancreatic wet weight (-14%) and pancreatic contents of protein (-26%), trypsin (-38%), and lipase (-68%), while having no significant effect on pancreatic contents of DNA and amylase. In the second experiment, three times higher dose of loxiglumide (150 mg/kg body weight) was given by an orogastric tube twice daily for 6 days. High dose of loxiglumide significantly decreased pancreatic weight (-11%) and contents of protein (-20%) and DNA (-22%), whereas it significantly increased amylase (+92%) and trypsin content (+20%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Side Effects of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in Asthmatic Children

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Unsal Karkiner, Canan Sule; Gunay, Ilker; Can, Demet

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are drugs which have been widely used more than ten years. As the use of LTRAs increases, our knowledge with respect to their side effects increases as well. Objectives: The objective of our study was to evaluat the observed side effects of LTRAs used in patients with astma. Patients and Methods: 1024 patients treated only with LTRAs owing to asthma or early wheezing were included in the study for a five-year period. The observed side effects of LTRAs in these patients were retrospectively investigated. The side effects were divided into two parts as psychiatric and non-psychiatric. Results: Among the 1024 cases included in the study, 67.5% of the patients out of 41 with side effects were male, 32.5% were female and the average age was 6.5 years. The rate of patients with asthma was 63.41% and 36.58% of the patients had early wheezing. It was determined that sex, age and diagnosis (early wheezing or asthma) of the patients were ineffective in the emergence of side effects. The average period for the emergence of side effects was the first month. It was observed that hyperactivity was the most frequently observed psychiatric side effect and that abdominal pain was the non-psychiatric side effect. Conclusions: The side effects of LTRAs were common in children. Therefore, patients must be informed at the beginning of the treatment and they must be evaluated at certain intervals. PMID:26495098

  19. Side Effects of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in Asthmatic Children.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Unsal Karkiner, Canan Sule; Gunay, Ilker; Can, Demet

    2015-10-01

    Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are drugs which have been widely used more than ten years. As the use of LTRAs increases, our knowledge with respect to their side effects increases as well. The objective of our study was to evaluat the observed side effects of LTRAs used in patients with astma. 1024 patients treated only with LTRAs owing to asthma or early wheezing were included in the study for a five-year period. The observed side effects of LTRAs in these patients were retrospectively investigated. The side effects were divided into two parts as psychiatric and non-psychiatric. Among the 1024 cases included in the study, 67.5% of the patients out of 41 with side effects were male, 32.5% were female and the average age was 6.5 years. The rate of patients with asthma was 63.41% and 36.58% of the patients had early wheezing. It was determined that sex, age and diagnosis (early wheezing or asthma) of the patients were ineffective in the emergence of side effects. The average period for the emergence of side effects was the first month. It was observed that hyperactivity was the most frequently observed psychiatric side effect and that abdominal pain was the non-psychiatric side effect. The side effects of LTRAs were common in children. Therefore, patients must be informed at the beginning of the treatment and they must be evaluated at certain intervals.

  20. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists for Treatment of Hypertension and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Sica, Domenic A

    2015-01-01

    Spironolactone and eplerenone are both mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists. These compounds block both the epithelial and nonepithelial actions of aldosterone, with the latter assuming increasing clinical relevance. Spironolactone and eplerenone both affect reductions in blood pressure either as mono- or add-on therapy; moreover, they each afford survival benefits in diverse circumstances of heart failure and the probability of renal protection in proteinuric chronic kidney disease. However, as use of mineralocorticoid-blocking agents has expanded, the hazards inherent in taking such drugs have become more apparent. Whereas the endocrine side effects of spironolactone are in most cases little more than a cosmetic annoyance, the potassium-sparing effects of both spironolactone and eplerenone can prove disastrous, even fatal, if sufficient degrees of hyperkalemia emerge. For most patients, however, the risk of developing hyperkalemia in and of itself should not discourage the sensible clinician from bringing these compounds into play. Hyperkalemia should always be considered a possibility in patients receiving either of these medications; therefore, anticipatory steps should be taken to minimize the likelihood of its occurrence if long-term therapy of these agents is being considered.

  1. Association between Genetic Variation in the Oxytocin Receptor Gene and Emotional Withdrawal, but not between Oxytocin Pathway Genes and Diagnosis in Psychotic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Haram, Marit; Tesli, Martin; Bettella, Francesco; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole Andreas; Melle, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Social dysfunction is common in patients with psychotic disorders. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide with a central role in social behavior. This study aims to explore the relationship between oxytocin pathway genes and symptoms related to social dysfunction in patients with psychotic disorders. We performed association analyses between four oxytocin pathway genes (OXT, OXTR, AVP, and CD38) and four areas of social behavior-related psychopathology as measured by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. For this purpose, we used both a polygenic risk score (PGRS) and single OXTR candidate single nucleotide polymorphism previously reported in the literature (rs53576, rs237902, and rs2254298). A total of 734 subjects with DSM-IV psychotic spectrum disorders and 420 healthy controls were included. Oxytocin pathway PGRSs were calculated based on the independent Psychiatric Genomics Consortium study sample. There was a significant association between symptom of Emotional Withdrawal and the previously reported OXTR risk allele A in rs53576. No significant associations between oxytocin pathway gene variants and a diagnosis of psychotic disorder were found. Our findings indicate that while oxytocin pathway genes do not appear to contribute to the susceptibility to psychotic disorders, variations in the OXTR gene might play a role in the development of impaired social behavior. PMID:25667571

  2. Social stress and the oxytocin receptor gene interact to predict antisocial behavior in an at-risk cohort.

    PubMed

    Smearman, Erica L; Winiarski, D Anne; Brennan, Patricia A; Najman, Jake; Johnson, Katrina C

    2015-02-01

    Polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene are commonly associated with prosocial behaviors in the extant literature, yet their role in antisocial behaviors has rarely been explored, particularly during the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. We examined a prospective cohort (N = 404), collecting youth, mother, and clinician reports of conduct-disordered and antisocial behavior at ages 15 and 20. The oxytocin receptor gene rs53576 polymorphism was hypothesized to interact with social stress to predict antisocial outcomes. Structural equation modeling results revealed a significant main effect at age 15 (p = .025); those with the G allele exhibited higher levels of conduct problems. Structural equation modeling revealed a significant Gene × Environment interaction at age 20 (p = .029); those with the G allele who experienced high social stress exhibited higher levels of antisocial behavior. Heterozygous (AG) grouping models were compared, and parameter estimations supported G dominant groupings. These novel findings suggest that rs53576 polymorphisms may influence social salience and contribute to risk for antisocial outcomes, particularly under conditions of high social stress.

  3. Receptors and Channels Targeted by Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists and Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Pertwee, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely accepted that non-endogenous compounds that target CB1 and/or CB2 receptors possess therapeutic potential for the clinical management of an ever growing number of disorders. Just a few of these disorders are already treated with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or nabilone, both CB1/CB2 receptor agonists, and there is now considerable interest in expanding the clinical applications of such agonists and also in exploiting CB2-selective agonists, peripherally restricted CB1/CB2 receptor agonists and CB1/CB2 antagonists and inverse agonists as medicines. Already, numerous cannabinoid receptor ligands have been developed and their interactions with CB1 and CB2 receptors well characterized. This review describes what is currently known about the ability of such compounds to bind to, activate, inhibit or block non-CB1, non-CB2 G protein-coupled receptors such as GPR55, transmitter gated channels, ion channels and nuclear receptors in an orthosteric or allosteric manner. It begins with a brief description of how each of these ligands interacts with CB1 and/or CB2 receptors. PMID:20166927

  4. Synthesis and pharmacology of willardiine derivatives acting as antagonists of kainate receptors.

    PubMed

    Dolman, Nigel P; Troop, Helen M; More, Julia C A; Alt, Andrew; Knauss, Jody L; Nistico, Robert; Jack, Samantha; Morley, Richard M; Bortolotto, Zuner A; Roberts, Peter J; Bleakman, David; Collingridge, Graham L; Jane, David E

    2005-12-01

    The natural product willardiine (8) is an AMPA receptor agonist while 5-iodowillardiine (10) is a selective kainate receptor agonist. In an attempt to produce antagonists of kainate and AMPA receptors analogues of willardiine with substituents at the N3 position of the uracil ring were synthesized. The N3-4-carboxybenzyl substituted analogue (38c) was found to be equipotent at AMPA and GLUK5-containing kainate receptors in the neonatal rat spinal cord. The N3-2-carboxybenzyl substituted analogue (38a) proved to be a potent and selective GLUK5 subunit containing kainate receptor antagonist when tested on native rat and human recombinant AMPA and kainate receptor subtypes. The GLUK5 kainate receptor antagonist activity was found to reside in the S enantiomer (44a) whereas the R enantiomer (44b) was almost inactive. 5-Iodo substitution of the uracil ring of 44a gave 45, which was found to have enhanced potency and selectivity for GLUK5.

  5. Non-selectivity of new bradykinin antagonists for B1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Rhaleb, N E; Gobeil, F; Regoli, D

    1992-01-01

    Two new B1 receptor antagonists, [Hyp3,Thi5,DTic7,Oic8]desArg9-BK and DArg[Hyp3,Thi5,DTic7,Oic8]desArg9-BK were tested in vitro on the rabbit jugular vein and the guinea pig ileum (preparations containing B2 receptors) and on the rabbit aorta (preparation containing B1 receptors) for pharmacological characterization. The results indicate that both compounds are antagonists on both B1 and B2 receptors, are competitive and discriminate between B2A and B2B receptor subtypes.

  6. CGS 8216: receptor binding characteristics of a potent benzodiazepine antagonist.

    PubMed

    Czernik, A J; Petrack, B; Kalinsky, H J; Psychoyos, S; Cash, W D; Tsai, C; Rinehart, R K; Granat, F R; Lovell, R A; Brundish, D E; Wade, R

    1982-01-25

    CGS 8216 is a novel nonbenzodiazepine that inhibited 3H-flunitrazepam (3H-FLU) binding to rat synaptosomal membranes in vitro at subnanomolar concentrations. It prevented the in vivo labeling of brain benzodiazepine receptors by 3H-FLU with the same potency as diazepam when given orally to mice. Pharmacologic tests showed that it was devoid of benzodiazepine-like activity but it antagonized the actions of diazepam in these tests. It did not interact with alpha- or beta- adrenergic, H1-histaminergic or GABA receptors but it inhibited adenosine-activation of cyclic AMP formation. Studies with 3H-CGS 8216 demonstrated that it bound specifically and with high affinity to rat forebrain membranes and was displaced by drugs with an order of potencies similar to that observed when 3H-diazepam and 3H-FLU were used as radioligands. The regional distribution of 3H-CGS 8216 binding sites in the brain was also similar to that of 3H-FLU. Dissociation of 3H-CGS 8216 binding was slow at 0 degrees C but increased with temperature and was almost complete within 1 min at 37 degrees C. Scatchard analyses were linear, yielding KD values of 0.044, 0.11 and 0.18 nM at 0, 25 and 37 degrees C, respectively; the Bmax value did not change appreciably with temperature and was approximately 1000 fmoles/mg protein. Using 3H-FLU, the value for Bmax as well as for the KD increased with temperature. The total number of binding sites determined for 3H-FLU was greater than that for 3H-CGS 8216 at each temperature. CGS 8216 exhibited mixed-type inhibition of 3H-FLU binding. GABA did not stimulate 3H-CGS 8216 binding whereas it enhanced 3H-FLU binding. CGS 8216 may be a useful ligand for probing the antagonist properties of the benzodiazepine receptor and is likely to exhibit interesting therapeutic effects.

  7. Tamoxifen resistant breast cancer: coregulators determine the direction of transcription by antagonist-occupied steroid receptors.

    PubMed

    Takimoto, G S; Graham, J D; Jackson, T A; Tung, L; Powell, R L; Horwitz, L D; Horwitz, K B

    1999-01-01

    Pharmacological antagonists of steroid receptor action had been thought to exert their effects by a passive mechanism driven principally by the ability of the antagonist to compete with agonist for the ligand binding site. However, recent analyses of antagonist-occupied receptor function suggest a more complex picture. Antagonists can be subdivided into two groups, type I, or pure antagonists, and type II, or mixed antagonists that can have variable transcriptional activity based upon differential dimerization and DNA binding properties. This led us to propose that receptor antagonism may not simply be a passive competition for the ligand binding site, but may, in some cases, involve active recruitment of corepressor or coactivator proteins to produce a mixed transcriptional phenotype. We used a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify proteins that interact specifically with antagonist-occupied receptors. Two proteins have been characterized: L7/SPA, a ribosome-associated protein that is localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, but with no known extranucleolar nuclear function; and hN-CoR, the human homolog of the mouse thyroid receptor corepressor mN-CoR. In in vivo transcription assays we show that L7/SPA enhances the partial agonist activity of type II mixed antagonists, and that N-CoR and the related corepressor, SMRT, suppresses it. The coregulators do not affect agonists or pure antagonists. Moreover, the net agonist activity seen with mixed antagonists is a function of the ratio of coactivator to corepressor. Based upon these results, we proposed that in breast tumors the inappropriate agonist activity seen with therapeutic antagonists such as tamoxifen is responsible for the hormone-resistant state. To confirm this, we are quantitating coactivator/corepressor ratios in breast tumor cells lines and clinical breast cancers. Results should provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the progression of breast cancer to hormone resistance, and may

  8. The NK1 receptor antagonist L822429 reduces heroin reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Estelle; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Edwards, Scott; Juergens, Nathan; Park, Paula E; Misra, Kaushik K; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Schank, Jesse; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F; Heilig, Markus

    2013-05-01

    Genetic deletion of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) has been shown to decrease the reinforcing properties of opioids, but it is unknown whether pharmacological NK1R blockade has the same effect. Here, we examined the effect of L822429, a rat-specific NK1R antagonist, on the reinforcing properties of heroin in rats on short (1 h: ShA) or long (12 h: LgA) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. ShA produces heroin self-administration rates that are stable over time, whereas LgA leads to an escalation of heroin intake thought to model important dependence-related aspects of addiction. L822429 reduced heroin self-administration and the motivation to consume heroin, measured using a progressive-ratio schedule, in both ShA and LgA rats. L822429 also decreased anxiety-like behavior in both groups, measured on the elevated plus maze, but did not affect mechanical hypersensitivity observed in LgA rats. Expression of TacR1 (the gene encoding NK1R) was decreased in reward- and stress-related brain areas both in ShA and LgA rats compared with heroin-naïve rats, but did not differ between the two heroin-experienced groups. In contrast, passive exposure to heroin produced increases in TacR1 expression in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results show that pharmacological NK1R blockade attenuates heroin reinforcement. The observation that animals with ShA and LgA to heroin were similarly affected by L822429 indicates that the SP/NK1R system is not specifically involved in neuroadaptations that underlie escalation resulting from LgA self-administration. Instead, the NK1R antagonist appears to attenuate acute, positively reinforcing properties of heroin and may be useful as an adjunct to relapse prevention in detoxified opioid-dependent subjects.

  9. The NK1 Receptor Antagonist L822429 Reduces Heroin Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Barbier, Estelle; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Edwards, Scott; Juergens, Nathan; Park, Paula E; Misra, Kaushik K; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Schank, Jesse; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F; Heilig, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Genetic deletion of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) has been shown to decrease the reinforcing properties of opioids, but it is unknown whether pharmacological NK1R blockade has the same effect. Here, we examined the effect of L822429, a rat-specific NK1R antagonist, on the reinforcing properties of heroin in rats on short (1 h: ShA) or long (12 h: LgA) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. ShA produces heroin self-administration rates that are stable over time, whereas LgA leads to an escalation of heroin intake thought to model important dependence-related aspects of addiction. L822429 reduced heroin self-administration and the motivation to consume heroin, measured using a progressive-ratio schedule, in both ShA and LgA rats. L822429 also decreased anxiety-like behavior in both groups, measured on the elevated plus maze, but did not affect mechanical hypersensitivity observed in LgA rats. Expression of TacR1 (the gene encoding NK1R) was decreased in reward- and stress-related brain areas both in ShA and LgA rats compared with heroin-naïve rats, but did not differ between the two heroin-experienced groups. In contrast, passive exposure to heroin produced increases in TacR1 expression in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results show that pharmacological NK1R blockade attenuates heroin reinforcement. The observation that animals with ShA and LgA to heroin were similarly affected by L822429 indicates that the SP/NK1R system is not specifically involved in neuroadaptations that underlie escalation resulting from LgA self-administration. Instead, the NK1R antagonist appears to attenuate acute, positively reinforcing properties of heroin and may be useful as an adjunct to relapse prevention in detoxified opioid-dependent subjects. PMID:23303056

  10. Preclinical Testing of Novel Oxytocin Receptor Activators in Models of Autism Phenotypes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    by NADþ metabolites and single nucleo - tide polymorphisms of CD38. Neurochem. Int. 61, 828e838. Hollander, E., Bartz, J., Chaplin, W., Phillips, A...Clin. North. Am. 59, 19e25. Ninan, I., 2011. Oxytocin suppresses basal glutamatergic transmission but facilitates activity-dependent synaptic

  11. Preclinical Testing of Novel Oxytocin Receptor Activators in Models of Autism Phenotypes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-30

    possibility of generalized therapeutic benefits across the autism spectrum disorders , as well as other neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by...established pharmaceutical strategies that effectively treat core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, including pervasive social deficits and...spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, including pervasive social deficits and repetitive behaviors. The oxytocin pathway has an important role in

  12. Preclinical Testing of Novel Oxytocin Receptor Activators in Models of Autism Phenotypes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    effectively treat core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, including pervasive social deficits and repetitive behaviors. The oxytocin pathway...4 Introduction Currently, there are no established pharmaceutical strategies that effectively treat core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms...not demonstrate OT activity in this cell based assay. Allosteric modulators, which are more desirable, were generally less potent with maximum

  13. Preclinical Testing of Novel Oxytocin Receptor Activators in Models of Autism Phenotypes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    pharmaceutical strategies that effectively treat core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, including pervasive social deficits and repetitive...autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, including pervasive social deficits and repetitive behaviors. The oxytocin pathway has an important role in...activity in this cell based assay. Allosteric modulators, which are more desirable, were generally less potent with maximum increase in response

  14. Intestinal transepithelial permeability of oxytocin into the blood is dependent on the receptor for advanced glycation end products in mice.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Haruhiro; Furuhara, Kazumi; Yamauchi, Agnes-Mikiko; Deguchi, Kisaburo; Harashima, Ai; Munesue, Seiichi; Lopatina, Olga; Gerasimenko, Maria; Salmina, Alla B; Zhang, Jia-Sheng; Kodama, Hikari; Kuroda, Hironori; Tsuji, Chiharu; Suto, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2017-08-11

    Plasma oxytocin (OT) originates from secretion from the pituitary gland into the circulation and from absorption of OT in mother's milk into the blood via intestinal permeability. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the absorption of OT remains unclear. Here, we report that plasma OT concentrations increased within 10 min after oral delivery in postnatal day 1-7 mice. However, in Receptors for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) knockout mice after postnatal day 3, an identical OT increase was not observed. In adult mice, plasma OT was also increased in a RAGE-dependent manner after oral delivery or direct administration into the intestinal tract. Mass spectrometry evaluated that OT was absorbed intact. RAGE was abundant in the intestinal epithelial cells in both suckling pups and adults. These data highlight that OT is transmitted via a receptor-mediated process with RAGE and suggest that oral OT supplementation may be advantageous in OT drug development.

  15. Discovery of indole alkaloids with cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonistic activity.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Mariko; Iwai, Masumi; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro; Iida, Mitsuru; Yabushita, Hisatoshi; Takayama, Hiromitsu

    2011-04-01

    Three indole alkaloids, voacamine (1), 3,6-oxidovoacangine (2), and a new alkaloid, 5-hydroxy-3,6-oxidovoacangine (3), isolated from Voacanga africana were found to exhibit potent cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonistic activity. This is the first example of CB1 antagonists derived from natural alkaloids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular characterization of oxytocin receptor gene in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Arunmozhi, N; Singh, S K; Sarath, T; Agarwal, S K; Doiphode, A; Shankar, U

    2014-10-01

    Buffaloes are known for their productivity as compared to average yielding cows due to higher fat percentage, better feed conversion ability and disease resistance. On the other hand, the reproductive performances of buffaloes are often considered as poor owing to late sexual maturity, weak/silent oestrus, repeat breeder and prolonged intercalving interval. The study of cascade of events during oestrus and oestrous cycle can be useful for the improvement of reproductive efficiency of buffaloes. More precisely, the hormonal changes initiated at the molecular level within the animal determine the reproductive nature of the species. Nucleotide/protein sequence analysis serves as a vital tool in analysing the binding of the hormones for their effect or functions. In this study, we have reported cloning and characterization of the complete coding (cDNA) sequence of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in buffaloes. Buffalo OXTR gene contains an uninterrupted ORF of 1176 nucleotides corresponding to an inferred polypeptide length of 391 amino acids (aa). The molecular weight of the deduced aa sequence was found to be 43 kDa with an isoelectric point of 9.253 and 16.328 charge at pH 7.0. The deduced protein sequence consists of 38 strongly basic (+) (K,R), 22 strongly acidic (-) (D,E), 186 hydrophobic (A, I, L, F, W, V) and 95 Polar (N, C, Q, S, T, Y) aa. Results indicated that aspartate (D) at aa position 85 and D, R and C at aa positions 136, 137 and 138, respectively, are conserved in buffaloes. The buffalo OXTR gene shared a per cent similarity ranging from 84.7 to 98.1 and 88.5 to 97.7 at nucleotide and deduced aa sequence levels, respectively, with that of other species. Phylogram constructed on the basis of either nucleotide or deduced aa sequences of buffalo OXTR gene showed that buffalo, cattle and sheep have diverged from human and swine and formed a separate clad. The buffalo sequence has shown maximum similarity and closeness with cattle followed by sheep both at

  17. Impairments in the Initiation of Maternal Behavior in Oxytocin Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Megan E.; deCárdenas, Emily J.; Lee, Heon-Jin; Caldwell, Heather K.

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) acting through its single receptor subtype, the Oxtr, is important for the coordination of physiology and behavior associated with parturition and maternal care. Knockout mouse models have been helpful in exploring the contributions of Oxt to maternal behavior, including total body Oxt knockout (Oxt −/−) mice, forebrain conditional Oxtr knockout (Oxtr FB/FB) mice, and total body Oxtr knockout (Oxtr −/−) mice. Since Oxtr −/− mice are unable to lactate, maternal behavior has only been examined in virgin females, or in dams within a few hours of parturition, and there have been no studies that have examined their anxiety-like and depression-like behavior following parturition. To improve our understanding of how the absence of Oxt signaling affects maternal behavior, mood and anxiety, we designed a study using Oxtr −/− mice that separated nursing behavior from other aspects of maternal care, such as licking and grooming by thelectomizing (i.e. removing the nipples) of Oxtr +/+ mice and sham-thelectomizing Oxtr −/− mice, and pairing both genotypes with a wet nurse. We then measured pup abandonment, maternal behavior, and postpartum anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors. We hypothesized that genetic disruption of the Oxtr would impact maternal care, mood and anxiety. Specifically, we predicted that Oxtr −/− dams would have impaired maternal care and increased anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in the postpartum period. We found that Oxtr −/− dams had significantly higher levels of pup abandonment compared to controls, which is consistent with previous work in Oxtr FB/FB mice. Interestingly, Oxtr −/− dams that initiated maternal care did not differ from wildtype controls in measures of maternal behavior. We also did not find any evidence of altered anxiety-like or depressive-like behavior in the postpartum period of Oxtr −/− dams. Thus, our data suggest that Oxt lowers the threshold for the initiation of

  18. Anti-idiotypic antibody: A new strategy for the development of a growth hormone receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hainan; Zheng, Xin; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Li, Steven

    2015-11-01

    In general, traditional growth hormone receptor antagonist can be divided into two major classes: growth hormone (GH) analogues and anti-growth hormone receptor (GHR) antibodies. Herein, we tried to explore a new class of growth hormone receptor (GHR) antagonist that may have potential advantages over the traditional antagonists. For this, we developed a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody growth hormone, termed CG-86. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate this antibody, and the results from a competitive receptor-binding assay, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) and epitope mapping demonstrate that CG-86 behaved as a typical Ab2β. Next, we examined its antagonistic activity using in vitro cell models, and the results showed that CG-86 could effectively inhibit growth hormone receptor-mediated signalling and effectively inhibit growth hormone-induced Ba/F3-GHR638 proliferation. In summary, these studies show that an anti-idiotypic antibody (CG-86) has promise as a novel growth hormone receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the current findings also suggest that anti-idiotypic antibody may represent a novel strategy to produce a new class of growth hormone receptor antagonist, and this strategy may be applied with other cytokines or growth factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transition strategies from cangrelor to oral platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Schneider, David J

    2016-01-01

    Cangrelor is the first parenteral antagonist of the platelet P2Y12 receptor. This direct-acting antagonist of the platelet P2Y12 receptor should be considered an adjunct to a percutaneous coronary intervention in patients who have not been adequately pretreated with platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonists at the time of the procedure. The use of cangrelor requires transition to an oral platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonist. Transition strategies have been developed on the basis of pharmacologic characteristics of platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonists, results of pharmacodynamic studies, and results from clinical trials. Cangrelor blocks the binding to the platelet P2Y12 receptor of the active metabolite of the thienopyridines, clopidogrel and prasugrel. The active metabolite of thienopyridines is present in blood for a short interval after administration. For this reason, clopidogrel should be administered after cangrelor is stopped. Prasugrel can be administered at the end of the cangrelor infusion or up to 30 min before cangrelor is stopped. Ticagrelor is also a reversible direct-acting antagonist of the platelet P2Y12 receptor. Because there is no interaction between ticagrelor and cangrelor, ticagrelor can be administered before or during the infusion of cangrelor.

  20. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor-2 Antagonists: Therapeutic Potential and Potential Risks

    PubMed Central

    Blankenbach, Kira V.; Schwalm, Stephanie; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Meyer zu Heringdorf, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling system with its specific G-protein-coupled S1P receptors, the enzymes of S1P metabolism and the S1P transporters, offers a multitude of promising targets for drug development. Until today, drug development in this area has nearly exclusively focused on (functional) antagonists at the S1P1 receptor, which cause a unique phenotype of immunomodulation. Accordingly, the first-in class S1P1 receptor modulator, fingolimod, has been approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and novel S1P1 receptor (functional) antagonists are being developed for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, lupus erythematodes, or polymyositis. Besides the S1P1 receptor, also S1P2 and S1P3 are widely expressed and regulate many diverse functions throughout the body. The S1P2 receptor, in particular, often exerts cellular functions which are opposed to the functions of the S1P1 receptor. As a consequence, antagonists at the S1P2 receptor have the potential to be useful in a contrasting context and different areas of indication compared to S1P1 antagonists. The present review will focus on the therapeutic potential of S1P2 receptor antagonists and discuss their opportunities as well as their potential risks. Open questions and areas which require further investigations will be emphasized in particular. PMID:27445808

  1. The expressions in oxytocin and sex steroid receptors in the reproductive tissues of normal and unilateral cryptorchid dogs.

    PubMed

    Prapaiwan, N; Manee-In, S; Moonarmart, W; Srisuwatanasagul, S

    2017-09-15

    In males, oxytocin is involved with various physiological functions, such as reproductive tract contractility and testicular steroidogenesis. Due to the relationship between sex steroid hormones, oxytocin receptor (OTR) expression and cryptorchidism pathogenesis, this study aimed to investigate the mRNA expression and the localization of OTR in relation to sex steroid receptors in the male reproductive tract of both normal and unilateral abdominal cryptorchid dogs using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. Male dogs were divided into two groups of normal and cryptorchid dogs. Samples from each cryptorchid dog were separated into two subgroups: scrotal and abdominal subgroups. The results showed that a lower percentage of positive OTR immunostaining in the testis and epididymis was observed in the cryptorchid group compared to the normal group. Within the cryptorchid group, the mRNA expression and the localization of OTR in the testis and epididymis of the abdominal subgroup was less than that of the scrotal subgroup. Moreover, the localization of OTR and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in reproductive tissues was positively correlated only in the normal group and not in the cryptorchid group. In conclusion, this study proposed that OTR expression, as well as the correlation between the OTR and ERβ in reproductive tissues of male dogs, can be disturbed by cryptorchidism. Furthermore, the OTR, ERβ and their correlation may be involved with the pathogenesis of cryptorchidism. Therefore, the study of gene knockout models to confirm the effect of OTR and sex steroid receptors on canine cryptorchidism should be of interest for further investigation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Total synthesis of anibamine, a novel natural product as a chemokine receptor CCR5 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo; Watson, Karen; Buckheit, Robert W; Zhang, Yan

    2007-05-10

    The total synthesis of anibamine, the first and only natural product known as a chemokine receptor CCR5 antagonist, is reported herein. Anibamine was synthesized from acetylacetone and cyanoacetamide in 10 steps.

  3. Novel morpholine scaffolds as selective dopamine (DA) D3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Fabrizio; Cremonesi, Susanna; Semeraro, Teresa; Tarsi, Luca; Tomelleri, Silvia; Cavanni, Paolo; Oliosi, Beatrice; Perdonà, Elisabetta; Sava, Anna; Zonzini, Laura; Feriani, Aldo; Braggio, Simone; Heidbreder, Christian

    2016-02-15

    A new series of morpholine derivatives has been identified as selective DA D3 receptor antagonists; their in vitro profile and pharmacokinetic data are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An expedient route to a potent gastrin/CCK-B receptor antagonist (+)-AG-041R.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shigeki; Shibuya, Masatoshi; Kanoh, Naoki; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu

    2009-10-02

    An enantiocontrolled synthesis of (+)-AG-041R (1), a potent gastrin/CCK-B receptor antagonist, has been achieved employing a chiral rhodium(II)-catalyzed, oxidative intramolecular aza-spiroannulation as the key step.

  5. Crystal structure of human glycine receptor-α3 bound to antagonist strychnine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Hao; Michelsen, Klaus; Schneider, Stephen; Shaffer, Paul L

    2015-10-08

    Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels of the Cys-loop receptor family are essential mediators of fast neurotransmission throughout the nervous system and are implicated in many neurological disorders. Available X-ray structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic Cys-loop receptors provide tremendous insights into the binding of agonists, the subsequent opening of the ion channel, and the mechanism of channel activation. Yet the mechanism of inactivation by antagonists remains unknown. Here we present a 3.0 Å X-ray structure of the human glycine receptor-α3 homopentamer in complex with a high affinity, high-specificity antagonist, strychnine. Our structure allows us to explore in detail the molecular recognition of antagonists. Comparisons with previous structures reveal a mechanism for antagonist-induced inactivation of Cys-loop receptors, involving an expansion of the orthosteric binding site in the extracellular domain that is coupled to closure of the ion pore in the transmembrane domain.

  6. Update on leukotriene receptor antagonists in preschool children wheezing disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in young children. About 40% of all preschool children regularly wheeze during common cold infections. The heterogeneity of wheezing phenotypes early in life and various anatomical and emotional factors unique to young children present significant challenges in the clinical management of this problem. Anti-inflammatory therapy, mainly consisting of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), is the cornerstone of asthma management. Since Leukotrienes (LTs) are chemical mediators of airway inflammation in asthma, the leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are traditionally used as potent anti-inflammatory drugs in the long-term treatment of asthma in adults, adolescents, and school-age children. In particular, montelukast decreases airway inflammation, and has also a bronchoprotective effect. The main guidelines on asthma management have confirmed the clinical utility of LTRAs in children older than five years. In the present review we describe the most recent advances on the use of LTRAs in the treatment of preschool wheezing disorders. LTRAs are effective in young children with virus-induced wheeze and with multiple-trigger disease. Conflicting data do not allow to reach definitive conclusions on LTRAs efficacy in bronchiolitis or post-bronchiolitis wheeze, and in acute asthma. The excellent safety profile of montelukast and the possibility of oral administration, that entails better compliance from young children, represent the main strengths of its use in preschool children. Montelukast is a valid alternative to ICS especially in poorly compliant preschool children, or in subjects who show adverse effects related to long-term steroid therapy. PMID:22734451

  7. Thrombin-receptor antagonist vorapaxar in acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Tricoci, Pierluigi; Huang, Zhen; Held, Claes; Moliterno, David J; Armstrong, Paul W; Van de Werf, Frans; White, Harvey D; Aylward, Philip E; Wallentin, Lars; Chen, Edmond; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Pei, Jinglan; Leonardi, Sergio; Rorick, Tyrus L; Kilian, Ann M; Jennings, Lisa H K; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Bode, Christoph; Cequier, Angel; Cornel, Jan H; Diaz, Rafael; Erkan, Aycan; Huber, Kurt; Hudson, Michael P; Jiang, Lixin; Jukema, J