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Sample records for ozone nitrogen dioxide

  1. Ozone and nitrogen dioxide above the northern Tien Shan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arefev, Vladimir N.; Volkovitsky, Oleg A.; Kamenogradsky, Nikita E.; Semyonov, Vladimir K.; Sinyakov, Valery P.

    1994-01-01

    The results of systematic perennial measurements of the total ozone (since 1979) and nitrogen dioxide column (since 1983) in the atmosphere in the European-Asian continent center above the mountainmass of the Tien Shan are given. This region is distinguished by a great number of sunny days during a year. The observation station is at the Northern shore of Issyk Kul Lake (42.56 N 77.04 E 1650 m above the sea level). The measurement results are presented as the monthly averaged atmospheric total ozone and NO2 stratospheric column abundances (morning and evening). The peculiarities of seasonal variations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide atmospheric contents, their regular variances with a quasi-biennial cycles and trends have been noticed. Irregular variances of ozone and nitrogen dioxide atmospheric contents, i.e. their positive and negative anomalies in the monthly averaged contents relative to the perennial averaged monthly means, have been analyzed. The synchronous and opposite in phase anomalies in variations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide atmospheric contents were explained by the transport and zonal circulation in the stratosphere (Kamenogradsky et al., 1990).

  2. Pretreatment with nitrogen dioxide modifies plant response to ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runeckles, V. C.; Palmer, K.

    Plant growth inhibition by ozone is significantly affected by previous exposure to nitrogen dioxide. Experiments on the early growth of four crop species showed that daily pretreatment with NO 2 (0.08-0.10 ppm for 3 h) immediately prior to exposure to O 3 (0.08-0.10 ppm for 6 h) increased the inhibition of radish and wheat growth, decreased the inhibition of bush bean growth, but had no effect on the growth of mint. The magnitudes of the interactive effects indicate that in regions where relatively high concentrations of O 3 are produced by photochemical processes, for example, downwind from urban centres, assessments of the impact of O 3 on vegetation based on knowledge of response to O 3 alone may be seriously flawed.

  3. Measurements of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, nitrous and nitric acids, and sulphur dioxide in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecera, V.; Mikuska, M.; Smolik, S.; Eleftheriadis, E.; Bryant, B.; Colbeck, C.; Lazaridis, L.

    2003-04-01

    Measurements of reactive nitrogen gases (NO_2, HONO, HNO_3), as well as ozone and sulfur dioxide were made over the Aegean Sea (the R/V Agaeon) within an air mass later reaching the Finokalia (Crete) sampling site. These measurements were carried out with unique gas trace instrumentation (wet effluent and "dry" diffusion denuder techniques, a chemiluminescent detection and chemiluminescent analyzers) during special conditions. There are significant differences in pollutant concentrations between results from Finokalia and from the R/V Agaeon. While at Finokalia concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, ozone and nitric and nitrous acids changed relatively slowly, the boat data showed a number of episodes with rapid changes in reactive nitrogen compounds and ozone concentrations. These episodes were correlated with the presence of boats up wind a short distance from the R/V Agaeon. Ozone concentrations at Finokalia and on the boat typically ranged between 40--80 ppb (v/v). Ozone concentrations reached up to 88 ppb (v/v) in the open sea. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations at Finokalia were in the range 0.5--3 ppb (v/v). Typical NO_2 concentrations observed aboard the boat were 4--6 ppb (v/v) with maxima of 20--30 ppb (v/v). During "spiked" episodes, up to 200 ppb (v/v) of nitrogen dioxide was observed while ozone concurrently was dramatically depleted down to 20 ppb (v/v). Concentrations of HONO and HNO_3 at Finokalia, in general, were low, typically in the order of 0.1--0.2 ppb (v/v) for HONO and 0.05--0.1 ppb (v/v) for HNO_3. On average, concentrations of both nitric and nitrous acids in the ambient air of the Aegean Sea were typically small, below 0.05 ppt (v/v). Within the "spiked" episodes up to 33 ppb (v/v) nitric acid and up to 2.5 ppb (v/v) nitrous acid were formed. The nitric acid "dry" denuder data were on average higher than the measurements by the wet efluent diffusion denuder. The concentration of SO_2 reached up to 9.2 ppb (v/v). The work was conducted within

  4. Monitoring of nitrogen dioxide, ozone and halogens radicals in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortoli, Daniele; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Costa, Maria J.; Genco, Silvia; Kulkarni, Pavan K.; Mendes, Rui; Domingues, Ana Filipa; Anton, Manuel; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Silva, Ana Maria

    2013-10-01

    Monitoring of atmospheric compounds at high latitudes is a key factor for a better understanding of the processes driving the chemical cycles of ozone and related chemical species. In this frame, the GASCOD (Gas Analizer Spectrometer Correlating Optical Differences) equipment is installed at the Mario Zucchelli Station (MZS - 74.69S, 164.12E) since December 1995, carrying out observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). The recent advances in sensor technologies and processor capabilities, suggested the setup of a new equipment, based on the same optical layout of the 'old' GASCOD , with enhanced performances and improved capabilities for the measurements of solar radiation in the UV-visible spectral range (300-700nm). The efforts accomplished, allowed for the increase of the investigated tracers. Actually, mainly due to the enlargement of the covered spectral range and to the adoption of a CCD sensor, in addition to the NO2 and O3 compounds, others species can be monitored with the new instrumental setup such as bromine, chlorine and iodine oxides (BrO, OClO and IO). The innovative equipment called GASCODNG (GASCOD New Generation) was installed at MZS during the 2012/2013 Italian Antarctic expedition, in the framework of the research projects SAMOA (Automatic Station Monitoring Antarctic Ozonosphere) and MATAGRO (Monitoring Atmospheric Tracers in Antarctica with Ground Based Observations) funded by the Italian and Portuguese Antarctic programs respectively. In this paper a brief description of the new equipment is provided, highlighting the main improvements with regard to the 'old' one. Furthermore the full dataset (1996 - 2012) of NO2 total columns, obtained with the GASCOD installed at MZS, is compared with the data obtained with satellite borne equipments (GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME2) and the main statistical parameters are analyzed and discussed in detail.

  5. Transformation of nitrogen dioxide into ozone and prediction of ozone concentrations using multiple linear regression techniques.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Nurul Adyani; Ramli, Nor Azam; Yahaya, Ahmad Shukri; Yusof, Noor Faizah Fitri M D; Sansuddin, Nurulilyana; Al Madhoun, Wesam Ahmed

    2010-06-01

    Analysis and forecasting of air quality parameters are important topics of atmospheric and environmental research today due to the health impact caused by air pollution. This study examines transformation of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) into ozone (O(3)) at urban environment using time series plot. Data on the concentration of environmental pollutants and meteorological variables were employed to predict the concentration of O(3) in the atmosphere. Possibility of employing multiple linear regression models as a tool for prediction of O(3) concentration was tested. Results indicated that the presence of NO(2) and sunshine influence the concentration of O(3) in Malaysia. The influence of the previous hour ozone on the next hour concentrations was also demonstrated.

  6. Response of radish to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone, alone and in combination

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Gray, T.N.

    1981-04-01

    Effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cv. Cherry Belle of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and ozone (O/sub 3/) alone and in combination at 0.2 and 0.4 ppM of each pollutant were studied. There was no difference in foilage or root weight of radish between exposure durations of 3 to 6 hours, and no significant interaction of hours with air pollutant and concentration. Ozone reduced root dry weight more at 0.4 ppM than at 0.2 ppM. Sulfur dioxide depressed the root/shoot ratio at both 0.2 and 0.4 ppM; however, when NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ were both present there was synergistic depression of the root/shoot ratio at 0.4 ppM. The average O/sub 3/-induced reduction in root weight of radish (1.75 g fresh and 101 mg dry, per plant) was additive in the presence of NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/. The weight of the root was reduced even though the foilage was the direct receptor of the pollutant stress.

  7. Responses of Tree Seedlings to a Changing Atmosphere: Effects of Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, A. S.; Sparks, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Human activities have caused changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere: the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) have increased and are expected to continue increasing in the future. These gases have the potential to alter plant physiological processes, change growth rates, C:N, and carbon storage potential. The responses of tree seedlings to these changes will have a profound impact on the species composition and carbon storage potential of forests in the future. Others have found CO2 tends to increase plant growth and O3 to decrease it. NO2, if assimilated by plants, can be a source of nutrient nitrogen, but is also an oxidant with the potential to damage cell membranes and decrease growth. The objectives of this study were to determine the single and combined effects of CO2, NO2, and O3 on sugar maple, eastern hemlock, and two clones of trembling aspen. The trees were fumigated for two growing seasons with elevated (40ppb) or ambient NO2, elevated (560ppm) or ambient CO2, elevated (100 ppb 5 days/week) or ambient O3, and with or without additional soil nitrate (30 kg ha-1 yr-1) to simulate ecosystems with and without nitrogen limitation. We found that elevated CO2 increased total biomass of both maples and hemlocks. Further, the CO2 growth effect was most striking when combined with elevated O2; elevated CO2 eliminated the growth decrease induced by O3 especially when nitrogen was limited. Elevated NO2 had no effect on maple seedlings, but, similar to CO2, eliminated the decrease in growth under O3 on hemlock seedlings. The two aspen clones differed in their resistance to ozone. The non-resistant clone exhibited growth responses similar to maple. However, the resistant clone did not exhibit a growth response under any gas treatment regardless of soil nitrogen status. The variation in responses among species, within clones of the same species, and between fumigations was large in this study and suggests

  8. The interaction of ozone and nitrogen dioxide in the stratosphere of East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruchkouski, Ilya; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Dziomin, Victar; Svetashev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    At the Russian Antarctic station "Progress" (S69°23´, E76°23´) simultaneous measurements of trace gases using the MARS-B (Multi-Axis Recorder of Spectra) instrument and PION-UV spectro-radiometer for the time period from 05.01.2014 to 28.02.2014 have been performed. Both instruments were located outdoors. The aim of the measurements was to retrieve the vertical distribution of ozone and nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere and to study their variability during the period of measurements. The MARS-B instrument, developed at the National Ozone Monitoring Research and Education Centre of the Belarusian State University (NOMREC BSU), successfully passed the procedure of international inter-comparison campaign MAD-CAT 2013 in Mainz, Germany. The instrument is able to record the spectra of scattered sunlight at different elevation angles within a maximum aperture of 1.3°. 12 elevation angles have been used in this study, including the zenith direction. Approximately 7000 spectra per day were registered in the range of 403-486 nm, which were then processed by DOAS technique aiming to retrieve differential slant columns of ozone, nitrogen dioxide and oxygen dimer. Furthermore, total nitrogen dioxide column values have been retrieved employing the Libradtran radiative transfer model. The PION-UV spectro-radiometer, also developed at NOMREC BSU, is able to record the spectra of scattered sunlight from the hemisphere in the range of 280-430 nm. The registered spectra have been used to retrieve the total ozone column values employing the Stamnes method. In this study observational data from both instruments is presented and analyzed. Furthermore, by combining analysis of this data with model simulations it is shown that decreases in nitrogen dioxide content in the upper atmosphere can be associated with increases in total ozone column values and rising of the ozone layer upper boundary. Finally, the time delay between changes in nitrogen dioxide and ozone values is

  9. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    1982-02-01

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppM of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and /or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 2/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present. 8 references, 2 tables.

  10. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    1982-02-01

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and/or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 3/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present.

  11. Ozone and nitrogen dioxide changes in the stratosphere during 1979-84

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, Linwood B.; Natarajan, Murali

    1986-01-01

    Analyses of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide distributions as measured by four different satellite experiments indicate midlatitude increases of up to 75 percent during the 1979-84 period. These increases are attributed to enhanced upper atmospheric formation of odd nitrogen during solar cycle 21 with downward transport to the stratosphere. The increases in NO2 provide an explanation for the recently observed dramatic springtime minima in the Antarctic ozone and suggest the reason for the reported midlatitude stratospheric ozone decreases observed by satellite and ground-based stations since the mid 1970s.

  12. The Chemical and Dynamical Responses of Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide to the Eruption of Mt. Pinatubo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aquila, V.; Oman, L. D.; Stolarski, R.; Douglass, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Observations have shown that the concentration of nitrogen dioxide decreased in both hemispheres in the years following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. In contrast, the observed ozone response was largely asymmetrical with respect to the equator, with a decrease in the northern hemisphere and little or no change in the southern hemisphere. Simulations including enhanced heterogeneous chemistry due to the presence of the volcanic aerosol reproduce a decrease of ozone in the northern hemisphere, but also produce a comparable ozone decrease in the southern hemisphere contrary to observations. Our simulations show that the heating due to the volcanic aerosol enhanced both the tropical upwelling and the extratropical downwelling. The enhanced extratropical downwelling, combined with the time of the eruption relative to the seasonal phase of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, increased the ozone in the southern hemisphere and counteracted the ozone depletion due to heterogeneous chemistry on volcanic aerosol.

  13. The Response of Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide to the Eruption of Mount Pinatubo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aquila. Valentina; Oman, Luke D.; Stolarsk, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Observations have shown that the global mass of nitrogen dioxide decreased in both hemispheres in the year following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, indicating an enhanced heterogeneous chemistry. In contrast, the observed ozone response was largely asymmetrical with respect to the equator, with a decrease in the northern hemisphere and little change in the southern hemisphere. Simulations including enhanced heterogeneous chemistry due to the presence of the volcanic aerosol reproduce a decrease of ozone in the northern hemisphere, but also produce a comparable ozone decrease in the southern hemisphere, contrary to observations. Our simulations show that the heating due to the volcanic aerosol enhanced both the tropical upwelling and the extratropical downwelling. The enhanced extratropical downwelling, combined with the time of the eruption relative to the phase of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, increased the ozone in the southern hemisphere and counteracted the ozone depletion due to heterogeneous chemistry on volcanic aerosol.

  14. The Response of Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide to the Eruption of Mt. Pinatubo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aquila, Valentina; Oman, Luke D.; Stolarski, R.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Observations have shown that the global mass of nitrogen dioxide decreased in both hemispheres in the year following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. In contrast, the observed ozone response was largely asymmetrical with respect to the equator, with a decrease in the northern hemisphere and little change and even a small increase in the southern hemisphere. Simulations including enhanced heterogeneous chemistry due to the presence of the volcanic aerosol reproduce a decrease of ozone in the northern hemisphere, but also produce a comparable ozone decrease in the southern hemisphere, contrary to observations. Our simulations show that the heating due to the volcanic aerosol enhanced both the tropical upwelling and the extratropical downwelling. The enhanced extratropical downwelling, combined with the time of the eruption relative to the phase of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, increased the ozone in the southern hemisphere and counteracted the ozone depletion due to heterogeneous chemistry on volcanic aerosol.

  15. Failure of ozone and nitrogen dioxide to enhance lung tumor development in hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Witschi, H.; Breider, M.A.; Schuller, H.M. )

    1993-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the two common oxidant air pollutants, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, modulate the development of respiratory tract tumors in Syrian golden hamsters. The animals received subcutaneous injections of the carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (20 mg/kg) twice a week while being exposed continuously to an atmosphere of 0.8 parts per million (ppm)* of ozone or 15 ppm of nitrogen dioxide. Animals were killed 16 weeks or 24 to 32 weeks after the beginning of the treatment. Ozone delayed the appearance of tracheal tumors and reduced the incidence of tumors in the lung periphery. A suspected neuroendocrine differentiation of those lung tumors could not be established by immunocytochemistry due to overfixation of tissues. On the other hand, ozone seemed to mitigate development of hepatotoxic lesions mediated by diethylnitrosamine. In animals treated with diethylnitrosamine and exposed to nitrogen dioxide, fewer tracheal tumors and no lung tumors were found. Only a few lung tumors were produced in animals treated with diethylnitrosamine and kept in an atmosphere of 65% oxygen. The previously observed neuroendocrine nature of tumors induced by simultaneous exposure to diethylnitrosamine and hyperoxia could not be established because the long fixation of tissues precluded immunocytochemical stains. Animals treated with diethylnitrosamine and kept in filtered air while being housed in wire-mesh cages developed fewer lung tumors than animals given the same treatment and kept on conventional bedding in shoebox cages. Although all inhalants tested are known to produce substantial cell proliferation in the respiratory tract, it was not possible to document whether this would enhance lung tumor development. The role of the two common air pollutants, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, as possible additional risks in the pathogenesis of lung cancer in animals continues to remain uncertain.

  16. Intercomparison among tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide data obtained by satellite- and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, K.; Urita, N.; Ohta, E.; Hayashida, S.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Ziemke, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    Rapid economical growth and industrial development in East Asian regions are causing serious air pollution. The influence of such air pollution is not limited to a local scale but reaches an intercontinental or hemispheric scale. Satellite-borne observations can monitor the behaviors of air pollutants in a global scale for long periods with a single instrument. In particular, ozone and nitrogen dioxide in the troposphere have a crucial role in air pollution, and many studies have tried to derive those species. Recently, instrumentations and retrieval techniques have made a lot of progress in measurements of tropospheric constituents. However, tropospheric observations from space need careful validation because of difficulties in detecting signals from the lower atmosphere through the middle atmosphere. In the present study, we intercompare the tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide data obtained by satellite- and ground-based measurements in order to validate the satellite measurements. For the validation of tropospheric ozone, we utilize ozonesonde data provided by WOUDC, and three satellite-borne data (Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR), Cloud Slicing, and GOME) are intercompared. For nitrogen dioxide, we compare GOME observations with ground-based air monitoring measurements in Japan which are operationally conducted by the Ministry of the Environment Japan. This study demonstrates the validity and potential of those satellite datasets to apply for quantitative analysis of dispersion of air pollutants and their chemical lifetime. Acknowledgments. TOR data is provided by J. Fishman via http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/TOR/data.html. The ground observation data of nitrogen dioxide over Japan is provided by National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) under the collaboration study with NIES and Nara Women's University.

  17. Failure of ozone and nitrogen dioxide to enhance lung tumor development in hamsters. Research report, January 1989-March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Witschi, H.; Breider, M.A.; Schuller, H.M.

    1993-09-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that ozone and nitrogen dioxide modulate the development of respiratory tract tumors, in particular neuroendocrine cell tumors, in Syrian golden hamsters. The animals received subcutaneous injections of the carcinogen N-diethylnitrosamine (20 mg/kg) twice a week while being exposed continuously to an atmosphere of 0.8 parts per million (ppm) of ozone or 15 ppm nitrogen dioxide. Animals were killed 16 weeks or 24 to 32 weeks after the beginning of the treatment. For positive controls, animals were treated with N-diethylnitrosamine and exposed to 65% oxygen. Ozone delayed the incidence of tumors in the lung periphery. Ozone also seemed to mitigate development of hepatoxic lesions mediated by N-diethylnitrosamine. The role of ozone and nitrogen dioxide as possible additional risks in the pathogenesis of lung cancer in animals continues to remain uncertain.

  18. The Response of Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide to the Eruption of Mount Pinatubo at Southern and Northern Midlatitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aquila, Valentina; Oman, Luke D.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Observations have shown that the mass of nitrogen dioxide decreased at both southern and northern midlatitudes in the year following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, indicating that the volcanic aerosol had enhanced nitrogen dioxide depletion via heterogeneous chemistry. In contrast, the observed ozone response showed a northern midlatitude decrease and a small southern midlatitude increase. Previous simulations that included an enhancement of heterogeneous chemistry by the volcanic aerosol but no other effect of this aerosol produce ozone decreases in both hemispheres, contrary to observations. The authors simulations show that the heating due to the volcanic aerosol enhanced both the tropical upwelling and Southern Hemisphere extratropical downwelling. This enhanced extratropical downwelling, combined with the time of the eruption relative to the phase of the Brewer Dobson circulation, increased Southern Hemisphere ozone via advection, counteracting the ozone depletion due to heterogeneous chemistry on the Pinatubo aerosol.

  19. Heterogeneous reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in presence of ozone and nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubatova, A.; Jeong, H.; Fisseha, R.; Smith, A.; Hadadi, S.; Dongari, N.; Cochran, R.; Beranek, J.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, the mutagenic character of diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) is mainly attributed to nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs). However, several toxicological studies have ascribed a significant genotoxicity of PM to higher polarity species, suggesting the occurrence of dinitro-, hydroxy- and oxy-PAH derivatives. Unfortunately, only limited knowledge is available in the literature on the products of heterogeneous reactions of PAHs adsorbed on PM. Therefore in this work, we report a study on heterogeneous reactions of four semivolatile 3- and 4-ring PAHs with ozone and nitrogen dioxide. These PAHs (i.e., phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, and fluoranthene) were selected based on their significant partitioning into the particle phase in real-world PM. We have focused on the detailed identification of the reaction products using a series of derivatization techniques (i.e. N,O-bis (trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide and pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride), and commercially available and synthesized standards to ensure accurate identification. A number of oxidation products, mainly those of pyrene and anthracene, with multiple functionalities forming carboxaldehydes, carboxylic acids, and/or hydroxylated species were observed upon reaction with ozone. As reported previously, only single isomers of 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene were found for the reaction with nitrogen dioxide. In contrast, the combination of a primary oxidant (ozone) and NO2 lead to the observation of a broader distribution of nitration products, apparently due to the in-situ formation of NO3, a more powerful oxidant. The identified reaction products will enable further evaluation of product accumulation kinetics and determine their significance in atmospheric processes.

  20. Effect of Same-day Sequential Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide and Ozone on Cardiac and Ventilatory Function in Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the cardiac and ventilatory effects of sequential exposure to nitrogen dioxide and then ozone. The data show that mice exposed to both gases have increased arrhythmia and breathing changes not observed in the other groups. Although the mechanisms underlying ai...

  1. Role of photoexcited nitrogen dioxide chemistry on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new hydroxyl radical formation pathway via photo-excited nitrogen dioxide chemistry is incorporated into a chemistry-only box model as well as a 3D air quality model to examine its potential role on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta region...

  2. Effect of nitrogen dioxide and ozone on the risk of dying in patients with severe asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, J; Basagana, X; Belmonte, J; Anto, J

    2002-01-01

    Background: A study was performed to assess the acute association between air pollution, pollen and spores, and mortality in a population based cohort of subjects with asthma recruited from emergency room admissions for an asthma exacerbation using a case crossover design. Methods: Patients in Barcelona aged over 14 years who died during the period 1985–95 who had visited the emergency department of one of the four largest hospitals in the city for asthma during 1985–9 were included in the study (a total of 467 men and 611 women). Deaths were identified by record linkage of the cohort individuals with the Catalonia mortality registry. Causes of death were based on the underlying cause on the death certificate. Air pollution, pollen and spore levels were measured at the city monitoring stations which provide an average for the entire city. Results: Nitrogen dioxide was associated with mortality for all causes of death (adjusted odds ratio (OR) for an increase of the interquartile range = 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09 to 2.64) in asthmatic patients with more than one emergency room admission for asthma. The association was particularly strong for respiratory causes (OR 1.63, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.86). Ozone also increased the risk of death in asthmatic patients (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.30) during spring and summer. The association with particles, pollen, and spores was not significant, and no interactions between air pollutants and pollen and spores were found. Conclusion: Nitrogen dioxide and ozone may exacerbate severe asthma and even cause death among asthmatic subjects. PMID:12149528

  3. Signature of tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide from space: A case study for Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varotsos, C.; Christodoulakis, J.; Tzanis, C.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the variability of the tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns over mainland Greece, by using observations carried out by satellite-borne instrumentation and Multi Sensor Reanalysis. The results obtained show that the tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) dispersed farther away than the tropospheric NO2 column (TNO), due to the longer TOR's lifetime in respect to that of TNO. This results in the influence of the air quality of the nearby southern islands from the air pollution of the greater Athens basin. Furthermore, the TOR and TNO columns over Athens, for the period October 2004 to December 2011 were found to be negatively correlated with a correlation coefficient -0.85, in contrast to recent findings which suggested strong positive correlation. Interestingly, this strong negative correlation into a slight positive correlation when the TNO concentration becomes higher than around 4 × 1015 molec cm-2, thus being best fitted by a quadratic relationship. In addition, the temporal evolution of TOR during 1979-1993 showed a decline of 0.2% per decade and just after 1993 it seems to obey a positive trend of 0.1% per decade, thus recovering during the period 1993-2011 almost 63% of the lost TOR amounts through the years 1979-1993. Finally, the association between TOR, the total ozone column (TOZ), the tropopause height and the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) is presented by analysing observations during 1979-2011. An unexpected positive correlation between OLR and TOR was found, which may probably be attributed to the fact that enhanced abundance in tropospheric water vapor reduces the summertime TOR maximum by destructing ozone in the lower and middle troposphere through uptake mechanisms, thus emitting higher amounts of longwave radiation upwards.

  4. Nitrogen dioxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitrogen dioxide ; CASRN 10102 - 44 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  5. Effects of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on drinking and eating behaviors in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Umezu, T.; Suzuki, A.K.; Miura, T.; Koizumi, A. )

    1993-04-01

    Male ICR mice were exposed continuously to ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for 7 days to examine the effects on drinking and eating behaviors. Ozone at 0.1 ppm did not affect drinking and eating activities, whereas drinking activity decreased in a concentration-dependent manner to 47.7, 12.8, and 3.0% of the control value with 2-day exposures to 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm O3, respectively, and eating activity decreased to 35.2 and 8.7% of the control value at 0.4 and 0.8 ppm O3, respectively. Body weight also decreased markedly by 2.0, 4.6, and 7.5 g at 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm O3, respectively. These decrements reached a maximum on the second day of exposure. However, alterations in drinking and eating activities and body weight were transient, leading to recovery during the continuous O3 exposures. The recovery processes were dependent on the concentrations of O3. Nitrogen dioxide at 4 ppm did not affect drinking and eating activities, whereas drinking activity decreased in a concentration-dependent manner to 56.8, 8.3, and 18.7% of the control value with 2-day exposures to 6, 8, and 12 ppm NO2, respectively, and eating activity decreased markedly to 21.8 and 16.4% at 8 and 12 ppm NO2, respectively. Body weight also decreased by 2.5, 5.5, and 6.1 g at 6, 8, and 12 ppm NO2, respectively. These decrements reached a maximum on the second day of exposure. As in the O3 exposures, the decrements in drinking and eating activities and body weight were transient and recovered during the continuous exposures to NO2 depending on the concentrations of NO2. Drinking and eating activities and body weights of mice that had been previously exposed to 12 ppm NO2 for 7 days did not show changes when the mice were exposed to 0.4 ppm O3 9 days after NO2 exposure. The present study demonstrates that photochemical oxidants suppress drinking and eating behaviors in mice and that they recover thereafter under the continuous exposure conditions.

  6. The impact of the choice of radiative transfer model and inversion method on the OSIRIS ozone and nitrogen dioxide retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, Craig; McLinden, Chris; Sioris, Christopher; Brohede, Samuel

    Key to the retrieval of stratospheric minor species information from limb-scatter measurements are the selections of a radiative transfer model (RTM) and inversion method (solver). Here we assess the impact of choice of RTM and solver on the retrievals of stratospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide from the OSIRIS instrument using the ‘Ozone Triplet' and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) techniques that are used in the operational Level 2 processing algorithms. The RTMs assessed are LIMBTRAN, VECTOR, SCIARAYS, and SASKTRAN. The solvers studied include the Maximum A Posteriori (MAP), Maximum Likelihood (ML), Iterative Least Squares (ILS), and Chahine methods.

  7. Effects of local meteorology and aerosols on ozone and nitrogen dioxide retrievals from OMI and pandora spectrometers in Maryland, USA during DISCOVER-AQ 2011.

    PubMed

    Reed, Andra J; Thompson, Anne M; Kollonige, Debra E; Martins, Douglas K; Tzortziou, Maria A; Herman, Jay R; Berkoff, Timothy A; Abuhassan, Nader K; Cede, Alexander

    An analysis is presented for both ground- and satellite-based retrievals of total column ozone and nitrogen dioxide levels from the Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan area during the NASA-sponsored July 2011 campaign of Deriving Information on Surface COnditions from Column and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ). Satellite retrievals of total column ozone and nitrogen dioxide from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite are used, while Pandora spectrometers provide total column ozone and nitrogen dioxide amounts from the ground. We found that OMI and Pandora agree well (residuals within ±25 % for nitrogen dioxide, and ±4.5 % for ozone) for a majority of coincident observations during July 2011. Comparisons with surface nitrogen dioxide from a Teledyne API 200 EU NOx Analyzer showed nitrogen dioxide diurnal variability that was consistent with measurements by Pandora. However, the wide OMI field of view, clouds, and aerosols affected retrievals on certain days, resulting in differences between Pandora and OMI of up to ±65 % for total column nitrogen dioxide, and ±23 % for total column ozone. As expected, significant cloud cover (cloud fraction >0.2) was the most important parameter affecting comparisons of ozone retrievals; however, small, passing cumulus clouds that do not coincide with a high (>0.2) cloud fraction, or low aerosol layers which cause significant backscatter near the ground affected the comparisons of total column nitrogen dioxide retrievals. Our results will impact post-processing satellite retrieval algorithms and quality control procedures.

  8. Ozone and nitrogen dioxide ground based monitoring by zenith sky visible spectrometry in Arctic and Antarctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pommereau, J. P.; Goutail, F.

    1988-01-01

    Unattended diode array spectrometers have been designed for ground based stratospheric trace species monitoring by zenith sky visible spectrometry. Measurements are performed with a 1.0 nm resolution between 290 nm and 590 nm in order to allow simultaneous evaluations of column densities of ozone, nitrogen dioxide. Field tests have shown that the species can be monitored with a precision of + or - 2 Dobson for the first and + or - 2.10 to the 15th mol/sq cm for the second, although the absolute accuracy of the method is limited by the error of the estimation of the atmospheric optical path of the scattered light. Two identical instruments were set up in January 1988, one in Antarctica at Dumont d'Urville (66 S, 140 E) to be operated all year and another one in the Arctic at ESRANGE at Kiruna (68 N; 22 E) which will operate to the final warming of spring 1988. The data are processed in real time at both stations. O3 and NO2 columns are transmitted together with surface and stratospheric temperature and winds. They are also recorded for further treatment and search for OClO and BrO. Only one month of data from Antarctica is available at the moment. Obtained during polar summer, they cannot show more than stable columns of O3 and NO2 and for the last species, the buildup of its diurnal variation.

  9. Ozone, but not nitrogen dioxide, fragments elastin and increases its susceptibility to proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Winters, R S; Burnette-Vick, B A; Johnson, D A

    1994-10-01

    The effects of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on the solubility and proteolytic susceptibility of elastin were examined to better understand how these oxidant air pollutants might damage the lung. In vitro O3 exposures at pH 7.4 resulted in the complete solubilization of elastin, but NO2 had no effect on solubility. The initial solubilization rate was 65 micrograms/mumol of O3, which increased to 150 micrograms/mumol in the midregion of a sigmoidal solubilization curve. Peptide fragments of the O3-solubilized elastin ranged in size from 5 to 20 kD. The conversion of insoluble elastin into soluble fragments by O3 was not due to the destruction of desmosine crosslinks. The effect of O3 on the proteolytic susceptibility of elastin was measured using insoluble elastin recovered from exposures that resulted in 5.3%, 12.8%, and 26.3% solubilization. Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) digested the remaining insoluble elastin samples 4.3, 6.0, and 9.8 times faster than unexposed elastin. In contrast, NO2-exposed elastin was no more susceptible to digestion by HNE. Ascorbate, EDTA, and uric acid reduced the proteolytic susceptibility of O3-exposed elastin, but mannitol afforded no protection. These findings indicate that the inhalation of O3 may contribute to lung disease by directly damaging elastin and by increasing its susceptibility to proteolysis, whereas NO2 probably damages lungs via alternative mechanisms.

  10. Monitoring of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide using Ozone Monitoring Instrument remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhongyong; Jiang, Hong; Song, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiuying

    2013-01-01

    Measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument are used to investigate the temporal and spatial dynamics of global nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The results show that the global tropospheric column NO2 increased by 11.10% during 2005 to 2010 at a 1.76% annual growth rate. The largest tropospheric and total NO2 columns are mainly concentrated in the industrialized regions of North America, Europe, and east Asia. The large values of column NO are also observed and scattered in South America, Africa, and Indonesia due to biomass burning and savannah fires. Average tropospheric column NO increased by 32.62% at a 4.82% annual rate over eastern Asia. On the contrary, the trend decreased by 35.47% at a 7.04% annual rate over eastern America. The trend was not significant over Europe as a whole, where a decrease was observed over western and southern Europe and an increase was observed over eastern and northern Europe. Over the polluted urban areas, the ratios of tropospheric to total column NO2 are larger than 0.6 and the correlation coefficients are larger than 0.8. This can be mainly attributed to the anthropogenic NOx emissions over land, and it is noteworthy that the ratios are higher than 0.8 (correlation coefficients >0.95) over northern China.

  11. Revising the slant column density retrieval of nitrogen dioxide observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, S.; Krotkov, N. A.; Lamsal, L. N.; Celarier, E. A.; Swartz, W. H.; Bucsela, E. J.

    2015-06-01

    Nitrogen dioxide retrievals from the Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have been used extensively over the past decade, particularly in the study of tropospheric air quality. Recent comparisons of OMI NO2 with independent data sets and models suggested that the OMI values of slant column density (SCD) and stratospheric vertical column density (VCD) in both the NASA OMNO2 and Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute DOMINO products are too large, by around 10-40%. We describe a substantially revised spectral fitting algorithm, optimized for the OMI visible light spectrometer channel. The most important changes comprise a flexible adjustment of the instrumental wavelength shifts combined with iterative removal of the ring spectral features; the multistep removal of instrumental noise; iterative, sequential estimates of SCDs of the trace gases in the 402-465 nm range. These changes reduce OMI SCD(NO2) by 10-35%, bringing them much closer to SCDs retrieved from independent measurements and models. The revised SCDs, submitted to the stratosphere-troposphere separation algorithm, give tropospheric VCDs ˜10-15% smaller in polluted regions, and up to ˜30% smaller in unpolluted areas. Although the revised algorithm has been optimized specifically for the OMI NO2 retrieval, our approach could be more broadly applicable.

  12. Performance Evaluation and Community Application of Low-Cost Sensors for Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Duvall, Rachelle M.; Long, Russell W.; Beaver, Melinda R.; Kronmiller, Keith G.; Wheeler, Michael L.; Szykman, James J.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the performance of electrochemical-based low-cost sensors and their use in a community application. CairClip sensors were collocated with federal reference and equivalent methods and operated in a network of sites by citizen scientists (community members) in Houston, Texas and Denver, Colorado, under the umbrella of the NASA-led DISCOVER-AQ Earth Venture Mission. Measurements were focused on ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The performance evaluation showed that the CairClip O3/NO2 sensor provided a consistent measurement response to that of reference monitors (r2 = 0.79 in Houston; r2 = 0.72 in Denver) whereas the CairClip NO2 sensor measurements showed no agreement to reference measurements. The CairClip O3/NO2 sensor data from the citizen science sites compared favorably to measurements at nearby reference monitoring sites. This study provides important information on data quality from low-cost sensor technologies and is one of few studies that reports sensor data collected directly by citizen scientists. PMID:27754370

  13. Impairment of humoral immune responses in mice exposed to nitrogen dioxide and ozone mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimaki, H.

    1989-04-01

    The relationship between immune defense mechanisms and environmental pollutants remains unknown because of uncertainty about the effects of combined or mixed pollutants. To investigate whether exposure to toxic gas mixtures change the effect of a single gas exposure on immune function, BALB/c mice were continuously exposed to 4.0 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), 0.8 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/), or the mixture of NO/sub 2/ plus O/sub 3/ for 3, 7, 14, and 56 days. Organ weights (lung, thymus, and spleen) and antibody responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), and to DNP-Ficoll were measured immediately after the exposure. Lung weights in mice exposed to O/sub 3/ or the mixture were increased significantly in all exposure periods. The weights of thymus and spleen in mice exposed for 3, 7, and 14 days to the mixture were decreased. O/sub 3/ exposure for 56 days showed significant decreases of the weights of both organs. Antibody response to SRBC in mice exposed for 3, 7, and 14 days to O/sub 3/ or the mixture was markedly suppressed, but exposure to the mixture for 56 days did not show the suppression of anti-SRBC antibody response. No differences in anti-DNP antibody response between exposed and control mice were observed, except those exposed to O/sub 3/ or the mixture for 14 days. These results suggest that mixed gas exposures variously modify the effects of a single gas exposure on antibody production in mice.

  14. Long term changes of tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide over Pakistan derived from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during the time period of October 2004 to December 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtaza, Rabbia; Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Urban air pollution is causing huge number of diseases and deaths annually. Nitrogen dioxide is an important component of urban air pollution and a precursor to particulate matter, ground level ozone, and acid rain. The satellite based measurements of nitrogen dioxide from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) can help in analyzing spatio temporal variability in ground level concentrations within a large urban area. In this study, the spatial and temporal distributions of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide Vertical Column Densities (VCDs) over Pakistan are presented from 2004 to 2014. The results showed that the winter season is having high nitrogen dioxide levels as compared to summers. The increase can be attributed to the anthropogenic activities especially thermal power generation and traffic count. Punjab is one of the major provinces with high nitrogen dioxide levels followed by Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan. Six hotspots have been examined in the present study such as Lahore, Islamabad, Karachi, Faisalabad, Okara and Multan. Emissions of nitrogen compounds from thermal power plants and transportation sector represent a significant fraction of the total nitrogen dioxide emissions to the atmosphere.

  15. Airborne Measurements of Nitric Oxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Ozone, and Total Reactive Nitrogen During the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Mary Anne

    2000-01-01

    Fabrication of the University of Michigan Multichannel Chemiluminescence Instrument (UMMCI) was completed in early 1996 and the instrument participated in test flights on the NASA P3B at Wallops Island prior to integration and deployment for the PEM- Tropics A Mission. The UMMCI consists of 4 channels for simultaneous measurements of ozone and NO with the option for measurements of NO2 and NOy (total reactive nitrogen) when converters are placed upstream of the NO channels. Each NO channel consists of a zeroing volume and reaction vessel, while the ozone channel consists of an ozone catalyst (or scrubber) trap that is not in line with the reaction vessel. The detectors in all for channels are Hamamatsu photomultiplier tubes, which are followed by pulse amplifier discriminators on the NO channels and an electrometer on the ozone channel. Schematics of the Detector Module and NOx/03 Probe Insert and Diagrams of the Control and Data System, the Power and Ground System, the Gas Flow System, and the Calibration System Flow are attached. Intercomparisons were conducted with G. Gregory, NASA/Langley, during the test flights (following prior calibration of the ozone generator/calibrators at the Wallops Long-Path Absorption facility). Initial test results appeared to be reasonable, and instrument characterization studies proceeded for the ozone channel and the 3 NO channels until deployment for integration for the PEM-Tropics Mission. Ozone data was obtained for Flights #4, and 6-2 1, and finalized data was submitted to the PEM-Tropics Data Archive and to the Science Team during the April 1997 Data Workshop. Although it initially appeared that the instrument sensitivity varied, subsequent tests showed that this was the fault of a leak in the ozone calibrator. In fact; the instrument sensitivity has not been observed to vary in a large number of tests over the years since the PEM-Tropics mission. We have, therefore, a very high degree of confidence in the O3 data that we

  16. The impact of the 2005 Gulf hurricanes on pollution emissions as inferred from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yasuko; Duncan, Bryan N.; Retscher, Christian; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Celarier, Edward A.; Joiner, Joanna; Boersma, K. Folkert; Veefkind, J. Pepijn

    2010-04-01

    The impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 on pollution emissions in the Gulf of Mexico region was investigated using tropospheric column amounts of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the NASA Aura satellite. Around New Orleans and coastal Mississippi, we estimate that Katrina caused a 35% reduction in NO x emissions on average in the three weeks after landfall. Hurricane Rita caused a significant reduction (20%) in NO x emissions associated with power generation and intensive oil refining activities near the Texas/Louisiana border. We also found a 43% decrease by these two storms over the eastern Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf mainly due to the evacuation of and damage to platforms, rigs, and ports associated with oil and natural gas production.

  17. Nitrogen dioxide detection

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.; Agnew, Stephen F.; Christensen, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

  18. Vertical nitrogen dioxide and ozone concentrations measured from a tethered balloon in the Lower Fraser Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, J. T.; McKendry, I.; Steyn, D. G.; Hastie, D. R.

    A series of vertical profiles of temperature, relative humidity, NO 2 and O 3 were determined in the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, as part of the PACIFIC '93 field study. Data from one day show very structured vertical distributions of all parameters in the morning, as expected from the limited vertical mixing under the nocturnal inversion. NO 2 concentrations of 20 ppbv were observed 300m above the surface, while the surface concentrations were ˜ 2 ppbv. Ozone and nitrogen oxide chemistry were observed at all altitudes throughout the PBL. Titration of O 3 by NO to produce NO 2 was observed in layers above the ground, under the influence of the NBL. An increase in odd oxygen throughout the PBL, during the morning and early afternoon, shows "smog chemistry" is occurring even though the ground-based O 3 measurements suggest this day was not particularly chemically active. However, once the NBL has dissipated, the ground-based measurements seem representative of the entire PBL.

  19. Impact of emissions and +2 °C climate change upon future ozone and nitrogen dioxide over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Laura; Lacressonnière, Gwendoline; Gauss, Michael; Engardt, Magnuz; Andersson, Camilla; Josse, Béatrice; Marécal, Virginie; Nyiri, Agnes; Sobolowski, Stefan; Siour, Guillaume; Szopa, Sophie; Vautard, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of ozone and nitrogen dioxide over Europe between the present day and a future period with a +2 °C global warming relative to the pre-industrial climate was studied using four offline chemistry transport models, each driven by a different climate model. Given the recent outcome of the COP21 negotiations, understanding the implications of climate change around the +2 °C threshold has never been more pressing or relevant. One of the objectives of this study was to show how changes in anthropogenic emissions and +2 °C climate change are expected to affect future air quality, which may have important implications upon human health. It was found that a +2 °C climate change alone was responsible for a modest, and not statistically significant, increase in surface O3 concentrations (of between -0.1-0.8 ppb in the summer averaged over the European domain) compared to the present climate. Two different emission scenarios were used for the future time period in order to provide an estimate of the extent of air pollution reductions that could occur if (a) all currently planned air quality legislation is implemented and (b) all maximum technologically feasible emission reductions are implemented. The results showed that summer O3 could be reduced by between 4 and 5 ppb under a current legislation scenario, with at least 3 ppb of further reductions under the maximum mitigated scenario. Calculations of summer ozone enhancement were used as a metric to analyse the results after having removed background ozone level changes. In conclusion it was found that future air quality on a regional scale will depend upon the implementation of effective emission reduction policy; the positive effects of which should not be hindered by a +2 °C global warming.

  20. Monitoring of atmospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide over the south of Portugal by ground-based and satellite observations.

    PubMed

    Bortoli, Daniele; Silva, Ana Maria; Costa, Maria João; Domingues, Ana Filipa; Giovanelli, Giorgio

    2009-07-20

    The SPATRAM (Spectrometer for Atmospheric TRAcers Monitoring) instrument has been developed as a result of the collaboration between CGE-UE, ISAC-CNR and Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA). SPATRAM is a multi-purpose UV-Vis-scanning spectrometer (250 - 950 nm) and it is installed at the Observatory of the CGE, in Evora, since April 2004. A brief description of the instrument is given, highlighting the technological innovations with respect to the previous version of similar equipment. The need for such measurements automatically taken on a routine basis in south-western European regions, specifically in Portugal, has encouraged the development and installation of the equipment and constitutes a major driving force for the present work. The main features and some improvements introduced in the DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) algorithms are discussed. The results obtained applying DOAS methodology to the SPATRAM spectrometer measurements of diffused spectral sky radiation are presented in terms of diurnal and seasonal variations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)). NO(2) confirms the typical seasonal cycle reaching the maximum of (6.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(+15) molecules cm(-2) for the sunset values (PM), during the summer season, and the minimum of (1.55 +/- 0.07) x 10(+15) molecules cm(-2) for the sunrise values (AM) in winter. O(3) presents the maximum total column of (433 +/- 5) Dobson Unit (DU) in the spring season and the minimum of (284 +/- 3) DU during the fall period. The huge daily variations of the O(3) total column during the spring season are analyzed and discussed. The ground-based results obtained for NO(2) and O(3) column contents are compared with data from satellite-borne equipment (GOME - Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment; SCIAMACHY - Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY; TOMS - Total Ozone Monitoring Spectrometer) and it is shown that the two data

  1. EFFECTS OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND OZONE ON NITROGEN RETRANSLOCATION IN PONDEROSA PINE NEEDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in leaf N concentration can be an important response to air pollutants in trees, with implications both for tree growth and N cycling through forest ecosystems. Ozone causes premature leaf senescence, which may be associated with a shift in N from the senescing leaves to...

  2. Fifteen years of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide and ozone measurements in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortoli, D.; Ravegnani, F.; Giovanelli, G.; Kulkarni, P. S.; Anton, M.; Costa, M. J.; Silva, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    The stratospheric NO2 and O3 total columns and vertical profiles retrieved from the measurements performed the last 15 years by the GASCOD spectrometer installed at the Mario Zucchelli Antarctic Station (MZS) - 74.69S, 164.12E, are presented here and briefly discussed. The full dataset of the spectral data obtained with GASCOD during the period 1996-2009, was re-analyzed with a modified version of the software tool previously utilized. The uncertainties range from 4% up to 8% for O3 and from 3% tup o 6% for NO2. The peculiar features of the seasonal variation of O3 (i.e. during the 'Ozone Hole' periods (mid-August to mid-October) and NO2 total columns (i.e. the normal decreasing during the austral fall and the irregular growing towards the spring months) are clearly identified. For the first time, the NO2 total columns values, obtained with the GASCOD installed at MZS, are compared with the data obtained with satellite borne equipments (SCIAMACHY, GOME and OMI).

  3. The photolysis of chlorine in the presence of ozone, nitric acid and nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuper, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    The following three systems were investigated: the Cl2-O3 system, the Cl2-O2-NO system and the Cl2-NO2-M system. In the first system, the reaction between ClO and O3, the reaction between OClO and O3, and the mechanism of the Cl2-O3 system were studied. In the second system, the reaction between ClOO and NO was investigated. In the last system, the reaction between Cl and NO2 was investigated as well as the kinetics of the chemiluminescence of the Cl-NO2-O3 reaction. In the first system, Cl2 was photolyzed at 366 nm in the presence of O3 within the temperature range 254-297 K. O3 was removed with quantum yields of 5.8 + or - 0.5, 4.0 + or - 0.3, 2.9 + or - 0.3 and 1.9 + or - 0.2 at 297, 283, 273, and 252 K respectively, invariant to changes in the initial O3 or Cl2 concentration, the extent of conversion or the absorbed intensity, I sub a. The addition of nitrogen had no effect on -phi(03). The Cl2 removal quantum yields were 0.11 + or - 0.02 at 297 K for Cl2 conversions of about 30%, much higher than expected from mass balance considerations based on the initial quantum yield of 0.089 + or - 0.013 for OClO formation at 297 K. The final chlorine-containing product was Cl2O7. It was produced at least in part through the formation of OClO as an intermediate which was also observed with an initial quantum yield of phi sub i(OClO) = 2500 exp(-(3025 + or - 625)/T) independent of (O3) or I sub a.

  4. An Overview of Striking Scientific Applications of Nitrogen Dioxide Retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument Between 2004 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, K. F.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides are involved in many atmospheric processes relevant to air pollution, climate change, and environmental stress. Gaseous nitrogen oxides are toxic, regulated by regional authorities and the WHO, and their emissions and chemistry are important for the formation of ozone and aerosols. Nitrogen oxides are thought to act as a net climate cooler, mostly via enhancing the oxidative capacity of the global troposphere resulting in CH4 lifetime reductions, and via the formation of light-scattering particles. In this paper I will discuss how tropospheric NO2 column retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on board EOS-Aura have pushed the envelope in various scientific applications over the last decade. A categorization of these applications shows that OMI NO2 data have been used for (1) high-resolution monitoring of NOx emissions, (2) monitoring trends in NO2 air pollution levels, (3) evaluating mid-day NOx chemistry, (4) evaluating secondary pollutant formation, (5) estimating surface NO2 concentrations, (6) improving forecasting skills of air quality and chemistry transport models, (7) estimating nitrogen deposition to ecosystems, and (8) outreach activities to the general public. I will show some intriguing examples of the above applications, and pay close attention to the steps necessary to arrive at these successful applications. These steps include advanced filtering of the data for e.g. wind direction or speed, spatial pattern recognition to isolate specific emission categories, and more generally improving the description of NOx emission categories and chemistry in models at spatial and temporal scales relevant to OMI and upcoming TROPOMI and geostationary sensors.

  5. Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) measurements using a new algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, A. V.; Timofeyev, Y. M.; Ionov, D. V.; Virolainen, Y. A.; Steele, H. M.; Newchurch, M. J.

    2005-03-01

    We describe a new inversion algorithm developed for the retrieval of atmospheric constituents from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) solar occultation measurements. The methodology differs from the operational (NASA) algorithm in several important ways. Our algorithm takes account of the finite altitude and spectral resolution of the measurements by integrating over the viewing window spectrally and spatially. We solve the problem nonlinearly by using optimal estimation theory, and we use an aerosol parameterization scheme based on eigenvectors derived from existing empirical and modeled information about their microphysical properties. The first four of these eigenvectors are employed in the retrieval algorithm to describe the spectral variation of the aerosol extinction. We retrieve ozone and nitrogen dioxide number densities and aerosol extinction from transmission measurements at 41 channels from 0.29 to 1.55 μm. In this paper we describe the results of the gas retrievals. Numerical simulations test the accuracy of the scheme, and subsequent retrievals from SAGE III transmission data for the period between May and October 2002 produce profiles of O3 and NO2. Comparisons of the O3 and NO2 profiles with those obtained using the SAGE III operational algorithm and with those from independent measurements made by satellites, ozonesondes, and lidar indicate agreement in ozone measurements in the middle and upper stratosphere significantly closer than the natural variability and agreement in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere approximately equal to the natural variability.

  6. Subalpine grassland carbon dioxide fluxes indicate substantial carbon losses under increased nitrogen deposition, but not at elevated ozone concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Matthias; Obrist, Daniel; Novak, Kris; Giger, Robin; Bassin, Seraina; Fuhrer, Jürg

    2010-05-01

    Ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition affect plant carbon (C) dynamics and may thus change ecosystem C-sink/-source properties. We studied effects of increased background O3 concentrations (up to ambient x 2) and increased N deposition (up to +50 kg ha-1 a-1) on mature, subalpine grassland during the third treatment year. During ten days and 13 nights, covering the vegetation period of 2006, we measured ecosystem-level CO2 exchange using a steady state cuvette. Light dependency of gross primary production (GPP) and temperature dependency of ecosystem respiration rates (Reco) were established. Soil temperature, soil water content, and solar radiation were monitored. Using Reco and GPP values, we calculated seasonal net ecosystem production (NEP), based on hourly averages of global radiation and soil temperature. Differences in NEP were compared to differences in soil organic C after five years of treatment. Under high O3 and with unchanged aboveground biomass, both mean Reco and GPP decreased throughout the season. Thus, NEP indicated an unaltered growing season CO2-C balance. Under high N treatment, with a +31% increase in aboveground productivity, mean Reco, but not GPP increased. Consequently, seasonal NEP yielded a 53.9 g C m-2 (± 22.05) C loss compared to control. Independent of treatment, we observed a negative NEP of 146.4 g C m-2 (±15.3). This C loss was likely due to a transient management effect, equivalent to a shift from pasture to hay meadow and a drought effect, specific to the 2006 summer climate. We argue that this resulted from strongly intensified soil microbial respiration, following mitigation of nutrient limitation. There was no interaction between O3 and N treatments. Thus, during the 2006 growing season, the subalpine grassland lost >2% of total topsoil organic C as respired CO2, with increased N deposition responsible for one-third of that loss.

  7. Comparison of Satellite Observations of Nitrogen Dioxide to Surface Monitor Nitrogen Dioxide Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Mary M.; Pippin, Margaret R.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Neil, Doreen O.; Lingenfelser, Gretchen; Szykman, James J.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is one of the U. S. EPA s criteria pollutants, and one of the main ingredients needed for the production of ground-level ozone. Both ozone and nitrogen dioxide cause severe public health problems. Existing satellites have begun to produce observational data sets for nitrogen dioxide. Under NASAs Earth Science Applications Program, we examined the relationship between satellite observations and surface monitor observations of this air pollutant to examine if the satellite data can be used to facilitate a more capable and integrated observing network. This report provides a comparison of satellite tropospheric column nitrogen dioxide to surface monitor nitrogen dioxide concentration for the period from September 1996 through August 1997 at more than 300 individual locations in the continental US. We found that the spatial resolution and observation time of the satellite did not capture the variability of this pollutant as measured at ground level. The tools and processes developed to conduct this study will be applied to the analysis of advanced satellite observations. One advanced instrument has significantly better spatial resolution than the measurements studied here and operates with an afternoon overpass time, providing a more representative distribution for once-per-day sampling of this photochemically active atmospheric constituent.

  8. Exposure assessment of air pollutants: a review on spatial heterogeneity and indoor/outdoor/personal exposure to suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monn, Christian

    This review describes databases of small-scale spatial variations and indoor, outdoor and personal measurements of air pollutants with the main focus on suspended particulate matter, and to a lesser extent, nitrogen dioxide and photochemical pollutants. The basic definitions and concepts of an exposure measurement are introduced as well as some study design considerations and implications of imprecise exposure measurements. Suspended particulate matter is complex with respect to particle size distributions, the chemical composition and its sources. With respect to small-scale spatial variations in urban areas, largest variations occur in the ultrafine (<0.1 μm) and the coarse mode (PM 10-2.5, resuspended dust). Secondary aerosols which contribute to the accumulation mode (0.1-2 μm) show quite homogenous spatial distribution. In general, small-scale spatial variations of PM 2.5 were described to be smaller than the spatial variations of PM 10. Recent studies in outdoor air show that ultrafine particle number counts have large spatial variations and that they are not well correlated to mass data. Sources of indoor particles are from outdoors and some specific indoor sources such as smoking and cooking for fine particles or moving of people (resuspension of dust) for coarse particles. The relationships between indoor, outdoor and personal levels are complex. The finer the particle size, the better becomes the correlation between indoor, outdoor and personal levels. Furthermore, correlations between these parameters are better in longitudinal analyses than in cross-sectional analyses. For NO 2 and O 3, the air chemistry is important. Both have considerable small-scale spatial variations within urban areas. In the absence of indoor sources such as gas appliances, NO 2 indoor/outdoor relationships are strong. For ozone, indoor levels are quite small. The study hypothesis largely determines the choice of a specific concept in exposure assessment, i.e. whether personal

  9. Sensitivity of ginseng to ozone and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, J.T.A.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1981-10-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), was injured by exposure to 20 pphm ozone and/or 50 pphm (v/v) sulfur dioxide for 6 hr daily for 4 days. Ozone induced upper surface leaflet stippling along the veins and interveinally, and sulfur dioxide induced mild chlorosis to irregular necrotic areas. Ginseng was less sensitive to ozone and as sensitive to sulfur dioxide as 'Cherry Belle' radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and 'Bel W-3' tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.).

  10. Nitrogen Dioxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The two most prevalent oxides of nitrogen are nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide (NO). Both are toxic gases with NO2 being a highly reactive oxidant and corrosive. The primary sources indoors are combustion processes.

  11. The Development of a Nitrogen Dioxide Sonde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluis, Wesley; Allaart, Marc; Piters, Ankie; Gast, Lou

    2010-05-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is an important pollutant in the atmosphere, it is toxic for living species, it forms photochemical tropospheric ozone, and acid rain. There is a growing number of space-borne instruments to measure nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere, but validation of these instruments is hampered by lack of ground-based and in-situ profile measurements. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) has developed a working NO2 sonde. The sonde is attached to a small meteorological balloon and measures a tropospheric NO2 profile. The NO2 sonde has a vertical resolution of 5 meter, and a measurement range between 1 and 100 ppbv. The instrument is light in weight (±300 gram), cheap (disposable), energy efficient and not harmful to the environment or the person who finds the package after use. Therefore the popular molybdenum catalytic converter or a photomultiplier tube can not be used. Instead the sonde uses the chemiluminescent reaction of NO2 in an aqueous luminol solution. The NO2- luminol reaction produces a faint blue/purple light (± 425 nm), which is detected by an array of silicon photodiodes. The instrument is equipped with a reservoir filled with luminol solution. A small piezoelectric diaphragm pump, pumps the luminol solution into a reaction vessel. A Teflon air pump forces the ambient air into the reaction vessel. The NO2 in the ambient air reacts with the luminol solution, and the emitted light is detected by an array of silicon photodiodes which are mounted on the reaction vessel. The generated current in the photodiodes is amplified and relayed to the ground by a Vaisala (RS92) radiosonde. The reaction vessel and the amplifiers are mounted in a tin can, to shield against electrostatic and radio interference, and stray light. All the air tubes used for the instrument are made of Teflon. The luminol solution is optimised to be specific to NO2. Sodium sulphate, sodium EDTA and Triton X-100 are added to the luminol solution to

  12. Reaction between nitric oxide and ozone in solid nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, D.; Pimentel, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide, NO2, is produced when nitric oxide, NO, and ozone, O3, are suspended in a nitrogen matrix at 11-20 K. The NO2 is formed with first-order kinetics, a 12 K rate constant of (1.4 + or - 0.2) x 0.00001/sec, and an apparent activation energy of 106 + or - 10 cal/mol. Isotopic labeling, variation of concentrations, and cold shield experiments show that the growth of NO2 is due to reaction between ozone molecules and NO monomers, and that the reaction is neither infrared-induced nor does it seem to be a heavy atom tunneling process. Reaction is attributed to nearest-neighbor NO.O3 pairs probably held in a specific orientational relationship that affects the kinetic behavior. When the temperature is raised, more such reactive pairs are generated, presumably by local diffusion. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  13. Nitrogen fertiliser and stratospheric ozone - Latitudinal effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, R. C.; Borucki, W. J.; Capone, L. A.; Riegel, C. A.; Turco, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    Substantial increases in atmospheric N2O resulting from the increased use of nitrogen fertilizers might cause large (to 10%) decreases in the stratospheric ozone content. Such ozone decreases would be caused by catalytic reaction cycles involving odd-nitrogen that is formed by N2O decomposition in the upper stratosphere. Turco et al. (1978), using a background chlorine level of 2 ppbv, have shown that if the measured values of specified reactions are used a 50% increase in N2O would lead to a 2.7% increase in the stratospheric column density, although the ozone content above 30 km would be reduced by more than 5%; they also estimated (unpublished data) that the change in the ozone column density caused by doubling the N2O abundance would be very close to zero (within about 0.1%). The present paper extends these calculations of N2O/ozone effects to two dimensions, thereby identifying the latitude dependence expected for such ozone perturbations. The effects of changes in stratospheric chlorine levels on predicted ozone changes are also discussed.

  14. Carbon and nitrogen co-dependence of soil microbial responses to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone in a wheat-soybean agroecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change factors such as elevated atmospheric CO2 and ozone can exert significant impacts on soil microbes and microbially-mediated ecosystem processes. However, the underlying mechanisms through which soil microbes respond to these environmental changes remain poorly understood. The current ...

  15. Nitrogen dioxide exposures inside ice skating rinks.

    PubMed Central

    Brauer, M; Spengler, J D

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The common operation of fuel-powered resurfacing equipment in enclosed ice skating rinks has the potential for producing high concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Exposures to these gaseous combustion products may adversely affect the health of those inside the rink. Little information is available on pollutant concentrations under normal operating conditions. METHODS. One-week average nitrogen dioxide concentrations in 70 northeastern US rinks were measured with passive samplers during normal winter season conditions. RESULTS. The median nitrogen dioxide level inside rinks was 180 ppb, more than 10 times higher than the median outdoor concentration. One-week average nitrogen dioxide concentrations above 1000 ppb were measured in 10% of the rinks. CONCLUSIONS. Considering that short-term peak concentrations were likely to have reached two to five times the measured 1-week averages, our results suggest that nitrogen dioxide levels were well above short-term air quality guidelines and constitute a public health concern of considerable magnitude. PMID:8129060

  16. Photoassisted Deposition of Silicon Dioxide from Silane and Nitrogen Dioxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-30

    Photoassisted Deposition of Silicon Dioxide N from Silane and Nitrogfen Diotde, J. MARKS, R. C. BO\\VMAN, Jr., and R.. E. ROBIERTSON Chemisty and...WCO OL-AB I UINCLASSIFIED uv ~E~ CAS(TXI WF MTHISPA REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE ItRPg EUM "IICTO 1b. RE STRICTIVE MARKINGS Unclassified...IDeposition of Silicon Dioxide from e and Nitrogen Dio2x 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) 0Marks, Jeffrey Bowa Robert C., Jr.: anWRobertson. Rubv E. 13.TYPE OF

  17. Synergistic effects of exposure to concentrated ambient fine pollution particles and nitrogen dioxide in humans

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to single pollutants such as ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse health effects. It is unclear, however, if simultaneous exposure to multiple air pollutants (e.g. PM and ozone or nitrogen dioxide), a more real world scenario, results in non-additiv...

  18. EFFECTS OF OZONE, CHLORINE DIOXIDE, CHLORINE, AND MONOCHLORAMINE ON CRYTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYST VIABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purified Cryptosporiodium parvum oocysts were exposed to ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine. Excystation and mouse infectivity were compareatively evaluated to assess oocyst viability. Ozone and chlorine dioxide more effectively inactivated oocysts than chlor...

  19. 21 CFR 868.2385 - Nitrogen dioxide analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. 868.2385 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2385 Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. (a) Identification. The nitrogen dioxide analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  20. 21 CFR 868.2385 - Nitrogen dioxide analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. 868.2385 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2385 Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. (a) Identification. The nitrogen dioxide analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  1. 21 CFR 868.2385 - Nitrogen dioxide analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. 868.2385 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2385 Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. (a) Identification. The nitrogen dioxide analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  2. 21 CFR 868.2385 - Nitrogen dioxide analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. 868.2385 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2385 Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. (a) Identification. The nitrogen dioxide analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  3. 21 CFR 868.2385 - Nitrogen dioxide analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. 868.2385 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2385 Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. (a) Identification. The nitrogen dioxide analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  4. The Impact of Increasing Carbon Dioxide on Ozone Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, Joan E.; Douglass, Anne R.; Considine, David B.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have used the GSFC coupled two-dimensional (2D) model to study the impact of increasing carbon dioxide from 1980 to 2050 on the recovery of ozone to its pre-1980 amounts. We find that the changes in temperature and circulation arising from increasing CO2 affect ozone recovery in a manner which varies greatly with latitude, altitude, and time of year. Middle and upper stratospheric ozone recovers faster at all latitudes due to a slowing of the ozone catalytic loss cycles. In the lower stratosphere, the recovery of tropical ozone is delayed due to a decrease in production and a speed up in the overturning circulation. The recovery of high northern latitude lower stratospheric ozone is delayed in spring and summer due to an increase in springtime heterogeneous chemical loss, and is speeded up in fall and winter due to increased downwelling. The net effect on the higher northern latitude column ozone is to slow down the recovery from late March to late July, while making it faster at other times. In the high southern latitudes, the impact of CO2 cooling is negligible. Annual mean column ozone is predicted to recover faster at all latitudes, and globally averaged ozone is predicted to recover approximately ten years faster as a result of increasing CO2.

  5. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan... change to the flow control date in the oxides of nitrogen budget trading SIP. (b)...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan... change to the flow control date in the oxides of nitrogen budget trading SIP. (b)...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan... change to the flow control date in the oxides of nitrogen budget trading SIP. (b)...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan... change to the flow control date in the oxides of nitrogen budget trading SIP. (b)...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan... change to the flow control date in the oxides of nitrogen budget trading SIP. (b)...

  10. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nitrogen dioxide and pans with luminol chemiluminescent detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J. S.; Bornick, R. M.; Chen, Y.-H.; Marley, N. A.; Environmental Research

    1998-01-01

    Peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) and nitrogen dioxide are important atmospheric air pollutants in the troposphere. These atmospheric nitrogen species are strongly coupled chemically by a clearly temperature-dependent equilibrium in the troposphere. A chemical method that can measure both nitrogen dioxide and PANs rapidly and with sub-part-per-billion detection is described that is based upon a modified luminol detection system coupled to a capillary gas chromatographic column by using helium as a carrier. The system can readily separate and detect nitrogen dioxide, peroxyacetyl nitrate, peroxyproprionyl nitrate, and peroxybutyrl nitrate with detection limits in the low tens of parts per trillion with total analysis time of less than 1 min. Calibration of PAN by thermal decomposition to nitrogen dioxide is demonstrated with PAN detection sensitivities approximately 75% of the sensitivities observed for NO2 luminol detection by using helium as a carrier gas. The advantages of this method for simultaneous measurement of nitrogen dioxide and PANs over ozone chemiluminescent detection and electron capture detection are discussed, as well as potential applications of this method for heterogeneous surface chemistry studies of PANs and nitrogen dioxide and for tropospheric measurements.

  11. Hydrazine/nitrogen dioxide fiber optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrawis, Alfred A.; Santiago, Josephine; Young, Rebecca C.; Baum, J. Clayton

    2004-06-01

    This paper outlines the development of a dual hydrazine/nitrogen dioxide (HZ/NO2) prototype fiber optic sensor utilizing an acid-base indicator that undergoes color changes depending on which gas is present. Bromothymol blue bromocresol green mixture (1/1) in hydrogel (1/1), produces a blue-green indicator for HZ and/or NO2. The sensor was tested several times over a period of eight weeks and the response was cconsistent and proved the feasibility of dual HZ/NO2 leak detection. Prototype sensor construction, the hardware, and the software of the electronic interrogator circuitry are briefly explained. The paper presents a summary of sensor response when exposed to 52 ppm and 18 ppm hydrazine and 400 ppm and 200 ppm nitrogen dioxide.

  12. Collisional energy transfer from excited nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, K.O.

    1991-05-01

    The radiative lifetimes of gaseous nitrogen dioxide excited by pulsed, tunable dye laser radiation are determined for excitation wavelengths ranging from 400 to 750 nm. When the data are expressed in the form of zero-pressure radiative rate constants (k{sub 0}/s{sup {minus}1}), they fit a linear equation with respect to excitation energy. This fit predicts a radiative lifetime of 64 {mu}s for 400 nm excitation and 102 {mu}s at 750 nm. The effects of pressure, observation delay time, and wavelength range of the fluorescence detection apparatus are determined for both radiative lifetime and quenching constant. Dispersed fluorescence spectra from excited nitrogen dioxide are analyzed into three-parameter functions that approximate the corresponding excited state population distributions. Energy transfer from nitrogen dioxide excited at 532 nm and colliding with thirteen buffer gases is studied by this population deconvolution method. The energy removal rate constants increase in the order Ne < Ar < Kr < Xe < He < CO < N{sub 2} < O{sub 2} < NO < NO{sub 2} < CO{sub 2} < SF{sub 6} < SO{sub 2}. The energy transfer rate constant is strongly correlated with the number of degrees of freedom of the buffer molecule and with low vibrational frequencies of the buffer molecule. Population deconvolution from excited nitrogen dioxide fluorescence spectra is again employed to find energy removal rate constants for the NO {sub 2}{sup *}-NO{sub 2} collisions, excited by dye laser at 475.34, 435.04, and 400.00 nm. The energy transfer rate constant increases with decreasing excitation wavelength. The energy removal rate constant between 400 and 532 nm excitation increases as the (3.6 {plus minus} 0.4) power of the excitation photon energy. 76 refs., 67 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR 16347), are not met since the plans do not provide for the degree of nitrogen oxides emission...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR 16347), are not met since the plans do not provide for the degree of nitrogen oxides emission...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1576 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52... strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR 16346), are not met since the plan does not provide for the degree of nitrogen oxides emission...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR 16347), are not met since the plans do not provide for the degree of nitrogen oxides emission...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR 16347), are not met since the plans do not provide for the degree of nitrogen oxides emission...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR 16347), are not met since the plans do not provide for the degree of nitrogen oxides emission...

  19. Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite

  20. Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the 'associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite

  1. Novel nighttime free radical chemistry in severe nitrogen dioxide pollution episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Shi, Ji Ping; Grenfell, J. Lee.

    During winter air pollution episodes, nitrogen dioxide concentrations can far exceed health based guidelines, but to date, there has been no wholly adequate explanation of the atmospheric chemical production of very high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide during such episodes, despite inclusion of the thermal oxidation of nitric oxide with dioxygen, as well as the well known reaction with ozone. In laboratory studies we have shown that both petrol engine exhaust and petrol vapour catalyse the thermal oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide and have identified certain dialkenes as the chemical agent responsible ( Shi and Harrison, 1997). It is postulated that addition of nitrogen dioxide to the dialkene forms a reactive free radical species which initiates a chain reaction during which peroxy species are formed which convert NO to NO 2. A numerical box model including explicit hydrocarbon chemistry and incorporating this mechanism, shows that rates of nitrogen dioxide production observed in London in December 1991 and hitherto unexplained, are explicable by the presence of conjugate dialkenes at concentrations comparable with those which have been observed in polluted urban atmospheres.

  2. 77 FR 64244 - Revision to Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide Monitoring Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 58 RIN 2060-AR59 Revision to Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide Monitoring Requirements AGENCY... deadlines established in the national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 )...

  3. The development of a nitrogen dioxide sonde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluis, W. W.; Allaart, M. A. F.; Piters, A. J. M.; Gast, L. F. L.

    2010-07-01

    A growing number of space-borne instruments measures nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in the troposphere, but validation of these instruments is hampered by lack of ground-based and in-situ profile measurements. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) has developed a working NO2 sonde. The sonde is attached to a small meteorological balloon and measures a tropospheric NO2 profile. The NO2 sonde has a vertical resolution of 5 m, and a measurement range between 1 and 100 ppbv. The instrument is light in weight (±700 g), cheap (disposable), energy efficient and not harmful to the environment or the person who finds the package after use. The sonde uses the chemiluminescent reaction of NO2 in an aqueous luminol solution. The NO2-luminol reaction produces faint blue/purple light (at about 425 nm), which is detected by an array of silicon photodiodes. The luminol solution is optimised to be specific to NO2. An on-ground comparison with measurements from a Photolytic Analyzer of RIVM shows that both instruments measure similar NO2 variations in ambient air. During the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI) in June/July 2009 six vertical profiles of NO2 from the ground to 5 km altitude were measured, which clearly show that the largest amount of NO2 is measured in the boundary layer. The measured boundary layer heights of the NO2 sonde are in good agreement with boundary layer heights determined by a LD40 Ceilometer at Cabauw.

  4. The development of a nitrogen dioxide sonde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluis, W. W.; Allaart, M. A. F.; Piters, A. J. M.; Gast, L. F. L.

    2010-12-01

    A growing number of space-borne instruments measures nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in the troposphere, but validation of these instruments is hampered by the lack of ground-based and in situ profile measurements. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) has developed a working NO2 sonde. The sonde is attached to a small meteorological balloon and measures a tropospheric NO2 profile. The NO2 sonde has a vertical resolution of 5 m and a measurement range between 1 and 100 ppbv. The instrument is light in weight (0.7 kg), cheap (disposable), energy efficient and not harmful to the environment or the person who finds the package after use. The sonde uses the chemiluminescent reaction of NO2 in an aqueous luminol solution. The NO2-luminol reaction produces faint blue/purple light (at about 425 nm), which is detected by an array of silicon photodiodes. The luminol solution is optimised to be specific to NO2. An on-ground comparison with measurements from a Photolytic Analyser of The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) shows that both instruments measure similar NO2 variations in ambient air. During the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring instruments (CINDI) in June/July 2009, six vertical profiles of NO2 from the ground to a 5 km altitude were measured, which clearly show that the largest amount of NO2 is measured in the boundary layer. The measured boundary layer heights of the NO2 sonde are in good agreement with boundary layer heights determined by a LD40 Ceilometer at Cabauw.

  5. Catalytic Activation of Nitrogen Dioxide for Selective Synthesis of Nitroorganics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-15

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0035 Catalytic activation of nitrogen dioxide for selective synthesis SETH BROWN UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME DU LAC Final Report 01...8-98) v Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 12-01-2015 Final 15 Aug 2011 - 14 Aug 2014 Catalytic activation of nitrogen dioxide for selective synthesis...reductive elimination of the nitroarene has not. Nitrogen dioxide can be used as a source of the nitro group in reactions with arylboronic acids or their

  6. 40 CFR 141.535 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.535 Section 141.535 Protection of Environment... § 141.535 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection, you must...

  7. 40 CFR 141.544 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.544 Section 141.544 Protection of Environment... Benchmark § 141.544 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection your system...

  8. 40 CFR 141.544 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.544 Section 141.544 Protection of Environment... Benchmark § 141.544 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection your system...

  9. 40 CFR 141.535 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.535 Section 141.535 Protection of Environment... § 141.535 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection, you must...

  10. 40 CFR 141.535 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.535 Section 141.535 Protection of Environment... § 141.535 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection, you must...

  11. 40 CFR 141.535 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.535 Section 141.535 Protection of Environment... § 141.535 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection, you must...

  12. 40 CFR 141.535 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.535 Section 141.535 Protection of Environment... § 141.535 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection, you must...

  13. 40 CFR 141.544 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.544 Section 141.544 Protection of Environment... Benchmark § 141.544 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection your system...

  14. 40 CFR 141.544 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.544 Section 141.544 Protection of Environment... Benchmark § 141.544 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection your system...

  15. 40 CFR 141.544 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.544 Section 141.544 Protection of Environment... Benchmark § 141.544 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection your system...

  16. Study of solar variability impact on nitrogen dioxide: 2004-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Daniel-Eduard; Voiculescu, Mirela; Merlaud, Alexis; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) locally plays an important role in the radiation budget by absorbing solar radiation at ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelengths. The influence of solar variability on the inter-annual variability and trends in nitrogen dioxide is evaluated for a period of 10 years (2004-2013) using monthly mean tropospheric NO2 measurements of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) version 2.0. Possible signatures of solar variability on nitrogen dioxide time series of NO2 over several cities were analyzed using various statistical methods. Various solar proxies were selected, in order to separate between possible links to solar irradiance and to solar wind. Several locations with different levels of pollution, located in different places of the world (Athens, Jungfraujoch, Lauder, Lisbon, Moscow, and Uccle), were selected. Observations show a clear 27 day period of the NO2 tropospheric Vertical Column Density (VCD) or total Slant Column Density (SCD). NO2 content decreases with increasing activity above polluted areas (e.g. Athens, Moscow) while for unpolluted areas there is no evident correlation (e.g. Lauder, Jungfraujoch). Possible effects of solar wind on NO2 content are observed as well, but the relationship is less clear, since polluted areas seem to respond differently to solar wind variations. The mechanism by which NO2 content can be affected by solar variations relate mainly to ozone production but other paths by which solar energy may be transferred to the lower atmosphere are investigated.

  17. 49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen....336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied... with nitrogen dioxide. Each valve opening must be closed by a solid metal plug with tapered...

  18. 49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen....336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied... with nitrogen dioxide. Each valve opening must be closed by a solid metal plug with tapered...

  19. 49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen....336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied... with nitrogen dioxide. Each valve opening must be closed by a solid metal plug with tapered...

  20. 49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen....336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied... with nitrogen dioxide. Each valve opening must be closed by a solid metal plug with tapered...

  1. 49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen....336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied... with nitrogen dioxide. Each valve opening must be closed by a solid metal plug with tapered...

  2. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Nitrogen Dioxide (Health Criteria)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information, history and background on the development and maintenance of nitrogen dioxide (health criteria) assessments. There is a separate site that has combined NOx/SOx ecological criteria assessment.

  3. Determination of nitrogen dioxide with a chemiluminescent aerosol detector

    SciTech Connect

    Mikuska, P.; Vecera, Z.

    1992-09-15

    A modified detector is described for use in the determination of nitrogen dioxide via reaction with luminol. Chemiluminescence of the aerosol particles formed by crossed streams of the analyte and an alkaline luminol solution was observed by a photomultiplier.

  4. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1993-11-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  5. SAGE observations of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1986-01-01

    The global distribution of nitrogen dioxide in the middle to upper stratosphere (25-45 km altitude) for the period February 1979 to November 1981 has been determined from observations of attenuated solar radiation in the visible region 0.385-0.45 micron by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) satellite instrument. The SAGE-derived NO2 vertical profiles compare well with observations by balloon- and aircraft-borne sensors. The global SAGE NO2 distributions generally show a maximum in mixing ratio of 8 parts per billion by volume at about 35 km altitude near the equatorial latitudes at local sunset. The location of the mixing ratio peak moves synchronously with the overhead sun for the four different seasons. High-latitude NO2 column content shows strong seasonal variation, with a maximum in local summer and a minimum in local winter. Selected data at high-latitude winter seasons are presented, suggesting that the large variation shown could be explained by the coupling of both dynamics and photochemistry of the NO(x) species. Finally, profiles of the ratio of sunset to sunrise NO2 mixing ratios, peaking at about a factor of two at 30 km, are shown.

  6. Effects of ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst viability

    SciTech Connect

    Korich, D.G.; Mead, J.R.; Madore, M.S.; Sinclair, N.A.; Sterling, C.R. )

    1990-05-01

    Purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were exposed to ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine. Excystation and mouse infectivity were comparatively evaluated to assess oocyst viability. Ozone and chlorine dioxide more effectively inactivated oocysts than chlorine and monochloramine did. Greater than 90% inactivation as measured by infectivity was achieved by treating oocysts with 1 ppm of ozone (1 mg/liter) for 5 min. Exposure to 1.3 ppm of chlorine dioxide yielded 90% inactivation after 1 h, while 80 ppm of chlorine and 80 ppm of monochloramine required approximately 90 min for 90% inactivation. The data indicate that C. parvum oocysts are 30 times more resistant to ozone and 14 times more resistant to chlorine dioxide than Giardia cysts exposed to these disinfectants under the same conditions. With the possible exception of ozone, the use of disinfectants alone should not be expected to inactivate C. parvum oocysts in drinking water.

  7. Effects of ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst viability.

    PubMed Central

    Korich, D G; Mead, J R; Madore, M S; Sinclair, N A; Sterling, C R

    1990-01-01

    Purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were exposed to ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine. Excystation and mouse infectivity were comparatively evaluated to assess oocyst viability. Ozone and chlorine dioxide more effectively inactivated oocysts than chlorine and monochloramine did. Greater than 90% inactivation as measured by infectivity was achieved by treating oocysts with 1 ppm of ozone (1 mg/liter) for 5 min. Exposure to 1.3 ppm of chlorine dioxide yielded 90% inactivation after 1 h, while 80 ppm of chlorine and 80 ppm of monochloramine required approximately 90 min for 90% inactivation. The data indicate that C. parvum oocysts are 30 times more resistant to ozone and 14 times more resistant to chlorine dioxide than Giardia cysts exposed to these disinfectants under the same conditions. With the possible exception of ozone, the use of disinfectants alone should not be expected to inactivate C. parvum oocysts in drinking water. PMID:2339894

  8. Nitrogen dioxide absorption in aqueous sodium sulfite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chen Hua

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires additional reduction of acid gases, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides released into the atmosphere from coal-fired electric power plants. In the case of older existing power plants, a possible retrofit strategy is to oxidize nitric oxide (NO, the major constituent of NOsbX in flue gas) to nitrogen dioxide (NOsb2) by the addition of methanol or other hydrocarbons into the duct at an optimum temperature regime. NOsb2 can then be removed by either modifying existing SOsb2 control equipment or by adding a limestone (CaCOsb3) slurry scrubbing process. Limestone reacts with SOsb2 to from CaSOsb3, and the free sulfite (SO{sb3sp{=}}) in the solution is reactive toward NOsb2. The focus of this research is to study the reaction between NOsb2 and aqueous sulfite at elevated temperature and in the presence of gas phase Osb2. The removal of NOsb2 by limestone slurry scrubbing involves the reaction between NOsb2 and SO{sb3sp{=}}, bisulfite (HSO{sb3sp{-}}) and water. The reactions between NOsb2 and SO{sb3sp{=}}/HSO{sb3sp{-}} are first order in both reactants, while the NOsb2-water reaction is second order in NOsb2 concentration. The rate constants of the above reactions and the NOsb2-thiosulfate (Ssb2O{sb3sp{=}}) reaction were determined at 55sp°C. SO{sb3sp{=}} was found to be the most reactive toward NOsb2, while the contribution of chemical reaction still dominated in the absorption of NOsb2 into water. The effect of gas phase SOsb2 and Osb2, and liquid phase additives such as Ssb2O{sb3sp{=}}, Casp{++}, Mgsp{++}, and Clsp{-} on NOsb2 absorption was also investigated. The absorption of NOsb2 catalyzes free radical reactions that lead to sulfite oxidation. A semi-empirical model was proposed to relate the rate of sulfite oxidation to the rate of NOsb2 absorption. Thiosulfate inhibits sulfite oxidation by providing an alternative route for the termination of the free radical reactions, and a fundamental model was derived to quantify the effect

  9. Chlorine, Chloramine, Chlorine Dioxide, and Ozone Susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Robert H.; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Norton, Cheryl D.; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental and patient isolates of Mycobacterium avium were resistant to chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. For chlorine, the product of the disinfectant concentration (in parts per million) and the time (in minutes) to 99.9% inactivation for five M. avium strains ranged from 51 to 204. Chlorine susceptibility of cells was the same in washed cultures containing aggregates and in reduced aggregate fractions lacking aggregates. Cells of the more slowly growing strains were more resistant to chlorine than were cells of the more rapidly growing strains. Water-grown cells were 10-fold more resistant than medium-grown cells. Disinfectant resistance may be one factor promoting the persistence of M. avium in drinking water. PMID:10742264

  10. Low Energy, Low Emissions: Sulfur Dioxide; Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide in Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcamo, Joseph; De Vries, Bert

    1992-01-01

    Links proposed low-energy scenarios for different Western European countries with the amount of pollutants that may result from these scenarios. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for the 10 countries for which low-energy scenarios are available, resulting in reductions of 54%, 37%, and 40%, respectively.…

  11. INFLUENCE OF ELEVATED OZONE AND CARBON DIOXIDE ON INSECT DENSITIES.

    SciTech Connect

    DELUCIA, E.; DERMODY, O.; O'NEILL, B.; ALDEA, M.; HAMILTON, J.; ZANGERL, A.; ROGER, A.; BERENBAUM, M.

    2005-01-05

    The combustion of fossil fuels is profoundly altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere. Beginning with the Industrial Revolution, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased from approximately 280 to 370 {micro}l l{sup -1} in 2004, and it is expected to exceed 550 {micro}l l{sup -1} by 2050. Tropospheric ozone has risen even more rapidly than CO{sub 2} and average summer concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere are expected to continue to increase by 0.5-2.5% per year over the next 30 years. Although elevated CO{sub 2} stimulates photosynthesis and productivity of terrestrial ecosystems, ozone (O{sub 3}) is deleterious. In addition to directly affecting the physiology and productivity of crops, increased concentrations of tropospheric CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} are predicted to lower the nutritional quality of leaves, which has the potential to increase herbivory as insects eat more to meet their nutritional demands. We tested the hypothesis that changes in tropospheric chemistry affect the relationship between plants and insect herbivores by changing leaf quality. The susceptibility to herbivory of soybean grown in elevated CO{sub 2} or O{sub 3} was examined using free air gas concentration enrichment (SoyFACE). FACE technology has the advantage that plants are cultivated under realistic field conditions with no unwanted alteration of microclimate or artificial constraints on the insect community.

  12. Nitrogen dioxide exposure and urinary excretion of hydroxyproline and desmosine

    SciTech Connect

    Adgate, J.L.; Reid, H.F.; Morris, R.; Helms, R.W.; Berg, R.A.; Hu, P.C.; Cheng, P.W.; Wang, O.L.; Muelenaer, P.A.; Collier, A.M. )

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between average and peak personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and urinary excretion of hydroxyproline and desmosine was investigated in a population of preschool children and their mothers. Weekly average personal nitrogen dioxide exposures for subjects who resided in homes with one or more potential nitrogen dioxide source (e.g., a kerosene space heater, gas stove, or tobacco smoke) ranged between 16.3 and 50.6 ppb (30.6 and 95.1 micrograms/m3) for children and between 16.9 and 44.1 ppb (12.8 and 82.9 micrograms/m3) for mothers. In these individuals, the hydroxyproline-to-creatinine and desmosine-to-creatinine ratios were unrelated to personal nitrogen dioxide exposure--even though continuous monitoring documented home nitrogen dioxide concentration peaks of 100-475 ppb lasting up to 100 h in duration. Significantly higher hydroxyproline-to-creatinine and desmosine-to-creatinine ratios were observed in children, compared with mothers (p < .001 and .003, respectively).

  13. Abrupt recent trend changes in atmospheric nitrogen dioxide over the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Lelieveld, Jos; Beirle, Steffen; Hörmann, Christoph; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides, released from fossil fuel use and other combustion processes, affect air quality and climate. From the mid-1990s onward, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been monitored from space, and since 2004 with relatively high spatial resolution by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument. Strong upward NO2 trends have been observed over South and East Asia and the Middle East, in particular over major cities. We show, however, that a combination of air quality control and political factors, including economical crisis and armed conflict, has drastically altered the emission landscape of nitrogen oxides in the Middle East. Large changes, including trend reversals, have occurred since about 2010 that could not have been predicted and therefore are at odds with emission scenarios used in projections of air pollution and climate change in the early 21st century. PMID:26601240

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF NEW DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS FROM OZONE, CHLORINE DIOXIDE, CHLORAMINE, AND CHLORINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concern over the potential adverse health effects of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. Ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are currently popular alternatives to ...

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS FROM OZONE, CHLORINE DIOXIDE, CHLORAMINE, AND CHLORINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many drinking water treatment plants are currently using alternative disinfectants to treat drinking water, with ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine being the most popular. However, compared to chlorine, which has been much more widely studied, there is little information abo...

  16. A satellite-based analysis of temporal dynamics in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide levels over large urban agglomerations worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp; van der A, Ronald; Valdebenito, Alvaro

    2014-05-01

    Satellite observations allow for a consistent perspective on tropospheric nitrogen dioxide at a global scale and their operational status facilitates studies on multi-annual to decadal temporal dynamics. Utilizing close to a decade of data from the SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) sensors, we present in this contribution a global analysis of the temporal dynamics in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over the worlds' major urban agglomerations during the last 10 years. The results indicate that while levels of nitrogen dioxide have been slowly declining in most areas of the United States and Europe over the last decade, very rapid increases in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide can be observed over many megacities and other large urban agglomerations throughout most of Asia, often with highly significant trends. Particularly in Eastern China, increases of 10 to 20 percent per year are quite widespread. Some of the large urban agglomerations with the most rapid increase in nitrogen dioxide pollution are Dhaka in Bangladesh, Kabul in Afghanistan, and Tianjin in China, and these are investigated in more detail. An inter-comparison of trends derived separately from SCIAMACHY and OMI shows that in terms of spatial patterns the resulting trends agree quite well between the two instruments, particularly in the more polluted areas. However, at the individual grid cell level substantial differences can be found. In addition, the satellite-based trends in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide levels were compared to those obtained from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) chemical transport model over the same time period, and furthermore sampling the model at the same time of day as the satellite overpass, thus eliminating the impact of the distinct diurnal cycle of nitrogen dioxide. While generally a good correspondence in the trends has been found between the two data sources

  17. High-resolution measurements from the airborne Atmospheric Nitrogen Dioxide Imager (ANDI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, J. P.; Anand, J. S.; Vande Hey, J. D.; White, J.; Leigh, R. R.; Monks, P. S.; Leigh, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is both a primary pollutant with direct health effects and a key precursor of the secondary pollutant ozone. This paper reports on the development, characterisation and test flight of the Atmospheric Nitrogen Dioxide Imager (ANDI) remote sensing system. The ANDI system includes an imaging UV/Vis grating spectrometer able to capture scattered sunlight spectra for the determination of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations by way of DOAS slant column density and vertical column density measurements. Results are shown for an ANDI test flight over Leicester City in the UK on a cloud-free winter day in February 2013. Retrieved NO2 columns gridded to a surface resolution of 80 m × 20 m revealed hotspots in a series of locations around Leicester City, including road junctions, the train station, major car parks, areas of heavy industry, a nearby airport (East Midlands) and a power station (Ratcliffe-on-Soar). In the city centre the dominant source of NO2 emissions was identified as road traffic, contributing to a background concentration as well as producing localised hotspots. Quantitative analysis revealed a significant urban increment over the city centre which increased throughout the flight.

  18. High-resolution measurements from the airborne Atmospheric Nitrogen Dioxide Imager (ANDI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, J. P.; Anand, J. S.; Vande Hey, J. D.; Leigh, R. R.; Monks, P. S.; Leigh, R. J.

    2015-06-01

    Nitrogen Dioxide is both a primary pollutant with direct health effects and a key precursor of the secondary pollutant ozone. This paper reports on the development, characterisation and test flight of the Atmospheric Nitrogen Dioxide Imager (ANDI) remote sensing system. The ANDI system includes an imaging (UV)-vis grating spectrometer able to capture scattered sunlight spectra for the determination of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations by way of DOAS slant column density and vertical column density measurements. Results are shown for an ANDI test flight over Leicester City in the UK. Retrieved NO2 columns at a surface resolution of 80 m x 20 m revealed hot spots in a series of locations around Leicester City, including road junctions, the train station, major car parks, areas of heavy industry, a nearby airport (East Midlands) and a power station (Ratcliffe-on-Soar). In the city centre the dominant source of NO2 emissions was identified as road traffic, contributing to a background concentration as well as producing localised hot spots. Quantitative analysis revealed a significant urban increment over the city centre which increased throughout the flight.

  19. Very Low Energy Electron Scattering from Ozone and Chlorine Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulley, R. J.; Field, T. A.; Steer, W. A.; Mason, N. J.; Ziesel, J. P.; Lunt, S. L.; Field, D.

    1998-10-01

    Total cross-sections are reported for the scattering of electrons from ozone (O_3) and chlorine dioxide (OClO) for energies in the range of 9 meV to 10 eV. The measurements were made in transmission experiments using a synchrotron photoionization apparatus with an energy resolution in the incident electron beam of ~ 3.5 meV (FWHM). The cross section for O3 shows strong rotational scattering at low energy, through the presence of the permanent dipole moment of O_3. Superposed on this strong scattering signal, there is evidence of a weak structure around 50 meV associated with dissociative attachment. A shape resonance, known from earlier work at ~ 4 meV, is also observed. Electron scattering from OClO is dominated by rotationally inelastic scattering decreasing from a peak at essentially zero eV to an energy of 40 meV, where p-wave attachment becomes more important, peaking at 50--60 meV and extending to several hundred meV.

  20. Fact Sheets and Additional Information Regarding the 2012 Decision to Retain the Secondary NAAQS for Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On April 3, 2012, EPA sdecided to retain the current secondary national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2).This page contains a fact sheet describing that action.

  1. Testing of Colorimetric Tubes for Nitrogen Dioxide and Monomethylhydrazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Philip

    Colorimetric tubes for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) were tested for accuracy and results indicate that at the levels checked the tubes' average deviation was plus or minus 20 percent. Tube NO2 concentrations all read lower than the analyzed concentrations. MMH tubes read much higher than the analyzed concentration of 0.28…

  2. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  3. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  4. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  5. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  6. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  7. Continuous analysis of nitrogen dioxide in gas streams of plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durkin, W. T.; Kispert, R. C.

    1969-01-01

    Analyzer and sampling system continuously monitors nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the feed and tail gas streams of a facility recovering nitric acid. The system, using a direct calorimetric approach, makes use of readily available equipment and is flexible and reliable in operation.

  8. Effect of nitrogen dioxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 10 minute exposure was about 1000 ppm NO2.

  9. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  10. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  11. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  12. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  13. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  14. Internal energy distributions from nitrogen dioxide fluorescence. 2. Collisional energy transfer from excited nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, K.O. Jr.; Johnston, H.S. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1993-09-30

    We follow the collisional deactivation of laser-excited nitrogen dioxide through its dispersed fluorescence. The energy acceptor gases are NO[sub 2] at four excitation energies ranging from 18828 to 24989 cm[sup [minus]1] and five monatomic gases, four diatomic gases, and three polyatomic gases with 18828-cm[sup [minus]1] excitation energy. The nominal products are the shapes of the internal energy distributions, which are obtained and plotted for several representative cases. From these distributions, the first three moments of the internal energy distributions are derived as a function of molecular collisions and tabulated as (i) the average internal energy, (ii) energy spread, and (iii) skewness. These quantities are plotted against c(M)t, the product of buffer gas concentration c(M) and delay time after laser excitation t(0.5-2 [mu]s), which is a quantity proportional to number of collisions. The negative slope of average energy vs c(M)t is the macroscopic energy-transfer rate constant, k[sub [epsilon

  15. Global Ozone and Reactive Nitrogen : Composition, Chemistry and Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sing, Hanwant B.; Bradshaw, J.; Davis, D.; Gregory, G.; Talbot, R.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone plays a central role in the chemistry of the atmosphere both as an ultraviolet shield and as a source of hydroxyl radicals (OH), a potent initiator of atmospheric chemistry. There is evidence to suggest that the ozone abundance in the troposphere (0-10 km) has doubled since the industrial revolution and continues to increase to date. The principle reason for this increase is thought to be the increasing emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) from anthropogenic activities. Although NO(x) is highly reactive and its products such as HN03 are easily removed by deposition, it now appears that its chemistry is quite complex and it can be transported over long distances via its conversion to a variety of nitrates and penetrates. The sources of atmospheric NO(x) include free tropospheric sources such as lightning and subsonic aircraft, as well as surface emissions which are transported to the free troposphere via convective processes. Recent experimental and theoretical studies have tried to unravel the chemistry of reactive nitrogen species, its sources, and their role in ozone formation. In this presentation we shall describe the results from these studies.

  16. Nitrogen Dioxide Trend over the United States: the View from the Ground, the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamsal, Lok N.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Krotkov, Nickolay A.

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) are decreasing over the US due to environmental policies and technological change. We use observations of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite instrument and surface NO2 in-situ measurements from the air quality system (AQS) to quantify the trends, and to establish the relationship between the trends in tropospheric column and surface concentration. Both observations show substantial downward trends from 2005 to 2013, with an average reduction of 35 percent according to OMI and 38 percent according to AQS. The annual reduction rates are largest in 2005-2009: -6.2 percent per year and -7 percent per year observed by OMI and AQS, respectively. We examine various factors affecting the estimated trend in OMI NO2 columns and in-situ NO2 observations. An improved understanding of trend offers valuable insights about effectiveness of emission reduction regulations on state and federal level.

  17. 40 CFR 52.235 - Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of... for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen. EPA is approving an exemption request submitted by the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District on April 26, 1994 for the Monterey Bay ozone nonattainment...

  18. 40 CFR 52.136 - Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of... for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen. EPA is approving an exemption request submitted by the State of Arizona on April 13, 1994 for the Maricopa County ozone nonattainment area from the NOX RACT...

  19. 40 CFR 52.235 - Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of... for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen. EPA is approving an exemption request submitted by the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District on April 26, 1994 for the Monterey Bay ozone nonattainment...

  20. 40 CFR 52.235 - Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of... for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen. EPA is approving an exemption request submitted by the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District on April 26, 1994 for the Monterey Bay ozone nonattainment...

  1. 40 CFR 52.136 - Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of... for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen. EPA is approving an exemption request submitted by the State of Arizona on April 13, 1994 for the Maricopa County ozone nonattainment area from the NOX RACT...

  2. 40 CFR 52.136 - Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of... for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen. EPA is approving an exemption request submitted by the State of Arizona on April 13, 1994 for the Maricopa County ozone nonattainment area from the NOX RACT...

  3. 40 CFR 52.235 - Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of... for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen. EPA is approving an exemption request submitted by the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District on April 26, 1994 for the Monterey Bay ozone nonattainment...

  4. 40 CFR 52.136 - Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of... for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen. EPA is approving an exemption request submitted by the State of Arizona on April 13, 1994 for the Maricopa County ozone nonattainment area from the NOX RACT...

  5. 40 CFR 52.136 - Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of... for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen. EPA is approving an exemption request submitted by the State of Arizona on April 13, 1994 for the Maricopa County ozone nonattainment area from the NOX RACT...

  6. 40 CFR 52.235 - Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of... for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen. EPA is approving an exemption request submitted by the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District on April 26, 1994 for the Monterey Bay ozone nonattainment...

  7. Reactivity of natural organic matter fractions with chlorine dioxide and ozone.

    PubMed

    Swietlik, J; Dabrowska, A; Raczyk-Stanisławiak, U; Nawrocki, J

    2004-02-01

    The effects of ozone and chlorine dioxide on the aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) were studied. The natural as well as oxidised organic matter in aerated and sand filtered water were fractionated using XAD, anion-exchange, and cation-exchange resins procedure into humic acid, hydrophobic acids and neutrals, and hydrophilic acids, bases and neutrals. The main NOM components were hydrophobic, while oxidation with both ozone and chlorine dioxide increased the proportion of hydrophilic fractions. High-pressure size exclusion chromatography with UV-254 nm and UV-220 nm detection was used to determine the differences between molecular weight distribution of natural and oxidised organic matter fractions. The main purpose of this paper was to compare the reactivity of individual NOM fractions with oxidants in order to compare the productivity of biodegradable by-products after oxidation with chlorine dioxide and ozone. The quantity as well as the quality of by-products were analysed by means of ion and gas chromatography.

  8. Effect of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on ICR mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC(50) values were determined for male ICR mice exposed to different concentration of carbon monoxide for 30 min and of nitrogen dioxide for 10 min in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The data indicate that ICR mice are more resistant to these two toxicants than Swiss albino mice. The carbon monoxide LC(50) for a 30-min exposure was about 8,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to 3,570 ppm for Swiss albino mice. The nitrogen dioxide LC(50) for a 10-min exposure was above 2,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to about 1,000 ppm for Swiss albino mice.

  9. Curing preceramic polymers by exposure to nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabe, James A. (Inventor); Lipowitz, Jonathan (Inventor); Lu, Paul P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A rapid method of infusibilizing (curing) preceramic polymers comprising treatment said polymers with gaseous nitrogen dioxide. The infusibilized polymers may be pyrolyzed to temperatures in excess of about 800.degree. C. to yield ceramic materials with low oxygen content and, thus, good thermal stability. The methods are especially useful for the production of ceramic fibers and, more specifically, to the on-line production of ceramic fibers.

  10. Spatially resolved measurements of nitrogen dioxide in an urban environment using concurrent multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, R. J.; Corlett, G. K.; Frieß, U.; Monks, P. S.

    2006-12-01

    A novel system using the technique of concurrent multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy system has been developed and applied to the measurement of nitrogen dioxide in an urban environment. Using five fixed telescopes, slant columns of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, water vapour, and the oxygen dimer, O4, are simultaneously retrieved in five vertically separated viewing directions. The application of this remote sensing technique in the urban environment is explored. Through, the application of several simplifying assumptions a tropospheric concentration of NO2 is derived and compared with an urban background in-situ chemiluminescence detector. The remote sensing and in-situ techniques show good agreement. Owing to the high time resolution of the measurements, the ability to image and quantify plumes within the urban environment is demonstrated. The CMAX-DOAS measurements provide a useful measure of overall NO2 concentrations on a city-wide scale.

  11. Treatment of Ammonia Nitrogen Wastewater in Low Concentration by Two-Stage Ozonization.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xianping; Yan, Qun; Wang, Chunying; Luo, Caigui; Zhou, Nana; Jian, Chensheng

    2015-09-23

    Ammonia nitrogen wastewater (about 100 mg/L) was treated by two-stage ozone oxidation method. The effects of ozone flow rate and initial pH on ammonia removal were studied, and the mechanism of ammonia nitrogen removal by ozone oxidation was discussed. After the primary stage of ozone oxidation, the ammonia removal efficiency reached 59.32% and pH decreased to 6.63 under conditions of 1 L/min ozone flow rate and initial pH 11. Then, the removal efficiency could be over 85% (the left ammonia concentration was lower than 15 mg/L) after the second stage, which means the wastewater could have met the national discharge standards of China. Besides, the mechanism of ammonia removal by ozone oxidation was proposed by detecting the products of the oxidation: ozone oxidation directly and ·OH oxidation; ammonia was mainly transformed into NO₃(-)-N, less into NO₂(-)-N, not into N₂.

  12. Ozone production using dielectric barrier discharge in oxygen and carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontiga, Francisco; Abidat, Roukia; Moreno, Helena; Agustín, Fernández-Rueda; Rebiaï, Saida

    2015-09-01

    The generation of ozone in oxygen and carbon dioxide using a planar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been experimentally investigated. The DBD reactor was operated at moderate voltages (4.2 to 5.6 kV) and frequencies (50 to 500 Hz) and the gas flow rate was varied in the range 50 to 200 cm3/min. The averaged consumed power (<1 W) was evaluated using a monitor capacitor of known capacitance (1 μF). The effluent gas from the DBD reactor was diverted to a gas cell situated inside the sample compartment of a UV spectrophotometer. Therefore, ozone concentration was determined from the measurement of absorbance using Beer-Lambert law. The results have shown that ozone concentration in oxygen grows very linearly with the input power. In contrast, the production of ozone in carbon dioxide is less regular, which may be due to the deposition of a thin layer over the stainless steel electrode during the application of the electrical discharge. Moreover, the rate of ozone production with the injected energy density was found to be 500 times weaker in carbon dioxide than in pure oxygen. This work was supported by the Spanish Government Agency ``Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación'' under Contract No. FIS2011-25161.

  13. 75 FR 6473 - Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50 and 58 Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Based on its review of the air quality criteria for oxides of nitrogen and...

  14. 40 CFR 52.230 - Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.230 Section 52.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter... nitrogen oxides emission reduction attainable through application of reasonably available...

  15. 40 CFR 52.230 - Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.230 Section 52.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter... nitrogen oxides emission reduction attainable through application of reasonably available...

  16. 40 CFR 52.230 - Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.230 Section 52.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter... nitrogen oxides emission reduction attainable through application of reasonably available...

  17. 40 CFR 52.230 - Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.230 Section 52.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter... nitrogen oxides emission reduction attainable through application of reasonably available...

  18. 40 CFR 52.230 - Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.230 Section 52.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter... nitrogen oxides emission reduction attainable through application of reasonably available...

  19. Modeling forest ecosystem responses to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Peter E; Cseke, Leland J; Miller, R Michael; Collart, Frank R

    2014-10-21

    Rising atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and ozone will impact productivity and carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems. The scale of this process and the potential economic consequences provide an incentive for the development of models to predict the types and rates of ecosystem responses and feedbacks that result from and influence of climate change. In this paper, we use phenotypic and molecular data derived from the Aspen Free Air CO2 Enrichment site (Aspen-FACE) to evaluate modeling approaches for ecosystem responses to changing conditions. At FACE, it was observed that different aspen clones exhibit clone-specific responses to elevated atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and ozone. To identify the molecular basis for these observations, we used artificial neural networks (ANN) to examine above and below-ground community phenotype responses to elevated carbon dioxide, elevated ozone and gene expression profiles. The aspen community models generated using this approach identified specific genes and subnetworks of genes associated with variable sensitivities for aspen clones. The ANN model also predicts specific co-regulated gene clusters associated with differential sensitivity to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone in aspen species. The results suggest ANN is an effective approach to predict relevant gene expression changes resulting from environmental perturbation and provides useful information for the rational design of future biological experiments.

  20. Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide scavengers during delivery of inhaled nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, L; Rydgren, G

    1998-09-01

    We have analysed the ability of three nitrogen dioxide absorbing materials (soda lime, noXon and zeolite) to act as nitrogen dioxide scavengers during delivery of inhaled nitric oxide. Different mixtures of gas were produced in a ventilator (Servo Ventilator 300) and passed through an inspiratory tube. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide were measured in the distal part of the tube, with and without the gas having passed through a canister containing the different filter materials. Our findings indicated that nitrogen dioxide was absorbed effectively by all filter materials but that there was re-formation of nitrogen dioxide from nitric oxide and oxygen in or immediately after the canister. This initial production of nitrogen dioxide was very rapid and could not be prevented by the use of scavengers. Thus soda lime and zeolite had no practical effect as scavengers in this delivery system, and the effect of noXon was very slight.

  1. Hydraulic studies of drilling microbores with supercritical steam, nitrogen and carbon dioxide

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ken Oglesby

    2010-01-01

    Hydraulic studies of drilling microbores at various depths and with various hole sizes, tubing, fluids and rates showed theoretical feasibility. WELLFLO SIMULATIONS REPORT STEP 4: DRILLING 10,000 FT WELLS WITH SUPERCRITICAL STEAM, NITROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE STEP 5: DRILLING 20,000 FT WELLS WITH SUPERCRITICAL STEAM, NITROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE STEP 6: DRILLING 30,000 FT WELLS WITH SUPERCRITICAL STEAM, NITROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE Mehmet Karaaslan, MSI

  2. Three air quality studies: Great Lakes ozone formation and nitrogen dry deposition; and Tucson aerosol chemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Theresa

    The Clean Air Act of 1970 was promulgated after thousands of lives were lost in four catastrophic air pollution events. It authorized the establishment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards or (NAAQS) for six pollutants that are harmful to human health and welfare: carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, ozone and sulfur dioxide. The Clean Air Act also led to the establishment of the United Stated Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) to set and enforce regulations. The first paper in this dissertation studies ozone in the Lake Michigan region (Foley, T., Betterton, E.A., Jacko, R., Hillery, J., 2011. Lake Michigan air quality: The 1994-2003 LADCO Aircraft Project (LAP). Atmospheric Environment 45, 3192-3202.) The Chicago-Milwaukee-Gary metropolitan area has been unable to meet the ozone NAAQS since the Clean Air Act was implemented. The Lake Michigan Air Directors' Consortium (LADCO) hypothesized that land breezes transport ozone precursor compounds over the lake, where a large air/water temperature difference creates a shallow conduction layer, which is an efficient reaction chamber for ozone formation. In the afternoon, lake breezes and prevailing synoptic winds then transport ozone back over the land. To further evaluate this hypothesis, LADCO sponsored the 1994-2003 LADCO Aircraft Project (LAP) to measure the air quality over Lake Michigan and the surrounding areas. This study has found that the LAP data supports this hypothesis of ozone formation, which has strong implications for ozone control strategies in the Lake Michigan region. The second paper is this dissertation (Foley, T., Betterton, E.A., Wolf, A.M.A., 2012. Ambient PM10 and metal concentrations measured in the Sunnyside Unified School District, Tucson, Arizona. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 43, 67-76) evaluated the airborne concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns or less) and eight metalloids and metals

  3. Developmental and hematological responses to low level continuous exposure of nitrogen dioxide in mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J.

    1977-01-01

    Young healthy mice were continuously exposed to 0ppm, 0.5ppm, 1.0ppm and 5ppm nitrogen dioxide gas for eight weeks. Nitrogen dioxide exposure for eight weeks decreased the average weight of mice, increased the average weight of lungs, heart, and brain and decreased the average weight of liver. Nitrogen dioxide exposure did not have any effects on the WBC and RBC in mice blood but it increased the HCT and HGB in mice blood. Nitrogen dioxide exposure increased the MCV and decreased the MCH and MCHC in mice blood.

  4. Reactive nitrogen oxides and ozone above a taiga woodland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakwin, Peter S.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Munger, J. William; Daube, Bruce C.; Bradshaw, John D.; Sandholm, Scott T.; Talbot, Robert W.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Gregory, Gerald L.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of reactive nitrogen oxides (NO(x) and NO(y)) and ozone (O3) were made in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) above a taiga woodland in northern Quebec, Canada, during June-August, 1990, as part of NASA Artic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B. Levels of nitrogen oxides and O3 were strongly modulated by the synoptic scale meteorology that brought air from various source regions to the site. Industrial pollution from the Great Lakes region of the U.S. and Canada appears to be a major source for periodic elevation of NO(x), and NO(y) and O3. We find that NO/NO2 ratios at this site at midday were approximately 50% those expected from a simple photochemical steady state between NO(x) and O3, in contrast to our earlier results from the ABLE 3A tundra site. The difference between the taiga and tundra sites is likely due to much larger emissions of biogenic hydrocarbons (particularly isoprene) from the taiga vegetation. Hydrocarbon photooxidation leads to relatively rapid production of peroxy radicals, which convert NO to NO2, at the taiga site. Ratios of NO(x) to NO(y) were typically 2-3 times higher in the PBL during ABLE 3B than during ABLE 3A. This is probably the result of high PAN levels and suppressed formation of HNO3 from NO2 due to high levels of biogenic hydrocarbons at the ABLE 3B site.

  5. International comparison CCQM-K76: Sulfur dioxide in nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Franklin R.; Kelley, Michael E.; Mitchell, Gerald D.; de Jesús Avila Salas, Manuel; Koelliker Delgado, Jorge; Rangel Murillo, Francisco; Serrano Caballero, Victor M.; Pérez Castorena, Alejandro; Shinji, Uehara; Ciecior, Dariusz; Smarçaro da Cunha, Valnei; Rodrigues Augusto, Cristiane; Cipriano Ribeiro, Claudia; de Lima Fioravante, Andreia; Dias, Florbela; Sang-Hyub, Oh; Macé, Tatiana; Sutour, Christophe; Büki, Tamás; Qiao, Han; Botha, Angelique; Mogale, David M.; Tshilongo, James; Ntsasa, Napo; Mphamo, Tshepiso; Uprichard, Ian; Milton, Martin; Vargha, Gergely; Brookes, Chris; Johri, Prabha; Valkova, Miroslava; Konopelko, Leonid; Kustikov, Yury; Pankratov, V. V.; Rumyantsev, D. V.; Pavlov, M. V.; Gromova, E. V.; van der Veen, Adriaan; van Otterloo, Peter; Wessel, Rob M.

    2011-01-01

    The key comparison CCQM-K76 was designed to test the capabilities of the participants to measure and certify sulfur dioxide in nitrogen, and to provide supporting evidence for the CMCs of these institutes for sulfur dioxide. Also, as sulfur dioxide is designated a core compound, and the 100 µmol/mol concentration is within the designated core compound concentration range, this comparison was also designed to demonstrate core capabilities of institutes which qualify under the rules of the Gas Analysis Working Group. The results of all 16 participants in this key comparison, except for three, are consistent with their key comparisons reference values. The three participants which are outside the KCRV interval are NIM, SMU and NPLI. This comparison may be used to demonstrate core analytical capabilities in accordance with the rules and procedures of the CCQM Gas Analysis Working group. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  6. Reactive nitrogen oxides and ozone above a taiga woodland

    SciTech Connect

    Bakwin, P.S.; Jacob, D.J.; Wofsy, S.C.; Munger, J.W.; Daube, B.C.; Bradshaw, J.D.; Sandholm, S.T.; Talbot, R.W.; Singh, H.B.; Gregory, G.L.

    1994-01-20

    Measurements of reactive nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and NO{sub y}) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were made in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) above a taiga woodland in northern Quebec, Canada, during June-August, 1990, as part of NASA Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B. Levels of nitrogen oxides and O{sub 3} were strongly modulated by the synoptic scale meteorology that brought air from various regions to the site. Industrial pollution from the Great Lakes region of the US and Canada appears to be a major source for periodic elevation of NO{sub x}, NO{sub y} and O{sub 3}. We find that NO/NO{sub 2} ratios at this site at midday were approximately 50% those expected from a simple photochemical steady state between NO{sub x} and O{sub 3}, in contrast to our earlier results from the ABLE 3A tundra site. The difference between the taiga and tundra sites is likely due to much larger emissions of biogenic hydrocarbons (particularly isoprene) from the taiga vegetation. Hydrocarbon photooxidation leads to relatively rapid production of peroxy radicals, which convert NO to NO{sub 2}, at the taiga site. Ratios of NO{sub x} to NO{sub y} were typically 2-3 times higher in the PBL during ABLE 3B than during ABLE 3A. This is probably the result of high PAN levels and suppressed formation of HNO{sub 3} from NO{sub 2} due to high levels of biogenic hydrocarbons at the ABLE 3B site. 36 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone alter productivity and ecosystem carbon content in northern temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Kubiske, Mark E; Zak, Donald R; Campany, Courtney E; Burton, Andrew J; Dickson, Richard E; Hendrey, George R; Isebrands, J G; Lewin, Keith F; Nagy, John; Karnosky, David F

    2014-08-01

    Three young northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and tropospheric ozone (O3 ) for 11 years. Here, we report results from an extensive sampling of plant biomass and soil conducted at the conclusion of the experiment that enabled us to estimate ecosystem carbon (C) content and cumulative net primary productivity (NPP). Elevated CO2 enhanced ecosystem C content by 11%, whereas elevated O3 decreased ecosystem C content by 9%. There was little variation in treatment effects on C content across communities and no meaningful interactions between CO2 and O3 . Treatment effects on ecosystem C content resulted primarily from changes in the near-surface mineral soil and tree C, particularly differences in woody tissues. Excluding the mineral soil, cumulative NPP was a strong predictor of ecosystem C content (r(2) = 0.96). Elevated CO2 enhanced cumulative NPP by 39%, a consequence of a 28% increase in canopy nitrogen (N) content (g N m(-2) ) and a 28% increase in N productivity (NPP/canopy N). In contrast, elevated O3 lowered NPP by 10% because of a 21% decrease in canopy N, but did not impact N productivity. Consequently, as the marginal impact of canopy N on NPP (∆NPP/∆N) decreased through time with further canopy development, the O3 effect on NPP dissipated. Within the mineral soil, there was less C in the top 0.1 m of soil under elevated O3 and less soil C from 0.1 to 0.2 m in depth under elevated CO2 . Overall, these results suggest that elevated CO2 may create a sustained increase in NPP, whereas the long-term effect of elevated O3 on NPP will be smaller than expected. However, changes in soil C are not well-understood and limit our ability to predict changes in ecosystem C content.

  8. Reactive nitrogen partitioning and its relationship to winter ozone events in Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, R. J.; Edwards, P. M.; Bates, T. S.; Cohen, R. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Dubé, W. P.; Gilman, J. B.; Holloway, J.; Kercher, J.; Koss, A. R.; Lee, L.; Lerner, B. M.; McLaren, R.; Quinn, P. K.; Roberts, J. M.; Stutz, J.; Thornton, J. A.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Williams, E.; Young, C. J.; Yuan, B.; Zarzana, K. J.; Brown, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    High wintertime ozone levels have been observed in the Uintah Basin, Utah, a sparsely populated rural region with intensive oil and gas operations. The reactive nitrogen budget plays an important role in tropospheric ozone formation. Measurements were taken during three field campaigns in the winters of 2012, 2013 and 2014, which experienced varying climatic conditions. Average concentrations of ozone and total reactive nitrogen were observed to be 2.5 times higher in 2013 than 2012, with 2014 an intermediate year in most respects. However, photochemically active NOx (NO + NO2) remained remarkably similar all three years. Nitric acid comprised roughly half of NOz ( ≡ NOy - NOx) in 2013, with nighttime nitric acid formation through heterogeneous uptake of N2O5 contributing approximately 6 times more than daytime formation. In 2012, N2O5 and ClNO2 were larger components of NOz relative to HNO3. The nighttime N2O5 lifetime between the high-ozone year 2013 and the low-ozone year 2012 is lower by a factor of 2.6, and much of this is due to higher aerosol surface area in the high-ozone year of 2013. A box-model simulation supports the importance of nighttime chemistry on the reactive nitrogen budget, showing a large sensitivity of NOx and ozone concentrations to nighttime processes.

  9. Elevated ozone and nitrogen deposition affect nitrogen pools of subalpine grassland.

    PubMed

    Bassin, Seraina; Käch, David; Valsangiacomo, Alain; Mayer, Jochen; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Volk, Matthias; Fuhrer, Jürg

    2015-06-01

    In a free-air fumigation experiment with subalpine grassland, we studied long-term effects of elevated ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition on ecosystem N pools and on the fate of anthropogenic N. At three times during the seventh year of exposure, N pools and recovery of a stable isotope tracer ((15)N) were determined in above- and belowground plant parts, and in the soil. Plants were much better competitors for (15)N than soil microorganisms. Plant N pools increased by 30-40% after N addition, while soil pools remained unaffected, suggesting that most of the extra N was taken up and stored in plant biomass, thus preventing the ecosystem from acquiring characteristics of eutrophication. Elevated O3 caused an increase of N in microbial biomass and in stabilized soil N, probably resulting from increased litter input and lower litter quality. Different from individual effects, the interaction between the pollutants remained partly unexplained.

  10. Sighting of el chichon sulfur dioxide clouds with the nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Krueger, A J

    1983-06-24

    The eruptions of El Chichón volcano on 28 March and 3 and 4 April 1982 were observed by the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer due to strong absorption by volcanic gases at the shortest wavelengths of the spectrometer (312.5 and 317.5 nanometers). These ultraviolet pictures permit a measurement of the volume, dispersion, and drift of volcanic gas clouds. The tropospheric clouds were rapidly dispersed in westerly winds while persistent stratospheric clouds drifted in easterly winds at speeds up to 13 meters per second. The spectral reflectance is consistent with sulfur dioxide absorption and rules out carbon disulfide as a major constituent. A preliminary estimate of the mass of sulfur dioxide deposited in the stratosphere by the large eruptions on 3 and 4 April is 3.3 x 10(6) tons. Prior estimates of volcanic cloud volume were based on extrapolation of locally measured sulfur dioxide concentrations.

  11. Sighting of El Chichon sulfur dioxide clouds with the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    The eruptions of El Chichon volcano on March 28 and April 3 and 4, 1982 were observed by the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer due to strong absorption by volcanic gases at the shortest wavelengths of the spectrometer (312.5 and 317.5 nm). These ultraviolet pictures permit a measurement of the volume, dispersion, and drift of volcanic gas clouds. The tropospheric clouds were rapidly dispersed in westerly winds while persistent stratospheric clouds drifted in easterly winds at speeds up to 13 m/sec. The spectral reflectance is consistent with sulfur dioxide absorption and rules out carbon disulfide as a major constituent. A preliminary estimate of the mass of sulfur dioxide deposited in the stratosphere by the large eruptions on April 3 and 4 is 3.3 million tons. Prior estimates of volcanic cloud volume were based on extrapolation of locally measured sulfur dioxide concentrations.

  12. Sighting of El Chichon sulfur dioxide clouds with the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, A.J.

    1983-06-24

    The eruptions of El Chichon volcano on 28 March and 3 and 4 April 1982 were observed by the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer due to strong adsorption by volcanic gases at the shortest wavelenghts of the spectrometer (312.5 and 317.5 nanometers). These ultraviolet pictures permit a measurement of the volume, dispersion, and drift of volcanic gas clouds. The tropospheric clouds were rapidly dispersed in westerly winds while persistent stratospheric clouds drifted in easterly winds at speeds up to 13 meters per second. The spectral reflectance is consistent with sulfur dioxide adsorption and rules out carbon disulfide as a major constituent. A preliminary estimate of the mass of sulfur dioxide deposited in the stratosphere by the large eruptions on 3 and 4 April is 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ tons. Prior estimates of volcanic cloud volume were based on extrapolation of locally measured sulfur dioxide concentrations.

  13. Sighting of El Chichon sulfur dioxide clouds with the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, A.J.

    1983-06-24

    The eruptions of El Chichon volcano on 28 March and 3 and 4 April 1982 were observed by the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer due to strong absorption by volcanic gases at the shortest wavelengths of the spectrometer (312.5 and 317.5 nanometers). These ultraviolet pictures permit a measurement of the volume, dispersion, and drift of volcanic gas clouds. The tropospheric clouds were rapidly dispersed in westerly winds while persistent stratospheric clouds drifted in easterly winds at speeds up to 13 meters per second. The spectral reflectance is consistent with sulfur dioxide absorption and rules out carbon disulfide as a major constituent. A preliminary estimate of the mass of sulfur dioxide deposited in the stratosphere by the large eruptions on 3 and 4 April is 3.3x10/sup 6/ tons. Prior estimates of volcanic cloud volume were based on extrapolation of locally measured sulfur dioxide concentrations.

  14. Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in children

    SciTech Connect

    Neas, L.M.; Dockery, D.W.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.; Speizer, F.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr. )

    1991-07-15

    The effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide on the cumulative incidence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function level was studied in a cohort of 1,567 white children aged 7-11 years examined in six US cities from 1983 through 1988. Week-long measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained at three indoor locations over 2 consecutive weeks in both the winter and the summer months. The household annual average nitrogen dioxide concentration was modeled as a continuous variable and as four ordered categories. Multiple logistic regression analysis of symptom reports from a questionnaire administered after indoor monitoring showed that a 15-ppb increase in the household annual nitrogen dioxide mean was associated with an increased cumulative incidence of lower respiratory symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (95% Cl) 1.1-1.7). The response variable indicated the report of one or more of the following symptoms: attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze, chronic wheeze, chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or bronchitis. Girls showed a stronger association (OR = 1.7, 95% Cl 1.3-2.2) than did boys (OR = 1.2, 95% Cl 0.9-1.5). An analysis of pulmonary function measurements showed no consistent effect of nitrogen dioxide. These results are consistent with earlier reports based on categorical indicators of household nitrogen dioxide sources and provide a more specific association with nitrogen dioxide as measured in children's homes.

  15. Interaction of ozone and carbon dioxide with polycrystalline potassium bromide and its atmospheric implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levanov, Alexander V.; Isaikina, Oksana Ya.; Maksimov, Ivan B.; Lunin, Valerii V.

    2017-03-01

    It has been discovered for the first time that gaseous ozone in the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor interacts with crystalline potassium bromide giving gaseous Br2 and solid salts KHCO3 and KBrO3. Molecular bromine and hydrocarbonate ion are the products of one and the same reaction described by the stoichiometric equation 2KBr(cr.) + O3(gas) + 2CO2(gas) + H2O(gas) → 2KHCO3(cr.) + Br2(gas) + O2(gas). The dependencies of Br2, KHCO3 and KBrO3 formation rates on the concentrations of O3 and CO2, humidity of initial gas mixture, and temperature have been investigated. A kinetic scheme has been proposed that explains the experimental regularities found in this work on the quantitative level. According to the scheme, the formation of molecular bromine and hydrocarbonate is due to the reaction between hypobromite BrO-, the primary product of bromide oxidation by ozone, with carbon dioxide and water; bromate results from consecutive oxidation of bromide ion by ozone Br- → +O3 , -O2 BrO- → +O3 , -O2 BrO2- → +O3, -O2 BrO3- .

  16. Surface modification of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by ozone via atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lushington, Andrew; Liu, Jian; Tang, Yongji; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2014-01-15

    The use of ozone as an oxidizing agent for atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is rapidly growing due to its strong oxidizing capabilities. However, the effect of ozone on nanostructured substrates such as nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) and pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) are not very well understood and may provide an avenue toward functionalizing the carbon nanotube surface prior to deposition. The effects of ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs and PCNTs using 10 wt. % ozone at temperatures of 150, 250, and 300 °C are studied. The effect of ozone pulse time and ALD cycle number on NCNTs and PCNTs was also investigated. Morphological changes to the substrate were observed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were also conducted to determine surface area, pore size, and pore size distribution following ozone treatment. The graphitic nature of both NCNTs and PCNTs was determined using Raman analysis while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to probe the chemical nature of NCNTs. It was found that O{sub 3} attack occurs preferentially to the outermost geometric surface of NCNTs. Our research also revealed that the deleterious effects of ozone are found only on NCNTs while little or no damage occurs on PCNTs. Furthermore, XPS analysis indicated that ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs, at elevated temperatures, results in loss of nitrogen content. Our studies demonstrate that ALD ozone treatment is an effective avenue toward creating low nitrogen content, defect rich substrates for use in electrochemical applications and ALD of various metal/metal oxides.

  17. Analysis of Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulphur Dioxide in Lima, Peru: Trends and Seasonal Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacsi, S.; Rappenglueck, B.

    2007-12-01

    This research was carried out to show a general analysis of the monthly and yearly variation (1996-2002) and the tendency of the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) for the 5 stations of the air quality network of Lima. The SO2 and NO2 concentrations were measured by the Dirección General de Salud Ambiental (DIGESA), using the active sampling method and the chemical analysis has been determined by Turbidimetry and Colorimetry for the SO2 and NO2 respectively. The monthly average variation (1996-2001) of SO2 in the Lima Center station has a small annual range (32,4 mikrograms/m3) with maximum values in autumn (April) and minimum in winter (June). The NO2 presents a higher annual range (128,2 mikrograms/m3) and its minimum values occur in the summer and the maximum in spring. The annual averages analysis (2000-2002) of the air quality monitoring network of Lima shows that the SO2 and NO2 values are maximum in the Lima Center station and exceed the Peruvian air quality standard (ECAs) in 30% and 75% respectively. The yearly variation (1996-2001) in the Lima Center station show an increasing tendency in the SO2 (significant) and NO2 (not significant) values, which indicates the critical level of the air quality in Lima, therefore the implementation of the air pollution control programs is urgent.

  18. Stratospheric nitrogen dioxide in Antarctic regions from ground based and satellite observations during 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortoli, Daniele; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Kostadinov, Ivan K.; Petritoli, Andrea; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Costa, Maria J.; Silva, Ana M.

    2003-04-01

    The application of Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) methodology to the zenith scattered light data collected with the GASCOD spectrometer developed at the ISAC Institute allow for the detection of stratospheric trace gases involved in the ozone cycle such as NO2, OClO, BrO. The instrument was installed in December 1995 in the Italian Antarctic station at Terra Nova Bay (74°26'S, 164°03E', Ross Sea), after several tests both in laboratory and in Antarctic region, for unattended and continuous measurement in extreme high-latitude environment. The GASCOD is still working and producing very interesting data for the study of the denitrification processes during the formation of the so-called ozone hole over the Antarctic region. For the continuous NO2 monitoring for whole the year, also during winter when the station is unmanned, the [407 - 460] nm spectral region is investigated. The results for Nitrogen Dioxide, obtained by application of DOAS algorithms to the data recorded during the year 2001, are presented. ERS-2 was launched in April 1995 into a near-polar sun-synchronous orbit at a mean altitude of 795 km. The descending node crosses the equator at 10:30 local time. GOME is a nadir-scanning double monochromator covering the 237 nm to 794 nm wavelength range with a spectral resolution of 0.17-0.33 nm. The spectrum is split into four spectral channels, each recorded quasi-simultaneously by a 1024-pixel photodiode array. The global spatial coverage is obtained within 3 days at the equator by a 960 km across-track swath (4.5 s forward scan, 1.5 s back scan). The ground pixel size of the measurements is 320 X 40 km2. A comparison of GASCOD and GOME results for NO2 total column is performed.

  19. Treatment of Ammonia Nitrogen Wastewater in Low Concentration by Two-Stage Ozonization

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xianping; Yan, Qun; Wang, Chunying; Luo, Caigui; Zhou, Nana; Jian, Chensheng

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia nitrogen wastewater (about 100 mg/L) was treated by two-stage ozone oxidation method. The effects of ozone flow rate and initial pH on ammonia removal were studied, and the mechanism of ammonia nitrogen removal by ozone oxidation was discussed. After the primary stage of ozone oxidation, the ammonia removal efficiency reached 59.32% and pH decreased to 6.63 under conditions of 1 L/min ozone flow rate and initial pH 11. Then, the removal efficiency could be over 85% (the left ammonia concentration was lower than 15 mg/L) after the second stage, which means the wastewater could have met the national discharge standards of China. Besides, the mechanism of ammonia removal by ozone oxidation was proposed by detecting the products of the oxidation: ozone oxidation directly and ·OH oxidation; ammonia was mainly transformed into NO3−-N, less into NO2−-N, not into N2. PMID:26404353

  20. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone alter productivity and ecosystem carbon content in northern temperate forests

    PubMed Central

    Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Kubiske, Mark E; Zak, Donald R; Campany, Courtney E; Burton, Andrew J; Dickson, Richard E; Hendrey, George R; Isebrands, J G; Lewin, Keith F; Nagy, John; Karnosky, David F

    2014-01-01

    Three young northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) for 11 years. Here, we report results from an extensive sampling of plant biomass and soil conducted at the conclusion of the experiment that enabled us to estimate ecosystem carbon (C) content and cumulative net primary productivity (NPP). Elevated CO2 enhanced ecosystem C content by 11%, whereas elevated O3 decreased ecosystem C content by 9%. There was little variation in treatment effects on C content across communities and no meaningful interactions between CO2 and O3. Treatment effects on ecosystem C content resulted primarily from changes in the near-surface mineral soil and tree C, particularly differences in woody tissues. Excluding the mineral soil, cumulative NPP was a strong predictor of ecosystem C content (r2 = 0.96). Elevated CO2 enhanced cumulative NPP by 39%, a consequence of a 28% increase in canopy nitrogen (N) content (g N m−2) and a 28% increase in N productivity (NPP/canopy N). In contrast, elevated O3 lowered NPP by 10% because of a 21% decrease in canopy N, but did not impact N productivity. Consequently, as the marginal impact of canopy N on NPP (ΔNPP/ΔN) decreased through time with further canopy development, the O3 effect on NPP dissipated. Within the mineral soil, there was less C in the top 0.1 m of soil under elevated O3 and less soil C from 0.1 to 0.2 m in depth under elevated CO2. Overall, these results suggest that elevated CO2 may create a sustained increase in NPP, whereas the long-term effect of elevated O3 on NPP will be smaller than expected. However, changes in soil C are not well-understood and limit our ability to predict changes in ecosystem C content. PMID:24604779

  1. Aircraft measurements of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacyl nitrates using luminol chemiluminescence with fast capillary gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A.; Drayton, P.J.

    1997-09-01

    Peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) are important trace gas species associated with photochemical air pollution. The PANs are in thermal equilibrium with the peroxyacetyl radical and NO{sub 2}. Because PANs are trapped peroxy radicals, they are an important indicator species of the photochemical age of an air parcel, as well as being a means of long-range transporting of NO{sub 2}, leading to the formation of regional ozone and other oxidants. Typically, PANs are measured by using a gas chromatograph with electron-capture detection (ECD). Once automated, this method has been shown to be reliable and quite sensitive, allowing the levels of PANs to be measured at low parts per trillion in the troposphere. Unfortunately, a number of other atmospheric gases also have strong ECD signals or act as inferences and limit the speed in which the analysis can be completed. Currently, the shortest analysis time for PAN is approx. 5 minutes with ECD. The authors recent examined the luminol detection of NO{sub 2} and PANs using gas capillary chromatography for rapid monitoring of these important trace gases. Analysis of the PANs (PAN, PPN, and PBN) and NO{sub 2} in one minute has been demonstrated in laboratory studies by using this approach. Reported here are modifications of this instrument for aircraft operation and preliminary results from test flights taken near Pasco, Washington in August of 1997.

  2. Oxidative elimination of cyanotoxins: comparison of ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Eva; Onstad, Gretchen D; Kull, Tomas P J; Metcalf, James S; Acero, Juan L; von Gunten, Urs

    2007-08-01

    As the World Health Organization (WHO) progresses with provisional Drinking Water Guidelines of 1 microg/L for microcystin-LR and a proposed Guideline of 1 microg/L for cylindrospermopsin, efficient treatment strategies are needed to prevent cyanotoxins such as these from reaching consumers. A kinetic database has been compiled for the oxidative treatment of three cyanotoxins: microcystin-LR (MC-LR), cylindrospermopsin (CYN), and anatoxin-a (ANTX) with ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate. This kinetic database contains rate constants not previously reported and determined in the present work (e.g. for permanganate oxidation of ANTX and chlorine dioxide oxidation of CYN and ANTX), together with previously published rate constants for the remaining oxidation processes. Second-order rate constants measured in pure aqueous solutions of these toxins could be used in a kinetic model to predict the toxin oxidation efficiency of ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate when applied to natural waters. Oxidants were applied to water from a eutrophic Swiss lake (Lake Greifensee) in static-dose testing and dynamic time-resolved experiments to confirm predictions from the kinetic database, and to investigate the effects of a natural matrix on toxin oxidation and by-product formation. Overall, permanganate can effectively oxidize ANTX and MC-LR, while chlorine will oxidize CYN and MC-LR and ozone is capable of oxidizing all three toxins with the highest rate. The formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the treated water may be a restriction to the application of sufficiently high-chlorine doses.

  3. Table of Historical Nitrogen Dioxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    See the history of limits to the level of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air, set through the NAAQS review and rulemaking process under the Clean Air Act. This includes both primary and secondary standards.

  4. Effect of nitrogen dioxide on human nasal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, J.L.; Collier, A.M.; Hu, S.C.; Delvin, R.B. )

    1993-09-01

    The nasal epithelium of young adult white men in good health was evaluated by electron microscopy in a condition blind fashion relative to exposures of 2 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2) or clean air for 4 h. The exposure protocol involved two separate exposures of the same individuals to NO2 or clean air approximately 3 wk apart. We found qualitative and quantitative evidence that luminal border membranes of ciliated cells were ultrastructurally altered in six of seven samples of nasal epithelium obtained following NO2 exposures, although subsequent morphometric statistical analyses were not significant. This alteration was characterized by cilia containing excess matrix in which individual or, more commonly, multiple ciliary axonemes were embedded, and by vesiculations of luminal border ciliary membranes, a pattern less common in clean air-exposed control specimens. Although these patterns were not widespread, their morphology was consistent with findings of previous animal studies involving acute and chronic exposure to NO2. Our findings suggest that adverse effects on mucociliary function in normal humans due to acute exposure to low levels of NO2 are most likely minimal. However, in view of other reports of NO2 exposure in laboratory animals documenting ciliary injury, our observations support a view that similar patterns might appear more prominently with higher NO2 levels and/or more extended exposure intervals.

  5. Detection of nitrogen dioxide by CW cavity-enhanced spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Guo; Han, Ye-Xing; Yu, Zhi-Wei; Tang, Huai-Wu

    2016-11-01

    In the paper, an accurate and sensitive system was used to monitor the ambient atmospheric NO2 concentrations. This system utilizes cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy(CAPS), a technology related to cavity ring down spectroscopy(CRDS). Advantages of the CAPS system include such as: (1) cheap and easy to control the light source, (2) high accuracy, and (3) low detection limit. The performance of the CAPS system was evaluated by measuring of the stability and response of the system. The minima ( 0.08 ppb NO2) in the Allan plots show the optimum average time( 100s) for optimum detection performance of the CAPS system. Over a 20-day-long period of the ambient atmospheric NO2 concentrations monitoring, a comparison of the CAPS system with an extremely accurate and precise chemiluminescence-based NOx analyzer showed that the CAPS system was able to reliably and quantitatively measure both large and small fluctuations in the ambient nitrogen dioxide concentration. The experimental results show that the measuring instrument results correlation is 0.95.

  6. Determinants of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in indoor ice skating rinks.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J I; Lee, K; Yanagisawa, Y; Hutchinson, P; Spengler, J D

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The combination of poor ventilation and fuel-powered ice resurfacers has resulted in elevated nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in many indoor ice skating rinks. This study examined the factors influencing concentrations and the effects of various engineering controls in ice rinks with different resurfacer fuels. METHODS: Indoor NO2 concentrations were measured in 19 enclosed ice skating rinks over 3 winters by means of passive samplers, with 1-week average measurements during the first winter pilot study and single-day working-hour measurements in the final 2 winters. Personal exposures to drivers also were assessed during the last winter. RESULTS: Rinks in which propane-fueled resurfacers were used had a daily mean indoor NO2 concentration of 206 ppb, compared with 132 ppb for gasoline-fueled and 37 ppb for electric-powered resurfacers. Engineering controls, such as increased ventilation and resurfacer tuning, reduced NO2 concentrations by 65% on average, but outcomes varied widely, and concentrations increased in subsequent months. CONCLUSIONS: Electric ice resurfacers, increased ventilation, or emission control systems are recommended to protect the health of workers and patrons, with surveillance programs proposed to track implementation and maintain an observer effect. PMID:9842374

  7. Home interventions are effective at decreasing indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, L. M.; Diette, G. B.; Scott, M.; McCormack, M. C.; Matsui, E. C.; Curtin-Brosnan, J.; Williams, D. L.; Kidd-Taylor, A.; Shea, M.; Breysse, P. N.; Hansel, N. N.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a by-product of combustion produced by indoor gas appliances such as cooking stoves, is associated with respiratory symptoms in those with obstructive airways disease. We conducted a three-armed randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing indoor NO2 concentrations in homes with unvented gas stoves: (i) replacement of existing gas stove with electric stove; (ii) installation of ventilation hood over existing gas stove; and (iii) placement of air purifiers with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and carbon filters. Home inspection and NO2 monitoring were conducted at 1 week pre-intervention and at 1 week and 3 months post-intervention. Stove replacement resulted in a 51% and 42% decrease in median NO2 concentration at 3 months of follow-up in the kitchen and bedroom, respectively (P = 0.01, P = 0.01); air purifier placement resulted in an immediate decrease in median NO2 concentration in the kitchen (27%, P < 0.01) and bedroom (22%, P = 0.02), but at 3 months, a significant reduction was seen only in the kitchen (20%, P = 0.05). NO2 concentrations in the kitchen and bedroom did not significantly change following ventilation hood installation. Replacing unvented gas stoves with electric stoves or placement of air purifiers with HEPA and carbon filters can decrease indoor NO2 concentrations in urban homes. PMID:24329966

  8. Study of ozone and sulfur dioxide using Thailand based Brewer Spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumharn, Wilawan; Sudhibrabha, Sumrid

    2014-03-01

    Ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a vertical column of the atmosphere in Thailand were obtained from the Brewers#121 and #120. There are similarities between the O3 patterns obtained from the two sites, which are higher in the summer and rainy season compared with winter, although the magnitude of the change in Bangkok is greater than that in Songkhla. SO2 values showed the summer months provide the higher SO2 values in Bangkok, in contrast to Songkhla where the summer months give lower SO2 values.

  9. Quenching of nitrogen dioxide fluorescence excited by a He-Cd laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kireev, S.V.; Shnyrev, S.L.

    1994-06-01

    The effect of some buffer gases on nitrogen dioxide fluorescence excited by a 0.44-{mu}m He-Cd laser is investigated. The rate constants of fluorescence self-quenching by buffer gases are measured. The cross sections of collision quenching of fluorescence are determined. The obtained results can be used for nitrogen dioxide monitoring in the atmosphere. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Infrared spectrum of the complex of formaldehyde with carbon dioxide in argon and nitrogen matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Zwet, G. P.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Baas, F.; Greenberg, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    The complex of formaldehyde with carbon dioxide has been studied by infrared spectroscopy in argon and nitrogen matrices. The shifts relative to the free species show that the complex is weak and similar in argon and nitrogen. The results give evidence for T-shaped complexes, which are isolated in several configurations. Some evidence is also presented which indicates that, in addition to the two well-known sites in argon, carbon dioxide can be trapped in a third site.

  11. The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D.; Lissi, E.; Heicklen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The reactions were studied with the aid of a mass spectrometer. A pinhole bleed system provided continuous sampling of the gas mixture in the cell during the reaction. It was found that the homogeneous reactions of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide with hydrogen peroxide are too slow to be of any significance in the upper atmosphere. However, the heterogeneous reactions may be important in the conversion of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide in the case of polluted urban atmospheres.

  12. A Passive Sampler for Determination of Nitrogen Dioxide in Ambient Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Dan; Lin, Lianzhi; Yuan, Hongyan; Choi, Martin M. F.; Chan, Winghong

    2005-01-01

    A passive sampler that provides a convenient, simple, and fast method for nitrogen dioxide determination is proposed. The experiment can be modified for determinations of other air pollutants like formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide for hands-on experience for students studying environmental pollution problems.

  13. Carbon dioxide capture with the ozone-like polynitrogen molecule Li3N3.

    PubMed

    Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Varandas, António J C

    2014-12-26

    In a very recent article (Chem.-Eur. J. 2014, 20, 6636), Olson et al. performed a theoretical study of the low-lying isomers of Li3N3 and found that two of the most stable structures show a novel N3(3-) molecular motif, which possesses structural and chemical bonding features similar to ozone. We explore a first application of these new Li3N3 species as a captor of carbon dioxide. Our results conclude that this is a very exothermic and exoergic process (the capture of one and two carbon dioxide molecules on Li3N3 releases, respectively, 42 and 70 kcal mol(-1) in relative free energy values evaluated at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory), which apparently occurs without any energy barrier but requires a nonlinear N3(3-) molecular motif.

  14. Ecosystem-scale trade-offs between impacts of ozone and reactive nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Ed; Hayes, Felicity; Sawicka, Kasia; Mills, Gina; Jones, Laurence; Moldan, Filip; Sereina, Bassin; van Dijk, Netty; Evans, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition stimulates plant productivity in many terrestrial ecosystems. This is clearly beneficial for production agriculture and forestry, but increased litterfall and decreased ground-level light availability reduce the suitability of habitats for many biota (Jones et al., 2014). This mechanism (Hautier et al., 2009), together with the acidifying effects of N (Stevens et al., 2010), has caused considerable biodiversity loss at global scale. Ozone, by contrast, has the effect of reducing plant production, and a simple assessment would suggest that this might mitigate the effects of N pollution. We explored the interactions between ozone and nitrogen at mechanistic level using a version of the MADOC model (Rowe et al., 2014) modified to include effects of ozone. The model was tested against data from long-term monitoring and experimental sites with a focus on nitrogen and/or ozone effects. Effects on biodiversity were assessed by coupling the MADOC model to the MultiMOVE plant species model. We used this model-chain to explore trade-offs and synergies between the impacts of nitrogen and ozone on biodiversity and ecosystem biogeochemistry. In a review of the effects of ozone on ecosystem processes, two consistent effects were found: decreased net primary production due to damage to photosynthetic mechanisms; and an increase in litter nitrogen apparently caused by interference of ozone with the retranslocation process (Mills, in prep.). Insufficient evidence was found to justify inclusion of posited interactive mechanisms such as increased ozone susceptibility with greater nitrogen supply. However, the MADOC model illustrated emergent ozone-nitrogen interactions at ecosystem scale, for example an increase in N leaching due to decreased plant demand and greater litter N content. Empirical evidence for interactive effects of nitrogen and ozone at ecosystem scale is severely lacking, but simulated results were consistent with soil and soil solution

  15. Modeling of recovery mechanism of ozone zero phenomenaby adding small amount of nitrogen in atmospheric pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu

    2013-09-01

    Ozone zero phenomena in an atmospheric pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharges have been one of the major problems during a long time operation of ozone generators. But it is also known that the adding a small amount of nitrogen makes the recover from the ozone zero phenomena. To make clear the mechanism of recovery, authors have been simulated the discharges with using the results of Ref. 3. As a result, the recovery process can be seen and ozone density increased. It is found that the most important species would be nitrogen atoms. The reaction of nitrogen atoms and oxygen molecules makes oxygen atoms which is main precursor species of ozone. This generation of oxygen atoms is effective to increase ozone. The dependence of oxygen atom density (nO) and nitrogen atom density (nN) ratio was examined in this paper. In the condition of low nN/nO ratio case, generation of nitrogen oxide is low, and the quenching of ozone by the nitrogen oxide would be low. But in the high ratio condition, the quenching of ozone by nitrogen oxide would significant. This work was supported by KAKENHI(23560352).

  16. The creation of pollution mapping and measurement of ambient concentration of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide with passive sampler

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Measurements of nitrogen and sulfur dioxide using passive sampler over 12 months in Samsun, Turkey, are compared with SO2 and NO2 concentrations obtained from a co-located chemiluminescence analyzer. The concentrations of Sulfur and nitrogen dioxide in the ambient air during the period from November 2009 to September 2010 are analyzed. Results The highest value for annual NO2 and SO2 averages of passive sampler was 29.65 μg/m3 and 21.01 μg/m3 for exposures of 2-weeks at an industrial site. The maximum monthly concentration for SO2 was observed at the 10th measurement station with 44.19 μg/m3 for August. The maximum monthly concentration for NO2 was observed on the 3rd measurement station with 42.83 μg/m3 for November. A negative correlation between nitrogen dioxide concentrations and temperature (R2 = −0.5489) was estimated. A positive correlation between nitrogen dioxide measurement with passive sampler and continuous measurement (R2 = 0.6571) was estimated. PMID:25136451

  17. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere: isotopic exchange with ozone and its use as a tracer in the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Y. L.; Lee, A. Y.; Irion, F. W.; DeMore, W. B.; Wen, J.

    1997-01-01

    Atmospheric heavy ozone is enriched in the isotopes 18O and 17O. The magnitude of this enhancement, of the order of 100%, is very large compared with that commonly known in atmospheric chemistry and geochemistry. The heavy oxygen atom in heavy ozone is therefore useful as a tracer of chemical species and pathways that involve ozone or its derived products. As a test of the isotopic exchange reactions, we successfully carry out a series of numerical experiments to simulate the results of the laboratory experiments performed by Wen and Thiemens [1993] on ozone and CO2. A small discrepancy between the experimental and the model values for 17O exchange is also revealed. The results are used to compute the magnitude of isotopic exchange between ozone and carbon dioxide via the excited atom O(1D) in the middle atmosphere. The model for 18O is in good agreement with the observed values.

  18. In-vehicle nitrogen dioxide concentrations in road tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Ashley N.; Boulter, Paul G.; Roddis, Damon; McDonough, Liza; Patterson, Michael; Rodriguez del Barco, Marina; Mattes, Andrew; Knibbs, Luke D.

    2016-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding in-vehicle concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during transit through road tunnels in urban environments. Furthermore, previous studies have tended to involve a single vehicle and the range of in-vehicle NO2 concentrations that vehicle occupants may be exposed to is not well defined. This study describes simultaneous measurements of in-vehicle and outside-vehicle NO2 concentrations on a route through Sydney, Australia that included several major tunnels, minor tunnels and busy surface roads. Tests were conducted on nine passenger vehicles to assess how vehicle characteristics and ventilation settings affected in-vehicle NO2 concentrations and the in-vehicle-to-outside vehicle (I/O) concentration ratio. NO2 was measured directly using a cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) technique that gave a high temporal and spatial resolution. In the major tunnels, transit-average in-vehicle NO2 concentrations were lower than outside-vehicle concentrations for all vehicles with cabin air recirculation either on or off. However, markedly lower I/O ratios were obtained with recirculation on (0.08-0.36), suggesting that vehicle occupants can significantly lower their exposure to NO2 in tunnels by switching recirculation on. The highest mean I/O ratios for NO2 were measured in older vehicles (0.35-0.36), which is attributed to older vehicles having higher air exchange rates. The results from this study can be used to inform the design and operation of future road tunnels and modelling of personal exposure to NO2.

  19. Nitrogen dioxide exposure and development of pulmonary emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Stavert, D.M.; Archuleta, D.C.; Holland, L.M.; Lehnert, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    Lungs of adult Fischer-344 rats were evaluated for emphysematous changes after (1) a single intratracheal instillation of elastase (E), (2) a 25-d exposure to 35 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), and (3) elastase instillation followed by 25-d exposure to 35 ppm NO/sub 2/ (E + NO/sub 2/). Residual volumes (RV) of the NO/sub 2/ and NS groups were virtually identical, whereas the RV of the E and E + NO/sub 2/ lungs were significantly greater than those of the NS and NO/sub 2/ lungs. Directionally similar changes in the excised lung volumes and total lung capacities were obtained with the E and E + NO/sub 2/ groups; NO/sub 2/ alone, however, did not alter these volumetric parameters. No differences in arterial blood gases and pH values, minute ventilation, or breathing frequencies were found among the experimental groups. The mean linear intercept values (MLI) obtained with the NS and NO/sub 2/ exposed lungs were essentially identical with average values of approx. 62 ..mu..m. This morphometric parameter was substantially increased in the E- and E + NO/sub 2/-exposed lungs; no significant differences, however, were found between the MLI values obtained with the E and E + NO/sub 2/ lungs. From these data as well as histologic examinations of lung sections for evidence of emphysema, it was concluded that (1) a subchronic, moderately high level of NO/sub 2/ exposure does not produce an irreversible emphysematous lesion in the rat model and (2) exposure of rats to 35 ppm for 25 d after elastase instillation into the lungs does not potentiate protease-induced emphysema or bring about a progression in preexisting emphysema.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Nitrogen Dioxide in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Procedure for the Measurement of Nitrogen Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Gas Phase Chemiluminescence) F Appendix...—Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Nitrogen Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Gas Phase Chemiluminescence) Principle and Applicability 1. Atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen...

  1. Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column retrieval based on ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tack, Frederik; Hendrick, Francois; Goutail, Florence; Fayt, Caroline; Merlaud, Alexis; Pinardi, Gaia; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the most important chemically active trace gases in the troposphere. Listed as primary pollutant, it is also a key precursor in the formation of tropospheric ozone, aerosols, and acid rain, and can contribute locally to radiative forcing. The long-term monitoring of this species is therefore of great relevance. Here we present a new method to retrieve tropospheric NO2 vertical column amounts from ground-based zenith-sky measurements of scattered sunlight. It is based on a four-step approach consisting of (1) the DOAS analysis of zenith radiance spectra using a fixed reference spectrum corresponding to low tropospheric NO2 content, (2) the determination of the residual amount in the reference spectrum using a Langley-plot-type method, (3) the removal of the stratospheric content from the daytime total slant column using stratospheric vertical columns measured at twilight and simulated stratospheric NO2 diurnal variation, (4) estimation of the tropospheric vertical columns by dividing the resulting tropospheric slant columns by appropriate air mass factors. The retrieval algorithm is tested on a 2 month dataset acquired from June to July 2009 by the BIRA MAX-DOAS instrument in the framework of the Cabauw (51.97° N, 4.93° E) Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The tropospheric vertical column amounts derived from zenith-sky observations are compared to the vertical columns retrieved from the off-axis and direct-sun measurements of the same MAX-DOAS instrument as well as to data of a co-located SAOZ (Système d'Analyse par Observations Zénithales) spectrometer operated by LATMOS. First results show a good agreement between the different data sets with correlation coefficients and slopes close to or larger than 0.85. We observe that the main error sources arise from the uncertainties in the determination of the residual NO2 amount in the reference spectrum, the stratospheric NO2 abundance and

  2. Revealing the Origin of Activity in Nitrogen-Doped Nanocarbons towards Electrocatalytic Reduction of Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junyuan; Kan, Yuhe; Huang, Rui; Zhang, Bingsen; Wang, Bolun; Wu, Kuang-Hsu; Lin, Yangming; Sun, Xiaoyan; Li, Qingfeng; Centi, Gabriele; Su, Dangsheng

    2016-05-23

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are functionalized with nitrogen atoms for reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 ). The investigation explores the origin of the catalyst's activity and the role of nitrogen chemical states therein. The catalysts show excellent performances, with about 90 % current efficiency for CO formation and stability over 60 hours. The Tafel analyses and density functional theory calculations suggest that the reduction of CO2 proceeds through an initial rate-determining transfer of one electron to CO2 , which leads to the formation of carbon dioxide radical anion (CO2 (.-) ). The initial reduction barrier is too high on pristine CNTs, resulting in a very high overpotentials at which the hydrogen evolution reaction dominates over CO2 reduction. The doped nitrogen atoms stabilize the radical anion, thereby lowering the initial reduction barrier and improving the intrinsic activity. The most efficient nitrogen chemical state for this reaction is quaternary nitrogen, followed by pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen.

  3. Sub-ambient carbon dioxide adsorption properties of nitrogen doped graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Tamilarasan, P.; Ramaprabhu, Sundara

    2015-04-14

    Carbon dioxide adsorption on carbon surface can be enhanced by doping the surface with heterogeneous atoms, which can increase local surface affinity. This study presents the carbon dioxide adsorption properties of nitrogen doped graphene at low pressures (<100 kPa). Graphene was exposed to nitrogen plasma, which dopes nitrogen atoms into carbon hexagonal lattice, mainly in pyridinic and pyrrolic forms. It is found that nitrogen doping significantly improves the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at all temperatures, due to the enrichment of local Lewis basic sites. In general, isotherm and thermodynamic parameters suggest that doped nitrogen sites have nearly same adsorption energy of surface defects and residual functional groups. The isosteric heat of adsorption remains in physisorption range, which falls with surface coverage, suggesting the distribution of magnitude of adsorption energy. The absolute values of isosteric heat and entropy of adsorption are slightly increased upon nitrogen doping.

  4. Highly accurate nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in nitrogen standards based on permeation.

    PubMed

    Flores, Edgar; Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Idrees, Faraz; Wielgosz, Robert Ian

    2012-12-04

    The development and operation of a highly accurate primary gas facility for the dynamic production of mixtures of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) in nitrogen (N(2)) based on continuous weighing of a permeation tube and accurate impurity quantification and correction of the gas mixtures using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is described. NO(2) gas mixtures in the range of 5 μmol mol(-1) to 15 μmol mol(-1) with a standard relative uncertainty of 0.4% can be produced with this facility. To achieve an uncertainty at this level, significant efforts were made to reduce, identify and quantify potential impurities present in the gas mixtures, such as nitric acid (HNO(3)). A complete uncertainty budget, based on the analysis of the performance of the facility, including the use of a FT-IR spectrometer and a nondispersive UV analyzer as analytical techniques, is presented in this work. The mixtures produced by this facility were validated and then selected to provide reference values for an international comparison of the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM), number CCQM-K74, (1) which was designed to evaluate the consistency of primary NO(2) gas standards from 17 National Metrology Institutes.

  5. Effects of elevated nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide on the growth of Sugar Maple and Hemlock seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, A. S.; McGuire, K. L.; Sparks, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    The partial pressure of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the earth's atmosphere has been rising since the industrial revolution and is likely to continue rising due to the burning of fossil fuels. When NO2 enters plant leaves, it can undergo reactions that produce nitrate, which can be a source of nutrient nitrogen for the plant. However, NO2 is also an oxidant with the potential to damage cell membranes and decrease growth. The goals of this study were to examine the effect of NO2 on plant productivity alone and in combination with elevated CO2 under both nitrogen- and non-nitrogen-limiting conditions. To assess these effects, we conducted CO2, NO2, and CO2 + NO2 fumigations of sugar maple and eastern hemlock seedlings in open-topped chambers and measured relative growth rate, specific leaf area, root:shoot, and C:N of the leaves, stems, and roots. Sugar maple growth was reduced by 7% under elevated NO2 when nitrogen was limiting. When nitrogen was not limiting and CO2 was ambient, elevated NO2 caused a 4% decrease in growth and when CO2 was elevated there was no growth effect. Hemlock growth was increased by elevated NO2 regardless of nitrogen status and under both partial pressures of CO2; 3 and 8% increase in growth under ambient and elevated CO2, respectively. These data suggest gaseous reactive nitrogen may augment or decrease the future growth effects of elevated CO2 depending on plant species identity. In addition, perhaps because of differences in nitrogen metabolism and physiology, deciduous and evergreen tree species appear to have different responses to reactive nitrogen fumigation. These results underscore the need for examining the responses of vegetation to mixtures of gases representative of the future atmosphere rather than examining the influence of carbon dioxide alone.

  6. Determination of nitrogen dioxide in ambient air employing diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Santosh Kumar; Deb, Manas Kanti; Verma, Devsharan

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the development of a simple and precise analytical method for the determination of nitrogen dioxide in ambient air. In this method nitrogen dioxide is determined in the form of nitrite. The determination of nitrogen dioxide needs no reagents except for a solution of sodium hydroxide mixed with sodium arsenite (NaOH-Na 2As 2O 3) which is used as an absorbing reagent for trapping the nitrogen dioxide from the atmosphere in the form of nitrite, i.e., a prior analysis step. The determination of submicrogram levels of nitrogen dioxide is based on the selection of a strong and sharp quantitative analytical peak at 1380 cm - 1 using diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRS-FTIR). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification of the method are found to be 0.008 μg g - 1 NO 2- and 0.05 μg g - 1 NO 2-, respectively. The precision in terms of standard deviation and relative standard deviation value at a level of 2 μg NO 2- / 0.1 g KBr for n = 10 is found to be 0.036 μg NO 2- and 1.8%, respectively. The relative standard deviation ( n = 10) for the determination of nitrogen dioxide in ambient air was observed to be in the range 2.6-3.8%. The method proposed is time-saving and eliminates the slow and cumbersome steps of pH maintenance of the reaction mixture and color formation of the EPA recommended spectrophotometric and other methods for quantitative determination of nitrogen dioxide.

  7. Herbivore-mediated material fluxes in a northern deciduous forest under elevated carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Timothy D; Couture, John J; Bennett, Alison E; Lindroth, Richard L

    2014-10-01

    Anthropogenic changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and ozone (O3 ) are known to alter tree physiology and growth, but the cascading effects on herbivore communities and herbivore-mediated nutrient cycling are poorly understood. We sampled herbivore frass, herbivore-mediated greenfall, and leaf-litter deposition in temperate forest stands under elevated CO2 (c. 560 ppm) and O3 (c. 1.5× ambient), analyzed substrate chemical composition, and compared the quality and quantity of fluxes under multiple atmospheric treatments. Leaf-chewing herbivores fluxed 6.2 g m(-2)  yr(-1) of frass and greenfall from the canopy to the forest floor, with a carbon : nitrogen (C : N) ratio 32% lower than that of leaf litter. Herbivore fluxes of dry matter, C, condensed tannins, and N increased under elevated CO2 (35, 32, 63 and 39%, respectively), while fluxes of N decreased (18%) under elevated O3 . Herbivore-mediated dry matter inputs scaled across atmospheric treatments as a constant proportion of leaf-litter inputs. Increased fluxes under elevated CO2 were consistent with increased herbivore consumption and abundance, and with increased plant growth and soil respiration, previously reported for this experimental site. Results suggest that insect herbivory will reinforce other factors, such as photosynthetic rate and fine-root production, impacting C sequestration by forests in future environments.

  8. Statistical summary of air quality data for metropolitian Cleveland, Ohio, 1967 - 1972: Total suspended particulates, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Neustadter, H. E.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C., Jr.; Cornett, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    Air-quality data for metropolitan Cleveland, Ohio, from 1967 through 1972 were collated and statistically analyzed. Total suspended particulates (TSP) departed from lognormal distribution in 1972. Nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, departed significantly from lognormal distributions in 1972. In Cleveland the Ohio standards were not met. However, the data indicate a general improvement in air quality. Unusually high precipitation (43% above the average in 1972) may be responsible in lowering these values from the 1971 levels. The mean values of TSP, NO2, and SO2 are 104, 191, and 83 microgram/cu m respectively.

  9. A BAYESIAN METHOD OF ESTIMATING KINETIC PARAMETERS FOR THE INACTIVATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS WITH CHLORINE DIOXIDE AND OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main objective of this paper is to use Bayesian methods to estimate the kinetic parameters for the inactivation kinetics of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts with chlorine dioxide or ozone which are characterized by the delayed Chick-Watson model, i.e., a lag phase or shoulder f...

  10. Nitrogen dioxide-induced acute lung injury in sheep.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, A J; Mayorga, M A

    1994-05-20

    Lung mechanics, hemodynamics and blood chemistries were assessed in sheep (Ovis aries) before, and up to 24 h following, a 15-20 min exposure to either air (control) or approximately 500 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Histopathologic examinations of lung tissues were performed 24 h after exposure. Nose-only and lung-only routes of exposure were compared for effects on NO2 pathogenesis. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from air- and NO2-exposed sheep were analyzed for biochemical and cellular signs of NO2 insult. The influence of breathing pattern on NO2 dose was also assessed. Five hundred ppm NO2 exposure of intubated sheep (lung-only exposure) was marked by a statistically significant, albeit small, blood methemoglobin increase. The exposure induced an immediate tidal volume decrease, and an increase in both breathing rate and inspired minute ventilation. Pulmonary function, indexed by lung resistance and dynamic lung compliance, progressively deteriorated after exposure. Maximal lung resistance and dynamic lung compliance changes occurred at 24 h post exposure, concomitant with arterial hypoxemia. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid epithelial cell number and total protein were significantly increased while macrophage number was significantly decreased within the 24 h post-exposure period. Histopathologic examination of lung tissue 24 h after NO2 revealed patchy edema, mild hemorrhage and polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocyte infiltration. The NO2 toxicologic profile was significantly attenuated when sheep were exposed to the gas through a face mask (nose-only exposure). Respiratory pattern was not significantly altered, lung mechanics changes were minimal, hypoxemia did not occur, and pathologic evidence of exudation was not apparent in nose-only, NO2-exposed sheep. The qualitative responses of this large animal species to high-level NO2 supports the concept of size dependent species sensitivity to NO2. In addition, when inspired minute ventilation was used as a dose

  11. Increasing concentrations of nitrogen dioxide pollution in rural Wales.

    PubMed

    Ashenden, T W; Edge, C P

    1995-01-01

    Monitoring of nitrogen dioxide pollution was carried out in rural environments throughout Wales during a 1-year survey to quantify any changes in background concentrations and distribution of the pollutant since an earlier survey in 1986. There were 23 sites in the present survey of which 16 had been monitored during the 1986 survey. The remaining 7 sites were based on moorland in mid-Wales within map squares for which critical loads for soil acidification are expected to be exceeded by the year 2005. All sites were chosen so as to be remote from major local sources of NO(2) and the values obtained were deemed to be minimum concentrations for the different regions. Measurements were made using diffusion tubes which aimed to provide mean concentrations of NO(2) for 2-week exposure periods. Concentrations of NO(2) were found to be higher in the winter months for most sites and this is probably related to a greater use of fossil fuels for heating buildings at this time of year. The exception was the high concentrations of NO(2) in May and June for several sites in North Wales, and in July and August for a site on Mount Snowdon. These high summer concentrations in North Wales are thought to be related to increased traffic associated with tourism. It is apparent that there has been a substantial increase in rural concentrations of NO(2) throughout Wales since the earlier survey of 1986. As an average of all 16 sites used in both surveys, there was a 53% increase in the annual mean concentration of NO(2). Also, it is evident that, since 1986, there has been a substantial increase in the area of south-eastern Wales which has a background level in excess of 10 ppb NO(2) and a notable reduction in land area with concentrations below 6 ppb NO(2) as an annual mean concentration. The possible future impact of increasing rural concentrations of NO(2) on Welsh vegetation is discussed with references to estimates of critical levels of NO(2) for adverse effects on plants.

  12. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on the phytochemistry of aspen and performance of an herbivore.

    PubMed

    Kopper, Brian J; Lindroth, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the independent and interactive effects of CO(2), O(3), and plant genotype on the foliar quality of a deciduous tree and the performance of a herbivorous insect. Two trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) genotypes differing in response to CO(2) and O(3) were grown at the Aspen FACE (Free Air CO(2) Enrichment) site located in northern Wisconsin, USA. Trees were exposed to one of four atmospheric treatments: ambient air (control), elevated carbon dioxide (+CO(2); 560 microl/l), elevated ozone (+O(3); ambient x1.5), and elevated CO(2)+O(3). We measured the effects of CO(2) and O(3) on aspen phytochemistry and on performance of forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hübner) larvae. CO(2) and O(3) treatments influenced foliar quality for both genotypes, with the most notable effects being that elevated CO(2) reduced nitrogen and increased tremulacin levels, whereas elevated O(3) increased early season nitrogen and reduced tremulacin levels, relative to controls. With respect to insects, the +CO(2) treatment had little or no effect on larval performance. Larval performance improved in the +O(3) treatment, but this response was negated by the addition of elevated CO(2) (i.e., +CO(2)+O(3) treatment). We conclude that tent caterpillars will have the greatest impact on aspen under current CO(2) and high O(3) levels, due to increases in insect performance and decreases in tree growth, whereas tent caterpillars will have the least impact on aspen under high CO(2) and low O(3) levels, due to moderate changes in insect performance and increases in tree growth.

  13. Determination of degradation products and pathways of mancozeb and ethylenethiourea (ETU) in solutions due to ozone and chlorine dioxide treatments.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Cash, Jerry N; Zabik, Matthew J

    2003-02-26

    The objective of the present study was to determine the degradation products of mancozeb and ethylenethiourea (ETU) and elucidate the possible degradation pathways in solution as a result of chemical oxidation using ozone and chlorine dioxide. This study was developed in a solution at 100 ppm of mancozeb and ETU concentration over the course of 60 min. Two different oxidizing agents used in this study were (1) ozone at 3 ppm and (2) chlorine dioxide at 20 ppm. Ozone was continuously provided throughout the course of the reaction. Degradation products were detected with high-resolution GC-MS. The total analysis time was 4 min per sample combined with rapid GC separation and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Hydrolysis of mancozeb led to m/z 144 ion fragmentation, which is 5-imidazoledithiocarboxylic acid, as a major degradation product. ETU showed M(+) 102, which corresponds to its mass, indicating this compound was stable in distilled water and did not undergo hydrolysis during 60 min. The average retention times of mancozeb and ETU were approximately 181-189 and 210-230 s, respectively. Ozonation of mancozeb produced ETU as a major product. Treatment of ETU with ozone produced several degradation compounds. From prolonged ozonation, the CS(2) or CS group was removed. Overall, several byproducts identified were M(+) 60, M(+) 84, M(+) 163, M(+) 117, and M(+) 267 by ozone and M(+) 117, M(+) 86, and M(+) 163 by chlorine dioxide treatment. Several of these have been reported, but others have never been reported previously.

  14. Product selectivity of visible-light photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide using titanium dioxide doped by different nitrogen-sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoguo; Huang, Zhengfeng; Cheng, Xudong; Wang, Qingli; Chen, Yi; Dong, Peimei; Zhang, Xiwen

    2015-11-01

    The influence of nitrogen-source on the photocatalytic properties of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide is herein first investigated from the perspective of the chemical bond form of the nitrogen element in the nitrogen-source. The definitive role of groups such as Nsbnd N from the nitrogen-source on the surface of as-prepared samples in the selectivity of the dominant product of photocatalytic reduction is demonstrated. Well-crystallized one-dimensional Nsbnd TiO2 nanorod arrays with a preferred orientation of the rutile (3 1 0) facet are manufactured via a hydrothermal treatment using hydrazine and ammonia variously as the source of nitrogen. Significant selectivity of the dominant reduced products has been exhibited for Nsbnd TiO2 prepared from different nitrogen-sources in carbon dioxide photocatalytic reduction under visible light illumination. CH4 is the main product with N2H4-doped Nsbnd TiO2, while CO is the main product with NH3-doped Nsbnd TiO2, which can be attributed to the existence of the reducing Nsbnd N groups in the N2H4-doped Nsbnd TiO2 surfaces after the hydrothermal treatment. Compared with the approaches previously reported, the facile one-step route utilized here accomplishes the fabrication of Nsbnd TiO2 possessing visible-light activity and attainment of selectivity of dominant photocatalytic reduction product simultaneously by choosing a nitrogen-source with appropriate chemical bond form, which provides a completely new approach to understanding the effects of doping treatment on photocatalytic properties.

  15. The sensitivity of OMI-derived nitrogen dioxide to boundary layer temperature inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Julie; Kanaroglou, Pavlos

    We assess the sensitivity of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), to episodes of temperature inversion in the lower boundary layer. Vertical temperature data were obtained from a 91-m meteorological tower located in the study area, which is centered on the Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, Ontario, Canada. Hamilton is an industrial city with high traffic volumes, and is therefore subjected to high levels of pollution. Pollution buildup is amplified by frequent temperature inversions which are commonly radiative, but are also induced by local physiography, proximity to Lake Ontario, and regional meteorology. The four-year period from January 2005 to December 2008 was investigated. Ground-level data for validation were obtained from in situ air quality monitors located in the study area. The results indicate that OMI is sensitive to changes in the NO 2 levels during temperature inversions, and exhibits changes which roughly parallel those of in situ monitors. Overall, an 11% increase in NO 2 was identified by OMI on inversion days, compared to a 44% increase measured by in situ monitors. The weekend effect was clearly exhibited under both normal and inversion scenarios with OMI. Seasonal and wind direction patterns also correlated fairly well with ground-level data. Temperature inversions have resulted in poor air quality episodes which have severely compromised the health of susceptible populations, sometime leading to premature death. The rationale for this study is to further assess the usefulness of OMI for population exposure studies in areas with sparse resources for ground-level monitoring.

  16. Nitrogen Dioxide and Allergic Sensitization in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Charles H.; Yeatts, Karin B.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Vizuete, William; Salo, Päivi M.; Jaramillo, Renee; Cohn, Richard D.; Chu, Haitao; Zeldin, Darryl C.; London, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic sensitization is a risk factor for asthma and allergic diseases. The relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization is unclear. Objective To investigate the relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization in a nationally representative sample of the US population. Methods We linked annual average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ≤ 10 µm (PM10), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM25), and summer concentrations of ozone (O3), to allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) data for participants in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In addition to the monitor-based air pollution estimates, we used the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to increase the representation of rural participants in our sample. Logistic regression with population-based sampling weights was used to calculate adjusted prevalence odds ratios per 10 ppb increase in O3 and NO2, per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10, and per 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 adjusting for race, gender, age, socioeconomic status, smoking, and urban/rural status. Results Using CMAQ data, increased levels of NO2 were associated with positive IgE to any (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04, 1.27), inhalant (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02, 1.33), and outdoor (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03, 1.31) allergens. Higher PM2.5 levels were associated with positivity to indoor allergen-specific IgE (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13, 1.36). Effect estimates were similar using monitored data. Conclusions Increased ambient NO2 was consistently associated with increased prevalence of allergic sensitization. PMID:24045117

  17. Summary of aircraft results for 1978 southeastern Virginia urban plume measurement study of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Wornom, D. E.; Mathis, J. J., Jr.; Sebacher, D. I.

    1980-01-01

    Ozone production was determined from aircraft and surface in situ measurements, as well as from an airborne laser absorption spectrometer. Three aircraft and approximately 10 surface stations provided air-quality data. Extensive meteorological, mixing-layer-height, and ozone-precursor data were also measured. Approximately 50 hrs (9 flight days) of data from the aircraft equipped to monitor ozone, nitrogen oxides, dewpoint temperature, and temperature are presented. In addition, each experiment conducted is discussed.

  18. Measurement and modeling of ozone and nitrogen oxides produced by laser breakdown in oxygen-nitrogen atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Gornushkin, Igor B; Stevenson, Chris L; Galbács, Gábor; Smith, Ben W; Winefordner, James D

    2003-11-01

    The production of ozone nad nitrogen oxides was studied during multiple laser breakdown in oxygen-nitrogen mixtures at atmospheric pressure. About 2000 laser shots at 10(10) W cm-2 were delivered into a sealed reaction chamber. The chamber with a long capillary was designed to measure absorption of O3, NO, and NO2 as a function of the number of laser shots. The light source for absorption measurements was the continuum radiation emitted by the plasma during the first 0.2 microsecond of its evolution. A kinetic model was developed that encompassed the principal chemical reactions between the major atmospheric components and the products of laser breakdown. In the model, the laser plasma was treated as a source of nitric oxide and atomic oxygen, whose rates of production were calculated using measured absorption by NO, NO2, and O3. The calculated concentration profiles for NO, NO2, and O3 were in good agreement with measured profiles over a time scale of 0-200 s. The steady-state concentration of ozone was measured in a flow cell in air. For a single breakdown in air, the estimated steady-state yield of ozone was 2 x 10(12) molecules, which agreed with the model prediction. This study can be of importance for general understanding of laser plasma chemistry and for elucidating the nature of spectral interferences and matrix effects that may take place in applied spectrochemical analysis.

  19. Destruction of cyanide waste solutions using chlorine dioxide, ozone and titania sol.

    PubMed

    Parga, J R; Shukla, S S; Carrillo-Pedroza, F R

    2003-01-01

    Increasingly, there are severe environmental controls in the mining industry. Because of lack of technological advances, waste management practices are severely limited. Most of the wastes in the milling industrial effluents are known to contain cyanides and it is recognized that after extraction and recovery of precious metals, substantial amounts of cyanide are delivered to tailings ponds. The toxicity of cyanide creates serious environmental problems. In this paper we describe several methods for the treatment of cyanide solutions. These include: (1) cyanide destruction by oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) in a Gas-Sparged Hydrocyclone (GSH) reactor; (2) destruction of cyanide by ozone (O(3)) using a stirred batch reactor, and finally, (3) the photolysis of cyanide with UV light in presence of titania sol. In all cases excellent performance were observed as measured by the extent and of the destruction.

  20. Destruction of cyanide waste solutions using chlorine dioxide, ozone and titania sol

    SciTech Connect

    Parga, J.R.; Shukla, S.S.; Carrillo-Pedroza, F.R

    2003-07-01

    Increasingly, there are severe environmental controls in the mining industry. Because of lack of technological advances, waste management practices are severely limited. Most of the wastes in the milling industrial effluents are known to contain cyanides and it is recognized that after extraction and recovery of precious metals, substantial amounts of cyanide are delivered to tailings ponds. The toxicity of cyanide creates serious environmental problems. In this paper we describe several methods for the treatment of cyanide solutions. These include: (1) cyanide destruction by oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO{sub 2}) in a Gas-Sparged Hydrocyclone (GSH) reactor; (2) destruction of cyanide by ozone (O{sub 3}) using a stirred batch reactor, and finally, (3) the photolysis of cyanide with UV light in presence of titania sol. In all cases excellent performance were observed as measured by the extent and of the destruction.

  1. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illness in children. Part I: Health outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1993-06-01

    We have carried out a prospective cohort study to test the hypothesis that exposure to nitrogen dioxide increases the incidence and severity of respiratory infections during the first 18 months of life. Between January 1988 and June 1990, 1,315 infants were enrolled into the study at birth and followed with prospective surveillance for the occurrence of respiratory infections and monitoring of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in their homes. The subjects were healthy infants from homes without smokers; they were selected with stratification by type of cooking stove at a ratio of four to one for gas and electric stoves. Illness experience was monitored by a daily diary of symptoms completed by the mother and a telephone interview conducted every two weeks. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as involving the lower respiratory tract; all other respiratory illnesses were designated as involving the upper respiratory tract. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide was estimated by two-week average concentrations measured in the subjects' bedrooms with passive samplers. This analysis is limited to the 1,205 subjects completing at least one month of observation; of these, 823 completed the full protocol, contributing 82.8% of the total number of days during which the subjects were under observation. Incidence rates for all respiratory illnesses, all upper respiratory illness, all lower respiratory illnesses, and lower respiratory illness further divided into those with any wheezing, or wet cough without wheezing, were examined within strata of nitrogen dioxide exposure at the time of the illness, nitrogen dioxide exposure during the prior month, and type of cooking stove. Consistent trends of increasing illness incidence rates with increasing exposure to nitrogen dioxide were not evident for either the lagged or unlagged exposure variables.

  2. Tropospheric ozone differential-absorption lidar using stimulated Raman scattering in carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Masahisa; Nagai, Tomohiro; Sakai, Tetsu; Hirose, Yasuo

    2007-04-20

    A UV ozone differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) utilizing a Nd:YAG laser and a single Raman cell filled with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is designed, developed, and evaluated. The generated wavelengths are 276, 287, and 299 nm, comprising the first to third Stokes lines of the stimulated Raman scattering technique. The correction terms originated from the aerosol extinction, the backscatter, and the absorption by other gases are estimated using a model atmosphere. The experimental results demonstrate that the emitted output energies were 13 mJ/pulse at 276 nm and 287 nm and 5 mJ/pulse at 299 nm, with pump energy of 91 mJ/pulse and a CO(2) pressure of 0.7 MPa. The three Stokes lines account for 44.0% of the available energy. The use of argon or helium as a buffer gas in the Raman cell was also investigated, but this leads to a dramatic decrease in the third Stokes line, which makes this wavelength practically unusable. Our observations confirmed that 30 min of integration were sufficient to observe ozone concentration profiles up to 10 km. Aerosol extinction and backscatter correction are estimated and applied. The aerosol backscatter correction profile using 287 and 299 nm as reference wavelengths is compared with that using 355 nm. The estimated statistical error is less than 5% at 1.5 km and 10% at 2.6 km. Comparisons with the operational carbon-iodine type chemical ozonesondes demonstrate 20% overestimation of the ozone profiles by the DIAL technique.

  3. Induction of SOS functions in Escherichia coli and biosynthesis of nitrosamine in rabbits by nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kosaka, H.; Uozumi, M.; Nakajima, T.

    1987-08-01

    Nitrogen dioxide induced SOS functions in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli K-12 and was mutagenic in Escherichia coli WP2. When a rabbit was administered aminopyrine intravenously and administered nitrogen dioxide by inhalation, N-nitrosodimethylamine was detected in its blood. Analysis was conducted with /sup 15/N-nitrosodimethylamine as an internal standard by a combination of capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Accompanying administration of cystamine increased the blood concentration of N-nitrosodimethylamine in the rabbit, suggesting inhibition of its metabolism. Concurrent sulfur trioxide inhalation increased N-nitrosodimethylamine formation in the rabbit.

  4. Dissolved organic nitrogen and its biodegradable portion in a water treatment plant with ozone oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wadhawan, Tanush; Simsek, Halis; Kasi, Murthy; Knutson, Kristofer; Prüβ, Birgit; McEvoy, John; Khan, Eakalak

    2014-05-01

    Biodegradability of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) has been studied in wastewater, freshwater and marine water but not in drinking water. Presence of biodegradable DON (BDON) in water prior to and after chlorination may promote formation of nitrogenous disinfectant by-products and growth of microorganisms in the distribution system. In this study, an existing bioassay to determine BDON in wastewater was adapted and optimized, and its application was tested on samples from four treatment stages of a water treatment plant including ozonation and biologically active filtration. The optimized bioassay was able to detect BDON in 50 μg L(-1) as N of glycine and glutamic solutions. BDON in raw (144-275 μg L(-1) as N), softened (59-226 μg L(-1) as N), ozonated (190-254 μg L(-1) as N), and biologically filtered (17-103 μg L(-1) as N) water samples varied over a sampling period of 2 years. The plant on average removed 30% of DON and 68% of BDON. Ozonation played a major role in increasing the amount of BDON (31%) and biologically active filtration removed 71% of BDON in ozonated water.

  5. Formation of assimilable organic carbon during oxidation of natural waters with ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, permanganate, and ferrate.

    PubMed

    Ramseier, Maaike K; Peter, Andreas; Traber, Jacqueline; von Gunten, Urs

    2011-02-01

    Five oxidants, ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, permanganate, and ferrate were studied with regard to the formation of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and oxalate in absence and presence of cyanobacteria in lake water matrices. Ozone and ferrate formed significant amounts of AOC, i.e. more than 100 μg/L AOC were formed with 4.6 mg/L ozone and ferrate in water with 3.8 mg/L dissolved organic carbon. In the same water samples chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and permanganate produced no or only limited AOC. When cyanobacterial cells (Aphanizomenon gracile) were added to the water, an AOC increase was detected with ozone, permanganate, and ferrate, probably due to cell lysis. This was confirmed by the increase of extracellular geosmin, a substance found in the selected cyanobacterial cells. AOC formation by chlorine and chlorine dioxide was not affected by the presence of the cells. The formation of oxalate upon oxidation was found to be a linear function of the oxidant consumption for all five oxidants. The following molar yields were measured in three different water matrices based on oxidant consumed: 2.4-4.4% for ozone, 1.0-2.8% for chlorine dioxide and chlorine, 1.1-1.2% for ferrate, and 11-16% for permanganate. Furthermore, oxalate was formed in similar concentrations as trihalomethanes during chlorination (yield ∼ 1% based on chlorine consumed). Oxalate formation kinetics and stoichiometry did not correspond to the AOC formation. Therefore, oxalate cannot be used as a surrogate for AOC formation during oxidative water treatment.

  6. Visible injury and nitrogen metabolism of rice leaves under ozone stress, and effect on sugar and protein contents in grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. Z.; Sui, L. H.; Wang, W.; Geng, C. M.; Yin, B. H.

    2012-12-01

    Effect of ozone on the visible injury, nitrogen metabolism of rice leaves, and sugar and protein contents in rice grain was carried out by the open-top chamber. The results indicated that ozone stress caused obvious injury in rice leaves. The increase in ozone concentration had significant influence on the nitrate reductase activity in rice leaves. At the ozone concentration of 40, 80 and 120 nL L-1, the nitrate reductase activities in rice leaves in the tillering stage, the jointing stage, the heading stage and milk stage were separately reduced by 25.3-86.3%, 57.4-97.8%, 91.0-99.3% and 89.5-96.7% compared with those in the control treatment. As ozone concentration increased, the contents of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in rice leaves were obviously reduced. Ozone stress also had an influence on the contents of sugar and protein in rice grain. The stress of high ozone concentration (120 nL L-1) caused the starch content in grain to reduce by 15.8% than that in the control treatment, but total soluble sugars in grain was actually enhanced by 47.5% compared to that in the control treatment. The contents of albumin and glutenin in rice grain increased with increasing the ozone concentration, and prolamin and crude protein contents in rice grain increased only at the higher ozone concentration. Under ozone concentration of 120 nL L-1, the contents of albumin, glutenin and crude protein in rice grain were increased respectively by 23.1%, 21.0% and 21.1% compared with those in the control treatment. The result suggested that ozone tress has an influence on nitrogen metabolism of rice leaves and grain quality.

  7. Staggering reductions in atmospheric nitrogen dioxide across Canada in response to legislated transportation emissions reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Holly; Aherne, Julian

    2016-12-01

    It is well established that atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), associated mainly with emissions from transportation and industry, can have adverse effects on both human and ecosystem health. Specifically, atmospheric NO2 plays a role in the formation of ozone, and in acidic and nutrient deposition. As such, international agreements and national legislation, such as the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations (SOR/2003-2), and the Federal Agenda on Cleaner Vehicles, Engines and Fuel have been put into place to regulate and limit oxidized nitrogen emissions. The objective of this study was to assess the response of ambient air concentrations of NO2 across Canada to emissions regulations. Current NO2 levels across Canada were examined at 137 monitoring sites, and long-term annual and quarterly trends were evaluated for 63 continuous monitoring stations that had at least 10 years of data during the period 1988-2013. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall test (Z values) and Sen's slope estimate were used to determine monotonic trends; further changepoint analysis was used to determine periods with significant changes in NO2 air concentration and emissions time-series data. Current annual average NO2 levels in Canada range between 1.16 and 14.96 ppb, with the national average being 8.43 ppb. Provincially, average NO2 ranges between 3.77 and 9.25 ppb, with Ontario and British Columbia having the highest ambient levels of NO2. Long-term tend analysis indicated that the annual average NO2 air concentration decreased significantly at 87% of the stations (55 of 63), and decreased non-significantly at 10% (5 of 63) during the period 1998-2013. Concentrations increased (non-significantly) at only 3% (2 of 63) of the sites. Quarterly long-term trends showed similar results; significant decreases occurred at 84% (January-March), 88% (April-June), 83% (July-September), and 81% (October-December) of the sites. Declines in transportation emissions had the most influence on NO2 air

  8. Yield of Ozone, Nitrite Nitrogen and Hydrogen Peroxide Versus Discharge Parameter Using APPJ Under Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bingyan; Zhu, Changping; Fei, Juntao; He, Xiang; Yin, Cheng; Wang, Yuan; Gao, Ying; Jiang, Yongfeng; Wen, Wen; Chen, Longwei

    2016-03-01

    Discharge plasma in and in contact with water can be accompanied with ultraviolet radiation and electron impact, thus can generate hydroxyl radicals, ozone, nitrite nitrogen and hydrogen peroxide. In this paper, a non-equilibrium plasma processing system was established by means of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet immersed in water. The hydroxyl intensities and discharge energy waveforms were tested. The results show that the positive and negative discharge energy peaks were asymmetric, where the positive discharge energy peak was greater than the negative one. Meanwhile, the yield of ozone and nitrite nitrogen was enhanced with the increase of both the treatment time and the discharge energy. Moreover, the pH value of treated water was reduced rapidly and maintained at a lower level. The residual concentration of hydrogen peroxide in APPJ treated water was kept at a low level. Additionally, both the efficiency energy ratio of the yield of ozone and nitrite nitrogen and that of the removal of p-nitrophenol increased as a function of discharge energy and discharge voltage. The experimental results were fully analyzed and the chemical reaction equations and the physical processes of discharges in water were given. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11274092, 11404092, 61401146), the Nantong Science and Technology Project, Nantong, China (No. BK2014024), the Open Project of Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Nanjing, China (No. KF2014001), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. 2014B11414)

  9. Inter-Comparison of Nitrogen Dioxide Column Densities Retrieved by Ground-Based Max-Doas Under Different Instrumental Conditions Over Mainz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruchkouski, I.; Dziomin, V.; Ortega, I.; Volkamer, R.; Krasouski, A.

    2013-12-01

    This study is dedicated to the instrumental differences between ground-based MAX-DOAS measurement devices. Our MAX-DOAS instrument, which has been developed at the National Ozone Monitoring Research & Education Center of the Belarusian State University for the purpose of nitrogen dioxide and other atmospheric trace gases monitoring over Belarus, features a rotating mirror and a telescope directly connected to the spectrometer with a two-dimensional CCD detector. Using a mirror instead of an optical fibre makes it possible to change the field of view of the telescope, and the whole instrument is rather compact and all its components are placed outdoors in the open air. However, this makes it quite difficult to ensure a top-quality thermostabilization. In the course of the MAX-DOAS campaign, which took place in the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany in summer of 2013, we had a great opportunity to compare our instrument with other devices of different types. In the present study we make a comparison of nitrogen dioxide slant column densities (SCDs) during several days obtained by our instrument with that measured by the device from the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado (Boulder), which has a thermostabilization level of about 0.01 degrees Celsius. We investigate the influence of the spectrometer parts thermostabilization on nitrogen dioxide SCDs retrieval. Furthermore, it was possible to modify the telescope field of view for our instrument from 0.005 to 1.3 degrees, so we performed nitrogen dioxide SCDs retrieval for different fields of view at the same angle of elevation. We analyze these measurement results and obtain an optimal field of view with the aim to achieve the highest possible signal to noise ratio.

  10. 77 FR 9532 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Primary Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN-2060-AR06 Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Primary Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule establishes air quality designations for all areas in the United States for the...

  11. Recharge processes of paramagnetic centers during illumination in nitrogen-doped nanocrystalline titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, N. T.; Konstantinova, E. A.; Kokorin, A. I.; Kodom, T.; Alonso-Vante, N.

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) has been investigated by the EPR-technique. Two types of paramagnetic centers - N• and NO•-radicals - were detected in the samples. Both N• and NO•-related centers are recharged during illumination. Band diagrams of TiO2 with N• and NO• radicals energy level position are proposed.

  12. Near-road measurements for nitrogen dioxide and its association with traffic exposure zones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-road measurements for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using passive air samplers were collected weekly in traffic exposure zones (TEZs) in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina (USA) during Fall 2014. Land use regression (LUR) analysis and pairwise comparisons of T...

  13. Nitrogen dioxide produced by self-sustained pyrolysis of nitrous oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabol, A. P.

    1965-01-01

    Apparatus is developed for achieving continuous self-sustaining pyrolysis reaction in the production of nitrogen dioxide from nitrous oxide. The process becomes self-sustaining because of the exothermic reaction and the regenerative heating of the gases in the pyrolysis chamber.

  14. Ambient intercomparison of direct and indirect methods for ambient nitrogen dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    AbstractRecent advances in measurement techniques for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), along with known interferences in the current Federal Reference Method (FRM) have created the need for NO2 measurement method research within EPA’s Office of Research and Development. Current meth...

  15. Temporary Disturbance of Translocation of Assimilates in Douglas Firs Caused by Low Levels of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide 1

    PubMed Central

    Gorissen, Antonie; van Veen, Johannes A.

    1988-01-01

    Douglas firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) are suffering strongly from air pollution in western Europe. We studied the effect of low concentrations of ozone (200 micrograms per cubic meter during 3 days) and sulfur dioxide (53 micrograms per cubic meter during 28 days) on translocation of assimilates in 2 year old Douglas firs. The trees were exposed to the pollutants and afterward transferred to a growth chamber adapted to the use of 14CO2. Root/soil respiration was measured daily. The results showed a significant decrease of the 14CO2 root/soil respiration during the first 1 to 2 weeks after exposure to either ozone or sulfur dioxide. The ultimate level of 14CO2 root/soil respiration did not differ significantly, which suggests a recovery of the exposed trees during the first weeks after exposure. PMID:16666348

  16. Ozone

    MedlinePlus

    ... reactive form of oxygen. In the upper atmosphere, ozone forms a protective layer that shields us from the sun’s ultraviolet rays. At ground level, ozone is a harmful air pollutant and a primary ...

  17. Sources of Variability in the Stratospheric Column of Nitrogen Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne; Gleason, James; Chin, Mian; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Instruments such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME, on the European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-2), launched 1995), the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY, on ENVISAT, to be launched July 2001) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on EOS Aura, to be launched 2003) make measurements of the total column of NO2. There is interest in separating the stratospheric and tropospheric contributions to the column, as the tropospheric column provides a measure of pollution. We are using a 3D chemistry and transport model driven by winds from the Goddard Space Flight Center Data Assimilation System to examine variability in the stratospheric NO2 column. Model results for NOx = NO + NO2 + 2N2O5 will be shown to compare well with sunset observations from the Halogen Occultation Experiment on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, and to exhibit similar temporal and spatial dependence. Partitioning between NO, NO2, and N2O5 is also shown to compare well with observations. This good agreement supports the use of simulated fields in the stratosphere to derive the tropospheric column from the total column. Preliminary comparisons of the tropospheric column with model simulations for the troposphere will also be shown.

  18. Efficacy of Nucleic Acid Probes for Detection of Poliovirus in Water Disinfected by Chlorine, Chlorine Dioxide, Ozone, and UV Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Norman J.; Margolin, Aaron B.

    1994-01-01

    MilliQ water was inoculated with poliovirus type 1 strain LSc-1 and was treated with disinfectants, including chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and UV light. No relationship between probes and plaque assays were seen, demonstrating that viral nucleic acids were not destroyed. These findings suggest that nucleic acid probes cannot distinguish between infectious and noninfectious viruses and cannot be used in the evaluation of treated waters. PMID:16349448

  19. Ozone

    MedlinePlus

    Ozone is a gas. It can be good or bad, depending on where it is. "Good" ozone occurs naturally about 10 to 30 miles above ... the sun's ultraviolet rays. Part of the good ozone layer is gone. Man-made chemicals have destroyed ...

  20. Effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide on phyllosphere fungi from three tree species.

    PubMed

    Fenn, M E; Dunn, P H; Durall, D M

    1989-02-01

    Short-term effects of ozone (O(3)) on phyllosphere fungi were studied by examining fungal populations from leaves of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchholz) and California black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newb.). Chronic effects of both O(3) and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) were studied by isolating fungi from leaves of mature Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis L.) trees. In this chronic-exposure experiment, mature orange trees were fumigated in open-top chambers at the University of California, Riverside, for 4 years with filtered air, ambient air plus filtered air (1:1), ambient air, or filtered air plus SO(2) at 9.3 parts per hundred million. Populations of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler and Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fres.) de Vries, two of the four most common fungi isolated from orange leaves, were significantly reduced by chronic exposure to ambient air. In the short-term experiments, seedlings of giant sequoia or California black oak were fumigated in open-top chambers in Sequoia National Park for 9 to 11 weeks with filtered air, ambient air, or ambient air plus O(3). These short-term fumigations did not significantly affect the numbers of phyllosphere fungi. Exposure of Valencia orange trees to SO(2) at 9.3 parts per hundred million for 4 years reduced the number of phyllosphere fungi isolated by 75% compared with the number from the filtered-air treatment and reduced the Simpson diversity index value from 3.3 to 2.5. A significant chamber effect was evident since leaves of giant sequoia and California black oak located outside of chambers had more phyllosphere fungi than did seedlings within chambers. Results suggest that chronic exposure to ambient ozone or SO(2) in polluted areas can affect phyllosphere fungal communities, while short-term exposures may not significantly disturb phyllosphere fungi.

  1. Effects of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide on Phyllosphere Fungi from Three Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Mark E.; Dunn, Paul H.; Durall, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    Short-term effects of ozone (O3) on phyllosphere fungi were studied by examining fungal populations from leaves of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchholz) and California black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newb.). Chronic effects of both O3 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were studied by isolating fungi from leaves of mature Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis L.) trees. In this chronic-exposure experiment, mature orange trees were fumigated in open-top chambers at the University of California, Riverside, for 4 years with filtered air, ambient air plus filtered air (1:1), ambient air, or filtered air plus SO2 at 9.3 parts per hundred million. Populations of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler and Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fres.) de Vries, two of the four most common fungi isolated from orange leaves, were significantly reduced by chronic exposure to ambient air. In the short-term experiments, seedlings of giant sequoia or California black oak were fumigated in open-top chambers in Sequoia National Park for 9 to 11 weeks with filtered air, ambient air, or ambient air plus O3. These short-term fumigations did not significantly affect the numbers of phyllosphere fungi. Exposure of Valencia orange trees to SO2 at 9.3 parts per hundred million for 4 years reduced the number of phyllosphere fungi isolated by 75% compared with the number from the filtered-air treatment and reduced the Simpson diversity index value from 3.3 to 2.5. A significant chamber effect was evident since leaves of giant sequoia and California black oak located outside of chambers had more phyllosphere fungi than did seedlings within chambers. Results suggest that chronic exposure to ambient ozone or SO2 in polluted areas can affect phyllosphere fungal communities, while short-term exposures may not significantly disturb phyllosphere fungi. PMID:16347849

  2. Nitrogen dioxide assimilation as affected by light level

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, H. ); Ormond, D.; Marie, B. )

    1989-04-01

    The air pollutant NO{sub 2} is absorbed and assimilated by plants to serve as a source of nitrogen but only to a limited extent. The objective of this research was to identify the constraints on NO{sub 2} assimilation. Differential light levels were used to manipulate carbohydrate metabolites available for nitrogen assimilation. Bean plants were grown at four light levels with or without nutrient nitrate and exposed to 0.25 ppm NO{sub 2} for 6h each day. Growth of roots and shoots was inhibited by NO{sub 2} in both the presence and absence of nutrient nitrate. The inhibition was most pronounced at the lowest light level. Light level similarly influenced the effect of nitrate and of NO{sub 2} on soluble protein, nitrate nitrogen and Kjeldahl nitrogen in the root and shoot tissues. Two experiments demonstrated that the injurious effects of NO{sub 2} are more pronounced at low light than at high light and that more NO{sub 2} is assimilated into soluble shoot protein at higher light levels.

  3. Reactive nitrogen, ozone, and nitrate aerosols observed in the Arctic stratosphere in January 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Aimedieu, P.; Koike, M.; Iwasaka, Y.; Newman, P. A.; Schmidt, U.; Matthews, W. A.; Hayashi, M.; Sheldon, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    Ozone mixing ratios in the vicinity of the 525-K potential temperature surface in January and early February of 1990 were observed to decrease sharply across the edge of the vortex boundary, where the vortex position was estimated from Ertel's potential vorticity. The changes in NO(y) mixing ratio with respect to altitude measured on January 18 and 31 were quite well correlated with those of ozone between 15 and 24 km, indicating that NO(y) also had a large gradient across the edge of the vortex. This is interpreted as being mainly due to the significant denitrification that occurred inside the vortex. The total amount of gas and particulate phase HNO3 was close to the NO(y) amount at the altitude of the 22- to 23-km region, suggesting that the conversion of non-HNO3 reactive nitrogen to HNO3 had occurred with a PSC.

  4. Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y.-Z.; Lin, J.-T.; Song, C.; Liu, M.-Y.; Yan, Y.-Y.; Xu, Y.; Huang, B.

    2015-12-01

    Western China has experienced rapid industrialization and urbanization since the implementation of the National Western Development Strategies (the "Go West" movement) in 1999. This transition has affected the spatial and temporal characteristics of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution. In this study, we analyze the trends and variability of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) from 2005 to 2013 over Western China, based on a wavelet analysis on monthly mean NO2 data derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements. We focus on the anthropogenic NO2 by subtracting region-specific "background" values dominated by natural sources. We find significant NO2 growth over Western China between 2005 and 2013 (8.6 ± 0.9 % yr-1 on average, relative to 2005), with the largest increments (15 % yr-1 or more) over parts of several city clusters. The NO2 pollution in most provincial regions rose rapidly from 2005 to 2011 but stabilized or declined afterwards. The NO2 trends were driven mainly by changes in anthropogenic emissions, as confirmed by a nested GEOS-Chem model simulation and a comparison with Chinese official emission statistics. The rate of NO2 growth during 2005-2013 reaches 11.3 ± 1.0 % yr-1 over Northwestern China, exceeding the rates over Southwestern China (5.9 ± 0.6 % yr-1) and the three well-known polluted regions in the east (5.3 ± 0.8 % yr-1 over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, 4.0 ± 0.6 % yr-1} over the Yangtze River Delta, and -3.3 ± 0.3 % yr-1 over the Pearl River Delta). Additional socioeconomic analyses suggest that the rapid NO2 growth in Northwestern China is likely related to the fast developing resource- and pollution-intensive industries along with the "Go West" movement as well as relatively weak emission controls. Further efforts should be made to alleviate NOx pollution to achieve sustainable development in Western China.

  5. Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yuanzheng; Lin, Jintai; Song, Chunqiao; Liu, Mengyao; Yan, Yingying; Xu, Yuan; Huang, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Western China has experienced rapid industrialization and urbanization since the implementation of the National Western Development Strategies (the "Go West" movement) in 1999. This transition has affected the spatial and temporal characteristics of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution. In this study, we analyze the trends and variability of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) from 2005 to 2013 over Western China, based on a wavelet analysis on monthly mean NO2 data derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements. We focus on the anthropogenic NO2 by subtracting region-specific "background" values dominated by natural sources. After removing the background influences, we find significant anthropogenic NO2 growth over Western China between 2005 and 2013 (8.6 ± 0.9 % yr-1 on average, relative to 2005), with the largest increments (15 % yr-1 or more) over parts of several city clusters. The NO2 pollution in most provincial-level regions rose rapidly from 2005 to 2011 but stabilized or declined afterwards. The NO2 trends were driven mainly by changes in anthropogenic emissions, as confirmed by a nested GEOS-Chem model simulation and a comparison with Chinese official emission statistics. The rate of NO2 growth during 2005-2013 reaches 11.3 ± 1.0 % yr-1 over Northwestern China, exceeding the rates over Southwestern China (5.9 ± 0.6 % yr-1) and the three well-known polluted regions in the east (5.3 ± 0.8 % yr-1 over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, 4.0 ± 0.6 % yr-1 over the Yangtze River Delta, and -3.3 ± 0.3 % yr-1 over the Pearl River Delta). Subsequent socioeconomic analyses suggest that the rapid NO2 growth over Northwestern China is likely related to the fast developing resource- and pollution-intensive industries along with the "Go West" movement as well as relatively weak emission controls. Further efforts should be made to alleviate NOx pollution to achieve sustainable development in Western China.

  6. Spatiotemporal patterns of correlation between atmospheric nitrogen dioxide and aerosols over South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ul-Haq, Zia; Tariq, Salman; Ali, Muhammad

    2016-10-01

    An accurate knowledge is needed on the complex relation between atmospheric trace gasses and aerosol variability and their sources to explain trace gases-aerosols-climate interaction and next-generation modeling of climate change and air quality. In this regard, we have used tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Angstrom Exponent (AE) obtained from satellite-based Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)/Aura and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Aqua over South Asia. NO2-AOD correlation with coefficient r = 0.49 is determined over the landmass of South Asia during 2005-2015. Yearly mean NO2-AOD correlation over South Asia shows large variations ranging from r = 0.32 to 0.86 in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The highest correlation (r = 0.66) is seen over eastern regions of Bangladesh and India, as well as adjoining areas of western Myanmar mostly linked to anthropogenic activities. A significant correlation (r = 0.59) associated with natural causes is found over some parts of Sistan region, located at the borders of Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan, and adjoining territory. We find significant positive correlations for monsoon and post-monsoon seasons with r = 0.50 and r = 0.61, respectively. A linear regression on the annual correlation coefficients data suggests that NO2-AOD correlation is strengthening with an increase of 12.9% over South Asia during the study period. The spatial distribution of data slopes reveals positive trends in NO2-AOD correlation over megacities Lahore, Dhaka, Mumbai and Kolkata linked to growing anthropogenic activities. Singrauli city (India) has the highest correlation (r = 0.62) and 35% increase in correlation coefficient value per year. A negative correlation is observed for megacity Karachi (r = -0.37) suggesting the non-commonality of NO2 and aerosols emission sources. AE has also been used to discuss its correlation with NO2 over the areas with dominance of fine-mode aerosols.

  7. Biofilm Removal Using Carbon Dioxide Aerosols without Nitrogen Purge.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongkyeol; Jang, Jaesung

    2016-11-06

    Biofilms can cause serious concerns in many applications. Not only can they cause economic losses, but they can also present a public health hazard. Therefore, it is highly desirable to remove biofilms from surfaces. Many studies on CO2 aerosol cleaning have employed nitrogen purges to increase biofilm removal efficiency by reducing the moisture condensation generated during the cleaning. However, in this study, periodic jets of CO2 aerosols without nitrogen purges were used to remove Pseudomonas putida biofilms from polished stainless steel surfaces. CO2 aerosols are mixtures of solid and gaseous CO2 and are generated when high-pressure CO2 gas is adiabatically expanded through a nozzle. These high-speed aerosols were applied to a biofilm that had been grown for 24 hr. The removal efficiency ranged from 90.36% to 98.29% and was evaluated by measuring the fluorescence intensity of the biofilm as the treatment time was varied from 16 sec to 88 sec. We also performed experiments to compare the removal efficiencies with and without nitrogen purges; the measured biofilm removal efficiencies were not significantly different from each other (t-test, p > 0.55). Therefore, this technique can be used to clean various bio-contaminated surfaces within one minute.

  8. Aqueous phase oxidation of sulphur dioxide by ozone in cloud droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, C. R.; Fuchs, C.; Järvinen, E.; Saathoff, H.; Dias, A.; El Haddad, I.; Gysel, M.; Coburn, S. C.; Tröstl, J.; Bernhammer, A.-K.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Corbin, J. C.; Craven, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Duplissy, J.; Ehrhart, S.; Frege, C.; Gordon, H.; Höppel, N.; Heinritzi, M.; Kristensen, T. B.; Molteni, U.; Nichman, L.; Pinterich, T.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Simon, M.; Slowik, J. G.; Steiner, G.; Tomé, A.; Vogel, A. L.; Volkamer, R.; Wagner, A. C.; Wagner, R.; Wexler, A. S.; Williamson, C.; Winkler, P. M.; Yan, C.; Amorim, A.; Dommen, J.; Curtius, J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Flagan, R. C.; Hansel, A.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Möhler, O.; Stratmann, F.; Worsnop, D. R.; Baltensperger, U.

    2016-02-01

    The growth of aerosol due to the aqueous phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide by ozone was measured in laboratory-generated clouds created in the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Experiments were performed at 10 and -10 °C, on acidic (sulfuric acid) and on partially to fully neutralised (ammonium sulfate) seed aerosol. Clouds were generated by performing an adiabatic expansion - pressurising the chamber to 220 hPa above atmospheric pressure, and then rapidly releasing the excess pressure, resulting in a cooling, condensation of water on the aerosol and a cloud lifetime of approximately 6 min. A model was developed to compare the observed aerosol growth with that predicted using oxidation rate constants previously measured in bulk solutions. The model captured the measured aerosol growth very well for experiments performed at 10 and -10 °C, indicating that, in contrast to some previous studies, the oxidation rates of SO2 in a dispersed aqueous system can be well represented by using accepted rate constants, based on bulk measurements. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first laboratory-based measurements of aqueous phase oxidation in a dispersed, super-cooled population of droplets. The measurements are therefore important in confirming that the extrapolation of currently accepted reaction rate constants to temperatures below 0 °C is correct.

  9. Statistical summary and trend evaluation of air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio in 1967 to 1971: Total suspended particulate, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; Burr, J. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio, for the period of 1967 to 1971 were collated and subjected to statistical analysis. The total suspended particulate component is lognormally distributed; while sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are reasonably approximated by lognormal distributions. Only sulfur dioxide, in some residential neighborhoods, meets Ohio air quality standards. Air quality has definitely improved in the industrial valley, while in the rest of the city, only sulfur dioxide has shown consistent improvement. A pollution index is introduced which displays directly the degree to which the environmental air conforms to mandated standards.

  10. Ozone and nitrogen effects on yield and nutritive quality of the annual legume Trifolium cherleri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, J.; González-Fernández, I.; Calvete-Sogo, H.; Lin, J. S.; Alonso, R.; Muntifering, R.; Bermejo, V.

    2014-09-01

    Two independent experiments were performed in an Open-Top Chamber facility to determine the response of biomass and nutritive quality of the annual legume Trifolium cherleri to increased levels of ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition, two main drivers of global change. Plants growing in pots were exposed to three O3 treatments: charcoal-filtered air (CFA); non-filtered air, reproducing ambient O3 levels of the site (NFA); and non-filtered air supplemented with 40 nl l-1 (NFA+). Nitrogen was added in biweekly doses to achieve final doses of 5 (N5), 15 (N15) and 30 kg ha-1 (N30), reproducing the N deposition range in the Iberian Peninsula. Ozone negatively affected all the growth-related parameters and increased plant senescent biomass. The pollutant affected subterranean biomass to a greater extent than aerial biomass, resulting in altered aerial/subterranean ratio. Effects in the second experiment followed the same pattern as in the first, but were of lesser magnitude. However, these differences between assays could not be explained adequately by the absorbed O3 fluxes (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose, POD). Concentrations of cell-wall constituents related to nutritive quality increased with the O3 exposure, reducing the Relative Food Value index (RFV) that indicates decreased nutritive quality of the forage. Nitrogen stimulated all growth-related parameters, but increased the aboveground biomass more than the subterranean biomass. No effects of N fertilizer were detected for the nutritive quality parameters. A significant interaction between O3 and N was found in the second experiment. N further enhanced the increase of senescent biomass caused by O3. Results indicate that O3 is a potentially significant environmental stress factor in terms of structure and diversity of Mediterranean pastures.

  11. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide adsorption on zinc oxide and zirconium hydroxide nanoparticles and the effect on photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jagdeep; Mukherjee, Anupama; Sengupta, Sandip K.; Im, Jisun; Peterson, Gregory W.; Whitten, James E.

    2012-05-01

    Nanoparticulate zinc oxide and micron-size zirconium hydroxide powders have been exposed to sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide by flowing the gases, diluted with nitrogen, over powder samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicate strongly bound, chemisorbed SO3 and NO3 surface species. Two pre-treatments of the nanoparticulate ZnO samples prior to gas exposure have been investigated: (1) drying overnight in a vacuum oven and (2) hydrating the samples by placing them overnight in water-saturated air. A dramatic difference in reactivity of ZnO is observed, with approximately two-fold and ten-fold greater uptake of NO2 and SO2, respectively, measured by XPS for the hydrated samples relative to the dried ones. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrates that the greater uptake arises from a morphology change in the case of the hydrated samples. For zirconium hydroxide, no morphology change is observed for hydrated samples, and SO4 (ads), in addition to SO3 (ads), is indicated by XPS. ZnO and Zr(OH)4 both exhibit photoluminescence (PL) spectra, with peak intensities that change dramatically due to hydration and subsequent exposure to SO2 and NO2 gases. Dosing of the powders with these gases effectively reverts the PL spectra to those corresponding to less hydration.

  12. Surface area of montmorillonite from the dynamic sorption of nitrogen and carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.; Bohor, B.F.

    1968-01-01

    Surface area determinations were made on a montmorillonite with various cations emplaced on the exchangeable sites, utilizing nitrogen and carbon dioxide as adsorbates at 77 ??K and 195 ??K, respectively, in a dynamic system. From the fraction of a Mississippi montmorillonite less than about 1 ?? in size, samples were prepared by replacing the original exchangeable cations with Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, Mg++, Ca++, Ba++, and NH4+, forming a series of homoionic montmorillonite species. Surface areas from 3-point B.E.T. plots (half-hour adsorption points), with nitrogen as the adsorbate, ranged from 61 m2/g for Li-montmorillonite to 138 m2/g for Cs-montmorillonite, thus reflecting a certain degree of nitrogen penetration between layers. Complete penetration should theoretically result in a surface area of over 300 m2/g for this clay with a nitrogen monolayer between each pair of platelets. The experimental data indicate that the extent of penetration is time-dependent and is also a function of the interlayer forces as governed by the size and charge of the replaceable cation. This finding negates the generally accepted concept that nitrogen at 77 ??K does not penetrate the layers and provides a measure only of the external surface of expandable clay minerals. A further measure of the variation of interlayer forces is provided by the adsorption of carbon dioxide at 195 ??K. Surface area values ranged from 99 m2/g for Li-montmorillonite to 315 m2/g for Csmontmorillonite. Although the carbon dioxide molecule is larger than the nitrogen molecule, its greater penetration apparently is a result of its being kinetically more energetic (with a larger diffusion coefficient) at its higher adsorption temperature. Similar differences have been found with both adsorbates in the study of microporous substances, such as coal, where activated diffusion is of considerable significance. ?? 1968.

  13. Dynamics of ozone and nitrogen oxides at Summit, Greenland. II. Simulating snowpack chemistry during a spring high ozone event with a 1-D process-scale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Keenan A.; Kramer, Louisa J.; Doskey, Paul V.; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Seok, Brian; Van Dam, Brie; Helmig, Detlev

    2015-09-01

    Observed depth profiles of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) in snowpack interstitial air at Summit, Greenland were best replicated by a 1-D process-scale model, which included (1) geometrical representation of snow grains as spheres, (2) aqueous-phase chemistry confined to a quasi-liquid layer (QLL) on the surface of snow grains, and (3) initialization of the species concentrations in the QLL through equilibrium partitioning with mixing ratios in snowpack interstitial air. A comprehensive suite of measurements in and above snowpack during a high O3 event facilitated analysis of the relationship between the chemistry of snowpack and the overlying atmosphere. The model successfully reproduced 2 maxima (i.e., a peak near the surface of the snowpack at solar noon and a larger peak occurring in the evening that extended down from 0.5 to 2 m) in the diurnal profile of NO2 within snowpack interstitial air. The maximum production rate of NO2 by photolysis of nitrate (NO3-) was approximately 108 molec cm-3 s-1, which explained daily observations of maxima in NO2 mixing ratios near solar noon. Mixing ratios of NO2 in snowpack interstitial air were greatest in the deepest layers of the snowpack at night and were attributed to thermal decomposition of peroxynitric acid, which produced up to 106 molec NO2 cm-3 s-1. Highest levels of NO in snowpack interstitial air were confined to upper layers of the snowpack and observed profiles were consistent with photolysis of NO2. Production of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from NO3- photolysis was estimated to be two orders of magnitude larger than NO production and supports the hypothesis that NO3- photolysis is the primary source of NOx within sunlit snowpack in the Arctic. Aqueous-phase oxidation of formic acid by O3 resulted in a maximum consumption rate of ∼106-107 molec cm-3 s-1 and was the primary removal mechanism for O3.

  14. Effect of disinfection of drinking water with ozone or chlorine dioxide on survival of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, J E; Mazás, E A; Masschelein, W J; Villacorta Martiez de Maturana, I; Debacker, E

    1989-01-01

    Demineralized water was seeded with controlled numbers of oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum purified from fresh calf feces and subjected to different treatments with ozone or chlorine dioxide. The disinfectants were neutralized by sodium thiosulfate, and neonatal mice were inoculated intragastrically and sacrificed 7 days later for enumeration of oocyst production. Preliminary trials indicated that a minimum infection level of 1,000 oocysts (0.1-ml inoculum) per mouse was necessary to induce 100% infection. Treatment of water containing 10(4) oocysts per ml with 1.11 mg of ozone per liter (concentration at time zero [C0]) for 6 min totally eliminated the infectivity of the oocysts for neonatal mice. A level of 2.27 mg of ozone per liter (C0) was necessary to inactivate water containing 5 x 10(5) oocysts per ml within 8 min. Also, 0.4 mg of chlorine dioxide per liter (C0) significantly reduced infectivity within 15 min of contact, although some oocysts remained viable. PMID:2764564

  15. Alteration of extracellular enzymes in pinto bean leaves upon exposure to air pollutants, ozone and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, J.L.; Castillo, F.J.; Heath, R.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Diamine oxidase and peroxidase, associated with the wall in pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Pinto) leaves, can be washed out by vacuum infiltration and assayed without grinding the leaf. The diamine oxidase activity is inhibited in vivo by exposure of the plants to ozone (dose of 0.6 microliters per liter {times} hour), whereas the peroxidase activity associated with the wall space is stimulated. This dose does not cause obvious necrosis or chlorosis of the leaf. These alterations are greater when the dose of ozone exposure is given as a triangular pulse (a slow rise to a peak of 0.24 microliters per liter followed by a slow fall) compared to that given as a constant square wave pulse of 0.15 microliters per liter for the same 4 hour period. Exposure of the plants to sulfur dioxide (at a concentration of 0.4 microliters per liter for 4 hours) does not result in any change in the diamine oxidase or peroxidase activities, yet the total sulfhydryl content of the leaf is increased, demonstrating the entry of sulfur dioxide. These two pollutants, with different chemical reactivities, affect the activities of the extracellular enzymes in different manners. In the case of ozone exposure, the inhibition of extracellular diamine oxidase could profoundly alter the movements of polyamines from cell to cell.

  16. Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide Column Density Trends Seen from the 10-year Record of OMI Measurements over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, H.; Muto, T.; Itahashi, S.; Kurokawa, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard the Aura satellite recorded the 10-year (2005-2014) of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column density (VCD) data. The data set taken over East Asia was analyzed to estimate linear trends on national and grid bases for two periods of 2005-2011 and 2011-2014. The most striking features are leveling-off or decreasing trends seen in NO2 VCDs over China for 2011-2014 after continuous increases for 2005-2011. In particular, a significant reduction by ~14% occurred from 2013 through 2014, attaining to the level of 2009. The grid-basis trend analysis implies that the turnaround seen in the trends occurred on a province or larger spatial scale and was likely due mainly to the technical improvement such as the widespread use of de-NOx units. Another prominent features are seen in Japan, where NO2 VCDs decreased at a rate of ~4% per year from 2005 to 2011. The rate was almost unchanged between the two periods 2005-2011 and 2011-2014, while the significant power substitution of thermal power generation for the nuclear power generation took place in Japan after 2011, when a massive earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of northern Japan. This reflects a less contribution of NOx emissions from the power plant sector than that from the transport sector in the Pacific Belt Zone lying over metropolitan areas.

  17. Spatial variance and assessment of nitrogen dioxide pollution in major cities of Pakistan along N5-Highway.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Yasir; Khokhar, Muhammad Fahim; Shaiganfar, Reza; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the findings of the first car MAX-DOAS (multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy) field campaign (300km long) along the National Highway-05 (N5-Highway) of Pakistan conducted on 13 and 14 November, 2012. The main objective of the field campaign was to assess the spatial distribution of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns and corresponding concentrations along the N5-Highway from Islamabad to Lahore. Source identification of NO2 revealed that the concentrations were higher within major cities along the highway. The highest NO2 vertical column densities (NO2 VCDs) were found around two major cities of Rawalpindi and Lahore. This study also presents a comparison of NO2 VCDs measured by the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) and car MAX-DOAS observations. The comparison revealed similar spatial distribution of the NO2 columns with both car MAX-DOAS and satellite observations, but the car MAX-DOAS observations show much more spatial details. Maximum NO2 VCD retrieved from car MAX-DOAS observations was up to an order of magnitude larger than the OMI observations in urban areas.

  18. Evaluation of land use regression models (LURs) for nitrogen dioxide and benzene in four U.S. Cities.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spatial analysis studies have included application of land use regression models (LURs) for health and air quality assessments. Recent LUR studies have collected nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using passive samplers at urban air monitoring networks ...

  19. Fast gas chromotography with luminol detection for measurement of nitrogen dioxide and PANs.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Drayton, P. J.

    1999-09-30

    Fast capillary gas chromatography has been coupled to a luminol-based chemiluminescence detection system for the rapid monitoring of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacyl nitrates. A first-generation instrument was described recently (Gaffney et al., 1998). This system is capable of monitoring nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs; to and including the C4 species) with 1-min time resolution. This is an improvement by a factor of five over gas chromatography methods with electron capture detection. In addition, the luminol method is substantially less expensive than laser fluorescent detection or mass spectroscopic methods. Applications in aircraft-based research have been published electronically and will appear shortly in Environmental Science and Technology (Gaffney et al., 1999a). An improved version of the instrument that has been designed and built makes use of a Hammamatsu photon-counting system. Detection limits of this instrumentation are at the low tens of ppt. The range of the instrument can be adjusted by modifying sampling volumes and detection counting times. A review of past work and of recent application of the instrumentation to field measurements of nitrogen dioxide and PANs is presented. The data clearly indicate that the luminol approach can determine the target species with time resolution of less than 1 min. Examples of applications for estimation of peroxyacetyl radical concentrations and nitrate radical formation rates are also presented. This instrumentation can further be used for evaluation of surfaces for loss of nitrogen dioxide and PANs, phenomena of possible importance for sampling interfaces and chamber wall design. Our high-frequency field data clearly indicate that the ''real world'' is not well mixed and that turbulent mixing and plume-edge chemistries might play an important role in urban- and regional-scale interactions. Dynamic flow systems might be required to evaluate such effects in new-generation chamber studies.

  20. Traffic-related pollution and asthma prevalence in children. Quantification of associations with nitrogen dioxide.

    PubMed

    Favarato, Graziella; Anderson, H Ross; Atkinson, Richard; Fuller, Gary; Mills, Inga; Walton, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Ambient nitrogen dioxide is a widely available measure of traffic-related air pollution and is inconsistently associated with the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children. The use of this relationship to evaluate the health impact of policies affecting traffic management and traffic emissions is limited by the lack of a concentration-response function based on systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies. Using systematic methods, we identified papers containing quantitative estimates for nitrogen dioxide and the 12 month period prevalence of asthma symptoms in children in which the exposure contrast was within-community and dominated by traffic pollution. One estimate was selected from each study according to an a priori algorithm. Odds ratios were standardised to 10 μg/m(3) and summary estimates were obtained using random- and fixed-effects estimates. Eighteen studies were identified. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide were estimated for the home address (12) and/or school (8) using a range of methods; land use regression (6), study monitors (6), dispersion modelling (4) and interpolation (2). Fourteen studies showed positive associations but only two associations were statistically significant at the 5 % level. There was moderate heterogeneity (I(2) = 32.8 %) and the random-effects estimate for the odds ratio was 1.06 (95 % CI 1.00 to 1.11). There was no evidence of small study bias. Individual studies tended to have only weak positive associations between nitrogen dioxide and asthma prevalence but the summary estimate bordered on statistical significance at the 5 % level. Although small, the potential impact on asthma prevalence could be considerable because of the high level of baseline prevalence in many cities. Whether the association is causal or indicates the effects of a correlated pollutant or other confounders, the estimate obtained by the meta-analysis would be appropriate for estimating impacts of traffic pollution on asthma

  1. Validation of nitrogen dioxide measurements from the Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reburn, W. J.; Remedios, J. J.; Morris, P. E.; Rodgers, C. D.; Taylor, F. W.; Kerridge, B. J.; Knight, R. J.; Ballard, J.; Kumer, J. B.; Massie, S. T.

    1996-04-01

    Measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are assessed. Channel 5 of the instrument was dedicated to observations of nitrogen dioxide and employed pressure-modulation and wideband radiometry to make measurements at 6.2 μm. This dual technique allows simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide mixing ratio and the aerosol extinction coefficient at this wavelength and therefore provides nitrogen dioxide data even in the presence of heavy aerosol loading. Approximately 180 days of data, in the period from September 1991 to July 1992, were obtained with, typically, over 2600 profiles per day for each retrieved species, covering an altitude range of 100-0.01 mbar. In this paper the version 10 data are assessed and a full error analysis is described. Comparisons with the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS and the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) on Nimbus 7 are also presented. It is concluded that the morphology of the retrieved ISAMS fields is robust and consistent with concurrent as well as previous infrared satellite measurements. Random errors are estimated to be of the order of 10% for nighttime and 15% for daytime NO2 near the maxima of the distributions, and systematic errors are estimated to be of a similar size. However, there remains an unresolved systematic difference of about a factor of 2 between ISAMS and CLAES. Both random and systematic errors are likely to be reduced in future versions of the processing.

  2. Soil nitrogen and ozone effects on growth, physiology, and nutrition of loblolly pine and yellow-poplar seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Tjoelker, M.G.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Schwarz, O.J.

    1989-06-01

    The effects of soil nitrogen level and chronic ozone (O /sub 3/) stress on carbon and nutrient economy were investigated in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L). The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare the growth and biomass partitioning in seedlings in response to varied low-nitrogen forest soil treatments in combination with chronic ozone levels over one growing season and (2) to investigate seedling physiological responses, including water use efficiency (WUE), photosynthesis, fine root and leaf nitrate reductase activity (NRA), nutrient concentration, nutrient uptake, and nutrient use efficiency (NUE). 135 refs., 12 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. The Antarctic ozone minimum - Relationship to odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, the final warming, and the 11-year solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Photochemical calculations along 'diabatic trajectories' in the meridional phase are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. The results indicate that the minimum is principally due to catalytic destruction of ozone by high levels of total odd nitrogen. Calculations suggest that these levels of odd nitrogen are transported within the polar vortex and during the polar night from the middle to upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere to the lower stratosphere. The possibility that these levels are related to the 11-year solar cycle and are increased by enhanced formation in the thermosphere and mesosphere during solar maximum conditions is discussed.

  4. The carbon-nitrogen balance of the nodule and its regulation under elevated carbon dioxide concentration.

    PubMed

    Libault, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Legumes have developed a unique way to interact with bacteria: in addition to preventing infection from pathogenic bacteria like any other plant, legumes also developed a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with one gender of soil bacteria: rhizobium. This interaction leads to the development of a new root organ, the nodule, where the differentiated bacteria fix for the plant the atmospheric dinitrogen (atmN2). In exchange, the symbiont will benefit from a permanent source of carbon compounds, products of the photosynthesis. The substantial amounts of fixed carbon dioxide dedicated to the symbiont imposed to the plant a tight regulation of the nodulation process to balance carbon and nitrogen incomes and outcomes. Climate change including the increase of the concentration of the atmospheric carbon dioxide is going to modify the rates of plant photosynthesis, the balance between nitrogen and carbon, and, as a consequence, the regulatory mechanisms of the nodulation process. This review focuses on the regulatory mechanisms controlling carbon/nitrogen balances in the context of legume nodulation and discusses how the change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration could affect nodulation efficiency.

  5. A survey of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in indoor ice arenas in Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    Paulozzi, L.J. ); Spengler, R.F.; Vogt, R.L.; Carney, J.K.

    1993-12-01

    Because of the history of health problems traceable to the exhaust of ice resurfacing machines, state sanitarians used detector tubes to measure carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO[sub 2]) levels in enclosed ice arenas in Vermont during high school hockey games. Five of eight arenas had average game CO measurements of 30 ppm carbon monoxide or more. Two of the three periods of play had average CO readings in excess of 100 ppm in one arena. Only six arenas had the complete series of nitrogen dioxide measurements. One had an average game NO[sub 2] level of 1.2 ppm. Two had one or more periods of play that averaged in excess of 0.5 ppm. Despite the ample documentation of the hazards of operating combustion-powered resurfacing machines inside enclosed ice arenas, a significant portion of the arenas had undesirable levels of carbon monoxide or nitrogen dioxide. Ice arenas should be routinely monitored for air contaminants. Considerations should be given to the purchase of electric ice resurfacing machines for new arenas and arenas that have air contamination that cannot be resolved with ventilation.

  6. Ozone and carbon dioxide effects on spider mites in white clover and peanut

    SciTech Connect

    Heagle, A.S.; Brandenburg, R.L.; Burns, J.C.; Miller, J.E.

    1994-11-01

    Effects of O{sub 3} and/or elevated CO{sub 2} on two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch) grown on an O{sub 3}-sensitive and an O{sub 3}-resistant clone of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) were measured in greenhouse and field experiments. Peanut (Arachis hypogeae L.) {open_quote}NC-9{close_quote} was used in one greenhouse study with O{sub 3}. In field studies, O{sub 3} treatments were charcoal filtered air (CF), nonfiltered air (NF), and two NF treatments with O{sub 3} added for 12 h d{sup {minus}1} at proportions of {approx} 1.25 and 1.50 times the ambient O{sub 3} concentration. In greenhouse studies, constant amounts of O{sub 3} were added to CF for 6 h d{sup {minus}1} to achieve mean concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 nL L{sup {minus}1}. For the greenhouse O{sub 3} x CO{sub 2} experiment, CO{sub 2} concentrations were ambient and approximately twice-ambient for 24 h d{sup {minus}1}. Plants were exposed to O{sub 3} and/or CO{sub 2} for {approx} 7 d before infestation with mites; daily exposures continued for 14 to 28 d to allow reproduction for at least two generations. Leaves were sampled to count eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults. Ozone caused more chlorosis and necrosis on the O{sub 3}-sensitive clover clone (NC-S) than on the O{sub 3}-resistant clone (NC-R). Carbon dioxide enrichment increased shoot growth of both clones by {approx}33%. Statistical analyses indicated significant O{sub 3} effects in some experiments and nonsignificant O{sub 3} effects in others. A trend toward increased mite populations with increased O{sub 3} occurred, however, on NC-S in all trials. No consistent trends occurred with NC-R. With peanut, a significant linear increase in mite population occurred with increased O{sub 3}. Carbon dioxide enrichment increased the rate of population increase on both clover clones, but more so on NC-R. 47 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on soil nitrogen cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmockel, Kirsten S.

    elevated atmospheric CO2 on soil nitrogen cycling at the ecosystem scale, despite an increase in N demand of 0.86 g m-2 y -1 under elevated CO2. My results suggest that elevated CO2 does not alter soil nitrogen cycling at the decadal time scale. Retranslocation within trees and slowly cycling soil organic pools are likely supporting the increased N demand under elevated CO2. Longer-term studies may reveal differences in soil organic matter and carbon sequestration dynamics under ambient and elevated CO2.

  8. Projected carbon dioxide to increase grass pollen and allergen exposure despite higher ozone levels.

    PubMed

    Albertine, Jennifer M; Manning, William J; DaCosta, Michelle; Stinson, Kristina A; Muilenberg, Michael L; Rogers, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    One expected effect of climate change on human health is increasing allergic and asthmatic symptoms through changes in pollen biology. Allergic diseases have a large impact on human health globally, with 10-30% of the population affected by allergic rhinitis and more than 300 million affected by asthma. Pollen from grass species, which are highly allergenic and occur worldwide, elicits allergic responses in 20% of the general population and 40% of atopic individuals. Here we examine the effects of elevated levels of two greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), a growth and reproductive stimulator of plants, and ozone (O3), a repressor, on pollen and allergen production in Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.). We conducted a fully factorial experiment in which plants were grown at ambient and/or elevated levels of O3 and CO2, to simulate present and projected levels of both gases and their potential interactive effects. We captured and counted pollen from flowers in each treatment and assayed for concentrations of the allergen protein, Phl p 5. We found that elevated levels of CO2 increased the amount of grass pollen produced by ∼50% per flower, regardless of O3 levels. Elevated O3 significantly reduced the Phl p 5 content of the pollen but the net effect of rising pollen numbers with elevated CO2 indicate increased allergen exposure under elevated levels of both greenhouse gases. Using quantitative estimates of increased pollen production and number of flowering plants per treatment, we estimated that airborne grass pollen concentrations will increase in the future up to ∼200%. Due to the widespread existence of grasses and the particular importance of P. pratense in eliciting allergic responses, our findings provide evidence for significant impacts on human health worldwide as a result of future climate change.

  9. The combined effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on crop systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.; Heagle, A.S.; Shafer, S.R.; Heck, W.W. |

    1994-12-31

    Concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and ozone (O{sub 3}) in the troposphere have risen in the last century due to industrialization. Current levels of tropospheric O{sub 3} suppress growth of crops and other plants, and O{sub 3} concentrations may continue to rise with changes in global climate. On the other hand, projected increases in atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the next 50 to 100 years are expected to cause significant increases in growth of most species. Since elevated concentrations of these gases will co-occur, it is important to understand their joint action. Until recently, however, the combined effects of O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} have received little attention. Most publications on combined CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} effects have described experiments conducted in greenhouse or controlled-environment facilities. To date, data on responses of agricultural species to the combined gases have come from experiments with radish, tomato, white clover, tobacco, or wheat. In most cases, CO{sub 2} stimulated and O{sub 3} suppressed growth of the plant tissues studied, and CO{sub 2} usually attenuated development of O{sub 3}-induced visible injury. Some data have indicated a tendency for CO{sub 2}, in concentrations up to double the current ambient level, to attenuate effects of O{sub 3} on growth, but statistical analyses of such data often have not supported such a conclusion. In this paper, the results of a recent field experiment with soybean are reported, and the results are compared to other similar research with elevated atmospheric concentrations of both O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}.

  10. Field assessment of a snap bean ozone bioindicator system under elevated ozone and carbon dioxide in a free air system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone-sensitive (S156) and -tolerant (R123 and R331) genotypes of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were tested as a plant bioindicator system for detecting O3 effects at current and future levels of tropospheric O3 and atmospheric CO2 under field conditions. Plants were exposed to reciprocal combi...

  11. Improvements in the profiles and distributions of nitric acid and nitrogen dioxide with the LIMS version 6 dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remsberg, E.; Natarajan, M.; Marshall, T.; Gordley, L. L.; Thompson, R. E.; Lingenfelser, G.

    2010-02-01

    The quality of the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) nitric acid (HNO3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) profiles and distributions of 1978/1979 is described after their processing with an updated, Version 6 (V6) algorithm and subsequent archival in 2002. Estimates of the precision and accuracy of both of those species are developed and provided herein. The character of the V6 HNO3 profiles is relatively unchanged from that of the earlier LIMS Version 5 (V5) profiles, except in the upper stratosphere where the interfering effects of CO2 are accounted for better with V6. The accuracy of the retrieved V6 NO2 is also significantly better in the middle and upper stratosphere, due to improvements in its spectral line parameters and in the reduced biases for the accompanying V6 temperature and water vapor profiles. As a result of these important updates, there is better agreement with theoretical calculations for profiles of the HNO3/NO2 ratio, day-to-night NO2 ratio, and with estimates of the production of NO2 in the mesosphere and its descent to the upper stratosphere during polar night. The improved precisions and more frequent retrievals of the profiles along the LIMS orbit tracks provide for better continuity and detail in map analyses of these two species on pressure surfaces. It is judged that the chemical effects of the oxides of nitrogen on ozone can be examined quantitatively throughout the stratosphere with the LIMS V6 data, and that the findings will be more compatible with those obtained from measurements of the same species from subsequent satellite sensors.

  12. Improvements in the profiles and distributions of nitric acid and nitrogen dioxide with the LIMS version 6 dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remsberg, E.; Natarajan, M.; Marshall, B. T.; Gordley, L. L.; Thompson, R. E.; Lingenfelser, G.

    2010-05-01

    The quality of the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) nitric acid (HNO3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) profiles and distributions of 1978/1979 are described after their processing with an updated, Version 6 (V6) algorithm and subsequent archival in 2002. Estimates of the precision and accuracy of both of those species are developed and provided herein. The character of the V6 HNO3 profiles is relatively unchanged from that of the earlier LIMS Version 5 (V5) profiles, except in the upper stratosphere where the interfering effects of CO2 are accounted for better with V6. The accuracy of the retrieved V6 NO2 is also significantly better in the middle and upper stratosphere, due to improvements in its spectral line parameters and in the reduced biases for the accompanying V6 temperature and water vapor profiles. As a result of these important updates, there is better agreement with theoretical calculations for profiles of the HNO3/NO2 ratio, day-to-night NO2 ratio, and with estimates of the production of NO2 in the mesosphere and its descent to the upper stratosphere during polar night. In particular, the findings for middle and upper stratospheric NO2 should also be more compatible with those obtained from more recent satellite sensors because the effects of the spin-splitting of the NO2 lines are accounted for now with the LIMS V6 algorithm. The improved precisions and more frequent retrievals of the LIMS profiles along their orbit tracks provide for better continuity and detail in map analyses of these two species on pressure surfaces. It is judged that the chemical effects of the oxides of nitrogen on ozone can be studied quantitatively throughout the stratosphere with the LIMS V6 data.

  13. Indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide from burning solid fuels for cooking and heating in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Seow, W J; Downward, G S; Wei, H; Rothman, N; Reiss, B; Xu, J; Bassig, B A; Li, J; He, J; Hosgood, H D; Wu, G; Chapman, R S; Tian, L; Wei, F; Caporaso, N E; Vermeulen, R; Lan, Q

    2016-10-01

    The Chinese national pollution census has indicated that the domestic burning of solid fuels is an important contributor to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) emissions in China. To characterize indoor NO2 and SO2 air concentrations in relation to solid fuel use and stove ventilation in the rural counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, in Yunnan Province, China, which have among the highest lung cancer rates in the nation, a total of 163 participants in 30 selected villages were enrolled. Indoor 24-h NO2 and SO2 samples were collected in each household over two consecutive days. Compared to smoky coal, smokeless coal use was associated with higher NO2 concentrations [geometric mean (GM) = 132 μg/m(3) for smokeless coal and 111 μg/m(3) for smoky coal, P = 0.065] and SO2 [limit of detection = 24 μg/m(3) ; percentage detected (%Detect) = 86% for smokeless coal and 40% for smoky coal, P < 0.001]. Among smoky coal users, significant variation of NO2 and SO2 air concentrations was observed across different stove designs and smoky coal sources in both counties. Model construction indicated that the measurements of both pollutants were influenced by stove design. This exposure assessment study has identified high levels of NO2 and SO2 as a result of burning solid fuels for cooking and heating.

  14. Kinetics of the formation of ozone and nitrogen oxides due to a pulsed microwave discharge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, V. F.; Rumiantsev, S. A.

    1989-03-01

    The paper presents results of a numerical simulation of the kinetics of plasma-chemical processes induced by a single microwave pulse in the stratosphere. It is shown that the gas temperature is one of the main factors influencing the concentration ratio of ozone and nitrogen oxides formed under the effect of a microwave pulse. Long pulses, producing considerable gas heating, favor the formation of nitrogen oxides.

  15. Assessing Day-to Day Variability in the Vertical Distribution of Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Ozone over Railroad Valley, NV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iraci, L. T.; Johnson, M. S.; Yates, E. L.; Tanaka, T.; Sweeney, C.; Tadic, J.; Roby, M.; Andrews, A. E.; Lopez, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    In-situ observations of three trace gases over a remote desert site allow for an analysis of the variability of ozone (O3), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the free troposphere. Observations from June 2013 show almost no change from one day to the next in the boundary layer (BL) up to > 4 km (30% of the atmospheric column), while mixing ratios of methane and carbon dioxide show strong variability above this altitude. Ozone values also demonstrate variability above the boundary layer, and ozone day-to-day variability in the well-mixed BL is greater than that of CO2 or CH4. Results from week-long intensives in both June 2012 and June 2013, as well as monthly measurements over the period 2012-2013, will be compared to long-term vertical profile data sets at other locations (Trinidad Head, CA; Briggsdale, CO; and the Southern Great Plains site, OK). Variability above and in the boundary layer will be reported. To assess possible sources of variability, in situ data will be analyzed with a chemical trajectory model (GEOS-Chem v9-01-03). The North America nested-grid version of GEOS-Chem utilizes varying emission inventories and model parameterizations to simulate the emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4, in this case) and ozone precursor gases. Tagged tracer simulations in GEOS-Chem allow for the geographical source apportionment of ozone, indicating whether the observed O3 was formed in the upper troposphere, middle troposphere, stratosphere, or any user-defined boundary layer location. For this study we will focus on ozone formed in the boundary layer over Asia, the Pacific Ocean, Mexico, Canada, and the United States. The importance of daily variability in the free tropospheric values of CO2, CH4, and O3 will be discussed in the context of column measurements collected from the surface or from space. Many data assimilation systems are designed to assume that changes to the total column average should be attributed primarily to changes within the

  16. Surface area of vermiculite with nitrogen and carbon dioxide as adsorbates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.; Bohor, B.F.

    1969-01-01

    Surface-area studies were made on several homoionic vermiculites with both nitrogen and carbon dioxide as adsorbates. These studies show that only very slight penetration occurs between individual vermiculite platelets. This is in contrast to an earlier investigation of montmorillonite where it was found that the degree of penetration between layers is quite high, particularly for carbon dioxide, and is governed by the size and charge of the interlayer cation. The inability of these adsorbates to penetrate substantially between vermiculite platelets is due primarily to this mineral's high surface-charge density. The extent of penetration of nitrogen and carbon dioxide at the edges of vermiculite platelets, though slight, is influenced by the coordinated water retained within the sample at a given degassing temperature. Forces between layers are weakened with increasing water content, which permits slightly greater penetration by adsorbate gases. Thus, the surface area of vermiculite, as determined by gas adsorption, is larger than the calculated external surface area based upon particle size and shape considerations. In addition, "extra" surface is provided by the lifting and scrolling of terminal platelets. These morphological features are shown in scanning electron micrographs of a naturally occuring vermiculite. ?? 1969.

  17. Soil respiration in northern forests exposed to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone.

    PubMed

    Pregitzer, Kurt; Loya, Wendy; Kubiske, Mark; Zak, Donald

    2006-06-01

    The aspen free-air CO2 and O3 enrichment (FACTS II-FACE) study in Rhinelander, Wisconsin, USA, is designed to understand the mechanisms by which young northern deciduous forest ecosystems respond to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and elevated tropospheric ozone (O3) in a replicated, factorial, field experiment. Soil respiration is the second largest flux of carbon (C) in these ecosystems, and the objective of this study was to understand how soil respiration responded to the experimental treatments as these fast-growing stands of pure aspen and birch + aspen approached maximum leaf area. Rates of soil respiration were typically lowest in the elevated O3 treatment. Elevated CO2 significantly stimulated soil respiration (8-26%) compared to the control treatment in both community types over all three growing seasons. In years 6-7 of the experiment, the greatest rates of soil respiration occurred in the interaction treatment (CO2 + O3), and rates of soil respiration were 15-25% greater in this treatment than in the elevated CO2 treatment, depending on year and community type. Two of the treatments, elevated CO2 and elevated CO2 + O3, were fumigated with 13C-depleted CO2, and in these two treatments we used standard isotope mixing models to understand the proportions of new and old C in soil respiration. During the peak of the growing season, C fixed since the initiation of the experiment in 1998 (new C) accounted for 60-80% of total soil respiration. The isotope measurements independently confirmed that more new C was respired from the interaction treatment compared to the elevated CO2 treatment. A period of low soil moisture late in the 2003 growing season resulted in soil respiration with an isotopic signature 4-6 per thousand enriched in 13C compared to sample dates when the percentage soil moisture was higher. In 2004, an extended period of low soil moisture during August and early September, punctuated by a significant rainfall event, resulted in soil

  18. The Effect of Global Change on Surface Ozone and Reactive Nitrogen Concentrations: Implications for the Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, P. G.; Murazaki, K.; Emmons, L.; Lamarque, J.

    2005-12-01

    We simulated two ten year periods using the global chemical transport model MOZART-2 (Model of Ozone and Related chemical Tracers version 2): 1990-2000 and 2090-2100. In each case MOZART-2 is driven by meteorology from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) coupled Climate Systems Model (CSM) 1.0 forced with the (SRES) A1 scenario. Profound future changes in the summertime climate over the U.S. are found including changes in temperature, water vapor and clouds and the frequency of synoptic venting of the boundary layer. Even allowing for no changes in emissions in the future, the changes in climate alone drive a significant increase in the ozone concentration over the eastern U.S. (up to 5 ppbv on average) and an increase in the persistence of pollution events. Implications of these changes on the biosphere are assessed with and without allowing for the impact of climate on biogenic emissions. Furthermore the changes in climate alone cause large changes in the partitioning of NOy, decreasing PAN by over 20% over the U.S. Coupled with changes in precipitation; this induces significant changes in the deposition of nitrogen species to the biosphere in a future climate.

  19. Integrated assessment of the spatial variability of ozone impacts from emissions of nitrogen oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Q. Tong; Nicholas Z. Muller; Denise L. Mauzerall; Robert O. Mendelsohn

    2006-03-01

    This paper examines the ozone (O{sub 3}) damages caused by nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in different locations around the Atlanta metropolitan area during a summer month. Ozone impacts are calculated using a new integrated assessment model that links pollution emissions to their chemical transformation, transport, population exposures, and effects on human health. It was found that increased NOx emissions in rural areas around Atlanta increase human exposure to ambient O{sub 3} twice as much as suburban emissions. However, increased NOx emissions in central city Atlanta actually reduce O{sub 3} exposures. For downtown emissions, the reduction in human exposures to O{sub 3} from titration by NO in the central city outweighs the effects from increased downwind O{sub 3}. The results indicate that the marginal damage from NOx emissions varies greatly across a metropolitan area. The results raise concerns if cap and trade regulations cause emissions to migrate toward higher marginal damage locations. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Ozone sensitivity of the Mediterranean terophyte Trifolium striatum is modulated by soil nitrogen content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, Javier; Bermejo, Victoria; Gimeno, Benjamín S.; Elvira, Susana; Alonso, Rocío

    The influence of nitrogen (N) fertilization on the sensitivity to ozone (O 3) has been studied using the O 3 sensitive species Trifolium striatum, an annual species frequently found in therophitic grasslands of the dehesas in the central Iberian Peninsula. The experiment was carried out in open-top chambers using three different O 3 exposure treatments: charcoal-filtered air (CFA), non-filtered air (NFA) and non-filtered air plus 40 nl l -1 added over ambient concentrations (NFA+). After 30 days of exposure to the different treatments, plants were placed under ambient conditions until seed ripeness was completed. Three N fertilization treatments were established receiving final doses of 10 (low), 30 (medium) or 60 (high) kg N ha -1 throughout the growing period divided into four proportional doses at every 15 days. Ozone affected phenology and reduced total aerial and flower biomass and seed production in NFA and NFA+ treatments. Carry-over effects of O 3 on the reproductive ability of this species were found resulting in reductions in flower biomass and seed production detected 1 month after O 3 exposure. By contrast, N fertilization increased aerial and flower biomass. Significant O 3×N interactive effects were detected since N fertilization counterbalanced O 3-induced effects only when plants were exposed to moderate O 3 levels (NFA) but not under high O 3 concentrations (NFA+). The observed O 3 effects on reproductive ability of T. striatum might determine changes in species viability and future diversity of the ecosystem.

  1. Ozone impacts on vegetation in a nitrogen enriched and changing climate.

    PubMed

    Mills, Gina; Harmens, Harry; Wagg, Serena; Sharps, Katrina; Hayes, Felicity; Fowler, David; Sutton, Mark; Davies, Bill

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a process-oriented perspective on the combined effects of ozone (O3), climate change and/or nitrogen (N) on vegetation. Whereas increasing CO2 in controlled environments or open-top chambers often ameliorates effects of O3 on leaf physiology, growth and C allocation, this is less likely in the field. Combined responses to elevated temperature and O3 have rarely been studied even though some critical growth stages such as seed initiation are sensitive to both. Under O3 exposure, many species have smaller roots, thereby enhancing drought sensitivity. Of the 68 species assessed for stomatal responses to ozone, 22.5% were unaffected, 33.5% had sluggish or increased opening and 44% stomatal closure. The beneficial effect of N on root development was lost at higher O3 treatments whilst the effects of increasing O3 on root biomass became more pronounced as N increased. Both responses to gradual changes in pollutants and climate and those under extreme weather events require further study.

  2. Integrated assessment of the spatial variability of ozone impacts from emissions of nitrogen oxides.

    PubMed

    Tong, Daniel Q; Muller, Nicholas Z; Mauzerall, Denise L; Mendelsohn, Robert O

    2006-03-01

    This paper examines the ozone (O3) damages caused by nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions in different locations around the Atlanta metropolitan area during a summer month. We calculate O3 impacts using a new integrated assessment model that links pollution emissions to their chemical transformation, transport, population exposures, and effects on human health. We find that increased NO(x) emissions in rural areas around Atlanta increase human exposure to ambient O3 twice as much as suburban emissions. However, increased NO(x) emissions in central city Atlanta actually reduce O3 exposures. For downtown emissions, the reduction in human exposures to O3 from titration by NO in the central city outweighs the effects from increased downwind O3. The results indicate that the marginal damage from NO(x) emissions varies greatly across a metropolitan area. The results raise concerns if cap and trade regulations cause emissions to migrate toward higher marginal damage locations.

  3. Carbon dioxide level and form of soil nitrogen regulate assimilation of atmospheric ammonia in young trees.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lucas C R; Salamanca-Jimenez, Alveiro; Doane, Timothy A; Horwath, William R

    2015-08-21

    The influence of carbon dioxide (CO2) and soil fertility on the physiological performance of plants has been extensively studied, but their combined effect is notoriously difficult to predict. Using Coffea arabica as a model tree species, we observed an additive effect on growth, by which aboveground productivity was highest under elevated CO2 and ammonium fertilization, while nitrate fertilization favored greater belowground biomass allocation regardless of CO2 concentration. A pulse of labelled gases ((13)CO2 and (15)NH3) was administered to these trees as a means to determine the legacy effect of CO2 level and soil nitrogen form on foliar gas uptake and translocation. Surprisingly, trees with the largest aboveground biomass assimilated significantly less NH3 than the smaller trees. This was partly explained by declines in stomatal conductance in plants grown under elevated CO2. However, unlike the (13)CO2 pulse, assimilation and transport of the (15)NH3 pulse to shoots and roots varied as a function of interactions between stomatal conductance and direct plant response to the form of soil nitrogen, observed as differences in tissue nitrogen content and biomass allocation. Nitrogen form is therefore an intrinsic component of physiological responses to atmospheric change, including assimilation of gaseous nitrogen as influenced by plant growth history.

  4. Sources and sinks of atmospheric N2O and the possible ozone reduction due to industrial fixed nitrogen fertilizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, S. C.; Cicerone, R. J.; Donahue, T. M.; Chameides, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The terrestrial and marine nitrogen cycles are examined in an attempt to clarify how the atmospheric content of N2O is controlled. We review available data on the various reservoirs of fixed nitrogen, the transfer rates between the reservoirs, and estimate how the reservoir contents and transfer rates can change under man's influence. It is seen that sources, sinks and lifetime of atmospheric N2O are not understood well. Based on our limited knowledge of the stability of atmospheric N2O we conclude that future growth in the usage of industrial fixed nitrogen fertilizers could cause a 1% to 2% global ozone reduction in the next 50 years. However, centuries from now the ozone layer could be reduced by as much as 10% if soils are the major source of atmospheric N2O.

  5. Radiative lifetimes of nitrogen dioxide for excitation wavelengths from 400 to 750 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, K.O. Jr.; Burley, J.D.; Johnston, H.S. )

    1990-10-04

    At room temperature, the radiative lifetimes of nitrogen dioxide excited by pulsed, tunable, dye laser radiation are measured in a 50-L flask, for excitation wavelengths ranging from 400 to 750 nm, at total pressures between 0.25 and 2.0 mTorr, and for times between 0.7 and 60 {mu}s. The data are analyzed in terms of the Stern-Volmer mechanism to give zero-pressure radiative constants (k{sub 0} = 1/{tau}{sub 0}) and empirical collisional quenching rate constants k{sub q} by ground-state nitrogen dioxide. (a) The observed radiative coefficients generally increase linearly with increasing excitation energy (cm{sup {minus}1}): k{sub 0}/s{sup {minus}1} = 0.504(E-E{sub 0}) + 7.96 {times} 10{sup 3}, where E is the excitation energy and E{sub 0} is the energy of the origin of the {sup 2}B{sub 2} excited state. At wavelengths above about 540 nm there are strong state-to-state variations of radiative lifetime, producing large apparent scatter in the data. The zero-pressure radiative lifetimes {tau}{sub 0} are compared to previous measurements and are in rough agreement with a number of earlier studies. (b) On the other hand, different investigators typically obtain different numerical values for the Stern-Volmer collisional quenching rate constants. As observed here, the quenching rate constants k{sub q} are found to vary by almost a factor of 6 as filters are changed in front of the photomultiplier tube with all other experimental conditions held constant. Some of the difficulties of observing meaningful quenching rate constants for nitrogen dioxide are discussed.

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of nitrogen dioxide in air and nitrite in water and soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Pandurangappa, M.; Balasubramanian, N.

    1995-02-01

    A sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrogen dioxide in air and nitrite in water and soil samples is described. Nitrogen dioxide in air is fixed as nitrite ion in alkaline sodium arsenite or in triethanolamine absorber solutions. The method is based on the diazo coupling reaction between p-nitro aniline and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. The azo dye formed under aqueous condition has an absorption maximum at 585nm and obeys Beer`s law over the range 0-25{mu}g of nitrite. The colour system is stable for 72h. The relative standard deviation is 2.7% for ten determinations at 15{mu}g of nitrite. The dye is extracted with 1:1 isoamyl alcohol-IBMK mixture and stabilisation with methanolic potassium hydroxide showed {lambda}{sub max} at 610nm. It obeys Beer`s law over the range 0-4{mu}g of nitrite. The colour system is stable for 40h in organic phase and the relative standard deviation is 2.5% for ten determinations at 3{mu}g of nitrite. The molar absorptivity of the colour system is 3.68 x 10{sup 4} Lmol{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1}. The effect of interfering gases and other ions on the determination of nitrite is described. The developed method has been applied for the determination of residual nitrogen dioxide gas present in the laboratory fume cupboard and automobile exhaust gases. In addition, the method has been applied for the determination of nitrite and nitrate in samples like water, soil and radiator coolants.

  7. Review of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's health effects and exposure assessment documents on nitrogen dioxide. Report of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-09

    At the request of the Consumer Product Safety Commission, the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee conducted a review on the potential health hazards associated with exposure to 0.1 to 1.0 ppm nitrogen dioxide generated by unvented indoor combustion sources. The committee concluded that: (1) repeated peak exposures at concentrations of 0.3 ppm of nitrogen dioxide may cause health effects in some individuals; (2) the population groups that appear most sensitive to nitrogen dioxide exposure include children, chronic bronchitics, asthmatics, and individuals with emphysema; and (3) the most direct evidence regarding lung damage associated with nitrogen dioxide is obtained from animal studies.

  8. Ambient nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide concentrations over a region of natural gas production, Northeastern British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, S. M. Nazrul; Jackson, Peter L.; Aherne, Julian

    2016-10-01

    The Peace River district of Northeastern British Columbia, Canada is a region of natural gas production that has undergone rapid expansion since 2005. In order to assess air quality implications, Willems badge passive diffusive samplers were deployed for six two-week exposure periods between August and November 2013, at 24 sites across the region to assess the ambient concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The highest concentrations of both species (NO2: 9.1 ppb, SO2: 1.91 ppb) during the whole study period (except the 1st exposure period), were observed in Taylor (Site 14), which is consistent with its location near major industrial sources. Emissions from industrial activities, and their interaction with meteorology and topography, result in variations in atmospheric dispersion that can increase air pollution concentrations in Taylor. However, relatively high concentrations of NO2 were also observed near the center of Chetwynd (site F20), indicating the importance of urban emissions sources in the region as well. Observations of both species from the other study sites document the spatial variability and show relatively high concentrations near Fort St. John and Dawson Creek, where unconventional oil and gas development activities are quite high. Although a few sites in Northeastern British Columbia recorded elevated concentrations of NO2 and SO2 during this investigation, the concentrations over the three-month period were well below provincial annual ambient air quality objectives. Nonetheless, given the limited observations in the region, and the accelerated importance of unconventional oil and gas extraction in meeting energy demands, it is imperative that monitoring networks are established to further assess the potential for elevated ambient concentrations associated with industrial emissions sources in the Peace River region.

  9. Description of data on the Nimbus 7 LIMS map archive tape: Water vapor and nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, Kenneth V.; Marshall, B. T.; Kurzeja, Robert J.; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Russell, James M., III

    1988-01-01

    Described is the process by which the analysis of the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) experiment data were used to produce estimates of synoptic maps of water vapor and nitrogen dioxide. In addition to a detailed description of the analysis procedure, also discussed are several interesting features in the data which are used to demonstrate how the analysis procedure produced the final maps and how one can estimate the uncertainties in the maps. In addition, features in the analysis are noted that would influence how one might use, or interpret, the results. These include subjects such as smoothing and the interpretation of wave components.

  10. A practical alternative to chemiluminescence-based detection of nitrogen dioxide: cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kebabian, Paul L; Wood, Ezra C; Herndon, Scott C; Freedman, Andrew

    2008-08-15

    We present results obtained from a greatly improved version of a previously reported nitrogen dioxide monitor (Anal Chem. 2005, 77, 724-728) that utilizes cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy (CAPS). The sensor, which detects the optical absorption of nitrogen dioxide within a 20 nm bandpass centered at 440 nm, comprises a blue light emitting diode, an enclosed stainless steel measurement cell (26 cm length) incorporating a resonant optical cavity of near-confocal design and a vacuum photodiode detector. An analog heterodyne detection scheme is used to measure the phase shift in the waveform of the modulated light transmitted through the cell induced by the presence of nitrogen dioxide within the cell. The sensor, which operates at atmospheric pressure, fits into a 19 in.-rack-mounted instrumentation box, weighs 10 kg, and utilizes 70 W of electrical power with pump included. The sensor response to nitrogen dioxide (calculated as the cotangent of the phase shift) is demonstrated to be linear (r2 > 0.9999) within +/- 1 ppb over a range of 0-320 ppb (by volume). The device exhibits a detection limit (3sigma precision) of less than 60 parts per trillion (0.060 ppb) with 10 s integration, a value derived from measurements at NO2 concentration levels of both 0 and 20 ppb; the detection limit improves as the integration time is increased to several hundred seconds. The observed baseline drift is less than +/- 0.5 ppb overthe course of a month. An intercomparison of measurements of ambient NO2 concentrations over several days using this sensor with a quantum cascade laser-based infrared absorption spectrometer and a standard chemiluminescence-based NOx analyzer is presented. The data from the CAPS sensor are highly correlated (r2 > 0.99) with the other two instruments. The absolute agreement between the CAPS and each of the two other instruments is within the expected statistical noise associated with the infrared laser-based absorption spectrometer (+/- 0.3 ppb

  11. Liquid crystal-based sensors for selective and quantitative detection of nitrogen dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Avijit; Kupcho, Kurt A.; Grinwald, Bart A.; VanTreeck, Heidi J.; Acharya, Bharat R.

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive nitrogen dioxide (NO2) sensor based on orientational transition of a thin film of liquid crystal (LC) supported on a gold surface is reported. Transport of NO2 molecules through the LC film to the LC-gold interface induces an orientation transition in the LC film. The dynamic behavior of the sensor response exhibits a concentration-dependent response rate that is employed to generate an algorithm for quantitative determination of unknown concentrations. Sensitive, selective and reversible detection with minimal effects of environmental fluctuations suggest that these sensors can be used for quantitative NO2 detection for a number of applications. PMID:23526230

  12. Pulmonary function in normal and elastase-treated hamsters exposed to a complex mixture of olefin-ozone-sulfur dioxide reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Raub, J.A.; Miller, F.J.; Graham, J.A.; Gardner, D.E.; O'Neil, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    An elastase-induced emphysema model was utilized to determine if hamsters with preexisting lung disease were more susceptible to lung damage from air-pollutant exposure. Male golden hamsters, divided into two treatment groups, were given a single intratracheal injection of either 6 units of porcine pancreatic elastase (EMP) or buffer (CNT). After a 4-week recovery period, equal numbers of each group were exposed 23 hr/day x 28 day to filtered air (AIR) or to the complex by-products from a dark-phase-reaction mixture of trans-2-butene, ozone, and sulfur dioxide (MIX). Lung-function measurements on the elastase-treated groups showed changes consistent with mild emphysema. There were no significant differences in lung volumes or lung compliance between the AIR- and MIX-exposed animals. However, the nitrogen washout slope decreased and the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide increased in both the CNT and EMP hamsters exposed to the MIX. The change in diffusing capacity was greater in normal hamsters than in hamsters with emphysema, and it is hypothesized that animals with impaired lung function had a decreased ability to respond to a pulmonary insult from the mix.

  13. Effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide on processing tomato yields and quality. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, R.F.

    1986-03-01

    The object of the experiment was to study the effects of SO/sub 2/ and/or ozone on tomato vegetative growth, fruit yields, and fruit quality. Two varieties of processing tomatoes, UC-204-B and E-6203, were exposed to four levels of ozone and two levels of SO/sub 2/. Exposure to ambient ozone caused a 20% reduction in vine weights and 27% reduction in weight of red fruit compared to filtered air. Exposure to 0.1 ppm SO/sub 2/ produced 7% fewer vines and approximately 8% less fruit as compared with no SO/sub 2/ exposure. Fruit quality tests indicated that increasing ozone levels reduce soluble solids (Brix), and they reduce viscosity, an important indicator of processing behavior. Exposure to SO/sub 2/ in the concentrations used increased total solids but had no measurable effect on viscosity or consistency.

  14. Sequential disinfection of E. coli O157:H7 on shredded lettuce leaves by aqueous chlorine dioxide, ozonated water, and thyme essential oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nepal; Singh, Rakesh K.; Bhunia, Arun K.; Stroshine, Richard L.; Simon, James E.

    2001-03-01

    There have been numerous studies on effectiveness of different sanitizers for microbial inactivation. However, results obtained from different studies indicate that microorganism cannot be easily removed from fresh cut vegetables because of puncture and cut surfaces with varying surface topographies. In this study, three step disinfection approach was evaluated for inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 on shredded lettuce leaves. Sequential application of thyme oil, ozonated water, and aqueous chlorine dioxide was evaluated in which thyme oil was applied first followed by ozonated water and aqueous chlorine dioxide. Shredded lettuce leaves inoculated with cocktail culture of E. coli O157:H7 (C7927, EDL 933 and 204 P), were washed with ozonated water (15 mg/l for 10min), aqueous chlorine dioxide (10 mg/l,for 10min) and thyme oil suspension (0.1%, v/v for 5min). Washing of lettuce leaves with ozonated water, chlorine dioxide and thyme oil suspension resulted in 0.44, 1.20, and 1.46 log reduction (log10 cfu/g), respectively. However, the sequential treatment achieved approximately 3.13 log reductions (log10 cfu/g). These results demonstrate the efficacy of sequential treatments in decontaminating shredded lettuce leaves containing E. coli O157:H7.

  15. Influences of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on soil respiration and carbon accumulation in a no-till soybean-wheat system after six years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone often have counteracting influences on many C3 crops depending on the concentration of the gases and sensitivity of the crop and variety, but effects of these gases on plant-soil processes are poorly understood. The objective of this six-year experiment was to d...

  16. Influences of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations on growth, yield and soil C dynamics in a soybean-wheat no-till system.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations often have counteracting influences on many C3 crops depending on the concentration and sensitivity of the crop to the gases. Effects of the gas treatments on plant growth likely extend to soil microbial and decomposition processes, altho...

  17. Interference of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor on the analysis for oxides of nitrogen by chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maahs, H. G.

    1975-01-01

    The interference of small concentrations (less than 4 percent by volume) of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor on the analysis for oxides of nitrogen by chemiluminescence was measured. The sample gas consisted primarily of nitrogen, with less than 100 parts per million concentration of nitric oxide, and with small concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor added. Results obtained under these conditions indicate that although oxygen does not measurably affect the analysis for nitric oxide, the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor causes the indicated nitric oxide concentration to be too low. An interference factor - defined as the percentage change in indicated nitric oxide concentration (relative to the true nitric oxide concentration) divided by the percent interfering gas present - was determined for carbon dioxide to be -0.60 + or - 0.04 and for water vapor to be -2.1 + or - 0.3.

  18. Relationship between lightning activity and tropospheric nitrogen dioxide and the estimation of lightning-produced nitrogen oxides over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fengxia; Ju, Xiaoyu; Bao, Min; Lu, Ganyi; Liu, Zupei; Li, Yawen; Mu, Yijun

    2017-02-01

    To better understand the relationship between lightning activity and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) in the troposphere and to estimate lightning-produced NO X (LNO X ) production in China more precisely, spatial and temporal distributions of vertical column densities of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2 VCDs) and lightning activity were analyzed using satellite measurements. The results showed that the spatial distribution of lightning activity is greater in the east than in the west of China, as with NO2 VCDs. However, the seasonal and annual variation between lightning and NO2 density show different trends in the east and west. The central Tibetan Plateau is sparsely populated without modern industry, and NO2 VCDs across the plateau are barely affected by anthropogenic sources. The plateau is an ideal area to study LNO X . By analyzing 15 years of satellite data from that region, it was found that lightning density is in strong agreement with annual, spatial and seasonal variations of NO2 VCDs, with a correlation coefficient of 0.79 from the linear fit. Combining Beirle's method and the linear fit equation, LNO X production in the Chinese interior was determined to be 0.07 (0.02-0.27) TgN yr-1 for 1997-2012, within the range of 0.016-0.384 TgN yr-1 from previous estimates.

  19. Chemical loss of ozone in the Arctic polar vortex in the winter of 1991- 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Lait, L. R.; Newman, P. A.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Strahan, S. E.; Proffitt, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    In situ measurements of chlorine monoxide, bromine monoxide, and ozone are extrapolated globally, with the use of meteorological tracers, to infer the loss rates for ozone in the Arctic lower stratosphere during the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition II (AASE II) in the winter of 1991-1992. The analysis indicates removal of 15 to 20 percent of ambient ozone because of elevated concentrations of chlorine monoxide and bromine monoxide. Observations during AASE II define rates of removal of chlorine monoxide attributable to reaction with nitrogen dioxide (produced by photolysis of nitric acid) and to production of hydrochloric acid. Ozone loss ceased in March as concentrations of chlorine monoxide declined. Ozone losses could approach 50 percent if regeneration of nitrogen dioxide were inhibited by irreversible removal of nitrogen oxides (denitrification), as presently observed in the Antarctic, or without denitrification if inorganic chlorine concentrations were to double.

  20. Chemical Loss of Ozone in the Arctic Polar Vortex in the Winter of 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Lait, L. R.; Newman, P. A.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Strahan, S. E.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Chan, K. R.; Proffitt, M. H.; Fahey, D. W.; Kelly, K. K.; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Baumgardner, D.; Dye, J. E.; Wilson, J. C.; Elkins, J. W.; Anderson, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    In situ measurements of chlorine monoxide, bromine monoxide, and ozone are extrapolated globally, with the use of meteorological tracers, to infer the loss rates for ozone in the Arctic lower stratosphere during the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition II (AASE II) in the winter of 1991-1992. The analysis indicates removal of 15 to 20 percent of ambient ozone because of elevated concentrations of chlorine monoxide and bromine monoxide. Observations during AASE II define rates of removal of chlorine monoxide attributable to reaction with nitrogen dioxide (produced by photolysis of nitric acid) and to production of hydrochloric acid. Ozone loss ceased in March as concentrations of chlorine monoxide declined. Ozone losses could approach 50 percent if regeneration of nitrogen dioxide were inhibited by irreversible removal of nitrogen oxides (denitrification), as presently observed in the Antarctic, or without denitrification if inorganic chlorine concentrations were to double.

  1. [Change in genotoxicity of wastewater during chlorine dioxide and ahlorine disinfections and the influence of ammonia nitrogen].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Sha; Hu, Hong-Ying; Ta, Chun-Hong; Tian, Jie; Wang, Chao; Koichi, Fujie

    2007-03-01

    The effects of chlorine dioxide and chlorine disinfections on genotoxicity of different biologically treated sewage wastewater samples were studied by umu-test. The experiment results showed that when chlorine dioxide dosage increased from 0 mg/L to 30 mg/L, the genotoxicity of wastewater first decreased rapidly and then tended to be stable, while when the chlorine dosage increased from 0 mg/L to 30 mg/L, the genotoxicity of wastewater changed diversely for different samples. It was then found that ammonia nitrogen did not affect the change of genotoxicity during chlorine dioxide disinfection of wastewater, while it greatly affected the change of genotoxicity during chlorine disinfection of wastewater. When the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was low (< 10 - 20 mg/L), the genotoxicity of wastewater decreased after chlorine disinfection, and when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was high (> 10 - 20 mg/L), the genotoxicity of wastewater increased after chlorine disinfection.

  2. Ambient fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and term birth weight in New York, New York.

    PubMed

    Savitz, David A; Bobb, Jennifer F; Carr, Jessie L; Clougherty, Jane E; Dominici, Francesca; Elston, Beth; Ito, Kazuhiko; Ross, Zev; Yee, Michelle; Matte, Thomas D

    2014-02-15

    Building on a unique exposure assessment project in New York, New York, we examined the relationship of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and nitrogen dioxide with birth weight, restricting the population to term births to nonsmokers, along with other restrictions, to isolate the potential impact of air pollution on growth. We included 252,967 births in 2008-2010 identified in vital records, and we assigned exposure at the residential location by using validated models that accounted for spatial and temporal factors. Estimates of association were adjusted for individual and contextual sociodemographic characteristics and season, using linear mixed models to quantify the predicted change in birth weight in grams related to increasing pollution levels. Adjusted estimates for particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm indicated that for each 10-µg/m(3) increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 18.4, 10.5, 29.7, and 48.4 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. Adjusted estimates for nitrogen dioxide indicated that for each 10-ppb increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 14.2, 15.9, 18.0, and 18.0 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. These results strongly support the association of urban air pollution exposure with reduced fetal growth.

  3. Passive dosimeters for nitrogen dioxide in personal/indoor air sampling: A review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Morandi, Maria T.; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurement of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in both outdoor and indoor environments, including personal exposures, is a fundamental step for linking atmospheric nitrogen dioxide levels to potential health and ecological effects. The measurement has been conducted generally in two ways: active (pumped) sampling and passive (diffusive) sampling. Diffusion samplers, initially developed and used for workplace air monitoring, have been found to be useful and cost-effective alternatives to conventional pumped samplers for monitoring ambient, indoor and personal exposures at the lower concentrations found in environmental settings. Since the 1970s, passive samplers have been deployed for ambient air monitoring in urban and rural sites, and to determine personal and indoor exposure to NO2. This article reviews the development of NO2 passive samplers, the sampling characteristics of passive samplers currently available, and their application in ambient and indoor air monitoring and personal exposure studies. The limitations and advantages of the various passive sampler geometries (i.e., tube, badge, and radial type) are also discussed. This review provides researchers and risk assessors with practical information about NO2 passive samplers, especially useful when designing field sampling strategies for exposure and indoor/outdoor air sampling. PMID:18446185

  4. Exposure to carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in enclosed ice arenas.

    PubMed

    Pelham, T W; Holt, L E; Moss, M A

    2002-04-01

    This article summarises the latest information on the adverse cardiorespiratory effects of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) in enclosed ice rinks. Sources of CO and NO(2) emissions are identified, current standards for these agents, as well as methods of controlling the emissions, dispersion, and evacuation of these toxic gases are presented. A detailed literature search involving 72 references in English and French from research conducted in North America and Europe was used. Material was from peer reviewed journals and other appropriate sources. Air pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) which are present in enclosed skating facilities, may exacerbate a pre-existing pathogenic condition in those people who spend considerable time in these environments. Considering the popularity of ice hockey, short track speed skating, and figure skating, and the hundreds of hours that a sensitive person may spend each year in these environments, it would seem appropriate to seek more definitive answers to this important health problem. From the findings and conclusions of the research reviewed in this paper, 10 recommendations are listed.

  5. Sorption of methane, ethane, propane, butane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen on kerogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribylov, A. A.; Skibitskaya, N. A.; Zekel', L. A.

    2014-06-01

    Sorption isotherms of nitrogen, methane (in the pressure range of 0.1-40 MPa), ethane (0.1-3.7MPa), propane (0.01-1 MPa), butane (0.01-0.2 MPa), and carbon dioxide (0.1-6 MPa) are measured on two adsorbents with kerogen contents of 16 and 75% at temperatures of 303, 323, 343 K. Adsorption volumes are calculated for all adsorption systems using two independent methods. The BET technique is used to determine the surface area values of the two adsorbents on the basis of sorption data for ethane, propane, butane, and carbon dioxide. The initial and isosteric adheat of sorption values are calculated on the basis of sorption isotherms of ethane, propane, butane, carbon dioxide measured at three temperatures. It is found from comparing the dependences of isosteric heat of sorption on the two adsorbents that molecules of the above gases diffuse into its bulk (adsorbent 2) in addition to sorbing on the outside surface formed by kerogen molecules, while sorption of the same gases on the rock (adsorbent 1) is similar to sorption on a smooth hard adsorbent surface.

  6. OBSERVATION-BASED ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS ON OZONE AIR QUALITY OVER THE EASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone is produced by chemical interactions involving nitrogen oxides (NOx) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight. At high concentrations, ground-level ozone has been shown to be harmful to human health and the environment. It has been reco...

  7. Earth's Endangered Ozone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panofsky, Hans A.

    1978-01-01

    Included are (1) a discussion of ozone chemistry; (2) the effects of nitrogen fertilizers, fluorocarbons, and high level aircraft on the ozone layer; and (3) the possible results of a decreasing ozone layer. (MR)

  8. Atmospheric oxidants. [ozone concentration and combustion product aspects in spacecraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    The ingredients which cause the air pollution are a mixture of oxides of organic matter (mostly nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons) and ozone. Ozone, although considered one of the rare atmospheric gases, needs consideration in spacecraft design because of its chemical reaction (oxidation) with organic materials, especially rubber, which becomes hard and brittle under tension in a few minutes time. At the earth surface, a maximum of 60 parts per hundred million of oxidants composed of nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide, sulphur trioxides, peroxides, and ozone can be expected for 72 hours when smog occurs. A table representing distribution of ozone concentration with atmospheric altitude is included.

  9. Ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The author discusses the debate over whether concern about a hole in the ozone layer in Antarctic is real or science fiction. There is a growing consensus that efforts must be taken to protect the ozone layer. The issue now is not whether chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) should be controlled and regulated but how much and how soon. The United States has urged that the production of dangerous CFCs, and any other chemicals that affect the ozone layer, be restricted immediately to current levels and that their use be reduced 95 percent over the next decade. The American position was too strong for many European nations and the Japanese. Negotiations at an international conference on the matter broke down. The breakdown is due in part to a more acute concern for environmental matters in the United States than exists in many countries. Meanwhile CFCs are linked to another environmental problem that equally threatens the world - the Greenhouse Effect. The earth is in a natural warming period, but man could be causing it to become even warmer. The Greenhouse Effect could have a catastrophic impact on mankind, although nothing has been proven yet.

  10. 76 FR 68638 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revision to Nitrogen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Nitrogen Oxides Budget Trading Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final... Implementation Plan (SIP). The revision pertains to regulatory language in its nitrogen oxides (NO X ) Budget..., Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Sulfur oxides. Dated: October 25, 2011. W.C. Early, Acting Regional...

  11. Effects of ozone exposure on 'Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, Savio Figueira; Brito Paiva, Luisa; Mota do Couto, Flavio; Gomes da Silva, Marcelo; Silva Sthel, Marcelo; Vargas, Helion; Mota, Leonardo; Goncalves de Oliveira, Jurandi; Miklos, Andras

    2011-06-01

    This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of 'Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

  12. Effects of ozone exposure on `Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Savio Figueira; Mota, Leonardo; Paiva, Luisa Brito; Couto, Flávio Mota do; Silva, Marcelo Gomes da; Oliveira, Jurandi Gonçalves de; Sthel, Marcelo Silva; Vargas, Helion; Miklós, András

    2011-06-01

    This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of `Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

  13. Insights into the Electronic Structure of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide from Generalized Valence Bond Theory: Addition of Hydrogen Atoms.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Beth A; Takeshita, Tyler Y; Dunning, Thom H

    2016-05-05

    Ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are valence isoelectronic species, yet their properties and reactivities differ dramatically. In particular, O3 is highly reactive, whereas SO2 is chemically relatively stable. In this paper, we investigate serial addition of hydrogen atoms to both the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2 and to the central atom of these species. It is well-known that the terminal atoms of O3 are much more amenable to bond formation than those of SO2. We show that the differences in the electronic structure of the π systems in the parent triatomic species account for the differences in the addition of hydrogen atoms to the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2. Further, we find that the π system in SO2, which is a recoupled pair bond dyad, facilitates the addition of hydrogen atoms to the sulfur atom, resulting in stable HSO2 and H2SO2 species.

  14. Regulatory Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Growth and Biochemical Responses to Ozone Stress in Chinese Pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhouli; Chen, Wei; He, Xingyuan; Fu, Shilei; Lu, Tao

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether carbon dioxide (CO2) might alleviate ozone (O3) injury to the dominant coniferous forest species of northern China, Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. After 90 days O3 exposure, biomass and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased significantly by 24.44 % and 42.89 % compared with the control. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) was shown, suggesting cell membrane damage and oxidative stress. However, the positive responses of biomass dry weight, antioxidative enzymes and soluble sugar contents under elevated CO2 alone and the combination of elevated CO2 and O3 were observed, indicating that CO2 could ameliorate O3-induced injury. The study provided increasing evidence that moderately elevated CO2 levels may have a beneficial effect on the forest ecosystem to respond to global climate change.

  15. Enhancement in the photocatalytic nature of nitrogen-doped PVD-grown titanium dioxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, C. J.; Marques, S. M.; Viseu, T.; Teixeira, V.; Carneiro, J. O.; Alves, E.; Barradas, N. P.; Munnik, F.; Girardeau, T.; Rivière, J.-P.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide semiconductor photocatalytic thin films have been deposited by unbalanced reactive magnetron physical vapor deposition on glass substrates for self-cleaning applications. In order to increase the photocatalytic efficiency of the titania coatings, it is important to enhance the catalysts absorption of light from the solar spectra. Bearing this fact in mind, a reduction in the titania semiconductor band-gap has been attempted by using nitrogen doping from a coreactive gas mixture of N2:O2 during the titanium sputtering process. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was used in order to assess the composition of the titania thin films, whereas heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis granted the evaluation of the doping level of nitrogen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provided valuable information about the cation-anion binding within the semiconductor lattice. The as-deposited thin films were mostly amorphous, however, after a thermal annealing in vacuum at 500 °C the crystalline polymorph anatase and rutile phases have been developed, yielding an enhancement in the crystallinity. Spectroscopic ellipsometry experiments enabled the determination the refractive index of the thin films as a function of the wavelength, while from the optical transmittance it was possible to estimate the semiconductor indirect band-gap of these coatings, which has been proven to decrease as the N-doping increases. The photocatalytic performance of the titania films has been characterized by the degradation rate of an organic reactive dye under UV/visible irradiation. It has been found that for a certain critical limit of 1.19 at. % of nitrogen doping in the titania anatase crystalline lattice enhances the photocatalytic behavior of the thin films and it is in accordance with the observed semiconductor band-gap narrowing to 3.18 eV. By doping the titania lattice with nitrogen, the photocatalytic activity is enhanced under both UV and visible light.

  16. Enhancement in the photocatalytic nature of nitrogen-doped PVD-grown titanium dioxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tavares, C. J.; Marques, S. M.; Viseu, T.; Teixeira, V.; Carneiro, J. O.; Alves, E.; Barradas, N. P.; Munnik, F.; Girardeau, T.; Riviere, J.-P.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide semiconductor photocatalytic thin films have been deposited by unbalanced reactive magnetron physical vapor deposition on glass substrates for self-cleaning applications. In order to increase the photocatalytic efficiency of the titania coatings, it is important to enhance the catalysts absorption of light from the solar spectra. Bearing this fact in mind, a reduction in the titania semiconductor band-gap has been attempted by using nitrogen doping from a coreactive gas mixture of N{sub 2}:O{sub 2} during the titanium sputtering process. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was used in order to assess the composition of the titania thin films, whereas heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis granted the evaluation of the doping level of nitrogen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provided valuable information about the cation-anion binding within the semiconductor lattice. The as-deposited thin films were mostly amorphous, however, after a thermal annealing in vacuum at 500 deg. C the crystalline polymorph anatase and rutile phases have been developed, yielding an enhancement in the crystallinity. Spectroscopic ellipsometry experiments enabled the determination the refractive index of the thin films as a function of the wavelength, while from the optical transmittance it was possible to estimate the semiconductor indirect band-gap of these coatings, which has been proven to decrease as the N-doping increases. The photocatalytic performance of the titania films has been characterized by the degradation rate of an organic reactive dye under UV/visible irradiation. It has been found that for a certain critical limit of 1.19 at. % of nitrogen doping in the titania anatase crystalline lattice enhances the photocatalytic behavior of the thin films and it is in accordance with the observed semiconductor band-gap narrowing to 3.18 eV. By doping the titania lattice with nitrogen, the photocatalytic activity is enhanced under both UV and

  17. Irreversibly increased nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium experimentally adapted to elevated carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, David A.; Walworth, Nathan G.; Webb, Eric A.; Saito, Mak A.; Moran, Dawn; McIlvin, Matthew R.; Gale, Jasmine; Fu, Fei-Xue

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen fixation rates of the globally distributed, biogeochemically important marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium increase under high carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in short-term studies due to physiological plasticity. However, its long-term adaptive responses to ongoing anthropogenic CO2 increases are unknown. Here we show that experimental evolution under extended selection at projected future elevated CO2 levels results in irreversible, large increases in nitrogen fixation and growth rates, even after being moved back to lower present day CO2 levels for hundreds of generations. This represents an unprecedented microbial evolutionary response, as reproductive fitness increases acquired in the selection environment are maintained after returning to the ancestral environment. Constitutive rate increases are accompanied by irreversible shifts in diel nitrogen fixation patterns, and increased activity of a potentially regulatory DNA methyltransferase enzyme. High CO2-selected cell lines also exhibit increased phosphorus-limited growth rates, suggesting a potential advantage for this keystone organism in a more nutrient-limited, acidified future ocean.

  18. Chemical vapour deposition of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, S E; Baryshnikova, M V; Filatov, L A; Shahmin, A L; Andreeva, V D

    2011-09-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide is often considered as a promising nanomaterial for photocatalytic applications. Here we report the first results of a study of APCVD of N-doped TiO2 thin films prepared with the use of ammonia as a source of nitrogen and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as a source of Ti and O atoms. The obtained films were analyzed with X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and ellipsometry. It was found that the film growth rate in the TTIP-NH3-Ar reaction system varied insignificantly with substrate temperature in the range of 450,..., 750 degrees C and did not exceed 4.4 nm/min. Yellow and orange layers with nitrogen content of about 7.6% were formed at the deposition temperature higher than 600 degrees C. The results of the structure analysis of the deposited films showed that addition of ammonia led to stabilization of the amorphous phase in the films. The effect of ammonia on optical and photocatalytic properties was also considered.

  19. Irreversibly increased nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium experimentally adapted to elevated carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, David A.; Walworth, Nathan G.; Webb, Eric A.; Saito, Mak A.; Moran, Dawn; McIlvin, Matthew R.; Gale, Jasmine; Fu, Fei-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation rates of the globally distributed, biogeochemically important marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium increase under high carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in short-term studies due to physiological plasticity. However, its long-term adaptive responses to ongoing anthropogenic CO2 increases are unknown. Here we show that experimental evolution under extended selection at projected future elevated CO2 levels results in irreversible, large increases in nitrogen fixation and growth rates, even after being moved back to lower present day CO2 levels for hundreds of generations. This represents an unprecedented microbial evolutionary response, as reproductive fitness increases acquired in the selection environment are maintained after returning to the ancestral environment. Constitutive rate increases are accompanied by irreversible shifts in diel nitrogen fixation patterns, and increased activity of a potentially regulatory DNA methyltransferase enzyme. High CO2-selected cell lines also exhibit increased phosphorus-limited growth rates, suggesting a potential advantage for this keystone organism in a more nutrient-limited, acidified future ocean. PMID:26327191

  20. Mutagenic activity associated with by-products of drinking water disinfection by chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone and UV-irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Zoeteman, B C; Hrubec, J; de Greef, E; Kool, H J

    1982-01-01

    A retrospective epidemiological study in The Netherlands showed a statistical association between chlorination by-products in drinking water and cancer of the esophagus and stomach for males. A pilot-plant study with alternative disinfectants was carried out with stored water of the Rivers Rhine and Meuse. It was demonstrated that the increase of direct acting mutagens after treatment with chlorine dioxide is similar to the effect of chlorination. Ozonation of Rhine water reduced the mutagenic activity for Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 both with and without metabolic activation. UV alone hardly affects the mutagenicity of the stored river water for S. typh. TA 98. In all studies, practically no mutagenic activity for S. typh. TA 100 was found. Although remarkable changes in the concentration of individual organic compounds are reported, the identity of the mutagens detected is yet unclear. Compounds of possible interest due to their removal by ozonation are 1,3,3-trimethyloxindole, dicyclopentadiene and several alkylquinolines. Compounds which might be responsible for the increased mutagenicity after chlorination are two brominated acetonitriles and tri(2-chlorethyl) phosphate. Furthermore, the concentration procedure with adsorption on XAD resin and the subsequent elution step may have affected the results. It is proposed to focus further research more on the less volatile by-products of disinfection than on the trihalomethanes. PMID:7151762

  1. Chemical oxidation of dissolved organic matter by chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and ozone: effects on its optical and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Wenk, Jannis; Aeschbacher, Michael; Salhi, Elisabeth; Canonica, Silvio; von Gunten, Urs; Sander, Michael

    2013-10-01

    In water treatment dissolved organic matter (DOM) is typically the major sink for chemical oxidants. The resulting changes in DOM, such as its optical properties have been measured to follow the oxidation processes. However, such measurements contain only limited information on the changes in the oxidation states of and the reactive moieties in the DOM. In this study, we used mediated electrochemical oxidation to quantify changes in the electron donating capacities (EDCs), and hence the redox states, of three different types of DOM during oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO2), chlorine (as HOCl/OCl(-)), and ozone (O3). Treatment with ClO2 and HOCl resulted in comparable and prominent decreases in EDCs, while the UV light absorbances of the DOM decreased only slightly. Conversely, ozonation resulted in only small decreases of the EDCs but pronounced absorbance losses of the DOM. These results suggest that ClO2 and HOCl primarily reacted as oxidants by accepting electrons from electron-rich phenolic and hydroquinone moieties in the DOM, while O3 reacted via electrophilic addition to aromatic moieties, followed by ring cleavage. This study highlights the potential of combined EDC-UV measurements to monitor chemical oxidation of DOM, to assess the nature of the reactive moieties and to study the underlying reaction pathways.

  2. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  3. The application of artificial neural networks for discrete wavelength retrievals of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, J.; Singh Anand, J.; Leigh, R.; Chang, M.; Monks, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    Despite emission reductions in Europe, air quality continues to be a major health and policy issue. Significant areas of uncertainty persist in relating emissions, atmospheric composition and human exposure within the urban atmosphere. Furthermore, air quality continues to worsen in some highly populated parts of the world. The current air quality monitoring framework is based upon bottom-up emission estimates coupled with sparse in situ monitoring. Research at the University of Leicester in the UK is being conducted to investigate the feasibility of using a technique of discrete wavelength sunlight spectroscopy to derive concentrations of the pollutant nitrogen dioxide from a satellite platform. This technique has the potential to enable very light and compact instrumentation and may subsequently provide abundant air quality data of significant value to users and policy makers. A back propagation multi-layered perceptron artificial neural network (ANN) has been developed to retrieve atmospheric slant columns of nitrogen dioxide from simulated measurements. The ANN approach enables retrievals to be performed much faster than other retrieval methods once the network has been appropriately trained, which is a particularly useful feature in instances where a large quantity of retrievals is required in near real time. To generate the required training data for the ANN to understand the necessary relationships a radiative transfer model SCIATRAN was run to provide millions of spectral intensities and slant column concentrations. To enable the radiative transfer simulations to realistically portray urban air quality the SCIATRAN model was fed atmospheric profile and aerosol data from modelled air quality forecasts over London to enable assimilation of the atmospheric composition of a typical urban environment. The training data produced by SCIATRAN was configured to span a range of solar azimuth and zenith angles to provide results which are applicable to all low earth

  4. The Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide Measuring Instruments (CINDI): Design, Execution, and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piters, Ankie; Boersma, K.F.; Kroon, M.; Hains, J. C.; Roozendael, M. Van; Wittrock, F.; Abuhassan, N.; Adams, C.; Akrami, M.; Allaart, M. A. F.; Apituley, A.; Beirle, S.; Bergwerff, J. B.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; Brunner, D.; Cede, A.; Chong, J.; Clemer, K.; Fayt, C.; FrieB, U.; Gast, L. F. L.; Gil-Ojeda, M.; Goutail, F.; Graves, R.; Griesfeller, A.

    2012-01-01

    From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) in the Netherlands. Its main objectives were to determine the accuracy of state-ofthe- art ground-based measurement techniques for the detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (both in-situ and remote sensing), and to investigate their usability in satellite data validation. The expected outcomes are recommendations regarding the operation and calibration of such instruments, retrieval settings, and observation strategies for the use in ground-based networks for air quality monitoring and satellite data validation. Twenty-four optical spectrometers participated in the campaign, of which twenty-one had the capability to scan different elevation angles consecutively, the so-called Multi-axis DOAS systems, thereby collecting vertical profile information, in particular for nitrogen dioxide and aerosol. Various in-situ samplers and lidar instruments simultaneously characterized the variability of atmospheric trace gases and the physical properties of aerosol particles. A large data set of continuous measurements of these atmospheric constituents has been collected under various meteorological conditions and air pollution levels. Together with the permanent measurement capability at the CESAR site characterizing the meteorological state of the atmosphere, the CINDI campaign provided a comprehensive observational data set of atmospheric constituents in a highly polluted region of the world during summertime. First detailed comparisons performed with the CINDI data show that slant column measurements of NO2, O4 and HCHO with MAX-DOAS agree within 5 to 15%, vertical profiles of NO2 derived from several independent instruments agree within 25% of one another, and MAX

  5. Growth and crown architecture of two aspen genotypes exposed to interacting ozone and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Dickson, R E; Coleman, M D; Pechter, P; Karnosky, D

    2001-01-01

    To study the impact of ozone (O3) and O3 plus CO2 on aspen growth, we planted two trembling aspen clones, differing in sensitivity to O3 in the ground in open-top chambers and exposed them to different concentrations of O3 and O3 plus CO, for 98 days. Ozone exposure (58 to 97 microl l(-1)-h. total exposure) decreased growth and modified crown architecture of both aspen clones. Ozone exposure decreased leaf, stem, branch, and root dry weight particularly in the O3 sensitive clone (clone 259). The addition of CO2 (150 microl l(-1) over ambient) to the O3 exposure counteracted the negative impact of O3 only in the O3 tolerant clone (clone 216). Ozone had relatively little effect on allometric ratios such as, shoot/root ratio, leaf weight ratio, or root weight ratio. In both clones, however, O3 decreased the shoot dry weight, shoot length ratio and shoot diameter. This decrease in wood strength caused both current terminals and long shoots to droop and increased the branch angle of termination. These results show that aspen growth is highly sensitive to O3 and that O3 can also significantly affect crown architecture. Aspen plants with drooping terminals and lateral branches would be at a competitive disadvantage in dense stands with limited light.

  6. Nitrogen oxides and ozone in Portugal: trends and ozone estimation in an urban and a rural site.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guisuraga, José Manuel; Castro, Amaya; Alves, Célia; Calvo, Ana; Alonso-Blanco, Elisabeth; Blanco-Alegre, Carlos; Rocha, Alfredo; Fraile, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    This study provides an analysis of the spatial distribution and trends of NO, NO2 and O3 concentrations in Portugal between 1995 and 2010. Furthermore, an estimation model for daily ozone concentrations was developed for an urban and a rural site. NO concentration showed a significant decreasing trend in most urban stations. A decreasing trend in NO2 is only observed in the stations with less influence from emissions of primary NO2. Several stations showed a significant upward trend in O3 as a result of the decrease in the NO/NO2 ratio. In the northern rural region, ozone showed a strong correlation with wind direction, highlighting the importance of long-range transport. In the urban site, most of the variance is explained by the NO2/NOX ratio. The results obtained by the ozone estimation model in the urban site fit 2013 observed data. In the rural site, the estimated ozone during extreme events agrees with observed concentration.

  7. On the export of reactive nitrogen from Asia: NOx partitioning and effects on ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, T. H.; Perring, A. E.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Dibb, J.; Avery, M. A.; Cohen, R. C.

    2013-05-01

    The partitioning of reactive nitrogen (NOy was measured over the remote North Pacific during spring 2006. Aircraft observations of NO, NO2, total peroxy nitrates (ΣPNs), total alkyl and multi-functional nitrates (ΣANs) and nitric acid (HNO3, made between 25° and 55° N, confirm a controlling role for peroxyacyl nitrates in NOx production in aged Asian outflow. ΣPNs account for more than 60% of NOy above 5 km, while thermal dissociation limits their contribution to less than 10% in the lower troposphere. Using simultaneous observations of NOx, ΣPNs, ΣANs, HNO3 and average wind speed, we calculate the flux of reactive nitrogen through the meridional plane of 150° W (between 20° and 55° N) to be 0.007 ± 0.002 Tg N day-1, which provides an upper limit of 23 ± 6.5% on the transport efficiency of NOy from East Asia. Observations of NOx, and HOx are used to constrain a 0-D photochemical box model for the calculation of net photochemical ozone production or tendency (Δ O3) as a function of aircraft altitude and NOx concentrations. The model analysis indicates that the photochemical environment of the lower troposphere (altitude < 6 km) over the north Pacific is one of net O3 destruction, with an experimentally determined crossover point between net O3 destruction and net O3 production of 60 pptv NOx. Qualitative indicators of integrated net O3 production derived from simultaneous measurements of O3 and light alkanes (Parrish et al., 1992), also indicate that the north Pacific is, on average, a region of net O3 destruction.

  8. Ozone, Carbon monoxide and Nitrogen oxides time series at four Alpine GAW mountain stations in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilge, S.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Fricke, W.; Kaiser, A.; Ries, L.; Buchmann, B.

    2010-08-01

    Long-term, ground based in-situ observations of Ozone (O3) and its precursor gases Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and Carbon monoxide (CO) from the four sites Hohenpeissenberg and Zugspitze (D), Sonnblick (A) and Jungfraujoch (CH) are presented for the period 1995-2007. These Central European alpine mountain observatories cover an altitude range of roughly 1000 to 3500 m. Comparable analytical methods and common quality assurance (QA) procedures are used at all sites. For O3 and CO, calibration is linked to primary calibrations (O3) or CO standards provided by the Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) at NOAA/ESRL. All stations have been audited by the World Calibration Centre (WCC) for CO and O3 (WCC-Empa; CH). Data from long-term measurements of NO2 and CO are only available from Hohenpeissenberg and Jungfraujoch. Both sites show slightly decreasing mixing ratios of the primarily emitted NO2 and the partly anthropogenically emitted CO between 1995 and 2007. The findings are generally consistent with shorter observation periods at Zugspitze and Sonnblick and thus are considered to represent regional changes in Central European atmospheric composition at this altitude range. Over the same period 1995-2007, the O3 mixing ratios have slightly increased at three of the four sites. This was observed independent of wind sector and for most seasons, with a tendency to higher positive trends in winter and lower and partly negative trends in summer. Trends are often more pronounced in winter and less in summer; highest declines of NO2 and CO are observed in winter and the lowest in summer, whereas the highest rate of O3 increase was detected in winter and lowest in summer, respectively. Weekly cycles demonstrate anthropogenic impact at all elevations with enhanced NO2 on working days compared to weekends. Enhanced O3 values on working days indicating photochemical production from anthropogenic precursors are only observed in summer, whereas in all other seasons anti

  9. Ozone, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides time series at four alpine GAW mountain stations in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilge, S.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Fricke, W.; Kaiser, A.; Ries, L.; Buchmann, B.; Steinbacher, M.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term, ground based in-situ observations of ozone (O3) and its precursor gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) from the four sites Hohenpeissenberg and Zugspitze (D), Sonnblick (A) and Jungfraujoch (CH) are presented for the period 1995-2007. These Central European alpine mountain observatories cover an altitude range of roughly 1000 to 3500 m. Comparable analytical methods and common quality assurance (QA) procedures are used at all sites. For O3 and CO, calibration is linked to primary calibrations (O3) or CO standards provided by the Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) at NOAA/ESRL. All stations have been audited by the World Calibration Centre (WCC) for CO and O3 (WCC-Empa; CH). Data from long-term measurements of NO2 and CO are only available from Hohenpeissenberg and Jungfraujoch. Both sites show slightly decreasing mixing ratios of the primarily emitted NO2 and the partly anthropogenically emitted CO between 1995 and 2007. The findings are generally consistent with shorter observation periods at Zugspitze and Sonnblick and thus are considered to represent regional changes in Central European atmospheric composition at this altitude range. Over the same period, 1995-2007, the O3 mixing ratios have slightly increased at three of the four sites independent of wind sector. Trends are often more pronounced in winter and less in summer; highest declines of NO2 and CO are observed in winter and the lowest in summer, whereas the strongest O3 increase was detected in winter and lowest or even decline in summer, respectively. Weekly cycles demonstrate anthropogenic impact at all elevations with enhanced NO2 on working days compared to weekends. Enhanced O3 values on working days indicating photochemical production from anthropogenic precursors are only observed in summer, whereas in all other seasons anti-correlation with NO2 was found due to reduced O3 values on working days. Trends are discussed with respect to anthropogenic impacts and vertical

  10. Ground-high altitude joint detection of ozone and nitrogen oxides in urban areas of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pengfei; Zhang, Qiang; Quan, Jiannong; Gao, Yang; Zhao, Delong; Meng, Junwang

    2013-04-01

    Based on observational data of ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) mixing ratios on the ground and at high altitude in urban areas of Beijing during a period of six days in November 2011, the temporal and spatial characteristics of mixing ratios were analyzed. The major findings include: urban O3 mixing ratios are low and NO(x) mixing ratios are always high near the road in November. Vertical variations of the gases are significantly different in and above the planetary boundary layer. The mixing ratio of O3 is negatively correlated with that of NO(x) and they are positively correlated with air temperature, which is the main factor directly causing vertical variation of O3 and NO(x) mixing ratios at 600-2100 m altitude. The NO(x) mixing ratios elevated during the heating period, while the O3 mixing ratios decreased: these phenomena are more significant at high altitudes compared to lower altitudes. During November, air masses in the urban areas of Beijing are brought by northwesterly winds, which transport O3 and NO(x) at low mixing ratios. Due to Beijing's natural geographical location, northwest air currents are beneficial to the dilution and dispersion of pollutants, which can result in lower O3 and NO(x) background values in the Beijing urban area.

  11. Nitrogen dioxide and kerosene-flame soot calibration of photoacoustic instruments for measurement of light absorption by aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Arnott, W. Patrick; Moosmu''ller, Hans; Walker, John W.

    2000-12-01

    A nitrogen dioxide calibration method is developed to evaluate the theoretical calibration for a photoacoustic instrument used to measure light absorption by atmospheric aerosols at a laser wavelength of 532.0 nm. This method uses high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide so that both a simple extinction and the photoacoustically obtained absorption measurement may be performed simultaneously. Since Rayleigh scattering is much less than absorption for the gas, the agreement between the extinction and absorption coefficients can be used to evaluate the theoretical calibration, so that the laser gas spectra are not needed. Photoacoustic theory is developed to account for strong absorption of the laser beam power in passage through the resonator. Findings are that the photoacoustic absorption based on heat-balance theory for the instrument compares well with absorption inferred from the extinction measurement, and that both are well within values represented by published spectra of nitrogen dioxide. Photodissociation of nitrogen dioxide limits the calibration method to wavelengths longer than 398 nm. Extinction and absorption at 532 and 1047 nm were measured for kerosene-flame soot to evaluate the calibration method, and the single scattering albedo was found to be 0.31 and 0.20 at these wavelengths, respectively.

  12. Review of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide: Risk and Exposure Assessment Planning Document

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting a review of the air quality criteria and the primary (health-based) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The major phases of the process for reviewing NAAQS include the following: (...

  13. ASSOCIATION OF INDOOR NITROGEN DIOXIDE WITH RESPIRATORY SYSMPTOMS IN CHILDREN: THE EFFECT OF MEASUREMENT ERROR CORRECTION WITH MULTIPLE SURROGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1991, Neas et al. reported that indoor nitrogen dioxide (N02), a by-product of high-temperature combustion, was significantly associated with lower respiratory symptoms among a cohort of 1159 white children ages 7-11 years in six US cities studied from 1983-1988. For each 15 p...

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SPATIAL GRADIENT OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE ACROSS A UNITED STATES-MEXICO BORDER CITY DURING WINTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A gradient of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration is demonstrated across metropolitan El Paso, Texas (USA), a city located on the international border between the United States and Mexico. Integrated measurements of NO2 were collected over seven days at 20 elementary sc...

  15. Differential responses of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions to atmospheric nitrogen dioxide at ambient concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Misa; Morikawa, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the response of plants to atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), we investigated biomass accumulation in 3 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana: C24, Columbia (Col-0), and Landsberg erecta (Ler). Plants were grown in NO2-free air for 1 week after sowing, followed by 3 (Col-0 and Ler) to 4 (C24) weeks in air with or without NO2 (10 or 50 ppb). NO2 treatment increased the biomass of all 3 accessions to varying extents. Treatment with 10 ppb NO2 increased shoot biomass in C24, Col-0, and Ler by 3.2-, 1.4-, and 2.3-fold, respectively, compared with control. Treatment with 50 ppb gave similar increases, except in C24 (2.7-fold). The physiological, evolutionary, and genetic significance of these results are discussed below. PMID:24675109

  16. Influence of photolysis on multispectral photoacoustic measurement of nitrogen dioxide concentration.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guoxun; Moosmüller, Hans; Arnott, W Patrick

    2013-09-01

    Multispectral photoacoustic instruments are commonly used to measure aerosol and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) light absorption coefficients to determine the radiation budget of the atmosphere. Here a new photoacoustic system is developed to explore the effect of photolysis on the measured signal in a multispectral photoacoustic spectrometer In this system, a 405-nm laser is used primarily as light source for photolysis. Additionally, a well-overlapped 532-nm laser, modulated at the resonant frequency of the photoacoustic instrument, is used to probe the NO2 concentration. As a result, the photolysis effect at 405 nm can be observed by the photoacoustic instrument through the 532-nm laser. This work determines an 11% reduction of the photoacoustic signal caused by the photolysis effect for typical conditions, which needs to be taken into account when calibrating multispectral photoacoustic spectrometers with NO2.

  17. LPG ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing properties of nanostructured polypyrrole thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagul, Sagar B.; Upadhye, Deepak S.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film was synthesized by easy and economic chemical oxidative polymerization technique on glass at room temperature. The prepared thin film of Polypyrrole was characterized by optical absorbance study by UV-visible spectroscopy and electrical study by I-V measurement system. The optical absorbance spectrum of Polypyrrole shows two fundamental peaks in region of 420 and 890 nm, which confirms the formation of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. The I-V graph of nanostructured Polypyrrole represents the Ohmic nature. Furthermore, the thin film of Polypyrrole was investigated by Scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology study. The SEM micrograph represents spherical nanostructured morphology of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. In order to investigate gas sensing properties, 100 ppm of LPG, Ammonia and Nitrogen Dioxide were injected in the gas chamber and magnitude of resistance has been recorded as a function of time in second. It was observed that nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film shows good sensing behavior at room temperature.

  18. Foliage plants for indoor removal of the primary combustion gases carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Mesick, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Foliage plants were evaluated for their ability to sorb carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, the two primary gases produced during the combustion of fossil fuels and tobacco. The spider plant (Chlorophytum elatum var. vittatum) could sorb 2.86 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in a 6 h photoperiod. The golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) sorbed 0.98 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in the same time period. In a system with the spider plant, greater than or equal to 99 percent of an initial concentration of 47 ppm NO2 could be removed in 6 h from a void volume of approximately 0.35 cu m. One spider plant potted in a 3.8 liter container can sorb 3300 micrograms CO and effect the removal of 8500 micrograms NO2/hour, recognizing the fact that a significant fraction of NO2 at high concentrations will be lost by surface sorption, dissolving in moisture, etc.

  19. Responses of susceptible subpopulations to nitrogen dioxide. Research report, June 1983-January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, P.E.; Utell, M.J.

    1989-02-01

    Symptom responses and changes in pulmonary function were investigated in people with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exposed to 0.3 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) for four hours. Nonrespiratory-impaired (normal) subjects of comparable ages constituted the control groups. All exposures included periods of exercise and pulmonary function measurements. No significant symptomatic or physiological responses to NO{sub 2} could be detected in either the young or elderly control group. The asthmatic group did not manifest significant reductions in lung function after exposure to 0.3 ppm NO{sub 2}, compared to their preexposure baseline data or to their responses after a comparable four-hour exposure to air. During light exercise, subjects with COPD were progressively responsive to 0.3 ppm NO{sub 2}. Subgroup analyses within the asthmatic, COPD, and elderly normal subject groups and intergroup comparisons yielded significant findings and associations.

  20. Influence of experimental pulmonary emphysema on the toxicological effects from inhaled nitrogen dioxide and diesel exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, J.L.; Bice, D.E.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gillett, N.A.; Henderson, R.F.; Pickrell, J.A.; Wolff, R.K. )

    1989-10-01

    This project examined the influence of preexisting, experimentally induced pulmonary emphysema on the adverse health effects in rats of chronic inhalation exposure to either nitrogen dioxide or automotive diesel-engine exhaust. Previous reports indicated that humans with chronic lung disease were among those most severely affected by episodic exposures to high concentrations of airborne toxicants. There were no previous reports comparing the effects of chronic inhalation exposure to components of automotive emissions in emphysematous and normal animals. The hypothesis tested in this project was that rats with preexisting pulmonary emphysema were more susceptible than rats with normal lungs to the adverse effects of the toxicant exposures. Young adult rats were housed continuously in inhalation exposure chambers and exposed seven hours per day, five days per week, for 24 months to nitrogen dioxide at 9.5 parts per million (ppm)2, or to diesel exhaust at 3.5 mg soot/m3, or to clean air as control animals. These concentrations were selected to produce mild, but distinct, effects in rats with normal lungs. Pulmonary emphysema was induced in one-half of the rats by intratracheal instillation of the proteolytic enzyme elastase six weeks before the toxicant exposures began. Health effects were evaluated after 12, 18, and 24 months of exposure. The measurements included respiratory function, clearance of inhaled radiolabeled particles, pulmonary immune responses to instilled antigen, biochemistry and cytology of airway fluid, total lung collagen, histopathology, lung morphometry, and lung burdens of diesel soot. The significance of influences of emphysema and toxicant exposure, and interactions between influences of the two treatments, were evaluated by analysis of variance.

  1. Nitrogen Dioxide Sterilization in Low-Resource Environments: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Trisha; Trilling, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Access to sterilization is a critical need for global healthcare, as it is one of the prerequisites for safe surgical care. Lack of sterilization capability has driven up healthcare infection rates as well as limited access to healthcare, especially in low-resource environments. Sterilization technology has for the most part been static and none of the established sterilization methods has been so far successfully adapted for use in low-resource environments on a large scale. It is evident that healthcare facilities in low-resource settings require reliable, deployable, durable, affordable, easily operable sterilization equipment that can operate independently of scarce resources. Recently commercialized nitrogen dioxide (NO2) sterilization technology was analyzed and adapted into a form factor suitable for use in low-resource environments. Lab testing was conducted in microbiological testing facilities simulating low-resource environments and in accordance with the requirements of the international sterilization standard ANSI/AAMI/ISO 14937 to assess effectiveness of the device and process. The feasibility of a portable sterilizer based on nitrogen dioxide has been demonstrated, showing that sterilization of medical instruments can occur in a form factor suitable for use in low-resource environments. If developed and deployed, NO2 sterilization technology will have the twin benefits of reducing healthcare acquired infections and limiting a major constraint for access to surgical care on a global scale. Additional benefits are achieved in reducing costs and biohazard waste generated by current health care initiatives that rely primarily on disposable kits, increasing the effectiveness and outreach of these initiatives. PMID:26098905

  2. Land use regression modeling of ultrafine particles, ozone, nitrogen oxides and markers of particulate matter pollution in Augsburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Kathrin; Cyrys, Josef; Harciníková, Tatiana; Gu, Jianwei; Kusch, Thomas; Hampel, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Peters, Annette

    2017-02-01

    Important health relevance has been suggested for ultrafine particles (UFP) and ozone, but studies on long-term effects are scarce, mainly due to the lack of appropriate spatial exposure models. We designed a measurement campaign to develop land use regression (LUR) models to predict the spatial variability focusing on particle number concentration (PNC) as indicator for UFP, ozone and several other air pollutants in the Augsburg region, Southern Germany. Three bi-weekly measurements of PNC, ozone, particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5), soot (PM2.5abs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx, NO2) were performed at 20 sites in 2014/15. Annual average concentration were calculated and temporally adjusted by measurements from a continuous background station. As geographic predictors we offered several traffic and land use variables, altitude, population and building density. Models were validated using leave-one-out cross-validation. Adjusted model explained variance (R(2)) was high for PNC and ozone (0.89 and 0.88). Cross-validation adjusted R(2) was slightly lower (0.82 and 0.81) but still indicated a very good fit. LUR models for other pollutants performed well with adjusted R(2) between 0.68 (PMcoarse) and 0.94 (NO2). Contrary to previous studies, ozone showed a moderate correlation with NO2 (Pearson's r=-0.26). PNC was moderately correlated with ozone and PM2.5, but highly correlated with NOx (r=0.91). For PNC and NOx, LUR models comprised similar predictors and future epidemiological analyses evaluating health effects need to consider these similarities.

  3. Biocompatibility and antibacterial activity of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles for use in dental resin formulations.

    PubMed

    Zane, Andrew; Zuo, Ranfang; Villamena, Frederick A; Rockenbauer, Antal; Digeorge Foushee, Ann Marie; Flores, Kristin; Dutta, Prabir K; Nagy, Amber

    The addition of antibacterial functionality to dental resins presents an opportunity to extend their useful lifetime by reducing secondary caries caused by bacterial recolonization. In this study, the potential efficacy of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles for this purpose was determined. Nitrogen doping was carried out to extend the ultraviolet absorbance into longer wavelength blue light for increased biocompatibility. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (approximately 20-30 nm) were synthesized with and without nitrogen doping using a sol-gel method. Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy indicated a band of trap states, with increasing blue light absorbance as the concentration of the nitrogen dopant increased. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements indicated the formation of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals upon particle exposure to visible light and oxygen. The particles were significantly toxic to Escherichia coli in a dose-dependent manner after a 1-hour exposure to a blue light source (480 nm). Intracellular reactive oxygen species assay demonstrated that the particles caused a stress response in human gingival epithelial cells when exposed to 1 hour of blue light, though this did not result in detectable release of cytokines. No decrease in cell viability was observed by water-soluble tetrazolium dye assay. The results show that nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles have antibacterial activity when exposed to blue light, and are biocompatible at these concentrations.

  4. Biocompatibility and antibacterial activity of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles for use in dental resin formulations

    PubMed Central

    Zane, Andrew; Zuo, Ranfang; Villamena, Frederick A; Rockenbauer, Antal; Digeorge Foushee, Ann Marie; Flores, Kristin; Dutta, Prabir K; Nagy, Amber

    2016-01-01

    The addition of antibacterial functionality to dental resins presents an opportunity to extend their useful lifetime by reducing secondary caries caused by bacterial recolonization. In this study, the potential efficacy of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles for this purpose was determined. Nitrogen doping was carried out to extend the ultraviolet absorbance into longer wavelength blue light for increased biocompatibility. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (approximately 20–30 nm) were synthesized with and without nitrogen doping using a sol–gel method. Ultraviolet–Visible spectroscopy indicated a band of trap states, with increasing blue light absorbance as the concentration of the nitrogen dopant increased. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements indicated the formation of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals upon particle exposure to visible light and oxygen. The particles were significantly toxic to Escherichia coli in a dose-dependent manner after a 1-hour exposure to a blue light source (480 nm). Intracellular reactive oxygen species assay demonstrated that the particles caused a stress response in human gingival epithelial cells when exposed to 1 hour of blue light, though this did not result in detectable release of cytokines. No decrease in cell viability was observed by water-soluble tetrazolium dye assay. The results show that nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles have antibacterial activity when exposed to blue light, and are biocompatible at these concentrations. PMID:27980404

  5. Chemical Data Assimilation Estimates of Continental US Ozone and Nitrogen Budgets during INTEX-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Robert B.; Schaack, Todd K.; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Kittaka, Chieko; Lingenfelser, Gretchen; Natarajan, Murali; Olson, Jennifer; Soja, Amber; Zapotocny, Tom; Lenzen, Allen; Stobie, James; Johnson, Donald; Avery, Melody A.; Sachse, Glen W.; Thompson, Anne; Cohen, Ron; Dibb, Jack E.; Crawford, James H.; Rault, Didier F.; Martin, Randall; Szykman, James J.; Fishman, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Global ozone analyses, based on assimilation of stratospheric profile and ozone column measurements, and NOy predictions from the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) are used to estimate the ozone and NOy budget over the Continental US during the July-August 2004 Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America (INTEX-A). Comparison with aircraft, satellite, surface, and ozonesonde measurements collected during the INTEX-A show that RAQMS captures the main features of the global and Continental US distribution of tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy with reasonable fidelity. Assimilation of stratospheric profile and column ozone measurements is shown to have a positive impact on the RAQMS upper tropospheric/lower stratosphere ozone analyses, particularly during the period when SAGE III limb scattering measurements were available. Eulerian ozone and NOy budgets during INTEX-A show that the majority of the Continental US export occurs in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere poleward of the tropopause break, a consequence of convergence of tropospheric and stratospheric air in this region. Continental US photochemically produced ozone was found to be a minor component of the total ozone export, which was dominated by stratospheric ozone during INTEX-A. The unusually low photochemical ozone export is attributed to anomalously cold surface temperatures during the latter half of the INTEX-A mission, which resulted in net ozone loss during the first 2 weeks of August. Eulerian NOy budgets are shown to be very consistent with previously published estimates. The NOy export efficiency was estimated to be 24 percent, with NOx+PAN accounting for 54 percent of the total NOy export during INTEX-A.

  6. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) uptake by vegetation controlled by atmospheric concentrations and plant stomatal aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaparro-Suarez, I. G.; Meixner, F. X.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2011-10-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exchange between the atmosphere and five European tree species was investigated in the laboratory using a dynamic branch enclosure system (consisting of two cuvettes) and a highly specific NO2 analyzer. NO2 measurements were performed with a sensitive gas phase chemiluminescence NO detector combined with a NO2 specific (photolytic) converter, both from Eco-Physics (Switzerland). This highly specific detection system excluded bias from other nitrogen compounds. Investigations were performed at two light intensities (Photosynthetic Active Radiation, PAR, 450 and 900 μmol m-2 s-1) and NO2 concentrations between 0 and 5 ppb. Ambient parameters (air temperature and relative humidity) were held constant. The data showed dominant NO2 uptake by the respective tree species under all conditions. The results did not confirm the existence of a compensation point within a 95% confidence level, though we cannot completely exclude emission of NO2 under very low atmospheric concentrations. Induced stomatal stricture, or total closure, by changing light conditions, as well as by application of the plant hormone ABA (Abscisic Acid) caused a corresponding decrease of NO2 uptake. No loss of NO2 to plant surfaces was observed under stomatal closure and species dependent differences in uptake rates could be clearly related to stomatal behavior.

  7. Nitrogen dioxide vapor penetration of chlorobutyl rubber SCAPE under operational conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schehl, T. A.; Beall, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    Operational self contained atmospheric protective ensembles (SCAPE suits) and fabric from the suits were subjected to a series of tests designed to determine the amount of exposure a wearer of the suit would receive if a spill of the hypergolic oxidizer nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) should occur nearby. The results of these tests show that a wearer of a "stock" SCAPE suit equipped with a standard liquid air pack, if exposed to a spill resulting in a 26 percent increase of oxidizer in the surrounding atmosphere, will experiment no detectable concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) inside the suit for 15 minutes. Thereafter, the NO2 concentration within the suit will increase for 35 minutes at a rate of 0.07 ppm per minute and then at a gradually decreasing rate until an equilibrium concentration of 3.4 ppm is attained after 100 minutes. Momentary increases of as much as 1.6 ppm can be expected if the wearer were to rise quickly from a squatting position, but the additional NO2 would be dissipated within three minutes. The effect of liquid and vapor N2O4 and of liquid monomethylhydrazine on permeation rates and tensile strength of the SCAPE suit fabric was also investigated.

  8. Undoped and doped poly(tetraphenylbenzidine) as sensitive material for an impedimetric nitrogen dioxide gas dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, I.; Moos, R.; Neumann, K.; Thelakkat, M.

    2014-09-29

    This article presents a nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) detecting gas dosimeter based on poly(tetraphenylbenzidine) poly(TPD) as nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) sensitive layer. Gas dosimeters are suitable devices to determine reliably low levels of analytes over a long period of time. During NO{sub x} exposure, the analyte molecules are accumulated irreversibly in the sensing layer of the dosimeter enhancing the conductivity of the hole conducting poly(TPD), which can be measured by impedance spectroscopy. Due to their possibility for low cost production by simple printing techniques and very good physical, photochemical, and electrochemical properties, poly(TPD)s are suitable for application in gas dosimeters operated at room temperature. We studied the effect of doping with a Co(III)-complex in combination with a conducting salt on the dosimeter behavior. Compared to the undoped material, a strong influence of the doping can be observed: the conductivity of the sensing material increases significantly, the noise of the signal decreases and an unwanted recovery of the sensor signal can be prevented, leading to a NO{sub x} detection limit <10 ppm.

  9. An investigation of evapotranspiration rates within mid-western agricultural systems in response to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, W. F.; Lombardozzi, D.; Levis, S.; Bonan, G. B.

    2013-12-01

    Warith Featherstone Abdullah, Danica Lombardozzi, Samuel Levis and Gordon Bonan Jackson State University Dept. of Physics, Atmospheric Sciences & Geosciences National Center for Atmospheric Research Climate & Global Dynamics Because the human population is expected to surpass 8 billion by the year 2050, food security is a pressing issue. In the face of elevated temperatures associated with climate change (CC), elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and elevated ozone (O3) concentrations, food productivity is uncertain. Plant stomata must be open to gain carbon which simultaneously causes water loss. Research suggests rising temperatures, elevated CO2 and elevated O3 in the future may impact plant stomata and change the rate plants lose water and take up carbon, affecting plant productivity and crop yields. Evapotranspiration (ET), latent heat fluxes, leaf carbon and net primary productivity (NPP) were analyzed in U.S Mid-west where crop density is greatest. Four simulations were run using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) with an extended carbon-nitrogen model (CN). Analyses were based on June-July-August seasonal averages through 2080-2100 to compare the individual effects of CC, elevated CO2 and O3, and combined effects of all drivers. Results from model projections show increased ET with CC and all drivers combined, but only small changes from O3 or CO2 alone. Further results show that NPP was reduced with CC and O3 alone, but increased with CO2 alone and only slightly reduced with interacting components. The combined driver simulation, which most accurately represents future global change, suggests deteriorating water usage efficiency, thus potentially decreasing carbon uptake and crop production. However, further research is needed for verification. Midwest seasonal summation estimates for net primary productivity calculated by CLM4CN model. Climate change, CO2

  10. Responses of beech and spruce foliage to elevated carbon dioxide, increased nitrogen deposition and soil type

    PubMed Central

    Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine Silvia; Vollenweider, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Although enhanced carbon fixation by forest trees may contribute significantly to mitigating an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), capacities for this vary greatly among different tree species and locations. This study compared reactions in the foliage of a deciduous and a coniferous tree species (important central European trees, beech and spruce) to an elevated supply of CO2 and evaluated the importance of the soil type and increased nitrogen deposition on foliar nutrient concentrations and cellular stress reactions. During a period of 4 years, beech (represented by trees from four different regions) and spruce saplings (eight regions), planted together on either acidic or calcareous forest soil in the experimental model ecosystem chambers, were exposed to single and combined treatments consisting of elevated carbon dioxide (+CO2, 590 versus 374 μL L−1) and elevated wet nitrogen deposition (+ND, 50 versus 5 kg ha−1 a−1). Leaf size and foliage mass of spruce were increased by +CO2 on both soil types, but those of beech by +ND on the calcareous soil only. The magnitude of the effects varied among the tree origins in both species. Moreover, the concentration of secondary compounds (proanthocyanidins) and the leaf mass per area, as a consequence of cell wall thickening, were also increased and formed important carbon sinks within the foliage. Although the species elemental concentrations differed in their response to CO2 fertilization, the +CO2 treatment effect was weakened by an acceleration of cell senescence in both species, as shown by a decrease in photosynthetic pigment and nitrogen concentration, discolouration and stress symptoms at the cell level; the latter were stronger in beech than spruce. Hence, young trees belonging to a species with different ecological niches can show contrasting responses in their foliage size, but similar responses at the cell level, upon exposure to elevated levels of CO2. The soil type and its nutrient supply

  11. A case study of the relative effects of power plant nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide emission reductions on atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Seigneur, Christian; Bronson, Rochelle; Chen, Shu-Yun; Karamchandani, Prakash; Walters, Justin T; Jansen, John J; Brandmeyer, Jo Ellen; Knipping, Eladio M

    2010-03-01

    The contrasting effects of point source nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) air emission reductions on regional atmospheric nitrogen deposition are analyzed for the case study of a coal-fired power plant in the southeastern United States. The effect of potential emission reductions at the plant on nitrogen deposition to Escambia Bay and its watershed on the Florida-Alabama border is simulated using the three-dimensional Eulerian Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. A method to quantify the relative and individual effects of NOx versus SO2 controls on nitrogen deposition using air quality modeling results obtained from the simultaneous application of NOx and SO2 emission controls is presented and discussed using the results from CMAQ simulations conducted with NOx-only and SO2-only emission reductions; the method applies only to cases in which ambient inorganic nitrate is present mostly in the gas phase; that is, in the form of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3). In such instances, the individual effects of NOx and SO2 controls on nitrogen deposition can be approximated by the effects of combined NOx + SO2 controls on the deposition of NOy, (the sum of oxidized nitrogen species) and reduced nitrogen species (NHx), respectively. The benefit of controls at the plant in terms of the decrease in nitrogen deposition to Escambia Bay and watershed is less than 6% of the overall benefit due to regional Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) controls.

  12. XPS study of nitrogen dioxide adsorption on metal oxide particle surfaces under different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Jayaweera, Pradeep M; Grassian, Vicki H

    2009-10-01

    The adsorption of nitrogen dioxide on gamma aluminium oxide (gamma-Al(2)O(3)) and alpha iron oxide (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)) particle surfaces under various conditions of relative humidity, presence of molecular oxygen and UV light has been investigated. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to monitor the different surface species that form under these environmental conditions. Adsorption of NO(2) on aluminum oxide particle surfaces results primarily in the formation of surface nitrate, NO(3)(-) with an oxidation state of +5, as indicated by a peak with binding energy of 407.3 eV in the N1s region. An additional minority species, sensitive to the presence of relative humidity and molecular oxygen, is also observed in the N1s region with lower binding energy of 405.9 eV. This peak is assigned to a surface species in the +4 oxidation state. When irradiated with UV light, other species form on the surface. These surface-bound photochemical products all have lower binding energy, between 400 and 402 eV, indicating reduced nitrogen species in the range of N oxidations states spanning +1 to -1. Co-adsorbed water decreases the amount of these reduced surface-bound products while the presence of molecular oxygen completely suppresses the formation of all reduced nitrogen species on aluminum oxide particle surfaces. For NO(2) on iron oxide particle surfaces, photoreduction is enhanced relative to gamma-Al(2)O(3) and surface bound photoreduced species are observed under all environmental conditions. Complementing the experimental data, N1s core electron binding energies (CEBEs) were calculated using DFT for a number of nitrogen-containing species in the gas phase and adsorbed on an Al(8)O(12) cluster. A range of CEBEs is calculated for various nitrogen species in different adsorption modes and oxidation states. These calculated values are discussed in light of the peaks observed in the XPS N1s region and the possible species that form following NO(2) adsorption and

  13. The impact of nitrogen oxides concentration decreases on ozone trends in the USA.

    PubMed

    Jhun, Iny; Coull, Brent A; Zanobetti, Antonella; Koutrakis, Petros

    2015-06-01

    Ozone (O3) has harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. In the USA, significant reductions of O3 precursors-nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)-have not yielded proportionate decreases in O3. NOx is a major precursor of O3 as well as a quencher of O3 through NOx titration, which is especially important during the night and wintertime. In this study, we investigated the potential dual impact of NOx concentration decreases on recent O3 trends by season and time of day. We analyzed hourly O3 and NOx measurement data between 1994 and 2010 in the continental USA. Nationally, hourly O3 concentrations decreased by as much as -0.38 ppb/year with a standard error of 0.05 ppb/year during the warm season midday, but increased by as much as +0.30±0.04 ppb/year during the cold season. High O3 concentrations (≥75th percentile) during the warm season decreased significantly, however, there were notable increases in the cold season as well as warm season nighttime; we found that these increases were largely attributable to NOx decreases as less O3 is quenched. These O3 increases, or "penalties", related to NOx reductions remained robust at a wide range of O3 concentrations (5th to 99th percentile), and even after accounting for VOC reductions and meteorological parameters, including temperature, wind speed, and water vapor pressure. In addition, we observed O3 penalties across rural, suburban, and urban areas. Nonetheless, peak O3 concentrations (99.9th percentile) were mitigated by NOx reductions. In addition, there was some suggestive evidence that VOC reductions have been more effective in reducing O3.

  14. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from US urban areas: estimation from Ozone Monitoring Instrument retrievals for 2005-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; de Foy, B.; Lamsal, L. N.; Duncan, B. N.; Xing, J.

    2015-05-01

    Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can provide valuable information for estimating surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Using an exponentially-modified Gaussian (EMG) method and taking into account the effect of wind on observed NO2 distributions, we estimate three-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005-2014. Following the conclusions of previous studies that the EMG method provides robust and accurate emission estimates under strong-wind conditions, we derive top-down NOx emissions from each urban area by applying the EMG method to OMI data with wind speeds greater than 3-5 m s-1. Meanwhile, we find that OMI NO2 observations under weak-wind conditions (i.e., < 3 m s-1) are qualitatively better correlated with the surface NOx source strength in comparison to all-wind OMI maps; and therefore we use them to calculate the satellite-observed NO2 burdens of urban areas and compare with NOx emission estimates. The EMG results show that OMI-derived NOx emissions are highly correlated (R > 0.93) with weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens as well as bottom-up NOx emission estimates over 35 urban areas, implying a linear response of the OMI observations to surface emissions under weak-wind conditions. The simultaneous, EMG-obtained, effective NO2 lifetimes (~3.5 ± 1.3 h), however, are biased low in comparison to the summertime NO2 chemical lifetimes. In general, isolated urban areas with NOx emission intensities greater than ~ 2 Mg h-1 produce statistically significant weak-wind signals in three-year average OMI data. From 2005 to 2014, we estimate that total OMI-derived NOx emissions over all selected US urban areas decreased by 49%, consistent with reductions of 43, 47, 49, and 44% in the total bottom-up NOx emissions, the sum of weak-wind OMI NO2 columns, the total weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and the averaged NO2 concentrations

  15. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from US urban areas: estimation from Ozone Monitoring Instrument retrievals for 2005-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; de Foy, B.; Lamsal, L. N.; Duncan, B. N.; Xing, J.

    2015-09-01

    Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can provide valuable information for estimating surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Using an exponentially modified Gaussian (EMG) method and taking into account the effect of wind on observed NO2 distributions, we estimate 3-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US (United States) urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005-2014. Following conclusions of previous studies that the EMG method provides robust and accurate emission estimates under strong-wind conditions, we derive top-down NOx emissions from each urban area by applying the EMG method to OMI data with wind speeds greater than 3-5 m s-1. Meanwhile, we find that OMI NO2 observations under weak-wind conditions (i.e., < 3 m s-1) are qualitatively better correlated to the surface NOx source strength in comparison to all-wind OMI maps; therefore, we use them to calculate the satellite-observed NO2 burdens of urban areas and compare with NOx emission estimates. The EMG results show that OMI-derived NOx emissions are highly correlated (R > 0.93) with weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens as well as with bottom-up NOx emission estimates over 35 urban areas, implying a linear response of the OMI observations to surface emissions under weak-wind conditions. The simultaneous EMG-obtained effective NO2 lifetimes (~ 3.5 ± 1.3 h), however, are biased low in comparison to the summertime NO2 chemical lifetimes. In general, isolated urban areas with NOx emission intensities greater than ~ 2 Mg h-1 produce statistically significant weak-wind signals in 3-year average OMI data. From 2005 to 2014, we estimate that total OMI-derived NOx emissions over all selected US urban areas decreased by 49 %, consistent with reductions of 43, 47, 49, and 44 % in the total bottom-up NOx emissions, the sum of weak-wind OMI NO2 columns, the total weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and the averaged NO2 concentrations

  16. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from US urban areas: estimation from Ozone Monitoring Instrument retrievals for 2005-2014

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; de Foy, B.; ...

    2015-05-28

    Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can provide valuable information for estimating surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Using an exponentially-modified Gaussian (EMG) method and taking into account the effect of wind on observed NO2 distributions, we estimate three-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005–2014. Following the conclusions of previous studies that the EMG method provides robust and accurate emission estimates under strong-wind conditions, we derive top-down NOx emissions from each urban area by applying the EMG method to OMI data with windmore » speeds greater than 3–5 m s-1. Meanwhile, we find that OMI NO2 observations under weak-wind conditions (i.e., < 3 m s-1) are qualitatively better correlated with the surface NOx source strength in comparison to all-wind OMI maps; and therefore we use them to calculate the satellite-observed NO2 burdens of urban areas and compare with NOx emission estimates. The EMG results show that OMI-derived NOx emissions are highly correlated (R > 0.93) with weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens as well as bottom-up NOx emission estimates over 35 urban areas, implying a linear response of the OMI observations to surface emissions under weak-wind conditions. The simultaneous, EMG-obtained, effective NO2 lifetimes (~3.5 ± 1.3 h), however, are biased low in comparison to the summertime NO2 chemical lifetimes. In general, isolated urban areas with NOx emission intensities greater than ~ 2 Mg h-1 produce statistically significant weak-wind signals in three-year average OMI data. From 2005 to 2014, we estimate that total OMI-derived NOx emissions over all selected US urban areas decreased by 49%, consistent with reductions of 43, 47, 49, and 44% in the total bottom-up NOx emissions, the sum of weak-wind OMI NO2 columns, the total weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and the averaged NO2 concentrations

  17. Final report on international comparison EURO.QM-S5/1166: Carbon dioxide mixtures in nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Florbela A.; Baptista, Gonçalo; Rakowska, Agata; Chye, Teo Chin; Beng Keat, Teo; Cieciora, Darek; Augusto, Cristiane; Lin, Tsai-Yin; Niederhauser, Bernhard; Fükö, Judit; Sinweeruthai, Ratirat; Johri, Prabha; Akcadag, Fatma; Tarhan, Tanil; van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.; van Wijk, Janneke

    2013-01-01

    This supplementary comparison is designed to test the capabilities of the participants to measure and certify carbon dioxide in nitrogen, and to provide supporting evidence for the CMCs of institutes for carbon dioxide. Indeed this comparison aims to demonstrate the capabilities of IPQ in the production of primary gas mixtures of carbon dioxide in nitrogen and for the participant laboratories to demonstrate their capabilities on certifying primary gas mixtures of percent levels of carbon dioxide in nitrogen. Moreover, a number of NMIs had already participated in the key comparison CCQM-K52, but in a lower range. This EURAMET comparison offers an opportunity to the laboratories to submit CMC in a higher range. In this comparison the laboratories analysed the gas mixtures that are gravimetrically produced and analyzed by IPQ. Each cylinder had its own reference value calculated from the gravimetric preparation. The pressure in the cylinders was approximately 10 MPa; aluminum cylinders of 5 dm3 nominal volume were used. This comparison provides evidence in support of CMCs for carbon dioxide within the range of 1.0 × 10-2 mol/mol to 20.0 × 10-2 mol/mol in a nitrogen/air balance. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. Comparing the efficacy of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone in the inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum in water from Parana State, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Juliana Tracz; Costa, Adriana Oliveira; de Oliveira Silva, Márcia Benedita; Schuchard, Wagner; Osaki, Silvia Cristina; de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Paulino, Rosangela Clara; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz

    2008-12-01

    In the present work, assays were performed to compare the efficacy of hypochlorous acid, chlorine dioxide, and ozone in the inactivation of Cryptosporidium oocyst in public water supply from Brazilian South conditions. Experiments were carried out in samples containing 2 x 10(4) oocysts/ml of C. parvum purified from feces of experimentally contaminated calves. An in vitro excystation method was used to evaluate oocysts' viability and to determine the inactivation rates of hypochlorous acid at 2 ppm, chlorine dioxide at 1, 2, and 5 ppm, and ozone at the doses of 0.18, 0.24, 0.36, 0.48, and 1.44 mg/l. By using hypochlorous acid, the maximum inactivation rate obtained was 49.04% after 120 min. Chlorine dioxide at 5 ppm inactivated 90.56% of oocysts after 90 min of contact. Ozone was the most effective product, rendering an inactivation of 100% with the concentration of 24 mg/l. Resistance of Cryptosporidium to the usual disinfectants and the need for more effective water treatments to prevent waterborne diseases in Brazil are discussed in this manuscript.

  19. Kinetics of membrane damage to high (HNA) and low (LNA) nucleic acid bacterial clusters in drinking water by ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, ferrate(VI), and permanganate.

    PubMed

    Ramseier, Maaike K; von Gunten, Urs; Freihofer, Pietro; Hammes, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    Drinking water was treated with ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, ferrate(VI), and permanganate to investigate the kinetics of membrane damage of native drinking water bacterial cells. Membrane damage was measured by flow cytometry using a combination of SYBR Green I and propidium iodide (SGI+PI) staining as indicator for cells with permeabilized membranes and SGI alone to measure total cell concentration. SGI+PI staining revealed that the cells were permeabilized upon relatively low oxidant exposures of all tested oxidants without a detectable lag phase. However, only ozonation resulted in a decrease of the total cell concentrations for the investigated reaction times. Rate constants for the membrane damage reaction varied over seven orders of magnitude in the following order: ozone > chlorine > chlorine dioxide ≈ ferrate > permanganate > chloramine. The rate constants were compared to literature data and were in general smaller than previously measured rate constants. This confirmed that membrane integrity is a conservative and therefore safe parameter for disinfection control. Interestingly, the cell membranes of high nucleic acid (HNA) content bacteria were damaged much faster than those of low nucleic acid (LNA) content bacteria during treatment with chlorine dioxide and permanganate. However, only small differences were observed during treatment with chlorine and chloramine, and no difference was observed for ferrate treatment. Based on the different reactivity of these oxidants it was suggested that HNA and LNA bacterial cell membranes have a different chemical constitution.

  20. Associations of Cough Prevalence with Ambient Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen and Sulphur Dioxide: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Anyenda, Enoch Olando; Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Nguyen, Thao Thi Thu; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Fujimura, Masaki; Hara, Johsuke; Tsujiguchi, Hiromasa; Kitaoka, Masami; Asakura, Hiroki; Hori, Daisuke; Yamada, Yohei; Hayashi, Koichiro; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Information on potential cough triggers including environmental irritants is vital for successful management of chronic cough in patients. We investigated the relationship between ambient levels of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) exposures with cough prevalence. Eighty-three adult patients, who had been physician diagnosed with at least asthma, cough variant asthma and/or atopic cough, were divided into asthma and non-asthma groups. They recorded daily cough symptoms during 4 January–30 June 2011 study period while daily samples of total suspended particles were simultaneously collected by use of glass fiber filters and the particulate PAH content determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescence detector. Ambient concentrations of NO2 and SO2 were obtained from a local monitoring site. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to determine population-averaged estimates of association between cough prevalence and ambient pollutant exposures for the two groups. Fully adjusted odds ratios from single pollutant models were 1.083 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.029, 1.140) and 1.097 (95% CI: 1.016, 1.185) per 0.57 ng/m3 for lag2 PAH exposure, while only for asthma group had significant associations with NO2 and SO2 exposures for both lag2 and lag02. Similar associations were observed in multipollutant models. This finding suggests that ambient PAH, NO2, and SO2 exposure even at low levels is related to cough prevalence in adult chronic cough patients and may be considered as aggravating factor during clinical management of the condition. PMID:27517941

  1. Nitrogen, tillage, and crop rotation effects on carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from irrigated cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Alluvione, Francesco; Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    Long-term effects of tillage intensity, N fertilization, and crop rotation on carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) flux from semiarid irrigated soils are poorly understood. We evaluated effects of: (i) tillage intensity [no-till (NT) and conventional moldboard plow tillage (CT)] in a continuous corn rotation; (ii) N fertilization levels [0-246 kg N ha(-1) for corn (Zea mays L.); 0 and 56 kg N ha(-1) for dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.); 0 and 112 kg N ha(-1) for barley (Hordeum distichon L.)]; and (iii) crop rotation under NT soil management [corn-barley (NT-CB); continuous corn (NT-CC); corn-dry bean (NT-CDb)] on CO(2) and CH(4) flux from a clay loam soil. Carbon dioxide and CH(4) fluxes were monitored one to three times per week using vented nonsteady state closed chambers. No-till reduced (14%) growing season (154 d) cumulative CO(2) emissions relative to CT (NT: 2.08 Mg CO(2)-C ha(-1); CT: 2.41 Mg CO(2)-C ha(-1)), while N fertilization had no effect. Significantly lower (18%) growing season CO(2) fluxes were found in NT-CDb than NT-CC and NT-CB (11.4, 13.2 and 13.9 kg CO(2)-C ha(-1)d(-1) respectively). Growing season CH(4) emissions were higher in NT (20.2 g CH(4) ha(-1)) than in CT (1.2 g CH(4) ha(-1)). Nitrogen fertilization and cropping rotation did not affect CH(4) flux. Implementation of NT for 7 yr with no N fertilization was not adequate for restoring the CH(4) oxidation capacity of this clay loam soil relative to CT plowed and fertilized soil.

  2. Discharge cell for ozone generator

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuka, Suguru

    2000-04-04

    A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space there between, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt%.

  3. Discharge cell for ozone generator

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuka, Suguru

    2000-01-01

    A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space therebetween, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt %.

  4. Area-level socioeconomic deprivation, nitrogen dioxide exposure, and term birth weight in New York City.

    PubMed

    Shmool, Jessie L C; Bobb, Jennifer F; Ito, Kazuhiko; Elston, Beth; Savitz, David A; Ross, Zev; Matte, Thomas D; Johnson, Sarah; Dominici, Francesca; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-10-01

    Numerous studies have linked air pollution with adverse birth outcomes, but relatively few have examined differential associations across the socioeconomic gradient. To evaluate interaction effects of gestational nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and area-level socioeconomic deprivation on fetal growth, we used: (1) highly spatially-resolved air pollution data from the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS); and (2) spatially-stratified principle component analysis of census variables previously associated with birth outcomes to define area-level deprivation. New York City (NYC) hospital birth records for years 2008-2010 were restricted to full-term, singleton births to non-smoking mothers (n=243,853). We used generalized additive mixed models to examine the potentially non-linear interaction of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and deprivation categories on birth weight (and estimated linear associations, for comparison), adjusting for individual-level socio-demographic characteristics and sensitivity testing adjustment for co-pollutant exposures. Estimated NO2 exposures were highest, and most varying, among mothers residing in the most-affluent census tracts, and lowest among mothers residing in mid-range deprivation tracts. In non-linear models, we found an inverse association between NO2 and birth weight in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas (p-values<0.001 and 0.05, respectively) but no association in the mid-range of deprivation (p=0.8). Likewise, in linear models, a 10 ppb increase in NO2 was associated with a decrease in birth weight among mothers in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas of -16.2g (95% CI: -21.9 to -10.5) and -11.0 g (95% CI: -22.8 to 0.9), respectively, and a non-significant change in the mid-range areas [β=0.5 g (95% CI: -7.7 to 8.7)]. Linear slopes in the most- and least-deprived quartiles differed from the mid-range (reference group) (p-values<0.001 and 0.09, respectively). The complex patterning in air pollution exposure and deprivation

  5. Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column retrieval from ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tack, F.; Hendrick, F.; Goutail, F.; Fayt, C.; Merlaud, A.; Pinardi, G.; Hermans, C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present an algorithm for retrieving tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs) from ground-based zenith-sky (ZS) measurements of scattered sunlight. The method is based on a four-step approach consisting of (1) the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) analysis of ZS radiance spectra using a fixed reference spectrum corresponding to low NO2 absorption, (2) the determination of the residual amount in the reference spectrum using a Langley-plot-type method, (3) the removal of the stratospheric content from the daytime total measured slant column based on stratospheric VCDs measured at sunrise and sunset, and simulation of the rapid NO2 diurnal variation, (4) the retrieval of tropospheric VCDs by dividing the resulting tropospheric slant columns by appropriate air mass factors (AMFs). These steps are fully characterized and recommendations are given for each of them. The retrieval algorithm is applied on a ZS dataset acquired with a Multi-AXis (MAX-) DOAS instrument during the Cabauw (51.97° N, 4.93° E, sea level) Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI) held from the 10 June to the 21 July 2009 in the Netherlands. A median value of 7.9 × 1015 molec cm-2 is found for the retrieved tropospheric NO2 VCDs, with maxima up to 6.0 × 1016 molec cm-2. The error budget assessment indicates that the overall error σTVCD on the column values is less than 28%. In case of low tropospheric contribution, σTVCD is estimated to be around 39% and is dominated by uncertainties in the determination of the residual amount in the reference spectrum. For strong tropospheric pollution events, σTVCD drops to approximately 22% with the largest uncertainties on the determination of the stratospheric NO2 abundance and tropospheric AMFs. The tropospheric VCD amounts derived from ZS observations are compared to VCDs retrieved from off-axis and direct-sun measurements of the same MAX-DOAS instrument as well as to

  6. Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column retrieval from ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tack, F.; Hendrick, F.; Goutail, F.; Fayt, C.; Merlaud, A.; Pinardi, G.; Hermans, C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2015-06-01

    We present an algorithm for retrieving tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs) from ground-based zenith-sky (ZS) measurements of scattered sunlight. The method is based on a four-step approach consisting of (1) the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) analysis of ZS radiance spectra using a fixed reference spectrum corresponding to low NO2 absorption, (2) the determination of the residual amount in the reference spectrum using a Langley-plot-type method, (3) the removal of the stratospheric content from the daytime total measured slant column based on stratospheric VCDs measured at sunrise and sunset, and simulation of the rapid NO2 diurnal variation, (4) the retrieval of tropospheric VCDs by dividing the resulting tropospheric slant columns by appropriate air mass factors (AMFs). These steps are fully characterized and recommendations are given for each of them. The retrieval algorithm is applied on a ZS data set acquired with a multi-axis (MAX-) DOAS instrument during the Cabauw (51.97° N, 4.93° E, sea level) Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI) held from 10 June to 21 July 2009 in the Netherlands. A median value of 7.9 × 1015 molec cm-2 is found for the retrieved tropospheric NO2 VCDs, with maxima up to 6.0 × 1016 molec cm-2. The error budget assessment indicates that the overall error σTVCD on the column values is less than 28%. In the case of low tropospheric contribution, σTVCD is estimated to be around 39% and is dominated by uncertainties in the determination of the residual amount in the reference spectrum. For strong tropospheric pollution events, σTVCD drops to approximately 22% with the largest uncertainties on the determination of the stratospheric NO2 abundance and tropospheric AMFs. The tropospheric VCD amounts derived from ZS observations are compared to VCDs retrieved from off-axis and direct-sun measurements of the same MAX-DOAS instrument as well as to data

  7. Elevated CO2 and ozone reduce nitrogen acquisition by Pinus halepensis from its mycorrhizal symbiont.

    PubMed

    Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit; Le Thiec, Didier; Dizengremel, Pierre

    2001-03-01

    The effects of 700 µmol mol-1 CO2 and 200 nmol mol-1 ozone on photosynthesis in Pinus halepensis seedlings and on N translocation from its mycorrhizal symbiont, Paxillus involutus, were studied under nutrient-poor conditions. After 79 days of exposure, ozone reduced and elevated CO2 increased net assimilation rate. However, the effect was dependent on daily accumulated exposure. No statistically significant differences in total plant mass accumulation were observed, although ozone-treated plants tended to be smaller. Changes in atmospheric gas concentrations induced changes in allocation of resources: under elevated ozone, shoots showed high priority over roots and had significantly elevated N concentrations. As a result of different shoot N concentration and net carbon assimilation rates, photosynthetic N use efficiency was significantly increased under elevated CO2 and decreased under ozone. The differences in photosynthesis were mirrored in the growth of the fungus in symbiosis with the pine seedlings. However, exposure to CO2 and ozone both reduced the symbiosis-mediated N uptake. The results suggest an increased carbon cost of symbiosis-mediated N uptake under elevated CO2, while under ozone, plant N acquisition is preferentially shifted towards increased root uptake.

  8. Performance Evaluation and Community Application of Low-Cost Sensors for Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study reports on the performance of electrochemical-based low-cost sensors and their use in a community application. CairClip sensors were collocated with federal reference and equivalent methods and operated in a network of sites by citizen scientists (community members) in...

  9. CANOZE measurements of the Arctic ozone hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, W. F. J.; Kerr, J. B.; Fast, H.

    1988-01-01

    In CANOZE 1 (Canadian Ozone Experiment), a series of 20 ozone profile measurements were made in April, 1986 from Alert at 82.5 N. CANOZE is the Canadian program for study of the Arctic winter ozone layer. In CANOZE 2, ozone profile measurements were made at Saskatoon, Edmonton, Churchill and Resolute during February and March, 1987 with ECC ozonesondes. Ground based measurements of column ozone, nitrogen dioxide and hydrochloric acid were conducted at Saskatoon. Two STRATOPROBE balloon flights were conducted on February 26 and March 19, 1987. Two aerosol flights were conducted by the University of Wyoming. The overall results of this study will be reported and compared with the NOZE findings. The results from CANOZE 3 in 1988, are also discussed. In 1988, as part of CANOZE 3, STRATOPROBE balloon flights were conducted from Saskatchewan on January 27 and February 13. A new lightweight infrared instrument was developed and test flown. A science flight was successfully conducted from Alert (82.5 N) on March 9, 1988 when the vortex was close to Alert; a good measurement of the profile of nitric acid was obtained. Overall, the Arctic spring ozone layer exhibits many of the features of the Antarctic ozone phenomenon, although there is obviously not a hole present every year. The Arctic ozone field in March, 1986 demonstrated many similarities to the Antarctic ozone hole. The TOMS imagery showed a crater structure in the ozone field similar to the Antarctic crater in October. Depleted layers of ozone were found in the profiles around 15 km, very similar to those reported from McMurdo. Enhanced levels of nitric acid were measured in air which had earlier been in the vortex. The TOMS imagery for March 1987 did not show an ozone crater, but will be examined for an ozone crater in February and March, 1988, the target date for the CANOZE 3 project.

  10. Oxidation of diclofenac with chlorine dioxide in aquatic environments: influences of different nitrogenous species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingling; Liu, Haijin; Liu, Guoguang; Xie, Youhai; Ni, Tianjun

    2015-06-01

    The oxidation of diclofenac (DCF), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and emerging water pollutant, with chlorine dioxide was investigated under simulated water disinfection conditions. The reaction kinetics as functions of the initial concentrations of DCF, different nitrogenous species, and different pE values were experimentally determined. The results demonstrated that DCF reacted rapidly with ClO2, where more than 75 % of DCF (≤3.00 μM) was removed by 18.94 μM ClO2 within 60 s. All of the reactions followed pseudo first-order kinetics with respect to DCF, and the rate constant, k obs, exhibited a significant decrease from 4.21 × 10(-2) to 8.09 × 10(-3) s(-1), as the initial DCF concentration was increased from 1.00 to 5.00 μM. Furthermore, the degradation kinetics of DCF was clearly dependent on nitrogen-containing ion concentrations in the reaction solution. Ammonium and nitrite ions inhibited the DCF degradation by ClO2, whereas nitrate ion clearly initiated its promotion. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of NO2 (-) was more robust than that of NH4 (+). When the values of pE were gradually increased, the transformation of NH4 (+) to NO2 (-), and subsequently to NO3 (-), would occur, the rate constants were initially decreased, and then increased. When NH4 (+) and NO2 (-) coexisted, the inhibitory effect on the DCF degradation was less than the sum of the partial inhibitory effect. However, when NO2 (-) and NO3 (-) coexisted, the actual inhibition rate was greater than the theoretical estimate. These results indicated that the interaction of NH4 (+) and NO2 (-) was antagonistic, while the coexistence of NO2 (-) and NO3 (-) was observed to have a synergistic effect in aqueous environments.

  11. Ozone Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  12. Field Comparison of Passive Air Samplers with Reference Monitors for Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds and Nitrogen Dioxide Under Week-Long Integrals

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates performance of nitrogen dioxide NO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOC) passive samplers with corresponding reference monitors at two sites in the Detroit, Michigan area during the summer of 2005.

  13. Fact Sheets and Additional Information Regarding the 2010 Revision to the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find tools for primary standards for Nitrogen Dioxide, maps of monitoring areas, an overview of the proposal, monitor requirements, design values for counties, and a presentation on the 2010 NO2 primary NAAQS revision.

  14. Internal energy distributions from nitrogen dioxide fluorescence. 1. Cumulative sum method

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, H.S.; Miller, C.E.; Oh, B.Y.; Patten, K.O. Jr.; Sisk, W.N. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1993-09-30

    This article describes a method of obtaining information about the internal energy (E) distribution of a fluorescing population of nitrogen dioxide, NO[sub 2]*, from its dispersed spectrum between 400 and 840 nm. We show that two fluorescing populations of the same average energy but different energy spread give statistically significant differences in their observed cumulative sum spectra, although the differences are small. Broadly spread distributions of NO[sub 2]* internal energy are produced by photolysis of RNO[sub 2] molecules and by collisional deactivation of monoenergetically excited NO[sub 2]. The cumulative sum fluorescence spectrum from a broadly distributed internal energy population is represented as a weighted combination of monoenergetically excited cumulative sum fluorescence spectra. A cumulative sum spectrum utilizes all of the data, is positive and single valued, and smoothly, monotonically increases with decreasing observation energy. By differentiation of the cumulative sum spectrum, the original spectrum is recovered undistorted. Unlike a structured monoenergetic fluorescence spectrum, the cumulative sum is well approximated by a simple algebraic expression, I(E,X), where E is the internal energy of NO[sub 2]* and X are the photon energies of the observed spectrum. 14 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Modeling effects of traffic and landscape characteristics on ambient nitrogen dioxide levels in Connecticut

    PubMed Central

    Skene, Katherine J.; Gent, Janneane F.; McKay, Lisa A.; Belanger, Kathleen; Leaderer, Brian P.; Holford, Theodore R.

    2010-01-01

    An integrated exposure model was developed that estimates nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration at residences using geographic information systems (GIS) and variables derived within residential buffers representing traffic volume and landscape characteristics including land use, population density and elevation. Multiple measurements of NO2 taken outside of 985 residences in Connecticut were used to develop the model. A second set of 120 outdoor NO2 measurements as well as cross-validation were used to validate the model. The model suggests that approximately 67% of the variation in NO2 levels can be explained by: traffic and land use primarily within 2 km of a residence; population density; elevation; and time of year. Potential benefits of this model for health effects research include improved spatial estimations of traffic-related pollutant exposure and reduced need for extensive pollutant measurements. The model, which could be calibrated and applied in areas other than Connecticut, has importance as a tool for exposure estimation in epidemiological studies of traffic-related air pollution. PMID:21076636

  16. Pulse radiolysis study of the reactions of catechins with nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebicki, Jerzy L.; Meisner, Piotr; Stawowska, Katarzyna; Gebicka, Lidia

    2012-12-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (•NO2), one of the oxidizing radicals formed in vivo is suspected to play a role in various pathophysiological processes. The reactions of •NO2 with dietary catechins, the group of flavonoids present in high amounts in green tea and red wine, have been investigated by pulse radiolysis method. The kinetics of the reaction of •NO2 with gallic acid have been also studied for comparison. The spectra of transient intermediates are presented. The rate constants of the reaction of •NO2 with catechin, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid determined by the competition method with 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) at pH 7.0 and room temperature have been found to be 0.9, 1.0, 2.3 and 0.5×108 M-1 s-1, respectively. The values for catechins are among the highest reported for the reactions of •NO2 with non-radical compounds.

  17. Aspects of nitrogen dioxide toxicity in environmental urban concentrations in human nasal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, C.; Ginzkey, C.; Friehs, G.; Hackenberg, S.; Froelich, K.; Scherzed, A.; Burghartz, M.; Kessler, M.; Kleinsasser, N.

    2010-06-01

    Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) as part of urban exhaust pollution are widely discussed as potential hazards to human health. This study focuses on toxic effects of NO{sub 2} in realistic environmental concentrations with respect to the current limit values in a human target tissue of volatile xenobiotics, the epithelium of the upper aerodigestive tract. Nasal epithelial cells of 10 patients were cultured as an air-liquid interface and exposed to 0.01 ppm NO{sub 2}, 0.1 ppm NO{sub 2}, 1 ppm NO{sub 2}, 10 ppm NO{sub 2} and synthetic air for half an hour. After exposure, genotoxicity was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell microgel electophoresis (Comet) assay and by induction of micronuclei in the micronucleus test. Depression of proliferation and cytotoxic effects were determined using the micronucleus assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. The experiments revealed genotoxic effects by DNA fragmentation starting at 0.01 ppm NO{sub 2} in the Comet assay, but no micronucleus inductions, no changes in proliferation, no signs of necrosis or apoptosis in the micronucleus assay, nor did the trypan blue exclusion assay show any changes in viability. The present data reveal a possible genotoxicity of NO{sub 2} in urban concentrations in a screening test. However, permanent DNA damage as indicated by the induction of micronuclei was not observed. Further research should elucidate the effects of prolonged exposure.

  18. Validation of the Willems badge diffusive sampler for nitrogen dioxide determinations in occupational environments.

    PubMed

    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika; Lindahl, Roger; Levin, Jan-Olof; Karlsson, Doris

    2002-01-01

    The Willems badge, a diffusive sampler for nitrogen dioxide, has previously been validated for ambient air measurements. This paper describes the laboratory and field validation of the Willems badge for personal sampling under working environment conditions. The mean sampling rate in the laboratory tests was 46 ml min(-1), with an RSD of 12%. No statistically significant effects on sampling rate of the sampling time, concentration of NO2 or relative humidity were found. A slightly decreased sampling rate was observed at low wind velocity. This was also confirmed during static sampling, which makes the sampler less appropriate for static sampling indoors. No back diffusion was observed. Storage of the samplers for two weeks before or after exposure did not affect the sampling rate. Our analysis is based on a modified colorimetric method, performed by FIA (flow injection analysis). This technique was compared to ion chromatography analysis. The use of ion chromatography lowered the detection limit from 11 to 2 microg m(-3) for an 8 h sample, and furthermore enabled the detection of other anions. In conclusion, the diffusive sampler was found to perform well for personal measurements in industrial environments.

  19. Visible-Light-Induced Bactericidal Activity of Titanium Dioxide Co-doped with Nitrogen and Silver

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pinggui; Xie, Rongcai; Imlay, Kari; Shang, Jian-Ku

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles co-doped with nitrogen and silver (Ag2O/TiON) were synthesized by the sol-gel process and found to be an effective visible light driven photocatalyst. The catalyst showed strong bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) under visible light irradiation (λ> 400 nm). In x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction characterization of the samples, the as-added Ag species mainly exist as Ag2O. Spin trapping EPR study showed Ag addition greatly enhanced the production of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) under visible light irradiation. The results indicate that the Ag2O species trapped eCB− in the process of Ag2O/TiON photocatalytic reaction, thus inhibiting the recombination of eCB− and hVB+ in agreement with the stronger photocatalytic bactericidal activity of Ag2O/TiON. The killing mechanism of Ag2O/TiON under visible light irradiation is shown to be related to oxidative damages in the forms of cell wall thinning and cell disconfiguration. PMID:20726520

  20. NDSD-1000: High-resolution, high-temperature Nitrogen Dioxide Spectroscopic Databank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukashevskaya, A. A.; Lavrentieva, N. N.; Dudaryonok, A. C.; Perevalov, V. I.

    2016-11-01

    We present a high-resolution, high-temperature version of the Nitrogen Dioxide Spectroscopic Databank called NDSD-1000. The databank contains the line parameters (positions, intensities, self- and air-broadening coefficients, exponents of the temperature dependence of self- and air-broadening coefficients) of the principal isotopologue of NO2. The reference temperature for line intensity is 296 K and the intensity cutoff is 10-25 cm-1/molecule cm-2 at 1000 K. The broadening parameters are presented for two reference temperatures 296 K and 1000 K. The databank has 1,046,808 entries, covers five spectral regions in the 466-4776 cm-1 spectral range and is designed for temperatures up to 1000 K. The databank is based on the global modeling of the line positions and intensities performed within the framework of the method of effective operators. The parameters of the effective Hamiltonian and the effective dipole moment operator have been fitted to the observed values of the line positions and intensities collected from the literature. The broadening coefficients as well as the temperature exponents are calculated using the semi-empirical approach. The databank is useful for studying high-temperature radiative properties of NO2. NDSD-1000 is freely accessible via the internet site of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS ftp://ftp.iao.ru/pub/NDSD/.

  1. Personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and its association with respiratory illness in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, L.C.; Ho, J.H.; Ho, C.Y.; Matsuki, H.; Shimizu, H.; Mori, T.; Tominaga, S. )

    1990-05-01

    In 1985, 362 primary schoolchildren and their 319 mothers were surveyed in Hong Kong to study the possible relationship of air pollution to respiratory illnesses. Using nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) measured by personal samplers as a measure of air pollution, the study aimed to identify the major sources of NO{sub 2} in the indoor environment and see whether its increased presence was associated with respiratory symptoms. The levels of NO{sub 2} among the mothers was found to increase by 21% if dust exposure was reported from the workplace, 18% if they used such cooking fuels as liquid petroleum gas or kerosene, 11% when kitchens did not have ventilating fans, and 10% when incense was burned at home. In terms of respiratory symptoms, an increase in NO{sub 2} levels of 19% was reported among those with allergic rhinitis and 18% among those with chronic cough. The levels of NO2 among children were correlated with levels measured in classrooms, all of which had opened windows so that the NO{sub 2} came from outdoors. No association was found between children's NO{sub 2} levels and respiratory symptoms. With the exception of smoking by the father and the children's NO{sub 2} levels, no association was found between smoking at home and NO{sub 2} levels.

  2. Nitrogen Dioxide pollution and hazardous household environment: what impacts more congenital malformations.

    PubMed

    Landau, D; Novack, L; Yitshak-Sade, M; Sarov, B; Kloog, I; Hershkovitz, R; Grotto, I; Karakis, I

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is a product of fuel combustion originating mainly from industry and transportation. Studies suggest an association between NO2 and congenital malformations (CM). We investigated an independent effect of NO2 on CM by adjusting to individual factors and household environment in 1024 Bedouin-Arab pregnant women in southern Israel. This population is characterised by high rates of CMs, frequent consanguineous marriages, paternal smoking, temporary housing and usage of open fire for heat cooking. Information on household risk factors was collected during an interview. Ambient measurements of 24-h average NO2 and meteorological conditions were obtained from 13 local monitors. Median value of daily NO2 measured in the area was 6.78ppb. CM was diagnosed in 8.0% (82) of offspring. Maternal NO2 exposure during the 1st trimester >8.6ppb was significantly associated with minor CM (RR=2.68, p=0.029). Major CM were independently associated with maternal juvenile diabetes (RR=9.97, p-value=0.002) and heating by open fire (RR=2.00, p-value=0.049), but not NO2 exposure. We found that NO2 emissions had an independent impact only on minor malformations, whereas major malformations depended mostly on the household environment. Antepartum deaths were associated by maternal morbidity.

  3. Thermo-chemical fuel removal from porous materials by oxygen and nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, S.; Alegre, D.; Kreter, A.; Petersson, P.; Esser, H. G.; Samm, U.

    2014-04-01

    Thermo-chemical removal (TCR), or baking in reactive gases, is a candidate method to control the co-deposit related tritium inventory in fusion devices. TCR can be understood as reaction-diffusion processes in a porous material. O2-TCR was applied to 150-550 nm thick a-C:D layers with similar textures. A linear relation between the integral TCR rate and the layer thickness, as predicted by the understanding, was observed in the experiment, i.e. the time to remove the hydrogen inventory is independent of its initial amount. TCR with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at temperatures of 200-350 °C was conducted with a set of a-C:D and W-C-H layers. At 350 °C NO2 removed ˜ 15% porosity a-C:D within 3 min. The O retention in remaining a-C:D was ≈ 1017 O cm-2. An activation energy of ≈ 0.78 eV for reactions of NO2 with D and C was determined. The results were applied for predictions of the TCR effectivity in ITER. The treatment of W-C-H led to O uptake (O/W ≈ 2-3), while W and C contents remained unchanged.

  4. Aircraft measurements of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrates using luminol chemiluminescence with fast capillary gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A.; Steele, H.D.; Drayton, P.J.; Hubbe, J.M.

    1999-10-01

    Fast capillary gas chromatography with luminol detection has been used to make airborne measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). The analysis system allows for the simultaneous measurement of NO{sub 2} and peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) with time resolution of less than 1 min, and improvement of a factor of 4--5 over previously reported methods using electron capture detection. Data presented were taken near Pasco, Washington, in August 1997, during a test flight onboard the US Department of Energy G-1 aircraft. The authors report measurements of NO{sub 2} in the boundary layer in a paper mill plume and a plume from a grass fire, in addition to analyses for free tropospheric NO{sub 2} and PAN. Ratios of PAN/NO{sub 2} were observed to increase with altitude (decreasing temperature) and to reach values of 2--4 above the boundary layer, consistent with the thermal equilibrium of the peroxyacetyl radical and NO{sub 2} and PAN. Estimates for the peroxyacetyl radical in the continental free troposphere, calculated from this equilibrium, were found to be in the range of 10{sup 4}--10{sup 5} molecules per cubic centimeter. These results demonstrate the application of this approach for airborne measurements of NO{sub 2} and PAN in a wide range of field study scenarios.

  5. Development and application of a luminol-based nitrogen dioxide detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    An instrument for the continuous measurement of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) at all atmospheric concentration ranges and conditions was developed. The detector is based on the chemiluminescent reaction between 5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione (luminol) and NO/sub 2/ in alkaline aqueous solution. Development included the optimization of the cell design and the solution composition. Sodium sulfite (Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/) and methanol (CH/sub 3/OH) were added to the solution to improve sensitivity and specificity. The detector was favorably compared to two different instruments measuring NO/sub 2/ by NO + O/sub 3/ chemiluminescent and by a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry system. The detector has demonstrated a detection limit of 30 parts-per-trillion by volume (ppt) and a frequency response of 0.3 Hz. The instrument was operated for two one-month periods on Bermuda. The purpose was to study air masses from the East Coast of the United States after transport over the ocean. Average daily values were 400 ppt with values as low as 100 ppt measured. Other field experiments involved monitoring of NO/sub 2/ in ambient air in the range of 1 to 60 parts-per-billion by volume.

  6. Comparison of two manual methods of nitrogen dioxide determination in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K

    2003-12-01

    Sodium arsenite (modified Jacobs and Hochheiser method; hereafter referred as SA), the most widely used manual monitoring method for determination of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air, particularly in developing countries has been evaluated and compared with US EPA recommended equivalent method of TGS-ANSA (hereafter referred as ANSA). NO2 concentrations generated from laboratory test atmosphere were analyzed by these two methods and were compared statistically. Laboratory evaluations showed that SA method has high sensitivity to different sampling conditions, which normally vary during actual field monitoring. Hence, correction factors for absorption efficiency were estimated for SA and ANSA methods. Absorption efficiency of NO2 in SA method was found to be much lower (64%) as against the reported value of 82% at the method recommended sampling conditions, whereas for ANSA method, it was found 1.0 as against the reported value of 0.93. After applying derived correction factors, both the methods produced almost similar concentration values of NO2.

  7. Fluctuations of inspired concentrations of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Kuhlen; Busch; Max; Reyle-Hahn; Falke; Rossaint

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is a very reactive agent with potentially toxic oxidation products such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Therefore, during NO inhalation a constant inspired concentration and accurate measurement of NO and NO2 concentrations are essential. The objective of this study was to test the NO concentrations at various positions along the inspiratory limb of the breathing circuit using a recently developed system to administer NO in phase with inspiratory flow during mechanical ventilation (Servo 300 NO-A, Siemens, Sweden). Furthermore, we tested whether an active heating system would interfere with inspired NO concentrations. RESULTS: A sharp decline in the NO concentration was found between the respirator's inspiratory outlet and more distal points along the inspiratory limb of the circuit. This finding was most evident when an active heating system was mounted between those points. CONCLUSIONS: The concentrations of NO and NO2 should be measured as near to the patient as possible, as significant fluctuations of these concentrations might be found along the inspiratory limb of the respiratory circuit especially when an active heating system is used.

  8. Fluctuations of inspired concentrations of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide during mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlen, Ralf; Busch, Thilo; Max, Martin; Reyle-Hahn, Matthias; Falke, Konrad J; Rossaint, Rolf

    1999-01-01

    Background: Nitric oxide (NO) is a very reactive agent with potentially toxic oxidation products such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Therefore, during NO inhalation a constant inspired concentration and accurate measurement of NO and NO2 concentrations are essential. The objective of this study was to test the NO concentrations at various positions along the inspiratory limb of the breathing circuit using a recently developed system to administer NO in phase with inspiratory flow during mechanical ventilation (Servo 300 NO-A, Siemens, Sweden). Furthermore, we tested whether an active heating system would interfere with inspired NO concentrations. Results: A sharp decline in the NO concentration was found between the respirator's inspiratory outlet and more distal points along the inspiratory limb of the circuit. This finding was most evident when an active heating system was mounted between those points. Conclusions: The concentrations of NO and NO2 should be measured as near to the patient as possible, as significant fluctuations of these concentrations might be found along the inspiratory limb of the respiratory circuit especially when an active heating system is used. PMID:11056715

  9. Roles of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide in compressed-air narcosis.

    PubMed

    Hesser, C M; Fagraeus, L; Adolfson, J

    1978-12-01

    In an attempt to determine the roles of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide in compressed-air narcosis, the effects on performance (mental function and manual dexterity) of adding CO2 in various concentrations to the inspired gas under three different conditions were studied in eight healthy male volunteers. The three conditions were: (1) air breathing at 1.3 ATA; (2) oxygen breathing at 1.7 ATA; and (3) air breathing at 8.0 ATA (same inspired O2 pressure as in (2)). By relating performance to the changes induced in end-tidal (alveolar) gas pressures, and comparing the data from the three conditions, we arrived at the following results and conclusions. A rise in O2 pressure to 1.65 ATA, or in N2 pressure to 6.3 ATA at a constant high PO2 level, caused a significant decrement of 10% in mental function but no consistent effect on psychomotor function. A rise in end-tidal PCO2 of 10 mmHg caused an impairment of approximately 10% in both mental and psychomotor functions. The results suggest that, at raised partial pressures, all three gases have narcotic properties, and that the mechanism of CO2 narcosis differs fundamentally from that of N2 and O2 narcosis.

  10. Gamma-tocopherol detoxification of nitrogen dioxide: superiority to alpha-tocopherol.

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, R V; Franke, A A; Harwood, P J; Hatch-Pigott, V; Custer, L J; Mordan, L J

    1993-01-01

    In the vitamin E group, alpha-tocopherol is generally considered to be the most potent antioxidant with the highest vitamin bioactivity, yet gamma-tocopherol is produced in greater amounts by many plants and is the principal tocopherol in the United States diet. This report describes a fundamental difference in the chemical reactivities of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol with nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which leads to the formation of a nitrosating agent from alpha-tocopherol, but not from gamma-tocopherol. Nitric oxide (NO) is a major product of the reaction of gamma-tocopherol with NO2, while alpha-tocopherol reacts with NO2 to form an intermediate tocopheroxide analogue. The biological significance of gamma-tocopherol is suggested by limited epidemiological data as well as the observation that it is a more potent inhibitor than alpha-tocopherol of neoplastic transformation during the postinitiation phase in 3-methylcholanthrene-treated C3H/10T1/2 murine fibroblasts. This latter property suggests the superiority of gamma-tocopherol in a mammalian biological assay and a role for endogenous NO production in promotion of neoplastic transformation. PMID:8446589

  11. Deposition and Effects of Atmospheric Nitrogen and Ozone in Holm Oak Forests in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Fernández, I.; García Gómez, H.; Calvete Sogo, H.; Bermejo, V.; Valiño, F.; Elvira, S.; Rábago, I.; Sanz, J.; Alonso, R.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) emissions in Spain, in the western Mediterranean basin, have followed an increasing trend since 1990 and have only started to decline recently. These trends have resulted in growing N depositions in some areas and in N enrichment of ecosystems, as described in previous studies by increasing records of nitrophilous species in herbaria and raising N content both in bryophytes and in leaves of forest trees. Tropospheric ozone (O3) background concentrations, formed as a result of photochemical reactions of N compounds in the atmosphere, have also increased during the last decades. Despite these evidences, limited information is available on N and O3 deposition and effects in Holm oak forests, important ecosystems in Spain. New studies are being developed to address this lack of data. First results on N deposition in a Holm oak forest in central Spain stress the importance of seasonal variations of N inputs in Mediterranean environments. Spring and autumn rainfall events added up to 80% of total annual bulk deposition and losses of NO3- in the soil water were detected when throughfall N pulses occurred during periods of low plant physiological activity. N uptake in the tree canopy was also observed. High O3 concentrations were also measured in this study. The exposure to both N and O3 is a common situation in Holm oak forests. The combined effect of N and O3 deposition on the annual pasture of the Holm oak forest understory has been studied in an open-top chamber study using a simplified community of six species. Results show that O3 can potentially reduce pasture growth, decrease its nutritive value for herbivores and cause shifts in species abundance. N deposition can partially counterbalance O3-induced effects on the pasture biomass, thus both O3 and N need to be considered together when studying air pollution impacts in these ecosystems. The studies presented here are intended for developing N and O3 critical loads and levels for the

  12. Influence of coastal wind on surface ozone and nitrogen oxides in suburban Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Wenpo; Yang, Peng; Lu, Haixia; Ma, Kefeng; Huang, Zhixin

    2016-11-01

    Surface ozone, NO, NO2, and NO x were measured at a coastal site (Shihua) and a nearby inland site (Zhujing) in suburban Shanghai for the whole year of 2009. More days with ozone pollution in a longer time range were observed at the coastal site than the inland site. The diurnal variations of NO x concentrations were obviously higher at Zhujing station, while those of ozone concentrations were higher at Shihua station, indicating their different air pollution conditions. Coastal wind has significant influence on the levels and characteristics of the air pollutants. The ozone concentrations during maritime winds (MW) were much higher than those during continental winds (CW) at each of the site, while the NO and NO2 concentrations were both opposite. The ozone concentrations at Shihua station were much higher than those at Zhujing station, while the NO and NO2 concentrations were both opposite. The ozone concentrations at both of the two sites showed a distinct "weekend effects" and "weekdays effects" patterns during CW and MW, respectively. Correlation analysis of the pollutants showed that, the compounds during MW were more age than those during CW, and the compounds at Shihua were more age than those at Zhujing. The air pollutions at both of the two sites are mainly associated with the pollutants emitted in this region instead of long range transport.

  13. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidative protection mechanism in rat lungs upon acute and chronic exposure to nitrogen dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Sagai, M; Ichinose, T

    1987-01-01

    This work was done to clarify the relation between the changes of lipid peroxidation and the activities of antioxidative protective enzymes in lungs of rats exposed acutely, subacutely, and chronically to nitrogen dioxide. It was confirmed that the activities of the antioxidative enzymes to protect cells from oxidative stress increased in an early phase, and then the activities decreased gradually. Lipid peroxides increased once in an early phase and then returned to the control level; thereafter, lipid peroxides increased gradually again. Lipid peroxidation as measured by ethane exhalation increased significantly with 0.04, 0.4, and 4 ppm nitrogen dioxide exposure for 9, 18, and 27 months, and a dose-response relationship was clearly observed. The temporal changes of lipid peroxidation varied inversely with that of the activities of antioxidative protective enzymes. From these results, it was suggested that the increments of antioxidative protective enzyme activities in an early phase were complementary effects to protect cells from damage by lipid peroxides which were increased by nitrogen dioxide exposure, and that the complementary effects are lost in later phases of life-span exposure. Finally, loss of such protective complementary effects might relate to some chronic diseases in lungs. Therefore, the temporal changes described above are important characteristics in chronic exposure of air pollutants. PMID:3665862

  14. Further studies on the effect of nitrogen dioxide on mast cells: The effect of the metabolite, nitrite

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimaki, Hidekazu ); Ozawa, Masashi ); Bissonnette, E.; Befus, A.D. )

    1993-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between atmospheric nitrogen dioxide exposure and the development of allergic diseases, the effects of nitrite as a chemical product of inhaled nitrogen dioxide on mast cell functions were investigated. We have studied nitride-induced histamine release from two functionally distinct mast cell populations, namely peritoneal mast cells (PMC) and intestinal mucosal mast cells (IMMC) of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rats. High concentrations of nitrite alone (10, 20, and 50 mM) induced histamine release from IMMC, but not from PMC. Moreover, histamine release from PMC and IMMC stimulated with sensitizing antigen was significantly enhanced by pretreatment with 50 mM nitrite or nitrate. No differences in histamine release from nitrite-treated and control PMC were seen below 1 mM. To investigate the effect of nitrite on tumor cell cytotoxic activity, PMC were incubated with various concentrations of nitrite. Pretreatment with 5 and 50 mM nitrite markedly depressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[alpha]-dependent natural cytotoxicity of PMC for the tumor target WEHI-164. Thus, high concentrations of nitrite enhanced mast cell histamine release, but depressed TNF-[alpha]-dependent cytotoxicity. However, low concentrations of nitrite (<1 mM) that would normally be produced by short-term atmospheric exposure to nitrogen dioxide may have no significant effects on mast cell functions. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Importance of network density of nanotube: Effect on nitrogen dioxide gas sensing by solid state resistive sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Prabhash; Grachyova, D. V.; Moskalenko, A. S.; Shcherbak, M. A.; Pavelyev, V. S.

    2016-04-01

    Dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is an established fact, however, its effect on toxic gas sensing for the development of solid state resistive sensor was not well reported. In this report, the dispersion quality of SWCNTs has been investigated and improved, and this well-dispersed SWCNTs network was used for sensor fabrication to monitor nitrogen dioxide gas. Ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopic studies shows the strength of SWNTs dispersion and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging provides the morphological properties of the sensor device. In this gas sensor device, two sets of resistive type sensors were fabricated that consisting of a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) using dielectrophoresis technique with different SWCNTs network density. With low-density SWCNTs networks, this fabricated sensor exhibits a high response for nitrogen dioxide sensing. The sensing of nitrogen dioxide is mainly due to charge transfer from absorbed molecules to sidewalls of nanotube and tube-tube screening acting a major role for the transport properties of charge carriers.

  16. Heterogeneous Atmospheric Chemistry of Lead Oxide Particles with Nitrogen Dioxide Increases Lead Solubility: Environmental and Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Chen, Haihan; Rubasinghege, Gayan

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous chemistry of nitrogen dioxide with lead-containing particles is investigated to better understand lead metal mobilization in the environment. In particular, PbO particles, a model lead-containing compound due to its wide spread presence as a component of lead paint and as naturally occurring minerals, massicot and litharge, are exposed to nitrogen dioxide at different relative humidity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that upon exposure to nitrogen dioxide the surface of PbO particles react to form adsorbed nitrates and lead nitrate thin films with the extent of formation of nitrate relative humidity dependent. Surface adsorbed nitrate increases the amount of dissolved lead. These reacted particles are found to have an increase in the amount of lead that dissolves in aqueous suspensions at circumneutral pH compared to unreacted particles. These results point to the potential importance and impact that heterogeneous chemistry with trace atmospheric gases can have on increasing solubility and therefore the mobilization of heavy metals, such as lead, in the environment. This study also show that surface intermediates, such as adsorbed nitrates, that form can yield higher concentrations of lead in water systems. In the environment, these water systems can include drinking water, ground water, estuaries and lakes. PMID:23057678

  17. Enhanced detection of nitrogen dioxide via combined heating and pulsed UV operation of indium oxide nano-octahedra

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Oriol; Roso, Sergio; Vilanova, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    We report on the use of combined heating and pulsed UV light activation of indium oxide gas sensors for enhancing their performance in the detection of nitrogen dioxide in air. Indium oxide nano-octahedra were synthesized at high temperature (900 °C) via vapour-phase transport and screen-printed onto alumina transducers that comprised interdigitated electrodes and a heating resistor. Compared to the standard, constant temperature operation of the sensor, mild heating (e.g., 100 °C) together with pulsed UV light irradiation employing a commercially available, 325 nm UV diode (square, 1 min period, 15 mA drive current signal), results in an up to 80-fold enhancement in sensitivity to nitrogen dioxide. Furthermore, this combined operation method allows for making savings in power consumption that range from 35% to over 80%. These results are achieved by exploiting the dynamics of sensor response under pulsed UV light, which convey important information for the quantitative analysis of nitrogen dioxide. PMID:28144501

  18. Seasonal variation of nitrogen oxides, ozone and biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations and fluxes at Norway spruce forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juran, Stanislav; Vecerova, Kristyna; Holisova, Petra; Zapletal, Milos; Pallozzi, Emanuele; Guidolotti, Gabriele; Calfapietra, Carlo; Vecera, Zbynek; Cudlin, Pavel; Urban, Otmar

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone concentration and their depositions were investigated on the Norway spruce forest at Bily Kriz experimental station at the Silesian Beskydy Mountains (north-eastern part of the Czech Republic). Both NOx and ozone concentration and fluxes were modelled for the whole season and covering thus different climate conditions. Data were recorded for three consecutive years and therefore deeper analyses were performed. During the summer 2014 BVOC field campaign was carried out using proton-transfer-reaction-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry (PTR-TOF, Ionicon Analytik GmbH, Innsbruck, Austria) and volatile organic compound of biogenic origin (BVOC) were measured at the different levels of tree canopies. By the same time BVOC were trapped into the Tenax tubes (Markes International Ltd., UK) and put afterwards for thermal desorption (Markes Unity System 2, Markes International Ltd., UK) to GS-MS analysis (TSQ Quntum XLS triple Quadrupole, Thermo Scientific, USA). Thus data of different levels of canopies together with different spectra of monoterpenes were obtained. Interesting comparison of both methods will be shown. It was the first BVOC field campaign using PTR technique at any of the forest in the Czech Republic. Highest fluxes and concentrations were recorded around the noon hours, represented particularly by monoterpenes, especially α-pinen and limonene. Other BVOCs than monoterpenes were negligible. Variation of fluxes between different canopies levels was observed, highlighting difference in shaded and sun exposed leaves. Sun leaves emitted up to 2.4 nmol m-2 s-1 of monoterpenes, while shaded leaves emitted only up to 0.6 nmol m-2 s-1 when measured under standard conditions (irradiance 1000 µmol m-2 s-1; temperature 30°C). We discuss here the importance of the most common Norway spruce tree forests in the Czech Republic in bi-directional exchanges of important secondary pollutant such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, their

  19. Current ozone levels threaten gross primary production and yield of Mediterranean annual pastures and nitrogen modulates the response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; Elvira, Susana; Sanz, Javier; González-Fernández, Ignacio; García-Gómez, Héctor; Sánchez-Martín, Laura; Alonso, Rocío; Bermejo-Bermejo, Victoria

    2014-10-01

    Pastures are among the most important ecosystems in Europe considering their biodiversity and distribution area. However, their response to increasing tropospheric ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition, two of the main drivers of global change, is still uncertain. A new Open-Top Chamber (OTC) experiment was performed in central Spain, aiming to study annual pasture response to O3 and N in close to natural growing conditions. A mixture of six species of three representative families was sowed in the field. Plants were exposed for 40 days to four O3 treatments: filtered air, non-filtered air (NFA) reproducing ambient levels and NFA supplemented with 20 and 40 nl l-1 O3. Three N treatments were considered to reach the N integrated doses of “background”, +20 or +40 kg N ha-1. Ozone significantly reduced green and total aboveground biomass (maximum reduction 25%) and increased the senescent biomass (maximum increase 40%). Accordingly, O3 decreased community Gross Primary Production due to both a global reduction of ecosystem CO2 exchange and an increase of ecosystem respiration. Nitrogen could partially counterbalance O3 effects on aboveground biomass when the levels of O3 were moderate, but at the same time O3 exposure reduced the fertilization effect of higher N availability. Therefore, O3 must be considered as a stress factor for annual pastures in the Mediterranean areas.

  20. Ozone-biological activated carbon integrated treatment for removal of precursors of halogenated nitrogenous disinfection by-products.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenhai; Gao, Naiyun; Yin, Daqiang; Deng, Yang; Templeton, Michael R

    2012-03-01

    Pilot-scale tests were performed to reduce the formation of several nitrogenous and carbonaceous disinfection by-products (DBPs) with an integrated ozone and biological activated carbon (O(3)-BAC) treatment process following conventional water treatment processes (coagulation-sedimentation-filtration). Relative to the conventional processes alone, O(3)-BAC significantly improved the removal of turbidity, dissolved organic carbon, UV(254), NH(4)(+) and dissolved organic nitrogen from 98-99%, 58-72%, 31-53%, 16-93% and 35-74%, respectively, and enhanced the removal efficiency of the precursors for the measured DBPs. The conventional process was almost ineffective in removing the precursors of trichloronitromethane (TCNM) and dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm). Ozonation could not substantially reduce the formation of DCAcAm, and actually increased the formation potential of TCNM; it chemically altered the molecular structures of the precursors and increased the biodegradability of N-containing organic compounds. Consequently, the subsequent BAC filtration substantially reduced the formation of the both TCNM and DCAcAm, thus highlighting a synergistic effect of O(3) and BAC. Additionally, O(3)-BAC was effective at controlling the formation of the total organic halogen, which can be considered as an indicator of the formation of unidentified DBPs.

  1. Impacts of Human Alteration of the Nitrogen Cycle in the U.S. on Radiative Forcing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen cycling processes affect radiative forcing directly through emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and indirectly because emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO x ) and ammonia (NH3) affect atmospheric concentrations of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), ozone (O...

  2. A passive sampler for atmospheric ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D.; Hisham, M.W.M. )

    1992-02-01

    A simple, cost-effective passive sampler has been developed for the determination of atmospheric ozone. This passive sampler is based on a colorant which fades upon reaction with ozone, whose concentration can be determined by reflectance measurement of the color change. Direct, on-site measurements are possible, and no chemical analyses are needed. Sampler design and validation studies have been carried out and included quantitative determination of color change vs exposure time (1-8 days), color change vs. ozone concentration (30-350 ppb), and response to changes in sampler configuration that modify the passive sampling rate. With indigo carmine as the colorant, the detection limits are 30 ppb. day and 120 ppb. day using a plastic grid and Teflon filter, respectively, as diffusion barriers. Interferences from nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and peroxyacetyl nitrate are 15, 4 and 16%, respectively, thus resulting in a negligible bias when measuring ozone in ambient air.

  3. Interference of sulphur dioxide to balloon-borne ECC ozone sensors over the Valley of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, I.; Basaldud, R.; Horikoshi, N.; Okazaki, Y.; Benítez Garcia, S. E.; Ortínez, A.; Ramos Benítez, V. R.; Cárdenas, B.; Wakamatsu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal decrease in the ozonesonde sensor signal occurred during air-pollution study campaigns in November 2011 and March 2012 in Mexico City. Sharp drops around 5 km a.s.l. and above were observed in November 2011, and a broad deficit in the convective boundary layer in March 2012. Various circumstantial evidence indicates that the decrease was due to interference of SO2 gas to Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozone sensors. The sharp drops in November 2011 are considered to be caused by the SO2 plume from the Popocatépetl volcano to the south-east of Mexico City. Response experiments of the ECC sensor to representative atmospheric trace gases showed that only SO2 could generate the observed abrupt drops. The vertical structure of the plume reproduced by a Lagrangian particle diffusion simulation also supported this assumption. The near-ground deficit in March 2012 is considered to be generated by the SO2 plume from the Tula industrial complex to the north-west of Mexico City. Sporadic large SO2 emission is known to occur from this region, and before and at the ozonesonde launching time, large intermittent peaks of SO2 concentration were recorded at the ground-level monitoring stations. The difference between the O3 concentration obtained by ozonesonde and that by UV-based O3 monitor was consistent with the SO2 concentration measured by a UV-based monitor on the ground. The plume vertical profiles estimated by the Lagrangian particle diffusion simulation agreed fairly well with the observed profile. Statistical analysis of the wind field in Mexico City revealed that the Popocatépetl effect is most likely to occur from June to October, and the Tula effect all the year.

  4. Assessment of past, present, and future impacts of ozone and carbon dioxide on crop yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertstein, U.; Grünhage, L.; Jäger, H.-J.

    To estimate potential O 3-induced crop losses during the last nine years (1984-1992) in the state of Hessen, Germany, we calculated exposure statistics from statewide records of surface O 3 concentrations and used these data as input for published O 3 exposure-response functions of several major crops. Estimated potential yield losses for a "background level" of O 3, which roughly reflects pre-industrial conditions, were 0.1% (barley and an O 3-tolerant winter wheat cultivar in 1984) in comparison to 32.6% (an O 3-sensitive spring wheat cultivar in 1992) under present-day conditions, with an increasing trend in response since 1984. However, available O 3 exposure-response functions were derived from experiments with controlled O 3 concentrations, but generally under present-day CO 2 supply. Since current CO 2 concentrations exceed pre-industrial levels by about 26%, a potential CO 2 fertilization effect has to be considered, when assessing crop losses to ozone relative to pre-industrial atmospheric conditions. For two spring wheat cultivars a data set from different experiments was available, allowing us to account for CO 2 fertilization and O 3 effects simultaneously assuming a linear-additive crop response to CO 2 and O 3. The model equations were subsequently used to describe the time course of relative yield performance of these wheat cultivars since 1900 as a function of different scenarios of CO 2 and O 3 in the atmosphere. Based on these results, the implications for the design of current experimental studies on crop responses to CO 2 and O 3 are discussed.

  5. Nitrogen oxides from high-altitude aircraft - An update of potential effects on ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Harold S.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    In the study of fuel consumption rate by stratospheric aircraft, the range of nitric oxide injection is interpreted as an eightfold range of emission index (5-40) with both the one- and the two-dimensional models. Possible effects of future aircraft NO(x) emissions on stratospheric ozone are considered for a broad range in magnitude, altitude, and latitude of the assumed NO(x) emissions. Results of the sensitivity studies using both models are discussed. Large ozone reductions are found to be outside the expected range of validity of these models and are to be anticipated if there should be a large fleet of stratospheric aircraft with NO(x) emission characteristics of current commercial aircraft. Under the test conditions, a global ozone reduction of about 9 percent is estimated for a jet engine emission index of 15 in both models. If engines are redesigned to reduce the emission index to the NASA goal of 5, global average ozone reductions are between 2 and 3 percent, and those of the Northern Hemisphere are about 4 percent. The effects of stratospheric aircraft on ozone could be further reduced through operation at lower altitudes, reduction of aircraft, and efficient fuel consumption.

  6. A model study on changes of European and Swiss particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen deposition between 1990 and 2020 due to the revised Gothenburg protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoyoglu, S.; Keller, J.; Ciarelli, G.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2014-12-01

    We report a study of changes in air quality due to emission reductions using the chemical transport model CAMx. The model domain includes all of Europe with a nested domain over Switzerland. The model simulations were performed with emissions for 1990 (the reference year for the Gothenburg Protocol), 2005 (the reference year for the revised Gothenburg Protocol), 2006 (for model validation) and 2020 (the target year for the revised Gothenburg Protocol) using three emission scenarios prepared by IIASA/GAINS. Changes in ozone, particulate matter and nitrogen deposition are the central theme of the study. The modelled relative changes in the annual average PM2.5 concentrations between 1990 and 2005 look reasonable based on various PM10 and PM2.5 observations in the past. The results obtained in this study suggest that annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 decreased by about 20-50% in Europe. Simulations using the baseline scenario (BL 2020) suggest that PM2.5 concentrations in 2020 will be about 30% lower than those in 2005. The largest predicted decrease in PM2.5, based on the MTFR (maximum technically feasible reduction) scenario, was about 60% and was located mainly in the eastern part of Europe. In the case of ozone, both model results and measurements show an increase in the mean ozone mixing ratios between 1990 and 2005. The observations, however, suggest a larger increase, indicating the importance of background ozone levels. Although emission reductions caused a decrease in peak ozone values, average ozone levels in polluted regions increased due to reduced titration with nitric oxide (NO). This caused a change in the frequency distribution of ozone. Model simulations using emission scenarios for 2020 suggest that annual average ozone mixing ratios will continue to increase. Changes in the levels of the damage indicators AOT40 for forests and SOMO35 are reported as well. The model results suggest that nitrogen deposition has decreased by 10-30% in the eastern

  7. A model study on changes of European and Swiss particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen deposition between 1990 and 2020 due to the revised Gothenburg protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoyoglu, S.; Keller, J.; Ciarelli, G.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2014-06-01

    We report a study of changes in air quality due to emission reductions using the chemical transport model CAMx. The model domain includes all of Europe with a nested domain over Switzerland. The model simulations were performed for 1990 (the reference year for the Gothenburg Protocol), 2005 (the reference year for the revised Gothenburg Protocol), 2006 (for model validation) and 2020 (the target year for the revised Gothenburg Protocol) using three emission scenarios prepared by IIASA/GAINS. Changes in ozone, particulate matter and nitrogen deposition are the central theme of the study. The relative changes in the annual average PM2.5 concentrations between 1990 and 2005 were reproduced very well. Both model results and observations show that annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 decreased by about 20-50% in Europe. Simulations using the baseline scenario (BL 2020) suggest that PM2.5 concentrations in 2020 will be about 30% lower than those in 2005. The largest predicted decrease in PM2.5, based on the MTFR (Maximum Technically Feasible Reduction) scenario, was about 60% and was located mainly in the eastern part of Europe. In the case of ozone, both model results and measurements show an increase in the mean ozone mixing ratios between 1990 and 2005. The observations, however, suggest a larger increase, indicating the importance of background ozone levels. Although emission reductions caused a decrease in peak ozone values, ozone levels in polluted regions increased due to reduced titration with nitric oxide (NO). This caused a change in the frequency distribution of ozone. Model simulations using emission scenarios for 2020 suggest that annual average ozone mixing ratios will continue to increase. Changes in the levels of the damage indicators AOT40 for forests and SOMO35 are reported as well. The model results suggest that nitrogen deposition decreased by 10-30% in the eastern part of Europe since 1990, while it increased by about 20% in the Iberian Peninsula. The

  8. Investigation of the Nitrogen Dioxide Pollution in Urban Areas using a New Portable ICAD Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Adler, Tim; Lampel, Johannes; Kanatschnig, Florian; Oesterle, Tobias; Reh, Miriam; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and especially nitrogen dioxide (NO2), are still among of the most problematic pollutants in urban areas not only in developing, but also in industrialized countries. Despite the measures taken to reduce their emissions, NO2 concentrations in many urban areas exceed the WHO recommended limits of 40 μg/m3 for annual mean and 200 μg/m3 for 1 hour mean. Additionally it is known that the NO2 concentration in urban areas has a strong spatial and temporal variability, due to the large number of NOx emitting point sources (mainly traffic) found in densely populated areas. However, the layout of air monitoring networks in most urban areas, installed to continuously monitor the officially prescribed NO2 limits, does not reflect the high spatial variability because they only conduct measurements at a single or few selected sampling points, mainly on major roads, which are often not representative for the whole urban area. At present these uncertainties about the spatial NO2 distribution constitute severe limitations for the assessment of health risks, for the quality of chemical model calculations, and for developing effective measures to reduce NOx emissions. We developed a new light-weight and portable ICAD (Iterative Cavity Enhanced DOAS) instrument which detects NO2 at a detection limit as low as 0.2 μg/m3 with a high time resolution of seconds. The instrument is based on the Cavity Enhanced (CE-) DOAS technique, which directly identifies and quantifies NO2 by its differential optical absorption. Therefore, it does not suffer from interferences by other trace gas species like O3 or NOy. This is a great advantage over other NO2 instruments (e.g. solid state detectors or chemiluminescence instruments). We present the result of ICAD NO2 measurements, which we recently performed in more than 10 German cities. The ICAD instrument was mounted on mobile platforms like cars and bicycles, measuring the NO2 concentrations along carefully selected tracks

  9. Performance of Multi-City Land Use Regression Models for Nitrogen Dioxide and Fine Particles

    PubMed Central

    Beelen, Rob; Bellander, Tom; Birk, Matthias; Cesaroni, Giulia; Cirach, Marta; Cyrys, Josef; de Hoogh, Kees; Declercq, Christophe; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Eeftens, Marloes; Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Forastiere, Francesco; Galassi, Claudia; Grivas, Georgios; Heinrich, Joachim; Hoffmann, Barbara; Ineichen, Alex; Korek, Michal; Lanki, Timo; Lindley, Sarah; Modig, Lars; Mölter, Anna; Nafstad, Per; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Nystad, Wenche; Olsson, David; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ragettli, Martina; Ranzi, Andrea; Stempfelet, Morgane; Sugiri, Dorothea; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Udvardy, Orsolya; Varró, Mihaly J.; Vienneau, Danielle; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Wolf, Kathrin; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Background: Land use regression (LUR) models have been developed mostly to explain intraurban variations in air pollution based on often small local monitoring campaigns. Transferability of LUR models from city to city has been investigated, but little is known about the performance of models based on large numbers of monitoring sites covering a large area. Objectives: We aimed to develop European and regional LUR models and to examine their transferability to areas not used for model development. Methods: We evaluated LUR models for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM; PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance) by combining standardized measurement data from 17 (PM) and 23 (NO2) ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) study areas across 14 European countries for PM and NO2. Models were evaluated with cross-validation (CV) and hold-out validation (HV). We investigated the transferability of the models by successively excluding each study area from model building. Results: The European model explained 56% of the concentration variability across all sites for NO2, 86% for PM2.5, and 70% for PM2.5 absorbance. The HV R2s were only slightly lower than the model R2 (NO2, 54%; PM2.5, 80%; PM2.5 absorbance, 70%). The European NO2, PM2.5, and PM2.5 absorbance models explained a median of 59%, 48%, and 70% of within-area variability in individual areas. The transferred models predicted a modest-to-large fraction of variability in areas that were excluded from model building (median R2: NO2, 59%; PM2.5, 42%; PM2.5 absorbance, 67%). Conclusions: Using a large data set from 23 European study areas, we were able to develop LUR models for NO2 and PM metrics that predicted measurements made at independent sites and areas reasonably well. This finding is useful for assessing exposure in health studies conducted in areas where no measurements were conducted. Citation: Wang M, Beelen R, Bellander T, Birk M, Cesaroni G, Cirach M, Cyrys J, de Hoogh K, Declercq C

  10. Comparisons of the film peeling from the composite oxides of quartz sand filters using ozone, hydrogen peroxide and chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yingming; Huang, Tinglin; Wen, Gang; Cao, Xin

    2015-08-01

    To solve the problem of shortened backwashing intervals in groundwater plants, several disinfectants including ozone (O3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) were examined to peel off the film from the quartz sand surface in four pilot-scale columns. An optimized oxidant dosage and oxidation time were determined by batch tests. Subsequently, the optimized conditions were tested in the four pilot-scale columns. The results demonstrated that the backwashing intervals increased from 35.17 to 54.33 (H2O2) and to 53.67 hr (ClO2) after the oxidation treatments, and the increase of backwashing interval after treatment by O3 was much less than for the other two treatments. Interestingly, the treatment efficiency of filters was not affected by O3 or H2O2 oxidation; but after oxidation by ClO2, the treatment efficiency was deteriorated, especially the ammonia removal (from 96.96% to 24.95%). The filter sands before and after the oxidation were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Compared with the oxidation by O3 and H2O2, the structures on the surface of filter sands were seriously damaged after oxidation by ClO2. The chemical states of manganese on the surfaces of those treated sands were only changed by ClO2. The damage of the structures and the change of the chemical states of manganese might have a negative effect on the ammonia removal. In summary, H2O2 is a suitable agent for film peeling.

  11. Pro-inflammatory responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to acute nitrogen dioxide exposure.

    PubMed

    Ayyagari, Vijayalakshmi N; Januszkiewicz, Adolph; Nath, Jayasree

    2004-04-15

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an environmental oxidant, known to be associated with lung epithelial injury. In the present study, cellular pro-inflammatory responses following exposure to a brief high concentration of NO2 (45 ppm) were assessed, using normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells as an in vitro model of inhalation injury. Generation and release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), IL-8, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-1beta were assessed at different time intervals following NO2 exposure. Effects of a pre-existing inflammatory condition was tested by treating the NHBE cells with different inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma, IL-8, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, either alone or in combination, before exposing them to NO2. Immunofluorescence studies confirmed oxidant-induced formation of 3-nitrotyrosine in the NO2-exposed cells. A marked increase in the levels of nitrite (as an index of NO) and IL-8 were observed in the NO2-exposed cells, which were further enhanced in the presence of the cytokines. Effects of various NO inhibitors combined, with immunofluorescence and Western blotting data, indicated partial contribution of the nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) toward the observed increase in nitrite levels. Furthermore, a significant increase in IL-1beta and TNF-alpha generation was observed in the NO2-exposed cells. Although NO2 exposure alone did induce slight cytotoxicity (<12%), but presence of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma resulted in an increased cell death (28-36%). These results suggest a synergistic role of inflammatory mediators, particularly of NO and IL-8, in NO2-mediated early cellular changes. Our results also demonstrate an increased sensitivity of the cytokine-treated NHBE cells toward NO2, which may have significant functional implications in vivo.

  12. On the Ratio of Sulfur Dioxide to Nitrogen Oxides as an Indicator of Air Pollution Sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirel, Ronit; Dayan, Uri

    2001-07-01

    The ratio of sulfur dioxide to nitrogen oxides (RSN = SO2/NOx) is one indicator of air pollution sources. The role of this ratio in source attribution is illustrated here for the Ashdod area, located in the southern coastal plain of Israel. The main sources of pollution in the area are the tall stacks of the Eshkol power plant, the stacks of oil refineries, and areal sources (stationary and mobile). The factors that affect RSN are studied using four regression models: a binary regression tree in original scale, a tree in logarithmic scale, a data partition produced by a combination of the two trees, and a linear regression model. All models have similar relative prediction error, with the combined partition best highlighting the sources of variability in RSN: (a) very low values (interquartile range of [0.12, 0.48]) are associated with traffic, (b) low values ([0.43, 1.00]) are attributed to the power plant and to daytime emissions of local industry, (c) medium values ([0.74, 1.90]) are associated with local industry emissions during cooler hours of the day and refinery emissions mainly on slow wind episodes, and (d) high values ([1.07, 4.30]) are attributed to refinery emissions during moderate to fast wind episodes. Analysis of the number of episodes of increased concentrations indicates that, during 1996 and 1997, about 42% of SO2 episodes are attributable to the power plant and 33% to the refineries. Increased-NOx episodes are mainly contributed by traffic (91%) and power plant (4.5%) emissions.

  13. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in neighborhoods adjacent to a commercial airport: a land use regression modeling study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is growing concern in communities surrounding airports regarding the contribution of various emission sources (such as aircraft and ground support equipment) to nearby ambient concentrations. We used extensive monitoring of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in neighborhoods surrounding T.F. Green Airport in Warwick, RI, and land-use regression (LUR) modeling techniques to determine the impact of proximity to the airport and local traffic on these concentrations. Methods Palmes diffusion tube samplers were deployed along the airport's fence line and within surrounding neighborhoods for one to two weeks. In total, 644 measurements were collected over three sampling campaigns (October 2007, March 2008 and June 2008) and each sampling location was geocoded. GIS-based variables were created as proxies for local traffic and airport activity. A forward stepwise regression methodology was employed to create general linear models (GLMs) of NO2 variability near the airport. The effect of local meteorology on associations with GIS-based variables was also explored. Results Higher concentrations of NO2 were seen near the airport terminal, entrance roads to the terminal, and near major roads, with qualitatively consistent spatial patterns between seasons. In our final multivariate model (R2 = 0.32), the local influences of highways and arterial/collector roads were statistically significant, as were local traffic density and distance to the airport terminal (all p < 0.001). Local meteorology did not significantly affect associations with principal GIS variables, and the regression model structure was robust to various model-building approaches. Conclusion Our study has shown that there are clear local variations in NO2 in the neighborhoods that surround an urban airport, which are spatially consistent across seasons. LUR modeling demonstrated a strong influence of local traffic, except the smallest roads that predominate in residential areas, as well as proximity to the

  14. Nitrogen dioxide reaction with proteins: Evidence for peptide bond cleavage at lysine residues

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), an air pollutant produced by burning fossil fuels and a component of cigarette smoke, is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases, such as emphysema. To gain information on the mechanism by which NO{sub 2} damages the lung, in vitro exposures of {alpha}{sub 1}-proteinase inhibitor ({alpha}{sub 1}-PI), elastin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and synthetic poly-L-lysine were performed. A genetic deficiency of {alpha}{sup 1}-PI predisposes humans to emphysema and NO{sub 2} has been hypothesized to damage {alpha}{sub 1}-PI, which would leave proteases such as human neutrophil elastase, (HNE) free to attack lung structural proteins. The ability of {alpha}{sub 1}-PI to inhibit HNE declined with exposure to 50% of the control value at molar ratios of NO{sub 2}:{alpha}{sub 1}-PI of 400:1 and greater. Exposure of {alpha}{sub 1}-PI to NO{sub 2} resulted in a 50% lose of immunoreactivity with either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at molar ratios of NO{sub 2}:{alpha}{sub 1}-PI of essentially 100:1 and greater. The mechanisms of these effects were investigated via ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and amino acid analysis. The remaining target molecules were labeled by reductive methylation of amino groups with {sup 3}H-HCHO prior to treatment with NO{sub 2} in aqueous solutions at physiological pH. Time course exposure of 5 mg {sup 3}H-insoluble bovine ligamentum nuchae elastin suspensions with up to 120 {mu}moles of NO{sub 2} resulted in 90% solubilization of the label. Amino acid analysis of the soluble and insoluble fractions from these exposures confirmed that 80% of the {sup 3}H-dimethyllysine residues were in the soluble fraction.

  15. Combined nitrogen oxides/sulfur dioxide control in dry scrubber systems

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, J. B.L.; Gorski, A. J.; Huang, H. S.

    1989-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is investigating alternative control concepts that involve modifying existing SO{sub 2}-removal processes and sorbents, with the objective of achieving simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Laboratory-scale research conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and a spray-dryer/fabric-filter system has been paralleled by field tests at ANL's commercial-scale (20-MW electric equivalent) dry scrubber. In the fixed-bed experiments, a range of chemical reagents was surveyed, and the best-performing additives were studied in detail. Sodium chloride, sodium bisulfite, sodium hydroxide, and Fe(II)*EDTA were found to increase both NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} removals; the additives did not appear to increase NO{sub x} removal directly, but they interacted strongly with the other primary variables to improve sorbent performance. The laboratory spray-dryer system was used to study the effects on combined NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} removal of the best-performing fixed-bed additives and certain process modifications. The tests showed that sodium chloride increased NO{sub x} removal at all temperatures; sodium bisulfite was generally less effective, and calcium chloride was effective only at 65{degree}C. Up to 80{degree}C, all three additives significantly improved SO{sub 2} removal, but improvement ceased at higher temperatures. This report discusses the experimental results in terms of the effects the additives and principal process variables had on NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} removals and the mechanistic implications. 14 refs., 74 figs., 33 tabs.

  16. Recent satellite-based trends of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over large urban agglomerations worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, P.; Lahoz, W. A.; van der A, R.

    2015-02-01

    Trends in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns over 66 large urban agglomerations worldwide have been computed using data from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument onboard the Envisat platform for the period August 2002 to March 2012. A seasonal model including a~linear trend was fitted to the satellite-based time series over each site. The results indicate distinct spatial patterns in trends. While agglomerations in Europe, North America, and some locations in East Asia/Oceania show decreasing tropospheric NO2 levels on the order of -5% yr-1, rapidly increasing levels of tropospheric NO2 are found for agglomerations in large parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The site with the most rapidly increasing absolute levels of tropospheric NO2 was found to be Tianjin in China with a trend of 3.04 (±0.47) × 1015 molecules cm-2yr-1, whereas the site with the most rapidly increasing relative trend was Kabul in Afghanistan with 14.3 (±2.2) % yr-1. In total, 34 sites exhibited increasing trends of tropospheric NO2 throughout the study period, 24 of which were found to be statistically significant. A total of 32 sites showed decreasing levels of tropospheric NO2 during the study period, of which 20 sites did so at statistically significant magnitudes. Overall, going beyond the relatively small set of megacities investigated previously, this study provides the first consistent analysis of recent changes in tropospheric NO2 levels over most large urban agglomerations worldwide, and indicates that changes in urban NO2 levels are subject to substantial regional differences as well as influenced by economic and demographic factors.

  17. Recent satellite-based trends of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over large urban agglomerations worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, P.; Lahoz, W. A.; van der A, R.

    2014-09-01

    Trends in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations over 66 large urban agglomerations worldwide have been computed using data from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument onboard the Envisat platform for the period August 2002 to March 2012. A seasonal model including a linear trend was fitted to the satellite-based time series over each site. The results indicate distinct spatial patterns in trends. While agglomerations in Europe, North America, and some locations in East Asia/Oceania show decreasing tropospheric NO2 levels on the order of -5 % yr-1, rapidly increasing levels of tropospheric NO2 are found for agglomerations in large parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The site with the most rapidly increasing absolute levels of tropospheric NO2 was found to be Tianjin in China with a trend value of 3.04 (±0.47) × 1015 molecules cm-2 yr-1, whereas the site with the most rapidly increasing relative trend was Kabul in Afghanistan with 14.3 (±2.2) % yr-1. In total, 34 sites exhibited increasing trends of tropospheric NO2 throughout the study period, 24 of which were found to be statistically significant. A total of 32 sites showed decreasing levels of tropospheric NO2 during the study period, of which 20 sites did so at statistically significant magnitudes. Overall, going beyond the relatively small set of megacities investigated previously, this study provides the first consistent analysis of recent changes in tropospheric NO2 levels over most large urban agglomerations worldwide.

  18. The Effects of Nitrogen Enrichment and a Simulated Rainfall Event on Soil Carbon Dioxide Efflux in an Annual California Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. P.; Strong, A. L.; Chiariello, N.; Field, C. B.

    2013-12-01

    Soils contain the largest pool of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems and play a critical role in the global carbon cycle. Previous studies have shown that enhanced precipitation (projected by climate models) and human activities (such as increased fertilizer use) may alter this cycle by enhancing soil microbial activity, although effects are often variable. Soils in semi-arid grasslands play a vital role in the global carbon cycle and may be responsive to environmental perturbations. Previous studies have demonstrated that wet-up treatments positively influence soil carbon dioxide efflux rates, which are otherwise low during dry summers. A preliminary study performed in a semi-arid annual grassland has shown that long-term nitrogen enrichment (equivalent to 70kg N per hectare) positively influences soil carbon dioxide efflux during peak biomass in the wet season. However, the combined effect and seasonal dynamics of these environmental changes is poorly understood. In order to assess this interaction, we explore the short-term response of soil carbon dioxide efflux rates in a semi-arid grassland to a combination of long-term nitrogen enrichment and a simulated 20-mm rainfall event in the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRCGE), a long-term, multi-factorial experiment in a semi-arid annual grassland located in the foothills of the Santa Cruz mountains in central California. We measured soil carbon dioxide efflux rates from pre-installed soil respiration collars for forty-eight hours after a simulated rainfall event (20mm) during the dry season in late July 2013. Both the enhanced and non-enhanced nitrogen treatments had an immediate pronounced response to the wet-up stimulation in which efflux rates increased by an average of more than six-fold. In contrast with previous studies of soil carbon dioxide efflux at JRGCE during the wet season in which N enrichment elevated efflux rates relative to controls, however, the soil carbon dioxide efflux rates in response

  19. Kinetics of methane hydrate replacement with carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas mixture using in situ NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cha, Minjun; Shin, Kyuchul; Lee, Huen; Moudrakovski, Igor L; Ripmeester, John A; Seo, Yutaek

    2015-02-03

    In this study, the kinetics of methane replacement with carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas in methane gas hydrate prepared in porous silica gel matrices has been studied by in situ (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The replacement process was monitored by in situ (1)H NMR spectra, where about 42 mol % of the methane in the hydrate cages was replaced in 65 h. Large amounts of free water were not observed during the replacement process, indicating a spontaneous replacement reaction upon exposing methane hydrate to carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas mixture. From in situ (13)C NMR spectra, we confirmed that the replacement ratio was slightly higher in small cages, but due to the composition of structure I hydrate, the amount of methane evolved from the large cages was larger than that of the small cages. Compositional analysis of vapor and hydrate phases was also carried out after the replacement reaction ceased. Notably, the composition changes in hydrate phases after the replacement reaction would be affected by the difference in the chemical potential between the vapor phase and hydrate surface rather than a pore size effect. These results suggest that the replacement technique provides methane recovery as well as stabilization of the resulting carbon dioxide hydrate phase without melting.

  20. Powder containing 2H-type silicon carbide produced by reacting silicon dioxide and carbon powder in nitrogen atmosphere in the presence of aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuramoto, N.; Takiguchi, H.

    1984-01-01

    The production of powder which contains silicon carbide consisting of 40% of 2H-type silicon carbide, beta type silicon carbide and less than 3% of nitrogen is discussed. The reaction temperature to produce the powder containing 40% of 2H-type silicon carbide is set at above 1550 degrees C in an atmosphere of aluminum or aluminum compounds and nitrogen gas or an antioxidation atmosphere containing nitrogen gas. The mixture ratio of silicon dioxide and carbon powder is 0.55 - 1:2.0 and the contents of aluminum or aluminum compounds within silicon dioxide is less than 3% in weight.

  1. Short-Time-Response measurements of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate by fast capillary gas chromatography with luminol detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N. A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Drayton, P. J.

    2000-12-07

    The interaction of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in sunlight to produce photochemical smog has been well studied over the years. In the past, the workhorse for the measurement of NO{sub 2}and NO was the chemiluminescent reaction with ozone. This method has detection limits of approximately 0.5 ppb in most commercial instruments, but it cannot detect NO{sub 2} directly; the instrument detects NO and uses hot catalytic surfaces to decompose all other nitrogen oxides (including NO{sub 2}) to NO for detection (l). The main problem with the method is the inherent difficulty in detecting excited NO{sub 2}, which emits over a broad region beginning at approximately 660 nm and has a maximum at 1270 nm, thus requiring a red-shifted photomultiplier for detection. The use of luminol for direct chemiluminescent detection of NO{sub 2} was demonstrated to have greater inherent sensitivity (detection limits of 5 ppt) than the indirect ozone chemiluminescence detection (2). In the luminol system, a gas-liquid reaction leads to light emission with a maximum at approximately 425 nm, at the maximum sensitivity for most photomultiplier tubes. This emission is responsible for the increased detection sensitivities. The biggest problem with this method for direct measurement of NO{sub 2} has been interference due to other soluble oxidants, particularly peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs).

  2. Ozone Cross-Section Measurement by Gas Phase Titration.

    PubMed

    Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Flores, Edgar; Wielgosz, Robert I

    2016-11-01

    Elevated values of ground-level ozone damage health, vegetation, and building materials and are the subject of air quality regulations. Levels are monitored by networks using mostly ultraviolet (UV) absorption instruments, with traceability to standard reference photometers, relying on the UV absorption of ozone at the 253.65 nm line of mercury. We have redetermined the ozone cross-section at this wavelength based on gas phase titration (GPT) measurements. This is a well-known chemical method using the reaction of ozone (O3) with nitrogen monoxide (NO) resulting in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxygen (O2). The BIPM GPT facility uses state-of-the-art flow measurement, chemiluminescence for NO concentration measurements, a cavity phase shift analyzer (CAPS) for NO2 measurements, and a UV ozone analyzer. The titration experiment is performed over the concentration range 100-500 nmol/mol, with NO and NO2 reactants/calibrants diluted down from standards with nominal mole fractions of 50 μmol/mol. Accurate measurements of NO, NO2, and O3 mole fractions allow the calculation of ozone absorption cross section values at 253.65 nm, and we report a value of 11.24 × 10(-18) cm(2) molecule(-1) with a relative expanded uncertainty of 1.8% (coverage factor k = 2) based on nitrogen monoxide titration values and a value of 11.22 × 10(-18) cm(2) molecule(-1) with a relative expanded uncertainty of 1.4% (coverage factor k = 2) based on nitrogen dioxide titration values. The excellent agreement between these values and recently published absorption cross-section measurements directly on pure ozone provide strong evidence for revising the conventionally accepted value of ozone cross section at 253.65 nm.

  3. Citizen science identifies the effects of nitrogen dioxide and other environmental drivers on tar spot of sycamore.

    PubMed

    Gosling, Laura; Ashmore, Mike; Sparks, Tim; Bell, Nigel

    2016-07-01

    Elevated sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations were the major cause of the absence of symptoms of tar spot (Rhytisma acerinum) of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), in urban areas in the 1970s. The subsequent large decline in SO2 concentrations has not always been accompanied by increased tar spot symptoms, for reasons that have remained unresolved. We used a large citizen science survey, providing over 1000 records across England, to test two competing hypotheses proposed in earlier studies. We were able to demonstrate the validity of both hypotheses; tar spot symptoms were reduced where there were fewer fallen leaves as a source of inoculum, and elevated nitrogen dioxide concentrations reduced tar spot symptoms above a threshold concentration of about 20 μg m(-3). Symptom severity was also lower at sites with higher temperature and lower rainfall. Our findings demonstrate the power of citizen science to resolve competing hypotheses about the impacts of air pollution and other environmental drivers.

  4. Final report on international comparison APMP.QM-S4: Carbon dioxide in nitrogen at 2000 µmol/mol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doo Kim, Yong; Kim, Kwang Seob; Lee, Sangil; Hyub Oh, Sang; Lin, Tsai-Yin; Cheng, Jui-Hsiang; Huang, Chiung-Kun

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of APMP.QM-S4, a supplementary comparison. This comparison is designed to test the capabilities of the NMIs to measure and certify carbon dioxide at a nominal amount fraction of 2000 µmol/mol in nitrogen. The previous key comparisons regarding carbon dioxide, CCQM-K1.b and CCQM-K52, had been done at a lower range than that in this comparison. This comparison gives an opportunity to the NMIs to submit supporting evidence for CMC at a higher range. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. Reactive Nitrogen, Ozone and Ozone Production in the Arctic Troposphere and the Impact of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Q.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Douglass, A. R.; Crawford, J. H.; Apel, E.; Bian, H.; Blake, D. R.; Brune, W.; Chin, M.; Colarco, P. R.; daSilva, A.; Diskin, G. S.; Duncan, B. N.; Huey, L. C.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Nielsen, J. E.; Olson, J. R.; Pawson, S.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the aircraft observations obtained during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellite (ARCTAS) mission together with the GEOS-5 CO simulation to examine O3 and NOy in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region and their source attribution. Using a number of marker tracers and their probability density distributions, we distinguish various air masses from the background troposphere and examine their contribution to NOx, O3, and O3 production in the Arctic troposphere. The background Arctic troposphere has mean O3 of approximately 60 ppbv and NOx of approximately 25 pptv throughout spring and summer with CO decreases from approximately 145 ppbv in spring to approximately 100 ppbv in summer. These observed CO, NOx and O3 mixing ratios are not notably different from the values measured during the 1988 ABLE-3A and the 2002 TOPSE field campaigns despite the significant changes in the past two decades in processes that could have changed the Arctic tropospheric composition. Air masses associated with stratosphere-troposphere exchange are present throughout the mid and upper troposphere during spring and summer. These air masses with mean O3 concentration of 140-160 ppbv are the most important direct sources of O3 in the Arctic troposphere. In addition, air of stratospheric origin is the only notable driver of net O3 formation in the Arctic due to its sustainable high NOx (75 pptv in spring and 110 pptv in summer) and NOy (approximately 800 pptv in spring and approximately 1100 pptv in summer) levels. The ARCTAS measurements present observational evidence suggesting significant conversion of nitrogen from HNO3 to NOx and then to PAN (a net formation of approximately 120 pptv PAN) in summer when air of stratospheric origin is mixed with tropospheric background during stratosphere-to-troposphere transport. These findings imply that an adequate representation of stratospheric O3 and NOy input are essential in accurately simulating O3

  6. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from US urban areas: estimation from Ozone Monitoring Instrument retrievals for 2005-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; de Foy, B.; Lamsal, L. N.; Duncan, B. N.; Xing, J.

    2015-05-28

    Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can provide valuable information for estimating surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Using an exponentially-modified Gaussian (EMG) method and taking into account the effect of wind on observed NO2 distributions, we estimate three-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005–2014. Following the conclusions of previous studies that the EMG method provides robust and accurate emission estimates under strong-wind conditions, we derive top-down NOx emissions from each urban area by applying the EMG method to OMI data with wind speeds greater than 3–5 m s-1. Meanwhile, we find that OMI NO2 observations under weak-wind conditions (i.e., < 3 m s-1) are qualitatively better correlated with the surface NOx source strength in comparison to all-wind OMI maps; and therefore we use them to calculate the satellite-observed NO2 burdens of urban areas and compare with NOx emission estimates. The EMG results show that OMI-derived NOx emissions are highly correlated (R > 0.93) with weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens as well as bottom-up NOx emission estimates over 35 urban areas, implying a linear response of the OMI observations to surface emissions under weak-wind conditions. The simultaneous, EMG-obtained, effective NO2 lifetimes (~3.5 ± 1.3 h), however, are biased low in comparison to the summertime NO2 chemical lifetimes. In general, isolated urban areas with NOx emission intensities greater than ~ 2 Mg h-1 produce statistically significant weak-wind signals in three-year average OMI data. From 2005 to 2014, we estimate that total OMI

  7. Enhanced nitrogen deposition exacerbates the negative effect of increasing background ozone in Dactylis glomerata, but not Ranunculus acris.

    PubMed

    Wyness, Kirsten; Mills, Gina; Jones, Laurence; Barnes, Jeremy D; Jones, Davey L

    2011-10-01

    The combined impacts of simulated increased nitrogen (N) deposition (75 kg Nha(-1)yr (-1)) and increasing background ozone (O(3)) were studied using two mesotrophic grassland species (Dactylis glomerata and Ranunculus acris) in solardomes, by means of eight O(3) treatments ranging from 15.5 ppb to 92.7 ppb (24h average mean). A-C(i) curves were constructed for each species to gauge effects on photosynthetic efficiency and capacity, and effects on biomass partitioning were determined after 14 weeks. Increasing the background concentration of O(3) reduced the healthy above ground and root biomass of both species, and increased senesced biomass. N fertilisation increased biomass production in D. glomerata, and a significantly greater than additive effect of O(3) and N on root biomass was evident. In contrast, R. acris biomass was not affected by high N. The study shows the combined effects of these pollutants have differential implications for carbon allocation patterns in common grassland species.

  8. Plant phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima: responses induced by enhanced ozone atmospheric levels and nitrogen enrichment.

    PubMed

    Sanz, J; Bermejo, V; Muntifering, R; González-Fernández, I; Gimeno, B S; Elvira, S; Alonso, R

    2011-02-01

    An assessment of the effects of tropospheric ozone (O(3)) levels and substrate nitrogen (N) supplementation, singly and in combination, on phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima was carried out. Two serial experiments were developed in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) using three O(3) and three N levels. Increased O(3) exposure did not affect the biomass-related parameters, but enhanced senescence, increased fiber foliar content (especially lignin concentration) and reduced plant life span; these effects were related to senescence acceleration induced by the pollutant. Added N increased plant biomass production and improved nutritive quality by decreasing foliar fiber concentration. Interestingly, the effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. N supplementation counteracted the O(3)-induced senescence but did not modify the effects on nutritive quality. Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O(3) limits for the protection of herbaceous vegetation.

  9. The application of artificial neural networks for discrete wavelength retrievals of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, James; Anand, Jasdeep; Leigh, Roland; Chang, Mark; Monks, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Research at the University of Leicester is being conducted to investigate the feasibility of using a technique of discrete wavelength sunlight spectroscopy to derive concentrations of the pollutant nitrogen dioxide from a satellite platform. This technique has the potential to enable very light and compact instrumentation, and may as a result provide abundant air quality data over (and within) urban environments which will be of significant value to users and policy makers. To perform the discrete wavelength retrieval a back propagation multi-layered perceptron artificial neural network (ANN) has been developed to retrieve atmospheric slant columns of nitrogen dioxide from simulated measurements. The ANN approach enables retrievals to be performed much faster than other retrieval methods, which is a particularly useful feature in instances where a large quantity of retrievals is required, for example in a near real time operational information system based on discrete wavelength satellite and insitu measurements. To generate the required training data for the ANN to understand the necessary relationships the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN was run to provide millions of spectral intensities and slant column concentrations. To realistically portray urban air quality in the training data the radiative transfer model was fed atmospheric profile and aerosol data from modeled air quality forecasts to enable assimilation of the atmospheric composition of a typical urban environment. The supercomputer at the University of Leicester (ALICE) has been utilised extensively in the network training process, and investigations into the ANN's ability to retrieve nitrogen dioxide from unseen test data of simulated concentrations will be presented.

  10. Detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide using a miniaturised fibre-optic spectroscopy system and the ambient sunlight.

    PubMed

    Morales, J A; Walsh, J E

    2005-07-01

    A miniaturised fibre-optic spectrometer based system is presented for direct detection of one of the major atmospheric pollutants, nitrogen dioxide, by absorption spectroscopy using the ambient sunlight as light source. The detection system consists of a 10 cm collimator assembly, a fibre-optic cable and a portable diode-array spectrometer. The absorbance spectrum of the open-path is calculated using a reference spectrum recorded when the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration in the atmosphere is low. The relative concentration of the pollutant is calculated normalising the detected spectra and subtracting the background broadband spectrum from the specific NO2 absorbance features, since the broadband spectrum changes according to atmospheric conditions and solar intensity. Wavelengths between 400 and 500 nm are used in order to maximise sensitivity and to avoid interference from other species. Calibration is carried out using Tedlar sample bags of known concentration of the pollutant. A commercial differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) system is used as a reference standard detection system to compare the results with the new system. Results show that detection of NO2 at typical urban atmospheric levels has been achieved using an inexpensive field based fibre-optic spectrometer and a readily available, easy to align, light source. In addition the new system can be used to get a semi-quantitative estimation of the nitrogen dioxide concentration within errors of 20%. While keeping the typical benefits of open-path techniques, the new system has important advantages over them such as cost, simplicity and portability.

  11. Interaction of soil type and carbon dioxide concentration in grassland soil pore water nitrogen concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing CO2 concentrations have been shown to limit soil nitrogen availability in terrestrial ecosystems, thereby limiting plant growth. Because changes in nitrogen availability can affect the composition of available nitrogen forms, we are interested in how changes in CO2 concentrations could af...

  12. [Methodology of the description of atmospheric air pollution by nitrogen dioxide by land use regression method in Ekaterinburg].

    PubMed

    Antropov, K M; Varaksin, A N

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the description of Land Use Regression (LUR) modeling and the result of its application in the study of nitrogen dioxide air pollution in Ekaterinburg. The paper describes the difficulties of the modeling for air pollution caused by motor vehicles exhaust, and the ways to address these challenges. To create LUR model of the NO2 air pollution in Ekaterinburg, concentrations of NO2 were measured, data on factors affecting air pollution were collected, a statistical analysis of the data were held. A statistical model of NO2 air pollution (coefficient of determination R2 = 0.70) and a map of pollution were created.

  13. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  14. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  15. Mass transfer phenomena of gaseous hydrocarbons and nitrogen dioxide across gas-inorganic pigments boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birbatakou, S.; Pagopoulou, I.; Kalantzopoulos, A.; Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, F.

    1998-11-01

    Reversed-flow gas chromatography was used to study the kinetics of the action of five hydrocarbons namely, ethane, ethene, ethyne, propene and butene and of the nitrogen dioxide, on three known and widely used pigments, the white one TiO2, and the yellows CdS and PbCrO4. The calculation of kinetic parameters and mass transfer coefficients is based on an experimental adsorption isotherm. All these calculations are based on a non linear adsorption isotherm model as it is well accepted that the linear one is inadequate for inorganic substances like these mentioned in this work. The inadequacy is mainly attributed to the non-uniformity of the solid surface. Five physicochemical parameters have been obtained for each of the twenty heterogeneous reactions studied. With these systematic experiments under conditions which are similar to the atmospheric ones, an extrapolation of the results obtained to “real" atmospheres with a high degree of confidence is possible. Some of the calculations were based on the linear model for comparison. La cinétique de la réaction de cinq hydrocarbures (éthane, éthylène, acétylène, propène, boutène) et du dioxyde d'azote avec trois pigments (le blanc de TiO2 et les jaunes de CdS et PbCrO4) a été étudiée par chromatographie en phase gazeuse a flux inversé. Le calcul des paramètres cinétiques et des coefficients de transfert de masse a été effectué à partir des isothermes d'adsorption expérimentales en faisant l'hypothèse d`un modèle d'adsorption non-linéaire, qui résulte de la non-uniformité de la surface. Cinq paramètres physico-chimiques ont été obténus pour chacune des vingt réaction hétérogènes étudiées. À partir de ces résultats obténus dans des conditions similaires aux conditions atmosphériques, l'extrapolation à des atmosphères réelles paraît possible avec une bonne confiance. Quelques calculs ont été effectués avec un modèle linéaire pour comparaison.

  16. Broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy in the ultraviolet spectral region for measurements of nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Attwood, A. R.; Flores, J. M.; Rudich, Y.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-09-01

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) is the most abundant aldehyde in the atmosphere, and strongly affects photochemistry through its photolysis. We describe simultaneous measurements of CH2O and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy in the ultraviolet spectral region. The light source consists of a continuous-wave diode laser focused into a Xenon bulb to produce a plasma that emits high-intensity, broadband light. The plasma discharge is optically filtered and coupled into a 1 m optical cavity. The reflectivity of the cavity mirrors is 0.99933 ± 0.00003 (670 ppm loss) at 338 nm, as determined from the known Rayleigh scattering of He and zero air. This mirror reflectivity corresponds to an effective path length of 1.49 km within the 1 m cell. We measure the cavity output over the 315-350 nm spectral region using a grating monochromator and charge-coupled device (CCD) array detector. We use published reference spectra with spectral fitting software to simultaneously retrieve CH2O and NO2 concentrations. Independent measurements of NO2 standard additions by broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy and cavity ringdown spectroscopy agree within 2 % (slope for linear fit = 0.98 ± 0.03 with r2 = 0.998). Standard additions of CH2O measured by broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy and calculated based on flow dilution are also well-correlated, with r2 = 0.9998. During constant, mixed additions of NO2 and CH2O, the 30 s measurement precisions (1σ) of the current configuration were 140 and 210 pptv, respectively. The current 1-min detection limit for extinction measurements at 315-350 nm provides sufficient sensitivity for measurement of trace gases in laboratory experiments and ground-based field experiments. Additionally, the instrument provides highly accurate, spectroscopically-based trace gas detection that may complement higher precision techniques based on non-absolute detection methods. In addition to trace gases, this approach will be appropriate for

  17. Indoor-outdoor relationships of airborne particles and nitrogen dioxide inside Parisian buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molle, Romain; Mazoué, Sophie; Géhin, Évelyne; Ionescu, Anda

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated passengers' exposure to traffic air pollution inside the articulated buses of the line 91 in Paris during 10 working days in May, 2010. Twenty articulated buses were studied on 32 routes in order to determine the influence of the sampling position on the pollutant concentrations. This parameter is still poorly known for the rigid buses and is even less known for the articulated ones. However this parameter must be studied for articulated buses because the greater length may cause a pollutant concentration gradient in the cabin. Portable devices were used to measure pollutants in the presence of passengers from 8 a.m. to 9 a.m. and from 4 p.m. to 5 p.m., time periods corresponding to the peak traffic and travellers. PM2.5 mass concentration, particle number concentration between 0.3 and 20 μm and nitrogen dioxide concentration were simultaneously measured on three positions inside the buses (front, middle and rear) in order to study the spatial distribution of these compounds. These measurements inside the buses were compared to the outdoor concentrations at the same moment of the day provided by the Parisian air quality monitoring network; they were also compared to the results of a previous monitoring campaign performed in 2008. The results obtained during the 2010 campaign revealed that in-cabin NO2 mean concentrations were 1.5-3.5 times higher than the outside concentration levels; a maximum concentration of 234 ± 40 μg m-3 was found in the rear position (location of the engine and exhaust gas). Mean in-cabin PM2.5 mass concentrations varied from one week to another one, but they were globally the same at the three positions inside the instrumented buses. In order to determine the impact of outdoor levels, correlations have been calculated between the results measured inside the buses and those measured by the outdoor air monitoring stations. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.29 for NO2 data whereas the highest Pearson

  18. Final report on international comparison CCQM-K74: Nitrogen dioxide, 10 µmol/mol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Edgar; Idrees, Faraz; Moussay, Philippe; Viallon, Joële; Wielgosz, Robert; Fernández, Teresa; Ramírez, Sergio; Rojo, Andrés; Shinji, Uehara; Waldén, Jari; Sega, Michela; Sang-Hyub, Oh; Macé, Tatiana; Couret, Cedric; Qiao, Han; Smeulders, Damian; Guenther, Franklin R.; Thorn, William J., III; Tshilongo, James; Godwill Ntsasa, Napo; Štovcík, Viliam; Valková, Miroslava; Konopelko, Leonid; Gromova, Elena; Nieuwenkamp, Gerard; Wessel, Rob M.; Milton, Martin; Harling, Alice; Vargha, Gergely; Tuma, Dirk; Kohl, Anka; Schulz, Gert

    2012-01-01

    There is a high international priority attached to activities which reduce NOx in the atmosphere. The current level of permitted emissions is typically between 50 µmol/mol and 100 µmol/mol, but lower values are expected in the future. Currently, ambient air quality monitoring regulations also require the measurement of NOx mole fractions as low as 0.2 µmol/mol. The production of accurate standards at these levels of mole fractions requires either dilution of a stable higher concentration gas standard or production by a dynamic technique, for example one based on permeation tubes. The CCQM-K74 key comparison was designed to evaluate the level of comparability of National Metrology Institutes' measurement capabilities and standards for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at a nominal mole fraction of 10 µmol/mol. The measurements of this key comparison took place from June 2009 to May 2010. Seventeen laboratories took part in this comparison coordinated by the BIPM and VSL. The key comparison reference value was based on BIPM measurement results, and the standard measurement uncertainty of the reference value was 0.042 µmol/mol. This key comparison demonstrated that the results of the majority of the participants agreed within limits of ±3% relative to the reference value. The results of only one laboratory lay significantly outside these limits. Likewise this comparison made clear that a full interpretation of the results of the comparison needed to take into account the presence of nitric acid (in the range 100 nmol/mol to 350 nmol/mol) in the cylinders circulated as part of the comparison, as well as the possible presence of nitric acid in the primary standards used by participating laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the

  19. Evaluation of the first phase of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act: a plant-based approach.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Martin; Jaggi, Bikki

    2002-03-01

    Electric power generating plants that use coal were among the key targets of Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act. Under the first phase of the act, 110 coal-fired electric power plants were required to reduce their sulfur dioxide emissions by 1995 and nitrogen oxide emissions by 1996. Phase 2 of the act requires even greater reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions by 2000 and nitrogen oxide emissions by 2008. This study examines whether the 107 targeted plants (three plants went off-line) have achieved the desired sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emission levels. The analysis of sulfur dioxide is based on data from 1990, 1995, and 1999. The findings show that although sulfur oxide increased by 3% from 1995 to 1999, it decreased by 45% over the 1990-1999 period at the firm level for the targeted firms. The findings also indicate that the overall reduction in sulfur dioxide was achieved by utilizing low sulfur coal and by purchasing emission allowances. So far as nitrogen oxides are concerned, there has been a reduction of 14% over the 1990-1999 period, of which 7% was achieved during the 1995-1999 period. An evaluation of emissions at the plant level indicates that several plants do not meet the emissions level for sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides. These results provide a mixed scorecard for reduction in emissions both for sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Even though there is reduction in the emissions on an overall basis at the firm level, several plants that have not been able to reduce emissions deserve special attention to meet the goals of the act in reducing emissions.

  20. Sap flux in pure aspen and mixed aspen-birch forests exposed to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone.

    PubMed

    Uddling, Johan; Teclaw, Ronald M; Kubiske, Mark E; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Ellsworth, David S

    2008-08-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and tropospheric ozone ([O3]) have the potential to affect tree physiology and structure and hence forest water use, which has implications for climate feedbacks. We investigated how a 40% increase above ambient values in [CO2] and [O3], alone and in combination, affect tree water use of pure aspen and mixed aspen-birch forests in the free air CO2-O3 enrichment experiment near Rhinelander, Wisconsin (Aspen FACE). Measurements of sap flux and canopy leaf area index (L) were made during two growing seasons, when steady-state L had been reached after more than 6 years of exposure to elevated [CO2] and [O3]. Maximum stand-level sap flux was not significantly affected by elevated [O3], but was increased by 18% by elevated [CO2] averaged across years, communities and O(3) regimes. Treatment effects were similar in pure aspen and mixed aspen-birch communities. Increased tree water use in response to elevated [CO2] was related to positive CO2 treatment effects on tree size and L (+40%). Tree water use was not reduced by elevated [O3] despite strong negative O3 treatment effects on tree size and L (-22%). Elevated [O3] predisposed pure aspen stands to drought-induced sap flux reductions, whereas increased tree water use in response to elevated [CO2] did not result in lower soil water content in the upper soil or decreasing sap flux relative to control values during dry periods. Maintenance of soil water content in the upper soil in the elevated [CO2] treatment was at least partly a function of enhanced soil water-holding capacity, probably a result of increased organic matter content from increased litter inputs. Our findings that larger trees growing in elevated [CO2] used more water and that tree size, but not maximal water use, was negatively affected by elevated [O3] suggest that the long-term cumulative effects on stand structure may be more important than the expected primary stomatal closure responses to

  1. Effect of canopy structure and open-top chamber techniques on micrometeorological parameters and the gradients and transport of water vapor, carbon dioxide and ozone in the canopies of plum trees (`prunus salicina`) in the San Joaquin valley. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grantz, D.A.; Vaughn, D.L.; Metheny, P.A.; Malkus, P.; Wosnik, K.

    1995-03-15

    Plum trees (Prunus salicina cv. Casselman) were exposed to ozone in open-top chambers (OTC) or chamberless plots, and trace gas concentrations and microenvironmental conditions were monitored within tree canopies inside the outside the OTC. Concentrations of ozone, carbon dioxide and water vapor, leaf and air temperature, light intensity, and wind speed were measured at nine positions in the tree canopies. The objectives were to: (1) map the distribution of microenvironmental parameters within the canopies inside and outside the OTC; (2) determine transport parameters for gas exchange, and (3) calculate ozone flux. Significant vertical and horizontal gradients were observed; gradients were diminished and often inverted inside relative to outside the OTC due to air distribution at the bottom of the OCT. Ozone flux was readily modeled from measures of stomatal conductance, nonstomatal conductance and ozone concentration at the leaf surface.

  2. Characterization of the Spatial Variability of Methane, Ozone, and Carbon Dioxide in Two Oil and Gas Production Basins Via a Spatial Grid of Continuous Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, J. G.; Collier, A. M.; Hannigan, M.; Piedrahita, R.; Vaughn, B. H.; Sherwood, O.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, aided by the advent of horizontal drilling used in conjunction with hydraulic fracturing, oil and gas production in basins around the United States has increased significantly. A study was conducted in two oil and gas basins during the spring and summer of 2015 to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of several atmospheric trace gases that can be influenced by oil and gas extraction including methane, ozone, and carbon dioxide. Fifteen air quality monitors were distributed across the Denver Julesburg Basin in Northeast Colorado, and the San Juan Basin, which stretches from Southwest Colorado into Northwest New Mexico in Four Corners Region. Spatial variability in ozone was observed across each basin. The presence of dynamic short-term trends observed in the mole fraction of methane and carbon dioxide indicate the extent to which each site is uniquely impacted by local emission sources. Diurnal trends of these two constituents lead toward a better understanding of local pooling of emissions that can be influenced by topography, the planetary boundary layer height, atmospheric stability, as well as the composition and flux of local and regional emissions sources.

  3. Assessment of the ozone-nitrogen oxide-volatile organic compound sensitivity of Mexico City through an indicator-based approach: measurements and numerical simulations comparison.

    PubMed

    Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; García-Reynoso, J Agustín; Jazcilevich, Arón; Ruiz-Suárez, L Gerardo; Keener, Tim C

    2009-10-01

    The ozone (O3) sensitivity to nitrogen oxides (NOx, or nitric oxide [NO] + nitrogen dioxide [NO2]) versus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA) is a current issue of scientific controversy. To shed light on this issue, we compared measurements of the indicator species O3/NOy (where NOy represents the sum of NO + NO2 + nitric acid [HNO3] + peroxyacetyl nitrate [PAN] + others), NOy, and the semiempirically derived O3/NOz(surrogate) (where NOz(surrogate) is the derived surrogate NOz, and NOz represents NOx reaction products, or NOy - NOx) with results of numerical predictions reproducing the transition regimes between NOx and VOC sensitivities. Ambient air concentrations of O3, NOx, and NOy were measured from April 14 to 25, 2004 in one downwind receptor site of photochemically aged air masses within Mexico City. MCMA-derived transition values for an episode day occurring during the same monitoring period were obtained through a series of photochemical simulations using the Multiscale Climate and Chemistry Model (MCCM). The comparison between the measured indicator species and the simulated spatial distribution of the indicators O3/ NOy, O3/NOz(surrogate), and NOy in MCMA suggest that O3 in this megacity is likely VOC-sensitive. This is in opposition to past studies that, on the basis of the observed morning VOC/NOx ratios, have concluded that O3 in Mexico City is NOx-sensitive. Simulated MCMA-derived sensitive transition values for O3/NOy, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)/HNO3, and NOy were found to be in agreement with threshold criteria proposed for other regions in North America and Europe, although the transition crossover for O3/NOz and O3/HNO3 was not consistent with values reported elsewhere. An additional empirical evaluation of weekend/weekday differences in average maximum O3 concentrations and 6:00- to 9:00-a.m. NOx and NO levels registered at the same site in April 2004 indirectly confirmed the above results. A preliminary

  4. Climate change: potential effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on plant diseases.

    PubMed

    Manning, W J; V Tiedemann, A

    1995-01-01

    Continued world population growth results in increased emission of gases from agriculture, combustion of fossil fuels, and industrial processes. This causes changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. Evidence is emerging that increased solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is reaching the earth's atmosphere, due to stratospheric ozone depletion. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)), ozone (O(3)) and UV-B are individual climate change factors that have direct biological effects on plants. Such effects may directly or indirectly affect the incidence and severity of plant diseases, caused by biotic agents. Carbon dioxide may increase plant canopy size and density, resulting in a greater biomass of high nutritional quality, combined with a much higher microclimate relative humidity. This would be likely to promote plant diseases such as rusts, powdery mildews, leaf spots and blights. Inoculum potential from greater overwintering crop debris would also be increased. Ozone is likely to have adverse effects on plant growth. Necrotrophic pathogens may colonize plants weakened by O(3) at an accelerated rate, while obligate biotroph infections may be lessened. Ozone is unlikely to have direct adverse effects on fungal pathogens. Ozone effects on plant diseases are host plant mediated. The principal effects of increased UV-B on plant diseases would be via alterations in host plants. Increased flavonoids could lead to increased diseased resistance. Reduced net photosynthesis and premature ripening and senescence could result in a decrease in diseases caused by biotrophs and an increase in those caused by necrotrophs. Microbial plant pathogens are less likely to be adversely affected by CO(2), O(3) and UV-B than are their corresponding host plants. Changes in host plants may result in expectable alterations of disease incidence, depending on host plant growth stages and type of pathogen. Given the importance of plant diseases in world food and fiber production, it is essential to

  5. Application of a Chemiluminescence Detector for the Measurement of Total Oxides of Nitrogen and Ammonia in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgeson, J. A.; Bell, J. P.; Rehme, K. A.; Krost, K. J.; Stevens, R. K.

    1971-01-01

    By means of the thermal conversion of nitrogen dioxide to the nitric oxide, the chemiluminescent nitric oxide monitor, based on the nitric oxide plus ozone reaction, may be used for monitoring nitrogen dioxide plus nitric oxide (NO(x)). Under conditions previously described, ammonia is also converted to nitric oxide and therefore interferes. A metal surface, gold wool or stainless steel, operated at two different temperatures has been used to convert only nitrogen dioxide or nitrogen dioxide plus ammonia. Quantitative conversion of nitrogen dioxide to nitric oxide has been obtained at temperatures as low as 200 C. Conversion of ammonia is effected at temperatures of 300 C or higher. By the addition of a converter the basic nitric oxide monitor may be used for measuring NO(x) or NO(x) plus ammonia. As an alternate mode, for a fixed high temperature, a specific scrubber is described for removing NH3 without affecting NO2 concentrations.

  6. Free Energy-Based Coarse-Grained Force Field for Binary Mixtures of Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fenglei; Deetz, Joshua D; Sun, Huai

    2017-01-23

    The free energy based Lennard-Jones 12-6 (FE-12-6) coarse-grained (CG) force field developed for alkanes1 has been extended to model small molecules of light hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, propane, butane, and isobutane), nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. The adjustable parameters of the FE-12-6 potential are determined by fitting against experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) curves and heat of vaporization (HOV) data for pure substance liquids. Simulations using the optimized FE-12-6 parameters correctly reproduced experimental measures of the VLE, HOV, density, vapor pressure, compressibility, critical point, and surface tension for pure substances over a wide range of thermodynamic states. The force field parameters optimized for pure substances were tested on methane/butane, nitrogen/decane, and carbon dioxide/decane binary mixtures to predict their vapor-liquid equilibrium phase diagrams. It is found that for nonpolar molecules represented by different sized beads, a common scaling factor (0.08) that reduces the strength of the interaction potential between unlike beads, generated using Lorentz-Berthelot (LB) combination rules, is required to predict vapor-liquid phase equilibria accurately.

  7. Characterization of a spatial gradient of nitrogen dioxide across a United States-Mexico border city during winter.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Melissa; Qualls, Clifford; Hudgens, Edward; Neas, Lucas

    2005-01-20

    A gradient of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) concentration is demonstrated across metropolitan El Paso, Texas (USA), a city located on the international border between the United States and Mexico. Integrated measurements of NO(2) were collected over 7 days at 20 elementary schools and 4 air quality monitoring stations located throughout the city during typical winter atmospheric conditions. Replicate passive monitors were co-located with chemiluminescence analyzers at the monitoring stations for two consecutive 7-day periods. The passive measurements correlated with the analyzer measurements (R(2)=0.74) with precision of 2.5+/-2.2 ppb. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations ranged from 11.0 to 37.5 ppb (mean 20.6+/-7.1 ppb). In a multivariate regression model, the site elevation and distances to a main highway and to an international port of entry from Mexico explained 81% of the variance in the passive measurements. The results of this pilot study indicate that proximity to vehicle-related sources of NO(2) and site elevation are key predictors for future, more detailed assessments of vehicle-related air pollution exposure in the El Paso region.

  8. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Nick; Lee, James

    2010-05-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an ‘‘environmentally friendly'' fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O3), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O3 concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O3 concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (109) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  9. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, C N; MacKenzie, A R; Di Carlo, P; Di Marco, C F; Dorsey, J R; Evans, M; Fowler, D; Gallagher, M W; Hopkins, J R; Jones, C E; Langford, B; Lee, J D; Lewis, A C; Lim, S F; McQuaid, J; Misztal, P; Moller, S J; Monks, P S; Nemitz, E; Oram, D E; Owen, S M; Phillips, G J; Pugh, T A M; Pyle, J A; Reeves, C E; Ryder, J; Siong, J; Skiba, U; Stewart, D J

    2009-11-03

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an "environmentally friendly" fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O(3)), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O(3) concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O(3) concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (10(9)) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  10. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, C. N.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Di Carlo, P.; Di Marco, C. F.; Dorsey, J. R.; Evans, M.; Fowler, D.; Gallagher, M. W.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jones, C. E.; Langford, B.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Lim, S. F.; McQuaid, J.; Misztal, P.; Moller, S. J.; Monks, P. S.; Nemitz, E.; Oram, D. E.; Owen, S. M.; Phillips, G. J.; Pugh, T. A. M.; Pyle, J. A.; Reeves, C. E.; Ryder, J.; Siong, J.; Skiba, U.; Stewart, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an “environmentally friendly” fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O3), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O3 concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O3 concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (109) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided. PMID:19841269

  11. Stunning pigs with nitrogen and carbon dioxide mixtures: effects on animal welfare and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Llonch, P; Rodríguez, P; Gispert, M; Dalmau, A; Manteca, X; Velarde, A

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of exposure to the gas mixtures of 70% nitrogen (N2) and 30% carbon dioxide (CO2; 70N30C), 80% N2 and 20% CO2 (80N20C) and 85% N2 and 15% CO2 (85N15C) on aversion, stunning effectiveness and carcass, as well as meat quality in pigs, and to compare them with the commercial stunning of 90% CO2 (90C). A total of 68 female pigs were divided into four groups and stunned with one of the gas mixtures. During the exposure to the gas, behavioural variables (retreat attempts, escape attempts, gasping, loss of balance, muscular excitation and vocalizations) were recorded, and at the end of the stunning, corneal reflex and rhythmic breathing were assessed. After slaughter, meat quality parameters such as pH at 45 min post mortem (pH45) and at 24 h post mortem (pHu), electrical conductivity, drip loss and colour, in the Longissimus thoracis (LT) and Semimembranosus (SM) muscles were measured, and the presence of ecchymosis on the hams was noted. The PROC MIXED and the PROC GENMOD of SAS® were used to analyse the parametric and binomial variables, respectively. The 'gas mixture' was always considered a fixed effect and the 'live weight' as a covariate. To assess the correlation between meat quality and behaviour measures, PROC CORR was used. Pigs exposed to 90C showed a higher percentage of escape attempts and gasping, a lower percentage of vocalization and shorter muscular excitation phase than pigs exposed to the other N2 and CO2 mixtures (P < 0.05). After stunning, no pig exposed to 90C showed corneal reflex or rhythmic breathing, whereas 85% and 92% of the animals exposed to N2 and CO2 mixtures showed corneal reflex and rhythmic breathing, respectively. Animals stunned with 80N20C and 85N15C had a lower pH45 (P < 0.01) than animals exposed to 90C. Electrical conductivity in the SM muscle was lower (P < 0.001) in 90C and 70N30C pigs than in 80N20C and 85N15C pigs, whereas in LT, it was lower (P < 0.05) in 90C pigs than in 85N15C

  12. Assessment of unconsciousness in pigs during exposure to nitrogen and carbon dioxide mixtures.

    PubMed

    Llonch, P; Rodríguez, P; Jospin, M; Dalmau, A; Manteca, X; Velarde, A

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess unconsciousness in pigs during and after the exposure to gas mixtures of 70% nitrogen (N(2)) and 30% carbon dioxide (CO(2)) (70N30C), 80% N(2) and 20% CO(2) (80N20C) and 85% N(2) and 15% CO(2) (85N15C) compared with 90% CO(2) in air (90C) by means of the Index of Consciousness(®)(IoC), their behaviour and the absence of brain stem reflexes. The experiment included three trials of 24 pigs divided into four groups according to the number of treatments. Half of the group was exposed for a short time and the other half for a long time (3 and 5 min for the N(2)/CO(2) mixtures exposure and 2 and 3 min in 90C exposure, respectively). During exposure, the IoC and the electroencephalography suppression rate (ESR) were assessed, as well as the time to onset and percentage of gasping, loss of balance, vocalizations, muscular excitation and gagging. At the end of the exposure, the corneal reflex, rhythmic breathing and sensitivity to pain were each assessed at 10 s intervals for 5 min. Brain activity decreased significantly (P < 0.05) 37.60 s after the start of the exposure to 90% CO(2), which was significantly earlier than in 70N30C, 80N20C and 85N15C exposure, (45.18 s, 46.92 s and 43.27 s, respectively). Before brain activity decreased, all pigs experienced gasping and loss of balance and a 98% muscular excitation. The duration of the muscular excitation was longer in animals exposed to 70N30C, 80N20C and 85N15C than 90C (P < 0.01). After a long exposure time, all animals exposed to 90C died, whereas the 30.4% of animals exposed to N(2)/CO(2) gas mixtures survived. Pigs exposed to 85N15C recovered corneal reflex and sensitivity to pain significantly earlier than when exposed to 90C. Exposure to 90C causes a higher aversive reaction but a quicker loss of consciousness than N(2)/CO(2) gas mixtures. Exposure to N(2)/CO(2) gas mixtures causes a lower percentage of deaths and an earlier recovery of the brain stem activity than 90C, whereas

  13. Effects of nitrogen oxide emission controls on Eastern US surface ozone: A comparison between urban cores and rural background sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Harald E.; Fiore, Arlene M.

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission controls have led to improved air quality over the past two decades, particularly over the Eastern US. In recent work we quantified the effects of the efforts to abate surface ozone (O3) pollution under the NOx State Implementation Plan (NOx SIP Call) for Eastern US background sites (available from the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET)) using methods from statistical extreme value theory (Rieder et al., 2013). Our analysis showed that the number of summer (JJA) days above the US national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) declined on average by a factor of two between 1988-1998 and 1999-2009 and that probabilistic 1-yr O3 return values declined by about 10 ppb between these two time periods. Here we extend the analysis to observations available from the US EPA Air Quality System (AQS), comprising sites ranging from polluted urban cores to rural sites. We focus on changes in (i) the seasonal and annual average number of days with maximum daily 8-hour average surface O3 above the NAAQS and (ii) probabilistic O3 return values following the NOx SIP Call. Particular focus is given on similarities and differences in surface O3 responses on regional to local level and on contrasting urban cores and rural background sites. References: Rieder H.E., Fiore A.M., Polvani L.M., Lamarque J.-F., Fang Y. (2013): Changes in the frequency and return level of high ozone pollution events over the Eastern United States following emission controls, Environ. Res. Lett., 8, 014012, 2013.

  14. Origin and Variability of Upper Tropospheric Nitrogen Oxides and Ozone at Northern Mid-Latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grewe, V.; Brunner, D.; Dameris, M.; Grenfell, J. L.; Hein, R.; Shindell, D.; Staehelin, J.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of NO(x) and ozone performed during the NOXAR project are compared with results from the coupled chemistry-climate models ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM and GISS-model. The measurements are based on flights between Europe and the East coast of America and between Europe and the Far East in the latitude range 40 deg N to 65 deg N. The comparison concentrates on tropopause altitudes and reveals strong longitudinal variations of seasonal mean NO,, of 200 pptv. Either model reproduced strong variations 3 km below but not at the tropopause, indicating a strong missing NO(x) or NO(y) sink over remote areas, e.g. NO(x) to HNO3 conversion by OH from additional OH sources or HNO3 wash-out. Vertical profiles show maximum NO(x) values 2-3 km below the tropopause with a strong seasonal cycle. ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM reproduces a maximum, although located at the tropopause with a less pronounced seasonal cycle, whereas the GISS model reproduces the seasonal cycle but not the profile's shape due to its coarser vertical resolution. A comparison of NO(x) frequency distributions reveals that both models are capable of reproducing the observed variability, except that ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM shows no very high NO(x) mixing ratios. Ozone mean values, vertical profiles and frequency distributions are much better reproduced in either model, indicating that the NO(x) frequency distribution, namely the most frequent NO(x) mixing ratio, is more important for the tropospheric photochemical ozone production than its mean value. Both models show that among all sources, NO(x) from lightning contributes most to the seasonal cycle of NO(x) at tropopause altitudes. The impact of lightning in the upper troposphere on NO(x) does not vary strongly with altitude, whereas the impact of surface emissions decreases with altitude. However, the models show significant differences in lightning induced NO(x) concentrations, especially in winter, which may be related to the different treatment of the lower

  15. Line-by-line calculation of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: 2. Application to carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide and the halocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, S. A.; Iacono, M. J.

    1995-08-01

    A line-by-line model (LBLRTM) has been applied to the calculation of clear-sky longwave fluxes and cooling rates for atmospheres including CO2, O3, CH4, N2O, CCl4, CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-22 in addition to water vapor. The present paper continues the approach developed in an earlier article in which the radiative properties of atmospheres with water vapor alone were reported. Tropospheric water vapor continues to be of principal importance for the longwave region due to the spectral extent of its absorbing properties, while the absorption bands of other trace species have influence over limited spectral domains. The principal effects of adding carbon dioxide are to reduce the role of the water vapor in the lower troposphere and to provide 72% of the 13.0 K d-1 cooling rate at the stratopause. In general, the introduction of uniformly mixed trace species into atmospheres with significant amounts of water vapor has the effect of reducing the cooling associated with water vapor, providing an apparent net atmospheric heating. The radiative consequences of doubling carbon dioxide from the present level are consistent with these results. For the midlatitude summer atmosphere the heating associated with ozone that occurs from 500 to 20 mbar reaches a maximum of 0.25 K d-1 at 50 mbar and partially offsets the cooling of 1.0 K d-1 contributed by H2O and CO2 at this level. In the stratosphere the 704 cm-1 band of ozone, not included in many radiation models, contributes 25% of the ozone cooling rate. Radiative effects associated with anticipated 10-year constituent profile changes, 1990-2000, are presented from both a spectral and spectrally integrated perspective. The effect of the trace gases has been studied for three atmospheres: tropical, midlatitude summer, and midlatitude winter. Using these results and making a reasonable approximation for the polar regions, we obtain a value for the longwave flux at the top of the atmosphere of 265.5 W m-2, in close agreement with

  16. Estimating potential productivity cobenefits for crops and trees from reduced ozone with U.S. coal power plant carbon standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capps, Shannon L.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Fakhraei, Habibollah; Templer, Pamela H.; Craig, Kenneth J.; Milford, Jana B.; Lambert, Kathleen F.

    2016-12-01

    A standard for carbon dioxide emissions from power plants in the United States, known as the Clean Power Plan, has been finalized by the Environmental Protection Agency. Decreases in carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion have the potential cobenefit of reductions in emissions of oxides of nitrogen, which contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. Emissions of ozone precursors may result in elevated ozone concentrations nearby or downwind. Chronic exposure of sensitive vegetation to tropospheric ozone reduces its potential productivity. To evaluate the cobenefits of the Clean Power Plan to sensitive vegetation, we estimate ozone concentrations in the continental U.S. in 2020 with a chemical transport model in accordance with reference and alternative Clean Power Plan policy scenarios, which represent a range of possible approaches to reducing carbon dioxide emissions from power plants. The reductions in biomass, or the potential productivity losses, due to the exposure of 4 crops and 11 tree species to ozone are as large as 1.9% and 32%, respectively, in the reference scenario. The least stringent policy scenario reduces these losses by less than 3% for any given species; however, the scenarios consistent with policies resulting in more rigorous nitrogen oxide reductions produce potential productivity losses lower than the reference scenario by as much as 16% and 13% for individual crops or tree species, respectively. This analysis affords the opportunity to consider public welfare cobenefits of a regulation that is designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from power plants.

  17. Modeling analyses of the effects of changes in nitrogen oxides emissions from the electric power sector on ozone levels in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Edith Gego; Alice Gilliland; James Godowitch

    2008-04-15

    In this paper, we examine the changes in ambient ozone concentrations simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for summer 2002 under three different nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission scenarios. Two emission scenarios represent best estimates of 2002 and 2004 emissions; they allow assessment of the impact of the NOx emissions reductions imposed on the utility sector by the NOx State Implementation Plan (SIP) Call. The third scenario represents a hypothetical rendering of what NOx emissions would have been in 2002 if no emission controls had been imposed on the utility sector. Examination of the modeled median and 95th percentile daily maximum 8-hr average ozone concentrations reveals that median ozone levels estimated for the 2004 emission scenario were less than those modeled for 2002 in the region most affected by the NOx SIP Call. Comparison of the 'no-control' with the '2002' scenario revealed that ozone concentrations would have been much higher in much of the eastern United States if the utility sector had not implemented NOx emission controls; exceptions occurred in the immediate vicinity of major point sources where increased NO titration tends to lower ozone levels. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Ozone and Nitrogen Deposition as Modifiers of Biogeochemical Fluxes and Processes in California Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenn, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    The combined effects of ozone and N deposition results in major perturbations of C and N cycling in forests of southern and central California. Increased shoot:root ratios of the major trees species, N-stimulation of aboveground growth, and premature foliar abscission result in greater aboveground C and N pools. Fire suppression exacerbates these perturbations and provides the opportunity for chronic N deposition to further increase the stand densification problem. Long-term litter decomposition rates are retarded by N enrichment which contributes further to litter accumulation in the forest floor. Stage 3 of N saturation in California mixed conifer forests occurs as chronic N deposition, in conjunction with co-occurring ozone effects, decreases fine root biomass, interferes with stomatal control, and increases the susceptibility of ponderosa pine trees to drought stress and bark beetle attack, leading to increased stand mortality. Hot moments of N transfers from canopy to the forest floor occur during precipitation events that follow long dry periods, but particularly during fog events. During initial soil wet up, pulses of NO and N2O emissions from the forest floor occur. Streamwater losses of nitrate are highest following storms preceded by dry periods, but also during peak runoff, typically in February and March. However, major losses of accumulated N occur during and after fire events. However, ecosystem N budgets, biogeochemical modeling studies and experimental burns in N-saturated chaparral catchments in southern California demonstrate that symptoms of N excess are not easily reversed by N release in and following fire. Even with decreased N deposition, momentum for elevated N losses from California forests would likely continue, driven by actively nitrifying soils and increased N content of litter and soil organic matter. Initial studies show that during peak runoff, as much as 20-40% of runoff nitrate in some catchments is throughput of unassimilated

  19. Retrospective on the National Ozone Expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, S.

    2002-05-01

    In 1985, the British Antarctic Survey discovered the Antarctic ozone hole. In March of l986, a small group of American scientists began planning an emergency mission to Antarctica to try to gain insights as to its cause. On August 22, l986, they arrived in Antarctica and began a series of ground-based and balloon-borne measurements that ultimately helped show that the ozone hole is caused primarily by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Multiple instruments measured ozone's rapid disappearance in September, documenting the rate of its destruction and helping to substantiate the validity of the remarkable ozone trend. Others measured chemical compounds such as HCl, nitrogen dioxide, and HF. A second expedition occurred in 1987, and some of the investigators continued a series of measurements for multiple years. Key measurements were those of de Zafra and coworkers, which focussed on observations of chlorine monoxide using ground-based microwave emission techniques. The contributions of these National Ozone Expeditions to the evolution of understanding of the Antarctic ozone hole will be reviewed in this lecture.

  20. A broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for aircraft measurements of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, nitrous acid, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K.-E.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Dubé, W. P.; Langford, A. O.; Edwards, P. M.; Zarzana, K. J.; Stutz, J.; Lu, K.; Rohrer, F.; Zhang, Y.; Brown, S. S.

    2016-02-01

    We describe a two-channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer (BBCEAS) for aircraft measurements of glyoxal (CHOCHO), methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO), nitrous acid (HONO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and water (H2O). The instrument spans 361-389 and 438-468 nm, using two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a single grating spectrometer with a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. Robust performance is achieved using a custom optical mounting system, high-power LEDs with electronic on/off modulation, high-reflectivity cavity mirrors, and materials that minimize analyte surface losses. We have successfully deployed this instrument during two aircraft and two ground-based field campaigns to date. The demonstrated precision (2σ) for retrievals of CHOCHO, HONO and NO2 are 34, 350, and 80 parts per trillion (pptv) in 5 s. The accuracy is 5.8, 9.0, and 5.0 %, limited mainly by the available absorption cross sections.

  1. A broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for aircraft measurements of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, nitrous acid, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K.-E.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Dubé, W. P.; Langford, A. O.; Edwards, P. M.; Zarzana, K. J.; Stutz, J.; Lu, K.; Rohrer, F.; Zhang, Y.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-10-01

    We describe a two-channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer (BBCEAS) for aircraft measurements of glyoxal (CHOCHO), methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO), nitrous acid (HONO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and water (H2O). The instrument spans 361-389 and 438-468 nm, using two light emitting diodes (LEDs) and a grating spectrometer with a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. Robust performance is achieved using a custom optical mounting system, high power LEDs with electronic on/off modulation, state-of-the-art cavity mirrors, and materials that minimize analyte surface losses. We have successfully deployed this instrument during two aircraft and two ground-based field campaigns to date. The demonstrated precision (2σ) for retrievals of CHOCHO, HONO and NO2 are 34, 350 and 80 pptv in 5 s. The accuracy is 5.8, 9.0 and 5.0 % limited mainly by the available absorption cross sections.

  2. N-nitrosoamine and N-nitroamine formation: factors influencing the aqueous reactions of nitrogen dioxide with morpholine

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, R.V.; Ross, P.D.; Bartolini, G.L.; Ramseyer, J.

    1987-01-01

    The formation of nitrosamine and nitroamine from low levels of nitrogen dioxide (1-99 ppm) and morpholine in aqueous solution was examined. We have shown for the first time that significant quantities of N-nitromorpholine form at physiological pH; the rate of N-nitration was more than double that of N-nitrosation at 37/sup 0/C, pH 7.4. The effects of temperature, pH, reactant concentration, and various anions on both nitration and nitrosation reactions are presented. In addition to pH effects, a deuterium effect was observed for the nitration reaction, suggesting that hydrogen abstraction is a rate-limiting step in product formation. Possible reaction mechanisms are described, and the implications for carcinogen formation in vivo due to low-level NO/sub 2/ exposure are discussed. 16 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Budgets of reactive nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and ozone over the Amazon forest during the wet season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    1990-01-01

    The atmospheric composition over the Amazon forest during the wet season is simulated with a one-dimensional photochemical model for the planetary boundary layer (PBL) extending from the ground to 2000-m altitude. The model is constrained and evaluated using observations from the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2B field expedition. Results indicate that only about 20 percent of NO(x) emitted by soils is exported to the atmosphere above the forest canopy. The balance is deposited to vegetation before leaving the canopy layer. The small NO(x) flux that escapes from the canopy is nevertheless sufficient to account for the low NO concentrations observed in the PBL. Soil emission can account for only a portion of NO(y) observed over the forest. Organic nitrates of nonbiogenic origin likely account for the balance of NO(y). Enhancements of CO observed in the PBL appear to reflect direct emission of CO by the forest ecosystem. Concentrations of O3 in the PBL are regulated largely by transport from aloft and deposition to the canopy, with little net influence from photochemistry. Ozone is photochemically produced immediately above the forest where NO concentrations are relatively high, but is photochemically consumed in the upper portion of the PBL.

  4. Studies on air pollution: Effects of nitrogen dioxide on airway caliber and reactivity in asthmatic subjects; effects of nitrogen dioxide on lung lymphocytes and macrophage products in healthy subjects; nasal and bronchial effects of sulfur dioxide in asthmatic subjects. Final report, 26 June 1987-26 November 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Boushey, H.A.; Rubinstein, I.; Bigby, B.G.

    1988-12-13

    The investigators performed three studies of the effects of NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ on airway function in human subjects. In 9 exercising asthmatic subjects, a 30-min exposure to 0.3 ppm nitrogen dioxide did not alter specific airway resistance, maximal expiratory flow, or the slope of phase III on the single breath test of nitrogen distribution and had no effect on airway hyperresponsiveness to sulfur dioxide. In the second study, repeated exposure of 5 healthy subjects to nitrogen dioxide was associated neither with any significant change in pulmonary function nor in the levels of secretory product of lung macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Analysis of the numbers and types of lymphocytes in venous blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed no change apart from a small, possibly artifactual increase in natural killer cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after NO/sub 2/ exposure. The third study examined whether brief exposures to moderately high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ caused acute increases in nasal symptoms and nasal resistance in 8 subjects with a history of both asthma and allergic rhinitis and with demonstrable bronchial hyperreactivity to SO/sub 2/.

  5. Measurement of nitrogen dioxide in cigarette smoke using quantum cascade tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorter, Joanne H.; Nelson, David D.; Zahniser, Mark S.; Parrish, Milton E.; Crawford, Danielle R.; Gee, Diane L.

    2006-04-01

    Although nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) has been previously reported to be present in cigarette smoke, the concentration estimates were derived from kinetic calculations or from measurements of aged smoke, where NO 2 was formed some time after the puff was taken. The objective of this work was to use tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS) equipped with a quantum cascade (QC) laser to determine if NO 2 could be detected and quantified in a fresh puff of cigarette smoke. A temporal resolution of ˜0.16 s allowed measurements to be taken directly as the NO 2 was formed during the puff. Sidestream cigarette smoke was sampled to determine if NO 2 could be detected using TILDAS. Experiments were conducted using 2R4F Kentucky Reference cigarettes with and without a Cambridge filter pad. NO 2 was detected only in the lighting puff of whole mainstream smoke (without a Cambridge filter pad), with no NO 2 detected in the subsequent puffs. The measurement precision was ˜1.0 ppbV Hz -1/2, which allows a detection limit of ˜0.2 ng in a 35 ml puff volume. More NO 2 was generated in the lighting puff using a match or blue flame lighter (29 ± 21 ng) than when using an electric lighter (9 ± 3 ng). In the presence of a Cambridge filter pad, NO 2 was observed in the gas phase mainstream smoke for every puff (total of 200 ± 30 ng/cigarette) and is most likely due to smoke chemistry taking place on the Cambridge filter pad during the smoke collection process. Nitrogen dioxide was observed continuously in the sidestream smoke starting with the lighting puff.

  6. Growth response of four species of Eastern hardwood tree seedlings exposed to ozone, acidic precipitation, and sulfur dioxide. [Prunus serotina, Acer rubrum, Quercus rubra, Liriodendron tulipifera

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.D. Skelly, J.M. )

    1992-03-01

    In 1987 a study was conducted in controlled environment chambers to determine the foliar sensitivity of tree seedlings of eight species to ozone and acidic precipitation, and to determine the influence of leaf position on symptom severity. Jensen and Dochinger conducted concurrent similar studies in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) chambers with ten species of forest trees. Based on the results of these initial studies, four species representing a range in foliar sensitivity to ozone were chosen: black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). These species were also chosen because of their ecological and/or commercial importance in Pennsylvania. Seedlings were exposed in growth chambers simulated acid rain. In addition acute exposures to sulfur dioxide were conducted in a regime based on unpublished monitoring data collected near coal-fired power plants. The objective of this study was to determine if the pollutant treatments influenced the growth and productivity of seedlings of these four species. This information will help researchers and foresters understand the role of air pollution in productivity of eastern forests.

  7. Analysis of the effect of evergreen and deciduous trees on urban nitrogen dioxide levels in the U.S. using land-use regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M.; George, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), an atmospheric pollutant generated primarily by anthropogenic combustion processes, is typically found at higher concentrations in urban areas compared to non-urbanized environments. Elevated NO2 levels have multiple ecosystem effects at different spatial scales. At the local scale, elevated levels affect human health directly and through the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and aerosols; at the regional scale secondary pollutants such as nitric acid and organic nitrates have deleterious effects on non-urbanized areas; and, at the global scale, nitrogen oxide emissions significantly alter the natural biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. As cities globally become larger and larger sources of nitrogen oxide emissions, it is important to assess possible mitigation strategies to reduce the impact of emissions locally, regionally and globally. In this study, we build a national land-use regression (LUR) model to compare the impacts of deciduous and evergreen trees on urban NO2 levels in the United States. We use the EPA monitoring network values of NO2 levels for 2006, the 2006 NLCD tree canopy data for deciduous and evergreen canopies, and the US Census Bureau's TIGER shapefiles for roads, railroads, impervious area & population density as proxies for NO2 sources on-road traffic, railroad traffic, off-road and area sources respectively. Our preliminary LUR model corroborates previous LUR studies showing that the presence of trees is associated with reduced urban NO2 levels. Additionally, our model indicates that deciduous and evergreen trees reduce NO2 to different extents, and that the amount of NO2 reduced varies seasonally. The model indicates that every square kilometer of deciduous canopy within a 2km buffer is associated with a reduction in ambient NO2 levels of 0.64 ppb in summer and 0.46ppb in winter. Similarly, every square kilometer of evergreen tree canopy within a 2 km buffer is associated with a reduction in ambient NO2 by

  8. Impact of biomass burning emissions on the composition of the South Atlantic troposphere: Reactive nitrogen and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H. B.; Herlth, D.; Kolyer, R.; Chatfield, R.; Viezee, W.; Salas, L. J.; Chen, Y.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Talbot, R.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B.; Sachse, G. W.; Browell, E.; Bachmeier, A. S.; Blake, D. R.; Heikes, B.; Jacob, D.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1996-10-01

    In September/October 1992 an instrumented DC-8 aircraft was employed to study the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere over the southern tropical Atlantic Ocean. Analysis of measurements, which included tracers of biomass combustion and industrial emissions, showed that this atmosphere was highly influenced by biomass burning emissions from the South American and African continents. Marine boundary layer was generally capped off by a subsidence inversion and its composition to a large degree was determined by slow entrainment from aloft. Insoluble species (such as PAN, NO, hydrocarbons, CO) were enhanced throughout the troposphere. Soluble species (such as HNO3, HCOOH, H2O2) were minimally elevated in the upper troposphere in part due to scavenging during cloud (wet) convection. Ozone mixing ratios throughout the South Atlantic basin were enhanced by ≈20 ppb. These enhancements were larger in the eastern South Atlantic (African emissions) compared to the western South Atlantic (South American emissions). In much of the troposphere, total reactive nitrogen (NOy) correlated well with tracers of biomass combustion (e.g., CH3Cl, CO). Although NOx (NO + NO2) correlated reasonably with these tracers in the lower (0-3 km) and middle troposphere (3-7 km), these relationships deteriorated in the upper troposphere (7-12 km). Stratospheric intrusions were found to be a minor source of upper tropospheric NOx or HNO3. Sizable nonsurface sources of NOx (e.g., lightning) as well as secondary formation from the NOy reservoir species (such as HNO3, PAN, and organic nitrates) must be invoked to explain the NOx abundance present in the upper troposphere. It is found that HNO3, PAN, and NOx were able to account for most of the NOy, in the middle troposphere (3-7 km); but a significant shortfall was present in the upper troposphere (7-12). This shortfall was also most pronounced in air masses with low HNO3. The reasons for the upper tropospheric reactive nitrogen shortfall is

  9. Combination of nitrogen dioxide radicals with 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine and guanine radicals in DNA: oxidation and nitration end-products.

    PubMed

    Misiaszek, Richard; Crean, Conor; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Shafirovich, Vladimir

    2005-02-23

    The oxidation and nitration reactions in DNA associated with the combination of nitrogen dioxide radicals with 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua) and guanine radicals were explored by kinetic laser spectroscopy and mass spectrometry methods. The oxidation/nitration processes were triggered by photoexcitation of 2-aminopurine (2AP) residues site-specifically positioned in the 2'-deoxyribooligonucleotide 5'-d(CC[2AP]TC[X]CTACC) sequences (X = 8-oxoGua or G), by intense 308 nm excimer laser pulses. The photoionization products, 2AP radicals, rapidly oxidize either 8-oxoGua or G residues positioned within the same oligonucleotide but separated by a TC dinucleotide step on the 3'-side of 2AP. The two-photon ionization of the 2AP residue also generates hydrated electrons that are trapped by nitrate anions thus forming nitrogen dioxide radicals. The combination of nitrogen dioxide radicals with the 8-oxoGua and G radicals occurs with similar rate constants (approximately 4.3 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1)) in both single- and double-stranded DNA. In the case of 8-oxoGua, the major end-products of this bimolecular radical-radical addition are spiroiminodihydantoin lesions, the products of 8-oxoGua oxidation. Oxygen-18 isotope labeling experiments reveal that the O-atom in the spiroiminodihydantoin lesion originates from water molecules, not from nitrogen dioxide radicals. In contrast, combination of nitrogen dioxide and guanine neutral radicals generated under the same conditions results in the formation of the nitro products, 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole and 8-nitroguanine adducts. The mechanistic aspects of the oxidation/nitration processes and their biological implications are discussed.

  10. Characterization of narrow micropores in almond shell biochars by nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen adsorption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterization of biochars usually includes surface area and pore volume determination by nitrogen adsorption. In this study, we show that there is a substantial pore volume in biochars created via slow pyrolysis from low- and high-ash almond shells that cannot be characterized in this fashion due...

  11. Space-Based Diagnosis of Surface Ozone Sensitivity to Anthropogenic Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Fiore, Arlene M.; VanDonkelaar, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    We present a novel capability in satellite remote sensing with implications for air pollution control strategy. We show that the ratio of formaldehyde columns to tropospheric nitrogen dioxide columns is an indicator of the relative sensitivity of surface ozone to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The diagnosis from these space-based observations is highly consistent with current understanding of surface ozone chemistry based on in situ observations. The satellite-derived ratios indicate that surface ozone is more sensitive to emissions of NO(x) than of VOCs throughout most continental regions of the Northern Hemisphere during summer. Exceptions include Los Angeles and industrial areas of Germany. A seasonal transition occurs in the fall when surface ozone becomes less sensitive to NOx and more sensitive to VOCs.

  12. Nitration of benzo[a]pyrene adsorbed on coal fly ash particles by nitrogen dioxide: role of thermal activation.

    PubMed

    Kristovich, Robert L; Dutta, Prabir K

    2005-09-15

    Nitration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) adsorbed on the surface of thermally activated coal fly ash and model aluminosilicate particles led to the formation of nitrobenzo[a]pyrenes as verified by extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was utilized to follow the nitration reaction on the surface of zeolite Y. Nitrobenzo[a]pyrene formation was observed along with the formation of nitrous acid and nitrate species. The formation of the BaP radical cation was also observed on thermally activated aluminosilicate particles by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. On the basis of GC/MS, DRIFTS, and ESR spectroscopy results, a mechanism of nitration involving intermediate BaP radical cations generated on thermally activated aluminosilicate particles is proposed. These observations have led to the hypothesis that nitration of adsorbed polyaromatic hydrocarbons on coal fly ash by reaction with nitrogen oxides can occur in the smokestack, but with the aging of the fly ash particles, the extent of the nitration reaction will be diminished.

  13. Methanol Droplet Extinction in Oxygen/Carbon-dioxide/Nitrogen Mixtures in Microgravity: Results from the International Space Station Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayagam, Vedha; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Hicks, Michael C.; Williams, Forman A.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the need to understand the flammability limits of condensed-phase fuels in microgravity, isolated single droplet combustion experiments were carried out in the Combustion Integrated Rack Facility onboard the International Space Station. Experimental observations of methanol droplet combustion and extinction in oxygen/carbon-dioxide/nitrogen mixtures at 0.7 and 1 atmospheric pressure in quiescent microgravity environment are reported for initial droplet diameters varying between 2 mm to 4 mm in this study.The ambient oxygen concentration was systematically lowered from test to test so as to approach the limiting oxygen index (LOI) at fixed ambient pressure. At one atmosphere pressure, ignition and some burning were observed for an oxygen concentration of 13% with the rest being nitrogen. In addition, measured droplet burning rates, flame stand-off ratios, and extinction diameters are presented for varying concentrations of oxygen and diluents. Simplified theoretical models are presented to explain the observed variations in extinction diameter and flame stand-off ratios.

  14. Nitration of benzo(a)pyrene adsorbed on coal fly ash particles by nitrogen dioxide: role of thermal activation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert L. Kristovich; Prabir K. Dutta

    2005-09-15

    Nitration of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) by nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) adsorbed on the surface of thermally activated coal fly ash and model aluminosilicate particles led to the formation of nitrobenzo(2)pyrenes as verified by extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Temperatures of up to 500{sup o}C were used. In situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was utilized to follow the nitration reaction on the surface of zeolite Y. Nitrobenzo(a)pyrene formation was observed along with the formation of nitrous acid and nitrate species. The formation of the BaP radical cation was also observed on thermally activated aluminosilicate particles by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. On the basis of GC/MS, DRIFTS, and ESR spectroscopy results, a mechanism of nitration involving intermediate BaP radical cations generated on thermally activated aluminosilicate particles is proposed. These observations have led to the hypothesis that nitration of adsorbed polyaromatic hydrocarbons on coal fly ash by reaction with nitrogen oxides can occur in the smokestack, but with the aging of the fly ash particles, the extent of the nitration reaction will be diminished. 52 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Nitrogen incorporation and interface trap reduction in silicon dioxide/4H-silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Kyle

    2001-07-01

    Silicon carbide is a wide band gap semiconductor whose properties make it an ideal material for high power applications. Silicon carbide thermally oxidizes to form SiO2, which is used as a gate insulator in MOSFETs; however, MOSFETs produced from the 4H-SiC polytype exhibit much lower channel mobilities than expected. A large density of interface traps produced by carbon clusters and located near the conduction band has been proposed as the source of the poor mobility. The nitridation of the SiO2/4H-SiC interface using NO and NH3 has been shown to reduce this interface trap density and improve the channel mobility. In this work, the kinetics of nitrogen incorporation using NO and NH3 are compared, and the relationship between nitrogen content and interface trap density are discussed. The nitridation of SiO2/4H-SiC in NO at temperatures from 1050--1175°C incorporates ˜1014 cm-2 of nitrogen at the interface. Oxygen formed during the thermal decomposition of NO oxidizes the substrate and removes carbon and nitrogen from the interface. When the nitridation and oxidation reactions reach equilibrium, the nitrogen content saturates independently of temperature. The nitridation of SiO 2/4H-SiC in NH; at temperatures from 1050--1175°C incorporates ˜10 16 cm-2 uniformly throughout the oxide bulk. During nitridation, oxygen is removed from the oxide, and the stoichiometry of the film is changed significantly. The nitridation of SiO2/4H-SiC in NO reduces the interface trap density near the conduction band by a factor of 10, but the trap density remains high. The complete passivation of these particular traps occurs at a nitrogen content of ≈2.5 x 1014 cm-2 , regardless of the annealing conditions. The data are consistent with a model of the interface in which the traps near the conduction band are produced by large carbon clusters with a near-continuum of energy levels. The passivation of these traps with nitrogen then proceeds by the dissolution of these carbon clusters

  16. Thermal and photochemical oxidation of self-assembled monolayers on alumina particles exposed to nitrogen dioxide.

    PubMed

    Raff, Jonathan D; Szanyi, János; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2011-01-14

    Alumina is an important component of airborne dust particles as well as of building materials and soils found in the tropospheric boundary layer. While the uptake and reactions of oxides of nitrogen and their photochemistry on alumina have been reported in the past, little is known about the chemistry when organics are also present. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy at ∼23 °C was used to study reactions of NO(2) on γ-Al(2)O(3) particles that had been derivatized using 7-octenyltrichlorosilane to form a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). For comparison, the reactions with untreated γ-Al(2)O(3) were also studied. In both cases, the particles were exposed to water vapor prior to NO(2) to provide adsorbed water for reaction. As expected, surface-bound HONO, NO(2)(-), and NO(3)(-) were formed. Surprisingly, oxidation of the organic by surface-bound nitrogen oxides was observed in the dark, forming organo-nitrogen products identified as nitronates (R(2)C[double bond, length as m-dash]NO(2)(-)). Oxidation was more rapid under irradiation (λ > 290 nm) and formed organic nitrates and carbonyl compounds and/or peroxy nitrates in addition to the products observed in the dark. Mass spectrometry of the gas phase during irradiation revealed the production of NO, CO(2), and CO. These studies provide evidence for oxidation of organic compounds on particles and boundary layer surfaces that are exposed to air containing oxides of nitrogen, as well as new pathways for the formation of nitrogen-containing compounds on these surfaces.

  17. Thermal and Photochemical Oxidation of Organic Compounds on Model Mineral Dust Particles Exposed to Nitrogen Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raff, J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.; Szanyi, J.

    2010-12-01

    Alumina is an important component of airborne dust particles as well as of building materials and soils found in the tropospheric boundary layer. While the uptake and reactions of oxides of nitrogen and their photochemistry on alumina have been reported in the past, little is known about the chemistry when organics are also present. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to study at ~23 °C reactions of NO2 on γ-Al2O3 particles that had been derivatized using 7-octenyltrichlorosilane to form a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). For comparison, the reactions with untreated γ-Al2O3 were also studied. In both cases, the particles were exposed to water vapor prior to NO2 to provide adsorbed water for reaction. As expected, surface-bound HONO, NO2-, and NO3- were formed. Surprisingly, oxidation of the organic by surface-bound nitrogen oxides was observed in the dark, forming organo-nitrogen products identified as nitronates (R2C=NO2-). Oxidation was more rapid under irradiation (λ > 290 nm) and formed organic nitrates and carbonyl compounds and/or peroxy nitrates in addition to the products observed in the dark. Mass spectrometry of the gas phase during irradiation revealed the production of NO, CO2, and CO. These studies provide evidence for oxidation of organic compounds on particles and boundary layer surfaces that are exposed to air containing oxides of nitrogen, as well as new pathways for the formation of nitrogen-containing compounds on these surfaces.

  18. Simulating interactive effects of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, carbon dioxide elevation, and climatic change on legume growth.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mei; Gao, Q; Shaffer, M J

    2002-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms of interaction between the symbiotic nitrogen-fixation process and main physiological processes, such as assimilation, nutrient allocation, and structural growth, as well as effects of nitrogen fixation on plant responses to global change, are important and still open to more investigation. Appropriate models have not been adequately developed. A dynamic ecophysiological model was developed in this study for a legume plant [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] growing in northern China. The model synthesized symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the main physiological processes under variable atmospheric CO2 concentration and climatic conditions, and emphasized the interactive effects of these processes on seasonal biomass dynamics of the plant. Experimental measurements of ecophysiological quantities obtained in a CO2 enrichment experiment on soybean plants, were used to parameterize and validate the model. The results indicated that the model simulated the experiments with reasonable accuracy. The R2 values between simulations and observations are 0.94, 0.95, and 0.86 for total biomass, green biomass, and nodule biomass, respectively. The simulations for various combinations of atmospheric CO2 concentration, precipitation, and temperature, with or without nitrogen fixation, showed that increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, precipitation, and efficiency of nitrogen fixation all have positive effects on biomass accumulation. On the other hand, an increased temperature induced lower rates of biomass accumulation under semi-arid conditions. In general, factors with positive effects on plant growth tended to promote each other in the simulation range, except the relationship between CO2 concentration and climatic factors. Because of the enhanced water use efficiency with a higher CO2 concentration, more significant effects of CO2 concentration were associated with a worse (dryer and warmer in this study) climate.

  19. Gas chromatographic method for measuring nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in air without compressed gas cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhardt, M.R.; Maniga, N.I.; Stedman, D.H.; Paur, R.J.

    1988-04-15

    A gas chromatographic technique that measures atmospheric concentrations of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and NO/sub 2/ has been developed that uses luminol-based chemiluminescence for detection. The carrier gas is air that has been scrubbed by passing it over FeSO/sub 4/, which eliminates the need for any compressed gas cylinders. A novel gas sampling system and time enable variable sample volumes of contaminated air to be injected. Ambient PAN and NO/sub 2/ measurements can be made every 40 s with detection limits of 0.12 ppb for PAN and 0.2 ppb for NO/sub 2/. Seven other atmospheric species, including ozone, gave no interference. Linear response was observed for NO/sub 2/ from 0.2 to 170 ppb and for PAN from 1 to 70 ppb.

  20. Growth, yield and quality attributes of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Kufri chandramukhi) under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide and ozone and their interactions.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sumita; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-03-01

    The present study was designed to study the growth and yield responses of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kufri chandramukhi) to different levels of carbon dioxide (382 and 570ppm) and ozone (50 and 70ppb) in combinations using open top chambers (OTCs). Plants were exposed to three ozone levels in combination with ambient CO2 and two ozone levels at elevated CO2. Significant increments in leaf area and total biomass were observed under elevated CO2 in combination with ambient O3 (ECO2+AO3) and elevated O3 (ECO2+EO3), compared to the plants grown under ambient concentrations (ACO2+AO3). Yield measured as fresh weight of potato also increased significantly under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3. Yield, however, reduced under ambient (ACO2+AO3) and elevated ozone (ACO2+EO3) compared to ACO2 (filtered chamber). Number, fresh and dry weights of tubers of size 35-50mm and>50mm used for direct consumption and industrial purposes, respectively increased maximally under ECO2+AO3. Ambient as well as elevated levels of O3 negatively affected the growth parameters and yield mainly due to reductions in number and weight of tubers of sizes >35mm. The quality of potato tubers was also modified under different treatments. Starch content increased and K, Zn and Fe concentrations decreased under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3 compared to ACO2+AO3. Starch content reduced under ACO2+AO3 and ACO2+EO3 treatments compared to ACO2. These results clearly suggest that elevated CO2 has provided complete protection to ambient O3 as the potato yield was higher under ECO2+AO3 compared to ACO2. However, ambient CO2 is not enough to protect the plants under ambient O3 levels. Elevated CO2 also provided protection against elevated O3 by improving the yield. Quality of tubers is modified by both CO2 and O3, which have serious implications on human health at present and in future.

  1. Short-Term Effects of Nitrogen Dioxide on Mortality and Susceptibility Factors in 10 Italian Cities: The EpiAir Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiusolo, Monica; Cadum, Ennio; Stafoggia, Massimo; Galassi, Claudia; Faustini, Annunziata; Bisanti, Luigi; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Dessì, Maria Patrizia; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Pacelli, Barbara; Minerba, Sante; Simonato, Lorenzo; Forastiere, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown an association between nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and mortality. In Italy, the EpiAir multicentric study, “Air Pollution and Health: Epidemiological Surveillance and Primary Prevention,” investigated short-term health effects of air pollution, including NO2. Objectives: To study the individual susceptibility, we evaluated the association between NO2 and cause-specific mortality, investigating individual sociodemographic features and chronic/acute medical conditions as potential effect modifiers. Methods: We considered 276,205 natural deaths of persons > 35 years of age, resident in 10 Italian cities, and deceased between 2001 and 2005. We chose a time-stratified case-crossover analysis to evaluate the short-term effects of NO2 on natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory mortality. For each subject, we collected information on sociodemographic features and hospital admissions in the previous 2 years. Fixed monitors provided daily concentrations of NO2, particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and ozone (O3). Results: We found statistically significant associations with a 10-μg/m3 increase of NO2 for natural mortality [2.09% for lag 0–5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96–3.24], for cardiac mortality (2.63% for lag 0–5; 95% CI, 1.53–3.75), and for respiratory mortality (3.48% for lag 1–5; 95% CI, 0.75–6.29). These associations were independent from those of PM10 and O3. Stronger associations were estimated for subjects with at least one hospital admission in the 2 previous years and for subjects with three or more specific chronic conditions. Some cardiovascular conditions (i.e., ischemic heart disease, pulmonary circulation impairment, heart conduction disorders, heart failure) and diabetes appeared to confer a strong susceptibility to air pollution. Conclusions: Our results suggest significant and likely independent effects of NO2 on natural, cardiac, and respiratory mortality

  2. Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on San Juan Basin Coal

    SciTech Connect

    K. A. M. Gasem; R. L. Robinson; S. R. Reeves

    2002-03-01

    The major objectives of this project were to (a) measure the adsorption behavior of pure methane, nitrogen, CO{sub 2} and their binary and ternary mixtures on wet Tiffany coal at 130 F and pressures to 2000 psia; (b) correlate the equilibrium adsorption isotherm data using the extended Langmuir model, the Langmuir model, the loading ratio correlation and the Zhou-Gasem-Robinson equation of state; and (c) establish sorption-time estimates for the pure components. Specific accomplishments are summarized below regarding the complementary tasks involving experimental work and data correlation. Representative coal samples from BP Amoco Tiffany Injection Wells No.1 and No.10 were prepared, as requested. The equilibrium moisture content and particle size distribution of each coal sample were determined. Compositional coal analyses for both samples were performed by Huffman Laboratories, Inc. Pure gas adsorption for methane on wet Tiffany coal samples from Injection Wells No.1 and No.10 was measured separately at 130 F (327.6 K) and pressures to 2000 psia (13.7 MPa). The average expected uncertainty in these data is about 3% (9 SCF/ton). Our measurements indicate that the adsorption isotherms of the two coal samples exhibit similar Langmuir-type behavior. For the samples from the two wells, a maximum variation of about 5% in the amount adsorbed is observed at 2000 psia. Gas adsorption isotherms were measured for pure methane, nitrogen and CO{sub 2} on a wet, mixed Tiffany coal sample. The coal sample was an equal-mass mixture of coals from Well No.1 and Well No.10. The adsorption measurements were conducted at 130 F at pressures to 2000 psia. The adsorption isotherms have average expected experimental uncertainties of 3% (9 SCF/ton), 6% (8 SCF/ton), and 7% (62 SCF/ton) for methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}, respectively. Adsorption isotherms were measured for methane/nitrogen, methane/CO{sub 2} and nitrogen/CO{sub 2} binary mixtures on wet, mixed Tiffany coal at 130 F and

  3. Dynamics of ozone and nitrogen oxides at Summit, Greenland: I. Multi-year observations in the snowpack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Brie; Helmig, Detlev; Toro, Claudia; Doskey, Paul; Kramer, Louisa; Murray, Keenan; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Seok, Brian

    2015-12-01

    A multi-year investigation of ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in snowpack interstitial air down to a depth of 2.8 m was conducted at Summit, Greenland, to elucidate mechanisms controlling the production and destruction of these important trace gases within the snow. Snowpack O3 values ranged from 30 to 40 ppbv during winter months, and dropped below 10 ppbv in summer. Wintertime NOx levels were low at all depths in the snowpack (below 10 pptv for NO and below 25 pptv for NO2). In the summer, NO values up to 120 pptv, and NO2 mixing ratios up to ∼700 pptv were observed. O3 loss within the snowpack was observed throughout all seasons. The magnitude of the O3 loss rate tracked the seasonal and diurnal cycle of incoming short wave solar radiation. Production of NO within a shallow layer of the snowpack was recorded during the spring and summer months. NO2 production also occurred, and heightened levels were measured down to 2.5 m in the snowpack. The average daily maximum in NO was observed at solar noon, and the minimum was seen during night. The daily peak in NO2 was on average 7 h shifted from the incoming solar radiation and NO maxima. NOx levels in interstitial air during spring were enhanced relative to summer and fall. The influence of meteorological effects such as wind pumping on snowpack interstitial air levels of O3 and NOx was investigated using case study periods. Increased snowpack ventilation during high wind events was found to yield enhancement in snowpack NOx, with this effect being enhanced during times when O3 was elevated in ambient air. This behavior suggests that O3 is involved in NOx production in the snowpack. This extensive set of observations is used to re-evaluate physical and chemical processes that describe the dynamic O3 and NOx chemistry occurring within snowpack interstitial air at Summit.

  4. Combined effects of ozone and nitrogen on secondary compounds, amino acids, and aphid performance in Scots pine

    SciTech Connect

    Kainulainen, P.; Holopainen, J.K.; Holopainen, T.

    2000-02-01

    Combined effects of O{sub 3} and N supply on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied in two separate growth chamber experiments exposing seedlings to 0, 0.075, 0.15, and 0.3 {micro}L/L of O{sub 3} during 8 h/d, 5 d/wk for a period of 5 wk. Seedlings were fertilized with low, medium, and high levels of N. Ozone and N availability affected concentrations of several primary and secondary metabolites. More changes on metabolites were detected in Exp. 1 (with seedlings ceasing their annual growth) than in Exp. 2 (with seedlings actively growing). Overall, high O{sub 3} exposure levels significantly decreased concentrations of monoterpenes and increased concentrations of resin acids. Concentrations of total phenolics were not affected by O{sub 3} exposure. Mostly lower concentrations of monoterpenes and resin acids were found at a medium N-fertilization level than at low and high N-fertilization levels, while total phenolic concentration decreased by enhanced N availability. In Exp. 1, significantly elevated concentrations of free amino acids were found at O{sub 3} concentration of 0.3 {micro}L/L. Nitrogen availability did not have remarkable effects on amino acid concentrations. In Exp. 1, both {sub 3} and N had a significant effect on the MRGR of the aphid Schizolachnus pineti. In Exp. 2, the weight of the females and nymphs and the total number of reproduced nymphs were significantly affected by O{sub 3} and N. Only a few interaction effects were found, suggesting that the N supply does not significantly modify O{sub 3}-induced effects on studied primary and secondary compounds and aphid performance in Scots pine seedlings.

  5. Surface and boundary layer exchanges of volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides and ozone during the GABRIEL campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganzeveld, L.; Eerdekens, G.; Feig, G.; Fischer, H.; Harder, H.; Königstedt, R.; Kubistin, D.; Martinez, M.; Meixner, F. X.; Scheeren, H. A.; Sinha, V.; Taraborrelli, D.; Williams, J.; Vilöguerau de Arellano, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2008-10-01

    We present an evaluation of sources, sinks and turbulent transport of nitrogen oxides, ozone and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the boundary layer over French Guyana and Suriname during the October 2005 GABRIEL campaign by simulating observations with a single-column chemistry and climate model (SCM) along a zonal transect. Simulated concentrations of O3 and NO as well as NO2 photolysis rates over the forest agree well with observations when a small soil-biogenic NO emission flux was applied. This suggests that the photochemical conditions observed during GABRIEL reflect a pristine tropical low-NOx regime. The SCM uses a compensation point approach to simulate nocturnal deposition and daytime emissions of acetone and methanol and produces daytime boundary layer mixing ratios in reasonable agreement with observations. The area average isoprene emission flux, inferred from the observed isoprene mixing ratios and boundary layer height, is about half the flux simulated with commonly applied emission algorithms. The SCM nevertheless simulates too high isoprene mixing ratios, whereas hydroxyl concentrations are strongly underestimated compared to observations, which can at least partly explain the discrepancy. Furthermore, the model substantially overestimates the isoprene oxidation products methlyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) partly due to a simulated nocturnal increase due to isoprene oxidation. This increase is most prominent in the residual layer whereas in the nocturnal inversion layer we simulate a decrease in MVK and MACR mixing ratios, assuming efficient removal of MVK and MACR. Entrainment of residual layer air masses, which are enhanced in MVK and MACR and other isoprene oxidation products, into the growing boundary layer poses an additional sink for OH which is thus not available for isoprene oxidation. Based on these findings, we suggest pursuing measurements of the tropical residual layer chemistry with a focus on the nocturnal depletion

  6. Surface and boundary layer exchanges of volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides and ozone during the GABRIEL Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganzeveld, L.; Eerdekens, G.; Feig, G.; Fischer, H.; Harder, H.; Königstedt, R.; Kubistin, D.; Martinez, M.; Meixner, F. X.; Scheeren, B.; Sinha, V.; Taraborrelli, D.; Williams, J.; Vilöguerau de Arellano, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2008-06-01

    We present an evaluation of sources, sinks and turbulent transport of nitrogen oxides, ozone and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the boundary layer over French Guyana and Suriname during the October 2005 GABRIEL campaign by simulating observations with a single-column chemistry and climate model (SCM) along a zonal transect. Simulated concentrations of O3 and NO as well as NO2 photolysis rates over the forest agree well with observations when a small soil-biogenic NO emission flux was applied. This suggests that the photochemical conditions observed during GABRIEL reflect a pristine tropical low-NOx regime. The SCM uses a compensation point approach to simulate nocturnal deposition and daytime emissions of acetone and methanol and produces daytime boundary layer mixing ratios in reasonable agreement with observations. The area average isoprene emission flux, inferred from the observed isoprene mixing ratios and boundary layer height, is about half the flux simulated with commonly applied emission algorithms. The SCM nevertheless simulates too high isoprene mixing ratios, whereas hydroxyl concentrations are strongly underestimated compared to observations, which can at least partly explain the discrepancy. Furthermore, the model substantially overestimates the isoprene oxidation products methlyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) partly due to a simulated nocturnal increase due to isoprene oxidation. This increase is most prominent in the residual layer whereas in the nocturnal inversion layer we simulate a decrease in MVK and MACR mixing ratios, assuming efficient removal of MVK and MACR. Entrainment of residual layer air masses, which are enhanced in MVK and MACR and other isoprene oxidation products, into the growing boundary layer poses an additional sink for OH which is thus not available for isoprene oxidation. Based on these findings, we suggest pursuing measurements of the tropical residual layer chemistry with a focus on the nocturnal depletion

  7. Nitrous Oxides Ozone Destructiveness Under Different Climate Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanter, David R.; McDermid, Sonali P.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance as well as a key component of the nitrogen cascade. While emissions scenarios indicating the range of N2O's potential future contributions to radiative forcing are widely available, the impact of these emissions scenarios on future stratospheric ozone depletion is less clear. This is because N2O's ozone destructiveness is partially dependent on tropospheric warming, which affects ozone depletion rates in the stratosphere. Consequently, in order to understand the possible range of stratospheric ozone depletion that N2O could cause over the 21st century, it is important to decouple the greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and compare different emissions trajectories for individual substances (e.g. business-as-usual carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions versus low emissions of N2O). This study is the first to follow such an approach, running a series of experiments using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences ModelE2 atmospheric sub-model. We anticipate our results to show that stratospheric ozone depletion will be highest in a scenario where CO2 emissions reductions are prioritized over N2O reductions, as this would constrain ozone recovery while doing little to limit stratospheric NOx levels (the breakdown product of N2O that destroys stratospheric ozone). This could not only delay the recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer, but might also prevent a return to pre-1980 global average ozone concentrations, a key goal of the international ozone regime. Accordingly, we think this will highlight the importance of reducing emissions of all major greenhouse gas emissions, including N2O, and not just a singular policy focus on CO2.

  8. Leaf Uptake of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Under Different Environmental Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaparro-Suarez, I.; Thielmann, A.; Meixner, F. X.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2005-12-01

    The chemical budget of Ozone in the troposphere is largely determined by the concentration of NOx (NO, NO2) within a photostationary equilibrium. It is well known that atmospheric concentration is strongly influenced by the bi-directional exchange of NO2. However, there is some debate about the magnitude of the compensation point. Therefore, we investigated the uptake of atmospheric NO2 by trees in relation to atmospheric NO2 concentrations. Using the dynamic chamber technique and a sensitive and specific NO-analysator (CLD 780, Eco Physics) we measured the uptake of NO2 by four different tree species (Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus ilex und Pinus sylvestris) under field and laboratory conditions. Simultaneous measurements of CO2 exchange and transpiration were performed to track photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Depending on tree species we found the exchange to be controlled by very low NO2 compensation points sometimes reaching zero values (no emission) under laboratory conditions. In the field a high compensation point for European beech (Fagus sylvatica) was observed, which is understood as a result of complex atmospheric conditions.

  9. Responses of sugar maple and hemlock seedlings to elevated carbon dioxide under altered above- and belowground nitrogen sources.

    PubMed

    Eller, Allyson S D; McGuire, Krista L; Sparks, Jed P

    2011-04-01

    Various human-induced changes to the atmosphere have caused carbon dioxide (CO₂), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and nitrate deposition (NO₃⁻) to increase in many regions of the world. The goal of this study was to examine the simultaneous influence of these three factors on tree seedlings. We used open-top chambers to fumigate sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) with ambient or elevated CO₂ and NO₂ (elevated concentrations were 760 ppm and 40 ppb, respectively). In addition, we applied an artificial wet deposition of 30 kg ha⁻¹ year⁻¹ NO₃⁻ to half of the open-top chambers. After two growing seasons, hemlocks showed a stimulation of growth under elevated CO₂, but the addition of elevated NO₂ or NO₃⁻ eliminated this effect. In contrast, sugar maple seedlings showed no growth enhancement under elevated CO₂ alone and decreased growth in the presence of NO₂ or NO₃⁻, and the combined treatments of elevated CO₂ with increased NO₂ or NO₃⁻ were similar to control plants. Elevated CO₂ induced changes in the leaf characteristics of both species, including decreased specific leaf area, decreased %N and increased C:N. The effects of elevated CO₂, NO₂ and NO₃⁻ on growth were not additive and treatments that singly had no effect often modified the effects of other treatments. The growth of both maple and hemlock seedlings under the full combination of treatments (CO₂ + NO₂ + NO₃⁻) was similar to that of seedlings grown under control conditions, suggesting that models predicting increased seedling growth under future atmospheric conditions may be overestimating the growth and carbon storage potential of young trees.

  10. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

    2014-04-01

    A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modelling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitorings, ozone zondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around north eastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

  11. Impact of lake breezes on ozone and nitrogen oxides in the Greater Toronto Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, G. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Sills, D. M. L.

    2015-05-01

    Meteorological and air quality datasets from summertime (May to September, 2010-2012) were analysed in order to assess the influence of lake-breeze circulations on pollutant levels in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). While previous estimates of the frequency of summer days experiencing lake breezes range between 25 and 32 % for the GTA, a simple algorithm using surface meteorological observations suggested Lake Ontario breezes occurred on 56% of summer days, whereas a more reliable multiplatform approach yielded a frequency of 74%. Data from five air quality stations across the GTA were used to compare air quality on days during which a lake-breeze circulation formed ("lake breeze days") versus days when one did not ("non-lake breeze days"). Average daytime O3 maxima were 13.6-14.8 ppb higher on lake breeze days relative to non-lake breeze days. Furthermore, the Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria (AAQC) for 1-h average O3 (80 ppb) and 8-h average O3 (65 ppb) were exceeded only on lake breeze days and occurred on a total of 30 and 54 days throughout the study period, respectively. A causal link between lake-breeze circulations and enhanced O3 was identified by examining several days in which only some of the air quality sites were inside the lake-breeze circulation. O3 mixing ratios at sites located within the circulation were at least 30 ppb higher than sites outside the circulation, despite similar temperatures, cloud conditions and synoptic regimes across the region. Rapid O3 increases were concurrent with the arrival of the lake-breeze front, suggesting O3-rich air from over the lake is being advected inland throughout the day. Lake-breeze circulations were found to have less impact on nitrogen oxide (NOx) levels. Morning NOx was greater on lake breeze days, probably due to the stagnant conditions favourable for lake breeze formation. During the late afternoon, only inland sites experience increased NOx on lake breeze days, likely as a result of being downwind

  12. Preparation of porous nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide microspheres and a study of their photocatalytic, antibacterial and electrochemical activities

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Chu, W.; Huang, Y.Y.; Liu, X.; Tong, D.G.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Porous N-doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres were prepared for the first time via plasma technique. The sample exhibited better photocatalytic activity, photoinduced inactivation activity and better electrochemical activity than those of TiO{sub 2} microspheres and P25. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Porous N-doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres were prepared via nitrogen plasma technique. ► Plasma treatment did not affect the porous structure of the TiO{sub 2} microspheres. ► With the plasma treatment, the N contents in the samples increased. ► Their photocatalytic, antibacterial and electrochemical activities were studied. -- Abstract: Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-doped TiO{sub 2}) microspheres with porous structure were prepared via the nitrogen-assisted glow discharge plasma technique at room temperature for the first time. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement, UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra, photoluminescence spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the plasma treatment did not affect the porous structure of the TiO{sub 2} microspheres. With the plasma treatment, the N contents in the samples increased. During the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under simulative sunlight irradiation, the sample after plasma treatment for 60 min (N-TiO{sub 2}-60) exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than those of the TiO{sub 2} microspheres, P25 and other N-doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres. Furthermore, the N-TiO{sub 2}-60 showed excellent antibacterial activities towards Escherichia coli under visible irradiation. These should be attributed to the enhancement of the visible light region absorption for TiO{sub 2} after N-doping. Electrochemical data demonstrated that the N-doping not only enhanced the electrochemical activity of TiO{sub 2}, but also improved the reversibility of Li insertion/extraction reactions

  13. Bi-phasic titanium dioxide nanoparticles doped with nitrogen and neodymium for enhanced photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Virginia; Bear, Joseph C.; McNaughter, Paul D.; McGettrick, James D.; Watson, Trystan; Charbonneau, Cecile; O'Brien, Paul; Barron, Andrew R.; Dunnill, Charles W.

    2015-10-01

    Bi-phasic or multi-phasic composite nanoparticles for use in photocatalysis have been produced by a new synthetic approach. Sol-gel methods are used to deposit multiple layers of act