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Sample records for p-aminobenzoic acid propyl

  1. Thermodynamics of the complexation of arabinogalactan with salicylic and p-aminobenzoic acids in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudarisova, R. Kh.; Badykova, L. A.

    2016-03-01

    The thermodynamics of complexation of arabinogalactan with salicylic and p-aminobenzoic acids in aqueous solutions is studied by means spectroscopy. The standard thermodynamic characteristics (Δ H°; Δ G°; Δ S°) of complexation are calculated.

  2. Growth of oriented p-aminobenzoic acid crystals by directional freezing

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Young Gun

    2012-01-01

    Oriented long needle-like p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) crystals are successfully prepared by directional freezing of PABA solution in this work. The width of the oriented crystals is controlled by changing the directional cooling rate, resulting in varying crystal morphologies and thermodynamic properties while maintaining the same chemical structure. PMID:23144588

  3. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of 2-hydroxyethylammonium salt of p-aminobenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Crisan, Manuela E; Bourosh, Paulina; Maffei, Massimo E; Forni, Alessandra; Pieraccini, Stefano; Sironi, Maurizio; Chumakov, Yurii M

    2014-01-01

    p-Aminobenzoic acid (pABA) plays important roles in a wide variety of metabolic processes. Herein we report the synthesis, theoretical calculations, crystallographic investigation, and in vitro determination of the biological activity and phytotoxicity of the pABA salt, 2-hydroxyethylammonium p-aminobenzoate (HEA-pABA). The ability of neutral and anionic forms of pABA to interact with TIR1 pocket was investigated by calculation of molecular electrostatic potential maps on the accessible surface area, docking experiments, Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics calculations. The docking study of the folate precursor pABA, its anionic form and natural auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) with the auxin receptor TIR1 revealed a similar binding mode in the active site. The phytotoxic evaluation of HEA-pABA, pABA and 2-hydroxyethylamine (HEA) was performed on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col 0 at five different concentrations. HEA-pABA and pABA acted as potential auxin-like regulators of root development in Arabidopsis thaliana (0.1 and 0.2 mM) and displayed an agravitropic root response at high concentration (2 mM). This study suggests that HEA-pABA and pABA might be considered as potential new regulators of plant growth. PMID:25054237

  4. Polymorphism control of p-aminobenzoic acid by isothermal anti-solvent crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Rakesh Kumar; Sarkar, Debasis

    2016-11-01

    We report, for the first time, the control of polymorphism of p-aminobenzoic acid by isothermal anti-solvent crystallization using ethanol as solvent and water as anti-solvent. p-aminobenzoic (p-ABA) acid crystallizes in two distinct polymorphic forms: the α-polymorph, which is commercially available form and appears as long fibrous needles; and the β-polymorph, which appears in the form of prisms. The solubility of p-ABA was determined gravimetrically for various water/ethanol mixtures at 15 °C and isothermal anti-solvent crystallization experiments were conducted at 15 °C over a range of supersaturation ratio from 1.01 to 1.30 and at different anti-solvent addition rates of 4, 6, 8, and10 ml/h. The needle-type α-polymorph was always obtained at higher supersaturation ratio and higher flow-rates of anti-solvent addition. The prismatic β-polymorph was obtained at lower supersaturation range of 1.01-1.06 when anti-solvent was added at 4 and 6 ml/h. The obtained polymorphs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. The region of occurrence of each polymorph with respect to supersaturation ratio and anti-solvent wt% is presented for these addition rates. The careful selection of supersaturation ratio and anti-solvent addition rate can produce desired polymorph of p-ABA by anti-solvent crystallization.

  5. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Biological Activity of 2-Hydroxyethylammonium Salt of p-Aminobenzoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Crisan, Manuela E.; Bourosh, Paulina; Maffei, Massimo E.; Forni, Alessandra; Pieraccini, Stefano; Sironi, Maurizio; Chumakov, Yurii M.

    2014-01-01

    p-Aminobenzoic acid (pABA) plays important roles in a wide variety of metabolic processes. Herein we report the synthesis, theoretical calculations, crystallographic investigation, and in vitro determination of the biological activity and phytotoxicity of the pABA salt, 2-hydroxyethylammonium p-aminobenzoate (HEA-pABA). The ability of neutral and anionic forms of pABA to interact with TIR1 pocket was investigated by calculation of molecular electrostatic potential maps on the accessible surface area, docking experiments, Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics calculations. The docking study of the folate precursor pABA, its anionic form and natural auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) with the auxin receptor TIR1 revealed a similar binding mode in the active site. The phytotoxic evaluation of HEA-pABA, pABA and 2-hydroxyethylamine (HEA) was performed on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col 0 at five different concentrations. HEA-pABA and pABA acted as potential auxin-like regulators of root development in Arabidopsis thaliana (0.1 and 0.2 mM) and displayed an agravitropic root response at high concentration (2 mM). This study suggests that HEA-pABA and pABA might be considered as potential new regulators of plant growth. PMID:25054237

  6. Magnetic whiskers of p-aminobenzoic acid and their use for preparation of filled and microchannel silicone rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, V. V.; Loginova, V. V.; Zolotareva, N. V.; Razov, E. N.; Kotomina, V. E.; Kruglov, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    A thin cobalt layer has been formed on the surface of p-aminobenzoic acid whiskers by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The metallized crystals have been oriented in liquid polydimethylsiloxane rubber by applying a dc magnetic field. After vulcanization, the filler has been removed by processing in an alcohol solution of trifluoroacetic acid. The cobalt deposition on the surface of the organic compound and the properties of metallized whiskers are investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  7. Aquatic photodegradation of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid in the presence of dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Ji, Yuefei; Zeng, Chao; Zhang, Ya; Wang, Zunyao; Yang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important photosensitizer for the phototransformation of organic contaminants in sunlit natural waters. This article focuses on the photolysis kinetics and mechanism of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) in the presence of four kinds of DOM; Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA), Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA), Nordic Lake fulvic acid (NOFA) and Nordic Lake humic acid (NOHA). It is evident that direct photolysis of PABA is highly pH-dependent because different species of PABA have different electrical densities on the ring system. The presence of four kinds of DOM inhibits the photolysis of PABA primarily due to their light screening effect. Meanwhile, a complex interaction involving energy transfer, triplet carbonyl group induced electron transfer, and amino acid induced proton abstraction between PABA and DOM is verified by competition kinetics experiments and density functional theory (DFT) computation. In addition, DOM-induced singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) and hydroxyl radical (OH) are determined to play an insignificant role in PABA photolysis by competition dynamics method. Photoproducts identification using solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS) techniques reveals that the distribution of the photoproducts could not be affected by the addition of DOM. Two photodegradation pathways of PABA are temporarily proposed, in which the di(tri)-polymerization of intermediates are the dominant pathway whereas the oxidation of amino group to nitryl followed by hydroxylation is a minor process. Our findings reveal that direct photolysis is the dominant transformation pathway of PABA in natural sunlit waters, while the presence of DOM could evidently influence such process by light screening effect, energy transfer, electron transfer and proton abstraction mechanism. The findings in this study provide useful information for understanding of interaction between DOM and organic contaminants. PMID

  8. Syntheses and luminescent properties of a copolymer of terbium-p-aminobenzoic acid-methacrylic acid and styrene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, A Q; Yang, Y M; Li, L P; Zhai, G M; Jia, H S; Liu, X G; Xu, B S

    2015-11-01

    A reactive Tb(III) complex with p-aminobenzoic acid (p-ABA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) as ligands was synthesized. A novel copolymer was synthesized by free radical copolymerization of styrene and the reactive Tb(III) complex in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN) as the initiator. IR and UV/Vis spectra indicate that the copolymer exhibited absorption from polystyrene and the complex. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the copolymer remained stable up to 357°C and the thermal stability was significantly improved in comparison with polymer matrix and the Tb(III) complex. The luminescent intensity of the synthetic terbium macromolecular complexes increased with increasing complex monomer content. Moreover, concentration quenching was not observed.

  9. Unveiling self-sensitized photodegradation pathways by DFT calculations: A case of sunscreen p-aminobenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siyu; Chen, Jingwen; Zhao, Qing; Xie, Qing; Wei, Xiaoxuan

    2016-11-01

    Self-sensitized photodegradation has been observed for diverse aquatic organic pollutants. However, photodegradation pathways have not been clarified in previous experimental studies. Here, we attempted to probe self-sensitized photodegradation pathways of organic pollutants employing both photolytic experiments and density functional theory calculations. By performing photolytic experiments, we found that singlet state oxygen ((1)O2) play an essential role in photodegradation of a sunscreen p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). PABA can photogenerate (1)O2 and react fast with (1)O2. We hypothesized that PABA underwent (1)O2 induced self-sensitized photodegradation. By calculating transition states, intermediates and reaction barriers, we found that (1)O2 can oxidize PABA through electrophilic attacks on the benzene ring to abstract one H atom of the amino group following a 1,3-addition mechanism or to induce decarboxylation. Either pathway produces a hydroperoxide. O-O bond cleavage of the hydroperoxides occurring at ground states or the lowest triplet excited states can produce phenoxyl radical precursors of 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-aminophenol, which are photodegradation products detected in experiments. Thus, a viable (1)O2 self-sensitized photodegradation mechanism was unveiled for PABA. PMID:27529387

  10. Herbicidal effects of sulfamethoxazole in Lemna gibba: using p-aminobenzoic acid as a biomarker of effect.

    PubMed

    Brain, Richard A; Ramirez, Alejandro J; Fulton, Barry A; Chambliss, C Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W

    2008-12-01

    Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is among the most frequently detected antibiotics in the environment, heavily used in both human therapy and agriculture. Like other sulfonamides, SMX disrupts the folate biosynthetic pathway in bacteria, which was recently established as identical to that of plants, raising concerns over nontarget toxicity. Consequently, Lemna gibba was exposed to SMX to evaluate phytotoxic potency and mode of action (MOA) by HPLC-MS/MS measurement of p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) metabolite levels, a precursor to folate biosynthesis and substrate of the target enzyme dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS). pABA levels were found to increase upon exposure to SMX following an exponential rise to a maxima regression model in a concentration-dependent manner. The EC50 for pABA content was 3.36 microg/L, 20 times lower than that of fresh weight (61.6 microg/L) and 40 times lower than frond number (132 microg/L) responses. These results suggest that, as in bacteria, sulfonamide antibiotics specifically disrupt folate biosynthesis via inhibition of DHPS. Analysis of pABA concentrations appears to provide a sulfonamide-specific biomarker of effect based on MOA with exceptional diagnostic capacity and sensitivity compared to traditional morphological end points. Using the EC50 for pABA content, a potential hazard was identified for L. gibba exposed to SMX, which would not have been detected based upon traditional standardized morphological approaches. PMID:19192826

  11. Degradation of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid using a combination system of UV irradiation, persulphate and iron(II).

    PubMed

    Xue, Yicen; Dong, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaoning; Bi, Wenlong; Zhai, Pingping; Li, Hongjing; Nie, Minghua

    2016-03-01

    Increased usage and discharge of sunscreens have led to ecological safety crisis, and people are developing the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to treat them. The present study aimed to determine the degradation efficiency and mechanism of the sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) using the UV/Fe(2+)/persulphate (PS) method. A series of irradiation experiments were conducted to optimise the system conditions and to study the impacts of the natural anion. Free radicals and degradation products were identified in order to clarify the degradation mechanism. Initial PS and Fe(2+) concentrations showed significant impacts on PABA degradation. Natural anions, such as Cl(-), NO3 (-), H2PO4 (-) and HCO3 (-), impeded PABA degradation because of ion (Fe(2+)) capture, radical scavenging or pH effects. Hydroxyl (HO·) and sulphate (SO4 (·-)) radicals were two main radicals observed in the UV/Fe(2+)/PS system; of these, SO4 (·-) showed greater effects on PABA degradation. Over 99 % of the available PABA was completely degraded into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) by the UV/Fe(2+)/PS system, and the remaining PABA participated in complex radical reactions. By-products were identified by total ion chromatography and mass spectrometry. Our research provides a treatment process for PABA with high degradation efficiency and environmental safety and introduces a new strategy for sunscreen degradation. PMID:26517998

  12. Degradation of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid using a combination system of UV irradiation, persulphate and iron(II).

    PubMed

    Xue, Yicen; Dong, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaoning; Bi, Wenlong; Zhai, Pingping; Li, Hongjing; Nie, Minghua

    2016-03-01

    Increased usage and discharge of sunscreens have led to ecological safety crisis, and people are developing the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to treat them. The present study aimed to determine the degradation efficiency and mechanism of the sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) using the UV/Fe(2+)/persulphate (PS) method. A series of irradiation experiments were conducted to optimise the system conditions and to study the impacts of the natural anion. Free radicals and degradation products were identified in order to clarify the degradation mechanism. Initial PS and Fe(2+) concentrations showed significant impacts on PABA degradation. Natural anions, such as Cl(-), NO3 (-), H2PO4 (-) and HCO3 (-), impeded PABA degradation because of ion (Fe(2+)) capture, radical scavenging or pH effects. Hydroxyl (HO·) and sulphate (SO4 (·-)) radicals were two main radicals observed in the UV/Fe(2+)/PS system; of these, SO4 (·-) showed greater effects on PABA degradation. Over 99 % of the available PABA was completely degraded into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) by the UV/Fe(2+)/PS system, and the remaining PABA participated in complex radical reactions. By-products were identified by total ion chromatography and mass spectrometry. Our research provides a treatment process for PABA with high degradation efficiency and environmental safety and introduces a new strategy for sunscreen degradation.

  13. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanowires in the degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid: A comparative study with a commercial catalyst.

    PubMed

    Soto-Vázquez, Loraine; Cotto, María; Ducongé, José; Morant, Carmen; Márquez, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid was studied using TiO2 nanowires as the catalyst synthesized through a hydrothermal procedure. The as-synthesized TiO2 nanowires were fully characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and Raman with a very high surface area of 512 m(2) g(-1). The photocatalytic degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid was carried out under 180 min of constant radiation and the results were compared with P25 as commercial catalyst. Optimal experimental conditions were determined for TiO2 nanowires with a catalyst dosage of 1.0 g L(-1) under acidic conditions with a 20 μM p-aminobenzoic acid solution obtaining 95% of degradation. Under similar experimental conditions comparative studies were performed obtaining 98% of degradation when P25 is employed. In both systems, a pseudo first order reaction was found to provide the best correlations, with constant rates of 2.0 × 10(-2) min(-1) and 2.4 × 10(-2) min(-1) for TiO2 nanowires and P25, respectively.

  14. Tetrahydrofolate-specific enzymes in Methanosarcina barkeri and growth dependence of this methanogenic archaeon on folic acid or p-aminobenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Buchenau, Bärbel; Thauer, Rudolf K

    2004-10-01

    Methanogenic archaea are generally thought to use tetrahydromethanopterin or tetrahydrosarcinapterin (H4SPT) rather than tetrahydrofolate (H4F) as a pterin C1 carrier. However, the genome sequence of Methanosarcina species recently revealed a cluster of genes, purN, folD, glyA and metF, that are predicted to encode for H4F-specific enzymes. We show here for folD and glyA from M. barkeri that this prediction is correct: FolD (bifunctional N5,N10-methylene-H4F dehydrogenase/N5,N10-methenyl-H4F cyclohydrolase) and GlyA (serine:H4F hydroxymethyltransferase) were heterologously overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and found to be specific for methylene-H4F and H4F, respectively (apparent Km below 5 microM). Western blot analyses and enzyme activity measurements revealed that both enzymes were synthesized in M. barkeri. The results thus indicate that M. barkeri should contain H4F, which was supported by the finding that growth of M. barkeri was dependent on folic acid and that the vitamin could be substituted by p-aminobenzoic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of H4F. From the p-aminobenzoic acid requirement, an intracellular H4F concentration of approximately 5 M was estimated. Evidence is presented that the p-aminobenzoic acid taken up by the growing cells was not required for the biosynthesis of H4SPT, which was found to be present in the cells at a concentration above 3 mM. The presence of both H4SPT and H4F in M. barkeri is in agreement with earlier isotope labeling studies indicating that there are two separate C1 pools in these methanogens.

  15. Human N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid hydrolase (human meprin): genomic structure of the alpha and beta subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, D; Illisson, R; Metspalu, A; Sterchi, E E

    2000-01-01

    N-Benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid hydrolase (PPH, human meprin), a zinc-metalloendopeptidase of the astacin family, consists of two similar subunits. As well as in small-intestinal epithelial cells, the enzyme is found in lamina propria leucocytes, human cancer cells and colorectal cancer tissue, making it a potential candidate for a role in tumour formation and cancer progression. To elucidate the mechanisms that control PPH gene expression and to gain more insights into the evolutionary relationship of the two subunits, we analysed the complete exon-intron organization and searched for putative regulatory elements in 3 kb of the upstream region of both genes. The human gene for the alpha subunit is approx. 35 kb in size and contains 14 exons. The gene for the beta subunit is organized in 15 exons and spans approx. 27 kb. A comparison of both genes indicates strong structural similarities. The exons are almost identical in size, except exon 13 in PPHalpha, which codes for an additional I domain not present in PPHbeta. The locations of the respective exon-intron junctions and the intron phases are almost identical; five of them contain conserved split codons. The main variation is in the intron lengths. It can be concluded that PPHalpha and PPHbeta are derived from a common ancestor. Sequence analysis of the 5' flanking DNA with a computer search for promoter elements and different promoter constructs transfected into Caco-2 cells revealed a number of potential regulatory motifs and suggests that each of the two genes is regulated independently. PMID:10657243

  16. NEXAFS Chemical State and Bond Lengths of p-Aminobenzoic Acid in Solution and Solid State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, J. S.; Gainar, A.; Suljoti, E.; Xiao, J.; Golnak, R.; Aziz, E. F.; Schroeder, S. L. M.

    2016-05-01

    Solid-state and solution pH-dependent NEXAFS studies allow direct observation of the electronic state of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as a function of its chemical environment, revealing the chemical state and bonding of the chemical species. Variations in the ionization potential (IP) and 1s→π* resonances unequivocally identify the chemical species (neutral, cationic, or anionic) present and the varying local environment. Shifts in σ* shape resonances relative to the IP in the NEXAFS spectra vary with C-N bond length, and the important effect of minor alterations in bond length is confirmed with nitrogen FEFF calculations, leading to the possibility of bond length determination in solution.

  17. The effect of nitrate, bicarbonate and natural organic matter on the degradation of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid by simulated solar irradiation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liang; Meng, Cui; Zeng, Chao; Ji, Yuefei; Yang, Xi; Gao, Shixiang

    2011-11-15

    Our experiments revealed that a model sunscreen agent, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), can be effectively transformed through reactions that are mediated by simulated solar irradiation. We systematically explored the effects of nitrate ions, bicarbonate and different types of natural organic matter (NOM) on the degradation of PABA by simulated solar irradiation. Experimental data suggest that these components ubiquitous in nature water have different influence on the rates of the photoinduced removal of PABA. Products were extracted and analyzed using LC/MS and a total of four products probably resulting from OH and NO2 radicals attack were identified and the possible reaction pathways were proposed. The findings in this study provide useful information for understanding the environmental transformation of sunscreen agent in aquatic system. PMID:21975008

  18. N-Acetylation of p-aminobenzoic acid and p-phenylenediamine in primary porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells and in the human urothelial cell line 5637.

    PubMed

    Föllmann, Wolfram; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Behm, Claudia; Degen, Gisela H; Golka, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    N-Acetyltransferases (NAT) are important enzymes in the metabolism of certain carcinogenic arylamines, as N-acetylation decreases or prevents their bioactivation via N-hydroxylation. To study such processes in the bladder, cell culture models may be used, but metabolic competence needs to be characterized. This study focused on the N-acetylation capacity of two urothelial cell systems, using p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and the hair dye precursor p-phenylenediamine (PPD), two well-known substrates of the enzyme NAT1. The constitutive NAT1 activity was investigated using primary cultures of porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells (PUBEC) and in the human urothelial cell line 5637 to assess their suitability for further in vitro studies on PABA and PPD-induced toxicity. N-Acetylation of PABA and PPD was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis in cytosols of the two cell systems upon incubation with various substrate levels for up to 60 min. The primary PUBEC revealed higher N-acetylation rates (2.5-fold for PABA, 5-fold for PPD) compared to the 5637 cell line, based on both PABA conversion to its acetylated metabolite and formation of mono- and diacetylated PPD. The urothelial cell systems may thus be useful as a tool for further studies on the N-acetylation of aromatic amines via NAT1.

  19. The Structure of p-Aminobenzoic Acid in Water: Studies Combining UV-Vis, NEXAFS and RIXS Spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainar, A.; Stevens, J. S.; Suljoti, E.; Xiao, J.; Golnak, R.; Aziz, E. F.; Schroeder, S. L. M.

    2016-05-01

    NEXAFS-RIXS and home laboratory-based UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy are combined to examine the speciation and electronic structure of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) in aqueous solution as a function of pH. DFT and TD-DFT electronic structure calculations reproduce the experimental trends and provide a correlation between the experimental HOMO↔LUMO gap as well as the electronic transitions between molecular orbitals in the non-ionic, anionic and cationic forms of PABA.

  20. Interaction of P-aminobenzoic acid with normal and sickel erythrocyte membrane: photoaffinity labelling of the binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Premachandra, B.R.

    1986-03-05

    Electron microscopic studies revealed that P-Amino benzoic acid (PABA) could prevent eichinocytosis of red cells in vitro. Equilibrium binding studies with right side out membrane vesicles (ROV) revealed a similar number of binding sites (1.2-1.4 ..mu..mol/mg) and Kd (1.4-1.6 mM) values for both normal and sickle cell membranes. /sup 14/C-Azide analogue of PABA was synthesized as a photoaffinity label to probe its sites of interaction on the erythrocyte membranes. Competitive binding studies of PABA with its azide indicated that both the compounds share common binding sites on the membrane surface since a 20 fold excess of azide inhibited PABA binding in a linear fashion. The azide was covalently incorporated into the membrane components only upon irradiation (52-35% of the label found in the proteins and the rest in lipids). Electrophoretic analysis of photolabelled ROV revealed that the azide interacts chiefly with Band 3 protein. PABA inhibited both high and low affinity calcium (Ca) binding sites situated on either surface of the membrane in a non-competitive manner; however, Ca binding stimulated by Mg-ATP was not affected. Ca transport into inside out vesicles was inhibited by PABA; but it did not affect the calcium ATP-ase activity. The authors studies suggest that the mechanism of action of PABA is mediated by its interaction with Band 3 protein (anion channel), calcium channel and calcium binding sites of erythrocyte membrane.

  1. Multiway partial least-squares coupled to residual trilinearization: a genuine multidimensional tool for the study of third-order data. Simultaneous analysis of procaine and its metabolite p-aminobenzoic acid in equine serum.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Patricia C; Durán-Merás, Isabel; García-Reiriz, Alejandro; Jiménez-Girón, Ana; de la Peña, Arsenio Muñoz; Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2007-09-15

    A new third-order multivariate calibration approach, based on the combination of multiway-partial least-squares with a separate procedure called residual trilinearization (N-PLS/RTL), is presented and applied to multicomponent analysis using third-order data. The proposed chemometric algorithm is able to predict analyte concentrations in the presence of unexpected sample components, which require strict adherence to the second-order advantage. Results for the determination of procaine and its metabolite p-aminobenzoic acid in equine serum are discussed, based on kinetic fluorescence excitation-emission four-way measurements and application of the newly developed multiway methodology. Since the analytes are also the reagent and product of the hydrolysis reaction followed by fast-scanning fluorescence spectroscopy, the classical approach based on parallel factor analysis is challenged by strong linear dependencies and multilinearity losses. In comparison, N-PLS/RTL appears an appealing genuine multiway alternative that avoids the latter complications, yielding analytical results that are statistically comparable to those rendered by related unfolded algorithms, which are also able to process four-way data. Prediction was made on validation samples with a qualitative composition similar to the calibration set and also on test samples containing unexpected equine serum components.

  2. A solid-phase extraction and size-exclusion liquid chromatographic method for polyethylene glycol 25 p-aminobenzoic acid determination in urine: validation for urinary excretion studies of users of sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Balaguer, A; Chisvert, A; Salvador, A; Herraez, M; Diez, O

    2008-03-24

    No previous publications about percutaneous absorption of polyethylene glycol 25 p-aminobenzoic acid (PEG-25 PABA) have been found in the literature and the expected levels to be found in human urine after sunscreens use are unknown. The method proposed here is suitable to determine PEG-25 PABA in the urine of sunscreens users in order to carry out studies on body accumulation/excretion. It is based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) with size-exclusion liquid chromatography determination. Solid-phase extraction allows the analyte to be retained and subsequently eluted for a clean-up, using a silica-based cartridge. The size-exclusion liquid chromatography of the eluted allows the rest of matrix interferences to be avoided. Fluorescence intensity was measured at lambda(em)=350 nm (lambda(exc)=300 nm). The sensitivity of the proposed method is in the order of 450+/-5 mLng(-1) and the detection limit (3S(y/x)/b) in the measured solutions is in the order of 13 ngmL(-1), that is 2.6 ngmL(-1) in urine samples. The method enables PEG-25 PABA to be determined in both, spiked and unspiked human urine samples. Results obtained for spiked human urine samples (11-100 ngmL(-1)) demonstrated the accuracy of the method. The mean relative standard deviation of the results was in the order of 3-10%. Three volunteers applied a sunscreen lotion containing a 8% PEG-25 PABA sunscreen cream and their urinary excretion was controlled from the moment of application until the excreted amounts were no longer detectable.

  3. Crystal structures of the pyrazinamide-p-aminobenzoic acid (1/1) cocrystal and the transamidation reaction product 4-(pyrazine-2-carboxamido)benzoic acid in the molten state.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Shridhar H; Sahu, Sanjay Kumar; Gonnade, Rajesh G

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis of pharmaceutical cocrystals is a strategy to enhance the performance of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) without affecting their therapeutic efficiency. The 1:1 pharmaceutical cocrystal of the antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide (PZA) and the cocrystal former p-aminobenzoic acid (p-ABA), C7H7NO2·C5H5N3O, (1), was synthesized successfully and characterized by relevant solid-state characterization methods. The cocrystal crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2₁/n containing one molecule of each component. Both molecules associate via intermolecular O-H···O and N-H···O hydrogen bonds [O···O = 2.6102 (15) Å and O-H···O = 168.3 (19)°; N···O = 2.9259 (18) Å and N-H···O = 167.7 (16)°] to generate a dimeric acid-amide synthon. Neighbouring dimers are linked centrosymmetrically through N-H···O interactions [N···O = 3.1201 (18) Å and N-H···O = 136.9 (14)°] to form a tetrameric assembly supplemented by C-H···N interactions [C···N = 3.5277 (19) Å and C-H···N = 147°]. Linking of these tetrameric assemblies through N-H···O [N···O = 3.3026 (19) Å and N-H···O = 143.1 (17)°], N-H···N [N···N = 3.221 (2) Å and N-H···N = 177.9 (17)°] and C-H···O [C···O = 3.5354 (18) Å and C-H···O = 152°] interactions creates the two-dimensional packing. Recrystallization of the cocrystals from the molten state revealed the formation of 4-(pyrazine-2-carboxamido)benzoic acid, C12H9N3O3, (2), through a transamidation reaction between PZA and p-ABA. Carboxamide (2) crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1̅ with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Molecules of (2) form a centrosymmetric dimeric homosynthon through an acid-acid O-H···O hydrogen bond [O···O = 2.666 (3) Å and O-H···O = 178 (4)°]. Neighbouring assemblies are connected centrosymmetrically via a C-H···N interaction [C···N = 3.365 (3) Å and C-H···N = 142°] engaging

  4. Crystal structures of the pyrazinamide-p-aminobenzoic acid (1/1) cocrystal and the transamidation reaction product 4-(pyrazine-2-carboxamido)benzoic acid in the molten state.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Shridhar H; Sahu, Sanjay Kumar; Gonnade, Rajesh G

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis of pharmaceutical cocrystals is a strategy to enhance the performance of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) without affecting their therapeutic efficiency. The 1:1 pharmaceutical cocrystal of the antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide (PZA) and the cocrystal former p-aminobenzoic acid (p-ABA), C7H7NO2·C5H5N3O, (1), was synthesized successfully and characterized by relevant solid-state characterization methods. The cocrystal crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2₁/n containing one molecule of each component. Both molecules associate via intermolecular O-H···O and N-H···O hydrogen bonds [O···O = 2.6102 (15) Å and O-H···O = 168.3 (19)°; N···O = 2.9259 (18) Å and N-H···O = 167.7 (16)°] to generate a dimeric acid-amide synthon. Neighbouring dimers are linked centrosymmetrically through N-H···O interactions [N···O = 3.1201 (18) Å and N-H···O = 136.9 (14)°] to form a tetrameric assembly supplemented by C-H···N interactions [C···N = 3.5277 (19) Å and C-H···N = 147°]. Linking of these tetrameric assemblies through N-H···O [N···O = 3.3026 (19) Å and N-H···O = 143.1 (17)°], N-H···N [N···N = 3.221 (2) Å and N-H···N = 177.9 (17)°] and C-H···O [C···O = 3.5354 (18) Å and C-H···O = 152°] interactions creates the two-dimensional packing. Recrystallization of the cocrystals from the molten state revealed the formation of 4-(pyrazine-2-carboxamido)benzoic acid, C12H9N3O3, (2), through a transamidation reaction between PZA and p-ABA. Carboxamide (2) crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1̅ with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Molecules of (2) form a centrosymmetric dimeric homosynthon through an acid-acid O-H···O hydrogen bond [O···O = 2.666 (3) Å and O-H···O = 178 (4)°]. Neighbouring assemblies are connected centrosymmetrically via a C-H···N interaction [C···N = 3.365 (3) Å and C-H···N = 142°] engaging

  5. In vitro reconstitution and crystal structure of p-aminobenzoate N-oxygenase (AurF) involved in aureothin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoo Seong; Zhang, Houjin; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Nair, Satish K.; Zhao, Huimin

    2008-01-01

    p-aminobenzoate N-oxygenase (AurF) from Streptomyces thioluteus catalyzes the formation of unusual polyketide synthase starter unit p-nitrobenzoic acid (pNBA) from p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) in the biosynthesis of antibiotic aureothin. AurF is a metalloenzyme, but its native enzymatic activity has not been demonstrated in vitro, and its catalytic mechanism is unclear. In addition, the nature of the cofactor remains a controversy. Here, we report the in vitro reconstitution of the AurF enzyme activity, the crystal structure of AurF in the oxidized state, and the cocrystal structure of AurF with its product pNBA. Our combined biochemical and structural analysis unequivocally indicates that AurF is a non-heme di-iron monooxygenase that catalyzes sequential oxidation of aminoarenes to nitroarenes via hydroxylamine and nitroso intermediates. PMID:18458342

  6. BIOCHEMICAL AND GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF AN EARLY STEP IN A NOVEL PATHWAY FOR THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF AROMATIC AMINO ACIDS AND P-AMINOBENZOIC ACID IN THE ARCHAEON METHANOCOCCUS MARIPALUDIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methanococcus maripaludis is a strictly anaerobic, methane-producing archaeon and facultative autotroph capable of biosynthesizing all the amino acids and vitamins required for growth. In this work, the novel 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose-1-phosphate (DKFP) pathway for the biosynthesis ...

  7. Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (Benzocaine): efficacy as an anesthetic for five species of freshwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Gilderhus, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (benzocaine) was tested for its efficacy as an anesthetic for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii, brown trout (Salmo truttas, northern pike (Esox lucius). carp (Cyprinus carpio), and largemouth bass (Mieropterus salmoidesi. Since benzocaine is not water soluble, it was applied with acetone as a carrier. Concentrations of 100 to 200 mg!l were required for large adult northern pike, compared with 50 to 100 mg/l for small fish. Rates of sedation and recovery were slower in cold water than in warm water. Water hardness had little influence on the activity of benzocaine. Fish were anesthetized faster and recovered more slowly in acid than in alkaline water. Benzocaine produced deep anesthesia, but concentrations that rendered the fish handleable within 5 min were generally not safe for exposures longer than 15 min. Concentrations of benzocaine efficacious for fish were not acutely toxic to eggs of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshauiytschas, rainbow trout, brown trout, or lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Benzocaine is not registered for fishery use and is neither more effective nor safer than the registered anesthetic, tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222l.

  8. Synthesis, structure, growth and characterization of a novel organic NLO single crystal: Morpholin-4-ium p-aminobenzoate

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugam, G.; Ravi Kumar, K.; Sridhar, B.; Brahadeeswaran, S.

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► A new organic NLO crystal morpholin-4-ium p-aminobenzoate has been grown for the first time. ► The structure is reported for the first time in the literature. ► Thermal, optical and SHG studies suggest its suitability for various NLO applications. -- Abstract: The title compound, morpholin-4-ium p-aminobenzoate (MPABA)(C{sub 4}H{sub 10}NO{sup +},C{sub 7}H{sub 6}NO{sub 2}{sup −}), has been synthesized for the first time by the addition of morpholine with 4-aminobenzoic acid in equi-molar ratio and good quality single crystals have been grown by solution growth technique using methanol as a solvent. The molecular structure of the compound was solved and refined by Direct Methods using SHELXS97 and full-matrix least-squares technique using SHELXL97, respectively. MPABA crystallizes in a monoclinic system with unit cell parameters, a = 5.948(5) Å, b = 18.033(4) Å, c = 10.577(5) Å, β = 90.40(1)° and non-centrosymmetric space group Cc. The experimentally measured density and chemical compositions were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. The phases and functional groups of MPABA have been identified and confirmed through powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies, respectively. The thermal stability and decomposition details were studied through TG/DTA thermograms. The UV–visible transmission spectra were recorded for the grown crystal and its NLO characteristic was explored by powder second harmonic generation (SHG) studies.

  9. Sulfa drug screening in yeast: fifteen sulfa drugs compete with p-aminobenzoate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Castelli, L A; Nguyen, N P; Macreadie, I G

    2001-05-30

    Sulfa drugs have been used as antimicrobials for decades but resistance is now a problem. For major eukaryotic pathogens, including Plasmodium and Pneumocystis, sulfa drug testing is difficult or impossible. We have shown that the eukaryote yeast can be used as a model for the study of sulfa drugs within certain parameters. Fifteen sulfa drugs inhibited yeast growth in a manner indicating competition with p-aminobenzoate (pABA). Such competition resulted from direct addition of pABA or through increased expression of the pABA synthase gene (ABZ1). The model system predicts that overexpression of the pABA synthase gene can lead to drug resistance.

  10. TiO2 nanowire FET device: encapsulation of biomolecules by electro polymerized pyrrole propylic acid.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yung-Ming; Lin, Chi-Chang; Chang, Hsien-Chang; Li, Changming; Guo, Chunxian

    2011-01-15

    Silane-based methods have become the standards for the conjugation of biomolecules, especially for the preparation of one-dimensional nanomaterial biosensors. However, the specific binding of those target molecules might raise problems with regard to the sensing and non-sensing regions, which may contaminate the sensing devices and decrease their sensitivity. This paper attempts to explore the encapsulation of biomolecules on a one-dimensional nanomaterial field effect transistor (FET) biosensor using polypyrrole propylic acid (PPa). Specifically, the encapsulation of biomolecules via the electropolymerization of pyrrole propylic acid (Pa), a self-made low-conductivity polymer, on TiO(2)-nanowire (NW)-based FETs is presented. The energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) was obtained and electrical analysis was conducted to investigate PPa entrapping anti-rabbit IgG (PPa/1°Ab) on a composite film. The specificity, selectivity and sensitivity of the sensor were analyzed in order to determine the immunoreaction of PPa/1°Ab immobilized NW biosensors. Our results show that PPa/1°Ab achieved high specificity immobilization on NWs under the EDS analysis. Furthermore, the TiO(2)-NW FET immunosensor developed in this work successfully achieved specificity, selectivity and sensitivity detection for the target protein rabbit IgG at the nano-gram level. The combination of PPa material and the electropolymerization method may provide an alternative method to immobilize biomolecules on a specific surface, such as NWs.

  11. Modulation of peripheral Na(+) channels and neuronal firing by n-butyl-p-aminobenzoate.

    PubMed

    Thériault, Olivier; Poulin, Hugo; Sculptoreanu, Adrian; de Groat, William C; O'Leary, Micheal E; Chahine, Mohamed

    2014-03-15

    n-butyl-p-aminobenzoate (BAB), a local anesthetic, is administered epidurally in cancer patients to treat pain that is poorly controlled by other drugs that have a number of adverse effects. The purpose of the study was to unravel the mechanisms underlying the apparent selective pain suppressant effect of BAB. We used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to record Na(+) currents and action potentials (APs) in dissociated, nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells from rats, two types of peripheral sensory neuron Na(+) channels (Nav1.7 and Nav1.8), and the motor neuron-specific Na(+) channel (Nav1.6) expressed in HEK293 cells. BAB (1-100μM) inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the depolarization evoked repetitive firing in DRG cells, the three types of Na(+) current expressed in HEK293 cells, and the TTXr Na(+) current of the DRG neurons. BAB induced a use-dependent block that caused a shift of the inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction. BAB enhanced the onset of slow inactivation of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 currents but not of Nav1.6 currents. At clinically relevant concentrations (1-100μM), BAB is thus a more potent inhibitor of peripheral TTX-sensitive TTXs, Nav1.7 and TTX-resistant NaV1.8 Na(+) channels than of motor neuron axonal Nav1.6 Na(+) channels. BAB had similar effects on the TTXr Na(+) channels of rat DRG neurons and Nav1.8 channels expressed in HEK293 cells. The observed selectivity of BAB in treating cancer pain may be due to an enhanced and selective responsiveness of Na(+) channels in nociceptive neurons to this local anesthetic. PMID:24486399

  12. Propyl gallate synthesis using acidophilic tannase and simultaneous production of tannase and gallic acid by marine Aspergillus awamori BTMFW032.

    PubMed

    Beena, P S; Basheer, Soorej M; Bhat, Sarita G; Bahkali, Ali H; Chandrasekaran, M

    2011-07-01

    Marine Aspergillus awamori BTMFW032, recently reported by us, produce acidophilic tannase as extracellular enzyme. Here, we report the application of this enzyme for synthesis of propyl gallate by direct transesterification of tannic acid and in tea cream solubilisation besides the simultaneous production of gallic acid along with tannase under submerged fermentation by this fungus. This acidophilic tannase enabled synthesis of propyl gallate by direct transesterification of tannic acid using propanol as organic reaction media under low water conditions. The identity of the product was confirmed with thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was noted that 699 U/ml of enzyme could give 60% solubilisation of tea cream within 1 h. Enzyme production medium was optimized adopting Box-Behnken design for simultaneous synthesis of tannase and gallic acid. Process variables including tannic acid, sodium chloride, ferrous sulphate, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, incubation period and agitation were recognized as the critical factors that influenced tannase and gallic acid production. The model obtained predicted 4,824.61 U/ml of tannase and 136.206 μg/ml gallic acid after 48 h of incubation, whereas optimized medium supported 5,085 U/ml tannase and 372.6 μg/ml of gallic acid production after 36 and 84 h of incubation, respectively, with a 15-fold increase in both enzyme and gallic acid production. Results indicated scope for utilization of this acidophilic tannase for transesterification of tannic acid into propyl gallate, tea cream solubilisation and simultaneous production of gallic acid along with tannase.

  13. Poly(pyrrole-co-pyrrole propylic acid) film and its application in label-free surface plasmon resonance immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weihua; Li, Chang Ming; Dong, Hua

    2008-12-01

    In this work, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to study protein immobilization on poly(pyrrole-co-pyrrole propylic acid) (PPy/PPa) for immunosensing applications. SPR was employed to in situ monitor the electropolymerization process and to control thickness of the PPy/PPa copolymer film. Goat IgG as a model protein was covalently immobilized on the carboxyl-containing film through EDC/NHS as the coupling reagents. The effect of pyrrole propylic acid (Pa) proportion in the deposition solution on the protein immobilization capability was systemically investigated. The immobilization efficiency was demonstrated by a label-free SPR immunosensor. The heterogeneous kinetics of the immune reaction was discussed. This work could provide a facile method to immobilize proteins on an electrode surface by electropolymerized copolymer, and renders a universal approach to in situ study the protein immobilization process and sensing kinetics for scientific insights of the heteroimmunosensing scheme particularly in surface chemistry and molecular biology for further improvement of immunosensors.

  14. Phenolic acid derivatives with potential anticancer properties--a structure-activity relationship study. Part 1: methyl, propyl and octyl esters of caffeic and gallic acids.

    PubMed

    Fiuza, S M; Gomes, C; Teixeira, L J; Girão da Cruz, M T; Cordeiro, M N D S; Milhazes, N; Borges, F; Marques, M P M

    2004-07-01

    The antiproliferative and cytotoxic properties of polyphenolic acid derivatives, structurally related with the natural models caffeic and gallic acids, have been tested in human cervix adenocarcinoma cells (HeLa). Simultaneous structural information was obtained for these compounds through theoretical ab initio methods. This study was conducted for the following esters: methyl caffeate (MC, 1), propyl caffeate (PC, 2), octyl caffeate (OC, 3), methyl gallate (MG, 4), propyl gallate (PG, 5) and octyl gallate (OG, 6). A significant growth-inhibition effect was assessed for some of these compounds, clearly dependent on their structural characteristics. Marked structure-activity relationships (SARs)--namely the number of hydroxyl ring substituents--were found to rule the biological effect of such systems.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of some alkyl esters of gallic acid (3,4,5,-trihydroxybenzoic acid) against Escherichia coli NCTC 5933 with particular reference to n-propyl gallate.

    PubMed

    Boyd, L; Beveridge, E G

    1981-01-01

    The growth inhibitory and bactericidal activities of eight alkyl esters of gallic acid towards Escherichia coli NCTC 5933 have been determined. A previously suggested role for gallic acid and its esters as shikimate antimetabolites could not be substantiated. No induction of gross changes in cell morphology was observed. Bactericidal activity was accompanied only be very slight leakage of general ionic materials from the bacteria. Propyl gallate did not appear to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation from respiration as indicated by its failure to stimulate proton translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane.

  16. Modeling of boldine alkaloid adsorption onto pure and propyl-sulfonic acid-modified mesoporous silicas. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Geszke-Moritz, Małgorzata; Moritz, Michał

    2016-12-01

    The present study deals with the adsorption of boldine onto pure and propyl-sulfonic acid-functionalized SBA-15, SBA-16 and mesocellular foam (MCF) materials. Siliceous adsorbents were characterized by nitrogen sorption analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Temkin isotherms. Moreover, the Dubinin-Radushkevich and Dubinin-Astakhov isotherm models based on the Polanyi adsorption potential were employed. The latter was calculated using two alternative formulas including solubility-normalized (S-model) and empirical C-model. In order to find the best-fit isotherm, both linear regression and nonlinear fitting analysis were carried out. The Dubinin-Astakhov (S-model) isotherm revealed the best fit to the experimental points for adsorption of boldine onto pure mesoporous materials using both linear and nonlinear fitting analysis. Meanwhile, the process of boldine sorption onto modified silicas was described the best by the Langmuir and Temkin isotherms using linear regression and nonlinear fitting analysis, respectively. The values of adsorption energy (below 8kJ/mol) indicate the physical nature of boldine adsorption onto unmodified silicas whereas the ionic interactions seem to be the main force of alkaloid adsorption onto functionalized sorbents (energy of adsorption above 8kJ/mol).

  17. Corrosion inhibition behavior of propyl phosphonic acid-Zn2+ system for carbon steel in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabakaran, M.; Venkatesh, M.; Ramesh, S.; Periasamy, V.

    2013-07-01

    The effectiveness of propyl phosphonic acid (PPA) as a corrosion inhibitor in association with a bivalent cation like Zn2+ has been studied. An eco-friendly inhibitor in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in neutral aqueous medium in the absence and presence of Zn2+ has been evaluated by gravimetric method. Impedance studies of the metal/solution interface indicated that the surface film is highly protective against the corrosion of carbon steel in the aqueous environment. Potentiodynamic polarization studies showed that the inhibitor is a mixed inhibitor. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis (XPS) of the protective film exhibited the presence of the elements viz., iron, phosphorus, oxygen, carbon and zinc. The chemical shifts in the binding energies of these elements inferred that the surface film is composed of oxides/hydroxides of iron(III), Zn(OH)2 and [Fe(II)/(III)-Zn(II)-PPA] complex. Further, the surface analysis techniques viz., FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirm the formation of an adsorbed protective film on the carbon steel surface. Based on all these results, a plausible mechanism of corrosion inhibition is proposed.

  18. Modeling of boldine alkaloid adsorption onto pure and propyl-sulfonic acid-modified mesoporous silicas. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Geszke-Moritz, Małgorzata; Moritz, Michał

    2016-12-01

    The present study deals with the adsorption of boldine onto pure and propyl-sulfonic acid-functionalized SBA-15, SBA-16 and mesocellular foam (MCF) materials. Siliceous adsorbents were characterized by nitrogen sorption analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Temkin isotherms. Moreover, the Dubinin-Radushkevich and Dubinin-Astakhov isotherm models based on the Polanyi adsorption potential were employed. The latter was calculated using two alternative formulas including solubility-normalized (S-model) and empirical C-model. In order to find the best-fit isotherm, both linear regression and nonlinear fitting analysis were carried out. The Dubinin-Astakhov (S-model) isotherm revealed the best fit to the experimental points for adsorption of boldine onto pure mesoporous materials using both linear and nonlinear fitting analysis. Meanwhile, the process of boldine sorption onto modified silicas was described the best by the Langmuir and Temkin isotherms using linear regression and nonlinear fitting analysis, respectively. The values of adsorption energy (below 8kJ/mol) indicate the physical nature of boldine adsorption onto unmodified silicas whereas the ionic interactions seem to be the main force of alkaloid adsorption onto functionalized sorbents (energy of adsorption above 8kJ/mol). PMID:27612776

  19. Linkage and Branch Analysis of High-Mannose Oligosaccharides Using Closed-Ring Labeling of 8-Aminopyrene-1,3,6-Trisulfonate and P-Aminobenzoic Ethyl Ester and Negative Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu-Ting; Her, Guor-Rong

    2012-08-01

    A strategy based on negative ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and closed-ring labeling with both 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (APTS) and p-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester (ABEE) was developed for linkage and branch determination of high-mannose oligosaccharides. X-type cross-ring fragment ions obtained from APTS-labeled oligosaccharides by charge remote fragmentation provided information on linkages near the non-reducing terminus. In contrast, A-type cross-ring fragment ions observed from ABEE-labeled oligosaccharides yielded information on linkages near the reducing terminus. This complementary information provided by APTS- and ABEE-labeled oligosaccharides was utilized to delineate the structures of the high-mannose oligosaccharides. As a demonstration of this approach, the linkages and branches of high-mannose oligosaccharides Man5GlcNAc2, Man6GlcNAc2, Man8GlcNAc2, and Man9GlcNAc2 cleaved from the ribonuclease B were assigned from MS2 spectra of ABEE- and APTS-labeled derivatives.

  20. Assignment of Milk Fat Fatty Acid Propyl Esters by GC-FID Analysis with the Aid of Ag-ion Solid-phase Extraction.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ryo; Umezawa, Masatoshi; Tsukahara, Satoru; Ishiguro, Takashi; Sato, Shinichi; Watanabe, Yomi

    2015-01-01

    The recovery of short-chain fatty acids (FAs) in milk fat (MF) is improved when the analysis of the FA composition of MF by gas chromatography (GC) is conducted with the propyl or butyl ester derivatives, instead of the methyl esters. However, this approach complicates the detection of minor FAs, such as the minor positional isomers of 16:1, which represent <0.2% of the total content. In addition, the standards of these minor esters are not commercially available. In this study, with the aim to identify minor FAs, the fatty acid propyl esters (FAPEs) of MF were fractionated by Ag-ion solid phase extraction (Ag(+)-SPE) and analyzed by GC using a DB-23 capillary column. FAPEs were successfully fractionated mainly according to the degree of unsaturation by adjusting the elution conditions of the Ag(+)-SPE, and the minor FAPEs were easily determined without the aid of standard compounds. For example, by comparison of the GC profile of the saturated Ag(+)-SPE fraction with that of the original MF, minor FAs, such as iso-, anteiso-, and saturated FAs of 15:0 and 17:0, were expected to be eluted in this order. In addition, 16:1 propyl ester was co-eluted with iso 17:0 propyl ester under the GC conditions used in this study, as confirmed by the detection of the corresponding molecular ions (296 and 312, respectively) by GC-MS. Moreover, 9c,11t-conjugated linoleic acid was found to elute between 18:3 and 20:0. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting that the peak observed before that of cis-12:1 corresponds to trans-12:1. In conclusion, Ag(+)-SPE fractionation of FAPEs contributed to the identification of minor FAs in MF without the use of standard compounds.

  1. Electroantennogram, flight orientation and oviposition responses of Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti to a fatty acid ester-propyl octadecanoate.

    PubMed

    Seenivasagan, Thangaraj; Sharma, Kavita R; Prakash, Shri

    2012-10-01

    Studies were carried out to evaluate the role of a C(21)-fatty acid ester; propyl octadecanoate (PO) for olfaction-mediated behavioral responses of urban malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi and dengue vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes using electroantennogram (EAG), flight orientation and oviposition experiments. Dose dependent electrophysiological responses were recorded for PO from the antenna of both mosquito species in which 10(-5) g elicited significant EAG response. An. stephensi exhibited 2.4, 4.2 and 5.5 fold increased EAG response compared to control, while Ae. aegypti showed 1.9, 4.6 and 5.8 fold EAG responses respectively at 10(-7) g, 10(-6) g and 10(-5) g doses. In the Y-tube olfactometer, 77-80% gravid females of An. stephensi, and 64-77% of Ae. aegypti were caught in the chambers releasing 10(-6) g and 10(-5) g plume of PO. The synthetic fatty acid ester loaded onto an effervescent tablet at 0.1 mg/L, 1 mg/L and 10 mg/L elicited increased ovipositional responses from gravid mosquitoes compared to control. The oviposition activity indices (OAI) of An. stephensi females were +0.40, +0.51 and +0.58, whereas the OAI for Ae. aegypti females were +0.05, +0.36 and +0.57 respectively in 0.1, 1, 10 mg/L of PO; indicated concentration dependent increased egg deposition. Similarly, in the residual activity studies, oviposition substrates treated with PO on effervescent tablet at 1mg/L and 10mg/L received significantly increased egg deposition by gravid females of both mosquito species for up to 1 week compared to control substrates. PO can potentially be used in ovitraps to monitor An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti populations in the vector surveillance programs.

  2. Laccase-catalyzed bisphenol A oxidation in the presence of 10-propyl sulfonic acid phenoxazine.

    PubMed

    Ivanec-Goranina, Rūta; Kulys, Juozas; Bachmatova, Irina; Marcinkevičienė, Liucija; Meškys, Rolandas

    2015-04-01

    The kinetics of the Coriolopsis byrsina laccase-catalyzed bisphenol A (BisA) oxidation was investigated in the absence and presence of electron-transfer mediator 3-phenoxazin-10-yl-propane-1-sulfonic acid (PPSA) at pH5.5 and 25°C. It was shown that oxidation rate of the hardly degrading compound BisA increased in the presence of the highly reactive substrate PPSA. The increase of reaction rate depends on PPSA and BisA concentrations as well on their ratio, e.g., at 0.2 mmol/L of BisA and 2 μmol/L of PPSA the rate increased 2 times. The kinetic data were analyzed using a scheme of synergistic laccase-catalyzed BisA oxidation. The calculated constant, characterizing reactivity of PPSA with laccase, is almost 1000 times higher than the constant, characterizing reactivity of BisA with laccase. This means that mediator-assisted BisA oxidation rate can be 1000 times higher in comparison to non-mediator reaction if compounds concentration is equal but very low.

  3. SWELLING OF PEATS IN LIQUID METHYL, TETRAMETHYLENE AND PROPYL SULFOXIDES AND IN LIQUID PROPYL SULFONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactions of methyl, tetramethylene, and propyl sulfoxides and propyl sulfone during sorption onto four de-waxed, acid-form peats have been studied by means of swelling measurements. The results for sulfoxides are displayed as het-eromolecular sorption isotherms, which plo...

  4. FT-IR SOLUTION SPECTRA OF PROPYL SULFIDE, PROPYL SULFOXIDE, AND PROPYL SULFONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    FT-IR spectra were obtained of 0.5% volumetric solutions of propyl sulfide, propyl sulfoxide, and propyl sulfone in hexane, CCl4, CS2, and CHCl3 to assist in the assignment of FT-IR-PAS spectra of propyl sulfoxide sorbed within the structure of several peats and onto cellulose. T...

  5. β-Cyclodextrin-Propyl Sulfonic Acid Catalysed One-Pot Synthesis of 1,2,4,5-Tetrasubstituted Imidazoles as Local Anesthetic Agents.

    PubMed

    Ran, Yan; Li, Ming; Zhang, Zong-Ze

    2015-11-12

    Some functionalized 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted imidazole derivatives were synthesized using a one-pot, four component reaction involving 1,2-diketones, aryl aldehydes, ammonium acetate and substituted aromatic amines. The synthesis has been efficiently carried out in a solvent free medium using β-cyclodextrin-propyl sulfonic acid as a catalyst to afford the target compounds in excellent yields. The local anesthetic effect of these derivatives was assessed in comparison to lidocaine as a standard using a rabbit corneal and mouse tail anesthesia model. The three most potent promising compounds were subjected to a rat sciatic nerve block assay where they showed considerable local anesthetic activity, along with minimal toxicity. Among the tested analogues, 4-(1-benzyl-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylaniline (5g) was identified as most potent analogue with minimal toxicity. It was further characterized by a more favourable therapeutic index than the standard.

  6. β-Cyclodextrin-Propyl Sulfonic Acid Catalysed One-Pot Synthesis of 1,2,4,5-Tetrasubstituted Imidazoles as Local Anesthetic Agents.

    PubMed

    Ran, Yan; Li, Ming; Zhang, Zong-Ze

    2015-01-01

    Some functionalized 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted imidazole derivatives were synthesized using a one-pot, four component reaction involving 1,2-diketones, aryl aldehydes, ammonium acetate and substituted aromatic amines. The synthesis has been efficiently carried out in a solvent free medium using β-cyclodextrin-propyl sulfonic acid as a catalyst to afford the target compounds in excellent yields. The local anesthetic effect of these derivatives was assessed in comparison to lidocaine as a standard using a rabbit corneal and mouse tail anesthesia model. The three most potent promising compounds were subjected to a rat sciatic nerve block assay where they showed considerable local anesthetic activity, along with minimal toxicity. Among the tested analogues, 4-(1-benzyl-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylaniline (5g) was identified as most potent analogue with minimal toxicity. It was further characterized by a more favourable therapeutic index than the standard. PMID:26569210

  7. The effects of a garlic oil chemical compound, propyl-propane thiosulfonate, on ruminal fermentation and fatty acid outflow in a dual-flow continuous culture system.

    PubMed

    Foskolos, A; Siurana, A; Rodriquez-Prado, M; Ferret, A; Bravo, D; Calsamiglia, S

    2015-08-01

    The ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feeds in the European Union has stimulated research on potential alternatives. Recently, propyl-propane thiosulfonate (PTSO), a stable organosulfurate compound of garlic, was purified. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the potential effects of PTSO on rumen microbial fermentation and to define effective doses. Two experiments were conducted using dual-flow continuous culture fermenters in 2 replicated periods. Each experimental period consisted of 5 d for adaptation of the ruminal fluid and 3 d for sampling. Temperature (39°C), pH (6.4), and liquid (0.10 h(-1)) and solid (0.05 h(-1)) dilution rates were maintained constant. Samples were taken 2 h after feeding and from the 24-h effluent. Samples were analyzed for volatile fatty acids (VFA) and nitrogen fractions, and degradation of nutrients was calculated. In addition, 24-h effluents from experiment 2 were analyzed for their fatty acid (FA) profile. Treatments in experiment 1 included a negative control without additive, a positive control with monensin (12mg/L), and PTSO at 30 and 300mg/L. The addition of 30mg/L did not affect any of the measurements tested. The addition of 300mg/L reduced microbial fermentation, as suggested by the decreased total VFA concentration, true degradation of organic matter and acid detergent fiber, and a tendency to decrease neutral detergent fiber degradation. Experiment 2 was conducted to test increasing doses of PTSO (0, 50, 100, and 150mg/L) on rumen microbial fermentation. At 2 h postfeeding, total VFA and molar proportion of propionate responded quadratically, with higher values in the intermediate doses. Molar proportions of butyrate increased and branched-chain VFA decreased linearly as the dose of PTSO increased. In the 24-h effluents, total VFA, acetate, and branched-chain VFA concentrations decreased linearly and those of propionate responded cubically with the highest value at 100mg

  8. The effects of a garlic oil chemical compound, propyl-propane thiosulfonate, on ruminal fermentation and fatty acid outflow in a dual-flow continuous culture system.

    PubMed

    Foskolos, A; Siurana, A; Rodriquez-Prado, M; Ferret, A; Bravo, D; Calsamiglia, S

    2015-08-01

    The ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feeds in the European Union has stimulated research on potential alternatives. Recently, propyl-propane thiosulfonate (PTSO), a stable organosulfurate compound of garlic, was purified. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the potential effects of PTSO on rumen microbial fermentation and to define effective doses. Two experiments were conducted using dual-flow continuous culture fermenters in 2 replicated periods. Each experimental period consisted of 5 d for adaptation of the ruminal fluid and 3 d for sampling. Temperature (39°C), pH (6.4), and liquid (0.10 h(-1)) and solid (0.05 h(-1)) dilution rates were maintained constant. Samples were taken 2 h after feeding and from the 24-h effluent. Samples were analyzed for volatile fatty acids (VFA) and nitrogen fractions, and degradation of nutrients was calculated. In addition, 24-h effluents from experiment 2 were analyzed for their fatty acid (FA) profile. Treatments in experiment 1 included a negative control without additive, a positive control with monensin (12mg/L), and PTSO at 30 and 300mg/L. The addition of 30mg/L did not affect any of the measurements tested. The addition of 300mg/L reduced microbial fermentation, as suggested by the decreased total VFA concentration, true degradation of organic matter and acid detergent fiber, and a tendency to decrease neutral detergent fiber degradation. Experiment 2 was conducted to test increasing doses of PTSO (0, 50, 100, and 150mg/L) on rumen microbial fermentation. At 2 h postfeeding, total VFA and molar proportion of propionate responded quadratically, with higher values in the intermediate doses. Molar proportions of butyrate increased and branched-chain VFA decreased linearly as the dose of PTSO increased. In the 24-h effluents, total VFA, acetate, and branched-chain VFA concentrations decreased linearly and those of propionate responded cubically with the highest value at 100mg

  9. Water-soluble N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium)propyl]chitosan chloride as a nucleic acids vector for cell transfection.

    PubMed

    Faizuloev, Evgeny; Marova, Anna; Nikonova, Alexandra; Volkova, Irina; Gorshkova, Marina; Izumrudov, Vladimir

    2012-08-01

    To endow the cationic polysaccharides with solubility in the whole pH-range without loss of functionality of the amino groups, different chitosan samples were treated with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride. Each modified unit of the exhaustively alkylated quaternized chitosan (QCht) contained both quaternary and secondary amino groups. The intercalated dye displacement assay and ζ-potential measurements implied stability of QCht polyplexes at physiological conditions and protonation of the secondary amino groups in slightly acidic media which is favorable for transfection according to proton sponge mechanism. The cytotoxicity and transfection efficacy increased with the chain lengthening. Nevertheless, the longest chains of QCht, 250 kDa were less toxic than PEI for COS-1 cells and revealed comparable and even significantly higher transfection activity of siRNA and plasmid DNA, respectively. Thus, highly polymerized QCht (250 kDa) provided the highest level of the plasmid DNA transfection being 5 and 80 times more active than QCht (100 kDa) and QCht (50 kDa), respectively, and 4-fold more effective than PEI, 25 kDa. The established influence of QCht molecular weight on toxicity and transfection efficacy allows elaborating polysaccharide vectors that possess rational balance of these characteristics. PMID:24750918

  10. Kinetics of the transformation of n-propyl gallate and structural analogs in the perfused rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Eler, Gabrielle Jacklin; Santos, Israel Souza; Giaretta de Moraes, Amarilis; Mito, Márcio Shigueaki; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar

    2013-11-15

    n-Propyl gallate and its analogs are used in foods and other products to prevent oxidation. In the liver the compound exerts several harmful effects, especially gluconeogenesis inhibition. The mode of transport and distribution of n-propyl gallate and its kinetics of biotransformation have not yet been investigated. To fill this gap the transformation, transport and distribution of n-propyl gallate and two analogs were investigated in the rat liver. Isolated perfused rat liver was used. n-Propyl gallate, methyl gallate, n-octyl gallate and transformation products were quantified by high pressure-liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence detection. The interactions of n-propyl gallate and analogs with the liver presented three main characteristics: (1) the hydrolytic release of gallic acid from n-propyl gallate and methyl gallate was very fast compared with the subsequent transformations of the gallic acid moiety; (2) transport of the esters was very fast and flow-limited in contrast to the slow and barrier-limited transport of gallic acid; (3) the apparent distribution volume of n-propyl gallate, but probably also of methyl gallate and n-octyl gallate, greatly exceeded the water space in the liver, contrary to the gallic acid space which is smaller than the water space. It can be concluded that at low portal concentrations (< 50 μM) the gallic acid esters are 100% extracted during a single passage through the liver, releasing mainly gallic acid into the systemic circulation. For the latter a considerable time is required until complete biotransformation. The exposure of the liver to the esters, however, is quite prolonged due to extensive intracellular binding. - Highlights: • The liver binds very strongly n-propyl gallate and releases basically gallic acid. • n-propyl gallate and analogs undergo concentrative flow-limited distribution. • Gallic acid undergoes barrier-limited distribution and is slowly transformed. • The long residence time of n-propyl

  11. Determination of efficacy of fingermark enhancement reagents; the use of propyl chloroformate for the derivatization of fingerprint amino acids extracted from paper.

    PubMed

    Mink, Tineke; Voorhaar, Annelies; Stoel, Reinoud; de Puit, Marcel

    2013-09-01

    The analysis of the constituents of fingerprints has been described numerous times, mainly with the purpose of determining the aging effect on fingerprints or showing the differences between donors or groups of donors. In this paper we describe the use of derivatized amino acids to determine the efficacy of the visualization reagents 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one (DFO) and ninhydrin. At present certain conditions are used for the application of these reagents, as determined by trial-and-error investigations, to the effect on fingerprints. The recovery of amino acids from a porous surface can be used as a measure for the efficacy of a visualization agent. In this paper we describe a method for the determination of the amount of amino acid left after reaction with well known fingerprint visualization reagents. This will allow a more scientific approach to method development for fingermark enhancement techniques. Furthermore, investigations on the influence of the concentration of fingermark amino acids, the order of application of and exposure time to reagents and the influence of age of the amino acids were carried out. These studies have resulted in a broader understanding of the mechanism involved in visualization of fingermarks using DFO and ninhydrin.

  12. Synthesis of an indole analog of folic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Shengeliya, M.S.; Avramenko, V.G.; Kuleshova, L.N.; Ershova, Yu.A.; Chernov, V.A.; Surorov, N.N.

    1987-06-01

    The authors study the replacement of the p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) moiety. The authors synthesized an indole analog of folic acid, namely dimethyl N-(5-(2'-amino-4'-oxo-6'-pteridinyl)methylaminoindol-2-yl)glutamate. The physicochemical properties and the chemical shifts in the PMR spectra of the compounds obtained are shown. The examination of the compound for antitumor activity was carried out using rats and mice.

  13. Intensification of biocatalytical processes by synergistic substrate conversion. Fungal peroxidase catalyzed N-hydroxy derivative oxidation in presence of 10-propyl sulfonic acid phenoxazine.

    PubMed

    Kulys, Juozas; Dapkunas, Zilvinas; Stupak, Robert

    2009-08-01

    Many industrial pollutants, xenobiotics, and industry-important compounds are known to be oxidized by peroxidases. It has been shown that highly efficient peroxidase substrates are able to enhance the oxidation of low reactive substrate by acting as mediators. To explore this effect, the oxidation of two N-hydroxy derivatives, i.e., N-hydroxy-N-phenyl-acetamide (HPA) and N-hydroxy-N-phenyl-carbamic acid methyl ester (HPCM) catalyzed by recombinant Coprinus cinereus (rCiP) peroxidase has been studied in presence of efficient substrate 3-(4a,10a-dihydro- phenoxazin-10-yl)-propane-1-sulfonic acid (PPSA) at pH 8.5. The bimolecular constant of PPSA cation radical reaction with HPA was estimated to be (2.5 +/- 0.2).10(7) M(-1) s(-1) and for HPCM was even higher. The kinetic measurements show that rCiP-catalyzed oxidation of HPA and HPCM can increase up to 33,000 times and 5,500 times in the presence of equivalent concentration of high reactive substrate PPSA. The mathematical model of synergistic rCiP-catalyzed HPA-PPSA and HPCM-PPSA oxidation was proposed. Experimentally obtained rate constants were in good agreement with those calculated from the model confirming the synergistic scheme of the substrate oxidation. In order to explain the different reactivity of substrates, the docking of substrates in the active site of the enzyme was calculated. Molecular dynamic calculations show that the enzyme-substrate complexes are structurally stable. The high reactive PPSA exhibited higher affinity to enzyme active site than HPA and HPCM. Furthermore, the orientation of HPA and HPCM was not favorable for proton transfer to the distal histidine, and different substrate reactivity was explained by these diversities.

  14. Inhibitory effects of propyl gallate on membrane lipids metabolism and its relation to increasing storability of harvested longan fruit.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yifen; Lin, Yixiong; Lin, Hetong; Shi, John; Chen, Yihui; Wang, Hui

    2017-02-15

    Effects of propyl gallate on membrane lipids metabolism and its relation to storability of harvested longan fruits were studied. The results showed that the propyl gallate-treated longans maintained lower activities of pericarp phospholipase D (PLD), lipase and lipoxygenase (LOX) than those in control fruits. Such treatments could maintain higher levels of pericarp unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs), higher pericarp indices of unsaturated fatty acids (IUFA), and higher pericarp ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (U/S) than those in control fruits. Furthermore, propyl gallate also delayed color changes of pericarp in the harvested longans. Therefore, the postharvest treatments of longan fruits with propyl gallate for increasing storability of longan fruits might be explained by a decrease in activities of PLD, lipase and LOX, and an the increased unsaturation of fatty acids, which could delay membrane lipids metabolism and maintain cell membrane characteristics. PMID:27664618

  15. A novel chemoenzymatic synthesis of propyl caffeate using lipase-catalyzed transesterification in ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Pang, Na; Gu, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Jun; Cui, Hong-Sheng; Wang, Fang-Qin; Liu, Xi; Zhao, Xing-Yu; Wu, Fu-An

    2013-07-01

    Propyl caffeate has the highest antioxidant capacity in the caffeate alkyl esters family, but industrial production of propyl caffeate is hindered by low yields using either the chemical or enzymatic catalysis method. To set up a high-yield process for obtaining propyl caffeate, a novel chemoenzymatic synthesis method using lipase-catalyzed transesterification of an intermediate methyl caffeate or ethyl caffeate and 1-propanol in ionic liquid was established. The maximum propyl caffeate yield of 98.5% was obtained using lipase-catalyzed transesterification under the following optimal conditions: Novozym 435 as a biocatalyst, [Bmim][CF3SO3] as a medium, a molar ratio of methyl caffeate to 1-propanol of 1:5, a mass ratio of methyl caffeate to lipase of 1:20, and a reaction temperature of 60°C. The two-step conversion of caffeic acid to propyl caffeate via methyl caffeate is an efficient way to prepare propyl caffeate with an overall yield of 82.7%.

  16. Enhancement of propyl gallate yield in nonaqueous medium using novel cell-associated tannase of Bacillus massiliensis.

    PubMed

    Aithal, Mahesh; Belur, Prasanna D

    2013-01-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of propyl gallate in organic solvent was studied using cell-associated tannase (EC 3.1.1.20) of Bacillus massiliensis. Lyophilized biomass showing tannase activity was used as the biocatalyst. The effects of solvent, surfactant treatment, and bioimprinting on the propyl gallate synthesis were studied and subsequently optimized. Among various solvents, benzene followed by hexane was found to be the most favorable. Treatment of the biocatalyst with Triton X-100 at a lower concentration (0.2% w/v), before lyophilization, increased the propyl gallate yield by 24.5% compared to the untreated biocatalyst. The biocatalyst was imprinted with various concentrations of gallic acid and tannic acid. Biocatalyst imprinted with tannic acid showed 50% enhancement in the propyl gallate yield compared to the non-imprinted biocatalyst.

  17. 21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Normal propyl alcohol. 573.880 Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.880 Normal propyl alcohol. Normal propyl alcohol may be safely used in feeds...

  18. 21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Normal propyl alcohol. 573.880 Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.880 Normal propyl alcohol. Normal propyl alcohol may be safely used in feeds...

  19. 21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Normal propyl alcohol. 573.880 Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.880 Normal propyl alcohol. Normal propyl alcohol may be safely used in feeds...

  20. 21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Normal propyl alcohol. 573.880 Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.880 Normal propyl alcohol. Normal propyl alcohol may be safely used in feeds...

  1. 21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Normal propyl alcohol. 573.880 Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.880 Normal propyl alcohol. Normal propyl alcohol may be safely used in feeds...

  2. 21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propyl gallate. 582.3660 Section 582.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  3. Ecotoxicological effects of the antioxidant additive propyl gallate in five aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Jorge L; Jos, Angeles; del Peso, Ana; Salguero, Manuel; López-Artíguez, Miguel; Repetto, Guillermo

    2007-06-01

    Propyl gallate is an antioxidant widely used in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. The occurrence and fate of additives in the aquatic environment is an emerging issue in environmental chemistry. To date, there is little available information about the adverse effects of propyl gallate on aquatic organisms. Therefore, the toxic effects were investigated, using five model systems from four trophic levels. The most sensitive system was the hepatoma fish cell line PLHC-1 according to total protein content, with an EC(50) of 10 microM and a NOAEL of 1 microM at 72 h, followed by the immobilization of Daphnia magna, the inhibition of bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri, the salmonid fish cell line RTG-2 and the inhibition of the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. Although protein content, neutral red uptake, methylthiazol metabolization and acetylcholinesterase activity were reduced in PLHC-1 cells, stimulations were observed for lysosomal function, succinate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities. No changes were observed in metallothionein levels. The main morphological observations were the loss of cells and the induction of cell death mainly by necrosis but also by apoptosis. The protective and toxic effects of propyl gallate were evaluated. General antioxidants and calcium chelators did not modify the toxicity of propyl gallate, but an iron-dependent lipid peroxidation inhibitor gave 22% protection. The results also suggest that propyl gallate cytotoxicity is dependent on glutathione levels, which were modulated by malic acid diethyl ester and 2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid. According to the results, propyl gallate should be classified as toxic to aquatic organisms. PMID:17382989

  4. Kinetics of the transformation of n-propyl gallate and structural analogs in the perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Eler, Gabrielle Jacklin; Santos, Israel Souza; de Moraes, Amarilis Giaretta; Mito, Márcio Shigueaki; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar

    2013-11-15

    n-Propyl gallate and its analogs are used in foods and other products to prevent oxidation. In the liver the compound exerts several harmful effects, especially gluconeogenesis inhibition. The mode of transport and distribution of n-propyl gallate and its kinetics of biotransformation have not yet been investigated. To fill this gap the transformation, transport and distribution of n-propyl gallate and two analogs were investigated in the rat liver. Isolated perfused rat liver was used. n-Propyl gallate, methyl gallate, n-octyl gallate and transformation products were quantified by high pressure-liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence detection. The interactions of n-propyl gallate and analogs with the liver presented three main characteristics: (1) the hydrolytic release of gallic acid from n-propyl gallate and methyl gallate was very fast compared with the subsequent transformations of the gallic acid moiety; (2) transport of the esters was very fast and flow-limited in contrast to the slow and barrier-limited transport of gallic acid; (3) the apparent distribution volume of n-propyl gallate, but probably also of methyl gallate and n-octyl gallate, greatly exceeded the water space in the liver, contrary to the gallic acid space which is smaller than the water space. It can be concluded that at low portal concentrations (<50μM) the gallic acid esters are 100% extracted during a single passage through the liver, releasing mainly gallic acid into the systemic circulation. For the latter a considerable time is required until complete biotransformation. The exposure of the liver to the esters, however, is quite prolonged due to extensive intracellular binding.

  5. Contact depigmentation induced by propyl gallate.

    PubMed

    Pandhi, D; Vij, A; Singal, A

    2011-06-01

    We report a 41-year-old woman who developed contact depigmentation at several body sites after using lipstick, liquid kumkum (a colouring usually made from turmeric or saffron used for social/religious markings), and plastic or rubber slippers (flip-flops). Propyl gallate, a common ingredient to all and a previously undocumented depigmenting agent, was incriminated on patch testing with the Indian standard series. PMID:21564173

  6. Amino Acid and Vitamin Requirements of Several Bacteroides Strains

    PubMed Central

    Quinto, Grace

    1966-01-01

    Nutritional studies were performed on nine Bacteroides strains, by use of the methodology and media of anaerobic rumen microbiology. Ristella perfoetens CCI required l-arginine hydrochloride, l-tryptophan, l-leucine, l-histidine hydrochloride, l-cysteine hydrochloride, dl-valine, dl-tyrosine, and the vitamin calcium-d-pantothenate, since scant turbidity developed in media without these nutrients. R. perfoetens was stimulated by glycine, dl-lysine hydrochloride, dl-isoleucine, l-proline, l-glutamic acid, dl-alanine, dl-phenylalanine, dl-methionine, and the vitamins nicotinamide and p-aminobenzoic acid, since maximal turbidity developed more slowly in media without these nutrients than in complete medium. Medium A-23, which was devised for R. perfoetens, contained salts, 0.0002% nicotinamide and calcium d-pantothenate, 0.00001% p-aminobenzoic acid, 0.044% l-tryptophan, 0.09% l-glutamic acid, and 0.1% of the other 13 amino acids listed above. Zuberella clostridiformis and seven strains of R. pseudoinsolita did not require vitamins, and showed no absolute requirement for any one amino acid. Various strains produced maximal turbidity more slowly in media deficient in l-proline, glycine, l-glutamic acid, dl-serine, l-histidine hydrochloride, dl-alanine, or l-cysteine hydrochloride, than in complete medium. These eight strains grew optimally in medium A-23 plus 0.1% dl-serine but without vitamins. PMID:16349673

  7. Detection of a branched alkyl molecule in the interstellar medium: iso-propyl cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, Arnaud; Garrod, Robin T.; Müller, Holger S. P.; Menten, Karl M.

    2014-09-01

    The largest noncyclic molecules detected in the interstellar medium (ISM) are organic with a straight-chain carbon backbone. We report an interstellar detection of a branched alkyl molecule, iso-propyl cyanide (i-C3H7CN), with an abundance 0.4 times that of its straight-chain structural isomer. This detection suggests that branched carbon-chain molecules may be generally abundant in the ISM. Our astrochemical model indicates that both isomers are produced within or upon dust grain ice mantles through the addition of molecular radicals, albeit via differing reaction pathways. The production of iso-propyl cyanide appears to require the addition of a functional group to a nonterminal carbon in the chain. Its detection therefore bodes well for the presence in the ISM of amino acids, for which such side-chain structure is a key characteristic.

  8. Interaction of single-walled carbon nanotubes with poly(propyl ether imine) dendrimers

    SciTech Connect

    Jayamurugan, G.; Rajesh, Y. B. R. D.; Jayaraman, N.; Vasu, K. S.; Kumar, S.; Sood, A. K.; Vasumathi, V.; Maiti, P. K.

    2011-03-14

    We study the complexation of nontoxic, native poly(propyl ether imine) dendrimers with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The interaction was monitored by measuring the quenching of inherent fluorescence of the dendrimer. The dendrimer-nanotube binding also resulted in the increased electrical resistance of the hole doped SWNT, due to charge-transfer interaction between dendrimer and nanotube. This charge-transfer interaction was further corroborated by observing a shift in frequency of the tangential Raman modes of SWNT. We also report the effect of acidic and neutral pH conditions on the binding affinities. Experimental studies were supplemented by all atom molecular dynamics simulations to provide a microscopic picture of the dendrimer-nanotube complex. The complexation was achieved through charge transfer and hydrophobic interactions, aided by multitude of oxygen, nitrogen, and n-propyl moieties of the dendrimer.

  9. Pathologically activated neuroprotection via uncompetitive blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors with fast off-rate by novel multifunctional dimer bis(propyl)-cognitin.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jialie; Li, Wenming; Zhao, Yuming; Fu, Hongjun; Ma, Dik-Lung; Tang, Jing; Li, Chaoying; Peoples, Robert W; Li, Fushun; Wang, Qinwen; Huang, Pingbo; Xia, Jun; Pang, Yuanping; Han, Yifan

    2010-06-25

    Uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists with fast off-rate (UFO) may represent promising drug candidates for various neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we report that bis(propyl)-cognitin, a novel dimeric acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype A receptor antagonist, is such an antagonist of NMDA receptors. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we demonstrated that bis(propyl)-cognitin voltage-dependently, selectively, and moderately inhibited NMDA-activated currents. The inhibitory effects of bis(propyl)-cognitin increased with the rise in NMDA and glycine concentrations. Kinetics analysis showed that the inhibition was of fast onset and offset with an off-rate time constant of 1.9 s. Molecular docking simulations showed moderate hydrophobic interaction between bis(propyl)-cognitin and the MK-801 binding region in the ion channel pore of the NMDA receptor. Bis(propyl)-cognitin was further found to compete with [(3)H]MK-801 with a K(i) value of 0.27 mum, and the mutation of NR1(N616R) significantly reduced its inhibitory potency. Under glutamate-mediated pathological conditions, bis(propyl)-cognitin, in contrast to bis(heptyl)-cognitin, prevented excitotoxicity with increasing effectiveness against escalating levels of glutamate and much more effectively protected against middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced brain damage than did memantine. More interestingly, under NMDA receptor-mediated physiological conditions, bis(propyl)-cognitin enhanced long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices, whereas MK-801 reduced and memantine did not alter this process. These results suggest that bis(propyl)-cognitin is a UFO antagonist of NMDA receptors with moderate affinity, which may provide a pathologically activated therapy for various neurodegenerative disorders associated with NMDA receptor dysregulation. PMID:20404346

  10. Pathologically activated neuroprotection via uncompetitive blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors with fast off-rate by novel multifunctional dimer bis(propyl)-cognitin.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jialie; Li, Wenming; Zhao, Yuming; Fu, Hongjun; Ma, Dik-Lung; Tang, Jing; Li, Chaoying; Peoples, Robert W; Li, Fushun; Wang, Qinwen; Huang, Pingbo; Xia, Jun; Pang, Yuanping; Han, Yifan

    2010-06-25

    Uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists with fast off-rate (UFO) may represent promising drug candidates for various neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we report that bis(propyl)-cognitin, a novel dimeric acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype A receptor antagonist, is such an antagonist of NMDA receptors. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we demonstrated that bis(propyl)-cognitin voltage-dependently, selectively, and moderately inhibited NMDA-activated currents. The inhibitory effects of bis(propyl)-cognitin increased with the rise in NMDA and glycine concentrations. Kinetics analysis showed that the inhibition was of fast onset and offset with an off-rate time constant of 1.9 s. Molecular docking simulations showed moderate hydrophobic interaction between bis(propyl)-cognitin and the MK-801 binding region in the ion channel pore of the NMDA receptor. Bis(propyl)-cognitin was further found to compete with [(3)H]MK-801 with a K(i) value of 0.27 mum, and the mutation of NR1(N616R) significantly reduced its inhibitory potency. Under glutamate-mediated pathological conditions, bis(propyl)-cognitin, in contrast to bis(heptyl)-cognitin, prevented excitotoxicity with increasing effectiveness against escalating levels of glutamate and much more effectively protected against middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced brain damage than did memantine. More interestingly, under NMDA receptor-mediated physiological conditions, bis(propyl)-cognitin enhanced long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices, whereas MK-801 reduced and memantine did not alter this process. These results suggest that bis(propyl)-cognitin is a UFO antagonist of NMDA receptors with moderate affinity, which may provide a pathologically activated therapy for various neurodegenerative disorders associated with NMDA receptor dysregulation.

  11. Identification of a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist, 2-methyl-2-(4-{3-[1-(4-methylbenzyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]propyl}phenoxy)propanoic acid (LY518674), that produces marked changes in serum lipids and apolipoprotein A-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jai Pal; Kauffman, Raymond; Bensch, William; Wang, Guoming; McClelland, Pam; Bean, James; Montrose, Chahrzad; Mantlo, Nathan; Wagle, Asavari

    2005-09-01

    Low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) is an important risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Optimum therapy for raising HDL-c is still not available. Identification of novel HDL-raising agents would produce a major impact on CAD. In this study, we have identified a potent (IC50 approximately 24 nM) and selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonist, 2-methyl-2-(4-{3-[1-(4-methylbenzyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]propyl}phenoxy)propanoic acid (LY518674). In human apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) transgenic mice, LY518674 produced a dose-dependent increase in serum HDL-c, resulting in 208 +/- 15% elevation at optimum dose. A new synthesis of apoA-1 contributed to the increase in HDL-c. LY518674 increased apoA-1 mRNA levels in liver. Moreover, liver slices from animals treated with LY518674 secreted 3- to 6-fold more apoA-1 than control liver slices. In cultured hepatocytes, LY518674 produced 50% higher apoA-1 secretion, which was associated with increase in radiolabeled methionine incorporation in apoA-1. Thus, LY518674 is a potent and selective PPARalpha agonist that produced a much greater increase in serum HDL-c than the known fibrate drugs. The increase in HDL-c was associated with de novo synthesis of apoA-1. PMID:15933217

  12. A reliable compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis of amino acids by GC-C-IRMS following derivatisation into N-pivaloyl-iso-propyl (NPIP)esters for high-resolution food webs estimation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongyi; Tian, Jing; Xiao, Hongwei; Zheng, Nengjian; Gao, Xiaofei; Zhu, Renguo; Xiao, Huayun

    2016-10-15

    The signatures of natural stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ(15)N) of individual amino acid (AA) have been confirmed to be a potentially effective tool for elucidating nitrogen cycling and trophic position of various organisms in food webs. In the present study, a two-stage derivatisation approach of esterification followed by acylation was evaluated. The biological samples underwent acid hydrolysis and the released individual AA was derivatived into corresponding N-pivaloyl-isopropyl (NPIP) esters for nitrogen isotopic analysis in gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Usually, 13 individual AA derivatives were separated with fine baseline resolution based on a nonpolar gas chromatography column (DB-5ms). The minimum sample amount required under the presented conditions is larger than 20ngN on column in order to accurately determine the δ(15)N values. The δ(15)N values determined by GC-C-IRMS with a precision of better than 1‰, were within 1‰ after empirical correction compared to the corresponding measured by element analysis (EA)-IRMS. Bland-Altman plot showed highly consistency of the δ(15)N values determined by the two measurement techniques. Cation-exchange chromatography was applied to remove interfering fraction from the extracts of plant and animal samples and without nitrogen isotope fractionation during the treatment procedure. Moreover, this approach was carried out to estimate the trophic level of various natural organisms in a natural lake environment. Results highly proved that the trophic level estimated via the presented AA method well reflected the actual food web structure in natural environments.

  13. A reliable compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis of amino acids by GC-C-IRMS following derivatisation into N-pivaloyl-iso-propyl (NPIP)esters for high-resolution food webs estimation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongyi; Tian, Jing; Xiao, Hongwei; Zheng, Nengjian; Gao, Xiaofei; Zhu, Renguo; Xiao, Huayun

    2016-10-15

    The signatures of natural stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ(15)N) of individual amino acid (AA) have been confirmed to be a potentially effective tool for elucidating nitrogen cycling and trophic position of various organisms in food webs. In the present study, a two-stage derivatisation approach of esterification followed by acylation was evaluated. The biological samples underwent acid hydrolysis and the released individual AA was derivatived into corresponding N-pivaloyl-isopropyl (NPIP) esters for nitrogen isotopic analysis in gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Usually, 13 individual AA derivatives were separated with fine baseline resolution based on a nonpolar gas chromatography column (DB-5ms). The minimum sample amount required under the presented conditions is larger than 20ngN on column in order to accurately determine the δ(15)N values. The δ(15)N values determined by GC-C-IRMS with a precision of better than 1‰, were within 1‰ after empirical correction compared to the corresponding measured by element analysis (EA)-IRMS. Bland-Altman plot showed highly consistency of the δ(15)N values determined by the two measurement techniques. Cation-exchange chromatography was applied to remove interfering fraction from the extracts of plant and animal samples and without nitrogen isotope fractionation during the treatment procedure. Moreover, this approach was carried out to estimate the trophic level of various natural organisms in a natural lake environment. Results highly proved that the trophic level estimated via the presented AA method well reflected the actual food web structure in natural environments. PMID:27636011

  14. Evaluation of H2CHXdedpa, H2dedpa- and H2CHXdedpa-N,N'-propyl-2-NI ligands for (64)Cu(ii) radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Ramogida, Caterina F; Boros, Eszter; Patrick, Brian O; Zeisler, Stefan K; Kumlin, Joel; Adam, Michael J; Schaffer, Paul; Orvig, Chris

    2016-08-16

    The chiral acyclic "pa" ligand (pa = picolinic acid) H2CHXdedpa (N4O2) and two NI-containing dedpa analogues (H2CHXdedpa-N,N'-propyl-2-NI, H2dedpa-N,N'-propyl-2-NI, NI = nitroimidazole) were studied as chelators for copper radiopharmaceuticals (CHX = cyclohexyl, H2dedpa = 1,2-[[carboxypyridin-2-yl]methylamino]ethane). The hexadentate ligand H2CHXdedpa was previously established as a superb system for (67/68)Ga radiochemistry. The solid state X-ray crystal structures of [Cu(CHXdedpa-N,N'-propyl-2-NI)] and [Cu(dedpa-N,N'-propyl-2-NI)] reveal the predicted hexadentate, distorted octahedral binding of the copper(ii) ion. Cyclic voltammetry of [Cu(dedpa-N,N'-propyl-2-NI)] shows that there is one reversible couple associated with the NI redox, and one irreversible but reproducible couple attributed to the Cu(ii)/Cu(i) redox cycle. Quantitative radiolabeling (>99%) of CHXdedpa(2-) and (dedpa-N,N'-propyl-2-NI)(2-) with (64)Cu was achieved under fast and efficient labeling conditions (10 min, RT, 0.5 M sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.5) at ligand concentrations as low as 10(-6) M. In vitro kinetic inertness studies of the (64)Cu labelled complexes were studied in human serum at 37 °C over 24 hours; [(64)Cu(CHXdedpa)] was found to be 98% stable compared to previously investigated [(64)Cu(dedpa)] which was only 72% intact after 24 hours. PMID:27161975

  15. Rapid synthesis of propyl caffeate in ionic liquid using a packed bed enzyme microreactor under continuous-flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Gu, Shuang-Shuang; Cui, Hong-Sheng; Yang, Liu-Qing; Wu, Xiang-Yang

    2013-12-01

    Propyl caffeate has the highest antioxidant activity among caffeic acid alkyl esters, but its industrial production via enzymatic transesterification in batch reactors is hindered by a long reaction time (24h). To develop a rapid process for the production of propyl caffeate in high yield, a continuous-flow microreactor composed of a two-piece PDMS in a sandwich-like microchannel structure was designed for the transesterification of methyl caffeate and 1-propanol catalyzed by Novozym 435 in [B mim][CF3SO3]. The maximum yield (99.5%) in the microreactor was achieved in a short period of time (2.5h) with a flow rate of 2 μL/min, which kinetic constant Km was 16 times lower than that of a batch reactor. The results indicated that the use of a continuous-flow packed bed enzyme microreactor is an efficient method of producing propyl caffeate with an overall yield of 84.0%. PMID:24128399

  16. Addition of amino acids and dipeptides to fullerene C{sub 60} giving rise to monoadducts

    SciTech Connect

    Romanova, V.S.; Tsyryapkin, V.A.; Vol`pin, M.E.

    1994-12-01

    The authors have developed a general method for the direct addition of amino acids and dipeptides of various structures to fullerene C{sub 60}. In all cases the addition involves the amino group. The reaction proceeds when the solutions of fullerene and an amino acid (or dipeptide) are mixed at 50-100 {degrees}C. The fullerene derivatives of the following amino acids and dipeptides have been obtained: glycine, p-aminobenzoic acid, {omega}-aminocaproic acid, L-proline, L-alanine, L-alanyl-Lalanine, D,L-alanyl-D,L-alanine, glycyl-L-valine. The adduct of methyl L-ananinate with C{sub 60} was also prepared.

  17. Infrared Laser Spectroscopy of the n-PROPYL and i-PROPYL Radicals in Helium Droplets: Significant Bend-Stretch Coupling Revealed in the CH Stretch Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Christopher P.; Douberly, Gary E.; Tabor, Daniel P.; Sibert, Edwin

    2016-06-01

    The n-propyl and i-propyl radicals were generated in the gas phase via pyrolysis of n-butyl nitrite (CH3(CH2)3ONO) and i-butyl nitrite (CH3CH(CH3)CH2ONO) precursors, respectively. Nascent radicals were promptly solvated by a beam of He nanodroplets, and the infrared spectra of the radicals were recorded in the C-H stretching region. In addition to three vibrations of n-propyl previously measured in an Ar matrix, we observe many unreported bands between 2800 and 3150 wn, which we attribute to propyl radicals. The C-H stretching modes observed above 2960 wn for both radicals are in excellent agreement with anharmonic frequencies computed using VPT2. Between 2800 and 2960 wn, however, the spectra of n-propyl and i-propyl radicals become quite congested and difficult to assign due to the presence of multiple anharmonic resonances. Computations employing a local mode Hamiltonian reveal the origin of the spectral congestion to be strong coupling between the high frequency C-H stretching modes and the lower frequency bending/scissoring motions. The only significant local coupling is between stretches and bends on the same CH2/CH3 group.

  18. Positive rates to propyl gallate on patch testing: a change in trend.

    PubMed

    Perez, A; Basketter, D A; White, I R; McFadden, J

    2008-01-01

    Propyl gallate (E310) has, until recently, been used as a major antioxidant in fatty food and, in the cosmetic industry, in the manufacture of lipsticks. Propyl gallate has a high sensitizing potential; however, the frequency of allergic contact dermatitis from antioxidants of the gallate type was previously thought to be surprisingly low. Previous exposure and orally induced tolerance, as suggested by Khan and colleagues, may have explained the low rates of allergic contact dermatitis to propyl gallate in the past. The objectives were to assess the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis to propyl gallate in our centre from 1988 to 2005. From 1988 to 2005, 9529 patients were patch tested to the face series, 6973 were females and 2556 were males. Patch tests were read at 2 D and 4 D. Positive reactions were scored as per International Contact Dermatitis Research Group recommendations as negative, +, ++, and +++ reactions. Propyl gallate was used at a 1% petrolatum (pet.). A total of 55 patients had positive reactions to propyl gallate 1% pet. (0.57%), 46 were female (0.65%) and 9 were male (0.33%). Using chi-square, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the positivity rates between the 1988-96 period (0.45%) and the 1997-2005 period (0.77%). A review of our face series performed in the last 18 years has shown a statistically significant increase in propyl gallate-positive rates on patch testing over the last decade. An increase in its use in the cosmetic industry may well be the explanation for this. Nevertheless, a concomitant reduction of propyl gallate as an antioxidant in food, with oral tolerance being less likely to develop, may also be a contributing factor in the increasing trend of allergic contact dermatitis caused by propyl gallate.

  19. Crystal structure of (1RS,21SR,22RS,24SR)-28-oxo-24-propyl-8,11,14-trioxa-24,27-di­aza­penta­cyclo[19.5.1.122,26.02,7.015,20]octa­cosa-2,4,6,15(20),16,18-hexa­ene acetic acid monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Hieu, Truong Hong; Anh, Le Tuan; Soldatenkov, Anatoly T.; Tuyen, Nguyen Van; Khrustalev, Victor N.

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, C26H32N2O4(M)·C2H4O2, (I), is the product of the Petrenko–Kritchenko condensation of N-propyl­piperidinone with 1,5-bis­(2-formyl­phen­oxy)-3-oxa­pentane and ammonium acetate. In M, the aza-14-crown-3-ether ring adopts a bowl conformation, with the configuration of the C—O—C—C —O—C—C—O—C polyether chain being t–g (−)–t–t–g (+)–t (t = trans, 180°; g = gauche, ±60°). The dihedral angle between the planes of the benzene rings fused to the aza-14-crown-4-ether moiety is 62.75 (5)°. The central piperidinone ring has a boat conformation, whereas the terminal piperidinone ring adopts a chair conformation. The boat conformation of the central piperidinone ring is supported by the bifurcated intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, each solvent mol­ecule is linked to mol­ecule M via strong O—H⋯N hydrogen bonding, forming hydrogen-bonded pairs of mol­ecules, which further inter­act through weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to the ac plane. PMID:27308052

  20. Crystal structure of (1RS,21SR,22RS,24SR)-28-oxo-24-propyl-8,11,14-trioxa-24,27-di-aza-penta-cyclo[19.5.1.1(22,26).0(2,7).0(15,20)]octa-cosa-2,4,6,15(20),16,18-hexa-ene acetic acid monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Hieu, Truong Hong; Anh, Le Tuan; Soldatenkov, Anatoly T; Tuyen, Nguyen Van; Khrustalev, Victor N

    2016-06-01

    The title compound, C26H32N2O4(M)·C2H4O2, (I), is the product of the Petrenko-Kritchenko condensation of N-propyl-piperidinone with 1,5-bis-(2-formyl-phen-oxy)-3-oxa-pentane and ammonium acetate. In M, the aza-14-crown-3-ether ring adopts a bowl conformation, with the configuration of the C-O-C-C -O-C-C-O-C polyether chain being t-g ((-))-t-t-g ((+))-t (t = trans, 180°; g = gauche, ±60°). The dihedral angle between the planes of the benzene rings fused to the aza-14-crown-4-ether moiety is 62.75 (5)°. The central piperidinone ring has a boat conformation, whereas the terminal piperidinone ring adopts a chair conformation. The boat conformation of the central piperidinone ring is supported by the bifurcated intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, each solvent mol-ecule is linked to mol-ecule M via strong O-H⋯N hydrogen bonding, forming hydrogen-bonded pairs of mol-ecules, which further inter-act through weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to the ac plane. PMID:27308052

  1. NTP Carcinogenesis Bioassay of Propyl Gallate (CAS No. 121-79-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Study).

    PubMed

    1982-12-01

    carcinomas (combined) were similar in control and dosed groups (3/50, 6%; 3/50, 6%; 5/49, 10%). Negative%; 2/50, 4%; 5/49, 10%). The incidences of hepatocellular adenomas or carcinomas (combined) were similar in control and dosed groups (3/50, 6%; 3/50, 6%; 5/49, 10%). Negative trends (P<0.05) were obtained for fibromas of the skin or subcutaneous tissue in male mice (5/50, 1/49, 0/50). Under the conditions of this bioassay, propyl gallate was not considered carcinogenic for F344/N rats, although there was evidence of an increased proportion of low-dose male rats with preputial gland tumors, islet-cell tumors of the pancreas, and pheochromocytomas of the adrenal glands; rare tumors of the brain occurred in two low-dose females. Propyl gallate was not considered to be carcinogenic for B6C3F1 mice of either sex, although the increased incidence of malignant lymphoma in male mice may have been related to the dietary administration of propyl gallate. Levels of Evidence of Carcinogenicity: Male Rats: Equivocal Female Rats: Negative Male Mice: Equivocal Female Mice: Negative Synonyms: 2,4,5 trihydroxybenzoic acid propyl ester; gallic acid propyl ester; Progallin P; Tennox PG

  2. Production of propyl gallate in nonaqueous medium using cell-associated tannase of Bacillus massiliensis: effect of various parameters and statistical optimization.

    PubMed

    Aithal, Mahesh; Belur, Prasanna D

    2013-01-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of propyl gallate in an organic solvent was studied using cell-associated tannase (E.C. 3.1.1.20) of Bacillus massiliensis. Lyophilized biomass showing tannase activity was used as a biocatalyst. The influence of buffer pH and strength, water activity, temperature, biocatalyst loading, gallic acid concentration, and 1-propanol concentration was studied by the one-factor-at-a-time method. Subsequently, response surface methodology was applied based on a central composite design to determine the effects of three independent variables (biocatalyst loading, gallic acid concentration, and 1-propanol concentration) and their mutual interactions. A total of 20 experiments were conducted, and a statistical model was developed, which predicted the maximum propyl gallate yield of 20.28 μg/mL in the reaction mixture comprising 40.4 mg biocatalyst, 0.4 mM gallic acid, and 6.52 % (v/v) 1-propanol in 9.5 mL benzene at 30°C. The subsequent verification experiments established the validity of the model. Under optimal conditions, 25% conversion of gallic acid to propyl gallate was achieved on a molar basis. The absence of the need for enzyme purification and subsequent immobilization steps and good conversion efficiency makes this enzyme system an interesting one. Reports on the applications of bacterial whole cell systems for synthetic reactions in organic solvents are scarce, and perhaps this is the first report on bacterial cell-associated tannase-mediated esterification in a nonaqueous medium. PMID:23600575

  3. Solvent effects on the cinnamoylation of n-propyl alcohol catalyzed by N-methylimidazole and 4-dimethylaminopyridine.

    PubMed

    Connors, K A; Eboka, C J

    1983-04-01

    The kinetics of reaction of trans-cinnamic anhydride or trans-cinnamoyl chloride with n-propyl alcohol, catalyzed by N-methylimidazole or 4-dimethylaminopyridine, were studied spectrophotometrically at 25 degrees in methyl ethyl ketone, ethylene dichloride, methylene chloride, and toluene. The acid chloride reacted in all solvents via the intermediate formation of the N-acyl catalyst, which underwent reaction with the alcohol catalyzed by another molecule of the base. The anhydride did not form the intermediate in any of the solvents, but underwent direct general base catalysis. The rate of the anhydride reactions was not sensitive to solvent polarity, whereas the rate of the chloride reactions tended to increase as the solvent polarity decreased. A kinetic analysis is given of the effect of ion-pair formation on the kinetics of acyl transfer in systems where the charged N-acyl catalyst intermediate is formed.

  4. Comprehensive Analysis of Interstellar Iso-PROPYL Cyanide up to 480 GHZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesniková, Lucie; Alonso, E. R.; Cabezas, Carlos; Mata, Santiago; Alonso, José L.

    2016-06-01

    Iso-propyl cyanide, also known as iso-butyronitrile, is a branched alkyl molecule recently detected in the interstellar medium. A combination of Stark-modulated microwave spectroscopy and frequency-modulated millimeter and submillimeter wave spectroscopy was used to analyze its rotational spectrum from 26 to 480 GHz. Spectral assignments and analysis include transitions from the ground state, eight excited vibrational states and 13C isotopologues. Results of this work should facilitate astronomers further observations of iso-propyl cyanide in the interstellar medium. A. Belloche, R. T. Garrod, H. S. P. Müller, K. M. Menten, Science, 2014, 345, 1584

  5. Sequestering ability of butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, resveratrol, and vitamins C and E against ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl free radicals in chemical and biological systems.

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniele G; Andreazza, Ana C; Salvador, Mirian

    2003-02-12

    The antioxidant capacity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol), propyl gallate (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid n-propyl ester), resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), and vitamins C (l-ascorbic acid) and E [(+)-alpha-tocopherol] was studied in chemical and biological systems. The chemical assays evaluated the capacity of these antioxidants to sequester 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS.) and 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.). A new colorimetric method to determine hydroxyl radical scavenging is also described. The biological tests use the eucaryotic cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae treated with the antioxidants in the presence of the stressing agents apomorphine, hydrogen peroxide, and paraquat dichloride (methylviologen; 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride). The results in chemical systems showed that all of the antioxidants were able to significantly inhibit the oxidation of beta-carotene by hydroxyl free radicals. The assays in yeast showed that the antioxidant activity of the tested compounds depended on the stressing agent used and the mechanism of action of the antioxidant.

  6. Enzymatic gallic acid esterification.

    PubMed

    Weetal, H H

    1985-02-01

    Gallic acid esters of n-propyl and amyl alcohols have been produced by enzymatic synthesis in organic solvents using immobilized tannase. Studies indicate that maximum esterification of gallic acid occurs with amyl alcohol. The enzyme shows broad alcohol specificity. However, the enzyme exhibits absolute specificity for the acid portion of the ester. Studies were carried out on K(m), V(max), pH, and temperature optima.

  7. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

  8. No-carrier-added carbon-11-labeled sn-1,2- and sn-1,3-diacylglycerols by (11C)propyl ketene method

    SciTech Connect

    Imahori, Y.; Fujii, R.; Ueda, S.; Ido, T.; Nishino, H.; Moriyama, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Nakahashi, H. )

    1991-08-01

    This article describes the preparation of sn-1,2-(11C)diacylglycerols and sn-1,3-(11C)diacylglycerols by a no-carrier-added reaction based on a labeling method using (1-11C)propyl ketene, which is one of the most potent acylating agents. (1-11C)Propyl ketene was produced by pyrolytic decomposition of (1-11C)butyric acid and was trapped in pyridine containing L-alpha-palmitoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine, producing L-alpha-palmitoyl-2-(1-11C)butyryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine. The authors adopted an enzymatic reaction to remove the phosphorylcholine, in which L-alpha-palmitoyl-2-(1-11C)butyryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine was incubated with phospholipase C, hydrolyzing to produce 1-palmitoyl-sn-2-(1-11C)butyrylglycerol. Total synthesis time was about 50 minutes and the specific activity was estimated at 93 GBq/mumol (2.5 Ci/mumol) at end of synthesis. Radiochemical yield was 3.8% based on the trapped 11CO2. sn-1,3-(11C)Diacylglycerol was also synthesized by (1-11C)propyl ketene reaction with 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol in a single procedure. The regional brain tissue radioactivities obtained in sn-1,2-(11C)diacylglycerol were higher than those of sn-1,3-(11C)diacylglycerol, and the regional values varied widely. In autoradiography of brain slices from conscious rats, sn-1,2-(11C)diacylglycerol incorporation sites were discretely localized, especially in the amygdala, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus, suggesting that intensive neuronal processing occurred in these areas on the basis of phosphatidylinositol turnover.

  9. Inhibitory effects of propyl gallate on tyrosinase and its application in controlling pericarp browning of harvested longan fruits.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Fen; Hu, Yong-Hua; Lin, He-Tong; Liu, Xuan; Chen, Yi-Hui; Zhang, Shen; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2013-03-20

    Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1), also known as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), is a key enzyme in pigment biosynthesis of organisms. The inhibitory effects of propyl gallate on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase and effects of propyl gallate on pericarp browning of harvested longan fruits in relation to phenolic metabolism were investigated. The results showed that propyl gallate could potently inhibit diphenolase activity of tyrosinase. The inhibitor concentration leading to 50% activity lost (IC50) was determined to be 0.685 mM. Kinetic analyses showed that propyl gallate was a reversible and mixed type inhibitor on this enzyme. The inhibition constants (K(IS) and K(I)) were determined to be 2.135 and 0.661 mM, respectively. Furthermore, the results also showed that propyl gallate treatment inhibited activities of PPO and POD in pericarp of harvested longan fruits, and maintained higher contents of total phenol and flavonoid of longan pericarp. Moreover, propyl gallate treatment also delayed the increases of browning index and browning degree in pericarp of harvested longan fruits. Therefore, application of propyl gallate may be a promising method for inhibiting tyrosinase activity, controlling pericarp browning, and extending shelf life of harvested longan fruits.

  10. Characterization of bioimprinted tannase and its kinetic and thermodynamics properties in synthesis of propyl gallate by transesterification in anhydrous medium.

    PubMed

    Nie, Guangjun; Zheng, Zhiming; Gong, Guohong; Zhao, Genhai; Liu, Yan; Song, Junying; Dai, Jun

    2012-08-01

    Tannase has been extensively applied to synthesize gallic acid esters. Bioimprinting technique can evidently enhance transesterification-catalyzing performance of tannase. In order to promote the practical utilization of the modified tannase, a few enzymatic characteristics of the enzyme and its kinetic and thermodynamics properties in synthesis of propyl gallate by transesterification in anhydrous medium have been studied. The investigations of pH and temperature found that the imprinted tannase holds an optimum activity at pH 5.0 and 40 °C. On the other hand, the bioimprinting technique has a profound enhancing effect on the adapted tannase in substrate affinity and thermostability. The kinetic and thermodynamic analyses showed that the modified tannase has a longer half-time of 1,710 h at 40 °C; the kinetic constants, the activation energy of reversible thermal inactivation, and the activation energy of irreversible thermal inactivation, respectively, are 0.054 mM, 17.35 kJ mol(-1), and 85.54 kJ mol(-1) with tannic acid as a substrate at 40 °C; the free energy of Gibbs (ΔG) and enthalpy (ΔH) were found to be 97.1 and 82.9 kJ mol(-1) separately under the same conditions.

  11. Laboratory Evaluation of Drop-in Solvent Alternatives to n-Propyl Bromide for Vapor Degreasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on this limited laboratory study, solvent blends of trans-1,2 dichloroethylene with HFEs, HFCs, or PFCs appear to be viable alternatives to n-propyl bromide for vapor degreasing. The lower boiling points of these blends may lead to greater solvent loss during use. Additional factors must be considered when selecting a solvent substitute, including stability over time, VOC, GWP, toxicity, and business considerations.

  12. 40 CFR 180.362 - Hexakis (2-methyl-2-phenyl-propyl)distannoxane; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.362 Hexakis (2-methyl-2-phenyl-propyl)distannoxane; tolerances for...: Commodity Parts per million Cattle, fat 0.5 Cattle, meat 0.5 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.5 Egg 0.1 Goat, fat 0.5 Goat, meat 0.5 Goat, meat byproducts 0.5 Hog, fat 0.5 Hog, meat 0.5 Hog, meat byproducts 0.5...

  13. 1,5-Bis(4-iso­propyl­benzyl­idene)thio­carbonohydrazide

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yan-Hua; Zhao, Qiao; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C21H26N4S, was synthesized by the condensation reaction of 4-iso­propyl­benzaldehyde with thio­carbohydrazide in ethanol. The planes of the two benzene rings in the mol­ecule are inclined at 22.6 (1)°. In the crystal, pairs of inter­molecular N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into inversion dimers. PMID:24454099

  14. Spectroscopic Study and Astronomical Detection of Vibrationally Excited n-PROPYL Cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Holger S. P.; Wehres, Nadine; Wilkins, Olivia H.; Lewen, Frank; Schlemmer, Stephan; Walters, Adam; Vicente, Rémi; Liu, Delong; Garrod, Robin T.; Belloche, Arnaud; Menten, Karl M.

    2016-06-01

    We have obtained ALMA data of Sagittarius (Sgr for short) B2(N) between 84.0 and 114.4 GHz in its Early Science Cycles 0 and 1. We have focused our analyses on the northern, secondary hot molecular core Sgr B2(N2) because of the smaller line widths. The survey led to the first detection of a branched alkyl compound, iso-propyl cyanide, i-C_3H_7CN, in space besides the ˜2.5 times more abundant straight chain isomer n-propyl cyanide, a molecule which we had detected in our IRAM 30 m survey. We suspected to be able to detect n-propyl cyanide in vibrationally excited states in our ALMA data. We have recorded laboratory rotational spectra of this molecule in three large frequency regions and identified several excited vibrational states. The analyses of these spectra have focused on the 36 to 70 GHz and 89 to 127 GHz regions and on the four lowest excited vibrational states of both the lower lying gauche- and the slightly higher lying anti-conformer for which rotational constants had been published. We will present results of our laboratory spectroscopic investigations and will report on the detection of these states toward Sgr B2(N2). A. Belloche et al., Science 345 (2014) 1584. A. Belloche et al., A&A 499 (2009) 215. E. Hirota, J. Chem. Phys. 37 (1962) 2918.

  15. Evaluation of poly{-N-isopropylacrylamide-co-[3-(methacryloylamino)propyl]trimethylammonium} as a stationary phase for capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Colón, Luis A

    2006-03-01

    A cationic polyacrylamide-based stationary phase was synthesized and characterized for CEC. The stationary phase was prepared by radical copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and (3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)trimethylammonium chloride (MAPTA), producing a copolymer attached to 5 microm porous silica particles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the copolymer. Under capillary electrochromatographic conditions, the poly-NIPAAm-co-MAPTA stationary phase showed to be stable in a wide pH range. The amino groups in the MAPTA provided an anodic EOF for CEC separation. The electroosmotic mobility changed less than 10% when the pH of the mobile phase was changed from 2 to 12. The run-to-run RSD of analyte migration time was less than 1.5% (n = 3), and the RSD of peak area was less than 3% (n = 3). The day-to-day RSD for migration time was less than 2% (n = 3). The polar groups present in the stationary phase contributed to the selectivity of the phase providing for hydrophilic interactions. In the separation of a series of neutral and acidic compounds, the stationary phase shows a mixed-mode separation mechanism with both hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity contributing to the separation.

  16. Propyl gallate inhibits adipogenesis by stimulating extracellular signal-related kinases in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeung-Eun; Kim, Jung-Min; Jang, Hyun-Jun; Lim, Se-Young; Choi, Seon-Jeong; Lee, Nan-Hee; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Choi, Ung-Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Propyl gallate (PG) used as an additive in various foods has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Although the functional roles of PG in various cell types are well characterized, it is unknown whether PG has effect on stem cell differentiation. In this study, we demonstrated that PG could inhibit adipogenic differentiation in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) by decreasing the accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets. In addition, PG significantly reduced the expression of adipocyte-specific markers including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2 (aP2). PG inhibited adipogenesis in hAMSCs through extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Decreased adipogenesis following PG treatment was recovered in response to ERK blocking. Taken together, these results suggest a novel effect of PG on adipocyte differentiation in hAMSCs, supporting a negative role of ERK1/2 pathway in adipogenic differentiation.

  17. Evaluation of poly{-N-isopropylacrylamide-co-[3-(methacryloylamino)propyl]trimethylammonium} as a stationary phase for capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Colón, Luis A

    2006-03-01

    A cationic polyacrylamide-based stationary phase was synthesized and characterized for CEC. The stationary phase was prepared by radical copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and (3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)trimethylammonium chloride (MAPTA), producing a copolymer attached to 5 microm porous silica particles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the copolymer. Under capillary electrochromatographic conditions, the poly-NIPAAm-co-MAPTA stationary phase showed to be stable in a wide pH range. The amino groups in the MAPTA provided an anodic EOF for CEC separation. The electroosmotic mobility changed less than 10% when the pH of the mobile phase was changed from 2 to 12. The run-to-run RSD of analyte migration time was less than 1.5% (n = 3), and the RSD of peak area was less than 3% (n = 3). The day-to-day RSD for migration time was less than 2% (n = 3). The polar groups present in the stationary phase contributed to the selectivity of the phase providing for hydrophilic interactions. In the separation of a series of neutral and acidic compounds, the stationary phase shows a mixed-mode separation mechanism with both hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity contributing to the separation. PMID:16523452

  18. Laboratory spectroscopic study and astronomical detection of vibrationally excited n-propyl cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Holger S. P.; Walters, Adam; Wehres, Nadine; Belloche, Arnaud; Wilkins, Olivia H.; Liu, Delong; Vicente, Rémi; Garrod, Robin T.; Menten, Karl M.; Lewen, Frank; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    Context. We performed a spectral line survey called Exploring Molecular Complexity with ALMA (EMoCA) toward Sagittarius B2(N) between 84.1 and 114.4 GHz with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in its Cycles 0 and 1. We determined line intensities of n-propyl cyanide in the ground vibrational states of its gauche and anti conformers toward the hot molecular core Sagittarius B2(N2) which suggest that we should also be able to detect transitions pertaining to excited vibrational states. Aims: We wanted to determine spectroscopic parameters of low-lying vibrational states of both conformers of n-propyl cyanide to search for them in our ALMA data. Methods: We recorded laboratory rotational spectra of n-propyl cyanide in two spectral windows between 36 and 127 GHz. We searched for emission lines produced by these states in the ALMA spectrum of Sagittarius B2(N2). We modeled their emission and the emission of the ground vibrational states assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Results: We have made extensive assignments of a- and b-type transitions of the four lowest vibrational states of the gauche conformer which reach J and Ka quantum numbers of 65 and 20, respectively. We assigned mostly a-type transitions for the anti conformer with J and Ka quantum numbers up to 48 and 24, respectively. Rotational and Fermi perturbations between two anti states allowed us to determine their energy difference. The resulting spectroscopic parameters enabled us to identify transitions of all four vibrational states of each conformer in our ALMA data. The emission features of all states, including the ground vibrational state, are well-reproduced with the same LTE modeling parameters, which gives us confidence in the reliability of the identifications, even for the states with only one clearly detected line. Conclusions: Emission features pertaining to the highest excited vibrational states of n-propyl cyanide reported in this work have been identified just

  19. Mathematical evaluation of the amino acid and polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of fruits from different apricot cultivars.

    PubMed

    Sochor, Jiri; Skutkova, Helena; Babula, Petr; Zitka, Ondrej; Cernei, Natalia; Rop, Otakar; Krska, Boris; Adam, Vojtech; Provazník, Ivo; Kizek, Rene

    2011-09-01

    Functional foods are of interest because of their significant effects on human health, which can be connected with the presence of some biologically important compounds. In this study, we carried out complex analysis of 239 apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivated in Lednice (climatic area T4), South Moravia, Czech Republic. Almost all previously published studies have focused only on analysis of certain parameters. However, we focused on detection both primary and secondary metabolites in a selection of apricot cultivars with respect to their biological activity. The contents of thirteen biogenic alpha-L-amino acids (arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, lysine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline and alanine) were determined using ion exchange chromatography with UV-Vis spectrometry detection. Profile of polyphenols, measured as content of ten polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties (gallic acid, procatechinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferrulic acid and quercetrin), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometric/electrochemical detection. Moreover, content of total phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined using five independent spectrophotometric methods: DPPH assay, DMPD method, ABTS method, FRAP and Free Radicals methods. Considering the complexity of the obtained data, they were processed and correlated using bioinformatics techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis). The studied apricot cultivars were clustered according to their common biochemical properties, which has not been done before. The observed similarities and differences were discussed.

  20. 40 CFR 721.10565 - Ethanol, 2,2′-[[3-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]propyl]imino]bis-, N-(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) derivs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethanol, 2,2â²- propyl]imino]bis-, N... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10565 Ethanol, 2,2′- propyl]imino]bis-, N...) The chemical substance identified as ethanol, 2,2′- propyl]imino]bis-, N-(hydrogenated tallow...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10565 - Ethanol, 2,2′-[[3-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]propyl]imino]bis-, N-(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) derivs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethanol, 2,2â²- propyl]imino]bis-, N... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10565 Ethanol, 2,2′- propyl]imino]bis-, N...) The chemical substance identified as ethanol, 2,2′- propyl]imino]bis-, N-(hydrogenated tallow...

  2. Kinetics of tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) metabolism in human liver microsomes and serum.

    PubMed

    Van den Eede, Nele; Tomy, Gregg; Tao, Fang; Halldorson, Thor; Harrad, Stuart; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) is an emerging contaminant which is ubiquitous in the indoor and outdoor environment. Moreover, its presence in human body fluids and biota has been evidenced. Since no quantitative data exist on the biotransformation or stability of TCIPP in the human body, we performed an in vitro incubation of TCIPP with human liver microsomes (HLM) and human serum (HS). Two metabolites, namely bis(2-chloro-isopropyl) phosphate (BCIPP) and bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) 1-hydroxy-2-propyl phosphate (BCIPHIPP), were quantified in a kinetic study using HLM or HS (only BCIPP, the hydrolysis product) and LC-MS. The Michaelis-Menten model fitted best the NADPH-dependent formation of BCIPHIPP and BCIPP in HLM, with respective V(MAX) of 154 ± 4 and 1470 ± 110 pmol/min/mg protein and respective apparent K(m) of 80.2 ± 4.4 and 96.1 ± 14.5 μM. Hydrolases, which are naturally present in HLM, were also involved in the production of BCIPP. A HS paraoxonase assay could not detect any BCIPP formation above 38.6 ± 10.8 pmol/min/μL serum. Our data indicate that BCIPP is the major metabolite of TCIPP formed in the liver. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative assessment of the stability of TCIPP in tissues of humans or any other species. Further research is needed to confirm whether these biotransformation reactions are associated with a decrease or increase in toxicity. PMID:26473552

  3. Endonucleolytic activity directed towards 8-(2-hydroxy-2-propyl) purines in double-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Livneh, Z; Elad, D; Sperling, J

    1979-11-01

    Photoalkylation of circular covalently closed DNA from phage PM2 with isopropyl alcohol by using a free radical photoinitiator and UV light of lambda greater than 305 nm led to the specific 8-substitution of purine moieties in the DNA, yielding 8-(2-hydroxy-2-propyl)adenine and 8-(2-hydroxy-2-propyl)guanine as the only detectable damage in the DNA. Using this specifically photoalkylated DNA as a substrate, we discovered in extracts of Micrococcus luteus an endonucleolytic activity that is directed towards 8-(2-hydroxy-2-propyl) purines in DNA. The activity is not a combination of a DNA-glycosylase and an apurinic site endonuclease. It is not inhibited by single-stranded DNA, by UV- or gamma-irradiated single-stranded DNA, or by normal or depurinated double-stranded DNA. however, gamma- or UV-(254 nm) irradiated double-stranded DNAs to inhibit the activity, hinting at the possibility of a common type of lesion in these damaged DNAs. Divalent cations are not required for the incising activity, and it is fully active in 1 mM EDTA, whereas caffeine and ATP cause inhibition. Extracts of mutant M. luteus lacking pyrimidine-dimer-directed endonucleases were found to contain the endonucleolytic activity in levels comparable to those present in the wild type. After the incision, we could demonstrate the specific excision of the 8-alkylated purines from the damaged DNA. The special conformational consequences of the 8-alkylation of purines, at the nucleotide level, namely their nonregular syn conformation, suggest that it is the distortion in the DNA that is recognized by the endonuclease. PMID:293658

  4. Antioxidant activity of propyl gallate in aqueous and lipid media: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Medina, Manuel E; Iuga, Cristina; Alvarez-Idaboy, Juan Raúl

    2013-08-21

    In this work, we have carried out a quantum chemistry and computational kinetics study on the reactivity of propyl gallate towards ˙OOH, ˙OOCH3 and ˙OOCHCH2 radicals, in aqueous and lipid media. We have considered three reaction mechanisms: hydrogen transfer (HT), radical adduct formation (RAF) and single electron transfer (SET). Rate constants and relative branching ratios for the different paths contributing to the overall reaction, at 298.15 K, are reported. Our results show that propyl gallate reacts mainly through the HT mechanism, independently of the solvent or the peroxyl radical, contrary to other phenols such as catechols and guayacols previously studied, which react mainly via the SET mechanism. In aqueous media at physiological pH, the calculated rate constants towards the ˙OOH, ˙OOCH3 and ˙OOCHCH2 radicals are 4.56 × 10(8), 1.59 × 10(6) and 4.05 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), while in lipid media the rate constants are 2.94 × 10(4), 7.73 × 10(3) and 9.94 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). Thus, a propyl gallate molecule acts as a very efficient peroxyl radical scavenger, both in aqueous and lipid media. Since the gallate moiety is a part of other naturally occurring polyphenols such as aflavine gallates and epigallocatechin gallates, the results of this study could be extrapolated to these compounds. Even if these compounds have other antioxidant structures or enhancers, the activity of the gallate moiety could be considered as a lower limit to their antioxidant activity.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis to propyl gallate and pentylene glycol in an emollient cream.

    PubMed

    Foti, Caterina; Bonamonte, Domenico; Cassano, Nicoletta; Conserva, Anna; Vena, Gino A

    2010-05-01

    A 62-year-old man, with a 20-year history of seborrhoeic dermatitis, presented with a worsening of his dermatitis. He had previously been demonstrated to be allergic to various topical corticosteroids, so he had been using an emollient cream (Sebclair), containing piroctone olamine and various anti-inflammatory substances, for 6 months, with good effect. Patch testing to the cream and its ingredients revealed positive reactions to both propyl gallate and pentylene glycol. A positive reaction to propylene glycol was also detected, whereas patch testing to butylene glycol was negative. Complete remission followed avoidance of the offending substances. PMID:20546226

  6. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  7. (E)-Propyl α-Cyano-4-Hydroxyl Cinnamylate: A High Sensitive and Salt Tolerant Matrix for Intact Protein Profiling by MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng; Xiao, Zhaohui; Xiao, Chunsheng; Wang, Huixin; Wang, Bing; Li, Ying; Chen, Xuesi; Guo, Xinhua

    2016-04-01

    Low-abundance samples and salt interference are always of great challenges for the practical protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Herein, a series of carboxyl-esterified derivatives of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) were synthesized and evaluated as matrices for MALDI-MS analysis of protein. Among them, (E)-propyl α-cyano-4-hydroxyl cinnamylate (CHCA-C3) was found to exhibit excellent assay performance for intact proteins by improving the detection sensitivity 10 folds compared with the traditional matrices [i.e., super2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (superDHB), sinapic acid (SA), and CHCA]. In addition, CHCA-C3 was shown to have high tolerance to salts, the ion signal of myoglobin was readily detected even in the presence of urea (8 M), NH4HCO3 (2 M), and KH2PO4 (500 mM), meanwhile sample washability was robust. These achievements were mainly attributed to improved ablation ability and increased hydrophobicity or affinity of CHCA-C3 to proteins in comparison with hydrophilic matrixes, leading to more efficient ionization of analyte. Furthermore, direct analysis of proteins from crude egg white demonstrated that CHCA-C3 was a highly efficient matrix for the analysis of low-abundance proteins in complex biological samples. These outstanding performances indicate the tremendous potential use of CHCA-C3 in protein profiling by MALDI-MS.

  8. The Use of Chlorhexidine/n-Propyl Gallate (CPG) as an Ambient-Temperature Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nillen, Jeannie L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2003-01-01

    A safe, effective ambient temperature urine preservative, chlorhexidine/n-propyl gallate (CPG), has been formulated for use during spacefli ght that reduces the effects of oxidation and bacterial contamination on sample integrity while maintaining urine pH. The ability of this preservative to maintain stability of nine key analytes was evaluated for a period of one year. CPG effectively maintained stability of a mmonia, total nitrogen, 3-methylhistidine, chloride, sodium, potassiu m, and urea; however, creatinine and osmolality were not preserved by CPG. These data indicate that CPG offers prolonged room-temperature storage for multiple urine analytes, reducing the requirements for f rozen urine storage on future spaceflights. Iii medical applications on Earth, this technology can allow urine samples to be collected in remote settings and eliminate the need to ship frozen samples.

  9. LC/MS/MS identification of some folic acid degradation products after E-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. M.; Marchioni, E.; Zhao, M.; Kuntz, F.; Di Pascoli, T.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Bergaentzle, M.

    2012-08-01

    Folates belong to the B vitamin group based on the parental compound folic acid (FA). They are involved in important biochemical processes like DNA synthesis and repair. FA is composed of a pteridine ring, p-aminobenzoic acid and glutamate moieties. The human metabolism is not able to synthesize folates and therefore obtain them from diet. FA, a synthetic vitamin, is used as a food fortificant because of its low price, relative stability and increased bioavailability compared to natural folate forms. FA is known to be a sensitive compound easily degradable in aqueous solution by ultraviolet and visible light towards various by-products. Irradiation is a process for preservation of foods that uses accelerated electrons, gamma rays or X-rays. Irradiation is proposed for the treatment of various food products, eliminating or reducing pathogens and insects, increasing the storage time and replacing chemical fumigants. This study concerns the identification of degradation products of FA after E-beam irradiation. FA aqueous solutions were irradiated with a Van de Graaff electrons beam accelerator (2 MeV, 100 μA current, 20 cm scan width, dose rate about 2 kGy/s). Applied doses were between 0 (control) and 10.0 kGy. Absorbed doses were monitored with FWT 60.00 radiochromic dosimeters.

  10. Densities and vapor-liquid equilibria in binary mixtures formed by propyl methanoate + ethanol, + propan-1-ol, and + butan-1-ol at 160.0 kPa

    SciTech Connect

    Falcon, J.; Ortega, J.; Gonzalez, E.

    1996-07-01

    Densities and excess volumes were determined at 298.15 K for propyl methanoate + ethanol, + propan-1-ol, and + butan-1-ol. The results of those quantities were then correlated to get the concentrations of vapor-liquid equilibrium obtained isobarically at 160 kPa for the same mixtures. Two mixtures show azeotropes: for propyl methanoate (1) + ethanol (2), x{sub 1} = 0.443 at T = 358.7 K; and for propyl methanoate (1) + propan-1-ol (2), x{sub 1} = 0.762 at T = 368.2 K. The mixtures are thermodynamically consistent, and the predictions made using several group-contribution models are satisfactory.

  11. SBA-15 mesoporous silica free-standing thin films containing copper ions bounded via propyl phosphonate units - preparation and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskowski, Lukasz; Laskowska, Magdalena; Jelonkiewicz, Jerzy; Dulski, Mateusz; Wojtyniak, Marcin; Fitta, Magdalena; Balanda, Maria

    2016-09-01

    The SBA-15 silica thin films containing copper ions anchored inside channels via propyl phosphonate groups are investigated. Such materials were prepared in the form of thin films, with hexagonally arranged pores, laying rectilinear to the substrate surface. However, in the case of our thin films, their free standing form allowed for additional research possibilities, that are not obtainable for typical thin films on a substrate. The structural properties of the samples were investigated by X-ray reflectometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The molecular structure was examined by Raman spectroscopy supported by numerical simulations. Magnetic measurements (SQUID magnetometry and EPR spectroscopy) showed weak antiferromagnetic interactions between active units inside silica channels. Consequently, the pores arrangement was determined and the process of copper ions anchoring by propyl phosphonate groups was verified in unambiguous way. Moreover, the type of interactions between magnetic atoms was determined.

  12. Phase diagram of the iodine-sodium iodide-water-propyl alcohol system at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubtsova, E. M.; Varlamova, T. M.; Monakhova, Y. B.; Mushtakova, S. P.

    2015-06-01

    Phase equilibria in the cross sections of isothermal-isobaric sections of the phase diagram of four-component iodine-potassium iodide-water-propyl alcohol are investigated at 298.15 K and pressure of 101325 Pa. It is shown that a three-phase equilibrium of the eutonic type occurs in the cross sections containing (I) 10 and (II) 30 wt % of propyl alcohol, and two three-phase equilibria of the monotectic type are found in cross section II. It is shown that the solid phases of saturated solutions in the investigated cross sections are potassium iodide and crystalline iodine. The compositions of the mixed solvents with the strongest iodine dissolving ability relative to individual solvents are established.

  13. Hydroxy propyl cellulose capped silver nanoparticles produced by simple dialysis process

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, L.; Balakrishnan, A.; Marsano, E.

    2010-08-15

    Silver (Ag) nanoparticles ({approx}6 nm) were synthesized using a novel dialysis process. Silver nitrate was used as a starting precursor, ethylene glycol as solvent and hydroxy propyl cellulose (HPC) introduced as a capping agent. Different batches of reaction mixtures were prepared with different concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}). After the reduction and aging, these solutions were subjected to ultra-violet visible spectroscopy (UVS). Optimized solution, containing 250 mg AgNO{sub 3} revealed strong plasmon resonance peak at {approx}410 nm in the spectrum indicating good colloidal state of Ag nanoparticles in the diluted solution. The optimized solution was subjected to dialysis process to remove any unreacted solvent. UVS of the optimized solution after dialysis showed the plasmon resonance peak shifting to {approx}440 nm indicating the reduction of Ag ions into zero-valent Ag. This solution was dried at 80 {sup o}C and the resultant HPC capped Ag (HPC/Ag) nanoparticles were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for their particle size and morphology. The particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of these nanoparticles showed skewed distribution plot with particle size ranging from 3 to 18 nm. The nanoparticles were characterized for phase composition using X-ray diffractrometry (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

  14. Vibrational spectra and normal coordinate analysis of 2-hydroxy-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy) propyl carbamate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthu, S.; Renuga, S.

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out by using FT-Raman and FTIR spectroscopy in the range 50-4000 cm-1 and 450-4000 cm-1 respectively, for 2-hydroxy-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy) propyl carbamate (2H3MPPLC) molecule. The molecular structure, fundamental vibrational frequencies and intensities of the vibrational bands were interpreted with the aid of structure optimizations and normal coordinate force field calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio HF methods with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The complete vibrational assignments of wave numbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The results of the calculations were applied to simulated spectra of the title compound, which show excellent agreement with observed spectra. The scaled B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) results show the best agreement with the experimental values over the other method. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The results confirm the occurrence of intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α) and hyperpolarizability (β) of the investigated molecule has been computed using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges was also calculated. Besides, frontier molecular orbitals, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed.

  15. "Sign-on/off" sensing interface design and fabrication for propyl gallate recognition and sensitive detection.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yunlong; Li, Xueyan; Fan, Limei; Lu, Xiaojing; Kan, Xianwen

    2016-12-15

    A new strategy based on sign-on and sign-off was proposed for propyl gallate (PG) determination by an electrochemical sensor. The successively modified poly(thionine) (PTH) and molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) showed an obvious electrocatalysis and a good recognition toward PG, respectively. Furthermore, the rebound PG molecules in imprinted cavities not only were oxidized but also blocked the electron transmission channels for PTH redox. Thus, a sign-on from PG current and a sign-off from PTH current were combined as a dual-sign for PG detection. Meanwhile, the modified MIP endowed the sensor with recognition capacity. The electrochemical experimental results demonstrated that the prepared sensor possessed good selectivity and high sensitivity. A linear ranging from 5.0×10(-8) to 1.0×10(-4)mol/L for PG detection was obtained with a limit of detection of 2.4×10(-8)mol/L. And the sensor has been applied to analyze PG in real samples with satisfactory results. The simple, low cost, and effective strategy reported here can be further used to prepare electrochemical sensors for other compounds selective recognition and sensitive detection. PMID:27476055

  16. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies of tris-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] isocyanurate, its sol-gel process, and coating on aluminum and copper.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Sing; Church, Jeffrey S; Woodhead, Andrea L; Vecchio, Nicolas E; Yang, Johnny

    2014-11-11

    Tris-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] isocyanurate (TTPI) has been used as a precursor to prepare a sol using ethanol as the solvent under acidic conditions. The sol-gel was applied for the surface treatment of aluminum and copper. Infrared and Raman spectra have been recorded for pure TTPI and the TTPI sol, xerogel and TTPI sol-gel coated metals. From the vibrational spectra, TTPI is likely to have the C1 point group. Vibrational assignments are suggested based on group frequencies, the expected reactions in the sol-gel process and the vibrational studies of some related molecules. From the experimental infrared spectra of xerogels annealed at different temperatures and from the thermal-gravimetric analysis, it is found that the TTPI xerogel decomposes at around 450°C with silica being the major decomposition product. A cyclic voltammetric study of the metal electrodes coated with different concentrations of TTPI ranging from 5% to 42% (v/v) has shown that the films with high concentrations of sol would provide better corrosion protection for aluminum and copper.

  17. Bioconcentration and transfer of the organophorous flame retardant 1,3-dichloro-2-propyl phosphate causes thyroid endocrine disruption and developmental neurotoxicity in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiangwei; Lai, Nelson Lok-Shun; Wang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yongyong; Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing; Lam, James Chung-Wah; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2015-04-21

    Organophosphate flame retardants are emerging environmental contaminants, although knowledge of their health risks is limited. Here, thyroid hormone homeostasis and neuronal development was studied in the progeny of adult zebrafish exposed to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP). Adult zebrafish were exposed to TDCPP (0, 4, 20, and 100 μg/L) for 3 months. Increased generation of reactive oxygen species and reduced survival rates was observed in exposed F1 larvae. We also observed a significant decrease in plasma thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine levels in F0 females and F1 eggs/larvae. The mRNA and protein expression of factors associated with neuronal development (e.g., α1-tubulin, myelin basic protein, and synapsin IIa) were significantly downregulated in exposed F1 larvae, as was the level of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, gamma amino butyric acid, and histamine. Larval locomotion was significantly decreased in exposed fish, but there was no effect on acetylcholinesterase activity. Bioconcentration of TDCPP was observed in F0 fish. TDCPP was also detected in F1 eggs following parental exposure, indicating maternal transfer of this compound. This study uniquely shows that TDCPP can be transferred to the offspring of exposed adults, causing thyroid endocrine disruption and developmental neurotoxicity. PMID:25826601

  18. Adsorption of aromatic organic acids onto high area activated carbon cloth in relation to wastewater purification.

    PubMed

    Ayranci, Erol; Duman, Osman

    2006-08-25

    Adsorption of aromatic organic acids: benzoic acid (BA), salicylic acid (SA), p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) and nicotinic acid (NA), onto high area activated carbon cloth from solutions in 0.4 M H(2)SO(4), in water at natural pH, in 0.1 M NaOH and also from solutions having pH 7.0 were studied by in situ UV-spectroscopic technique. The first-order rate law was found to be applicable for the kinetic data of adsorption. The rates and extents of adsorption of the organic acids were the highest from water or 0.4 M H(2)SO(4) solutions and the lowest from 0.1 M NaOH solution. The order of rates and extents of adsorption of the four organic acids in each of the four solutions (0.4 M H(2)SO(4), water, solution of pH 7.0 and 0.1 M NaOH) was determined as SA>BA>NA approximately pABA. These observed orders were explained in terms of electrostatic, dispersion and hydrogen bonding interactions between the surface and the adsorbate species, taking the charge of the carbon surface and the adsorbate in each solution into account. Adsorption of BA in molecular form or in benzoate form was analyzed by treating the solution as a mixture of two components and applying Lambert-Beer law to two-component system. The adsorption isotherm data of the systems studied were derived at 30 degrees C and fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich equations. PMID:16442224

  19. Adaptation of an L-Proline Adenylation Domain to Use 4-Propyl-L-Proline in the Evolution of Lincosamide Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kadlčík, Stanislav; Kučera, Tomáš; Chalupská, Dominika; Gažák, Radek; Koběrská, Markéta; Ulanová, Dana; Kopecký, Jan; Kutejová, Eva; Najmanová, Lucie; Janata, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Clinically used lincosamide antibiotic lincomycin incorporates in its structure 4-propyl-L-proline (PPL), an unusual amino acid, while celesticetin, a less efficient related compound, makes use of proteinogenic L-proline. Biochemical characterization, as well as phylogenetic analysis and homology modelling combined with the molecular dynamics simulation were employed for complex comparative analysis of the orthologous protein pair LmbC and CcbC from the biosynthesis of lincomycin and celesticetin, respectively. The analysis proved the compared proteins to be the stand-alone adenylation domains strictly preferring their own natural substrate, PPL or L-proline. The LmbC substrate binding pocket is adapted to accomodate a rare PPL precursor. When compared with L-proline specific ones, several large amino acid residues were replaced by smaller ones opening a channel which allowed the alkyl side chain of PPL to be accommodated. One of the most important differences, that of the residue corresponding to V306 in CcbC changing to G308 in LmbC, was investigated in vitro and in silico. Moreover, the substrate binding pocket rearrangement also allowed LmbC to effectively adenylate 4-butyl-L-proline and 4-pentyl-L-proline, substrates with even longer alkyl side chains, producing more potent lincosamides. A shift of LmbC substrate specificity appears to be an integral part of biosynthetic pathway adaptation to the PPL acquisition. A set of genes presumably coding for the PPL biosynthesis is present in the lincomycin - but not in the celesticetin cluster; their homologs are found in biosynthetic clusters of some pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBD) and hormaomycin. Whereas in the PBD and hormaomycin pathways the arising precursors are condensed to another amino acid moiety, the LmbC protein is the first functionally proved part of a unique condensation enzyme connecting PPL to the specialized amino sugar building unit. PMID:24386435

  20. Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate perturbs the expression of genes involved in immune response and lipid and steroid metabolism in chicken embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Farhat, Amani; Buick, Julie K.; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L.; O'Brien, Jason M.; Crump, Doug; Williams, Kim L.; Chiu, Suzanne; Kennedy, Sean W.

    2014-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that in ovo exposure to the flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) decreased plasma thyroxine levels, reduced growth parameters, and decreased gallbladder size in chicken embryos. In the current study DNA microarrays were used to evaluate global mRNA expression in liver tissue of male chicken embryos that exhibited the above mentioned effects. Injected doses were dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control, 7.6 or 45 μg TDCPP/g egg. TDCPP caused significant changes in the expression of five genes at the low dose and 47 genes at the high dose (False Discovery Rate p ≤ 0.1, fold change ≥ 1.5). The gene expression analysis suggested a compromised immune function, a state of cholestatic liver/biliary fibrosis, and disrupted lipid and steroid metabolism. Circulating bile acid levels were elevated, which is an indication of liver dysfunction, and plasma cholesterol levels were reduced; however, hepatic bile acid and cholesterol levels were unaltered. Interactome analyses identified apolipoprotein E, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha as key regulatory molecules involved in the effects of TDCPP. Our results demonstrate a targeted effect of TDCPP toxicity on lipid metabolism, including cholesterol, that helps explain the aforementioned phenotypic effects, as chicken embryos are highly dependent on yolk lipids for growth and maintenance throughout development. Finally, our results are in concordance with the literature that describes TDCPP as a cancer-causing agent, since the majority of dysregulated genes were involved in cancer pathways. - Highlights: • TDCPP dysregulates genes involved in immune function and lipid metabolism. • A targeted effect of TDCPP toxicity on cholesterol metabolism is apparent. • A state of cholestatic liver fibrosis is suggested by the expression profile. • Elevated plasma bile acids suggest that TDCPP causes liver dysfunction.

  1. Lipophilisation of Caffeic Acid through Esterification with Propanol Using Water-tolerable Acidic Ionic Liquid as Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Han, Liya

    2015-01-01

    Propyl caffeate was synthesized to produce lipophilic antioxidant, which used caffeic acid and propanol as starting materials, acidic ionic liquid as catalyst. The highest yield of propyl caffeate (98.7±0.8%) have been achieved under the optimum as follows: 1-butylsulfonic-3-methylimidazolium tosylate showed the best catalytic performance, molar ratio of caffeic acid to propanol was 1:20, reaction temperature was 90°C and the amount of acidic ionic liquid was 40%. The relationship between temperature and the forward rate constant gave the activation energy of 33.6 kJ mol(-1), which indicated that acidic ionic liquid possesses high catalytic activity in the synthesis of PC. And the activity of acidic ionic liquid was not inhibited by the water produced during the esterification process. More importantly, this reaction system can even proceed smoothly when initial water content was 5%.

  2. Disruption of DNA Damage-Response by Propyl Gallate and 9-Aminoacridine.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shun; Matsuda, Yoko; Yanagisawa, Shin-Ya; Ikura, Masae; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Matsuda, Tomonari

    2016-06-01

    The DNA-damage response (DDR) protects the genome from various types of endogenous and exogenous DNA damage, and can itself be a target of certain chemicals that give rise to chromosomal aberrations. Here, we developed a screening method to detect inhibition of Mediator of DNA damage Checkpoint 1 (MDC1) foci formation (the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP)-MDC1 foci formation-inhibition assay) using EGFP-MDC1-expressing human cells. The assay identified propyl gallate (PG) and 9-aminoacridine (9-AA) as inhibitors of camptothecin (CPT)-induced MDC1 foci formation. We demonstrated that the inhibition of CPT-induced MDC1 foci formation by PG was caused by the direct suppression of histone H2AX phosphorylation at Ser139 (γH2AX), which is required for MDC1 foci formation, by quantifying γH2AX in cells and in vitro 9-AA also directly suppressed H2AX Ser139-phosphorylation in vitro but the concentration was much higher than that required to suppress CPT-induced MDC1 foci formation in cells. Consistent with these findings, PG and 9-AA both suppressed CPT-induced G2/M cell-cycle arrest and increased the number of abnormal nuclei. Our results suggest that early DDR-inhibitory effects of PG and 9-AA contribute to their chromosome-damaging potential, and that the EGFP-MDC1 foci formation-inhibition assay is useful for detection of and screening for H2AX Ser139-phosphorylation-inhibitory effects of chemicals.

  3. Protection against radiation-induced damage of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Perona, Marina; Dagrosa, María A; Pagotto, Romina; Casal, Mariana; Pignataro, Omar P; Pisarev, Mario A; Juvenal, Guillermo J

    2013-03-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have shown that the exposure to high external radiation doses increases thyroid neoplastic frequency, especially when given during childhood or adolescence. The use of radioprotective drugs may decrease the damage caused by radiation therapy and therefore could be useful to prevent the development of thyroid tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible application of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) as a radioprotector in the thyroid gland. Rat thyroid epithelial cells (FRTL-5) were exposed to different doses of γ irradiation with or without the addition of PTU, methimazole (MMI), reduced glutathione (GSH) and perchlorate (KClO4). Radiation response was analyzed by clonogenic survival assay. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Apoptosis was quantified by nuclear cell morphology and caspase 3 activity assays. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured using the fluorescent dye 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate. Catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were also determined. Pretreatment with PTU, MMI and GSH prior to irradiation significantly increased the surviving cell fraction (SF) at 2 Gy (P < 0.05), while no effect was observed with KClO4. An increase in extracellular levels of cAMP was found only in PTU treated cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. Cells incubated with agents that stimulate cAMP (forskolin and dibutyril cAMP) mimicked the effect of PTU on SF. Moreover, pretreatment with the inhibitor of protein kinase A, H-89, abolished the radioprotective effect of PTU. PTU treatment diminished radiation-induced apoptosis and protected cells against radiation-induced ROS elevation and suppression of the antioxidant enzyme's activity. PTU was found to radioprotect normal thyroid cells through cAMP elevation and reduction in both apoptosis and radiation-induced oxidative stress damage.

  4. Autoradiographic localization of sigma receptor binding sites in guinea pig and rat central nervous system with (+)3H-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine

    SciTech Connect

    Gundlach, A.L.; Largent, B.L.; Snyder, S.H.

    1986-06-01

    (+)3H-3-PPP ((+)3H-3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)-piperidine) binds with high affinity to brain membranes with a pharmacological profile consistent with that of sigma receptors. The distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites in brain and spinal cord of both guinea pig and rat has been determined by in vitro autoradiography with binding densities quantitated by computer-assisted densitometry. (+)3H-3-PPP binding to slide-mounted brain sections is saturable and displays high affinity and a pharmacological specificity very similar to sites labeled in homogenates. (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites are heterogeneously distributed. Highest concentrations of binding sites occur in spinal cord, particularly the ventral horn and dorsal root ganglia; the pons-medulla, associated with the cranial nerve and pontine nuclei and throughout the brain stem reticular formation; the cerebellum, over the Purkinje cell layer; the midbrain, particularly the central gray and red nucleus; and hippocampus, over the pyramidal cell layer. Lowest levels are seen in the basal ganglia and parts of the thalamus, while all other areas, including hypothalamus and cerebral cortex, exhibit moderate grain densities. Quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the hippocampus indicate that (+)3H-3-PPP labels hippocampal pyramidal cells and granule cells in the dentate gyrus. Intrastriatal injection of ibotenic acid dramatically reduces (+)3H-3-PPP binding in this area, while injection of 6-hydroxydopamine produces a relatively slight decrease. The distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites does not correlate with the receptor distribution of any recognized neurotransmitter or neuropeptide, including dopamine. However, there is a notable similarity between the distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP sites and high-affinity binding sites for psychotomimetic opioids, such as the benzomorphan (+)SKF 10,047.

  5. Observation of rotamers of m-aminobenzoic acid: Zero kinetic energy photoelectron and hole-burning resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yonggang; Wu, Chengyin; Kong, Wei

    2004-11-01

    We report studies of supersonically cooled m-aminobenzoic acid using two-color resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and two-color zero kinetic energy (ZEKE) photoelectron spectroscopy. Two conformers have been identified and characterized using the hole-burning method in the REMPI experiment. With the aid of ab initio and density functional calculations, vibrational modes of the first electronically excited state (S1) of the neutral species and those of the ground state cation (D0) have been assigned, and the adiabatic ionization potentials have been determined for both conformers. The REMPI spectra are dominated by in-plane motions of the substituents and ring deformation modes. A propensity of Δv=0, where Δv is the change in vibrational quantum number from the S1 to the D0 state, is observed in the ZEKE spectra. The origin of this behavior is discussed in the context of electron back donation from the two substituents in the excited state and in the cationic state. Comparisons of these results with those of p-aminobenzoic acid will be analyzed.

  6. Utilization of Boron Compounds for the Modification of Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid as Inhibitor of Histone Deacetylase Class II Homo sapiens

    PubMed Central

    Bakri, Ridla; Parikesit, Arli Aditya; Satriyanto, Cipta Prio; Kerami, Djati; Tambunan, Usman Sumo Friend

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) has a critical function in regulating gene expression. The inhibition of HDAC has developed as an interesting anticancer research area that targets biological processes such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell differentiation. In this study, an HDAC inhibitor that is available commercially, suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), has been modified to improve its efficacy and reduce the side effects of the compound. Hydrophobic cap and zinc-binding group of these compounds were substituted with boron-based compounds, whereas the linker region was substituted with p-aminobenzoic acid. The molecular docking analysis resulted in 8 ligands with ΔGbinding value more negative than the standards, SAHA and trichostatin A (TSA). That ligands were analyzed based on the nature of QSAR, pharmacological properties, and ADME-Tox. It is conducted to obtain a potent inhibitor of HDAC class II Homo sapiens. The screening process result gave one best ligand, Nova2 (513246-99-6), which was then further studied by molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:25214833

  7. In vitro viability of external eye microbial flora in hydroxy-propyl-methylcellulose.

    PubMed

    Mastropasqua, L; Piccolomini, R; Carpineto, P; Ciancaglini, M; Falconio, G; Di Bonaventura, G; Costagliola, C; Gallenga, P E

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the in vitro influence of various dilutions of a viscoelastic substance containing 2% hydroxy-propyl-methylcellulose (HPMC) on the viability of some microbial strains representative of the normal flora of the external eye. Pure reference strain cultures of Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and a fresh clinical isolate of Proteus mirabilis were selected for this study. Serial twofold dilutions of 2% HPMC, prepared so as to obtain a final concentration ranging from 50 to 0.78% of the product in sterile saline solution (0.85% NaCl), were taken out with a pipette that delivered 1.0 ml per tube. One hundred microliters of the abovementioned microbial inocula, used for the evaluation of the positive control of the test organism, were dispensed into each tube. After 24 h of incubation, 100 microl of samples were taken from each tube and plated into the specific medium for the growth of the test organism. After 24-48 h of incubation, these agar plates were examined and the colony-forming-unit count of each test organism was compared to the corresponding total colony count, acting as a positive control, in order to determine the quantitative variation of the test organism grown in the presence of the viscoelastic compounds. C. albicans and P. aeruginosa showed a statistically significant increase in growth with HPMC dilutions varying from 1:2 to 1:16. P. acnes and P. mirabilis growth was significantly reduced by all dilutions except for the 1:128 one. S. epidermidis growth was also significantly reduced in the presence of HPMC dilutions varying from 1:2 to 1:64. S. aureus growth was not significantly influenced. The viability of P. aeruginosa in HPMC dilutions needs to be carefully considered because of the ability of this organism to induce endophthalmitis, and the possibility that during cataract surgery, a small amount of HPMC may be left in the eye

  8. In vitro viability of external eye microbial flora in hydroxy-propyl-methylcellulose.

    PubMed

    Mastropasqua, L; Piccolomini, R; Carpineto, P; Ciancaglini, M; Falconio, G; Di Bonaventura, G; Costagliola, C; Gallenga, P E

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the in vitro influence of various dilutions of a viscoelastic substance containing 2% hydroxy-propyl-methylcellulose (HPMC) on the viability of some microbial strains representative of the normal flora of the external eye. Pure reference strain cultures of Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and a fresh clinical isolate of Proteus mirabilis were selected for this study. Serial twofold dilutions of 2% HPMC, prepared so as to obtain a final concentration ranging from 50 to 0.78% of the product in sterile saline solution (0.85% NaCl), were taken out with a pipette that delivered 1.0 ml per tube. One hundred microliters of the abovementioned microbial inocula, used for the evaluation of the positive control of the test organism, were dispensed into each tube. After 24 h of incubation, 100 microl of samples were taken from each tube and plated into the specific medium for the growth of the test organism. After 24-48 h of incubation, these agar plates were examined and the colony-forming-unit count of each test organism was compared to the corresponding total colony count, acting as a positive control, in order to determine the quantitative variation of the test organism grown in the presence of the viscoelastic compounds. C. albicans and P. aeruginosa showed a statistically significant increase in growth with HPMC dilutions varying from 1:2 to 1:16. P. acnes and P. mirabilis growth was significantly reduced by all dilutions except for the 1:128 one. S. epidermidis growth was also significantly reduced in the presence of HPMC dilutions varying from 1:2 to 1:64. S. aureus growth was not significantly influenced. The viability of P. aeruginosa in HPMC dilutions needs to be carefully considered because of the ability of this organism to induce endophthalmitis, and the possibility that during cataract surgery, a small amount of HPMC may be left in the eye

  9. 1,2:5,6-Di-O-iso­propyl­idene-3-C-methyl-α-d-allo­furan­ose

    PubMed Central

    Forezi, Luana da Silva Magalhães; Silva, Marcos Moitrel Pequeno; Santos, Fernanda da Costa; Ferreira, Vitor Francisco; de Souza, Maria Cecília Bastos Vieira

    2013-01-01

    The title carbohydrate, C13H22O6, is a derivative of d-glycose, in which the furan­osidic and iso­propyl­idene rings are in twisted conformations. The mean plane of the furan­osidic ring makes a dihedral angle of 70.32 (18)° with the mean plane of the fused iso­propyl­idene ring. The methyl groups in the other iso­propyl­idene ring are disordered over two sets of sites, with an occupancy ratio of 0.74 (6):0.26 (6). In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into chains with graph-set notation C(5) along [100]. Weak C—H⋯O interactions also occur. PMID:24098204

  10. Conformations and Barriers to Methyl Group Internal Rotation in Two Asymmetric Ethers: Propyl Methyl Ether and Butyl Methyl Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, B. E.; Dechirico, F.; Cooke, S. A.

    2012-06-01

    The conformational preferences of the O-C-C-C unit are important in many biological systems with the unit generally preferring a gauche configuration compared to an anti configuration. Butyl methyl ether and propyl methyl ether provide very simple systems for this phenomenom to manifest. Pure rotational spectra of the title molecules have been recorded using chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (CP-FTMW). In the case of butyl methyl ether, only one conformer has been observed. This conformer has torsional angles of COCC = 180°, OCCC = 62° and CCCC = 180° (anti-gauche-anti) and rotational constants of A = 10259.4591(33) MHz, B = 1445.6470(13) MHz, and C = 1356.2944(14) MHz. The rotational spectrum was doubled and has been analyzed to produce an effective barrier to methyl group internal rotation of 780(35) cm-1. A prior rotational spectroscopic study on propyl methyl ether had focused only on the high energy anti-anti conformer. We have analyzed spectra from the lowest energy anti-gauche conformer and the spectroscopic constants will be presented. A summary of the differences in conformational energies and methyl group internal rotation barriers for the class of aliphatic asymmetric ethers will be presented. K. N. Houk, J. E. Eksterowicz, Y.-D. Wu, C. D. Fuglesang, D. B. Mitchell. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115 (4170), 1993. Hiroshi Kato, Jun Nakagawa, Michiro Hayashi. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 80 (272), 1980.

  11. N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-l-cysteine in urine from workers exposed to 1-bromopropane in foam cushion spray adhesives.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Kevin W; Petersen, Martin R; Cheever, Kenneth L; Luo, Lian

    2009-10-01

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been marketed as an alternative for ozone depleting and other solvents; it is used in aerosol products, adhesives, metal, precision, and electronics cleaning solvents. Mechanisms of toxicity of 1-BP are not fully understood, but it may be a neurological and reproductive toxicant. Sparse exposure information prompted this study using 1-BP air sampling and urinary metabolites. Mercapturic acid conjugates are excreted in urine from 1-BP metabolism involving debromination. Research objectives were to evaluate the utility of urinary N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (AcPrCys) for assessing exposure to 1-BP and compare it to urinary bromide [Br((-))] previously reported for these workers. Forty-eight-hour urine specimens were obtained from 30 workers at two factories where 1-BP spray adhesives were used to construct polyurethane foam seat cushions. Urine specimens were also obtained from 21 unexposed control subjects. All the workers' urine was collected into composite samples representing three time intervals: at work, after work but before bedtime, and upon awakening. Time-weighted average (TWA) geometric mean breathing zone concentrations were 92.4 and 10.5 p.p.m. for spraying and non-spraying jobs, respectively. Urinary AcPrCys showed the same trend as TWA exposures to 1-BP: higher levels were observed for sprayers. Associations of AcPrCys concentrations, adjusted for creatinine, with 1-BP TWA exposure were statistically significant for both sprayers (P < 0.05) and non-sprayers (P < 0.01). Spearman correlation coefficients for AcPrCys and Br((-)) analyses determined from the same urine specimens were highly correlated (P < 0.0001). This study confirms that urinary AcPrCys is an important 1-BP metabolite and an effective biomarker for highly exposed foam cushion workers. PMID:19706636

  12. N-Acetyl-S-(n-Propyl)-L-Cysteine in Urine from Workers Exposed to 1-Bromopropane in Foam Cushion Spray Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Kevin W.; Petersen, Martin R.; Cheever, Kenneth L.; Luo, Lian

    2009-01-01

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been marketed as an alternative for ozone depleting and other solvents; it is used in aerosol products, adhesives, metal, precision, and electronics cleaning solvents. Mechanisms of toxicity of 1-BP are not fully understood, but it may be a neurological and reproductive toxicant. Sparse exposure information prompted this study using 1-BP air sampling and urinary metabolites. Mercapturic acid conjugates are excreted in urine from 1-BP metabolism involving debromination. Research objectives were to evaluate the utility of urinary N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (AcPrCys) for assessing exposure to 1-BP and compare it to urinary bromide [Br(−)] previously reported for these workers. Forty-eight-hour urine specimens were obtained from 30 workers at two factories where 1-BP spray adhesives were used to construct polyurethane foam seat cushions. Urine specimens were also obtained from 21 unexposed control subjects. All the workers' urine was collected into composite samples representing three time intervals: at work, after work but before bedtime, and upon awakening. Time-weighted average (TWA) geometric mean breathing zone concentrations were 92.4 and 10.5 p.p.m. for spraying and non-spraying jobs, respectively. Urinary AcPrCys showed the same trend as TWA exposures to 1-BP: higher levels were observed for sprayers. Associations of AcPrCys concentrations, adjusted for creatinine, with 1-BP TWA exposure were statistically significant for both sprayers (P < 0.05) and non-sprayers (P < 0.01). Spearman correlation coefficients for AcPrCys and Br(−) analyses determined from the same urine specimens were highly correlated (P < 0.0001). This study confirms that urinary AcPrCys is an important 1-BP metabolite and an effective biomarker for highly exposed foam cushion workers. PMID:19706636

  13. 4-Hydroxy-N-propyl-1,8-naphthalimide esters: New fluorescence-based assay for analysing lipase and esterase activity.

    PubMed

    Nalder, Tim D; Ashton, Trent D; Pfeffer, Frederick M; Marshall, Susan N; Barrow, Colin J

    2016-01-01

    Research using 1,8-naphthalimide derivatives has expanded rapidly in recent years owing to their cell-permeable nature, ability to target certain cellular locations and fluorescent properties. Here we describe the synthesis of three new esters of 4-hydroxy-N-propyl-1,8-naphthalimide (NAP) and the development of a simple and sensitive assay protocol to measure the activity of carboxylester hydrolases. The NAP fluorophore was esterified with short (butyrate), medium (octanoate) and long (palmitate) chain fatty acids. The esters were spectroscopically characterised and their properties investigated for their suitability as assay substrates. The esters were found to be relatively stable under the conditions of the assay and levels of spontaneous hydrolysis were negligible. Non-specific hydrolysis by proteins such as bovine serum albumin was also minimal. A simple and rapid assay methodology was developed and used to analyse a range of commercially available enzymes that included enzymes defined as lipases, esterases and phospholipases. Clear differences were observed between the enzyme classes with respect to the hydrolysis of the various chain length esters, with lipases preferentially hydrolysing the medium chain ester, whereas esterases reacted more favourably with the short ester. The assay was found to be highly sensitive with the fluorophore detectable to the low nM range. These esters provide alternate substrates from established coumarin-based fluorophores, possessing distinctly different excitation (447 nm) and emission (555 nm) optima. Absorbing at 440-450 nm also offers the flexibility of analysis by UV-visible spectrophotometry. This represents the first instance of a naphthalimide-derived compound being used to analyse these enzymes.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Choisya ternata Kunth Essential Oil, Ternanthranin, and Its Two Synthetic Analogs (Methyl and Propyl N-Methylanthranilates)

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Miltojević, Ana B.; Radulović, Niko S.; Abdul-Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Boylan, Fabio; Fernandes, Patrícia Dias

    2015-01-01

    Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae) is native to North America where it is popularly known as “Mexican orange”. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin—ISOAN) and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate – MAN and PAN) were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO) obtained from C. ternata leaves (3–100 mg/kg, p.o.), ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1–30 mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o.), were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β). ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses) when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA). None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:25807367

  15. Biocontrol of avocado dematophora root rot by antagonistic Pseudomonas fluorescens PCL1606 correlates with the production of 2-hexyl 5-propyl resorcinol.

    PubMed

    Cazorla, Francisco M; Duckett, Simon B; Bergström, Ed T; Noreen, Sadaf; Odijk, Roeland; Lugtenberg, Ben J J; Thomas-Oates, Jane E; Bloemberg, Guido V

    2006-04-01

    A collection of 905 bacterial isolates from the rhizospheres of healthy avocado trees was obtained and screened for antagonistic activity against Dematophora necatrix, the cause of avocado Dematophora root rot (also called white root rot). A set of eight strains was selected on the basis of growth inhibitory activity against D. necatrix and several other important soilborne phytopathogenic fungi. After typing of these strains, they were classified as belonging to Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas putida. The eight antagonistic Pseudomonas spp. were analyzed for their secretion of hydrogen cyanide, hydrolytic enzymes, and antifungal metabolites. P. chlororaphis strains produced the antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and phenazine-1-carboxamide. Upon testing the biocontrol ability of these strains in a newly developed avocado-D. necatrix test system and in a tomato-F oxysporum test system, it became apparent that P. fluorescens PCL1606 exhibited the highest biocontrol ability. The major antifungal activity produced by strain P. fluorescens PCL1606 did not correspond to any of the major classes of antifungal antibiotics produced by Pseudomonas biocontrol strains. This compound was purified and subsequently identified as 2-hexyl 5-propyl resorcinol (HPR). To study the role of HPR in biocontrol activity, two Tn5 mutants of P. fluorescens PCL1606 impaired in antagonistic activity were selected. These mutants were shown to impair HRP production and showed a decrease in biocontrol activity. As far as we know, this is the first report of a Pseudomonas biocontrol strain that produces HPR in which the production of this compound correlates with its biocontrol activity.

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of Choisya ternata Kunth essential oil, ternanthranin, and its two synthetic analogs (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilates).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Miltojević, Ana B; Radulović, Niko S; Abdul-Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Boylan, Fabio; Fernandes, Patrícia Dias

    2015-01-01

    Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae) is native to North America where it is popularly known as "Mexican orange". In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin-ISOAN) and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate--MAN and PAN) were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO) obtained from C. ternata leaves (3-100 mg/kg, p.o.), ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1-30 mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o.), were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β). ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses) when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA). None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:25807367

  17. 40 CFR 180.1065 - 2-Amino-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Amino-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The inert ingredient, 2-amino-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1065 - 2-Amino-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Amino-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The inert ingredient, 2-amino-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...

  19. Spectrophotometric Determination of 6-Propyl-2-Thiouracil in Pharmaceutical Formulations Based on Prussian Blue Complex Formation: An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakrzewski, Robert; Skowron, Monika; Ciesielski, Witold; Rembisz, Zaneta

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory experiment challenges students to determine 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) based on Prussian blue complex formation. Prussian blue is formed by ferricyanide and Fe(II) ions which are generated in situ from Fe(III) ions reduced by PTU. The absorbance of this product was measured at a wavelength of 840 nm, after a reaction time of 30…

  20. One-pot synthesis with in situ preconcentration of spherical monodispersed gold nanoparticles using thermoresponsive 3-(alkyldimethylammonio)-propyl sulfate zwitterionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Takagai, Yoshitaka; Miura, Ryo; Endo, Arata; Hinze, Willie L

    2016-08-21

    Homogeneous solutions of thermoresponsive zwitterionic 3-(alkyldimethylammonio)-propyl sulfate surfactants at elevated temperatures were employed for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by the citrate reduction method. Upon cooling at completion of the reaction, the mixture phase separates with the monodispersed AuNPs condensed and concentrated in the small volume surfactant-rich phase. PMID:27430646

  1. 40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol Bu glycidal ether. 721.9516 Section... Substances § 721.9516 Siloxanes and silicones, 3- propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene..., reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol Bu glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-740; CAS No....

  2. 40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol Bu glycidal ether. 721.9516 Section... Substances § 721.9516 Siloxanes and silicones, 3- propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene..., reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol Bu glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-740; CAS No....

  3. 40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol Bu glycidal ether. 721.9516 Section... Substances § 721.9516 Siloxanes and silicones, 3- propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene..., reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol Bu glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-740; CAS No....

  4. 40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol Bu glycidal ether. 721.9516 Section... Substances § 721.9516 Siloxanes and silicones, 3- propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene..., reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol Bu glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-740; CAS No....

  5. 40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol Bu glycidal ether. 721.9516 Section... Substances § 721.9516 Siloxanes and silicones, 3- propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene..., reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol Bu glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-740; CAS No....

  6. Neurotoxicological and thyroid evaluations of rats developmentally exposed to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDICPP) and tris(2-chloro-2-ethyl)phosphate(TCEP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDICPP) and tris(2-chloro-2-ethyl)phosphate (TCEP) are organophosphorous flame retardants with widespread usage and human exposures through food, inhalation, and dust ingestion. They have been detected in human tissues including ur...

  7. Further studies into the photodissociation pathways of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane and the dissociation channels of the 2-nitro-2-propyl radical intermediate.

    PubMed

    Booth, Ryan S; Brynteson, Matthew D; Lee, Shih-Huang; Lin, J J; Butler, Laurie J

    2014-07-01

    These experiments investigate the decomposition mechanisms of geminal dinitro energetic materials by photolytically generating two key intermediates: 2-nitropropene and 2-nitro-2-propyl radicals. To characterize the unimolecular dissociation of each intermediate, we form them under collision-free conditions using the photodissociation of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane; the intermediates are formed at high internal energies and undergo a multitude of subsequent unimolecular dissociation events investigated herein. Complementing our prior work on this system, the new data obtained with a crossed-laser molecular beam scattering apparatus with VUV photoionization detection at Taiwan's National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) and new velocity map imaging data better characterize two of the four primary 193 nm photodissociation channels. The C-Br photofission channel forming the 2-nitro-2-propyl radicals has a trimodal recoil kinetic energy distribution, P(ET), suggesting that the 2-nitro-2-propyl radicals are formed both in the ground electronic state and in two low-lying excited electronic states. The new data also revise the HBr photoelimination P(ET) forming the 2-nitropropene intermediate. We then resolved the multiple competing unimolecular dissociation channels of each photoproduct, confirming many of the channels detected in the prior study, but not all. The new data detected HONO product at m/e = 47 using 11.3 eV photoionization from both intermediates; analysis of the momentum-matched products allows us to establish that both 2-nitro-2-propyl → HONO + CH3CCH2 and 2-nitropropene → HONO + C3H4 occur. Photoionization at 9.5 eV allowed us to detect the mass 71 coproduct formed in OH loss from 2-nitro-2-propyl; a channel missed in our prior study. The dynamics of the highly exothermic 2-nitro-2-propyl → NO + acetone dissociation is also better characterized; it evidences a sideways scattered angular distribution. The detection of some stable 2

  8. A study of the interaction between rhodamine 6g and hydroxy propyl β-cyclodextrin by steady state fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkialakshmi, S.; menaka, T.

    2011-10-01

    The binding of rhodamine 6G and hydroxy propyl β-cyclodextrin (Hβ-CD) was investigated measuring fluorescence and absorption at pH 7.0. The solid inclusion complex of Rh6G and Hβ-CD has been studied by Ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, Fluorimetry, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 1HNMR) and in the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Association constant Kg and Ke were determined by the enhancement of the fluorescence of rhodamine 6G in the presence of Hβ-CD. Fluorescence of Rh6G is generally enhanced, in complexes of Rh6G and β-Cyclodextrin in aqueous solutions. The free energy change for the ground state (Δ Gg) and for the excited state (Δ Ge) have also been determined. The experimental results indicated that the inclusion process is an exothermic and spontaneous.

  9. A study of the interaction between rhodamine 6g and hydroxy propyl β-cyclodextrin by steady state fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Bakkialakshmi, S; Menaka, T

    2011-10-15

    The binding of rhodamine 6G and hydroxy propyl β-cyclodextrin (Hβ-CD) was investigated measuring fluorescence and absorption at pH 7.0. The solid inclusion complex of Rh6G and Hβ-CD has been studied by Ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, Fluorimetry, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)HNMR) and in the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Association constant K(g) and K(e) were determined by the enhancement of the fluorescence of rhodamine 6G in the presence of Hβ-CD. Fluorescence of Rh6G is generally enhanced, in complexes of Rh6G and β-Cyclodextrin in aqueous solutions. The free energy change for the ground state (ΔG(g)) and for the excited state (ΔG(e)) have also been determined. The experimental results indicated that the inclusion process is an exothermic and spontaneous.

  10. Crystal structure of 2-[2-(hy-droxy-imino)-1-phenyl-propyl-idene]-N-phen-ylhydrazinecarbo-thio-amide.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian J; Freedman, Michael B; Millikan, Sean P; Smolenski, Victoria A; Jasinski, Jerry P

    2015-10-01

    In the title compound, C16H16N4OS, an intra-molecular C-H⋯S hydrogen bond is observed. With the exception of the phenyl ring of the phenyl-propyl-idene unit, the remainder of the mol-ecule has an almost planar skeleton with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.121 (5) Å from the plane through the remaining 16 atoms. In the crystal O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds are observed between the terminal hy-droxy-imino groups, forming inverson dimers with R 2 (2)(6) graph-set motifs. Additional C-H⋯N contacts stack the dimers along [100]. While no π-π inter-actions are present, weak C-H⋯O and O-H⋯Cg inter-actions are also observed and help stabilize the crystal packing.

  11. Anharmonic modeling of the conformation-specific IR spectra of ethyl, n-propyl, and n-butylbenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor, Daniel P.; Hewett, Daniel M.; Bocklitz, Sebastian; Korn, Joseph A.; Tomaine, Anthony J.; Ghosh, Arun K.; Zwier, Timothy S.; Sibert, Edwin L.

    2016-06-01

    Conformation-specific UV-IR double resonance spectra are presented for ethyl, n-propyl, and n-butylbenzene. With the aid of a local mode Hamiltonian that includes the effects of stretch-scissor Fermi resonance, the spectra can be accurately modeled for specific conformers. These molecules allow for further development of a first principles method for calculating alkyl stretch spectra. Across all chain lengths, certain dihedral patterns impart particular spectral motifs at the quadratic level. However, the anharmonic contributions are consistent from molecule to molecule and conformer to conformer. This transferability of anharmonicities allows for the Hamiltonian to be constructed from only a harmonic frequency calculation, reducing the cost of the model. The phenyl ring alters the frequencies of the CH2 stretches by about 15 cm-1 compared to their n-alkane counterparts in trans configurations. Conformational changes in the chain can lead to shifts in frequency of up to 30 cm-1.

  12. Convenient Synthesis of 18F-Radiolabeled R-(−)-N-n-propyl-2-(3-fluoropropanoxy-11-hydroxynoraporphine

    PubMed Central

    Sromek, Anna W.; Zhang, Shaohui; Akurathi, Vamsidar; Packard, Alan B.; Li, Wei; Alagille, David; Morley, Thomas J.; Baldwin, Ronald; Tamagnan, Gilles; Neumeyer, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Aporphines are attractive candidates for imaging D2 receptor function because, as agonists rather than antagonists, they are selective for the receptor in the high affinity state. In contrast, D2 antagonists do not distinguish between the high and low affinity states, and in vitro data suggests that this distinction may be important in studying diseases characterized by D2 dysregulation, such as schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. Accordingly, MCL-536 (R-(−)-N-n-propyl-2-(3-[18F]fluoropropanoxy-11-hydroxynoraporphine) was selected for labeling with 18F based on in vitro data obtained for the non-radioactive (19F) compound. Fluorine-18-labeled MCL-536 was synthesized in 70% radiochemical yield, >99% radiochemical purity and specific activity of 167 GBq/μmol (4.5 Ci/μmol) using p-toluenesulfonyl (tosyl) both as a novel protecting group for the phenol and a leaving group for the radiofluorination. PMID:25400260

  13. Propylation technique for the simultaneous determination of tetraalkyllead and ionic alkyllead species by gas chromatography/atomic absorption spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Radojevic, M.; Allen, A.; Rapsomanikis, S.; Harrison, R.M.

    1986-03-01

    The only technique capable of simultaneous determination of R/sub 4/Pb and ionic alkyllead compounds involves extraction into an organic solvent in the presence of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDTC) and derivatizations of ionic species to R/sub 4/Pb forms using a butylating Grignard reagent (n-butylmagnesium chloride) followed by GC/AAS analysis. This technique has been applied to many environmental samples with some degree of success, although for many less polluted samples even greater sensitivity is required. In this communication the authors present an improved and novel derivatization technique of the simultaneous determination R/sub 4/Pb and ionic alkyllead species involving extraction into n-hexane and propylation to the tetraalkyllead form using propylmagnesium chloride with GC/electrothermal AAS analysis. The technique is compared to the previously reported butylation method, and procedures of extract concentration are investigated. 11 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  14. Corrosion mitigation of N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl ammonium)propyl chitosan chloride as inhibitor on mild steel.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, Y; Meenakshi, S; SairamSundaram, C

    2015-01-01

    The biopolymer N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl ammonium)propyl chitosan chloride (HTACC) was synthesised and its influence as a novel corrosion inhibitor on mild steel in 1M HCl was studied using gravimetric and electrochemical experiments. The compound obtained was characterised using FTIR and NMR studies. The inhibition efficiency increased with the increase in concentration and reached a maximum of 98.9% at 500 ppm concentration. Polarisation studies revealed that HTACC acts both as anodic and cathodic inhibitor. Electrochemical impedance studies confirmed that the inhibition is through adsorption on the metal surface. The extent of inhibition exhibits a negative trend with increase in temperature. Langmuir isotherm provides the best description on the adsorption nature of the inhibitor. SEM analysis indicated the presence of protective film formed by the inhibitor on the metal surface.

  15. Crystal structure of 2-[2-(hy-droxy-imino)-1-phenyl-propyl-idene]-N-phen-ylhydrazinecarbo-thio-amide.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian J; Freedman, Michael B; Millikan, Sean P; Smolenski, Victoria A; Jasinski, Jerry P

    2015-10-01

    In the title compound, C16H16N4OS, an intra-molecular C-H⋯S hydrogen bond is observed. With the exception of the phenyl ring of the phenyl-propyl-idene unit, the remainder of the mol-ecule has an almost planar skeleton with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.121 (5) Å from the plane through the remaining 16 atoms. In the crystal O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds are observed between the terminal hy-droxy-imino groups, forming inverson dimers with R 2 (2)(6) graph-set motifs. Additional C-H⋯N contacts stack the dimers along [100]. While no π-π inter-actions are present, weak C-H⋯O and O-H⋯Cg inter-actions are also observed and help stabilize the crystal packing. PMID:26594484

  16. Predictors of Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate Metabolite in the Urine of Office Workers

    PubMed Central

    Carignan, Courtney C.; McClean, Michael D.; Cooper, Ellen M.; Watkins, Deborah J.; Fraser, Alicia J.; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; Stapleton, Heather M.; Webster, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is a flame retardant widely used in furniture containing polyurethane foam. It is a carcinogen, endocrine disruptor, and potentially neurotoxic. Our objectives were to characterize exposure of adult office workers (n=29) to TDCPP by measuring its primary metabolite, bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP), in their urine; measuring TDCPP in dust from their homes; offices and vehicles; and assessing possible predictors of exposure. We identified TDCPP in 99% of dust (GM=4.43 µg/g) and BDCPP in 100% of urine samples (GM=408 pg/mL). Concentrations of TDCPP in dust were significantly higher in vehicles (GM=12.5 µg/g) and offices (GM=6.06 µg/g) than in dust from the main living area (GM=4.21 µg/g) or bedrooms (GM=1.40 µg/g) of worker homes. Urinary BDCPP concentrations among participants who worked in a new office building were 26% of those who worked in older buildings (p=0.01). We found some evidence of a positive trend between urinary BDCPP and TDCPP in office dust that was not observed in the other microenvironments and may be related to the timing of urine sample collection during the afternoon of a workday. Overall our findings suggest that exposure to TDCPP in the work environment is one of the contributors to the personal exposure for office workers. Further research is needed to confirm specific exposure sources (e.g., polyurethane foam), determine the importance of exposure in other microenvironments such as homes and vehicles, and address the inhalation and dermal exposure pathways. PMID:23523854

  17. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel benzimidazole-2-substituted phenyl or pyridine propyl ketene derivatives as antitumour agents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin-tao; Jiang, Zhi; Shen, Jia-jia; Yi, Hong; Zhan, Yue-chen; Sha, Ming-quan; Wang, Zhen; Xue, Si-tu; Li, Zhuo-rong

    2016-05-23

    A series of novel benzimidazole-2-subsituted phenyl or pyridine propyl ketene derivatives were designed and synthesized. The biological activities of these derivatives were then evaluated as potential antitumour agents. These compounds were assayed for growth-inhibitory activity against HCT116, MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines in vitro. The IC50 values of compounds A1 and A7 against the cancer cells were 0.06-3.64 μM and 0.04-9.80 μM, respectively. Their antiproliferative activities were significantly better than that of 5-Fluorouracil (IC50: 56.96-174.50 μM) and were close to that of Paclitaxel (IC50: 0.026-1.53 μM). The activity of these derivatives was over 100 times more effective than other reported structures of chalcone analogues (licochalcone A). A preliminary mechanistic study suggested that these compounds inhibit p53-MDM2 binding. Compounds A1, A7 and A9 effectively inhibited tumour growth in BALB/c mice with colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. The group administered 200 mg/kg of compound A7 showed a 74.6% tumour growth inhibition with no signs of toxicity at high doses that was similar to the inhibition achieved with the 12.5 mg/kg irinotecan positive control (70.2%). Therefore, this class of benzimidazole-2-subsituted phenyl or pyridine propyl ketene derivatives represents a promising lead structure for the development of possible p53-MDM2 inhibitors as new antitumour agents. PMID:27017265

  18. Free fatty acids chain length distribution affects the permeability of skin lipid model membranes.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Masayuki; Oguri, Masashi; Mojumdar, Enamul H; Gooris, Gert S; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2016-09-01

    The lipid matrix in the stratum corneum (SC) plays an important role in the barrier function of the skin. The main lipid classes in this lipid matrix are ceramides (CERs), cholesterol (CHOL) and free fatty acids (FFAs). The aim of this study was to determine whether a variation in CER subclass composition and chain length distribution of FFAs affect the permeability of this matrix. To examine this, we make use of lipid model membranes, referred to as stratum corneum substitute (SCS). We prepared SCS containing i) single CER subclass with either a single FFA or a mixture of FFAs and CHOL, or ii) a mixture of various CER subclasses with either a single FFA or a mixture of FFAs and CHOL. In vitro permeation studies were performed using ethyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (E-PABA) as a model drug. The flux of E-PABA across the SCS containing the mixture of FFAs was higher than that across the SCS containing a single FA with a chain length of 24 C atoms (FA C24), while the E-PABA flux was not effected by the CER composition. To select the underlying factors for the changes in permeability, the SCSs were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). All lipid models demonstrated a similar phase behavior. However, when focusing on the conformational ordering of the individual FFA chains, the shorter chain FFA (with a chain length of 16, 18 or 20 C atoms forming only 11m/m% of the total FFA level) had a higher conformational disordering, while the conformational ordering of the chains of the CER and FA C24 and FA C22 hardly did not change irrespective of the composition of the SCS. In conclusion, the conformational mobility of the short chain FFAs present only at low levels in the model SC lipid membranes has a great impact on the permeability of E-PABA. PMID:27287726

  19. A novel, simple and inexpensive procedure for the simultaneous determination of iopamidol and p-aminohippuric acid for renal function assessment from plasma samples in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romero, Violeta; González-Villalva, Karla I; Reyes, José L; Franco-Bourland, Rebecca E; Guízar-Sahagún, Gabriel; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Cruz-Antonio, Leticia

    2015-03-25

    The purpose of the current study was to design, validate and implement a novel analytical method for the simultaneous plasma measurement of iopamidol and p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) to estimate renal function in awake rats. A reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous measurement of iopamidol (for glomerular filtration rate estimation, GFR) and PAH (for tubular secretion determination, TS) was designed and validated using a C-18 column, 0.1M acetic acid-10% acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min, and UV detection at 270 nm. Iopamidol (244.8 mg/kg) was administered intravenously followed immediately by sodium PAH (100 mg/kg) to healthy female Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma samples obtained at 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after drug administration were deproteinized with 2.5% trichloroacetic acid containing p-aminobenzoic acid as internal standard, and separated by the validated RP-HPLC method described above. The iopamidol and PAH chromatographic data were analyzed using a non-compartmental model. The results demonstrated that the RP-HPLC method was linear in ranges between 15-120 μg/ml and 2.5-120 μg/ml for iopamidol and PAH, respectively. Precision and accuracy were within 15% for both drugs. Recovery of iopamidol and PAH was 92% and 100%, respectively. Plasma iopamidol and PAH clearances in awake rats, estimates for GFR and TS, respectively, were 1.49±0.20 ml/min and 3.73±0.38 ml/min. In conclusion, the method here described is a simple and reliable procedure, for the simultaneous and time-saving determination of GFR and TS from plasma samples in the conscious rat.

  20. Sensitized chemiluminescence of 2-phenyl-4,5-di(2-furyl)-1H-imidazole/K₃Fe(CN)₆/propyl gallate system combining with solid-phase extraction for the determination of propyl gallate in edible oil.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jing; Han, Lu; Chen, Zhonglin; Shen, Jimin; Nan, Jun; Zhang, Yihua

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, a novel chemiluminescence (CL) method has been developed for the determination of propyl gallate (PG). The proposed method was based on the enhancing effect of PG on the CL signal of 2-phenyl-4,5-di(2-furyl)-1H-imidazole (PDFI) and K3Fe(CN)6 reaction in an alkaline solution. Under the optimum conditions, the enhanced CL intensity was linearly related to the concentration of PG. The linear range of the calibration curve was 0.05-8 μg/mL, and the corresponding detection limit (3σ) was 0.036 μg/mL. The relative standard deviation for determining 1.0 μg/mL PG was 2.8% (n=11). The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of PG in edible oil. The edible oil samples were prepared by the solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a C18 column served as the stationary phase. Furthermore, the possible CL mechanism was also discussed briefly based on the photoluminescence (PL) and CL spectra.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Aneurinibacillus migulanus E1, a Gramicidin S- and d-Phenylalanyl-l-Propyl Diketopiperazine-Deficient Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Alenezi, Faizah N.; Luptakova, Lenka; Rateb, Mostafa E.; Woodward, Steve

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the Aneurinibacillus migulanus E1 mutant deficient in gramicidin S (GS) and d-phenylalanyl-l-propyl diketopiperazine (DKP) formation. The genome consists of a circular chromosome (6,301,904 bp, 43.20% G+C content) without any plasmid. The complete genome sequence enables further investigation of the biosynthetic mechanism and the biological function of gramicidin S. PMID:26679577

  2. RATE CONSTANTS FOR THE REACTIONS OF OH RADICALS AND CL ATOMS WITH DI-N-PROPYL ETHER AND DI-N-BUTYL ETHER AND THEIR DEUTERATED ANALOGS. (R825252)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using relative rate methods, rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with di-n-propyl ether, di-n-propyl ether-d14, di-n-butyl ether and di-n-butyl ether-d18 have been measured at 296 ? 2 K and atmos...

  3. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    PubMed

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging.

  4. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    PubMed

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging. PMID:26607106

  5. Effects of Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCPP) in Tetrahymena Thermophila: Targeting the Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Giesy, John P; Yu, Liqin; Li, Guangyu; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-05-21

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) has been frequently detected in the environment, and exposure to TDCPP appears widespread. It has been implicated to cause toxicity in vertebrates, but its potential to affect lower-trophic-level species remains unknown. In the present study, the ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, was used as a model to evaluate toxic effects of TDCPP and explore molecular mechanisms by integrating phenotypic observation, RNA-Seq and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Imaging technologies. Exposure to 0.01, 0.1 or 1 μM TDCPP for 5 days significantly decreased the relative biomass by reducing number of cells, size of cells and quantity of cilia in a dose-dependent manner. RNA-Seq analysis demonstrated that expression of twenty-one ribosome protein genes was down-regulated and these genes were enriched in "ribosome" term in KEGG pathway analysis. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes expressing ribosome proteins was accompanied by decreased ribosome quantity in rough endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm and enlarged ribosome size. Therefore, taken together, the data from the present study suggest that exposure to TDCPP affects growth and reproduction of Tetrahymena thermophila by targeting the ribosome. This information might provide insights into critical mechanisms of toxic action in other species and lead to useful bioindicators of exposure to TDCPP.

  6. Effects of Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCPP) in Tetrahymena Thermophila: Targeting the Ribosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Giesy, John P.; Yu, Liqin; Li, Guangyu; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-05-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) has been frequently detected in the environment, and exposure to TDCPP appears widespread. It has been implicated to cause toxicity in vertebrates, but its potential to affect lower-trophic-level species remains unknown. In the present study, the ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, was used as a model to evaluate toxic effects of TDCPP and explore molecular mechanisms by integrating phenotypic observation, RNA-Seq and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Imaging technologies. Exposure to 0.01, 0.1 or 1 μM TDCPP for 5 days significantly decreased the relative biomass by reducing number of cells, size of cells and quantity of cilia in a dose-dependent manner. RNA-Seq analysis demonstrated that expression of twenty-one ribosome protein genes was down-regulated and these genes were enriched in “ribosome” term in KEGG pathway analysis. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes expressing ribosome proteins was accompanied by decreased ribosome quantity in rough endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm and enlarged ribosome size. Therefore, taken together, the data from the present study suggest that exposure to TDCPP affects growth and reproduction of Tetrahymena thermophila by targeting the ribosome. This information might provide insights into critical mechanisms of toxic action in other species and lead to useful bioindicators of exposure to TDCPP.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of N-(2-hydroxy)propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride for potential application in gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Wan, Ying; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zha, Qichen; Liu, Haoming; Qiu, Zhiye; Zhang, Shengmin

    2012-03-01

    A series of N-(2-hydroxy)propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC) samples with various degrees of quaternization ranging from 12.4 to 43.7% was synthesized. The structures and properties of HTCC were investigated by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, conductometric titration and XRD analysis. It was found that HTCC had a more amorphous structure than chitosan. HTCC samples showed significantly lower cytotoxicity than polyethyleneimine in HepG2 and HeLa cell lines. The samples spontaneously formed complexes with pGL3 luciferase plasmid. These complexes had desirable particle sizes (160-300 nm) and zeta potentials (10.8-18.7 mV) when the weight ratios of HTCC to plasmid altered in the range of 3:1-20:1. In vitro gene transfection results indicated that HTCC had significantly high transfection efficiency compared with chitosan for delivering pGL3 luciferase plasmid to HeLa cells. The results suggest that HTCC could be a promising non-viral vector for safe and efficient DNA delivery.

  8. No synergism between bis(propyl)-cognitin and rasagiline on protecting dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Cheng-you; Guo, Bao-jian; Cai, Wei; Cui, Wei; Mak, Shing-hung; Wang, Yu-qiang; Lee, Simon Ming-yuen; Han, Yi-fan; Zhang, Zai-jun

    2016-01-01

    Rasagiline, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, and bis(propyl)-cognitin (B3C), a novel dimer are reported to be neuroprotective. Herein, the synergistical neuroprotection produced by rasagiline and B3C was investigated in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mice of Parkinsonism. By using neurobehavioural tests, high-performance liquid chromatography and western blot assay, we showed that B3C at 0.3 mg/kg, rasagiline at 0.02 mg/kg, as well as co-treatment with B3C and rasagiline prevented MPTP-induced behavioural abnormities, increased the concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum, and up-regulated the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the substantia nigra. However, the neuroprotective effects of co-treatment were not significantly improved when compared with those of B3C or rasagiline alone. Collectively, we have demonstrated that B3C at 0.3 mg/kg and rasagline at 0.02 mg/kg could not produce synergistic neuroprotective effects.

  9. Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate Induces Genome-Wide Hypomethylation within Early Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCIPP) is a high-production volume organophosphate-based plasticizer and flame retardant widely used within the United States. Using zebrafish as a model, the objectives of this study were to determine whether (1) TDCIPP inhibits DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) within embryonic nuclear extracts; (2) uptake of TDCIPP from 0.75 h postfertilization (hpf, 2-cell) to 2 hpf (64-cell) or 6 hpf (shield stage) leads to impacts on the early embryonic DNA methylome; and (3) TDCIPP-induced impacts on cytosine methylation are localized to CpG islands within intergenic regions. Within this study, 5-azacytidine (5-azaC, a DNMT inhibitor) was used as a positive control. Although 5-azaC significantly inhibited zebrafish DNMT, TDCIPP did not affect DNMT activity in vitro at concentrations as high as 500 μM. However, rapid embryonic uptake of 5-azaC and TDCIPP from 0.75 to 2 hpf resulted in chemical- and chromosome-specific alterations in cytosine methylation at 2 hpf. Moreover, TDCIPP exposure predominantly resulted in hypomethylation of positions outside of CpG islands and within intragenic (exon) regions of the zebrafish genome. Overall, these findings provide the foundation for monitoring DNA methylation dynamics within zebrafish as well as identifying potential associations among TDCIPP exposure, adverse health outcomes, and DNA methylation status within human populations. PMID:27574916

  10. Stability of the complex BSA-6-propyl-2-thiouracil in the presence of Gu·HCl and urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Równicka, Joanna; Sułkowska, Anna; Pożycka, Jadwiga; Bojko, Barbara; Sułkowski, Wiesław W.

    2006-07-01

    Pathologic structure of albumin is present in blood of uremic or diabetic patients. The defective binding of albumin can cause, among others, inhibition of the metabolism of amphipathic hormones and the enhancement of the toxicity of drugs. We aim to show the alteration of the binding site of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the presence of urea and guanidine hydrochloride. This study shows that PTU has the tendency to interact within the hydrophobic domain IIA or IB of serum albumin and to quench the fluorescence of tryptophanyl side chains by the static and collisional quenching mechanism. For the binding to the native protein, two classes of binding sites are seen. In the first one, the binding constant is equal to K bI-9.6×10 4 M -1, and in the second class, the binding constant is K bII-7.1×10 3 M -1. For the binding to the denaturated serum albumin, only one class of the binding sites can be observed. The binding constants for BSA denatured with urea and Gu·HCl are lower and are equal to 2.2×10 4 M -1 and 3.5×10 4 M -1, respectively. Evaluation of the binding ability of serum albumin is also important in case of older people because weaker drug-protein interaction can result in the increase of drug concentration in the blood serum.

  11. No synergism between bis(propyl)-cognitin and rasagiline on protecting dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cheng-You; Guo, Bao-Jian; Cai, Wei; Cui, Wei; Mak, Shing-Hung; Wang, Yu-Qiang; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Han, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Zai-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Rasagiline, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, and bis(propyl)-cognitin (B3C), a novel dimer are reported to be neuroprotective. Herein, the synergistical neuroprotection produced by rasagiline and B3C was investigated in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mice of Parkinsonism. By using neurobehavioural tests, high-performance liquid chromatography and western blot assay, we showed that B3C at 0.3 mg/kg, rasagiline at 0.02 mg/kg, as well as co-treatment with B3C and rasagiline prevented MPTP-induced behavioural abnormities, increased the concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum, and up-regulated the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the substantia nigra. However, the neuroprotective effects of co-treatment were not significantly improved when compared with those of B3C or rasagiline alone. Collectively, we have demonstrated that B3C at 0.3 mg/kg and rasagline at 0.02 mg/kg could not produce synergistic neuroprotective effects. PMID:27651784

  12. No synergism between bis(propyl)-cognitin and rasagiline on protecting dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Cheng-you; Guo, Bao-jian; Cai, Wei; Cui, Wei; Mak, Shing-hung; Wang, Yu-qiang; Lee, Simon Ming-yuen; Han, Yi-fan; Zhang, Zai-jun

    2016-01-01

    Rasagiline, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, and bis(propyl)-cognitin (B3C), a novel dimer are reported to be neuroprotective. Herein, the synergistical neuroprotection produced by rasagiline and B3C was investigated in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mice of Parkinsonism. By using neurobehavioural tests, high-performance liquid chromatography and western blot assay, we showed that B3C at 0.3 mg/kg, rasagiline at 0.02 mg/kg, as well as co-treatment with B3C and rasagiline prevented MPTP-induced behavioural abnormities, increased the concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum, and up-regulated the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the substantia nigra. However, the neuroprotective effects of co-treatment were not significantly improved when compared with those of B3C or rasagiline alone. Collectively, we have demonstrated that B3C at 0.3 mg/kg and rasagline at 0.02 mg/kg could not produce synergistic neuroprotective effects. PMID:27651784

  13. Effects of Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCPP) in Tetrahymena Thermophila: Targeting the Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Giesy, John P.; Yu, Liqin; Li, Guangyu; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) has been frequently detected in the environment, and exposure to TDCPP appears widespread. It has been implicated to cause toxicity in vertebrates, but its potential to affect lower-trophic-level species remains unknown. In the present study, the ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, was used as a model to evaluate toxic effects of TDCPP and explore molecular mechanisms by integrating phenotypic observation, RNA-Seq and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Imaging technologies. Exposure to 0.01, 0.1 or 1 μM TDCPP for 5 days significantly decreased the relative biomass by reducing number of cells, size of cells and quantity of cilia in a dose-dependent manner. RNA-Seq analysis demonstrated that expression of twenty-one ribosome protein genes was down-regulated and these genes were enriched in “ribosome” term in KEGG pathway analysis. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes expressing ribosome proteins was accompanied by decreased ribosome quantity in rough endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm and enlarged ribosome size. Therefore, taken together, the data from the present study suggest that exposure to TDCPP affects growth and reproduction of Tetrahymena thermophila by targeting the ribosome. This information might provide insights into critical mechanisms of toxic action in other species and lead to useful bioindicators of exposure to TDCPP. PMID:25994279

  14. Morphometric analysis of mice uteri treated with the preservatives methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butylparaben.

    PubMed

    Lemini, C; Hernández, A; Jaimez, R; Franco, Y; Avila, M E; Castell, A

    2004-09-01

    The alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) known as parabens (Pbens) are widely used as preservatives in food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Several in vivo and in vitro studies have shown these compounds to be estrogenic. Here, for the first time, we present evidence of their estrogenicity using a morphometric analysis of uteri from mice treated with the preservatives methylparaben (MePben), ethylparaben (EtPben), propylparaben (PrPben), and butylparaben (BuPben) compared with estradiol (E2). Different groups of adult ovariectomized (Ovx) CD1 mice were subcutaneously (sc) treated daily for three days with two different equimolar doses (362 and 1086 micromol/kg) of the Pbens: MePben (55 and 165 mg/kg), EtPben (60 and 180 mg/kg), PrPben (65 and 195 mg/kg), BuPben (70 and 210 mg/kg), E2 (10 microg/kg; 0.036 micromol/kg), and vehicle (propyleneglycol; V, 10 mL/kg). On the fourth day, uteri were dissected, blotted, weighed, and placed in a fixative solution for 24 h. The paraffin embeded uteri were cut to obtain 7 microm thick transversal sections. Luminal epithelium heights (LEH), glandular epithelium heights (GEH), and myometrium widths (MW) were measured. The highest Pbens dose was able to produce uterotrophic effects (38 to 76%) compared to E2 efects (100%). The relative uterotrophic potency to E2 (100) was from 0.02 to 0.009. Significant increases (P < 0.05) in LEH, GEH, and MW as compared with V were obtained: LEH from 87 to 113% (E2 153%), GEH from 10 to 40% (E2 60%), and MW from 35 to 43% (E2 88%). These results confirm that Pbens at the doses assayed here induce estrogenic histological changes in the uteri of Ovx mice.

  15. Evaluation of an injectable bone substitute (betaTCP/hydroxyapatite/hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose) in severely osteopenic and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Blouin, S; Moreau, M F; Weiss, P; Daculsi, G; Baslé, M F; Chappard, D

    2006-09-01

    The use of injectable biomaterials is of interest in osteoporotic patients to locally restore bone mass in sites at risk of fracture. An injectable bone substitute (IBS1 made of betaTCP/hydroxyapatite as a calcium phosphate substitute and hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose as a polymer carrier) was used in a severely osteopenic rat model obtained by combining orchidectomy (ORX) and disuse (paralysis induced by botulinum toxin - BTX). Fifty-six aged male rats were randomized into three groups: 18 were SHAM operated; 38 were ORX and BTX injected in the right hindlimb; they constituted the OP (osteoporotic) group. One month after ORX-BTX surgery, 20 of these OP rats received a IBS1 injection in the right femur (OP-IBS1 rats). Animals were studied at the time of IBS1 injection 1 month post ORX-BTX (M1), 1 month (M2) and 2 months (M3) after IBS1 injection. Bone mass (BV/TV) and microarchitectural parameters were measured by microCT. BV/TV was decreased after ORX-BTX; ORX and BTX had cumulative effects on bone loss (differences maximized on the right femur). BV/TV (combining the volume of both bone and material in OP-IBS1 rats) was elevated at M1 but decreased at M2. Marked bone formation was found onto the biomaterial granules but bone had a woven texture. A marked increase in the number of nonosteoclastic TRAcP+ cells was found in the implanted area. IBS1 induced new bone formation shortly after implantation but both IBS1 and woven bone were resorbed without inducing lamellar bone. Biomaterial trials must be conducted with long-term implantation periods, in aged osteoporotic animals.

  16. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole on cytochrome P450 forms in cultured human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Price, R J; Scott, M P; Giddings, A M; Walters, D G; Stierum, R H; Meredith, C; Lake, B G

    2008-06-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of four food chemicals, namely butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), curcumin (CC), propyl gallate (PG) and thiabendazole (TB), on cytochrome P450 (CYP) forms in cultured human hepatocytes. 2. Treatment of human hepatocytes for 72 h with 2-200 microM TB produced concentration-dependent increases in CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 mRNA levels, whereas treatment with BHT increased CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 mRNA levels. CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 mRNA levels were induced around 48-, 21- and 9-fold, respectively, by 200 microM TB, with CYP2B6 and CYP 3A4 mRNA levels being induced around 12- and 7-fold, respectively, by 200 microM BHT. 3. In contrast, the treatment of human hepatocytes for 72 h with PG and CC had little or no effect on CYP mRNA levels. 4. The treatment of human hepatocytes with TB also induced CYP1A-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, whereas BHT induced CYP3A-dependent testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activity. 5. In summary, the results demonstrate that TB is a mixed inducer of CYP forms in human hepatocytes inducing CYP1A, CYP2B and CYP3A forms, whereas BHT is an inducer of CYP2B and CYP3A forms.

  17. Pharmacodynamic profile of the new potent antibronchospastic agent 7-[(2,2-dimethyl)propyl]-1-methyl xanthine.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, S; Ballati, L; Boni, P; Castellucci, A; Perretti, F; Tramontana, M; Toja, E

    1995-05-01

    The pharmacodynamic profile of a new xanthine derivative, 7-[(2,2-dimethyl)propyl]-1-methyl xanthine (CAS 155006-67-0, MX2/120), was investigated in comparison with theophylline. The compound reduces in vitro the bronchospastic tone induced by carbachol or histamine in guinea-pig bronchi, with a potency 11 and 5 fold greater than theophylline, respectively. MX2/120 is significantly more active and long-lasting than theophylline in in vivo experiments toward spasmogens such as acetylcholine (ED50 over 5 h = 15 mumol/kg p.o. vs 230 mumol/kg p.o.) or histamine (ED50 over 5 h = 122 mumol/kg p.o. vs 500 mumol/kg p.o.) while being almost equiactive to theophylline toward antigen and capsaicin induced cough strokes. MX2/120, if administered by i.p. route reduces hyperresponsiveness to histamine induced by PAF and extravasation of protein into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid induced by capsaicin. These anti-inflammatory effects of MX2/120 are of similar extent when compared to theophylline. Unlike theophylline, MX2/120 up to 275 mumol/kg p.o. possesses little or no CNS excitatory effects in mice in terms of reduction of sleeping time induced by chlordiazepoxide, increase in mortality and convulsions induced by pentetrazol and increase in locomotor activity. This reduced neuroexcitatory action is probably related to its lack of affinity to adenosine receptors that could also explain the absence of effect on basal gastric secretion. Chronotropic effects of MX2/120 in conscious rats are similar to those of theophylline while the effects of both drugs on blood pressure are of minor extent. The overall pharmacodynamic properties of MX2/120 are superior to those of theophylline in relation to its antibronchospastic activity and lack of excitatory effects on CNS.

  18. Antidepressant Potential of 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonist, N-n- propyl-3-ethoxyquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (6n)

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, R; Bhatt, S; Devadoss, T; Jindal, AK; Gautam, BK; Pandey, DK

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antidepressant potential of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist N-n-propyl-3-ethoxyquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (6n). The compound ‘6n’ with optimum log P and pA2 value identified from a series of compounds synthesized in our laboratory was subjected to forced Swim Test (FST) (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.p) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.p.). The compound ‘6n’ significantly reduced the duration of immobility in mice without affecting the baseline locomotion. Moreover, ‘6n’ (2 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitch responses in mice and ‘6n’ at tested dose (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the reserpine-induced hypothermia in rats. In interaction studies of ‘6n’ with various standard drugs/ligands using FST, ‘6n’ (1 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the antidepressant effect of venlafaxine (4 and 8 mg/kg, i.p.) and fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.). Additionally, ‘6n’ (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) influenced the effect of harmane (5 mg/ kg, i.p.) as well as reversed the effect of parthenolide (1 mg/kg, i.p.) by reducing the duration of immobility in FST. Furthermore, ‘6n’ (1 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the effect of bupropion (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) in TST. Chronic ‘6n’ (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment attenuated the behavioral abnormalities in olfactory bulbectomized rats. In conclusion, these various findings reiterated the antidepressant-like effects of ‘6n’ in behavioral models of depression. PMID:23493308

  19. Morphology and water resistance of mixed silane films of bis[3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl]tetrasulfide and bis-[trimethoxysilylpropyl]amine

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Guirong; Schaefer, Dale W.; van Ooij, Wim J.; Kent, Michael S.; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Yim, Hyun

    2010-12-03

    Functional organosilanes are powerful interface-active agents that find applications as adhesion promoters as well as optical, dielectric and protective coatings. Bis-silanes are of particular interest because they are highly crosslinked leading to very robust films. In almost all applications, the water resistance of the films is a critical performance measure. Here we use neutron reflectivity to address the effect of bridging group on the hydrothermal response of bis-silane films prepared using bis[3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl]tetrasulfide and bis-[trimethoxysilylpropyl]amine. Neat and mixed films are examined as-prepared, after exposure to water vapor and then in the re-dried state. The bridging group is the key factor that controls the morphology and water resistance of silane films. Although bis-sulfur silane is not as condensed as bis-amino silane, bis-sulfur swells less in water because of the hydrophobic nature of bridging group. The reflectivity of bis-sulfur silane film is reversible after room-temperature water conditioning but not at 80 C, indicating chemical alternation of the film at 80 C. The water resistance of mixed silane is roughly that of both components weighted by their volume fraction. But based on the enhanced shrinkage that occurs following water-vapor conditioning of the mixed film, condensation is accelerated in the mixed silane. Regarding the precursor solution, bis-amino silane may act as a catalyst in the hydrolysis of bis-sulfur silane leading to more silanols in the solution and further condensation in the film. Variation in the structure normal to the substrate is also examined by swelling the film with d-nitrobenzene, a non-reacting swelling agent.

  20. Cyclopropane amino acid ester dipeptide sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, C; Newton, M G; Ringold, C E; Stammer, C H

    1987-10-01

    A series of esters of L-aspartyl-1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid has been prepared and their sweet tastes determined. The sweetest ester prepared was about 300 times sweeter than sucrose. An attempt to use basic conditions during preparation of the dipeptide allyl ester led to succinimide formation of the aspartyl peptide even though the beta-carboxyl group was protected by a t-butyl ester function. The X-ray structure of the propyl ester (1c) was determined and its conformation is discussed. PMID:3429129

  1. Cyclopropane amino acid ester dipeptide sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, C; Newton, M G; Ringold, C E; Stammer, C H

    1987-10-01

    A series of esters of L-aspartyl-1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid has been prepared and their sweet tastes determined. The sweetest ester prepared was about 300 times sweeter than sucrose. An attempt to use basic conditions during preparation of the dipeptide allyl ester led to succinimide formation of the aspartyl peptide even though the beta-carboxyl group was protected by a t-butyl ester function. The X-ray structure of the propyl ester (1c) was determined and its conformation is discussed.

  2. Synthesis of a Nanostructured Composite: Octakis(1-propyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-yl(methyl 2-chlorobenzoate))octasilsesquioxane via Click Reaction.

    PubMed

    Ghodsi, Mohammadi Ziarani; Shakiba Nahad, Monireh; Lashgari, Negar; Alireza, Badiei

    2015-01-01

    Octakis(1-propyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-yl(methyl 2-chlorobenzoate))octasilsesquioxanes as functionalized silsesquioxanes were synthesized via click reaction (copper-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction) between azidemoiety functionalized silsesquioxane and prop-2-ynyl 2-chlorobenzoate. The latter one was synthesized via the condensation reaction of propargyl alcohol and 2-chlorobenzoyl chloride in the presence of SBA-Pr-NH(2) (Santa Barbara Amorphous type material) as a nano basic catalyst. This approach provides a simple and convenient route to efficiently functionalize a wide range of new structures on the surface of silsesquioxanes. PMID:26454606

  3. Preliminary study of propyl bromide exposure among New Jersey dry cleaners as a result of a pending ban on perchloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Blando, James D; Schill, Donald P; De La Cruz, Mary Pauline; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Junfeng

    2010-09-01

    Many states are considering, and some states have actively pursued, banning the use of perchloroethylene (PERC) in dry cleaning establishments. Proposed legislation has led many dry cleaners to consider the use of products that contain greater than 90% n-propyl bromide (n-PB; also called 1-bromopropane or 1-BP). Very little information is known about toxicity and exposure to n-PB. Some n-PB-containing products are marketed as nonhazardous and "green" or "organic." This has resulted in some users perceiving the solvent as nontoxic and has resulted in at least one significant poisoning incident in New Jersey. In addition, many dry cleaning operators may not realize that the machine components and settings must be changed when converting from PERC to n-PB containing products. Not performing these modifications may result in overheating and significant leaks in the dry cleaning equipment. A preliminary investigation was conducted of the potential exposures to n-PB and isopropyl bromide (iso-PB; also called 2-bromopropane or 2-BP) among dry cleaners in New Jersey who have converted their machines from PERC to these new solvent products. Personal breathing zone and area samples were collected using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Sampling and Analytical Method 1025, with a slight modification to gas chromatography conditions to facilitate better separation of n-PB from iso-PB. During the preliminary investigation, exposures to n-PB among some workers in two of three shops were measured that were greater than the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) for n-PB. The highest exposure measured among a dry cleaning machine operator was 54 parts per million (ppm) as an 8-hr time-weighted average, which is more than 5 times the ACGIH TLV of 10 ppm. The preliminary investigation also found that the work tasks most likely to result in the highest short-term exposures included the introduction of

  4. Developmental exposure to the organophosphorus flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate: estrogenic activity, endocrine disruption and reproductive effects on zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiangwei; Lam, James C W; Han, Jian; Wang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yongyong; Lam, Paul K S; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2015-03-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is an organophosphate flame retardant that is detectable in the environment and biota, prompting concern over its risk to wildlife and human health. Our objective was to investigate whether long-term exposure to low concentrations of TDCPP can affect fish reproduction. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to low concentrations (0, 4, 20 and 100μg/L) of TDCPP from 2h post-fertilization until sexual maturation. Exposure to TDCPP significantly increased plasma estradiol and testosterone levels in females, but had no effect in males. TDCPP exposure also caused a significant reduction in fecundity as indicated by decreased egg production. Real-time PCR was performed to examine selected genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and liver. Principle component analysis (PCA) showed that sex hormone levels and fecundity were related to the mRNA level of several genes in the HPG axis. Furthermore, hepatic vitellogenin (vtg1 and vtg3) expression was upregulated in both females and males, suggesting TDCPP has estrogenic activity. Histological examination revealed promotion of oocyte maturation in the females, but retardation of spermiation in males. Reduced egg quality (e.g., egg diameter) and increased malformation rates were observed in the F1 generation. Chemical analysis showed significant levels of TDCPP and its metabolite bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate in the gonads of males and females. In conclusion, long-term exposure to low concentrations of TDCPP impairs fish reproduction.

  5. Increased complexity in interstellar chemistry: detection and chemical modeling of ethyl formate and n-propyl cyanide in Sagittarius B2(N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Garrod, R. T.; Müller, H. S. P.; Menten, K. M.; Comito, C.; Schilke, P.

    2009-05-01

    Context: In recent years, organic molecules of increasing complexity have been found toward the prolific Galactic center source Sagittarius B2. Aims: We wish to explore the degree of complexity that the interstellar chemistry can reach in star-forming regions. Methods: We carried out a complete line survey of the hot cores Sgr B2(N) and (M) with the IRAM 30 m telescope in the 3 mm range, plus partial surveys at 2 and 1.3 mm. We analyzed this spectral survey in the local thermodynamical equilibrium approximation. We modeled the emission of all known molecules simultaneously, which allows us to search for less abundant, more complex molecules. We compared the derived column densities with the predictions of a coupled gas-phase and grain-surface chemical code. Results: We report the first detection in space of ethyl formate (C2H5OCHO) and n-propyl cyanide (C3H7CN) toward Sgr B2(N). The detection of n-propyl cyanide is based on refined spectroscopic parameters derived from combined analyses of available laboratory spectroscopic data. For each molecule, we identified spectral features at the predicted frequencies having intensities compatible with a unique rotation temperature. For an assumed source size of 3 arcsec, our modeling yields a column density of 5.4 × 1016 cm-2, a temperature of 100 K, and a linewidth of 7 km s-1 for ethyl formate. n-Propyl cyanide is detected with two velocity components having column densities of 1.5 × 1016 cm-2 and 6.6 × 1015 cm-2, respectively, for a source size of 3 arcsec, a temperature of 150 K, and a linewidth of 7 km s-1. The abundances of ethyl formate and n-propyl cyanide relative to H2 are estimated to be 3.6 × 10-9 and 1.0 × 10-9, respectively. We derived column density ratios of 0.8/15/1 for the related species t-HCOOH/CH3OCHO/C2H5OCHO and 108/80/1 for CH3CN/C2H5CN/C3H7CN. Our chemical modeling reproduces these ratios reasonably well. It suggests that the sequential, piecewise construction of ethyl and n-propyl cyanide from

  6. Photo-controlled binding of MutS to photo-caged DNA duplexes incorporating 4-O-(2-nitrobenzyl) or 4-O-[2-(2-nitrophenyl)propyl]thymidine.

    PubMed

    Seio, Kohji; Ohno, Yurie; Ohno, Kentaro; Takeshita, Leo; Kanamori, Takashi; Masaki, Yoshiaki; Sekine, Mitsuo

    2016-10-01

    Mismatch binding protein MutS binding to bulge structure in DNA duplexes was controlled by UV irradiation. 4-O-(2-Nitrobenzyl)thymidine or 4-O-[2-(2-nitrophenyl)propyl]thymidine was incorporated into DNA duplexes a bulged position. The MutS did not bind to the caged DNA duplexes but bound after removing the 2-nitrobenzyl or 2-(2-nitrophenyl)propyl group by photo-irradiation. By using photo-caged DNA duplex, we revealed that binding of MutS to the uncaged DNA downstream of the T7 RNA promoter weakly inhibited transcription by T7 RNA polymerase.

  7. The carboxyl modifier 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide (EDC) inhibits half of the high-affinity Mn-binding site in photosystem II membrane fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, C.; Seibert, M. )

    1991-10-08

    The diphenylcarbazide (DPC)/Mn{sup 2+} assay was used to assess the amount of the high-affinity Mn-binding site in manganese-depleted photosystem II (PS II) membrane fragments from spinach and Scenedesmus obliquus. The assay mechanism at high DPC concentration was shown to involve noncompetitive inhibition of only half of the control level of DPC donation to PS II by micromolar concentrations of Mn at pH 6.5. At low DPC concentration both DPC and Mn{sup 2+} donate to PS II additively. Treatment with the carboxyl amino acid modifier 1-ethyl-3-(3(dimethylamino) propyl) carbodiimide (EDC) inhibited half of the high affinity Mn-binding site in spinach and Scenedesmus WT PS II membranes and all of the available site in Scenedesmus LF-1 mutant PS II membranes. A similar EDC concentration dependence was observed in all cases. This protection was specific for Mn{sup 2+}; six other divalent cations were ineffective. The authors conclude that EDC modifies that half of the high-affinity Mn-binding site that is insensitive to the histidine modifier diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) and directly affects ligands that bind Mn. The effects of EDC and DEPC that influence the high-affinity site are mutually exclusive and are specific to the lumenal side of the PS II membrane. They suggest that carboxyl residues on reaction center proteins are associated with half of the high-affinity Mn-binding site in PS II and are involved along with histidine residues in binding Mn functional in the O{sub 2}-evolving process.

  8. EFFECT OF MERTHIOLATE (LILLY) ON CERTAIN SPECIFIC PRECIPITATION REACTIONS.

    PubMed

    Pressman, D; Grossberg, A L

    1945-03-01

    Merthiolate (Lilly), a substituted benzoic acid, has been shown to interfere, in concentrations usually used for preservation, with the specific precipitation of antisera against beef serum or sheep serum coupled with diazotized p-aminobenzoic acid, p-arsanilic acid, or p-(p-aminophenylazo) phenylarsonic acid. In some systems increased precipitation was observed, while in others decreased precipitation was observed.

  9. 40 CFR 180.1065 - 2-Amino-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1065...-Amino-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The inert ingredient,...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1065 - 2-Amino-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1065...-Amino-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The inert ingredient,...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1065 - 2-Amino-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1065...-Amino-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The inert ingredient,...

  12. Use of hexadeuterated valproic acid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Acheampong, A.A.; Abbott, F.S.; Orr, J.M.; Ferguson, S.M.; Burton, R.W.

    1984-04-01

    Di-(( 3,3,3-/sup 2/H3)propyl)acetic acid, a hexadeuterated analogue of valproic acid, was synthesized and its pharmacokinetic properties compared with valproic acid. Concentrations of valproic acid and (/sup 2/H)valproic acid in serum and saliva were determined by GC-MS using selected-ion monitoring. Saliva drug levels were measured with good precision down to 0.1 microgram/mL. Kinetic equivalence of valproic acid and (/sup 2/H)valproic acid was demonstrated in a single-dose study in a human volunteer. An isotope effect was observed for omega-oxidation, but the difference in metabolism was not sufficient to make (/sup 2/H)valproic acid biologically nonequivalent. The application of (/sup 2/H)valproic acid to determine the kinetics of valproic acid under steady-state concentrations was evaluated in the same volunteer. The kinetic data obtained with (/sup 2/H)valproic acid was consistent with previously reported values for valproic acid including kinetic differences observed between single-dose and steady-state experiments. Saliva levels of valproic acid were found to give a good correlation with total serum valproic acid under multiple-dose conditions. A concentration dependence was found for the ratio of saliva valproic acid to free valproic acid in serum, low ratios being observed at high serum concentrations of valproic acid.

  13. Crystal structure of 2-[2-(hy­droxy­imino)-1-phenyl­propyl­idene]-N-phen­ylhydrazinecarbo­thio­amide

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brian J.; Freedman, Michael B.; Millikan, Sean P.; Smolenski, Victoria A.; Jasinski, Jerry P.

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C16H16N4OS, an intra­molecular C—H⋯S hydrogen bond is observed. With the exception of the phenyl ring of the phenyl­propyl­idene unit, the remainder of the mol­ecule has an almost planar skeleton with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.121 (5) Å from the plane through the remaining 16 atoms. In the crystal O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds are observed between the terminal hy­droxy­imino groups, forming inverson dimers with R 2 2(6) graph-set motifs. Additional C—H⋯N contacts stack the dimers along [100]. While no π—π inter­actions are present, weak C—H⋯O and O—H⋯Cg inter­actions are also observed and help stabilize the crystal packing. PMID:26594484

  14. 6-Propyl-2-thiouracil versus 6-methoxymethyl-2-thiouracil: enhancing the hydrogen-bonded synthon motif by replacement of a methylene group with an O atom.

    PubMed

    Hützler, Wilhelm Maximilian; Egert, Ernst; Bolte, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The understanding of intermolecular interactions is a key objective of crystal engineering in order to exploit the derived knowledge for the rational design of new molecular solids with tailored physical and chemical properties. The tools and theories of crystal engineering are indispensable for the rational design of (pharmaceutical) cocrystals. The results of cocrystallization experiments of the antithyroid drug 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) with 2,4-diaminopyrimidine (DAPY), and of 6-methoxymethyl-2-thiouracil (MOMTU) with DAPY and 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine (TAPY), respectively, are reported. PTU and MOMTU show a high structural similarity and differ only in the replacement of a methylene group (-CH2-) with an O atom in the side chain, thus introducing an additional hydrogen-bond acceptor in MOMTU. Both molecules contain an ADA hydrogen-bonding site (A = acceptor and D = donor), while the coformers DAPY and TAPY both show complementary DAD sites and therefore should be capable of forming a mixed ADA/DAD synthon with each other, i.e. N-H...O, N-H...N and N-H...S hydrogen bonds. The experiments yielded one solvated cocrystal salt of PTU with DAPY, four different solvates of MOMTU, one ionic cocrystal of MOMTU with DAPY and one cocrystal salt of MOMTU with TAPY, namely 2,4-diaminopyrimidinium 6-propyl-2-thiouracilate-2,4-diaminopyrimidine-N,N-dimethylacetamide-water (1/1/1/1) (the systematic name for 6-propyl-2-thiouracilate is 6-oxo-4-propyl-2-sulfanylidene-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-1-ide), C4H7N4(+)·C7H9N2OS(-)·C4H6N4·C4H9NO·H2O, (I), 6-methoxymethyl-2-thiouracil-N,N-dimethylformamide (1/1), C6H8N2O2S·C3H7NO, (II), 6-methoxymethyl-2-thiouracil-N,N-dimethylacetamide (1/1), C6H8N2O2S·C4H9NO, (III), 6-methoxymethyl-2-thiouracil-dimethyl sulfoxide (1/1), C6H8N2O2S·C2H6OS, (IV), 6-methoxymethyl-2-thiouracil-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one (1/1), C6H8N2O2S·C5H9NO, (V), 2,4-diaminopyrimidinium 6-methoxymethyl-2-thiouracilate (the systematic name for 6-methoxymethyl-2

  15. Diaqua-bis-(dihydrogen 3-aza-niumyl-1-hy-droxy-propyl-idene-1,1-di-phos-phon-ato-κO,O')cobalt(II).

    PubMed

    Tsaryk, Natalia V; Dudko, Anatolij V; Kozachkova, Alexandra N; Pekhnyo, Vasily I

    2011-12-01

    The asymmetric unit of title compound, [Co(C(3)H(10)NO(7)P(2))(2)(H(2)O)(2)], contains one half-mol-ecule of the complex. The Co(II) atom is located on an inversion centre and displays a distorted octa-hedral coordination geometry defined by four O atoms of two 3-aza-niumyl-1-hy-droxy-propyl-idene-1,1-bis-phospho-nato ligands in the equatorial plane and two water mol-ecules located in axial positions. The ligand mol-ecules, which exist in a zwitterionic state, form two six-membered chelate rings with chair conformations. In the crystal, mol-ecules are inter-linked by O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supra-molecular structure. PMID:22199511

  16. Mechanism and dynamics of intramolecular triplet state decay of 1-propyl-4-thiouracil and its α-methyl-substituted derivatives studied in perfluoro-1,3-dimethylcyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Wenska, Grazyna; Taras-Goślińska, Katarzyna; Łukaszewicz, Adam; Burdziński, Gotard; Koput, Jacek; Maciejewski, Andrzej

    2011-08-01

    The absorption, phosphorescence and phosphorescence excitation spectra, phosphorescence quantum yields, and T(1) excited state lifetimes of four 4-thiouracil derivatives were measured for the first time in chemically inert and very weakly interacting perfluoro-1,3-dimethylcyclohexane at room temperature. The set of the 4-thiouracil derivatives comprises 1-propyl-4-thiouracil (PTU) and the related compounds having a methyl substituent at the position α to the thiocarbonyl group, namely 1-propyl-4-thiothymine (PTT), 1,3-dimethyl-4-thiouracil (DMTU), and 1-methyl-3-trideuteriomethyl-4-thiouracil ([D(3)]DMTU). Quantitative information on the intramolecular decay of the T(1) excited state of the four 4-thiouracil derivatives is presented, and the mechanism and dynamics of this process are discussed. In the absence of self quenching and solvent induced deactivation, the T(1) decay of the four 4-thiouracil derivatives was dominated by intramolecular nonradiative processes (NR). The values of the rate constant k(NR) in DMTU and [D(3)]DMTU are about 4 times larger than that in PTT and about 3 times larger than that in PTU. The reasons for the enhanced nonradiative rate constant in DMTU are discussed. It is concluded that the faster rate of the nonradiative processes in DMTU is related to a larger contribution from mixing of the T(2) (nπ*) state into the lowest energy T(1) (ππ*) state, as compared to the analogous coupling in PTU and PTT. This conclusion is supported by ab initio calculations performed at the EOM-CC2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. The energy spacing between the T(2) (nπ*) and T(1) (ππ*) states is estimated to be about 500, 1100, and 2000 cm(-1) for DMTU, PTU, and PTT, respectively. Among the three compounds in question, the predicted energy spacing is thus the smallest for DMTU.

  17. Analysis of the flame retardant metabolites bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP) and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) in urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cooper, E M; Covaci, A; van Nuijs, A L N; Webster, T F; Stapleton, H M

    2011-10-01

    Organophosphate triesters tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate are widely used flame retardants (FRs) present in many products common to human environments, yet understanding of human exposure and health effects of these compounds is limited. Monitoring urinary metabolites as biomarkers of exposure can be a valuable aid for improving this understanding; however, no previously published method exists for the analysis of the primary TDCPP metabolite, bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP), in human urine. Here, we present a method to extract the metabolites BDCPP and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) in human urine using mixed-mode anion exchange solid phase extraction and mass-labeled internal standards with analysis by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method detection limit was 8 pg mL(-1) urine for BDCPP and 204 pg mL(-1) for DPP. Recoveries of analytes spiked into urine ranged from 82 ± 10% to 91 ± 4% for BDCPP and from 72 ± 12% to 76 ± 8% for DPP. Analysis of a small number of urine samples (n=9) randomly collected from non-occupationally exposed adults revealed the presence of both BDCPP and DPP in all samples. Non-normalized urinary concentrations ranged from 46-1,662 pg BDCPP mL(-1) to 287-7,443 pg DPP mL(-1), with geometric means of 147 pg BDCPP mL(-1) and 1,074 pg DPP mL(-1). Levels of DPP were higher than those of BDCPP in 89% of samples. The presented method is simple and sufficiently sensitive to detect these FR metabolites in humans and may be applied to future studies to increase our understanding of exposure to and potential health effects from FRs. PMID:21830137

  18. Acid-functionalized nanoparticles for biomass hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena Duque, Leidy Eugenia

    Cellulosic ethanol is a renewable source of energy. Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex material composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Biomass pretreatment is a required step to make sugar polymers liable to hydrolysis. Mineral acids are commonly used for biomass pretreatment. Using acid catalysts that can be recovered and reused could make the process economically more attractive. The overall goal of this dissertation is the development of a recyclable nanocatalyst for the hydrolysis of biomass sugars. Cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles (CoFe2O4) were synthesized to provide a magnetic core that could be separated from reaction using a magnetic field and modified to carry acid functional groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the crystal structure was that of cobalt spinel ferrite. CoFe2O4 were covered with silica which served as linker for the acid functions. Silica-coated nanoparticles were functionalized with three different acid functions: perfluoropropyl-sulfonic acid, carboxylic acid, and propyl-sulfonic acid. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were analyzed to obtain particle size distributions of the nanoparticles. Total carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were quantified using an elemental analyzer. Fourier transform infra-red spectra confirmed the presence of sulfonic and carboxylic acid functions and ion-exchange titrations accounted for the total amount of catalytic acid sites per nanoparticle mass. These nanoparticles were evaluated for their performance to hydrolyze the beta-1,4 glycosidic bond of the cellobiose molecule. Propyl-sulfonic (PS) and perfluoropropyl-sulfonic (PFS) acid functionalized nanoparticles catalyzed the hydrolysis of cellobiose significantly better than the control. PS and PFS were also evaluated for their capacity to solubilize wheat straw hemicelluloses and performed better than the control. Although PFS nanoparticles were stronger acid catalysts, the acid functions leached out of the nanoparticle during

  19. Conducting Polymer Based Nucleic Acid Sensor for Environment Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Bansi Dhar; Prabhakar, Nirmal; Solanki, Pratima R.

    Nucleic acid sensor based on polyaniline has been fabricated by covalently immobilizing double stranded calf thymus (dsCT) DNA onto perchlorate (ClO-4) doped polyaniline (PANI) film deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass plate using 1-(3-(dimethylamino) propyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxyl succinimide (NHS) chemistry. These dsCT-DNA-PANI/ITO and PANI/ITO electrodes have been characterized using square wave voltammetry, electrochemical impedance, and Fourier-transform-infra-red (FTIR) measurements. This disposable dsCT-DNA-PANI/ITO bioelectrode is stable for about four months, can be used to detect arsenic trioxide (0.1ppm) in 30s.

  20. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on copper hydrosols.

    PubMed

    Angebranndt, M J; Winefordner, J D

    1992-06-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) allows the detection of trace quantities of molecular species adsorbed onto a surface. The potential use of silver colloids as substrates for analytical SERS measurements is demonstrated. Detection limits and other analytical figures of merit for pyridine, p-aminobenzoic acid and p-nitrobenzoic acid are presented.

  1. Crystal structure of [2-(tri­ethyl­ammonio)­eth­yl][(2,4,6-triiso­propyl­phen­yl)sulfon­yl]amide tetra­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Golz, C.; Strohmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    The zwitterionic title compound, C23H42N2O2S·4H2O, crystallized as a tetrahydrate from a solution of N-[(2,4,6-triiso­propyl­phen­yl)sulfon­yl]aziridine in tri­ethyl­amine, diethyl ether and pentane in the presence of moist air. It is formed by a nucleophillic ring-opening that is assumed to be reversible. The mol­ecular structure shows a major disorder of the triiso­propyl­phenyl group over two equally occupied locations. An inter­esting feature is the uncommon hydrate structure, exhibiting a tape-like motif which can be classified as a transition of the one-dimensional T4(2)6(2) motif into the two-dimensional L4(6)5(7)6(8) motif. PMID:25995881

  2. An ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical nucleic acid biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhiqiang; Tansil, Natalia C.

    2005-01-01

    A simple and ultrasensitive procedure for non-labeling detection of nucleic acids is described in this study. It is based on the photoelectrochemical detection of target nucleic acids by forming a nucleic acid/photoreporter adduct layer on an ITO electrode. The target nucleic acids were hybridized with immobilized oligonucleotide capture probes on the ITO electrode. A subsequent binding of a photoreporter—a photoactive threading bis-intercalator consisting of two N,N′-bis(3-propyl-imidazole)-1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimides (PIND) linked by a Ru(bpy)22+ (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine) complex (PIND–Ru–PIND)—allowed for photoelectrochemical detection of the target nucleic acids. The extremely low dissociation rate of the adduct and the highly reversible photoelectrochemical response under visible light illumination (490 nm) make it possible to conduct nucleic acid detection, with a sensitivity enhancement of four orders of magnitude over voltammetry. These results demonstrate for the first time the potential of photoelectrochemical biosensors for PCR-free ultrasensitive detection of nucleic acids. PMID:16061935

  3. On the hydrophilicity of polyzwitterion poly (N,N-dimethyl-N-(3-(methacrylamido)propyl)ammoniopropane sulfonate) in water, deuterated water, and aqueous salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Viet; Laschewsky, André; Zehm, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A series of zwitterionic model polymers with defined molar masses up to 150,000 Da and defined end groups are prepared from sulfobetaine monomer N,N-dimethyl-N-(3-(methacrylamido)propyl)ammoniopropanesulfonate (SPP). Polymers are synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) using a functional chain transfer agent labeled with a fluorescent probe. Their upper critical solution temperature-type coil-to-globule phase transition in water, deuterated water, and various salt solutions is studied by turbidimetry. Cloud points increase with polyzwitterion concentration and molar mass, being considerably higher in D2O than in H2O. Moreover, cloud points are strongly affected by the amount and nature of added salts. Typically, they increase with increasing salt concentration up to a maximum value, whereas further addition of salt lowers the cloud points again, mostly down to below freezing point. The different salting-in and salting-out effects of the studied anions can be correlated with the Hofmeister series. In physiological sodium chloride solution and in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the cloud point is suppressed even for high molar mass samples. Accordingly, SPP-polymers behave strongly hydrophilic under most conditions encountered in biomedical applications. However, the direct transfer of results from model studies in D2O, using, e.g. (1)H NMR or neutron scattering techniques, to 'normal' systems in H2O is not obvious. PMID:25058808

  4. Pharmacokinetics in melanoma-bearing mice of 5-dihydroxyboryl-6-propyl-2-thiouracil (BPTU), a candidate compound for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Verrijk, R.; Smolders, I. J.; Huiskamp, R.; Gavin, P. R.; Philipp, K. H.; Begg, A. C.

    1994-01-01

    Blood pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of 5-dihydroxyboryl-6-propyl-2-thiouracil (BPTU), a boron carrier with postulated melanin-seeking properties for boron neutron capture therapy, were determined in C57/BL mice with subcutaneous pigmented or non-pigmented B16 melanomas. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) was used as a boron compound without melanin-seeking properties in a comparative biodistribution study in the same animal tumour models. Administration of single doses showed that BPTU was retained better in the pigmented B16 tumour than in the non-pigmented variant. BPTU was found in large concentrations in kidney and liver. Brain boron was approximately 10-fold lower than tumour boron. On a molar basis, BPTU demonstrated higher affinity for B16 tumours than BSH. Owing to solubility limits, tumour boron concentrations in this mouse study were too low for effective application of BNCT. However, the high tumour-to-blood and tumour-to-normal tissues ratios indicate that, with appropriate formulation, BPTU could be a promising candidate for clinical BNCT. PMID:8142252

  5. The effect of cesium carbonate on 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 aggregation in films

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemann, William R.; Wang, Wenjie; Fungura, Fadzai; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth; Vaknin, David

    2014-11-11

    Surface-pressure isotherms, X-ray reflectivity, and X-ray near-total reflection fluorescence were used to study the properties of 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 (PCBM) that was pre-mixed with cesium carbonate and spread as a film at the air-water interface. The pre-mixed PCBM with cesium carbonate demonstrated a strikingly strong effect on the organization of the film. Whereas films formed from pure PCBM solution were rough due to strong inter-molecular interactions, the films formed from the mixture were much smoother. This indicates that the cesium carbonate moderates the inter-molecular interactions among PCBM molecules, hinting that the cesium diffusion observed in inverted organic photovoltaics and the likely ensuing ionic Cs-PCBM interaction decrease aggregation tendency of PCBM. As a result, this implies that the use of cesium salts affects the morphology of the organic layer and consequently improves the efficiency of these devices.

  6. The effect of cesium carbonate on 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C{sub 61} aggregation in films

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemann, William R.; Wang, Wenjie; Shinar, Joseph; Vaknin, David; Fungura, Fadzai; Shinar, Ruth

    2014-11-10

    Surface-pressure versus molecular area isotherms, X-ray reflectivity, and X-ray near-total reflection fluorescence were used to study the properties of 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C{sub 61} (PCBM) that was pre-mixed with cesium carbonate and spread as a film at the air-water interface. The pre-mixed PCBM with cesium carbonate demonstrated a strikingly strong effect on the organization of the film. Whereas films formed from pure PCBM solution were rough due to strong inter-molecular interactions, the films formed from the mixture were much smoother. This indicates that the cesium carbonate moderates the inter-molecular interactions among PCBM molecules, hinting that the cesium diffusion observed in inverted organic photovoltaic structures and the likely ensuing ionic Cs-PCBM interaction decrease aggregation tendency of PCBM. This implies that the use of cesium salts affects the morphology of the organic layer and consequently improves the efficiency of these devices.

  7. The effect of cesium carbonate on 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 aggregation in films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lindemann, William R.; Wang, Wenjie; Fungura, Fadzai; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth; Vaknin, David

    2014-11-11

    Surface-pressure isotherms, X-ray reflectivity, and X-ray near-total reflection fluorescence were used to study the properties of 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 (PCBM) that was pre-mixed with cesium carbonate and spread as a film at the air-water interface. The pre-mixed PCBM with cesium carbonate demonstrated a strikingly strong effect on the organization of the film. Whereas films formed from pure PCBM solution were rough due to strong inter-molecular interactions, the films formed from the mixture were much smoother. This indicates that the cesium carbonate moderates the inter-molecular interactions among PCBM molecules, hinting that the cesium diffusion observed in inverted organic photovoltaics and the likely ensuingmore » ionic Cs-PCBM interaction decrease aggregation tendency of PCBM. As a result, this implies that the use of cesium salts affects the morphology of the organic layer and consequently improves the efficiency of these devices.« less

  8. Neonatal Persistent Exposure to 6-Propyl-2-thiouracil, a Thyroid-Disrupting Chemical, Differentially Modulates Expression of Hepatic Catalase and C/EBP-β in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Suresh Kumar; Dandapat, Jagneshwar; Sahoo, Sunil Kumar; Roy, Anita; Chainy, Gagan B N

    2016-02-01

    Persistent exposure of rats to 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) from birth resulted in decreases in plasma thyroid hormone (TH) levels and hepatic expression of catalase and CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBP-β). Catalase promoter region (-185 to +52) that contains binding sites for C/EBP-β showed an augmentation in the methylation level along with a change in methylation pattern of CpG islands in response to PTU treatment. PTU withdrawal on 30 days of birth restored TH levels and C/EBP-β to control rats in adulthood. Although catalase expression was restored to some extent in adult rats in response to PTU withdrawal, a permanent change in its promoter CpG methylation pattern was recorded. The results suggest that downregulation of adult hepatic catalase gene in response to persistent neonatal PTU exposure may not solely be attributed to thyroid-disrupting properties of PTU. It is possible that besides thyroid-disrupting behavior, PTU may impair expression of hepatic catalase by altering methylation pattern of its promoter.

  9. Denatonium and 6-n-Propyl-2-thiouracil, Agonists of Bitter Taste Receptor, Inhibit Contraction of Various Types of Smooth Muscles in the Rat and Mouse.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroyasu; Sato, Ken; Kai, Yuki; Chiba, Yoshihiko; Narita, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Recently the global expression of taste 2 receptors (TAS2Rs) on smooth muscle cells in human airways was demonstrated. Here, the effects of agonists of taste receptor, type 2, denatonium and 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil, on smooth-muscle contraction were examined in the rat and mouse. Contractions induced by carbachol (CCh), high K(+), and sodium fluoride, but not calyculin-A, were inhibited significantly in the presence of a TAS2R agonist in the bronchial smooth muscle of mice. The contraction induced by CCh was inhibited by TAS2R agonists in ileal smooth muscle. Phenylephrine-induced contraction was also inhibited by TAS2R agonists in aortic smooth muscle. Gastrointestinal motility and blood pressure were attenuated by administration of TAS2R agonists in vivo. These findings suggest that TAS2R may be receptor for endogenous biologically active substances as well as for bitter tastes on the tongue. TAS2R signaling could be employed in the development of anti-asthmatic, anti-spasmodic, and anti-hypertensive drugs.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structures and coordination modes of some triorganotin(IV) complexes with 2-N-propyl and 2-N-benzyl-amino-1-cyclopentene-1-dithiocarboxylates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Cardoso, Marcela; Vargas-Pineda, Gabriela; Román-Bravo, Perla Patricia; Rodríguez-Narváez, Cristina; Rosas-Valdez, Elena; Cea-Olivares, Raymundo

    2016-07-01

    The syntheses and characterization of six new triorganotin(IV) complexes, Ph3Sn(PrACDA) (1), Bu3Sn(PrACDA) (2), Ph3Sn(BzACDA) (3), Bu3Sn(BzACDA) (4), Me3Sn(BzACDA) (5) and Cy3Sn(BzACDA) (6) (ACDA = 2-amino-1-cyclopentene-1-carbodithioate anion) are reported. Compounds 1-6 were synthesized by the reaction between the sodium salts of 2-N-propyl- or 2-N-benzyl-2-amino-1-cyclopentene-1-carbodithioate and R3SnCl (R = Ph, Bu, Me, Cy) in a 1:1 M ratio. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR and NMR (1H, 13C and 119Sn) spectroscopy and by FAB+ mass spectrometry. The experimental data reveal that the tin atom is coordinated to the ligand by means of the two sulfur atoms from the carbodithioate group in an anisobidentate mode, while the 119Sn{1H} NMR spectra suggest a pentacoordinate metal center in 1-4 and a tetracoordinate tin atom for 5 and 6. The molecular structures of complexes 1, 3 and 5 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis showing the presence of N-H···S hydrogen bonding and a distorted trigonal bipyramid geometry for the tin atoms.

  11. Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of the Flame Retardant Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate Inhibit Growth of Female Zebrafish and Decrease Fecundity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ya; Ma, Xufa; Su, Guanyong; Yu, Liqin; Letcher, Robert J; Hou, Jie; Yu, Hongxia; Giesy, John P; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-12-15

    Bioconcentrations of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) in brain, gonad, and liver as well as effects on fecundity and development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were determined. Zebrafish (1-month old) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of 29 ± 2.1, 600 ± 21, or 6300 ± 130 ng TDCIPP/L. After 120 days of exposure, TDCIPP accumulated in the brain, gonad, and liver with bioconcentration factors of 460, 38, and 87 in females and 26, 55, and 110 in males, respectively. TDCIPP accumulated to a greater extent in brains of females than those of males. Exposure to 6300 ± 130 ng TDCIPP/L resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) fewer eggs being produced, but the histology of the gonad, plasma concentrations of estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone, and expression of genes involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis were not significantly (P > 0.05) different between individuals exposed to TDCIPP and the unexposed control fish. Exposure to TDCIPP resulted in shorter body length, lighter body mass, and lower gonadal-somatic index in females. These effects were possibly due to down-regulation of expression of genes along the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis. Correlations between the production of eggs and developmental parameters or expression of genes along the GH/IGF axis further suggested that environmentally relevant concentrations of TDCIPP could have adverse effects on reproduction, possibly due to the inhibition of the growth of females.

  12. Development of anionically decorated caged neurotransmitters: in vitro comparison of 7-nitroindolinyl- and 2-(p-phenyl-o-nitrophenyl)-propyl-based photochemical probes

    PubMed Central

    Kantevari, Srinivas; Passlick, Stefan; Kwon, Hyung-Bae; Richers, Matthew T.; Sabatini, Bernardo L.; Ellis-Davies, Graham C.R.

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter uncaging, especially that of glutamate, has been used to study synaptic function for over 30 years. One limitation of caged glutamate probes is the blockade of GABA-A receptor function. This problem comes to the fore when the probes are applied at the high concentrations required for effective 2-photon photolysis. To mitigate such problems one could improve the photochemical properties of caging chromophores and/or remove receptor blockade. We show that addition of a dicarboxylate unit to the widely used MNI-Glu reduced the off-target effects by about 50–70%. When the same strategy was applied to an electron rich 2-(p-phenyl-o-nitrophenyl)-propyl (PNPP) cage, the pharmacological improvements were not as significant as for MNI. Finally, we used very extensive biological testing of the PNPP-caged Glu (more than 250 uncaging currents at single dendritic spines) to show that nitro-biphenyl caging chromophores have a 2-photon uncaging efficacy similar to that of MNI-Glu. PMID:26929152

  13. Monoparameter sensors for the determination of the antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole and n-propyl gallate in foods and cosmetics by flow injection spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Capitán-Vallvey, L F; Valencia, M C; Nicolás, E A

    2001-06-01

    A flow-through optosensor with solid phase UV spectroscopic detection is proposed for the direct determination of single antioxidants, namely butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and n-propyl gallate (n-PG), without previous derivatization. The methods are based on the transient retention behaviour of these compounds in a flow-through cell packed with C-18 silica using ethanol-water mixtures as a carrier, and on the intrinsic absorbance monitored at 290 and 283 nm, respectively. After recording the analytical signal, the antioxidants were easily and quickly desorbed from the solid support by the same carrier. For BHA, calibration graphs were linear over the range 1.0-300.0 mg L-1 using area as the analytical parameter. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was between 0.5 and 1.6%. For n-PG, calibration graphs were linear over the range 1.0-300.0 mg L-1 in area and the RSD was between 1.4 and 1.5%. The methods were applied to the determination of these antioxidants in several food and cosmetics samples, and were validated using the standard additions method and an HPLC reference method.

  14. Effects of Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate on Growth, Reproduction, and Gene Transcription of Daphnia magna at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Su, Guanyong; Zou, Ming; Yu, Liqin; Letcher, Robert J; Yu, Hongxia; Giesy, John P; Zhou, Bingsheng; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-11-01

    The synthetic flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) has been frequently detected in natural waters, and its maximum concentration ever reported is 377 ng/L. However, information on the adverse effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of TDCIPP on aquatic organisms are totally unknown. In this study, <12-h old water fleas, D. magna, were exposed to concentrations of 0, 65±7.1, 550±33, or 6500±1400 ng/L TDCIPP, and dose- and time-dependent effects on reproduction and development were evaluated. Sequences of genes of D. magna were obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information and were used to develop PCR arrays for D. magna. Arrays were then used to study transcriptional responses of D. magna to TDCIPP. Exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of TDCIPP significantly decreased fecundity as well as length of F0 and F1 generations. Transcriptional responses showed that, of the 155 genes tested, expressions of 57 genes were significantly changed, and some changes occurred following exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e., 65±7.1 and 550±23 ng/L). Furthermore, pathways related to protein synthesis and metabolism and endocytosis were considered to be significantly affected in a dose- and time-dependent manner and might be responsible for TDCIPP-induced reproductive and developmental toxicities.

  15. Acute Exposure to Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCIPP) Causes Hepatic Inflammation and Leads to Hepatotoxicity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunsheng; Su, Guanyong; Giesy, John P.; Letcher, Robert J.; Li, Guangyu; Agrawal, Ira; Li, Jing; Yu, Liqin; Wang, Jianghua; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) has been frequently detected in environmental media and has adverse health effect on wildlife and humans. It has been implicated to have hepatotoxicity, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, adult male zebrafish were exposed to TDCIPP and global hepatic gene expression was examined by RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of TDCIPP-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results indicated that TDCIPP exposure significantly up-regulated the expression of genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, implying an inflammatory response, which was supported by up-regulation of inflammation-related biomaker genes. Hepatic inflammation was further confirmed by histological observation of increase of infiltrated neutrophils and direct observation of liver recruitment of neutrophils labeled with Ds-Red fluorescent protein of Tg(lysC:DsRed) zebrafish upon TDCIPP exposure. To further characterize the hepatotoxicity of TDCIPP, the expression of hepatotoxicity biomarker genes, liver histopathology and morphology were examined. The exposure to TDCIPP significantly up-regulated the expression of several biomarker genes for hepatotoxicity (gck, gsr and nqo1) and caused hepatic vacuolization and apoptosis as well as increase of the liver size. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to TDCIPP induces hepatic inflammation and leads to hepatotoxicity in zebrafish. PMID:26743178

  16. Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of the Flame Retardant Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate Inhibit Growth of Female Zebrafish and Decrease Fecundity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ya; Ma, Xufa; Su, Guanyong; Yu, Liqin; Letcher, Robert J; Hou, Jie; Yu, Hongxia; Giesy, John P; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-12-15

    Bioconcentrations of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) in brain, gonad, and liver as well as effects on fecundity and development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were determined. Zebrafish (1-month old) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of 29 ± 2.1, 600 ± 21, or 6300 ± 130 ng TDCIPP/L. After 120 days of exposure, TDCIPP accumulated in the brain, gonad, and liver with bioconcentration factors of 460, 38, and 87 in females and 26, 55, and 110 in males, respectively. TDCIPP accumulated to a greater extent in brains of females than those of males. Exposure to 6300 ± 130 ng TDCIPP/L resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) fewer eggs being produced, but the histology of the gonad, plasma concentrations of estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone, and expression of genes involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis were not significantly (P > 0.05) different between individuals exposed to TDCIPP and the unexposed control fish. Exposure to TDCIPP resulted in shorter body length, lighter body mass, and lower gonadal-somatic index in females. These effects were possibly due to down-regulation of expression of genes along the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis. Correlations between the production of eggs and developmental parameters or expression of genes along the GH/IGF axis further suggested that environmentally relevant concentrations of TDCIPP could have adverse effects on reproduction, possibly due to the inhibition of the growth of females. PMID:26512412

  17. Quantitative determination of butylated hydroxyanisole and n-propyl gallate in cosmetics using three-dimensional fluorescence coupled with second-order calibration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Yao; Wu, Hai-Long; Chen, Yao; Zhai, Min; Qing, Xiang-Dong; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2013-11-15

    This work presents a novel approach for simultaneous determination of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and propyl gallate (PG) in a very interfering environment by combining the sensitivity of molecular fluorescence and the selectivity of the second-order calibration method. The excitation-emission fluorescence matrix data are processed by applying the second-order calibration method based on the self-weighted alternating normalized residue fitting (SWANRF) algorithm. The limits of detection (LOD) were 1.2-1.3 ng/ml for BHA and 2.2-2.9 ng/ml for PG. The recoveries from spiked cosmetics samples are in the ranges 95.7-103.9% for BHA and 95.9-105.7% for PG. The proposed method avoids preconcentration and elution procedures, so it considerably decreases the analytical time and the experimental expenses. Because the instrument involved in the measurement is nonsophisticated, the experiments could be carried out in routine laboratories. Then it is compared with the HPLC method in dosage of cosmetics and organic reagents, runtime, cost per analysis and LOD.

  18. Assessing differences in toxicity and teratogenicity of three phthalates, Diethyl phthalate, Di-n-propyl phthalate, and Di-n-butyl phthalate, using Xenopus laevis embryos.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Steven T; Wood, Andrew T; Lester, Rachel; Onkst, Paitra E; Burnham, Nathaniel; Perygin, Donna H; Rayburn, James

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates, compounds used to add flexibility to plastics, are ubiquitous in the environment. In particular, the diethyl (DEP), di-n-propyl (DnPP), and di-n-butyl (DBP) phthalates were found to exert detrimental effects in both mammalian and non-mammalian studies, with toxic effects varying according to alkyl chain length. Embryos of Xenopus laevis, the African clawed frog, have been used to assess toxicity and teratogenicity of several compounds and serves as a model for assessing adverse and teratogenic effects of ortho-phthalate esters. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for comparison of developmentally toxic effects of ortho-phthalate esters using Xenopus embryos. In this study developing Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed to increasing concentrations of DEP, DnPP, and DBP using the 96-h Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX), with 96-h lethal concentrations, effective concentrations to induce malformations, teratogenic indices, and concentrations to inhibit growth determined. DEP, DnPP, and DBP showed enhanced toxicity with increasing ester length. Developing Xenopus laevis exposed to DEP, DnPP, and DBP showed similar malformations that also occurred at lower concentrations with increasing alkyl chain length. Teratogenic risk did not change markedly with alkyl chain length, with data showing only DBP to be teratogenic.

  19. Neonatal Persistent Exposure to 6-Propyl-2-thiouracil, a Thyroid-Disrupting Chemical, Differentially Modulates Expression of Hepatic Catalase and C/EBP-β in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Suresh Kumar; Dandapat, Jagneshwar; Sahoo, Sunil Kumar; Roy, Anita; Chainy, Gagan B N

    2016-02-01

    Persistent exposure of rats to 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) from birth resulted in decreases in plasma thyroid hormone (TH) levels and hepatic expression of catalase and CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBP-β). Catalase promoter region (-185 to +52) that contains binding sites for C/EBP-β showed an augmentation in the methylation level along with a change in methylation pattern of CpG islands in response to PTU treatment. PTU withdrawal on 30 days of birth restored TH levels and C/EBP-β to control rats in adulthood. Although catalase expression was restored to some extent in adult rats in response to PTU withdrawal, a permanent change in its promoter CpG methylation pattern was recorded. The results suggest that downregulation of adult hepatic catalase gene in response to persistent neonatal PTU exposure may not solely be attributed to thyroid-disrupting properties of PTU. It is possible that besides thyroid-disrupting behavior, PTU may impair expression of hepatic catalase by altering methylation pattern of its promoter. PMID:26459835

  20. Effect of microwave radiation on hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose polymer films and HPMC/poly(vinylpyrrolidone) polymer blend films using the wide-angle X-ray technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somashekarappa, H.; Prakash, Y.; Mahadevaiah; Demappa, T.; Somashekar, R.

    2013-12-01

    The changes in the microstructural parameters of microwave-irradiated hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and HPMC/PVP (poly(vinylpyrrolidone)) blend films have been studied using the Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering Technique (WAXS) method. The crystal imperfection parameters, such as lattice strain (g%), the average number of unit cells ⟨ N ⟩ counted in a direction perpendicular to Bragg's plane (hkl), spacing of (hkl planes dhkl, crystallite size ⟨ Ds ⟩, distortion width, standard deviation, stacking faults, twin faults, were computed by the whole pattern fitting method. The obtained results were quantified in terms of the radiation dosage given to the samples. X-ray analysis reveals that there is a decrease in the crystallite size with the increase in the radiation dosage. Fourier transform Infra-Red (FTIR) analysis has been also carried out for both the unirradiated and irradiated films to study the effect of microwave radiation on HPMC and HPMC/PVP polymer blend films. The scanning electron microscope study is also carried out to know the surface morphology of these blend films.

  1. Test-retest reproducibility of [11C]-(+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin positron emission tomography using the bolus plus constant infusion paradigm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dianne E; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Lim, Keunpoong; Ding, Yu-Shin; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E; Morris, Evan D; Cosgrove, Kelly P

    2013-01-01

    We examined the reproducibility of using the constant infusion paradigm for equilibrium measurement of D2/3 receptors using [11C]-(+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin (PHNO) positron emission tomography (PET). Six subjects were scanned with a bolus plus constant infusion (Kbol = 80 minutes) of [11C]-(+)-PHNO. Binding potential (BPND) was computed using the equilibrium approach and compared to a simplified reference tissue model (SRTM). The rate of change in the concentration-activity curve from 60 to 90 minutes was -5 ± 13%/h in the caudate, putamen, substantia nigra, thalamus, and cerebellum but was 15 ± 15%/h in the ventral striatum and pallidum. Test-retest variability was lower in striatal compared to extrastriatal regions (4 ± 8% vs -8 ± 22%, respectively) using the equilibrium approach, with comparable results with SRTM. The equilibrium ratio and SRTM yielded reliable BPND estimates (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.88 and 0.82, respectively). These studies support the reproducibility of the bolus plus constant infusion paradigm with [11C]-(+)-PHNO PET. PMID:23415395

  2. Influences of the propyl group on the van der Waals structures of 4-propylaniline complexes with one and two argon atoms studied by electronic and cationic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhijun; Gu, Quanli; Trindle, Carl O; Knee, J L

    2015-07-21

    4-propylaniline complexes with one and two argon atoms formed in the molecular beam were studied in the first excited electronic state, S1, using resonance enhanced two-photon ionization spectroscopy and in the cation ground state, D0, using mass analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy. The combination of electronic and cationic spectra of the clusters allows two conformations to be identified in both aniline-Ar1 and aniline-Ar2, which are assigned to either the gauche configuration or anti-configuration of 4-propylaniline. The gauche isomer exhibits complex bands shifted 29 cm(-1) and 89 cm(-1) from the S1 origin bands and 83 cm(-1) and 148 cm(-1) from the ionization potential assigned to the Ar1 and Ar2 complexes, respectively. For the anti-rotamer, the corresponding shifts actually become nearly additive, 53 cm(-1) and 109 cm(-1) for the S1 origin bands, and 61 cm(-1) and 125 cm(-1) for the ionization potentials. Ab initio calculations provide insights into the influences of the propyl and amino groups on the positions of the argon atoms within the clusters. In addition, the binding energy of one argon with the gauche isomer of 4-propylaniline has been measured to be 550 ± 5 cm(-1) in the D0 state, 496 ± 5 cm(-1) in the S1 state, and 467 ± 5 cm(-1) in the neutral ground state, S0.

  3. Role of 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol production by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 in the multitrophic interactions in the avocado rhizosphere during the biocontrol process.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Claudia E; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M

    2014-07-01

    Different bacterial traits can contribute to the biocontrol of soilborne phytopathogenic fungus. Among others, (1) antagonism, (2) competition for nutrients and niches, (3) induction of systemic resistance of the plants and (4) predation and parasitism are the most studied. Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 is an antagonistic rhizobacterium that produces the antifungal metabolite 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol (HPR). This bacterium can biologically control the avocado white root rot caused by Rosellinia necatrix. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of the avocado rhizosphere revealed that this biocontrol bacterium and the fungal pathogen compete for the same niche and presumably also for root exudate nutrients. The use of derivative mutants in the geners related to HPR biosynthesis (dar genes) revealed that the lack of HPR production by P. chlororaphis PCL1606 negatively influences the bacterial colonisation of the avocado root surface. Microscopical analysis showed that P. chlororaphis PCL1606 closely interacts and colonises the fungal hyphae, which may represent a novel biocontrol mechanism in this pseudomonad. Additionally, the presence of HPR-producing biocontrol bacteria negatively affects the ability of the fungi to infect the avocado root. HPR production negatively affects hyphal growth, leading to alterations in the R. necatrix physiology visible under microscopy, including the curling, vacuolisation and branching of hyphae, which presumably affects the colonisation and infection abilities of the fungus. This study provides the first report of multitrophic interactions in the avocado rhizosphere, advancing our understanding of the role of HPR production in those interactions.

  4. Denatonium and 6-n-Propyl-2-thiouracil, Agonists of Bitter Taste Receptor, Inhibit Contraction of Various Types of Smooth Muscles in the Rat and Mouse.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroyasu; Sato, Ken; Kai, Yuki; Chiba, Yoshihiko; Narita, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Recently the global expression of taste 2 receptors (TAS2Rs) on smooth muscle cells in human airways was demonstrated. Here, the effects of agonists of taste receptor, type 2, denatonium and 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil, on smooth-muscle contraction were examined in the rat and mouse. Contractions induced by carbachol (CCh), high K, and sodium fluoride, but not calyculin-A, were inhibited significantly in the presence of a TAS2R agonist in the bronchial smooth muscle of mice. The contraction induced by CCh was inhibited by TAS2R agonists in ileal smooth muscle. Phenylephrine-induced contraction was also inhibited by TAS2R agonists in aortic smooth muscle. Gastrointestinal motility and blood pressure were attenuated by administration of TAS2R agonists in vivo. These findings suggest that TAS2R may be receptor for endogenous biologically active substances as well as for bitter tastes on the tongue. TAS2R signaling could be employed in the development of anti-asthmatic, anti-spasmodic, and anti-hypertensive drugs. PMID:27110632

  5. Denatonium and 6-n-Propyl-2-thiouracil, Agonists of Bitter Taste Receptor, Inhibit Contraction of Various Types of Smooth Muscles in the Rat and Mouse.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroyasu; Sato, Ken; Kai, Yuki; Chiba, Yoshihiko; Narita, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Recently the global expression of taste 2 receptors (TAS2Rs) on smooth muscle cells in human airways was demonstrated. Here, the effects of agonists of taste receptor, type 2, denatonium and 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil, on smooth-muscle contraction were examined in the rat and mouse. Contractions induced by carbachol (CCh), high K(+), and sodium fluoride, but not calyculin-A, were inhibited significantly in the presence of a TAS2R agonist in the bronchial smooth muscle of mice. The contraction induced by CCh was inhibited by TAS2R agonists in ileal smooth muscle. Phenylephrine-induced contraction was also inhibited by TAS2R agonists in aortic smooth muscle. Gastrointestinal motility and blood pressure were attenuated by administration of TAS2R agonists in vivo. These findings suggest that TAS2R may be receptor for endogenous biologically active substances as well as for bitter tastes on the tongue. TAS2R signaling could be employed in the development of anti-asthmatic, anti-spasmodic, and anti-hypertensive drugs. PMID:26567724

  6. Acute Exposure to Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCIPP) Causes Hepatic Inflammation and Leads to Hepatotoxicity in Zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunsheng; Su, Guanyong; Giesy, John P.; Letcher, Robert J.; Li, Guangyu; Agrawal, Ira; Li, Jing; Yu, Liqin; Wang, Jianghua; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) has been frequently detected in environmental media and has adverse health effect on wildlife and humans. It has been implicated to have hepatotoxicity, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, adult male zebrafish were exposed to TDCIPP and global hepatic gene expression was examined by RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of TDCIPP-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results indicated that TDCIPP exposure significantly up-regulated the expression of genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, implying an inflammatory response, which was supported by up-regulation of inflammation-related biomaker genes. Hepatic inflammation was further confirmed by histological observation of increase of infiltrated neutrophils and direct observation of liver recruitment of neutrophils labeled with Ds-Red fluorescent protein of Tg(lysC:DsRed) zebrafish upon TDCIPP exposure. To further characterize the hepatotoxicity of TDCIPP, the expression of hepatotoxicity biomarker genes, liver histopathology and morphology were examined. The exposure to TDCIPP significantly up-regulated the expression of several biomarker genes for hepatotoxicity (gck, gsr and nqo1) and caused hepatic vacuolization and apoptosis as well as increase of the liver size. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to TDCIPP induces hepatic inflammation and leads to hepatotoxicity in zebrafish.

  7. The mechanical properties of the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene grafted with 3-dimethy (3-(N-methacryamido) propyl) ammonium propane sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yaling; Xiong, Dangsheng; Wang, Kun

    2014-07-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powder was modified with a zwitterion monomer with good biocompatibility of MPDSAH (3-dimethy (3-(N-methacryamido) propyl) ammonium propane sulfonate) by UV irradiation and then hot pressed. The microstructure and mechanical properties of modified UHMWPE are investigated. The results show that the structure of powder and bulk materials has been changed. The modified powders have more filaments than that of untreated. The surface of modified bulk materials is more rough and displays the granular protuberances which have the random loose arrangement compared with untreated UHMWPE. The crystallinity, uniaxial tensile and compressive properties decreased after grafting. Ultimate elongations decrease with the increase of the monomer concentration and are higher than 300% which is recommended by ASTM and ISO except the sample with 0.45mol/L MPDSAH. The friction coefficient of modified UHMWPE is lower than that of the untreated UHMWPE and it decreases gradually with the increase of monomer concentration. The wear rates have been decreased and the wear resistance has been improved under saline and distilled water lubrication.

  8. Chronic oral toxicity of N-[N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-α-aspartyl]-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, monohydrate (advantame) in the dog.

    PubMed

    Otabe, A; Fujieda, T; Masuyama, T

    2011-11-01

    Advantame (N-[N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-α-aspartyl]-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, monohydrate), an N-substituted analog of aspartame, has been developed as a high-intensity sweetener. Groups of 4 dogs of each sex were treated at 0, 2000, 10,000, or 50,000 ppm of advantame in the diet for 52 weeks. Additional groups of 2 dogs/sex at the control, and mid- and high-dose groups were treated for 52 weeks followed by a 6-week recovery period. There was no effect of treatment on mortality, body weight, organ weights, food consumption, or the results of ophthalmological, electrocardiographic, haematological, clinical chemistry or urinalysis examinations. No histopathological changes were associated with advantame treatment. The NOAEL was considered to be 50,000 ppm, the highest concentration tested, which was equivalent to 2057 and 2139 mg/kg body weight/day in males, and females, respectively. The results of the study support the safety of advantame for use as a high-intensity sweetener.

  9. Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity studies of tannic acid and its related compounds.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Chung, K T

    2000-01-01

    Tannic acid and its hydrolysed products such as ellagic acid, gallic acid and propyl gallate were tested for mutagenicities using Ames Salmonella tester strains TA98 and TA100. Also, the antimutagenic activities of these compounds against a number of direct mutagens including 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), 4,4'-dinitro-2-biphenylamine, 1-nitropyrene, 1,3-dinitropyrene, 2-nitro-p-phenylenediamine, 3-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine were tested. None of these tannic acid compounds was mutagenic. They also failed to show antimutagenic activity towards the tested direct mutagens. However, tannic acid at non-growth inhibitory concentrations reduced the revertant numbers of TA98 in the presence of S9 mix when benzidine, 3,3'-4,4'-tetraminobiphenyl, 4-aminobiphenyl, and N,N-N', N'-tetramethylbenzidine were used as the mutagens. These results suggest that tannic acid, but not its hydrolytic products, affects the metabolic activation of these mutagens. PMID:10685008

  10. Effect of yeast extract and vitamin B sub 12 on ethanol production from cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Kanji; Goto, Shingo; Yonemura, Sotaro; Sekine, Kenji; Okuma, Emiko; Takagi, Yoshio; Honnami, Koyu; Saiki, Takashi )

    1992-02-01

    Addition to media of yeast extract, a vitamin mixture containing vitamin B{sub 12}, biotin, pyridoxamine, and p-aminobenzoic acid, or vitamin B{sub 12} alone enhanced formation of ethanol but decreased lactate production in the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B. A similar effect was not observed with C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 and JW20.

  11. Efficient Diethylzinc/Gallic Acid and Diethylzinc/Gallic Acid Ester Catalytic Systems for the Ring-Opening Polymerization of rac-Lactide.

    PubMed

    Żółtowska, Karolina; Piotrowska, Urszula; Oledzka, Ewa; Sobczak, Marcin

    2015-12-08

    Polylactide (PLA) represents one of the most promising biomedical polymers due to its biodegradability, bioresorbability and good biocompatibility. This work highlights the synthesis and characterization of PLAs using novel diethylzinc/gallic acid (ZnEt₂/GAc) and diethylzinc/propyl gallate (ZnEt₂/PGAc) catalytic systems that are safe for human body. The results of the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of rac-lactide (rac-LA) in the presence of zinc-based catalytic systems have shown that, depending on the reaction conditions, "predominantly isotactic", disyndiotactic or atactic PLA can be obtained. Therefore, the controlled and stereoselective ROP of rac-LA is discussed in detail in this paper.

  12. Biological Effects of Short-Term or Prolonged Administration of 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)Propyl]Adenine (Tenofovir) to Newborn and Infant Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Van Rompay, Koen K. A.; Brignolo, Laurie L.; Meyer, Dennis J.; Jerome, Christopher; Tarara, Ross; Spinner, Abigail; Hamilton, Marta; Hirst, Linda L.; Bennett, David R.; Canfield, Don R.; Dearman, Trish G.; Von Morgenland, Wilhelm; Allen, Phil C.; Valverde, Celia; Castillo, Alesha B.; Martin, R. Bruce; Samii, Valerie F.; Bendele, Ray; Desjardins, John; Marthas, Marta L.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Bischofberger, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    The reverse transcriptase inhibitor 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA; tenofovir) was previously found to offer strong prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in an infant macaque model of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We now summarize the toxicity and safety of PMPA in these studies. When a range of PMPA doses (4 to 30 mg/kg of body weight administered subcutaneously once daily) was administered to 39 infant macaques for a short period of time (range, 1 day to 12 weeks), no adverse effects on their health or growth were observed; this included a subset of 12 animals which were monitored for more than 2 years. In contrast, daily administration of a high dose of PMPA (30 mg/kg subcutaneously) for prolonged periods of time (>8 to 21 months) to 13 animals resulted in a Fanconi-like syndrome (proximal renal tubular disorder) with glucosuria, aminoaciduria, hypophosphatemia, growth restriction, bone pathology (osteomalacia), and reduced clearance of PMPA. The adverse effects were reversible or were alleviated following either complete withdrawal of PMPA treatment or reduction of the daily regimen from 30 mg/kg to 2.5 to 10 mg/kg subcutaneously. Finally, to evaluate the safety of a prolonged low-dose treatment regimen, two newborn macaques were started on a 10-mg/kg/day subcutaneous regimen; these animals are healthy and have normal bone density and growth after 5 years of daily treatment. In conclusion, our findings suggest that chronic daily administration of a high dose of PMPA results in adverse effects on kidney and bone, while short-term administration of relatively high doses and prolonged low-dose administration are safe. PMID:15105094

  13. Influences of the propyl group on the van der Waals structures of 4-propylaniline complexes with one and two argon atoms studied by electronic and cationic spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhijun; Gu, Quanli; Trindle, Carl O.; Knee, J. L.

    2015-07-21

    4-propylaniline complexes with one and two argon atoms formed in the molecular beam were studied in the first excited electronic state, S{sub 1}, using resonance enhanced two-photon ionization spectroscopy and in the cation ground state, D{sub 0}, using mass analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy. The combination of electronic and cationic spectra of the clusters allows two conformations to be identified in both aniline-Ar{sub 1} and aniline-Ar{sub 2}, which are assigned to either the gauche configuration or anti-configuration of 4-propylaniline. The gauche isomer exhibits complex bands shifted 29 cm{sup −1} and 89 cm{sup −1} from the S{sub 1} origin bands and 83 cm{sup −1} and 148 cm{sup −1} from the ionization potential assigned to the Ar{sub 1} and Ar{sub 2} complexes, respectively. For the anti-rotamer, the corresponding shifts actually become nearly additive, 53 cm{sup −1} and 109 cm{sup −1} for the S{sub 1} origin bands, and 61 cm{sup −1} and 125 cm{sup −1} for the ionization potentials. Ab initio calculations provide insights into the influences of the propyl and amino groups on the positions of the argon atoms within the clusters. In addition, the binding energy of one argon with the gauche isomer of 4-propylaniline has been measured to be 550 ± 5 cm{sup −1} in the D{sub 0} state, 496 ± 5 cm{sup −1} in the S{sub 1} state, and 467 ± 5 cm{sup −1} in the neutral ground state, S{sub 0}.

  14. Effects of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate and triphenyl phosphate on receptor-associated mRNA expression in zebrafish embryos/larvae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunsheng; Wang, Qiangwei; Liang, Kang; Liu, Jingfu; Zhou, Bingsheng; Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Hongling; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hongxia

    2013-03-15

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) are frequently detected in biota, including fish. However, knowledge of the toxicological and molecular effects of these currently used flame retardants is limited. In the present study, an in vivo screening approach was developed to evaluate effects of TDCPP and TPP on developmental endpoints and receptor-associated expression of mRNA in zebrafish embryos/larvae. Exposure to TDCPP or TPP resulted in significantly smaller rates of hatching and survival, in dose- and time-dependent manners. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) was 7.0 mg/L for TDCPP and 29.6 mg/L for TPP at 120 hour post-fertilization (hpf). Real-time PCR revealed alterations in expression of mRNAs involved in aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs)-, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα)-, estrogenic receptors (ERs)-, thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα)-, glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-, and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-centered gene networks. Exposure to positive control chemicals significantly altered abundances of mRNA in corresponding receptor-centered gene networks, a result that suggests that it is feasible to use zebrafish embryos/larvae to evaluate effects of chemicals on mRNA expression in these gene networks. Exposure to TDCPP altered transcriptional profiles in all six receptor-centered gene networks, thus exerting multiple toxic effects. TPP was easily metabolized and its potency to change expression of mRNA involved in receptor-centered gene networks was weaker than that of TDCPP. The PPARα- and TRα-centered gene networks might be the primary pathways affected by TPP. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TDCPP and TPP could alter mRNA expression of genes involved in the six receptor-centered gene networks in zebrafish embryos/larvae, and TDCPP seemed to have higher potency in changing the mRNA expression of these genes. PMID:23306105

  15. Swellable molecularly imprinted polyN-(N-propyl)acrylamide particles for detection of emerging organic contaminants using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Barry K; Westover, David J; Kaval, Necati; Mirjankar, Nikhil; Oxenford, Leah; Mwangi, George K

    2007-05-15

    Lightly crosslinked theophylline imprinted polyN-(N-propyl)acrylamide particles (ca. 300nm in diameter) that are designed to swell and shrink as a function of analyte concentration in aqueous media were spin coated onto a gold surface. The nanospheres responded selectively to the targeted analyte due to molecular imprinting. Chemical sensing was based on changes in the refractive index of the imprinted particles that accompanied swelling due to binding of the targeted analyte, which was detected using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. Because swelling leads to an increase in the percentage of water in the polymer, the refractive index of the polymer nanospheres decreased as the particles swelled. In the presence of aqueous theophylline at concentrations as low as 10(-6)M, particle swelling is both pronounced and readily detectable. The full scale response of the imprinted particles to template occurs in less than 10min. Swelling is also reversible and independent of the ionic strength of the solution in contact with the polymer. Replicate precision is less than 10(-4) RI units. By comparison, there is no response to caffeine which is similar in structure to theophylline at concentrations as high as 1x10(-2)M. Changes in the refractive index of the imprinted polymer particles, as low as 10(-4) RI units could be readily detected. A unique aspect of the prepared particles is the use of light crosslinking rather than heavy crosslinking. This is a significant development as it indicates that heavy crosslinking is not entirely necessary for selectivity in molecular imprinting with polyacrylamides.

  16. Simultaneous multicomponent spectrophotometric monitoring of methyl and propyl parabens using multivariate statistical methods after their preconcentration by robust ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khani, Rouhollah; Ghasemi, Jahan B.; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2014-03-01

    A powerful and efficient signal-preprocessing technique that combines local and multiscale properties of the wavelet prism with the global filtering capability of orthogonal signal correction (OSC) is applied for pretreatment of spectroscopic data of parabens as model compounds after their preconcentration by robust ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method (IL-DLLME). In the proposed technique, a mixture of a water-immiscible ionic liquid (as extraction solvent) [Hmim][PF6] and disperser solvent is injected into an aqueous sample solution containing one of the IL's ions, NaPF6, as extraction solvent and common ion source. After preconcentration, the absorbance of the extracted compounds was measured in the wavelength range of 200-700 nm. The wavelet orthogonal signal correction with partial least squares (WOSC-PLS) method was then applied for simultaneous determination of each individual compound. Effective parameters, such as amount of IL, volume of the disperser solvent and amount of NaPF6, were inspected by central composite design to identify the most important parameters and their interactions. The effect of pH on the sensitivity and selectivity was studied according to the net analyte signal (NAS) for each component. Under optimum conditions, enrichment factors of the studied compounds were 75 for methyl paraben (MP) and 71 for propyl paraben (PP). Limits of detection for MP and PP were 4.2 and 4.8 ng mL-1, respectively. The root mean square errors of prediction for MP and PP were 0.1046 and 0.1275 μg mL-1, respectively. The practical applicability of the developed method was examined using hygienic, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and natural water samples.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of p-type conductivity dopant 2-(3-(adamantan-1-yl)propyl)-3,5,6-trifluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane

    SciTech Connect

    Rainbolt, James E.; Koech, Phillip K.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Von Ruden, Amber L.; Wang, Liang; Sapochak, Linda S.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2013-01-22

    We report the synthesis and characterization of 2-(3-(adamantan-1-yl)propyl)-3,5,6-trifluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F3TCNQ-Ad1), a substituted analog of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ), designed for p-type conductivity doping. The dopant is designed as a model for substituted alternatives to F4TCNQ that maintain similar electronic properties with the goal of engineering dopants with superior fabrication characteristics over F4TCNQ. We describe the design strategy for F3TCNQ-Ad1 based on molecular modeling predictions that substitution of a single fluorine atom of F4TCNQ has little effect on the electronic properties of the molecule. Photophysical and electrochemical characterization reveal that the adamantyl substituent in F3TCNQ-Ad1 does not significantly alter the electronic properties of the substituted dopant relative to F4TCNQ. Unfortunately, F3TCNQ-Ad1 degrades under standard sublimation conditions, preventing sublimation deposition processing. Instead, hole-only devices were made via solution-processing of the p-doped films with the structure glass/ITO/2.3 x103Å PVK:(MTDATA:dopant)/2.0x102Å Au/1.0x103Å Al, where dopant is either F4TCNQ or F3TCNQ-Ad1. We demonstrate that F3TCNQ-Ad1 increased the conductivity of the films by at least 1,000 times compared to an undoped device.

  18. Transcriptome analysis provides new insights into liver changes induced in the rat upon dietary administration of the food additives butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole.

    PubMed

    Stierum, Rob; Conesa, Ana; Heijne, Wilbert; Ommen, Ben van; Junker, Karin; Scott, Mary P; Price, Roger J; Meredith, Clive; Lake, Brian G; Groten, John

    2008-08-01

    Transcriptomics was performed to gain insight into mechanisms of food additives butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), curcumin (CC), propyl gallate (PG), and thiabendazole (TB), additives for which interactions in the liver can not be excluded. Additives were administered in diets for 28 days to Sprague-Dawley rats and cDNA microarray experiments were performed on hepatic RNA. BHT induced changes in the expression of 10 genes, including phase I (CYP2B1/2; CYP3A9; CYP2C6) and phase II metabolism (GST mu2). The CYP2B1/2 and GST expression findings were confirmed by real time RT-PCR, western blotting, and increased GST activity towards DCNB. CC altered the expression of 12 genes. Three out of these were related to peroxisomes (phytanoyl-CoA dioxygenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase; CYP4A3). Increased cyanide insensitive palmitoyl-CoA oxidation was observed, suggesting that CC is a weak peroxisome proliferator. TB changed the expression of 12 genes, including CYP1A2. In line, CYP1A2 protein expression was increased. The expression level of five genes, associated with p53 was found to change upon TB treatment, including p53 itself, GADD45alpha, DN-7, protein kinase C beta and serum albumin. These array experiments led to the novel finding that TB is capable of inducing p53 at the protein level, at least at the highest dose levels employed above the current NOAEL. The expression of eight genes changed upon PG administration. This study shows the value of gene expression profiling in food toxicology in terms of generating novel hypotheses on the mechanisms of action of food additives in relation to pathology.

  19. Simultaneous multicomponent spectrophotometric monitoring of methyl and propyl parabens using multivariate statistical methods after their preconcentration by robust ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Khani, Rouhollah; Ghasemi, Jahan B; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2014-03-25

    A powerful and efficient signal-preprocessing technique that combines local and multiscale properties of the wavelet prism with the global filtering capability of orthogonal signal correction (OSC) is applied for pretreatment of spectroscopic data of parabens as model compounds after their preconcentration by robust ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method (IL-DLLME). In the proposed technique, a mixture of a water-immiscible ionic liquid (as extraction solvent) [Hmim][PF6] and disperser solvent is injected into an aqueous sample solution containing one of the IL's ions, NaPF6, as extraction solvent and common ion source. After preconcentration, the absorbance of the extracted compounds was measured in the wavelength range of 200-700 nm. The wavelet orthogonal signal correction with partial least squares (WOSC-PLS) method was then applied for simultaneous determination of each individual compound. Effective parameters, such as amount of IL, volume of the disperser solvent and amount of NaPF6, were inspected by central composite design to identify the most important parameters and their interactions. The effect of pH on the sensitivity and selectivity was studied according to the net analyte signal (NAS) for each component. Under optimum conditions, enrichment factors of the studied compounds were 75 for methyl paraben (MP) and 71 for propyl paraben (PP). Limits of detection for MP and PP were 4.2 and 4.8 ng mL(-)(1), respectively. The root mean square errors of prediction for MP and PP were 0.1046 and 0.1275 μg mL(-)(1), respectively. The practical applicability of the developed method was examined using hygienic, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and natural water samples.

  20. Is the PentaBDE replacement, tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), a developmental neurotoxicant? Studies in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dishaw, Laura V.; Powers, Christina M.; Ryde, Ian T.; Roberts, Simon C.; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are used as replacements for the commercial PentaBDE mixture that was phased out in 2004. OPFRs are ubiquitous in the environment and detected at high concentrations in residential dust, suggesting widespread human exposure. OPFRs are structurally similar to neurotoxic organophosphate pesticides, raising concerns about exposure and toxicity to humans. This study evaluated the neurotoxicity of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) compared to the organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), a known developmental neurotoxicant. We also tested the neurotoxicity of three structurally similar OPFRs, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP), and 2,2 Prime ,4,4 Prime -tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a major component of PentaBDE. Using undifferentiated and differentiating PC12 cells, changes in DNA synthesis, oxidative stress, differentiation into dopaminergic or cholinergic neurophenotypes, cell number, cell growth and neurite growth were assessed. TDCPP displayed concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, often with effects equivalent to or greater than equimolar concentrations of CPF. TDCPP inhibited DNA synthesis, and all OPFRs decreased cell number and altered neurodifferentiation. Although TDCPP elevated oxidative stress, there was no adverse effect on cell viability or growth. TDCPP and TDBPP promoted differentiation into both neuronal phenotypes, while TCEP and TCPP promoted only the cholinergic phenotype. BDE-47 had no effect on cell number, cell growth or neurite growth. Our results demonstrate that different OPFRs show divergent effects on neurodifferentiation, suggesting the participation of multiple mechanisms of toxicity. Additionally, these data suggest that OPFRs may affect neurodevelopment with similar or greater potency compared to known and suspected neurotoxicants.

  1. Bis-Arylidene Oxindole–Betulinic Acid Conjugate: A Fluorescent Cancer Cell Detector with Potent Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Molecules offering simultaneous detection and killing of cancer cells are advantageous. Hybrid of cancer cell-selective, ROS generator betulinic acid and bis-arylidene oxindole with amino propyl-linker is developed. With intrinsic fluorescence, the molecule exhibited cancer cell-specific residence. Further, it generated ROS, triggered apoptosis, and exhibited potent cytotoxicity in cancer cells selectively. We demonstrate the first example and use of isatins as betulinic acid conjugate for selective detection of cancer and subsequent killing of cancer cells via apoptosis. PMID:26005543

  2. Effect of the structure of gallic acid and its derivatives on their interaction with plant ferritin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qunqun; Zhou, Kai; Ning, Yong; Zhao, Guanghua

    2016-12-15

    Gallic acid and its derivatives co-exist with protein components in foodstuffs, but there is few report on their interaction with proteins. On the other hand, plant ferritin represents not only a novel class of iron supplement, but also a new nanocarrier for encapsulation of bioactive nutrients. However, plant ferritin is easy to be degraded by pepsin in the stomach, thereby limiting its application. Herein, we investigated the interaction of gallic acid and its derivatives with recombinant soybean seed H-2 ferritin (rH-2). We found that these phenolic acids interacted with rH-2 in a structure-dependent manner; namely, gallic acid (GA), methyl gallate (MEGA) and propyl gallate (PG) having three HO groups can bind to rH-2, while their analogues with two HO groups cannot. Consequently, such binding largely inhibited ferritin degradation by pepsin. These findings advance our understanding of the relationship between the structure and function of phenolic acids.

  3. Retinoidal pyrimidinecarboxylic acids. Unexpected diaza-substituent effects in retinobenzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Ohta, K; Kawachi, E; Inoue, N; Fukasawa, H; Hashimoto, Y; Itai, A; Kagechika, H

    2000-10-01

    Several pyridine- and pyrimidine-carboxylic acids were synthesized as ligand candidates for retinoid nuclear receptors, retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoic X receptors (RXRs). Although the pyridine derivatives, 6-[(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)carbamoyl]pyri dine-3-carboxylic acid (2b) and 6-[(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)carboxamido]py ridine-3-carboxylic acid (5b) are more potent than the corresponding benzoic acid-type retinoids, Am80 (2a) and Am580 (5a), the replacement of the benzene ring of Am580 (5a), Am555 (6a), or Am55 (7a) with a pyrimidine ring caused loss of the retinoidal activity both in HL-60 cell differentiation assay and in RAR transactivation assay using COS-1 cells. On the other hand, pyrimidine analogs (PA series, 10 and 11) of potent RXR agonists (retinoid synergists) with a diphenylamine skeleton (DA series, 8 and 9) exhibited potent retinoid synergistic activity in HL-60 cell differentiation assay and activated RXRs. Among the synthesized compounds, 2-[N-n-propyl-N-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)a mino]pyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid (PA013, 10e) is most active retinoid synergist in HL-60 assay.

  4. Enantioselective allylation of imines catalyzed by newly developed (-)-β-pinene-based π-allylpalladium catalyst: an efficient synthesis of (R)-α-propylpiperonylamine and (R)-pipecolic acid.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rodney A; Nallasivam, Jothi L

    2012-10-14

    A newly developed π-allylpalladium with a (-)-β-pinene framework and an isobutyl side chain catalyzed the enantioselective allylation of imines in good yields and enantioselectivities (20 examples, up to 98% ee). An efficient enantioselective synthesis of the (R)-α-propyl piperonylamine part of DMP 777, a human leukocyte elastase inhibitor and (R)-pipecolic acid have been achieved as a useful application of this methodology.

  5. EFFECT OF PHENOLIC ACIDS AND ESTERS ON RESPIRATION AND REPRODUCTION OF BACTERIA IN URINE.

    PubMed

    KEITH, E S; POWERS, J J

    1965-05-01

    Vanillic, syringic, gallic, and protocatechuic acids, methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate, and propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate generally inhibited respiration in vitro of Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Aerobacter aerogenes in human urine. In the absence of any other available carbon source, certain of the phenolic compounds were utilized. Reproduction was generally suppressed in urine buffered to pH 7, 5.6, 4.5, and 4.0. The phenolic compounds were used in the range of 0.11 to 0.99 mumole/ml.

  6. Involvement of snapdragon benzaldehyde dehydrogenase in benzoic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Long, Michael C; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Kaminaga, Yasuhisa; Ho, Kwok Ki; Kish, Christine M; Schnepp, Jennifer; Sherman, Debra; Weiner, Henry; Rhodes, David; Dudareva, Natalia

    2009-07-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) is an important building block in a wide spectrum of compounds varying from primary metabolites to secondary products. Benzoic acid biosynthesis from L-phenylalanine requires shortening of the propyl side chain by two carbons, which can occur via a beta-oxidative pathway or a non-beta-oxidative pathway, with benzaldehyde as a key intermediate. The non-beta-oxidative route requires benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BALDH) to convert benzaldehyde to BA. Using a functional genomic approach, we identified an Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) BALDH, which exhibits 40% identity to bacterial BALDH. Transcript profiling, biochemical characterization of the purified recombinant protein, molecular homology modeling, in vivo stable isotope labeling, and transient expression in petunia flowers reveal that BALDH is capable of oxidizing benzaldehyde to BA in vivo. GFP localization and immunogold labeling studies show that this biochemical step occurs in the mitochondria, raising a question about the role of subcellular compartmentalization in BA biosynthesis.

  7. The goitrogen 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) given during testis development increases Sertoli and germ cell numbers per cyst in fish: the tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) model.

    PubMed

    Matta, Sérgio L P; Vilela, Daniel A R; Godinho, Hugo P; França, Luiz R

    2002-03-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) on Sertoli cell proliferation, germ cell number, and testis size in Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus). In this regard, young fish (approximately 1 g BW and approximately 3.5 cm total in length) were treated for a period of 40 d with different concentrations (100 and 150 ppm) of PTU. The animals were killed and analyzed on d 1, 30, 40, 98, and 208 after the beginning of the treatment. On d 30 and 40 the spermatogenic process was delayed in fish treated with PTU compared with the control group. Also at these periods, treated tilapia had decreased (P < 0.05) body weight and total length. On d 98 body weight and total length had recovered in PTU-treated fish and were similar (P > 0.05) to those of the controls. However, testis weight and gonadosomatic index (testis mass/body weight) were approximately 100% higher (P < 0.05) in treated tilapia. Similarly, the area occupied by seminiferous tubules, the number of Sertoli cells and germ cells per cyst, and the number of Leydig cells per testis were significantly (P < 0.05) greater in treated fish. Nevertheless, nuclear volume and individual Leydig cell volume were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in tilapia receiving PTU treatment. Compared with controls, at 208 d all parameters analyzed presented the same trend as that observed at 98 d. In general, at 98 d the different PTU concentrations used during the treatment period induced similar effects. However, at 208 d the mean values observed for several parameters were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in fish exposed to 150 ppm. Probably due to the higher density of Sertoli cells per cyst in treated tilapia, these cells presented a smaller (P < 0.05) nucleolus and a trend to decrease its support capacity (efficiency). However, the meiotic index (germ cell loss during the two meiotic divisions) was similar (P > 0.05) in the three groups of fish investigated. Remarkably

  8. Bis(propyl)-cognitin Prevents β-amyloid-induced Memory Deficits as Well as Synaptic Formation and Plasticity Impairments via the Activation of PI3-K Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liting; Huang, Meng; Xu, Shujun; Wang, Yu; An, Pengyuan; Feng, Chenxi; Chen, Xiaowei; Wei, Xiaofei; Han, Yifan; Wang, Qinwen

    2016-08-01

    Bis(propyl)-cognitin (B3C), derived from tacrine linked with three methylene (-CH2-) groups, is a dimerized molecule interacting multiple targets. During the past several years, it has been reported as a promising therapeutic drug for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. However, the therapeutic mechanism of B3C for AD needs further demonstration. Based on a combination of behavioral tests, electrophysiological technique, immunocytochemistry, and live cell imaging, we studied the effects and the underlying mechanism of B3C on the impairments of cognitive function, synapse formation, and synaptic plasticity induced by soluble amyloid-β protein (Aβ) oligomers. Our study showed that spatial learning and memory in a Morris water maze task and recognition memory in a novel object recognition task were significantly decreased in the AD model mice created by hippocampal injection of Aβ. Chronic administration of B3C for 21 days prevented the memory impairments of the AD model mice in a dose-dependent manner. Live cell imaging study showed that 2-h pretreatment of B3C prevented the decrease in the number of filopodia and synapses induced by Aβ (0.5 μM) in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, electrophysiological recording data showed that the inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by Aβ1-42 oligomers in the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus was prevented by B3C in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that the neuroprotective effect of B3C against Aβ-oligomer-induced impairments of synaptic formation and plasticity could be partially blocked by a specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor LY294002 (50 μM). Therefore, these results indicate that B3C can prevent Aβ-oligomer-induced cognitive deficits, synaptic formation impairments, and synaptic plasticity impairments in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects of B3C are partially mediated via the PI3-K pathway. This study provides novel insights

  9. Neurotoxicological and thyroid evaluations of rats developmentally exposed to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloro-2-ethyl)phosphate (TCEP).

    PubMed

    Moser, Virginia C; Phillips, Pamela M; Hedge, Joan M; McDaniel, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloro-2-ethyl)phosphate (TCEP) are organophosphorous flame retardants with widespread usage and human exposures through food, inhalation, and dust ingestion. They have been detected in human tissues including urine and breast milk. Reports of disrupted neural growth in vitro, abnormal development in larval zebrafish, and altered thyroid hormones in several species have raised concern for neurodevelopmental toxicity. This is especially the case for TDCIPP, which is more potent and has more activity in those assays than does TCEP. We evaluated the potential for developmental neurotoxicity of TDCIPP and TCEP in a mammalian model. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were administered TDCIPP (15, 50, or 150 mg/kg/day) or TCEP (12, 40, 90 mg/kg/day) via oral gavage from gestational day 10 to weaning. Corn oil was the vehicle control in both studies. Body weight and righting reflex development were monitored in all pups. A subset of offspring at culling and weaning, and dams at weaning, were sacrificed for serum and organ collection for measurement of brain, liver, and thyroid weights, serum thyroid levels, and serum and brain acetylcholinesterase activities. Brain weights were also measured in a group of adult TDCIPP-treated offspring. One male and one female from each litter were allocated for behavioral testing at several ages: standard locomotor activity (preweaning, postweaning, adults), locomotor activity including a lighting change mid-way (postweaning, adults), elevated zero maze (postweaning, adults), functional observational battery (FOB; postweaning, adults), and Morris water maze (place learning, reference and working memory; adults). Neither chemical produced changes in maternal body weight or serum thyroid hormones, but relative liver weight was increased at the high doses of both TDCIPP and TCEP. In offspring, there were no effects on viability, litter size, or birth weight. With TDCIPP, absolute liver weights

  10. Silica gel modified with N-(3-propyl)-O-phenylenediamine: functionalization, metal sorption equilibrium studies and application to metal enrichment prior to determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Akl, Magda Ali Abd-elAziz; Kenawy, Ibraheim Mohamed; Lasheen, Rabab Ramadan

    2005-08-01

    The use of the chemically modified silica gel N-(3-propyl)-O-phenylenediamine (SiG-NPPDA) adsorbent, for the preconcentration and separation of trace heavy metals, was described. SiG-NPPDA sorbs quantitatively (90-100% recovery) trace amounts of nine heavy metals, viz., Cd(II), Zn(II), Fe(III), Cu(II), Pb(II), Mn(II), Cr(III), Co(II) and Ni(II) at pH 7-8. The sorption capacity varies from 350 to 450 micromol g(-1). Desorption was found to be quantitative with 1-2 M HNO3 or 0.05 M Na2EDTA. The distribution coefficient, Kd and the percentage concentration of the investigated metal ions on the adsorbent at equilibrium, C(M,eqm)% (Recovery, R%), were studied as a function of experimental parameters. The logarithmic values of the distribution coefficient, log Kd, ranges between 4.0 and 6.4. Some foreign ions caused little interference in the preconcentration and determination of the investigated nine metals by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The adsorbent and its formed metal chelates were characterized by IR (absorbance and/or reflectance), potentiometric titrations and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and DTG). The mode of chelation between the SiG-NPPDA adsorbent and the investigated metal ions is proposed to be due to the reaction of the investigated metal ions with the two nitrogen atoms of the SiG-NPPDA adsorbent. The present adsorbent coupled with flame AAS has been used to enrich and determine the nine metal ions in natural aqueous systems and in certified reference materials (RSD < or = 5%). The copper, iron, manganese and zinc present in some pharmaceutical vitamin samples were also preconcentrated on SiG-NPPDA adsorbent and determined by flame AAS (RSD < or = 4.2%). Nanogram concentrations (0.07-0.14 ng ml(-1)) of Cd(II), Zn(II), Fe(III), Pb(II), Cr(III), Mn(II), Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) can be determined reliably with a preconcentration factor of 100.

  11. [Synthesis of new mandelic acid derivatives with preservative action. Synthesis and acute toxicity study].

    PubMed

    Stan, Cătălina; Năstase, V; Pavelescu, M; Vasile, Cornelia; Dumitrache, M; Gherase, Florenţa; Năstasă, Veronica

    2004-01-01

    Starting from the antiseptic action of DL mandelic acid, there were synthesized a series of esters of the mandelic acid, esters which could have preservative action. This study present the synthesis, structure validation and the acute toxicity study, for the new synthesized compounds. The esters were obtained by acylating 4-hydroxybenzoic acid propyl, ethyl, methyl esters and salicylic acid with the DL mandelic chloride (that was protected initially by the hydroxylic group). The structure of the synthesized compounds was confirmed by quantitative elemental analysis and RMN 1H spectral measurements. The acute toxicity was determined for two of the esters, who proved to had a preservative action (previously studied) and indicated that these esters have a small toxicity.

  12. Extraordinary cohesiveness of a boronic acid-based calix[6]arene monolayer at the air-water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Hendel, R.A.; Janout, V.; Lee, W.; Regen, S.L.

    1996-11-13

    In this paper, we describe the design and synthesis of calix[6]arene. We also report our unexpected finding that monolayers of the surfactant exhibit extraordinary cohesiveness while in intimate contact with water; i.e., dehydration is not essential for stabilizing the film. The specific molecule that was chosen as a synthetic target was 5,11,17,23,29, 35-hexakis(3-dihydroxybora-1-propyl)-37,38,39,40,41, 42-hexakis(hexadecycloxy)calix[6]-arene, I. The synthesis of I proved to be straightforward using methods that have previously been developed for calix[6]arene and alkylboronic acids synthesis. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  13. The Role of Excitatory Amino Acids and NMDA Receptors in Traumatic Brain Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faden, Alan I.; Demediuk, Paul; Panter, S. Scott; Vink, Robert

    1989-05-01

    Brain injury induced by fluid percussion in rats caused a marked elevation in extracellular glutamate and aspartate adjacent to the trauma site. This increase in excitatory amino acids was related to the severity of the injury and was associated with a reduction in cellular bioenergetic state and intracellular free magnesium. Treatment with the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist dextrorphan or the competitive antagonist 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid limited the resultant neurological dysfunction; dextrorphan treatment also improved the bioenergetic state after trauma and increased the intracellular free magnesium. Thus, excitatory amino acids contribute to delayed tissue damage after brain trauma; NMDA antagonists may be of benefit in treating acute head injury.

  14. Rapid determination of four short-chain alkyl mercapturic acids in human urine by column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Elisabeth; Göen, Thomas

    2014-08-15

    We developed and validated an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of methyl mercapturic acid (MeMA), ethyl mercapturic acid (EtMA), n-propyl mercapturic acid (PrMA) and iso-propyl mercapturic acid (iPrMA) in human urine. These alkyl mercapturic acids are known or presumed biomarkers of exposure to several alkylating agents including methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfate, ethyl bromide, 1-bromopropane and 2-bromopropane. The method involves a column switching arrangement for online solid phase extraction of the analytes with subsequent analytical separation and detection using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Within day and day-to-day imprecision was determined to range from 4.5 to 12.2%. The analytical method is distinguished by its wide linear working range of up to 2,500 μg/L with detection limits ranging from 2.0 μg/L (for PrMA) to 5.1 μg/L (for MeMA) that render possible the application in various biomonitoring studies regarding exposure to alkylating agents. The results of a pilot study on urine samples of 30 individuals occupationally non-exposed to alkylating agents using the new procedure confirmed the background excretion of MeMA (<5.1-35.6 μg/L) and PrMA (<2.0-95.7 μg/L).

  15. Identification of Microbial Metabolites Elevating Vitamin Contents in Barley Seeds.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Anam; Qadir, Abdul; Anjum, Tehmina; Ahmad, Aqeel

    2015-08-19

    The current investigation analyzes metabolites of Acetobacter aceti to explore chemical compounds responsible for the induction of vitamins in barley seeds. A bioactivity guided assay of bacterial extracts and chromatographic analyses of barley produce revealed 13 chemical compounds, which were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). PCA determined four chemical compounds (i.e., quinolinic acid, pyridoxic acid, p-aminobenzoate, and α-oxobutanoic acid) highly associated with increased quantities of vitamins. Further experimentations confirmed that quinolinic acid and p-aminobenzoate were the most efficient vitamin inducers. The results indicated chloroform/ethanol (4:1) as the best solvent system for the extraction of active compounds from crude metabolites of A. aceti. Significant quantities of mevalonic acid were detected in the extracted fraction, indicating the possible induction of the isoprenoid pathway. Altogether, the current investigation broadens the frontiers in plant-microbe interaction.

  16. In situ chemical functionalization of gallium nitride with phosphonic acid derivatives during etching.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Stewart J; Greenough, Michelle; Arellano, Consuelo; Paskova, Tania; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2014-03-01

    In situ functionalization of polar (c plane) and nonpolar (a plane) gallium nitride (GaN) was performed by adding (3-bromopropyl) phosphonic acid or propyl phosphonic acid to a phosphoric acid etch. The target was to modulate the emission properties and oxide formation of GaN, which was explored through surface characterization with atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and water contact angle. The use of (3-bromopropyl) phosphonic acid and propyl phosphonic acid in phosphoric acid demonstrated lower amounts of gallium oxide formation and greater hydrophobicity for both sample sets, while also improving PL emission of polar GaN samples. In addition to crystal orientation, growth-related factors such as defect density in bulk GaN versus thin GaN films residing on sapphire substrates were investigated as well as their responses to in situ functionalization. Thin nonpolar GaN layers were the most sensitive to etching treatments due in part to higher defect densities (stacking faults and threading dislocations), which accounts for large surface depressions. High-quality GaN (both free-standing bulk polar and bulk nonpolar) demonstrated increased sensitivity to oxide formation. Room-temperature PL stands out as an excellent technique to identify nonradiative recombination as observed in the spectra of heteroepitaxially grown GaN samples. The chemical methods applied to tune optical and physical properties of GaN provide a quantitative framework for future novel chemical and biochemical sensor development.

  17. Effect of 3-(3'-tert-butyl-4'-hydroxyphenyl)propyl thiosulfonate sodium on expression of GSTP1 and NQO1 genes and protein transcription factors in BALB/c mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Shintyapina, A B; Safronova, O G; Vavilin, V A; Kandalintseva, N V; Prosenko, A E; Lyakhovich, V V

    2014-08-01

    The study examined dynamics of the effect of novel phenol antioxidant preparation 3-(3'-tertbutyl- 4'-hydroxyphenyl)propyl thiosulfonate sodium (TS-13) on expression of antioxidant protection enzymes genes GSTP1 and NQO1 and on the content of protein transcription factors NF-κB and ATF-2 in mouse liver. Expression of GSTP1 gene decreased significantly on days 4 and 7 after per os administration of TS-13 (100 mg/kg), but increased on post-administration day 14. On days 7 and 14 post-administration, expression of NQO1 gene was significantly increased. On day 7, the hepatic content of the phosphorylated form of ATF-2 and two subunits of nuclear factor NF-κB (p50, p65) decreased significantly.

  18. Design and synthesis of novel 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(3-substituted propyl thio) quinazolin-4-(3H)-ones as a new class of H1-antihistaminic agents.

    PubMed

    Alagarsamy, V; Parthiban, P

    2012-09-01

    A series of novel 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(3-substituted propyl) quinazolin-4-(3H)-ones have been synthesized and tested for their in vivo H1-antihistaminic activity on conscious guinea pigs. All the test compounds have protected the animals from histamine induced bronchospasm significantly. Compound 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) propylthio) quinazolin-4(3H)-one (PC5) emerged as the most active compound (77.53% protection) of the series when compared to the reference standard chlorpheniramine maleate (70.09% protection). Compound PC5 shows negligible sedation (6.16%) compared to chlorpheniramine maleate (29.58%). Therefore, compound PC5 can serve as the lead molecule for further development into a new class of H1-antihistaminic agents.

  19. Crystal structure of ({4-[(4-bromo­phen­yl)ethyn­yl]-3,5-di­ethyl­phen­yl}ethyn­yl)triiso­propyl­silane

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Caiyun; Moxey, Graeme J.; Barlow, Adam; Morshedi, Mahbod

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C29H37BrSi, was synthesized by the Sonogashira coupling of [(3,5-diethyl-4-ethynylphen­yl)ethyn­yl]triiso­propyl­silane with 4-bromo-1-iodo­benzene. In the structure, the two phenyl rings are nearly parallel to each other with a dihedral angle of 4.27 (4)°. In the crystal, π–π inter­actions between the terminal and central phenyl rings of adjacent mol­ecules link them in the a-axis direction [perpendicular distance = 3.5135 (14); centroid–centroid distance = 3.7393 (11) Å]. In addition, there are weak C—H⋯π inter­actions between the isopropyl H atoms and the phenyl rings of adjacent mol­ecules. PMID:25995927

  20. Synthesis, antifungal activities and molecular docking studies of novel 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yan; Yu, Shichong; Li, Renwu; Zhao, Qingjie; Li, Xiang; Wu, Maocheng; Huang, Ting; Chai, Xiaoxun; Hu, Honggang; Wu, Qiuye

    2014-03-01

    A series of 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl dithiocarbamates as new analogs of fluconazole were synthesized and their antifungal activities were evaluated. Among these compounds, 2a-f and 3a-q exhibited higher activities than fluconazole against nearly all fungi tested except Aspergillus fumigatus. Noticeably, the in vitro biological activities of 2b, 3a, 3c, 3h-k, and 3o-q against Candida species were much better than those of fluconazole and ketoconazole. Also, 2a-d, 3a-d, 3e-f, 3h-k, 3p and 3q showed higher activities against A. fumi than fluconazole. Computational docking experiments indicated that the inhibition of CYP51 involved a coordination bond with iron of the heme group, the hydrophilic H-bonding region, the hydrophobic region, and the narrow hydrophobic cleft. PMID:24487187

  1. Weakly Antiferromagentic Coupling Via Superexchange Interaction Between Mn(II)-Mn(II) Atoms: A QM/MM Study of the Active Site of Human Cytosolic X-Propyl Aminopeptidase P

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sangwook; Sim, Sooyeon

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the dinuclear manganese, Mn(II)-Mn(II), active site of human cytosolic X-propyl aminopeptidase (XPNPEP1) employing the QM/MM method. The optimized structure supports two manganese atoms at the active site and excludes the possibility of a single Mn(II) atom or other combination of divalent metal ions: Ca(II), Fe(II), Mg(II). A broken symmetry solution verifies an antiferromagnetically coupled state between the Mn(II)-Mn(II) pair, which is the ground state. From the energy difference between the high spin state (HS) and the broken symmetry state (BS), we estimate the exchange coupling constant, J, to be 5.15 cm-1. Also, we observe multiple bridges (p orbitals) from solvent and two carboxylate linking to the Mn(II)-Mn(II), which leads to the weakly antiferromagnetic interaction of d5-d5 electrons through superexchange coupling. PMID:23145216

  2. Effect of ring substitution on the metabolic fate and anti-inflammatory activity of some prodolic acid analogs.

    PubMed

    Robinson, W T; Martel, R R; Ferdinandi, E; Kraml, M

    1977-12-01

    Prodolic acid, 1-n-propyl-1,3,4,9-tetrahydropyrano[3,4-b]indole-1-acetic acid, exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity in adjuvant arthritic rats. The potency of prodolic acid is enhanced by indole ring substitution. This increase correlated well with higher and sustained drug concentrations in the serum of normal animals. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that ring substitution prolonged the serum half-life without affecting the absorption or volume of distribution. Because, in the rat, indole ring hydroxylation is a major pathway for the disposition of prodolic acid, we ascribe the increased pharmacological activity of ring substituted derivatives to the interference of substituents with the hydroxylation reaction. PMID:925966

  3. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methylphosponic and alkyl methylphosphonic acids determination in environmental samples after pre-column derivatization with p-bromophenacyl bromide.

    PubMed

    Baygildiev, T M; Rodin, I A; Stavrianidi, A N; Braun, A V; Lebedev, A T; Rybalchenko, I V; Shpigun, O A

    2016-04-15

    Once exposed to the environment organophosphate nerve agents readily degrade by rapid hydrolysis to the corresponding alkyl methylphosphonic acids which do not exist in nature. These alkyl methylphosphonic acids are finally slowly hydrolyzed to methylphosphonic acid. Methylphosphonic acid is the most stable hydrolysis product of organophosphate nerve agents, persisting in environment for a long time. A highly sensitive method of methylphosphonic acid and alkyl methylphosphonic acids detection in dust and ground mixed samples has been developed and validated. The fact that alkyl methylphosphonic acids unlike methylphosphonic acid did not react with p-bromophenacyl bromide under chosen conditions was discovered. This allowed simultaneous chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric detection of derivatized methylphosphonic acid and underivatized alkyl methylphosphonic acids using HILIC-MS/MS method. Very simple sample pretreatment with high recoveries for each analyte was developed. Methylphosphonic acid pre-column derivate and alkyl methylphosphonic acids were detected using tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization after hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography separation. The developed approach allows achieving ultra-low detection limits: 200 pg mL(-1) for methylphosphonic acid, 70 pg mL(-1) for ethyl methylphosphonic acid, 8 pg mL(-1) for i-propyl methylphosphonic acid, 8 pg mL(-1) for i-butyl methylphosphonic acid, 5 pg mL(-1) for pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid in the extracts of dust and ground mixed samples. This approach was successfully applied to the dust and ground mixed samples from decommissioned plant for the production of chemical weapons.

  4. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methylphosponic and alkyl methylphosphonic acids determination in environmental samples after pre-column derivatization with p-bromophenacyl bromide.

    PubMed

    Baygildiev, T M; Rodin, I A; Stavrianidi, A N; Braun, A V; Lebedev, A T; Rybalchenko, I V; Shpigun, O A

    2016-04-15

    Once exposed to the environment organophosphate nerve agents readily degrade by rapid hydrolysis to the corresponding alkyl methylphosphonic acids which do not exist in nature. These alkyl methylphosphonic acids are finally slowly hydrolyzed to methylphosphonic acid. Methylphosphonic acid is the most stable hydrolysis product of organophosphate nerve agents, persisting in environment for a long time. A highly sensitive method of methylphosphonic acid and alkyl methylphosphonic acids detection in dust and ground mixed samples has been developed and validated. The fact that alkyl methylphosphonic acids unlike methylphosphonic acid did not react with p-bromophenacyl bromide under chosen conditions was discovered. This allowed simultaneous chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric detection of derivatized methylphosphonic acid and underivatized alkyl methylphosphonic acids using HILIC-MS/MS method. Very simple sample pretreatment with high recoveries for each analyte was developed. Methylphosphonic acid pre-column derivate and alkyl methylphosphonic acids were detected using tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization after hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography separation. The developed approach allows achieving ultra-low detection limits: 200 pg mL(-1) for methylphosphonic acid, 70 pg mL(-1) for ethyl methylphosphonic acid, 8 pg mL(-1) for i-propyl methylphosphonic acid, 8 pg mL(-1) for i-butyl methylphosphonic acid, 5 pg mL(-1) for pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid in the extracts of dust and ground mixed samples. This approach was successfully applied to the dust and ground mixed samples from decommissioned plant for the production of chemical weapons. PMID:26965649

  5. Hydrolysis of cellulose catalyzed by novel acidic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Kelei; Du, Quanzhou; Bai, Guangyue; Wang, Congyue; Chen, Yujuan; Wang, Jianji

    2015-01-22

    The conversion of cellulosic biomass directly into valuable chemicals becomes a hot subject. Six novel acidic ionic liquids (ILs) based on 2-phenyl-2-imidazoline were synthesized and characterized by UV-VIS, TGA, and NMR. The novel acidic ionic liquids were investigated as catalysts for the hydrolysis of cellulose in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl). The acidic ionic liquids with anions HSO4(-) and Cl(-) showed better catalytic performance for the hydrolysis of cellulose than those with H2PO4(-). The temperature and dosage of water affect significantly the yield of total reducing sugar (TRS). When the hydrolysis of cellulose was catalyzed by 1-propyl sulfonic acid-2-phenyl imidazoline hydrogensulfate (IL-1) and the dosage of water was 0.2g, the TRS yield was up to 85.1% within 60 min at 100°C. These new acidic ionic liquids catalysts are expected to have a wide application in the conversion of cellulose into valuable chemicals. PMID:25439867

  6. Comparison of the concentration-effect relationship of a local antiinflammatory agent and oral acetylsalicylic acid: the value of local application.

    PubMed

    Poisson, M; Ralambosoa, C; Blehaut, H; Astoin, J

    1985-01-01

    Using a pharmacological model, the comparison between acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), administered orally, and a solution combining two salicylate derivatives (ethyl 5-methoxy-salicylate and 3-phenyl-propyl-salicylate), applied locally, demonstrated the value of the local application. Indeed, the pharmacological activity was highly significant and directly related to the tissue concentration of salicyl ions, which was higher after local application of the solution than after oral administration of ASA. The local solution also resulted in a lower plasma concentration of salicylate ions, allowing high plasma salicylate concentrations to be avoided. PMID:4074414

  7. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  8. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  9. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  10. Hydroxybenzoic acids and their derivatives as peroxynitrite scavengers.

    PubMed

    Hubková, Beáta; Veliká, Beáta; Birková, Anna; Guzy, Juraj; Mareková, Mária

    2014-10-01

    A social challenge of the 21(st) century is to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases. A balanced diet rich in polyphenols could contribute to reduce the risk and to the prevention of diabetes, coronary heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's diseases and cataract(1). Hydroxybenzoic acids (HBA) and their derivatives, which are one of the substances responsible for these beneficial properties, are known mainly due to their antioxidant properties(2). They are effective scavengers of free radicals and reactive nitrogen species, such as peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite is resulting from the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide, causes lipid peroxidation and subsequent cellular damage and is responsible for the inactivation of many enzymes, activation of stress signalling pathways, release of proapoptotic factors, as well as cardiovascular dysfunction in septic schock(3). In this study we have tested 2-HBA, 3-HBA, 4-HBA, acetylsalicylic acid, 4-HBA methyl and propyl esters, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), 2,5-DHBA, 2,4-DHBA, 2,6-DHBA, 3,5-DHBA, 3,4-DHBA, gallic acid and caffeic acid, by UV/VIS spectroscopy. The best ability to scavenge peroxynitrite was observed for gallic acid, 2,4-DHBA, 3,5-DHBA and caffeic acid. Improved comprehension of the complex relationship between the antioxidant properties of substances and their structure is important to understand their proper use in the prevention and treatment of diseases and for the detection of pathological processes. Monitoring and improved understanding of the antioxidant properties of hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives are important due to their frequent use in modern medical nutrition therapies.

  11. Effect of Protozoa on Bacterial Degradation of an Aromatic Compound

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tan-Chi; Chang, Miau-Chan; Alexander, Martin

    1981-01-01

    Prototrophic and growth factor-requiring strains of Alcaligenes spp. were used to study the effect of a protozoan, Tetrahymena pyriformis, on the degradation of p-aminobenzoate. The protozoan inhibited activity of the prototrophic bacterium by reducing its population size. For the growth factor-requiring strain of Alcaligenes, T. pyriformis provided the required growth factors so that the predator permitted the bacteria to grow and to continue p-aminobenzoate degradation. T. pyriformis inhibited bacterial activity when the amino acid supply was in excess, but activity of the auxotrophic strain of Alcaligenes was stimulated by the protozoan when the amino acid supply was limiting, although the bacterial population size was reduced by the protozoan. PMID:16345690

  12. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  13. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report has four parts: they discuss acid rain in relation to acid soils, agriculture, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Among findings: modern sources of acid deposition from the atmosphere for all the acid soils in the world, nor even chiefly responsible for those of northern U.S. Agriculture has its problems, but acid precipitation is probably not one of them. More research is needed to determine to what extent acid precipitation is responsible for forest declines and for smaller detrimental effects on forest growth where no damage to the foliage is evident. Many lakes and streams are extremely sensitive to added acids.

  14. Efficacy of a novel, orally active GSK-3 inhibitor 6-Methyl-N-[3-[[3-(1-methylethoxy)propyl]carbamoyl]-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide in tau transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yumiko; Iwashita, Hiroki; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Uchiyama, Noriko; Kawamoto, Tomohiro; Kori, Masakuni; Nakanishi, Atsushi

    2009-11-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyperphosphorylated and aggregated tau are common pathological characteristics in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Aberrant tau phosphorylation is an early and pivotal event in the pathogenesis of tauopathies, and since GSK-3 is a key factor implicated in aberrant tau phosphorylation, GSK-3 inhibition is expected to suppress tauopathy disease progression. In the present study, we report the efficacy of a newly discovered small molecule GSK-3 inhibitor, 6-methyl-N-[3-[[3-(1-methylethoxy)propyl]carbamoyl]-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide (compound A), to inhibit tau phosphorylation and to reduce the amount of pathological aggregated tau in JNPL3 mice that overexpress a mutant form of human tau. Compound A is a highly potent and selective inhibitor of GSK-3 with an IC(50) of 2 nM, with at least 230-fold lower potency against 27 other kinases. Oral administration of compound A resulted in a significant reduction of tau phosphorylation at several GSK-3 directed sites. Furthermore, chronic oral administration of compound A markedly reduced aggregated tau in old JNPL3 mice. These results suggest that a novel, orally active GSK-3 inhibitor, compound A, has potency in the prevention of tau pathology. PMID:19698704

  15. Direct analysis of the dopamine agonist (-)-2-(N-propyl-N-2-thienylethylamino)-5-hydroxytetralin hydrochloride in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography using two-dimensional column switching.

    PubMed

    Ruckmick, S C; Hench, B D

    1991-04-19

    A reversed-phase, two-dimensional, liquid chromatographic method incorporating column switching and electrochemical detection was used for the direct analysis of the dopamine (D2) agonist (-)-2-(N-propyl-N-2-thienylethylamino)-5-hydroxytetralin hydrochloride in plasma. Sample work-up consisted of addition of internal standard, filtration, then direct injection of the plasma sample onto an internal surface reversed-phase (ISRP) guard column where the dopamine agonist and internal standard were separated from plasma proteins. An automated pneumatic valve was then used to switch to a stronger eluent which stripped the retained substances from the ISRP support onto a C18 analytical column where the analytes were separated from endogenous biological interferences. A dual-electrode electrochemical detector was used to minimize interferences and provide the desired sensitivity. The method has a detection limit of 1.5 ng/ml and requires a total assay time of 20 min per plasma sample. The method is linear from 1.5 to 1000 ng/ml and yielded greater than 80% drug recovery for plasma concentrations greater than 10 ng/ml. Precision for the method at 100 ng/ml yielded a relative standard deviation of 4.4%. Reproducibility was within 6.5% on a 20 ng/ml spiked plasma sample assayed on different days by different people. The method has successfully been applied to human plasma samples and for pharmacokinetic studies in rats and monkeys.

  16. In vivo study of the effect of antiviral acyclic nucleotide phosphonate (R)-9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA, tenofovir) and its prodrug tenofovir disoproxil fumarate on rat microsomal cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Anzenbacherová, E; Anzenbacher, P; Zídek, Z; Buchar, E; Kmonícková, E; Potmesil, P; Nekvindová, J; Veinlichová, A; Holý, A

    2008-01-01

    The total content of rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) significantly decreased after repeated i.p. administration of the antiviral agent tenofovir ((R)-9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl] adenine) and tenofovir disoproxil at a daily dose 25 mg/kg, although the content of liver microsomal protein did not change. The decrease of the CYP content was accompanied by concomitant increase of the amount of inactive CYP form, cytochrome P420. This effect was confirmed by a parallel study of the activities of selected CYP forms, CYP2E1 (p-nitrophenol hydroxylation) and CYP1A2 (7-ethoxyresorufin deethylation). The activity (expressed relatively to the protein content) of both CYP forms decreased significantly following the decrease of the total CYP. On the other hand, the CYP2E1 activity expressed relatively to the decreasing total CYP content remained unchanged. However, CYP1A2 activity also decreased when calculated relatively to the total native CYP content indicating lower stability of this form. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed no significant changes in expression of major rat liver microsomal CYP forms after tenofovir treatment. In conclusion, repeated administration of tenofovir in higher doses led to significant decrease of the relative proportion of active liver microsomal CYPs accompanied by a conversion of these enzymes to the inactive form (CYP420) maintaining the sum of CYP proteins unchanged.

  17. Crystal structure of bis­[μ-2-(diiso­propyl­phosphor­yl)propan-2-olato-κ3 O 1,O 2:O 1]bis­[chlorido­oxidovanadium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Glatz, Mathias; Stöger, Berthold; Weil, Matthias; Kirchner, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The dinuclear mol­ecule of the title complex, [VOCl{μ-OC(Me)2P(iPr)2-κ2 O}]2 or [V2(C9H20O2P)2Cl2O2], which was obtained due to an unexpected oxidation reaction, is centrosymmetric, with the inversion centre located in the middle of the central V2O2 core. These core O atoms arise from the symmetry-related 2-(diiso­propyl­phosphor­yl)propan-2-olate dianions. The VIV atom is additionally bonded to one terminal Cl ligand, the second O atom of the dianion and double bonded to a vanadyl O atom, leading to an overall distorted square-pyramidal VO4Cl coordination polyhedron with the vanadyl O atom as the apex. An intra­molecular C—H⋯Cl contact helps to establish the mol­ecular configuration. In the crystal, mol­ecules are stacked in rows parallel to [001] and are linked by C—H⋯Cl contacts to form chains running in the same direction. PMID:27308042

  18. Development and Validation of a Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Hydrocortisone Acetate Active Ingredient, Propyl Parahydroxybenzoate and Methyl Parahydroxybenzoate Preservatives, Butylhydroxyanisole Antioxidant, and Their Degradation Products in a Rectal Gel Formulation.

    PubMed

    Ascaso, Magda; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; García, Mireia; García-Montoya, Encarna; Miñarro, Montse; Ticó, Josep R; Fàbregas, Anna; Carrillo, Carolina; Sarrate, Rocío; Suñé-Negre, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    A stability indicating method was established through a stress study, wherein different methods of degradation (oxidation, hydrolysis, photolysis, and temperature) were studied simultaneously to determine the active ingredient hydrocortisone acetate, preservatives propyl parahydroxybenzoate, and methyl parahydroxybenzoate, antioxidant butylhydroxyanisole (BHA), and their degradation products in a semisolid dosage gel form. The proposed method was suitably validated using a Zorbax SB-Phenyl column and gradient elution. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile, and water in different proportions according to a planned program at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The diode array detector was set at 240 nm for the active substance and two preservatives, and 290 nm for BHA. The validation study was conducted according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines for specificity, linearity, repeatability, precision, and accuracy. The method was used for QC of hydrocortisone acetate gel and for the stability studies with the aim of quantifying the active substance, preservatives, antioxidant, and degradation products. It has proved to be suitable as a fast and reliable method for QC.

  19. Crystal structure of bis-[μ-2-(diiso-propyl-phosphor-yl)propan-2-olato-κ(3) O (1),O (2):O (1)]bis-[chlorido-oxidovanadium(IV)].

    PubMed

    Glatz, Mathias; Stöger, Berthold; Weil, Matthias; Kirchner, Karl

    2016-06-01

    The dinuclear mol-ecule of the title complex, [VOCl{μ-OC(Me)2P(iPr)2-κ(2) O}]2 or [V2(C9H20O2P)2Cl2O2], which was obtained due to an unexpected oxidation reaction, is centrosymmetric, with the inversion centre located in the middle of the central V2O2 core. These core O atoms arise from the symmetry-related 2-(diiso-propyl-phosphor-yl)propan-2-olate dianions. The V(IV) atom is additionally bonded to one terminal Cl ligand, the second O atom of the dianion and double bonded to a vanadyl O atom, leading to an overall distorted square-pyramidal VO4Cl coordination polyhedron with the vanadyl O atom as the apex. An intra-molecular C-H⋯Cl contact helps to establish the mol-ecular configuration. In the crystal, mol-ecules are stacked in rows parallel to [001] and are linked by C-H⋯Cl contacts to form chains running in the same direction. PMID:27308042

  20. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the mutagenic activity of N-[N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-α-aspartyl]-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, monohydrate (advantame).

    PubMed

    Otabe, A; Fujieda, T; Masuyama, T

    2011-11-01

    Advantame (N-[N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-α-aspartyl]-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, monohydrate), an N-substituted analogue of aspartame, has been developed as a high-intensity sweetener. It is approximately 100 and 20,000 times sweeter than aspartame and sucrose, respectively. In this study the safety of advantame has been evaluated using a series of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays including, bacterial mutation, mammalian cell mutation, and mouse micronucleus tests. Advantame did not induce reverse mutations in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli at concentrations of up to 5000 μg/plate. In the mammalian cell mutation assay, advantame did not induce mutation at the Hprt locus of L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells in two independent experiments, either in the absence or presence of S9. In vivo, there was no effect on the incidence of micronucleated immature or mature erythrocytes in bone marrow after oral administration of the test substance at any dose level (up to 2000 mg/kg body weight) or sampling time (24 and 48 h). The results of these studies demonstrate that advantame is without genotoxic potential.

  1. Use of S-[2,3-Bispalmitoyiloxy-(2R)-Propyl]-R-Cysteinyl-Amido-Monomethoxy Polyethylene Glycol as an Adjuvant Improved Protective Immunity Associated with a DNA Vaccine Encoding Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase of Brucella abortus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Retamal-Díaz, Angello; Riquelme-Neira, Roberto; Sáez, Darwin; Rivera, Alejandra; Fernández, Pablo; Cabrera, Alex; Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding Brucella abortus Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) using the Toll-like receptor 2/6 agonist S-[2,3-bispalmitoyiloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl-amido-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (BPPcysMPEG) as an adjuvant. Intranasal coadministration of BPPcysMPEG with a plasmid carrying the SOD-encoding gene (pcDNA-SOD) into BALB/c mice elicited antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Humoral responses were characterized by the stimulation of IgG2a and IgG1 and by the presence of SOD-specific secretory IgA in nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Furthermore, T-cell proliferative responses and increased production of gamma interferon were also observed upon splenocyte restimulation with recombinant SOD. Cytotoxic responses were also stimulated, as demonstrated by the lysis of RB51-SOD-infected J774.A1 macrophages by cells recovered from immunized mice. The pcDNA-SOD/BPPcysMPEG formulation induced improved protection against challenge with the virulent strain B. abortus 2308 in BALB/c mice over that provided by pcDNA-SOD, suggesting the potential of this vaccination strategy against Brucella infection. PMID:25165025

  2. Use of S-[2,3-bispalmitoyiloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl-amido-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol as an adjuvant improved protective immunity associated with a DNA vaccine encoding Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase of Brucella abortus in mice.

    PubMed

    Retamal-Díaz, Angello; Riquelme-Neira, Roberto; Sáez, Darwin; Rivera, Alejandra; Fernández, Pablo; Cabrera, Alex; Guzmán, Carlos A; Oñate, Angel

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding Brucella abortus Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) using the Toll-like receptor 2/6 agonist S-[2,3-bispalmitoyiloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl-amido-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (BPPcysMPEG) as an adjuvant. Intranasal coadministration of BPPcysMPEG with a plasmid carrying the SOD-encoding gene (pcDNA-SOD) into BALB/c mice elicited antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Humoral responses were characterized by the stimulation of IgG2a and IgG1 and by the presence of SOD-specific secretory IgA in nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Furthermore, T-cell proliferative responses and increased production of gamma interferon were also observed upon splenocyte restimulation with recombinant SOD. Cytotoxic responses were also stimulated, as demonstrated by the lysis of RB51-SOD-infected J774.A1 macrophages by cells recovered from immunized mice. The pcDNA-SOD/BPPcysMPEG formulation induced improved protection against challenge with the virulent strain B. abortus 2308 in BALB/c mice over that provided by pcDNA-SOD, suggesting the potential of this vaccination strategy against Brucella infection.

  3. Cytotoxicity of copper(II)-complexes with some S-alkyl derivatives of thiosalicylic acid. Crystal structure of the binuclear copper(II)-complex with S-ethyl derivative of thiosalicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Miloš V.; Mijajlović, Marina Ž.; Jevtić, Verica V.; Ratković, Zoran R.; Novaković, Slađana B.; Bogdanović, Goran A.; Milovanović, Jelena; Arsenijević, Aleksandar; Stojanović, Bojana; Trifunović, Srećko R.; Radić, Gordana P.

    2016-07-01

    The spectroscopically predicted structure of the obtained copper(II)-complex with S-ethyl derivative of thiosalicylic acid was confirmed by X-ray structural study and compared to previously reported crystal structure of the Cu complex with S-methyl derivative. Single crystals suitable for X-ray measurements were obtained by slow crystallization from a water solution. Cytotoxic effects of S-alkyl (R = benzyl (L1), methyl (L2), ethyl (L3), propyl (L4) and butyl (L5)) derivatives of thiosalicylic acid and the corresponding binuclear copper(II)-complexes on murine colon carcinoma cell lines, CT26 and CT26.CL25 and human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-116 were reported here. The analysis of cancer cell viability showed that all the tested complexes had low cytotoxic effect on murine colon carcinoma cell lines, but several times higher cytotoxicity on normal human colon carcinoma cells.

  4. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  5. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  6. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  7. Obeticholic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  8. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  9. Simultaneous determination of trace levels of ethylmercury and methylmercury in biological samples and vaccines using sodium tetra(n-propyl)borate as derivatizing agent.

    PubMed

    Gibicar, Darija; Logar, Martina; Horvat, Nusa; Marn-Pernat, Andreja; Ponikvar, Rafael; Horvat, Milena

    2007-05-01

    Because of increasing awareness of the potential neurotoxicity of even low levels of organomercury compounds, analytical techniques are required for determination of low concentrations of ethylmercury (EtHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in biological samples. An accurate and sensitive method has been developed for simultaneous determination of methylmercury and ethylmercury in vaccines and biological samples. MeHg and EtHg were isolated by acid leaching (H2SO4-KBr-CuSO4), extraction of MeHg and EtHg bromides into an organic solvent (CH2Cl2), then back-extraction into Milli-Q water. MeHg and EtHg bromides were derivatized with sodium tetrapropylborate (NaBPr4), collected at room temperature on Tenax, separated by isothermal gas chromatography (GC), pyrolysed, and detected by cold-vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV AFS). The repeatability of results from the method was approximately 5-10% for EtHg and 5-15% for MeHg. Detection limits achieved were 0.01 ng g-1 for EtHg and MeHg in blood, saliva, and vaccines and 5 ng g-1 for EtHg and MeHg in hair. The method presented has been shown to be suitable for determination of background levels of these contaminants in biological samples and can be used in studies related to the health effects of mercury and its species in man. This work illustrates the possibility of using hair and blood as potential biomarkers of exposure to thiomersal.

  10. Simultaneous determination of 9-ethylphenanthrene, pyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene in an aqueous solution by synchronous fluorimetry using the double scans method and hydroxyl-propyl beta-cyclodextrin as a sensitizer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Xuan; Zhu, Ya-Xian; Zhang, Yong

    2015-11-01

    A novel method for the simultaneous determination of 9-ethylphenanthrene (9-EP), pyrene (Pyr) and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-Pyr) in an aqueous solution using hydroxyl-propyl β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) as a sensitizer has been established. The overlap of the conventional fluorescence spectra of these molecules is resolved using synchronous fluorescence spectrometry with the double scans method. The simultaneous quantitative determination of three compounds was carried out with Δλ=36 nm and Δλ=55 nm. The signals detected at these three wavelengths (i.e., 298 nm, 337 nm and 351 nm) vary linearly when the concentrations of 9-EP, Pyr and 1-OH-Pyr were in the range of 5.00×10(-8)-1.60×10(-6) mol L(-1), 2.00×10(-8)-1.80×10(-6) mol L(-1), and 2.00×10(-8)-1.20×10(-5) mol L(-1), respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) for 9-EP, Pyr and 1-OH-Pyr were 3.97×10(-9) mol L(-1), 5.25×10(-)(9) mol L(-1), 4.20×10(-9) mol L(-1), respectively, with relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) of 1.62%, 2.45% and 1.73% (n=9), respectively. The inclusion behaviors between HPCD and the guest molecules were observed by synchronous fluorimetry and the association constants for the 1:1 complexes with HPCD were determined. The binding and complexation energies for different orientations are discussed. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of 9-EP, Pyr and 1-OH-Pyr in tap and lake water with good recoveries in the range of 92.9-110.0%.

  11. Studies on the translational and rotational motions of ionic liquids composed of N-methyl-N-propyl-pyrrolidinium (P13) cation and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide and bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide anions and their binary systems including lithium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayamizu, Kikuko; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Seki, Shiro; Fujii, Kenta; Suenaga, Masahiko; Umebayashi, Yasuhiro

    2010-11-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTIL, IL) are stable liquids composed of anions and cations. N-methyl-N-propyl-pyrrolidinium (P13, Py13, PYR13, or mppy) is an important cation and produces stable ILs with various anions. In this study two amide-type anions, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide [N(SO2CF3)2, TFSA, TFSI, NTf2, or Tf2N] and bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide [N(SO2F)2, FSA, or FSI], were investigated. In addition to P13-TFSA and P13-FSA, lithium salt doped samples were prepared (P13-TFSA-Li and P13-FSA-Li). The individual ion diffusion coefficients (D) and spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) were measured by H1, F19, and L7i NMR. At the same time, the ionic conductivity (σ), viscosity (η), and density (ρ) were measured over a wide temperature range. The van der Waals volumes of P13, TFSA, FSA, Li(TFSA)2, and Li(FSA)3 were estimated by molecular orbital calculations. The experimental values obtained in this study were analyzed by the classical Stokes-Einstein, Nernst-Einstein (NE), and Stokes-Einstein-Debye equations and Walden plots were also made for the neat and binary ILs to clarify physical and mobile properties of individual ions. From the temperature-dependent velocity correlation coefficients for neat P13-TFSA and P13-FSA, the NE parameter 1-ξ was evaluated. The ionicity (electrochemical molar conductivity divided by the NE conductivity from NMR) and the 1-ξ had exactly the same values. The rotational and translational motions of P13 and jump of a lithium ion are also discussed.

  12. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  13. Gas-Phase Reactivity of Carboxylic Acid Functional Groups with Carbodiimides

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Boone M.; Gilbert, Joshua D.; Stutzman, John R.; Forrest, William P.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Gas-phase modification of carboxylic acid functionalities is performed via ion/ion reactions with carbodiimide reagents [N-cyclohexyl-N′-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide (CMC) and [3-(3-Ethylcarbodiimide-1-yl)propyl]trimethylaminium (ECPT). Gas-phase ion/ion covalent chemistry requires the formation of a long-lived complex. In this instance, the complex is stabilized by an electrostatic interaction between the fixed charge quaternary ammonium group of the carbodiimide reagent cation and the analyte dianion. Subsequent activation results in characteristic loss of an isocyanate derivative from one side of the carbodiimide functionality, a signature for this covalent chemistry. The resulting amide bond is formed on the analyte at the site of the original carboxylic acid. Reactions involving analytes that do not contain available carboxylic acid groups (e.g., they have been converted to sodium salts) or reagents that do not have the carbodiimide functionality do not undergo a covalent reaction. This chemistry is demonstrated using PAMAM generation 0.5 dendrimer, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and the model peptide DGAILDGAILD. This work demonstrates the selective gas-phase covalent modification of carboxylic acid functionalities. PMID:23208744

  14. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as soybeans, garbanzo beans, and lentils Peanuts, almonds, walnuts, and flaxseeds Animal ...

  15. A targeted metabolomic protocol for short-chain fatty acids and branched-chain amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaojiao; Qiu, Yunping; Zhong, Wei; Baxter, Sarah; Su, Mingming; Li, Qiong; Xie, Guoxiang; Ore, Brandon M.; Qiao, Shanlei; Spencer, Melanie D.; Zeisel, Steven H.; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Zhao, Aihua; Jia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Research in obesity and metabolic disorders that involve intestinal microbiota demands reliable methods for the precise measurement of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) concentration. Here, we report a rapid method of simultaneously determining SCFAs and BCAAs in biological samples using propyl chloroformate (PCF) derivatization followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A one-step derivatization using 100 µL of PCF in a reaction system of water, propanol, and pyridine (v/v/v = 8:3:2) at pH 8 provided the optimal derivatization efficiency. The best extraction efficiency of the derivatized products was achieved by a two-step extraction with hexane. The method exhibited good derivatization efficiency and recovery for a wide range of concentrations with a low limit of detection for each compound. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of all targeted compounds showed good intra- and inter-day (within 7 days) precision (< 10%), and good stability (< 20%) within 4 days at room temperature (23–25 °C), or 7 days when stored at −20 °C. We applied our method to measure SCFA and BCAA levels in fecal samples from rats administrated with different diet. Both univariate and multivariate statistics analysis of the concentrations of these target metabolites could differentiate three groups with ethanol intervention and different oils in diet. This method was also successfully employed to determine SCFA and BCAA in the feces, plasma and urine from normal humans, providing important baseline information of the concentrations of these metabolites. This novel metabolic profile study has great potential for translational research. PMID:23997757

  16. Usnic acid.

    PubMed

    Ingólfsdóttir, K

    2002-12-01

    Since its first isolation in 1844, usnic acid [2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzo-furandione] has become the most extensively studied lichen metabolite and one of the few that is commercially available. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens, and is especially abundant in genera such as Alectoria, Cladonia, Usnea, Lecanora, Ramalina and Evernia. Many lichens and extracts containing usnic acid have been utilized for medicinal, perfumery, cosmetic as well as ecological applications. Usnic acid as a pure substance has been formulated in creams, toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants and sunscreen products, in some cases as an active principle, in others as a preservative. In addition to antimicrobial activity against human and plant pathogens, usnic acid has been shown to exhibit antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Ecological effects, such as antigrowth, antiherbivore and anti-insect properties, have also been demonstrated. A difference in biological activity has in some cases been observed between the two enantiomeric forms of usnic acid. Recently health food supplements containing usnic acid have been promoted for use in weight reduction, with little scientific support. The emphasis of the current review is on the chemistry and biological activity of usnic acid and its derivatives in addition to rational and ecologically acceptable methods for provision of this natural compound on a large scale.

  17. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  18. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  19. How Acidic Is Carbonic Acid?

    PubMed

    Pines, Dina; Ditkovich, Julia; Mukra, Tzach; Miller, Yifat; Kiefer, Philip M; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Hynes, James T; Pines, Ehud

    2016-03-10

    Carbonic, lactic, and pyruvic acids have been generated in aqueous solution by the transient protonation of their corresponding conjugate bases by a tailor-made photoacid, the 6-hydroxy-1-sulfonate pyrene sodium salt molecule. A particular goal is to establish the pK(a) of carbonic acid H2CO3. The on-contact proton transfer (PT) reaction rate from the optically excited photoacid to the carboxylic bases was derived, with unprecedented precision, from time-correlated single-photon-counting measurements of the fluorescence lifetime of the photoacid in the presence of the proton acceptors. The time-dependent diffusion-assisted PT rate was analyzed using the Szabo-Collins-Kimball equation with a radiation boundary condition. The on-contact PT rates were found to follow the acidity order of the carboxylic acids: the stronger was the acid, the slower was the PT reaction to its conjugate base. The pK(a) of carbonic acid was found to be 3.49 ± 0.05 using both the Marcus and Kiefer-Hynes free energy correlations. This establishes H2CO3 as being 0.37 pK(a) units stronger and about 1 pK(a) unit weaker, respectively, than the physiologically important lactic and pyruvic acids. The considerable acid strength of intact carbonic acid indicates that it is an important protonation agent under physiological conditions. PMID:26862781

  20. Effect of tannic acid on benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct formation in mouse epidermis: comparison with synthetic gallic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Baer-Dubowska, W; Gnojkowski, J; Fenrych, W

    1997-01-01

    Tannic acid, a naturally occurring plant phenol, was shown to inhibit the mutagenicity and/or tumorigenicity of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mouse skin. In this study the effect of topical application of tannic acid on epidermal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, glutathione S-transferase, and binding of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) to epidermal DNA was compared with the activity of synthetic gallic acid esters. Single topical application of 8 mumol octyl and dodecyl gallate had no effect on the induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, whereas propyl gallate and tannic acid increased the enzyme activity by nearly 200%. Application of the phenolics one hour before 0.2 mumol of B[a]P enhanced the enzyme activity, but the observed differences were not significant in comparison with a B[a]P-treated group of mice. Application of dodecyl and octyl gallates to mouse skin resulted in three- and twofold increases, respectively, in the activity of glutathione S-transferase. Combined treatment with dodecyl gallate and B[a]P also resulted in significant enhancement of this enzyme activity. Application of the same dose of tannic acid to mouse skin one hour before the application of 0.2 or 1 mumol of B[a]P afforded 60% inhibition of covalent benzo[a]pyrene-diol-epoxide binding to epidermal DNA. Gallic acid esters with the exception of dodecyl gallate were less effective inhibitors of benzo[a]pyrene-diol-epoxide binding, especially when the higher dose of B[a]P was used. These results indicate that the antitumorigenic activity of tannic acid involves the interaction of the ultimate carcinogen with DNA rather than an altered metabolism. The linkage between gallic acid and glucose in natural plant phenols is also more effective at inhibiting B[a]P binding to epidermal DNA than the linkage with the alkyl group in synthetic gallates.

  1. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  2. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications.

  3. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    The acid rain problem in the northeastern U.S. has been growing in severity and geographical areas affected. Acid rain has damaged, or will result in damage to visibility, physical structures and materials, aquatic life, timber, crops, and soils. The principal causes of acid rain in the northeastern U.S. are sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from large power plants and smelters in the Ohio River Valley. Immediate corrective action and appropriate research are needed to reduce acid precipitation. Short-term programs that will define the rate of environmental deterioration, remaining environmental capacity to resist sudden deterioration, mechanisms of acid rain formation, and costs of various control options must be developed. (3 maps, 13 references, 1 table)

  4. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  5. Stereospecific ligands and their complexes. Part XII. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antiproliferative activity of platinum(IV) complexes with some O,O‧-dialkyl esters of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N‧-di-2-propanoic acid against colon cancer (HCT-116) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojković, Danijela Lj.; Jevtić, Verica V.; Radić, Gordana P.; Đačić, Dragana S.; Ćurčić, Milena G.; Marković, Snežana D.; Ðinović, Vesna M.; Petrović, Vladimir P.; Trifunović, Srećko R.

    2014-03-01

    Synthesis of three new platinum(IV) complexes C1-C3, with bidentate N,N‧-ligand precursors, O,O‧-dialkyl esters (alkyl = propyl, butyl and pentyl), of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N‧-di-2-propanoic acid, H2-S,S-eddp were reported. The reported platinum(IV) complexes characterized by elemental analysis and their structures were discussed on the bases of their infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. In vitro antiproliferative activity was determined on tumor cell lines: human colon carcinoma HCT-116 and human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231, using MTT test.

  6. Anticancer potential of pyrrole (1, 2, a) pyrazine 1, 4, dione, hexahydro 3-(2-methyl propyl) (PPDHMP) extracted from a new marine bacterium, Staphylococcus sp. strain MB30.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, P; Veena, V; Vidhyapriya, P; Lakshmi, Pragna; Krishna, R; Sakthivel, N

    2016-05-01

    Marine bacterium, strain MB30 isolated from the deep sea sediment of Bay of Bengal, India, exhibited antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. Based on the 16S rRNA sequence homology and subsequent phylogenetic tree analysis, the strain MB30 was identified as Staphylococcus sp. The bioactive metabolite produced by the strain MB30 was purified through silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Purified metabolite was further characterized by FT-IR, LC-MS and NMR analyses. On the basis of spectroscopic data, the metabolite was identified as pyrrole (1, 2, a) pyrazine 1, 4, dione, hexahydro 3-(2-methyl propyl) (PPDHMP). The PPDHMP exhibited in vitro anticancer potential against lung (A549) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 concentration of 19.94 ± 1.23 and 16.73 ± 1.78 μg ml(-1) respectively. The acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining of the IC50 concentration of PPDHMP-treated cancer cells exhibited an array of morphological changes such as nuclear condensation, cell shrinkage and formation of apoptotic bodies. The PPDHMP-treated cancer cells induced the progressive accumulation of fragmented DNA in a time-dependent manner. Based on the flow cytometric analysis, it has become evident that the compound was also effective in arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase. Further, the Western blotting analysis confirmed the down-regulation of cyclin-D1, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK-2), anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL), activation of caspase-9 and 3 with the cleavage of PARP. The PPDHMP-treated cancer cells also showed the inhibition of migration and invasive capacity of cancer cells. In the present investigation, for the first time, we have reported the extraction, purification and characterization of an anticancer metabolite, PPDHMP from a new marine bacterium, Staphylococcus sp. strain MB30. PMID:26852140

  7. Covalently bonded sulfonic acid magnetic graphene oxide: Fe3O4@GO-Pr-SO3H as a powerful hybrid catalyst for synthesis of indazolophthalazinetriones.

    PubMed

    Doustkhah, Esmail; Rostamnia, Sadegh

    2016-09-15

    Multistep synthesis of covalently sulfonated magnetic graphene oxide was achieved by starting from Hummer's method to produce graphene oxide (GO) from chemical oxidation of graphite. Then, GO nanosheets were applied to support Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4@GO) using co-precipitation method in the presence of GO sheets. This strategy led to formation of uniform particles of Fe3O4 on the surface of GO sheets. Then, it was sulfonated (Fe3O4@GO-Pr-SO3H) through modification with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and subsequent oxidation with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In comparison, the covalently bonded propyl sulfonic acid groups were more prevailing rather to sulfonic acids of GO itself. The proposed catalyst was more active and recyclable at least for 11 runs.

  8. Covalently bonded sulfonic acid magnetic graphene oxide: Fe3O4@GO-Pr-SO3H as a powerful hybrid catalyst for synthesis of indazolophthalazinetriones.

    PubMed

    Doustkhah, Esmail; Rostamnia, Sadegh

    2016-09-15

    Multistep synthesis of covalently sulfonated magnetic graphene oxide was achieved by starting from Hummer's method to produce graphene oxide (GO) from chemical oxidation of graphite. Then, GO nanosheets were applied to support Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4@GO) using co-precipitation method in the presence of GO sheets. This strategy led to formation of uniform particles of Fe3O4 on the surface of GO sheets. Then, it was sulfonated (Fe3O4@GO-Pr-SO3H) through modification with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and subsequent oxidation with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In comparison, the covalently bonded propyl sulfonic acid groups were more prevailing rather to sulfonic acids of GO itself. The proposed catalyst was more active and recyclable at least for 11 runs. PMID:27309948

  9. 21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredient is used as an antioxidant as defined in § 170.3(o)(3) of this chapter. (d) The ingredient is used... manufacturing practice results in a maximum total content of antioxidants of 0.02 percent of the fat or...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredient is used as an antioxidant as defined in § 170.3(o)(3) of this chapter. (d) The ingredient is used... manufacturing practice results in a maximum total content of antioxidants of 0.02 percent of the fat or...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... antioxidant as defined in § 170.3(o)(3) of this chapter. (d) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to... in a maximum total content of antioxidants of 0.02 percent of the fat or oil content, including...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredient is used as an antioxidant as defined in § 170.3(o)(3) of this chapter. (d) The ingredient is used... manufacturing practice results in a maximum total content of antioxidants of 0.02 percent of the fat or...

  13. 21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the substance is used...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the substance is used...

  15. 21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the substance is used...

  16. 21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the substance is used...

  17. Solubility parameter of poly(propyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfarth, Ch.

    This document is part of Subvolume D2 'Polymer Solutions - Physical Properties and their Relations I (Thermodynamic Properties: PVT -Data and miscellaneous Properties of polymer Solutions) of Volume 6 `Polymers' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII `Advanced Materials and Technologies'.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient is used as an antioxidant as defined in § 170.3(o)(3) of this chapter. (d) The ingredient is used... manufacturing practice results in a maximum total content of antioxidants of 0.02 percent of the fat or...

  19. Furan formation from fatty acids as a result of storage, gamma irradiation, UV-C and heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuetong

    2015-05-15

    The effects of gamma and UV-C irradiation in comparison with thermal processing and storage at 25°C on formation of furan from different fatty acids were investigated. Results showed that furan was generated from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic acid during thermal (120°C, 25 min) and UV-C (11.5 J/cm(2)) treatments. Gamma irradiation (up to 20 kGy) did not induce formation of significant amounts of furan from any of the fatty acids studied. Storage of unsaturated fatty acid emulsions at 25°C for 3 days led to the formation of furan (7-11 ng/mL) even without prior thermal or non-thermal treatments. pH significantly impacted furan formation with >3.5 times more furan formed at pH 9 than at pHs 3 or 6 during 3 days at 25°C. The addition of Trolox, BHA, and propyl gallate had no significant effect on furan formation from linolenic acid while α-tocopherol and FeSO4 promoted furan formation.

  20. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  1. Elucidation on enhanced application of synthesised kojic acid immobilised magnetic and chitosan tri-polyphosphate nanoparticles as antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Jignesh; Lakhawat, Sudarshan; Pathak, Amrendra Nath

    2015-12-01

    Kojic acid (KA) is a secondary metabolite which is secreted by several aspergillus species. It is a multi-functional skeleton from which many derivatives can be synthesised and applied in various areas of biotechnology. KA grafting on synthesised magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and chitosan tri-polyphosphate (chitosan-TPP) nanoparticles was successfully done and characterised by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. It was observed that amino propyl triethoxy silane-coated MNPs and chitosan-TPP nanoparticles enhanced the antibacterial activity of KA against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The organic constitution and significant antibacterial activity of KA-chitosan-TPP nanoparticles can be applicable in the field of medical biotechnology.

  2. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  3. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  4. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  5. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  6. Antifungal activity of 4-substituted crotonic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Gershon, H; Shanks, L; Gawiak, D E

    1976-08-01

    Twenty-three 4-substituted crotonic acid esters were tested for antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. For the analogues of the methyl ester containing substituents in the 4 position, the following order of fungitoxicity was observed: I greater than Br greater than Cl greater than CH3S greater than CH3O greater than F=H. Of the homologues of the esters of the 4-iodo and 4-bromo compounds which included methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, n-pentyl, and n-hexyl, ethyl 4-iodocrotonate was most toxic to the four fungi at pH 7.0 in the presence of 10% beef serum (C. albicans, 18mug/ml, A. niger, 40 mug/ml, M. mucedo, 5 mug/ml, T. mentagrophytes, 4 mug/ml). It is believed that the mechanism of fungitoxicity is due, in part, to a nucleophilic reaction involving SH-containing compounds. This is based on the correlation of fungitoxicity with the order of leaving groups in the nucleophilic reaction and the protection against the toxicity of the test compounds to the fungi by cysteine and glutathione.

  7. Structure-activity relationships at the monoamine transporters and sigma receptors for a novel series of 9-[3-(cis-3, 5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)propyl]carbazole (rimcazole) analogues.

    PubMed

    Husbands, S M; Izenwasser, S; Kopajtic, T; Bowen, W D; Vilner, B J; Katz, J L; Newman, A H

    1999-10-21

    9-[3-(cis-3,5-Dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)propyl]carbazole (rimcazole) has been characterized as a sigma receptor antagonist that binds to the dopamine transporter with moderate affinity (K(i) = 224 nM). Although the binding affinities at the dopamine transporter of rimcazole and cocaine are comparable, rimcazole only depressed locomotor activity in mice and antagonized the stimulant effects produced by cocaine. The neurochemical mechanisms underlying the attenuation of cocaine's effects are not understood, although interaction at a low affinity site/state of the dopamine transporter has been suggested. To explore further this class of compounds, a series of rimcazole analogues was designed and synthesized. Displacement of [(3)H]WIN 35,428 binding at the dopamine transporter in rat caudate-putamen revealed that aromatic substitutions on rimcazole were not well tolerated, generally, with significant reductions in affinity for the 3,6-dibromo (5; K(i) = 3890 nM), 1,3, 6-tribromo (6; K(i) = 30300 nM), 3-amino (8; K(i) = 2400 nM), and 3, 6-dinitro (9; K(i) = 174000 nM) analogues. The N-phenylpropyl group was the only terminal piperazine nitrogen substituent that retained moderate affinity at the dopamine transporter (11; K(i) = 263 nM). Analogues in which the carbazole ring was replaced with a freely rotating diphenylamine moiety were also prepared. Although the diphenylamino analogue in which the terminal piperazine nitrogen was unsubstituted, as in rimcazole, demonstrated relatively low binding affinity at the dopamine transporter (24; K(i) = 813 nM), the N-phenylpropyl analogue was found to have the highest affinity for the dopamine transporter within the series (25; K(i) = 61.0 nM). All of the analogues that had affinity for the dopamine transporter inhibited [(3)H]dopamine uptake in synaptosomes, and potencies for these two effects showed a positive correlation (r(2) = 0.7731, p = 0.0018). Several of the analogues displaced [(3)H]paroxetine from serotonin transporters

  8. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  9. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  10. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Trichloroacetic acid ( TCA ) ; CASRN 76 - 03 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  11. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  12. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  13. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dichloroacetic acid ; CASRN 79 - 43 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  14. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  15. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  16. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  17. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  18. [Hyaluronic acid].

    PubMed

    Pomarede, N

    2008-01-01

    Hyaluronic Acid (HA) is now a leader product in esthetic procedures for the treatment of wrinkles and volumes. The structure of HA, its metabolism, its physiological function are foremost breaking down then its use in aesthetic dermatology: steps of injection, possible side effects, benefits and downsides of the use of HA in aesthetic dermatology.

  19. Protection against cocaine toxicity in mice by the dopamine D3/D2 agonist R-(+)-trans-3,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-ol [(+)-PD 128,907].

    PubMed

    Witkin, J M; Dijkstra, D; Levant, B; Akunne, H C; Zapata, A; Peters, S; Shannon, H E; Gasior, M

    2004-03-01

    Cocaine abuse is a public health concern with seizures and death being one consequence of overdose. In the present study, dopamine D(3/)D(2) receptor agonists dose dependently and completely prevented the convulsant and lethal effects of cocaine. The D(3)-preferring agonists R-(+)-trans-3,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-ol) [(+)-PD 128,907], (+)-7-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin, and the mixed D(3/)D(2) agonists quinpirole and quinelorane were all effective against cocaine toxicity in mice. The anticonvulsant effects of these compounds occurred at doses below those that produced motor impairment as assessed in the inverted screen test. Protection against the convulsant effects of the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor 1-[2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy] ethyl]-4-[3-phenyl-propyl]piperazine (GBR 12909) was also conferred by (+)-PD 128,907. The possible selectivity of the effects of (+)-PD 128,907 (3 mg/kg) for these dopaminergic compounds was demonstrated by its general lack of protective efficacy against a host of convulsants acting through other neural mechanisms [pentylenetetrazol, (+)-bicuculline, and picrotoxin, 4-aminopyridine, and t-butylbiclyclophosphoorothionate, N-methyl-d-aspartate, kainate, pilocarpine, nicotine, strychnine, aminophylline, threshold electric shock, and 6-Hz electrical stimulation]. Direct and correlational evidence suggests that these effects were mediated by D(3) receptors. Protection was stereospecific and reversible by an antagonist of D(3) receptors [3-[4[1-(4-[2[4-(3-diethyamino-propoxy)-phenyl]-benzoimidazol-l-yl]-butyl)-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl]-phenoxy]-propyl)-diethyl-amine; PD 58491] but not D(2) receptors [3[[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4 hydroxypipeidin-1-yl]methyl-1H-indole; L-741,626]. Anticonvulsant potencies were positively associated with potencies in a functional assay of D(3) but not D(2) receptor function. Together, these findings suggest that the prevention of cocaine convulsions and lethality by

  20. Effective Enhancement of Hypoglycemic Effect of Insulin by Liver-Targeted Nanoparticles Containing Cholic Acid-Modified Chitosan Derivative.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Cai, Huanxin; Liu, Zhijia; Yao, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Liver is responsible for the balance of blood glucose level. In this study, cholic acid and N-(2-hydroxy)-propyl-3-trimethylammonium chloride modified chitosan (HTCC-CA) was used as a liver-targeted vehicle for insulin delivery. A novel approach was developed to effectively load insulin by mixing insulin and HTCC-CA in 50% ethanol and water mixed solvent at pH 2 and then dialysis against pH 7.4 phosphate buffer subsequently against water. The insulin-loaded HTCC-CA nanoparticles have an average diameter of 86 nm and insulin loading efficiency of 98.7%. Due to random distribution of the hydrophobic cholic acid groups in HTCC-CA, some of the cholic acid groups located on the nanoparticle surface. Compared with free insulin, the nanoparticles increased in vitro cellular uptake of insulin to 466%, and the nanoparticles accumulated in liver for more time after subcutaneous injection into mice. The therapy for diabetic rats displayed that the nanoparticles increased the pharmacological bioavailability of insulin to 475% relative to free insulin, and the nanoparticles could maintain the hypoglycemic effect for more than 24 h. This study demonstrates that the nanoparticles with cholic acid groups on their surface possess liver-targeted property and biocompatible insulin-loaded HTCC-CA nanoparticles can effectively enhance the hypoglycemic effect of insulin. PMID:27266268

  1. Effect of the esters of gallic acid on model and human blood platelet membranes studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Qi, S P; Hu, P R

    1993-06-01

    Gallic acid is one of the components of Chinese herbal drug Radix paeoniae used for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis. This paper studied the effects of gallic acid and its esters (e.g. ethyl, propyl, isobutyl and butyl gallate) on model and human blood platelet membranes by FTIR which was used for monitoring the physical state of the acyl chain, interfacial and head group region of the membrane lipid bilayer. From the experimental results it can be seen that the gallic acid and its esters have the modifying function on the pure and cholesterol-containing DPPC model membranes, and have the quantity-effective and structural-effective relationships. In addition, it is discovered that these esters have the modifying effect on the structure of human blood platelet membrane and can reverse the effect of ADP. That the effect of the esters of gallic acid counteracts the effect of cholesterol and ADP on human blood platelet perhaps provides a new explanation of the mechanism of Chinese herbal drugs used for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis.

  2. Mimicking the hierarchical functions of dentin collagen cross-links with plant derived phenols and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Cristina M P; Leme, Ariene A; Aguiar, Thaiane R; Phansalkar, Rasika; Nam, Joo-Won; Bisson, Jonathan; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F; Bedran-Russo, Ana

    2014-12-16

    Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are secondary plant metabolites that mediate nonenzymatic collagen cross-linking and enhance the properties of collagen based tissue, such as dentin. The extent and nature of cross-linking is influenced by the composition and specific chemical structure of the bioactive compounds present in certain PAC-rich extracts. This study investigated the effect of the molecular weight and stereochemistry of polyphenol compounds on two important properties of dentin, biomechanics, and biostability. For that, purified phenols, a phenolic acid, and some of its derivatives were selected: PAC dimers (A1, A2, B1, and B2) and a trimer (C1), gallic acid (Ga), its esters methyl-gallate (MGa) and propyl-gallate (PGa), and a pentagalloyl ester of glucose (PGG). Synergism was assessed by combining the most active PAC and gallic acid derivative. Mechanical properties of dentin organic matrix were determined by the modulus of elasticity obtained in a flexural test. Biostability was evaluated by the resistance to collagenase degradation. PACs significantly enhanced dentin mechanical properties and decreased collagen digestion. Among the gallic acid derivatives, only PGG had a significant enhancing effect. The lack of observed C1:PGG synergy indicates that both compounds have similar mechanisms of interaction with the dentin matrix. These findings reveal that the molecular weight of polyphenols have a determinant effect on their interaction with type I collagen and modulates the mechanism of cross-linking at the molecular, intermolecular, and inter-microfibrillar levels. PMID:25379878

  3. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  4. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of six p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters in cosmetics using Sep-Pak florisil cartridges for sample pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y; Yamamoto, M; Owada, K; Sato, S; Masui, T; Nakazawa, H; Fujita, M

    1987-12-11

    A rapid and simple method is described for the simultaneous determination of methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, n-propyl, isobutyl and n-butyl p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The method involves a single extraction of parabens with diethyl ether and clean-up on a Sep-Pak Florisil cartridge. Fat-soluble excipients in the diethyl ether extracts are removed through the cartridges with hexane-chloroform (75:25). Parabens are then eluted from the cartridges with hexane-ethyl acetate (70:30) and determined by HPLC on a reversed-phase column with water-methanol (50:50) as the mobile phase using sec.-butylpraben as an internal standard. The method was applied to samples with complicated matrices such as cream, milk lotion, lotion and cleansing foam, and the recoveries were 99.0-102.3% with coefficients of variation of 0.3-1.2%.

  5. Maxima in antioxidant distributions and efficiencies with increasing hydrophobicity of gallic acid and its alkyl esters. The pseudophase model interpretation of the "cutoff effect".

    PubMed

    Losada Barreiro, Sonia; Bravo-Díaz, Carlos; Paiva-Martins, Fátima; Romsted, Laurence S

    2013-07-01

    Antioxidant (AO) efficiencies are reported to go through maxima with increasing chain length (hydrophobicity) in emulsions. The so-called "cutoff" after the maxima, indicating a decrease in efficiency, remains unexplained. This paper shows, for gallic acid (GA) and propyl, octyl, and lauryl gallates (PG, OG, and LG, respectively), that at any given volume fraction of emulsifier, the concentrations of antioxidants in the interfacial region of stripped corn oil emulsions and their efficiency order follow PG > GA > OG > LG. These results provide clear evidence that an AO's efficiency correlates with its fraction in the interfacial region. AO distributions were obtained in intact emulsions by using the pseudophase kinetic model to interpret changes in observed rate constants of the AOs with a chemical probe, and their efficiencies were measured by employing the Schaal oven test. The model provides a natural explanation for the maxima with increasing AO hydrophobicity.

  6. Synthesis, in Vitro, and in Vivo Biological Evaluation and Molecular Docking Analysis of Novel 3-(3-oxo-substitutedphenyl-3-)4-(2-(piperidinyl)ethoxy)phenyl)propyl)-2H-chromen-2-one Derivatives as Anti-breast Cancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Dube, Pritam N; Waghmare, Madhuri N; Mokale, Santosh N

    2016-04-01

    The analogs of coumarin-chalcones have been reported to exhibit antineoplastic, anti-allergic, antihepatoprotective, and estrogenic activity. Herein, we have reported 3-(3-oxo-substitutedphenyl-3-)4-(2-(piperidinyl)ethoxy)phenyl)propyl)-2H-chromen-2-one derivatives as a new class of compounds that exhibit selectivity for ER-α binding along with antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity on human breast cancer cell line. The active compounds which show prominent activity against estrogen receptor-alpha-positive (ER+) human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and Zr-75-1 are subjected to in vivo screening. The Glide XP docking was performed for designed scaffold to optimize its structural requirement for ER-α inhibition. PMID:26643017

  7. Dicationic ion-pairing of phosphoric acid diesters post-liquid chromatography and subsequent determination by electrospray positive ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shaogang; Chen, Da; Letcher, Robert J

    2011-11-01

    Several organophosphate triesters are widely used as flame retardants and can be metabolized to dibutyl (DBP), diphenyl (DPhP), di(2-ethylhexyl) (DEHP) and di(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) (or bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl); DDCPP) phosphoric acid, respectively. A highly sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization(+)-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI(+)-QQQ-MS/MS) based analysis method was presently developed. In this method the target compounds were separated with a C(18)-based reversed phase LC column, and decamethonium hydroxide (dicatonic reagent) was introduced post-LC to form ion-pairs, which were subsequently detected by ESI(+). For the phosphate acid diester ion-pairs, the mass spectra showed the most abundant ion to be [(CH(3))(2)N(CH(2))(10)N(CH(3))(3)](+), with lesser abundances of [[M-H](-)[(CH(3))(3)N(CH(2))(9)CH(2)](2+)](+) and [CH(2)CH(CH(2))(8)N(CH(3))(3)](+). For DDCPP, the fragment ions of [[Cl](-)[(CH(3))(3)N(CH(2))(10)N(CH(3))(3)](2+)](+) and [[Cl](-)[(CH(3))(3)N(CH(2))(9)CH(2)](2+)](+) could also be observed. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) by LC-ESI(+)-MS/MS (based on multiple reaction monitoring) were 0.14, 0.03, 0.14 and 0.02 ng/mL for DPhP, DBP, DDCPP and DEHP, respectively. The response was highly linearly correlated (r>0.995) with concentration over the range of the LOD to 1000 ng/mL. The matrix effect on ESI+ was negligible for the samples in experiment of in vitro metabolism using rat liver microsomes. PMID:21945623

  8. Monoamine concentrations changes in the PTU-induced hypothyroid rat brain and the ameliorating role of folic acid.

    PubMed

    Tousson, E; Ibrahim, W; Arafa, N; Akela, M A

    2012-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are recognized as the key metabolic hormones that play a critical role in the development of central nervous system (CNS) throughout life. The present study was designed to determine the changes in brain monoamine concentrations in 6-n-propyl thiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroid rats, in addition to the ameliorating role of folic acid treatment. Fifty male albino rats were equally divided into five groups; first and second groups were the control and folic acid groups, respectively, while the third group was the hypothyroid group in which the rats received PTU in drinking water for 6 weeks. The fourth and fifth groups were co- and post-treated folic acid groups with hypothyroid rats, respectively. Our results revealed that serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations were significantly decreased in the hypothalamus and cortex, while it significantly increased in the hippocampus of hypothyroid rats when compared with control group. Serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations were decreased in hypothalamus and cortex in co- and post-treated folic acid groups with hypothyroid rats, while the concentration of dopamine were significantly increased in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of the hypothyroid rats and co-treated folic acid group with hypothyroid rats. In cortex, the dopamine concentration was significantly increased in hypothyroid rats and post-treated folic acid group with hypothyroid rats, while it significantly decreased in co-treated folic acid group with hypothyroid rats when compared with the control group. Also, our results revealed that, folic acid treatment was better if it is administered as an adjuvant after returning to the euthyroid state by withdrawing PTU from the drinking water.

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of quinic acid derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Kui; Thompson, Karin Emmons; Yates, Charles R; Miller, Duane D

    2009-09-15

    Quinic acid (QA) esters found in hot water extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (a.k.a. cat's claw) exert anti-inflammatory activity through mechanisms involving inhibition of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). Herein, we describe the synthesis and biological testing of novel QA derivatives. Inhibition of NF-kappaB was assessed using A549 (Type II alveolar epithelial-like) cells that stably express a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter driven by an NF-kappaB response element. A549-NF-kappaB cells were stimulated with TNF-alpha (10 ng/mL) in the presence or absence of QA derivative for 18 hours followed by measurement of SEAP activity. Amide substitution at the carboxylic acid position yielded potent inhibitors of NF-kappaB. A variety of modifications to the amide substitution were tolerated with the N-propyl amide derivative being the most potent. Further examination of the SAR demonstrated that acetylation of the hydroxyl groups reduced NF-kappaB inhibitory activity. QA amide derivatives lacked anti-oxidant activity and were found to be neither anti-proliferative nor cytotoxic at concentrations up to 100 microM. In conclusion, we have discovered a novel series of non-toxic QA amides that potently inhibit NF-kappaB, despite their lack of anti-oxidant activity. Mechanistic studies and pre-clinical efficacy studies in various inflammatory animal models are on-going.

  10. Phosphatidic acid-induced contraction in guinea-pig taenia coli.

    PubMed

    Ohata, H; Momose, K

    1990-06-01

    Natural phosphatidic acid from egg yolk lecithin (PA) caused a sustained contraction in guinea-pig taenia coli. The contractile response to PA was concentration-dependent (10(-6)-10(-4) M) in the normal medium and the maximal response to PA was about 20% of the response to carbachol (CCh) at 10(-6) M. Phospholipase D mimicked PA-induced contraction. This result suggests that increase in endogenous PA can induce contraction. The PA-induced contraction was not inhibited by atropine (10(-6) M). The contraction was more dependent on concentration of extracellular Ca2+ than CCh-induced contraction. PA increased 45Ca2+ uptake into the tissue. These results suggest that the PA-induced contraction results from increase in Ca2+ influx across plasma membranes, but not release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores in guinea-pig taenia coli. The PA-induced contraction was inhibited to 42% of the control response by propyl gallate (0.2 mM), a combined inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. This result indicates that a portion of the contraction is related to release of arachidonic acid and its metabolites, and the other portions are based on direct action of PA. These results suggest a possibility that increased PA by agonist stimulation is related to the following extracellular Ca2(+)-dependent contraction.

  11. Drug-induced hair colour changes.

    PubMed

    Bublin, J G; Thompson, D F

    1992-10-01

    Drug-induced hair colour changes are not a common adverse effect from medications. A wide variety of drugs have been implicated in causing hair colour changes but very few have data to support a true relationship. Of the drugs reported, chloroquine and cancer chemotherapeutic agents have the best evidence to support an association. Other drugs, such as p-aminobenzoic acid, calcium pantothenate, anthralin, chinoform, mephenesin, minoxidil, propofol, valproic acid, and verapamil await confirmatory data. Drug-induced causes should be considered in any patient with unexplained hair colour changes. PMID:1464633

  12. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  13. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  14. Tannic acid inhibited norovirus binding to HBGA receptors, a study of 50 Chinese medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-Fu; Dai, Ying-Chun; Zhong, Weiming; Tan, Ming; Lv, Zhi-Ping; Zhou, Ying-Chun; Jiang, Xi

    2012-02-15

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis affecting people of all ages worldwide. The disease is difficult to control due to its widespread nature and lack of an antiviral or vaccine. NoV infection relies on the interaction of the viruses with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as host receptors. Here we investigated inhibition effects of Chinese medicinal herbs against NoVs binding to HBGAs for potential antivirals against NoVs. Blocking assays was performed using the NoV protrusion (P) protein as NoV surrogate and saliva as HBGAs. Among 50 clinically effective Chinese medicinal herbs against gastroenteritis diseases, two herbs were found highly effective. Chinese Gall blocked NoV P dimer binding to type A saliva at IC(50)=5.35 μg/ml and to B saliva at IC(50)=21.7 μg/ml. Similarly, Pomegranate blocked binding of NoV P dimer to type A saliva at IC(50)=15.59 μg/ml and B saliva at IC(50)=66.67 μg/ml. Literature data on preliminary biochemistry analysis showed that tannic acid is a common composition in the extracts of the two herbs, so we speculate that it might be the effective compound and further studies using commercially available, highly purified tannic acid confirmed the tannic acid as a strong inhibitor in the binding of NoV P protein to both A and B saliva (IC(50)≈0.1 μM). In addition, we tested different forms of hydrolysable tannins with different alkyl esters, including gallic acid, ethyl gallate, lauryl gallate, octyl gallate and propyl gallate. However, none of these tannins-derivatives revealed detectable inhibiting activities. Our data suggested that tannic acid is a promising candidate antiviral against NoVs.

  15. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  16. Inhibitory effect of gallic acid and its esters on 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)hydrochloride (AAPH)-induced hemolysis and depletion of intracellular glutathione in erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Valdecir F; Lopes, Mariana G; Petrônio, Maicon Segalla; Regasini, Luis Octavio; Silva, Dulce H Siqueira; da Fonseca, Luiz M

    2010-05-12

    The protective effect of gallic acid and its esters, methyl, propyl, and lauryl gallate, against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)hydrochloride (AAPH)-induced hemolysis and depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) in erythrocytes was studied. The inhibition of hemolysis was dose-dependent, and the esters were significantly more effective than gallic acid. Gallic acid and its esters were compared with regard to their reactivity to free radicals, using the DPPH and AAPH/pyranine free-cell assays, and no significant difference was obtained. Gallic acid and its esters not only failed to inhibit the depletion of intracellular GSH in erythrocytes induced by AAPH but exacerbated it. Similarly, the oxidation of GSH by AAPH or horseradish peroxidase/H(2)O(2) in cell-free systems was exacerbated by gallic acid or gallates. This property could be involved in the recent findings on pro-apoptotic and pro-oxidant activities of gallates in tumor cells. We provide evidence that lipophilicity and not only radical scavenger potency is an important factor regarding the efficiency of antihemolytic substances.

  17. Assessment of salicylate derivatives for potential use in ulcerative colitis: proposal for a new action of 5-aminosalicylic acid?

    PubMed

    Roediger, W E; Deakin, E J; Walker, G; Nance, S H

    1989-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of salicylate drugs for ulcerative colitis in vivo is related to the capacity of each drug to suppress fatty acid oxidation in colonocytes in vitro. The suppression index of fatty acid oxidation (SIFO) was assessed with 17 salicylate drugs of either known or unknown therapeutic efficacy. The high SIFO value of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) was reduced to zero when the amino group was replaced with a methyl, nitro, hydroxyl or bromine group. The SIFO of 3-ASA was dose-related and 2- to 3-fold greater than the SIFO of 5-ASA. The antioxidants methyl- or propyl-4-hydroxybenzoate have a high SIFO, but show a 'toxic' action towards colonocytes not observed with 3-ASA, 4-ASA or 5-ASA. A new cellular action proposed for 5-ASA is that acetylation of the amino group of 5-ASA in colonocytes releases free CoA countering sequestration of CoA observed in epithelial cells during active colitis. PMID:2511578

  18. Boronic acid-functionalized core-shell-shell magnetic composite microspheres for the selective enrichment of glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Pan, Miaorong; Sun, Yangfei; Zheng, Jin; Yang, Wuli

    2013-09-11

    In this work, core-shell-shell-structured boronic acid-functionalized magnetic composite microspheres Fe3O4@SiO2@poly (methyl methacrylate-co-4-vinylphenylbornoic acid) (Fe3O4@SiO2@P(MMA-co-VPBA)) with a uniform size and fine morphology were synthesized. Here, Fe3O4 magnetic particles were prepared by a solvothermal reaction, whereas the Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres with a core-shell structure were obtained by a sol-gel process. 3-(Trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS)-modified Fe3O4@SiO2 was used as the seed in the emulsion polymerization of MMA and VPBA to form the core-shell-shell-structured magnetic composite microspheres. As the boronic acid groups on the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2@P(MMA-co-VPBA) could form tight yet reversible covalent bonds with the cis-1,2-diols groups of glycoproteins, the magnetic composite microspheres were applied to enrich a standard glycoprotein, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and the results demonstrated that the composite microspheres have a higher affinity for the glycoproteins in the presence of the nonglycoprotein bovine serum albumin (BSA) over HRP. Additionally, different monomer mole ratios of MMA/VPBA were studied, and the results implied that using MMA as the major monomer could reduce the amount of VPBA with a similar glycoprotein enrichment efficiency but a lower cost. PMID:23924282

  19. Flexible poly(amic acid) conducting polymers: effect of chemical composition on structural, electrochemical, and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Du, Nian; Wong, Cheuk; Feurstein, Michael; Sadik, Omowunmi A; Umbach, Christopher; Sammakia, Bahgat

    2010-09-01

    A new approach for creating flexible, mechanically strong poly(amic acid) (PAA) hybrid copolymers is described. The reduction of gold salts to gold nanoparticles by PAA coupled with its copolymerization in the presence of various silanes (e.g., N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyl] aniline (TMOSPA), 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APTMOS), dichlorodimethylsilane (DCMS), and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS)) has enabled the design of a series of polymeric films. The resulting poly(amic acid), silane, and gold (PSG) solutions were employed for the fabrication of flexible, ternary polymers with a minimum bend ratio of 3 mm using thermal desolvation and/or wet-phase inversion techniques. By controlling the composition and synthesis conditions, porous PSG films were produced that are flexible or rigid, transparent or opaque, and/or mechanically strong. (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) characterization results showed that the carboxylic acid moieties were retained in the PSG copolymer. Thermal stabilities with degradation characteristics of the polymers were determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Although structurally and morphologically different from the parent PAA, copolymerization with silanes had significantly improved the mechanical and interfacial property of the PSG class of films.

  20. Light and ultrastructural study in the propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroid rat heart ventricles and the ameliorating role of folic acid.

    PubMed

    Massoud, Ahmed A; El-Atrash, Afaf; Tousson, Ehab; Ibrahim, Wafaa; Abou-Harga, Heba

    2012-04-01

    that folic acid had ameliorative effect against cardiac damage induced by 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil and the best results were found in case of using the folic acid as an adjuvant therapy after returning to the euthyroid state.

  1. Overlaps between the various biodegradation pathways in Sphingomonas subarctica SA1.

    PubMed

    Magony, Mónika; Kákonyi, Ildikó; Gara, Anna; Rapali, P; Perei, Katalin; Kovács, K L; Rákhely, G

    2007-01-01

    A bacterium capable to grow on sulfanilic acid as sole carbon, nitrogen and sulfur source has been isolated. A unique feature of this strain is that it contains the full set of enzymes necessary for the biodegradation of sulfanilic acid. Taxonomical analysis identified our isolate as Sphingomonas subaretica SA1 sp. The biodegradation pathway of sulfanilic acid was investigated at the molecular level. Screening the substrate specificity of the strain disclosed its capacity to degrade six analogous aromatic compounds including p-aminobenzoic acid. Moreover, the strain was successfully used for removal of oil contaminations. S. subarctica SA1 seemed to use distinct enzyme cascades for decomposition of these molecules, since alternative enzymes were induced in cells grown on various substrates. However, the protein patterns appearing upon induction by sulfanilic acid and sulfocatechol were very similar to each other indicating common pathways for the degradation of these substrates. Cells grown on sulfanilic acid could convert p-aminobenzoic acid to some extent and vice versa. Two types of ring cleaving dioxygenases were detected in the cells grown on various substrates: one preferred protocatechol, while the other had higher activity with sulfocatechol. This latter enzyme, named as sulfocatechol dioxygenase was partially purified and characterized.

  2. Precipitation: its acidic nature.

    PubMed

    Frohliger, J O; Kane, R

    1975-08-01

    A comparison of the free hydrogen ion concentration and the total hydrogen ion concentration of rain samples shows that rain is a weak acid. The weak acid nature of rain casts doubt on the concepts that the acidity of rain is increasing and that these increases are due to strong acids such as sulfuric acid.

  3. N-[[(Mercaptoacetyl)amino]benzoyl]glycines as mucolytic agents.

    PubMed

    Martin, T A; Comer, W T

    1985-07-01

    m- and p-aminobenzoic acids were converted to the title compounds by sequential use of ClCH2COCl, SOCl2, glycine methyl or ethyl ester, AcSK, and hydrolysis. The title compounds and a number of salts were compared for mucolytic activity, toxicity, stability, and hygroscopicity. When compared to N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the compounds exhibit several times the in vitro mucolytic activity of NAC on a molar basis. The most promising candidate appears to be the sodium salt 3.5H2O 2 of the meta series. PMID:4009614

  4. N-[[(Mercaptoacetyl)amino]benzoyl]glycines as mucolytic agents.

    PubMed

    Martin, T A; Comer, W T

    1985-07-01

    m- and p-aminobenzoic acids were converted to the title compounds by sequential use of ClCH2COCl, SOCl2, glycine methyl or ethyl ester, AcSK, and hydrolysis. The title compounds and a number of salts were compared for mucolytic activity, toxicity, stability, and hygroscopicity. When compared to N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the compounds exhibit several times the in vitro mucolytic activity of NAC on a molar basis. The most promising candidate appears to be the sodium salt 3.5H2O 2 of the meta series.

  5. Determination of water-soluble vitamins by liquid chromatography with a parallel dual-electrode electrochemical detector.

    PubMed

    Hou, W; Wang, E

    1990-08-01

    A method for the determination of water-soluble vitamins (ascorbic acid, pyridoxine hydrochloride, pyridoxal hydrochloride, pyridoxamine dihydrochloride, p-aminobenzoic acid, folic acid) by liquid chromatography, with a parallel dual-electrode electrochemical detector, is described. One electrode was controlled at +0.80 V (vs. SCE), the other at +1.20 V (vs. SCE). The possibility of interference by eight other water-soluble vitamins (riboflavin, nicotinamide, cyanocobalamin, menadione, dextro calcium pantothenate, thiamine, nicotinic acid, dextro biotin) was studied. These vitamins did not interfere when a parallel dual-electrode detector system was used. The estimation of five of the vitamins was studied in detail. The linear ranges found were 10 ng-1.2 mug for pyridoxine hydrochloride, 2 ng-2mug for pyridoxal hydrochloride, 10 ng-3 mug for pyridoxamine dihydrochloride, 5-200 ng for folic acid and 0.6-200 ng for p-aminobenzoic acid, the limits of detection being 3, 0.6, 1, 2 and 0.06 ng respectively. Application of the technique to the estimation of vitamin B(6) in tablets is illustrated. The results indicate that the vitamin B(6) in these tablets existed in the pyridoxine hydrochloride form and the B(6) content agreed well with liquid chromatograph by spectrophotometric analysis. PMID:18965030

  6. Quantitative determination of the ligand content in Benzamidine Sepharose 4 Fast Flow media with ion-pair chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Jan; Färenmark, Johan; Johansson, Bo-Lennart

    2005-04-01

    A quantitative hydrochloric acid hydrolysis-HPLC method was developed for the analysis of the ligand content of Benzamidine Sepharose 4 Fast Flow media. The method requires about 100 mg of dried sample and simple reaction vials can be utilised. Release of the ligand (p-aminobenzamidine) from the base matrix (Sepharose 4 Fast Flow) was obtained after hydrolysis for 180min at 70 degrees C in concentrated hydrochloric acid. When Benzamidine Sepharose 4 Fast Flow media were treated this way p-aminobenzoic acid and p-aminobenzamidine were the only products released from the ligand. A chromatographic system based on ion-pair reversed phase separation was used to quantify these ligand products. The mobile phase was made acidic enough to make p-aminobenzoic acid and p-aminobenzamidine positively charged in order to make ion-pair formation with hexanesulfonic acid possible. The relative standard deviation of th e method was below 2% and no systematic errors could be detected when the results were compared to an independent method based on elemental analysis (nitrogen). The new HPLC method was used to analyse ligand densities in the range of 2-20 micromol/ml medium. PMID:15861793

  7. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects & other health conditions > Amino acid metabolism disorders Amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... baby’s newborn screening may include testing for certain amino acid metabolism disorders. These are rare health conditions that ...

  8. Carbolic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Below are symptoms of carbolic acid poisoning in different parts of the ... urine Decreased urine output No urine output EYES, EARS, ...

  9. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

  10. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  11. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  12. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs ...

  13. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  14. Improved synthesis of hyaluronic acid hydrogel and its effect on tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiang Mei; Seo, Moo Seok; Hwang, Eui Jin; Cho, Il Hwan; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2012-08-01

    HA-HMDA hydrogels were developed by direct amide bond formation between the carboxyl groups of hyaluronic acid (HA) and hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) with an optimized carboxyl group modification in the preliminary experiment. However, these HA-HMDA hydrogels transformed into an unstable liquid form after steam sterilization, and were problematic for application to actual dermal filler. A new method to overcome the problem of the previously developed HA-HMDA hydrogels is to prepare them by adjusting the pH in this study. Not only are these improved HA-HMDA hydrogels prepared with lower amounts of cross-linking and activation agents compared to the previously developed hydrogels, but they also maintain a stable form after steam sterilization. These improved HA-HMDA hydrogels showed higher viscoelasticity and longer lasting effects than the previous ones, despite the fact that the amount of the HMDA used as a cross-linking agent as well as 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDC) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole monohydrated (HOBt) used as activation agents were substantially reduced. According to an in vivo test using a wrinkled mouse model, the improved HA-HMDA hydrogels exhibited significantly improved tissue augmentation effects compared to a positive control of Restylane, which is widely used for the tissue augmentation throughout the world. Furthermore, histological analysis revealed excellent biocompatibility and safety of the improved synthesized HA-HMDA hydrogels.

  15. Metabolism of Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids in the Liver: A Link between Hepatic Injury and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Methionine is an essential sulfur-containing amino acid that is metabolized mainly in the liver, where it is converted to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) by methionine adenosyltransferase. Importantly, SAM is a metabolically pleiotropic molecule that participates in three types of biochemical reactions; transmethylation, transsulfuration (which results in the transfer of sulfur from methionine to serine to form cysteine), and amino propylation (to synthesize polyamines). Critical roles of SAM in the liver have been extensively studied using transgenic animals with chronically reduced or increased hepatic SAM levels. Interestingly, both models with abnormal hepatic SAM concentrations develop liver disease suggesting that SAM homeostasis plays a pivotal role in liver disease. The transsulfuration pathway is connected to the production of glutathione (GSH), which has potent antioxidant capacity in the liver. Accumulating data show that GSH depletion renders the liver vulnerable to oxidative stress and prone to progression of liver disease. In this review, we highlight the importance of homeostasis in the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids with a particular focus on the transsulfuration pathway which could be a promising therapeutic target in liver injury.

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of novel [alpha]-heteroaryl-phenylpropanoic acid derivatives as PPAR[alpha/gamma] dual agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Casimiro-Garcia, Agustin; Bigge, Christopher F.; Davis, Jo Ann; Padalino, Teresa; Pulaski, James; Ohren, Jeffrey F.; McConnell, Patrick; Kane, Christopher D.; Royer, Lori J.; Stevens, Kimberly A.; Auerbach, Bruce; Collard, Wendy; McGregor, Christine; Song, Kun; Pfizer

    2010-09-27

    The synthesis of a new series of phenylpropanoic acid derivatives incorporating an heteroaryl group at the {alpha}-position and their evaluation for binding and activation of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} are presented in this report. Among the new compounds, (S)-3-{l_brace}4-[3-(5-methyl-2-phenyl-oxazol-4-yl)-propyl]-phenyl{r_brace}-2-1,2,3-triazol-2-yl-propionic acid (17j), was identified as a potent human PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} dual agonist (EC{sub 50} = 0.013 and 0.061 {micro}M, respectively) with demonstrated oral bioavailability in rat and dog. 17j was shown to decrease insulin levels, plasma glucose, and triglycerides in the ZDF female rat model. In the human apolipoprotein A-1/CETP transgenic mouse model 17j produced increases in hApoA1 and HDL-C and decreases in plasma triglycerides. The increased potency for binding and activation of both PPAR subtypes observed with 17j when compared to previous analogs in this series was explained based on results derived from crystallographic and modeling studies.

  17. 1,4-Naphthoquinone and other nutrient requirements of Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Alarcon, R A; O'Dowd, C; Leedle, J A; Bryant, M P

    1982-08-01

    Three strains of Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens isolated from the rumen of cattle or sheep under diverse conditions grew well in a minimal medium containing glucose, minerals, cysteine, methionine, leucine, serine, ammonia, 1,4-naphthoquinone, p-aminobenzoic acid, and bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer, pH 6.7. When menadione or vitamin K5 was substituted for 1,4-naphthoquinone, the growth rate was somewhat depressed. Growth was poor with vitamin K1 and ammonia, further addition of the amino acids aspartic acid, arginine, histidine, and tryptophan was necessary for good growth of type strain 24, but the other two strains grew well only in media containing ammonia. Strains C18 and 22B produced urease and grew well when ammonia replaced urea. When urea replaced ammonia, strain 24 grew poorly and urease activity could not be detected. Strain 24 required no B-vitamins, but the other two strains were stimulated by p-aminobenzoic acid. The methionine requirement was not placed by vitamin B12, betaine, or homocysteine. Cysteine was replaced by sulfide in strain 24 but less well in the other two strains. Very poor growth was obtained when sulfate replaced cysteine. The half-saturation constant for ammonia during growth of S. dextrinosolvens is more than 500 microM, a much higher value than that of many rumen bacteria.

  18. Vitamin U, a novel free radical scavenger, prevents lens injury in rats administered with valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Tunali, S; Kahraman, S; Yanardag, R

    2015-09-01

    Valproic acid (2-propyl-pentanoic acid, VPA) is the most widely prescribed antiepileptic drug due to its ability to treat a broad spectrum of seizure types. VPA exhibits various side effects such as organ toxicity, teratogenicity, and visual disturbances. S-Methylmethioninesulfonium is a derivative of the amino acid methionine and it is widely referred to as vitamin U (Vit U). This study was aimed to investigate the effects of Vit U on lens damage parameters of rats exposed to VPA. Female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Group I comprised control animals. Group II included control rats supplemented with Vit U (50 mg/kg/day) for 15 days. Group III was given only VPA (500 mg/kg/day) for 15 days. Group IV was given VPA + Vit U (in same dose and time). Vit U was given to rats by gavage and VPA was given intraperitoneally. On the 16th day of experiment, all the animals which were fasted overnight were killed. Lens was taken from animals, homogenized in 0.9% saline to make up to 10% (w/v) homogenate. The homogenates were used for protein, glutathione, lipid peroxidation levels, and antioxidant enzymes activities. Lens lipid peroxidation levels and aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities were increased in VPA group. On the other hand, glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and paraoxonase activities were decreased in VPA groups. Treatment with Vit U reversed these effects. This study showed that Vit U exerted antioxidant properties and may prevent lens damage caused by VPA.

  19. Crystal structure of 2-chloro-1,3-(2,6-diiso­propyl­phen­yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-3-ium tetra­kis­(3,5-tri­fluoro­methyl­phen­yl)borate

    PubMed Central

    Stack, Darcie L.; Masuda, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, C27H38ClN2 +·C32H12BF24 −, was synthesized by reacting the product formed from a previous reaction between 1,3-bis­(2,6-diiso­propyl­phen­yl)imidazolinium-2-carboxyl­ate (SIPrCO2), and SOCl2, with sodium tetra­kis­[3,5-bis­(tri­fluoro­meth­yl)phen­yl]borate (NaBARF). In the cation, the imidazole ring is in a half-chair conformation and the formerly carbene carbon atom is bonded in a distorted trigonal–planar geometry with N—C—Cl angles of 122.96 (16) and 122.21 (16)° and an N—C—N angle of 114.83 (18)°. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯F hydrogen bonds link the cations and anions, forming a three-dimensional network. In addition, a short Cl⋯F contact of 3.213 Å and several short F⋯F contacts less than the sum of the van der Waals radii [1.47 Å + 1.47 Å = 2.94 Å] are observed. The F atoms of two of the CF3 groups were refined as disordered over four sets of sites. PMID:27746944

  20. Enhanced Performance of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells by Combining ZnO Nanoparticles and Poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyfluorene)] as Electron Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Han, Changfeng; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Ling; Qian, Lei; Yang, Ziyan; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Ting; Yang, Yixing; Cao, Weiran

    2016-02-10

    A highly efficient inverted polymer solar cell (PSC) has been successfully demonstrated by using a ZnO nanoparticle (NP) and poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyfluorene)] (PFN) bilayer structure as an effective electron collecting layer. This ZnO/PFN bilayer structure is designed to combine the advantages of both ZnO and PFN, based on the performance comparison of ZnO-only, PFN-only, and ZnO/PFN bilayer devices in our work. ZnO NPs can serve as an efficient electron transport and buffer layer for reduced series resistance, while the PFN interlayer can improve the energy level alignment of devices through the formation of an interfacial dipole. With the enhanced electron extraction induced by the ZnO/PFN bilayer structure and PTB7:ICBA:PC71BM ternary system, the corresponding inverted PSC device shows a high PCE of 9.3%, which is more than a 15% improvement compared to the ZnO- or PFN-only devices.

  1. Structural Modifications of Neuroprotective Anti-Parkinsonian (−)-N6-(2-(4-(Biphenyl-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)-ethyl)-N6-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]thiazole-2,6-diamine (D-264): An Effort toward the Improvement of in Vivo Efficacy of the Parent Molecule

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In our overall goal to develop multifunctional dopamine D2/D3 agonist drugs for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD), we previously synthesized potent D3 preferring agonist D-264 (1a), which exhibited neuroprotective properties in two animal models of PD. To enhance the in vivo efficacy of 1a, a structure–activity relationship study was carried out. Competitive binding and [35S]GTPγS functional assays identified compound (−)-9b as one of the lead molecules with preferential D3 agonist activity (EC50(GTPγS); D3 = 0.10 nM; D2/D3 (EC50): 159). Compounds (−)-9b and (−)-8b exhibited high in vivo activity in two PD animal models, reserpinized and 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced unilateral lesioned rats. On the other hand, 1a failed to show any in vivo activity in these models unless the compound was dissolved in 5–10% beta-hydroxy propyl cyclodextrin solution. Lead compounds exhibited appreciable radical scavenging activity. In vitro experiments with dopaminergic MN9D cells indicated neuroprotection by both 1a and (−)-9b from toxicity of MPP+. PMID:24471976

  2. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  3. Bioconversions of ferulic acid, an hydroxycinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sindhu; Abraham, T Emilia

    2006-01-01

    Ferulic acid is the most abundant hydroxycinnamic acid in the plant world and is ester linked to arabinose, in various plant polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans and pectins. It is a precursor to vanillin, one of the most important aromatic flavor compound used in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and perfumes. This article presents an overview of the various biocatalytic routes, focusing on the relevant biotransformations of ferulic acid using plant sources, microorganisms, and enzymes.

  4. Highly selective and effective solid phase microextraction of benzoic acid esters using ionic liquid functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes-doped polyaniline coating.

    PubMed

    Ai, Youhong; Wu, Mian; Li, Lulu; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2016-03-11

    The present work reports the electrochemical fabrication of an ionic liquid functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes-polyaniline (MWCNT@IL/PANI) nanocomposite coating and its application in the headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography (GC) determination of benzoic acid esters (i.e., methyl benzoate, ethyl benzoate, propyl benzoate and butyl benzoate). The MWCNTs was firstly functionalized with amine-terminated IL (MWCNT@IL) through chemical reduction, and then was doped in PANI during the electropolymerization of aniline. The resulting coating was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and thermo gravimetry. It showed net-like structure and had high thermal stability (up to 330°C). Furthermore, it presented high selectivity for the four benzoic acid esters and thus suited for their HS-SPME-GC determination. Results showed that under optimized extraction conditions, the detection limits were less than 6.1ngL(-1) (S/N=3) and the linear detection ranges were 0.012-50μgL(-1) (R≥0.9957) for these analytes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were lower than 6.4% for five successive measurements with one fiber, and the RSDs for fiber-to-fiber were 4.4-9.6% (n=5). The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of these benzoic acid esters in perfume samples.

  5. Highly selective and effective solid phase microextraction of benzoic acid esters using ionic liquid functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes-doped polyaniline coating.

    PubMed

    Ai, Youhong; Wu, Mian; Li, Lulu; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2016-03-11

    The present work reports the electrochemical fabrication of an ionic liquid functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes-polyaniline (MWCNT@IL/PANI) nanocomposite coating and its application in the headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography (GC) determination of benzoic acid esters (i.e., methyl benzoate, ethyl benzoate, propyl benzoate and butyl benzoate). The MWCNTs was firstly functionalized with amine-terminated IL (MWCNT@IL) through chemical reduction, and then was doped in PANI during the electropolymerization of aniline. The resulting coating was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and thermo gravimetry. It showed net-like structure and had high thermal stability (up to 330°C). Furthermore, it presented high selectivity for the four benzoic acid esters and thus suited for their HS-SPME-GC determination. Results showed that under optimized extraction conditions, the detection limits were less than 6.1ngL(-1) (S/N=3) and the linear detection ranges were 0.012-50μgL(-1) (R≥0.9957) for these analytes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were lower than 6.4% for five successive measurements with one fiber, and the RSDs for fiber-to-fiber were 4.4-9.6% (n=5). The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of these benzoic acid esters in perfume samples. PMID:26852620

  6. Antioxidative and melanogenesis-inhibitory activities of caffeoylquinic acids and other compounds from moxa.

    PubMed

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Kawashima, Kohta; Orido, Masashi; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Ayako; Ogihara, Eri; Fukatsu, Makoto; Tokuda, Harukuni; Fuji, Jizaemon

    2013-03-01

    The MeOH extract of moxa, the processed leaves of Artemisia princeps PAMP. (Asteraceae), exhibited potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and melanogenesis-inhibitory activity in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated B16 melanoma cells. Eight caffeoylquinic acids, 1 and 6-12, five flavonoids, 13-17, two benzoic acid derivatives, 18 and 19, three coumarin derivatives, 20-22, four steroids, 23-26, and six triterpenoids, 27-32, were isolated from the MeOH extract. Upon evaluation of compounds 1, 6-23, and four semisynthetic caffeoylquinic acid esters, 2-5, for their DPPH radical-scavenging activity, 15 compounds, 1-13, 17, and 19, showed potent activities (IC(50) 3.1-16.8 μM). The 15 compounds exhibited, moreover, potent inhibitory activities (51.1-92.5% inhibition) against peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 10 μg/ml concentration. In addition, when 27 compounds, 1-8, 10, 12, 13, 15-18, 20-25, and 27-32, were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against melanogenesis in α-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells, five caffeoylquinic acids, i.e., chlorogenic acid (1), ethyl chlorogenate (3), propyl chlorogenate (4), isopropyl chlorogenate (5), and butyl chlorogenate (6), along with homoorientin (17) and vanillic acid (18), exhibited inhibitory activities with 33-62% reduction of melanin content at 100 μM concentration with no or almost no toxicity to the cells (89-114% of cell viability at 100 μM). Western blot analysis showed that compound 6 reduced the protein levels of microphtalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosine-related protein 1 (TRP-1), and TRP-2 mostly in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that this compound inhibits melanogenesis on α-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells by, at least in part, inhibiting the expression of MITF, followed by decreasing the expression of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2. Furthermore, four compounds, 13, 15, 16, and 30, exhibited

  7. Acid Functionalized Mesoporous Ordered Materials for the Production of 5-Hydroxymethyfurfural from Carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisci, Anthony J.

    Solid acid catalysts were designed for the conversion of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Some of the catalysts incorporate thioether groups to promote the tautomerization of fructose to its furanose form, as well as sulfonic acid groups to catalyze its dehydration. A bifunctional silane, 3-((3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl)thio)propane-1-sulfonic acid (TESAS), was designed for incorporation into SBA-15-type silica by co-condensation. To achieve mesopore ordering in the functionalized silica, the standard SBA-15 synthetic protocol was modified, resulting in well-formed hexagonal particles. Functional groups incorporated into mesoporous silica by co-condensation are more robust under the reaction conditions than those grafted onto a non-porous silica. In a variation, the thioether group of TESAS was oxidized by H2O 2 to the sulfone during the synthesis of the modified SBA-15. The materials were tested in batch reactors and compared in the selective dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Compared to benchmark catalysts, the thioether-containing TESAS-SBA-15 showed the highest activity in the dehydration of aqueous fructose, as well as the highest selectivity towards HMF (71 % at 84 % conversion). In addition, the stability of several supported acid catalysts was evaluated in tubular reactors designed to produce 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) continuously. The reactors, packed with the solid catalysts, were operated at 403 K for extended periods, up to 180 h. The behaviors of three propylsulfonic acid-functionalized, ordered porous silicas (one inorganic SBA-15-type silica, and two ethane-bridged SBA-15-type organosilicas) were compared with that of a propylsulfonic acid-modified, non-ordered porous silica. The HMF selectivity of the catalysts with ordered pore structures ranged from 60 to 75 %, while the selectivity of the non-ordered catalyst peaked at 20 %. The latter was also the least stable, deactivating with a first-order rate constant of

  8. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  9. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

  10. Behavioral effects of alpha-alkylated amino acid analogs in the C57BL/6J mouse.

    PubMed

    Sase, Ajinkya; Brückner, Hans; Höger, Harald; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert

    2013-09-01

    Although a series of amino acid analogs have been shown to modulate brain function, information on the pharmacology of alpha-alkylated amino acids (AAAA) is limited. In particular there is no information on the effect of these amino acid analogs (AAA) on the elevated plus maze, the tail suspension test and the forced swim test. It was therefore the aim of the study to test a series of AAAA in these paradigms in order to explore behavioral activities of this compound class. 10 male mice per group aged between 10 and 14 weeks were used. Vehicle-treated controls were used in addition to intraperitoneal injections of 1, 10 and 100mg/kg body weight of each, alpha-amino-isobutyic acid (AIB), isovaline (IVA), alpha-propyl-alanine (APA), alpha-butyl-alanine (ABA), alpha-pentyl-alanine (APnA), alpha-ethylphenylglycine (AEPG) and alpha-methyl-valine (AMV). The elevated plus maze (EPM), the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST) were used for behavioral testing. There were dose-dependent results: all compounds increased time and pathlength in the open arm of the EPM at least at one dose administered. In the TST and in the FST only the 100mg dose was showing an effect. The results show pharmacological activity modifying the EPM in low doses suggesting the use in treatment of behavioral traits and symptoms represented by or linked to the EPM including anxiety-related behavior including depression. Compounds acting at higher doses may be used to induce behavioral changes and thus serve as neurobiological-neuropharmacological tools. PMID:23756141

  11. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  12. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  13. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  14. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  15. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  16. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and ... Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in men, and to prevent or treat osteoporosis ...

  17. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  18. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Methylmalonic Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: MMA Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid Related tests: Vitamin B12 and Folate , Homocysteine , Intrinsic ...

  19. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do ...

  20. Mixed Acid Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    1999-10-26

    Several non-thermal processes have been developed to destroy organic waste compounds using chemicals with high oxidation potentials. These efforts have focused on developing technologies that work at low temperatures, relative to incineration, to overcome many of the regulatory issues associated with obtaining permits for waste incinerators. One such technique with great flexibility is mixed acid oxidation. Mixed acid oxidation, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a non-volatile holding medium for the somewhat volatile oxidant. The combination of acids allows appreciable amounts of the concentrated oxidant to remain in the carrier acid well above the oxidant''s normal boiling point.

  1. Neuropharmacological reassessment of the discriminative stimulus properties of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).

    PubMed

    Cunningham, K A; Appel, J B

    1987-01-01

    The neuropharmacological mechanisms underlying the behavioral effects of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) were assessed by comparing the discriminative stimulus properties of LSD with those of agonists and antagonists that act selectively at putative serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) receptor subtypes (5-HT1 and 5-HT2). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 23) were trained to discriminate LSD (0.08 mg/kg) from saline and given substitution tests with the following agents: 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propyl-amino) tetralin (8-OHDPAT; 0.02-0.64 mg/kg), Ru 24969 (0.2-3.2 mg/kg), m-chlorophenylpiperazine (MCPP; 0.1-1.6 mg/kg), 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP; 0.1-1.6 mg/kg), and quipazine (0.2-3.2 mg/kg). Only quipazine mimicked LSD. In combination tests, BC 105 (0.2-3.2 mg/kg), 2-bromolysergic acid diethylamide (BOL; 0.1-1.6 mg/kg), Ly 53857 (0.4-3.2 mg/kg), metergoline (0.05-0.8 mg/kg), ketanserin (0.2-3.2 mg/kg), and pipenperone (0.0025-0.08 mg/kg), all of which act as 5-HT2 antagonists, blocked the LSD cue; only spiperone (0.02-0.32 mg/kg) was without effect. Although commonalities may exist among "5-HT agonists", the present results demonstrate that such "agonists" are not identical. Since putative 5-HT1 agonists do not mimic LSD and the LSD cue is potently blocked by 5-HT2 antagonists, it appears that 5-HT2 neuronal systems are of greater importance than 5-HT1 systems in mediating the discriminative stimulus and, perhaps, other effects of LSD.

  2. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  3. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  4. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

  5. Oxophily of gadolinium(III) and synthesis of dissymmetric di(Schiff bases) and dissymmetric dinuclear compounds. Crystal structure of [Cu[sub 2]L[prime](OH)](ClO[sub 4])[sub 2][center dot]H[sub 2]O with L[prime] = 2-[N-(2-pyridylethyl)formimidoyl]-6-[N-((dimethylamino)propyl)formimidoyl]phenolato

    SciTech Connect

    Andruh, M.; Kahn, O.; Sainton, J. ); Dromzee, Y.; Jeannin, S. )

    1993-04-28

    The strong oxophilic character of the Gd(III) ion has been utilized to protect one of the carbonyl functions of 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol, which has allowed the quantitative synthesis of mono(Schiff bases), then dissymmetric di(Schiff bases). The synthetic process is as follows: the reaction of 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol with a primary amine RNH[sub 2] in the presence of Gd(III) affords a complex in which Gd(III) is coordinated to two mono(Schiff bases) through their carbonyl and phenolic oxygen atoms. The mono(Schiff base) may be isolated by precipitation of Gd(III) in the form of gadolinium(III) oxalate. The reaction of another primary amine, R[prime]NH[sub 2], on this mono(Schiff base) affords a dissymmetric di(Schiff base), from which dissymmetric dinuclear compounds can be synthesized. For example, this reaction has been carried out with RNH[sub 2] = 2-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine and R[prime]NH[sub 2] = N,N-dimethylpropylenediamine. The mono(Schiff base) 2-formyl-6-(N-(2-pyridylethyl)formimidoyl)-4-methylphenol (HL) and the di(Schiff base) 2-[N-(2-pyridylethyl)formimidoyl]-6-[N-((dimethylamino)propyl)formimidoyl]-4-methylphenol (HL[prime]) have been unambiguously characterized from their [sup 1]H NMR spectra. The copper(II) dinuclear compound [CuL[prime](OH)](ClO[sub 4])[sub 2][center dot]H[sub 2]O obtained from this di(Schiff base) has been synthesized, and its crystal structure has been solved. 36 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Infrared absorption of 1-chloro-2-methyl-2-propyl [ṡC(CH3)2CH2Cl] and 2-chloro-2-methylpropyl [ṡCH2C(CH3)2Cl] radicals produced in the addition reactions of Cl with isobutene (i-C4H8) in solid para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Ching-Yin; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2016-10-01

    The addition reactions of chlorine atom with isobutene (i-C4H8) in solid para-hydrogen (p-H2) were investigated with infrared (IR) absorption spectra. When a p-H2 matrix containing Cl2 and isobutene was irradiated with ultraviolet light at 365 nm, intense lines in a set at 534.5, 1001.0, 1212.9, 1366.0, 2961.6, and 2934.7 cm-1, and several weaker others due to the 1-chloro-2-methyl-2-propyl radical, ṡC(CH3)2CH2Cl, and those in a second set including intense ones at 642.7, 799.2, 1098.2, 1371.8, and 3027.3 cm-1 due to the 2-chloro-2-methylpropyl radical, ṡCH2C(CH3)2Cl, appeared; the ratio of ṡC(CH3)2CH2Cl to ṡCH2C(CH3)2Cl was approximately (3 ± 1):1. The observed wavenumbers and relative intensities agree with the vibrational wavenumbers and IR intensities predicted with the B3PW91/aug-cc-pVTZ method. That the Cl atom adds to both carbons of the C=C bond of isobutene with the terminal site slightly favored is consistent with the energies of products predicted theoretically, but is in contrast to the reaction of Cl + propene in solid p-H2 in which the addition of Cl to mainly the central C atom was previously reported. The role of the p-H2 matrix in affecting the reaction paths is discussed. Absorption lines of the complex i-C4H8ṡCl2 and the dichloro-product anti-1,2-dichloro-2-methylpropane, a-CH2ClCCl(CH3)2, are also characterized.

  7. Metabolism of 2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenyl 3-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]propyl ether (pyridalyl) in rats after repeated oral administration and a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in brown and white adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Nagahori, Hirohisa; Matsunaga, Haruyuki; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Isobe, Naohiko; Kaneko, Hideo

    2010-05-01

    Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats received repeated oral administration of 14C-2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenyl 3- [5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]propyl ether (14C-pyridalyl) at 5 mg/kg/day for 14 consecutive days, and 14C excretion, 14C concentration in tissues, and the metabolic fate were determined. Most 14C was excreted into feces. The 14C concentrations in the blood and tissues attained steady-state levels at days 6 to 10, whereas those in white adipose tissues increased until day 14. Tissue 14C concentrations were highest in brown and white adipose tissue (38.37-57.50 ppm) but were 5.60 ppm or less in all the other tissues. Total 14C residues in blood and tissues on the 27th day after the first administration accounted for 2.6 to 3.2% of the total dose. A major fecal metabolite resulted from O-dealkylation. Analysis of metabolites in tissues revealed that the majority of 14C in perirenal adipose tissue and lungs was pyridalyl, accounting for greater than 90 and 60%, respectively, of the total, whereas a major metabolite in whole blood, kidneys, and liver was a dehalogenated metabolite. The experimental data were simulated with simple physiologically based pharmacokinetics using four-compartment models with assumption of lymphatic absorption and membrane permeability in adipose tissues. The different kinetics in brown and white adipose tissues was reasonably predicted in this model, with large distribution volume in adipose tissues and high hepatic clearance in liver. Sex-related difference of pyridalyl concentration in liver was considered to be a result of different unbound fraction times the hepatic intrinsic clearance (f x CL(int)) of 1.8 and 12 l/h for male and female, respectively. PMID:20164113

  8. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  9. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  10. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  11. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  12. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  13. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  14. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  15. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  16. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  17. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  18. [Safety of folic acid].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Improving dietary folate intake is a central public health goal. However, critical voices have become louder warning of too high intake of folic acid. Safety concerns of a high folic acid exposure are usually limited to synthetic folic acid contained in drugs and food supplements. Against this background, the present article focuses on two matters: (a) How do the absorption and metabolism of synthetic folic acid differ from that of other folates? (b) How has the longterm safety of folic acid to be judged, especially regarding the risk of colorectal cancer, autism, asthma, impaired immune defence, masking vitamin B12 deficiency and interactions with the methotrexate metabolism?

  19. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  20. Influence of gallic acid esters on drug-metabolizing enzymes of rat liver.

    PubMed

    Depner, M; Kahl, G F; Kahl, R

    1982-10-01

    The effect of three antioxidants, propyl, octyl and dodecyl gallate, on hepatic drug metabolism in male rats was studied in vivo and in vitro. When fed at a dietary concentration of 1% for 14 days, only dodecyl gallate increased relative liver weight. Cytochrome P-450 content was not influenced, but a slight increase in cytochrome b5 content was observed after the feeding of propyl gallate. Monooxygenase activity (benzo[a]pyrene-hydroxylase and ethoxycoumarin-deethylase activities) was not affected by propyl or octyl gallate, but a significant decrease in benzo[a]pyrene-hydroxylase activity was apparent in rats fed dodecyl gallate. Study of benzo[a]pyrene-metabolite formation in liver microsome preparations from control and propyl gallate-treated rats showed an overall decrease in metabolite production following gallate treatment, the decrease being statistically significant for the formation of the 9,10-dihydrodiol. Epoxide-hydratase activity was enhanced by a factor of 1.5 in rats fed propyl gallate; glutathione-transferase activity was unaffected. In vitro, the gallates proved to be potent inhibitors of ethoxycoumarin deethylation in liver microsomes from untreated and phenobarbital-treated rats; however, when cytochrome P-448 had been induced by pretreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene, ethoxycoumarin deethylase was less sensitive to the inhibitory action of the gallates.

  1. Glycidol exposure evaluation of humans who have ingested diacylglycerol oil containing glycidol fatty acid esters using hemoglobin adducts.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hiroshi; Fujii, Kenkichi; Yamaguchi, Tohru; Ikeda, Naohiro; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Kasamatsu, Toshio

    2012-11-01

    Glycidol fatty acid esters (GEs) have been found as impurities in refined edible oils including diacylglycerol (DAG) oil, and concerns of possible exposure to glycidol (G), a known animal carcinogen, during digestion have been raised. We previously measured N-(2,3-dihydroxy-propyl)valine (diHOPrVal), a G hemoglobin adduct, for DAG oil exposed and non-exposed groups and showed there was no significant difference between them. In the present study, we conducted an additional analysis to verify the outcome of the previous report. The first experiment was designed as a matched case-control study to adjust variables with an increased sample size. The average levels of diHOPrVal were 6.9 pmol/g-globin (95%CI: 4.9-9.0) for 14 DAG oil exposed subjects and 7.3 pmol/g-globin (95%CI: 6.1-8.5) for 42 non-exposed volunteers, and no significant difference in levels was found between the two groups. In a second experiment, we compared the adduct levels of 12 DAG oil exposed subjects before and after discontinuing use of DAG oil, and found there was no significant change in diHOPrVal levels (from 7.1±1.1 to 7.5±1.4 pmol/g-globin). These results suggest that there was no increased exposure to G for humans who ingested DAG oil daily, although the evaluated population was limited.

  2. Measurement of glycidol hemoglobin adducts in humans who ingest edible oil containing small amounts of glycidol fatty acid esters.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hiroshi; Onishi, Masayuki; Fujii, Kenkichi; Ikeda, Naohiro; Yamaguchi, Tohru; Fujimori, Taketoshi; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Kasamatsu, Toshio

    2011-10-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts are frequently used to address and/or monitor exposure to reactive chemicals. Glycidol (G), a known animal carcinogen, has been reported to form Hb adducts. Here, we measure G adduct levels in humans who daily ingest DAG oil, an edible oil consisting mainly of diacylglycerol. Since DAG oil contains a small amount of glycidol fatty acid esters (GEs), possible exposure to G released from GEs has been raised as a possible concern. For measurement of Hb adducts, we employed the N-alkyl Edman method reported by Landin et al. (1996) using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with minor modifications to detect G-Hb adducts as N-(2,3-dihydroxy-propyl)valine (diHOPrVal). Blood samples were collected from 7 DAG oil users and 6 non-users, and then G-Hb adduct levels were measured. G-Hb adducts were detected in all samples. The average level of diHOPrVal was 3.5±1.9pmol/g globin in the DAG oil users and 7.1±3.1pmol/g globin in the non-users. We conclude that there is no increased exposure to G in individuals who daily ingest DAG oil.

  3. Biodiesel production by combined fatty acids separation and subsequently enzymatic esterification to improve the low temperature properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Nie, Kaili; Cao, Hao; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-12-01

    The poor low-temperature properties of biodiesel, which provokes easy crystallization at low temperature, can cause fuel line plugging and limits its blending amount with petro-diesel. This work aimed to study the production of biodiesel with a new process of improving the low temperature performance of biodiesel. Waste cooking oil was first hydrolyzed into fatty acids (FAs) by 60g immobilized lipase and 240g RO water in 15h. Then, urea complexation was used to divide the FAs into saturated and unsaturated components. The conditions for complexation were: FA-to-urea ratio 1:2 (w/w), methanol to FA ratio 5:1 (v/v), duration 2h. The saturated and unsaturated FAs were then converted to iso-propyl and methyl esters by lipase, respectively. Finally, the esters were mixed together. The CFPP of this mixture was decreased from 5°C to -3°C. Hydrolysis, urea complexation and enzymic catalyzed esterification processes are discussed in this paper. PMID:25441717

  4. A study on the effect of the polymeric additive HPMC on morphology and polymorphism of ortho-aminobenzoic acid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simone, E.; Cenzato, M. V.; Nagy, Z. K.

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) on the crystallization of ortho-aminobenzoic acid (OABA) was investigated by seeded and unseeded cooling crystallization experiments. The influence of HPMC on the induction time, crystal shape of Forms I and II of OABA and the polymorphic transformation time was studied. Furthermore, the capability of HPMC to inhibit growth of Form I was evaluated quantitatively and modeled using population balance equations (PBE) solved with the method of moments. The additive was found to strongly inhibit nucleation and growth of Form I as well as to increase the time for the polymorphic transformation from Form II to I. Solvent was also found to influence the shape of Form I crystals at equal concentrations of HPMC. In situ process analytical technology (PAT) tools, including Raman spectroscopy, focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) UV-vis spectroscopy were used in combination with off-line techniques, such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Malvern Mastersizer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study the crystals produced. The results illustrate how shape, size and stability of the two polymorphs of OABA can be controlled and tailored using a polymeric additive.

  5. Cytocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of Short Phosphate Glass Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites: Effect of Coupling Agent Mediated Interface

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew; Walker, Gavin; Scotchford, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In this study three chemical agents Amino-propyl-triethoxy-silane (APS), sorbitol ended PLA oligomer (SPLA) and Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were identified to be used as coupling agents to react with the phosphate glass fibre (PGF) reinforcement and the polylactic acid (PLA) polymer matrix of the composite. Composites were prepared with short chopped strand fibres (l = 20 mm, ϕ = 20 µm) in a random arrangement within PLA matrix. Improved, initial composite flexural strength (~20 MPa) was observed for APS treated fibres, which was suggested to be due to enhanced bonding between the fibres and polymer matrix. Both APS and HDI treated fibres were suggested to be covalently linked with the PLA matrix. The hydrophobicity induced by these coupling agents (HDI, APS) helped to resist hydrolysis of the interface and thus retained their mechanical properties for an extended period of time as compared to non-treated control. Approximately 70% of initial strength and 65% of initial modulus was retained by HDI treated fibre composites in contrast to the control, where only ~50% of strength and modulus was retained after 28 days of immersion in PBS at 37 °C. All coupling agent treated and control composites demonstrated good cytocompatibility which was comparable to the tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) control, supporting the use of these materials as coupling agent’s within medical implant devices. PMID:24955744

  6. Bioactivity Focus of α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) Leads to Effective Multifunctional Aldose Reductase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Laitao; Li, Yi-Fang; Yuan, Sheng; Zhang, Shijie; Zheng, Huanhuan; Liu, Jie; Sun, Pinghua; Gu, Yijun; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong; Chen, Heru

    2016-01-01

    Bioactivity focus on α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) scaffold results in a small library of novel multifunctional aldose reductase (ALR2) inhibitors. All the entities displayed good to excellent inhibition with IC50 72–405 nM. (R,E)-N-(3-(2-acetamido-3-(benzyloxy)propanamido)propyl)-2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxy phenyl)acrylamide (5f) was confirmed as the most active inhibitor (IC50 72.7 ± 1.6 nM), and the best antioxidant. 5f bound to ALR2 with new mode without affecting the aldehyde reductase (ALR1) activity, implicating high selectivity to ALR2. 5f was demonstrated as both an effective ALR2 inhibitor (ARI) and antioxidant in a chick embryo model of hyperglycemia. It attenuated hyperglycemia-induced incidence of neural tube defects (NTD) and death rate, and significantly improved the body weight and morphology of the embryos. 5f restored the expression of paired box type 3 transcription factor (Pax3), and reduced the hyperglycemia-induced increase of ALR2 activity, sorbitol accumulation, and the generation of ROS and MDA to normal levels. All the evidences support that 5f may be a potential agent to treat diabetic complications. PMID:27109517

  7. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  8. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  9. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  10. An Investigation Into Vortioxetine Salts: Crystal Structure, Thermal Stability, and Solubilization.

    PubMed

    He, Sai-Fei; Zhang, Xian-Rui; Zhang, Shuo; Guan, Su; Li, Jing; Li, Shan; Zhang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Three 1:1 salts containing vortioxetine (VOT), an orally antidepressant drug, and 3 aryl monoacids have been designed and successfully prepared by liquid-assisted grinding based on the ΔpKa rule. The C-O bond lengths (∼1.25 Å) in the COOH groups show that the proton transfer has occurred from aryl monoacid to piperazine N1 atom of vortioxetine in the crystal structures. Three salts feature cyclic [2 + 2] structural units through R(4)4 (12) N-H···O hydrogen bonding interactions which result in the remarkable thermal stabilities, and VOT-p-aminobenzoic acid shows 2-dimensional framework by linking cyclic [2 + 2] units through additional hydrogen bonding interactions. The equilibrium solubility of VOT in VOT-p-aminobenzoic acid salt can be largely improved up to 0.50 mg/mL (about 450% above the free base) at 25°C in water, which also accelerates the intrinsic dissolution rate. PMID:27262207

  11. Effects of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene on DNA adduct formation and arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in human bladder tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsueh-Fu; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Hsia, Te-Chun; Chen, Wen-Chi; Hung, Chi-Fu; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2002-01-01

    In this study, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used to determine the inhibition of arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity and DNA adduct formation in human bladder tumour cell line T-24. The activity of NAT was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, assaying for the amounts of N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene and N-acetyl-p-aminobenzoic acid and remaining 2-aminofluorene and p-aminobenzoic acid. Human bladder tumour cell line T-24 cytosols and intact cells were used for examining NAT activity and carcinogen-DNA adduct formation. The results demonstrated that NAT activity and 2-aminofluorene-DNA adduct formation in human bladder tumour cells were inhibited and decreased by BHA and BHT in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of BHA and BHT on the values of the apparent K(m) and V(max) also were determined in both systems examined. The results indicated that BHA and BHT decreased the apparent values of K(m) and V(max) from human bladder tumour cells in both cytosol and intact cells.

  12. Effects of the butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene on the DNA adduct formation and arylamines N-acetyltransferase activity in human colon tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, S H; Chen, G W; Yeh, C C; Hung, C F; Lin, S S; Chung, J G

    2001-01-01

    The effects of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity were examined using a human colon tumor cell line (colo 205). BHA or BHT were added to the cytosols or to the medium of human colon tumor cells: The NAT activity was measured by high performance liquid chromatography, assaying the amounts of acetylated 2-aminoflluorene (AAF), p aminobenzoic acid (N-Ac-PABA), nonacetylated 2 aminofluorene (AF) and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). The NAT activity in the human colon tumor cells and cytosols was suppressed by BHA or BHT in a dose-dependent manner. The apparent values of Km and Vmax of NAT of human colon tumor cells were also decreased by BHA or BHT in cytosols and in intact cells. BHA or BHT may act as a noncompetitive inhibitor. After the incubation of human colon tumor cells with AF in the presence of BHA or BHT, the cells were recovered and DNA was prepared and hydrolysed to nucleotides. Adducted nucleotides were extracted into butanol and AF-DNA adducts were analysed by HPLC. The results also demonstrated that when BHA or BHT was added to the media, a decrease in AF-DNA adduct formation was seen in the human colon tumor cells. The finding of AF-DNA adduct formation in cultured human colon tumor cells suggest the possibility of using cultured cells for assessing arylamine-induced DNA damage.

  13. Effects of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene on DNA adduct formation and arylamines N-acetyltransferase activity in PC-3 cells (human prostate tumor) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yeh, C C; Chung, J G; Wu, H C; Li, Y C; Lee, Y M; Hung, C F

    2000-11-01

    The effects of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity and DNA adduct formation in PC-3 cells (human prostate tumor) was studied. PC-3 cells were placed into tissue culture flasks and grown in an incubator as cytosols and intact cells. The BHA or BHT were added to the cytosols and intact cells. The NAT activity in cytosol and intact PC-3 cells were measured by HPLC assaying exhibited for the amounts of N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene and N-acetyl-p-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminofluorene and p-aminobenzoic acid. The NAT activity in PC-3 cells and cytosols were inhibited by BHA or BHT in a dose-dependent manner; that is, the higher the concentrations of BHA or BHT the higher inhibition of NAT activity. The NAT values of K(m) and V(max) from PC-3 cells were also decreased by BHA or BHT in both cytosols and intact cells. The data also demonstrated concomitant exposure to BHA or BHT decreased AF-DNA adduct formation which was seen in the PC-3 cells. In addition, the formation of DNA adduct was decreased after BHA or BHT exposure. These findings suggested the usefulness of using human cultured PC-3 cells for assessing arylamine-induced DNA adduct formation. Furthermore, the findings illustrate how effectively BHA or BHT reduce the adduct formation.

  14. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  15. Biotransformation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid by plant cell cultures of Eucalyptus perriniana.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, Hisashi; Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Hamada, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformations of phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were investigated with plant-cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana. The plant-cultured cells of E. perriniana converted cinnamic acid into cinnamic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, p-coumaric acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid. p-Coumaric acid was converted into 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid, p-coumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, a new compound, caffeic acid, and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid. On the other hand, incubation of caffeic acid with cultured E. perriniana cells gave 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 3-O-(6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, a new compound, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, ferulic acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid. 4-O-β-D-Glucopyranosylferulic acid, ferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester were isolated from E. perriniana cells treated with ferulic acid.

  16. Amelioration of adverse effects of valproic acid on ketogenesis and liver coenzyme A metabolism by cotreatment with pantothenate and carnitine in developing mice: possible clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Thurston, J H; Hauhart, R E

    1992-04-01

    Very young children with organic brain damage, intractable seizures, and developmental retardation are at particular risk of developing fatal hepatic dysfunction coincident with valproate therapy, especially if the children are also receiving other anticonvulsant drugs. The mechanism of valproate-associated hepatic failure in these children is unclear. There are two major theories of etiology. The first concerns the manyfold consequences of depletion of CoA due to sequestration into poorly metabolized valproyl CoA and valproyl CoA metabolites. The other theory proposes that the unsaturated valproate derivative 2-n-propyl-4-pentenoic acid and/or metabolically activated intermediates are toxic and directly cause irreversible inhibition of enzymes of beta-oxidation. The present study shows for the first time that in developing mice, when panthothenic acid and carnitine are administered with valproate, at least some of the effects of valproate are mitigated. Perhaps most importantly, the beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration in plasma and the free CoA and acetyl CoA levels in liver do not fall so low. Cotreatment with carnitine alone was without effect. Findings support the CoA depletion mechanism of valproate inhibition of beta-oxidation and other CoA- and acetyl CoA-requiring enzymic reactions and stress the role of carnitine in the regulation of CoA synthesis at the site of action of pantothenate kinase. PMID:1570210

  17. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  18. Well acidizing compositions and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B. L.

    1980-12-23

    Gelled acidic compositions suitable for matrix acidizing or fracture acidizing of subterranean formations are provided comprising water, a water-dispersible polymeric viscosifier such as a polymer of acrylamide, an acid, and a polyphenolic material such as lignite.

  19. Bile acids but not acidic acids induce Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongfeng; Wang, Xiao; Gai, Zhibo; Song, Xiaoming; Jia, Xinyong; Tian, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is associated with the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Bile acids (BAs) refluxing into the esophagus contribute to esophageal injury, which results in BE and subsequent EAC. We developed two animal models to test the role of BAs in the pathogenesis of BE. We surgically generated BA reflux, with or without gastric acid, in rats. In a second experiment, we fed animals separately with BAs and gastric acid. Pathologic changes were examined and the expression of Muc2 and Cdx2 in BE tissue was tested by immunostaining. Inflammatory factors in the plasma, as well as differentiation genes in BE were examined through highly sensitive ELISA and semi-quantitative RT-PCR techniques. We found that BAs are sufficient for the induction of esophagitis and Barrett's-like metaplasia in the esophagus. Overexpression of inflammatory cells, IL-6, and TNF-α was observed both in animals fed with BAs and surgically generated BA reflux. Furthermore, elevated levels of Cdx2, Muc2, Bmp4, Kit19, and Tff2 (differentiation genes in BE) were found in BA-treated rats. In conclusion, BAs, but not gastric acid, are a major causative factor for BE. We confirmed that BAs contribute to the development of BE by inducing the inflammatory response in the esophagus. Inhibiting BAs may be a promising therapy for BE.

  20. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  1. Contact sensitizers modulate the arachidonic acid metabolism of PMA-differentiated U-937 monocytic cells activated by LPS

    SciTech Connect

    Del Bufalo, Aurelia; Bernad, Jose; Dardenne, Christophe; Verda, Denis; Meunier, Jean Roch; Rousset, Francoise; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Pipy, Bernard

    2011-10-01

    For the effective induction of a hapten-specific T cell immune response toward contact sensitizers, in addition to covalent-modification of skin proteins, the redox and inflammatory statuses of activated dendritic cells are crucial. The aim of this study was to better understand how sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response through cytokines production and COX metabolism cascade. To address this purpose, we used the human monocytic-like U-937 cell line differentiated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and investigated the effect of 6 contact sensitizers (DNCB, PPD, hydroquinone, propyl gallate, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) and 3 non sensitizers (lactic acid, glycerol and tween 20) on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha}) and on the arachidonic acid metabolic profile after bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results showed that among the tested molecules, all sensitizers specifically prevent the production of PMA/LPS-induced COX-2 metabolites (PGE{sub 2,} TxB{sub 2} and PGD{sub 2}), eugenol and cinnamaldehyde inhibiting also the production of IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha}. We further demonstrated that there is no unique PGE{sub 2} inhibition mechanism: while the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids does not appear do be a target of modulation, COX-2 expression and/or COX-2 enzymatic activity are the major steps of prostaglandin synthesis that are inhibited by sensitizers. Altogether these results add a new insight into the multiple biochemical effects described for sensitizers. - Highlights: > We investigated how contact sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response. > We used macrophage-differentiated cell line, U-937 treated with PMA/LPS. > Sensitizers specifically inhibit the production of COX metabolites (PGE2, TxB2). > Several mechanisms of inhibition: COX-2 expression/enzymatic activity, isomerases. > New insight in the biochemical properties of sensitizers.

  2. Acid-Base Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S

    2015-12-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3(-) is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys.

  3. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  4. Amino acids and proteins.

    PubMed

    van Goudoever, Johannes B; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R D

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional requirements are not met, resulting in a postnatal growth restriction. However, current knowledge on adequate levels of both amino acid as well as protein intake can avoid under nutrition in the direct postnatal phase, avoid the need for subsequent catch-up growth and improve later outcome.

  5. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  6. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  7. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  8. 2-substituted thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids as prodrugs of L-cysteine. Protection of mice against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, H.T.; Goon, D.J.; Muldoon, W.P.; Zera, R.T.

    1984-05-01

    A number of 2-alkyl- and 2-aryl-substituted thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids were evaluated for their protective effect against hepatotoxic deaths produced in mice by LD/sub 90/ doses of acetaminophen. 2(RS)-Methyl-, 2(RS)-n-propyl-, and 2(RS)-n- pentylthiazolidine -4(R)-carboxylic acids (compounds 1b,d,e, respectively) were nearly equipotent in their protective effect based on the number of surviving animals at 48 h as well as by histological criteria. 2(RS)-Ethyl-, 2(RS)-phenyl-, and 2(RS)-(4-pyridyl)thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids (compounds 1c,f,g) were less protective. The enantiomer of 1b, viz., 2(RS)- methylthiazolidine -4(S)-carboxylic acid (2b), was totally ineffective in this regard. Thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acid (1a), but not its enantiomer, 2a, was a good substrate for a solubilized preparation of rat liver mitochondrial proline oxidase (K/sub m/ 1.1 x 10(-4) M; V/sub max/ . 5.4 mumol min-1 (mg of protein)-1). Compound 1b was not a substrate for proline oxidase but dissociated to L-cysteine in this system. At physiological pH and temperature, the hydrogens on the methyl group of 1b underwent deuterium exchange with solvent D/sub 2/O (k1 . 2.5 X 10(-5) s), suggesting that opening of the thiazolidine ring must have taken place. Indeed, 1b labeled with /sup 14/C in the 2 and methyl positions was rapidly metabolized by the rat to produce /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, 80% of the dose being excreted in this form in the expired air after 24 h. It is suggested that these 2-substituted thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids are prodrugs of L-cysteine that liberate this sulfhydryl amino acid in vivo by nonenzymatic ring opening, followed by solvolysis.

  9. Protective effects of hydroxybenzoic acids and their esters on cell damage induced by hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxides.

    PubMed

    Masaki, H; Okamoto, N; Sakaki, S; Sakurai, H

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of hydroxybenzoic acids and their esters from both chemical and biological aspects. These activities of hydroxybenzoic acids and their related compounds were estimated by ESR-spin trapping method, in which 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid and its ethyl and propyl esters showed the highest activities as estimated by IC50 value (50% inhibition concentration of hydroxyl radicals generated in the system): 78.04 +/- 11.23, 95.95 +/- 2.64, and 86.46 +/- 2.31 microM, respectively. In addition, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (gallic acid) at a concentration of 25 microM, protected against dermal fibroblast cell damage induced by H2O2, and enhanced the survival to 83.8 +/- 3.1%, in which the survival of control was 44.2 +/- 1.0%. Based on these results, the pretreatment effects of 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid n-alkyl esters on cell damage induced by H2O2 were examined. The survival of fibroblasts pretreated with the esters increased depending on the alkyl chain-length. Both C12 and C16 alkyl esters gave almost complete cell survival of 89.5 +/- 2.0% and 91.3 +/- 1.0%, respectively. The order of the protective effects of the compounds was in good agreement with that of their partition coefficients, suggesting that 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid alkyl esters are incorporated into fibroblasts, and thus prevent the cells from the toxicity caused by H2O2. In addition, an increase of intracellular peroxide formation in fibroblasts induced by UVA-irradiation, was suppressed to 2.27 +/- 0.41 nmol/10(4) cells by pretreatment with C16 alkyl ester at a concentration of 25 microM. Since 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic group has been demonstrated to possess a potent scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals, this moiety was indicated to be important in preventing cell damage induced by UVA or H2O2: in turn, these produce hydroxyl radicals in the presence of trace metal ions such as iron and copper in cells.

  10. 1D and 2D assembly structures by imidazole···chloride hydrogen bonds of iron(II) complexes [Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))3]Cl·Y (HL(n-Pr) = 2-methylimidazol-4-yl-methylideneamino-n-propyl; Y = AsF6, BF4) and their spin states.

    PubMed

    Fujinami, Takeshi; Nishi, Koshiro; Matsumoto, Naohide; Iijima, Seiichiro; Halcrow, Malcolm A; Sunatsuki, Yukinari; Kojima, Masaaki

    2011-12-01

    Two Fe(II) complexes fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)]Cl·Y (Y = AsF(6) (1) and BF(4) (2)) were synthesized, where HL(n-Pr) is 2-methylimidazole-4-yl-methylideneamino-n-propyl. Each complex-cation has the same octahedral N(6) geometry coordinated by three bidentate ligands and assumes facial-isomerism, fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+) with Δ- and Λ-enantiomorphs. Three imidazole groups per Δ- or Λ-fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+) are hydrogen-bonded to three Cl(-) ions or, from the viewpoint of the Cl(-) ion, one Cl(-) ion is hydrogen-bonded to three neighbouring fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+) cations. The 3 : 3 NH···Cl(-) hydrogen bonds between Δ- or Λ-fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+) and Cl(-) generate two kinds of assembly structures. The directions of the 3 : 3 NH···Cl(-) hydrogen bonds and hence the resulting assembly structures are determined by the size of the anion Y, though Y is not involved into the network structure and just accommodated in the cavity. Compound 1 has a 1D ladder structure giving a larger cavity, in which the Δ- and Λ-fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+) enantiomorphs are bridged by two NH···Cl(-) hydrogen bonds. Compound 2 has a 2D network structure with a net unit of a cyclic trimer of {fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+)···Cl(-)}(3) giving a smaller cavity, in which Δ- or Λ-fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+) species with the same chirality are linked by NH···Cl(-) hydrogen bonds to give a homochiral 2D network structure. Magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer spectral measurements demonstrated that compound 1 showed an abrupt one-step spin crossover with 4.0 K thermal hysteresis of T(c↓) = 125.5 K and T(c↑) = 129.5 K and compound 2 showed no spin transition and stayed in the high-spin state over the 5-300 K temperature range.

  11. Substrate Specificity and Ligand Interactions of CYP26A1, the Human Liver Retinoic Acid Hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Jayne E.; Buttrick, Brian; Shaffer, Scott A.; Shimshoni, Jakob A.; Goodlett, David R.; Nelson, Wendel L.

    2011-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is the active metabolite of vitamin A. atRA is also used as a drug, and synthetic atRA analogs and inhibitors of retinoic acid (RA) metabolism have been developed. The hepatic clearance of atRA is mediated primarily by CYP26A1, but design of CYP26A1 inhibitors is hindered by lack of information on CYP26A1 structure and structure-activity relationships of its ligands. The aim of this study was to identify the primary metabolites of atRA formed by CYP26A1 and to characterize the ligand selectivity and ligand interactions of CYP26A1. On the basis of high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry data, four metabolites formed from atRA by CYP26A1 were identified as 4-OH-RA, 4-oxo-RA, 16-OH-RA and 18-OH-RA. 9-cis-RA and 13-cis-RA were also substrates of CYP26A1. Forty-two compounds with diverse structural properties were tested for CYP26A1 inhibition using 9-cis-RA as a probe, and IC50 values for 10 inhibitors were determined. The imidazole- and triazole-containing inhibitors [S-(R*,R*)]-N-[4-[2-(dimethylamino)-1-(1H-imidazole-1-yl)propyl]-phenyl]2-benzothiazolamine (R116010) and (R)-N-[4-[2-ethyl-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butyl]phenyl]-2-benzothiazolamine (R115866) were the most potent inhibitors of CYP26A1 with IC50 values of 4.3 and 5.1 nM, respectively. Liarozole and ketoconazole were significantly less potent with IC50 values of 2100 and 550 nM, respectively. The retinoic acid receptor (RAR) γ agonist CD1530 was as potent an inhibitor of CYP26A1 as ketoconazole with an IC50 of 530 nM, whereas the RARα and RARβ agonists tested did not significantly inhibit CYP26A1. The pan-RAR agonist 4-[(E)-2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)-1-propenyl]benzoic acid and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands rosiglitazone and pioglitazone inhibited CYP26A1 with IC50 values of 3.7, 4.2, and 8.6 μM, respectively. These data demonstrate that CYP26A1 has high ligand selectivity but accepts structurally related nuclear

  12. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  13. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  14. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  15. Uric acid - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... High levels of uric acid can sometimes cause gout or kidney disease. You may have this test if you have had or are about to have certain types of chemotherapy. Rapid weight loss, which may occur with such treatments, can increase the amount of uric acid in ...

  16. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  17. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  19. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  20. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat skin conditions that involve scaling or overgrowth of skin ... water for 15 minutes.Do not apply topical salicylic acid to skin that is broken, red, swollen, irritated, or infected. ...

  1. Uric acid and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Feig, Daniel I

    2011-09-01

    A link between serum uric acid and the development of hypertension was first hypothesized in the 1870s. Although numerous epidemiologic studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested an association, relatively little attention was paid to it until recently. Animal models have suggested a two-step pathogenesis by which uric acid initially activates the renin angiotensin system and suppresses nitric oxide, leading to uric acid-dependent increase in systemic vascular resistance, followed by a uric acid-mediated vasculopathy, involving renal afferent arterioles, resulting in a late sodium-sensitive hypertension. Initial clinical trials in young patients have supported these mechanisms in young patients but do not yet support pharmacologic reduction of serum uric acid as first-line therapy for hypertension.

  2. Biosynthesis of pulcherriminic acid

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    1. Candida pulcherrima was grown on a complex medium to which various compounds had been added to determine their effect on the biosynthesis of pulcherriminic acid. Most of the pulcherriminic acid synthesized by C. pulcherrima PRL2019 was derived from the l-[1-14C]leucine added to the medium. 2. The cyclic dipeptide of l-leucine (cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl) was shown, by trapping experiments involving cycloleucyl-leucyl isomers, to be synthesized by strain PRL2019. Cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl was derived from l-leucine and was converted into pulcherriminic acid. Cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl was a precursor of pulcherriminic acid in strain PRL2007 also. 3. The results supported the hypothesis that pulcherriminic acid is derived from l-leucine and that cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl is an intermediate in the biosynthesis. PMID:5837792

  3. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ω-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers. PMID:25321346

  4. Positive and Negative Allosteric Modulation of an α1β3γ2 γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A (GABAA) Receptor by Binding to a Site in the Transmembrane Domain at the γ+-β- Interface.

    PubMed

    Jayakar, Selwyn S; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Savechenkov, Pavel Y; Chiara, David C; Desai, Rooma; Bruzik, Karol S; Miller, Keith W; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2015-09-18

    In the process of developing safer general anesthetics, isomers of anesthetic ethers and barbiturates have been discovered that act as convulsants and inhibitors of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) rather than potentiators. It is unknown whether these convulsants act as negative allosteric modulators by binding to the intersubunit anesthetic-binding sites in the GABAAR transmembrane domain (Chiara, D. C., Jayakar, S. S., Zhou, X., Zhang, X., Savechenkov, P. Y., Bruzik, K. S., Miller, K. W., and Cohen, J. B. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288, 19343-19357) or to known convulsant sites in the ion channel or extracellular domains. Here, we show that S-1-methyl-5-propyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl) barbituric acid (S-mTFD-MPPB), a photoreactive analog of the convulsant barbiturate S-MPPB, inhibits α1β3γ2 but potentiates α1β3 GABAAR responses. In the α1β3γ2 GABAAR, S-mTFD-MPPB binds in the transmembrane domain with high affinity to the γ(+)-β(-) subunit interface site with negative energetic coupling to GABA binding in the extracellular domain at the β(+)-α(-) subunit interfaces. GABA inhibits S-[(3)H]mTFD-MPPB photolabeling of γ2Ser-280 (γM2-15') in this site. In contrast, within the same site GABA enhances photolabeling of β3Met-227 in βM1 by an anesthetic barbiturate, R-[(3)H]methyl-5-allyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl)barbituric acid (mTFD-MPAB), which differs from S-mTFD-MPPB in structure only by chirality and two hydrogens (propyl versus allyl). S-mTFD-MPPB and R-mTFD-MPAB are predicted to bind in different orientations at the γ(+)-β(-) site, based upon the distance in GABAAR homology models between γ2Ser-280 and β3Met-227. These results provide an explanation for S-mTFD-MPPB inhibition of α1β3γ2 GABAAR function and provide a first demonstration that an intersubunit-binding site in the GABAAR transmembrane domain binds negative and positive allosteric modulators.

  5. Positive and Negative Allosteric Modulation of an α1β3γ2 γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A (GABAA) Receptor by Binding to a Site in the Transmembrane Domain at the γ+-β− Interface*

    PubMed Central

    Jayakar, Selwyn S.; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Chiara, David C.; Desai, Rooma; Bruzik, Karol S.; Miller, Keith W.; Cohen, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    In the process of developing safer general anesthetics, isomers of anesthetic ethers and barbiturates have been discovered that act as convulsants and inhibitors of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) rather than potentiators. It is unknown whether these convulsants act as negative allosteric modulators by binding to the intersubunit anesthetic-binding sites in the GABAAR transmembrane domain (Chiara, D. C., Jayakar, S. S., Zhou, X., Zhang, X., Savechenkov, P. Y., Bruzik, K. S., Miller, K. W., and Cohen, J. B. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288, 19343–19357) or to known convulsant sites in the ion channel or extracellular domains. Here, we show that S-1-methyl-5-propyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl) barbituric acid (S-mTFD-MPPB), a photoreactive analog of the convulsant barbiturate S-MPPB, inhibits α1β3γ2 but potentiates α1β3 GABAAR responses. In the α1β3γ2 GABAAR, S-mTFD-MPPB binds in the transmembrane domain with high affinity to the γ+-β− subunit interface site with negative energetic coupling to GABA binding in the extracellular domain at the β+-α− subunit interfaces. GABA inhibits S-[3H]mTFD-MPPB photolabeling of γ2Ser-280 (γM2–15′) in this site. In contrast, within the same site GABA enhances photolabeling of β3Met-227 in βM1 by an anesthetic barbiturate, R-[3H]methyl-5-allyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl)barbituric acid (mTFD-MPAB), which differs from S-mTFD-MPPB in structure only by chirality and two hydrogens (propyl versus allyl). S-mTFD-MPPB and R-mTFD-MPAB are predicted to bind in different orientations at the γ+-β− site, based upon the distance in GABAAR homology models between γ2Ser-280 and β3Met-227. These results provide an explanation for S-mTFD-MPPB inhibition of α1β3γ2 GABAAR function and provide a first demonstration that an intersubunit-binding site in the GABAAR transmembrane domain binds negative and positive allosteric modulators. PMID:26229099

  6. Gluconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  7. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  8. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  9. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  10. Effect of cross-linking reagents for hyaluronic acid hydrogel dermal fillers on tissue augmentation and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Junseok; Bhang, Suk Ho; Kim, Byung-Soo; Seo, Moo Seok; Hwang, Eui Jin; Cho, Il Hwan; Park, Jung Kyu; Hahn, Sei Kwang

    2010-02-17

    A novel, biocompatible, and nontoxic dermal filler using hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels was successfully developed for tissue augmentation applications. Instead of using highly reactive cross-linkers such as divinyl sulfone (DVS) for Hylaform, 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) for Restylane, and 1,2,7,8-diepoxyoctane (DEO) for Puragen, HA hydrogels were prepared by direct amide bond formation between the carboxyl groups of HA and hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) with an optimized carboxyl group modification for effective tissue augmentation. The HA-HMDA hydrogels could be prepared within 5 min by the addition of HMDA to HA solution activated with 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDC) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole monohydrate (HOBt). Five kinds of samples, a normal control, a negative control, a positive control of Restylane, adipic acid dihydrazide grafted HA (HA-ADH) hydrogels, and HA-HMDA hydrogels, were subcutaneously injected to wrinkled model mice. According to the image analysis on dorsal skin augmentation, the HA-HMDA hydrogels exhibited the best tissue augmentation effect being stable longer than 3 months. Furthermore, histological analyses after hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and Masson's trichrome staining revealed the excellent biocompatibility and safety of HA-HMDA hydrogels. The dermal thickness and the dermal collagen density in wrinkled mice after treatment with HA-HMDA hydrogels for 12 weeks were comparable to those of normal mice. Compared with HA-DVS hydrogels and Restylane, the excellent tissue augmentation by HA-HMDA hydrogels might be ascribed to the biocompatible residues of amine groups in the cross-linker of HMDA. The HA-HMDA hydrogels will be investigated further as a novel dermal filler for clinical applications.

  11. Effect of cross-linking reagents for hyaluronic acid hydrogel dermal fillers on tissue augmentation and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Junseok; Bhang, Suk Ho; Kim, Byung-Soo; Seo, Moo Seok; Hwang, Eui Jin; Cho, Il Hwan; Park, Jung Kyu; Hahn, Sei Kwang

    2010-02-17

    A novel, biocompatible, and nontoxic dermal filler using hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels was successfully developed for tissue augmentation applications. Instead of using highly reactive cross-linkers such as divinyl sulfone (DVS) for Hylaform, 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) for Restylane, and 1,2,7,8-diepoxyoctane (DEO) for Puragen, HA hydrogels were prepared by direct amide bond formation between the carboxyl groups of HA and hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) with an optimized carboxyl group modification for effective tissue augmentation. The HA-HMDA hydrogels could be prepared within 5 min by the addition of HMDA to HA solution activated with 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDC) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole monohydrate (HOBt). Five kinds of samples, a normal control, a negative control, a positive control of Restylane, adipic acid dihydrazide grafted HA (HA-ADH) hydrogels, and HA-HMDA hydrogels, were subcutaneously injected to wrinkled model mice. According to the image analysis on dorsal skin augmentation, the HA-HMDA hydrogels exhibited the best tissue augmentation effect being stable longer than 3 months. Furthermore, histological analyses after hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and Masson's trichrome staining revealed the excellent biocompatibility and safety of HA-HMDA hydrogels. The dermal thickness and the dermal collagen density in wrinkled mice after treatment with HA-HMDA hydrogels for 12 weeks were comparable to those of normal mice. Compared with HA-DVS hydrogels and Restylane, the excellent tissue augmentation by HA-HMDA hydrogels might be ascribed to the biocompatible residues of amine groups in the cross-linker of HMDA. The HA-HMDA hydrogels will be investigated further as a novel dermal filler for clinical applications. PMID:20078098

  12. Selective adsorption and chiral amplification of amino acids in vermiculite clay-implications for the origin of biochirality.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Donald G; Fitz, Daniel; Jakschitz, T; Rode, Bernd M

    2011-01-21

    Smectite clays are hydrated layer silicates that, like micas, occur naturally in abundance. Importantly, they have readily modifiable interlayer spaces that provide excellent sites for nanochemistry. Vermiculite is one such smectite clay and in the presence of small chain-length alkyl-NH(3)Cl ions forms sensitive, 1-D ordered model clay systems with expandable nano-pore inter-layer regions. These inter-layers readily adsorb organic molecules. n-Propyl NH(3)Cl vermiculite clay gels were used to determine the adsorption of alanine, lysine and histidine by chiral HPLC. The results show that during reaction with fresh vermiculite interlayers, significant chiral enrichment of either L- and D-enantiomers occurs depending on the amino acid. Chiral enrichment of the supernatant solutions is up to about 1% per pass. In contrast, addition to clay interlayers already reacted with amino acid solutions resulted in little or no change in D/L ratio during the time of the experiment. Adsorption of small amounts of amphiphilic organic molecules in clay inter-layers is known to produce Layer-by-Layer or Langmuir-Blodgett films. Moreover atomistic simulations show that self-organization of organic species in clay interlayers is important. These non-centrosymmetric, chirally active nanofilms may cause clays to act subsequently as chiral amplifiers, concentrating organic material from dilute solution and having different adsorption energetics for D- and L-enantiomers. The additional role of clays in RNA oligomerization already postulated by Ferris and others, together with the need for the organization of amphiphilic molecules and lipids noted by Szostak and others, suggests that such chiral separation by clays in lagoonal environments at normal biological temperatures might also have played a significant role in the origin of biochirality.

  13. Understanding acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Budiansky, S.

    1981-06-01

    The complexities of the phenomenon of acid rain are described. Many factors, including meteorology, geology, chemistry, and biology, all play parts. Varying weather, varying soils, the presence of other pollutants and species differences all act to blur the connections between industrial emissions, acid rain, and environmental damage. Some experts believe that the greatest pH shock to lakes occurs during snow melt and runoff in the spring; others believe that much of the plant damage ascribed to acid rain is actually due to the effects of ozone. Much work needs to be done in the area of sampling. Historical data are lacking and sampling methods are not sufficiently accurate. (JMT)

  14. Understanding Acid Base Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Hernando; Kellum, John A

    2015-10-01

    The concentration of hydrogen ions is regulated in biologic solutions. There are currently 3 recognized approaches to assess changes in acid base status. First is the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch approach, also called the physiologic approach, which uses the relationship between HCO3(-) and Pco2; the second is the standard base excess approach based on the Van Slyke equation. The third approach is the quantitative or Stewart approach, which uses the strong ion difference and the total weak acids. This article explores the origins of the current concepts framing the existing methods to analyze acid base balance.

  15. Acid rain and soil.

    PubMed

    vanLoon, G W

    1984-08-01

    A summary of important chemical properties of soil is given and the way in which acid rain may affect these properties is discussed. Acid rain may suppress microbiological decomposition and nitrification processes, thus influencing the nutrient status of soils. It has also been found that soil organic matter is less soluble in more acid solutions. Changed nutrient availability patterns are predicted in a low pH environment and enhanced leaching of essential elements from the soil exchange complex has been observed. Increased solubility of potentially toxic elements such as aluminium may also occur from soils which have been exposed to acidified rainfall.

  16. Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aspiration Syndrome Additional Content Medical News Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism By Lee M. Sanders, MD, MPH NOTE: ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Amino acids are ...

  17. Pantothenic acid and biotin

    MedlinePlus

    ... well as other nutrients, are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board ... level that is thought to ensure enough nutrition. Dietary Reference Intakes for pantothenic acid: Age 0 to 6 months: ...

  18. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup ...

  19. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  20. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Women who ... take more if they have a history of neural tube defects in earlier pregnancies. Ask your provider ...

  1. Nitric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms from swallowing nitric acid may include: Abdominal pain - severe Burns to skin or mouth Drooling Fever Mouth pain - severe Rapid drop in blood pressure (shock) Throat swelling, which leads to breathing difficulty ...

  2. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated. PMID:27189091

  3. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  4. Hyaluronic acid fillers.

    PubMed

    Monheit, Gary D; Coleman, Kyle M

    2006-01-01

    Although hyaluronic acids are a relatively new treatment for facial lines and wrinkles, they have provided numerous advances in the area of cosmetic surgery. This article discusses the inherent properties of hyaluronic acid fillers that make them ideal for treatment of facial lines. It encompasses a review of the current literature on U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved hyaluronic acid fillers and the role that each of these fillers currently has in facial cosmetics. This article also discusses the potential pitfalls and adverse effects that can be associated with using hyaluronic acids for filling facial lines. Finally, it serves as an overview of current techniques for clinical assessment of patients as well as administration and treatment of facial lines and wrinkles.

  5. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Borax poisoning ... The main symptoms of boric acid poisoning are blue-green vomit, diarrhea, and a bright red rash on the skin. Other symptoms may include: Blisters Collapse Coma Convulsions Drowsiness ...

  6. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  7. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the skin that result from exposure to sunlight and can develop into skin cancer) of the ... acid will make your skin very sensitive to sunlight (likely to get sunburn). Avoid exposure of treated ...

  8. Amino Acids and Chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  9. (Acid rain workshop)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.

    1990-12-05

    The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

  10. Folic acid in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... a regular supply of the vitamin in the foods you eat. ... vitamins have been added to the food. Many foods are now fortified with folic acid. Some of these are enriched breads, cereals, flours, ...

  11. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the treatment of epilepsy, and to treat bipolar disorder and migraines. I have been taking valproic acid ... that women with seizure disorders and women with bipolar disorder might have menstrual problems and difficulty getting pregnant. ...

  12. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... The test is used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Normal Results The ... level of citric acid may mean renal tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. ...

  13. Folic Acid Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... more easily than natural food folate. Close × Answer: D CORRECT: Folic acid reduces the risk for spina ... g., orange juice and green vegetables). Close × Answer: D CORRECT: Spina bifida and anencephaly are neural tube ...

  14. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin or eyes, you may have: Blisters Burns Pain Vision loss Hydrofluoric acid poisoning can have ... urine tests Camera down the throat to see burns in the esophagus and the stomach (endoscopy) Fluids ...

  15. Nutrient supplements boost yeast transformation efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sheng-Chun; Dawson, Alexander; Henderson, Alyssa C.; Lockyer, Eloise J.; Read, Emily; Sritharan, Gayathri; Ryan, Marjah; Sgroi, Mara; Ngou, Pok M.; Woodruff, Rosie; Zhang, Ruifeng; Ren Teen Chia, Travis; Liu, Yu; Xiang, Yiyu; Spanu, Pietro D.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency of yeast transformation is determined by the rate of yeast endocytosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of introducing amino acids and other nutrients (inositol, adenine, or p-aminobenzoic acid) in the transformation medium to develop a highly efficient yeast transformation protocol. The target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) kinase signalling complex influences the rate of yeast endocytosis. TORC signaling is induced by amino acids in the media. Here, we found that increasing the concentration of amino acids and other nutrients in the growth media lead to an increase yeast transformation efficiency up to 107 CFU per μg plasmid DNA and per 108 cells with a 13.8 kb plasmid DNA. This is over 130 times that of current published methods. This improvement may facilitate more efficient experimentation in which transformation efficiency is critical, such as yeast two-hybrid screening. PMID:27760994

  16. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    PubMed

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies.

  17. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination. PMID:26227050

  18. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  19. Utilization of acid tars

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, A.F.; Denisova, T.L.; Aminov, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Freshly produced acid tar (FPAT), obtained as refinery waste in treating petroleum oils with sulfuric acid and oleum, contains 80% or more sulfuric acid. Of such tars, pond acid tars, which contain up to 80% neutral petroleum products and sulfonated resins, are more stable, and have found applications in the production of binders for paving materials. In this article the authors are presenting results obtained in a study of the composition and reactivity of FPAT and its stability in storage in blends with asphalts obtained in deasphalting operations, and the possibility of using the FPAT in road construction has been examined. In this work, wastes were used which were obtained in treating the oils T-750, KhF-12, I-8A, and MS-14. Data on the change in group chemical composition of FPAT are shown, and the acidity, viscosity, needle penetration, and softening point of acid tars obtained from different grades of oils are plotted as functions of the storage time. It is also shown that the fresh and hardened FPATs differ in their solubilities in various solvents.

  20. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.