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Sample records for p-coumaric acid pca

  1. Absorption and emission behaviour of trans- p-coumaric acid in aqueous solutions and some organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putschögl, M.; Zirak, P.; Penzkofer, A.

    2008-01-01

    The absorption and fluorescence behaviour of trans- p-coumaric acid ( trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) is investigated in buffered aqueous solution over a wide range from pH 1 to pH 12, in un-buffered water, and in some organic solvents. Absorption cross-section spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, and degrees of fluorescence polarisation are measured. p-Coumaric acid exists in different ionic forms in aqueous solution depending on the pH. There is an equilibrium between the neutral form ( p-CAH 2) and the single anionic form ( p-CAH -) at low pH (p Kna ≈ 4.9), and between the single anionic and the double anionic form ( p-CA 2-) at high pH (p Kaa ≈ 9.35). In the organic solvents studied trans- p-coumaric acid is dissolved in its neutral form. The fluorescence quantum yield of trans- p-coumaric acid in aqueous solution is ϕF ≈ 1.4 × 10 -4 for the neutral and the single anionic form, while it is ϕF ≈ 1.3 × 10 -3 for the double anionic form. For trans- p-coumaric acid in organic solvents fluorescence quantum yields in the range from 4.8 × 10 -5 (acetonitrile) to 1.5 × 10 -4 (glycerol) were measured. The fluorescence spectra are 7700-10,000 cm -1 Stokes shifted in aqueous solution, and 5400-8200 cm -1 Stokes shifted in the studied organic solvents. Decay paths responsible for the low fluorescence quantum yields are discussed (photo-isomerisation and internal conversion for p-CA 2-, solvent-assisted intra-molecular charge-transfer or ππ ∗ to nπ ∗ transfer and internal conversion for p-CAH 2 and p-CAH -). The solvent dependence of the first ππ ∗ electronic transition frequency and of the fluorescence Stokes shift of p-CAH 2 is discussed in terms of polar solute-solvent interaction effects. Thereby the ground-state and excite-state molecular dipole moments are extracted.

  2. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of p-coumaric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliç, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim

    2013-11-01

    p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid), a phenolic acid, is a hydroxyl derivative of cinnamic acid. It decreases low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation and reduces the risk of stomach cancer. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of p-coumaric acid were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. p-Coumaric acid inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 66.8%, 69.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, p-coumaric acid had an effective DPPHrad scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that p-coumaric acid can be used in the pharmacological and food industry because of these properties.

  3. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of p-coumaric acid.

    PubMed

    Kiliç, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim

    2013-11-01

    p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid), a phenolic acid, is a hydroxyl derivative of cinnamic acid. It decreases low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation and reduces the risk of stomach cancer. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of p-coumaric acid were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe(3+)) reducing ability. p-Coumaric acid inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 66.8%, 69.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, p-coumaric acid had an effective DPPH scavenging, ABTS(+) scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe(3+)) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that p-coumaric acid can be used in the pharmacological and food industry because of these properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Release kinetics of esterified p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid from rice straw in mild alkaline solution.

    PubMed

    Linh, Tran Ngoc; Fujita, Hirokata; Sakoda, Akiyoshi

    2017-05-01

    The release kinetics of esterified p-coumaric acid (PCA) and ferulic acid (FA) from rice straw under a mild alkaline condition were investigated to collect fundamental data for the design of a recovery process. The results showed that the straw size, NaOH concentration, and temperature were the key parameters governing release kinetics. The analysis demonstrated that FA is released considerably faster than PCA. The close relationship between lignin and the PCA dissolution indicates a reciprocal and/or simultaneous release. Moreover, PCA is broadly distributed in the lignin network but tends to be located more densely in the lignin fraction which is not easily solubilized by alkaline treatment. In contrast, the release of FA is strongly affected by removal of lignin fraction which is easily solubilized. These results suggest that the release kinetics are controlled by the accessibility of NaOH to their ester sites in the lignin/hemicellulose network, and by their localization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuroprotective effect of p-coumaric acid in rat model of embolic cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Guven, Mustafa; Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Akman, Tarik; Sen, Halil Murat; Ozkan, Adile; Salis, Osman; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Kalkan, Yildiray; Silan, Coskun; Deniz, Mustafa; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Stroke poses a crucial risk for mortality and morbidity. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of p-coumaric acid on focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Material and Methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely Group I (control rats), Group II (ischemia rats), Group III (6 hr ischemia + p-coumaric acid rats) and Group IV (24 hr ischemia + p-coumaric acid rats). Cerebral ischemia was induced via intraluminal monofilament occlusion model. In all groups, the brain was removed after the procedure and rats were sacrificed. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and nuclear respiratory factor-1 were measured in the ischemic hemisphere. The histopathological changes were observed in the right hemisphere within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. Results: Following the treatment, biochemical factors changed significantly. Histopathologically, it was shown that p-coumaric acid decreased the oxidative damage. The neurological deficit scores of p-coumaric acid-treated rats were significantly improved after cerebral ischemia. Conclusion: Our results showed that p-coumaric acid is a neuroprotective agent on account of its strong anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic features. Moreover, p-coumaric acid decreased the focal ischemia. Extra effort should be made to introduce p-coumaric acid as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for treatment of human cerebral ischemia in the future. PMID:26019798

  6. Metabolic effects of p-coumaric acid in the perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Lima, Leonardo C N; Buss, Gisele D; Ishii-Iwamoto, Emy L; Salgueiro-Pagadigorria, Clairce; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Bracht, Adelar; Constantin, Jorgete

    2006-01-01

    The p-coumaric acid, a phenolic acid, occurs in several plant species and, consequently, in many foods and beverages of vegetable origin. Its antioxidant activity is well documented, but there is also a single report about an inhibitory action on the monocarboxylate carrier, which operates in the plasma and mitochondrial membranes. The latter observation suggests that p-coumaric acid could be able to inhibit gluconeogenesis and related parameters. The present investigation was planned to test this hypothesis in the isolated and hemoglobin-free perfused rat liver. Transformation of lactate and alanine into glucose (gluconeogenesis) in the liver was inhibited by p-coumaric acid (IC50 values of 92.5 and 75.6 microM, respectively). Transformation of fructose into glucose was inhibited to a considerably lower degree (maximally 28%). The oxygen uptake increase accompanying gluconeogenesis from lactate was also inhibited. Pyruvate carboxylation in isolated intact mitochondria was inhibited (IC50 = 160.1 microM); no such effect was observed in freeze-thawing disrupted mitochondria. Glucose 6-phosphatase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase were not inhibited. In isolated intact mitochondria, p-coumaric acid inhibited respiration dependent on pyruvate oxidation but was ineffective on respiration driven by succinate and beta-hydroxybutyrate. It can be concluded that inhibition of pyruvate transport into the mitochondria is the most prominent primary effect of p-coumaric acid and also the main cause for gluconeogenesis inhibition. The existence of additional actions of p-coumaric acid, such as enzyme inhibitions and interference with regulatory mechanisms, cannot be excluded. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A Review of Analytical Methods for p-Coumaric Acid in Plant-Based Products, Beverages, and Biological Matrices.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Paula Scanavez; Victorelli, Francesca Damiani; Fonseca-Santos, Bruno; Chorilli, Marlus

    2018-05-14

    p-Coumaric acid (p-CA), also known as 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, is a phenolic acid, which has been widely studied due to its beneficial effects against several diseases and its wide distribution in the plant kingdom. This phenolic compound can be found in the free form or conjugated with other molecules; therefore, its bioavailability and the pathways via which it is metabolized change according to its chemical structure. p-CA has potential pharmacological effects because it has high free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, and antimicrobial activities, among other biological properties. It is therefore essential to choose the most appropriate and effective analytical method for qualitative and quantitative determination of p-CA in different matrices, such as plasma, urine, plant extracts, and drug delivery systems. The most-reported analytical method for this purpose is high-performance liquid chromatography, which is mostly coupled with some type of detectors, such as UV/Vis detector. However, other analytical techniques are also used to evaluate this compound. This review presents a summary of p-CA in terms of its chemical and pharmacokinetic properties, pharmacological effects, drug delivery systems, and the analytical methods described in the literature that are suitable for its quantification.

  8. Events associated with apoptotic effect of p-Coumaric acid in HCT-15 colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the events associated with the apoptotic effect of p-Coumaric acid, one of the phenolic components of honey, in human colorectal carcinoma (HCT-15) cells. METHODS: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tertazolium-bromide assay was performed to determine the antiproliferative effect of p-Coumaric acid against colon cancer cells. Colony forming assay was conducted to quantify the colony inhibition in HCT 15 and HT 29 colon cancer cells after p-Coumaric acid treatment. Propidium Iodide staining of the HCT 15 cells using flow cytometry was done to study the changes in the cell cycle of treated cells. Identification of apoptosis was done using scanning electron microscope and photomicrograph evaluation of HCT 15 cells after exposing to p-Coumaric acid. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of HCT 15 cells exposed to p-Coumaric acid was evaluated using 2’, 7’-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate. Mitochondrial membrane potential of HCT-15 was assessed using rhodamine-123 with the help of flow cytometry. Lipid layer breaks associated with p-Coumaric acid treatment was quantified using the dye merocyanine 540. Apoptosis was confirmed and quantified using flow cytometric analysis of HCT 15 cells subjected to p-Coumaric acid treatment after staining with YO-PRO-1. RESULTS: Antiproliferative test showed p-Coumaric acid has an inhibitory effect on HCT 15 and HT 29 cells with an IC50 (concentration for 50% inhibition) value of 1400 and 1600 μmol/L respectively. Colony forming assay revealed the time-dependent inhibition of HCT 15 and HT 29 cells subjected to p-Coumaric acid treatment. Propidium iodide staining of treated HCT 15 cells showed increasing accumulation of apoptotic cells (37.45 ± 1.98 vs 1.07 ± 1.01) at sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle after p-Coumaric acid treatment. HCT-15 cells observed with photomicrograph and scanning electron microscope showed the signs of apoptosis like blebbing and shrinkage after p-Coumaric acid exposure. Evaluation

  9. Grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) catalyze the in vitro enzymatic hydroxylation of p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid.

    PubMed

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S

    2009-12-01

    The ability of grape skins to catalyze in vitro conversion of p-coumaric acid to the more potent antioxidant caffeic acid was studied. Addition of different concentrations of p-coumaric to red grape skins (Cabernet Sauvignon) resulted in formation of caffeic acid. This caffeic acid formation (Y) correlated positively and linearly to p-coumaric acid consumption (X): Y = 0.5 X + 9.5; R (2) = 0.96, P < 0.0001. The kinetics of caffeic acid formation with time in response to initial p-coumaric acid levels and at different grape skin concentrations, indicated that the grape skins harboured an o-hydroxylation activity, proposedly a monophenol- or a flavonoid 3'-monooxygenase activity (EC 1.14.18.1 or EC 1.14.13.21). The K (m) of this crude o-hydroxylation activity in the red grape skin was 0.5 mM with p-coumaric acid.

  10. Differential Effects of Methoxylated p-Coumaric Acids on Melanoma in B16/F10 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hoon Seok; Lee, Nam-Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu; Shin, Dong-Bum

    2015-01-01

    As an approach to search for chemopreventive agents, we tested p-coumaric acid, 3-methoxy-p-coumaric acid (ferulic acid), and 3,5-dimethoxy-p-coumaric acid (sinapic acid) in B16/F10 melanoma cells. Intracellular melanin contents were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and cytotoxicity of the compounds were examined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. p-Coumaric acid showed inhibitory effect on melanogenesis, but ferulic acid increased melanin content, and sinapic acid had almost no effect on melanogenesis. Treatment with ferulic acid resulted in a 2 to 3 fold elevation in the production of melanin. Correlatively, cell viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner when treated with ferulic acid. However, ferulic acid did not affect the LDH release from the cells. Treatment with sinapic acid resulted in a 50~60% elevation in the release of LDH when treated with a 200 μg/mL concentration and showed neither cytostasis nor increase of melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, p-coumaric acid inhibits melanogenesis, ferulic acid induces melanogenesis, and sinapic acid exerts cytotoxic effects in B16/F10 murine melanoma cells. The results indicate that the addition of methoxy groups to p-coumaric acid shows the melanogenic or cytotoxic effects in melanoma cells compared to the original compound. Therefore, this study suggests the possibility that methoxylated p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid can be used as a chemopreventive agent. PMID:25866753

  11. p-Coumaric acid and its conjugates: dietary sources, pharmacokinetic properties and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Pei, Kehan; Ou, Juanying; Huang, Junqing; Ou, Shiyi

    2016-07-01

    p-Coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid) is a phenolic acid that has low toxicity in mice (LD50 = 2850 mg kg(-1) body weight), serves as a precursor of other phenolic compounds, and exists either in free or conjugated form in plants. Conjugates of p-coumaric acid have been extensively studied in recent years due to their bioactivities. In this review, the occurrence, bioavailability and bioaccessibility of p-coumaric acid and its conjugates with mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides, alkyl alcohols, organic acids, amine and lignin are discussed. Their biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antivirus, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet aggregation, anxiolytic, antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-arthritis activities, and their mitigatory effects against diabetes, obesity, hyperlipaemia and gout are compared. Cumulative evidence from multiple studies indicates that conjugation of p-coumaric acid greatly strengthens its biological activities; however, the high biological activity but low absorption of its conjugates remains a puzzle. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Gallic acid and p-coumaric acid attenuate type 2 diabetes-induced neurodegeneration in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Yousef, Ahmed I; Abd El-Twab, Sanaa M; Abdel Reheim, Eman S; Ashour, Mohamed B

    2017-08-01

    The brain of diabetics revealed deterioration in many regions, especially the hippocampus. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of gallic acid and p-coumaric acid against the hippocampal neurodegeneration in type 2 diabetic rats. Adult male albino rats were randomly allocated into four groups: Group 1 served as control ones and others were induced with diabetes. Group 2 considered as diabetic, and groups 3 and 4 were further orally treated with gallic acid (20 mg/kg b.wt./day) and p-coumaric acid (40 mg/kg b.wt./day) for six weeks. Diabetic rats revealed significant elevation in the levels of serum glucose, blood glycosylated hemoglobin and serum tumor necrosis factor-α, while the level of serum insulin was significantly declined. Furthermore, the brain of diabetic rats showed a marked increase in oxidative stress and a decrease of antioxidant parameters as well as upregulation the protein expression of Bax and downregulation the protein expression of Bcl-2 in the hippocampus. Treatment of diabetic rats with gallic acid and p-coumaric acid significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance, diminished the brain oxidative stress and improved antioxidant status, declined inflammation and inhibited apoptosis in the hippocampus. The overall results suggested that gallic acid and p-coumaric acid may inhibit hippocampal neurodegeneration via their potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Therefore, both compounds can be recommended as hopeful adjuvant agents against brain neurodegeneration in diabetics.

  13. Catabolism of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yields less toxic products.

    PubMed

    Adeboye, Peter Temitope; Bettiga, Maurizio; Aldaeus, Fredrik; Larsson, Per Tomas; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2015-09-21

    Lignocellulosic substrates and pulping process streams are of increasing relevance to biorefineries for second generation biofuels and biochemical production. They are known to be rich in sugars and inhibitors such as phenolic compounds, organic acids and furaldehydes. Phenolic compounds are a group of aromatic compounds known to be inhibitory to fermentative organisms. It is known that inhibition of Sacchromyces cerevisiae varies among phenolic compounds and the yeast is capable of in situ catabolic conversion and metabolism of some phenolic compounds. In an approach to engineer a S. cerevisiae strain with higher tolerance to phenolic inhibitors, we selectively investigated the metabolic conversion and physiological effects of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aerobic batch cultivations were separately performed with each of the three phenolic compounds. Conversion of each of the phenolic compounds was observed on time-based qualitative analysis of the culture broth to monitor various intermediate and final metabolites. Coniferyl aldehyde was rapidly converted within the first 24 h, while ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid were more slowly converted over a period of 72 h. The conversion of the three phenolic compounds was observed to involved several transient intermediates that were concurrently formed and converted to other phenolic products. Although there were several conversion products formed from coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, the conversion products profile from the three compounds were similar. On the physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the maximum specific growth rates of the yeast was not affected in the presence of coniferyl aldehyde or ferulic acid, but it was significantly reduced in the presence of p-coumaric acid. The biomass yields on glucose were reduced to 73 and 54 % of the control in the presence of coniferyl aldehyde and ferulic acid, respectively, biomass yield

  14. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of p-coumaric acid in diabetic rats, role of pancreatic GLUT 2: In vivo approach.

    PubMed

    Amalan, Venkatesan; Vijayakumar, Natesan; Indumathi, Dhananjayan; Ramakrishnan, Arumugam

    2016-12-01

    P-coumaric acid (p-CA, 3-[4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-propenoic acid), the major component widely found in nutritious plant foods, has various antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer property. To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic mechanisms, via the effects on carbohydrate, lipids and lipoproteins responses in adult male albino Wistar rats were examined by treated with p-CA. Rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ, 40mg/kg b.w.) by intraperitonially (i.p.) 30days for the induction of experimental diabetes mellitus. Diabetic rats were treated with p-CA orally at a dose of 100mg/kg b.w. The potential defending character of p-CA against diabetic rats was evaluated by performing the various biochemical parameters and glucose transporter such as GLUT2 mRNA expression of pancreas. Administration of p-CA significantly lowers the blood glucose level, gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase whereas increases the activities of hexokinase, glucose-6 phosphatase dehydrogenase and GSH via by increasing level of insulin. p-CA reduces the total cholesterol and triglycerides in both plasma and tissues i.e. liver and kidney. p-CA also decreases the LDL-C, VLDL-C and it considerably increase the level of HDL-C. A significant decreased expression of GLUT 2 mRNA in the pancreas was recorded in the supplementation of p-CA treated groups. Taken together, these results suggest that p-CA modulates glucose and lipid metabolism via GLUT 2 activation in the pancreatic and has potentially beneficial effects in improving or treating metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. p-Coumaric acid enhances long-term potentiation and recovers scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Bum; Lee, Seok; Hwang, Eun-Sang; Maeng, Sungho; Park, Ji-Ho

    2017-10-21

    Due to the improvement of medical level, life expectancy increased. But the increased incidence of cognitive disorders is an emerging social problem. Current drugs for dementia treatment can only delay the progress rather than cure. p-Coumaric acid is a phenylpropanoic acid derived from aromatic amino acids and known as a precursor for flavonoids such as resveratrol and naringenin. It was shown to reduce oxidative stress, inhibit genotoxicity and exert neuroprotection. Based on these findings, we evaluated whether p-coumaric acid can protect scopolamine induced learning and memory impairment by measuring LTP in organotypic hippocampal slice and cognitive behaviors in rats. p-Coumaric acid dose-dependently increased the total activity of fEPSP after high frequency stimulation and attenuated scopolamine-induced blockade of fEPSP in the hippocampal CA1 area. In addition, while scopolamine shortened the step-through latency in the passive avoidance test and prolonged the latency as well as reduced the latency in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze test, co-treatment of p-coumaric acid improved avoidance memory and long-term retention of spatial memory in behavioral tests. Since p-coumaric acid improved electrophysiological and cognitive functional deterioration by scopolamine, it may have regulatory effects on central cholinergic synapses and is expected to improve cognitive problems caused by abnormality of the cholinergic nervous system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuroprotective effect of p-coumaric acid in mice with cerebral ischemia reperfusion injuries.

    PubMed

    Sakamula, Romgase; Thong-Asa, Wachiryah

    2018-06-01

    Cerebral ischemia reperfusion (IR) is associated with neuronal death, which leads to disability and cognitive decline. The pathomechanism occurs because ischemia is exacerbated during the reperfusion period. Neuronal damage susceptibility depends on the affected brain areas and the duration of ischemia. Prevention and supplementation to neurons may help them endure during IR and further benefit them in rehabilitation. We investigated the protective effect of p-coumaric acid (PC) on cerebral IR injuries in mice. We randomly divided 30 male ICR mice into 3 groups of Sham (received vehicle and not induced IR), Control-IR (received vehicle and induced IR) and PC-IR (received 100 mg/kg PC and induced IR). We orally administered vehicle or 100 mg/kg of p-coumaric acid for 2 weeks before inducing the cerebral IR injuries by using 30 min of a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion followed by a 45-min reperfusion. We induced the IR condition in the Control-IR and PC-IR groups but not the Sham group, and only the PC-IR group received p-coumaric acid. After IR induction, we sacrificed all the mice and collected their brain tissues to evaluate their oxidative statuses, whole brain infarctions and vulnerable neuronal deaths. We studied the whole-brain infarction volume by 2, 3, 5-triethyltetrazoliumchloride staining of sections. We performed a histological investigation of the vulnerable neuronal population in the dorsal hippocampus by staining brain sections with 0.1% cresyl violet. The results indicated that IR caused significant increases in calcium and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, whole brain infarction volume and hippocampal neuronal death. Pretreatment with p-coumaric acid significantly reduced MDA levels, whole-brain infarction volume and hippocampal neuronal death together and increased catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. We conclude here that pretreating animals with p-coumaric acid can prevent IR-induced brain oxidative stress, infarction size and

  17. Ascorbyl coumarates as multifunctional cosmeceutical agents that inhibit melanogenesis and enhance collagen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jun Yup; Park, Soojin; Seok, Jin Kyung; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Boo, Yong Chool

    2015-09-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (AA) and p-coumaric acid (p-CA) are naturally occurring antioxidants that are known to enhance collagen synthesis and inhibit melanin synthesis, respectively. The purpose of this study was to examine hybrid compounds between AA and p-CA as multifunctional cosmeceutical agents. Ascorbyl 3-p-coumarate (A-3-p-C), ascorbyl 2-p-coumarate (A-2-p-C), and their parent compounds were tested for their effects on cellular melanin synthesis and collagen synthesis. At 100 μM, A-3-p-C and A-2-p-C decreased melanin content of human dermal melanocytes stimulated by L-tyrosine, by 65 and 59%, respectively, compared to 11% inhibition of AA and 70% inhibition of p-CA. A-3-p-C and A-2-p-C were less effective than p-CA but more effective than AA at inhibiting tyrosinase activity. A-3-p-C and A-2-p-C were more effective than p-CA at inhibiting the autoxidation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. At 100-300 μM, A-3-p-C and A-2-p-C augmented collagen release from human dermal fibroblasts by 120-144% and 125-191%, respectively, compared to 126-133% increase of AA and 120-146% increase of p-CA. They increased procollagen type I C-peptide release (A-3-p-C, and A-2-p-C) like AA, and decreased matrix metalloproteinase 1 level (A-2-p-C) like p-CA, implicating that they might regulate collagen metabolism by multiple mechanisms. This study suggests that A-3-p-C and A-2-p-C could be used as multifunctional cosmeceutical agents for the attenuation of certain aspects of skin aging.

  18. Structural, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman) and theoretical studies of the 1:1 cocrystal of isoniazid with p-coumaric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, N.; Gaddamanugu, Gopikrishna; Anand Solomon, K.

    2013-02-01

    The 1:1 cocrystal of isoniazid (INH) with p-coumaric acid (pCA) has been prepared by slow evaporation method in methanol, which was crystallized in monoclinic P21/n space group having four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The cocrystal has been characterized by single crystal X-ray analysis, FTIR, FT Raman and DFT calculations. The crystal structure was stabilized by Osbnd Hphenol⋯Npyridine, Nsbnd H⋯Odbnd C, COOH⋯Nsbnd H and Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding interactions. The geometry optimized structure of the cocrystal at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory has been used to calculate the vibrational frequencies.

  19. Genetically engineering Synechocystis sp. Pasteur Culture Collection 6803 for the sustainable production of the plant secondary metabolite p-coumaric acid.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yong; Zhang, Yan; Cheng, Dan; Daddy, Soumana; He, Qingfang

    2014-07-01

    p-Coumaric acid is the precursor of phenylpropanoids, which are plant secondary metabolites that are beneficial to human health. Tyrosine ammonia lyase catalyzes the production of p-coumaric acid from tyrosine. Because of their photosynthetic ability and biosynthetic versatility, cyanobacteria are promising candidates for the production of certain plant metabolites, including phenylpropanoids. Here, we produced p-coumaric acid in a strain of transgenic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Pasteur Culture Collection 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis 6803). Whereas a strain of Synechocystis 6803 genetically engineered to express sam8, a tyrosine ammonia lyase gene from the actinomycete Saccharothrix espanaensis, accumulated little or no p-coumaric acid, a strain that both expressed sam8 and lacked slr1573, a native hypothetical gene shown here to encode a laccase that oxidizes polyphenols, produced ∼82.6 mg/L p-coumaric acid, which was readily purified from the growth medium.

  20. Incorporation of p-coumarates into the cell walls of alfalfa changes the lignin composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In general, monocots can contain a significant amount of an ester-linked p-coumarate (pCA) in their cell walls, but its function is unclear. One hypothesis is that pCA aids in the formation of syringyl-rich regions during lignification. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a dicot, is a cultivated perennial f...

  1. Genetically engineering Synechocystis sp. Pasteur Culture Collection 6803 for the sustainable production of the plant secondary metabolite p-coumaric acid

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yong; Zhang, Yan; Cheng, Dan; Daddy, Soumana; He, Qingfang

    2014-01-01

    p-Coumaric acid is the precursor of phenylpropanoids, which are plant secondary metabolites that are beneficial to human health. Tyrosine ammonia lyase catalyzes the production of p-coumaric acid from tyrosine. Because of their photosynthetic ability and biosynthetic versatility, cyanobacteria are promising candidates for the production of certain plant metabolites, including phenylpropanoids. Here, we produced p-coumaric acid in a strain of transgenic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Pasteur Culture Collection 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis 6803). Whereas a strain of Synechocystis 6803 genetically engineered to express sam8, a tyrosine ammonia lyase gene from the actinomycete Saccharothrix espanaensis, accumulated little or no p-coumaric acid, a strain that both expressed sam8 and lacked slr1573, a native hypothetical gene shown here to encode a laccase that oxidizes polyphenols, produced ∼82.6 mg/L p-coumaric acid, which was readily purified from the growth medium. PMID:24927550

  2. Microbial release of ferulic and p-coumaric acids from forages and their digestibility in lactating cows fed total mixed rations with different forage combinations.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bin-Bin; Jin, Xin; Yang, Hong-Jian; Li, Sheng-Li; Jiang, Lin-Shu

    2016-01-30

    Ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (PCA) are widely distributed in graminaceous plant cell walls. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo digestibility of ester-linked FA (FAest) and PCA (PCAest) in lactating dairy cows. Regarding corn stover, ensiled corn stover, whole corn silage, Chinese wild ryegrass and alfalfa hay with different phenolic acid profiles, the in vitro rumen digestibility of forage FAest and PCAest was negatively correlated with the ether-linked FA content and original PCA/FA ratio in the forages. The concentration of both phenolic acids in culture fluids was low after a 72 h incubation, and the mixed rumen microorganisms metabolized nearly all phenolic acids released into the culture fluids. FAest digestibility in the whole digestive tract was negatively correlated with dietary PCA/FA ratio, but a converse result occurred with dietary PCAest digestibility. The digestibility in either the rumen or the whole digestive tract was greater for FAest than for PCAest. Forage PCAest in comparison with FAest is not easily digested in either the rumen or the whole digestive tract, and they were negatively affected by forage FAeth content and lignification extent indicated by the original dietary PCA/FA ratio. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Genomic study of the absorption mechanism of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid of extract of Ananas comosus L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yun-jie; Zhu, Chun-yan

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac disease has emerged as the leading cause of death worldwide, and food rich in phenolic acids has drawn much attention as sources of active substances of hypolipidemic drug. Ananas comosus L. (pineapple) is one of the most popular tropical and subtropical fruits. Isolated from pineapple leaves, EAL(Extract of Ananas Comosus L. Leaves) is rich in phenolic acids, such as p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and other phenolics, highly relevant to the putative cardiovascular-protective effects, which suggests its potential to be a new plant medicine for treatment of cardiac disease, but little is known about absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of EAL in animals or human beings. In this study, we employed cDNA microarray, Caco-2 cell lines, and rat intestinal model to explore the absorption behavior of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid in EAL. The permeation of 2 substances was concentration and time dependent. Results also indicated that monocarboxylic acid transporter was involved in the transepithelial transport of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. p-Coumaric Acid Attenuates UVB-Induced Release of Stratifin from Keratinocytes and Indirectly Regulates Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 Release from Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Jin Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced loss of dermal extracellular matrix is associated with skin photoaging. Recent studies demonstrated that keratinocyte-releasable stratifin (SFN) plays a critical role in skin collagen metabolism by inducing matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) expression in target fibroblasts. In the present study, we examined whether SFN released from UVB-irradiated epidermal keratinocytes increases MMP1 release from dermal fibroblasts, and whether these events are affected by p-coumaric acid (p-CA), a natural phenolic compound with UVB-shielding and antioxidant properties. HaCaT cells were exposed to UVB in the absence and presence of p-CA, and the conditioned medium was used to stimulate fibroblasts in medium transfer experiments. The cells and media were analyzed to determine the expressions/releases of SFN and MMP1. UVB exposure increased SFN release from keratinocytes into the medium. The conditioned medium of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes increased MMP1 release from fibroblasts. The depletion of SFN using a siRNA rendered the conditioned medium of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes ineffective at stimulating fibroblasts to release MMP1. p-CA mitigated UVB-induced SFN expression in keratinocytes, and attenuated the MMP1 release by fibroblasts in medium transfer experiments. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the use of UV absorbers such as p-CA would reduce UV-induced SFN-centered signaling events involved in skin photoaging. PMID:25954129

  5. p-Coumaric Acid Attenuates UVB-Induced Release of Stratifin from Keratinocytes and Indirectly Regulates Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 Release from Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Seok, Jin Kyung; Boo, Yong Chool

    2015-05-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced loss of dermal extracellular matrix is associated with skin photoaging. Recent studies demonstrated that keratinocyte-releasable stratifin (SFN) plays a critical role in skin collagen metabolism by inducing matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) expression in target fibroblasts. In the present study, we examined whether SFN released from UVB-irradiated epidermal keratinocytes increases MMP1 release from dermal fibroblasts, and whether these events are affected by p-coumaric acid (p-CA), a natural phenolic compound with UVB-shielding and antioxidant properties. HaCaT cells were exposed to UVB in the absence and presence of p-CA, and the conditioned medium was used to stimulate fibroblasts in medium transfer experiments. The cells and media were analyzed to determine the expressions/releases of SFN and MMP1. UVB exposure increased SFN release from keratinocytes into the medium. The conditioned medium of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes increased MMP1 release from fibroblasts. The depletion of SFN using a siRNA rendered the conditioned medium of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes ineffective at stimulating fibroblasts to release MMP1. p-CA mitigated UVB-induced SFN expression in keratinocytes, and attenuated the MMP1 release by fibroblasts in medium transfer experiments. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the use of UV absorbers such as p-CA would reduce UV-induced SFN-centered signaling events involved in skin photoaging.

  6. Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn.) (Pers.)

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Ramadoss; Devadasu, Chapala; Srinivasa Babu, Puttagunta

    2015-01-01

    P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.). In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H1 NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water : methanol : glacial acetic acid (65 : 34 : 1 v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310 nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617 min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2–10 μg/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines. PMID:25788944

  7. p-Coumaric acid activates the GABA-A receptor in vitro and is orally anxiolytic in vivo.

    PubMed

    Scheepens, Arjan; Bisson, Jean-Francois; Skinner, Margot

    2014-02-01

    The increasing prevalence and social burden of subclinical anxiety in the western world represents a significant psychosocial and financial cost. Consumers are favouring a more natural and nonpharmacological approach for alleviating the effects of everyday stress and anxiety. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor is the primary mediator of central inhibitory neurotransmission, and GABA-receptor agonists are well known to convey anxiolytic effects. Using an in vitro screening approach to identify naturally occurring phytochemical GABA agonists, we discovered the plant secondary metabolite p-coumaric acid to have significant GABAergic activity, an effect that could be blocked by co-administration of the specific GABA-receptor antagonist, picrotoxin. Oral administration of p-coumaric acid to rodents induced a significant anxiolytic effect in vivo as measured using the elevated plus paradigm, in line with the effects of oral diazepam. Given that p-coumaric acid is reasonably well absorbed following oral consumption in man and is relatively nontoxic, it may be suitable for the formulation of a safe and effective anxiolytic functional food. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. p-Coumaric acid influenced cucumber rhizosphere soil microbial communities and the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum Owen.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingang; Wu, Fengzhi

    2012-01-01

    Autotoxicity of cucumber root exudates or decaying residues may be the cause of the soil sickness of cucumber. However, how autotoxins affect soil microbial communities is not yet fully understood. The aims of this study were to study the effects of an artificially applied autotoxin of cucumber, p-coumaric acid, on cucumber seedling growth, rhizosphere soil microbial communities, and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum Owen (a soil-borne pathogen of cucumber) growth. Abundance, structure and composition of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities were analyzed with real-time PCR, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library methods. Soil dehydrogenase activity and microbial biomass C (MBC) were determined to indicate the activity and size of the soil microflora. Results showed that p-coumaric acid (0.1-1.0 µmol/g soil) decreased cucumber leaf area, and increased soil dehydrogenase activity, MBC and rhizosphere bacterial and fungal community abundances. p-Coumaric acid also changed the structure and composition of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities, with increases in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa Firmicutes, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and fungal taxa Sordariomycete, Zygomycota, and decreases in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa Bacteroidetes, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and fungal taxon Pezizomycete. In addition, p-coumaric acid increased Fusarium oxysporum population densities in soil. These results indicate that p-coumaric acid may play a role in the autotoxicity of cucumber via influencing soil microbial communities.

  9. p-Coumaric Acid Influenced Cucumber Rhizosphere Soil Microbial Communities and the Growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum Owen

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xingang; Wu, Fengzhi

    2012-01-01

    Background Autotoxicity of cucumber root exudates or decaying residues may be the cause of the soil sickness of cucumber. However, how autotoxins affect soil microbial communities is not yet fully understood. Methodology/Principal Findings The aims of this study were to study the effects of an artificially applied autotoxin of cucumber, p-coumaric acid, on cucumber seedling growth, rhizosphere soil microbial communities, and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum Owen (a soil-borne pathogen of cucumber) growth. Abundance, structure and composition of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities were analyzed with real-time PCR, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library methods. Soil dehydrogenase activity and microbial biomass C (MBC) were determined to indicate the activity and size of the soil microflora. Results showed that p-coumaric acid (0.1–1.0 µmol/g soil) decreased cucumber leaf area, and increased soil dehydrogenase activity, MBC and rhizosphere bacterial and fungal community abundances. p-Coumaric acid also changed the structure and composition of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities, with increases in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa Firmicutes, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and fungal taxa Sordariomycete, Zygomycota, and decreases in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa Bacteroidetes, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and fungal taxon Pezizomycete. In addition, p-coumaric acid increased Fusarium oxysporum population densities in soil. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that p-coumaric acid may play a role in the autotoxicity of cucumber via influencing soil microbial communities. PMID:23118972

  10. Caffeic acid, tyrosol and p-coumaric acid are potent inhibitors of 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Vauzour, David; Corona, Giulia; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2010-09-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by a progressive and selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Recent investigations have shown that conjugates such as the 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine, possess strong neurotoxicity and may contribute to the underlying progression of the disease pathology. Although the neuroprotective actions of flavonoids are well reported, that of hydroxycinnamates and other phenolic acids is less established. We show that the hydroxycinnamates caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid, the hydroxyphenethyl alcohol, tyrosol, and a Champagne wine extract rich in these components protect neurons against injury induced by 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine in vitro. The protection induced by these polyphenols was equal to or greater than that observed for the flavonoids, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and quercetin. For example, p-coumaric acid evoked significantly more protection at 1muM (64.0+/-3.1%) than both (-)-epicatechin (46.0+/-4.1%, p<0.05) and (+)-catechin (13.1+/-3.0%, p<0.001) at the same concentration. These data indicate that hydroxycinnamates, phenolic acids and phenolic alcohol are also capable of inducing neuroprotective effects to a similar extent to that seen with flavonoids. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Synergistic antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of nisin in combination with p-coumaric acid against food-borne bacteria Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Bag, A; Chattopadhyay, R R

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate possible antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of a bacteriocin, nisin with two essential oil components linalool and p-coumaric acid in combination against food-borne bacteria Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhimurium. Their inhibition effects on planktonic cells and preformed biofilms were evaluated using microbroth dilution and checkerboard titration methods. Nisin/p-coumaric acid combination showed synergistic effects against planktonic cells of both the studied bacteria, whereas nisin/linalool combination showed synergistic activity against B. cereus and additive effect against S. typhimurium. In preformed biofilms, nisin by itself failed to show >50% antibiofilm efficacy against both the studied bacteria, but in combination with linalool and p-coumaric acid, it exerted >50% antibiofilm efficacy. On the basis of fractional inhibitory concentration indices values, nisin/p-coumaric acid combination exhibited synergistic antibiofilm activity, whereas nisin/linalool combination showed additive effects against preformed biofilms of studied bacteria. The results provide evidence that p-coumaric acid due to its synergistic interactions with nisin against planktonic cells and biofilms of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne bacteria enhanced the antibacterial spectrum of nisin, which subsequently may facilitate their use in the food industry. In the present work, synergistic interactions between a bacteriocin, nisin and essential oil component p-coumaric acid on planktonic cells as well as on biofilms of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne bacteria have been reported. The results of this study provide evidence that nisin/p-coumaric acid combination can be considered as a promising source for development of more potent broad spectrum antimicrobial blend for food preservation, which subsequently may facilitate their use in the food industry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the

  12. Comparative transcriptome assembly and genome-guided profiling for Brettanomyces bruxellensis LAMAP2480 during p-coumaric acid stress.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Liliana; Vera-Wolf, Patricia; Martinez, Claudio; Ugalde, Juan A; Ganga, María Angélica

    2016-09-28

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis has been described as the main contaminant yeast in wine production, due to its ability to convert the hydroxycinnamic acids naturally present in the grape phenolic derivatives, into volatile phenols. Currently, there are no studies in B. bruxellensis which explains the resistance mechanisms to hydroxycinnamic acids, and in particular to p-coumaric acid which is directly involved in alterations to wine. In this work, we performed a transcriptome analysis of B. bruxellensis LAMAP248rown in the presence and absence of p-coumaric acid during lag phase. Because of reported genetic variability among B. bruxellensis strains, to complement de novo assembly of the transcripts, we used the high-quality genome of B. bruxellensis AWRI1499, as well as the draft genomes of strains CBS2499 and0 g LAMAP2480. The results from the transcriptome analysis allowed us to propose a model in which the entrance of p-coumaric acid to the cell generates a generalized stress condition, in which the expression of proton pump and efflux of toxic compounds are induced. In addition, these mechanisms could be involved in the outflux of nitrogen compounds, such as amino acids, decreasing the overall concentration and triggering the expression of nitrogen metabolism genes.

  13. Comparative transcriptome assembly and genome-guided profiling for Brettanomyces bruxellensis LAMAP2480 during p-coumaric acid stress

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Liliana; Vera-Wolf, Patricia; Martinez, Claudio; Ugalde, Juan A.; Ganga, María Angélica

    2016-01-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis has been described as the main contaminant yeast in wine production, due to its ability to convert the hydroxycinnamic acids naturally present in the grape phenolic derivatives, into volatile phenols. Currently, there are no studies in B. bruxellensis which explains the resistance mechanisms to hydroxycinnamic acids, and in particular to p-coumaric acid which is directly involved in alterations to wine. In this work, we performed a transcriptome analysis of B. bruxellensis LAMAP248rown in the presence and absence of p-coumaric acid during lag phase. Because of reported genetic variability among B. bruxellensis strains, to complement de novo assembly of the transcripts, we used the high-quality genome of B. bruxellensis AWRI1499, as well as the draft genomes of strains CBS2499 and0 g LAMAP2480. The results from the transcriptome analysis allowed us to propose a model in which the entrance of p-coumaric acid to the cell generates a generalized stress condition, in which the expression of proton pump and efflux of toxic compounds are induced. In addition, these mechanisms could be involved in the outflux of nitrogen compounds, such as amino acids, decreasing the overall concentration and triggering the expression of nitrogen metabolism genes. PMID:27678167

  14. Preventive effects of p-coumaric acid on cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in electrocardiogram, lipids, and lipoproteins in experimentally induced myocardial infarcted rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, Abhro Jyoti; Stanely Mainzen Prince, P

    2013-10-01

    The present study evaluated the preventive effects of p-coumaric acid on cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in electrocardiogram, lipids, and lipoproteins in experimentally induced myocardial infarcted rats. Rats were pretreated with p-coumaric acid (8 mg/kg body weight) daily for a period of 7 days and then injected with isoproterenol (100mg/kg body weight) on 8th and 9th day to induce myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol was indicated by increased level of cardiac sensitive marker and elevated ST-segments in the electrocardiogram. Also, the levels/concentrations of serum and heart cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids were increased in myocardial infarcted rats. Isoproterenol also increased the levels of serum low density and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. It also enhanced the activity of liver 3-hydroxy-3 methyl glutaryl-Coenzyme-A reductase. p-Coumaric acid pretreatment revealed preventive effects on all the biochemical parameters and electrocardiogram studied in myocardial infarcted rats. The in vitro study confirmed the free radical scavenging property of p-coumaric acid. Thus, p-coumaric acid prevented cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in lipids, lipoproteins, and electrocardiogram, by virtue of its antihypertrophic, antilipidemic, and free radical scavenging effects in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biodegradation of Lignin Monomers Vanillic, p-Coumaric, and Syringic Acid by the Bacterial Strain, Sphingobacterium sp. HY-H.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinxing; Liang, Jidong; Gao, Sha

    2018-05-10

    Many bacterial strains have been demonstrated to biodegrade lignin for contaminant removal or resource regeneration. The goal of this study was to investigate the biodegradation amount and associated pathways of three lignin monomers, vanillic, p-coumaric, and syringic acid by strain Sphingobacterium sp. HY-H. Vanillic, p-coumaric, and syringic acid degradation with strain HY-H was estimated as 88.71, 76.67, and 72.78%, respectively, after 96 h. Correspondingly, the same three monomers were associated with a COD removal efficiency of 87.30, 55.17, and 67.23%, and a TOC removal efficiency of 82.14, 61.03, and 43.86%. The results of GC-MS, HPLC, FTIR, and enzyme activities show that guaiacol and o-dihydroxybenzene are key intermediate metabolites of the vanillic acid and syringic acid degradation. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid is an important intermediate metabolite for p-coumaric and syringic acid degradation. LiP and MnP play an important role in the degradation of lignin monomers and their intermediate metabolites. One possible pathway is that strain HY-H degrades lignin monomers into guaiacol (through decarboxylic and demethoxy reaction) or p-hydroxybenzoic acid (through side-chain oxidation); then guaiacol demethylates to o-dihydroxybenzene. The p-hydroxybenzoic acid and o-dihydroxybenzene are futher through ring cleavage reaction to form small molecule acids (butyric, valproic, oxalic acid, and propionic acid) and alcohols (ethanol and ethanediol), then these acids and alcohols are finally decomposed into CO 2 and H 2 O through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. If properly optimized and controlled, the strain HY-H may play a role in breaking down lignin-related compounds for biofuel and chemical production.

  16. ALD5, PAD1, ATF1 and ATF2 facilitate the catabolism of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Adeboye, Peter Temitope; Bettiga, Maurizio; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    The ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to catabolize phenolic compounds remains to be fully elucidated. Conversion of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid by S. cerevisiae under aerobic conditions was previously reported. A conversion pathway was also proposed. In the present study, possible enzymes involved in the reported conversion were investigated. Aldehyde dehydrogenase Ald5, phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase Pad1, and alcohol acetyltransferases Atf1 and Atf2, were hypothesised to be involved. Corresponding genes for the four enzymes were overexpressed in a S. cerevisiae strain named APT_1. The ability of APT_1 to tolerate and convert the three phenolic compounds was tested. APT_1 was also compared to strains B_CALD heterologously expressing coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas, and an ald5Δ strain, all previously reported. APT_1 exhibited the fastest conversion of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Using the intermediates and conversion products of each compound, the catabolic route of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid in S. cerevisiae was studied in greater detail. PMID:28205618

  17. Extraction and Determination of Trace Amounts of p-Coumaric Acid in Vinegar, Carrot Juice, and Seed Extract from Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.

    PubMed

    Khani, Rouhollah; Rostami, Zeinab; Bagherzade, Ghodsieh; Khojeh, Vahid

    2018-03-01

    In this study, for the monitoring and quantification of p-coumaric acid (p-CA) in vinegar, carrot juice, and seed extract from the plant species Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn, an efficient and low-cost analytical method has been applied. For this purpose, a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method, followed by UV-Vis spectrophotometric detection, was used. To form a cloudy solution, a binary mixture containing ethanol as a disperser solvent and chloroform as an extraction solvent was rapidly injected by syringe into a sample solution containing p-CA. After centrifugation, dilution of the obtained organic phase was done with the proper amount of ethanol, and the phase was transferred into a micro cell for subsequent measurement. Some effective parameters for the DLLME method, such as the volume of disperser solvent and extraction solvent, pH, and salt concentration were inspected by a 24 full factorial central composite design using design Export Software. Under the optimized conditions, linearity was between 10 and 150 ng/mL, and the LOD was 2.3 ng/mL. The results of the proposed method were similar to the obtained results using a GC with flame-ionization detection method.

  18. Combinatorial analysis of enzymatic bottlenecks of L-tyrosine pathway by p-coumaric acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jiwei; Liu, Quanli; Song, Xiaofei; Wang, Hesuiyuan; Feng, Hui; Xu, Haijin; Qiao, Mingqiang

    2017-07-01

    To identify new enzymatic bottlenecks of L-tyrosine pathway for further improving the production of L-tyrosine and its derivatives. When ARO4 and ARO7 were deregulated by their feedback resistant derivatives in the host strains, the ARO2 and TYR1 genes, coding for chorismate synthase and prephenate dehydrogenase were further identified as new important rate-limiting steps. The yield of p-coumaric acid in the feedback-resistant strain overexpressing ARO2 or TYR1, was significantly increased from 6.4 to 16.2 and 15.3 mg l -1 , respectively. Subsequently, we improved the strain by combinatorial engineering of pathway genes increasing the yield of p-coumaric acid by 12.5-fold (from 1.7 to 21.3 mg l -1 ) compared with the wild-type strain. Batch cultivations revealed that p-coumaric acid production was correlated with cell growth, and the formation of by-product acetate of the best producer NK-M6 increased to 31.1 mM whereas only 19.1 mM acetate was accumulated by the wild-type strain. Combinatorial metabolic engineering provides a new strategy for further improvement of L-tyrosine or other metabolic biosynthesis pathways in S. cerevisiae.

  19. Effect of thermal sterilization on ferulic, coumaric and cinnamic acids: dimerization and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Arrieta-Baez, Daniel; Dorantes-Álvarez, Lidia; Martinez-Torres, Rocio; Zepeda-Vallejo, Gerardo; Jaramillo-Flores, Maria Eugenia; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Aparicio-Ozores, Gerardo

    2012-10-01

    Some phenolic compounds, such as ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, exist in the form of free acids, in fruits, rice, corn and other grains. Thermal treatment (121 °C at 15-17 psi) for different times on ferulic, p-coumaric and cinnamic acids as well as equimolar mixtures of these acids was investigated. Ferulic and p-coumaric acids underwent decarboxylation, yielding dimeric products formed through their corresponding radical intermediates, while cinnamic acid was recovered unreacted. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed no cross-dimerization when equimolar mixtures of pairs of hydroxycinnamic acids were treated under the same conditions. Dimers were characterized as (E)-4',4″-(but-1-ene-1,3-diyl)bis(2'-methoxyphenol)) (dimer of 4-vinylguaiacol) and (E)-4,4'-(but-1-ene-1,3-diyl)diphenol) (dimer of 4-vinylphenol) by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Sterilization by thermal processing produced dimers of ferulic and coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of these dimers was greater than that of the respective hydroxycinnamic acids. These results may be relevant for fruits and grains that contain hydroxycinnamic acids and undergo sterilization processes such as canning. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Immunomodulatory and cellular anti-oxidant activities of caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric phenolic acids: a structure-activity relationship study.

    PubMed

    Kilani-Jaziri, Soumaya; Mokdad-Bzeouich, Imen; Krifa, Mounira; Nasr, Nouha; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2017-10-01

    Many studies have been performed to assess the potential utility of natural products as immunomodulatory agents to enhance host responses and to reduce damage to the human body. To determine whether phenolic compounds (caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids) have immunomodulatory effects and clarify which types of immune effector cells are stimulated in vitro, we evaluated their effect on splenocyte proliferation and lysosomal enzyme activity. We also investigated the activity of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). In addition, induction of the cellular antioxidant activity in splenocytes, macrophages, and red blood cells was determined by measuring the fluorescence of the DCF product. The study first results indicated that caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids significantly promote LPS-stimulated splenocyte proliferation, suggesting a potential activation of B cells, and enhanced humoral immune response in hosts treated by the tested natural products. Phenolic acids significantly enhanced the killing activity of isolated NK and CTL cells but had negligible effects on mitogen-induced proliferation of splenic T cells. We showed that caffeic acid enhances lysosomal enzyme activity in murine peritoneal macrophages, suggesting a potential role in activating such cells. Immunomodulatory activity was concomitant with the cellular antioxidant effect in macrophages and splenocytes of caffeic and ferulic acids. We conclude from this study that caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids exhibited an immunomodulatory effect which could be ascribed, in part, to their cytoprotective effect via their antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, these results suggest that these natural products could be potentially used to modulate immune cell functions in physiological and pathological conditions.

  1. Genome‐wide identification of tolerance mechanisms toward p‐coumaric acid in Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Calero, Patricia; Jensen, Sheila I.; Bojanovič, Klara; Lennen, Rebecca M.; Koza, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 has gained increasing biotechnological interest due to its ability to tolerate different types of stress. Here, the tolerance of P. putida KT2440 toward eleven toxic chemical compounds was investigated. P. putida was found to be significantly more tolerant toward three of the eleven compounds when compared to Escherichia coli. Increased tolerance was for example found toward p‐coumaric acid, an interesting precursor for polymerization with a significant industrial relevance. The tolerance mechanism was therefore investigated using the genome‐wide approach, Tn‐seq. Libraries containing a large number of miniTn5‐Km transposon insertion mutants were grown in the presence and absence of p‐coumaric acid, and the enrichment or depletion of mutants was quantified by high‐throughput sequencing. Several genes, including the ABC transporter Ttg2ABC and the cytochrome c maturation system (ccm), were identified to play an important role in the tolerance toward p‐coumaric acid of this bacterium. Most of the identified genes were involved in membrane stability, suggesting that tolerance toward p‐coumaric acid is related to transport and membrane integrity. PMID:29131301

  2. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary structural studies of p-coumaric acid decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez, Héctor; Rivas, Blanca de las; Muñoz, Rosario

    2007-04-01

    The enzyme p-coumaric acid decarboxylase (PDC) from L. plantarum has been recombinantly expressed, purified and crystallized. The structure has been solved at 2.04 Å resolution by the molecular-replacement method. The substrate-inducible p-coumaric acid decarboxylase (PDC) from Lactobacillus plantarum has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and confirmed to possess decarboxylase activity. The recombinant His{sub 6}-tagged enzyme was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 12%(w/v) 2-propanol, 0.2 M sodium acetate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.0 with 0.1 M barium chloride as an additive. Diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.04 Å resolution. Crystals belongedmore » to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 43.15, c = 231.86 Å. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 2.36 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, corresponding to 48% solvent content, which is consistent with the presence of two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure of PDC has been determined by the molecular-replacement method. Currently, the structure of PDC complexed with substrate analogues is in progress, with the aim of elucidating the structural basis of the catalytic mechanism.« less

  3. Photo-Fenton-assisted ozonation of p-Coumaric acid in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, J M; Carmona, M; Durán, A

    2005-08-01

    The degradation of p-Coumaric acid present in olive oil mill wastewater was investigated as a pretreatment stage to obtain more easily biodegradable molecules, with lower toxicity that facilitates subsequent anaerobic digestion. Thus, photo-Fenton-assisted ozonation has been studied and compared with ozonation at alkaline pH and conventional single ultraviolet (UV) and acid ozonation treatments. In the combined process, the overall kinetic rate constant was split into various components: direct oxidation by UV light, direct oxidation by ozone and oxidation by hydroxyl radicals. Molecular and/or radical ozone reaction was studied by conducting the reaction in the presence and absence of tert-butylalcohol at pHs 2, 7 and 9. Ozone oxidation rate increases with pH or by the addition of Fenton reagent and/or UV radiation due to generation of hydroxyl radicals, *OH. Hydrogen peroxide and ferrous ion play a double role during oxidation since at low concentrations they act as initiators of hydroxyl radicals but at high concentrations they act as radical scavengers. Finally, the additional levels of degradation by formation of hydroxyl radicals have been quantified in comparison to the conventional single processes and an equation is proposed for the reaction rate as a function of studied operating variables.

  4. Combined spectroscopic, molecular docking and quantum mechanics study of β-casein and p-coumaric acid interactions following thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Katopo, Lita; Hung, Andrew; Ashton, John; Kasapis, Stefan

    2018-06-30

    The molecular nature of interactions between β-casein and p-coumaric acid was studied following exposure of their solutions to ultra-high temperature (UHT at 145 °C). Interactions were characterised by employing multi-spectroscopic methods, molecular docking and quantum mechanics calculations. FTIR demonstrates that the ligand lies in the vicinity of the protein, hence inverting the absorbance spectrum of the complex. This outcome changes the conformational characteristics of the protein leading to a flexible and open structure that accommodates the phenolic microconstituent. Results are supported by UV-vis, CD and fluorescence quenching showing considerable shifts in spectra with complexation. Molecular docking indicates that there is at least a hydrogen bond between p-coumaric acid and the peptide backbone of isoleucine (Ile27). Quantum mechanics calculations further argue that changes in experimental observations are also due to a covalent interaction in the protein-phenolic adduct, which according to the best predicted binding pose involves the side chain of lysine 47. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Engineering Monolignol p-Coumarate Conjugates into Poplar and Arabidopsis Lignins1

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebecca A.; Gonzales-Vigil, Eliana; Karlen, Steven D.; Park, Ji-Young; Lu, Fachuang; Wilkerson, Curtis G.; Samuels, Lacey; Ralph, John; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2015-01-01

    Lignin acylation, the decoration of hydroxyls on lignin structural units with acyl groups, is common in many plant species. Monocot lignins are decorated with p-coumarates by the polymerization of monolignol p-coumarate conjugates. The acyltransferase involved in the formation of these conjugates has been identified in a number of model monocot species, but the effect of monolignol p-coumarate conjugates on lignification and plant growth and development has not yet been examined in plants that do not inherently possess p-coumarates on their lignins. The rice (Oryza sativa) p-COUMAROYL-Coenzyme A MONOLIGNOL TRANSFERASE gene was introduced into two eudicots, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and poplar (Populus alba × grandidentata), and a series of analytical methods was used to show the incorporation of the ensuing monolignol p-coumarate conjugates into the lignin of these plants. In poplar, specifically, the addition of these conjugates did not occur at the expense of the naturally incorporated monolignol p-hydroxybenzoates. Plants expressing the p-COUMAROYL-Coenzyme A MONOLIGNOL TRANSFERASE transgene can therefore produce monolignol p-coumarate conjugates essentially without competing with the formation of other acylated monolignols and without drastically impacting normal monolignol production. PMID:26511914

  6. Spectrophotometric study of the copigmentation of malvidin 3-O-glucoside with p-coumaric, vanillic and syringic acids.

    PubMed

    Malaj, Naim; De Simone, Bruna Clara; Quartarolo, Angelo Domenico; Russo, Nino

    2013-12-15

    Anthocyanins are a natural source of pigments in plants and their processed food products have become attractive and excellent candidates to replace the synthetic colourants due to their characteristic intense colours and associated health benefits. The intermolecular copigmentation between anthocyanins and other colourless compounds has been reported to be an important way to enhance and stabilise the colour intensity of aqueous solutions. In the present work we report the equilibrium constant, stoichiometric ratio and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) related to the intermolecular copigmentation reactions of the anthocyanin malvidin 3-O-glucoside with one hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid) and two O-methylated hydroxybenzoic acids (vanillic and syringic acid). Different factors which affect their interactions such as copigment concentration, pH and temperature of the medium are examined at two pH levels (pH=2.50 and 3.65) corresponding to those of the major food mediums where these reactions take place (fruit juices, wine, jams etc.). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Commelinid Monocotyledon Lignins Are Acylated by p-Coumarate.

    PubMed

    Karlen, Steven D; Free, Heather C A; Padmakshan, Dharshana; Smith, Bronwen G; Ralph, John; Harris, Philip J

    2018-06-01

    Commelinid monocotyledons are a monophyletic clade differentiated from other monocotyledons by the presence of cell wall-bound ferulate and p -coumarate. The Poaceae, or grass family, is a member of this group, and most of the p -coumarate in the cell walls of this family acylates lignin. Here, we isolated and examined lignified cell wall preparations from 10 species of commelinid monocotyledons from nine families other than Poaceae, including species from all four commelinid monocotyledon orders (Poales, Zingiberales, Commelinales, and Arecales). We showed that, as in the Poaceae, lignin-linked p -coumarate occurs exclusively on the hydroxyl group on the γ-carbon of lignin unit side chains, mostly on syringyl units. Although the mechanism of acylation has not been studied directly in these species, it is likely to be similar to that in the Poaceae and involve BAHD acyl-coenzyme A:monolignol transferases. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrocaffeic and p-coumaric acids, natural phenolic compounds, inhibit UV-B damage in WKD human conjunctival cells in vitro and rabbit eye in vivo.

    PubMed

    Larrosa, Mar; Lodovici, Maura; Morbidelli, Lucia; Dolara, Piero

    2008-10-01

    This paper studied the effect on UV-B ocular damage of 10microM hydrocaffeic acid (HCAF) alone and as a mixture (MIX) (5 microM HCAF+5 microM p-coumaric acid). Since ocular UV-B damage is mediated by reactive oxygen species, the aim was to test if HCAF and MIX could reduce oxidation damage in human conjunctival cells (WKD) in vitro and in cornea and sclera of rabbits in vivo. After UVB irradiation (44 J/m(2)) of WKD cells, 8-oxodG levels in DNA were markedly increased and this effect was attenuated by HCAF and MIX. Rabbit eyes were treated by application of HCAF and MIX drops before UV-B exposure (79 J/m(2)). Corneal and scleral DNA oxidation damage, xanthine-oxidase (XO) activity and malondialdehyde levels (MDA) in corneal tissue and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the aqueous humour were reduced by HCAF alone and in combination with p-coumaric acid, showing their potential as a topical treatment against UV-B damage.

  9. Impact of expressing p-coumaryl transferase in Medicago sativa L. on cell wall chemistry and digestibility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The addition of p-coumaric acid (pCA) to lignin molecules is frequently found in members of the grass family. The role of this addition is not clearly understood, but is thought to potentially aid in the formation of syringyl type lignin. This is because the incorporation is as a conjugate of pCA es...

  10. Commelinid Monocotyledon Lignins Are Acylated by p-Coumarate1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Free, Heather C.A.; Smith, Bronwen G.

    2018-01-01

    Commelinid monocotyledons are a monophyletic clade differentiated from other monocotyledons by the presence of cell wall-bound ferulate and p-coumarate. The Poaceae, or grass family, is a member of this group, and most of the p-coumarate in the cell walls of this family acylates lignin. Here, we isolated and examined lignified cell wall preparations from 10 species of commelinid monocotyledons from nine families other than Poaceae, including species from all four commelinid monocotyledon orders (Poales, Zingiberales, Commelinales, and Arecales). We showed that, as in the Poaceae, lignin-linked p-coumarate occurs exclusively on the hydroxyl group on the γ-carbon of lignin unit side chains, mostly on syringyl units. Although the mechanism of acylation has not been studied directly in these species, it is likely to be similar to that in the Poaceae and involve BAHD acyl-coenzyme A:monolignol transferases. PMID:29724771

  11. Constituents of Propolis: Chrysin, Caffeic Acid, p-Coumaric Acid, and Ferulic Acid Induce PRODH/POX-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell (CAL-27).

    PubMed

    Celińska-Janowicz, Katarzyna; Zaręba, Ilona; Lazarek, Urszula; Teul, Joanna; Tomczyk, Michał; Pałka, Jerzy; Miltyk, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    Propolis evokes several therapeutic properties, including anticancer activity. These activities are attributed to the action of polyphenols. Previously it has been demonstrated, that one of the most abundant polyphenolic compounds in ethanolic extracts of propolis are chrysin, caffeic acid, p -coumaric acid, and ferulic acid. Although their pro-apoptotic activity on human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells (CAL-27) was established previously, the detailed mechanism of this process remains unclear. Considering the crucial role of proline metabolism and proline dehydrogenase/proline oxidase (PRODH/POX) in the regulation of cancer cell survival/apoptosis, we studied these processes in polyphenol-treated CAL-27 cells. All studied polyphenols evoked anti-proliferative activity, accompanied by increased PRODH/POX, P53, active caspases-3 and -9 expressions and decreased collagen biosynthesis, prolidase activity and proline concentration in CAL-27 cells. These data suggest that polyphenols of propolis induce PRODH/POX-dependent apoptosis through up-regulation of mitochondrial proline degradation and down-regulation of proline utilization for collagen biosynthesis.

  12. Constituents of Propolis: Chrysin, Caffeic Acid, p-Coumaric Acid, and Ferulic Acid Induce PRODH/POX-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell (CAL-27)

    PubMed Central

    Celińska-Janowicz, Katarzyna; Zaręba, Ilona; Lazarek, Urszula; Teul, Joanna; Tomczyk, Michał; Pałka, Jerzy; Miltyk, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    Propolis evokes several therapeutic properties, including anticancer activity. These activities are attributed to the action of polyphenols. Previously it has been demonstrated, that one of the most abundant polyphenolic compounds in ethanolic extracts of propolis are chrysin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid. Although their pro-apoptotic activity on human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells (CAL-27) was established previously, the detailed mechanism of this process remains unclear. Considering the crucial role of proline metabolism and proline dehydrogenase/proline oxidase (PRODH/POX) in the regulation of cancer cell survival/apoptosis, we studied these processes in polyphenol-treated CAL-27 cells. All studied polyphenols evoked anti-proliferative activity, accompanied by increased PRODH/POX, P53, active caspases-3 and -9 expressions and decreased collagen biosynthesis, prolidase activity and proline concentration in CAL-27 cells. These data suggest that polyphenols of propolis induce PRODH/POX-dependent apoptosis through up-regulation of mitochondrial proline degradation and down-regulation of proline utilization for collagen biosynthesis. PMID:29681859

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Bacilli Degrading Cinnamic, 4-Coumaric, and Ferulic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xue; Misawa, Norihiko; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-four thermophilic Bacillus sp. strains were isolated from decayed wood bark and a hot spring water sample based on their ability to degrade vanillic acid under thermophilic conditions. It was found that these bacteria were able to degrade a wide range of aromatic acids such as cinnamic, 4-coumaric, 3-phenylpropionic, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic, ferulic, benzoic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids. The metabolic pathways for the degradation of these aromatic acids at 60°C were examined by using one of the isolates, strain B1. Benzoic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were detected as breakdown products from cinnamic and 4-coumaric acids, respectively. The β-oxidative mechanism was proposed to be responsible for these conversions. The degradation of benzoic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids was determined to proceed through catechol and gentisic acid, respectively, for their ring fission. It is likely that a non-β-oxidative mechanism is the case in the ferulic acid catabolism, which involved 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-β-hydroxypropionic acid, vanillin, and vanillic acid as the intermediates. Other strains examined, which are V0, D1, E1, G2, ZI3, and H4, were found to have the same pathways as those of strain B1, except that strains V0, D1, and H4 had the ability to transform 3-hydroxybenzoic acid to gentisic acid, which strain B1 could not do. PMID:12620824

  14. 3-Aminoquinoline/p-coumaric acid as a MALDI matrix for glycopeptides, carbohydrates, and phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Yuko; Funakoshi, Natsumi; Takeyama, Kohei; Hioki, Yusaku; Nishikaze, Takashi; Kaneshiro, Kaoru; Kawabata, Shin-Ichirou; Iwamoto, Shinichi; Tanaka, Koichi

    2014-02-18

    Glycosylation and phosphorylation are important post-translational modifications in biological processes and biomarker research. The difficulty in analyzing these modifications is mainly their low abundance and dissociation of labile regions such as sialic acids or phosphate groups. One solution in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry is to improve matrices for glycopeptides, carbohydrates, and phosphopeptides by increasing the sensitivity and suppressing dissociation of the labile regions. Recently, a liquid matrix 3-aminoquinoline (3-AQ)/α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) (3-AQ/CHCA), introduced by Kolli et al. in 1996, has been reported to increase sensitivity for carbohydrates or phosphopeptides, but it has not been systematically evaluated for glycopeptides. In addition, 3-AQ/CHCA enhances the dissociation of labile regions. In contrast, a liquid matrix 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidium (TMG, G) salt of p-coumaric acid (CA) (G3CA) was reported to suppress dissociation of sulfate groups or sialic acids of carbohydrates. Here we introduce a liquid matrix 3-AQ/CA for glycopeptides, carbohydrates, and phosphopeptides. All of the analytes were detected as [M + H](+) or [M - H](-) with higher or comparable sensitivity using 3-AQ/CA compared with 3-AQ/CHCA or 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB). The sensitivity was increased 1- to 1000-fold using 3-AQ/CA. The dissociation of labile regions such as sialic acids or phosphate groups and the fragmentation of neutral carbohydrates were suppressed more using 3-AQ/CA than using 3-AQ/CHCA or 2,5-DHB. 3-AQ/CA was thus determined to be an effective MALDI matrix for high sensitivity and the suppression of dissociation of labile regions in glycosylation and phosphorylation analyses.

  15. Purification and characterization of a p-coumarate decarboxylase and a vinylphenol reductase from Brettanomyces bruxellensis.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Liliana; Martínez, Claudio; Carrasco, Nelson; Ganga, María Angélica

    2008-09-30

    The presence of Brettanomyces bruxellensis has been correlated with an increase of phenolic aromas in wine. The production of these aromas results from the metabolization of cinnamic acids, present in the wine, to their ethyl derivatives. Hence, the participation of two enzymes has been proposed: a p-coumarate decarboxylase (CD) and a vinylphenol reductase (VR). Both enzymes were purified and characterized from B. bruxellensis. In denaturing conditions, the CD enzyme had a molecular mass of 21 kDa, while in native conditions its mass was 41 kDa. The optimal activity was obtained at a temperature of 40 degrees C and a pH of 6.0. For p-coumaric acid, the Km value and Vmax were 1.22+/-0.08 mM and 98+/-0.15 micromol/min mg, respectively. The VR enzyme had a molecular mass of 37 kDa in SDS-PAGE, while in natural conditions its mass was 118 kDa. The Km value was > 3.37+/-2.05 mM and its Vmax was 107.62+/-50.38 micromol/min mg for NADPH used as a cofactor. Both enzymatic activities were stable at pH 3.4, but in the presence of ethanol the CD activity decreased drastically while the VR activity was more stable. This is the first report that shows the presence of a CD and a VR enzyme in B. bruxellensis.

  16. Role of gallic and p-coumaric acids in the AHL-dependent expression of flgA gene and in the process of biofilm formation in food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM120.

    PubMed

    Myszka, Kamila; Schmidt, Marcin T; Białas, Wojciech; Olkowicz, Mariola; Leja, Katarzyna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2016-09-01

    In the process of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilm formation, N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated flagella synthesis plays a key role. Inhibition of AHL production may attenuate P. fluorescens biofilm on solid surfaces. This work validated the anti-biofilm properties of p-coumaric and gallic acids via the ability of phenolics to suppress AHL synthesis in P. fluorescens KM120. The dependence between synthesis of AHL molecules, expression of flagella gene (flgA) and the ability of biofilm formation by P. fluorescens KM120 on a stainless steel surface (type 304L) was also investigated. Research was carried out in a purpose-built flow cell device. Limitations on AHL synthesis in P. fluorescens KM120 were observed at concentrations of 120 and 240 µmol L(-1) of phenolic acids in medium. At such levels of gallic and p-coumaric acids the ability of P. fluorescens KM120 to synthesize 3-oxo-C6-homoserine lactone (HSL) was not observed. These concentrations caused decreased expression of flgA gene in P. fluorescens KM120. The changes in expression of AHL-dependent flgA gene significantly decreased the rate of microorganism colonization on the stainless steel surface. Phenolic acids are able to inhibit biofilm formation. The results obtained in the work may help to develop alternative techniques for anti-biofilm treatment in the food industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Development of predictive models for total phenolics and free p-coumaric acid contents in barley grain by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhigang; Cai, Shengguan; Zhang, Xuelei; Qian, Qiufeng; Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Zhang, Guoping

    2017-07-15

    Barley grains are rich in phenolic compounds, which are associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. Development of barley cultivars with high phenolic acid content has become one of the main objectives in breeding programs. A rapid and accurate method for measuring phenolic compounds would be helpful for crop breeding. We developed predictive models for both total phenolics (TPC) and p-coumaric acid (PA), based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis. Regressions of partial least squares (PLS) and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) were compared for improving the models, and Monte Carlo-Uninformative Variable Elimination (MC-UVE) was applied to select informative wavelengths. The optimal calibration models generated high coefficients of correlation (r pre ) and ratio performance deviation (RPD) for TPC and PA. These results indicated the models are suitable for rapid determination of phenolic compounds in barley grains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of caffeic, coumaric and ferulic acids on proliferation, superoxide production, adhesion and migration of human tumor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nasr Bouzaiene, Nouha; Kilani Jaziri, Soumaya; Kovacic, Hervé; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Ghedira, Kamel; Luis, José

    2015-11-05

    Reactive oxygen species are well-known mediators of various biological responses. In this study, we examined the effect of three phenolic acids, caffeic, coumaric and ferulic acids, on superoxide anion production, adhesion and migration of human lung (A549) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT29-D4) cancer cell lines. Proliferation of both tumor cells was inhibited by phenolic acids. Caffeic, coumaric and ferulic acids also significantly inhibited superoxide production in A549 and HT29-D4 cells. Superoxide anion production decreased by 92% and 77% at the highest tested concentration (200 µM) of caffeic acid in A549 and HT29-D4 cell lines respectively. Furthermore, A549 and HT29-D4 cell adhesion was reduced by 77.9% and 79.8% respectively at the higher tested concentration of ferulic acid (200 µM). Migration assay performed towards A549 cell line, revealed that tested compounds reduced significantly cell migration. At the highest concentration tested (200 µM), the covered surface was 7.7%, 9.5% and 35% for caffeic, coumaric or ferulic acids, respectively. These results demonstrate that caffeic, coumaric and ferulic acids may participate as active ingredients in anticancer agents against lung and colon cancer development, at adhesion and migration steps of tumor progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. p-Coumaroyl-CoA:monolignol transferase (PMT) acts specifically in the lignin biosynthetic pathway in Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, Deborah L; Karlen, Steven D; Cass, Cynthia L; Padmakshan, Dharshana; Lu, Fachuang; Liu, Sarah; Le Bris, Philippe; Antelme, Sébastien; Santoro, Nicholas; Wilkerson, Curtis G; Sibout, Richard; Lapierre, Catherine; Ralph, John; Sedbrook, John C

    2014-01-01

    Grass lignins contain substantial amounts of p-coumarate (pCA) that acylate the side-chains of the phenylpropanoid polymer backbone. An acyltransferase, named p-coumaroyl-CoA:monolignol transferase (OsPMT), that could acylate monolignols with pCA in vitro was recently identified from rice. In planta, such monolignol-pCA conjugates become incorporated into lignin via oxidative radical coupling, thereby generating the observed pCA appendages; however p-coumarates also acylate arabinoxylans in grasses. To test the authenticity of PMT as a lignin biosynthetic pathway enzyme, we examined Brachypodium distachyon plants with altered BdPMT gene function. Using newly developed cell wall analytical methods, we determined that the transferase was involved specifically in monolignol acylation. A sodium azide-generated Bdpmt-1 missense mutant had no (<0.5%) residual pCA on lignin, and BdPMT RNAi plants had levels as low as 10% of wild-type, whereas the amounts of pCA acylating arabinosyl units on arabinoxylans in these PMT mutant plants remained unchanged. pCA acylation of lignin from BdPMT-overexpressing plants was found to be more than three-fold higher than that of wild-type, but again the level on arabinosyl units remained unchanged. Taken together, these data are consistent with a defined role for grass PMT genes in encoding BAHD (BEAT, AHCT, HCBT, and DAT) acyltransferases that specifically acylate monolignols with pCA and produce monolignol p-coumarate conjugates that are used for lignification in planta. PMID:24372757

  20. RAPID 2D NMR METHOD FOR DETERMINING P-COUMARATE AND FERULATE LEVELS IN CORN (AND OTHER GRASS) CELL WALLS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grass cell wall components are acylated by the hydroxycinnamates p-coumarate and ferulate. p-Coumarates largely acylate lignin sidechains, exclusively at the gamma-position, whereas ferulates primarily acylate the arabinosyl C5-position of arabinoxylans. Such components can be quantified as the corr...

  1. Antifungal activity and isomerization of octadecyl p-coumarates from Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa.

    PubMed

    Nidiry, Eugene Sebastian J; Ganeshan, Girija; Lokesha, Ankanahalli N

    2011-12-01

    Bioassay monitored HPLC assisted isolation and purification of the chief antifungal fraction of the leaves of Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convulvulaceae) were achieved using Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Cladosporium cucumerinum as test organisms. The activity of the purified fraction was further confirmed by the dose dependent inhibition of the spore germination of Alternaria alternata and A. porri. The active fraction was identified as a mixture of (E)-octadecyl p-coumarate and (Z)-octadecyl p-coumarate. The two isomers were detected on an HPLC column with substantially different retention times, but once eluted from the column, one form was partly converted to the other in daylight. Conclusive evidence for the structures and their isomerization were obtained from the HPLC behavior, IR, UV, HRESIMS, CIMS and and NMR spectral data. Important 1H NMR and 13C NMR signals could be separately assigned for the isomers using 2D NMR techniques.

  2. Release of Polyphenols Is the Major Factor Influencing the Bioconversion of Rice Straw to Lactic Acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingxuan; Xue, Yiyun; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Gao, Min-Tian

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we found that p-coumaric acid (p-CA), ferulic acid (FA), and condensed tannins were released from rice straw during saccharification. The presence of polyphenols prolonged the lag phase and lowered the productivity of lactic acid. p-CA was identified as a key inhibitor. Tannins had a lower inhibitory effect than p-CA; FA had little inhibitory effect. Acid, alkaline, and ball milling pretreatments elicited different levels of polyphenol release from rice straw. Due to the different levels of polyphenol release in the pretreatment step, the enzymatic hydrolysates contained different concentrations of polyphenols. Compared with fermentation with a synthetic medium, fermentation with the hydrolysates of ball-milled rice straw provided much lower productivity and yield of lactic acid due to the presence of polyphenols. Removal of these compounds played an important role in lactic acid fermentation. When rice straw was alkaline pretreated, the hydrolysates contained few phenolic compounds, resulting in high productivity and yield of lactic acid (1.8 g/L/h and 26.7 g/100 g straw), which were comparable to those in a synthetic medium. This indicates that there is a correlation between removal of phenolic compounds and efficiency in lactic acid fermentation.

  3. Production of vinyl derivatives from alkaline hydrolysates of corn cobs by recombinant Escherichia coli containing the phenolic acid decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748T.

    PubMed

    Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez-Solana, Raquel; Curiel, José Antonio; de las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2012-08-01

    The enzyme PAD from Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748T decarboxylates some cinnamic acids namely p-coumaric acid (p-CA), caffeic acid (CA), and ferulic acid (FA) into their corresponding 4-vinyl derivatives (4-VD): 4-vinyl phenol (4-VP), 4-vinyl catechol (4-VC), and 4-vinyl guaiacol (4-VG), respectively, which are valuable food additives mainly employed as flavouring agents. The gene encoding this enzyme was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant E. coli cells overproducing L. plantarum PAD showed a preference to degrade mainly p-CA and CA. Sterilized liquors obtained after alkaline hydrolysis of corn cob or alkaline hydrolysis of the solid residue coming from acid hydrolysis of corn cob were employed as growth media in fermentations performed in shaker or bioreactor. The fermentative process allowed converting 2222.8 mg/L p-CA into 993.9 mg/L 4-VP. The process described here allowed the production with a high-yield of a valuable food additive from a by-product of the food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genes encoding p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Chapple, Clinton C. S.; Franke, Rochus; Ruegger, Max O.

    2006-07-04

    The present invention is directed to a method for altering secondary metabolism in plants, specifically phenylpropanoid metabolism. The present invention is further directed to a mutant p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase gene, referred to herein as the ref8 gene, its protein product which can be used to prepare gene constructs and transgenic plants. The gene constructs and transgenic plants are further aspects of the present invention.

  5. Acidolysis of p-coumaric acid with omega-3 oils and antioxidant activity of phenolipid products in in vitro and biological model systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiankang; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2014-01-15

    Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of p-coumaric acid with seal blubber oil (SBO) and menhaden oil (MHO) was carried out, followed by identification of major phenolipids in the resultant acidolysis mixture using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Separation of phenolipid components from the resultant acidolysis mixture was achieved using flash column chromatography. The antioxidant activities of the phenolipids were examined in in vitro assays and biological model systems. The major phenolipids identified from acidolysis mixtures with both SBO and MHO included eight phenolic monoacylglycerols and eight phenolic diacylglycerols. Phenolipids derived from SBO and MHO generally showed good antioxidant potential in the systems tested. The prepared phenolipids exhibited high scavenging capacity toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and peroxyl radicals and displayed reducing power, strong inhibitory effect on bleaching of β-carotene, human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol oxidation, as well as radical-induced DNA cleavage, thus suggesting that phenolipids derived from omega-3 oils may be used as potential stable products for health promotion and disease risk reduction.

  6. Structural and functional characterization of solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin: p-coumaric acid and related aromatic acids.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kemin; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Landorf, Elizabeth; Mack, Jamey C; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R

    2013-10-01

    Lignin comprises 15-25% of plant biomass and represents a major environmental carbon source for utilization by soil microorganisms. Access to this energy resource requires the action of fungal and bacterial enzymes to break down the lignin polymer into a complex assortment of aromatic compounds that can be transported into the cells. To improve our understanding of the utilization of lignin by microorganisms, we characterized the molecular properties of solute binding proteins of ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins that interact with these compounds. A combination of functional screens and structural studies characterized the binding specificity of the solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin such as p-coumarate, 3-phenylpropionic acid and compounds with more complex ring substitutions. A ligand screen based on thermal stabilization identified several binding protein clusters that exhibit preferences based on the size or number of aromatic ring substituents. Multiple X-ray crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes for these clusters identified the molecular basis of the binding specificity for the lignin-derived aromatic compounds. The screens and structural data provide new functional assignments for these solute-binding proteins which can be used to infer their transport specificity. This knowledge of the functional roles and molecular binding specificity of these proteins will support the identification of the specific enzymes and regulatory proteins of peripheral pathways that funnel these compounds to central metabolic pathways and will improve the predictive power of sequence-based functional annotation methods for this family of proteins. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Structural and functional characterization of solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin: p-coumaric acid and related aromatic acids

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kemin; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Landorf, Elizabeth; Mack, Jamey C.; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R.

    2013-01-01

    Lignin comprises 15.25% of plant biomass and represents a major environmental carbon source for utilization by soil microorganisms. Access to this energy resource requires the action of fungal and bacterial enzymes to break down the lignin polymer into a complex assortment of aromatic compounds that can be transported into the cells. To improve our understanding of the utilization of lignin by microorganisms, we characterized the molecular properties of solute binding proteins of ATP.binding cassette transporter proteins that interact with these compounds. A combination of functional screens and structural studies characterized the binding specificity of the solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin such as p-coumarate, 3-phenylpropionic acid and compounds with more complex ring substitutions. A ligand screen based on thermal stabilization identified several binding protein clusters that exhibit preferences based on the size or number of aromatic ring substituents. Multiple X-ray crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes for these clusters identified the molecular basis of the binding specificity for the lignin-derived aromatic compounds. The screens and structural data provide new functional assignments for these solute.binding proteins which can be used to infer their transport specificity. This knowledge of the functional roles and molecular binding specificity of these proteins will support the identification of the specific enzymes and regulatory proteins of peripheral pathways that funnel these compounds to central metabolic pathways and will improve the predictive power of sequence-based functional annotation methods for this family of proteins. PMID:23606130

  8. Comparing corn types for differences in cell wall characteristics and p-coumaroylation of lignin.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Ronald D; Chaptman, Ann K

    2009-05-27

    This study was undertaken to compare cell wall characteristics including levels of p-coumarate (pCA) and lignin in corn (Zea mays L.) types. Five different types of corn, four commercial and Teosinte, were grown in the greenhouse in individual pots. For each corn type replicate stems were harvested at tassel emergence. Tissues for cell wall analysis were harvested from stems (separated into rind and pith tissues) and roots. Stem cell wall characteristics across the different corn types were similar for total neutral sugars, total uronosyls, lignin, and phenolic acids. However, the neutral sugar composition of root cell walls was markedly different, with high levels of galactose and arabinose. Levels of pCA in the different tissues ranged from 13.8 to 33.1 mg g(-1) of CW depending upon the type of tissue. There was no evidence that pCA was incorporated into cell walls attached to arabinoxylans. Lignin levels were similar within a given tissue, with pith ranging from 86.1 to 132.0 mg g(-1) of CW, rind from 178.4 to 236.6 mg g(-1) of CW, and roots from 216.5 to 242.6 mg g(-1) of CW. The higher values for lignins in root tissue may be due to suberin remaining in the acid-insoluble residue, forming Klason lignins. With the exception of root tissues, higher pCA levels accompanied higher lignin levels. This may indicate a potential role of pCA aiding lignin formation in corn cell walls during the lignification process.

  9. Resveratrol and para-coumarate serve as ring precursors for coenzyme Q biosynthesis[S

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Letian X.; Williams, Kevin J.; He, Cuiwen H.; Weng, Emily; Khong, San; Rose, Tristan E.; Kwon, Ohyun; Bensinger, Steven J.; Marbois, Beth N.; Clarke, Catherine F.

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q or ubiquinone) is a redox-active polyisoprenylated benzoquinone lipid essential for electron and proton transport in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The aromatic ring 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4HB) is commonly depicted as the sole aromatic ring precursor in Q biosynthesis despite the recent finding that para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) also serves as a ring precursor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Q biosynthesis. In this study, we employed aromatic 13C6-ring-labeled compounds including 13C6-4HB, 13C6-pABA, 13C6-resveratrol, and 13C6-coumarate to investigate the role of these small molecules as aromatic ring precursors in Q biosynthesis in Escherichia coli, S. cerevisiae, and human and mouse cells. In contrast to S. cerevisiae, neither E. coli nor the mammalian cells tested were able to form 13C6-Q when cultured in the presence of 13C6-pABA. However, E. coli cells treated with 13C6-pABA generated 13C6-ring-labeled forms of 3-octaprenyl-4-aminobenzoic acid, 2-octaprenyl-aniline, and 3-octaprenyl-2-aminophenol, suggesting UbiA, UbiD, UbiX, and UbiI are capable of using pABA or pABA-derived intermediates as substrates. E. coli, S. cerevisiae, and human and mouse cells cultured in the presence of 13C6-resveratrol or 13C6-coumarate were able to synthesize 13C6-Q. Future evaluation of the physiological and pharmacological responses to dietary polyphenols should consider their metabolism to Q. PMID:25681964

  10. Characterization of Free, Conjugated, and Bound Phenolic Acids in Seven Commonly Consumed Vegetables.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Ma, Shuai; Wang, Meng; Feng, Xiao-Yuan

    2017-11-01

    Phenolic acids are thought to be beneficial for human health and responsible for vegetables' health-promoting properties. Free, conjugated, and bound phenolic acids of seven commonly consumed vegetables, including kidney bean, cow pea, snow pea, hyacinth bean, green soy bean, soybean sprouts and daylily, from the regions of Beijing, Hangzhou, and Guangzhou, were identified and quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Three vegetables, namely green soy bean, soybean sprouts, and daylily ( Hemerocallis fulva L.), from the Beijing region contained higher concentrations of total phenolic acids than those from the Hangzhou and Guangzhou regions. The results indicated that the phenolic acid content in the seven vegetables appeared to be species-dependent. The highest content of phenolic acids was found in daylily, followed by green soy bean, while the least amounts were identified in kidney bean and hyacinth bean. Typically, phenolic acids are predominantly found in conjugated forms. Principle component analysis (PCA) revealed some key compounds that differentiated the seven vegetables. Green soy bean, compared to the other six vegetables, was characterized by higher levels of syringic acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, and sinapic acid. Other compounds, particularly p -coumaric acid, neochlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid, exhibited significantly higher concentrations in daylily. In addition, p -coumaric acid was the characteristic substance in cow pea. Results from this study can contribute to the development of vegetables with specific phytochemicals and health benefits.

  11. Overexpression of a BAHD Acyltransferase, OsAt10, Alters Rice Cell Wall Hydroxycinnamic Acid Content and Saccharification1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, Laura E.; Peck, Matthew L.; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Ebert, Berit; Manisseri, Chithra; Chiniquy, Dawn M.; Sykes, Robert; Gao, Lingfang; Rautengarten, Carsten; Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E.; Benke, Peter I.; Canlas, Patrick E.; Cao, Peijian; Brewer, Susan; Lin, Fan; Smith, Whitney L.; Zhang, Xiaohan; Keasling, Jay D.; Jentoff, Rolf E.; Foster, Steven B.; Zhou, Jizhong; Ziebell, Angela; An, Gynheung; Scheller, Henrik V.; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2013-01-01

    Grass cell wall properties influence food, feed, and biofuel feedstock usage efficiency. The glucuronoarabinoxylan of grass cell walls is esterified with the phenylpropanoid-derived hydroxycinnamic acids ferulic acid (FA) and para-coumaric acid (p-CA). Feruloyl esters undergo oxidative coupling with neighboring phenylpropanoids on glucuronoarabinoxylan and lignin. Examination of rice (Oryza sativa) mutants in a grass-expanded and -diverged clade of BAHD acyl-coenzyme A-utilizing transferases identified four mutants with altered cell wall FA or p-CA contents. Here, we report on the effects of overexpressing one of these genes, OsAt10 (LOC_Os06g39390), in rice. An activation-tagged line, OsAT10-D1, shows a 60% reduction in matrix polysaccharide-bound FA and an approximately 300% increase in p-CA in young leaf tissue but no discernible phenotypic alterations in vegetative development, lignin content, or lignin composition. Two additional independent OsAt10 overexpression lines show similar changes in FA and p-CA content. Cell wall fractionation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry experiments isolate the cell wall alterations in the mutant to ester conjugates of a five-carbon sugar with p-CA and FA. These results suggest that OsAT10 is a p-coumaroyl coenzyme A transferase involved in glucuronoarabinoxylan modification. Biomass from OsAT10-D1 exhibits a 20% to 40% increase in saccharification yield depending on the assay. Thus, OsAt10 is an attractive target for improving grass cell wall quality for fuel and animal feed. PMID:23391577

  12. Evaluation of Feruloylated and p-Coumaroylated Arabinosyl Units in Grass Arabinoxylans by Acidolysis in Dioxane/Methanol.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Catherine; Voxeur, Aline; Karlen, Steven D; Helm, Richard F; Ralph, John

    2018-05-30

    The arabinosyl side chains of grass arabinoxylans are partially acylated by p-coumarate ( pCA) and ferulate (FA). These aromatic side chains can cross-couple wall polymers resulting in modulation of cell wall physical properties. The determination of p-coumaroylated and feruloylated arabinose units has been the target of analytical efforts with trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysis the standard method to release feruloylated and p-coumaroylated arabinose units from arabinoxylans. Herein, we report on a more robust method to measure these acylated units. Acidolysis of extractive-free grass samples in a dioxane/methanol/aqueous 2 M HCl mixture provided the methyl 5- O- p-coumaroyl- and 5- O-feruloyl-l-arabinofuranoside anomers ( pCA-MeAra and FA-MeAra). These conjugates were readily analyzed by liquid chromatography combined with both UV and MS detection. The method revealed the variability of the relative acylation of arabinose units by pCA or FA in grass cell walls. This methodology will permit delineation of hydroxycinnamate acylation patterns in arabinoxylans.

  13. Biosynthesis of p-Hydroxybenzoate from p-Coumarate and p-Coumaroyl-Coenzyme A in Cell-Free Extracts of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Cell Cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Loscher, R.; Heide, L.

    1994-01-01

    The enzymatic formation of p-hydroxybenzoate from p-coumarate in cell-free extracts of cell cultures of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc. was investigated. p-Coumaroyl-coenzyme A (p-coumaroyl-CoA) is the activated intermediate in this biosynthetic reaction. It is formed by an ATP-, Mg2+ -, and CoA-dependent 4-hydroxycinnamate:CoA ligase reaction. p-Coumaroyl-CoA is oxidized and cleaved to p-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA in a thioclastic reaction in which NAD is an essential cofactor. These CoA esters are rapidly hydrolyzed to acetate and p-hydroxybenzoate, probably by thioesterases. The enzymes involved in the formation of p-hydroxybenzoate are soluble. p-Hydroxybenzalde-hyde is not an intermediate in this conversion, and S-denosylmethionine and uridine-5[prime]-diphosphoglucose do not enhance formation of p-hydroxybenzoate in our system. PMID:12232327

  14. Enhanced lignin monomer production caused by cinnamic Acid and its hydroxylated derivatives inhibits soybean root growth.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth.

  15. Enhanced Lignin Monomer Production Caused by Cinnamic Acid and Its Hydroxylated Derivatives Inhibits Soybean Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth. PMID:24312480

  16. Phenolic acids in the flowers of Althaea rosea var. nigra.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Marlena; Matławska, Irena; Szkudlarek, Maurycy

    2006-01-01

    Distribution of phenolic acids in the flowers of Althaea rosea var. nigra has been studied by 2D-TLC and HPLC methods. The phenolic acids occurring in these fractions have been identified as ferulic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic and caffeic acids. By means of the HPLC methods the contents of major phenolic acids were estimated. From among the phenolic acids analyzed the syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids are dominant. Total content of phenolic acids was determined by the Arnov's method.

  17. Conformational Map of Phenolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Cortijo, Vanessa; Alonso, Elena R; Mata, Santiago; Alonso, José L

    2018-01-18

    The benefits of vaporization by laser ablation and the high resolution and sensitivity attained by the chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy CP-FTMW have provided the first conformational map of the simplest phenolic acids of trans-cinnamic and p-coumaric. Two conformers of trans-cinnamic acid and four conformers of trans-p-coumaric acid have been characterized under the isolation conditions of a supersonic expansion. The spectroscopic constants derived from the analysis of the rotational spectra compared with those predicted theoretically provide an unmatched means to achieve an unambiguous identification of the observed species.

  18. Catalytic activity of the two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa toward cinnamic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Toshiki; Kino, Kuniki

    2014-02-01

    4-Hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylases (HPAHs) of the two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase family are attractive enzymes that possess the catalytic potential to synthesize valuable ortho-diphenol compounds from simple monophenol compounds. In this study, we investigated the catalytic activity of HPAH from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 toward cinnamic acid derivatives. We prepared Escherichia coli cells expressing the hpaB gene encoding the monooxygenase component and the hpaC gene encoding the oxidoreductase component. E. coli cells expressing HpaBC exhibited no or very low oxidation activity toward cinnamic acid, o-coumaric acid, and m-coumaric acid, whereas they rapidly oxidized p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid. Interestingly, after p-coumaric acid was almost completely consumed, the resulting caffeic acid was further oxidized to 3,4,5-trihydroxycinnamic acid. In addition, HpaBC exhibited oxidation activity toward 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid, ferulic acid, and coniferaldehyde to produce the corresponding ortho-diphenols. We also investigated a flask-scale production of caffeic acid from p-coumaric acid as the model reaction for HpaBC-catalyzed syntheses of hydroxycinnamic acids. Since the initial concentrations of the substrate p-coumaric acid higher than 40 mM markedly inhibited its HpaBC-catalyzed oxidation, the reaction was carried out by repeatedly adding 20 mM of this substrate to the reaction mixture. Furthermore, by using the HpaBC whole-cell catalyst in the presence of glycerol, our experimental setup achieved the high-yield production of caffeic acid, i.e., 56.6 mM (10.2 g/L) within 24 h. These catalytic activities of HpaBC will provide an easy and environment-friendly synthetic approach to hydroxycinnamic acids.

  19. Metabolism of nonesterified and esterified hydroxycinnamic acids in red wines by Brettanomyces bruxellensis.

    PubMed

    Schopp, Lauren M; Lee, Jungmin; Osborne, James P; Chescheir, Stuart C; Edwards, Charles G

    2013-11-27

    While Brettanomyces can metabolize nonesterified hydroxycinnamic acids found in grape musts/wines (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids), it was not known whether this yeast could utilize the corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, p-coutaric, and fertaric acids, respectively). Red wines from Washington and Oregon were inoculated with B. bruxellensis, while hydroxycinnamic acids were monitored by HPLC. Besides consuming p-coumaric and ferulic acids, strains I1a, B1b, and E1 isolated from Washington wines metabolized 40-50% of caffeic acid, a finding in contrast to strains obtained from California wines. Higher molar recoveries of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol synthesized from p-coumaric and ferulic acids, respectively, were observed in Washington Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah but not Merlot. This finding suggested that Brettanomyces either (a) utilized vinylphenols formed during processing of some wines or (b) metabolized other unidentified phenolic precursors. None of the strains of Brettanomyces studied metabolized caftaric or p-coutaric acids present in wines from Washington or Oregon.

  20. Lateral supraorbital approach to ipsilateral PCA-P1 and ICA-PCoA aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Goehre, Felix; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Elsharkawy, Ahmed; Lehto, Hanna; Shekhtman, Oleg; Andrade-Barazarte, Hugo; Munoz, Francisco; Hijazy, Ferzat; Makhkamov, Makhkam; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aneurysms of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) are rare and often associated with anterior circulation aneurysms. The lateral supraorbital approach allows for a very fast and safe approach to the ipsilateral lesions Circle of Willis. A technical note on the successful clip occlusion of two aneurysms in the anterior and posterior Circle of Willis via this less invasive approach has not been published before. The objective of this technical note is to describe the simultaneous microsurgical clip occlusion of an ipsilateral PCA-P1 and an internal carotid artery - posterior communicating artery (ICA-PCoA) aneurysm via the lateral supraorbital approach. Case Description: The authors present a technical report of successful clip occlusions of ipsilateral located PCA-P1 and ICA-PCoA aneurysms. A 59-year-old female patient was diagnosed with a PCA-P1 and an ipsilateral ICA-PCoA aneurysm by computed tomography angiography (CTA) after an ischemic stroke secondary to a contralateral ICA dissection. The patient underwent microsurgical clipping after a lateral supraorbital craniotomy. The intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography and the postoperative CTA showed a complete occlusion of both aneurysms; the parent vessels (ICA and PCA) were patent. The patient presents postoperative no new neurologic deficit. Conclusion: The lateral supraorbital approach is suitable for the simultaneous microsurgical treatment of proximal anterior circulation and ipsilateral proximal PCA aneurysms. Compared to endovascular treatment, direct visual control of brainstem perforators is possible. PMID:26060600

  1. Lateral supraorbital approach to ipsilateral PCA-P1 and ICA-PCoA aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Goehre, Felix; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Elsharkawy, Ahmed; Lehto, Hanna; Shekhtman, Oleg; Andrade-Barazarte, Hugo; Munoz, Francisco; Hijazy, Ferzat; Makhkamov, Makhkam; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysms of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) are rare and often associated with anterior circulation aneurysms. The lateral supraorbital approach allows for a very fast and safe approach to the ipsilateral lesions Circle of Willis. A technical note on the successful clip occlusion of two aneurysms in the anterior and posterior Circle of Willis via this less invasive approach has not been published before. The objective of this technical note is to describe the simultaneous microsurgical clip occlusion of an ipsilateral PCA-P1 and an internal carotid artery - posterior communicating artery (ICA-PCoA) aneurysm via the lateral supraorbital approach. The authors present a technical report of successful clip occlusions of ipsilateral located PCA-P1 and ICA-PCoA aneurysms. A 59-year-old female patient was diagnosed with a PCA-P1 and an ipsilateral ICA-PCoA aneurysm by computed tomography angiography (CTA) after an ischemic stroke secondary to a contralateral ICA dissection. The patient underwent microsurgical clipping after a lateral supraorbital craniotomy. The intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography and the postoperative CTA showed a complete occlusion of both aneurysms; the parent vessels (ICA and PCA) were patent. The patient presents postoperative no new neurologic deficit. The lateral supraorbital approach is suitable for the simultaneous microsurgical treatment of proximal anterior circulation and ipsilateral proximal PCA aneurysms. Compared to endovascular treatment, direct visual control of brainstem perforators is possible.

  2. Cloning, Functional Characterization and Site-Directed Mutagenesis of 4-Coumarate: Coenzyme A Ligase (4CL) Involved in Coumarin Biosynthesis in Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tingting; Yao, Ruolan; Zhao, Yucheng; Xu, Sheng; Huang, Chuanlong; Luo, Jun; Kong, Lingyi

    2017-01-01

    Coumarins are the main bioactive compounds in Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn, a common Chinese herbal medicine. Nevertheless, the genes involved in the biosynthesis of core structure of coumarin in P. praeruptorum have not been identified yet. 4-Coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL) catalyzes the formation of hydroxycinnamates CoA esters, and plays an essential role at the divergence point from general phenylpropanoid metabolism to major branch pathway of coumarin. Here, three novel putative 4CL genes (Pp4CL1, Pp4CL7, and Pp4CL10) were isolated from P. praeruptorum. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant proteins revealed that Pp4CL1 utilized p-coumaric and ferulic acids as its two main substrates for coumarin biosynthesis in P. praeruptorum. Furthermore, Pp4CL1 also exhibited activity toward caffeic, cinnamic, isoferulic, and o-coumaric acids and represented a bona fide 4CL. Pp4CL7 and Pp4CL10 had no catalytic activity toward hydroxycinnamic acid compounds. But they had close phylogenetic relationship to true 4CLs and were defined as 4CL-like genes. Among all putative 4CLs, Pp4CL1 was the most highly expressed gene in roots, and its expression level was significantly up-regulated in mature roots compared with seedlings. Subcellular localization studies showed that Pp4CL1 and Pp4CL10 proteins were localized in the cytosol. In addition, site-directed mutagenesis of Pp4CL1 demonstrated that amino acids of Tyr-239, Ala-243, Met-306, Ala-309, Gly-334, Lys-441, Gln-446, and Lys-526 were essential for substrate binding or catalytic activities. The characterization and site-directed mutagenesis studies of Pp4CL1 lays a solid foundation for elucidating the biosynthetic mechanisms of coumarins in P. praeruptorum and provides further insights in understanding the structure–function relationships of this important family of proteins. PMID:28144249

  3. Stacking and determination of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid with low pKa in soil via moving reaction boundary formed by alkaline and double acidic buffers in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chong; Yang, Xiao-Di; Fan, Liu-Yin; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yu-Quan; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2011-04-01

    As shown herein, a normal moving reaction boundary (MRB) formed by an alkaline buffer and a single acidic buffer had poor stacking to the new important plant growth promoter of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) in soil due to the leak induced by its low pK(a). To stack the PCA with low pK(a) efficiently, a novel stacking system of MRB was developed, which was formed by an alkaline buffer and double acidic buffers (viz., acidic sample and blank buffers). With the novel system, the PCA leaking into the blank buffer from the sample buffer could be well stacked by the prolonged MRB formed between the alkaline buffer and blank buffer. The relevant mechanism of stacking was discussed briefly. The stacking system, coupled with sample pretreatment, could achieve a 214-fold increase of PCA sensitivity under the optimal conditions (15 mM (pH 11.5) Gly-NaOH as the alkaline buffer, 15 mM (pH 3.0) Gly-HCl-acetonitrile (20%, v/v) as the acidic sample buffer, 15 mM (pH 3.0) Gly-HCl as the blank buffer, 3 min 13 mbar injection of double acidic buffers, benzoic acid as the internal standard, 75 μm i.d. × 53 cm (44 cm effective length) capillary, 25 kV and 248 nm). The limit of detection of PCA in soil was decreased to 17 ng/g, the intra-day and inter-day precision values (expressed as relative standard deviations) were 3.17-4.24% and 4.17-4.87%, respectively, and the recoveries of PCA at three concentration levels changed from 52.20% to 102.61%. The developed method could be used for the detection of PCA in soil at trace level.

  4. Biotechnological Production of Caffeic Acid by Bacterial Cytochrome P450 CYP199A2

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Yuka; Kino, Kuniki

    2012-01-01

    Caffeic acid is a biologically active molecule that has various beneficial properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we explored the catalytic potential of a bacterial cytochrome P450, CYP199A2, for the biotechnological production of caffeic acid. When the CYP199A2 enzyme was reacted with p-coumaric acid, it stoichiometrically produced caffeic acid. The crystal structure of CYP199A2 shows that Phe at position 185 is situated directly above, and only 6.35 Å from, the heme iron. This F185 residue was replaced with hydrophobic or hydroxylated amino acids using site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with novel and improved catalytic properties. In whole-cell assays with the known substrate of CYP199A2, 2-naphthoic acid, only the wild-type enzyme hydroxylated 2-naphthoic acid at the C-7 and C-8 positions, whereas all of the active F185 mutants exhibited a preference for C-5 hydroxylation. Interestingly, several F185 mutants (F185V, F185L, F185I, F185G, and F185A mutants) also acquired the ability to hydroxylate cinnamic acid, which was not hydroxylated by the wild-type enzyme. These results demonstrate that F185 is an important residue that controls the regioselectivity and the substrate specificity of CYP199A2. Furthermore, Escherichia coli cells expressing the F185L mutant exhibited 5.5 times higher hydroxylation activity for p-coumaric acid than those expressing the wild-type enzyme. By using the F185L whole-cell catalyst, the production of caffeic acid reached 15 mM (2.8 g/liter), which is the highest level so far attained in biotechnological production of this compound. PMID:22729547

  5. Enhancing muconic acid production from glucose and lignin-derived aromatic compounds via increased protocatechuate decarboxylase activity

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Christopher W.; Salvachua, Davinia; Khanna, Payal; ...

    2016-04-22

    The conversion of biomass-derived sugars and aromatic molecules to cis,cis-muconic acid (referred to hereafter as muconic acid or muconate) has been of recent interest owing to its facile conversion to adipic acid, an important commodity chemical. Metabolic routes to produce muconate from both sugars and many lignin-derived aromatic compounds require the use of a decarboxylase to convert protocatechuate (PCA, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate) to catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), two central aromatic intermediates in this pathway. Several studies have identified the PCA decarboxylase as a metabolic bottleneck, causing an accumulation of PCA that subsequently reduces muconate production. A recent study showed that activity of the PCAmore » decarboxylase is enhanced by co-expression of two genetically associated proteins, one of which likely produces a flavin-derived cofactor utilized by the decarboxylase. Using entirely genome-integrated gene expression, we have engineered Pseudomonas putida KT2440-derived strains to produce muconate from either aromatic molecules or sugars and demonstrate in both cases that co-expression of these decarboxylase associated proteins reduces PCA accumulation and enhances muconate production relative to strains expressing the PCA decarboxylase alone. In bioreactor experiments, co-expression increased the specific productivity (mg/g cells/h) of muconate from the aromatic lignin monomer p-coumarate by 50% and resulted in a titer of >15 g/L. In strains engineered to produce muconate from glucose, co-expression more than tripled the titer, yield, productivity, and specific productivity, with the best strain producing 4.92+/-0.48 g/L muconate. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that overcoming the PCA decarboxylase bottleneck can increase muconate yields from biomass-derived sugars and aromatic molecules in industrially relevant strains and cultivation conditions.« less

  6. Effects of coumarate 3-hydroxylase down-regulation on lignin structure

    Treesearch

    John Ralph; Takuya Akiyama; Hoon Kim; Fachuang Lu; Paul F. Schatz; Jane M. Marita; Sally A. Ralph; M.S. Srinivasa Reddy; Fang Chen; Richard A. Dixon

    2006-01-01

    Down-regulation of the gene encoding 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) in alfalfa massively but predictably increased the proportion of p-hydroxyphenyl (P) units relative to thenormally dominant guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units Stem levels of up to ~65% P (from wild-type levels of ~1%) resulting from down-regulation of C3H were measured by traditional degradative...

  7. Development and validation of two methods based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for determining 1,2-benzopyrone, dihydrocoumarin, o-coumaric acid, syringaldehyde and kaurenoic acid in guaco extracts and pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Gasparetto, João C; de Francisco, Thais M Guimarães; Campos, Francinete R; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    In this study, two HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methods were developed and validated for the determination of 1,2-benzopyrone (COU), o-coumaric acid (OCA), kaurenoic acid (KAU), syringaldehyde (SYR), and dihydrocoumarin (DIH) in guaco extracts and pharmaceutical preparations (syrup and oral solution). The chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 XBridge 150×2.1-mm (5-μm particle size) column maintained at 25°C. The mobile phases consisted of a gradient of water and acetonitrile containing 0.05% formic acid or 5  mM ammonium formate for the positive and negative ion modes, respectively. All of the calibration curves showed excellent coefficients of correlation (r≥0.9970) over the ranges of 1.25-400  ng/mL for coumarin, 10-600  ng/mL for dihydrocoumarin, 5-250  ng/mL for KAU, and 25-500  ng/mL for o-coumaric acid and syringaldehyde. The range of recovery was 96.3-103% with an RSD% of <4.85% for intraday and interday precision. The results indicate that the developed methods are fast, efficient, and sensitive for the quantification of the guaco metabolites in extracts and pharmaceutical forms while avoiding purification and derivatization steps. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Wine phenolic compounds influence the production of volatile phenols by wine-related lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Silva, I; Campos, F M; Hogg, T; Couto, J A

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of wine phenolic compounds on the production of volatile phenols (4-vinylphenol [4VP] and 4-ethylphenol [4EP]) from the metabolism of p-coumaric acid by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus collinoides and Pediococcus pentosaceus were grown in MRS medium supplemented with p-coumaric acid, in the presence of different phenolic compounds: nonflavonoids (hydroxycinnamic and benzoic acids) and flavonoids (flavonols and flavanols). The inducibility of the enzymes involved in the p-coumaric acid metabolism was studied in resting cells. The hydroxycinnamic acids tested stimulated the capacity of LAB to synthesize volatile phenols. Growth in the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids, especially caffeic acid, induced the production of 4VP by resting cells. The hydroxybenzoic acids did not significantly affect the behaviour of the studied strains. Some of the flavonoids showed an effect on the production of volatile phenols, although strongly dependent on the bacterial species. Relatively high concentrations (1 g l(-1) ) of tannins inhibited the synthesis of 4VP by Lact. plantarum. Hydroxycinnamic acids were the main compounds stimulating the production of volatile phenols by LAB. The results suggest that caffeic and ferulic acids induce the synthesis of the cinnamate decarboxylase involved in the metabolism of p-coumaric acid. On the other hand, tannins exert an inhibitory effect. This study highlights the capacity of LAB to produce volatile phenols and that this activity is markedly influenced by the phenolic composition of the medium. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and their tartaric acid esters by Brettanomyces and Pediococcus in red wines.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric, respectively) are found in wines in varying concentrations. While Brettanomyces and Pediococcus can utilize the free acids, it is not known whether they can metabolize the correspon...

  10. The properties of syringyl, guaiacyl and p-hydroxyphenyl artificial lignins

    PubMed Central

    Bland, D. E.; Logan, A. F.

    1965-01-01

    1. Artificial lignins have been produced on potato parenchyma. 2. The methoxyl-free lignin and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy (guaiacyl) lignins could be estimated by the sulphuric acid method but the 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy (syringyl) lignins could not. 3. Permanganate oxidation of isolated p-coumaric lignin gave 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxyisophthalic acid and small amounts of hydroxytrimesic acid and 4-hydroxyphthalic acid. Ferulic lignin gave vanillic acid and 5-carboxyvanillic acid and also small amounts of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and dehydrodivanillic acid. The sinapic lignin gave traces of syringic acid and of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. 4. The p-coumaric lignin is a highly condensed polymer. The ferulic lignin is partly uncondensed and partly condensed through the 5-position like gymnosperm lignin. The sinapic lignin shows no evidence of condensation and is probably an ether-linked polymer. PMID:14340102

  11. Effect of lignin linkages with other plant cell wall components on in vitro and in vivo neutral detergent fiber digestibility and rate of digestion of grass forages.

    PubMed

    Raffrenato, E; Fievisohn, R; Cotanch, K W; Grant, R J; Chase, L E; Van Amburgh, M E

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate in vitro and in vivo neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (NDFD) with the chemical composition of forages and specific chemical linkages, primarily ester- and ether-linked para-coumaric (pCA) and ferulic acids (FA) in forages fed to dairy cattle. The content of acid detergent lignin (ADL) and its relationship with NDF does not fully explain the observed variability in NDFD. The ferulic and p-coumaric acid linkages between ADL and cell wall polysaccharides, rather than the amount of ADL, might be a better predictor of NDFD. Twenty-three forages, including conventional and brown midrib corn silages and grasses at various stages of maturity were incubated in vitro for measurement of 24-h and 96-h NDFD. Undigested and digested residues were analyzed for NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF), ADL, and Klason lignin (KL); ester- and ether-linked pCA and FA were determined in these fractions. To determine whether in vitro observations of ester- and ether-linked pCA and FA and digestibility were similar to in vivo observations, 3 corn silages selected for digestibility were fed to 6 ruminally fistulated cows for 3 wk in 3 iso-NDF diets. Intact samples and NDF and ADF residues of diet, rumen, and feces were analyzed for ester- and ether-linked pCA and FA. From the in vitro study, the phenolic acid content (total pCA and FA) was highest for corn silages, and overall the content of ester- and ether-linked pCA and FA in both NDF and ADF residues were correlated with NDF digestibility parameters, reflecting the competitive effect of these linkages on digestibility. Also, Klason lignin and ADL were negatively correlated with ether-linked ferulic acid on an NDF basis. Overall, esterified FA and esterified pCA were negatively correlated with all of the measured fiber fractions on both a dry matter and an NDF basis. The lignin content of the plant residues and chemical linkages explained most of the variation in both rate and extent of

  12. Protective effect of 4-coumaric acid from UVB ray damage in the rabbit eye.

    PubMed

    Lodovici, Maura; Caldini, Silvia; Morbidelli, Lucia; Akpan, Victor; Ziche, Marina; Dolara, Piero

    2009-01-08

    UV-induced oxidation damage seems to play a major role in a number of specific pathological conditions of intraocular tissues, such as cataract formation and retinal degeneration. Therefore, antioxidant and/or scavenger compounds might protect the eyes from UV-induced cellular damage. We previously reported that 4-coumaric acid (4-CA) is able to protect rabbit corneal-derived cells (SIRC) from UVB-induced oxidation damage. In this study we evaluated the protective effect of 4-CA against UVB-induced cell damage in rabbit cornea in vivo. Twelve male New Zealand albino rabbits were used; four rabbits were used as a control and received vehicle in one eye and 4-CA acid in the contralateral eye; eight rabbits were exposed to UVB rays (79.2mJ/cm(2)) and three days before to UV exposure each animal received 1 drop/day of vehicle in one eye and 1 drop/day of vehicle containing 4-CA (164ng) in the contralateral eye. Corneal and sclera tissues were removed and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) levels were measured. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities were determined in aqueous humour. UVB-induced vessel hyper-reactivity was strongly reduced at 4 and 24h after UVB exposure after local treatment with 4-CA, 8-oxodGuo levels, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, were significantly increased (P<0.05) in sclera and cornea by UVB irradiation, but when 4-CA was administered to the conjunctiva in a buffered solution once a day for 3d before and 6d after UVB exposure, levels of 8-oxodGuo were similar to controls and significantly reduced (P<0.05) compared to UVB-treated corneas. XO activity in the aqueous humour was significantly increased. The administration of 4-CA for 3d before and 6d after UVB irradiation induced a small but significant (P<0.05) reduction of XO compared with control eyes. Our results indicate that the administration of 4-CA protects eye tissues, thus reducing the harmful effect of UVB radiation at low concentration, probably

  13. Identification and suppression of the p-coumaroyl CoA:hydroxycinnamyl alcohol transferase in Zea mays L.

    PubMed Central

    Marita, Jane M; Hatfield, Ronald D; Rancour, David M; Frost, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    Grasses, such as Zea mays L. (maize), contain relatively high levels of p-coumarates (pCA) within their cell walls. Incorporation of pCA into cell walls is believed to be due to a hydroxycinnamyl transferase that couples pCA to monolignols. To understand the role of pCA in maize development, the p-coumaroyl CoA:hydroxycinnamyl alcohol transferase (pCAT) was isolated and purified from maize stems. Purified pCAT was subjected to partial trypsin digestion, and peptides were sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry. TBLASTN analysis of the acquired peptide sequences identified a single full-length maize cDNA clone encoding all the peptide sequences obtained from the purified enzyme. The cDNA clone was obtained and used to generate an RNAi construct for suppressing pCAT expression in maize. Here we describe the effects of suppression of pCAT in maize. Primary screening of transgenic maize seedling leaves using a new rapid analytical platform was used to identify plants with decreased amounts of pCA. Using this screening method, mature leaves from fully developed plants were analyzed, confirming reduced pCA levels throughout plant development. Complete analysis of isolated cell walls from mature transgenic stems and leaves revealed that lignin levels did not change, but pCA levels decreased and the lignin composition was altered. Transgenic plants with the lowest levels of pCA had decreased levels of syringyl units in the lignin. Thus, altering the levels of pCAT expression in maize leads to altered lignin composition, but does not appear to alter the total amount of lignin present in the cell walls. PMID:24654730

  14. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of cinnamic acid and its hydroxyl derivatives with human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Jiang; Meng-Xia, Xie; Dong, Zheng; Yuan, Liu; Xiao-Yu, Li; Xing, Chen

    2004-04-01

    Cinnamic acid and its derivatives possess various biological effects in remedy of many diseases. Interaction of cinnamic acid and its hydroxyl derivatives, p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, with human serum albumin (HSA), and concomitant changes in its conformation were studied using fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic methods. Fluorescence data revealed the presence of one binding site on HSA for cinnamic acid and its hydroxyl derivatives, and their binding constants ( KA) are caffeic acid> p-coumaric acid> cinnamic acid when Cdrug/ CHSA ranging from 1 to 10. The changes of the secondary structure of HSA after interacting with the three drugs are estimated, respectively by combining the curve-fitting results of amid I and amid III bands. The α-helix structure has a decrease of ≈9, 5 and 3% after HSA interacted with caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and cinnamic acid, respectively. It was found that the hydroxyls substituted on aromatic ring of the drugs play an important role in the changes of protein's secondary structure. Combining the result of fluorescence quenching and the changes of secondary structure of HSA after interaction with the three drugs, the drug-HSA interaction mode was discussed.

  15. Biomass-burning derived aromatic acids in NIST standard reference material 1649b and the environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shaopeng; Xu, Baiqing; Dong, Xueling; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Wan, Xin; Kang, Shichang; Song, Qiuyin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Cong, Zhiyuan

    2018-07-01

    Biomass burning is a serious problem in the environment and climate system. However, the source identification of biomass-burning aerosols was somewhat impeded, partly due to the difficulty in quantification of relevant molecular markers. In this study, we present reference values for five aromatic acids (including p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, dehydroabietic, syringic and p-coumaric acids) in the NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649b. The concentration of levoglucosan was also revisited. Notable positive matrix effect was found for vanillic, dehydroabietic, syringic and coumaric acid. Using the standard addition method, the average value of p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, dehydroabietic and p-coumaric acids in SRM 1649b were found to be 26.9, 9.53, 1.13, 7.60 and 1.66 μg g-1, respectively. The analytical method developed in this study was also applied to the PM10 samples from Beijing and PM2.5 samples from South Asia (Godavari, Nepal). The ratios of vanillic to p-hydroxybenzoic acid and syringic to vanillic acid further suggested that their biomass-burning types are mainly related to hard wood and herbaceous species (i.e., agricultural residues).

  16. CINNAMIC ACID HYDROXYLASE IN SPINACH,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An acetone precipitate from an extract of spinach leaves catalysed the hydroxylation of trans- cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid . The enzyme was...and addition of L-phenylalanine inhibited cinnamic acid hydroxylase activity. (Author)...Tetrahydrofolic acid and a reduced pyridine nucleotide coenzyme were necessary for maximum activity. Aminopterin was a potent inhibitor of the hydroxylating

  17. An endogenous factor enhances ferulic acid decarboxylation catalyzed by phenolic acid decarboxylase from Candida guilliermondii

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The gene for a eukaryotic phenolic acid decarboxylase of Candida guilliermondii was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli for the first time. The structural gene contained an open reading frame of 504 bp, corresponding to 168 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 19,828 Da. The deduced amino sequence exhibited low similarity to those of functional phenolic acid decarboxylases previously reported from bacteria with 25-39% identity and to those of PAD1 and FDC1 proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with less than 14% identity. The C. guilliermondii phenolic acid decarboxylase converted the main substrates ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid to the respective corresponding products. Surprisingly, the ultrafiltrate (Mr 10,000-cut-off) of the cell-free extract of C. guilliermondii remarkably activated the ferulic acid decarboxylation by the purified enzyme, whereas it was almost without effect on the p-coumaric acid decarboxylation. Gel-filtration chromatography of the ultrafiltrate suggested that an endogenous amino thiol-like compound with a molecular weight greater than Mr 1,400 was responsible for the activation. PMID:22217315

  18. Identification and suppression of the p-coumaroyl CoA:hydroxycinnamyl alcohol transferase in Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Marita, Jane M; Hatfield, Ronald D; Rancour, David M; Frost, Kenneth E

    2014-06-01

    Grasses, such as Zea mays L. (maize), contain relatively high levels of p-coumarates (pCA) within their cell walls. Incorporation of pCA into cell walls is believed to be due to a hydroxycinnamyl transferase that couples pCA to monolignols. To understand the role of pCA in maize development, the p-coumaroyl CoA:hydroxycinnamyl alcohol transferase (pCAT) was isolated and purified from maize stems. Purified pCAT was subjected to partial trypsin digestion, and peptides were sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry. TBLASTN analysis of the acquired peptide sequences identified a single full-length maize cDNA clone encoding all the peptide sequences obtained from the purified enzyme. The cDNA clone was obtained and used to generate an RNAi construct for suppressing pCAT expression in maize. Here we describe the effects of suppression of pCAT in maize. Primary screening of transgenic maize seedling leaves using a new rapid analytical platform was used to identify plants with decreased amounts of pCA. Using this screening method, mature leaves from fully developed plants were analyzed, confirming reduced pCA levels throughout plant development. Complete analysis of isolated cell walls from mature transgenic stems and leaves revealed that lignin levels did not change, but pCA levels decreased and the lignin composition was altered. Transgenic plants with the lowest levels of pCA had decreased levels of syringyl units in the lignin. Thus, altering the levels of pCAT expression in maize leads to altered lignin composition, but does not appear to alter the total amount of lignin present in the cell walls. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. PHENOLIC ACIDS AND LIGNINS IN THE LYCOPODIALES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ethanolysis or alkaline oxidation of their extracted wood-meals. p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were identified in phenolic acid ...Twenty-one species and varieties of Lycopodium have been examined for phenolic acids and for phenolic aldehydes, ketones and acids obtained on...found to yield syringic acid in the ethanol-soluble fraction and on degradation of lignin whereas species included in the genera Huperzia and Lepidotis

  20. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and esters by Brettanomyces in different red wines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Depending on the cultivars and other factors, differing concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acid, respectively) are found in red wines. Hydroxycinnamic acids are metabolized by...

  1. Characteristics of Lignin Fractions from Dilute Acid Pretreated Switchgrass and Their Effect on Cellobiohydrolase from Trichoderma longibrachiatum

    DOE PAGES

    Yao, Lan; Yang, Haitao; Yoo, Chang Geun; ...

    2018-02-06

    To investigate the interactions between acid pretreated switchgrass lignin and cellobiohydrolase (CBH), three different lignin fractions were isolated from dilute acid pretreated switchgrass by (i) ethanol extraction, followed by (ii) dioxane/H2O extraction, and (iii) cellulase treatment, respectively. Structural properties of each lignin fraction were elucidated by GPC, 13C-NMR, and 2D-HSQC NMR analyses. The adsorptions of CBH to the isolated lignin fractions were also studied by Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Ethanol-extractable lignin fraction, mainly composed of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) units, had the lowest molecular weight, while dioxane/H2O-extracted lignin fraction had the lowest S/G ratio with higher content of p-coumaric acidmore » (pCA) unit. The residual lignin fraction after enzymatic treatment had the highest S/G ratio without hydroxyphenyl (H) unit. Strong associations were found between lignin properties such as lignin composition and S/G ratio and its non-productive enzyme adsorption factors including the maximum adsorption capacity and binding strength.« less

  2. Characteristics of Lignin Fractions from Dilute Acid Pretreated Switchgrass and Their Effect on Cellobiohydrolase from Trichoderma longibrachiatum

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Lan; Yang, Haitao; Yoo, Chang Geun

    To investigate the interactions between acid pretreated switchgrass lignin and cellobiohydrolase (CBH), three different lignin fractions were isolated from dilute acid pretreated switchgrass by (i) ethanol extraction, followed by (ii) dioxane/H2O extraction, and (iii) cellulase treatment, respectively. Structural properties of each lignin fraction were elucidated by GPC, 13C-NMR, and 2D-HSQC NMR analyses. The adsorptions of CBH to the isolated lignin fractions were also studied by Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Ethanol-extractable lignin fraction, mainly composed of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) units, had the lowest molecular weight, while dioxane/H2O-extracted lignin fraction had the lowest S/G ratio with higher content of p-coumaric acidmore » (pCA) unit. The residual lignin fraction after enzymatic treatment had the highest S/G ratio without hydroxyphenyl (H) unit. Strong associations were found between lignin properties such as lignin composition and S/G ratio and its non-productive enzyme adsorption factors including the maximum adsorption capacity and binding strength.« less

  3. Stability of lipid encapsulated phenolic acid particles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phenolic compounds such as ferulic acid and p-coumaric acids are potential bioactive additives for use in animal feeds to replace current antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. These compounds are ubiquitous in plants and may be obtained from commodity grain crops and waste biomass. Encapsulation...

  4. Protection capacity against low-density lipoprotein oxidation and antioxidant potential of some organic and non-organic wines.

    PubMed

    Kalkan Yildirim, Hatice; Delen Akçay, Yasemin; Güvenç, Ulgar; Yildirim Sözmen, Eser

    2004-08-01

    Current research suggests that phenolics from wine may play a positive role against oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is a key step in the development of atherosclerosis. Considering the effects of different wine-making techniques on phenols and the wine consumption preference influencing the benefical effects of the product, organically and non-organically produced wines were obtained from the grapes of Vitis vinifera origin var: Carignan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Grenache, Columbard and Semillon. Levels of total phenols [mg/l gallic acid equivalents (GAE)], antioxidant activity (%) and inhibition of LDL oxidation [%, inhibition of diene and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation] were determined. Some phenolic acids (gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid) were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with an electrochemical detection carried at +0.65 V (versus Ag/AgCl, 0.5 microA full scale). The highest concentrations of gallic, syringic and ferulic acids were found in organic Cabernet Sauvignon; 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid in organic Carignan and p-coumaric and vanillic acids in non-organic Merlot wine. High levels of antioxidant activity (AOA), inhibition of LDL oxidation and total phenol levels were found in non-organic Merlot (101.950% AOA; 88.570% LDL-diene; 41.000% LDL-MDA; 4700.000 mg/l GAE total phenol) and non-organic Cabernet Sauvignon (92.420% AOA; 91.430% LDL-diene; 67.000% LDL-MDA; 3500.000 mg/l GAE total phenol) grape varieties. Concentrations of some individual phenolic constituents (ferulic, p-coumaric, vanillic) are correlated with high antioxidant activity and inhibition of LDL oxidation. The best r value for all examined characteristics was determined for gallic acid, followed by 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic, syringic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids. Negative correlation of vanillic with MDA and p-hydroxybenzoic acid with LDL were

  5. Feed supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum PCA 236 modulates gut microbiota and milk fatty acid composition in dairy goats--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Maragkoudakis, Petros A; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Rosu, Craita; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Dalaka, Eleni; Hadjipetrou, Andreas; Theofanous, Giorgos; Strozzi, Gian Paolo; Carlini, Nancy; Zervas, George; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2010-07-31

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential of a promising Lactobacillus plantarum isolate (PCA 236) from cheese as a probiotic feed supplement in lactating goats. The ability of L. plantarum to survive transit through the goat gastrointestinal tract and to modulate selected constituents of the gut microbiota composition, monitored at faecal level was assessed. In addition, L. plantarum effects on plasma immunoglobulins and antioxidant capacity of the animals as well as on the milk fatty acid composition were determined. For the purpose of the experiment a field study was designed, involving 24 dairy goats of the Damascus breed, kept in a sheep and goat dairy farm. The goats were divided in terms of body weight in two treatments of 12 goats each, namely: control (CON) without addition of L. plantarum and probiotic (PRO) treatment with in feed administration of L. plantarum so that the goats would intake 12 log CFU/day. The experiment lasted 5 weeks and at weekly time intervals individual faecal, blood and milk samples were collected and analysed. All faecal samples were examined for the presence of L. plantarum PCA 236. In addition, the culturable population levels of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Streptococcus, Enterococcus, mesophilic anaerobes, Clostridium and Bacteroides in faeces were also determined by enumeration on specific culture media. In parallel, plasma IgA, IgM and IgG and antioxidant capacity of plasma and milk were determined. No adverse effects were observed in the animals receiving the lactobacillus during the experiment. Lactobacillus plantarum PCA 236 was recovered in the faeces of all animals in the PRO treatment. In addition, PRO treatment resulted in a significant (P

  6. Differential metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by two Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains grown in red wines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acids, respectively) are found in red wines in varying concentrations depending on cultivars and other factors. While some Brettanomyces form volatile phenols...

  7. Effects of structural differences on the NMR chemical shifts in cinnamic acid derivatives: Comparison of GIAO and GIPAW calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeleszczuk, Łukasz; Pisklak, Dariusz Maciej; Zielińska-Pisklak, Monika; Wawer, Iwona

    2016-06-01

    In this article we report the results of combined theoretical and experimental structural studies on cinnamic acid derivatives (CADs), one of the main groups of secondary metabolites present in various medicinal plant species and food products of plant origin. The effects of structural differences in CADs on their spectroscopic properties were studied in detail by both: solid-state NMR and GIAO/GIPAW calculations. Theoretical computations were used in order to perform signal assignment in 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra of the cinnamic, o-coumaric, m-coumaric, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, sinapic and 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acids, and to evaluate the accuracy of GIPAW and GIAO methodology.

  8. Identification of an IL-1-induced gene expression pattern in AR+ PCa cells that mimics the molecular phenotype of AR- PCa cells.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Jardin, Shayna E; Kanchwala, Mohammed S; Jacob, Joan; Merchant, Sana; Meade, Rachel K; Gahnim, Nagham M; Nawas, Afshan F; Xing, Chao; Delk, Nikki A

    2018-06-01

    In immunosurveillance, bone-derived immune cells infiltrate the tumor and secrete inflammatory cytokines to destroy cancer cells. However, cancer cells have evolved mechanisms to usurp inflammatory cytokines to promote tumor progression. In particular, the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1), is elevated in prostate cancer (PCa) patient tissue and serum, and promotes PCa bone metastasis. IL-1 also represses androgen receptor (AR) accumulation and activity in PCa cells, yet the cells remain viable and tumorigenic; suggesting that IL-1 may also contribute to AR-targeted therapy resistance. Furthermore, IL-1 and AR protein levels negatively correlate in PCa tumor cells. Taken together, we hypothesize that IL-1 reprograms AR positive (AR + ) PCa cells into AR negative (AR - ) PCa cells that co-opt IL-1 signaling to ensure AR-independent survival and tumor progression in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. LNCaP and PC3 PCa cells were treated with IL-1β or HS-5 bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) conditioned medium and analyzed by RNA sequencing and RT-QPCR. To verify genes identified by RNA sequencing, LNCaP, MDA-PCa-2b, PC3, and DU145 PCa cell lines were treated with the IL-1 family members, IL-1α or IL-1β, or exposed to HS-5 BMSC in the presence or absence of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist (IL-1RA). Treated cells were analyzed by western blot and/or RT-QPCR. Comparative analysis of sequencing data from the AR + LNCaP PCa cell line versus the AR - PC3 PCa cell line reveals an IL-1-conferred gene suite in LNCaP cells that is constitutive in PC3 cells. Bioinformatics analysis of the IL-1 regulated gene suite revealed that inflammatory and immune response pathways are primarily elicited; likely facilitating PCa cell survival and tumorigenicity in an inflammatory tumor microenvironment. Our data supports that IL-1 reprograms AR + PCa cells to mimic AR - PCa gene expression patterns that favor AR-targeted treatment resistance and cell survival. © 2018 Wiley

  9. Bioproduction of 4-vinylphenol from corn cob alkaline hydrolyzate in two-phase extractive fermentation using free or immobilized recombinant E. coli expressing pad gene.

    PubMed

    Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez-Solana, Raquel; Curiel, José Antonio; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2014-05-10

    In situ extractive fermentation was used to produce 4-vinyl derivatives from hydroxycinnamic acids extracted from corn cobs by recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing Lactobacillus plantarum phenolic acid descarboxylase (PAD) gene. This microorganism mainly produced 4-vinylphenol (4VP) from p-coumaric acid (p-CA). In the first study , we observed that the concentrations of 4VP are higher than 1g/L which had a negative impact on decarboxylation of p-CA to 4VP by recombinant E. coli cells. Because of this, and in order to improve the downstream process, a two-phase aqueous-organic solvent system was developed. The results of the extractive fermentation indicated that it was possible to use hydrolyzates as aqueous phase to bioproduce 4VP, and recover simultaneously the product in the organic phase containing hexane. The detoxification of pre-treated corn cob alkaline hydrolyzate improved 4VP production up to 1003.5mg/L after 24h fermentation (QP=41.813mg/Lh). Additionally, preliminary experiments using cells immobilized in calcium alginate showed to be a good system for the biotransform of p-CA to 4VP in extractive fermentation, although the process hindered partially the recovery of 4VP in the organic phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A novel-type phosphatidylinositol phosphate-interactive, Ca-binding protein PCaP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana: stable association with plasma membrane and partial involvement in stomata closure.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Chisako; Miwa, Chika; Tanaka, Natsuki; Kato, Mariko; Suito, Momoe; Tsuchihira, Ayako; Sato, Yori; Segami, Shoji; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2016-05-01

    The Ca(2+)-binding protein-1 (PCaP1) of Arabidopsis thaliana is a new type protein that binds to phosphatidylinositol phosphates and Ca(2+)-calmodulin complex as well as free Ca(2+). Although biochemical properties, such as binding to ligands and N-myristoylation, have been revealed, the intracellular localization, tissue and cell specificity, integrity of membrane association and physiological roles of PCaP1 are unknown. We investigated the tissue and intracellular distribution of PCaP1 by using transgenic lines expressing PCaP1 linked with a green fluorescence protein (GFP) at the carboxyl terminus of PCaP1. GFP fluorescence was obviously detected in most tissues including root, stem, leaf and flower. In these tissues, PCaP1-GFP signal was observed predominantly in the plasma membrane even under physiological stress conditions but not in other organelles. The fluorescence was detected in the cytosol when the 25-residue N-terminal sequence was deleted from PCaP1 indicating essential contribution of N-myristoylation to the plasma membrane anchoring. Fluorescence intensity of PCaP1-GFP in roots was slightly decreased in seedlings grown in medium supplemented with high concentrations of iron for 1 week and increased in those grown with copper. In stomatal guard cells, PCaP1-GFP was strictly, specifically localized to the plasma membrane at the epidermal-cell side but not at the pore side. A T-DNA insertion mutant line of PCaP1 did not show marked phenotype in a life cycle except for well growth under high CO2 conditions. However, stomata of the mutant line did not close entirely even in high osmolarity, which usually induces stomata closure. These results suggest that PCaP1 is involved in the stomatal movement, especially closure process, in leaves and response to excessive copper in root and leaf as a mineral nutrient as a physiological role.

  11. A p-coumaroyl esterase from Rhizoctonia solani with a pronounced chlorogenic acid esterase activity.

    PubMed

    Nieter, Annabel; Kelle, Sebastian; Linke, Diana; Berger, Ralf G

    2017-07-25

    Extracellular esterase activity was detected in submerged cultures of Rhizoctonia solani grown in the presence of sugar beet pectin or Tween 80. Putative type B feruloyl esterase (FAE) coding sequences found in the genome data of the basidiomycete were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. Recombinant enzyme production on the 5-L bioreactor scale (Rs pCAE: 3245UL -1 ) exceeded the productivity of the wild type strain by a factor of 800. Based on substrate specificity profiling, the purified recombinant Rs pCAE was classified as a p-coumaroyl esterase (pCAE) with a pronounced chlorogenic acid esterase side activity. The Rs pCAE was also active on methyl cinnamate, caffeate and ferulate and on feruloylated saccharides. The unprecedented substrate profile of Rs pCAE together with the lack of sequence similarity to known FAEs or pCAEs suggested that the Rs pCAE represents a new type of enzyme. Hydroxycinnamic acids were released from agro-industrial side-streams, such as destarched wheat bran (DSWB), sugar beet pectin (SBP) and coffee pulp (CP). Overnight incubation of coffee pulp with the Rs pCAE resulted in the efficient release of p-coumaric (100%), caffeic (100%) and ferulic acid (85%) indicating possible applications for the valorization of food processing wastes and for the enhanced degradation of lignified biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Surfactant-enhanced disinfection of the human norovirus surrogate, Tulane virus, with organic acids and surfactant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Combination treatments of surfactants and phenolic or short-chained organic acids (SCOA) may act synergistically or additively as sanitizers to inactive foodborne viruses and prevent outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gallic acid (GA), tannic acid (TA), p-coumaric ...

  13. Age-related differences in early novelty processing: Using PCA to parse the overlapping anterior P2 and N2 components

    PubMed Central

    Daffner, Kirk R.; Alperin, Brittany R.; Mott, Katherine K.; Tusch, Erich; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated age-associated increases in the anterior P2 and age-related decreases in the anterior N2 in response to novel stimuli. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine if the inverse relationship between these components was due to their temporal and spatial overlap. PCA revealed an early anterior P2, sensitive to task relevance, and a late anterior P2, responsive to novelty, both exhibiting age-related amplitude increases. A PCA factor representing the anterior N2, sensitive to novelty, exhibited age-related amplitude decreases. The late P2 and N2 to novels inversely correlated. Larger late P2 amplitude to novels was associated with better behavioral performance. Age-related differences in the anterior P2 and N2 to novel stimuli likely represent age-associated changes in independent cognitive operations. Enhanced anterior P2 activity (indexing augmentation in motivational salience) may be a compensatory mechanism for diminished anterior N2 activity (indexing reduced ability of older adults to process ambiguous representations). PMID:25596483

  14. Biosynthesis of vanillin via ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Osamu; Sugiura, Kenji; Negishi, Yukiko

    2009-11-11

    (14)C-Labeled phenylalanine, 4-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, ferulic acid, and methionine were applied to disks of green vanilla pods 3 and 6 months after pollination (immature and mature pods), and the conversion of these compounds to vanillin or glucovanillin was investigated. In mature green vanilla pods, radioactivities of 11, 15, 29, and 24% from (14)C-labeled phenylalanine, 4-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and methionine, respectively, were incorporated into glucovanillin within 24 h. In the incorporation processes of methionine and phenylalanine into glucovanillin, some of the (14)C labels were also trapped by the unlabeled ferulic acid. However, (14)C-labeled 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol were not converted to glucovanillin. On the other hand, in immature green vanilla pods radioactivities of the above six compounds were not incorporated into glucovanillin. Although 4-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol were converted to the respective glucose esters or glucosides and vanillin was converted to glucovanillin, their conversions were believed to be from the detoxication of the aglycones. These results suggest that the biosynthetic pathway for vanillin is 4-coumaric acid --> --> ferulic acid --> --> vanillin --> glucovanillin in mature vanilla pods.

  15. Protocatechuic Acid from Alpinia oxyphylla Induces Schwann Cell Migration via ERK1/2, JNK and p38 Activation.

    PubMed

    Ju, Da-Tong; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Paul, Catherine Reena; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Lin, Chien-Chung; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Chang, Yung-Ming; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Alpinia oxyphylla MIQ (Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus, AOF) is an important traditional Chinese medicinal herb whose fruits is widely used to prepare tonics and is used as an aphrodisiac, anti salivary, anti diuretic and nerve-protective agent. Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a simple phenolic compound was isolated from the kernels of AOF. This study investigated the role of PCA in promoting neural regeneration and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Nerve regeneration is a complex physiological response that takes place after injury. Schwann cells play a crucial role in the endogenous repair of peripheral nerves due to their ability to proliferate and migrate. The role of PCA in Schwann cell migration was determined by assessing the induced migration potential of RSC96 Schwann cells. PCA induced changes in the expression of proteins of three MAPK pathways, as determined using Western blot analysis. In order to determine the roles of MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK, and p38) pathways in PCA-induced matrix-degrading proteolytic enzyme (PAs and MMP2/9) production, the expression of several MAPK-associated proteins was analyzed after siRNA-mediated inhibition assays. Treatment with PCA-induced ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation that activated the downstream expression of PAs and MMPs. PCA-stimulated ERK1/2, JNK and p38 phosphorylation was attenuated by individual pretreatment with siRNAs or MAPK inhibitors (U0126, SP600125, and SB203580), resulting in the inhibition of migration and the uPA-related signal pathway. Taken together, our data suggest that PCA extract regulate the MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK, and p38)/PA (uPA, tPA)/MMP (MMP2, MMP9) mediated regeneration and migration signaling pathways in Schwann cells. Therefore, PCA plays a major role in Schwann cell migration and the regeneration of damaged peripheral nerve.

  16. Elevated YKL40 is associated with advanced prostate cancer (PCa) and positively regulates invasion and migration of PCa cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeet, Varinder; Tevz, Gregor; Lehman, Melanie; Hollier, Brett; Nelson, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1 or YKL40) is a secreted glycoprotein highly expressed in tumours from patients with advanced stage cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). The exact function of YKL40 is poorly understood, but it has been shown to play an important role in promoting tumour angiogenesis and metastasis. The therapeutic value and biological function of YKL40 are unknown in PCa. The objective of this study was to examine the expression and function of YKL40 in PCa. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that YKL40 was highly expressed in metastatic PCa cells when compared with less invasive and normal prostate epithelial cell lines. In addition, the expression was primarily limited to androgen receptor-positive cell lines. Evaluation of YKL40 tissue expression in PCa patients showed a progressive increase in patients with aggressive disease when compared with those with less aggressive cancers and normal controls. Treatment of LNCaP and C4-2B cells with androgens increased YKL40 expression, whereas treatment with an anti-androgen agent decreased the gene expression of YKL40 in androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells. Furthermore, knockdown of YKL40 significantly decreased invasion and migration of PCa cells, whereas overexpression rendered them more invasive and migratory, which was commensurate with an enhancement in the anchorage-independent growth of cells. To our knowledge, this study characterises the role of YKL40 for the first time in PCa. Together, these results suggest that YKL40 plays an important role in PCa progression and thus inhibition of YKL40 may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PCa. PMID:24981110

  17. Elevated YKL40 is associated with advanced prostate cancer (PCa) and positively regulates invasion and migration of PCa cells.

    PubMed

    Jeet, Varinder; Tevz, Gregor; Lehman, Melanie; Hollier, Brett; Nelson, Colleen

    2014-10-01

    Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1 or YKL40) is a secreted glycoprotein highly expressed in tumours from patients with advanced stage cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). The exact function of YKL40 is poorly understood, but it has been shown to play an important role in promoting tumour angiogenesis and metastasis. The therapeutic value and biological function of YKL40 are unknown in PCa. The objective of this study was to examine the expression and function of YKL40 in PCa. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that YKL40 was highly expressed in metastatic PCa cells when compared with less invasive and normal prostate epithelial cell lines. In addition, the expression was primarily limited to androgen receptor-positive cell lines. Evaluation of YKL40 tissue expression in PCa patients showed a progressive increase in patients with aggressive disease when compared with those with less aggressive cancers and normal controls. Treatment of LNCaP and C4-2B cells with androgens increased YKL40 expression, whereas treatment with an anti-androgen agent decreased the gene expression of YKL40 in androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells. Furthermore, knockdown of YKL40 significantly decreased invasion and migration of PCa cells, whereas overexpression rendered them more invasive and migratory, which was commensurate with an enhancement in the anchorage-independent growth of cells. To our knowledge, this study characterises the role of YKL40 for the first time in PCa. Together, these results suggest that YKL40 plays an important role in PCa progression and thus inhibition of YKL40 may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PCa. © 2014 The authors.

  18. The Tissue Distribution and Urinary Excretion Study of Gallic Acid and Protocatechuic Acid after Oral Administration of Polygonum Capitatum Extract in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Feng-Wei; Deng, Qing-Fang; Zhou, Xin; Gong, Xiao-Jian; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Hua-Guo; Zhao, Chao

    2016-03-24

    In the present study, we investigated the tissue distribution and urinary excretion of gallic acid (GA) and protocatechuic acid (PCA) after rat oral administration of aqueous extract of Polygonum capitatum (P. capitatum, named Herba Polygoni Capitati in China). An UHPLC-MS/MS analytical method was developed and adopted for quantification of GA and PCA in different tissue homogenate and urine samples. Interestingly, we found that GA and PCA showed a relatively targeted distribution in kidney tissue after dosing 60 mg/kg P. capitatum extract (equivalent to 12 mg/kg of GA and 0.9 mg/kg of PCA). The concentrations of GA and PCA in the kidney tissue reached 1218.62 ng/g and 43.98 ng/g, respectively, at one hour after oral administration. The results helped explain the empirical use of P. capitatum for kidney diseases in folk medicine. Further studies on urinary excretion of P. capitatum extract indicated that GA and PCA followed a concentrated elimination over a 4-h period. The predominant metabolites were putatively identified to be 4-methylgallic acid (4-OMeGA) and 4-methylprotocatechuic acid (4-OMePCA) by analyzing their precursor ions and characteristic fragment ions using tandem mass spectrometry. However, the amount of unchanged GA and PCA that survived the metabolism were about 14.60% and 15.72% of the total intake, respectively, which is reported for the first time in this study.

  19. Production of hydroxycinnamoyl-shikimates and chlorogenic acid in Escherichia coli: production of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydroxycinnamates (HCs) are mainly produced in plants. Caffeic acid (CA), p-coumaric acid (PA), ferulic acid (FA) and sinapic acid (SA) are members of the HC family. The consumption of HC by human might prevent cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer. The solubility of HCs is increased through thioester conjugation to various compounds such as quinic acid, shikimic acid, malic acid, anthranilic acid, and glycerol. Although hydroxycinnamate conjugates can be obtained from diverse plant sources such as coffee, tomato, potato, apple, and sweet potato, some parts of the world have limited availability to these compounds. Thus, there is growing interest in producing HC conjugates as nutraceutical supplements. Results Hydroxycinnamoyl transferases (HCTs) including hydroxycinnamate-CoA shikimate transferase (HST) and hydroxycinnamate-CoA quinate transferase (HQT) were co-expressed with 4-coumarateCoA:ligase (4CL) in Escherichia coli cultured in media supplemented with HCs. Two hydroxycinnamoyl conjugates, p-coumaroyl shikimates and chlorogenic acid, were thereby synthesized. Total 29.1 mg/L of four different p-coumaroyl shikimates (3-p-coumaroyl shikimate, 4-p-coumaroyl shikimate, 3,4-di-p-coumaroyl shikimate, 3,5-di-p-coumaroyl shikimate, and 4,5-di-p-coumaroyl shikimate) was obtained and 16 mg/L of chlorogenic acid was synthesized in the wild type E. coli strain. To increase the concentration of endogenous acceptor substrates such as shikimate and quinate, the shikimate pathway in E. coli was engineered. A E. coli aroL and aroK gene were mutated and the resulting mutants were used for the production of p-coumaroyl shikimate. An E. coli aroD mutant was used for the production of chlorogenic acid. We also optimized the vector and cell concentration optimization. Conclusions To produce p-coumaroyl-shikimates and chlorogenic acid in E. coli, several E. coli mutants (an aroD mutant for chlorogenic acid production; an aroL, aroK, and aroKL mutant for p

  20. PCA3 Silencing Sensitizes Prostate Cancer Cells to Enzalutamide-mediated Androgen Receptor Blockade.

    PubMed

    Özgür, Emre; Celik, Ayca Iribas; Darendeliler, Emin; Gezer, Ugur

    2017-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is an androgen-dependent disease. Novel anti-androgens (i.e. enzalutamide) have recently been developed for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Evidence is accumulating that prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) is involved in androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Here, in combination with enzalutamide-mediated AR blockade, we investigated the effect of PCA3 targeting on the viability of PCa cells. In hormone-sensitive LNCaP cells, AR-overexpressing LNCaP-AR + cells and VCaP cells (representing CRPC), PCA3 was silenced using siRNA oligonucleotides. Gene expression and cell viability was assessed in PCA3-silenced and/or AR-blocked cells. PCA3 targeting reduced the expression of AR-related genes (i.e. prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific transcript 1 (non-protein coding) (PCGEM1)) and potentiated the effect of enzalutamide. Proliferation of PCa cells was suppressed upon PCA3 silencing with a greater effect in LNCaP-AR + cells. Furthermore, PCA3 silencing sensitized PCa cells to enzalutamide-induced loss of cell growth. PCA3, as a therapeutic target in PCa, might be used to potentiate AR antagonists. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Cell-wall properties contributing to improved deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis in diverse maize (Zea mays L.) lines

    PubMed Central

    Li, Muyang; Heckwolf, Marlies; Crowe, Jacob D.; Williams, Daniel L.; Magee, Timothy D.; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; de Leon, Natalia; Hodge, David B.

    2015-01-01

    A maize (Zea mays L. subsp. mays) diversity panel consisting of 26 maize lines exhibiting a wide range of cell-wall properties and responses to hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes was employed to investigate the relationship between cell-wall properties, cell-wall responses to mild NaOH pre-treatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose in the untreated maize was found to be positively correlated with the water retention value, which is a measure of cell-wall susceptibility to swelling. It was also positively correlated with the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl ratio and negatively correlated with the initial cell-wall lignin, xylan, acetate, and p-coumaric acid (pCA) content, as well as pCA released from the cell wall by pre-treatment. The hydrolysis yield following pre-treatment exhibited statistically significant negative correlations to the lignin content after pre-treatment and positive correlations to the solubilized ferulic acid and pCA. Several unanticipated results were observed, including a positive correlation between initial lignin and acetate content, lack of correlation between acetate content and initial xylan content, and negative correlation between each of these three variables to the hydrolysis yields for untreated maize. Another surprising result was that pCA release was negatively correlated with hydrolysis yields for untreated maize and, along with ferulic acid release, was positively correlated with the pre-treated maize hydrolysis yields. This indicates that these properties that may negatively contribute to the recalcitrance in untreated cell walls may positively contribute to their deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment. PMID:25871649

  2. Lignification in transgenics deficient in 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)or the associated hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT)

    Treesearch

    John Ralph; Takuya Akiyama; Hoon Kim; Fachuang Lu; Sally A. Ralph; Clint Chapple; Ramesh B. Nair; Armin Wagner; Fang Chen; M.S. Srinivasa Reddy; Richard A Dixon; Heather D. Coleman; Shawn D. Mansfield

    2006-01-01

    Down-regulation of the gene encoding 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) in angiosperms massively but predictably increased the proportion of p-hydroxyphenyl (P) units relative to the normally dominant syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) units. Alfalfa stem levels of up to ~65% P (from wild-type (WT) levels of ~1%) resulting from down-regulation of C3H were measured by...

  3. Comparison of the behaviour of Brettanomyces bruxellensis strain LAMAP L2480 growing in authentic and synthetic wines.

    PubMed

    Coronado, P; Aguilera, S; Carmona, L; Godoy, L; Martínez, C; Ganga, M A

    2015-05-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis is the main microorganism responsible for the production of off-flavours in wine. Studies have been carried out in synthetic cultures using p-coumaric acid for the production of vinyl and ethylphenols. The results obtained have been extrapolated to authentic wine, but there is no evidence that this correlation will be correct. We studied the behaviour of B. bruxellensis native strain LAMAP L2480 in authentic wine and in a synthetic medium with a chemical composition similar to the authentic wine used in this study (basal synthetic wine + pH, ethanol and hydroxycinnamic acid concentrations of commercial wine). In some assays, B. bruxellensis has been studied using media containing 100 mg L(-1) p-coumaric acid, so we also used the same concentration added to the authentic and synthetic wines. The microorganism showed better growth in authentic wine, regardless of the presence of p-coumaric acid. In the case of synthetic wine, the addition of p-coumaric acid caused a delay in yeast growth and an increase in the production of volatile phenols. The coumarate decarboxylase activity did not show any difference regardless of the media and the presence of p-coumaric acid. Vinylphenol reductase showed higher activity when a higher concentration of p-coumaric acid was added in synthetic wine, but no change was observed in authentic wine.

  4. Pseudomonas putida F1 uses energy taxis to sense hydroxycinnamic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jonathan G.; Zhang, Xiangsheng; Parales, Juanito V.; Ditty, Jayna L.; Parales, Rebecca E.

    2017-01-01

    Soil bacteria such as pseudomonads are widely studied due to their diverse metabolic capabilities, particularly the ability to degrade both naturally occurring and xenobiotic aromatic compounds. Chemotaxis, the directed movement of cells in response to chemical gradients, is common in motile soil bacteria and the wide range of chemicals detected often mirrors the metabolic diversity observed. Pseudomonas putida F1 is a soil isolate capable of chemotaxis toward, and degradation of, numerous aromatic compounds. We showed that P. putida F1 is capable of degrading members of a class of naturally occurring aromatic compounds known as hydroxycinnamic acids, which are components of lignin and are ubiquitous in the soil environment. We also demonstrated the ability of P. putida F1 to sense three hydroxycinnamic acids: p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids. The chemotaxis response to hydroxycinnamic acids was induced during growth in the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids and was negatively regulated by HcaR, the repressor of the hydroxycinnamic acid catabolic genes. Chemotaxis to the three hydroxycinnamic acids was dependent on catabolism, as a mutant lacking the gene encoding feruloyl-CoA synthetase (Fcs), which catalyzes the first step in hydroxycinnamic acid degradation, was unable to respond chemotactically toward p-coumaric, caffeic, or ferulic acids. We tested whether an energy taxis mutant could detect hydroxycinnamic acids and determined that hydroxycinnamic acid sensing is mediated by the energy taxis receptor Aer2. PMID:28954643

  5. Analysis of five rice 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activity and stress response for potential roles in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis in rice

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Haiyan; Biomass and Bioenergy Research Centre, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070; College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070

    Highlights: ► 4CLs play important roles in both lignin and flavonoids biosynthesis. ► PA and FA are the two main substrates of 4CL (Os4CL1/3/4/5) for lignin biosynthesis. ► Os4CL2 is suggested for flavonoid formation in defense against UV radiation. -- Abstract: 4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) catalyzes the conversion of hydroxycinnamates into corresponding CoA esters for biosynthesis of flavonoids and lignin. In this study, five members of the 4CL gene family from rice were cloned and analyzed. Recombinant 4CL data revealed that 4-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were the two main substrates of 4CL (Os4CL1/3/4/5) for monolignol biosynthesis in rice. Os4CL2more » was specifically expressed in the anther and was strongly activated by UV irradiation, suggesting its potential involvement in flavonoid formation. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis showed that the existence of valine residue at the substrate-binding pocket may mainly affect rice 4CL activities toward sinapic acid.« less

  6. Interaction of cinnamic acid derivatives with β-cyclodextrin in water: experimental and molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Benguo; Zeng, Jie; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yonglan; Ma, Hanjun; Mo, Haizhen; Liang, Guizhao

    2016-03-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) can be used to improve the solubility and stability of cinnamic acid derivatives (CAs). However, there was no detailed report about understanding the effects of the substituent groups in the benzene ring on the inclusion behavior between CAs and CDs in aqueous solution. Here, the interaction of β-CD with CAs, including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid, in water was investigated by phase-solubility method, UV, fluorescence, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, together with ONIOM (our Own N-layer Integrated Orbital molecular Mechanics)-based QM/MM (Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics) calculations. Experimental results demonstrated that CAs could form 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex with β-CD by non-covalent bonds, and that the maximum apparent stability constants were found in caffeic acid (176M(-1)) followed by p-coumaric acid (160M(-1)) and ferulic acid (133M(-1)). Moreover, our calculations reasonably illustrated the binding orientations of β-CD with CAs determined by experimental observations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of four mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng-Xia; Fu, Shu-Fang; Bi, Xiu-Fang; Chen, Fang; Liao, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Song; Wu, Ji-Hong

    2013-05-01

    Four principal mango cultivars (Tainong No.1, Irwin, JinHwang and Keitt) grown in southern China were selected, and their physico-chemical and antioxidant properties were characterized and compared. Of all the four cultivars, Tainong No.1 had highest content of total phenols, ρ-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, quercetin, titratable acidity, citric acid, malic acid, fructose, higher antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP) and L(*), lower pH, PPO activity and individual weight. Keitt mangoes showed significantly (p<0.05) higher contents of β-carotene, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, sucrose, total sugar, total soluble solid, catechin, succinic acid and higher PPO activity. JinHwang mangoes exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher individual weight and PPO activity, but had lower content of total phenols, β-carotene and lower antioxidant activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed the four mango cultivars to be differentiated clearly based on all these physico-chemical and antioxidant properties determined in the study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of Phenolic Acids in Sugarcane Vinasse by HPLC with Pulse Amperometry

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, P. V.; Beluomini, M. A.; da Silva, J. L.; Stradiotto, N. R.

    2018-01-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation with pulsed amperometric detection of phenolic acids at a glassy carbon electrode is described. Chromatographic separation was carried out in isocratic conditions using 0.20 mol·L−1 acetic acid (pH 5.0)/water (80 : 20, v/v) as mobile phase under constant working potential mode of 0.80 V. Chromatographic peaks presented high resolution and separation. Calibration curves exhibited excellent correlation coefficients, above 0.995. Linear ranges of the analytes, in mg L−1, were of 0.018–18 (gallic acid), 0.146–19 (vanillic acid), 0.13–17 (caffeic acid), 0.016–16 (ferulic acid), and 0.008–17 (p-coumaric acid), respectively. Limits of detection ranged from 1.6 to 97 μg·L−1 and precision varied in 1.73–3.78% interval. Concentrations of 19 ± 0.51 mg·L−1 and 7.8 ± 2.5 mg·L−1 were found for vanillic and caffeic acids, respectively, in a sugarcane vinasse sample. Gallic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids were not detected. Recovery results demonstrated that the proposed method is accurate, and it can be used to detect and quantify phenolic acids in sugarcane vinasse without any influence of interferents. PMID:29600112

  9. Synthesis and antifungal evaluation of PCA amide analogues.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chuan; Yu, Di-Ya; Zhou, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Min; Wu, Qing-Lai; Li, Jun-Kai

    2018-04-18

    To improve the physical and chemical properties of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and find higher antifungal compounds, a series of PCA amide analogues were designed and synthesized and their structures were confirmed by 1 H NMR, HRMS, and X-ray. Most compounds showed some antifungal activities in vitro. Particularly, compound 3d exhibited inhibition effect against Pyriculariaoryzac Cavgra with EC 50 value of 28.7 μM and compound 3q exhibited effect against Rhizoctonia solani with EC 50 value of 24.5 μM, more potently active than that of the positive control PCA with its EC 50 values of 37.3 μM (Pyriculariaoryzac Cavgra) and 33.2 μM (Rhizoctonia solani), respectively.

  10. Oxidation of phenolic acids by soil iron and manganese oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, R.G.; Cheng, H.H.; Harsh, J.B.

    Phenolic acids are intermediary metabolites of many aromatic chemicals and may be involved in humus formation, allelopathy, and nutrient availability. Depending on their structures, six phenolic acids were shown to react at different rates with oxidized forms of Fe and Mn in a Palouse soil (fine-silty, mixed, mesic Pachic Ultic Haploxeroll). Increasing methoxy substitution on the aromatic ring of phenolic acids increased the reaction rate. Reaction rate was also increased for longer carboxyl-containing side chains. After 4 h reaction, little of the applied (10 mg kg/sup -1/ soil) p-hydroxybenzoic or p-coumaric acids had reacted, while 0 to 5, 70, 90,more » and 100% of the vanillic, ferulic, syringic, and sinapic acids, respectively, had reacted. After 72 h under conditions limiting microbial growth, none of the p-hydroxybenzoic, 30% of the p-coumaric, and 50% of the vanillic acids had reacted. The reaction was shown to be predominantly chemical, and not biological, since phenolic acid extractabilities were similar for Palouse soil and for Palouse soil pretreated with LiOBr to remove organic matter. When the Palouse soil was pretreated with a sodium dithionite-citrate solution to remove Fe and Mn oxides, none of the phenolic acids reacted after 1 h. The reaction of sinapic acid with Palouse soil was shown to produce Fe(II) and soluble Mn as reaction products. The reaction of phenolic acids with soil was thus shown to be an oxidation of the phenolic acids, coupled with a reduction of soil Fe and Mn oxides.« less

  11. Energetics of short hydrogen bonds in photoactive yellow protein.

    PubMed

    Saito, Keisuke; Ishikita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-03

    Recent neutron diffraction studies of photoactive yellow protein (PYP) proposed that the H bond between protonated Glu46 and the chromophore [ionized p-coumaric acid (pCA)] was a low-barrier H bond (LBHB). Using the atomic coordinates of the high-resolution crystal structure, we analyzed the energetics of the short H bond by two independent methods: electrostatic pK(a) calculations and a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach. (i) In the QM/MM optimized geometry, we reproduced the two short H-bond distances of the crystal structure: Tyr42-pCA (2.50 Å) and Glu46-pCA (2.57 Å). However, the H atoms obviously belonged to the Tyr or Glu moieties, and were not near the midpoint of the donor and acceptor atoms. (ii) The potential-energy curves of the two H bonds resembled those of standard asymmetric double-well potentials, which differ from those of LBHB. (iii) The calculated pK(a) values for Glu46 and pCA were 8.6 and 5.4, respectively. The pK(a) difference was unlikely to satisfy the prerequisite for LBHB. (iv) The LBHB in PYP was originally proposed to stabilize the ionized pCA because deprotonated Arg52 cannot stabilize it. However, the calculated pK(a) of Arg52 and QM/MM optimized geometry suggested that Arg52 was protonated on the protein surface. The short H bond between Glu46 and ionized pCA in the PYP ground state could be simply explained by electrostatic stabilization without invoking LBHB.

  12. Photoelectron spectra and biological activity of cinnamic acid derivatives revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Igor; Klasinc, Leo; McGlynn, Sean P.

    2018-01-01

    The electronic structures of several derivatives of cinnamic acid have been studied by UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and Green's function quantum chemical calculations. The spectra reveal the presence of dimers in the gas phase for p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The electronic structure analysis has been related to the biological properties of these compounds through the analysis of some structure-activity relationships (SAR).

  13. Dietary Consumption of Phenolic Acids and Prostate Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Sicily, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Campisi, Daniele; Di Mauro, Marina; Regis, Federica; Reale, Giulio; Marranzano, Marina; Ragusa, Rosalia; Solinas, Tatiana; Madonia, Massimo; Cimino, Sebastiano; Morgia, Giuseppe

    2017-12-05

    Dietary polyphenols gained the interest of the scientific community due to their wide content in a variety of plant-derived foods and beverages commonly consumed, such as fruits, vegetables, coffee, tea, and cocoa . We aimed to investigate whether there was an association between dietary phenolic acid consumption and prostate cancer (PCa) in South Italy. We conducted a population-based case-control study from January 2015 to December 2016 in a single institution of the municipality of Catania, southern Italy (Registration number: 41/2015). Patients with elevated PSA and/or suspicious PCa underwent transperineal prostate biopsy. A total of 118 histopathological-verified PCa cases were collected and a total of 222 controls were selected from a sample of 2044 individuals. Dietary data were collected by using two food frequency questionnaires and data on the phenolic acids content in foods was obtained from the Phenol-Explorer database (www.phenol-explorer.eu). Association between dietary intake of phenolic acids and PCa was calculated through logistic regression analysis. We found lower levels of caffeic acid (2.28 mg/day vs. 2.76 mg/day; p < 0.05) and ferulic acid (2.80 mg/day vs. 4.04 mg/day; p < 0.01) in PCa when compared to controls. The multivariate logistic regression showed that both caffeic acid (OR = 0.32; p < 0.05) and ferulic acid (OR = 0.30; p < 0.05) were associated with reduced risk of PCa. Higher intake of hydroxybenzoic acids and caffeic acids were associated with lower risk of advanced PCa. High intake of caffeic acid and ferulic acid may be associated with reduced risk of PCa.

  14. ToF-SIMS PCA analysis of Myrtus communis L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piras, F. M.; Dettori, M. F.; Magnani, A.

    2009-06-01

    Nowadays there is a growing interest of researchers for the application of sophisticated analytical techniques in conjunction with statistical data analysis methods to the characterization of natural products to assure their authenticity and quality, and for the possibility of direct analysis of food to obtain maximum information. In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) in conjunction with principal components analysis (PCA) are applied to study the chemical composition and variability of Sardinian myrtle ( Myrtus communis L.) through the analysis of both berries alcoholic extracts and berries epicarp. ToF-SIMS spectra of berries epicarp show that the epicuticular waxes consist mainly of carboxylic acids with chain length ranging from C20 to C30, or identical species formed from fragmentation of long-chain esters. PCA of ToF-SIMS data from myrtle berries epicarp distinguishes two groups characterized by a different surface concentration of triacontanoic acid. Variability in antocyanins, flavonols, α-tocopherol, and myrtucommulone contents is showed by ToF-SIMS PCA analysis of myrtle berries alcoholic extracts.

  15. Cell-wall properties contributing to improved deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis in diverse maize (Zea mays L.) lines.

    PubMed

    Li, Muyang; Heckwolf, Marlies; Crowe, Jacob D; Williams, Daniel L; Magee, Timothy D; Kaeppler, Shawn M; de Leon, Natalia; Hodge, David B

    2015-07-01

    A maize (Zea mays L. subsp. mays) diversity panel consisting of 26 maize lines exhibiting a wide range of cell-wall properties and responses to hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes was employed to investigate the relationship between cell-wall properties, cell-wall responses to mild NaOH pre-treatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose in the untreated maize was found to be positively correlated with the water retention value, which is a measure of cell-wall susceptibility to swelling. It was also positively correlated with the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl ratio and negatively correlated with the initial cell-wall lignin, xylan, acetate, and p-coumaric acid (pCA) content, as well as pCA released from the cell wall by pre-treatment. The hydrolysis yield following pre-treatment exhibited statistically significant negative correlations to the lignin content after pre-treatment and positive correlations to the solubilized ferulic acid and pCA. Several unanticipated results were observed, including a positive correlation between initial lignin and acetate content, lack of correlation between acetate content and initial xylan content, and negative correlation between each of these three variables to the hydrolysis yields for untreated maize. Another surprising result was that pCA release was negatively correlated with hydrolysis yields for untreated maize and, along with ferulic acid release, was positively correlated with the pre-treated maize hydrolysis yields. This indicates that these properties that may negatively contribute to the recalcitrance in untreated cell walls may positively contribute to their deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. PEM-PCA: a parallel expectation-maximization PCA face recognition architecture.

    PubMed

    Rujirakul, Kanokmon; So-In, Chakchai; Arnonkijpanich, Banchar

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis or PCA has been traditionally used as one of the feature extraction techniques in face recognition systems yielding high accuracy when requiring a small number of features. However, the covariance matrix and eigenvalue decomposition stages cause high computational complexity, especially for a large database. Thus, this research presents an alternative approach utilizing an Expectation-Maximization algorithm to reduce the determinant matrix manipulation resulting in the reduction of the stages' complexity. To improve the computational time, a novel parallel architecture was employed to utilize the benefits of parallelization of matrix computation during feature extraction and classification stages including parallel preprocessing, and their combinations, so-called a Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA architecture. Comparing to a traditional PCA and its derivatives, the results indicate lower complexity with an insignificant difference in recognition precision leading to high speed face recognition systems, that is, the speed-up over nine and three times over PCA and Parallel PCA.

  17. Phenolic Acid Composition, Antiatherogenic and Anticancer Potential of Honeys Derived from Various Regions in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Spilioti, Eliana; Jaakkola, Mari; Tolonen, Tiina; Lipponen, Maija; Virtanen, Vesa; Chinou, Ioanna; Kassi, Eva; Karabournioti, Sofia; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi

    2014-01-01

    The phenolic acid profile of honey depends greatly on its botanical and geographical origin. In this study, we carried out a quantitative analysis of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract of 12 honeys collected from various regions in Greece. Our findings indicate that protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid are the major phenolic acids of the honeys examined. Conifer tree honey (from pine and fir) contained significantly higher concentrations of protocatechuic and caffeic acid (mean: 6640 and 397 µg/kg honey respectively) than thyme and citrus honey (mean of protocatechuic and caffeic acid: 437.6 and 116 µg/kg honey respectively). p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was the dominant compound in thyme honeys (mean: 1252.5 µg/kg honey). We further examined the antioxidant potential (ORAC assay) of the extracts, their ability to influence viability of prostate cancer (PC-3) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells as well as their lowering effect on TNF- α-induced adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells (HAEC). ORAC values of Greek honeys ranged from 415 to 2129 µmol Trolox equivalent/kg honey and correlated significantly with their content in protocatechuic acid (p<0.001), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p<0.01), vanillic acid (p<0.05), caffeic acid (p<0.01), p-coumaric acid (p<0.001) and their total phenolic content (p<0.001). Honey extracts reduced significantly the viability of PC-3 and MCF-7 cells as well as the expression of adhesion molecules in HAEC. Importantly, vanillic acid content correlated significantly with anticancer activity in PC-3 and MCF-7 cells (p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively). Protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid and total phenolic content correlated significantly with the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression (p<0.05, p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively). In conclusion, Greek honeys are rich in phenolic acids, in particular protocatechuic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid and exhibit significant antioxidant, anticancer and

  18. Identification and Quantification of Avenanthramides and Free and Bound Phenolic Acids in Eight Cultivars of Husked Oat ( Avena sativa L) from Finland.

    PubMed

    Multari, Salvatore; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Ollennu-Chuasam, Priscilla; Hietaniemi, Veli; Yang, Baoru; Suomela, Jukka-Pekka

    2018-03-21

    Finland is the second largest oat producer in Europe. Despite the existing knowledge of phenolics in oat, there is little information on the phenolic composition of oats from Finland. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentrations of free and bound phenolic acids, as well as avenanthramides in eight Finnish cultivars of husked oat ( Avena sativa L.). Seven phenolic acids and one phenolic aldehyde were identified, including, in decreasing order of abundance: p-coumaric, ferulic, cinnamic, syringic, vanillic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic, and o-coumaric acids and syringaldehyde. Phenolic acids were mostly found as bound compounds. Significant varietal differences ( p < 0.05) were observed in the cumulative content of phenolic acids, with the lowest level found in cv. 'Viviana' (1202 ± 52.9 mg kg -1 ) and the highest in cv. 'Akseli' (1687 ± 80.2 mg kg -1 ). Avenanthramides (AVNs) 2a, 2p, and 2f were the most abundant. Total AVNs levels ranged from 26.7 ± 1.44 to 185 ± 12.5 mg kg -1 in cv. 'Avetron' and 'Viviana', respectively.

  19. Cell-wall properties contributing to improved deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis in diverse maize ( Zea mays L.) lines

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Muyang; Heckwolf, Marlies; Crowe, Jacob D.; ...

    2015-02-20

    A maize (Zea mays L. subsp. mays) diversity panel consisting of 26 maize lines exhibiting a wide range of cell-wall properties and responses to hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes was employed to investigate the relationship between cell-wall properties, cell-wall responses to mild NaOH pre-treatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose in the untreated maize was found to be positively correlated with the water retention value, which is a measure of cell-wall susceptibility to swelling. It was also positively correlated with the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl ratio and negatively correlated with the initial cell-wall lignin, xylan, acetate, and p-coumaric acid (pCA)more » content, as well as pCA released from the cell wall by pre-treatment. The hydrolysis yield following pre-treatment exhibited statistically significant negative correlations to the lignin content after pre-treatment and positive correlations to the solubilized ferulic acid and pCA. Several unanticipated results were observed, including a positive correlation between initial lignin and acetate content, lack of correlation between acetate content and initial xylan content, and negative correlation between each of these three variables to the hydrolysis yields for untreated maize. Also, another surprising result was that pCA release was negatively correlated with hydrolysis yields for untreated maize and, along with ferulic acid release, was positively correlated with the pre-treated maize hydrolysis yields. In conclusion, this indicates that these properties that may negatively contribute to the recalcitrance in untreated cell walls may positively contribute to their deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment« less

  20. Cell-wall properties contributing to improved deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis in diverse maize ( Zea mays L.) lines

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Muyang; Heckwolf, Marlies; Crowe, Jacob D.

    A maize (Zea mays L. subsp. mays) diversity panel consisting of 26 maize lines exhibiting a wide range of cell-wall properties and responses to hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes was employed to investigate the relationship between cell-wall properties, cell-wall responses to mild NaOH pre-treatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose in the untreated maize was found to be positively correlated with the water retention value, which is a measure of cell-wall susceptibility to swelling. It was also positively correlated with the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl ratio and negatively correlated with the initial cell-wall lignin, xylan, acetate, and p-coumaric acid (pCA)more » content, as well as pCA released from the cell wall by pre-treatment. The hydrolysis yield following pre-treatment exhibited statistically significant negative correlations to the lignin content after pre-treatment and positive correlations to the solubilized ferulic acid and pCA. Several unanticipated results were observed, including a positive correlation between initial lignin and acetate content, lack of correlation between acetate content and initial xylan content, and negative correlation between each of these three variables to the hydrolysis yields for untreated maize. Also, another surprising result was that pCA release was negatively correlated with hydrolysis yields for untreated maize and, along with ferulic acid release, was positively correlated with the pre-treated maize hydrolysis yields. In conclusion, this indicates that these properties that may negatively contribute to the recalcitrance in untreated cell walls may positively contribute to their deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment« less

  1. Predicting prostate biopsy outcome: prostate health index (phi) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) are useful biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Matteo; Bruzzese, Dario; Perdonà, Sisto; Mazzarella, Claudia; Marino, Ada; Sorrentino, Alessandra; Di Carlo, Angelina; Autorino, Riccardo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Buonerba, Carlo; Altieri, Vincenzo; Mariano, Angela; Macchia, Vincenzo; Terracciano, Daniela

    2012-08-16

    Indication for prostate biopsy is presently mainly based on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum levels and digital-rectal examination (DRE). In view of the unsatisfactory accuracy of these two diagnostic exams, research has focused on novel markers to improve pre-biopsy prostate cancer detection, such as phi and PCA3. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of phi and PCA3 for prostate cancer using biopsy as gold standard. Phi index (Beckman coulter immunoassay), PCA3 score (Progensa PCA3 assay) and other established biomarkers (tPSA, fPSA and %fPSA) were assessed before a 18-core prostate biopsy in a group of 251 subjects at their first biopsy. Values of %p2PSA and phi were significantly higher in patients with PCa compared with PCa-negative group (p<0.001) and also compared with high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) (p<0.001). PCA3 score values were significantly higher in PCa compared with PCa-negative subjects (p<0.001) and in HGPIN vs PCa-negative patients (p<0.001). ROC curve analysis showed that %p2PSA, phi and PCA3 are predictive of malignancy. In conclusion, %p2PSA, phi and PCA3 may predict a diagnosis of PCa in men undergoing their first prostate biopsy. PCA3 score is more useful in discriminating between HGPIN and non-cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance comparisons between PCA-EA-LBG and PCA-LBG-EA approaches in VQ codebook generation for image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jinn-Tsong; Chou, Ping-Yi; Chou, Jyh-Horng

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to generate vector quantisation (VQ) codebooks by integrating principle component analysis (PCA) algorithm, Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) algorithm, and evolutionary algorithms (EAs). The EAs include genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimisation (PSO), honey bee mating optimisation (HBMO), and firefly algorithm (FF). The study is to provide performance comparisons between PCA-EA-LBG and PCA-LBG-EA approaches. The PCA-EA-LBG approaches contain PCA-GA-LBG, PCA-PSO-LBG, PCA-HBMO-LBG, and PCA-FF-LBG, while the PCA-LBG-EA approaches contain PCA-LBG, PCA-LBG-GA, PCA-LBG-PSO, PCA-LBG-HBMO, and PCA-LBG-FF. All training vectors of test images are grouped according to PCA. The PCA-EA-LBG used the vectors grouped by PCA as initial individuals, and the best solution gained by the EAs was given for LBG to discover a codebook. The PCA-LBG approach is to use the PCA to select vectors as initial individuals for LBG to find a codebook. The PCA-LBG-EA used the final result of PCA-LBG as an initial individual for EAs to find a codebook. The search schemes in PCA-EA-LBG first used global search and then applied local search skill, while in PCA-LBG-EA first used local search and then employed global search skill. The results verify that the PCA-EA-LBG indeed gain superior results compared to the PCA-LBG-EA, because the PCA-EA-LBG explores a global area to find a solution, and then exploits a better one from the local area of the solution. Furthermore the proposed PCA-EA-LBG approaches in designing VQ codebooks outperform existing approaches shown in the literature.

  3. Differentiation of modern and ancient varieties of common wheat by quantitative capillary electrophoretic profile of phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Gotti, Roberto; Amadesi, Elisa; Fiori, Jessica; Bosi, Sara; Bregola, Valeria; Marotti, Ilaria; Dinelli, Giovanni

    2018-01-12

    Phenolic compounds have received great attention among the health promoting phytochemicals in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), mainly because of their strong antioxidant properties. In the present study a simple Capillary Zone Electrophoresis (CZE) method with UV detection was optimized and validated for the quantitation of six of the most important phenolic acids in whole grain i.e., sinapic, ferulic, syringic, p-coumaric, vanillic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. The separation was achieved in a running buffer composed of sodium phosphate solution (50 mM) in water/methanol 80:20 (v/v) at pH 6.0 and using a fused-silica capillary at the temperature of 30 °C under application of 27 kV. By means of diode array detector, and made possible by the favorable characteristic UV spectra, the quantitation of the solutes was carried out at 200, 220 and 300 nm, in the complex matrices represented by the soluble and bound fractions of wheat flours. The validation parameters of the method i.e., linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and robustness were in line with those obtained by consolidated separation techniques applied for the same purposes (e.g., HPLC-UV), with a significant advantage in term of analysis time (less than 12 min). Ten varieties of soft wheat (five modern Italian and five old Italian genotypes) were analysed and the data were subjected to Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Interestingly, significant differences of the quantitative phenolic acids profile were observed between the modern and the ancient genotypes, with the latter showing higher amount of the main represented phenolic acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Photoelectron spectra and biological activity of cinnamic acid derivatives revisited.

    PubMed

    Novak, Igor; Klasinc, Leo; McGlynn, Sean P

    2018-01-15

    The electronic structures of several derivatives of cinnamic acid have been studied by UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and Green's function quantum chemical calculations. The spectra reveal the presence of dimers in the gas phase for p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The electronic structure analysis has been related to the biological properties of these compounds through the analysis of some structure-activity relationships (SAR). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Chlorogenic Acid Esterase with a Unique Substrate Specificity from Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Haase-Aschoff, Paul; Kelle, Sebastian; Linke, Diana; Krings, Ulrich; Popper, Lutz; Berger, Ralf G.

    2014-01-01

    An extracellular chlorogenic acid esterase from Ustilago maydis (UmChlE) was purified to homogeneity by using three separation steps, including anion-exchange chromatography on a Q Sepharose FF column, preparative isoelectric focusing (IEF), and, finally, a combination of affinity chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography on polyamide. SDS-PAGE analysis suggested a monomeric protein of ∼71 kDa. The purified enzyme showed maximal activity at pH 7.5 and at 37°C and was active over a wide pH range (3.5 to 9.5). Previously described chlorogenic acid esterases exhibited a comparable affinity for chlorogenic acid, but the enzyme from Ustilago was also active on typical feruloyl esterase substrates. Kinetic constants for chlorogenic acid, methyl p-coumarate, methyl caffeate, and methyl ferulate were as follows: Km values of 19.6 μM, 64.1 μM, 72.5 μM, and 101.8 μM, respectively, and kcat/Km values of 25.83 mM−1 s−1, 7.63 mM−1 s−1, 3.83 mM−1 s−1 and 3.75 mM−1 s−1, respectively. UmChlE released ferulic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids from natural substrates such as destarched wheat bran (DSWB) and coffee pulp (CP), confirming activity on complex plant biomass. The full-length gene encoding UmChlE consisted of 1,758 bp, corresponding to a protein of 585 amino acids, and was functionally produced in Pichia pastoris GS115. Sequence alignments with annotated chlorogenic acid and feruloyl esterases underlined the uniqueness of this enzyme. PMID:25548041

  6. Mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic action of Brazilian propolis and caffeic acid against HEp-2 cells and modulation of P-glycoprotein activity.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Lívia M; Frión-Herrera, Yahima; Bartolomeu, Ariane R; Gorgulho, Carolina Mendonça; Sforcin, José M

    2017-11-01

    The effects of propolis and phenolic compounds (caffeic acid - Caf; dihydrocinnamic acid - Cin; p-coumaric acid - Cou) in the same quantity found in our propolis sample were investigated on human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells. Cell viability, apoptosis/necrosis and cell cycle arrest, P53 and CASPASE-3 gene expression, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability of propolis to induce doxorubicin (DOX) efflux using a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor (verapamil) were assayed. Propolis exerted a cytotoxic effect on HEp-2 cells, whereas isolated compounds had no effect on cell viability. Higher concentrations were tested and Caf induced late apoptosis or necrosis in HEp-2 cells, while propolis induced apoptosis, both probably due to ROS generation. P53 expression was downregulated by propolis but not by Caf. CASPASE-3 expression was correlated with induction of both early and late apoptosis, with both propolis and Caf alone upregulating its expression. Propolis induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and Caf at S phase. Propolis but not Caf may act as a P-gp inhibitor by modulating P-gp activity and inhibiting DOX efflux. Propolis exerted cytotoxic effects on HEp-2 cells, and the mechanisms are discussed, showing its potential as an antitumour drug. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Enrichment of maize and triticale bran with recombinant Aspergillus tubingensis ferulic acid esterase.

    PubMed

    Zwane, Eunice N; van Zyl, Petrus J; Duodu, Kwaku G; Rose, Shaunita H; Rumbold, Karl; van Zyl, Willem H; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2017-03-01

    Ferulic acid is a natural antioxidant found in various plants and serves as a precursor for various fine chemicals, including the flavouring agent vanillin. However, expensive extraction methods have limited the commercial application of ferulic acid, in particular for the enrichment of food substrates. A recombinant Aspergillus tubingensis ferulic acid esterase Type A (FAEA) was expressed in Aspergillus niger D15#26 and purified with anion-exchange chromatography (3487 U/mg, K m  = 0.43 mM, K cat  = 0.48/min on methyl ferulate). The 36-kDa At FAEA protein showed maximum ferulic acid esterase activity at 50 °C and pH 6, suggesting potential application in industrial processes. A crude At FAEA preparation extracted 26.56 and 8.86 mg/g ferulic acid from maize bran and triticale bran, respectively, and also significantly increased the levels of p -coumaric and caffeic acid from triticale bran. The cost-effective production of At FAEA could therefore allow for the enrichment of brans generally used as food and fodder, or for the production of fine chemicals (such as ferulic and p -coumaric acid) from plant substrates. The potential for larger-scale production of At FAEA was demonstrated with the A. niger D15[ AtfaeA ] strain yielding a higher enzyme activity (185.14 vs. 83.48 U/ml) and volumetric productivity (3.86 vs. 1.74 U/ml/h) in fed-batch than batch fermentation.

  8. Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase: Structure, Function and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Muniyan, Sakthivel; Chaturvedi, Nagendra K.; Dwyer, Jennifer G.; LaGrange, Chad A.; Chaney, William G.; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2013-01-01

    Human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP) is a 100 kDa glycoprotein composed of two subunits. Recent advances demonstrate that cellular PAcP (cPAcP) functions as a protein tyrosine phosphatase by dephosphorylating ErbB-2/Neu/HER-2 at the phosphotyrosine residues in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, which results in reduced tumorigenicity. Further, the interaction of cPAcP and ErbB-2 regulates androgen sensitivity of PCa cells. Knockdown of cPAcP expression allows androgen-sensitive PCa cells to develop the castration-resistant phenotype, where cells proliferate under an androgen-reduced condition. Thus, cPAcP has a significant influence on PCa cell growth. Interestingly, promoter analysis suggests that PAcP expression can be regulated by NF-κB, via a novel binding sequence in an androgen-independent manner. Further understanding of PAcP function and regulation of expression will have a significant impact on understanding PCa progression and therapy. PMID:23698773

  9. Surface reactions of iron - enriched smectites: adsorption and transformation of hydroxy fatty acids and phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polubesova, Tamara; Olshansky, Yaniv; Eldad, Shay; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-05-01

    Iron-enriched smectites play an important role in adsorption and transformation of soil organic components. Soil organo-clay complexes, and in particular humin contain hydroxy fatty acids, which are derived from plant biopolymer cutin. Phenolic acids belong to another major group of organic acids detected in soil. They participate in various soil processes, and are of concern due to their allelopathic activity. We studied the reactivity of iron-enriched smectites (Fe(III)-montmorillonite and nontronite) toward both groups of acids. We used fatty acids- 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (diHPA), isolated from curtin, and 9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid (triHPA); the following phenolic acids were used: ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic, and vanillic. Adsorption of both groups of acids was measured. The FTIR spectra of fatty acid-mineral complexes indicated inner-sphere complexation of fatty acids with iron-enriched smectites (versus outer-sphere complexation with Ca(II)-montmorillonite). The LC-MS results demonstrated enhanced esterification of fatty acids on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces (as compared to Ca(II)-montmorillonite). This study suggests that fatty acids can be esterified on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces, which results in the formation of stable organo-mineral complexes. These complexes may serve as a model for the study of natural soil organo-clay complexes and humin. The reaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III)-montmorillonite demonstrated their oxidative transformation by the mineral surfaces, which was affected by molecular structure of acids. The following order of their transformation was obtained: ferulic >syringic >p-coumaric >vanillic. The LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of dimers, trimers, and tetramers of ferulic acid on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite. Oxidation and transformation of ferulic acid were more intense on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite as compared to Fe(III) in solution due to stronger complexation on

  10. Exogenous feeding of immediate precursors reveals synergistic effect on picroside-I biosynthesis in shoot cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Varun; Sharma, Neha; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-07-01

    In the current study, we asked how the supply of immediate biosynthetic precursors i.e. cinnamic acid (CA) and catalpol (CAT) influences the synthesis of picroside-I (P-I) in shoot cultures of P. kurroa. Our results revealed that only CA and CA+CAT stimulated P-I production with 1.6-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively at 2.5 mg/100 mL concentration treatment. Interestingly, feeding CA+CAT not only directed flux towards p-Coumaric acid (p-CA) production but also appeared to trigger the metabolic flux through both shikimate/phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways by utilizing more of CA and CAT for P-I biosynthesis. However, a deficiency in the supply of either the iridoid or the phenylpropanoid precursor limits flux through the respective pathways as reflected by feedback inhibition effect on PAL and decreased transcripts expressions of rate limiting enzymes (DAHPS, CM, PAL, GS and G10H). It also appears that addition of CA alone directed flux towards both p-CA and P-I production. Based on precursor feeding and metabolic fluxes, a current hypothesis is that precursors from both the iridoid and shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathways are a flux limitation for P-I production in shoot cultures of P. kurroa plants. This work thus sets a stage for future endeavour to elevate production of P-I in cultured plant cells.

  11. In vitro Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase by Polyphenols:
A Kinetic, Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Molecular Docking Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Summary The inhibitory activity and binding characteristics of caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin and capsaicin, four phenolic compounds found in hot pepper, against porcine pancreatic lipase activity were studied and compared to hot pepper extract. Quercetin was the strongest inhibitor (IC50=(6.1±2.4) µM), followed by p-coumaric acid ((170.2±20.6) µM) and caffeic acid ((401.5±32.1) µM), while capsaicin and a hot pepper extract had very low inhibitory activity. All polyphenolic compounds showed a mixed-type inhibition. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies showed that polyphenolic compounds had the ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of pancreatic lipase by a static mechanism. The sequence of Stern-Volmer constant was quercetin, followed by caffeic and p-coumaric acids. Molecular docking studies showed that caffeic acid, quercetin and p-coumaric acid bound near the active site, while capsaicin bound far away from the active site. Hydrogen bonds and π-stacking hydrophobic interactions are the main pancreatic lipase-polyphenolic compound interactions observed. PMID:29540986

  12. Expression and enzymatic activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase in mango (Mangifera indica 'Ataulfo') during ripening.

    PubMed

    Palafox-Carlos, H; Contreras-Vergara, C A; Muhlia-Almazán, A; Islas-Osuna, M A; González-Aguilar, G A

    2014-05-16

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) are key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The relative expression of PAL and C3H was evaluated in mango fruit cultivar 'Ataulfo' in four ripening stages (RS1, RS2, RS3, and RS4) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, enzyme activity of PAL and C3H was determined in mango fruits during ripening. The PAL levels were downregulated at the RS2 and RS3 stages, while C3H levels were upregulated in fruits only at RS3. The enzyme activity of PAL followed a pattern that was different from that of the PAL expression, thus suggesting regulation at several levels. For C3H, a regulation at the transcriptional level is suggested because a similar pattern was revealed by its activity and transcript level. In this study, the complexity of secondary metabolite biosynthesis regulation is emphasized because PAL and C3H enzymes are involved in the biosynthesis of several secondary metabolites that are active during all mango ripening stages.

  13. A chlorogenic acid esterase with a unique substrate specificity from Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Nieter, Annabel; Haase-Aschoff, Paul; Kelle, Sebastian; Linke, Diana; Krings, Ulrich; Popper, Lutz; Berger, Ralf G

    2015-03-01

    An extracellular chlorogenic acid esterase from Ustilago maydis (UmChlE) was purified to homogeneity by using three separation steps, including anion-exchange chromatography on a Q Sepharose FF column, preparative isoelectric focusing (IEF), and, finally, a combination of affinity chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography on polyamide. SDS-PAGE analysis suggested a monomeric protein of ∼71 kDa. The purified enzyme showed maximal activity at pH 7.5 and at 37°C and was active over a wide pH range (3.5 to 9.5). Previously described chlorogenic acid esterases exhibited a comparable affinity for chlorogenic acid, but the enzyme from Ustilago was also active on typical feruloyl esterase substrates. Kinetic constants for chlorogenic acid, methyl p-coumarate, methyl caffeate, and methyl ferulate were as follows: Km values of 19.6 μM, 64.1 μM, 72.5 μM, and 101.8 μM, respectively, and kcat/Km values of 25.83 mM(-1) s(-1), 7.63 mM(-1) s(-1), 3.83 mM(-1) s(-1) and 3.75 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively. UmChlE released ferulic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids from natural substrates such as destarched wheat bran (DSWB) and coffee pulp (CP), confirming activity on complex plant biomass. The full-length gene encoding UmChlE consisted of 1,758 bp, corresponding to a protein of 585 amino acids, and was functionally produced in Pichia pastoris GS115. Sequence alignments with annotated chlorogenic acid and feruloyl esterases underlined the uniqueness of this enzyme. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Effect of maturity on phenolics (phenolic acids and flavonoids) profile of strawberry cultivars and mulberry species from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%), total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) ranged from 8.5-53.3%, 491-1884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW and 83-327 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%), total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.9-54.0%, 201-2287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 110-1021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW), the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW) while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW) at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages.

  15. A sedge plant as the source of Kangaroo Island propolis rich in prenylated p-coumarate ester and stilbenes.

    PubMed

    Duke, Colin C; Tran, Van H; Duke, Rujee K; Abu-Mellal, Abdallah; Plunkett, George T; King, Douglas I; Hamid, Kaiser; Wilson, Karen L; Barrett, Russell L; Bruhl, Jeremy J

    2017-02-01

    Propolis samples from Kangaroo Island, South Australia, were investigated for chemical constituents using high-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectral profiling. A type of propolis was found containing a high proportion of prenylated hydroxystilbenes. Subsequently, the botanical origin of this type of propolis was identified using a beehive propolis depletion method and analysis of flora. Ligurian honey bees, Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, were found to produce propolis from resin exuded by the Australian native sedge plant Lepidosperma sp. Montebello (Cyperaceae). The plants, commonly known as sword sedge, were found to have resin that matched with the propolis samples identified as the most abundant propolis type on the island containing C- and O-prenylated tetrahydroxystilbenes (pTHOS) in addition to a small amount of prenylated p-coumarate. The isolation of five pTHOS not previously characterized are reported: (E)-4-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,4',5-trihydroxy-3'-methoxystilbene, (E)-2,4-bis(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,3',4',5-tetrahydroxystilbene, (E)-2-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyloxy)-3',4',5-trihydroxystilbene, (E)-2,6-bis(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,3',5,5'-tetrahydroxystilbene and (E)-2,6-bis(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,4',5-trihydroxy-3'-methoxystilbene. A National Cancer Institute 60 human cell line anticancer screen of three of these compounds showed growth inhibitory activity. The large Australasian genus Lepidosperma is identified as a valuable resource for the isolation of substances with medicinal potential. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Phenolic Acids on the Growth and Production of T-2 and HT-2 Toxins by Fusarium langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides.

    PubMed

    Ferruz, Elena; Atanasova-Pénichon, Vessela; Bonnin-Verdal, Marie-Noëlle; Marchegay, Gisèle; Pinson-Gadais, Laëtitia; Ducos, Christine; Lorán, Susana; Ariño, Agustín; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2016-04-04

    The effect of natural phenolic acids was tested on the growth and production of T-2 and HT-2 toxins by Fusarium langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides, on Mycotoxin Synthetic medium. Plates treated with 0.5 mM of each phenolic acid (caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic and p-coumaric) and controls without phenolic acid were incubated for 14 days at 25 °C. Fungal biomass of F. langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides was not reduced by the phenolic acids. However, biosynthesis of T-2 toxin by F. langsethiae was significantly reduced by chlorogenic (23.1%) and ferulic (26.5%) acids. Production of T-2 by F. sporotrichioides also decreased with ferulic acid by 23% (p < 0.05). In contrast, p-coumaric acid significantly stimulated the production of T-2 and HT-2 toxins for both strains. A kinetic study of F. langsethiae with 1 mM ferulic acid showed a significant decrease in fungal biomass, whereas T-2 production increased after 10 days of incubation. The study of gene expression in ferulic supplemented cultures of F. langsethiae revealed a significant inhibition for Tri5, Tri6 and Tri12 genes, while for Tri16 the decrease in gene expression was not statistically significant. Overall, results indicated that phenolic acids had a variable effect on fungal growth and mycotoxin production, depending on the strain and the concentration and type of phenolic acid assayed.

  17. Evaluation of food protective property of five natural products using fresh-cut apple slice model.

    PubMed

    Hakkim, Faruk Lumanul; Mathiraj; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Arivazhagan, Girija; Guizani, Nejib; Hyuk, Song

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant (AA), antimicrobial and preservation effects of five plant derived natural products viz., Rosmarinic Acid (RA), p-Coumaric Acid (pCA), Trans-Cinnamic Acid (TCA), Hydroxyphenyllactic Acid (HPA) and Caffeic acid (CA) along with synthetic compounds (Ascorbic acid, gallic acid, citric acid and BHA) on fresh cut apple slices. Antimicrobial efficacy of these compounds against Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas vulgaris, Shigella boydii, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli was found to be concentration dependent with the maximum inhibition observed at 500 microg mL(-1). A considerable AA potential of these compounds was observed in in vitro based assay system, with RA exhibiting significantly higher effect than the other compounds at 500 microg mL(-1). Furthermore the compounds at 500 microg mL(-1) significantly reduced the browning, maintained the acidic pH and restricted growth of L. monocytogenes even after 10 days of treatment. Ethanol accumulation in fresh cut apple slices increased significantly throughout the experimental period. Over all RA exhibited maximum effect in all the food preservation parameters studied suggesting that it has synchronized food protection effect and can be recommended as food additive.

  18. Inhibitory effect of rice bran extracts and its phenolic compounds on polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato and apple puree.

    PubMed

    Sukhonthara, Sukhontha; Kaewka, Kunwadee; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2016-01-01

    Full-fatted and commercially defatted rice bran extracts (RBE and CDRBE) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in potato and apple. RBE showed more effective inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and browning in potato and apple as compared to CDRBE. Five phenolic compounds in RBE and CDRBE (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) were identified by HPLC. They were then evaluated for their important role in the inhibition using a model system which found that ferulic acid in RBE and p-coumaric acid in CDRBE were active in enzymatic browning inhibition of potato and apple. p-Coumaric acid exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO (p ⩽ 0.05). Almost all phenolic compounds showed higher inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO than 100 ppm citric acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Detecting most influencing courses on students grades using block PCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Osama H.; Gebril, Rami Salah

    2014-12-01

    One of the modern solutions adopted in dealing with the problem of large number of variables in statistical analyses is the Block Principal Component Analysis (Block PCA). This modified technique can be used to reduce the vertical dimension (variables) of the data matrix Xn×p by selecting a smaller number of variables, (say m) containing most of the statistical information. These selected variables can then be employed in further investigations and analyses. Block PCA is an adapted multistage technique of the original PCA. It involves the application of Cluster Analysis (CA) and variable selection throughout sub principal components scores (PC's). The application of Block PCA in this paper is a modified version of the original work of Liu et al (2002). The main objective was to apply PCA on each group of variables, (established using cluster analysis), instead of involving the whole large pack of variables which was proved to be unreliable. In this work, the Block PCA is used to reduce the size of a huge data matrix ((n = 41) × (p = 251)) consisting of Grade Point Average (GPA) of the students in 251 courses (variables) in the faculty of science in Benghazi University. In other words, we are constructing a smaller analytical data matrix of the GPA's of the students with less variables containing most variation (statistical information) in the original database. By applying the Block PCA, (12) courses were found to `absorb' most of the variation or influence from the original data matrix, and hence worth to be keep for future statistical exploring and analytical studies. In addition, the course Independent Study (Math.) was found to be the most influencing course on students GPA among the 12 selected courses.

  20. Identification of a second PAD1 in Brettanomyces bruxellensis LAMAP2480.

    PubMed

    González, Camila; Godoy, Liliana; Ganga, Ma Angélica

    2017-02-01

    Volatile phenols are aromatic compounds produced by some yeasts of the genus Brettanomyces as defense against the toxicity of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid). The origin of these compounds in winemaking involves the sequential action of two enzymes: coumarate decarboxylase and vinylphenol reductase. The first one converts hydroxycinnamic acids into hydroxystyrenes, which are then reduced to ethyl derivatives by vinylphenol reductase. Volatile phenols derived from p-coumaric acid (4-vinylphenol and 4-ethylphenol) have been described as the major contributors to self-defeating aromas associated with stable, gouache, wet mouse, etc., which generates large economic losses in the wine industry. The gene responsible for the production of 4-vinylphenol from p-coumaric acid has been identified as PAD1, which encodes a phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase. PAD1 has been described for many species, among them Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Debaryomyces hansenii and Pichia anomala. In Brettanomyces bruxellensis LAMAP2480, a 666 bp reading frame (DbPAD) encodes a coumarate decarboxylase. Recent studies have reported the existence of a new reading frame belonging to DbPAD called DbPAD2 of 531 bp, which could encode a protein with similar enzymatic activity to PAD1. The present study confirmed that the transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4722 with reading frame DbPAD2 under the control of the B. bruxellensis ACT1 promoter, encodes an enzyme with coumarate decarboxylase activity. This work has provided deeper insight into the origin of aroma defects in wine due to contamination by Brettanomyces spp.

  1. Honey constituents up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes in the western honey bee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2013-05-28

    As a managed pollinator, the honey bee Apis mellifera is critical to the American agricultural enterprise. Recent colony losses have thus raised concerns; possible explanations for bee decline include nutritional deficiencies and exposures to pesticides and pathogens. We determined that constituents found in honey, including p-coumaric acid, pinocembrin, and pinobanksin 5-methyl ether, specifically induce detoxification genes. These inducers are primarily found not in nectar but in pollen in the case of p-coumaric acid (a monomer of sporopollenin, the principal constituent of pollen cell walls) and propolis, a resinous material gathered and processed by bees to line wax cells. RNA-seq analysis (massively parallel RNA sequencing) revealed that p-coumaric acid specifically up-regulates all classes of detoxification genes as well as select antimicrobial peptide genes. This up-regulation has functional significance in that that adding p-coumaric acid to a diet of sucrose increases midgut metabolism of coumaphos, a widely used in-hive acaricide, by ∼60%. As a major component of pollen grains, p-coumaric acid is ubiquitous in the natural diet of honey bees and may function as a nutraceutical regulating immune and detoxification processes. The widespread apicultural use of honey substitutes, including high-fructose corn syrup, may thus compromise the ability of honey bees to cope with pesticides and pathogens and contribute to colony losses.

  2. Honey constituents up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes in the western honey bee Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A.; Berenbaum, May R.

    2013-01-01

    As a managed pollinator, the honey bee Apis mellifera is critical to the American agricultural enterprise. Recent colony losses have thus raised concerns; possible explanations for bee decline include nutritional deficiencies and exposures to pesticides and pathogens. We determined that constituents found in honey, including p-coumaric acid, pinocembrin, and pinobanksin 5-methyl ether, specifically induce detoxification genes. These inducers are primarily found not in nectar but in pollen in the case of p-coumaric acid (a monomer of sporopollenin, the principal constituent of pollen cell walls) and propolis, a resinous material gathered and processed by bees to line wax cells. RNA-seq analysis (massively parallel RNA sequencing) revealed that p-coumaric acid specifically up-regulates all classes of detoxification genes as well as select antimicrobial peptide genes. This up-regulation has functional significance in that that adding p-coumaric acid to a diet of sucrose increases midgut metabolism of coumaphos, a widely used in-hive acaricide, by ∼60%. As a major component of pollen grains, p-coumaric acid is ubiquitous in the natural diet of honey bees and may function as a nutraceutical regulating immune and detoxification processes. The widespread apicultural use of honey substitutes, including high-fructose corn syrup, may thus compromise the ability of honey bees to cope with pesticides and pathogens and contribute to colony losses. PMID:23630255

  3. Evaluating the ability of artificial neural network and PCA-M5P models in predicting leachate COD load in landfills.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Sama; Amiri, Hamid; Rakhshandehroo, G Reza

    2016-09-01

    Waste burial in uncontrolled landfills can cause serious environmental damages and unpleasant consequences. Leachates produced in landfills have the potential to contaminate soil and groundwater resources. Leachate management is one of the major issues with respect to landfills environmental impacts. Improper design of landfills can lead to leachate spread in the environment, and hence, engineered landfills are required to have leachate monitoring programs. The high cost of such programs may be greatly reduced and cost efficiency of the program may be optimized if one can predict leachate contamination level and foresee management and treatment strategies. The aim of this study is to develop two expert systems consisting of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Principal Component Analysis-M5P (PCA-M5P) models to predict Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load in leachates produced in lab-scale landfills. Measured data from three landfill lysimeters, including rainfall depth, number of days after waste deposition, thickness of top and bottom Compacted Clay Liners (CCLs), and thickness of top cover over the lysimeter, were utilized to develop, train, validate, and test the expert systems and predict the leachate COD load. Statistical analysis of the prediction results showed that both models possess good prediction ability with a slight superiority for ANN over PCA-M5P. Based on test datasets, the mean absolute percentage error for ANN and PCA-M5P models were 4% and 12%, respectively, and the correlation coefficient for both models was greater than 0.98. Developed models may be used as a rough estimate for leachate COD load prediction in primary landfill designs, where the effect of a top and/or bottom liner is disputed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Maturity on Phenolics (Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids) Profile of Strawberry Cultivars and Mulberry Species from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%), total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) ranged from 8.5–53.3%, 491–1884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW and 83–327 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%), total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.9–54.0%, 201–2287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 110–1021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW), the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW) while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW) at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages. PMID:22605997

  5. Differential research of inflammatory and related mediators in BPH, histological prostatitis and PCa.

    PubMed

    Huang, T R; Wang, G C; Zhang, H M; Peng, B

    2018-02-14

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common male malignancies in the world. It was aimed to investigate differential expression of inflammatory and related factors in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer (PCa), histological prostatitis (HP) and explore the role of Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), (VEGF) Vascular endothelial growth factor, androgen receptor (AR) and IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-α in the occurrence and development of prostate cancer. RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression level of iNOS, VEGF, AR and IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-α in BPH, PCa and BPH+HP. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect the protein levels of various proteins in three diseases. The results showed the mRNA and protein levels of iNOS, VEGF and IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-α were significantly increased in PCa and BPH+HP groups compared with BPH group (p < .05), while the AR was significantly lower than those in PCa and BPH+HP groups (p < .05). There was no significant difference in the mRNA and protein levels of iNOS, VEGF, AR and IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-α between PCa and BPH+HP groups (p > .05). iNOS, VEGF, AR and IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-α are involved in the malignant transformation of prostate tissue and play an important role in the development and progression of Prostate cancer (PCa). © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Behavior of the PCA3 gene in the urine of men with high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Morote, Juan; Rigau, Marina; Garcia, Marta; Mir, Carmen; Ballesteros, Carlos; Planas, Jacques; Raventós, Carles X; Placer, José; de Torres, Inés M; Reventós, Jaume; Doll, Andreas

    2010-12-01

    An ideal marker for the early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) should also differentiate between men with isolated high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and those with PCa. Prostate Cancer Gene 3 (PCA3) is a highly specific PCa gene and its score, in relation to the PSA gene in post-prostate massage urine (PMU-PCA3), seems to be useful in ruling out PCa, especially after a negative prostate biopsy. Because PCA3 is also expressed in the HGPIN lesion, the aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of PMU-PCA3 scores for ruling out PCa in men with previous HGPIN. The PMU-PCA3 score was assessed by quantitative PCR (multiplex research assay) in 244 men subjected to prostate biopsy: 64 men with an isolated HGPIN (no cancer detected after two or more repeated biopsies), 83 men with PCa and 97 men with benign pathology findings (BP: no PCa, HGPIN or ASAP). The median PMU-PCA3 score was 1.56 in men with BP, 2.01 in men with HGPIN (p = 0.128) and 9.06 in men with PCa (p = 0.008). The AUC in the ROC analysis was 0.705 in the subset of men with BP and PCa, while it decreased to 0.629 when only men with isolated HGPIN and PCa were included in the analysis. Fixing the sensitivity of the PMU-PCA3 score at 90%, its specificity was 79% in men with BP and 69% in men with isolated HGPIN. The efficacy of the PMU-PCA3 score to rule out PCa in men with HGPIN is lower than in men with BP.

  7. In Vivo Imaging of Experimental Melanoma Tumors using the Novel Radiotracer 68Ga-NODAGA-Procainamide (PCA).

    PubMed

    Kertész, István; Vida, András; Nagy, Gábor; Emri, Miklós; Farkas, Antal; Kis, Adrienn; Angyal, János; Dénes, Noémi; Szabó, Judit P; Kovács, Tünde; Bai, Péter; Trencsényi, György

    2017-01-01

    The most aggressive form of skin cancer is the malignant melanoma. Because of its high metastatic potential the early detection of primary melanoma tumors and metastases using non-invasive PET imaging determines the outcome of the disease. Previous studies have already shown that benzamide derivatives, such as procainamide (PCA) specifically bind to melanin pigment. The aim of this study was to synthesize and investigate the melanin specificity of the novel 68 Ga-labeled NODAGA-PCA molecule in vitro and in vivo using PET techniques. Procainamide (PCA) was conjugated with NODAGA chelator and was labeled with Ga-68 ( 68 Ga-NODAGA-PCA). The melanin specificity of 68 Ga-NODAGA-PCA was tested in vitro , ex vivo and in vivo using melanotic B16-F10 and amelanotic Melur melanoma cell lines. By subcutaneous and intravenous injection of melanoma cells tumor-bearing mice were prepared, on which biodistribution studies and small animal PET/CT scans were performed for 68 Ga-NODAGA-PCA and 18 FDG tracers. 68 Ga-NODAGA-PCA was produced with high specific activity (14.9±3.9 GBq/µmol) and with excellent radiochemical purity (98%<), at all cases. In vitro experiments showed that 68 Ga-NODAGA-PCA uptake of B16-F10 cells was significantly ( p ≤0.01) higher than Melur cells. Ex vivo biodistribution and in vivo PET/CT studies using subcutaneous and metastatic tumor models showed significantly ( p ≤0.01) higher 68 Ga-NODAGA-PCA uptake in B16-F10 primary tumors and lung metastases in comparison with amelanotic Melur tumors. In experiments where 18 FDG and 68 Ga-NODAGA-PCA uptake of B16-F10 tumors was compared, we found that the tumor-to-muscle (T/M) and tumor-to-lung (T/L) ratios were significantly ( p ≤0.05 and p ≤0.01) higher using 68 Ga-NODAGA-PCA than the 18 FDG accumulation. Our novel radiotracer 68 Ga-NODAGA-PCA showed specific binding to the melanin producing experimental melanoma tumors. Therefore, 68 Ga-NODAGA-PCA is a suitable diagnostic radiotracer for the detection

  8. Strain Transient Detection Techniques: A Comparison of Source Parameter Inversions of Signals Isolated through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Non-Linear PCA, and Rotated PCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipovsky, B.; Funning, G. J.

    2009-12-01

    We compare several techniques for the analysis of geodetic time series with the ultimate aim to characterize the physical processes which are represented therein. We compare three methods for the analysis of these data: Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Non-Linear PCA (NLPCA), and Rotated PCA (RPCA). We evaluate each method by its ability to isolate signals which may be any combination of low amplitude (near noise level), temporally transient, unaccompanied by seismic emissions, and small scale with respect to the spatial domain. PCA is a powerful tool for extracting structure from large datasets which is traditionally realized through either the solution of an eigenvalue problem or through iterative methods. PCA is an transformation of the coordinate system of our data such that the new "principal" data axes retain maximal variance and minimal reconstruction error (Pearson, 1901; Hotelling, 1933). RPCA is achieved by an orthogonal transformation of the principal axes determined in PCA. In the analysis of meteorological data sets, RPCA has been seen to overcome domain shape dependencies, correct for sampling errors, and to determine principal axes which more closely represent physical processes (e.g., Richman, 1986). NLPCA generalizes PCA such that principal axes are replaced by principal curves (e.g., Hsieh 2004). We achieve NLPCA through an auto-associative feed-forward neural network (Scholz, 2005). We show the geophysical relevance of these techniques by application of each to a synthetic data set. Results are compared by inverting principal axes to determine deformation source parameters. Temporal variability in source parameters, estimated by each method, are also compared.

  9. MD-11 PCA - Research flight team photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    On Aug. 30, 1995, a the McDonnell Douglas MD-11 transport aircraft landed equipped with a computer-assisted engine control system that has the potential to increase flight safety. In landings at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on August 29 and 30, the aircraft demonstrated software used in the aircraft's flight control computer that essentially landed the MD-11 without a need for the pilot to manipulate the flight controls significantly. In partnership with McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA), with Pratt & Whitney and Honeywell helping to design the software, NASA developed this propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system following a series of incidents in which hydraulic failures resulted in the loss of flight controls. This new system enables a pilot to operate and land the aircraft safely when its normal, hydraulically-activated control surfaces are disabled. This August 29, 1995, photo shows the MD-11 team. Back row, left to right: Tim Dingen, MDA pilot; John Miller, MD-11 Chief pilot (MDA); Wayne Anselmo, MD-11 Flight Test Engineer (MDA); Gordon Fullerton, PCA Project pilot; Bill Burcham, PCA Chief Engineer; Rudey Duran, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA); John Feather, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA); Daryl Townsend, Crew Chief; Henry Hernandez, aircraft mechanic; Bob Baron, PCA Project Manager; Don Hermann, aircraft mechanic; Jerry Cousins, aircraft mechanic; Eric Petersen, PCA Manager (Honeywell); Trindel Maine, PCA Data Engineer; Jeff Kahler, PCA Software Engineer (Honeywell); Steve Goldthorpe, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA). Front row, left to right: Teresa Hass, Senior Project Management Analyst; Hollie Allingham (Aguilera), Senior Project Management Analyst; Taher Zeglum, PCA Data Engineer (MDA); Drew Pappas, PCA Project Manager (MDA); John Burken, PCA Control Engineer.

  10. A 1H NMR Investigation of the Interaction between Phenolic Acids Found in Mango (Manguifera indica cv Ataulfo) and Papaya (Carica papaya cv Maradol) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    López-Martínez, Luis M.; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila; Navarro, Rosa-Elena; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of phenolic acids on human health are very often ascribed to their potential to counteract free radicals to provide antioxidant protection. This potential has been attributed to their acidic chemical structure, which possesses hydroxyl groups in different positions. Phenolic acids can interact between themselves and exhibit an additive, antagonistic or synergistic effect. In this paper, we used 1H NMR to analyze the interactions and mechanisms that are present in major phenolic acids found in mango (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic and vanillic acids) and papaya (caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids), and the DPPH radical was used to evaluate the effect of the antioxidant mixtures. The interactions were found to occur via hydrogen bonds between the -OH and -COOH groups. Moreover, the phenolic acids exhibit two types of mechanisms for the neutralization of the DPPH radical. According to the results, these two mechanisms are Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) and Single Electron Transfer (SET). The ability of the phenolic acid to neutralize the DPPH radical decreases in the following order in mango: gallic > chlorogenic > protocatechuic > vanillic. Moreover, within the acids found in papaya, the order was as follows: caffeic > p-coumaric > ferulic. PMID:26559189

  11. A ¹H NMR Investigation of the Interaction between Phenolic Acids Found in Mango (Manguifera indica cv Ataulfo) and Papaya (Carica papaya cv Maradol) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Free Radicals.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Luis M; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila; Navarro, Rosa-Elena; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of phenolic acids on human health are very often ascribed to their potential to counteract free radicals to provide antioxidant protection. This potential has been attributed to their acidic chemical structure, which possesses hydroxyl groups in different positions. Phenolic acids can interact between themselves and exhibit an additive, antagonistic or synergistic effect. In this paper, we used 1H NMR to analyze the interactions and mechanisms that are present in major phenolic acids found in mango (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic and vanillic acids) and papaya (caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids), and the DPPH radical was used to evaluate the effect of the antioxidant mixtures. The interactions were found to occur via hydrogen bonds between the -OH and -COOH groups. Moreover, the phenolic acids exhibit two types of mechanisms for the neutralization of the DPPH radical. According to the results, these two mechanisms are Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) and Single Electron Transfer (SET). The ability of the phenolic acid to neutralize the DPPH radical decreases in the following order in mango: gallic > chlorogenic > protocatechuic > vanillic. Moreover, within the acids found in papaya, the order was as follows: caffeic > p-coumaric > ferulic.

  12. PCA3 noncoding RNA is involved in the control of prostate-cancer cell survival and modulates androgen receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background PCA3 is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) that is highly expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, but its functional role is unknown. To investigate its putative function in PCa biology, we used gene expression knockdown by small interference RNA, and also analyzed its involvement in androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Methods LNCaP and PC3 cells were used as in vitro models for these functional assays, and three different siRNA sequences were specifically designed to target PCA3 exon 4. Transfected cells were analyzed by real-time qRT-PCR and cell growth, viability, and apoptosis assays. Associations between PCA3 and the androgen-receptor (AR) signaling pathway were investigated by treating LNCaP cells with 100 nM dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and with its antagonist (flutamide), and analyzing the expression of some AR-modulated genes (TMPRSS2, NDRG1, GREB1, PSA, AR, FGF8, CdK1, CdK2 and PMEPA1). PCA3 expression levels were investigated in different cell compartments by using differential centrifugation and qRT-PCR. Results LNCaP siPCA3-transfected cells significantly inhibited cell growth and viability, and increased the proportion of cells in the sub G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and the percentage of pyknotic nuclei, compared to those transfected with scramble siRNA (siSCr)-transfected cells. DHT-treated LNCaP cells induced a significant upregulation of PCA3 expression, which was reversed by flutamide. In siPCA3/LNCaP-transfected cells, the expression of AR target genes was downregulated compared to siSCr-transfected cells. The siPCA3 transfection also counteracted DHT stimulatory effects on the AR signaling cascade, significantly downregulating expression of the AR target gene. Analysis of PCA3 expression in different cell compartments provided evidence that the main functional roles of PCA3 occur in the nuclei and microsomal cell fractions. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the ncRNA PCA3 is involved in the control of PCa cell survival, in part through

  13. RNAi down-regulation of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase increases artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ritesh; Vashisth, Divya; Misra, Amita; Akhtar, Md Qussen; Jalil, Syed Uzma; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Rout, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2016-05-25

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) converts trans-cinnamic acid (CA) to p-coumaric acid (COA) in the phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis pathway. Earlier we reported increased expression of AaCYP71AV1 (an important gene of artemisinin biosynthesis pathway) caused by CA treatment in Artemisia annua. Hence, AaC4H gene was identified, cloned, characterized and silenced in A. annua with the assumption that the elevated internal CA due to knock down may increase the artemisinin yield. Accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid in the plant due to AaC4H knockdown was accompanied with the reduction of p-coumaric acid, total phenolics, anthocyanin, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities but increase in salicylic acid (SA) and artemisinin. Interestingly, feeding trans-cinnamic acid to the RNAi line increased the level of artemisinin along with benzoic (BA) and SA with no effect on the downstream metabolites p-coumaric acid, coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, whereas p-coumaric acid feeding increased the content of downstream coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde with no effect on BA, SA, trans-cinnamic acid or artemisinin. SA is reported earlier to be inducing the artemisinin yield. This report demonstrates the link between the phenylpropanoid/lignin pathway with artemisinin pathway through SA, triggered by accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid because of the blockage at C4H.

  14. RNAi down-regulation of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase increases artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ritesh; Vashisth, Divya; Misra, Amita; Akhtar, Md Qussen; Jalil, Syed Uzma; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Rout, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) converts trans-cinnamic acid (CA) to p-coumaric acid (COA) in the phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis pathway. Earlier we reported increased expression of AaCYP71AV1 (an important gene of artemisinin biosynthesis pathway) caused by CA treatment in Artemisia annua. Hence, AaC4H gene was identified, cloned, characterized and silenced in A. annua with the assumption that the elevated internal CA due to knock down may increase the artemisinin yield. Accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid in the plant due to AaC4H knockdown was accompanied with the reduction of p-coumaric acid, total phenolics, anthocyanin, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities but increase in salicylic acid (SA) and artemisinin. Interestingly, feeding trans-cinnamic acid to the RNAi line increased the level of artemisinin along with benzoic (BA) and SA with no effect on the downstream metabolites p-coumaric acid, coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, whereas p-coumaric acid feeding increased the content of downstream coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde with no effect on BA, SA, trans-cinnamic acid or artemisinin. SA is reported earlier to be inducing the artemisinin yield. This report demonstrates the link between the phenylpropanoid/lignin pathway with artemisinin pathway through SA, triggered by accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid because of the blockage at C4H. PMID:27220407

  15. Profiling of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of 12 Cruciferous Vegetables.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhifeng; Lee, Hui Wen; Liang, Xu; Liang, Dong; Wang, Qi; Huang, Dejian; Ong, Choon Nam

    2018-05-10

    The phenolic profiles of 12 cruciferous vegetables (pakchoi, choysum, Chinese cabbage, kailan, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, rocket salad, red cherry radish, daikon radish, and watercress) were studied with UHPLC-MS/MS. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC) were also evaluated. A total of 74 phenolic compounds were identified, including 16 hydroxycinnamic acids and derivatives, and 58 flavonoids and derivatives. The main flavonoids identified were glycosylated quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin, and the main hydroxycinnamic acids were ferulic, sinapic, caffeic and p -coumaric acids. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the distribution of phenolic compounds in different genera of cruciferous vegetables was in accordance with their conventional taxonomy. The DPPH, ORAC and TPC values ranged from 1.11 to 9.54 µmoles Trolox equivalent/g FW, 5.34 to 32.92 µmoles Trolox equivalent/g FW, and 0.16 to 1.93 mg gallic acid equivalent/g FW respectively. Spearman’s correlation showed significant ( p < 0.05) positive correlations between TPC, flavonoids and antioxidant activity.

  16. Induction of nodD Gene in a Betarhizobium Isolate, Cupriavidus sp. of Mimosa pudica, by Root Nodule Phenolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Chakraborty, Dipjyoti; Dutta, Suhrid R; Ghosh, Ananta K; Pati, Bikas R; Korpole, Suresh; Paul, Debarati

    2016-06-01

    A range of phenolic acids, viz., p-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid have been isolated and identified by LC-MS analysis in the roots and root nodules of Mimosa pudica. The effects of identified phenolic acids on the regulation of nodulation (nod) genes have been evaluated in a betarhizobium isolate of M. pudica root nodule. Protocatechuic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were most effective in inducing nod gene, whereas caffeic acid had no significant effect. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase activities were estimated, indicating regulation and metabolism of phenolic acids in root nodules. These results showed that nodD gene expression of betarhizobium is regulated by simple phenolic acids such as protocatechuic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid present in host root nodule and sustains nodule organogenesis.

  17. Analysis of Organic Acids, Deacetyl Asperulosidic Acid and Polyphenolic Compounds as a Potential Tool for Characterization of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Products.

    PubMed

    Bittová, Miroslava; Hladůkova, Dita; Roblová, Vendula; Krácmar, Stanislav; Kubán, Petr; Kubán, Vlastimil

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, deacetyl asperulosidic acid (DAA) and polyphenolic compounds in various noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) products (4 juices, 4 dry fruit powders and 2 capsules with dry fruit powder) were analyzed. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a variable wavelength detector (VWD) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ESI-TOF MS) was applied for simultaneous analysis of organic acids (malic, lactic, citric and succinic acid) and DAA. An RP-HPLC method with diode-array detector (DAD) was developed for the analysis of polyphenolic compound content (rutin, catechin, quercitrin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid). The developed methods can contribute to better characterization of available noni products that is required from the consumers. In our study, we discovered significant dissimilarities in the content of DAA, citric acid and several phenolic compounds in some samples.

  18. Methylseleninic acid super-activates p53-senescence cancer progression barrier in prostate lesions of Pten-knockout mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Guo, Xiaolan; Wang, Ji; Jiang, Cheng; Bosland, Maarten C.; Lü, Junxuan; Deng, Yibin

    2015-01-01

    Monomethylated selenium (MM-Se) forms that are precursors of methylselenol such as methylseleninic acid (MSeA) differ in metabolism and anti-cancer activities in preclinical cell and animal models from seleno-methionine that had failed to exert preventive efficacy against prostate cancer (PCa) in North American men. Given that human PCa arises from precancerous lesions such as high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN) which frequently have lost PTEN tumor suppressor permitting AKT oncogenic signaling, we tested the efficacy of MSeA to inhibit HG-PIN progression in Pten prostate specific knockout (KO) mice and assessed the mechanistic involvement of p53-mediated cellular senescence and of the androgen receptor (AR). We observed that short-term (4 weeks) oral MSeA treatment significantly increased expression of P53 and P21Cip1 proteins and senescence-associated-β-galactosidase staining, and reduced Ki-67 cell proliferation index in Pten KO prostate epithelium. Long-term (25 weeks) MSeA administration significantly suppressed HG-PIN phenotype, tumor weight, and prevented emergence of invasive carcinoma in Pten KO mice. Mechanistically, the long-term MSeA treatment not only sustained P53-mediated senescence, but also markedly reduced AKT phosphorylation and AR abundance in the Pten KO prostate. Importantly, these cellular and molecular changes were not observed in the prostate of wild type littermates which were similarly treated with MSeA. Since p53 signaling is likely to be intact in HG-PIN compared to advanced PCa, the selective super-activation of p53-mediated senescence by MSeA suggests a new paradigm of cancer chemoprevention by strengthening a cancer progression barrier through induction of irreversible senescence with additional suppression of AR and AKT oncogenic signaling. PMID:26511486

  19. Immunization with Pneumocystis Cross-Reactive Antigen 1 (Pca1) Protects Mice against Pneumocystis Pneumonia and Generates Antibody to Pneumocystis jirovecii

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Terry W.; Malone, Jane E.; Haidaris, Constantine G.; Harber, Martha; Sant, Andrea J.; Nayak, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is a life-threatening infection that affects immunocompromised individuals. Nearly half of all PcP cases occur in those prescribed effective chemoprophylaxis, suggesting that additional preventive methods are needed. To this end, we have identified a unique mouse Pneumocystis surface protein, designated Pneumocystis cross-reactive antigen 1 (Pca1), as a potential vaccine candidate. Mice were immunized with a recombinant fusion protein containing Pca1. Subsequently, CD4+ T cells were depleted, and the mice were exposed to Pneumocystis murina. Pca1 immunization completely protected nearly all mice, similar to immunization with whole Pneumocystis organisms. In contrast, all immunized negative-control mice developed PcP. Unexpectedly, Pca1 immunization generated cross-reactive antibody that recognized Pneumocystis jirovecii and Pneumocystis carinii. Potential orthologs of Pca1 have been identified in P. jirovecii. Such cross-reactivity is rare, and our findings suggest that Pca1 is a conserved antigen and potential vaccine target. The evaluation of Pca1-elicited antibodies in the prevention of PcP in humans deserves further investigation. PMID:28031260

  20. Immunization with Pneumocystis Cross-Reactive Antigen 1 (Pca1) Protects Mice against Pneumocystis Pneumonia and Generates Antibody to Pneumocystis jirovecii.

    PubMed

    Tesini, Brenda L; Wright, Terry W; Malone, Jane E; Haidaris, Constantine G; Harber, Martha; Sant, Andrea J; Nayak, Jennifer L; Gigliotti, Francis

    2017-04-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is a life-threatening infection that affects immunocompromised individuals. Nearly half of all PcP cases occur in those prescribed effective chemoprophylaxis, suggesting that additional preventive methods are needed. To this end, we have identified a unique mouse Pneumocystis surface protein, designated Pneumocystis cross-reactive antigen 1 (Pca1), as a potential vaccine candidate. Mice were immunized with a recombinant fusion protein containing Pca1. Subsequently, CD4 + T cells were depleted, and the mice were exposed to Pneumocystis murina Pca1 immunization completely protected nearly all mice, similar to immunization with whole Pneumocystis organisms. In contrast, all immunized negative-control mice developed PcP. Unexpectedly, Pca1 immunization generated cross-reactive antibody that recognized Pneumocystis jirovecii and Pneumocystis carinii Potential orthologs of Pca1 have been identified in P. jirovecii Such cross-reactivity is rare, and our findings suggest that Pca1 is a conserved antigen and potential vaccine target. The evaluation of Pca1-elicited antibodies in the prevention of PcP in humans deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Phenolic acids, syringaldehyde, and juglone in fruits of different cultivars of Juglans regia L.

    PubMed

    Colaric, Mateja; Veberic, Robert; Solar, Anita; Hudina, Metka; Stampar, Franci

    2005-08-10

    Phenolic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, ellagic, and syringic acid) as well as syringaldehyde and juglone were identified in ripe fruits of 10 walnut cultivars: Adams, Cisco, Chandler, Franquette, Lara, Fernor, Fernette, Alsoszentivani 117 (A-117), Rasna, and Elit. Analyses were done using a high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a diode array detector. Significant differences in the contents of identified phenolics were observed among cultivars. Phenolics were determined separately in the kernel and in the thin skin of the walnut, termed the pellicle. Not only in the kernel but also in the pellicle did syringic acid, juglone, and ellagic acid predominate (average values of 33.83, 11.75, and 5.90 mg/100 g of kernel; and 1003.24, 317.90, and 128.98 mg/100 g of pellicle, respectively), and the contents of ferulic and sinapic acid (average values of 0.06 and 0.05 mg/100 g of kernel and 2.93 and 2.17 mg/100 g of pellicle, respectively) were the lowest in all cultivars. The highest differences in the sum of all identified phenolics were observed between Rasna and Fernette fruits; in Rasna there were >2-fold higher contents of identified phenolics in both kernel and pellicle. It was found that the walnut pellicle is the most important source of walnut phenolics. The ratio between the contents in pellicle and kernel varied by at least 14.8-fold for caffeic acid (cv. Adams) and by up to 752.0-fold for p-coumaric acid (cv. Elit).

  2. Allelopathy in agroecosystems: Wheat phytotoxicity and its possible roles in crop rotation.

    PubMed

    Lodhi, M A; Bilal, R; Malik, K A

    1987-08-01

    The germination rates of cotton and wheat seeds were significantly affected by various extracts of wheat mulch and soils collected from the wheat field. This toxicity was even more pronounced against seedling growth. Five allelochemics: ferulic,p-coumaric,p-OH benzoic, syringic, and vanillic acids, were identified from the wheat mulch and its associated soil. Quantitatively, ferulic acid was found at higher concentrations thanp-coumaric acid in the soil. Various concentrations of ferulic andp-coumaric acids were toxic to the growth of radish in a bioassay. The functional aspects of allelochemic transfer from decaying residue to soil and the subsequent microbial degradation within agroecosystems are discussed, particularly as they relate to wheat crop rotation, with wheat and cotton, in Pakistan.

  3. Synthesis of Amide and Ester Derivatives of Cinnamic Acid and Its Analogs: Evaluation of Their Free Radical Scavenging and Monoamine Oxidase and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities.

    PubMed

    Takao, Koichi; Toda, Kazuhiro; Saito, Takayuki; Sugita, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    A series of cinnamic acid derivatives, amides (1-12) and esters (13-22), were synthesized, and structure-activity relationships for antioxidant activity, and monoamine oxidases (MAO) A and B, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities were analyzed. Among the synthesized compounds, compounds 1-10, 12-18, and rosmarinic acid (23), which contained catechol, o-methoxyphenol or 5-hydroxyindole moieties, showed potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity. Compounds 9-11, 15, 17-22 showed potent and selective MAO-B inhibitory activity. Compound 20 was the most potent inhibitor of MAO-B. Compounds 18 and 21 showed moderate BChE inhibitory activity. In addition, compound 18 showed potent antioxidant activity and MAO-B inhibitory activity. In a comparison of the cinnamic acid amides and esters, the amides exhibited more potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity, while the esters showed stronger inhibitory activities against MAO-B and BChE. These results suggested that cinnamic acid derivatives such as compound 18, p-coumaric acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl ester, and compound 20, p-coumaric acid phenethyl ester, may serve as lead compounds for the development of novel MAO-B inhibitors and candidate lead compounds for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  4. PCA-LBG-based algorithms for VQ codebook generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jinn-Tsong; Yang, Po-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Vector quantisation (VQ) codebooks are generated by combining principal component analysis (PCA) algorithms with Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) algorithms. All training vectors are grouped according to the projected values of the principal components. The PCA-LBG-based algorithms include (1) PCA-LBG-Median, which selects the median vector of each group, (2) PCA-LBG-Centroid, which adopts the centroid vector of each group, and (3) PCA-LBG-Random, which randomly selects a vector of each group. The LBG algorithm finds a codebook based on the better vectors sent to an initial codebook by the PCA. The PCA performs an orthogonal transformation to convert a set of potentially correlated variables into a set of variables that are not linearly correlated. Because the orthogonal transformation efficiently distinguishes test image vectors, the proposed PCA-LBG-based algorithm is expected to outperform conventional algorithms in designing VQ codebooks. The experimental results confirm that the proposed PCA-LBG-based algorithms indeed obtain better results compared to existing methods reported in the literature.

  5. Chlorogenic acid biosynthesis: characterization of a light-induced microsomal 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase from carrot (Daucus carota L. ) cell suspension cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehnl, T.K.; Koch, U.; Heller, W.

    Microsomal preparations from carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures catalyze the formation of trans-5-O-caffeoyl-D-quinate (chlorogenate) from trans-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate. trans-5-O-(4-Coumaroyl)shikimate is converted to about the same extent to trans-5-O-caffeoylshikimate. trans-4-O-(4-Coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-3-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-4-coumarate, and cis-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate do not act as substrates. The reaction is strictly dependent on molecular oxygen and on NADPH as reducing cofactor. NADH and ascorbic acid cannot substitute for NADPH. Cytochrome c, Tetcyclacis, and carbon monoxide inhibit the reaction suggesting a cytochrome P-450-dependent mixed-function monooxygenase. Competition experiments as well as induction and inhibition phenomena indicate that there is only one enzyme species which is responsible for the hydroxylation of themore » 5-O-(4-coumaric) esters of both D-quinate and shikimate. The activity of this enzyme is greatly increased by in vivo irradiation of the cells with blue/uv light. We conclude that the biosynthesis of the predominant caffeic acid conjugates in carrot cells occurs via the corresponding 4-coumaric acid esters. Thus, in this system, 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate can be seen as the final intermediate in the chlorogenic acid pathway.« less

  6. Phenolic Acid Content and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Corn Snacks Enriched with Kale

    PubMed Central

    Kasprzak, Kamila; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika; Nowak, Renata; Polak, Renata

    2018-01-01

    Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica)—a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed. In the corn snacks enriched with kale, fifteen phenolic acids were indicated. These were protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, trans-caffeic, cis-caffeic, trans-p-coumaric, cis-p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, cis-ferulic, salicylic, gentisic, syringic, 3-OH-cinnamic, trans-sinapic, and cis-sinapic acids. Both the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenols increased with the addition of B. oleracea. Data from spectrophotometric analyses of the samples showed high DPPH radical scavenging potential of snacks enriched with 4, 6, and 8% of kale. Snacks enriched with kale contain high level of phenolic acids and, therefore, have great potential to make a valuable source of natural antioxidants. High-temperature short-time extrusion-cooking process had no negative impact on polyphenol's activity. PMID:29507816

  7. Phenolic Acid Content and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Corn Snacks Enriched with Kale.

    PubMed

    Kasprzak, Kamila; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika; Olech, Marta; Nowak, Renata; Polak, Renata; Oniszczuk, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) of kale ( Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica )-a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed. In the corn snacks enriched with kale, fifteen phenolic acids were indicated. These were protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, trans -caffeic, cis -caffeic, trans -p-coumaric, cis -p-coumaric, trans -ferulic, cis -ferulic, salicylic, gentisic, syringic, 3-OH-cinnamic, trans -sinapic, and cis -sinapic acids. Both the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenols increased with the addition of B. oleracea . Data from spectrophotometric analyses of the samples showed high DPPH radical scavenging potential of snacks enriched with 4, 6, and 8% of kale. Snacks enriched with kale contain high level of phenolic acids and, therefore, have great potential to make a valuable source of natural antioxidants. High-temperature short-time extrusion-cooking process had no negative impact on polyphenol's activity.

  8. Changes in Phenolic Acid Content in Maize during Food Product Processing.

    PubMed

    Butts-Wilmsmeyer, Carrie J; Mumm, Rita H; Rausch, Kent D; Kandhola, Gurshagan; Yana, Nicole A; Happ, Mary M; Ostezan, Alexandra; Wasmund, Matthew; Bohn, Martin O

    2018-04-04

    The notion that many nutrients and beneficial phytochemicals in maize are lost due to food product processing is common, but this has not been studied in detail for the phenolic acids. Information regarding changes in phenolic acid content throughout processing is highly valuable because some phenolic acids are chemopreventive agents of aging-related diseases. It is unknown when and why these changes in phenolic acid content might occur during processing, whether some maize genotypes might be more resistant to processing induced changes in phenolic acid content than other genotypes, or if processing affects the bioavailability of phenolic acids in maize-based food products. For this study, a laboratory-scale processing protocol was developed and used to process whole maize kernels into toasted cornflakes. High-throughput microscale wet-lab analyses were applied to determine the concentrations of soluble and insoluble-bound phenolic acids in samples of grain, three intermediate processing stages, and toasted cornflakes obtained from 12 ex-PVP maize inbreds and seven hybrids. In the grain, insoluble-bound ferulic acid was the most common phenolic acid, followed by insoluble-bound p-coumaric acid and soluble cinnamic acid, a precursor to the phenolic acids. Notably, the ferulic acid content was approximately 1950 μg/g, more than ten-times the concentration of many fruits and vegetables. Processing reduced the content of the phenolic acids regardless of the genotype. Most changes occurred during dry milling due to the removal of the bran. The concentration of bioavailable soluble ferulic and p-coumaric acid increased negligibly due to thermal stresses. Therefore, the current dry milling based processing techniques used to manufacture many maize-based foods, including breakfast cereals, are not conducive for increasing the content of bioavailable phenolics in processed maize food products. This suggests that while maize is an excellent source of phenolics, alternative

  9. Metabolism of nonesterified and esterified hydroxycinnamic acids in red wines by Brettanomyces bruxellensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While Brettanomyces can metabolize non–esterified hydroxycinnamic acids found in grape musts/wines (caffeic, p–coumaric, and ferulic acids), it was not known whether this yeast could utilize the corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, p–coutaric, and fertaric acids, respectively). Red wines fr...

  10. Prostate health index (phi) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) significantly improve diagnostic accuracy in patients undergoing prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Perdonà, Sisto; Bruzzese, Dario; Ferro, Matteo; Autorino, Riccardo; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Longo, Michele; Spinelli, Rosa; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Oliva, Andrea; De Sio, Marco; Damiano, Rocco; Altieri, Vincenzo; Terracciano, Daniela

    2013-02-15

    Prostate health index (phi) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) have been recently proposed as novel biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa). We assessed the diagnostic performance of these biomarkers, alone or in combination, in men undergoing first prostate biopsy for suspicion of PCa. One hundred sixty male subjects were enrolled in this prospective observational study. PSA molecular forms, phi index (Beckman coulter immunoassay), PCA3 score (Progensa PCA3 assay), and other established biomarkers (tPSA, fPSA, and %fPSA) were assessed before patients underwent a 18-core first prostate biopsy. The discriminating ability between PCa-negative and PCa-positive biopsies of Beckman coulter phi and PCA3 score and other used biomarkers were determined. One hundred sixty patients met inclusion criteria. %p2PSA (p2PSA/fPSA × 100), phi and PCA3 were significantly higher in patients with PCa compared to PCa-negative group (median values: 1.92 vs. 1.55, 49.97 vs. 36.84, and 50 vs. 32, respectively, P ≤ 0.001). ROC curve analysis showed that %p2PSA, phi, and PCA3 are good indicator of malignancy (AUCs = 0.68, 0.71, and 0.66, respectively). A multivariable logistic regression model consisting of both the phi index and PCA3 score allowed to reach an overall diagnostic accuracy of 0.77. Decision curve analysis revealed that this "combined" marker achieved the highest net benefit over the examined range of the threshold probability. phi and PCA3 showed no significant difference in the ability to predict PCa diagnosis in men undergoing first prostate biopsy. However, diagnostic performance is significantly improved by combining phi and PCA3. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Multi-site modulation of flux during monolignol formation in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anterola, A. M.; van Rensburg, H.; van Heerden, P. S.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.

    1999-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) cell suspension cultures secrete monolignols when placed in 8% sucrose/20 mM KI solution, and these were used to identify phenylpropanoid pathway flux-modulating steps. When cells were provided with increasing amounts of either phenylalanine (Phe) or cinnamic acid, cellular concentrations of immediate downstream products (cinnamic and p-coumaric acids, respectively) increased, whereas caffeic and ferulic acid pool sizes were essentially unaffected. Increasing Phe concentrations resulted in increased amounts of p-coumaryl alcohol relative to coniferyl alcohol. However, exogenously supplied cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids resulted only in increases in their intercellular concentrations, but not that of downstream cinnamyl aldehydes and monolignols. Supplying p-coumaryl and coniferyl aldehydes up to 40, 000-320,000-fold above the detection limits resulted in rapid, quantitative conversion into the monolignols. Only at nonphysiological concentrations was transient accumulation of intracellular aldehydes observed. These results indicate that cinnamic and p-coumaric acid hydroxylations assume important regulatory positions in phenylpropanoid metabolism, whereas cinnamyl aldehyde reduction does not serve as a control point. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Bacterial synthesis of N-hydroxycinnamoyl phenethylamines and tyramines.

    PubMed

    Sim, Geun Young; Yang, So-Mi; Kim, Bong Gyu; Ahn, Joong-Hoon

    2015-10-13

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) including cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid, are C6-C3 phenolic compounds that are synthesized via the phenylpropanoid pathway. HCAs serve as precursors for the synthesis of lignins, flavonoids, anthocyanins, stilbenes and other phenolic compounds. HCAs can also be conjugated with diverse compounds including quinic acid, hydroxyl acids, and amines. Hydroxycinnamoyl (HC) amine conjugates such as N-HC tyramines and N-HC phenethylamines have been considered as potential starting materials to develop antiviral and anticancer drugs. We synthesized N-HC tyramines and N-HC phenethylamines using three different approaches in Escherichia coli. Five N-HC phenethylamines and eight N-HC tyramines were synthesized by feeding HCAs and phenethylamine or tyramine to E. coli harboring 4CL (encoding 4-coumarate CoA:ligase) and either SHT (encoding phenethylamine N-HC transferase) or THT (encoding tyramine N-HC transferase). Also, N-(p-coumaroyl) phenethylamine and N-(p-coumaroyl) tyramine were synthesized from p-coumaric acid using E. coli harboring an additional gene, PDC (encoding phenylalanine decarboxylase) or TDC (encoding tyrosine decarboxylase). Finally, we synthesized N-(p-coumaroyl) phenethylamine and N-(p-coumaroyl) tyramine from glucose by reconstructing the metabolic pathways for their synthesis in E. coli. Productivity was maximized by optimizing the cell concentration and incubation temperature. We reconstructed the metabolic pathways for synthesis of N-HC tyramines and N-HC phenethylamines by expressing several genes including 4CL, TST or SHT, PDC or TDC, and TAL (encoding tyrosine ammonia lyase) and engineering the shikimate metabolic pathway to increase endogenous tyrosine concentration in E. coli. Approximately 101.9 mg/L N-(p-coumaroyl) phenethylamine and 495.4 mg/L N-(p-coumaroyl) tyramine were synthesized from p-coumaric acid. Furthermore, 152.5 mg/L N-(p-coumaroyl) phenethylamine and 94.7 mg/L N-(p

  13. Determination of contents and antioxidant activity of free and bound phenolics compounds and in vitro digestibility of commercial black and red rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Sumczynski, Daniela; Kotásková, Eva; Družbíková, Helena; Mlček, Jiří

    2016-11-15

    Black and red rices (Oryza sativa L.) were analysed for total flavonoids and phenolics and the HPLC profile including both free and bound phenolic fractions. Moreover, antioxidant activity and in vitro digestibility was determined. Content of flavonoids and polyphenols as well as antioxidant activity was higher in free phenolic fractions. Bound flavonoids in black rices were not significant contributors to antioxidant activity. The main free phenolics in black rices were ferulic, protocatechuic and trans-p-coumaric acids, while the major free phenolics in red rices were catechin, protocatechuic and caffeic acids. The main bound phenolics in black rices were ferulic and vanillic acids and quercetin, in red rice types, they were ferulic, syringic, trans-p-coumaric acids and quercetin. Newly, the presence of m-coumaric acid in red rices was detected. Steam cooked rices showed very high levels of organic matter digestibility, whereas red rices were significantly more digestible than black rices (p<0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biotransformation of ferulic acid to protocatechuic acid by Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21420 engineered to express vanillate O-demethylase.

    PubMed

    Okai, Naoko; Masuda, Takaya; Takeshima, Yasunobu; Tanaka, Kosei; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi; Miyamoto, Masanori; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-12-01

    Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid, FA) is a lignin-derived phenolic compound abundant in plant biomass. The utilization of FA and its conversion to valuable compounds is desired. Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, PCA) is a precursor of polymers and plastics and a constituent of food. A microbial conversion system to produce PCA from FA was developed in this study using a PCA-producing strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum F (ATCC 21420). C. glutamicum strain F grown at 30 °C for 48 h utilized 2 mM each of FA and vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid, VA) to produce PCA, which was secreted into the medium. FA may be catabolized by C. glutamicum through proposed (I) non-β-oxidative, CoA-dependent or (II) β-oxidative, CoA-dependent phenylpropanoid pathways. The conversion of VA to PCA is the last step in each pathway. Therefore, the vanillate O-demethylase gene (vanAB) from Corynebacterium efficiens NBRC 100395 was expressed in C. glutamicum F (designated strain FVan) cultured at 30 °C in AF medium containing FA. Strain C. glutamicum FVan converted 4.57 ± 0.07 mM of FA into 2.87 ± 0.01 mM PCA after 48 h with yields of 62.8% (mol/mol), and 6.91 mM (1064 mg/L) of PCA was produced from 16.0 mM of FA after 12 h of fed-batch biotransformation. Genomic analysis of C. glutamicum ATCC 21420 revealed that the PCA-utilization genes (pca cluster) were conserved in strain ATCC 21420 and that mutations were present in the PCA importer gene pcaK.

  15. Substituent and solvent effects on the UV-vis absorption spectrum of the photoactive yellow protein chromophore.

    PubMed

    García-Prieto, F Fernández; Aguilar, M A; Galván, I Fdez; Muñoz-Losa, A; Olivares del Valle, F J; Sánchez, M L; Martín, M E

    2015-05-28

    Solvent effects on the UV-vis absorption spectra and molecular properties of four models of the photoactive yellow protein (PYP) chromophore have been studied with ASEP/MD, a sequential quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method. The anionic trans-p-coumaric acid (pCA(-)), thioacid (pCTA(-)), methyl ester (pCMe(-)), and methyl thioester (pCTMe(-)) derivatives have been studied in gas phase and in water solution. We analyze the modifications introduced by the substitution of sulfur by oxygen atoms and hydrogen by methyl in the coumaryl tail. We have found some differences in the absorption spectra of oxy and thio derivatives that could shed light on the different photoisomerization paths followed by these compounds. In solution, the spectrum substantially changes with respect to that obtained in the gas phase. The n → π1* state is destabilized by a polar solvent like water, and it becomes the third excited state in solution displaying an important blue shift. Now, the π → π1* and π → π2* states mix, and we find contributions from both transitions in S1 and S2. The presence of the sulfur atom modulates the solvent effect and the first two excited states become practically degenerate for pCA(-) and pCMe(-) but moderately well-separated for pCTA(-) and pCTMe(-).

  16. Ultrasensitive detection of phenolic antioxidants by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornelas-Soto, N.; Aguilar-Hernández, I. A.; Afseth, N.; López-Luke, T.; Contreras-Torres, F. F.; Wold, J. P.

    2017-08-01

    Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful surface-sensitive technique to study the vibrational properties of analytes at very low concentrations. In this study, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and sinapic acid were analyzed by SERS using Ag colloids. Analytes were detected up to 2.5x10-9M. For caffeic acid and coumaric acid, this detection limit has been reached for the first time, as well as the SERS analysis of sinapic acid using silver colloids.

  17. PCaPAC 2006 Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Chevtsov; Matthew Bickley

    2007-03-30

    The 6-th international PCaPAC (Personal Computers and Particle Accelerator Controls) workshop was held at Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia, from October 24-27, 2006. The main objectives of the conference were to discuss the most important issues of the use of PCs and modern IT technologies for controls of accelerators and to give scientists, engineers, and technicians a forum to exchange the ideas on control problems and their solutions. The workshop consisted of plenary sessions and poster sessions. No parallel sessions were held.Totally, more than seventy oral and poster presentations as well as tutorials were made during the conference, on themore » basis of which about fifty papers were submitted by the authors and included in this publication. This printed version of the PCaPAC 2006 Proceedings is published at Jefferson Lab according to the decision of the PCaPAC International Program Committee of October 26, 2006.« less

  18. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts.

  19. Analysis of Growth Inhibition and Metabolism of Hydroxycinnamic Acids by Brewing and Spoilage Strains of Brettanomyces Yeast.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Michael; Harris, Chad

    2015-10-15

    Brettanomyces yeasts are well-known as spoilage organisms in both the wine and beer industries, but also contribute important desirable characters to certain beer styles. These properties are mediated in large part by Brettanomyces ' metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) present in beverage raw materials. Here we compare growth inhibition by, and metabolism of, HCAs among commercial brewing strains and spoilage strains of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus . These properties vary widely among the different strains tested and between the HCAs analyzed. Brewing strains showed more efficient metabolism of ferulic acid over p -coumaric acid, a trait not shared among the spoilage strains.

  20. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  1. On a PCA-based lung motion model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruijiang; Lewis, John H; Jia, Xun; Zhao, Tianyu; Liu, Weifeng; Wuenschel, Sara; Lamb, James; Yang, Deshan; Low, Daniel A; Jiang, Steve B

    2014-01-01

    Respiration-induced organ motion is one of the major uncertainties in lung cancer radiotherapy and is crucial to be able to accurately model the lung motion. Most work so far has focused on the study of the motion of a single point (usually the tumor center of mass), and much less work has been done to model the motion of the entire lung. Inspired by the work of Zhang et al (2007 Med. Phys. 34 4772–81), we believe that the spatiotemporal relationship of the entire lung motion can be accurately modeled based on principle component analysis (PCA) and then a sparse subset of the entire lung, such as an implanted marker, can be used to drive the motion of the entire lung (including the tumor). The goal of this work is twofold. First, we aim to understand the underlying reason why PCA is effective for modeling lung motion and find the optimal number of PCA coefficients for accurate lung motion modeling. We attempt to address the above important problems both in a theoretical framework and in the context of real clinical data. Second, we propose a new method to derive the entire lung motion using a single internal marker based on the PCA model. The main results of this work are as follows. We derived an important property which reveals the implicit regularization imposed by the PCA model. We then studied the model using two mathematical respiratory phantoms and 11 clinical 4DCT scans for eight lung cancer patients. For the mathematical phantoms with cosine and an even power (2n) of cosine motion, we proved that 2 and 2n PCA coefficients and eigenvectors will completely represent the lung motion, respectively. Moreover, for the cosine phantom, we derived the equivalence conditions for the PCA motion model and the physiological 5D lung motion model (Low et al 2005 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63 921–9). For the clinical 4DCT data, we demonstrated the modeling power and generalization performance of the PCA model. The average 3D modeling error using PCA was within

  2. On a PCA-based lung motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruijiang; Lewis, John H.; Jia, Xun; Zhao, Tianyu; Liu, Weifeng; Wuenschel, Sara; Lamb, James; Yang, Deshan; Low, Daniel A.; Jiang, Steve B.

    2011-09-01

    Respiration-induced organ motion is one of the major uncertainties in lung cancer radiotherapy and is crucial to be able to accurately model the lung motion. Most work so far has focused on the study of the motion of a single point (usually the tumor center of mass), and much less work has been done to model the motion of the entire lung. Inspired by the work of Zhang et al (2007 Med. Phys. 34 4772-81), we believe that the spatiotemporal relationship of the entire lung motion can be accurately modeled based on principle component analysis (PCA) and then a sparse subset of the entire lung, such as an implanted marker, can be used to drive the motion of the entire lung (including the tumor). The goal of this work is twofold. First, we aim to understand the underlying reason why PCA is effective for modeling lung motion and find the optimal number of PCA coefficients for accurate lung motion modeling. We attempt to address the above important problems both in a theoretical framework and in the context of real clinical data. Second, we propose a new method to derive the entire lung motion using a single internal marker based on the PCA model. The main results of this work are as follows. We derived an important property which reveals the implicit regularization imposed by the PCA model. We then studied the model using two mathematical respiratory phantoms and 11 clinical 4DCT scans for eight lung cancer patients. For the mathematical phantoms with cosine and an even power (2n) of cosine motion, we proved that 2 and 2n PCA coefficients and eigenvectors will completely represent the lung motion, respectively. Moreover, for the cosine phantom, we derived the equivalence conditions for the PCA motion model and the physiological 5D lung motion model (Low et al 2005 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63 921-9). For the clinical 4DCT data, we demonstrated the modeling power and generalization performance of the PCA model. The average 3D modeling error using PCA was within 1

  3. Cell wall composition and digestibility alterations in Brachypodium distachyon achieved through reduced expression of the UDP-arabinopyranose mutase

    PubMed Central

    Rancour, David M.; Hatfield, Ronald D.; Marita, Jane M.; Rohr, Nicholas A.; Schmitz, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide-activated sugars are essential substrates for plant cell-wall carbohydrate-polymer biosynthesis. The most prevalent grass cell wall (CW) sugars are glucose (Glc), xylose (Xyl), and arabinose (Ara). These sugars are biosynthetically related via the UDP–sugar interconversion pathway. We sought to target and generate UDP–sugar interconversion pathway transgenic Brachypodium distachyon lines resulting in CW carbohydrate composition changes with improved digestibility and normal plant stature. Both RNAi-mediated gene-suppression and constitutive gene-expression approaches were performed. CWs from 336 T0 transgenic plants with normal appearance were screened for complete carbohydrate composition. RNAi mutants of BdRGP1, a UDP-arabinopyranose mutase, resulted in large alterations in CW carbohydrate composition with significant decreases in CW Ara content but with minimal change in plant stature. Five independent RNAi-RGP1 T1 plant lines were used for in-depth analysis of plant CWs. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that gene expression levels for BdRGP1, BdRGP2, and BdRGP3 were reduced in RNAi-RGP1 plants to 15–20% of controls. CW Ara content was reduced by 23–51% of control levels. No alterations in CW Xyl and Glc content were observed. Corresponding decreases in CW ferulic acid (FA) and ferulic acid-dimers (FA-dimers) were observed. Additionally, CW p-coumarates (pCA) were decreased. We demonstrate the CW pCA decrease corresponds to Ara-coupled pCA. Xylanase-mediated digestibility of RNAi-RGP1 Brachypodium CWs resulted in a near twofold increase of released total carbohydrate. However, cellulolytic hydrolysis of CW material was inhibited in leaves of RNAi-RGP1 mutants. Our results indicate that targeted manipulation of UDP–sugar biosynthesis can result in biomass with substantially altered compositions and highlights the complex effect CW composition has on digestibility. PMID:26136761

  4. Validation of the omega-3 fatty acid intake measured by a web-based food frequency questionnaire against omega-3 fatty acids in red blood cells in men with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Allaire, J; Moreel, X; Labonté, M-È; Léger, C; Caron, A; Julien, P; Lamarche, B; Fradet, V

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a web-based self-administered food frequency questionnaire (web-FFQ) to assess the omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (FAs) intake of men affected with prostate cancer (PCa) against a biomarker. The study presented herein is a sub-study from a phase II clinical trial. Enrolled patients afflicted with PCa were included in the sub-study analysis if the FA profiles from the red blood cell (RBC) membranes and FA intakes at baseline were both determined at the time of the data analysis (n=60). Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to estimate the correlations between FA intakes and their proportions in the RBC membranes. Intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were highly correlated with their respective proportions in the RBC membranes (both rs=0.593, P<0.0001). Correlation between alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) intake and its proportion in RBC was not significant (rs=0.130, P=0.332). Correlations were observed between fatty fish intake and total ω-3 FAs (rs=0.304, P=0.02), total long-chain ω-3 FAs (rs=0.290, P=0.03) and DHA (rs=0.328, P=0.01) in RBC membranes. This study has shown that the web-FFQ is an accurate tool to assess total long-chain ω-3 FAs, EPA and DHA but not ALA intake in clinical trials and epidemiological studies carried out in men with PCa.

  5. Beyond textbook neuroanatomy: The syndrome of malignant PCA infarction.

    PubMed

    Gogela, Steven L; Gozal, Yair M; Rahme, Ralph; Zuccarello, Mario; Ringer, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Given its limited vascular territory, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) usually does not result in malignant infarction. Challenging this concept, we present 3 cases of unilateral PCA infarction with secondary malignant progression, resulting from extension into what would classically be considered the posterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Interestingly, these were true PCA infarctions, not "MCA plus" strokes, since the underlying occlusive lesion was in the PCA. We hypothesize that congenital and/or acquired variability in the distribution and extent of territory supplied by the PCA may underlie this rare clinical entity. Patients with a PCA infarction should thus be followed closely and offered early surgical decompression in the event of malignant progression.

  6. Identification of beta-2 as a key cell adhesion molecule in PCa cell neurotropic behavior: a novel ex vivo and biophysical approach.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Keith H; Castillo, Deborah G; Morris, Joseph W; Boggs, Mary E; Czymmek, Kirk J; Adams, Elizabeth L; Schramm, Lawrence P; Sikes, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is believed to metastasize through the blood/lymphatics systems; however, PCa may utilize the extensive innervation of the prostate for glandular egress. The interaction of PCa and its nerve fibers is observed in 80% of PCa and is termed perineural invasion (PNI). PCa cells have been observed traveling through the endoneurium of nerves, although the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Voltage sensitive sodium channels (VSSC) are multimeric transmembrane protein complexes comprised of a pore-forming α subunit and one or two auxiliary beta (β) subunits with inherent cell adhesion molecule (CAM) functions. The beta-2 isoform (gene SCN2B) interacts with several neural CAMs, while interacting putatively with other prominent neural CAMs. Furthermore, beta-2 exhibits elevated mRNA and protein levels in highly metastatic and castrate-resistant PCa. When overexpressed in weakly aggressive LNCaP cells (2BECFP), beta-2 alters LNCaP cell morphology and enhances LNCaP cell metastasis associated behavior in vitro. We hypothesize that PCa cells use beta-2 as a CAM during PNI and subsequent PCa metastasis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of beta-2 expression on PCa cell neurotropic metastasis associated behavior. We overexpressed beta-2 as a fusion protein with enhanced cyan fluorescence protein (ECFP) in weakly aggressive LNCaP cells and observed neurotropic effects utilizing our novel ex vivo organotypic spinal cord co-culture model, and performed functional assays with neural matrices and atomic force microscopy. With increased beta-2 expression, PCa cells display a trend of enhanced association with nerve axons. On laminin, a neural CAM, overexpression of beta-2 enhances PCa cell migration, invasion, and growth. 2BECFP cells exhibit marked binding affinity to laminin relative to LNECFP controls, and recombinant beta-2 ectodomain elicits more binding events to laminin than BSA control. Functional overexpression of VSSC

  7. A Seven-Gene Locus for Synthesis of Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid by Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79

    PubMed Central

    Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Ksenzenko, Vladimir N.; Bonsall, Robert F.; Cook, R. James; Boronin, Alexander M.; Thomashow, Linda S.

    1998-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 produces the broad-spectrum antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), which is active against a variety of fungal root pathogens. In this study, seven genes designated phzABCDEFG that are sufficient for synthesis of PCA were localized within a 6.8-kb BglII-XbaI fragment from the phenazine biosynthesis locus of strain 2-79. Polypeptides corresponding to all phz genes were identified by analysis of recombinant plasmids in a T7 promoter/polymerase expression system. Products of the phzC, phzD, and phzE genes have similarities to enzymes of shikimic acid and chorismic acid metabolism and, together with PhzF, are absolutely necessary for PCA production. PhzG is similar to pyridoxamine-5′-phosphate oxidases and probably is a source of cofactor for the PCA-synthesizing enzyme(s). Products of the phzA and phzB genes are highly homologous to each other and may be involved in stabilization of a putative PCA-synthesizing multienzyme complex. Two new genes, phzX and phzY, that are homologous to phzA and phzB, respectively, were cloned and sequenced from P. aureofaciens 30-84, which produces PCA, 2-hydroxyphenazine-1-carboxylic acid, and 2-hydroxyphenazine. Based on functional analysis of the phz genes from strains 2-79 and 30-84, we postulate that different species of fluorescent pseudomonads have similar genetic systems that confer the ability to synthesize PCA. PMID:9573209

  8. Protective effects of ferulic acid and related polyphenols against glyoxal- or methylglyoxal-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Maruf, Abdullah Al; Lip, HoYin; Wong, Horace; O'Brien, Peter J

    2015-06-05

    Glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO) cause protein and nucleic acid carbonylation and oxidative stress by forming reactive oxygen and carbonyl species which have been associated with toxic effects that may contribute to cardiovascular disease, complications associated with diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. GO and MGO can be formed through oxidation of commonly used reducing sugars e.g., fructose under chronic hyperglycemic conditions. GO and MGO form advanced glycation end products which lead to an increased potential for developing inflammatory diseases. In the current study, we have investigated the protective effects of ferulic acid and related polyphenols e.g., caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, methyl ferulate, ethyl ferulate, and ferulaldehyde on GO- or MGO-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress (ROS formation, protein carbonylation and mitochondrial membrane potential maintenance) in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. To investigate and compare the protective effects of ferulic acid and related polyphenols against GO- or MGO-induced toxicity, five hepatocyte models were used: (a) control hepatocytes, (b) GSH-depleted hepatocytes, (c) catalase-inhibited hepatocytes, (d) aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2)-inhibited hepatocytes, and (e) hepatocyte inflammation system (a non-toxic H2O2-generating system). All of the polyphenols tested significantly decreased GO- or MGO-induced cytotoxicity, ROS formation and improved mitochondrial membrane potential in these models. The rank order of their effectiveness was caffeic acid∼ferulaldehyde>ferulic acid>ethyl ferulate>methyl ferulate>p-coumaric acid. Ferulic acid was found to decrease protein carbonylation in GSH-depleted hepatocytes. This study suggests that ferulic acid and related polyphenols can be used therapeutically to inhibit or decrease GO- or MGO-induced hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [The changes in contents and composition of phenolic acids during cell xylem growth in scots pine].

    PubMed

    Antonova, G F; Zheliznichenko, T V; Stasova, V V

    2011-01-01

    The contents and composition of alcohol soluble phenolic acids were studied during cell xylem growth in the course of wood annual increment formation in the stems of Scots pine. The cells of cambium zone, of two stages of expansion growth and the outset of secondary thickening zone (before lignification) were successively gathered from the stem segments of 25-old pine trees in the period of earlywood xylem formation with constant anatomical and histochemical control. The contents of free and bound forms of phenolic acids, isolated by 80% ethanol from tissues, as well as of their ethers and esters were calculated both per dry weight and per cell. The content and relation of the fractions and the composition of phenolic acid have been found to change significantly from cambium zone to the outset of tracheid secondary thickening. The character of the variations depends on a calculation method. According to the calculation per cell the amount of free and bound phenolic acids and in their composition of esters and especially ethers increased at the first step of expansion growth zone, decreased at the second one and rose again in the outset of secondary wall deposition. In dependence on the stage of cell development the pool of bound phenolic acids exceeded of free acid pool in 2-5 times. Sinapic and ferulic acids dominated in the composition of free hydroxycinnamic acids. The content and composition of hydroxycinnamic acids in ethers and esters depended on cell development phase. In cambium p-coumaric and sinapic acids were principal aglycons in ethers, at other stages these were sinapic and caffeic acids. The esters in cambium zone included essentially p-coumaric acid and at the other stages - sinapic and ferulic acids. At the first phase of growth benzoic acid was connected principally by ester bonds. The pool of these esters decreased from the first phase of growth to the outset of cell wall thickening and in proportion to this the level of free benzoic acid rose.

  10. Watching a signaling protein function in real time via 100-ps time-resolved Laue crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Schotte, Friedrich; Cho, Hyun Sun; Kaila, Ville R.I.

    2012-11-06

    To understand how signaling proteins function, it is necessary to know the time-ordered sequence of events that lead to the signaling state. We recently developed on the BioCARS 14-IDB beamline at the Advanced Photon Source the infrastructure required to characterize structural changes in protein crystals with near-atomic spatial resolution and 150-ps time resolution, and have used this capability to track the reversible photocycle of photoactive yellow protein (PYP) following trans-to-cis photoisomerization of its p-coumaric acid (pCA) chromophore over 10 decades of time. The first of four major intermediates characterized in this study is highly contorted, with the pCA carbonyl rotatedmore » nearly 90° out of the plane of the phenolate. A hydrogen bond between the pCA carbonyl and the Cys69 backbone constrains the chromophore in this unusual twisted conformation. Density functional theory calculations confirm that this structure is chemically plausible and corresponds to a strained cis intermediate. This unique structure is short-lived (~600 ps), has not been observed in prior cryocrystallography experiments, and is the progenitor of intermediates characterized in previous nanosecond time-resolved Laue crystallography studies. The structural transitions unveiled during the PYP photocycle include trans/cis isomerization, the breaking and making of hydrogen bonds, formation/relaxation of strain, and gated water penetration into the interior of the protein. This mechanistically detailed, near-atomic resolution description of the complete PYP photocycle provides a framework for understanding signal transduction in proteins, and for assessing and validating theoretical/computational approaches in protein biophysics.« less

  11. Novel Three-Component Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid 1,2-Dioxygenase in Sphingomonas wittichii DP58

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Wei; Huang, Xian-Qing; Zhang, Xue-Hong

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, the main component of shenqinmycin, is widely used in southern China for the prevention of rice sheath blight. However, the fate of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in soil remains uncertain. Sphingomonas wittichii DP58 can use phenazine-1-carboxylic acid as its sole carbon and nitrogen sources for growth. In this study, dioxygenase-encoding genes, pcaA1A2, were found using transcriptome analysis to be highly upregulated upon phenazine-1-carboxylic acid biodegradation. PcaA1 shares 68% amino acid sequence identity with the large oxygenase subunit of anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase from Rhodococcus maanshanensis DSM 44675. The dioxygenase was coexpressed in Escherichia coli with its adjacent reductase-encoding gene, pcaA3, and ferredoxin-encoding gene, pcaA4, and showed phenazine-1-carboxylic acid consumption. The dioxygenase-, ferredoxin-, and reductase-encoding genes were expressed in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 or E. coli BL21, and the three recombinant proteins were purified. A phenazine-1-carboxylic acid conversion capability occurred in vitro only when all three components were present. However, P. putida KT2440 transformed with pcaA1A2 obtained phenazine-1-carboxylic acid degradation ability, suggesting that phenazine-1-carboxylic acid 1,2-dioxygenase has low specificities for its ferredoxin and reductase. This was verified by replacing PcaA3 with RedA2 in the in vitro enzyme assay. High-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis showed that phenazine-1-carboxylic acid was converted to 1,2-dihydroxyphenazine through decarboxylation and hydroxylation, indicating that PcaA1A2A3A4 constitutes the initial phenazine-1-carboxylic acid 1,2-dioxygenase. This study fills a gap in our understanding of the biodegradation of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and illustrates a new dioxygenase for decarboxylation. IMPORTANCE Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid is widely used in southern China

  12. Analysis of Growth Inhibition and Metabolism of Hydroxycinnamic Acids by Brewing and Spoilage Strains of Brettanomyces Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, Michael; Harris, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Brettanomyces yeasts are well-known as spoilage organisms in both the wine and beer industries, but also contribute important desirable characters to certain beer styles. These properties are mediated in large part by Brettanomyces’ metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) present in beverage raw materials. Here we compare growth inhibition by, and metabolism of, HCAs among commercial brewing strains and spoilage strains of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus. These properties vary widely among the different strains tested and between the HCAs analyzed. Brewing strains showed more efficient metabolism of ferulic acid over p-coumaric acid, a trait not shared among the spoilage strains. PMID:28231223

  13. Effect of processing on phenolic acids composition and radical scavenging capacity of barley pasta.

    PubMed

    De Paula, Rosanna; Rabalski, Iwona; Messia, Maria Cristina; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Marconi, Emanuele

    2017-12-01

    Phenolic acids, total phenolics content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity in raw ingredients, fresh and dried spaghetti, and in uncooked and cooked spaghetti were evaluated and compared with semolina spaghetti as a reference. Ferulic acid was the major phenolic acid found in the free and bound phenolic extracts in all the investigated pasta samples. The addition of barley flour into pasta at incorporation levels of 30, 50 and 100% increased phenolic acids and total phenolics content. Pasta processing did not significantly affect the total phenolics content and free radical scavenging capacity, but a significant reduction in total phenolic acids measured by HPLC was found. Drying process differently affected individual phenolic compounds in the free and bound fractions, and thus, the total phenolic acids content. Free vanillic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids did not significantly change, while p-hydroxybenzoic and ferulic acids of the free extracts showed higher values compared to the corresponding fresh pasta. Cooking did not greatly affect total phenolic acids, more leading to conserving free and bound phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenolic acids inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end products in food simulation systems depending on their reducing powers and structures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hengye; Virk, Muhammad Safiullah; Chen, Fusheng

    2016-06-01

    The concentration of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in foods, which are formed by Maillard reaction, has demonstrated as risk factors associated with many chronic diseases. The AGEs inhibitory activities of five common phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, dihydroferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and salicylic acid) with different chemical properties had been investigated in two food simulation systems (glucose-bovine serum albumin (BSA) and oleic acid-BSA). The results substantiated that the AGEs inhibitory abilities of phenolic acids in the oleic acid BSA system were much better than the glucose-BSA system for their strong reducing powers and structures. Among them, dihydrogenferulic acid showed strong inhibition of AGEs formation in oleic acid-BSA system at 0.01 mg/mL compared to nonsignificant AGEs inhibitory effect in oleic acid-BSA system at 10-fold higher concentration (0.1 mg/mL). This study suggests that edible plants rich in phenolic acids may be used as AGEs inhibitor during high-fat cooking.

  15. Combination of essential oil compounds and phenolic acids against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in vitro and in dry-fermented sausage production.

    PubMed

    Meira, Natan V B; Holley, Richard A; Bordin, Keliani; Macedo, Renata E F de; Luciano, Fernando B

    2017-11-02

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. The low dose of infection and severity of the disease represent a concern to public health. Natural compounds have been widely applied as food additives to replace synthetic preservatives. The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of essential oil compounds (EOCs) in combination with phenolic acids (PA) in vitro and in dry-fermented sausage production. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Fractional Inhibitory Concentration index (FIC index ) were determined for a 5-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7. Batches of sausage tainted with E. coli O157:H7 were produced using Pediococcus pentosaceus UM 116P and Staphylococcus carnosus UM 123M as starter cultures. The best combination of EOCs and PAs found in vitro was used as an additive. Chemical-physical and microbiological analyses were evaluated weekly from day 0 to 35 after production. Sensory evaluation (texture, odor, flavor, appearance and overall evaluation) of E. coli-free sausages was conducted using a 9-point hedonic scale with 56 untrained volunteers. The MIC values of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), carvacrol (CAR), ferulic acid (FA), o-coumaric acid (CA) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (AHB) were, respectively, 0.25; 1.3; 5.12; 18.27; and 37mM. AITC combined with CA had a synergistic effect (FIC index =0.25) and together they were applied in the production of dry fermented sausage at concentrations of 10× FIC and 20× FIC. A w had no significant difference among treatments, whereas the pH of 10× FIC and 20× FIC were higher than the control. E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by >5logCFU/g with 20× FIC after 21d, and by 2.8logCFU/g with 10× FIC after 35d. Sensory analysis showed that the combination of AITC and ο-coumaric acid in both treatments presented lower scores in the 5 categories when compared to the control, but none of the parameters received a negative score. This study

  16. Performances of CN-columns for the analysis of γ-oryzanol and its p-coumarate and caffeate derivatives by normal phase HPLC and a validated method of quantitation.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, Michele

    2013-06-15

    γ-Oryzanol is an important phytochemical used in pharmaceutical, alimentary and cosmetic preparations. The present article, for the first time, discloses the performances of NP-HPLC in separating γ-oryzanol components and develops a validated method for its routine quantification. The analysis is performed on a cyanopropyl bonded column using the hexane/MTBE gradient elution and UV detection at 325 nm. The method allows: the separation of steryl ferulate, p-coumarate and caffeate esters, the separation of cis- from trans-ferulate isomers, the splitting of steroid moieties into saturated and unsaturated at the side chain. The optimised method provides excellent linear response (R(2)=0.99997), high precision (RSD<1.0%) and satisfactory accuracy (R(∗)=70-86%). In conclusion, the established method presents the details of the procedure and the experimental conditions in order to achieve the required precision and instrumental accuracy. The method is fast and sensitive and it could be a suitable tool for quality assurance and determination of origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy and tolerability of intravenous morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) in women undergoing cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Andziak, Marta; Beta, Jarosław; Barwijuk, Michal; Issat, Tadeusz; Jakimiuk, Artur J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate analgesic efficacy and tolerability of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with intravenous morphine. Our observational study included 50 women who underwent a Misgav-Ladach or modified Misgav-Ladach cesarean section. Automated PCA infusion device (Medima S-PCA Syringe Pump, Medima, Krakow, Poland) was used for postoperative pain control. Time of morphine administration or initiation of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) with morphine was recorded, as well as post-operative pain at rest assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS). All patients were followed up for 24 hours after discharge from the operating room, taking into account patient records, worst pain score at rest, number of IV PCA attempts, and drug consumption. Median of total morphine doses used during the postoperative period was 42.9mg (IQR 35.6-48.5), with median infusion time of 687.0 min. (IQR 531.0-757.5). Pain severity and total drug consumption improved after the first 3 hours following cesarean delivery (p < 0.01). Mean number of PCA attempts per patient was 33 (IQR: 24-37), with median of 11 placebo attempts (IQR: 3-27). Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine is an efficient and acceptable analgesic method in women undergoing cesarean section.

  18. [13C]-Specific labeling of 8-2' linked (-)-cis-blechnic, (-)-trans-blechnic and (-)-brainic acids in the fern Blechnum spicant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davin, Laurence B.; Wang, Chang-Zeng; Helms, Gregory L.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2003-01-01

    In vivo administration experiments using stable (13C) and radio (14C) labeled precursors established that the optically active 8-2' linked lignans, (-)-cis-blechnic, (-)-trans-blechnic and (-)-trans-brainic acids, were directly derived from L-phenylalanine, cinnamate, and p-coumarate but not either from tyrosine or acetate. The radiochemical time course data suggest that the initial coupling product is (-)-cis-blechnic acid, which is then apparently converted into both (-)-trans-blechnic and (-)-trans-brainic acids in vivo. These findings provide additional evidence for vascular plant proteins engendering distinct but specific phenolic radical-radical coupling modes, i.e., for full control over phenylpropanoid coupling in vivo, whether stereoselective or regiospecific.

  19. Regulation of 4CL, encoding 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase, expression in kenaf under diverse stress conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We cloned the full length 4CL ortholog encoding 4-coumarate: coenzymeA ligase from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabiuns) using degenerate primers and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) systems. The 4CL is a key regulatory enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway that regulates the activation of cinnamic ac...

  20. Algorithms for accelerated convergence of adaptive PCA.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, C; Kang, Z; Roychowdhury, V P

    2000-01-01

    We derive and discuss new adaptive algorithms for principal component analysis (PCA) that are shown to converge faster than the traditional PCA algorithms due to Oja, Sanger, and Xu. It is well known that traditional PCA algorithms that are derived by using gradient descent on an objective function are slow to converge. Furthermore, the convergence of these algorithms depends on appropriate choices of the gain sequences. Since online applications demand faster convergence and an automatic selection of gains, we present new adaptive algorithms to solve these problems. We first present an unconstrained objective function, which can be minimized to obtain the principal components. We derive adaptive algorithms from this objective function by using: 1) gradient descent; 2) steepest descent; 3) conjugate direction; and 4) Newton-Raphson methods. Although gradient descent produces Xu's LMSER algorithm, the steepest descent, conjugate direction, and Newton-Raphson methods produce new adaptive algorithms for PCA. We also provide a discussion on the landscape of the objective function, and present a global convergence proof of the adaptive gradient descent PCA algorithm using stochastic approximation theory. Extensive experiments with stationary and nonstationary multidimensional Gaussian sequences show faster convergence of the new algorithms over the traditional gradient descent methods.We also compare the steepest descent adaptive algorithm with state-of-the-art methods on stationary and nonstationary sequences.

  1. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  2. Unravelling the reduction pathway as alternative metabolic route to hydroxycinnamate decarboxylation in Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Santamaría, Laura; Reverón, Inés; López de Felipe, Félix; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario

    2018-05-18

    Lactobacillus plantarum is the lactic acid bacterial species most frequently found in plant-food fermentations where hydroxycinnamic acids are abundant. L. plantarum efficiently decarboxylates these compounds, and also reduces them, yielding substituted phenylpropionic acids. Although the reduction step is known to be induced by a hydroxycinnamic acid, the enzymatic machinery responsible for this reduction pathway has not been yet identified and characterized. A previous study on the transcriptomic response of L. plantarum to p -coumaric acid revealed a marked induction of two contiguous genes lp_1424 and lp_1425, encoding putative reductases. In this work, disruption of these genes abolished the hydroxycinnamate reductase activity of L. plantarum, supporting their involvement in such chemical activity. Functional in vitro studies reveal that Lp_1425 (HcrB) exhibits hydroxycinnamate reductase activity but was unstable in solution. In contrast, Lp_1424 (HcrA) was inactive but showed high stability. When the hcrAB genes were co-overexpressed, formation of an active heterodimer (HcrAB) was observed. Since L. plantarum reductase activity was only observed on hydroxycinnamic acids ( o -coumaric, m -coumaric, p -coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, and sinapic acids), the presence of a hydroxyl group substituent on the benzene ring appears to be required for activity. In addition, hydroxycinnamate reductase activity was not widely present among lactic acid bacteria, and it was associated to the presence of hcrAB genes. This study revealed that L. plantarum hydroxycinnamate reductase is a heterodimeric NADH-dependent coumarate reductase acting on a carbon-carbon double bond. IMPORTANCE Lactobacillus plantarum is a bacterial species frequently found in the fermentation of vegetables where hydroxycinnamic acids are present. The bacterial metabolism on these compounds during fermentation plays a fundamental role on the biological activity of hydroxycinnamates. L. plantarum strains

  3. [Studies on chemical constituents from stems and leaves of Jasminum lanceolarium].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia-ming; Yang, Jun-shan; Zhang, Hui

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents in stem and leaves of Jasminum lanceolarium. The constituents of the EtOAc-soluble portion of the 95% ethanol extractive were isolated and purified by means of column chromatographic methods. Compounds were identified by their physical characteristics and spectral features. Eight compounds were isolated and identified as 5, 7, 3', 5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone (1), (2S)-5, 7, 3', 4'-tetrahydroxyflavan-5-O-beta-D-glucopyranosie (2), mannitol (3), nonacosane (4), trans-p-coumaric acid (5), cis-p-coumaric acid (6), ferulic acid (7) and, trans-cinnamic acid (8). Compounds 14 were isolated from this genus for the first time. And compounds 5 and 6 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  4. Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) significantly improve prostate cancer detection at initial biopsy in a total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Matteo; Bruzzese, Dario; Perdonà, Sisto; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Musi, Gennaro; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Chun, Felix K; Terracciano, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA) overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa) at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC) of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA) were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77) was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76) and PCA3 (0.73) with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247). These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60), % fPSA (AUC = 0.62) and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63). At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume) increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS) compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (p<0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, both phi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2-10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA.

  5. Harnessing genetic diversity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fermentation of xylose in hydrolysates of alkaline hydrogen peroxide-pretreated biomass.

    PubMed

    Sato, Trey K; Liu, Tongjun; Parreiras, Lucas S; Williams, Daniel L; Wohlbach, Dana J; Bice, Benjamin D; Ong, Irene M; Breuer, Rebecca J; Qin, Li; Busalacchi, Donald; Deshpande, Shweta; Daum, Chris; Gasch, Audrey P; Hodge, David B

    2014-01-01

    The fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars, particularly xylose, into ethanol by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known to be inhibited by compounds produced during feedstock pretreatment. We devised a strategy that combined chemical profiling of pretreated feedstocks, high-throughput phenotyping of genetically diverse S. cerevisiae strains isolated from a range of ecological niches, and directed engineering and evolution against identified inhibitors to produce strains with improved fermentation properties. We identified and quantified for the first time the major inhibitory compounds in alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP)-pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates, including Na(+), acetate, and p-coumaric (pCA) and ferulic (FA) acids. By phenotyping these yeast strains for their abilities to grow in the presence of these AHP inhibitors, one heterozygous diploid strain tolerant to all four inhibitors was selected, engineered for xylose metabolism, and then allowed to evolve on xylose with increasing amounts of pCA and FA. After only 149 generations, one evolved isolate, GLBRCY87, exhibited faster xylose uptake rates in both laboratory media and AHP switchgrass hydrolysate than its ancestral GLBRCY73 strain and completely converted 115 g/liter of total sugars in undetoxified AHP hydrolysate into more than 40 g/liter ethanol. Strikingly, genome sequencing revealed that during the evolution from GLBRCY73, the GLBRCY87 strain acquired the conversion of heterozygous to homozygous alleles in chromosome VII and amplification of chromosome XIV. Our approach highlights that simultaneous selection on xylose and pCA or FA with a wild S. cerevisiae strain containing inherent tolerance to AHP pretreatment inhibitors has potential for rapid evolution of robust properties in lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  6. SU-F-R-41: Regularized PCA Can Model Treatment-Related Changes in Head and Neck Patients Using Daily CBCTs

    SciTech Connect

    Chetvertkov, M; Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI; Siddiqui, F

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To use daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) to develop regularized principal component analysis (PCA) models of anatomical changes in head and neck (H&N) patients, to guide replanning decisions in adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Methods: Known deformations were applied to planning CT (pCT) images of 10 H&N patients to model several different systematic anatomical changes. A Pinnacle plugin was used to interpolate systematic changes over 35 fractions, generating a set of 35 synthetic CTs for each patient. Deformation vector fields (DVFs) were acquired between the pCT and synthetic CTs and random fraction-to-fraction changes were superimposed on the DVFs. Standard non-regularizedmore » and regularized patient-specific PCA models were built using the DVFs. The ability of PCA to extract the known deformations was quantified. PCA models were also generated from clinical CBCTs, for which the deformations and DVFs were not known. It was hypothesized that resulting eigenvectors/eigenfunctions with largest eigenvalues represent the major anatomical deformations during the course of treatment. Results: As demonstrated with quantitative results in the supporting document regularized PCA is more successful than standard PCA at capturing systematic changes early in the treatment. Regularized PCA is able to detect smaller systematic changes against the background of random fraction-to-fraction changes. To be successful at guiding ART, regularized PCA should be coupled with models of when anatomical changes occur: early, late or throughout the treatment course. Conclusion: The leading eigenvector/eigenfunction from the both PCA approaches can tentatively be identified as a major systematic change during radiotherapy course when systematic changes are large enough with respect to random fraction-to-fraction changes. In all cases the regularized PCA approach appears to be more reliable at capturing systematic changes, enabling dosimetric consequences to be projected once trends

  7. Assessment of chemical and sensory quality of sugarcane alcoholic fermented beverage.

    PubMed

    Resende Oliveira, Érica; Caliari, Márcio; Soares Soares Júnior, Manoel; Ribeiro Oliveira, Aryane; Cristina Marques Duarte, Renata; Valério de Barros Vilas Boas, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the technological feasibility, chemical quality and sensory acceptance of alcoholic fermented beverage obtained from sugarcane juice. A completely randomized design was applied. Sugar and alcohol content, phenolic (HPLC-MS) and volatile (GS-MS) compounds, pH, density, dry matter and acidity of the fermented beverage of sugarcane were quantified, as well as the acceptance of the product was carried out. The complete fermentation of sugarcane lasted 7 days, and it was obtained an alcohol content of 8.0% v/v. Titrable acidity of the beverage was of 67.31 meq L -1 , pH 4.03, soluble solids of 5 °Brix, reducing sugar of 0.07 g glucose 100 g -1 , density of 0.991 g cm -3 , reduced dry matter of 14.15 g L -1 , sulfates lower than 0.7 g K 2 SO 4  L -1 . Various phenolic compounds, among which, gallic acid (10.97%), catechin (1.73%), chlorogenic acid (3.52%), caffeic acid (1.49%), vanillic acid (0.28%), p -coumaric acid (0.24%), ferulic acid (6.63%), m -coumaric acid (0.36%), and o -coumaric acid (0.04%). Amongst aromatic compounds, were found mainly esters with fruity aromas (ethyl ester hexanoic acid and ethyl ester octanoic acid). The sugarcane juice can be commercialized as an alternative wine, as it presented adequate features to an alcoholic fermented beverage and was sensory accepted by consumers.

  8. Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) Significantly Improve Prostate Cancer Detection at Initial Biopsy in a Total PSA Range of 2–10 ng/ml

    PubMed Central

    Perdonà, Sisto; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; D’Esposito, Vittoria; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Musi, Gennaro; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Chun, Felix K.; Terracciano, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA) overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa) at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2–10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC) of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA) were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77) was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76) and PCA3 (0.73) with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247). These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60), % fPSA (AUC = 0.62) and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63). At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume) increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS) compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (p<0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, both phi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2–10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA. PMID:23861782

  9. Valproic acid (VPA) inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in prostate carcinoma via the dual suppression of SMAD4.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xiaopeng; Lu, Guoliang; Yuan, Chuanwei; Mao, Shaowei; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Yougen; Jin, Xunbo; Xia, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in cancer metastasis. Previous studies have reported that valproic acid (VPA) suppresses prostate carcinoma (PCa) cell metastasis and down-regulates SMAD4 protein levels, which is the key molecule in TGF-β-induced EMT. However, the correlation between VPA and the EMT in PCa remains uncertain. Markers of the EMT in PCa cells and xenografts were molecularly assessed after VPA treatment. The expression and mono-ubiquitination of SMAD4 were also analyzed. After transfection with plasmids that express SMAD4 or short hairpin RNA for SMAD4 down-regulation, markers of EMT were examined to confirm whether VPA inhibits the EMT of PCa cells through the suppression of SMAD4. VPA induced the increase in E-cadherin (p < 0.05), and the decrease in N-cadherin (p < 0.05) and Vimentin (p < 0.05), in PCa cells and xenografts. SMAD4 mRNA and protein levels were repressed by VPA (p < 0.05), whereas the level of mono-ubiquitinated SMAD4 was increased (p < 0.05). SMAD4 knockdown significantly increased E-cadherin expression in PC3 cells, but SMAD4 over-expression abolished the VPA-mediated EMT-inhibitory effect. VPA inhibits the EMT in PCa cells via the inhibition of SMAD4 expression and the mono-ubiquitination of SMAD4. VPA could serve as a promising agent in PCa treatment, with new strategies based on its diverse effects on posttranscriptional regulation.

  10. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Screening and New Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer (PCa)

    PubMed Central

    Rittenhouse, Harry; Hu, Xinhai; Cammann, Henning; Jung, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Abstract PSA screening reduces PCa-mortality but the disadvantages overdiagnosis and overtreatment require multivariable risk-prediction tools to select appropriate treatment or active surveillance. This review explains the differences between the two largest screening trials and discusses the drawbacks of screening and its meta-analysisxs. The current American and European screening strategies are described. Nonetheless, PSA is one of the most widely used tumor markers and strongly correlates with the risk of harboring PCa. However, while PSA has limitations for PCa detection with its low specificity there are several potential biomarkers presented in this review with utility for PCa currently being studied. There is an urgent need for new biomarkers especially to detect clinically significant and aggressive PCa. From all PSA-based markers, the FDA-approved prostate health index (phi) shows improved specificity over percent free and total PSA. Another kallikrein panel, 4K, which includes KLK2 has recently shown promise in clinical research studies but has not yet undergone formal validation studies. In urine, prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) has also been validated and approved by the FDA for its utility to detect PCa. The potential correlation of PCA3 with cancer aggressiveness requires more clinical studies. The detection of the fusion of androgen-regulated genes with genes of the regulatory transcription factors in tissue of ~50% of all PCa-patients is a milestone in PCa research. A combination of the urinary assays for TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion and PCA3 shows an improved accuracy for PCa detection. Overall, the field of PCa biomarker discovery is very exciting and prospective. PMID:27683457

  11. Sparse PCA with Oracle Property.

    PubMed

    Gu, Quanquan; Wang, Zhaoran; Liu, Han

    In this paper, we study the estimation of the k -dimensional sparse principal subspace of covariance matrix Σ in the high-dimensional setting. We aim to recover the oracle principal subspace solution, i.e., the principal subspace estimator obtained assuming the true support is known a priori. To this end, we propose a family of estimators based on the semidefinite relaxation of sparse PCA with novel regularizations. In particular, under a weak assumption on the magnitude of the population projection matrix, one estimator within this family exactly recovers the true support with high probability, has exact rank- k , and attains a [Formula: see text] statistical rate of convergence with s being the subspace sparsity level and n the sample size. Compared to existing support recovery results for sparse PCA, our approach does not hinge on the spiked covariance model or the limited correlation condition. As a complement to the first estimator that enjoys the oracle property, we prove that, another estimator within the family achieves a sharper statistical rate of convergence than the standard semidefinite relaxation of sparse PCA, even when the previous assumption on the magnitude of the projection matrix is violated. We validate the theoretical results by numerical experiments on synthetic datasets.

  12. Sparse PCA with Oracle Property

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Quanquan; Wang, Zhaoran; Liu, Han

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the estimation of the k-dimensional sparse principal subspace of covariance matrix Σ in the high-dimensional setting. We aim to recover the oracle principal subspace solution, i.e., the principal subspace estimator obtained assuming the true support is known a priori. To this end, we propose a family of estimators based on the semidefinite relaxation of sparse PCA with novel regularizations. In particular, under a weak assumption on the magnitude of the population projection matrix, one estimator within this family exactly recovers the true support with high probability, has exact rank-k, and attains a s/n statistical rate of convergence with s being the subspace sparsity level and n the sample size. Compared to existing support recovery results for sparse PCA, our approach does not hinge on the spiked covariance model or the limited correlation condition. As a complement to the first estimator that enjoys the oracle property, we prove that, another estimator within the family achieves a sharper statistical rate of convergence than the standard semidefinite relaxation of sparse PCA, even when the previous assumption on the magnitude of the projection matrix is violated. We validate the theoretical results by numerical experiments on synthetic datasets. PMID:25684971

  13. [An improved low spectral distortion PCA fusion method].

    PubMed

    Peng, Shi; Zhang, Ai-Wu; Li, Han-Lun; Hu, Shao-Xing; Meng, Xian-Gang; Sun, Wei-Dong

    2013-10-01

    Aiming at the spectral distortion produced in PCA fusion process, the present paper proposes an improved low spectral distortion PCA fusion method. This method uses NCUT (normalized cut) image segmentation algorithm to make a complex hyperspectral remote sensing image into multiple sub-images for increasing the separability of samples, which can weaken the spectral distortions of traditional PCA fusion; Pixels similarity weighting matrix and masks were produced by using graph theory and clustering theory. These masks are used to cut the hyperspectral image and high-resolution image into some sub-region objects. All corresponding sub-region objects between the hyperspectral image and high-resolution image are fused by using PCA method, and all sub-regional integration results are spliced together to produce a new image. In the experiment, Hyperion hyperspectral data and Rapid Eye data were used. And the experiment result shows that the proposed method has the same ability to enhance spatial resolution and greater ability to improve spectral fidelity performance.

  14. Innovative Comparison of Transient Ignition Temperature at the Booster Interface, New Stainless Steel Pyrovalve Primer Chamber Assembly "V" (PCA) Design Versus the Current Aluminum "Y" PCA Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulsberry, Regor L.; McDougle, Stephen H.; Garcia,Roberto; Johnson, Kenneth L.; Sipes, William; Rickman, Steven; Hosangadi, Ashvin

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of four spacecraft pyrovalve anomalies that occurred during ground testing was conducted by the NASA Engineering & Safety Center (NESC) in 2008. In all four cases, a common aluminum (Al) primer chamber assembly (PCA) was used with dual NASA Standard Initiators (NSIs) and the nearly simultaneous (separated by less than 80 microseconds) firing of both initiators failed to ignite the booster charge. The results of the assessment and associated test program were reported in AIAA Paper AIAA-2008-4798, NESC Independent Assessment of Pyrovalve Ground Test Anomalies. As a result of the four Al PCA anomalies, and the test results and findings of the NESC assessment, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) project team decided to make changes to the PCA. The material for the PCA body was changed from aluminum (Al) to stainless steel (SS) to avoid melting, distortion, and potential leakage of the NSI flow passages when the device functioned. The flow passages, which were interconnected in a Y-shaped configuration (Y-PCA) in the original design, were changed to a V-shaped configuration (V-PCA). The V-shape was used to more efficiently transfer energy from the NSIs to the booster. Development and qualification testing of the new design clearly demonstrated faster booster ignition times compared to the legacy AL Y-PCA design. However, the final NESC assessment report recommended that the SS V-PCA be experimentally characterized and quantitatively compared to the Al Y-PCA design. This data was deemed important for properly evaluating the design options for future NASA projects. This test program has successfully quantified the improvement of the SS V-PCA over the Al Y-PCA. A phase B of the project was also conducted and evaluated the effect of firing command skew and enlargement of flame channels to further assist spacecraft applications.

  15. Acid loading test (pH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the kidneys to send ...

  16. Bound phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of whole grain and bran of white, red and black rice.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yuehan; Ahmed, Sulaiman; Xu, Yanjie; Beta, Trust; Zhu, Zhiwei; Shao, Yafang; Bao, Jinsong

    2018-02-01

    Total phenolic content (TPC), individual phenolic acid and antioxidant capacity of whole grain and bran fraction 18 rices with different bran color were investigated. The levels of TPC in bound fractions were significantly higher than those in the free fractions either in the whole grains or brans. The main bound phenolic acids in white rice samples were ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and isoferulic acid, and in pigmented rice samples were ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and vanillic acid. The protocatechuic acid and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid were not detected in white samples. The content of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid had significantly positive correlations with TPC and antioxidant capacity. This study found much wider diversity in the phenolics and antioxidant capacity in the whole grain and brans of rice, and will provide new opportunities to further improvement of rice with enhanced levels of the phytochemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical Significance of Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta Promoter Methylation in Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dou, MengMeng; Zhou, XueLiang; Fan, ZhiRui; Ding, XianFei; Li, LiFeng; Wang, ShuLing; Xue, Wenhua; Wang, Hui; Suo, Zhenhe; Deng, XiaoMing

    2018-01-01

    Retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta) is a retinoic acid receptor gene that has been shown to play key roles during multiple cancer processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Numerous studies have found that methylation of the RAR beta promoter contributed to the occurrence and development of malignant tumors. However, the connection between RAR beta promoter methylation and prostate cancer (PCa) remains unknown. This meta-analysis evaluated the clinical significance of RAR beta promoter methylation in PCa. We searched all published records relevant to RAR beta and PCa in a series of databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science and CNKI. The rates of RAR beta promoter methylation in the PCa and control groups (including benign prostatic hyperplasia and normal prostate tissues) were summarized. In addition, we evaluated the source region of available samples and the methods used to detect methylation. To compare the incidence and variation in RAR beta promoter methylation in PCa and non-PCa tissues, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated accordingly. All the data were analyzed with the statistical software STATA 12.0. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 articles assessing 1,339 samples were further analyzed. These data showed that the RAR beta promoter methylation rates in PCa tissues were significantly higher than the rates in the non-PCa group (OR=21.65, 95% CI: 9.27-50.57). Subgroup analysis according to the source region of samples showed that heterogeneity in Asia was small (I2=0.0%, P=0.430). Additional subgroup analysis based on the method used to detect RAR beta promoter methylation showed that the heterogeneity detected by MSP (methylation-specific PCR) was relatively small (I2=11.3%, P=0.343). Although studies reported different rates for RAR beta promoter methylation in PCa tissues, the total analysis demonstrated that RAR beta promoter methylation

  18. Protective effects of chlorogenic acid in 3-nitropropionic acid induced toxicity and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Alarcón-Herrera, Norberto; Flores-Maya, Saúl; Bellido, Belén; García-Bores, Ana M; Mendoza, Ernesto; Ávila-Acevedo, Guillermo; Hernández-Echeagaray, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Mitochondrial inhibition with the toxin 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) has been used to study the underlying mechanisms in striatal neurodegeneration, but few experiments have evaluated its toxicity and genotoxicity of in vivo administration. Furthermore, different antioxidant molecules may prevent degeneration induced by the toxic effects of 3-NP. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity and genotoxicity induced by 3-NP (15 mg/kg) in the micronuclei assay method; also, we assessed chlorogenic acid (CGA, 100 mg/kg) for its anti-toxic and anti-genotoxic effect in damage produced by in vivo treatment with 3-NP. 3-NP induced toxicity and genotoxicity. CGA administered as a co-treatment with 3-NP (3-NP + CA) reduced toxicity by 32.76%, as a pre-treatment for 5 days only, followed by 3-NP treatment (P/CA, 3-NP) inhibiting toxicity by 24.04%, or as a pre-treatment, plus a co-treatment with 3-NP (P/CA, 3-NP + CA) avoided any toxic effect. CGA alone did not exhibit any toxic effect. Only P/CGA, 3-NP + CGA group, avoided toxicity and genotoxicity, suggesting that CGA could be suitable to prevent, reduce or delay toxicity and cell death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antiproliferative activities and phenolic acid content of water and ethanolic extracts of the powdered formula of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. fermented broth and Phyllanthus emblica Linn. fruit.

    PubMed

    Kumnerdkhonkaen, Piyawan; Saenglee, Somprasong; Asgar, Md Ali; Senawong, Gulsiri; Khongsukwiwat, Kanoknan; Senawong, Thanaset

    2018-04-11

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb. and Phyllanthus emblica Linn. are native plants with medicinal and nutritive significance in Asia. The present study was aimed at evaluating antiproliferative effects on human cancer cell lines and identifying the phenolic acid composition of water and ethanolic extracts of the powdered formula of H. cordata fermented broth and P. emblica fruit. Anticancer activity of the extracts was evaluated against HeLa, HT29, HCT116, MCF7 and Jurkat cells using an MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis of apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest. Reverse phase HPLC was exploited for identification and quantification of some phenolic acids. MTT assay showed that both water and ethanolic extracts significantly decreased the viability of cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Based on the IC 50 values, ethanolic extract (IC 50 values = 0.12-0.65 mg/mL) was more cytotoxic than water extract (IC 50 values = 0.22-0.85 mg/mL) and Jurkat cells were the most sensitive to both extracts (IC 50 values = 0.12-0.69 mg/mL). The underlying mechanism for antiproliferative activity was apoptosis induction, especially in HT29, HCT116, MCF7 and Jurkat cells. HT29 cells were the most sensitive to extract-induced apoptosis. Ethanolic extract was more effective at inducing apoptosis than water extract. Moreover, cell cycle arrest was found to be another mechanism behind growth inhibition in Jurkat and HCT116 cells. However, these extracts were relatively less toxic to non-cancer Vero cells. HPLC analysis demonstrated that the powder mix extracts contained seven identified phenolic acids namely gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapinic acids, where p-coumaric acid was detected in the highest concentration followed by ferulic acid. Overall, the results of this study suggest the powdered formula of H. cordata fermented broth and P. emblica fruit as an alternative medicine for cancer prevention and treatment.

  20. Final Report for Contract N00014-91-J-1815 (University of California, Santa Cruz)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-10

    p-(sulfooxy) cinnamic acid , sulfate esters, phenolic acids . Running Title -- Antifouling Activity of Phenolic Acid Sulfates Revision submitted to...Phytochemistrv: 12 January 1993 1 Abstract -- R-(Sulfooxy) cinnamic acid was isolated as a natural product for the first time from the seagrass Zostera...Here we report the first isolation of naturally occurring p- (sulfooxy) cinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid sulfate, 1), and compare its antifouling

  1. Antioxidant properties of ferulic acid and its related compounds.

    PubMed

    Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Hisamoto, Masashi; Hirose, Kanae; Akiyama, Kayo; Taniguchi, Hisaji

    2002-03-27

    Antioxidant activity of 24 ferulic acid related compounds together with 6 gallic acid related compounds was evaluated using several different physical systems as well as their radical scavenging activity. The radical scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) decreased in the order caffeic acid > sinapic acid > ferulic acid > ferulic acid esters > p-coumaric acid. In bulk methyl linoleate, test hydroxycinnamic acids and ferulic acid esters showed antioxidant activity in parallel with their radical scavenging activity. In an ethanol-buffer solution of linoleic acid, the activity of test compounds was not always associated with their radical scavenging activity. Ferulic acid was most effective among the tested phenolic acids. Esterification of ferulic acid resulted in increasing activity. The activity of alkyl ferulates was somewhat influenced by the chain length of alcohol moiety. When the inhibitory effects of alkyl ferulates against oxidation of liposome induced by AAPH were tested, hexyl, octyl, and 2-ethyl-1-hexyl ferulates were more active than the other alkyl ferulates. Furthermore, lauryl gallate is most effective among the tested alkyl gallates. These results indicated that not only the radical scavenging activity of antioxidants, but also their affinity with lipid substrates, might be important factors in their activity.

  2. Production of Monomeric Aromatic Compounds from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Lignin by Chemical and Enzymatic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Pei-Ling; Hassan, Osman; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof; Badri, Khairiah

    2015-01-01

    In this study, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFBF) was pretreated with alkali, and lignin was extracted for further degradation into lower molecular weight phenolic compounds using enzymes and chemical means. Efficiency of monomeric aromatic compounds production from OPEFBF lignin via chemical (nitrobenzene versus oxygen) and enzymatic [cutinase versus manganese peroxidase (MnP)] approaches was investigated. The effects of sodium hydroxide concentration (2, 5, and 10% wt.) and reaction time (30, 90, and 180 minutes) on the yield of aromatic compounds were studied. The results obtained indicated that nitrobenzene oxidation produced the highest yield (333.17 ± 49.44 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 5.67 ± 0.25 ppm p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 25.57 ± 1.64 ppm vanillic acid, 168.68 ± 23.23 ppm vanillin, 75.44 ± 6.71 ppm syringic acid, 815.26 ± 41.77 ppm syringaldehyde, 15.21 ± 2.19 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 44.75 ± 3.40 ppm ferulic acid), among the tested methods. High sodium hydroxide concentration (10% wt.) was needed to promote efficient nitrobenzene oxidation. However, less severe oxidation condition was preferred to preserve the hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid). Cutinase-catalyzed hydrolysis was found to be more efficient than MnP-catalyzed oxidation in the production of aromatic compounds. By hydrolyzed 8% wt. of lignin with 0.625 mL cutinase g−1 lignin at pH 8 and 55°C for 24 hours, about 642.83 ± 14.45 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 70.19 ± 3.31 ppm syringaldehyde, 22.80 ± 1.04 ppm vanillin, 27.06 ± 1.20 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 50.19 ± 2.23 ppm ferulic acid were produced. PMID:26798644

  3. Production of Monomeric Aromatic Compounds from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Lignin by Chemical and Enzymatic Methods.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pei-Ling; Hassan, Osman; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof; Badri, Khairiah

    2015-01-01

    In this study, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFBF) was pretreated with alkali, and lignin was extracted for further degradation into lower molecular weight phenolic compounds using enzymes and chemical means. Efficiency of monomeric aromatic compounds production from OPEFBF lignin via chemical (nitrobenzene versus oxygen) and enzymatic [cutinase versus manganese peroxidase (MnP)] approaches was investigated. The effects of sodium hydroxide concentration (2, 5, and 10% wt.) and reaction time (30, 90, and 180 minutes) on the yield of aromatic compounds were studied. The results obtained indicated that nitrobenzene oxidation produced the highest yield (333.17 ± 49.44 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 5.67 ± 0.25 ppm p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 25.57 ± 1.64 ppm vanillic acid, 168.68 ± 23.23 ppm vanillin, 75.44 ± 6.71 ppm syringic acid, 815.26 ± 41.77 ppm syringaldehyde, 15.21 ± 2.19 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 44.75 ± 3.40 ppm ferulic acid), among the tested methods. High sodium hydroxide concentration (10% wt.) was needed to promote efficient nitrobenzene oxidation. However, less severe oxidation condition was preferred to preserve the hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid). Cutinase-catalyzed hydrolysis was found to be more efficient than MnP-catalyzed oxidation in the production of aromatic compounds. By hydrolyzed 8% wt. of lignin with 0.625 mL cutinase g(-1) lignin at pH 8 and 55°C for 24 hours, about 642.83 ± 14.45 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 70.19 ± 3.31 ppm syringaldehyde, 22.80 ± 1.04 ppm vanillin, 27.06 ± 1.20 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 50.19 ± 2.23 ppm ferulic acid were produced.

  4. The components of rice and watermelon root exudates and their effects on pathogenic fungus and watermelon defense.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lixuan; Huo, Hongwei; Zhang, Fang; Hao, Wenya; Xiao, Liang; Dong, Caixia; Xu, Guohua

    2016-06-02

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is susceptible to wilt disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp niveum (FON). Intercropping management of watermelon/aerobic rice (Oryza sativa) alleviates watermelon wilt disease, because some unidentified component(s) in rice root exudates suppress FON sporulation and spore germination. Here, we show that the phenolic acid p-coumaric acid is present in rice root exudates only, and it inhibits FON spore germination and sporulation. We found that exogenously applied p-coumaric acid up-regulated the expression of ClPR3 in roots, as well as increased chitinase activity in leaves. Furthermore, exogenously applied p-coumaric acid increased β-1,3-glucanase activity in watermelon roots. By contrast, we found that ferulic acid was secreted by watermelon roots, but not by rice roots, and that it stimulated spore germination and sporulation of FON. Exogenous application of ferulic acid down-regulated ClPR3 expression and inhibited chitinase activity in watermelon leaves. Salicylic acid was detected in both watermelon and rice root exudates, which stimulated FON spore germination at low concentrations and suppressed spore germination at high concentrations. Exogenously applied salicylic acid did not alter ClPR3 expression, but did increase chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities in watermelon leaves. Together, our results show that the root exudates of phenolic acids were different between rice and watermelon, which lead to their special ecological roles on pathogenic fungus and watermelon defense.

  5. The components of rice and watermelon root exudates and their effects on pathogenic fungus and watermelon defense

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Lixuan; Huo, Hongwei; Zhang, Fang; Hao, Wenya; Xiao, Liang; Dong, Caixia; Xu, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is susceptible to wilt disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp niveum (FON). Intercropping management of watermelon/aerobic rice (Oryza sativa) alleviates watermelon wilt disease, because some unidentified component(s) in rice root exudates suppress FON sporulation and spore germination. Here, we show that the phenolic acid p-coumaric acid is present in rice root exudates only, and it inhibits FON spore germination and sporulation. We found that exogenously applied p-coumaric acid up-regulated the expression of ClPR3 in roots, as well as increased chitinase activity in leaves. Furthermore, exogenously applied p-coumaric acid increased β-1,3-glucanase activity in watermelon roots. By contrast, we found that ferulic acid was secreted by watermelon roots, but not by rice roots, and that it stimulated spore germination and sporulation of FON. Exogenous application of ferulic acid down-regulated ClPR3 expression and inhibited chitinase activity in watermelon leaves. Salicylic acid was detected in both watermelon and rice root exudates, which stimulated FON spore germination at low concentrations and suppressed spore germination at high concentrations. Exogenously applied salicylic acid did not alter ClPR3 expression, but did increase chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities in watermelon leaves. Together, our results show that the root exudates of phenolic acids were different between rice and watermelon, which lead to their special ecological roles on pathogenic fungus and watermelon defense. PMID:27217091

  6. Phenolic acids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, minerals and their correlations in non-pigmented, red, and black rice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yafang; Hu, Zhanqiang; Yu, Yonghong; Mou, Renxiang; Zhu, Zhiwei; Beta, Trust

    2018-01-15

    Soluble-free, soluble-conjugated, insoluble-bound phenolics and antioxidant activity, flavonoid (TFC), proanthocyanidins (TPAC), anthocyanins and minerals of fifteen whole rice grains with different colors were investigated. Soluble-free protocatechuic and vanillic acids were only quantified in black rice, which had the most quantities. Non-pigmented rice had no detectable conjugated protocatechuic and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids both of which were found in black and red rice, respectively. The main bound phenolic acids were ferulic and p-coumaric, as well as 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic in red rice and protocatechuic and vanillic acids in black rice. Soluble-conjugated phenolics, TFC, and anthocyanins were negatively correlated with L ∗ , b ∗ , C and H° values. TPAC was positively correlated with a ∗ (P<0.01). Protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic and ferulic acids were associated with TPC and antioxidant activity in the soluble-conjugated fraction while protocatechuic and ferulic acid were correlated with those in the insoluble-bound fraction. Principal component analysis divided samples into non-pigmented, red and black rice groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid Promotes Bacterial Biofilm Development via Ferrous Iron Acquisition▿†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Wilks, Jessica C.; Danhorn, Thomas; Ramos, Itzel; Croal, Laura; Newman, Dianne K.

    2011-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms, which render it more resistant to antimicrobial agents. Levels of iron in excess of what is required for planktonic growth have been shown to promote biofilm formation, and therapies that interfere with ferric iron [Fe(III)] uptake combined with antibiotics may help treat P. aeruginosa infections. However, use of these therapies presumes that iron is in the Fe(III) state in the context of infection. Here we report the ability of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), a common phenazine made by all phenazine-producing pseudomonads, to help P. aeruginosa alleviate Fe(III) limitation by reducing Fe(III) to ferrous iron [Fe(II)]. In the presence of PCA, a P. aeruginosa mutant lacking the ability to produce the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin can still develop into a biofilm. As has been previously reported (P. K. Singh, M. R. Parsek, E. P. Greenberg, and M. J. Welsh, Nature 417:552-555, 2002), biofilm formation by the wild type is blocked by subinhibitory concentrations of the Fe(III)-binding innate-immunity protein conalbumin, but here we show that this blockage can be rescued by PCA. FeoB, an Fe(II) uptake protein, is required for PCA to enable this rescue. Unlike PCA, the phenazine pyocyanin (PYO) can facilitate biofilm formation via an iron-independent pathway. While siderophore-mediated Fe(III) uptake is undoubtedly important at early stages of infection, these results suggest that at later stages of infection, PCA present in infected tissues may shift the redox equilibrium between Fe(III) and Fe(II), thereby making iron more bioavailable. PMID:21602354

  8. Degradation of hydroxycinnamic acid mixtures in aqueous sucrose solutions by the Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Danny M T; Zhang, Zhanying; Doherty, William O S

    2015-02-11

    The degradation efficiencies and behaviors of caffeic acid (CaA), p-coumaric acid (pCoA), and ferulic acid (FeA) in aqueous sucrose solutions containing the mixture of these hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) were studied by the Fenton oxidation process. Central composite design and multiresponse surface methodology were used to evaluate and optimize the interactive effects of process parameters. Four quadratic polynomial models were developed for the degradation of each individual acid in the mixture and the total HCAs degraded. Sucrose was the most influential parameter that significantly affected the total amount of HCA degraded. Under the conditions studied there was a <0.01% loss of sucrose in all reactions. The optimal values of the process parameters for a 200 mg/L HCA mixture in water (pH 4.73, 25.15 °C) and sucrose solution (13 mass %, pH 5.39, 35.98 °C) were 77% and 57%, respectively. Regression analysis showed goodness of fit between the experimental results and the predicted values. The degradation behavior of CaA differed from those of pCoA and FeA, where further CaA degradation is observed at increasing sucrose and decreasing solution pH. The differences (established using UV/vis and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy) were because, unlike the other acids, CaA formed a complex with Fe(III) or with Fe(III) hydrogen-bonded to sucrose and coprecipitated with lepidocrocite, an iron oxyhydroxide.

  9. Expanding the feruloyl esterase gene family of Aspergillus niger by characterization of a feruloyl esterase, FaeC.

    PubMed

    Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Mäkelä, Miia R; Mansouri, Sadegh; Belova, Olga; Waterstraat, Martin; Bunzel, Mirko; de Vries, Ronald P; Hildén, Kristiina S

    2017-07-25

    A feruloyl esterase (FAE) from Aspergillus niger N402, FaeC was heterologously produced in Pichia pastoris X-33 in a yield of 10mg/L. FaeC was most active at pH 7.0 and 50°C, and showed broad substrate specificity and catalyzed the hydrolysis of methyl 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate, ethyl ferulate, methyl ferulate, methyl p-coumarate, ethyl coumarate, methyl sinapate, and methyl caffeate. The enzyme released both ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid from wheat arabinoxylan and sugar beet pectin (up to 3mg/g polysaccharide), and acted synergistically with a commercial xylanase increasing the release of ferulic acid up to six-fold. The expression of faeC increased over time in the presence of feruloylated polysaccharides. Cinnamic, syringic, caffeic, vanillic and ferulic acid induced the expression of faeC. Overall expression of faeC was very low in all tested conditions, compared to two other A. niger FAE encoding genes, faeA and faeB. Our data showed that the fae genes responded differently towards the feruloylated polysaccharides and tested monomeric phenolic compounds suggesting that the corresponding FAE isoenzymes may target different substrates in a complementary manner. This may increase the efficiency of the degradation of diverse plant biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gas-Chromatographic Determination Of Water In Freon PCA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Donald M.

    1994-01-01

    Gas-chromatographic apparatus measures small concentrations of water in specimens of Freon PCA. Testing by use of apparatus faster and provides greater protection against accidental contamination of specimens by water in testing environment. Automated for unattended operation. Also used to measure water contents of materials, other than Freon PCA. Innovation extended to development of purgeable sampling accessory for gas chromatographs.

  11. Coordinated Regulation of Species-Specific Hydroxycinnamic Acid Degradation and Siderophore Biosynthesis Pathways in Agrobacterium fabrum

    PubMed Central

    Baude, Jessica; Vial, Ludovic; Villard, Camille; Campillo, Tony; Lavire, Céline; Nesme, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rhizosphere-inhabiting species Agrobacterium fabrum (genomospecies G8 of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens species complex) is known to degrade hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs), especially ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, via the novel A. fabrum HCA degradation pathway. Gene expression profiles of A. fabrum strain C58 were investigated in the presence of HCAs, using a C58 whole-genome oligoarray. Both ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid caused variations in the expression of more than 10% of the C58 genes. Genes of the A. fabrum HCA degradation pathway, together with the genes involved in iron acquisition, were among the most highly induced in the presence of HCAs. Two operons coding for the biosynthesis of a particular siderophore, as well as genes of the A. fabrum HCA degradation pathway, have been described as being specific to the species. We demonstrate here their coordinated expression, emphasizing the interdependence between the iron concentration in the growth medium and the rate at which ferulic acid is degraded by cells. The coordinated expression of these functions may be advantageous in HCA-rich but iron-starved environments in which microorganisms have to compete for both iron and carbon sources, such as in plant roots. The present results confirm that there is cooperation between the A. fabrum-specific genes, defining a particular ecological niche. IMPORTANCE We previously identified seven genomic regions in Agrobacterium fabrum that were specifically present in all of the members of this species only. Here we demonstrated that two of these regions, encoding the hydroxycinnamic acid degradation pathway and the iron acquisition pathway, were regulated in a coordinated manner. The coexpression of these functions may be advantageous in hydroxycinnamic acid-rich but iron-starved environments in which microorganisms have to compete for both iron and carbon sources, such as in plant roots. These data support the view that bacterial genomic species

  12. Gabor-based kernel PCA with fractional power polynomial models for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengjun

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents a novel Gabor-based kernel Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method by integrating the Gabor wavelet representation of face images and the kernel PCA method for face recognition. Gabor wavelets first derive desirable facial features characterized by spatial frequency, spatial locality, and orientation selectivity to cope with the variations due to illumination and facial expression changes. The kernel PCA method is then extended to include fractional power polynomial models for enhanced face recognition performance. A fractional power polynomial, however, does not necessarily define a kernel function, as it might not define a positive semidefinite Gram matrix. Note that the sigmoid kernels, one of the three classes of widely used kernel functions (polynomial kernels, Gaussian kernels, and sigmoid kernels), do not actually define a positive semidefinite Gram matrix either. Nevertheless, the sigmoid kernels have been successfully used in practice, such as in building support vector machines. In order to derive real kernel PCA features, we apply only those kernel PCA eigenvectors that are associated with positive eigenvalues. The feasibility of the Gabor-based kernel PCA method with fractional power polynomial models has been successfully tested on both frontal and pose-angled face recognition, using two data sets from the FERET database and the CMU PIE database, respectively. The FERET data set contains 600 frontal face images of 200 subjects, while the PIE data set consists of 680 images across five poses (left and right profiles, left and right half profiles, and frontal view) with two different facial expressions (neutral and smiling) of 68 subjects. The effectiveness of the Gabor-based kernel PCA method with fractional power polynomial models is shown in terms of both absolute performance indices and comparative performance against the PCA method, the kernel PCA method with polynomial kernels, the kernel PCA method with fractional power

  13. PCA as a practical indicator of OPLS-DA model reliability.

    PubMed

    Worley, Bradley; Powers, Robert

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) are powerful statistical modeling tools that provide insights into separations between experimental groups based on high-dimensional spectral measurements from NMR, MS or other analytical instrumentation. However, when used without validation, these tools may lead investigators to statistically unreliable conclusions. This danger is especially real for Partial Least Squares (PLS) and OPLS, which aggressively force separations between experimental groups. As a result, OPLS-DA is often used as an alternative method when PCA fails to expose group separation, but this practice is highly dangerous. Without rigorous validation, OPLS-DA can easily yield statistically unreliable group separation. A Monte Carlo analysis of PCA group separations and OPLS-DA cross-validation metrics was performed on NMR datasets with statistically significant separations in scores-space. A linearly increasing amount of Gaussian noise was added to each data matrix followed by the construction and validation of PCA and OPLS-DA models. With increasing added noise, the PCA scores-space distance between groups rapidly decreased and the OPLS-DA cross-validation statistics simultaneously deteriorated. A decrease in correlation between the estimated loadings (added noise) and the true (original) loadings was also observed. While the validity of the OPLS-DA model diminished with increasing added noise, the group separation in scores-space remained basically unaffected. Supported by the results of Monte Carlo analyses of PCA group separations and OPLS-DA cross-validation metrics, we provide practical guidelines and cross-validatory recommendations for reliable inference from PCA and OPLS-DA models.

  14. Depth Profile of Bacterial Metabolism and PAH Biodegradation in Bioturbated and Unbioturbated Marine Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-25

    angiosperms Cinnamyl p-coumaric acid (pCd), ferulic acid (Fd) Synthesized only in non-woody tissues (leaves, needles) RESULTS Sediment from...dissolved free amino acids (Burdige and Martens 1990) and saturation experiment estimates (Tuominen 1995). One mL syringed samples of wet sediment were... acid (Vd) Synthesized only in vascular plants Ringyl syringealdehyde (Sl), acetosyringone (Sn), syringic acid (Sd) Synthesized only in

  15. [The role of a single PCA3 test before a first negative prostate biopsy: 5-year follow-up].

    PubMed

    Bernardeau, S; Charles, T; Fromont-Hankard, G; Irani, J

    2017-04-01

    We report a 5-year follow-up of a cohort of patients who underwent a first prostate biopsy following a prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) test. We reviewed consecutive patients who had in 2008 a single urinary PCA3 test using the Gen-Probe ® assay before a first prostate biopsy for a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) between 3 and 20ng/mL and/or a suspicious digital rectal examination. PCA3 performances were analyzed in 2008 and then in 2013 after taking into account the results of repeat biopsies. At initial biopsy in 2008, among the 125 patients study cohort, prostate cancer was diagnosed in 47 patients (37.6%). Abnormal digital rectal exam, PSA density, prostate volume and PCA3 score were significantly associated with prostate cancer diagnosis. PCA3 area under the curve of the receiver operating curve was 0.67 [95%CI: 0.57-0.76] with an optimal threshold of PCA3 in this sample of 24 units. During the 5-year follow-up, among the 78 patients with a negative prostate biopsy in 2008, 23 (29.5%) had a repeat prostate biopsy of whom 14 were diagnosed with prostate cancer. PCA3 score measured in 2008 was associated with prostate cancer diagnosis (P=0.002). All 9 patients with a negative repeat prostate biopsy had a PCA3 score below the cut-off while this was the case in only 2 patients among the 14 with a positive repeat prostate biopsy. The results of a single PCA3 test before a first prostate biopsy seems to be a useful aid in deciding whether to perform a repeat biopsy. 4. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Overexpression of PAD1 and FDC1 results in significant cinnamic acid decarboxylase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Richard, Peter; Viljanen, Kaarina; Penttilä, Merja

    2015-01-01

    The S. cerevisiae PAD1 gene had been suggested to code for a cinnamic acid decarboxylase, converting trans-cinnamic acid to styrene. This was suggested for the reason that the over-expression of PAD1 resulted in increased tolerance toward cinnamic acid, up to 0.6 mM. We show that by over-expression of the PAD1 together with the FDC1 the cinnamic acid decarboxylase activity can be increased significantly. The strain over-expressing PAD1 and FDC1 tolerated cinnamic acid concentrations up to 10 mM. The cooperation of Pad1p and Fdc1p is surprising since the PAD1 has a mitochondrial targeting sequence and the FDC1 codes for a cytosolic protein. The cinnamic acid decarboxylase activity was also seen in the cell free extract. The activity was 0.019 μmol per minute and mg of extracted protein. The overexpression of PAD1 and FDC1 resulted also in increased activity with the hydroxycinnamic acids ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and caffeinic acid. This activity was not seen when FDC1 was overexpressed alone. An efficient cinnamic acid decarboxylase is valuable for the genetic engineering of yeast strains producing styrene. Styrene can be produced from endogenously produced L-phenylalanine which is converted by a phenylalanine ammonia lyase to cinnamic acid and then by a decarboxylase to styrene.

  17. In situ SERS spectroelectrochemical analysis of antioxidants deposited on copper substrates: What is the effect of applied potential on sorption behavior?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendisova-Vyskovska, Marcela; Broncova, Gabriela; Clupek, Martin; Prokopec, Vadym; Matejka, Pavel

    2012-12-01

    The detection of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid using a combined in situ electrochemical and surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopic technique in specially made electrode cell is described. New in situ spectroelectrochemical cell was designed as the three-electrode arrangement connected via positioning device to fiber-optic probe of Raman spectrometer Dimension P2 (excitation wavelength 785 nm). In situ SERS spectra of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were recorded at varying applied negative potentials to copper substrates. The spectral intensities and shapes of bands as well as spatial orientation of molecules on the surface depend significantly on varying values of the applied electrode potential. The change of electrode potential influences analyte adsorption/desorption behavior on the surface of copper substrates, affecting the reversibility of the whole process and overall spectral enhancement level. Principal component analysis is used to distinguish several stages of spectral variations on potential changes.

  18. Identification and classification of upper limb motions using PCA.

    PubMed

    Veer, Karan; Vig, Renu

    2018-03-28

    This paper describes the utility of principal component analysis (PCA) in classifying upper limb signals. PCA is a powerful tool for analyzing data of high dimension. Here, two different input strategies were explored. The first method uses upper arm dual-position-based myoelectric signal acquisition and the other solely uses PCA for classifying surface electromyogram (SEMG) signals. SEMG data from the biceps and the triceps brachii muscles and four independent muscle activities of the upper arm were measured in seven subjects (total dataset=56). The datasets used for the analysis are rotated by class-specific principal component matrices to decorrelate the measured data prior to feature extraction.

  19. Iron Release from Soybean Seed Ferritin Induced by Cinnamic Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sha, Xuejiao; Chen, Hai; Zhang, Jingsheng; Zhao, Guanghua

    2018-05-04

    Plant ferritin represents a novel class of iron supplement, which widely co-exists with phenolic acids in a plant diet. However, there are few reports on the effect of these phenolic acids on function of ferritin. In this study, we demonstrated that cinnamic acid derivatives, as widely occurring phenolic acids, can induce iron release from holo soybean seed ferritin (SSF) in a structure-dependent manner. The ability of the iron release from SSF by five cinnamic acids follows the sequence of Cinnamic acid > Chlorogenic acid > Ferulic acid > p -Coumaric acid > Trans -Cinnamic acid. Fluorescence titration in conjunction with dialysis results showed that all of these five compounds have a similar, weak ability to bind with protein, suggesting that their protein-binding ability is not related to their iron release activity. In contrast, both Fe 2+ -chelating activity and reducibility of these cinnamic acid derivatives are in good agreement with their ability to induce iron release from ferritin. These studies indicate that cinnamic acid and its derivatives could have a negative effect on iron stability of holo soybean seed ferritin in diet, and the Fe 2+ -chelating activity and reducibility of cinnamic acid and its derivatives have strong relations to the iron release of soybean seed ferritin.

  20. Gordon Fullerton in PCA (MD-11) Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA research pilot Gordon Fullerton 'flying' in the MD-11 simulator during the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) project. This investigation grew out of the crash of a DC-10 airliner on July 19, 1989, following an explosion in the rear engine which caused the loss of all manual flight controls. The flight crew attempted to control the airliner using only the thrust from the two remaining engines. Although the DC-10 crashed during the landing attempt, 184 of the 296 passengers and crew aboard survived. The PCA effort at the Dryden Flight Research Center grew out of the crash, and attempted to develop a means to successfully land an aircraft using only engine thrust. After more than five years of work, on August 29, 1995, Gordon Fullerton made the first PCA touchdown aboard an MD-11 airliner (a later version of the DC-10). The concept was further refined over the years that followed this first landing. Simulators were essential ingredients of the PCA development process. The feasibility of the concept was first tested with an F-15 simulator, then the results of actual flight tests in an F-15 were incorporated back into the simulator. Additional simulations were run on the Boeing 720 airliner simulator used in the Controlled Impact Demonstration project. After the MD-11 test landings, Boeing 747 and 757 simulators tested a wide range of possible situations. Simulations even helped develop a method of landing an airliner if it lost its complete hydraulic system as well as a wing engine, by transferring fuel to shift the center of gravity toward the working engine. The most extreme procedure was undertaken in a 747 simulator. The aircraft simulated the loss of the hydraulic system at 35,000 feet and rolled upside down. Then, the PCA mode was engaged, the airliner righted itself, leveled its wings, and made an approach nearly identical to that of a normal auto landing.

  1. Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, phytosterol, and tocopherol variations in kernel oil of Malatya apricots from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turan, Semra; Topcu, Ali; Karabulut, Ihsan; Vural, Halil; Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan

    2007-12-26

    The fatty acid, sn-2 fatty acid, triacyglycerol (TAG), tocopherol, and phytosterol compositions of kernel oils obtained from nine apricot varieties grown in the Malatya region of Turkey were determined ( P<0.05). The names of the apricot varieties were Alyanak (ALY), Cataloglu (CAT), Cöloglu (COL), Hacihaliloglu (HAC), Hacikiz (HKI), Hasanbey (HSB), Kabaasi (KAB), Soganci (SOG), and Tokaloglu (TOK). The total oil contents of apricot kernels ranged from 40.23 to 53.19%. Oleic acid contributed 70.83% to the total fatty acids, followed by linoleic (21.96%), palmitic (4.92%), and stearic (1.21%) acids. The s n-2 position is mainly occupied with oleic acid (63.54%), linoleic acid (35.0%), and palmitic acid (0.96%). Eight TAG species were identified: LLL, OLL, PLL, OOL+POL, OOO+POO, and SOO (where P, palmitoyl; S, stearoyl; O, oleoyl; and L, linoleoyl), among which mainly OOO+POO contributed to 48.64% of the total, followed by OOL+POL at 32.63% and OLL at 14.33%. Four tocopherol and six phytosterol isomers were identified and quantified; among these, gamma-tocopherol (475.11 mg/kg of oil) and beta-sitosterol (273.67 mg/100 g of oil) were predominant. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the data from lipid components of apricot kernel oil in order to explore the distribution of the apricot variety according to their kernel's lipid components. PCA separated some varieties including ALY, COL, KAB, CAT, SOG, and HSB in one group and varieties TOK, HAC, and HKI in another group based on their lipid components of apricot kernel oil. So, in the present study, PCA was found to be a powerful tool for classification of the samples.

  2. Increasing patient knowledge on the proper usage of a PCA machine with the use of a post-operative instructional card.

    PubMed

    Shovel, Louisa; Max, Bryan; Correll, Darin J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if an instructional card, attached to the PCA machine following total hip arthroplasty describing proper use of the device, would positively affect subjects' understanding of device usage, pain scores, pain medication consumption and satisfaction. Eighty adults undergoing total hip replacements who had been prescribed PCA were randomized into two study groups. Forty participants received the standard post-operative instruction on PCA device usage at our institution. The other 40 participants received the standard of care in addition to being given a typed instructional card immediately post-operatively, describing proper PCA device use. This card was attached to the PCA device during their recovery period. On post-operative day one, each patient completed a questionnaire on PCA usage, pain scores and satisfaction scores. The pain scores in the Instructional Card group were significantly lower than the Control group (p = 0.024). Subjects' understanding of PCA usage was also improved in the Instructional Card group for six of the seven questions asked. The findings from this study strongly support that postoperative patient information on proper PCA use by means of an instructional card improves pain control and hence the overall recovery for patients undergoing surgery. In addition, through improved understanding it adds an important safety feature in that patients and potentially their family members and/or friends may refrain from PCA-by-proxy. This article demonstrates that the simple intervention of adding an instructional card to a PCA machine is an effective method to improve patients' knowledge as well as pain control and potentially increase the safety of the device use.

  3. Antioxidant, anticancer and anticholinesterase activities of flower, fruit and seed extracts of Hypericum amblysepalum HOCHST.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Cumali

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is an unnatural type of tissue growth in which the cells exhibit unrestrained division, leading to a progressive increase in the number of dividing cells. It is now the second largest cause of death in the world. The present study concerned antioxidant, anticancer and anticholinesterase activities and protocatechuic, catechin, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and o-coumaric concentrations in methanol extracts of flowers, fruits and seeds of Hypericum amblysepalum. Antioxidant properties including free radical scavenging activity and reducing power, and amounts of total phenolic compounds were evaluated using different tests. Protocatechuic, catechin, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and o-coumaric concentrations in extracts were determined by HPLC. Cytotoxic effects were determined using the MTT test with human cervix cancer (HeLa) and rat kidney epithelium cell (NRK-52E) lines. Acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities were measured by by Ellman method. Total phenolic content of H. amblysepalum seeds was found to be higher than in fruit and flower extracts. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the obtained extracts gave satisfactory results versus butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene as controls. Reducing power activity was linearly proportional to the studied concentration range: 10-500 μg/ mL LC50 values for H. amblysepalum seeds were 11.7 and 2.86 respectively for HeLa and NRK-52E cell lines. Butyryl-cholinesterase inhibitory activity was 76.9±0.41 for seed extract and higher than with other extracts. The present results suggested that H. amblysepalum could be a potential candidate anti-cancer drug for the treatment of human cervical cancer, and good source of natural antioxidants.

  4. Vibrational analysis of α-cyanohydroxycinnamic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojica, Elmer-Rico E.; Vedad, Jayson; Desamero, Ruel Z. B.

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a comparative Raman vibrational analysis of alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4CHCA) and its derivative, alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamic acid (3CHCA), was performed. The Raman spectra of the 4CHCA and 3CHCA in solid form were obtained and analyzed to determine differences between the two structurally similar derivatives. For comparison, the CHCA derivatives cyanocinnamic acid (CCA) and coumaric acid (CA) were also studied. The plausible vibrational assignments were made and matched with those obtained theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) based method employing a 6-31 g basis set. The computational wavenumbers obtained were in good agreement with the observed experimental results. This was the first reported Raman study of CCA, 3CHCA and 4CHCA.

  5. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting under...

  7. Construction of a recombinant strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens producing both phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and cyclic lipopeptide for the biocontrol of take-all disease of wheat.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The primary mechanism of biocontrol by Pseudomonas fluorescens strains HC1-07 and HC9-07 is production of a cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, respectively. We introduced the seven-gene operon for the synthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) from P. synxantha 2-79 into P...

  8. Transcriptome alteration in Phytophthora infestans in response to phenazine-1-carboxylic acid production by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LBUM223.

    PubMed

    Roquigny, Roxane; Novinscak, Amy; Arseneault, Tanya; Joly, David L; Filion, Martin

    2018-06-19

    Phytophthora infestans is responsible for late blight, one of the most important potato diseases. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA)-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LBUM223 isolated in our laboratory shows biocontrol potential against various plant pathogens. To characterize the effect of LBUM223 on the transcriptome of P. infestans, we conducted an in vitro time-course study. Confrontational assay was performed using P. infestans inoculated alone (control) or with LBUM223, its phzC- isogenic mutant (not producing PCA), or exogenically applied PCA. Destructive sampling was performed at 6, 9 and 12 days and the transcriptome of P. infestans was analysed using RNA-Seq. The expression of a subset of differentially expressed genes was validated by RT-qPCR. Both LBUM223 and exogenically applied PCA significantly repressed P. infestans' growth at all times. Compared to the control treatment, transcriptomic analyses showed that the percentages of all P. infestans' genes significantly altered by LBUM223 and exogenically applied PCA increased as time progressed, from 50 to 61% and from to 32 to 46%, respectively. When applying an absolute cut-off value of 3 fold change or more for all three harvesting times, 207 genes were found significantly differentially expressed by PCA, either produced by LBUM223 or exogenically applied. Gene ontology analysis revealed that both treatments altered the expression of key functional genes involved in major functions like phosphorylation mechanisms, transmembrane transport and oxidoreduction activities. Interestingly, even though no host plant tissue was present in the in vitro system, PCA also led to the overexpression of several genes encoding effectors. The mutant only slightly repressed P. infestans' growth and barely altered its transcriptome. Our study suggests that PCA is involved in P. infestans' growth repression and led to important transcriptomic changes by both up- and down-regulating gene expression in P. infestans

  9. Opioid Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) use during the Initial Experience with the IMPROVE PCA Trial: A Phase III Analgesic Trial for Hospitalized Sickle Cell Patients with Painful Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Dampier, Carlton D.; Smith, Wally R.; Kim, Hae-Young; Wager, Carrie Greene; Bell, Margaret C.; Minniti, Caterina P.; Keefer, Jeffrey; Hsu, Lewis; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan; Mack, A. Kyle; McClish, Donna; McKinlay, Sonja M.; Miller, Scott T.; Osunkwo, Ifeyinwa; Seaman, Phillip; Telen, Marilyn J.; Weiner, Debra L.

    2015-01-01

    Opioid analgesics administered by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) are frequently used for pain relief in children and adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) hospitalized for persistent vaso-occlusive pain, but optimum opioid dosing is not known. To better define PCA dosing recommendations, a multi-center phase III clinical trial was conducted comparing two alternative opioid PCA dosing strategies (HDLI-higher demand dose with low constant infusion or LDHI- lower demand dose and higher constant infusion) in 38 subjects who completed randomization prior to trial closure. Total opioid utilization (morphine equivalents, mg/kg) in 22 adults was 11.6 ± 2.6 and 4.7 ± 0.9 in the HDLI and in the LDHI arms, respectively, and in 12 children it was 3.7 ± 1.0 and 5.8 ± 2.2, respectively. Opioid-related symptoms were mild and similar in both PCA arms (mean daily opioid symptom intensity score: HDLI 0.9 ± 0.1, LDHI 0.9 ± 0.2). The slow enrollment and early study termination limited conclusions regarding superiority of either treatment regimen. This study adds to our understanding of opioid PCA usage in SCD. Future clinical trial protocol designs for opioid PCA may need to consider potential differences between adults and children in PCA usage. PMID:21953763

  10. Bioconversion of Pinoresinol Diglucoside and Pinoresinol from Substrates in the Phenylpropanoid Pathway by Resting Cells of Phomopsis sp.XP-8

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Shi, Junling; Liu, Laping; Gao, Zhenhong; Che, Jinxin; Shao, Dongyan; Liu, Yanlin

    2015-01-01

    Pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG) and pinoresinol (Pin) are normally produced by plant cells via the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study reveals the existence of a related pathway in Phomopsis sp. XP-8, a PDG-producing fungal strain isolated from the bark of the Tu-chung tree (Eucommiaulmoides Oliv.). After addition of 0.15 g/L glucose to Phomopsis sp. XP-8, PDG and Pin formed when phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, cinnamic acid, and p-coumaric acid were used as the substrates respectively. No PDG formed in the absence of glucose, but Pin was detected after addition of all these substrates except leucine. In all systems in the presence of glucose, production of PDG and/or Pin and the accumulation of phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, or p-coumaric acid correlated directly with added substrate in a time- and substrate concentration- dependent manner. After analysis of products produced after addition of each substrate, the mass flow sequence for PDG and Pin biosynthesis was defined as: glucose to phenylalanine, phenylalanine to cinnamic acid, then to p-coumaric acid, and finally to Pin or PDG. During the bioconversion, the activities of four key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway were also determined and correlated with accumulation of their corresponding products. PDG production by Phomopsis sp. exhibits greater efficiency and cost effectiveness than the currently-used plant-based system and will pave the way for large scale production of PDG and/or Pin for medical applications. PMID:26331720

  11. Effects of Phenolic Compounds on Growth of Colletotrichum spp. In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sutapa; Nuckles, Etta; Archbold, Douglas D

    2018-05-01

    Colletotrichum acutatum is responsible for anthracnose fruit rot, one of the most devastating diseases in strawberry. Phenolic compounds have been described as contributors to anthracnose resistance in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, Duch.). Six isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum and four isolates of three other Colletotrichum species, C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. graminicola, associated with disease symptoms were investigated in this study. The potential inhibitory effect of phenolic acids (gallic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, salicylic acid), flavonoids (catechin, quercetin, naringenin), and ellagic acid, which are naturally found in strawberry, were screened against two different spore suspension concentrations of the Colletotrichum isolates at 5, 10, 50 mM in vitro. Among the phenolic acids and flavonoids tested in this study, only trans-cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid inhibited fungal growth. The inhibitory effects were concentration-dependent but also varied with the spore suspension concentration of the isolates. The results demonstrated that trans-cinnamic acid had the greatest inhibitory effect on all Colletotrichum spp. isolates tested.

  12. Reaction Kinetics for the Biocatalytic Conversion of Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid to 2-Hydroxyphenazine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingmin; Cao, Hongxia; Peng, Huasong; Hu, Hongbo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xuehong

    2014-01-01

    The phenazine derivative 2-hydroxyphenazine (2-OH-PHZ) plays an important role in the biocontrol of plant diseases, and exhibits stronger bacteriostatic and fungistatic activity than phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) toward some pathogens. PhzO has been shown to be responsible for the conversion of PCA to 2-OH-PHZ, however the kinetics of the reaction have not been systematically studied. Further, the yield of 2-OH-PHZ in fermentation culture is quite low and enhancement in our understanding of the reaction kinetics may contribute to improvements in large-scale, high-yield production of 2-OH-PHZ for biological control and other applications. In this study we confirmed previous reports that free PCA is converted to 2-hydroxy-phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (2-OH-PCA) by the action of a single enzyme PhzO, and particularly demonstrate that this reaction is dependent on NADP(H) and Fe3+. Fe3+ enhanced the conversion from PCA to 2-OH-PHZ and 28°C was a optimum temperature for the conversion. However, PCA added in excess to the culture inhibited the production of 2-OH-PHZ. 2-OH-PCA was extracted and purified from the broth, and it was confirmed that the decarboxylation of 2-OH-PCA could occur without the involvement of any enzyme. A kinetic analysis of the conversion of 2-OH-PCA to 2-OH-PHZ in the absence of enzyme and under different temperatures and pHs in vitro, revealed that the conversion followed first-order reaction kinetics. In the fermentation, the concentration of 2-OH-PCA increased to about 90 mg/L within a red precipitate fraction, as compared to 37 mg/L within the supernatant. The results of this study elucidate the reaction kinetics involved in the biosynthesis of 2-OH-PHZ and provide insights into in vitro methods to enhance yields of 2-OH-PHZ. PMID:24905009

  13. High-performance functional ecopolymers based on flora and fauna.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    Liquid crystalline (LC) polymers of rigid monomers based on flora and fauna were prepared by in-bulk polymerization. Para-coumaric (p-coumaric) acid [4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4HCA)] and its derivatives were selected as phytomonomers and bile acids were selected as biomonomers. The 4HCA homopolymer showed a thermotropic LC phase only in a state of low molecular weight. The copolymers of 4HCA with bile acids such as lithocholic acid (LCA) and cholic acid (CA) showed excellent cell compatibilities but low molecular weights. However, P(4HCA-co-CA)s allowed LC spinning to create molecularly oriented biofibers, presumably due to the chain entanglement that occurs during in-bulk chain propagation into hyperbranching architecture. P[4HCA-co-3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid (DHCA)]s showed high molecular weight, high mechanical strength, high Young's modulus, and high softening temperature, which may be achieved through the entanglement by in-bulk formation of hyperbranching, rigid structures. P(4HCA-co-DHCA)s showed a smooth hydrolysis, in-soil degradation, and photo-tunable hydrolysis. Thus, P(4HCA-co-DHCA)s might be applied as an environmentally degradable plastic with extremely high performance.

  14. Cellular prostatic acid phosphatase, a PTEN-functional homologue in prostate epithelia, functions as a prostate-specific tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Muniyan, Sakthivel; Ingersoll, Matthew A.; Batra, Surinder K.; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2014-01-01

    The inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) plays a vital role in the progression of human cancers. Nevertheless, those ubiquitous TSGs have been shown with limited roles in various stages of diverse carcinogenesis. Investigation on identifying unique TSG, especially for early stage of carcinogenesis, is imperative. As such, the search for organ-specific TSGs has emerged as a major strategy in cancer research. Prostate cancer (PCa) has the highest incidence in solid tumors in US males. Cellular prostatic acid phosphatase (cPAcP) is a prostate-specific differentiation antigen. Despite intensive studies over the past several decades on PAcP as a PCa biomarker, the role of cPAcP as a PCa-specific tumor suppressor has only recently been emerged and validated. The mechanism underlying the pivotal role of cPAcP as a prostate-specific TSG is, in part, due to its function as a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) as well as a phosphoinositide phosphatase (PIP), an apparent functional homologue to Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in PCa cells. This review is focused on discussing the function of this authentic prostate-specific tumor suppressor and the mechanism behind the loss of cPAcP expression leading to prostate carcinogenesis. We review other phosphatases’ roles as TSGs which regulate oncogenic PI3K signaling in PCa and discuss the functional similarity between cPAcP and PTEN in prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:24747769

  15. Ethyl p-coumarate exerts antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo against fruit Alternaria alternata via membrane-targeted mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Wusun; Yuan, Shuzhi; Sun, Jing; Li, Qianqian; Jiang, Weibo; Cao, Jiankang

    2018-08-02

    The fungus Alternaria alternata can cause food contamination by black spot rot and food safety issues due to the production of mycotoxins. In particular, A. alternata can infect many fresh fruits and vegetables and lead to considerable postharvest decay during storage and processing. The use of plant-derived products in postharvest disease management may be an acceptable alternative to traditional chemical fungicides. The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal activity of ethyl p-coumarate (EpCA) against Alternaria alternata in vitro and in vivo, and to determine the underlying mechanism. Results indicated that EpCA exhibited pronounced antifungal activity against in vitro mycelial growth of A. alternata, with half-inhibition concentration of 176.8 μg/mL. Spore germination of the pathogen was inhibited by EpCA in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, in vivo test confirmed that both 100 and 800 μg/mL EpCA significantly reduced disease development of black spot rot in jujube fruit caused by A. alternata. The EpCA treatments increased plasma membrane permeability as great leakage of intercellular electrolytes, soluble proteins and sugars of A. alternata occurred during incubation. The EpCA treatments also caused increase of the influx of propidium iodide, a fluorescence dye binding nucleus DNA, into the affected spores, indicating the disrupted plasma membrane integrity. Observations of ultrastructure further evidenced the damage to plasma membrane and morphology of A. alternata caused by EpCA, which resulted in distortion, sunken and shrivelled of spores and mycelia of the pathogen. In addition, fluorometric assay by confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed that the EpCA treatments induced endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in the spores of A. alternata, with stronger and more stable accumulation of ROS at higher concentration of EpCA. Therefore, heavy oxidative damage to cellular membranes and organelles might happen as demonstrated

  16. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Antioxidants: An Electrochemical Overview

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, José; Gaspar, Alexandra; Garrido, E. Manuela; Garrido, Jorge; Borges, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (such as ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, and p-coumaric acids) are a group of compounds highly abundant in food that may account for about one-third of the phenolic compounds in our diet. Hydroxycinnamic acids have gained an increasing interest in health because they are known to be potent antioxidants. These compounds have been described as chain-breaking antioxidants acting through radical scavenging activity, that is related to their hydrogen or electron donating capacity and to the ability to delocalize/stabilize the resulting phenoxyl radical within their structure. The free radical scavenger ability of antioxidants can be predicted from standard one-electron potentials. Thus, voltammetric methods have often been applied to characterize a diversity of natural and synthetic antioxidants essentially to get an insight into their mechanism and also as an important tool for the rational design of new and potent antioxidants. The structure-property-activity relationships (SPARs) correlations already established for this type of compounds suggest that redox potentials could be considered a good measure of antioxidant activity and an accurate guideline on the drug discovery and development process. Due to its magnitude in the antioxidant field, the electrochemistry of hydroxycinnamic acid-based antioxidants is reviewed highlighting the structure-property-activity relationships (SPARs) obtained so far. PMID:23956973

  17. Comparison between a disposable and an electronic PCA device for labor epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Sumikura, Hiroyuki; van de Velde, Marc; Tateda, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to investigate if a disposable patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) device can be used for labor analgesia and (2) to evaluate the device by midwives and parturients. Forty healthy parturients were divided into two groups and received combined spinal epidural analgesia for labor pain relief. Following intrathecal administration of 3 mg ropivacaine and 1.5 microg sufentanil, either a disposable PCA device (Coopdech Syrinjector; Daiken Medical, Osaka, Japan) or an electronic PCA device (IVAC PCAM PCA Syringe Pump; Alaris, Basingstoke, UK) was connected to the epidural catheter, and 0.15% ropivacaine with sufentanil 0.75 microg/ml was used for continuous infusion and PCA. For an electronic PCA device, continuous infusion rate, bolus dose, lockout time, and hourly limit were set at 4 ml/h, 3 ml, 15 min, and 16 ml, respectively. For a disposable PCA device, continuous infusion rate, bolus dose, and an hourly limit were set at 4 ml/h, 3 ml, and 16 ml, respectively, but lockout function was not available. No differences were observed between the groups concerning demographic data, obstetric data, and outcome of labor. Anesthetic requirements (disposable, 9.7 +/- 4.7 ml/h; electronic, 8.2 +/- 4.0 ml/h) and VAS score during the delivery (disposable, 26 +/- 25; electronic, 21 +/- 22) were similar between the groups. Midwives praised the disposable PCA device as well as the electronic one. The present results imply that the disposable PCA device can be an alternative to the electronic PCA device for labor analgesia.

  18. An automatic on-line 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-high performance liquid chromatography method for high-throughput screening of antioxidants from natural products.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanzhen; Wu, Nan; Fang, Yingtong; Shaheen, Nusrat; Wei, Yun

    2017-10-27

    Many natural products are rich in antioxidants which play an important role in preventing or postponing a variety of diseases, such as cardiovascular and inflammatory disease, diabetes as well as breast cancer. In this paper, an automatic on-line 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-high performance liquid chromatography (DPPH-HPLC) method was established for antioxidants screening with nine standards including organic acids (4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and benzoic acid), alkaloids (coptisine and berberine), and flavonoids (quercitrin, astragalin, and quercetin). The optimal concentration of DPPH was determined, and six potential antioxidants including 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, quercitrin, astragalin, and quercetin, and three non-antioxidants including benzoic acid, coptisine, and berberine, were successfully screened out and validated by conventional DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The established method has been applied to the crude samples of Saccharum officinarum rinds, Coptis chinensis powders, and Malus pumila leaves, consecutively. Two potential antioxidant compounds from Saccharum officinarum rinds and five potential antioxidant compounds from Malus pumila eaves were rapidly screened out. Then these seven potential antioxidants were purified and identified as p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, phloridzin, isoquercitrin, quercetin-3-xyloside, quercetin-3-arabinoside, and quercetin-3-rhamnoside using countercurrent chromatography combined with mass spectrometry and their antioxidant activities were further evaluated by conventional DPPH radical scavenging assay. The activity result was in accordance with that of the established method. This established method is cheap and automatic, and could be used as an efficient tool for high-throughput antioxidant screening from various complex natural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Patient-controlled Analgesia (PCA): an Overview About Methods, Handling and New Modalities].

    PubMed

    Abrolat, Marie; Eberhart, Leopold H J; Kalmus, Gerald; Koch, Tilo; Nardi-Hiebl, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is one of the well established methods for the treatment of postoperative pain. A cochrane-review concluded that PCA is associated with better postoperative pain ratings and improved patient-satifaction compared to traditional way of administering opioids. Some prerequisites concerning patient selection, education of the patient and the medical staff, and supervision during PCA therapy are mandatory for a safe use of PCA. Current PCA modalities (intravenous and epidural routes of application) are expanded by newer, less invasive routes of drug administration, e.g. by the iontophoretic transdermal and the sublingual route. Their role in improving safety and the quality of pain therapy on the one hand side, and costs on the other hand side are discussion. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Improving the prediction of pathologic outcomes in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy: the value of prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), prostate health index (phi) and sarcosine.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Matteo; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Bruzzese, Dario; Perdonà, Sisto; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Marino, Ada; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Giorgio, Emilia; Tagliamonte, Virginia; Bottero, Danilo; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Terracciano, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Several efforts have been made to find biomarkers that could help clinicians to preoperatively determine prostate cancer (PCa) pathological characteristics and choose the best therapeutic approach, avoiding over-treatment. On this effort, prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), prostate health index (phi) and sarcosine have been presented as promising tools. We evaluated the ability of these biomarkers to predict the pathologic PCa characteristics within a prospectively collected contemporary cohort of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinically localized PCa at a single high-volume Institution. The prognostic performance of PCA3, phi and sarcosine were evaluated in 78 patients undergoing RP for biopsy-proven PCa. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses tested the accuracy (area under the curve (AUC)) in predicting PCa pathological characteristics. Decision curve analyses (DCA) were used to assess the clinical benefit of the three biomarkers. We found that PCA3, phi and sarcosine levels were significantly higher in patients with tumor volume (TV)≥0.5 ml, pathologic Gleason sum (GS)≥7 and pT3 disease (all p-values≤0.01). ROC curve analysis showed that phi is an accurate predictor of high-stage (AUC 0.85 [0.77-0.93]), high-grade (AUC 0.83 [0.73-0.93]) and high-volume disease (AUC 0.94 [0.88-0.99]). Sarcosine showed a comparable AUC (0.85 [0.76-0.94]) only for T3 stage prediction, whereas PCA3 score showed lower AUCs, ranging from 0.74 (for GS) to 0.86 (for TV). PCA3, phi and sarcosine are predictors of PCa characteristics at final pathology. Successful clinical translation of these findings would reduce the frequency of surveillance biopsies and may enhance acceptance of active surveillance (AS). Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. Content of insoluble bound phenolics in millets and their contribution to antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekara, Anoma; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2010-06-09

    Soluble and insoluble-bound phenolic extracts of several varieties of millet (kodo, finger, foxtail, proso, pearl, and little millets) whole grains were evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidative efficacy using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), reducing power (RP), and beta-carotene-linoleate model system as well as ferrous chelating activity. In addition, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were present in soluble and bound phenolic fractions of millets, and their contents were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS). Kodo millet had the highest total phenolic content, whereas proso millet possessed the least. All millet varieties showed high antioxidant activities, although the order of their efficacy was assay dependent. HPLC analysis of millet phenolic extracts demonstrated that the bound fractions contained more ferulic and p-coumaric acids compared to their soluble counterparts. The results of this study showed that soluble as well as bound fractions of millet grains are rich sources of phenolic compounds with antioxidant, metal chelating, and reducing power. The potential of whole millets as natural sources of antioxidants depends on the variety used. The importance of the insoluble bound fraction of millet as a source of ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid was established, and their contribution to the total phenolic content must be taken into account in the assessment of the antioxidant activity of millets.

  2. The added value of percentage of free to total prostate-specific antigen, PCA3, and a kallikrein panel to the ERSPC risk calculator for prostate cancer in prescreened men.

    PubMed

    Vedder, Moniek M; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; Lilja, Hans G; Vickers, Andrew J; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Roobol, Monique J

    2014-12-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has limited accuracy for the early detection of prostate cancer (PCa). To assess the value added by percentage of free to total PSA (%fPSA), prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), and a kallikrein panel (4k-panel) to the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) multivariable prediction models: risk calculator (RC) 4, including transrectal ultrasound, and RC 4 plus digital rectal examination (4+DRE) for prescreened men. Participants were invited for rescreening between October 2007 and February 2009 within the Dutch part of the ERSPC study. Biopsies were taken in men with a PSA level ≥3.0 ng/ml or a PCA3 score ≥10. Additional analyses of the 4k-panel were done on serum samples. Outcome was defined as PCa detectable by sextant biopsy. Receiver operating characteristic curve and decision curve analyses were performed to compare the predictive capabilities of %fPSA, PCA3, 4k-panel, the ERSPC RCs, and their combinations in logistic regression models. PCa was detected in 119 of 708 men. The %fPSA did not perform better univariately or added to the RCs compared with the RCs alone. In 202 men with an elevated PSA, the 4k-panel discriminated better than PCA3 when modelled univariately (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.78 vs. 0.62; p=0.01). The multivariable models with PCA3 or the 4k-panel were equivalent (AUC: 0.80 for RC 4+DRE). In the total population, PCA3 discriminated better than the 4k-panel (univariate AUC: 0.63 vs. 0.56; p=0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the multivariable model with PCA3 (AUC: 0.73) versus the model with the 4k-panel (AUC: 0.71; p=0.18). The multivariable model with PCA3 performed better than the reference model (0.73 vs. 0.70; p=0.02). Decision curves confirmed these patterns, although numbers were small. Both PCA3 and, to a lesser extent, a 4k-panel have added value to the DRE-based ERSPC RC in detecting PCa in prescreened men. We studied the added

  3. Multiresolution generalized N dimension PCA for ultrasound image denoising

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ultrasound images are usually affected by speckle noise, which is a type of random multiplicative noise. Thus, reducing speckle and improving image visual quality are vital to obtaining better diagnosis. Method In this paper, a novel noise reduction method for medical ultrasound images, called multiresolution generalized N dimension PCA (MR-GND-PCA), is presented. In this method, the Gaussian pyramid and multiscale image stacks on each level are built first. GND-PCA as a multilinear subspace learning method is used for denoising. Each level is combined to achieve the final denoised image based on Laplacian pyramids. Results The proposed method is tested with synthetically speckled and real ultrasound images, and quality evaluation metrics, including MSE, SNR and PSNR, are used to evaluate its performance. Conclusion Experimental results show that the proposed method achieved the lowest noise interference and improved image quality by reducing noise and preserving the structure. Our method is also robust for the image with a much higher level of speckle noise. For clinical images, the results show that MR-GND-PCA can reduce speckle and preserve resolvable details. PMID:25096917

  4. Antioxidant Activities of Selected Berries and Their Free, Esterified, and Insoluble-Bound Phenolic Acid Contents

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    To explore the potential of berries as natural sources of bioactive compounds, the quantities of free, esterified, and insoluble-bound phenolic acids in a number of berries were determined. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the berries were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays, in addition to determination of their metal ion chelating activities. Furthermore, several phenolic compounds were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the 6 tested berries, black chokeberry and blackberry exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities, and the various berry samples were found to contain catechin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, vanillic acid, quercitrin, resveratrol, morin, naringenin, and apigenin. Moreover, the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of the fractions containing insoluble-bound phenolic acids were higher than those containing the free and esterified phenolic acids. The results imply that the insoluble-bound fractions of these berries are important natural sources of antioxidants for the preparation of functional food ingredients and preventing diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:29662846

  5. Decision tree and PCA-based fault diagnosis of rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weixiang; Chen, Jin; Li, Jiaqing

    2007-04-01

    After analysing the flaws of conventional fault diagnosis methods, data mining technology is introduced to fault diagnosis field, and a new method based on C4.5 decision tree and principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed. In this method, PCA is used to reduce features after data collection, preprocessing and feature extraction. Then, C4.5 is trained by using the samples to generate a decision tree model with diagnosis knowledge. At last the tree model is used to make diagnosis analysis. To validate the method proposed, six kinds of running states (normal or without any defect, unbalance, rotor radial rub, oil whirl, shaft crack and a simultaneous state of unbalance and radial rub), are simulated on Bently Rotor Kit RK4 to test C4.5 and PCA-based method and back-propagation neural network (BPNN). The result shows that C4.5 and PCA-based diagnosis method has higher accuracy and needs less training time than BPNN.

  6. Application of principal component analysis (PCA) as a sensory assessment tool for fermented food products.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debasree; Chattopadhyay, Parimal

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the work was to use the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) to describe the sensory attributes of the fermented food products prepared with the incorporation of lactic cultures. Panellists were selected and trained to evaluate various attributes specially color and appearance, body texture, flavor, overall acceptability and acidity of the fermented food products like cow milk curd and soymilk curd, idli, sauerkraut and probiotic ice cream. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified the six significant principal components that accounted for more than 90% of the variance in the sensory attribute data. Overall product quality was modelled as a function of principal components using multiple least squares regression (R (2) = 0.8). The result from PCA was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). These findings demonstrate the utility of quantitative descriptive analysis for identifying and measuring the fermented food product attributes that are important for consumer acceptability.

  7. Phenolic acid composition and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys.

    PubMed

    Khalil, M I; Alam, N; Moniruzzaman, M; Sulaiman, S A; Gan, S H

    2011-08-01

    The phenolic acid and flavonoid contents of Malaysian Tualang, Gelam, and Borneo tropical honeys were compared to those of Manuka honey. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities were also quantified. All honey extracts exhibited high phenolic contents (15.21 ± 0.51- 42.23 ± 0.64 mg/kg), flavonoid contents (11.52 ± 0.27- 25.31 ± 0.37 mg/kg), FRAP values (892.15 ± 4.97- 363.38 ± 10.57 μM Fe[II]/kg), and high IC₅₀ of DPPH radical-scavenging activities (5.24 ± 0.40- 17.51 ± 0.51 mg/mL). Total of 6 phenolic acids (gallic, syringic, benzoic, trans-cinnamic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids) and 5 flavonoids (catechin, kaempferol, naringenin, luteolin, and apigenin) were identified. Among the Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey had the highest contents of phenolics, and flavonoids, and DPPH radical-scavenging activities. We conclude that among Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey is the richest in phenolic acids, and flavonoid compounds, which have strong free radical-scavenging activities. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Dietary protocatechuic acid ameliorates dextran sulphate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis and hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Farombi, Ebenezer O; Adedara, Isaac A; Awoyemi, Omolola V; Njoku, Chinonye R; Micah, Gabriel O; Esogwa, Cynthia U; Owumi, Solomon E; Olopade, James O

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of dietary protocatechuic acid (PCA), a simple hydrophilic phenolic compound commonly found in many edible vegetables, on dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis and its associated hepatotoxicity in rats. PCA was administered orally at 10 mg kg(-1) to dextran sulphate sodium exposed rats for five days. The result revealed that administration of PCA significantly (p < 0.05) prevented the incidence of diarrhea and bleeding, the decrease in the body weight gain, shortening of colon length and the increase in colon mass index in DSS-treated rats. Furthermore, PCA prevented the increase in the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, markers of liver toxicity and markedly suppressed the DSS-mediated elevation in colonic nitric oxide concentration and myeloperoxidase activity in the treated rats. Administration of PCA significantly protected against colonic and hepatic oxidative damage by increasing the antioxidant status and concomitantly decreased hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels in the DSS-treated rats. Moreover, histological examinations confirmed PCA chemoprotection against colon and liver damage. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that PCA significantly inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression in the colon of DSS-treated rats. In conclusion, the effective chemoprotective role of PCA in colitis and the associated hepatotoxicity is related to its intrinsic anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties.

  9. Comparative evaluation of urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2: ERG scores and serum PHI in predicting prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Tallon, Lucile; Luangphakdy, Devillier; Ruffion, Alain; Colombel, Marc; Devonec, Marian; Champetier, Denis; Paparel, Philippe; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam; Perrin, Paul; Vlaeminck-Guillem, Virginie

    2014-07-30

    It has been suggested that urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion tests and serum PHI correlate to cancer aggressiveness-related pathological criteria at prostatectomy. To evaluate and compare their ability in predicting prostate cancer aggressiveness, PHI and urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG (T2) scores were assessed in 154 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for biopsy-proven prostate cancer. Univariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression and decision curve analyses were performed. All three markers were predictors of a tumor volume≥0.5 mL. Only PHI predicted Gleason score≥7. T2 score and PHI were both independent predictors of extracapsular extension(≥pT3), while multifocality was only predicted by PCA3 score. Moreover, when compared to a base model (age, digital rectal examination, serum PSA, and Gleason sum at biopsy), the addition of both PCA3 score and PHI to the base model induced a significant increase (+12%) when predicting tumor volume>0.5 mL. PHI and urinary PCA3 and T2 scores can be considered as complementary predictors of cancer aggressiveness at prostatectomy.

  10. Genetic ancestry, self-reported race and ethnicity in African Americans and European Americans in the PCaP cohort.

    PubMed

    Sucheston, Lara E; Bensen, Jeannette T; Xu, Zongli; Singh, Prashant K; Preus, Leah; Mohler, James L; Su, L Joseph; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Ruiz, Bernardo; Smith, Gary J; Taylor, Jack A

    2012-01-01

    Family history and African-American race are important risk factors for both prostate cancer (CaP) incidence and aggressiveness. When studying complex diseases such as CaP that have a heritable component, chances of finding true disease susceptibility alleles can be increased by accounting for genetic ancestry within the population investigated. Race, ethnicity and ancestry were studied in a geographically diverse cohort of men with newly diagnosed CaP. Individual ancestry (IA) was estimated in the population-based North Carolina and Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP), a cohort of 2,106 incident CaP cases (2063 with complete ethnicity information) comprising roughly equal numbers of research subjects reporting as Black/African American (AA) or European American/Caucasian/Caucasian American/White (EA) from North Carolina or Louisiana. Mean genome wide individual ancestry estimates of percent African, European and Asian were obtained and tested for differences by state and ethnicity (Cajun and/or Creole and Hispanic/Latino) using multivariate analysis of variance models. Principal components (PC) were compared to assess differences in genetic composition by self-reported race and ethnicity between and within states. Mean individual ancestries differed by state for self-reporting AA (p = 0.03) and EA (p = 0.001). This geographic difference attenuated for AAs who answered "no" to all ethnicity membership questions (non-ethnic research subjects; p = 0.78) but not EA research subjects, p = 0.002. Mean ancestry estimates of self-identified AA Louisiana research subjects for each ethnic group; Cajun only, Creole only and both Cajun and Creole differed significantly from self-identified non-ethnic AA Louisiana research subjects. These ethnicity differences were not seen in those who self-identified as EA. Mean IA differed by race between states, elucidating a potential contributing factor to these differences in AA research participants: self-reported ethnicity

  11. Epileptic seizure detection in EEG signal with GModPCA and support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Abeg Kumar; Banka, Haider

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders caused by recurrent seizures. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) record neural activity and can detect epilepsy. Visual inspection of an EEG signal for epileptic seizure detection is a time-consuming process and may lead to human error; therefore, recently, a number of automated seizure detection frameworks were proposed to replace these traditional methods. Feature extraction and classification are two important steps in these procedures. Feature extraction focuses on finding the informative features that could be used for classification and correct decision-making. Therefore, proposing effective feature extraction techniques for seizure detection is of great significance. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a dimensionality reduction technique used in different fields of pattern recognition including EEG signal classification. Global modular PCA (GModPCA) is a variation of PCA. In this paper, an effective framework with GModPCA and Support Vector Machine (SVM) is presented for epileptic seizure detection in EEG signals. The feature extraction is performed with GModPCA, whereas SVM trained with radial basis function kernel performed the classification between seizure and nonseizure EEG signals. Seven different experimental cases were conducted on the benchmark epilepsy EEG dataset. The system performance was evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation. In addition, we prove analytically that GModPCA has less time and space complexities as compared to PCA. The experimental results show that EEG signals have strong inter-sub-pattern correlations. GModPCA and SVM have been able to achieve 100% accuracy for the classification between normal and epileptic signals. Along with this, seven different experimental cases were tested. The classification results of the proposed approach were better than were compared the results of some of the existing methods proposed in literature. It is also found that the time and space

  12. The biosynthesis of 4-hydroxycoumarin and dicoumarol by Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius.

    PubMed

    Bye, A; King, H K

    1970-04-01

    A strain of Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius, isolated from spoiled hay, converts melilotic acid (o-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid) and o-coumaric acid into 4-hydroxycoumarin and dicoumarol. The sequence is shown to be melilotic acid (I) [Formula: see text] coumaric acid (IV) [Formula: see text] beta-hydroxymelilotic acid (II) [Formula: see text] beta-oxomelilotic acid (III) [Formula: see text] 4-hydroxycoumarin (VI), on the basis of (1) studies on the formation of postulated intermediates, (2) experiments with isotopically labelled materials and (3) sequential enzyme induction. In the presence of semicarbazide, o-coumaraldehyde is formed from o-coumaric acid: there is no evidence, however, that this lies on the normal metabolic pathway.

  13. Comparison of the phenolic composition of fruit juices by single step gradient HPLC analysis of multiple components versus multiple chromatographic runs optimised for individual families.

    PubMed

    Bremner, P D; Blacklock, C J; Paganga, G; Mullen, W; Rice-Evans, C A; Crozier, A

    2000-06-01

    After minimal sample preparation, two different HPLC methodologies, one based on a single gradient reversed-phase HPLC step, the other on multiple HPLC runs each optimised for specific components, were used to investigate the composition of flavonoids and phenolic acids in apple and tomato juices. The principal components in apple juice were identified as chlorogenic acid, phloridzin, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid. Tomato juice was found to contain chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, naringenin and rutin. The quantitative estimates of the levels of these compounds, obtained with the two HPLC procedures, were very similar, demonstrating that either method can be used to analyse accurately the phenolic components of apple and tomato juices. Chlorogenic acid in tomato juice was the only component not fully resolved in the single run study and the multiple run analysis prior to enzyme treatment. The single run system of analysis is recommended for the initial investigation of plant phenolics and the multiple run approach for analyses where chromatographic resolution requires improvement.

  14. GO-PCA: An Unsupervised Method to Explore Gene Expression Data Using Prior Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide expression profiling is a widely used approach for characterizing heterogeneous populations of cells, tissues, biopsies, or other biological specimen. The exploratory analysis of such data typically relies on generic unsupervised methods, e.g. principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical clustering. However, generic methods fail to exploit prior knowledge about the molecular functions of genes. Here, I introduce GO-PCA, an unsupervised method that combines PCA with nonparametric GO enrichment analysis, in order to systematically search for sets of genes that are both strongly correlated and closely functionally related. These gene sets are then used to automatically generate expression signatures with functional labels, which collectively aim to provide a readily interpretable representation of biologically relevant similarities and differences. The robustness of the results obtained can be assessed by bootstrapping. I first applied GO-PCA to datasets containing diverse hematopoietic cell types from human and mouse, respectively. In both cases, GO-PCA generated a small number of signatures that represented the majority of lineages present, and whose labels reflected their respective biological characteristics. I then applied GO-PCA to human glioblastoma (GBM) data, and recovered signatures associated with four out of five previously defined GBM subtypes. My results demonstrate that GO-PCA is a powerful and versatile exploratory method that reduces an expression matrix containing thousands of genes to a much smaller set of interpretable signatures. In this way, GO-PCA aims to facilitate hypothesis generation, design of further analyses, and functional comparisons across datasets.

  15. Enzymatic grafting of simple phenols on flax and sisal pulp fibres using laccases.

    PubMed

    Aracri, Elisabetta; Fillat, Amanda; Colom, José F; Gutiérrez, Ana; Del Río, José C; Martínez, Angel T; Vidal, Teresa

    2010-11-01

    Flax and sisal pulps were treated with two laccases (from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, PcL and Trametes villosa, TvL, respectively), in the presence of different phenolic compounds (syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and p-coumaric acid in the case of flax pulp, and coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, ferulic acid and sinapic acid in the case of sisal pulp). In most cases the enzymatic treatments resulted in increased kappa number of pulps suggesting the incorporation of the phenols into fibres. The covalent binding of these compounds to fibres was evidenced by the analysis of the treated pulps, after acetone extraction, by pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the absence and/or in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) as methylating agent. The highest extents of phenol incorporation were observed with the p-hydroxycinnamic acids, p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The present work shows for the first time the use of analytical pyrolysis as an effective approach to study fibre functionalization by laccase-induced grafting of phenols. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlated accumulation of anthocyanins and rosmarinic acid in mechanically stressed red cell suspensions of basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    PubMed

    Strazzer, Pamela; Guzzo, Flavia; Levi, Marisa

    2011-02-15

    A red basil cell line (T2b) rich in rosmarinic acid (RA) was selected for the stable production of anthocyanins (ACs) in the dark. Cell suspension cultures were subjected to mechanical stress through increased agitation (switch from 90 to 150 rpm) to determine the relationship between AC and RA accumulation. Cell extracts were analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS, and the resulting data were processed with multivariate statistical analysis. MS and MS/MS spectra facilitated the putative annotation of several complex cyanidin-based ACs, which were esterified with coumaric acid and, in some cases, also with malonic acid. It was also possible to identify various RA-related molecules, some caffeic and coumaric acid derivatives and some flavanones. Mechanical stress increased the total AC and RA contents, but reduced biomass accumulation. Many metabolites were induced by mechanical stress, including RA and some of its derivatives, most ACs, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids, whereas the abundance of some RA dimers was reduced. Although AC and RA share a common early biosynthetic pathway (from phenylalanine to 4-coumaroyl-CoA) and could have similar or overlapping functions providing antioxidant activity against stress-generated reactive oxygen species, there appeared to be no competition between their individual pathways. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Electric Power Engineering Cost Predicting Model Based on the PCA-GA-BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Lei; Yu, Jiake; Zhao, Xin

    2017-10-01

    In this paper a hybrid prediction algorithm: PCA-GA-BP model is proposed. PCA algorithm is established to reduce the correlation between indicators of original data and decrease difficulty of BP neural network in complex dimensional calculation. The BP neural network is established to estimate the cost of power transmission project. The results show that PCA-GA-BP algorithm can improve result of prediction of electric power engineering cost.

  18. Optimizing the clinical utility of PCA3 to diagnose prostate cancer in initial prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Briones, Jose; Borque, Angel; Esteban, Luis M; Casanova, Juan; Fernandez-Serra, Antonio; Rubio, Luis; Casanova-Salas, Irene; Sanz, Gerardo; Domínguez-Escrig, Jose; Collado, Argimiro; Gómez-Ferrer, Alvaro; Iborra, Inmaculada; Ramírez-Backhaus, Miguel; Martínez, Francisco; Calatrava, Ana; Lopez-Guerrero, Jose A

    2015-09-11

    PCA3 has been included in a nomogram outperforming previous clinical models for the prediction of any prostate cancer (PCa) and high grade PCa (HGPCa) at the initial prostate biopsy (IBx). Our objective is to validate such IBx-specific PCA3-based nomogram. We also aim to optimize the use of this nomogram in clinical practice through the definition of risk groups. Independent external validation. Clinical and biopsy data from a contemporary cohort of 401 men with the same inclusion criteria to those used to build up the reference's nomogram in IBx. The predictive value of the nomogram was assessed by means of calibration curves and discrimination ability through the area under the curve (AUC). Clinical utility of the nomogram was analyzed by choosing thresholds points that minimize the overlapping between probability density functions (PDF) in PCa and no PCa and HGPCa and no HGPCa groups, and net benefit was assessed by decision curves. We detect 28% of PCa and 11 % of HGPCa in IBx, contrasting to the 46 and 20% at the reference series. Due to this, there is an overestimation of the nomogram probabilities shown in the calibration curve for PCa. The AUC values are 0.736 for PCa (C.I.95%:0.68-0.79) and 0.786 for HGPCa (C.I.95%:0.71-0.87) showing an adequate discrimination ability. PDF show differences in the distributions of nomogram probabilities in PCa and not PCa patient groups. A minimization of the overlapping between these curves confirms the threshold probability of harboring PCa >30 % proposed by Hansen is useful to indicate a IBx, but a cut-off > 40% could be better in series of opportunistic screening like ours. Similar results appear in HGPCa analysis. The decision curve also shows a net benefit of 6.31% for the threshold probability of 40%. PCA3 is an useful tool to select patients for IBx. Patients with a calculated probability of having PCa over 40% should be counseled to undergo an IBx if opportunistic screening is required.

  19. Elucidation of the structure and reaction mechanism of Sorghum bicolor hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and its structural relationship to other CoA-dependent transferases and synthases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (SbHCT) from Sorghum bicolor participates in an early step of the phenylpropanoid pathway, exchanging CoA esterified to p-coumaric acid with shikimic or quinic acid, as intermediates in the biosynthesis of the monolignols coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol. In order to...

  20. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada, USA, The Suwannee River, Georgia, USA and by polycarboxylic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Leenheer, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Calcite crystallization rates are characterized using a constant solution composition at 25°C, pH=8.5, and calcite supersaturation (Ω) of 4.5 in the absence and presence of fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada (BSLFA), and a fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia (SRFA). Rates are also measured in the presence and absence of low-molar mass, aliphatic-alicyclic polycarboxylic acids (PCA). BSLFA inhibits calcite crystal-growth rates with increasing BSLFA concentration, suggesting that BSLFA adsorbs at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. Calcite growth morphology in the presence of BSLFA differed from growth in its absence, supporting an adsorption mechanism of calcite-growth inhibition by BSLFA. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by BSLFA is consistent with a model indicating that polycarboxylic acid molecules present in BSLFA adsorb at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. In contrast to published results for an unfractionated SRFA, there is dramatic calcite growth inhibition (at a concentration of 1 mg/L) by a SRFA fraction eluted by pH 5 solution from XAD-8 resin, indicating that calcite growth-rate inhibition is related to specific SRFA component fractions. A cyclic PCA, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-cyclohexane hexacarboxylic acid (CHXHCA) is a strong calcite growth-rate inhibitor at concentrations less than 0.1 mg/L. Two other cyclic PCAs, 1, 1 cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (CPDCA) and 1, 1 cyclobutanedicarboxylic acid (CBDCA) with the carboxylic acid groups attached to the same ring carbon atom, have no effect on calcite growth rates up to concentrations of 10 mg/L. Organic matter ad-sorbed from the air onto the seed crystals has no effect on the measured calcite crystal-growth rates.

  1. Galbanic acid decreases androgen receptor abundance and signaling and induces G1 arrest in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Kim, Kwan-Hyun; Zhang, Wei; Guo, Yinglu; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lü, Junxuan

    2011-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is crucial for the genesis and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). We compared the growth responses of AR(+) LNCaP and LNCaP C4-2 vs. AR(−) DU145 and PC-3 PCa cell lines to galbanic acid (GBA) isolated from the resin of medicinal herb Ferula assafoetida and assessed their connection to AR signaling and cell cycle regulatory pathways. Our results showed that GBA preferentially suppressed AR(+) PCa cell growth than AR(−) PCa cells. GBA induced a caspase-mediated apoptosis that was attenuated by a general caspase inhibitor. Subapoptotic GBA down-regulated AR protein in LNCaP cells primarily through promoting its proteasomal degradation, and inhibited AR-dependent transcription without affecting AR nuclear translocation. Whereas docking simulations predicted binding of GBA to the AR ligand binding domain with similarities and differences with the AR antagonist drug bicalutamide, LNCaP cell culture assays did not detect agonist activity of GBA. GBA and bicalutamide exerted greater than additive inhibitory effect on cell growth when used together. Subapoptotic GBA induced G1 arrest associated with an inhibition of cyclin/CDK4/6 pathway, especially cyclin D1 without the causal involvement of CDK inhibitory proteins P21Cip1 and P27Kip1. In summary, the novelty of GBA as an anti-AR compound resides in the distinction between GBA and bicalutamide with respect to AR protein turnover and a lack of agonist effect. Our observations of anti-AR and cell cycle arrest actions plus the anti-angiogenesis effect reported elsewhere suggest GBA as a multi-targeting drug candidate for the prevention and therapy of PCa. PMID:21328348

  2. GO-PCA: An Unsupervised Method to Explore Gene Expression Data Using Prior Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Method Genome-wide expression profiling is a widely used approach for characterizing heterogeneous populations of cells, tissues, biopsies, or other biological specimen. The exploratory analysis of such data typically relies on generic unsupervised methods, e.g. principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical clustering. However, generic methods fail to exploit prior knowledge about the molecular functions of genes. Here, I introduce GO-PCA, an unsupervised method that combines PCA with nonparametric GO enrichment analysis, in order to systematically search for sets of genes that are both strongly correlated and closely functionally related. These gene sets are then used to automatically generate expression signatures with functional labels, which collectively aim to provide a readily interpretable representation of biologically relevant similarities and differences. The robustness of the results obtained can be assessed by bootstrapping. Results I first applied GO-PCA to datasets containing diverse hematopoietic cell types from human and mouse, respectively. In both cases, GO-PCA generated a small number of signatures that represented the majority of lineages present, and whose labels reflected their respective biological characteristics. I then applied GO-PCA to human glioblastoma (GBM) data, and recovered signatures associated with four out of five previously defined GBM subtypes. My results demonstrate that GO-PCA is a powerful and versatile exploratory method that reduces an expression matrix containing thousands of genes to a much smaller set of interpretable signatures. In this way, GO-PCA aims to facilitate hypothesis generation, design of further analyses, and functional comparisons across datasets. PMID:26575370

  3. External validation of urinary PCA3-based nomograms to individually predict prostate biopsy outcome.

    PubMed

    Auprich, Marco; Haese, Alexander; Walz, Jochen; Pummer, Karl; de la Taille, Alexandre; Graefen, Markus; de Reijke, Theo; Fisch, Margit; Kil, Paul; Gontero, Paolo; Irani, Jacques; Chun, Felix K-H

    2010-11-01

    Prior to safely adopting risk stratification tools, their performance must be tested in an external patient cohort. To assess accuracy and generalizability of previously reported, internally validated, prebiopsy prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) gene-based nomograms when applied to a large, external, European cohort of men at risk of prostate cancer (PCa). Biopsy data, including urinary PCA3 score, were available for 621 men at risk of PCa who were participating in a European multi-institutional study. All patients underwent a ≥10-core prostate biopsy. Biopsy indication was based on suspicious digital rectal examination, persistently elevated prostate-specific antigen level (2.5-10 ng/ml) and/or suspicious histology (atypical small acinar proliferation of the prostate, >/= two cores affected by high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in first set of biopsies). PCA3 scores were assessed using the Progensa assay (Gen-Probe Inc, San Diego, CA, USA). According to the previously reported nomograms, different PCA3 score codings were used. The probability of a positive biopsy was calculated using previously published logistic regression coefficients. Predicted outcomes were compared to the actual biopsy results. Accuracy was calculated using the area under the curve as a measure of discrimination; calibration was explored graphically. Biopsy-confirmed PCa was detected in 255 (41.1%) men. Median PCA3 score of biopsy-negative versus biopsy-positive men was 20 versus 48 in the total cohort, 17 versus 47 at initial biopsy, and 37 versus 53 at repeat biopsy (all p≤0.002). External validation of all four previously reported PCA3-based nomograms demonstrated equally high accuracy (0.73-0.75) and excellent calibration. The main limitations of the study reside in its early detection setting, referral scenario, and participation of only tertiary-care centers. In accordance with the original publication, previously developed PCA3-based nomograms achieved high accuracy and

  4. [The value of PHI/PCA3 in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Tan, S J; Xu, L W; Xu, Z; Wu, J P; Liang, K; Jia, R P

    2016-01-12

    To investigate the value of prostate health index (PHI) and prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). A total of 190 patients with abnormal serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) or abnormal digital rectal examination were enrolled. They were all underwent initial biopsy and 11 of them were also underwent repeated biopsy. In addition, 25 healthy cases (with normal digital rectal examination and PSA<4 ng/ml) were the control group.The PHI and PCA3 were detected by using immunofluorescence and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP). The sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis were determined by ROC curve.In addition, the relationship between PHI/PSA and the Gleason score and clinical stage were analyzed. A total of 89 patients were confirmed PCa by Pathological diagnosis. The other 101 patients were diagnosed as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The sensitivity and specificity of PCA3 test were 85.4% was 92.1%. Area under curve (AUC) of PHI is higher than AUC of PSA (0.727>0.699). The PHI in peripheral blood was positively correlated with Gleason score and clinical stage. The detection of PCA3 and PHI shows excellent detecting effectiveness. Compared with single PSA, the combined detection of PHI and PCA3 improved the diagnostic specificity. It can provide a new method for the early diagnosis in prostate cancer and avoid unnecessary biopsies.

  5. Cysteine Inhibits Mercury Methylation by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA Mutant Δ omcBESTZ

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Hui; Lu, Xia; Liang, Liyuan; ...

    2015-04-21

    For cysteine enhances Hg uptake and methylation by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA wild type (WT) strain in short-term assays. The prevalence of this enhancement in other strains remains poorly understood. We examined the influence of cysteine concentration on time-dependent Hg(II) reduction, sorption and methylation by PCA-WT and its c-type cytochrome-deficient mutant ( omcBESTZ) in phosphate buffered saline. Without cysteine, the mutant methylated twice as much Hg(II) as the PCA-WT, whereas addition of cysteine inhibited Hg methylation, regardless of the reaction time. PCA-WT, but, exhibited both time-dependent and cysteine concentration-dependent methylation. In 144 hour assay, nearly complete sorption of the Hg(II) bymore » PCA-WT occurred in the presence of 1 mM cysteine, resulting in our highest observed methylmercury production. Moreover, the chemical speciation modeling and experimental data suggest that uncharged Hg(II) species are more readily taken up, and that this uptake is kinetic limiting, thereby affecting Hg methylation by both mutant and WT.« less

  6. Acid mediates a prolonged antinociception via substance P signaling in acid-induced chronic widespread pain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Nan; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2014-05-21

    Substance P is an important neuropeptide released from nociceptors to mediate pain signals. We recently revealed antinociceptive signaling by substance P in acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3)-expressing muscle nociceptors in a mouse model of acid-induced chronic widespread pain. However, methods to specifically trigger the substance P antinociception were still lacking. Here we show that acid could induce antinociceptive signaling via substance P release in muscle. We prevented the intramuscular acid-induced hyperalgesia by pharmacological inhibition of ASIC3 and transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1). The antinociceptive effect of non-ASIC3, non-TRPV1 acid signaling lasted for 2 days. The non-ASIC3, non-TRPV1 acid antinociception was largely abolished in mice lacking substance P. Moreover, pretreatment with substance P in muscle mimicked the acid antinociceptive effect and prevented the hyperalgesia induced by next-day acid injection. Acid could mediate a prolonged antinociceptive signaling via the release of substance P from muscle afferent neurons in a non-ASIC3, non-TRPV1 manner.

  7. Screening of plant extracts for human tyrosinase inhibiting effects.

    PubMed

    Kim, M; Park, J; Song, K; Kim, H G; Koh, J-S; Boo, Y C

    2012-04-01

    Screening for tyrosinase (TYR) inhibitors potentially useful for control of skin pigmentation has been hampered by the limited availability of human TYR. To overcome this hurdle, we have established human embryonic kidney (HEK293)-TYR cells that constitutively express human TYR. In the current study, we assayed human TYR inhibition activities of 50 plant extracts using the lysates of transformed HEK293-TYR cells. The strongest inhibition of human TYR was shown by the extract of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunberg, followed by the extract of Morus bombycis Koidzumi. The former extract did not inhibit mushroom TYR activity whereas significant inhibition was observed with the latter extract, demonstrating the importance of using human TYR in the screening for human TYR inhibitors. Upon liquid-liquid partitioning of the extract from V. bracteatum, the active constituents were enriched in the ethyl acetate fraction, and the subsequent preparatory thin-layer chromatography identified p-coumaric acid (PCA) as the main active constituent. The hypo-pigmentation of PCA was verified in the MelanoDerm™ Skin Model. This study demonstrates that transformed HEK293-TYR cells could expedite the discovery of human TYR-specific inhibitors from natural sources which might be useful in the control of skin pigmentation. © 2012 The Authors. ICS © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Enzymatic modification of chitosan by cinnamic acids: Antibacterial activity against Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Caifeng; Zhou, Yu; Zheng, Yu; Li, Changlong; Sheng, Sheng; Wang, Jun; Wu, Fuan

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to identify chitosan polymers that have antibacterial activity against the bacterial wilt pathogen. The chitosan polymers were enzymatically synthesized using chitosan and five cinnamic acids (CADs): caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), cinnamic acid (CIA), p-coumaric acid (COA) and chlorogenic acid (CHA), using laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus as a catalyst. The reaction was performed in a phosphate buffered solution under heterogenous reaction conditions. The chitosan derivatives (CTS-g-CADs) were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA and SEM. FT-IR demonstrated that the reaction products bound covalently to the free amino groups or hydroxyl groups of chitosan via band of amide I or ester band. XRD showed a reduced packing density for grafted chitosan comparing to original chitosan. TGA demonstrated that CTS-g-CADs have a higher thermostability than chitosan. Additionally, chitosan and its derivatives showed similar antibacterial activity. However, the IC50 value of the chitosan-caffeic acid derivative (CTS-g-CA) against the mulberry bacterial wilt pathogen RS-5 was 0.23mg/mL, which was two-fifths of the IC50 value of chitosan. Therefore, the enzymatically synthesized chitosan polymers can be used to control plant diseases in biotechnological domains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An improved PCA method with application to boiler leak detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xi; Marquez, Horacio J; Chen, Tongwen; Riaz, Muhammad

    2005-07-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular fault detection technique. It has been widely used in process industries, especially in the chemical industry. In industrial applications, achieving a sensitive system capable of detecting incipient faults, which maintains the false alarm rate to a minimum, is a crucial issue. Although a lot of research has been focused on these issues for PCA-based fault detection and diagnosis methods, sensitivity of the fault detection scheme versus false alarm rate continues to be an important issue. In this paper, an improved PCA method is proposed to address this problem. In this method, a new data preprocessing scheme and a new fault detection scheme designed for Hotelling's T2 as well as the squared prediction error are developed. A dynamic PCA model is also developed for boiler leak detection. This new method is applied to boiler water/steam leak detection with real data from Syncrude Canada's utility plant in Fort McMurray, Canada. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively reduce false alarm rate, provide effective and correct leak alarms, and give early warning to operators.

  10. Gas phase absorption studies of photoactive yellow protein chromophore derivatives.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Rinza, Toms; Christiansen, Ove; Rajput, Jyoti; Gopalan, Aravind; Rahbek, Dennis B; Andersen, Lars H; Bochenkova, Anastasia V; Granovsky, Alexander A; Bravaya, Ksenia B; Nemukhin, Alexander V; Christiansen, Kasper Lincke; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2009-08-27

    Photoabsorption spectra of deprotonated trans p-coumaric acid and two of its methyl substituted derivatives have been studied in gas phase both experimentally and theoretically. We have focused on the spectroscopic effect of the location of the two possible deprotonation sites on the trans p-coumaric acid which originate to either a phenoxide or a carboxylate. Surprisingly, the three chromophores were found to have the same absorption maximum at 430 nm, in spite of having different deprotonation positions. However, the absorption of the chromophore in polar solution is substantially different for the distinct deprotonation locations. We also report on the time scales and pathways of relaxation after photoexcitation for the three photoactive yellow protein chromophore derivatives. As a result of these experiments, we could detect the phenoxide isomer within the deprotonated trans p-coumaric acid in gas phase; however, the occurrence of the carboxylate is uncertain. Several computational methods were used simultaneously to provide insights and assistance in the interpretation of our experimental results. The calculated excitation energies S(0)-S(1) are in good agreement with experiment for those systems having a negative charge on a phenoxide moiety. Although our augmented multiconfigurational quasidegenerate perturbation theory calculations agree with experiment in the description of the absorption spectrum of anions with a carboxylate functional group, there are some puzzling disagreements between experiment and some calculational methods in the description of these systems.

  11. HPLC determination of phenolic acids, flavonoids and juglone in walnut leaves.

    PubMed

    Nour, Violeta; Trandafir, Ion; Cosmulescu, Sina

    2013-10-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with gradient elution and diode-array detection was developed to quantify free phenolic acids (gallic, vanillic, chlorogenic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, salycilic, elagic and trans-cinnamic), flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, myricetin and quercetin) and juglone in walnut leaves. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Hypersil Gold C18 column (5 µm particle size, 250 × 4.6 mm) and detection was conducted at three different wavelengths (254, 278 and 300 nm) according to the absorption maxima of the analyzed compounds. Validation procedures were conducted and the method was proven to be precise, accurate and sensitive. The developed method has been applied to analyze walnut leaves samples from nine different cultivars, with the same agricultural, geographical and climatic conditions. The experimental results revealed high concentrations of myricetin, catechin hydrate and rutin, and low concentrations of quercetin and epicatechin aglycones. Ellagic acid was established as the dominating phenolic acid of walnut leaves, followed by trans-cinnamic, chlorogenic and caffeic acids. Juglone content varied between 44.55 and 205.12 mg/100 g fresh weight. Significant differences were detected among cultivars for the concentration levels of phenolics.

  12. Correlating folding and signaling in a photoreceptor by single molecule measurements and energy landscape calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Wouter

    2007-03-01

    Receptor activation is a fundamental process in biological signaling. We study the structural changes during activation of photoactive yellow protein (PYP). This is triggered by photoisomerization of the p-coumaric acid (pCA) chromophore of PYP, which converts the initial pG state into the activated pB state. Mechanical unfolding of Cys-linked PYP multimers probed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the presence and absence of illumination reveals that the core of the protein is extended by 3 nm and destabilized by 30 percent in pB. These results establish a generally applicable single molecule approach for mapping functional conformational changes to selected regions of a protein and indicate that stimulus-induced partial protein unfolding can be employed as a signaling mechanism. Comparative measurements, Jarzynski-Hummer-Szabo analysis of the data, and steered MD simulations of two double-Cys PYP mutants reveal strong anisotropy in the unfolding mechanism along the two axes defined by the Cys residues. Unfolding along one axis exhibits a transition-state-like feature where six hydrogen bonds break simultaneously. The other axis displays an unpeaked force profile reflecting a non-cooperative transition, challenging the notion that cooperative unfolding is a universal feature in protein stability. MD simulations with a coarse-grained protein model show that the folding of pG is two-state, consistent with experimental observations. In contrast, the folding free energy surface of a coarse-grained model of pB involves an on-pathway partially unfolded intermediate that closely matches experimental data. The results reveal that interactions between the pCA and its binding pocket can switch the energy landscape for PYP from two- to three-state folding, and show how this can be exploited to trigger large functionally important protein conformational changes.

  13. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Abilities of Extracts from Germinating Vitis californica Seeds Submitted to Cold Stress Conditions and Recovery after the Stress

    PubMed Central

    Weidner, Stanisław; Chrzanowski, Sebastian; Karamać, Magdalena; Król, Angelika; Badowiec, Anna; Mostek, Agnieszka; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    The material for this study consisted of stratified seeds of Vitis californica submitted to germination under optimum conditions (+25 °C) or under chill stress (+10 °C), also followed by recovery. It has been determined that the germinating seeds contain considerable amounts of tannins, catechins as well as phenolic acids such as gallic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids. Gallic acid appeared in the highest amount in the germinating seeds (from 42.40–204.00 µg/g of fresh weight (FW)), followed by caffeic acid (from 6.62–20.13 µg/g FW), p-coumaric acid (from 2.59–5.41 µg/g FW), and ferulic acid (from 0.56–0.92 µg/g FW). The phenolic acids occurred mostly in the ester form. Under chill stress, the germinating seeds were determined to contain an elevated total amount of phenolics, as well as raised levels of condensed tannins, catechins, gallic acid, and gafeic acid. The levels of p-coumoric and ferulic acids were found to have decreased. In extracts isolated from a sample exposed to low temperature, increased antioxidant activity and reduction potential were also demonstrated. Tissue of the germinating seeds which underwent post-stress recovery was found to have less total phenolics. PMID:25222557

  14. Radiation induced chemical changes of phenolic compounds in strawberries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfellner, F.; Solar, S.; Sontag, G.

    2003-06-01

    In unirradiated strawberries four phenolic acids (gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid), the flavonoids (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and glycosides from kaempferol and quercetin were determined by reversed phase chromatography with diode array detection. Characteristic linear dose/concentration relationships were found for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and two unidentified compounds. One of them may be usable as marker to prove an irradiation treatment.

  15. MD-11 PCA - Research flight team egress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This McDonnell Douglas MD-11 has parked on the flightline at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following its completion of the first and second landings ever performed by a transport aircraft under engine power only (on Aug. 29, 1995). The milestone flight, with NASA research pilot and former astronaut Gordon Fullerton at the controls, was part of a NASA project to develop a computer-assisted engine control system that enables a pilot to land a plane safely when its normal control surfaces are disabled. Coming down the steps from the aircraft are Gordon Fullerton (in front), followed by Bill Burcham, Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) project engineer at Dryden; NASA Dryden controls engineer John Burken; John Feather of McDonnell Douglas; and Drew Pappas, McDonnell Douglas' project manager for PCA.

  16. A rapid quantitative determination of phenolic acids in Brassica oleracea by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Iris S L; Boyce, Mary C; Breadmore, Michael C

    2011-07-15

    A simple and rapid capillary zone electrophoresis method to quantitatively determine the phenolic acid contents in brassica vegetables is described. Phenolic compounds were extracted from broccoli, broccolini, Brussels sprouts, cabbage and cauliflower and the main hydroxycinnamic acids (sinapic, ferulic, p-coumaric and caffeic acids) were isolated by solid phase extraction with C18 cartridges. Using an optimised method, the four analytes were separated in less than 7min in a 50μm×60cm capillary with a 15mM borate buffer (pH=9.13) and a separation voltage of 30kV at 30°C. A linear relationship was observed for the method (r=0.9997-0.9999) with detection limits ranging from 1.1 to 2.3mg/kg of vegetables for the analytes. This method demonstrated good reproducibility with coefficients of variation of less than 5% for peak area and less than 1% for migration time (n=7). The method was successfully applied to quantitatively determine the phenolic acid contents in a range of brassica vegetables and the results were in good agreement when compared to those from high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic Ancestry, Self-Reported Race and Ethnicity in African Americans and European Americans in the PCaP Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sucheston, Lara E.; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Xu, Zongli; Singh, Prashant K.; Preus, Leah; Mohler, James L.; Su, L. Joseph; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Ruiz, Bernardo; Smith, Gary J.; Taylor, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Family history and African-American race are important risk factors for both prostate cancer (CaP) incidence and aggressiveness. When studying complex diseases such as CaP that have a heritable component, chances of finding true disease susceptibility alleles can be increased by accounting for genetic ancestry within the population investigated. Race, ethnicity and ancestry were studied in a geographically diverse cohort of men with newly diagnosed CaP. Methods Individual ancestry (IA) was estimated in the population-based North Carolina and Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP), a cohort of 2,106 incident CaP cases (2063 with complete ethnicity information) comprising roughly equal numbers of research subjects reporting as Black/African American (AA) or European American/Caucasian/Caucasian American/White (EA) from North Carolina or Louisiana. Mean genome wide individual ancestry estimates of percent African, European and Asian were obtained and tested for differences by state and ethnicity (Cajun and/or Creole and Hispanic/Latino) using multivariate analysis of variance models. Principal components (PC) were compared to assess differences in genetic composition by self-reported race and ethnicity between and within states. Results Mean individual ancestries differed by state for self-reporting AA (p = 0.03) and EA (p = 0.001). This geographic difference attenuated for AAs who answered “no” to all ethnicity membership questions (non-ethnic research subjects; p = 0.78) but not EA research subjects, p = 0.002. Mean ancestry estimates of self-identified AA Louisiana research subjects for each ethnic group; Cajun only, Creole only and both Cajun and Creole differed significantly from self-identified non-ethnic AA Louisiana research subjects. These ethnicity differences were not seen in those who self-identified as EA. Conclusions Mean IA differed by race between states, elucidating a potential contributing factor to these differences

  18. Development of supercritical CO2 extraction of bioactive phytochemicals from black poplar (Populus nigra L.) buds followed by GC-MS and UHPLC-DAD-QqTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Kuś, Piotr M; Okińczyc, Piotr; Jakovljević, Martina; Jokić, Stela; Jerković, Igor

    2018-05-25

    The supercritical CO 2 (SC-CO 2 ) extraction process of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) buds was optimized (pressure, temperature) based on the yields of major phytochemicals (volatiles and non-volatiles). The optimal settings were 30 MPa/60 °C. Major volatiles determined by GC-MS in the optimized SC-CO 2 extract (mg of benzyl salicylate equivalent (BSE) per 100 g of buds) were: pinostrobin chalcone (1574.2), β-eudesmol (640.8), α-eudesmol (581.9), 2-methyl-2-butenyl-p-coumarate (289.9), pentyl-p-coumarate (457.0), γ-eudesmol (294.4), and benzyl salicylate (289.2). Partial qualitative similarity was observed between SC-CO 2 extracts and corresponding hydrodistilled essential oil dominated by sesquiterpenes, but with lower yields. Major compounds (mg per 100 g of buds) identified by UHPLC-DAD-QqTOF-MS in the optimized SC-CO 2 extract were: pinostrobin (751.7), pinocembrin (485.6), 3-O-pinobanksin acetate and methyl-butenyl-p-coumarate (290.2; 144.9 of pinobanksin and p-coumaric acid equivalents, respectively). SC-CO 2 extraction was found useful for green, efficient and simultaneous extraction of both volatile/non-volatile, bioactive phytochemicals of poplar buds - precursors of poplar-type propolis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural analysis of Bacillus pumilus phenolic acid decarboxylase, a lipocalin-fold enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Matte, Allan; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Hélène

    The decarboxylation of phenolic acids, including ferulic and p-coumaric acids, to their corresponding vinyl derivatives is of importance in the flavoring and polymer industries. Here, the crystal structure of phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) from Bacillus pumilus strain UI-670 is reported. The enzyme is a 161-residue polypeptide that forms dimers both in the crystal and in solution. The structure of PAD as determined by X-ray crystallography revealed a -barrel structure and two -helices, with a cleft formed at one edge of the barrel. The PAD structure resembles those of the lipocalin-fold proteins, which often bind hydrophobic ligands. Superposition of structurally relatedmore » proteins bound to their cognate ligands shows that they and PAD bind their ligands in a conserved location within the -barrel. Analysis of the residue-conservation pattern for PAD-related sequences mapped onto the PAD structure reveals that the conservation mainly includes residues found within the hydrophobic core of the protein, defining a common lipocalin-like fold for this enzyme family. A narrow cleft containing several conserved amino acids was observed as a structural feature and a potential ligand-binding site.« less

  20. Identification of the isomers using principal component analysis (PCA) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepceoǧlu, Abdullah; Gündoǧdu, Yasemin; Ledingham, Kenneth William David; Kilic, Hamdi Sukur

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we have carried out a detailed statistical analysis for experimental data of mass spectra from xylene isomers. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify the isomers which cannot be distinguished using conventional statistical methods for interpretation of their mass spectra. Experiments have been carried out using a linear TOF-MS coupled to a femtosecond laser system as an energy source for the ionisation processes. We have performed experiments and collected data which has been analysed and interpreted using PCA as a multivariate analysis of these spectra. This demonstrates the strength of the method to get an insight for distinguishing the isomers which cannot be identified using conventional mass analysis obtained through dissociative ionisation processes on these molecules. The PCA results dependending on the laser pulse energy and the background pressure in the spectrometers have been presented in this work.

  1. Structural Redesigning Arabidopsis Lignins into Alkali-Soluble Lignins through the Expression of p-Coumaroyl-CoA:Monolignol Transferase PMT1

    PubMed Central

    Sibout, Richard; Le Bris, Philippe; Cézard, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Grass lignins can contain up to 10% to 15% by weight of p-coumaric esters. This acylation is performed on monolignols under the catalysis of p-coumaroyl-coenzyme A monolignol transferase (PMT). To study the impact of p-coumaroylation on lignification, we first introduced the Brachypodium distachyon Bradi2g36910 (BdPMT1) gene into Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) under the control of the constitutive maize (Zea mays) ubiquitin promoter. The resulting p-coumaroylation was far lower than that of lignins from mature grass stems and had no impact on stem lignin content. By contrast, introducing either the BdPMT1 or the Bradi1g36980 (BdPMT2) gene into Arabidopsis under the control of the Arabidopsis cinnamate-4-hydroxylase promoter boosted the p-coumaroylation of mature stems up to the grass lignin level (8% to 9% by weight), without any impact on plant development. The analysis of purified lignin fractions and the identification of diagnostic products confirmed that p-coumaric acid was associated with lignins. BdPMT1-driven p-coumaroylation was also obtained in the fah1 (deficient for ferulate 5-hydroxylase) and ccr1g (deficient for cinnamoyl-coenzyme A reductase) lines, albeit to a lower extent. Lignins from BdPMT1-expressing ccr1g lines were also found to be feruloylated. In Arabidopsis mature stems, substantial p-coumaroylation of lignins was achieved at the expense of lignin content and induced lignin structural alterations, with an unexpected increase of lignin units with free phenolic groups. This higher frequency of free phenolic groups in Arabidopsis lignins doubled their solubility in alkali at room temperature. These findings suggest that the formation of alkali-leachable lignin domains rich in free phenolic groups is favored when p-coumaroylated monolignols participate in lignification in a grass in a similar manner. PMID:26826222

  2. Effect of protocatechuic acid on insulin responsiveness and inflammation in visceral adipose tissue from obese individuals: possible role for PTP1B.

    PubMed

    Ormazabal, Paulina; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Varì, Rosaria; Santangelo, Carmela; D'Archivio, Massimo; Silecchia, Gianfranco; Iacovelli, Annunziata; Giovannini, Claudio; Masella, Roberta

    2018-05-16

    The occurrence of chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in obese subjects precipitates the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Anthocyanins and their main metabolite protocatechuic acid (PCA) have been demonstrated to stimulate insulin signaling in human adipocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PCA is able to modulate insulin responsiveness and inflammation in VAT from obese (OB) and normal weight (NW) subjects. VATs obtained from NW and OB subjects were incubated or not (control) with 100 μM PCA for 24 h. After incubation, tissues untreated and treated with PCA were acutely stimulated with insulin (20 nM, 20 min). PTP1B, p65 NF-κB, phospho-p65 NF-κB, IRS-1, IRβ, Akt, GLUT4 as well as basal and insulin-stimulated Tyr-IRS-1 and Ser-Akt phosphorylations were assessed by Western blotting in NW- and OB-VAT. Samples were assessed for PTP1B activity and adipocytokine secretion. PCA restored insulin-induced phosphorylation in OB-VAT by increasing phospho-Tyr-IRS-1 and phospho-Ser-Akt after insulin stimulation as observed in NW-VAT (p < 0.05). PTP1B activity was lower in OB-VAT treated with PCA with respect to untreated (p < 0.05). Compared to non-treated tissues, PCA reduced phospho-p65 NF-κB and IL-6 in OB-VAT, and IL-1β in NW-VAT (p < 0.05); and increased adiponectin secretion in NW-VAT (p < 0.05). PCA restores the insulin responsiveness of OB-VAT by increasing IRS-1 and Akt phosphorylation which could be related with the lower PTP1B activity found in PCA-treated OB-VAT. Furthermore, PCA diminishes inflammation in VAT. These results support the beneficial role of an anthocyanin-rich diet against inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity.

  3. Suppression of 4-Coumarate-CoA Ligase in the Coniferous Gymnosperm Pinus radiata1[W

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Armin; Donaldson, Lloyd; Kim, Hoon; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Steward, Diane; Torr, Kirk; Koch, Gerald; Schmitt, Uwe; Ralph, John

    2009-01-01

    Severe suppression of 4-coumarate-coenzyme A ligase (4CL) in the coniferous gymnosperm Pinus radiata substantially affected plant phenotype and resulted in dwarfed plants with a “bonsai tree-like” appearance. Microscopic analyses of stem sections from 2-year-old plants revealed substantial morphological changes in both wood and bark tissues. This included the formation of weakly lignified tracheids that displayed signs of collapse and the development of circumferential bands of axial parenchyma. Acetyl bromide-soluble lignin assays and proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies revealed lignin reductions of 36% to 50% in the most severely affected transgenic plants. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies indicated that lignin reductions were mainly due to depletion of guaiacyl but not p-hydroxyphenyl lignin. 4CL silencing also caused modifications in the lignin interunit linkage distribution, including elevated β-aryl ether (β-O-4 unit) and spirodienone (β-1) levels, accompanied by lower phenylcoumaran (β-5), resinol (β-β), and dibenzodioxocin (5-5/β-O-4) levels. A sharp depletion in the level of saturated (dihydroconiferyl alcohol) end groups was also observed. Severe suppression of 4CL also affected carbohydrate metabolism. Most obvious was an up to approximately 2-fold increase in galactose content in wood from transgenic plants due to increased compression wood formation. The molecular, anatomical, and analytical data verified that the isolated 4CL clone is associated with lignin biosynthesis and illustrated that 4CL silencing leads to complex, often surprising, physiological and morphological changes in P. radiata. PMID:18971431

  4. Hydrolysis kinetics of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside oligomers from flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Ping; Li, Xin; Xu, Shi-Ping; Wang, Jiang-Hai; Liu, Xin

    2008-11-12

    Flaxseed is the richest dietary source of the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) and contains the largest amount of SDG oligomers, which are often hydrolyzed to break the ester linkages for the release of SDG and the glycosidic bonds for the release of secoisolariciresinol (SECO). The alkaline hydrolysis reaction kinetics of SDG oligomers from flaxseed and the acid hydrolysis process of SDG and other glucosides were investigated. For the kinetic modeling, a pseudo-first-order reaction was assumed. The results showed that the alkaline hydrolysis of SDG oligomers followed first-order reaction kinetics under mild alkaline hydrolytic conditions and that the concentration of sodium hydroxide had a strong influence on the activation energy of the alkaline hydrolysis of SDG oligomers. The results also indicated that the main acid hydrolysates of SDG included secoisolariciresinol monoglucoside (SMG), SECO, and anhydrosecoisolariciresinol (anhydro-SECO) and that the extent and the main hydrolysates of the acid hydrolysis reaction depended on the acid concentration, hydrolysis temperature, and time. In addition, the production and change of p-coumaric acid glucoside, ferulic acid glucoside and their methyl esters and p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and their methyl esters during the process of hydrolysis was also investigated.

  5. Effect of postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment on fatty acid composition and phenolic acid content in olive fruits during storage.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gema; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Del Castillo, María Luisa Ruiz

    2017-07-01

    The nutritional effects of both table olives and olive oil are attributed not only to their fatty acids but also to antioxidant phenolics such as phenolic acids. Delays in oil processing usually result in undesirable oxidation and hydrolysis processes leading to formation of free fatty acids. These alterations create the need to process oil immediately after olive harvest. However, phenolic content decreases drastically during olive storage resulting in lower quality oil. In the present study we propose postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment as a mean to avoid changes in fatty acid composition and losses of phenolic acids during olive storage. Contents of fatty acids and phenolic acids were estimated in methyl jasmonate treated olives throughout 30-day storage, as compared with those of untreated olives. Significant decreases of saturated fatty acids were observed in treated samples whereas increases of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were respectively measured (i.e. from 50.8% to 64.5%, from 7.2% to 9.1% and from 1.5% to 9.3%). Also, phenolic acid contents increased significantly in treated olives. Particularly, increases of gallic acid from 1.35 to 6.29 mg kg -1 , chlorogenic acid from 9.18 to 16.21 mg kg -1 , vanillic acid from 9.61 to 16.99 mg kg -1 , caffeic acid from 5.12 to 12.55 mg kg -1 , p-coumaric acid from 0.96 to 5.31 mg kg -1 and ferulic acid from 4.05 to 10.43 mg kg -1 were obtained. Methyl jasmonate treatment is proposed as an alternative postharvest technique to traditional methods to guarantee olive oil quality when oil processing is delayed and olive fruits have to necessarily to be stored. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. From measurements to metrics: PCA-based indicators of cyber anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Farid; Johnson, Tommy; Tsui, Sonia

    2012-06-01

    We present a framework of the application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to automatically obtain meaningful metrics from intrusion detection measurements. In particular, we report the progress made in applying PCA to analyze the behavioral measurements of malware and provide some preliminary results in selecting dominant attributes from an arbitrary number of malware attributes. The results will be useful in formulating an optimal detection threshold in the principal component space, which can both validate and augment existing malware classifiers.

  7. Suitability of antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and phenolic acids for floral authentication of honey. Impact of industrial thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Escriche, Isabel; Kadar, Melinda; Juan-Borrás, Marisol; Domenech, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Total antioxidant activity, physicochemical parameters, and the profile of flavonoids and phenolic acid compounds were evaluated for: their ability to distinguish between the botanical origins of four types of Spanish honey, the impact of industrial thermal treatment, and the effect of the year of collection. Citrus honey had the lowest levels of all the analysed variables, then rosemary and polyfloral, and honeydew the highest ones. Botanical origin affects the profile of flavonoids and phenolic compounds sufficiently to permit discrimination thanks to the predominance of particular compounds such as: hesperetin (in citrus honey); kaempferol, chrysin, pinocembrin, caffeic acid and naringenin (in rosemary honey) and myricetin, quercetin, galangin and particularly p-coumaric acid (in honeydew honey). The impact of industrial thermal treatments is lower than the expected variability as a consequence of the year of collection, though neither factor has enough influence to alter these constituent compounds to the point of affecting the discrimination of honey by botanical origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Native lignin structure of Miscanthus x giganteus and its changes during acetic and formic acid fractionation.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Juan José; Li, Jiebing; Ek, Monica; Ligero, Pablo; de Vega, Alberto

    2009-07-22

    Milled wood lignin (MWL) and acetic and formic acid lignin (AL and FL) from Miscanthus x giganteus bark were produced, respectively, before and after organosolv fractionations under optimal conditions, in terms of organic and hydrochloric acid concentrations, liquid/wood ratio, and reaction time. In order to study the M. x giganteus native lignin structure and its modifications during the fractionation process, the lignins were studied by two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence (2D-(HSQC)), (13)C- and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) both before and after thioacidolysis, and elemental analysis. In addition, chemical composition analysis was performed on ash, Klason lignin, and carbohydrate content. The analyses demonstrated that M. x giganteus native lignin (MWL) is highly acylated at the C(gamma) of the lignin side chain (46%), possibly with p-coumarate and/or acetate groups. This is newsworthy since several earlier studies showed that acylation at the gamma-carbon commonly occurs in C(3) and CAM grasses, whereas M. x giganteus is a C(4) grass. Furthermore, M. x giganteus showed a low S/G ratio (0.7) and a predominance of beta-O-4' linkages (up to 93% of all linkages). AL and FL lose part of these linkages during organosolv fractionation (up to 21 and 32%, respectively). The p-coumarate groups resist fractionation processes and are still present in high quantities in AL and FL. During the fractionation process, lignin is acetylated (acetic acid process) and condensed, with the G units condensing more than S units. M. x giganteus MWL contains a high content of carbohydrates (22.8%), suggesting that it is a lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC). AL and FL showed low carbohydrate contents because of the breaking down of the LCC structures. AL and FL have high molecular weights and low polydispersities, and are high in phenolic content, qualities that make these

  9. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Minh, Truong Ngoc; Khang, Do Tan; Tuyen, Phung Thi; Minh, Luong The; Anh, La Hoang; Quan, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Thi Thu; Quan, Nguyen Thanh; Toan, Nguyen Phu; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Xuan, Tran Dang

    2016-01-01

    Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of “Chian Xen Queen” contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight). The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27649250

  10. Composition and Bioactivity of Lipophilic Metabolites from Needles and Twigs of Korean and Siberian Pines (Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc. and Pinus sibirica Du Tour).

    PubMed

    Shpatov, Alexander V; Popov, Sergey A; Salnikova, Olga I; Kukina, Tatyana P; Shmidt, Emma N; Um, Byung Hun

    2017-02-01

    Lipophilic extractive metabolites in different parts of the shoot system (needles and defoliated twigs) of Korean pine, Pinus koraiensis, and Siberian pine, Pinus sibirica, were studied by GC/MS. Korean pine needles comprised mainly bornyl p-coumarate, heterocyclic 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids (lambertianic acid), 10-nonacosanol, sterols and their esters. While Siberian pine needles contained less bornyl p-coumarate, lambertianic acid, sterols and their esters, but were richer in other 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids. The major components of the twig extract of P. koraiensis were lambertianic acid, abietane and isopimarane type acids, cembrane type alcohols, 8-O-functionalized labdanoids, sterols, sterol esters, and acylglycerols. The same extract of P. sibirica differed in larger amounts of other 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids and pinolenic acid glycerides, but in less quantities of cembranoids and 8-O-functionalized labdanoids. The labdane type pinusolic acid was detected for the first time in Korean pine. P. koraiensis was found to be unique in the genus for an ability to synthesize phyllocladane diterpenoids. The content of bound Δ 5 -unsaturated polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids in the twig extracts of the both pines was similar or superior to that in their seed oil. Among the pines' metabolites tested isocembrol was strongest in inhibition of both α-glucosidase (IC 50 2.9 μg/ml) and NO production in activated macrophages (IC 50 3.6 μg/ml). © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  11. Genomic characterization of bacteriophage vB_PcaP_PP2 infecting Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, a new member of a proposed genus in the subfamily Autographivirinae.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeong-A; Heu, Sunggi; Park, Jinwoo; Roh, Eunjung

    2017-08-01

    Bacteriophage vB_PcaP_PP2 (PP2) is a novel virulent phage that infects the plant-pathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. PP2 phage has a 41,841-bp double-stranded DNA encoding 47 proteins, and it was identified as a member of the family Podoviridae by transmission electron microscopy. Nineteen of its open reading frames (ORFs) show homology to functional proteins, and 28 ORFs have been characterized as hypothetical proteins. PP2 phage is homologous to Cronobacter phage vB_CskP_GAP227 and Dev-CD-23823. Based on phylogenetic analysis, PP2 and its homologous bacteriophages form a new group within the subfamily Autographivirinae in the family Podoviridae, suggesting the need to establish a new genus. No lysogenic-cycle-related genes or bacterial toxins were identified.

  12. In Vivo Imaging of Experimental Melanoma Tumors using the Novel Radiotracer 68Ga-NODAGA-Procainamide (PCA)

    PubMed Central

    Kertész, István; Vida, András; Nagy, Gábor; Emri, Miklós; Farkas, Antal; Kis, Adrienn; Angyal, János; Dénes, Noémi; Szabó, Judit P.; Kovács, Tünde; Bai, Péter; Trencsényi, György

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The most aggressive form of skin cancer is the malignant melanoma. Because of its high metastatic potential the early detection of primary melanoma tumors and metastases using non-invasive PET imaging determines the outcome of the disease. Previous studies have already shown that benzamide derivatives, such as procainamide (PCA) specifically bind to melanin pigment. The aim of this study was to synthesize and investigate the melanin specificity of the novel 68Ga-labeled NODAGA-PCA molecule in vitro and in vivo using PET techniques. Methods: Procainamide (PCA) was conjugated with NODAGA chelator and was labeled with Ga-68 (68Ga-NODAGA-PCA). The melanin specificity of 68Ga-NODAGA-PCA was tested in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo using melanotic B16-F10 and amelanotic Melur melanoma cell lines. By subcutaneous and intravenous injection of melanoma cells tumor-bearing mice were prepared, on which biodistribution studies and small animal PET/CT scans were performed for 68Ga-NODAGA-PCA and 18FDG tracers. Results: 68Ga-NODAGA-PCA was produced with high specific activity (14.9±3.9 GBq/µmol) and with excellent radiochemical purity (98%<), at all cases. In vitro experiments showed that 68Ga-NODAGA-PCA uptake of B16-F10 cells was significantly (p≤0.01) higher than Melur cells. Ex vivo biodistribution and in vivo PET/CT studies using subcutaneous and metastatic tumor models showed significantly (p≤0.01) higher 68Ga-NODAGA-PCA uptake in B16-F10 primary tumors and lung metastases in comparison with amelanotic Melur tumors. In experiments where 18FDG and 68Ga-NODAGA-PCA uptake of B16-F10 tumors was compared, we found that the tumor-to-muscle (T/M) and tumor-to-lung (T/L) ratios were significantly (p≤0.05 and p≤0.01) higher using 68Ga-NODAGA-PCA than the 18FDG accumulation. Conclusion: Our novel radiotracer 68Ga-NODAGA-PCA showed specific binding to the melanin producing experimental melanoma tumors. Therefore, 68Ga-NODAGA-PCA is a suitable diagnostic radiotracer for

  13. Phenylpropanoid 2,3-dioxygenase involved in the cleavage of the ferulic acid side chain to form vanillin and glyoxylic acid in Vanilla planifolia.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Osamu; Negishi, Yukiko

    2017-09-01

    Enzyme catalyzing the cleavage of the phenylpropanoid side chain was partially purified by ion exchange and gel filtration column chromatography after (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 precipitation. Enzyme activities were dependent on the concentration of dithiothreitol (DTT) or glutathione (GSH) and activated by addition of 0.5 mM Fe 2+ . Enzyme activity for ferulic acid was as high as for 4-coumaric acid in the presence of GSH, suggesting that GSH acts as an endogenous reductant in vanillin biosynthesis. Analyses of the enzymatic reaction products with quantitative NMR (qNMR) indicated that an amount of glyoxylic acid (GA) proportional to vanillin was released from ferulic acid by the enzymatic reaction. These results suggest that phenylpropanoid 2,3-dioxygenase is involved in the cleavage of the ferulic acid side chain to form vanillin and GA in Vanilla planifolia.

  14. Multilevel principal component analysis (mPCA) in shape analysis: A feasibility study in medical and dental imaging.

    PubMed

    Farnell, D J J; Popat, H; Richmond, S

    2016-06-01

    Methods used in image processing should reflect any multilevel structures inherent in the image dataset or they run the risk of functioning inadequately. We wish to test the feasibility of multilevel principal components analysis (PCA) to build active shape models (ASMs) for cases relevant to medical and dental imaging. Multilevel PCA was used to carry out model fitting to sets of landmark points and it was compared to the results of "standard" (single-level) PCA. Proof of principle was tested by applying mPCA to model basic peri-oral expressions (happy, neutral, sad) approximated to the junction between the mouth/lips. Monte Carlo simulations were used to create this data which allowed exploration of practical implementation issues such as the number of landmark points, number of images, and number of groups (i.e., "expressions" for this example). To further test the robustness of the method, mPCA was subsequently applied to a dental imaging dataset utilising landmark points (placed by different clinicians) along the boundary of mandibular cortical bone in panoramic radiographs of the face. Changes of expression that varied between groups were modelled correctly at one level of the model and changes in lip width that varied within groups at another for the Monte Carlo dataset. Extreme cases in the test dataset were modelled adequately by mPCA but not by standard PCA. Similarly, variations in the shape of the cortical bone were modelled by one level of mPCA and variations between the experts at another for the panoramic radiographs dataset. Results for mPCA were found to be comparable to those of standard PCA for point-to-point errors via miss-one-out testing for this dataset. These errors reduce with increasing number of eigenvectors/values retained, as expected. We have shown that mPCA can be used in shape models for dental and medical image processing. mPCA was found to provide more control and flexibility when compared to standard "single-level" PCA

  15. Hydroxycinnamic acid bound arabinoxylans from millet brans-structural features and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Bijalwan, Vandana; Ali, Usman; Kesarwani, Atul Kumar; Yadav, Kamalendra; Mazumder, Koushik

    2016-07-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acid bound arabinoxylans (HCA-AXs) were extracted from brans of five Indian millet varieties and response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction conditions. The optimal condition to obtain highest yield of millet HCA-AXs was determined as follows: time 61min, temperature 66°C, ratio of solvent to sample 12ml/g. Linkage analysis indicated that hydroxycinnamic acid bound arabinoxylan from kodo millet (KM-HCA-AX) contained comparatively low branched arabinoxylan consisting of 14.6% mono-substituted, 1.2% di-substituted and 41.2% un-substituted Xylp residues. The HPLC analysis of millet HCA-AXs showed significant variation in the content of three major bound hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acid). The antioxidant activity of millet HCA-AXs were evaluated using three in vitro assay methods (DPPH, FRAP and β-carotene linoleate emulsion assays) which suggested both phenolic acid composition and structural characteristics of arabinoxylans could be correlated to their antioxidant potential, the detailed structural analysis revealed that low substituted KM-HCA-AX exhibited relatively higher antioxidant activity compared to other medium and highly substituted HCA-AXs from finger (FM), proso (PM), barnyard (BM) and foxtail (FOXM) millet. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. 40 CFR 180.202 - p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances... Tolerances § 180.202 p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established for the combined residues of the plant regulator p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid and its metabolite p...

  17. 40 CFR 180.202 - p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances... Tolerances § 180.202 p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established for the combined residues of the plant regulator p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid and its metabolite p...

  18. 40 CFR 180.202 - p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances... Tolerances § 180.202 p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established for the combined residues of the plant regulator p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid and its metabolite p...

  19. Phenolic compounds in Ross Sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Kehrwald, Natalie; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are semi-volatile organic compounds produced during biomass burning and lignin degradation in water. In atmospheric and paleoclimatic ice cores studies, these compounds are used as biomarkers of wood combustion and supply information on the type of combusted biomass. Phenolic compounds are therefore indicators of paleoclimatic interest. Recent studies of Antarctic aerosols highlighted that phenolic compounds in Antarctica are not exclusively attributable to biomass burning but also derive from marine sources. In order to study the marine contribution to aerosols we developed an analytical method to determine the concentration of vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, isovanillic acid, homovanillic acid, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone present in dissolved and particle phases in Sea Ross waters using HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical method was validated and used to quantify phenolic compounds in 28 sea water samples collected during a 2012 Ross Sea R/V cruise. The observed compounds were vanillic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid with concentrations in the ng/L range. Higher concentrations of analytes were present in the dissolved phase than in the particle phase. Sample concentrations were greatest in the coastal, surficial and less saline Ross Sea waters near Victoria Land.

  20. Cold generation of smoke flavour by the first phenolic acid decarboxylase from a filamentous ascomycete - Isaria farinosa.

    PubMed

    Linke, Diana; Riemer, Stephanie J L; Schimanski, Silke; Nieter, Annabel; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G

    2017-09-01

    A decarboxylase (IfPAD) from the ascomycete Isaria farinosa converted ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG), a volatile which imparts the distinct "smoke flavor" of pyrolized wood. The activity was enhanced by adding (E)-ferulic acid to the culture medium and peaked with 3.6 U g -1 mycelium (1 μmol 4-VG min -1 ). The coding sequence of 543 bp was translated into a 25 kDa protein with a homology of 91 % to putative phenolic acid decarboxylases of its teleomorph, Cordyceps militaris, and Beauveria bassiana, the anamorph of Cordyceps bassiana. Cold shock expression in Escherichia coli yielded 411 U g -1 wet mass. Substrate conversion required a hydroxyl substituent para to a trans-unsaturated C3-side chain of the aromatic ring. K m and k cat /K m values were determined to 0.3 mM and 78.4 mM -1 s -1 for p-coumaric acid and 1.9 mM and 45.1 mM -1 s -1 for (E)-ferulic acid, respectively. The native enzyme and its recombinant counterpart showed pH-optima at pH 6.0 and pH 5.5, and low temperature optima of 19 °C and 14 °C, respectively. IfPAD produced 4-VG from destarched wheat bran and sugar beet fiber, confirming activity on complex plant biomass. This is the first report on the biochemical characterization of a phenolic acid decarboxylase from a filamentous ascomycete. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Engineering Escherichia coli Co-Cultures for Production of Curcuminoids From Glucose.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhen; Jones, John A; Zhou, Jingwen; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2018-05-01

    Curcuminoids (cus) have attracted increasing attention because of the antioxidant, anticancer, and antitumor activities while their production is limited because of its main source, turmeric plant, demonstrates extensive seasonal variation. In this study, we constructed Escherichia coli co-culture system for the rapid production of curcuminoids from glucose. Firstly, the overexpression of curcuminoid synthase and four different strategies related to increasing the intracellular malonyl-CoA pool were conducted in engineered E. coli. We found that bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) is the main product and that high level of malonyl-CoA pool is essential for BDMC production. We also obtained the maximum titer (13.8 mg L -1 ) of BDMC within 4 h by fast preparation directly from p-coumaric acid. Secondly, we developed a process for BDMC synthesis from glucose using a co-culture system where an E. coli strain is used to produce p-coumaric acid from glucose and another E. coli strain converted p-coumaric acid into the final product. Compared to the mono-culture system, the co-culture is more potent and resulted in 6.28 mg L -1 of BDMC from glucose within 22 h of fermentation in a 3-L bioreactor. This is the first time a co-culture method is employed for the production of curcuminoids from glucose in a lab scale bioreactor. This system provides a new method transforming inexpensive substrate into value-added products. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Growth of Azotobacter chroococcum in chemically defined media containing p-hydroxybenzoic acid and protocatechuic acid.

    PubMed

    Juarez, B; Martinez-Toledo, M V; Gonzalez-Lopez, J

    2005-06-01

    Growth and utilization of different phenolic acids present in olive mill wastewater (OMW) by Azotobacter chroococcum were studied in chemically defined media. Growth and utilization of phenolic acids were only detected when the microorganism was cultured on p-hydroxybenzoic acid at concentration from 0.01% to 0.5% (w/v) and protocatechuic acid at concentration from 0.01% to 0.3% (w/v) as sole carbon sources suggesting that only these phenolic compounds could be utilized as a carbon source by A. chroococcum. Moreover when culture media were added with a mixture of 0.3% of protocatechuic acid and 0.3% p-hydroxybenzoic acid, the microorganism degradated in first place protocatechuic acid and once the culture medium was depleted of this compound, the degradation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid commenced very fast.

  3. TOFA (5-tetradecyl-oxy-2-furoic acid) reduces fatty acid synthesis, inhibits expression of AR, neuropilin-1 and Mcl-1 and kills prostate cancer cells independent of p53 status.

    PubMed

    Guseva, Natalya V; Rokhlin, Oskar W; Glover, Rebecca A; Cohen, Michael B

    2011-07-01

    A key player in prostate cancer development and progression is the androgen receptor (AR). Tumor-associated lipogenesis can protect cancer cells from carcinogenic- and therapeutic-associated treatments. Increased synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol is regulated by androgens through induction of several genes in androgen-responsive cancer cells. Acetyl-CoA-carboxylase-α (ACCA) is a key enzyme in the regulation of fatty acids synthesis. Here we show that AR binds in vivo to intron regions of human ACCA gene. We also show that the level of ACCA protein in LNCaP depends on AR expression and that DHT treatment increases ACCA expression and fatty acid synthesis. Inhibition of ACCA by TOFA (5-tetradecyl-oxy-2-furoic acid) decreases fatty acid synthesis and induces caspase activation and cell death in most PCa cell lines. Our data suggest that TOFA can kill cells via the mitochondrial pathway since we found cytochrome c release after TOFA treatment in androgen sensitive cell lines. The results also imply that the pro-apoptotic effect of TOFA may be mediated via a decrease of neuropilin-1(NRP1) and Mcl-1expression. We have previously reported that Mcl-1 is under AR regulation and plays an important role in resistance to drug-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and NRP1 is known to regulate Mcl-1 expression. Here, we show for the first time that NRP1 expression is under AR control. Taken together, our data suggest that TOFA is a potent cell death inducing agent in prostate cancer cells.

  4. PCA3-based nomogram for predicting prostate cancer and high grade cancer on initial transrectal guided biopsy.

    PubMed

    Elshafei, Ahmed; Chevli, K Kent; Moussa, Ayman S; Kara, Onder; Chueh, Shih-Chieh; Walter, Peter; Hatem, Asmaa; Gao, Tianming; Jones, J Stephen; Duff, Michael

    2015-12-01

    To develop a validated prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) based nomogram that predicts likelihood of overall prostate cancer (PCa) and intermediate/high grade prostate cancer (HGPCa) in men pursuing initial transrectal prostate biopsy (TRUS-PBx). Data were collected on 3,675 men with serum prostate specific antigen level (PSA) ≤ 20 ng/ml who underwent initial prostate biopsy with at least 10 cores sampling at time of the biopsy. Two logistic regression models were constructed to predict overall PCa and HGPCa incorporating age, race, family history (FH) of PCa, PSA at diagnosis, PCA3, total prostate volume (TPV), and digital rectal exam (DRE). One thousand six hundred twenty (44%) patients had biopsy confirmed PCa with 701 men (19.1%) showing HGPCa. Statistically significant predictors of overall PCa were age (P < 0.0001, OR. 1.51), PSA at diagnosis (P < 0.0001, OR.1.95), PCA3 (P < 0.0001, OR.3.06), TPV (P < 0.0001, OR.0.47), FH (P = 0.003, OR.1.32), and abnormal DRE (P = 0.001, OR. 1.32). While for HGPCa, predictors were age (P < 0.0001, OR.1.77), PSA (P < 0.0001, OR.2.73), PCA3 (P < 0.0001, OR.2.26), TPV (P < 0.0001, OR.0.4), and DRE (P < 0.0001, OR.1.53). Two nomograms were reconstructed for predicted overall PCa probability at time of initial biopsy with a concordance index of 0.742 (Fig. 1), and HGPCa with a concordance index of 0.768 (Fig. 2). Our internally validated initial biopsy PCA3 based nomogram is reconstructed based on a large dataset. The c-index indicates high predictive accuracy, especially for high grade PCa and improves the ability to predict biopsy outcomes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. King's Health Partners' Prostate Cancer Biobank (KHP PCaBB).

    PubMed

    Saifuddin, S R; Devlies, W; Santaolalla, A; Cahill, F; George, G; Enting, D; Rudman, S; Cathcart, P; Challacombe, B; Dasgupta, P; Galustian, C; Chandra, A; Chowdhury, S; Gillett, C; Van Hemelrijck, M

    2017-11-22

    The KHP PCaBB was established in 2013 and recruits donors from the Urology or Oncology Departments at Guy's Hospital in London (UK). Prostate cancer patients may be approached to give their consent for biobanking at any point in their treatment pathway, which allows residual material from their earlier diagnosis to be transferred and used by the Biobank. Currently, patients are specifically asked to donate samples of blood and surplus prostate tissue as well as permitting access to their clinical and pathological data that continues to be added throughout the course of their disease. Between 2013 and 2015, 549 prostate cancer patients gave their consent to the biobank and, the tissue repository collected 489 blood samples, 120 frozen prostate tissue samples and 1064 formalin fixed paraffin embedded diagnostic blocks.Prostate cancer has become a chronic disease in a large proportion of men, with many men receiving multiple subsequent treatments, and their treatment trajectory often spanning over decades. Therefore, this resource aims to provide an ideal research platform to explore potential variations in treatment response as well as disease markers in the different risk categories for prostate cancer.A recent audit of the KHP PCaBB revealed that between 2013 and 2015, 1796 patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer at King's Health Partners (KHP), out of which 549 (30.6%) gave their consent to KHP PCaBB. Comparisons between demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who had consented compared to the total patient population revealed that the KHP PCaBB is demographically representative of the total prostate cancer patient population seen in Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust (GSTT). We observed no differences in distribution of ethnicity (p = 0.507) and socioeconomic status (p = 0.097). Some differences were observed in clinical characteristics, specifically with treatment type - which differed significantly between the patients who had

  6. Analyzing brain networks with PCA and conditional Granger causality.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenyu; Chen, Yonghong; Ding, Mingzhou; Wright, Paul; Lu, Zuhong; Liu, Yijun

    2009-07-01

    Identifying directional influences in anatomical and functional circuits presents one of the greatest challenges for understanding neural computations in the brain. Granger causality mapping (GCM) derived from vector autoregressive models of data has been employed for this purpose, revealing complex temporal and spatial dynamics underlying cognitive processes. However, the traditional GCM methods are computationally expensive, as signals from thousands of voxels within selected regions of interest (ROIs) are individually processed, and being based on pairwise Granger causality, they lack the ability to distinguish direct from indirect connectivity among brain regions. In this work a new algorithm called PCA based conditional GCM is proposed to overcome these problems. The algorithm implements the following two procedures: (i) dimensionality reduction in ROIs of interest with principle component analysis (PCA), and (ii) estimation of the direct causal influences in local brain networks, using conditional Granger causality. Our results show that the proposed method achieves greater accuracy in detecting network connectivity than the commonly used pairwise Granger causality method. Furthermore, the use of PCA components in conjunction with conditional GCM greatly reduces the computational cost relative to the use of individual voxel time series. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  7. A dietary phytochemical alters caste-associated gene expression in honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A.; Berenbaum, May R.

    2015-01-01

    In the eusocial honey bee Apis mellifera, with reproductive queens and sterile workers, a female larva’s developmental fate depends on its diet; nurse bees feed queen-destined larvae exclusively royal jelly, a glandular secretion, but worker-destined larvae receive royal jelly for 3 days and subsequently jelly to which honey and beebread are added. RNA-Seq analysis demonstrated that p-coumaric acid, which is ubiquitous in honey and beebread, differentially regulates genes involved in caste determination. Rearing larvae in vitro on a royal jelly diet to which p-coumaric acid has been added produces adults with reduced ovary development. Thus, consuming royal jelly exclusively not only enriches the diet of queen-destined larvae but also may protect them from inhibitory effects of phytochemicals present in the honey and beebread fed to worker-destined larvae. PMID:26601244

  8. Prediction of Protein Modification Sites of Pyrrolidone Carboxylic Acid Using mRMR Feature Selection and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lu-Lu; Niu, Shen; Hao, Pei; Feng, KaiYan; Cai, Yu-Dong; Li, Yixue

    2011-01-01

    Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA) is formed during a common post-translational modification (PTM) of extracellular and multi-pass membrane proteins. In this study, we developed a new predictor to predict the modification sites of PCA based on maximum relevance minimum redundancy (mRMR) and incremental feature selection (IFS). We incorporated 727 features that belonged to 7 kinds of protein properties to predict the modification sites, including sequence conservation, residual disorder, amino acid factor, secondary structure and solvent accessibility, gain/loss of amino acid during evolution, propensity of amino acid to be conserved at protein-protein interface and protein surface, and deviation of side chain carbon atom number. Among these 727 features, 244 features were selected by mRMR and IFS as the optimized features for the prediction, with which the prediction model achieved a maximum of MCC of 0.7812. Feature analysis showed that all feature types contributed to the modification process. Further site-specific feature analysis showed that the features derived from PCA's surrounding sites contributed more to the determination of PCA sites than other sites. The detailed feature analysis in this paper might provide important clues for understanding the mechanism of the PCA formation and guide relevant experimental validations. PMID:22174779

  9. MD-11 PCA - First Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A transport aircraft lands for the first time under engine power only, as this McDonnell Douglas MD-11 touches down at 11:38 a.m., Aug. 29, 1995, at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The milestone flight, flown by NASA research pilot and former astronaut Gordon Fullerton, was part of a NASA project to develop a computer-assisted engine control system that enables a pilot to land a plane safely when its normal control surfaces are disabled. The propulsion-Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system uses standard autopilot controls already present in the cockpit, together with the new programming in the aircraft's flight control computers. The PCA concept is simple--for pitch control, the program increases thrust to climb and reduces thrust to descend. To turn right, the autopilot increases the left engine thrust while decreasing the right engine thrust. The initial Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft studies by NASA were carried out at Dryden with a modified twin-engine F-15 research aircraft.

  10. MD-11 PCA - First Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This McDonnell Douglas MD-11 transport aircraft approaches its first landing under engine power only on Aug. 29, 1995, at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The milestone flight, flown by NASA research pilot and former astronaut Gordon Fullerton, was part of a NASA project to develop a computer-assisted engine control system that enables a pilot to land a plane safely when its normal control surfaces are disabled. The Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system uses standard autopilot controls already present in the cockpit, together with the new programming in the aircraft's flight control computers. The PCA concept is simple--for pitch control, the program increases thrust to climb and reduces thrust to descend. To turn right, the autopilot increases the left engine thrust while decreasing the right engine thrust. The initial Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft studies by NASA were carried out at Dryden with a modified twin-engine F-15 research aircraft.

  11. MD-11 PCA - First Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This McDonnell Douglas MD-11 approaches the first landing ever of a transport aircraft under engine power only on Aug. 29, 1995, at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The milestone flight, flown by NASA research pilot and former astronaut Gordon Fullerton, was part of a NASA project to develop a computer-assisted engine control system that enables a pilot to land a plane safely when it normal control surfaces are disabled. The Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system uses standard autopilot controls already present in the cockpit, together with the new programming in the aircraft's flight control computers. The PCA concept is simple--for pitch control, the program increases thrust to climb and reduces thrust to descend. To turn right, the autopilot increases the left engine thrust while decreasing the right engine thrust. The initial Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft studies by NASA were carried out at Dryden with a modified twin-engine F-15 research aircraft.

  12. MD-11 PCA - First Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A transport aircraft lands for the first time under engine power only, as this McDonnell Douglas MD-11 touches down at 11:38 a.m., Aug. 29, 1995, at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The milestone flight, flown by NASA research pilot and former astronaut Gordon Fullerton, was part of a NASA project to develop a computer-assisted engine control system that enables a pilot to land a plane safely when its normal control surfaces are disabled. The Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system uses standard autopilot controls already present in the cockpit, together with the new programming in the aircraft's flight control computers. The PCA concept is simple--for pitch control, the program increases thrust to climb and reduces thrust to descend. To turn right, the autopilot increases the left engine thrust while decreasing the right engine thrust. The initial Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft studies by NASA were carried out at Dryden with a modified twin-engine F-15 research aircraft.

  13. Vanillin formation from ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia is catalysed by a single enzyme.

    PubMed

    Gallage, Nethaji J; Hansen, Esben H; Kannangara, Rubini; Olsen, Carl Erik; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Holme, Inger; Hebelstrup, Kim; Grisoni, Michel; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2014-06-19

    Vanillin is a popular and valuable flavour compound. It is the key constituent of the natural vanilla flavour obtained from cured vanilla pods. Here we show that a single hydratase/lyase type enzyme designated vanillin synthase (VpVAN) catalyses direct conversion of ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. The enzyme shows high sequence similarity to cysteine proteinases and is specific to the substitution pattern at the aromatic ring and does not metabolize caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid as demonstrated by coupled transcription/translation assays. VpVAN localizes to the inner part of the vanilla pod and high transcript levels are found in single cells located a few cell layers from the inner epidermis. Transient expression of VpVAN in tobacco and stable expression in barley in combination with the action of endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and UDP-glucosyltransferases result in vanillyl alcohol glucoside formation from endogenous ferulic acid. A gene encoding an enzyme showing 71% sequence identity to VpVAN was identified in another vanillin-producing plant species Glechoma hederacea and was also shown to be a vanillin synthase as demonstrated by transient expression in tobacco.

  14. Vanillin formation from ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia is catalysed by a single enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Gallage, Nethaji J.; Hansen, Esben H.; Kannangara, Rubini; Olsen, Carl Erik; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Holme, Inger; Hebelstrup, Kim; Grisoni, Michel; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2014-01-01

    Vanillin is a popular and valuable flavour compound. It is the key constituent of the natural vanilla flavour obtained from cured vanilla pods. Here we show that a single hydratase/lyase type enzyme designated vanillin synthase (VpVAN) catalyses direct conversion of ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. The enzyme shows high sequence similarity to cysteine proteinases and is specific to the substitution pattern at the aromatic ring and does not metabolize caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid as demonstrated by coupled transcription/translation assays. VpVAN localizes to the inner part of the vanilla pod and high transcript levels are found in single cells located a few cell layers from the inner epidermis. Transient expression of VpVAN in tobacco and stable expression in barley in combination with the action of endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and UDP-glucosyltransferases result in vanillyl alcohol glucoside formation from endogenous ferulic acid. A gene encoding an enzyme showing 71% sequence identity to VpVAN was identified in another vanillin-producing plant species Glechoma hederacea and was also shown to be a vanillin synthase as demonstrated by transient expression in tobacco. PMID:24941968

  15. Physicochemical and mechanical properties of paracetamol cocrystal with 5-nitroisophthalic acid.

    PubMed

    Hiendrawan, Stevanus; Veriansyah, Bambang; Widjojokusumo, Edward; Soewandhi, Sundani Nurono; Wikarsa, Saleh; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R

    2016-01-30

    We report novel pharmaceutical cocrystal of a popular antipyretic drug paracetamol (PCA) with coformer 5-nitroisophhthalic acid (5NIP) to improve its tabletability. The cocrystal (PCA-5NIP at molar ratio of 1:1) was synthesized by solvent evaporation technique using methanol as solvent. The physicochemical properties of cocrystal were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot stage polarized microscopy (HSPM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stability of the cocrystal was assessed by storing them at 40°C/75% RH for one month. Compared to PCA, the cocrystal displayed superior tableting performance. PCA-5NIP cocrystal showed a similar dissolution profile as compared to PCA and exhibited good stability. This study showed the utility of PCA-5NIP cocrystal for improving mechanical properties of PCA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A simple method for enzymatic synthesis of unlabeled and radiolabeled Hydroxycinnamate-CoA

    SciTech Connect

    Rautergarten, Carsten; Baidoo, Edward; Keasling, Jay

    Hydroxycinnamate coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters are substrates for biosynthesis of lignin and hydroxycinna- mate esters of polysaccharides and other polymers. Hence, a supply of these substrates is essential for investigation of cell wall biosynthesis. In this study, three recombinant enzymes, caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase, 4-coumarate- CoA ligase 1, and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase 5, were cloned from wheat, tobacco, and Arabidopsis, respectively, and were used to synthesize {sup 14}C-feruloyl-CoA, caffeoyl-CoA, p-coumaroyl-CoA, feruloyl-CoA, and sinapoyl-CoA. The corresponding hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesters were high-performance liquid chromatography purified, the only extraction/purification step necessary, with total yields between 88-95%. Radiolabeled {sup 14}C-feruloyl-CoA was generated from caffeic acid and S-adenosyl-{supmore » 14}C-methionine under the combined action of caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase 1. About 70% of {sup 14}C-methyl groups from S-adenosyl methionine were incorporated into the final product. The methods presented are simple, fast, and efficient for the preparation of the hydroxycinnamate thioesters.« less

  17. Phylogenetic trends in phenolic metabolism of milkweeds (Asclepias): evidence for escalation.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Fishbein, Mark

    2009-03-01

    Although plant-defense theory has long predicted patterns of chemical defense across taxa, we know remarkably little about the evolution of defense, especially in the context of directional phylogenetic trends. Here we contrast the production of phenolics and cardenolides in 35 species of milkweeds (Asclepias and Gomphocarpus). Maximum-likelihood analyses of character evolution revealed three major patterns. First, consistent with the defense-escalation hypothesis, the diversification of the milkweeds was associated with a trend for increasing phenolic production; this pattern was reversed (a declining evolutionary trend) for cardenolides, toxins sequestered by specialist herbivores. Second, phylogenetically independent correlations existed among phenolic classes across species. For example, coumaric acid derivatives showed negatively correlated evolution with caffeic acid derivatives, and this was likely driven by the fact that the former are used as precursors for the latter. In contrast, coumaric acid derivatives were positively correlated with flavonoids, consistent with competition for the precursor p-coumaric acid. Finally, of the phenolic classes, only flavonoids showed correlated evolution (positive) with cardenolides, consistent with a physiological and evolutionary link between the two via malonate. Thus, this study presents a rigorous test of the defense-escalation hypothesis and a novel phylogenetic approach to understanding the long-term persistence of physiological constraints on secondary metabolism.

  18. Flavonoids and terpenoids from Luma gayana (Barn.) Burret.

    PubMed

    Wächter, G A; Wangmaneerat, A; Caple, K M; Montenegro, G; Timmermann, B N

    1999-12-01

    The flavonoids 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone, 6,8-dimethyl-5,7-dihydroxyflavanone and 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone, a mixture of alkyl esters of p-coumaric acid, the triterpenoids oleanolic acid and maslinic acid, the monoterpenoid 1 alpha,2 beta,4 beta-trihydroxy-p-menthane, the sesquiterpenoid clovandiol and beta-sitosterol were isolated from the aerial parts of Luma gayana (Barn.) Burret. This is the first report on the chemistry of this species.

  19. Geochemical Constraints for Mercury's PCA-Derived Geochemical Terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockstill-Cahill, K. R.; Peplowski, P. N.

    2018-05-01

    PCA-derived geochemical terranes provide a robust, analytical means of defining these terranes using strictly geochemical inputs. Using the end members derived in this way, we are able to assess the geochemical implications for Mercury.

  20. Analgesia Following Major Gynecological Laparoscopic Surgery - PCA versus Intermittent Intramuscular Injection

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Alan M.; Carlton, Mark A.; Cario, Gregory M.; McBride, Lindsay

    1998-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To compare the use of patient-controlled analgesia to intermittent intramuscular injections of morphine following major gynecological laparoscopic procedures in order to assess differences in level of pain, sedation, episodes of nausea and/or vomiting, hospitalization time and patient satisfaction with their postoperative analgesia. Methods: Seventy-two patients undergoing major gynecological laparoscopic surgery were randomized to receive either postoperative analgesia via intermittent intramuscular injection of morphine (Group 1) or patient controlled analgesia (PCA - Group 2). All patients received anesthesia via a standardized protocol. Postoperative pain levels were recorded via a 10 cm visual analogue scale, and sedation scores were recorded on a standard PCA form. Episodes of nausea and vomiting were also recorded on the same form. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between intramuscular analgesia and PCA for any of the factors studied. Most significantly it was found that most patients ceased to require either form of parenteral analgesia within 24 hours of their procedure, regardless of the operating time. Conclusion: It is important for the surgeon to be aware of the effects of postoperative analgesia on his or her patients' level of satisfaction. We do not recommend the use of PCA analgesia following major laparoscopic gynecological surgery. PMID:9876706

  1. Characterization of Cell Wall Components and Their Modifications during Postharvest Storage of Asparagus officinalis L.: Storage-Related Changes in Dietary Fiber Composition.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Judith; Wagner, Steffen; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-01-20

    Changes in cell wall composition during storage of plant foods potentially alter the physiological effects of dietary fiber components. To investigate postharvest cell wall modifications of asparagus and their consequences in terms of insoluble dietary fiber structures, asparagus was stored at 20 and 1 °C for different periods of time. Structural analyses demonstrated postharvest changes in the polysaccharide profile, dominated by decreased portions of galactans. Increasing lignin contents correlated with compositional changes (monolignol ratios and linkage types) of the lignin polymer as demonstrated by chemical and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) methods. Depending on the storage time and temperature, syringyl units were preferentially incorporated into the lignin polymer. Furthermore, a drastic increase in the level of ester-linked phenolic monomers (i.e., p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) and polymer cross-links (di- and triferulic acids) was detected. The attachment of p-coumaric acid to lignin was demonstrated by 2D-NMR experiments. Potential consequences of postharvest modifications on physiological effects of asparagus dietary fiber are discussed.

  2. Membrane protein complexes catalyze both 4- and 3-hydroxylation of cinnamic acid derivatives in monolignol biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsi-Chuan; Li, Quanzi; Shuford, Christopher M.; Liu, Jie; Muddiman, David C.; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Chiang, Vincent L.

    2011-01-01

    The hydroxylation of 4- and 3-ring carbons of cinnamic acid derivatives during monolignol biosynthesis are key steps that determine the structure and properties of lignin. Individual enzymes have been thought to catalyze these reactions. In stem differentiating xylem (SDX) of Populus trichocarpa, two cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylases (PtrC4H1 and PtrC4H2) and a p-coumaroyl ester 3-hydroxylase (PtrC3H3) are the enzymes involved in these reactions. Here we present evidence that these hydroxylases interact, forming heterodimeric (PtrC4H1/C4H2, PtrC4H1/C3H3, and PtrC4H2/C3H3) and heterotrimeric (PtrC4H1/C4H2/C3H3) membrane protein complexes. Enzyme kinetics using yeast recombinant proteins demonstrated that the enzymatic efficiency (Vmax/km) for any of the complexes is 70–6,500 times greater than that of the individual proteins. The highest increase in efficiency was found for the PtrC4H1/C4H2/C3H3-mediated p-coumaroyl ester 3-hydroxylation. Affinity purification-quantitative mass spectrometry, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, chemical cross-linking, and reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation provide further evidence for these multiprotein complexes. The activities of the recombinant and SDX plant proteins demonstrate two protein-complex–mediated 3-hydroxylation paths in monolignol biosynthesis in P. trichocarpa SDX; one converts p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid and the other converts p-coumaroyl shikimic acid to caffeoyl shikimic acid. Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylation is also mediated by the same protein complexes. These results provide direct evidence for functional involvement of membrane protein complexes in monolignol biosynthesis. PMID:22160716

  3. 5-HT loss in rat brain following 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), p-chloroamphetamine and fenfluramine administration and effects of chlormethiazole and dizocilpine.

    PubMed Central

    Colado, M. I.; Murray, T. K.; Green, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    1. The present study has investigated whether the neurotoxic effects of the relatively selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurotoxins, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'Ecstasy'), p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) and fenfluramine on hippocampal and cortical 5-HT terminals in rat brain could be prevented by administration of either chlormethiazole or dizocilpine. 2. Administration of MDMA (20 mg kg-1, i.p.) resulted in an approximate 30% loss of cortical and hippocampal 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) content 4 days later. Injection of chlormethiazole (50 mg kg-1) 5 min before and 55 min after the MDMA provided complete protection in both regions, while dizocilpine (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) protected only the hippocampus. 3. Administration of a single dose of chlormethiazole (100 mg kg-1) 20 min after the MDMA also provided complete protection to the hippocampus but not the cortex. This regime also attenuated the sustained hyperthermia (approx +2.5 degrees C) induced by the MDMA injection. 4. Injection of PCA (5 mg kg-1, i.p.) resulted in a 70% loss of 5-HT and 5-HIAA content in hippocampus and cortex 4 days later. Injection of chlormethiazole (100 mg kg-1, i.p.) or dizocilpine (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) 5 min before and 55 min after the PCA failed to protect against the neurotoxicity, nor was protection afforded by chlormethiazole when a lower dose of PCA (2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) was given which produced only a 30% loss of 5-HT content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7682129

  4. Cloning and functional characterization of a p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Knollenberg, Benjamin J; Liu, Jingjing; Yu, Shu; Lin, Hong; Tian, Li

    2018-02-05

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) plays an important role in protecting plants against pathogens and promoting human health. Although CGA accumulates to high levels in potato tubers, the key enzyme p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) for CGA biosynthesis has not been isolated and functionally characterized in potato. In this work, we cloned StC3'H from potato and showed that it catalyzed the formation of caffeoylshikimate and CGA (caffeoylquinate) from p-coumaroyl shikimate and p-coumaroyl quinate, respectively, but was inactive towards p-coumaric acid in in vitro enzyme assays. When the expression of StC3'H proteins was blocked through antisense (AS) inhibition under the control of a tuber-specific patatin promoter, moderate changes in tuber yield as well as phenolic metabolites in the core tuber tissue were observed for several AS lines. On the other hand, the AS and control potato lines exhibited similar responses to a bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum. These results suggest that StC3'H is implicated in phenolic metabolism in potato. They also suggest that CGA accumulation in the core tissue of potato tubers is an intricately controlled process and that additional C3'H activity may also be involved in CGA biosynthesis in potato. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization and purification of a bacterial chlorogenic acid esterase detected during the extraction of chlorogenic acid from arbuscular mycorrhizal tomato roots.

    PubMed

    Negrel, Jonathan; Javelle, Francine; Morandi, Dominique; Lucchi, Géraldine

    2016-12-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium able to grow using chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid) as sole carbon source has been isolated from the roots of tomato plants inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. An intracellular esterase exhibiting very high affinity (K m  = 2 μM) for chlorogenic acid has been extracted and purified by FPLC from the chlorogenate-grown cultures of this bacterium. The molecular mass of the purified esterase determined by SDS-PAGE was 61 kDa and its isoelectric point determined by chromatofocusing was 7.75. The esterase hydrolysed chlorogenic acid analogues (caffeoylshikimate, and the 4- and 3-caffeoylquinic acid isomers), feruloyl esterases substrates (methyl caffeate and methyl ferulate), and even caffeoyl-CoA in vitro but all of them were less active than chlorogenic acid, demonstrating that the esterase is a genuine chlorogenic acid esterase. It was also induced when the bacterial strain was cultured in the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric or ferulic acid) as sole carbon source, but not in the presence of simple phenolics such as catechol or protocatechuic acid, nor in the presence of organic acids such as succinic or quinic acids. The purified esterase was remarkably stable in the presence of methanol, rapid formation of methyl caffeate occurring when its activity was measured in aqueous solutions containing 10-60% methanol. Our results therefore show that this bacterial chlorogenase can catalyse the transesterification reaction previously detected during the methanolic extraction of chlorogenic acid from arbuscular mycorrhizal tomato roots. Data are presented suggesting that colonisation by Rhizophagus irregularis could increase chlorogenic acid exudation from tomato roots, especially in nutrient-deprived plants, and thus favour the growth of chlorogenate-metabolizing bacteria on the root surface or in the mycorhizosphere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  6. Synthesis, Structural Characterization and Physicochemical Properties of Polymers Formed by Diazotization of 3-Amino-L-tyrosine and Closely Related Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-06

    the possibility that a diazotization at the aliphatic (alpha) amino group might lead to deamination with the formation of a cinnamic acid derivative...symmetric chlorinated/nitrated cinnamic acid derivative, and might not provide unequivocal connectivity information, although it could suggest ring...substituted aromatic ring, i.e., it is more like the spectrum of p-coumaric acid than the desired 3-amino-4-hydroxy- cinnamic acid , which would be

  7. Principal component analysis of phenolic acid spectra

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phenolic acids are common plant metabolites that exhibit bioactive properties and have applications in functional food and animal feed formulations. The ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectra of four closely related phenolic acid structures were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) to...

  8. Laccase catalysed grafting of phenolic onto xylan to improve its applicability in films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Jicheng; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Fangdong; Li, Zhongyang; Yin, Yunbei; Zhang, Dongxu

    2015-07-01

    Xylan can be tailored for various value-added applications. However, its use in aqueous systems is hampered by its complex structure, and small molecular weight. This research aimed at improving the xylan molecular weight and changing its structure. Laccase-catalysed oxidation of 4-coumaric acid (PCA), ferulic acid (FA), syringaldehyde (SD), and vanillin (VA) onto xylan was grafted to study the changes in its structure, tensile properties, and antibacterial activities. A Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum analyser was used to observe the changes in functional groups of xylan. The results showed a band at 1635 cm-1 corresponding to the stretching vibration of conjugated carbonyl carboxy hemoglobin and a benzene ring structure were strengthened; the appearance of a new band between 1200 cm-1 and 1270 cm-1 corresponding to alkyl ethers on the aryl C-O stretching vibration was due to the fact that during the grafting process, the number of benzene ring structures increased and covalent connections occurred between phenols and xylan. The reaction mechanism for the laccase-catalysed oxidation of phenol compounds onto xylan was preliminary explored by 13C-NMR. The results showed that PCA-xylan, FA-xylan graft poly onto xylan by Cγ ester bond, SD-xylan graft poly onto xylan by ether bond and an ester bond, and VD-xylan graft poly onto xylan by ether bond. The film strength of xylan derivatives has been significantly increased, especially for the PCA-xylan derivative. The increases in tensile stress at break, tensile strength, tensile yield stress, and Young's modulus were: 24.04%, 31.30%, 55.56%, and 28.21%, respectively. After laccase/phenolics were modified, xylan had a good antibacterial effect to E. coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Bacillus subtilis. The SD-xylan, FA-xylan, and PCA-xylan showed a greater efficacy against E. coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Bacillus subtilis, respectively.

  9. Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion, Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Polyphenols from Red Chiltepin (Capsicum annuum L. Var. glabriusculum) Grown in Northwest Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ovando-Martínez, Maribel; Gámez-Meza, Nohemí; Molina-Domínguez, Claudia Celeste; Hayano-Kanashiro, Corina; Medina-Juárez, Luis Angel

    2018-06-01

    Chiltepin, a wild chili mostly used in different traditional foods and traditional medicine in Northwest Mexico, represents a source of polyphenols. However, studies about the bioaccessibility of polyphenols as a parameter to measure the nutritional quality and bioefficacy of them in the fruit after consumption are scarce. Chiltepin showed phenolic acids and flavonoids contents between 387 and 65 μg/g, respectively. Nevertheless, these values decreased after the digestion process. Before digestion, gallic acid, 4-hydroxibenzoinc acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin and luteolin were the main polyphenols found in chiltepin by HPLC-DAD and confirmed by FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MS. Gallic and chlorogenic acids were non-detected in the gastric phase, while only p-coumaric acid (5.35 ± 3.89 μg/g), quercetin (5.91 ± 0.92 μg/g) and luteolin (2.86 ± 0.62 μg/g) were found in the intestinal phase. The bioaccessibility of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and total polyphenols after the intestinal phase was around 24, 17 and 23%, respectively. Overall, results indicated that release of polyphenols from chiltepin fruit might be affected by the food matrix and gastrointestinal conditions due to the low bioaccessibility values observed.

  10. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced from new Brazilian varieties planted in the Northeast Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos Dos Santos; Silani, Igor de Souza Veras; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2014-10-15

    The phenolic compounds, organic acids and the antioxidant activity were determined for grape juice samples from new Brazilian varieties grown in the Sub-middle São Francisco Valley in the Northeast Region of Brazil. The results showed that the Brazilian grape juices have high antioxidant activity, which was significantly correlated with the phenolic compounds catechin, epicatechin gallate, procyanidin B1, rutin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyaniding-3,5-diglucoside and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The produced juice samples showed higher concentrations of trans-resveratrol than those observed in juices made from different varieties of grapes from traditional growing regions. Organic acids concentrations were similar to those of juices produced from other classical varieties. It was demonstrated that it is possible to prepare juices from grapes of new varieties grown in the Northeast of Brazil containing a high content of bioactive compounds and typical characteristics of the tropical viticulture practised in the Sub-middle São Francisco Valley. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mathematical evaluation of the amino acid and polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of fruits from different apricot cultivars.

    PubMed

    Sochor, Jiri; Skutkova, Helena; Babula, Petr; Zitka, Ondrej; Cernei, Natalia; Rop, Otakar; Krska, Boris; Adam, Vojtech; Provazník, Ivo; Kizek, Rene

    2011-09-01

    Functional foods are of interest because of their significant effects on human health, which can be connected with the presence of some biologically important compounds. In this study, we carried out complex analysis of 239 apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivated in Lednice (climatic area T4), South Moravia, Czech Republic. Almost all previously published studies have focused only on analysis of certain parameters. However, we focused on detection both primary and secondary metabolites in a selection of apricot cultivars with respect to their biological activity. The contents of thirteen biogenic alpha-L-amino acids (arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, lysine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline and alanine) were determined using ion exchange chromatography with UV-Vis spectrometry detection. Profile of polyphenols, measured as content of ten polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties (gallic acid, procatechinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferrulic acid and quercetrin), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometric/electrochemical detection. Moreover, content of total phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined using five independent spectrophotometric methods: DPPH assay, DMPD method, ABTS method, FRAP and Free Radicals methods. Considering the complexity of the obtained data, they were processed and correlated using bioinformatics techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis). The studied apricot cultivars were clustered according to their common biochemical properties, which has not been done before. The observed similarities and differences were discussed.

  12. PCA based clustering for brain tumor segmentation of T1w MRI images.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Irem Ersöz; Pehlivanlı, Ayça Çakmak; Sekizkardeş, Emine Gezmez; Ibrikci, Turgay

    2017-03-01

    Medical images are huge collections of information that are difficult to store and process consuming extensive computing time. Therefore, the reduction techniques are commonly used as a data pre-processing step to make the image data less complex so that a high-dimensional data can be identified by an appropriate low-dimensional representation. PCA is one of the most popular multivariate methods for data reduction. This paper is focused on T1-weighted MRI images clustering for brain tumor segmentation with dimension reduction by different common Principle Component Analysis (PCA) algorithms. Our primary aim is to present a comparison between different variations of PCA algorithms on MRIs for two cluster methods. Five most common PCA algorithms; namely the conventional PCA, Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis (PPCA), Expectation Maximization Based Principal Component Analysis (EM-PCA), Generalize Hebbian Algorithm (GHA), and Adaptive Principal Component Extraction (APEX) were applied to reduce dimensionality in advance of two clustering algorithms, K-Means and Fuzzy C-Means. In the study, the T1-weighted MRI images of the human brain with brain tumor were used for clustering. In addition to the original size of 512 lines and 512 pixels per line, three more different sizes, 256 × 256, 128 × 128 and 64 × 64, were included in the study to examine their effect on the methods. The obtained results were compared in terms of both the reconstruction errors and the Euclidean distance errors among the clustered images containing the same number of principle components. According to the findings, the PPCA obtained the best results among all others. Furthermore, the EM-PCA and the PPCA assisted K-Means algorithm to accomplish the best clustering performance in the majority as well as achieving significant results with both clustering algorithms for all size of T1w MRI images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Degradation kinetics of chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid at neutral and alkaline pH values].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Peng; Miao, Xiao-lei; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The degradation kinetics of chlorogenic acid (5-CQA), cryptochlorogenic acid (4-CQA), and neochlorogenic acid (3-CQA) in aqueous solution at 37 degrees C and different pH values (7.05, 7.96, 9.25) were investigated in the present work. The results indicated that 3-, 4- and 5-CQA tended to remain stable in acidic pH circumstance, and unstable in neutral and alkaline pH circumstance. With the increase of the alkalinity, the degradation of 3-, 4- and 5-CQA was increased leading to a less amount of total CQA and was satisfactorily described by the Weibull equation. Meanwhile, caffeic acid was not detected after the degradation of CQA. Moreover, the degradation of 3-CQA and 5-CQA tended to be converted to 4-CQA, and the degradation of 4-CQA tended to be converted to 3-CQA rather than 5-CQA. The comparison of the degradation kinetics parameters of 3-, 4- and 5-CQA at neutral and alkaline pH values showed that the orders of the rate constant (k) values were 4-CQA > 3-CQA > 5-CQA, while the orders of the degradation half life (t½) values were 4-CQA < 3-CQA < 5-CQA, indicating the orders of the stabilities of 3-, 4- and 5-CQA at 37 degrees C and neutral and alkaline pH values were 4-CQA < 3-CQA < 5-CQA.

  14. A new 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene from Dendrobium moniliforme.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ningdong; Yang, Guangyu; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lijun; Chen, Yegao

    2016-01-01

    A new 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene,1,5-dihydroxy-3,4,7-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (1) was isolated and identified from the whole plants of Dendrobium moniliforme, as well as 24 known compounds including hircinol (2), (2R*,3S*)-3-hydroxymethyl-9-methoxy-2-(4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-phenanthro[4,3-b]furan-5,11-diol (3), diospyrosin (4), aloifol I (5), moscatilin (6), 3,4'-dihydroxy-3',4,5-trimethoxybibenzyl (7), gigantol (8), 3,3'-dihydroxy-4,5-dimethoxybibenzyl (9), longicornuol A (10), N-trans-cinnamoyltyramine (11), paprazine (12), N-trans-feruloyl 3'-O-methyldopamine (13), moupinamide (14), dihydroconiferyl dihydro-p-coumarate (15), dihydrosinapyl dihydro-p-coumarate (16), 3-isopropyl-5-acetoxycyclohexene-2-one-1 (17), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (18), vanillin (19), p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (20), vanillic acid (21), protocatechuic acid (22), (+)-syringaresinol (23), β-sitosterol (24) and daucosterol (25). Compounds 3, 4, 13, 16, 17 and 20 were isolated from the Dendrobium genus for the first time, and compounds 2, 5, 7, 9-12, 14, 15, 18, 21 and 22 were originally obtained from D. moniliforme.

  15. Secondary Metabolites Production and Plant Growth Promotion by Pseudomonas chlororaphis and P. aurantiaca Strains Isolated from Cactus, Cotton, and Para Grass.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Izzah; Rizwan, Muhammad; Baig, Deeba Noreen; Saleem, Rahman Shahzaib; Malik, Kauser A; Mehnaz, Samina

    2017-03-28

    Fluorescent pseudomonads have been isolated from halophytes, mesophytes, and xerophytes of Pakistan. Among these, eight isolates, GS-1, GS-3, GS-4, GS-6, GS-7, FS-2 (cactus), ARS-38 (cotton), and RP-4 (para grass), showed antifungal activity and were selected for detailed study. Based on biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequences, these were identified as strains of P. chlororaphis subsp. chlororaphis and aurantiaca . Secondary metabolites of these strains were analyzed by LC-MS. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), 2-hydroxy-phenazine, Cyclic Lipopeptide (white line-inducing principle (WLIP)), and lahorenoic acid A were detected in variable amounts in these strains. P. aurantiaca PB-St2 was used as a reference as it is known for the production of these compounds. The phzO and PCA genes were amplified to assure that production of these compounds is not an artifact. Indole acetic acid production was confirmed and quantified by HPLC. HCN and siderophore production by all strains was observed by plate assays. These strains did not solubilize phosphate, but five strains were positive for zinc solubilization. Wheat seedlings were inoculated with these strains to observe their effect on plant growth. P. aurantiaca strains PB-St2 and GS-6 and P. chlororaphis RP-4 significantly increased both root and shoot dry weights, as compared with uninoculated plants. However, P. aurantiaca strains FS-2 and ARS-38 significantly increased root and shoot dry weights, respectively. All strains except PB-St2 and ARS-38 significantly increased the root length. This is the first report of the isolation of P. aurantiaca from cotton and cactus, P. chlororaphis from para grass, WLIP and lahorenoic acid A production by P. chlororaphis , and zinc solubilization by P. chlororaphis and P. aurantiaca .

  16. Genome Sequence of Sphingomonas wittichii DP58, the First Reported Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid-Degrading Strain

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhiwei; Shen, Xuemei; Wang, Wei; Peng, Huasong; Xu, Ping; Zhang, Xuehong

    2012-01-01

    Sphingomonas wittichii DP58 (CCTCC M 2012027), the first reported phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA)-degrading strain, was isolated from pimiento rhizosphere soils. Here we present a 5.6-Mb assembly of its genome. This sequence would contribute to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of PCA degradation to improve the antifungal's effectiveness or remove superfluous PCA. PMID:22689229

  17. Heterologous production and characterization of a chlorogenic acid esterase from Ustilago maydis with a potential use in baking.

    PubMed

    Nieter, Annabel; Kelle, Sebastian; Takenberg, Meike; Linke, Diana; Bunzel, Mirko; Popper, Lutz; Berger, Ralf G

    2016-10-15

    Ustilago maydis, an edible mushroom growing on maize (Zea mays), is consumed as the food delicacy huitlacoche in Mexico. A chlorogenic acid esterase from this basidiomycete was expressed in good yields cultivating the heterologous host Pichia pastoris on the 5L bioreactor scale (reUmChlE; 45.9UL(-1)). In contrast to previously described chlorogenic acid esterases, the reUmChlE was also active towards feruloylated saccharides. The enzyme preferred substrates with the ferulic acid esterified to the O-5 position of arabinose residues, typical of graminaceous monocots, over the O-2 position of arabinose or the O-6 position of galactose residues. Determination of kcat/Km showed that the reUmChlE hydrolyzed chlorogenic acid 18-fold more efficiently than methyl ferulate, p-coumarate or caffeate. Phenolic acids were released by reUmChlE from natural substrates, such as destarched wheat bran, sugar beet pectin and coffee pulp. Treatment of wheat dough using reUmChlE resulted in a noticeable softening indicating a potential application of the enzyme in bakery and confectionery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prostate health index and prostate cancer gene 3 score but not percent-free Prostate Specific Antigen have a predictive role in differentiating histological prostatitis from PCa and other nonneoplastic lesions (BPH and HG-PIN) at repeat biopsy.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Stefano; Passera, Roberto; Fiori, Cristian; Bollito, Enrico; Cappia, Susanna; Mario Scarpa, Roberto; Sottile, Antonino; Franco Randone, Donato; Porpiglia, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    To determine if prostate health index (PHI), prostate cancer antigen gene 3 (PCA3) score, and percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) may be used to differentiate asymptomatic acute and chronic prostatitis from prostate cancer (PCa), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN) in patients with elevated PSA levels and negative findings on digital rectal examination at repeat biopsy (re-Bx). In this prospective study, 252 patients were enrolled, undergoing PHI, PCA3 score, and %fPSA assessments before re-Bx. We used 3 multivariate logistic regression models to test the PHI, PCA3 score, and %fPSA as risk factors for prostatitis vs. PCa, vs. BPH, and vs. HG-PIN. All the analyses were performed for the whole patient cohort and for the "gray zone" of PSA (4-10ng/ml) cohort (171 individuals). Of the 252 patients, 43 (17.1%) had diagnosis of PCa. The median PHI was significantly different between men with a negative biopsy and those with a positive biopsy (34.9 vs. 48.1, P<0.001), as for the PCA3 score (24 vs. 54, P<0.001) and %fPSA (11.8% vs. 15.8%, P = 0.012). The net benefit of using PCA3 and PHI to differentiate prostatitis and PCa was moderate, although it extended to a good range of threshold probabilities (40%-100%), whereas that from using %fPSA was negligible: this pattern was reported for the whole population as for the "gray zone" PSA cohort. In front of a good diagnostic performance of all the 3 biomarkers in distinguishing negative biopsy vs. positive biopsy, the clinical benefit of using the PCA3 score and PHI to estimate prostatitis vs. PCa was comparable. PHI was the only determinant for prostatitis vs. BPH, whereas no biomarkers could differentiate prostate inflammation from HG-PIN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    PubMed

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  20. Association between Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Ancestry and Aggressive Prostate Cancer among African Americans and European Americans in PCaP

    PubMed Central

    Steck, Susan E.; Arab, Lenore; Zhang, Hongmei; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Johnson, Candace S.; Mohler, James L.; Smith, Gary J.; Su, Joseph L.; Trump, Donald L.; Woloszynska-Read, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background African Americans (AAs) have lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] concentrations and higher prostate cancer (CaP) aggressiveness than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between plasma 25(OH)D3, African ancestry and CaP aggressiveness among AAs and European Americans (EAs). Methods Plasma 25(OH)D3 was measured using LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry) in 537 AA and 663 EA newly-diagnosed CaP patients from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP) classified as having either ‘high’ or ‘low’ aggressive disease based on clinical stage, Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Mean plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations were compared by proportion of African ancestry. Logistic regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for high aggressive CaP by tertile of plasma 25(OH)D3. Results AAs with highest percent African ancestry (>95%) had the lowest mean plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Overall, plasma 25(OH)D3 was associated positively with aggressiveness among AA men, an association that was modified by calcium intake (ORT3vs.T1: 2.23, 95%CI: 1.26–3.95 among men with low calcium intake, and ORT3vs.T1: 0.19, 95%CI: 0.05–0.70 among men with high calcium intake). Among EAs, the point estimates of the ORs were <1.0 for the upper tertiles with CIs that included the null. Conclusions Among AAs, plasma 25(OH)D3 was associated positively with CaP aggressiveness among men with low calcium intake and inversely among men with high calcium intake. The clinical significance of circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and interactions with calcium intake in the AA population warrants further study. PMID:25919866

  1. Ellagic acid, phenolic acids, and flavonoids in Malaysian honey extracts demonstrate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Mustafa; Achoui, Mouna; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Mohd, Mustafa Ali; Yusoff, Kamaruddin Mohd

    2010-09-01

    Natural honey has been used in traditional medicine of different cultures throughout the world. This study looked into the extraction of Malaysian honey and the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts. It was hypothesized that honey extracts contain varying amounts of phenolic compounds and that they possess different in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. Honey extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify and compare phenolic compounds, whereas high-performance liquid chromatography was used for their quantification. Subsequently, honey methanol extract (HME) and honey ethyl acetate extract (HEAE) were tested in vitro for their effect on nitric oxide production in stimulated macrophages. The extracts were also tested for their effects on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) cytotoxicity in L929 cells. The major phenolics in the extracts were ellagic, gallic, and ferulic acids; myricetin; chlorogenic acid; and caffeic acid. Other compounds found in lower concentrations were hesperetin, p-coumaric acid, chrysin, quercetin, luteolin, and kaempferol. Ellagic acid was the most abundant of the phenolic compounds recorded, with mean concentrations of 3295.83 and 626.74 μg/100 g of honey in HME and HEAE, respectively. The median maximal effective concentrations for in vitro nitric oxide inhibition by HEAE and HME were calculated to be 37.5 and 271.7 μg/mL, respectively. The median maximal effective concentrations for protection from TNF cytotoxicity by HEAE and HME were 168.1 and 235.4 μg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, HEAE exhibited greater activity in vitro, whereas HME contained a higher concentration of phenolic compounds per 100 g of honey. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of Oral Pathogens Adhesion to Human Gingival Fibroblasts by Wine Polyphenols Alone and in Combination with an Oral Probiotic.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Zorraquín-Peña, Irene; Ferrer, Maria D; Mira, Alex; Bartolomé, Begoña; González de Llano, Dolores; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

    2018-03-07

    Several benefits have been described for red wine polyphenols and probiotic strains in the promotion of colonic metabolism and health. On the contrary, knowledge about their role in the management of oral health is still scarce. In this work, the antiadhesive capacity of selected red wine polyphenols and oenological extracts against the oral pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Streptococcus mutans in an in vitro model of human gingival fibroblasts has been explored as well as their complementary action with the candidate oral probiotic Streptococcus dentisani. Results highlighted the antiadhesive capacity of caffeic and p-coumaric acids as well as grape seed and red wine oenological extracts. Both, caffeic and p-coumaric acids increased their inhibition potential against S. mutans adhesion when combined with S. dentisani. Additionally, UHPLC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated the oral metabolism of wine phenolics due to both, cellular and bacterial activity.

  3. Acidic pH promotes intervertebral disc degeneration: Acid-sensing ion channel -3 as a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Hamish T J; Hodson, Nathan; Baird, Pauline; Richardson, Stephen M; Hoyland, Judith A

    2016-11-17

    The aetiology of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration remains poorly understood. Painful IVD degeneration is associated with an acidic intradiscal pH but the response of NP cells to this aberrant microenvironmental factor remains to be fully characterised. The aim here was to address the hypothesis that acidic pH, similar to that found in degenerate IVDs, leads to the altered cell/functional phenotype observed during IVD degeneration, and to investigate the involvement of acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) -3 in the response. Human NP cells were treated with a range of pH, from that of a non-degenerate (pH 7.4 and 7.1) through to mildly degenerate (pH 6.8) and severely degenerate IVD (pH 6.5 and 6.2). Increasing acidity of pH caused a decrease in cell proliferation and viability, a shift towards matrix catabolism and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and pain-related factors. Acidic pH resulted in an increase in ASIC-3 expression. Importantly, inhibition of ASIC-3 prevented the acidic pH induced proinflammatory and pain-related phenotype in NP cells. Acidic pH causes a catabolic and degenerate phenotype in NP cells which is inhibited by blocking ASIC-3 activity, suggesting that this may be a useful therapeutic target for treatment of IVD degeneration.

  4. Cell wall modifications triggered by the down-regulation of Coumarate 3-hydroxylase-1 in maize.

    PubMed

    Fornalé, Silvia; Rencoret, Jorge; Garcia-Calvo, Laura; Capellades, Montserrat; Encina, Antonio; Santiago, Rogelio; Rigau, Joan; Gutiérrez, Ana; Del Río, José-Carlos; Caparros-Ruiz, David

    2015-07-01

    Coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) catalyzes a key step of the synthesis of the two main lignin subunits, guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) in dicotyledonous species. As no functional data are available in regards to this enzyme in monocotyledonous species, we generated C3H1 knock-down maize plants. The results obtained indicate that C3H1 participates in lignin biosynthesis as its down-regulation redirects the phenylpropanoid flux: as a result, increased amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl (H) units, lignin-associated ferulates and the flavone tricin were detected in transgenic stems cell walls. Altogether, these changes make stem cell walls more degradable in the most C3H1-repressed plants, despite their unaltered polysaccharide content. The increase in H monomers is moderate compared to C3H deficient Arabidopsis and alfalfa plants. This could be due to the existence of a second maize C3H protein (C3H2) that can compensate the reduced levels of C3H1 in these C3H1-RNAi maize plants. The reduced expression of C3H1 alters the macroscopic phenotype of the plants, whose growth is inhibited proportionally to the extent of C3H1 repression. Finally, the down-regulation of C3H1 also increases the synthesis of flavonoids, leading to the accumulation of anthocyanins in transgenic leaves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancement of the catalytic activity of ferulic acid decarboxylase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 through random and site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunji; Park, Jiyoung; Jung, Chaewon; Han, Dongfei; Seo, Jiyoung; Ahn, Joong-Hoon; Chong, Youhoon; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2015-11-01

    The enzyme ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 catalyzes the decarboxylation reaction of lignin monomers and phenolic compounds such as p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid into their corresponding 4-vinyl derivatives, that is, 4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylcatechol, and 4-vinylguaiacol, respectively. Among various ferulic acid decarboxylase enzymes, we chose the FADase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4, whose crystal structure is known, and produced mutants to enhance its catalytic activity by random and site-directed mutagenesis. After three rounds of sequential mutations, FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) showed approximately 34-fold higher catalytic activity than wild-type for the production of 4-vinylguaiacol from ferulic acid. Docking analyses suggested that the increased activity of FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) could be due to formation of compact active site compared with that of the wild-type FADase. Considering the amount of phenolic compounds such as lignin monomers in the biomass components, successfully bioengineered FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 could provide an ecofriendly biocatalytic tool for producing diverse styrene derivatives from biomass.

  6. Robust prediction of protein subcellular localization combining PCA and WSVMs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiang; Gu, Hong; Liu, Wenqi; Gao, Chiyang

    2011-08-01

    Automated prediction of protein subcellular localization is an important tool for genome annotation and drug discovery, and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) can effectively solve this problem in a supervised manner. However, the datasets obtained from real experiments are likely to contain outliers or noises, which can lead to poor generalization ability and classification accuracy. To explore this problem, we adopt strategies to lower the effect of outliers. First we design a method based on Weighted SVMs, different weights are assigned to different data points, so the training algorithm will learn the decision boundary according to the relative importance of the data points. Second we analyse the influence of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on WSVM classification, propose a hybrid classifier combining merits of both PCA and WSVM. After performing dimension reduction operations on the datasets, kernel-based possibilistic c-means algorithm can generate more suitable weights for the training, as PCA transforms the data into a new coordinate system with largest variances affected greatly by the outliers. Experiments on benchmark datasets show promising results, which confirms the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of prediction accuracy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HPLC-PDA analysis and anti-inflammatory effects of Mori Cortex Radicis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Lim, Hye-Sun; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Ha, Hyekyung; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2013-10-01

    Mori Cortex Radicis (MCR, Moraceae) is used traditionally in the treatment ofjaundice, hematemesis, edema, and pollakisuria in Korea. In this study, the antiinflammatory effects of MCR extract were investigated using RAW 264.7 cells. The simultaneous analysis of five components present (neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid) in the MCR extract was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array (PDA) detection. We determined the effects of MCR extract and its components on the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in RAW 264.7 cells. MCR extract suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. None of the five components of the MCR extract had any influence on the production of NO. However, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid inhibited the production of PGE2 and mRNA expression of COX-2 in RAW 264.7 cells. Our results suggest that MCR extract may offer potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammation. The method we have established will help to improve the quality control of MCR extracts.

  8. Performance evaluation of BPM system in SSRF using PCA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Chu; Leng, Yong-Bin; Yan, Ying-Bing; Yuan, Ren-Xian; Lai, Long-Wei

    2014-07-01

    The beam position monitor (BPM) system is of most importance in a light source. The capability of the BPM depends on the resolution of the system. The traditional standard deviation on the raw data method merely gives the upper limit of the resolution. Principal component analysis (PCA) had been introduced in the accelerator physics and it could be used to get rid of the actual signals. Beam related information was extracted before the evaluation of the BPM performance. A series of studies had been made in the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) and PCA was proved to be an effective and robust method in the performance evaluations of our BPM system.

  9. Effects of cryoprotectants on the viability and activity of freeze dried recombinant yeasts as novel oral drug delivery systems assessed by an artificial digestive system.

    PubMed

    Blanquet, Stéphanie; Garrait, Ghislain; Beyssac, Erick; Perrier, Céline; Denis, Sylvain; Hébrard, Géraldine; Alric, Monique

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, in a gastric-small intestinal system TIM-1, the effect of cryoprotectants on the survival of freeze-dried Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the heterologous P450 73A1 and their ability to convert trans-cinnamic acid into p-coumaric acid. Yeasts were lyophilized in suspensions of trehalose, maltose, lactose, or a milk proteins/trehalose mix. Freeze-dried or native yeasts and trans-cinnamic acid were introduced simultaneously into TIM-1 at the beginning of digestion. Yeast survival rate was evaluated by cell counting in the ileal effluents. P450 73A1 activity was followed by HPLC assay of p-coumaric acid. Freeze-dried yeasts showed high tolerance to digestive conditions. Nevertheless, their survival rate was lower than that of non-dried cells (around 80% whatever the protective agent vs. 96%). The ability of recombinant freeze-dried S. cerevisiae to perform a bioconversion reaction in the digestive tract was shown with all the protectants. The highest trans-cinnamic acid conversion rate (24 vs. 41% for native yeasts) was obtained with the milk proteins/trehalose mix. These results show that freeze-drying might be considered for the pharmaceutical formulation of new drug delivery systems based on orally administered recombinant yeasts and that TIM-1 could be a helpful tool for the pre-screening of oral dosage forms.

  10. Predicting the effectiveness of virtual reality relaxation on pain and anxiety when added to PCA morphine in patients having burns dressings changes.

    PubMed

    Konstantatos, A H; Angliss, M; Costello, V; Cleland, H; Stafrace, S

    2009-06-01

    Pain arising in burns sufferers is often severe and protracted. The prospect of a dressing change can heighten existing pain by impacting both physically and psychologically. In this trial we examined whether pre-procedural virtual reality guided relaxation added to patient controlled analgesia with morphine reduced pain severity during awake dressings changes in burns patients. We conducted a prospective randomized clinical trial in all patients with burns necessitating admission to a tertiary burns referral centre. Eligible patients requiring awake dressings changes were randomly allocated to single use virtual reality relaxation plus intravenous morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA) infusion or to intravenous morphine patient controlled analgesia infusion alone. Patients rated their worst pain intensity during the dressing change using a visual analogue scale. The primary outcome measure was presence of 30% or greater difference in pain intensity ratings between the groups in estimation of worst pain during the dressing change. Of 88 eligible and consenting patients having awake dressings changes, 43 were assigned to virtual reality relaxation plus intravenous morphine PCA infusion and 43 to morphine PCA infusion alone. The group receiving virtual reality relaxation plus morphine PCA infusion reported significantly higher pain intensities during the dressing change (mean=7.3) compared with patients receiving morphine PCA alone (mean=5.3) (p=0.003) (95% CI 0.6-2.8). The addition of virtual reality guided relaxation to morphine PCA infusion in burns patients resulted in a significant increase in pain experienced during awake dressings changes. In the absence of a validated predictor for responsiveness to virtual reality relaxation such a therapy cannot be recommended for general use in burns patients having awake dressings changes.

  11. Isolation of 4-coumarate Co-A ligase gene promoter from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and characterization of tissue-specific activity in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Osakabe, Keishi; Chiang, Vincent L

    2009-01-01

    We characterized promoter activity of a phenylpropanoid biosynthetic gene encoding 4-coumarate Co-A ligase (4CL), Pta4Clalpha, from Pinus taeda. Histochemical- and quantitative assays of GUS expression in the vascular tissue were performed using transgenic tobacco plants expressing promoter-GUS reporters. Deletion analysis of the Pta4Clalpha promoter showed that the region -524 to -252, which has two AC elements, controls the high expression levels in ray-parenchyma cells of older tobacco stems. High activity level of the promoter domain of Pta4CLalpha was also detected in the xylem cells under bending stress. DNA-protein complexes were detected in the reactions of the Pta4CLalpha promoter fragments with the nuclear proteins of xylem of P. taeda. The AC elements in the Pta4CLalpha promoter appeared to have individual roles during xylem development that are activated in a coordinated manner in response to stress in transgenic tobacco.

  12. Improving green enrichment of virgin olive oil by oregano. Effects on antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Peñalvo, Gregorio Castañeda; Robledo, Virginia Rodríguez; Callado, Carolina Sánchez-Carnerero; Santander-Ortega, M J; Castro-Vázquez, L; Lozano, M Victoria; Arroyo-Jiménez, M M

    2016-04-15

    This work is about improvement of a maceration method in order to achieve a green process for the enrichment of virgin olive oil (VOO) with natural antioxidants, specifically from oregano leaves. This goal was accomplished after evaluating different mechanical methods, i.e. magnetic stirring, sonication, vertical stirring and sonication in combination with vertical stirring, for promoting the extraction of the antioxidants from oregano. The results obtained indicated that the best extraction procedure was vertical stirring at 1000 r.p.m. for 3 h. Therefore, these conditions were selected to enrich VOO with phenolic acids (mainly rosmarinic acid) and endogenous antioxidants (o-coumaric and vanillic acids), and further determine their stability at room temperature or under temperature stress (50°C) during 45 days. Quantitative analysis of rosmarinic, o-coumaric and vanillic acids was carried out by an off-line, solid phase extraction, capillary zone, electrophoresis method combined with diode-array detector (SPE-CE-DAD). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnostic and predictive value of urine PCA3 gene expression for the clinical management of patients with altered prostatic specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Rodón, N; Trías, I; Verdú, M; Román, R; Domínguez, A; Calvo, M; Banus, J M; Ballesta, A M; Maestro, M L; Puig, X

    2014-04-01

    Analyze the impact of the introduction of the study of PCA3 gene in post-prostatic massage urine in the clinical management of patients with PSA altered, evaluating its diagnostic ability and predictive value of tumor aggressiveness. Observational, prospective, multicenter study of patients with suspected prostate cancer (PC) candidates for biopsy. We present a series of 670 consecutive samples of urine collected post-prostatic massage for three years in which we determined the "PCA3 score" (s-PCA3). Biopsy was only indicated in cases with s-positive PCA3. The s-PCA3 was positive in 43.7% of samples. In the 124 biopsies performed, the incidence of PC or atypical small acinar proliferation was 54%, reaching 68,6% in s-PCA3≥100. Statistically significant relationship between the s-PCA3 and tumor grade was demonstrated. In cases with s-PCA3 between 35 and 50 only 23% of PC were high grade (Gleason≥7), compared to 76.7% in cases with s-PCA3 over 50. There was a statistically significant correlation between s-PCA3 and cylinders affected. Both relationships were confirmed by applying a log-linear model. The incorporation of PCA3 can avoid the need for biopsies in 54% of patients. s-PCA3 positivity increases the likelihood of a positive biopsy, especially in higher s-PCA3 100 (68.6%). s-PCA3 is also an indicator of tumor aggressiveness and provides essential information in making treatment decisions. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Principle component analysis (PCA) for investigation of relationship between population dynamics of microbial pathogenesis, chemical and sensory characteristics in beef slices containing Tarragon essential oil.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh Behbahani, Behrooz; Tabatabaei Yazdi, Farideh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2017-04-01

    Principle component analysis (PCA) was employed to examine the effect of the exerted treatments on the beef shelf life as well as discovering the correlations between the studied responses. Considering the variability of the dimensions of the responses, correlation coefficients were applied to form the matrix and extract the eigenvalue. Antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms through the methods of hole-plate diffusion method, disk diffusion method, pour plate method, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration. Antioxidant potential and total phenolic content were examined through the method of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The components were identified through gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Barhang seed mucilage (BSM) based edible coating containing 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w) Tarragon (T) essential oil mix were applied on beef slices to control the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. Microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH) and sensory characteristics (odor, color and overall acceptability) analysis measurements were made during the storage periodically. PCA was employed to examine the effect of the exerted treatments on the beef shelf life as well as discovering the correlations between the studied responses. Considering the variability of the dimensions of the responses, correlation coefficients were applied to form the matrix and extract the eigenvalue. The PCA showed that the properties of the uncoated meat samples on the 9th, 12th, 15th and 18th days of storage are continuously changing independent of the exerted treatments on the other samples. This reveals the effect of the exerted treatments on the samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Kernel-PCA data integration with enhanced interpretability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nowadays, combining the different sources of information to improve the biological knowledge available is a challenge in bioinformatics. One of the most powerful methods for integrating heterogeneous data types are kernel-based methods. Kernel-based data integration approaches consist of two basic steps: firstly the right kernel is chosen for each data set; secondly the kernels from the different data sources are combined to give a complete representation of the available data for a given statistical task. Results We analyze the integration of data from several sources of information using kernel PCA, from the point of view of reducing dimensionality. Moreover, we improve the interpretability of kernel PCA by adding to the plot the representation of the input variables that belong to any dataset. In particular, for each input variable or linear combination of input variables, we can represent the direction of maximum growth locally, which allows us to identify those samples with higher/lower values of the variables analyzed. Conclusions The integration of different datasets and the simultaneous representation of samples and variables together give us a better understanding of biological knowledge. PMID:25032747

  16. Dietary Phenolic Acids of Macrotyloma uniflorum (Horse Gram) Protect the Rat Heart Against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Panda, Vandana; Laddha, Ankit; Nandave, Mukesh; Srinath, Sudhamani

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigates the cardioprotective activity of the Macrotyloma uniflorum seed extract (MUSE) and its phenolic acids (p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction in rats. The previously mentioned phenolic acids were isolated and quantified from MUSE by HPLC. Pretreatment of gemfibrozil (reference standard), MUSE (250 and 500 mg/kg) and the phenolic acids for 30 days to rats treated with ISO (85 mg/kg) on the last 2 days resulted in a significant attenuation of the ISO-elevated levels of serum marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase MB), total cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, C-reactive protein and malondialdehyde and a restoration of the levels of the ISO-depleted marker enzymes, reduced glutathione and the antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in heart. Restoration of the ISO-altered electrocardiogram pattern and haemodynamic parameters (left ventricular end diastolic pressure, heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure) was also brought about by treatment with MUSE and the phenolic acids. It may be concluded that MUSE treatment to ISO-challenged rats exhibits a significant cardioprotective effect probably because of the potent antioxidant activity of its phenolic acids that salvage the myocardium from the deleterious effects of ISO. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. External validation of a PCA-3-based nomogram for predicting prostate cancer and high-grade cancer on initial prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Greene, Daniel J; Elshafei, Ahmed; Nyame, Yaw A; Kara, Onder; Malkoc, Ercan; Gao, Tianming; Jones, J Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to externally validate a previously developed PCA3-based nomogram for the prediction of prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade (intermediate and/or high-grade) prostate cancer (HGPCa) at the time of initial prostate biopsy. A retrospective review was performed on a cohort of 336 men from a large urban academic medical center. All men had serum PSA <20 ng/ml and underwent initial transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy with at least 10 cores sampling for suspicious exam and/or elevated PSA. Covariates were collected for the nomogram and included age, ethnicity, family history (FH) of PCa, PSA at diagnosis, PCA3, total prostate volume (TPV), and abnormal finding on digital rectal exam (DRE). These variables were used to test the accuracy (concordance index) and calibration of a previously published PCA3 nomogram. Biopsy confirms PCa and HGPCa in 51.0% and 30.4% of validation patients, respectively. This differed from the original cohort in that it had significantly more PCa and HGPCA (51% vs. 44%, P = 0.019; and 30.4% vs. 19.1%, P < 0.001). Despite the differences in PCa detection the concordance index was 75% and 77% for overall PCa and HGPCa, respectively. Calibration for overall PCa was good. This represents the first external validation of a PCA3-based prostate cancer predictive nomogram in a North American population. Prostate 76:1019-1023, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10412 - Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10412 Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706). (a) Chemical substance... phosphonic acid ester (PMN P-07-706) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10412 - Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10412 Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706). (a) Chemical substance... phosphonic acid ester (PMN P-07-706) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10412 - Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10412 Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706). (a) Chemical substance... phosphonic acid ester (PMN P-07-706) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  1. Advantages of core-shell particle columns in Sequential Injection Chromatography for determination of phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Chocholouš, Petr; Vacková, Jana; Srámková, Ivana; Satínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr

    2013-01-15

    Currently, for Sequential Injection Chromatography (SIC), only reversed phase C18 columns have been used for chromatographic separations. This article presents the first use of three different stationary phases: three core-shell particle-packed reversed phase columns in flow systems. The aim of this work was to extend the chromatographic capabilities of the SIC system. Despite the particle-packed columns reaching system pressures of ≤ 610 PSI, their conditions matched those of a commercially produced and optimised SIC system (SIChrom™ (FIAlab(®), USA)) with a 8-port high-pressure selection valve and medium-pressure Sapphire™ syringe pump with a 4 mL reservoir and maximum system pressure of ≤ 1000 PSI. The selectivity of each of the tested columns, Ascentis(®) Express RP-Amide, Ascentis(®) Express Phenyl-Hexyl and Ascentis(®) Express C18 (30 mm × 4.6mm, core-shell particle size 2.7 μm), was compared by their ability to separate seven phenolic acids that are secondary metabolite substances widely distributed in plants. The separations of all of the components were performed by isocratic elution using binary mobile phases composed of acetonitrile and 0.065% phosphoric acid at pH 2.4 (a specific ratio was used for each column) at a flow-rate of 0.60 mL/min. The volume of the mobile phase was 3.8 mL for each separation. The injection volume of the sample was 10 μL for each separation. The UV detection wavelengths were set to 250, 280 and 325 nm. The RP-Amide column provided the highest chromatographic resolution and allowed for complete baseline separation of protocatechuic, syringic, vanillic, ferulic, sinapinic, p-coumaric and o-coumaric acids. The Phenyl-Hexyl and C18 columns were unable to completely separate the tested mixture, syringic and vanillic acid and ferulic and sinapinic acids could not be separated from one another. The analytical parameters were a LOD of 0.3 mg L(-1), a LOQ of 1.0 mg L(-1), a calibration range of 1.0-50.0 (100.0) mg L(-1

  2. Optimization of critical medium components using response surface methodology for phenazine-1-carboxylic acid production by Pseudomonas sp. M-18Q.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li-Li; Li, Ya-Qian; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Xu, Yu-Quan

    2008-03-01

    The optimal flask-shaking batch fermentation medium for phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) production by Pseudomonas sp. M-18Q, a qscR chromosomal inactivated mutant of the strain M18 was studied using statistical experimental design and analysis. The Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to evaluate the effects of eight medium components on the production of PCA, which showed that glucose and soytone were the most significant ingredients (P<0.05). The steepest ascent experiment was adopted to determine the optimal region of the medium composition. The optimum composition of the fermentation medium for maximum PCA yield, as determined on the basis of a five-level two-factor central composite design (CCD), was obtained by response surface methodology (RSM). The high correlation between the predicted and observed values indicated the validity of the model. A maximum PCA yield of 1240 mg/l was obtained at 17.81 g/l glucose and 11.47 g/l soytone, and the production was increased by 65.3% compared with that using the original medium, which was at 750 mg/l.

  3. Separation of phenolic acids from sugarcane rind by online solid-phase extraction with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Geng, Ping; Fang, Yingtong; Xie, Ronglong; Hu, Weilun; Xi, Xingjun; Chu, Qiao; Dong, Genlai; Shaheen, Nusrat; Wei, Yun

    2017-02-01

    Sugarcane rind contains some functional phenolic acids. The separation of these compounds from sugarcane rind is able to realize the integrated utilization of the crop and reduce environment pollution. In this paper, a novel protocol based on interfacing online solid-phase extraction with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was established, aiming at improving and simplifying the process of phenolic acids separation from sugarcane rind. The conditions of online solid-phase extraction with HSCCC involving solvent system, flow rate of mobile phase as well as saturated extent of absorption of solid-phase extraction were optimized to improve extraction efficiency and reduce separation time. The separation of phenolic acids was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of butanol/acetic acid/water at a volume ratio of 4:1:5, and the developed online solid-phase extraction with HSCCC method was validated and successfully applied for sugarcane rind, and three phenolic acids including 6.73 mg of gallic acid, 10.85 mg of p-coumaric acid, and 2.78 mg of ferulic acid with purities of 60.2, 95.4, and 84%, respectively, were obtained from 150 mg sugarcane rind crude extracts. In addition, the three different elution methods of phenolic acids purification including HSCCC, elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography and back-extrusion counter-current chromatography were compared. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Lignin biomarkers and pollen in the postglacial sediment of an Alaskan Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Feng Sheng; Hedges, John I.; Gordon, Elizabeth S.; Brubaker, Linda B.

    1999-05-01

    We analyzed a 12,000-yr sediment core from Wien Lake, central Alaska, for a suite of phenolic products from CuO oxidation of lignin polymers and compared their composition with pollen data from the same core to assess lignin phenols as sedimentary biomarkers. Inferences of the gross taxonomic origin of sediment organic matter from lignin-phenol composition agree with vegetational reconstructions based on pollen assemblages. In particular, the ratios of syringyl to vanillyl phenols are consistently higher before 6500 yr BP, when angiosperms dominated or codominated the regional vegetation, than after 6500 yr BP, when gymnosperms dominated. However, the ratios of cinnamyl ( p-coumaric and ferulic acids) to total vanillyl phenols (C/V) do not show patterns expected from the abundance of woody plants. C/V ratios are particularly high (0.7-0.85) after 6500 yr BP when pollen spectra suggest closed boreal forests dominated by Picea, and the stratigraphic patterns are strikingly similar between C/V and Picea pollen concentrations. CuO oxidation of modern pollen of P. glauca and P. mariana yields exceptionally high amounts of cinnamyl phenols (8.90 and 6.41 mg/100 mg OC for P. glauca and P. mariana, respectively). In particular, p-coumaric acid is obtained in large amounts (8.87 and 6.41 mg/100 mg OC for P. glauca and P. mariana, respectively) versus vanillyl phenols (0.25 and 0.49 mg/100 mg OC for P. glauca and P. mariana, respectively) and ferulic acid (0.03 and 0.00 mg/100 mg OC for P. glauca and P. mariana, respectively). Thus lignin phenols derived from fossil Picea pollen preserved in sediments likely drive the C/V profile of the Wien Lake core. These data imply that if Picea pollen concentrations are sufficiently high, the amount of nonwoody tissue in sediments may be grossly overestimated when the lignin composition of gymnosperm needles is used as the end member of nonwoody tissues. Given that pollen grains are among the most resistant components of sedimentary

  5. Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Isoniemi, Merja; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Finglas, Paul; Plumb, Jenny; Tuominen, Pirkko; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) among Finnish consumers. The estimated average intake of estragole was 0.20mg/d, of trans-anethole 1.15mg/d, of rosmarinic acid 0.09mg/d, of p-coumaric acid 0.0068mg/d, of kaempferol 0.0034mg/d, of luteolin 0.0525μg/d, of quercetin 0.0246mg/d, of matairesinol 0.0066μg/d and of lignans 0.0412μg/d. The intakes of kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, matairesinol and lignans from PFS were low in comparison with their dietary supply. The intake of estragole was usually moderate, but a heavy consumption of PFS may lead to a high intake of estragole. The intake of trans-anethole did not exceed the acceptable daily intake, but PFS should be taken into account when assessing the total exposure. To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Leupaxin acts as a mediator in prostate carcinoma progression through deregulation of p120catenin expression.

    PubMed

    Kaulfuss, S; von Hardenberg, S; Schweyer, S; Herr, A M; Laccone, F; Wolf, S; Burfeind, P

    2009-11-12

    Recently, we could show that the focal adhesion protein leupaxin (LPXN) is expressed in human prostate carcinomas (PCa) and induces invasiveness of androgen-independent PCa cells. In this study we show that LPXN enhanced the progression of existing PCa in vivo by breeding transgenic mice with prostate-specific LPXN expression and TRAMP mice (transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate). Double transgenic LPXN/TRAMP mice showed a significant increase in poorly differentiated PCa and distant metastases as compared with control TRAMP mice. Additional studies on primary PCa cells generated from both transgenic backgrounds confirmed the connection regarding LPXN overexpression and increased motility and invasiveness of PCa cells. One mediator of LPXN-induced invasion was found to be the cell-cell adhesion protein p120catenin (p120CTN). Both in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that p120CTN expression negatively correlates with LPXN expression, followed by a redistribution of beta-catenin. Downregulation of LPXN using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) resulted in a membranous localization of beta-catenin, whereas strong nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin was observed in p120CTN knockdown cells leading to enhanced transcription of the beta-catenin target gene matrix metalloprotease-7. In conclusion, the present results indicate that LPXN enhances the progression of PCa through downregulation of p120CTN expression and that LPXN could function as a marker for aggressive PCa in the future.

  7. Antioxidant, xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and phenolics of Bauhinia rufescens Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae).

    PubMed

    Compaoré, M; Lamien, C E; Lamien-Meda, A; Vlase, L; Kiendrebeogo, M; Ionescu, C; Nacoulma, O G

    2012-01-01

    An aqueous acetone extract of the stem with the leaves of Bauhinia rufescens and its fractions were analysed for their antioxidant and enzyme-inhibitory activities, as well as their phytochemical composition. For measurement of the antioxidant activities, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzoline-6-sulphonate) and the ferric-reducing methods were used. The results indicated that the aqueous acetone, its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions possessed considerable antioxidant activity. Further, the xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase inhibitory assays showed that the n-butanol fraction possessed compounds that can inhibit both these enzymes. In the phytochemical analysis, the ethyl acetate and the n-butanol fractions of the aqueous acetone extract were screened by HPLC-MS for their phenolic content. The results indicated the presence of hyperoside, isoquercitrin, rutin quercetin, quercitrin, p-coumaric and ferulic acids in the non-hydrolysed fractions. In the hydrolysed fractions, kaempferol, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were identified.

  8. Comparison of antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and phenolics of three native fresh and sun-dried date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties grown in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Farsi, Mohamed; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Morris, Anne; Baron, Mark; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2005-09-21

    Fresh and sun-dried dates of three native varieties from Oman, namely, Fard, Khasab, and Khalas, were examined for their antioxidant activity and total contents of anthocyanins, carotenoids, and phenolics, as well as free and bound phenolic acids. All results are expressed as mean value +/- standard deviation (n = 3) on a fresh weight basis. Fresh date varieties were found to be a good source of antioxidants (11687-20604 micromol of Trolox equiv/g), total contents of anthocyanins (0.24-1.52 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equiv/100 g), carotenoids (1.31-3.03 mg/100 g), phenolics (134-280 mg of ferulic acid equiv/100 g), free phenolic acids (2.61-12.27 mg/100 g), and bound phenolic acids (6.84-30.25 mg/100 g). A significant (p < 0.05) amount of antioxidants and carotenoids was lost after sun-drying of dates, whereas the total content of phenolics and free and bound phenolic acids increased significantly (p < 0.05). Anthocyanins were detected only in fresh dates. Date varieties had different levels and patterns of phenolic acids. Four free phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and ferulic acid) and nine bound phenolic acids (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and o-coumaric acid) were tentatively identified. Of the date varieties studied, Khalas, which is considered to be premium quality, had higher antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, and bound phenolic acids than other varieties. These results suggest that all date varieties serve as a good source of natural antioxidants and could potentially be considered as a functional food or functional food ingredient, although some of their antioxidant constituents are lost during sun-drying.

  9. Sulfuric acid induces airway hyperresponsiveness to substance P in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Stengel, P W; Bendele, A M; Cockerham, S L; Silbaugh, S A

    1993-01-01

    We investigated whether sulfuric acid inhalation would cause hyperresponsiveness to substance P. Guinea pigs became dyspneic during a 1 h sulfuric acid exposure, but recovered by 24 h when they were challenged with substance P or histamine aerosols. Eight minutes after the start of challenge, animals were killed and excised lung gas volumes measured. Sulfuric acid slightly increased histamine responsiveness compared to controls. However, sulfuric acid caused a much more pronounced leftward shift in the dose response to substance P. Coadministration of the neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor, thiorphan, did not reduce sulfuric acid-related hyperresponsiveness to substance P. By 72 h, sensitization to substance P was absent. Histological evaluation of sulfuric acid-treated lungs revealed mild alveolitis at 24 h, but not at 72 h. We conclude that sulfuric acid produces a marked sensitization to substance P. Inactivation of NEP does not appear to account for this effect.

  10. SU-E-J-257: A PCA Model to Predict Adaptive Changes for Head&neck Patients Based On Extraction of Geometric Features From Daily CBCT Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Chetvertkov, M; Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI; Siddiqui, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Using daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) to develop principal component analysis (PCA) models of anatomical changes in head and neck (H&N) patients and to assess the possibility of using these prospectively in adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Methods: Planning CT (pCT) images of 4 H&N patients were deformed to model several different systematic changes in patient anatomy during the course of the radiation therapy (RT). A Pinnacle plugin was used to linearly interpolate the systematic change in patient for the 35 fraction RT course and to generate a set of 35 synthetic CBCTs. Each synthetic CBCT represents the systematic changemore » in patient anatomy for each fraction. Deformation vector fields (DVFs) were acquired between the pCT and synthetic CBCTs with random fraction-to-fraction changes were superimposed on the DVFs. A patient-specific PCA model was built using these DVFs containing systematic plus random changes. It was hypothesized that resulting eigenDVFs (EDVFs) with largest eigenvalues represent the major anatomical deformations during the course of treatment. Results: For all 4 patients, the PCA model provided different results depending on the type and size of systematic change in patient’s body. PCA was more successful in capturing the systematic changes early in the treatment course when these were of a larger scale with respect to the random fraction-to-fraction changes in patient’s anatomy. For smaller scale systematic changes, random changes in patient could completely “hide” the systematic change. Conclusion: The leading EDVF from the patientspecific PCA models could tentatively be identified as a major systematic change during treatment if the systematic change is large enough with respect to random fraction-to-fraction changes. Otherwise, leading EDVF could not represent systematic changes reliably. This work is expected to facilitate development of population-based PCA models that can be used to prospectively identify significant

  11. Development of a QuEChERS-Based Stable-Isotope Dilution LC-MS/MS Method To Quantitate Ferulic Acid and Its Main Microbial and Hepatic Metabolites in Milk.

    PubMed

    Waterstraat, Martin; Hildebrand, Andreas; Rosler, Margit; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-11-16

    Forage plants of the Poaceae family are grown as pasturage or used for the production of hay, straw, corn stover, etc. Although ferulic acid contents of grasses are generally high, the amount of ingested ferulic acid differs depending on the type of forage, resulting in varying contents of ferulic acid and its microbial and hepatic metabolites in milk. Concentrations and patterns of these metabolites may be used as markers to track different forages in livestock feeding. Therefore, we developed a stable isotope dilution assay to quantitate ferulic acid, 12 ferulic acid-based metabolites, p-coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid in milk. Because most analytes were not commercially available as stable isotope labeled standard compounds, they were synthesized as 13 C- or deuterium-labeled standard compounds. A modification of the QuEChERS method, a Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe approach usually applied to analyze pesticides in plant-based products, was used to extract the phenolic acids from milk. Determination was carried out by LC-ESI-MS/MS in scheduled multiple reaction monitoring modus. By using three different milk samples, the applicability of the validated approach was demonstrated.

  12. Low-pH production of D-lactic acid using newly isolated acid tolerant yeast Pichia kudriavzevii NG7.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Joo; Bae, Jung-Hoon; Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Lee, Sun-Hee; Sung, Bong Hyun; Han, Jong-In; Sohn, Jung-Hoon

    2018-06-13

    Lactic acid is a platform chemical for the sustainable production of various materials. To develop a robust yeast platform for low-pH production of D-lactic acid, an acid-tolerant yeast strain was isolated from grape skins and named Pichia kudriavzevii NG7 by ribosomal RNA sequencing. This strain was able to grow at pH 2.0 and 50°C. For the commercial application of P. kudriavzevii NG7 as a lactic acid producer, the ethanol fermentation pathway was redirected to lactic acid by replacing pyruvate decarboxylase 1 gene (PDC1) with D-lactate dehydrogenase gene (D-LDH) derived from Lactobacillus plantarum. To enhance lactic acid tolerance, this engineered strain was adapted to high lactic acid concentrations, and a new transcriptional regulator, PAR1, responsible for acid tolerance, was identified by whole-genome resequencing. The final engineered strain produced 135 g/L and 154 g/L of D-lactic acid with productivity over 3.66 g/L/h at pH 3.6 and 4.16 g/L/h at pH 4.7, respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant capacity and amino acid profile of millet bran wine and the synergistic interaction between major polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Guo, XiaoXuan; Sha, XiaoHong; Rahman, Ebeydulla; Wang, Yong; Ji, BaoPing; Wu, Wei; Zhou, Feng

    2018-03-01

    Millet bran, the by-product of millet processing industry, contains an abundance of phytochemicals, especially polyphenols. The main objective of this study was brewing antioxidant wine from millet bran, as well as the nutritional evaluation. The total polyphenol content of wine samples was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Results showed that millet bran wine (MBW) contained as much as six times of total polyphenols compared with millet wine (MW), and performed considerably stronger antioxidant activity in DPPH, TEAC and FRAP assays. More than sixfold of total amino acids (AA) were found in MBW than in MW. Moreover, the indispensable AA and functional AA were also abundant in MBW. The major polyphenol compounds in MBW were identified using HPLC, including vanillic acid, syringic acid (SA), p -coumaric acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA). They exhibited synergism in the antioxidant assays, especially the combinations of SA and CA, SA and FA. This study not only provides evidence for MBW as a nutraceutical with antioxidant activity, but also opens new avenues in the area of making comprehensive utilization of agricultural by-products.

  14. Coupled Mercury–Cell Sorption, Reduction, and Oxidation on Methylmercury Production by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Hui; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Rao, Balaji; ...

    2014-09-30

    G. sulfurreducens PCA cells have been shown to reduce, sorb, and methylate Hg(II) species, but it is unclear whether this organism can oxidize and methylate dissolved elemental Hg(0) as shown for Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. Using Hg(II) and Hg(0) separately as Hg sources in washed cell assays in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4), in this paper we report how cell-mediated Hg reduction and oxidation compete or synergize with sorption, thus affecting the production of toxic methylmercury by PCA cells. Methylation is found to be positively correlated to Hg sorption (r = 0.73) but negatively correlated to Hg reduction (r = -0.62).more » These reactions depend on the Hg and cell concentrations or the ratio of Hg to cellular thiols (-SH). Oxidation and methylation of Hg(0) are favored at relatively low Hg to cell–SH molar ratios (e.g., <1). Increasing Hg to cell ratios from 0.25 × 10 –19 to 25 × 10 –19 moles-Hg/cell (equivalent to Hg/cell–SH of 0.71 to 71) shifts the major reaction from oxidation to reduction. In the absence of five outer membrane c-type cytochromes, mutant ΔomcBESTZ also shows decreases in Hg reduction and increases in methylation. However, the presence of competing thiol-binding ions such as Zn 2+ leads to increased Hg reduction and decreased methylation. Finally, these results suggest that the coupled cell-Hg sorption and redox transformations are important in controlling the rates of Hg uptake and methylation by G. sulfurreducens PCA in anoxic environments.« less

  15. Relation between coumarate decarboxylase and vinylphenol reductase activity with regard to the production of volatile phenols by native Dekkera bruxellensis strains under 'wine-like' conditions.

    PubMed

    Sturm, M E; Assof, M; Fanzone, M; Martinez, C; Ganga, M A; Jofré, V; Ramirez, M L; Combina, M

    2015-08-03

    Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis is considered a major cause of wine spoilage, and 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol are the most abundant off-aromas produced by this species. They are produced by decarboxylation of the corresponding hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs), followed by a reduction of the intermediate 4-vinylphenols. The aim of the present study was to examine coumarate decarboxylase (CD) and vinylphenol reductase (VR) enzyme activities in 5 native D. bruxellensis strains and determine their relation with the production of ethylphenols under 'wine-like' conditions. In addition, biomass, cell culturability, carbon source utilization and organic acids were monitored during 60 days. All strains assayed turned out to have both enzyme activities. No significant differences were found in CD activity, whilst VR activity was variable among the strains. Growth of D. bruxellensis under 'wine-like' conditions showed two growth phases. Sugars were completely consumed during the first growth phase. Transformation of HCAs into ethylphenols also occurred during active growth of the yeast. No statistical differences were observed in volatile phenol levels produced by the strains growing under 'wine-like' conditions, independently of the enzyme activity previously recorded. Furthermore, our results demonstrate a relationship between the physiological state of D. bruxellensis and its ability to produce ethylphenols. Inhibition of growth of D. bruxellensis in wine seems to be the most efficient way to avoid ethylphenol production and the consequent loss of wine quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A cadmium-transporting P1B-type ATPase in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Adle, David J; Sinani, Devis; Kim, Heejeong; Lee, Jaekwon

    2007-01-12

    Detoxification and homeostatic acquisition of metal ions are vital for all living organisms. We have identified PCA1 in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an overexpression suppressor of copper toxicity. PCA1 possesses signatures of a P1B-type heavy metal-transporting ATPase that is widely distributed from bacteria to humans. Copper resistance conferred by PCA1 is not dependent on catalytic activity, but it appears that a cysteine-rich region located in the N terminus sequesters copper. Unexpectedly, when compared with two independent natural isolates and an industrial S. cerevisiae strain, the PCA1 allele of the common laboratory strains we have examined possesses a missense mutation in a predicted ATP-binding residue conserved in P1B-type ATPases. Consistent with a previous report that identifies an equivalent mutation in a copper-transporting P1B-type ATPase of a Wilson disease patient, the PCA1 allele found in laboratory yeast strains is nonfunctional. Overexpression or deletion of the functional allele in yeast demonstrates that PCA1 is a cadmium efflux pump. Cadmium as well as copper and silver, but not other metals examined, dramatically increase PCA1 protein expression through post-transcriptional regulation and promote subcellular localization to the plasma membrane. Our study has revealed a novel metal detoxification mechanism in yeast mediated by a P1B-type ATPase that is unique in structure, substrate specificity, and mode of regulation.

  17. 5-HT loss in rat brain following 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), p-chloroamphetamine and fenfluramine administration and effects of chlormethiazole and dizocilpine.

    PubMed

    Colado, M I; Murray, T K; Green, A R

    1993-03-01

    1. The present study has investigated whether the neurotoxic effects of the relatively selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurotoxins, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'Ecstasy'), p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) and fenfluramine on hippocampal and cortical 5-HT terminals in rat brain could be prevented by administration of either chlormethiazole or dizocilpine. 2. Administration of MDMA (20 mg kg-1, i.p.) resulted in an approximate 30% loss of cortical and hippocampal 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) content 4 days later. Injection of chlormethiazole (50 mg kg-1) 5 min before and 55 min after the MDMA provided complete protection in both regions, while dizocilpine (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) protected only the hippocampus. 3. Administration of a single dose of chlormethiazole (100 mg kg-1) 20 min after the MDMA also provided complete protection to the hippocampus but not the cortex. This regime also attenuated the sustained hyperthermia (approx +2.5 degrees C) induced by the MDMA injection. 4. Injection of PCA (5 mg kg-1, i.p.) resulted in a 70% loss of 5-HT and 5-HIAA content in hippocampus and cortex 4 days later. Injection of chlormethiazole (100 mg kg-1, i.p.) or dizocilpine (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) 5 min before and 55 min after the PCA failed to protect against the neurotoxicity, nor was protection afforded by chlormethiazole when a lower dose of PCA (2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) was given which produced only a 30% loss of 5-HT content. Chlormethiazole did prevent the hyperthermia induced by PCA (5 mg kg-1), while the lower dose of PCA (2.5 mg kg-1) did not produce a change in body temperature.5. Neither chlormethiazole nor dizocilpine prevented the neurotoxic loss of hippocampal or cortical 5-HT neurones measured 4 days following administration of fenfluramine (25 mg kg-1, i.p.).6. In general, chlormethiazole and dizocilpine were effective antagonists of the 5-HT-mediated behaviours of head weaving and forepaw treading which appeared following injection of all three

  18. Aromatic Hydroxylation of Salicylic Acid and Aspirin by Human Cytochromes P450

    PubMed Central

    Bojić, Mirza; Sedgeman, Carl A.; Nagy, Leslie D.; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a well-known and widely-used analgesic. It is rapidly deacetylated to salicylic acid, which forms two hippuric acids—salicyluric acid and gentisuric acid—and two glucuronides. The oxidation of aspirin and salicylic acid has been reported with human liver microsomes, but data on individual cytochromes P450 involved in oxidation is lacking. In this study we monitored oxidation of these compounds by human liver microsomes and cytochrome P450 (P450) using UPLC with fluorescence detection. Microsomal oxidation of salicylic acid was much faster than aspirin. The two oxidation products were 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid, documented by its UV and mass spectrum) and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Formation of neither product was inhibited by desferrioxamine, suggesting a lack of contribution of oxygen radicals under these conditions. Although more liphophilic, aspirin was oxidized less efficiently, primarily to the 2,5-dihydroxy product. Recombinant human P450s 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 all catalyzed the 5-hydroxylation of salicylic acid. Inhibitor studies with human liver microsomes indicated that all six of the previously mentioned P450s could contribute to both the 5- and 3-hydroxylation of salicylic acid and that P450s 2A6 and 2B6 have contributions to 5-hydroxylation. Inhibitor studies indicated that the major human P450 involved in both 3- and 5-hydroxylation of salicylic acid is P450 2E1. PMID:25840124

  19. Simultaneous estimation of phenolic acids in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) using RP-HPLC with DAD.

    PubMed

    Arimboor, Ranjith; Kumar, K Sarin; Arumughan, C

    2008-05-12

    A RP-HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of nine phenolic acids including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, caffiec acid and ferulic acid in sea buckthorn (SB) (Hippophaë rhamnoides) berries and leaves. The method was validated in terms of linearity, LOD, precision, accuracy and recovery and found to be satisfactory. Phenolic acid derivatives in anatomical parts of SB berries and leaves were separated into free phenolic acids, phenolic acids bound as esters and phenolic acids bound as glycosides and profiled in HPLC. Berry pulp contained a total of 1068 mg/kg phenolic acids, of which 58.8% was derived from phenolic glycosides. Free phenolic acids and phenolic acid esters constituted 20.0% and 21.2%, respectively, of total phenolic acids in SB berry pulp. The total phenolic acid content in seed kernel (5741 mg/kg) was higher than that in berry pulp and seed coat (Table 2). Phenolic acids liberated from soluble esters constituted the major fraction of phenolic acids (57.3% of total phenolic acids) in seed kernel. 8.4% and 34.3% of total phenolic acids in seed kernel were, respectively contributed by free and phenolic acids liberated from glycosidic bonds. The total soluble phenolic acids content in seed coat (448 mg/kg) was lower than that in seed kernel and pulp (Table 2). Proportion of free phenolic acids in total phenolic acids in seed coat was higher than that in seed kernel and pulp. Phenolic acids bound as esters and glycosides, respectively contributed 49.1% and 20.3% of total phenolic acids in seed coat. The major fraction (approximately 70%) of phenolic acids in SB berries was found to be concentrated in the seeds. Gallic acid was the predominant phenolic acid both in free and bound forms in SB berry parts and leaves.

  20. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery.

    PubMed

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Fernández, Constanza Estefany; Brandão, Ana Carolina Siqueira; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively). Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  1. Acidic pH modulation of Na+ channels in trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Kang, In-Sik; Cho, Jin-Hwa; Choi, In-Sun; Kim, Do-Yeon; Jang, Il-Sung

    2016-12-07

    Cell bodies of trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) neurons are located within the central nervous system, and therefore, peripheral as well as central acidosis can modulate the excitability of Vmes neurons. Here, we report the effect of acidic pH on voltage-gated Na channels in acutely isolated rat Vmes neurons using a conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique. Acidic pH (pH 6.0) slightly but significantly shifted both the activation and steady-state fast inactivation relationships toward depolarized potentials. However, acidic pH (pH 6.0) had a minor effect on the inactivation kinetics of voltage-gated Na channels. Less sensitivity of voltage-gated Na channels to acidic pH may allow Vmes neurons to transduce the precise proprioceptive information even under acidic pH conditions.

  2. [Determination of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in anti-fungal agent M18 by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Zhu, D H; Zhu, X D; Xu, Y Q

    2001-11-01

    A reversed-phase HPLC method for the determination of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) in antifungal agent M18 is established. The mobile phase was a mixture of MeOH-5 mmol/L phosphate buffer (pH 5.0) (60:40, volume ratio). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, and the detection wavelength was 248 nm. The linear range and detectable limit were 50 mg/L-500 mg/L and 30 mg/L respectively. The recovery was 97.53% and RSD was 1.5%. The method of PCA extraction and detection has proven to be much faster, simpler, more sensitive, accurate and reproducible than those reported already. The assay results can be used as a very important criterion for large-scale production.

  3. MD-11 PCA - View of aircraft on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This McDonnell Douglas MD-11 is taxiing to a position on the flightline at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following its completion of the first and second landings ever performed by a transport aircraft under engine power only (on Aug. 29, 1995). The milestone flight, with NASA research pilot and former astronaut Gordon Fullerton at the controls, was part of a NASA project to develop a computer-assisted engine control system that enables a pilot to land a plane safely when its normal control surfaces are disabled. The Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system uses standard autopilot controls already present in the cockpit, together with the new programming in the aircraft's flight control computers. The PCA concept is simple. For pitch control, the program increases thrust to climb and reduces thrust to descend. To turn right, the autopilot increases the left engine thrust while decreasing the right engine thrust. The initial Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft studies by NASA were carried out at Dryden with a modified twin-engine F-15 research aircraft.

  4. PCA meets RG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradde, Serena; Bialek, William

    A system with many degrees of freedom can be characterized by a covariance matrix; principal components analysis (PCA) focuses on the eigenvalues of this matrix, hoping to find a lower dimensional description. But when the spectrum is nearly continuous, any distinction between components that we keep and those that we ignore becomes arbitrary; it then is natural to ask what happens as we vary this arbitrary cutoff. We argue that this problem is analogous to the momentum shell renormalization group (RG). Following this analogy, we can define relevant and irrelevant operators, where the role of dimensionality is played by properties of the eigenvalue density. These results also suggest an approach to the analysis of real data. As an example, we study neural activity in the vertebrate retina as it responds to naturalistic movies, and find evidence of behavior controlled by a nontrivial fixed point. Applied to financial data, our analysis separates modes dominated by sampling noise from a smaller but still macroscopic number of modes described by a non-Gaussian distribution.

  5. Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts in sequential fermentations: Effect on phenolic acids of fermented Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra L.) juice.

    PubMed

    Minnaar, P P; Jolly, N P; Paulsen, V; Du Plessis, H W; Van Der Rijst, M

    2017-09-18

    Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra) is an evergreen tree indigenous to Southern Africa. The fruit contains high concentrations of l-malic acid, ascorbic acid, and phenolic acids. Kei-apple juice was sequentially inoculated with Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. A reference fermentation using only S. cerevisiae was included. The fermentation was monitored by recording mass loss. At the end of fermentation, twelve untrained judges conducted free choice aroma profiling on the fruit wines. The Kei-apple juice and wines were analysed for total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, pH, alcohol, l-malic acid, and phenolic acids. Total titratable acidity was ca. 70% lower in Kei-apple wines produced with S. pombe+S. cerevisiae than in Kei-apple juice. Kei-apple wines produced with S. pombe+S. cerevisiae showed substantially lower concentrations of l-malic acid than Kei-apple wines produced with S. cerevisiae only. Wines produced with S. cerevisiae only proved higher in phenolic acid concentrations than wines produced with S. pombe+S. cerevisiae. Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid measured in the Kei-apple wines, followed by protocatechuic acid. Judges described the Kei-apple wines produced with S. pombe+S. cerevisiae as having noticeable off-odours, while wines produced with S. cerevisiae were described as fresh and fruity. Kei-apple wines (S. pombe+S. cerevisiae and S. cerevisiae) were of comparable vegetative and organic character. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced Kei-apple wine with increased caffeic, chlorogenic, protocatechuic, and sinapic acids, whereas S. pombe+S. cerevisiae produced Kei-apple wines with increased ferulic, and p-coumaric acids and low l-malic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. MiR-139-5p is Increased in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Pang, Cheng; Liu, Ming; Fang, Weiwei; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Zhipeng; Wu, Pengjie; Zhang, Yaoguang; Wang, Jianye

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a causal role in cancer tumorigenesis. Aberrant expression of miRNA (miR)-139-5p has been observed in various types of cancers. The present study evaluated the relationship between miR-139-5p expression levels and prostate cancer (PCa), to assess the feasibility of using peripheral blood miR-139-5p as a potential non-invasive biomarker for PCa. Total RNA was extracted from peripheral whole blood samples from 45 PCa patients, 45 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients and 50 healthy controls (HC). The expression of miR-139-5p was assessed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. MiR-139-5p in peripheral blood was significantly higher in PCa patients than in patients with BPH and HC individuals (P<0.001). Higher miR-139-5p expression was observed to be associated with certain clinicopathological parameters, including PSA>20ng/ml (P<0.05), pathological tumor stage 3/4 (P<0.05) and Gleason score >7 (P<0.01). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that miR-139-5p distinguished PCa patients from BPH patients [area under the curve (AUC), 0.936; 95% CI, 0.878-0.993; P<0.001]. Peripheral blood miR-139-5p may be utilized as a potential novel non-invasive biomarker for PCa screening. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Development of smart delivery system for ascorbic acid using pH-responsive P(MAA-co-EGMA) hydrogel microparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunmi; Kim, Kyusik; Choi, Moonjae; Lee, Youngmoo; Park, Jin-Won; Kim, Bumsang

    2010-11-01

    pH-Responsive P(MAA-co-EGMA) hydrogel microparticles were prepared and their feasibility as intelligent delivery carriers was evaluated. P(MAA-co-EGMA) hydrogel microparticles were synthesized via dispersion photopolymerization. There was a drastic change in the swelling ratio of P(MAA-co-EGMA) microparticles at a pH of ~ 5 and, as the amount of MAA in the hydrogel increased, the swelling ratio increased at a pH above 5. The loading efficiency of the ascorbic acid into the hydrogel was affected more by the degree of swelling of the hydrogel than the electrostatic interaction between the hydrogel and the loaded ascorbic acid. The P(MAA-co-EGMA) hydrogel microparticles showed a pH-sensitive release behavior. Thus, at pH 4 almost none of the ascorbic acid permeated through the skin while at pH 6 relatively high skin permeability was obtained. The ascorbic acid loaded in the hydrogel particles was hardly degraded and its stability was maintained at high temperature.

  8. A new statistical PCA-ICA algorithm for location of R-peaks in ECG.

    PubMed

    Chawla, M P S; Verma, H K; Kumar, Vinod

    2008-09-16

    The success of ICA to separate the independent components from the mixture depends on the properties of the electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings. This paper discusses some of the conditions of independent component analysis (ICA) that could affect the reliability of the separation and evaluation of issues related to the properties of the signals and number of sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) scatter plots are plotted to indicate the diagnostic features in the presence and absence of base-line wander in interpreting the ECG signals. In this analysis, a newly developed statistical algorithm by authors, based on the use of combined PCA-ICA for two correlated channels of 12-channel ECG data is proposed. ICA technique has been successfully implemented in identifying and removal of noise and artifacts from ECG signals. Cleaned ECG signals are obtained using statistical measures like kurtosis and variance of variance after ICA processing. This analysis also paper deals with the detection of QRS complexes in electrocardiograms using combined PCA-ICA algorithm. The efficacy of the combined PCA-ICA algorithm lies in the fact that the location of the R-peaks is bounded from above and below by the location of the cross-over points, hence none of the peaks are ignored or missed.

  9. Mixtures of diflubenzuron and p-chloroaniline changes the activities of enzymes biomarkers on tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) in the presence and absence of soil.

    PubMed

    Dantzger, Darlene D; Jonsson, Claudio M; Aoyama, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    The insecticide Diflubenzuron (DFB), used by many fish farming, when metabolized or degraded produces the extremely toxic compound p-chloroaniline (PCA). Once in the aquatic environment, these compounds can form mixtures and their bioavailability depends on factors such as the presence of soil. The toxic effects of the isolated compounds and their mixtures in the proportions: 75%, 50%, and 25% of PCA were analyzed in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the presence and absence of soil after 96h. The enzymes catalase (CAT), acid (AcP) and alkaline (AlP) phosphatases and alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases of the liver of the tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were used as biomarkers. DFB and the mixture containing 75% of this compound did not present high toxicity to fish; however, 25mg/L of PCA alone and 15mg/L of the mixture with 75% of this compound promoted 50% mortality of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). In the presence of soil, these toxicity values decreased to 37 and 25mg/L, respectively. Independent of the presence of soil, a synergistic effect was observed when the proportion of PCA was 75% and to the mixture, with 25% PCA was observed the antagonistic effect. Different concentrations of the compounds and their mixtures induced CAT activity independently of the presence of soil. Additionally, increases in phosphatases and transaminases activities were observed. In some cases, the enzymes also had their activities decreased and the dose-dependence effects were not observed. This research showed that the presence of soil influenced the toxicity of the compounds but not altered interaction type among them. Diflubenzuron, p-chloroaniline, and mixtures thereof caused disorders in enzymes important for the health of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Promising toxicological biomarkers for the diagnosis of liver injury types: Bile acid metabolic profiles and oxidative stress marker as screening tools in drug development.

    PubMed

    Masubuchi, Noriko; Nishiya, Takayoshi; Imaoka, Masako; Mizumaki, Kiyoko; Okazaki, Osamu

    2016-08-05

    Promising biomarkers were identified in adult male Crl:CD (SD) rats for the screening of new chemical entities for their potential to cause liver injury. We examined the serum biochemistry, liver histopathology, and bile acid profiles by LC-MS/MS, and the mRNA expression of transporters and CYPs by an RT-PCR after the following treatments to male Crl:CD (SD) rats: (a) bile duct ligation (BDL); (b) a single oral dose of 150 mg/kg α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT); and (c) repeated oral doses of a novel pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid derivative (abbreviated as PCA) at 30, 300, and 1000 mg/kg. The serum total bile acid levels and bilirubin concentrations were found to be elevated in all of the groups. However, the bile acid component profiles of the PCA group differed significantly from BDL and ANIT models: deoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, and sulfated bile acids were upregulated in a dose-dependent manner only in the PCA group. In addition, the PCA group demonstrated high levels of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression, whereas the profiles of the mRNA levels of the hepatic transporters and CYPs of all groups were found to be similar. The histopathological findings, for both the BDL and ANIT groups, were of bile duct hyperplasia, hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis. In contrast, only bile duct hyperplasia and hepatocyte degeneration were observed in the PCA group, even at a lethal dose. These results indicated that PCA induced a cholestatic condition and the increase of oxidative stress markers implies that this will also lead hepatocellular injury. In conclusion, the serum bile acid components and sulfated bile acid levels, and the expression of oxidative stress markers could provide information that aids in the diagnosis of liver injury type and helps to elucidate the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. These findings can be extrapolated into our clinical investigation. The analysis of these crucial biomarkers is likely to be a useful screening tool in the lead

  11. Grass Lignocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Danny E.

    Grass lignocelluloses are limited in bioconversion by aromatic constituents, which include both lignins and phenolic acids esters. Histochemistry, ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry, and response to microorganisms and specific enzymes have been used to determine the significance of aromatics toward recalcitrance. Coniferyl lignin appears to be the most effective limitation to biodegradation, existing in xylem cells of vascular tissues; cell walls with syringyl lignin, for example, leaf sclerenchyma, are less recalcitrant. Esterified phenolic acids, i.e., ferulic and p-coumaric acids, often constitute a major chemical limitation in nonlignified cell walls to biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradability through modification of aromatics include: plant breeding, use of lignin-degrading white-rot fungi, and addition of esterases. Plant breeding for new cultivars has been especially effective for nutritionally improved forages, for example, bermudagrasses. In laboratory studies, selective white-rot fungi that lack cellulases delignified the lignocellulosic materials and improved fermentation of residual carbohydrates. Phenolic acid esterases released p-coumaric and ferulic acids for potential coproducts, improved the available sugars for fermentation, and improved biodegradation. The separation and removal of the aromatic components for coproducts, while enhancing the availability of sugars for bioconversion, could improve the economics of bioconversion.

  12. Transcriptional control of monolignol biosynthesis in Pinus taeda: factors affecting monolignol ratios and carbon allocation in phenylpropanoid metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anterola, Aldwin M.; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2002-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Pinus taeda cell suspension cultures was carried out using quantitative real time PCR analyses of all known genes involved in the biosynthesis of the two monolignols, p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohols (lignin/lignan precursors). When the cells were transferred to a medium containing 8% sucrose and 20 mm potassium iodide, the monolignol/phenylpropanoid pathway was induced, and transcript levels for phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase were coordinately up-regulated. Provision of increasing levels of exogenously supplied Phe to saturating levels (40 mm) to the induction medium resulted in further up-regulation of their transcript levels in the P. taeda cell cultures; this in turn was accompanied by considerable increases in both p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohol formation and excretion. By contrast, transcript levels for both cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase were only slightly up-regulated. These data, when considered together with metabolic profiling results and genetic manipulation of various plant species, reveal that carbon allocation to the pathway and its differential distribution into the two monolignols is controlled by Phe supply and differential modulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase activities, respectively. The coordinated up-regulation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in the presence of increasing concentrations of Phe also indicates that these steps are not truly rate-limiting, because they are modulated according to metabolic demand. Finally, the transcript profile of a putative acid/ester O-methyltransferase, proposed as an alternative catalyst for O-methylation leading

  13. Transcriptional control of monolignol biosynthesis in Pinus taeda: factors affecting monolignol ratios and carbon allocation in phenylpropanoid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Anterola, Aldwin M; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2002-05-24

    Transcriptional profiling of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Pinus taeda cell suspension cultures was carried out using quantitative real time PCR analyses of all known genes involved in the biosynthesis of the two monolignols, p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohols (lignin/lignan precursors). When the cells were transferred to a medium containing 8% sucrose and 20 mm potassium iodide, the monolignol/phenylpropanoid pathway was induced, and transcript levels for phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase were coordinately up-regulated. Provision of increasing levels of exogenously supplied Phe to saturating levels (40 mm) to the induction medium resulted in further up-regulation of their transcript levels in the P. taeda cell cultures; this in turn was accompanied by considerable increases in both p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohol formation and excretion. By contrast, transcript levels for both cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase were only slightly up-regulated. These data, when considered together with metabolic profiling results and genetic manipulation of various plant species, reveal that carbon allocation to the pathway and its differential distribution into the two monolignols is controlled by Phe supply and differential modulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase activities, respectively. The coordinated up-regulation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in the presence of increasing concentrations of Phe also indicates that these steps are not truly rate-limiting, because they are modulated according to metabolic demand. Finally, the transcript profile of a putative acid/ester O-methyltransferase, proposed as an alternative catalyst for O-methylation leading

  14. Antifou