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Sample records for p1 dp0 diffusion

  1. Angularly Adaptive P1 - Double P0 Flux-Limited Diffusion Solutions of Non-Equilibrium Grey Radiative Transfer Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, P S

    2006-08-08

    The double spherical harmonics angular approximation in the lowest order, i.e. double P{sub 0} (DP{sub 0}), is developed for the solution of time-dependent non-equilibrium grey radiative transfer problems in planar geometry. Although the DP{sub 0} diffusion approximation is expected to be less accurate than the P{sub 1} diffusion approximation at and near thermodynamic equilibrium, the DP{sub 0} angular approximation can more accurately capture the complicated angular dependence near a non-equilibrium radiation wave front. In addition, the DP{sub 0} approximation should be more accurate in non-equilibrium optically thin regions where the positive and negative angular domains are largely decoupled. We develop an adaptive angular technique that locally uses either the DP{sub 0} or P{sub 1} flux-limited diffusion approximation depending on the degree to which the radiation and material fields are in thermodynamic equilibrium. Numerical results are presented for two test problems due to Su and Olson and to Ganapol and Pomraning for which semi-analytic transport solutions exist. These numerical results demonstrate that the adaptive P{sub 1}-DP{sub 0} diffusion approximation can yield improvements in accuracy over the standard P{sub 1} diffusion approximation, both without and with flux-limiting, for non-equilibrium grey radiative transfer.

  2. Angularly Adaptive P1-Double P0 Flux-Limited Diffusion Solutions of Non-Equilibrium Grey Radiative Transfer Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, P S

    2005-12-13

    The double spherical harmonics angular approximation in the lowest order, i.e. double P{sub 0} (DP{sub 0}), is developed for the solution of time-dependent non-equilibrium grey radiative transfer problems in planar geometry. Although the DP{sub 0} diffusion approximation is expected to be less accurate than the P{sub 1} diffusion approximation at and near thermodynamic equilibrium, the DP{sub 0} angular approximation can more accurately capture the complicated angular dependence near a non-equilibrium radiation wave front. In addition, the DP{sub 0} approximation should be more accurate in non-equilibrium optically thin regions where the positive and negative angular domains are largely decoupled. We develop an adaptive angular technique that locally uses either the DP{sub 0} or P{sub 1} flux-limited diffusion approximation depending on the degree to which the radiation and material fields are in thermodynamic equilibrium. Numerical results are presented for two test problems due to Su and Olson and to Ganapol and Pomraning for which semi-analytic transport solutions exist. These numerical results demonstrate that the adaptive P{sub 1}-DP{sub 0} diffusion approximation can yield improvements in accuracy over the standard P{sub 1} diffusion approximation, both without and with flux-limiting, for non-equilibrium grey radiative transfer.

  3. P1 plasmid replication requires methylated DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, A L; Austin, S J

    1987-01-01

    Plasmids driven by the plasmid replication origin of bacteriophage P1 cannot be established in Escherichia coli strains that are defective for the DNA adenine methylase (dam). Using a composite plasmid that has two origins, we show that the P1 origin cannot function even in a plasmid that is already established in a dam strain. An in vitro replication system for the P1 origin was developed that uses as a substrate M13 replicative-form DNA containing the minimal P1 origin. The reaction mixture contains a crude extract of E. coli and purified P1 RepA protein. In addition to being RepA dependent, synthesis was shown to be dependent on methylation of the dam methylase-sensitive sites of the substrate DNA. As the P1 origin contains five such sites in a small region known to be critical for origin function, it can be concluded that methylation of these sites is a requirement for initiation. This suggests that the postreplicational methylation of the origin may control reinitiation and contribute to the accuracy of the highly stringent copy-number control of the origin in vivo. PMID:2826133

  4. P-1 truss arrival at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Workers oversee the placement of the P-1 truss, a component of the International Space Station, onto a flatbed truck that will move it to the Operations and Checkout Building for processing. The P-1 truss, scheduled to fly in spring of 2002, is part of a total 10-truss, girder-like structure on the Station that will ultimately extend the length of a football field. Astronauts will attach the 14-by-15 foot structure to the port side of the center truss, S0, during the spring assembly flight. The 33,000-pound P- 1 will house the thermal radiator rotating joint (TRRJ) that will rotate the Station's radiators away from the sun to increase their maximum cooling efficiency.

  5. P-1 truss arrival at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The P-1 truss, a component of the International Space Station, is moved from the Shuttle Landing Facility toward the newly constructed RLV hangar (viewed here from inside the hangar) as precaution against bad weather approaching the Center (background). The truss will eventually be transferred to the Operations and Checkout Building for processing. In the background is the Super Guppy transport that brought it to KSC. The P-1 truss, scheduled to fly in spring of 2002, is part of a total 10-truss, girder-like structure on the Station that will ultimately extend the length of a football field. Astronauts will attach the 14-by-15 foot structure to the port side of the center truss, S0, during the spring assembly flight. The 33,000-pound P- 1 will house the thermal radiator rotating joint (TRRJ) that will rotate the Station's radiators away from the sun to increase their maximum cooling efficiency.

  6. P-1 truss arrival at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The P-1 truss, a component of the International Space Station, arrives inside the RLV hangar, located near the Shuttle Landing Facility at KSC. Approaching bad weather caused the detour as a precaution. The truss will eventually be transferred to the Operations and Checkout Building for processing. The P-1 truss, scheduled to fly in spring of 2002, is part of a total 10-truss, girder-like structure on the Station that will ultimately extend the length of a football field. Astronauts will attach the 14-by- 15 foot structure to the port side of the center truss, S0, during the spring assembly flight. The 33,000-pound P-1 will house the thermal radiator rotating joint (TRRJ) that will rotate the Station's radiators away from the sun to increase their maximum cooling efficiency.

  7. P1-Marx Modulator for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Kemp, M.; Larsen, R.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    A first generation prototype, P1, Marx-topology klystron modulator has been developed at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for the International Linear Collider (ILC) project. It is envisioned as a lower cost, smaller footprint, and higher reliability alternative to the present, bouncer-topology, baseline design. The application requires 120 kV (+/-0.5%), 140 A, 1.6 ms pulses at a rate of 5 Hz. The Marx constructs the high voltage pulse by combining, in series, a number of lower voltage cells. The Marx employs solid state elements; IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the cells. Active compensation of the output is used to achieve the voltage regulation while minimizing the stored energy. The P1-Marx has been integrated into a test stand with a 10 MW L-band klystron, where each is undergoing life testing. A review of the P1-Marx design and its operational history in the L-band test stand are presented.

  8. Expression of human protamine P1 in sperm of transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Keith, C.; Stilwell, J.; Lowe, X.; Anderson, G.

    1994-12-31

    Transgenic mice were produced by pronuclear injection with DNA constructs containing human protamine P1 cDNA recombined with a murine protamine P1 promoter, and were identified by PCR. Expression of human P1 was investigated using huplm, a monoclonal antibody specific for human P1, applied to murine testicular cells, smears of epididymal sperm, and smears of detergent-isolated sperm nuclei. Various antibodies and nontransgenic littermates were used as controls. Two male founders (T3 and T7) sired more than five generations of transgenic offspring each with continued expression of human P1 in their sperm. Transgenic animals appear of normal fertility with sperm of typical nuclear morphology. The human P1 transgene was expressed postmeioticly in both lines, as expected. Nearly 100% of sperm of T3 and T7 hemizygotes labeled with huplm, consistent with complete diffusion of human P1 protein through the intercellular bridge of spermatogenic cells. Human P1 labeling of sperm nuclei was not visibly affected by sonication or by treatment with the detergent MATAB or the reducing agent DTT. A third founder female (T5) showed a transmission pattern consistent with insertion of the transgene into an X chromosome; her transgenic offspring expressed human P1 in only a small fraction of sperm. Human P1 transgenes may serve as efficient targets for germinal mutations and transgenicmice may provide promising models for investigating the DNA complexes.

  9. 26 CFR 31.3402(p)-1 - Voluntary withholding agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Voluntary withholding agreements. 31.3402(p)-1 Section 31.3402(p)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(p)-1 Voluntary withholding agreements. (a) In...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3402(p)-1 - Voluntary withholding agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Voluntary withholding agreements. 31.3402(p)-1 Section 31.3402(p)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(p)-1 Voluntary withholding agreements. (a) In...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3402(p)-1 - Voluntary withholding agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Voluntary withholding agreements. 31.3402(p)-1 Section 31.3402(p)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(p)-1 Voluntary withholding agreements. (a) In...

  12. 26 CFR 31.3402(p)-1 - Voluntary withholding agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Voluntary withholding agreements. 31.3402(p)-1 Section 31.3402(p)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(p)-1 Voluntary withholding agreements. (a) In...

  13. Biochemical and immunological characterization of recombinant allergen Lol p 1.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, E; Faccini, S; Lidholm, J; Svensson, M; Brandazza, A; Longhi, R; Groenlund, H; Sidoli, A; Arosio, P

    1997-11-01

    Pollen from perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne), a major cause of type-I allergy worldwide, contains a complex mixture of allergenic proteins among which Lol p 1 is one of the most important. We describe the expression, purification and characterization of a recombinant Lol p 1 overproduced in Escherichia coli. The recombinant allergen, expressed in high yields and purified in milligram amounts, bound to specific IgE antibodies from human sera, induced histamine release from sensitized human basophils, and elicited rabbit antisera that recognize specifically recombinant Lol p 1 and natural Lol p 1 of pollen extract. Recombinant Lol p 1 was used to develop ImmunoCAP assays for analysis of 150 sera that were Radioallergosorbent test positive to L. perenne pollen. In 130 of them (87%) the assay detected a significant level of IgE antibodies to Lol p 1, reaching on average 37% of the level obtained with a test for IgE to the whole grass pollen extract. To map epitopes on Lol p 1, we produced three deletion mutants [des-(116-240)-Lol p 1, des-(1-88)-Lol p 1 and des-(133-189)-Lol p 1], which were efficiently expressed in bacteria. These all showed a strong reactivity with the specific rabbit IgG antibodies, but lacked most or all the allergenic properties of recombinant Lol p 1. A study of the antigenic structure of Lol p 1 was performed using the three deletion mutants and a set of 17-18-residue overlapping synthetic peptides covering the whole allergen sequence. The results indicate that human IgE and rabbit IgG antibodies bind to distinct regions of Lol p 1, and that at least some important IgE epitopes are mainly conformational. The findings suggest that recombinant allergens constitute useful reagents for further development of serological diagnosis of allergy, and that it should be possible to produce immunogenic fragments of allergenic proteins without allergenic properties.

  14. Characterization of recombinant C1 inhibitor P1 variants.

    PubMed

    Eldering, E; Huijbregts, C C; Lubbers, Y T; Longstaff, C; Hack, C E

    1992-04-01

    Twelve human C1 inhibitor P1 variants were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis of the codon for arginine 444 and were expressed in COS-1 cells to analyze the functional properties. The ability to bind to target proteases, as well as potential substrate-like behavior, was investigated with radioimmunoassays. The P1-Lys variant retained binding capacity toward C1s, plasmin, and kallikrein. In addition, complex formation with C1s was detected for P1-Asn and P1-His. All other P1 substitutions resulted in C1 inhibitor variants that neither complexed with nor were inactivated by C1s, kallikrein, beta-factor XIIa, or plasmin. Electrophoretic studies confirmed that P1-Lys and P1-His can form sodium dodecyl sulfate-resistant complexes with C1s. In contrast, the C1s-P1-Asn complex dissociated upon addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Kinetic experiments by the method of progress curves generated association rate constants (kon) with C1s of 4.2 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 for recombinant wild-type C1 inhibitor and 1.7 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 for P1-Lys. For P1-Asn and P1-His, kon was decreased approximately 100-fold. The results from inhibition experiments were compatible with a model of reversible inhibition, although the observed dissociation rate for wild-type C1 inhibitor is too low (1-2 x 10(-6) s-1) to be physiologically relevant. The overall inhibition constant (Ki) was estimated to be 0.03 nM. With P1-Asn, reversible inhibition could be demonstrated directly upon dilution of preformed complexes; the observed dissociation rate constant was 3.2 x 10(-4) s-1; and Ki increased to approximately 380 nM. These findings are discussed in relation to inhibitor specificity and inhibition mechanism.

  15. 26 CFR 31.3402(p)-1 - Voluntary withholding agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary withholding agreements. 31.3402(p)-1 Section 31.3402(p)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at...

  16. The P-1 truss in the O&C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Part of the P-1 truss is seen as it rests in a workstand in the Operations and Checkout Building. Scheduled to fly in spring of 2002, the P-1 is part of a total 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field. Astronauts will attach the 14- by 15-foot structure to the port side of the center truss, S0, during the spring assembly flight. The 33,000-pound P-1 will house the thermal radiator rotating joint (TRRJ) that will rotate the International Space Station's radiators away from the sun to increase their maximum cooling efficiency.

  17. Binding Forces of Streptococcus mutans P1 Adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Sullan, Ruby May A.; Li, James K.; Crowley, Paula J.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive oral bacterium that is a primary etiological agent associated with human dental caries. In the oral cavity, S. mutans adheres to immobilized salivary agglutinin (SAG) contained within the salivary pellicle on the tooth surface. Binding to SAG is mediated by cell surface P1, a multifunctional adhesin that is also capable of interacting with extracellular matrix proteins. This may be of particular importance outside of the oral cavity as S. mutans has been associated with infective endocarditis and detected in atherosclerotic plaque. Despite the biomedical importance of P1, its binding mechanisms are not completely understood. In this work, we use atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule and single-cell force spectroscopy to quantify the nanoscale forces driving P1-mediated adhesion. Single-molecule experiments show that full-length P1, as well as fragments containing only the P1 globular head or C-terminal region, binds to SAG with relatively weak forces (~50 pN). In contrast, single-cell analyses reveal that adhesion of a single S. mutans cell to SAG is mediated by strong (~500 pN) and long-range (up to 6000 nm) forces. This is likely due to the binding of multiple P1 adhesins to self-associated gp340 glycoproteins. Such a cooperative, long-range character of the S. mutans–SAG interaction would therefore dramatically increase the strength and duration of cell adhesion. We also demonstrate, at single-molecule and single-cell levels, the interaction of P1 with fibronectin and collagen, as well as with hydrophobic, but not hydrophilic, substrates. The binding mechanism (strong forces, cooperativity, broad specificity) of P1 provides a molecular basis for its multifunctional adhesion properties. Our methodology represents a valuable approach to probe the binding forces of bacterial adhesins and offers a tractable methodology to assess anti-adhesion therapy. PMID:25671413

  18. Effects of orally applied Fes p1-displaying L. plantarum WCFS1 on Fes p1 induced allergy in mice.

    PubMed

    Minic, Rajna; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija; Petrusic, Vladimir; Zivkovic, Irena; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Dimitrijevic, Ljiljana; Mathiesen, Geir

    2015-04-10

    Group I grass pollen allergens are major contributors to grass pollen-related seasonal allergic rhinitis, and as such a primary target for allergen specific immunotherapy. In this study the potential therapeutic role of oral application of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, directing cell wall attachment of the recombinant Fes p1 allergen, from Festuca pratensis was tested in a mouse model of Fes p1 allergy. For surface expression of Fes p1 allergen in L. plantarum WCFS1 pSIP system with inducible expression was used. Balb/c mice were sensitized with Fes p1 protein in alum and subsequently received live recombinant L. plantarum orally. Antibody levels (IgE, total IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgA) were determined by ELISA. Differential eosinophil count in peripheral blood was performed. Reduced peripheral blood eosinophilia and increased serum IgG2A levels was detected in both groups which received live L. plantarum orally. Specific serum IgA levels were increased only in mice treated with the recombinant bacteria. Oral application of L. plantarum WCFS1 has a beneficial therapeutic effect in a mouse model of Fes p1 allergy. Cell surface expression of Fes p1 allergen potentiates this phenomenon in an allergen specific way.

  19. P-1 truss moved to O&C Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Workers oversee the placement of the P-1 truss, a component of the International Space Station, onto the bed of a transport vehicle that will move it to the Operations and Checkout Building for processing. The P-1 truss, scheduled to fly in spring of 2002, is part of a total 10-truss, girder-like structure on the Station that will ultimately extend the length of a football field. Astronauts will attach the 14-by-15 foot structure to the port side of the center truss, S0, during the spring assembly flight. The 33,000-pound P-1 will house the thermal radiator rotating joint (TRRJ) that will rotate the Station's radiators away from the sun to increase their maximum cooling efficiency.

  20. P-1 truss moved to O&C Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Cranes place the P-1 truss, a component of the International Space Station, on a transport vehicle that will move it to the Operations and Checkout Building for processing. The truss had been temporarily stored in the RLV hangar in the background as a precaution against approaching bad weather. The P-1 truss, scheduled to fly in spring of 2002, is part of a total 10-truss, girder-like structure on the Station that will ultimately extend the length of a football field. Astronauts will attach the 14-by- 15 foot structure to the port side of the center truss, S0, during the spring assembly flight. The 33,000-pound P-1 will house the thermal radiator rotating joint (TRRJ) that will rotate the Station's radiators away from the sun to increase their maximum cooling efficiency.

  1. Lithography on GaP(1 0 0) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Perez, Rosangelly; Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y.; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2008-06-01

    Two types of lithographic methods were used to modify GaP(1 0 0) surfaces with commercially available alkanethiol molecules: microcontact printing (μCP) and "dip-pen" nanolithography (DPN). The patterned surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FT-IRRAS). The characterization was done in order to understand the quality of each type of pattern, its chemical composition, and the organization of the molecules on the surface. Differences between the two lithographic methods used to do lithography on the GaP(1 0 0) in this study were dependent on the chosen molecular "ink".

  2. Coliphage P1 morphogenesis: analysis of mutants by electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J T; Walker, D H

    1983-01-01

    We used electron microscopy and serum blocking power tests to determine the phenotypes of 47 phage P1 amber mutants that have defects in particle morphogenesis. Eleven mutants showed head defects, 30 showed tail defects, and 6 had a defect in particle maturation (which could be either in the head or in the tail). Consideration of previous complementation test results, genetic and physical positions of the mutations, and phenotypes of the mutants allowed assignment of most of the 47 mutations to genes. Thus, a minimum of 12 tail genes, 4 head genes, and 1 particle maturation gene are now known for P1. Of the 12 tail genes, 1 (gene 19, located within the invertible C loop) codes for tail fibers, 6 (genes 3, 5, 16, 20, 21, and 26) code for baseplate components (although one of these genes could code for the tail tube), 1 (gene 22) codes for the sheath, 1 (gene 6) affects tail length, 2 (genes 7 and 25) are involved in tail stability, and 1 (gene 24) either codes for a baseplate component or is involved in tail stability. Of the four head genes, gene 9 codes for a protein required for DNA packaging. The function of head gene 4 is unclear. Head gene 8 probably codes for a minor head protein, whereas head gene 23 could code for either a minor head protein or the major head protein. Excluding the particle maturation gene (gene 1), the 12 tail genes are clustered in three regions of the P1 physical genome. The four head genes are at four separate locations. However, some P1 head genes have not yet been detected and could be located in two regions (for which there are no known genes) adjacent to genes 4 and 8. The P1 morphogenetic gene clusters are interrupted by many genes that are expressed in the prophage. Images PMID:6834479

  3. Enhancer of Rudimentary(p1), E(r)(p1), a Highly Conserved Enhancer of the Rudimentary Gene

    PubMed Central

    Wojcik, E.; Murphy, A. M.; Fares, H.; Dang-Vu, K.; Tsubota, S. I.

    1994-01-01

    A hybrid dysgenesis-induced mutation, enhancer of rudimentary(p1) (e(r)(p1)), is a recessive enhancer of a weak rudimentary mutant phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster. The e(r) gene was cloned using P element tagging and localized to region 8B on the X chromosome. It encodes a 1.0-kb and a 1.2-kb transcript. The 1.0-kb transcript is present in both adult males and females, while the 1.2-kb transcript is predominantly found in females. The difference in the lengths of the two e(r) transcripts is caused by two different polyadenylation sites spaced 228 bp apart. The amounts of both of these transcripts are drastically reduced in the e(r)(p1) mutant. The P element in e(r)(p1) is inserted in the 5'-untranslated leader region near the start of transcription. It may be producing its effect by suppressing transcription and/or by providing transcription termination and polyadenylation signals. The putative e(r) protein is 104 amino acids in length and bears no striking resemblance to protein sequences in GenBank or PIR. While its biochemical function is unknown at this time, sequence analysis indicates that the e(r) protein is highly conserved and, presumably, functionally very important. The amino acid sequences of the D. melanogaster and the Drosophila virilis proteins are 95% identical. PMID:7896098

  4. Safety evaluation of nuclease P1 from Penicillium citrinum.

    PubMed

    Okado, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Kazushige; Mizuhashi, Fukutaro; Lynch, Barry S; Vo, Trung D; Roberts, Ashley S

    2016-02-01

    Nuclease P1 has been widely used in the food industry to enhance or create flavor. One commercial source of this enzyme is Penicillium citrinum, an anamorphic mesophilic fungus with a long history of safe use in Europe and Asia as a fermentation organism used in the production of ribonucleases. Given the intended use in food for human consumption, and noting its potential presence at trace levels in finished products, a series of safety studies including an in vitro Ames and chromosome aberration assay, an in vivo rat erythrocyte micronucleus assay and a 90-day oral toxicity study in rats were conducted. No mutagenic activity was observed in the Ames assay. Equivocal activity in the chromosome aberration assay was not replicated in the micronucleus assay at doses of up to 1007 mg total organic solids (TOS)/kg body weight (bw)/day. Following oral administration of nuclease P1 at dosages of 10.1, 101 or 1007 mg TOS/kg bw/day to Sprague-Dawley rats, no adverse effects on any study parameter were observed. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was considered to be 1007 mg TOS/kg bw/day. The results of the genotoxicity studies and subchronic rat study support the safe use in food production of nuclease P1 produced from P. citrinum.

  5. Characterization and adsorption of Lactobacillus virulent phage P1.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Xi, Y; Zhang, H; Wang, Z; Fan, M; Liu, Y; Wu, W

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophage infection of lactic acid bacteria is considered an important problem worldwide in the food fermentation industry, as it may produce low quality or unsafe foods, cause fermentation failure, and result in economic losses. To increase current knowledge on the properties of Lactobacillus virulent phages, we evaluated the effect of divalent cations, temperature, pH, and chloramphenicol on the adsorption ability of Lactobacillus virulent phage P1. Phage P1 was isolated from the abnormal fermentation liquid of Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10120. The results showed that this phage belonged to the Siphoviridae family. The latent period of this phage was 45min, and the burst time was 90min. Burst size was 132.88±2.37 phage counts expressed per milliliter per infective center. This phage showed good tolerance at different temperatures, but incubation at 50°C only affected its adsorption. Adsorption rate reached a maximum value between 30 and 42°C. A high adsorption value of phage infectivity was obtained from pH 6 to 8. Moreover, calcium ions promoted and increased the adsorption capacity of phage P1, but magnesium ions had negative effects. Chloramphenicol had no effect on phage adsorption. This study increased current knowledge on the characterization and biological aspects of Lactobacillus virulent phages, and may provide some basic information that can be used to design successful antiphage strategies in the food industry. PMID:27372579

  6. RELATIVE PHOTOMETRY OF HAT-P-1b OCCULTATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Beky, Bence; Holman, Matthew J.; Noyes, Robert W.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Bakos, Gaspar A.; Winn, Joshua N.

    2013-06-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations of two occultations of the transiting exoplanet HAT-P-1b. By measuring the planet to star flux ratio near opposition, we constrain the geometric albedo of the planet, which is strongly linked to its atmospheric temperature gradient. An advantage of HAT-P-1 as a target is its binary companion ADS 16402 A, which provides an excellent photometric reference, simplifying the usual steps in removing instrumental artifacts from HST time-series photometry. We find that without this reference star, we would need to detrend the lightcurve with the time of the exposures as well as the first three powers of HST orbital phase, and this would introduce a strong bias in the results for the albedo. However, with this reference star, we only need to detrend the data with the time of the exposures to achieve the same per-point scatter, therefore we can avoid most of the bias associated with detrending. Our final result is a 2{sigma} upper limit of 0.64 for the geometric albedo of HAT-P-1b between 577 and 947 nm.

  7. Constitutive relations in TRAC-P1A

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Saha, P.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the basic thermal-hydraulic models and correlations that are in the TRAC-P1A code, as released in March 1979. It is divided into two parts, A and B. Part A describes the models in the three-dimensional vessel module of TRAC, whereas Part B focuses on the loop components that are treated by one-dimensional formulations. The report follows the format of the questions prepared by the Analysis Development Branch of USNRC and the questionnaire has been attached to this document for completeness. Concerted efforts have been made in understanding the present models in TRAC-P1A by going through the FORTRAN listing of the code. Some discrepancies between the code and the TRAC-P1A manual have been found. These are pointed out in this document. Efforts have also been made to check the TRAC references for the range of applicability of the models and correlations used in the code. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Mutations in Coliphage P1 Affecting Host Cell Lysis

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Jean Tweedy; Walker, Donald H.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 103 amber mutants of coliphage P1 were tested for lysis of nonpermissive cells. Of these, 83 caused cell lysis at the normal lysis time and have defects in particle morphogenesis. Five amber mutants, with mutations in the same gene (gene 2), caused premature lysis and may have a defect in a lysis regulator. Fifteen amber mutants were unable to cause cell lysis. Artificially lysed cells infected with five of these mutants produced viable phage particles, and phage particles were seen in thin sections of unlysed, infected cells. However, phage production by these mutants was not continued after the normal lysis time. We conclude that the defect of these five mutants is in a lysis function. The five mutations were found to be in the same gene (designated gene 17). The remaining 10 amber mutants, whose mutations were found to be in the same gene (gene 10), were also unable to cause cell lysis. They differed from those in gene 17 in that no viable phage particles were produced from artificially lysed cells, and no phage particles were seen in thin sections of unlysed, infected cells. We conclude that the gene 10 mutants cannot synthesize late proteins, and it is possible that gene 10 may code for a regulator of late gene expression for P1. Images PMID:16789200

  9. Diffusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.

  10. Plectin isoform P1b and P1d deficiencies differentially affect mitochondrial morphology and function in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Lilli; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Grimm, Michael; Zeöld, Anikó; Fischer, Irmgard; Wiche, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Plectin, a versatile 500-kDa cytolinker protein, is essential for muscle fiber integrity and function. The most common disease caused by mutations in the human plectin gene, epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD), is characterized by severe skin blistering and progressive muscular dystrophy. Besides displaying pathological desmin-positive protein aggregates and degenerative changes in the myofibrillar apparatus, skeletal muscle specimens of EBS-MD patients and plectin-deficient mice are characterized by massive mitochondrial alterations. In this study, we demonstrate that structural and functional alterations of mitochondria are a primary aftermath of plectin deficiency in muscle, contributing to myofiber degeneration. We found that in skeletal muscle of conditional plectin knockout mice (MCK-Cre/cKO), mitochondrial content was reduced, and mitochondria were aggregated in sarcoplasmic and subsarcolemmal regions and were no longer associated with Z-disks. Additionally, decreased mitochondrial citrate synthase activity, respiratory function and altered adenosine diphosphate kinetics were characteristic of plectin-deficient muscles. To analyze a mechanistic link between plectin deficiency and mitochondrial alterations, we comparatively assessed mitochondrial morphology and function in whole muscle and teased muscle fibers of wild-type, MCK-Cre/cKO and plectin isoform-specific knockout mice that were lacking just one isoform (either P1b or P1d) while expressing all others. Monitoring morphological alterations of mitochondria, an isoform P1b-specific phenotype affecting the mitochondrial fusion–fission machinery and manifesting with upregulated mitochondrial fusion-associated protein mitofusin-2 could be identified. Our results show that the depletion of distinct plectin isoforms affects mitochondrial network organization and function in different ways. PMID:26019234

  11. A belt transect setting strategy for mark-recapture experiments to evaluate the 1D diffusion coefficient of beached litter in the cross-shore direction.

    PubMed

    Hinata, Hirofumi; Kataoka, Tomoya

    2016-08-15

    We propose a belt transect setting strategy for mark-recapture experiments (MREs) to evaluate the time-independent 1D diffusion coefficient (〈Dp0〉) of marine litter in the cross-shore direction that determines the backwashing flux of the litter, based on two-year MREs for plastic floats (PFs) on Wadahama Beach, Nii-jima Island, Japan. When the alongshore width of the belt transect (Lt) was of the order of, or longer than, the length scale of wave-induced nearshore current circulation (Lc), the PFs were rarely transported alongshore across the selected transects prior to being backwashed offshore. Thus, the transect residence time became longer and showed a much weaker dependence on the transect position, in contrast to when Lt was even shorter than Lc. We therefore obtained the diffusion coefficients close to the value of (〈Dp0〉) when we set Lt to the order of, or longer than, Lc. PMID:27263978

  12. Catalytic activity of nuclease P1: Experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.; Falcone, J.M.; Shibata, M.; Box, H.C.

    1994-10-01

    Nuclease P1 from Penicillium citrinum is a zinc dependent glyco-enzyme that recognizes single stranded DNA and RNA as substrates and hydrolyzes the phosphate ester bond. Nuclease Pl seems to recognize particular conformations of the phosphodiester backbone and shows significant variation in the rate of hydrolytic activity depending upon which nucleosides are coupled by the phosphodiester bond. The efficiency of nuclease Pl in hydrolyzing the phosphodiester bonds of a substrate can be altered by modifications to one of the substrate bases induced by ionizing radiation or oxidative stress. Measurements have been made of the effect of several radiation induced lesions on the catalytic rate of nuclease Pl. A model of the structure of the enzyme has been constructed in order to better understand the binding and activity of this enzyme on various ssDNA substrates.

  13. Micrococcin P1 - A bactericidal thiopeptide active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Degiacomi, Giulia; Personne, Yoann; Mondésert, Guillaume; Ge, Xueliang; Mandava, Chandra Sekhar; Hartkoorn, Ruben C; Boldrin, Francesca; Goel, Pavitra; Peisker, Kristin; Benjak, Andrej; Barrio, Maria Belén; Ventura, Marcello; Brown, Amanda C; Leblanc, Véronique; Bauer, Armin; Sanyal, Suparna; Cole, Stewart T; Lagrange, Sophie; Parish, Tanya; Manganelli, Riccardo

    2016-09-01

    The lack of proper treatment for serious infectious diseases due to the emergence of multidrug resistance reinforces the need for the discovery of novel antibiotics. This is particularly true for tuberculosis (TB) for which 3.7% of new cases and 20% of previously treated cases are estimated to be caused by multi-drug resistant strains. In addition, in the case of TB, which claimed 1.5 million lives in 2014, the treatment of the least complicated, drug sensitive cases is lengthy and disagreeable. Therefore, new drugs with novel targets are urgently needed to control resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. In this manuscript we report the characterization of the thiopeptide micrococcin P1 as an anti-tubercular agent. Our biochemical experiments show that this antibiotic inhibits the elongation step of protein synthesis in mycobacteria. We have further identified micrococcin resistant mutations in the ribosomal protein L11 (RplK); the mutations were located in the proline loop at the N-terminus. Reintroduction of the mutations into a clean genetic background, confirmed that they conferred resistance, while introduction of the wild type RplK allele into resistant strains re-established sensitivity. We also identified a mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. These data, in good agreement with previous structural studies suggest that also in M. tuberculosis micrococcin P1 functions by binding to the cleft between the 23S rRNA and the L11 protein loop, thus interfering with the binding of elongation factors Tu and G (EF-Tu and EF-G) and inhibiting protein translocation. PMID:27553416

  14. Polarimetric studies of comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, H. S.; Medhi, B. J.; Wolf, S.; Bertrang, G.; Deb Roy, P.; Chakraborty, A.

    2013-12-01

    We present the optical imaging polarimetric observations of comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) at three different phase angles e.g. 28.2°, 28.1° and 21.6°. The observations were carried out using the Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera mounted on Cassegrain focus of the 2 m telescope of IGO, IUCAA, Pune, in Rcomet, R photometric bands, on 2012 March 21 and 22 and Aryabhatta Research Institute of observational sciencES (ARIES) Imaging Polarimeter mounted on Cassegrain focus of the 1.04 m Sampurnanand Telescope of ARIES, Nainital, in R photometric band, on 2012 May 23. We show the presence of a jet activity in the rotational-gradient-treated image of comet Garradd at phase angle 28.1°. These jets are mainly oriented towards the Sun and extended up to ˜5100 km from the cometary photocentre. The antisolar extension of the jet seems to be fainter, which is extended up to ˜1800 km. It is found that the comet Garradd shows negative polarization at phase angle 21.6°. The degree of polarization derived for Garradd is in good agreement with other comets at nearly similar phase angles e.g. comets 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, 22P/Kopff, 1P/Halley, C/1990 K1 (Levy), 4P/Faye and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) at phase angle ˜28°, and 47P/Ashbrook-Jackson at phase angle ˜21.6°, respectively. It is also found that the degree of polarization of dusty coma of comet Garradd at phase angle ˜28° is high but not as high as in the case of comet Hale-Bopp.

  15. 26 CFR 31.3402(p)-1T - Voluntary Withholding Agreements (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...). 31.3402(p)-1T Section 31.3402(p)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(p)-1T Voluntary Withholding Agreements (temporary). (a)-(b) For further guidance, see § 31.3402(p)-1(a) and (b). (c) Other payments....

  16. Vaneless diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senoo, Y.

    The influence of vaneless diffusers on flow in centrifugal compressors, particularly on surge, is discussed. A vaneless diffuser can demonstrate stable operation in a wide flow range only if it is installed with a backward leaning blade impeller. The circumferential distortion of flow in the impeller disappears quickly in the vaneless diffuser. The axial distortion of flow at the diffuser inlet does not decay easily. In large specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is distorted axially. Pressure recovery of diffusers at distorted inlet flow is considerably improved by half guide vanes. The best height of the vanes is a little 1/2 diffuser width. In small specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is not much distorted and pressure recovery can be predicted with one-dimensional flow analysis. Wall friction loss is significant in narrow diffusers. The large pressure drop at a small flow rate can cause the positive gradient of the pressure-flow rate characteristic curve, which may cause surging.

  17. Diffuse radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

  18. Diffusion barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolet, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The choice of the metallic film for the contact to a semiconductor device is discussed. One way to try to stabilize a contact is by interposing a thin film of a material that has low diffusivity for the atoms in question. This thin film application is known as a diffusion barrier. Three types of barriers can be distinguished. The stuffed barrier derives its low atomic diffusivity to impurities that concentrate along the extended defects of a polycrystalline layer. Sacrificial barriers exploit the fact that some (elemental) thin films react in a laterally uniform and reproducible fashion. Sacrificial barriers have the advantage that the point of their failure is predictable. Passive barriers are those most closely approximating an ideal barrier. The most-studied case is that of sputtered TiN films. Stuffed barriers may be viewed as passive barriers whose low diffusivity material extends along the defects of the polycrystalline host.

  19. Probing dynamics of a spin ensemble of P1 centers in diamond using a superconducting resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, Gijs; Ranjan, Vishal; Schutjens, Ron; Debelhoir, Thibault; Groen, Joost; Szombati, Daniel; Thoen, David; Klapwijk, Teun; Hanson, Ronald; Dicarlo, Leonardo

    2013-03-01

    Solid-state spin ensembles are promising candidates for realizing a quantum memory for superconducting circuits. Understanding the dynamics of such ensembles is a necessary step towards achieving this goal. Here, we investigate the dynamics of an ensemble of nitrogen impurities (P1 centers) in diamond using magnetic-field controlled coupling to the first two modes of a superconducting (NbTiN) coplanar waveguide resonator. Three hyperfine-split spin sub-ensembles are clearly resolved in the 0.25-1.2 K temperature range, with a collective coupling strength extrapolating to 23 MHz at full polarization. The coupling to multiple modes allows us to distinguish the contributions of dipolar broadening and magnetic field inhomogeneity to the spin linewidth. We find the spin polarization recovery rate to be temperature independent below 1 K and conclude that spin out-diffusion across the resonator mode volume provides the mechanism for spin relaxation of the ensemble. Furthermore, by pumping spins in one sub-ensemble and probing the spins in the other sub-ensembles, we observe fast steady-state cross-relaxation (compared to spin repolarization) across the hyperfine transitions. These observations have important implications for using the three sub-ensembles as independent quantum memories. Research supported by NWO, FOM, and EU Project SOLID

  20. Computer program /P1-GAS/ calculates the P-0 and P-1 transfer matrices for neutron moderation in a monatomic gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, G.; Gibson, G.

    1968-01-01

    FORTRAN 4 program /P1-GAS/ calculates the P-O and P-1 transfer matrices for neutron moderation in a monatomic gas. The equations used are based on the conditions that there is isotropic scattering in the center-of-mass coordinate system, the scattering cross section is constant, and the target nuclear velocities satisfy a Maxwellian distribution.

  1. Drug Resistance of Enteric Bacteria VI. Introduction of Bacteriophage P1CM into Salmonella typhi and Formation of P1dCM and F-CM Elements

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Eiko; Mitsuhashi, Susumu

    1966-01-01

    Kondo, Eiko (Gunma University, Maebashi, Japan), and Susumu Mitsuhashi. Drug resistance of enteric bacteria. VI. Introduction of bacteriophage P1CM into Salmonella typhi and formation of P1dCM and F-CM elements. J. Bacteriol. 91:1787–1794. 1966.—Bacteriophage P1CM was introduced into Salmonella typhi by means of both phage infection and conjugation with Escherichia coli F+ lysogenic for the phage. Upon incubation with a P1CM phage lysate, S. typhi and S. abony yield CMr cells which are lysogenic for P1CM, but S. typhimurium LT2 does not. The P1CM phage is adsorbed slightly to S. typhi, but no infectious centers are formed when the phage is plated on this strain. Tests on P1CM-adsorbing capacity of the S. typhi P1CM+ strain and on plaque formation and transduction ability of the recovered phage from this strain indicated that the cell and the phage population did not have any special advantage over the original cell and phage population. Conjugation of S. typhi with E. coli F+ carrying P1CM+ gave three types of S. typhi CMr clones: those which carry the whole P1CM phage, those with the P1dCM element, and those with nontransferable CMr. The second type has the F factor and is sensitive to f phages in spite of its typical behavior, serologically and biochemically, as S. typhi. It can donate the P1dCM and F+ characters to E. coli F− or F−/P1 strains. As a consequence of conjugation with the E. coli F+ strain, the CMr character of the third type of S. typhi, the nontransferable CMr element, acquired conjugational transferability, owing to the formation of the element, F-CM. This element can be transferred to an E. coli F− strain at a very high frequency (ca. 100). Both the F and CMr determinants are jointly transduced with P1 phage and are jointly eliminated by acridine dye treatment. PMID:5327907

  2. Highly selective and potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 (S1P1) receptor.

    PubMed

    Vachal, Petr; Toth, Leslie M; Hale, Jeffrey J; Yan, Lin; Mills, Sander G; Chrebet, Gary L; Koehane, Carol A; Hajdu, Richard; Milligan, James A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Mandala, Suzanne

    2006-07-15

    Novel series of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists were developed through a systematic SAR aimed to achieve high selectivity for a single member of the S1P family of receptors, S1P1. The optimized structure represents a highly S1P1-selective and efficacious agonist: S1P1/S1P2, S1P1/S1P3, S1P1/S1P4>10,000-fold, S1P1/S1P5>600-fold, while EC50 (S1P1) <0.2 nM. In vivo experiments are consistent with S1P1 receptor agonism alone being sufficient for achieving desired lymphocyte-lowering effect.

  3. 26 CFR 1.409(p)-1 - Prohibited allocation of securities in an S corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... corporation. 1.409(p)-1 Section 1.409(p)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.409(p)-1 Prohibited allocation of securities in an S corporation. (a) Organization of this section and definition—(1) Organization of this section. Section 409(p) applies if a...

  4. 26 CFR 31.3306(p)-1 - Employees of related corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employees of related corporations. 31.3306(p)-1 Section 31.3306(p)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(p)-1...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3306(p)-1 - Employees of related corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employees of related corporations. 31.3306(p)-1 Section 31.3306(p)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(p)-1...

  6. 26 CFR 1.409(p)-1 - Prohibited allocation of securities in an S corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... corporation. 1.409(p)-1 Section 1.409(p)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.409(p)-1 Prohibited allocation of securities in an S corporation. (a) Organization of this section and definition—(1) Organization of this section. Section 409(p) applies if a...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3306(p)-1 - Employees of related corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Employees of related corporations. 31.3306(p)-1 Section 31.3306(p)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(p)-1...

  8. 26 CFR 1.409(p)-1 - Prohibited allocation of securities in an S corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... corporation. 1.409(p)-1 Section 1.409(p)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.409(p)-1 Prohibited allocation of securities in an S corporation. (a) Organization of this section and definition—(1) Organization of this section. Section 409(p) applies if a...

  9. 26 CFR 1.409(p)-1 - Prohibited allocation of securities in an S corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... corporation. 1.409(p)-1 Section 1.409(p)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.409(p)-1 Prohibited allocation of securities in an S corporation. (a) Organization of this section and definition—(1) Organization of this section. Section 409(p) applies if a...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3306(p)-1 - Employees of related corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employees of related corporations. 31.3306(p)-1 Section 31.3306(p)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(p)-1...

  11. 26 CFR 1.409(p)-1 - Prohibited allocation of securities in an S corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited allocation of securities in an S corporation. 1.409(p)-1 Section 1.409(p)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.409(p)-1 Prohibited allocation...

  12. Genomic and Proteomic Analyses of the Terminally Redundant Genome of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PaP1: Establishment of Genus PaP1-Like Phages

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shuguang; Le, Shuai; Tan, Yinling; Zhu, Junmin; Li, Ming; Rao, Xiancai; Zou, Lingyun; Li, Shu; Wang, Jing; Jin, Xiaolin; Huang, Guangtao; Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Xia; Hu, Fuquan

    2013-01-01

    We isolated and characterized a new Pseudomonas aeruginosa myovirus named PaP1. The morphology of this phage was visualized by electron microscopy and its genome sequence and ends were determined. Finally, genomic and proteomic analyses were performed. PaP1 has an icosahedral head with an apex diameter of 68–70 nm and a contractile tail with a length of 138–140 nm. The PaP1 genome is a linear dsDNA molecule containing 91,715 base pairs (bp) with a G+C content of 49.36% and 12 tRNA genes. A strategy to identify the genome ends of PaP1 was designed. The genome has a 1190 bp terminal redundancy. PaP1 has 157 open reading frames (ORFs). Of these, 143 proteins are homologs of known proteins, but only 38 could be functionally identified. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed identification of 12 ORFs as structural protein coding genes within the PaP1 genome. Comparative genomic analysis indicated that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1, JG004, PAK_P1 and vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab1 share great similarity. Besides their similar biological characteristics, the phages contain 123 core genes and have very close phylogenetic relationships, which distinguish them from other known phage genera. We therefore propose that these four phages be classified as PaP1-like phages, a new phage genus of Myoviridae that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:23675441

  13. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  14. Relativistic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Z.

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  15. Defusing Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion…

  16. Relativistic diffusion.

    PubMed

    Haba, Z

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  17. Diffusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1976-06-22

    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  18. Dose of house dust mite antigen (P1) inhaled by infants aged one month

    SciTech Connect

    Carswell, F.; Clark, J.; Robinson, P.; Platts-Mills, T.A.

    1983-11-01

    A survey of the habitats occupied by 12 infants of one month of age revealed that approximately 10% of their day was spent in conditions of potential exposure to the major (P1) allergen of the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. A respiratory pump which reproduced the minute ventilation of an infant was placed in representative infant habitats. The P1 allergen trapped by the filter in this pump was measured as an estimate of infants' allergen intake. Detectable P1 intake was only present when there was active air disturbance (bed making and vacuuming). The average P1 intake was approximately 3 ng P1/24 hours. Comparison of this P1 intake with that which sensitizes in other situations suggests that it is usually inadequate to sensitize infants.

  19. Kinetics of Methylation by EcoP1I DNA Methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Bheemanaik, Shivakumara; Sistla, Srivani; Krishnamurthy, Vinita; Arathi, Sampath; Desirazu, Narasimha Rao

    2010-01-01

    EcoP1I DNA MTase (M.EcoP1I), an N6-adenine MTase from bacteriophage P1, is a part of the EcoP1I restriction-modification (R-M) system which belongs to the Type III R-M system. It recognizes the sequence 5′-AGACC-3′ and methylates the internal adenine. M.EcoP1I requires Mg2+ for the transfer of methyl groups to DNA. M.EcoP1I is shown to exist as dimer in solution, and even at high salt concentrations (0.5 M) the dimeric M.EcoP1I does not dissociate into monomers suggesting a strong interaction between the monomer subunits. Preincubation and isotope partitioning studies with M.EcoP1I indicate a kinetic mechanism where the duplex DNA binds first followed by AdoMet. Interestingly, M.EcoP1I methylates DNA substrates in the presence of Mn2+ and Ca2+ other than Mg2+ with varying affinities. Amino acid analysis and methylation assays in the presence of metal ions suggest that M.EcoP1I has indeed two metal ion-binding sites [358ID(x)n … ExK401 and 600DxDxD604 motif]. EcoP1I DNA MTase catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups using a distributive mode of methylation on DNA containing more than one recognition site. A chemical modification of EcoP1I DNA MTase using N-ethylmaleimide resulted in an irreversible inactivation of enzyme activity suggesting the possible role of cysteine residues in catalysis. PMID:21048863

  20. Involvement of sphingosine-1-phosphate and S1P1 in angiogenesis: analyses using a new S1P1 antagonist of non-sphingosine-1-phosphate analog.

    PubMed

    Yonesu, Kiyoaki; Kawase, Yumi; Inoue, Tatsuya; Takagi, Nana; Tsuchida, Jun; Takuwa, Yoh; Kumakura, Seiichiro; Nara, Futoshi

    2009-03-15

    Chemical lead 2 (CL2) is the first non-sphingosine-1-phosphate (Sph-1-P) analog type antagonist of endothelial differentiation gene-1 (Edg-1/S1P(1)), which is a member of the Sph-1-P receptor family. CL2 inhibits [(3)H]Sph-1-P/S1P(1) binding and shows concentration-dependent inhibition activity against both intracellular cAMP concentration decrease and cell invasion induced by the Sph-1-P/S1P(1) pathway. It also inhibits normal tube formation in an angiogenesis culture model, indicating that CL2 has anti-angiogenesis activity. This compound improved the disease conditions in two angiogenic models in vivo. It significantly inhibited angiogenesis induced by vascular endothelial growth factor in a rabbit cornea model as well as the swelling of mouse feet in an anti-type II collagen antibody-induced arthritis model. These results indicate that the Sph-1-P/S1P(1) pathway would have an important role in disease-related angiogenesis, especially in the processes of migration/invasion and tube formation. In addition, CL2 would be a powerful tool for the pharmacological study of the mechanisms of the Sph-1-P/S1P(1) pathway in rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes retinopathy, and solid tumor growth processes. PMID:19150609

  1. Genetic studies of coliphage P1. I. Mapping by use of prophage deletions.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D H; Walker, J T

    1975-01-01

    One hundred and ten amber mutants of coliphage P1 were isolated and localized into groups with respect to the existing genetic map by use of nonpermissive Escherichia coli K-12 strains lysogenic for P1 with deletions. These lysogens contain one of three types of deletion prophages: P1cry and its derivatives, P1dlacs, and P1dpros. Fourteen such lysogens were tested for their ability to rescue the amber mutants which were then assigned to one of nine deletion segments of the P1 genome defined by the termini of the various prophage deletions. The relationship of the nine deletion segments with the published P1 map is described, two new segments having been added. The deletions of the 14 prophages overlapped sufficiently to indicate that the P1 genetic prophage map should be represented in circular form, which is consistent with the fact that P1 is normally a circular plasmid in the prophage state. The distribution of mutants into deletion segments is nonrandom for at least one segment. In addition, the deletion termini of the 14 defective prophages coincided in five out of nine regions separating the nine deletion segments. Various possible explanations are discussed for the nonrandom recurrence of these deletion termini, including the evidence of hot spots of recombination. PMID:1099231

  2. DIFFUSION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, L.

    1963-09-01

    A high-vacuum diffusion pump is described, featuring a novel housing geometry for enhancing pumping speed. An upright, cylindrical lower housing portion is surmounted by a concentric, upright, cylindrical upper housing portion of substantially larger diameter; an uppermost nozzle, disposed concentrically within the upper portion, is adapted to eject downwardly a conical sheet of liquid outwardly to impinge upon the uppermost extremity of the interior wall of the lower portion. Preferably this nozzle is mounted upon a pedestal rising coaxially from within the lower portion and projecting up into said upper portion. (AEC)

  3. Problems associated with the measurement of coherence parameters - Superelastic electron scattering by laser-excited Ba-138(...6s6p1P1) atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zetner, P. W.; Trajmar, S.; Csanak, G.; Clark, R. E. H.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of superelastic scattering of electrons by laser-excited Ba-138(...6s6p1P1) atoms were carried out. An asymmetry observed has been explained using a model of scattering from a target with finite dimensions. This model employed coherence parameters which were calculated in the distorted-wave approximation. The results indicated that the interpretation of coherence experiments in terms of scattering from a pointlike target can lead to serious errors in the deduction of coherence parameters at low scattering angles.

  4. A Study of Perkins 2P1 Graduation Performance Rates at Virginia Western Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, J. Andrew.

    2006-01-01

    "2P1" is the Carl Perkins label for an institution's graduation performance rate. Systems receiving Perkins funds, like Virginia's 23 community colleges, are expected to meet a federally approved 2P1 target rate. For the 3-year period 1999-2001 Virginia Western Community College (VWCC) was one of seven community colleges in the VCCS (Virginia…

  5. Including an Exam P/1 Prep Course in a Growing Actuarial Science Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the actuarial science program at our university and the development of a course to enhance students' problem solving skills while preparing them for Exam P/1 of the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuary Society (CAS). The Exam P/1 prep course, formally titled Mathematical Foundations of…

  6. Delineation of immunodominant and cytadherence segment(s) of Mycoplasma pneumoniae P1 gene

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adhesion of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) to host epithelial cells requires several adhesin proteins like P1, P30 and P116. Among these proteins, P1 protein has been inedited as one of the major adhesin and immunogenic protein present on the attachment organelle of M. pneumoniae. In the present study, we scanned the entire sequence of M. pneumoniae P1 protein to identify the immunodominant and cytadherence region(s). M. pneumoniae P1 gene was synthesized in four segments replacing all the UGA codons to UGG codons. Each of the four purified P1 protein fragment was analyzed for its immunogenicity with anti-M. pneumoniae M129 antibodies (Pab M129) and sera of M. pneumoniae infected patients by western blotting and ELISA. Antibodies were produced against all the P1 protein fragments and these antibodies were used for M. pneumoniae adhesion, M. pneumoniae adhesion inhibition and M. pneumoniae surface exposure assays using HEp-2 cells lines. Results Our results show that the immunodominant regions are distributed throughout the entire length of P1 protein, while only the N- and C- terminal region(s) of P1 protein are surface exposed and block cytadhesion to HEp-2 cells, while antibodies to two middle fragments failed to block cytadhesion. Conclusions These results have important implications in designing strategies to block the attachment of M. pneumoniae to epithelial cells, thus preventing the development of atypical pneumonia. PMID:24774062

  7. 26 CFR 31.3306(p)-1 - Employees of related corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employees of related corporations. 31.3306(p)-1 Section 31.3306(p)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act...

  8. A p1 aneurysm and diabetes insipidus caused by traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lv, M; Lv, X; Jiang, C; Wu, Z

    2010-12-01

    We describe a patient with a P1 aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) with diabetes insipidus (DI) caused by traumatic brain injury. A 21-year-old woman presented with epidural hematoma, left temporal contusion and subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by head trauma. DI occurred with normal anterior hypophyseal function on the second day after admission and cerebral angiography demonstrated an aneurysm at the right P1 portion after one month. DI was treated with administration of desmopressin and the aneurysm and P1 portion of the right PCA were occluded completely. After three months, her DI recovered and decompressin was discontinued. The six month follow-up angiogram confirmed cure of the P1 aneurysm. P1 aneurysm and DI can be caused by traumatic brain injury. Cranial DI caused by head injury with perturbations in water balance may be transitory and resolve.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Pepper Genes Interacting with the CMV-P1 Helicase Domain.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoomi; Kang, Min-Young; Lee, Joung-Ho; Kang, Won-Hee; Hwang, JeeNa; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a destructive pathogen affecting Capsicum annuum (pepper) production. The pepper Cmr1 gene confers resistance to most CMV strains, but is overcome by CMV-P1 in a process dependent on the CMV-P1 RNA1 helicase domain (P1 helicase). Here, to identify host factors involved in CMV-P1 infection in pepper, a yeast two-hybrid library derived from a C. annuum 'Bukang' cDNA library was screened, producing a total of 76 potential clones interacting with the P1 helicase. Beta-galactosidase filter lift assay, PCR screening, and sequencing analysis narrowed the candidates to 10 genes putatively involved in virus infection. The candidate host genes were silenced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were then inoculated with CMV-P1 tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Plants silenced for seven of the genes showed development comparable to N. benthamiana wild type, whereas plants silenced for the other three genes showed developmental defects including stunting and severe distortion. Silencing formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor led to reduced virus accumulation. Formate dehydrogenase-silenced plants showed local infection in inoculated leaves, but not in upper (systemic) leaves. In the calreticulin-3 precursor-silenced plants, infection was not observed in either the inoculated or the upper leaves. Our results demonstrate that formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor are required for CMV-P1 infection.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Pepper Genes Interacting with the CMV-P1 Helicase Domain

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoomi; Kang, Min-Young; Lee, Joung-Ho; Kang, Won-Hee; Hwang, JeeNa; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a destructive pathogen affecting Capsicum annuum (pepper) production. The pepper Cmr1 gene confers resistance to most CMV strains, but is overcome by CMV-P1 in a process dependent on the CMV-P1 RNA1 helicase domain (P1 helicase). Here, to identify host factors involved in CMV-P1 infection in pepper, a yeast two-hybrid library derived from a C. annuum ‘Bukang’ cDNA library was screened, producing a total of 76 potential clones interacting with the P1 helicase. Beta-galactosidase filter lift assay, PCR screening, and sequencing analysis narrowed the candidates to 10 genes putatively involved in virus infection. The candidate host genes were silenced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were then inoculated with CMV-P1 tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Plants silenced for seven of the genes showed development comparable to N. benthamiana wild type, whereas plants silenced for the other three genes showed developmental defects including stunting and severe distortion. Silencing formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor led to reduced virus accumulation. Formate dehydrogenase-silenced plants showed local infection in inoculated leaves, but not in upper (systemic) leaves. In the calreticulin-3 precursor-silenced plants, infection was not observed in either the inoculated or the upper leaves. Our results demonstrate that formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor are required for CMV-P1 infection. PMID:26751216

  11. Characterization of the enterovirus 71 P1 polyprotein expressed in Pichia pastor as a candidate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue; Ying, Xiao-ling; Zhou, Shi-li; Han, Tao; Huang, Hao; Jin, Qi; Yang, Fan; Sun, Qi-ying; Sun, Xian-xun

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) plays an important role in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which recently caused the death of hundreds of children in the Asia-Pacific region. However, there are no specific treatments available for EV71 infections; thus, a safe and effective vaccine is needed urgently. In this study, we developed an effective and economical method for producing EV71 polyprotein (P1 protein) in Pichia pastoris. Furthermore, we evaluated the potential of P1 protein as a candidate vaccine against EV71 virus. The data revealed that P1 protein induced persistent high cross-neutralization antibodies for different EV71 subtypes, and elicited significant splenocyte proliferation. The high levels of interleukin-10(IL-10) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) showed that P1 protein induced Th1 and Th2 immune responses. Interestingly, vaccinating female mice with the P1 protein conferred cross-protection against different EV71 subtypes to their neonatal offspring.Compared with heat-inactivated EV71, the P1 protein elicited improved humoral and cellular immune responses and showed good cross-protection with different EV71 subtypes. Therefore, the EV71-P1 protein produced by P. pastoris is a promising candidate vaccine against EV71.

  12. The Hypervariable Amino-Terminus of P1 Protease Modulates Potyviral Replication and Host Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Pasin, Fabio; Simón-Mateo, Carmen; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The replication of many RNA viruses involves the translation of polyproteins, whose processing by endopeptidases is a critical step for the release of functional subunits. P1 is the first protease encoded in plant potyvirus genomes; once activated by an as-yet-unknown host factor, it acts in cis on its own C-terminal end, hydrolyzing the P1-HCPro junction. Earlier research suggests that P1 cooperates with HCPro to inhibit host RNA silencing defenses. Using Plum pox virus as a model, we show that although P1 does not have a major direct role in RNA silencing suppression, it can indeed modulate HCPro function by its self-cleavage activity. To study P1 protease regulation, we used bioinformatic analysis and in vitro activity experiments to map the core C-terminal catalytic domain. We present evidence that the hypervariable region that precedes the protease domain is predicted as intrinsically disordered, and that it behaves as a negative regulator of P1 proteolytic activity in in vitro cleavage assays. In viral infections, removal of the P1 protease antagonistic regulator is associated with greater symptom severity, induction of salicylate-dependent pathogenesis-related proteins, and reduced viral loads. We suggest that fine modulation of a viral protease activity has evolved to keep viral amplification below host-detrimental levels, and thus to maintain higher long-term replicative capacity. PMID:24603811

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Pepper Genes Interacting with the CMV-P1 Helicase Domain.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoomi; Kang, Min-Young; Lee, Joung-Ho; Kang, Won-Hee; Hwang, JeeNa; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a destructive pathogen affecting Capsicum annuum (pepper) production. The pepper Cmr1 gene confers resistance to most CMV strains, but is overcome by CMV-P1 in a process dependent on the CMV-P1 RNA1 helicase domain (P1 helicase). Here, to identify host factors involved in CMV-P1 infection in pepper, a yeast two-hybrid library derived from a C. annuum 'Bukang' cDNA library was screened, producing a total of 76 potential clones interacting with the P1 helicase. Beta-galactosidase filter lift assay, PCR screening, and sequencing analysis narrowed the candidates to 10 genes putatively involved in virus infection. The candidate host genes were silenced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were then inoculated with CMV-P1 tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Plants silenced for seven of the genes showed development comparable to N. benthamiana wild type, whereas plants silenced for the other three genes showed developmental defects including stunting and severe distortion. Silencing formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor led to reduced virus accumulation. Formate dehydrogenase-silenced plants showed local infection in inoculated leaves, but not in upper (systemic) leaves. In the calreticulin-3 precursor-silenced plants, infection was not observed in either the inoculated or the upper leaves. Our results demonstrate that formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor are required for CMV-P1 infection. PMID:26751216

  14. Characterization of the enterovirus 71 P1 polyprotein expressed in Pichia pastor as a candidate vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xue; Ying, Xiao-ling; Zhou, Shi-li; Han, Tao; Huang, Hao; Jin, Qi; Yang, Fan; Sun, Qi-ying; Sun, Xian-xun

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) plays an important role in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which recently caused the death of hundreds of children in the Asia-Pacific region. However, there are no specific treatments available for EV71 infections; thus, a safe and effective vaccine is needed urgently. In this study, we developed an effective and economical method for producing EV71 polyprotein (P1 protein) in Pichia pastoris. Furthermore, we evaluated the potential of P1 protein as a candidate vaccine against EV71 virus. The data revealed that P1 protein induced persistent high cross-neutralization antibodies for different EV71 subtypes, and elicited significant splenocyte proliferation. The high levels of interleukin-10(IL-10) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) showed that P1 protein induced Th1 and Th2 immune responses. Interestingly, vaccinating female mice with the P1 protein conferred cross-protection against different EV71 subtypes to their neonatal offspring.Compared with heat-inactivated EV71, the P1 protein elicited improved humoral and cellular immune responses and showed good cross-protection with different EV71 subtypes. Therefore, the EV71-P1 protein produced by P. pastoris is a promising candidate vaccine against EV71. PMID:25424925

  15. Heterologous production, purification and characterization of enzymatically active Sindbis virus nonstructural protein nsP1.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Shailly; Narwal, Manju; Harms, Etti; Smith, Janet L; Kuhn, Richard J

    2011-10-01

    Alphavirus nonstructural protein nsP1 possesses distinct methyltransferase (MTase) and guanylyltransferase (GTase) activities involved in the capping of viral RNAs. In alphaviruses, the methylation of GTP occurs before RNA transguanylation and nsP1 forms a covalent complex with m(7)GMP unlike the host mRNA guanylyltransferase which forms GMP-enzyme complex. In this study, full length SINV nsP1 was expressed in a soluble form with an N-terminal histidine tag in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein is enzymatically active and contains both MTase and GTase activity indicating that SINV nsP1 does not require membrane association for its enzymatic function. Biochemical analysis shows that detergents abolish nsP1 GTase activity, whereas nonionic detergents do not affect MTase activity. Furthermore, SINV nsP1 contains the metal-ion dependent GTase, whereas MTase does not require a metal ion. Circular dichroism spectroscopic analysis of purified protein indicate that nsP1 has a mixed α/β structure and is in the folded native conformation. PMID:21693190

  16. Structure-based design of inhibitors of coagulation factor XIa with novel P1 moieties.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Donald J P; Smallheer, Joanne M; Corte, James R; Austin, Erin J D; Wang, Cailan; Fang, Tianan; Smith, Leon M; Rossi, Karen A; Rendina, Alan R; Bozarth, Jeffrey M; Zhang, Ge; Wei, Anzhi; Ramamurthy, Vidhyashankar; Sheriff, Steven; Myers, Joseph E; Morin, Paul E; Luettgen, Joseph M; Seiffert, Dietmar A; Quan, Mimi L; Wexler, Ruth R

    2015-04-01

    Compound 2 was previously identified as a potent inhibitor of factor XIa lacking oral bioavailability. A structure-based approach was used to design analogs of 2 with novel P1 moieties with good selectivity profiles and oral bioavailability. Further optimization of the P1 group led to the identification of a 4-chlorophenyltetrazole P1 analog, which when combined with further modifications to the linker and P2' group provided compound 32 with FXIa Ki=6.7 nM and modest oral exposure in dogs.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium populi P-1M, Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    Methylobacterium populi P-1M is isolated from the pink-pigmented household biofilm. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P-1M, consisting of one chromosome of 5,705,640 bp and five plasmids of 64,864 bp, 59,879 bp, 42,569 bp, 41,417 bp, and 29,506 bp. PMID:27313289

  18. Non-covalent thrombin inhibitors featuring P3-heterocycles with P1-bicyclic arginine surrogates.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jingrong Jean; Araldi, Gian-Luca; Reiner, John E; Reddy, Komandla Malla; Kemp, Scott J; Ho, Jonathan Z; Siev, Daniel V; Mamedova, Lala; Gibson, Tony S; Gaudette, John A; Minami, Nathaniel K; Anderson, Susanne M; Bradbury, Annette E; Nolan, Thomas G; Semple, J Edward

    2002-10-21

    Novel, potent, and highly selective classes of thrombin inhibitors were identified, which resulted from judicious combination of P4-aromatics and P2-P3-heterocyclic dipeptide surrogates with weakly basic (calcd pKa approximately non-basic-8.6) bicyclic P1-arginine mimics. The design, synthesis, and biological activity of achiral, non-covalent, orally bioavailable inhibitors NC1-NC44 featuring P1-indazoles, benzimidazoles, indoles, benzotriazoles, and aminobenzisoxazoles is disclosed.

  19. STS-113 Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria looks over the P1 Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria looks over the P1 Integrated Truss Structure, the primary payload for the mission. The P1 truss will be attached to the central truss segment, S0 Truss, during spacewalks. The payload also includes the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B that can be used by spacewalkers to move along the truss with equipment. STS-113 is scheduled to launch Oct. 6, 2002.

  20. Identification of benzoxazole analogs as novel, S1P(3) sparing S1P(1) agonists.

    PubMed

    Deng, Guanghui; Meng, Qinghua; Liu, Qian; Xu, Xuesong; Xu, Qiongfeng; Ren, Feng; Guo, Taylor B; Lu, Hongtao; Xiang, Jia-Ning; Elliott, John D; Lin, Xichen

    2012-06-15

    A novel series of benzoxazole-derived S1P(1) agonists were designed based on scaffold hopping molecular design strategy combined with computational approaches. Extensive SAR studies led to the discovery of compound 17d as a selective S1P(1) agonist (over S1P(3)) with high CNS penetration and favorable DMPK properties. 17d also demonstrated in vivo pharmacological efficacy to reduce blood lymphocyte in mice after oral administration.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium populi P-1M, Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Methylobacterium populi P-1M is isolated from the pink-pigmented household biofilm. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P-1M, consisting of one chromosome of 5,705,640 bp and five plasmids of 64,864 bp, 59,879 bp, 42,569 bp, 41,417 bp, and 29,506 bp. PMID:27313289

  2. Identification of a hemerythrin-like domain in a P1B-type transport ATPase†

    PubMed Central

    Traverso, Matthew E.; Subramanian, Poorna; Davydov, Roman; Hoffman, Brian M.; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    The P1B-type ATPases couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to metal ion translocation across cell membranes. Important for prokaryotic metal resistance and essential metal distribution in eukaryotes, P1B-ATPases are divided into subclasses on the basis of their metal substrate specificities. Sequence analysis of putative P1B-5-ATPases, for which the substrate has not been identified, led to the discovery of a C-terminal soluble domain homologous to hemerythrin (Hr) proteins and domains. The Hr domain from the Acidothermus cellulolyticus P1B-5-ATPase was cloned, expressed, and purified (P1B-5-Hr). P1B-5-Hr binds two iron ions per monomer and adopts a predominantly helical fold. Optical absorption features of the iron-loaded and azide-treated protein are consistent with features observed for other Hr proteins. Autooxidation to the met form is very rapid, as reported for other prokaryotic Hr domains. The presence of a diiron center was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) data. The occurrence of a Hr-like domain in a P-type ATPase is unprecedented and suggests new regulatory mechanisms as well as an expanded function for Hr proteins in biology. PMID:20672819

  3. Intramuscular electroporation of a P1A-encoding plasmid vaccine delays P815 mastocytoma growth.

    PubMed

    Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Uyttenhove, Catherine; De Plaen, Etienne; Van den Eynde, Benoît J; Préat, Véronique

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to construct DNA vaccines encoding the mouse P1A tumor antigen and to generate a protective immune response against the P815 mastocytoma, as a model for vaccines against human MAGE-type tumor antigens. DNA vaccines were constructed and delivered to mice by intramuscular electroporation before tumor challenge. Immunization with a plasmid coding for the full-length P1A significantly delayed tumor growth and mice survived at least 10 days longer than untreated controls. 10% of the mice completely rejected the P815 tumors while 50% of them showed a regression phase followed by tumor regrowth. Mice immunized by electroporation of a P1A(35-43) minigene-encoding plasmid failed to reject tumor and even delay tumor growth. The P1A(35-43)-encoding plasmid was modified and helper epitope sequences were inserted. However, these modified plasmids were not able to improve the response against P815 mastocytoma. Consistent with these results, a 12-fold higher CTL activity was observed when the plasmid coding for full-length P1A was delivered as compared to the plasmid encoding the P1A(35-43) epitope. Our results demonstrated that electroporation is an efficient method to deliver DNA vaccines against P815 and suggested the superiority of full-length as compared to minigene constructs for DNA vaccines.

  4. NIST Diffusion Data Center

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Diffusion Data Center (Web, free access)   The NIST Diffusion Data Center is a collection of over 14,100 international papers, theses, and government reports on diffusion published before 1980.

  5. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  6. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  7. 26 CFR 1.409(p)-1T - Prohibited allocations of securities in an S corporation (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... paragraph (i)(2)(ii), § 1.409(p)-1T as in effect prior to December 17, 2004 (see § 1.409(p)-1T in 26 CFR... effect prior to December 17, 2004 (see § 1.409(p)-1T in 26 CFR Part 1 revised as of April 1, 2004... corporation (temporary). 1.409(p)-1T Section 1.409(p)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE,...

  8. 26 CFR 1.409(p)-1T - Prohibited allocations of securities in an S corporation (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... paragraph (i)(2)(ii), § 1.409(p)-1T as in effect prior to December 17, 2004 (see § 1.409(p)-1T in 26 CFR... effect prior to December 17, 2004 (see § 1.409(p)-1T in 26 CFR Part 1 revised as of April 1, 2004... corporation (temporary). 1.409(p)-1T Section 1.409(p)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE,...

  9. 26 CFR 1.409(p)-1T - Prohibited allocations of securities in an S corporation (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... paragraph (i)(2)(ii), § 1.409(p)-1T as in effect prior to December 17, 2004 (see § 1.409(p)-1T in 26 CFR... effect prior to December 17, 2004 (see § 1.409(p)-1T in 26 CFR Part 1 revised as of April 1, 2004... corporation (temporary). 1.409(p)-1T Section 1.409(p)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE,...

  10. 26 CFR 1.409(p)-1T - Prohibited allocations of securities in an S corporation (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... paragraph (i)(2)(ii), § 1.409(p)-1T as in effect prior to December 17, 2004 (see § 1.409(p)-1T in 26 CFR... effect prior to December 17, 2004 (see § 1.409(p)-1T in 26 CFR Part 1 revised as of April 1, 2004... corporation (temporary). 1.409(p)-1T Section 1.409(p)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE,...

  11. P1 interneurons promote a persistent internal state that enhances inter-male aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hoopfer, Eric D; Jung, Yonil; Inagaki, Hidehiko K; Rubin, Gerald M; Anderson, David J

    2015-01-01

    How brains are hardwired to produce aggressive behavior, and how aggression circuits are related to those that mediate courtship, is not well understood. A large-scale screen for aggression-promoting neurons in Drosophila identified several independent hits that enhanced both inter-male aggression and courtship. Genetic intersections revealed that 8-10 P1 interneurons, previously thought to exclusively control male courtship, were sufficient to promote fighting. Optogenetic experiments indicated that P1 activation could promote aggression at a threshold below that required for wing extension. P1 activation in the absence of wing extension triggered persistent aggression via an internal state that could endure for minutes. High-frequency P1 activation promoted wing extension and suppressed aggression during photostimulation, whereas aggression resumed and wing extension was inhibited following photostimulation offset. Thus, P1 neuron activation promotes a latent, internal state that facilitates aggression and courtship, and controls the overt expression of these social behaviors in a threshold-dependent, inverse manner. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11346.001 PMID:26714106

  12. Expression and purification of enterovirus type 71 polyprotein P1 using Pichia pastoris system.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue; Ying, Xiaoling; Huang, Hao; Zhou, Shili; Huang, Qi

    2012-08-01

    Enterovirus type 71(EV71) causes severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) resulting in hundreds of deaths of children every year; However, currently, there is no effective treatment for EV71. In this study, the EV71 poly-protein (EV71-P1 protein) gene was processed and cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pPIC9k and then expressed in Pichia pastoris strain GS115. The EV71 P1 protein with a molecular weight of 100 kD was produced and secreted into the medium. The soluble EV71 P1 protein was purified by column chromatography with a recovery efficiency of 70%. The result of the immunological analysis showed that the EV71 P1 protein had excellent immunogenicity and could stimulate the production of EV71-VP1 IgG antibody in injected rabbits. We suggest that EV71-P1 protein is an ideal candidate for an EV71 vaccine to prevent EV71 infection.

  13. FoxP1 orchestration of ASD-relevant signaling pathways in the striatum

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Daniel J.; Anderson, Ashley G.; Berto, Stefano; Runnels, Wesley; Harper, Matthew; Ammanuel, Simon; Rieger, Michael A.; Huang, Hung-Chung; Rajkovich, Kacey; Loerwald, Kristofer W.; Dekker, Joseph D.; Tucker, Haley O.; Dougherty, Joseph D.; Gibson, Jay R.; Konopka, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the transcription factor Forkhead box p1 (FOXP1) are causative for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. However, the function of FOXP1 within the brain remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we identify the gene expression program regulated by FoxP1 in both human neural cells and patient-relevant heterozygous Foxp1 mouse brains. We demonstrate a role for FoxP1 in the transcriptional regulation of autism-related pathways as well as genes involved in neuronal activity. We show that Foxp1 regulates the excitability of striatal medium spiny neurons and that reduction of Foxp1 correlates with defects in ultrasonic vocalizations. Finally, we demonstrate that FoxP1 has an evolutionarily conserved role in regulating pathways involved in striatal neuron identity through gene expression studies in human neural progenitors with altered FOXP1 levels. These data support an integral role for FoxP1 in regulating signaling pathways vulnerable in autism and the specific regulation of striatal pathways important for vocal communication. PMID:26494785

  14. Der p 1 facilitates transepithelial allergen delivery by disruption of tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Wan, H; Winton, H L; Soeller, C; Tovey, E R; Gruenert, D C; Thompson, P J; Stewart, G A; Taylor, G W; Garrod, D R; Cannell, M B; Robinson, C

    1999-07-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergens are important factors in the increasing prevalence of asthma. The lung epithelium forms a barrier that allergens must cross before they can cause sensitization. However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. Here we show that the cysteine proteinase allergen Der p 1 from fecal pellets of the HDM Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus causes disruption of intercellular tight junctions (TJs), which are the principal components of the epithelial paracellular permeability barrier. In confluent airway epithelial cells, Der p 1 led to cleavage of the TJ adhesion protein occludin. Cleavage was attenuated by antipain, but not by inhibitors of serine, aspartic, or matrix metalloproteinases. Putative Der p 1 cleavage sites were found in peptides from an extracellular domain of occludin and in the TJ adhesion protein claudin-1. TJ breakdown nonspecifically increased epithelial permeability, allowing Der p 1 to cross the epithelial barrier. Thus, transepithelial movement of Der p 1 to dendritic antigen-presenting cells via the paracellular pathway may be promoted by the allergen's own proteolytic activity. These results suggest that opening of TJs by environmental proteinases may be the initial step in the development of asthma to a variety of allergens.

  15. Phytopathogenic bacteria phenotype conversion as a result of their lysogenisation by coliphage P1.

    PubMed

    Faidiuk, I V; Tovkach, E I

    2014-01-01

    A set of lysogenic strains of phytopathogenic bacteria Erwinia "horticola" and Erwinia amylovora associated with woody plants was obtained using bacteriophage P1 Cmc1ts100. The phenotype conversion from Cm(S) to Cm(R) was shown to be connected with introducing of authentic prophage DNA of 94.8 kb as a single-copy plasmid into the cells. Prophage state is unstable: P1 plasmid is spontaneously lost with high frequency by the cells. In lysogenic cells the prophage genes of type III restriction-modification complex EcoP1I are actively expressed. The system formed by E. "horticola" 450 and 60 as well as their lysogenic derivatives and specific bacteriophages provides an opportunity to divide the latter into three groups according to the level of restriction in the course of their interaction with the enzyme EcoP1I. The difference in phage responses to the endonuclease presence in a lysogenized host presumably correlates with the number of enzyme recognition sequences and the adsorption sites availability. After the prophage plasmid DNA curing the characteristic value of phage sensitivity of cells is changed. The lysogenic strains obtained in this work allow for the exploration of EcoP1I restriction-modification gene complex interaction with polyvalent phages able to grow not only on E. coli, but also on such phytopathogens as E. "horticola" and E. amylovora. PMID:25000732

  16. P1 Ref Endonuclease: A Molecular Mechanism for Phage-Enhanced Antibiotic Lethality.

    PubMed

    Ronayne, Erin A; Wan, Y C Serena; Boudreau, Beth A; Landick, Robert; Cox, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Ref is an HNH superfamily endonuclease that only cleaves DNA to which RecA protein is bound. The enigmatic physiological function of this unusual enzyme is defined here. Lysogenization by bacteriophage P1 renders E. coli more sensitive to the DNA-damaging antibiotic ciprofloxacin, an example of a phenomenon termed phage-antibiotic synergy (PAS). The complementary effect of phage P1 is uniquely traced to the P1-encoded gene ref. Ref is a P1 function that amplifies the lytic cycle under conditions when the bacterial SOS response is induced due to DNA damage. The effect of Ref is multifaceted. DNA binding by Ref interferes with normal DNA metabolism, and the nuclease activity of Ref enhances genome degradation. Ref also inhibits cell division independently of the SOS response. Ref gene expression is toxic to E. coli in the absence of other P1 functions, both alone and in combination with antibiotics. The RecA proteins of human pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus serve as cofactors for Ref-mediated DNA cleavage. Ref is especially toxic during the bacterial SOS response and the limited growth of stationary phase cultures, targeting aspects of bacterial physiology that are closely associated with the development of bacterial pathogen persistence.

  17. STS-113 Astronauts Work on Port One (P1) Truss on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight to the International Space Station (ISS) launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-113. Mission objectives included the delivery of the Expedition Six Crew to the ISS, the return of Expedition Five crew back to Earth, and the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1. In this photograph, astronauts Michael E. Lopez-Alegria (above) and John B. Herrington (below) work on the newly installed P1 truss during the mission's second scheduled session of extravehicular activity. The space walk lasted 6 hours, 10 minutes. The end effector of the Canadarm2 or Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) and Earth's horizon are visible in the bottom of frame.

  18. P1 interneurons promote a persistent internal state that enhances inter-male aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hoopfer, Eric D; Jung, Yonil; Inagaki, Hidehiko K; Rubin, Gerald M; Anderson, David J

    2015-01-01

    How brains are hardwired to produce aggressive behavior, and how aggression circuits are related to those that mediate courtship, is not well understood. A large-scale screen for aggression-promoting neurons in Drosophila identified several independent hits that enhanced both inter-male aggression and courtship. Genetic intersections revealed that 8-10 P1 interneurons, previously thought to exclusively control male courtship, were sufficient to promote fighting. Optogenetic experiments indicated that P1 activation could promote aggression at a threshold below that required for wing extension. P1 activation in the absence of wing extension triggered persistent aggression via an internal state that could endure for minutes. High-frequency P1 activation promoted wing extension and suppressed aggression during photostimulation, whereas aggression resumed and wing extension was inhibited following photostimulation offset. Thus, P1 neuron activation promotes a latent, internal state that facilitates aggression and courtship, and controls the overt expression of these social behaviors in a threshold-dependent, inverse manner.

  19. P1 Ref Endonuclease: A Molecular Mechanism for Phage-Enhanced Antibiotic Lethality.

    PubMed

    Ronayne, Erin A; Wan, Y C Serena; Boudreau, Beth A; Landick, Robert; Cox, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Ref is an HNH superfamily endonuclease that only cleaves DNA to which RecA protein is bound. The enigmatic physiological function of this unusual enzyme is defined here. Lysogenization by bacteriophage P1 renders E. coli more sensitive to the DNA-damaging antibiotic ciprofloxacin, an example of a phenomenon termed phage-antibiotic synergy (PAS). The complementary effect of phage P1 is uniquely traced to the P1-encoded gene ref. Ref is a P1 function that amplifies the lytic cycle under conditions when the bacterial SOS response is induced due to DNA damage. The effect of Ref is multifaceted. DNA binding by Ref interferes with normal DNA metabolism, and the nuclease activity of Ref enhances genome degradation. Ref also inhibits cell division independently of the SOS response. Ref gene expression is toxic to E. coli in the absence of other P1 functions, both alone and in combination with antibiotics. The RecA proteins of human pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus serve as cofactors for Ref-mediated DNA cleavage. Ref is especially toxic during the bacterial SOS response and the limited growth of stationary phase cultures, targeting aspects of bacterial physiology that are closely associated with the development of bacterial pathogen persistence. PMID:26765929

  20. P1 Ref Endonuclease: A Molecular Mechanism for Phage-Enhanced Antibiotic Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Ronayne, Erin A.; Wan, Y. C. Serena; Boudreau, Beth A.; Landick, Robert; Cox, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Ref is an HNH superfamily endonuclease that only cleaves DNA to which RecA protein is bound. The enigmatic physiological function of this unusual enzyme is defined here. Lysogenization by bacteriophage P1 renders E. coli more sensitive to the DNA-damaging antibiotic ciprofloxacin, an example of a phenomenon termed phage-antibiotic synergy (PAS). The complementary effect of phage P1 is uniquely traced to the P1-encoded gene ref. Ref is a P1 function that amplifies the lytic cycle under conditions when the bacterial SOS response is induced due to DNA damage. The effect of Ref is multifaceted. DNA binding by Ref interferes with normal DNA metabolism, and the nuclease activity of Ref enhances genome degradation. Ref also inhibits cell division independently of the SOS response. Ref gene expression is toxic to E. coli in the absence of other P1 functions, both alone and in combination with antibiotics. The RecA proteins of human pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus serve as cofactors for Ref-mediated DNA cleavage. Ref is especially toxic during the bacterial SOS response and the limited growth of stationary phase cultures, targeting aspects of bacterial physiology that are closely associated with the development of bacterial pathogen persistence. PMID:26765929

  1. Modeling and estimation of C1-P1 bias in GPS receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Lahaye, F.; Héroux, P.; Liao, X.; Beck, N.; Olynik, M.

    2001-01-01

    Modern dual-frequency global positioning system (GPS) receivers are capable of providing direct measurements of both L1 C/A (C1) and P code (P1) without the use of the Y-codes under Anti-Spoofing. A discrepancy or bias between the C1 and P1 measurements from these receivers has however been of concern to operators and users of GPS reference networks. For the purpose of modeling and estimation, the nature and characteristics of the discrepancy must be investigated. The research results presented indicate that the discrepancy between the C1 and P1 measurements contains two different types of components: one is of constant type while another is time variant. A method has been developed for their modeling and estimation. The residual C1-P1 time series after a satellite-dependent bias removal agree at a few-centimeter level, indicating the effectiveness of the proposed model. This allows the C1-P1 discrepancy, both constant and non-constant components, to be removed from GPS reference network solutions. Numerical results are provided to support the analysis.

  2. Diffusing Diffusivity: A Model for Anomalous, yet Brownian, Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubynsky, Mykyta V.; Slater, Gary W.

    2014-08-01

    Wang et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 15160 (2009)] have found that in several systems the linear time dependence of the mean-square displacement (MSD) of diffusing colloidal particles, typical of normal diffusion, is accompanied by a non-Gaussian displacement distribution G(x ,t), with roughly exponential tails at short times, a situation they termed "anomalous yet Brownian" diffusion. The diversity of systems in which this is observed calls for a generic model. We present such a model where there is diffusivity memory but no direction memory in the particle trajectory, and we show that it leads to both a linear MSD and a non-Gaussian G(x ,t) at short times. In our model, the diffusivity is undergoing a (perhaps biased) random walk, hence the expression "diffusing diffusivity". G(x ,t) is predicted to be exactly exponential at short times if the distribution of diffusivities is itself exponential, but an exponential remains a good fit for a variety of diffusivity distributions. Moreover, our generic model can be modified to produce subdiffusion.

  3. Electron Excitation of Argon: 4s'[1/2]_1, 4p[1/2]_1, and 4p'[1/2]_0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipović, D. V.; Pejčev, V.; Marinković, B.; Vušković, L.

    1999-10-01

    A broad interest in low-energy electron collisions with argon has recently led to very sophisticated calculations.footnote D. H. Madison, C. M. Maloney, and J. B. Wang, J. Phys. B 31, 873 (1998).^,footnote S. Kaur, R. Srivastava, R. P. McEachran, and A. Stauffer, J. Phys. B 31, 4833 (1998).^,footnote V. Zeman, K. Bartschat, C, Noren, and J. W. McConkey, Phys. Rev. A 58, 1275 (1998). The agreement between theoretical results and the only existing full set of experimentally obtained absolute differential cross sectionsfootnote A. Chutjian and D. C. Cartwright, Phys. Rev. A 23, 2178 (1981). is not satisfactory. We have performed a set of experiments to resolve existing discrepancies between available data. At the conference we will present absolute differential cross sections for argon excited in 4s'[1/2]_1, 4p[1/2]_1, and 4p'[1/2]0 states by electron collision. The incident electron energies were in the range of 16 to 80 eV and overall energy resolution was 40 meV. The angular range covered in our experiments was 5^circ to 150^circ. Data were extrapolated to 0^circ and to 180^circ and numerically integrated to yield integral, momentum transfer, and viscosity cross sections.

  4. Heterogeneous and hyperfine interactions between valence states of molecular iodine correlating with the I(2P1/2) + I(2P1/2) dissociation limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturo, Vera V.; Cherepanov, Igor N.; Lukashov, Sergey S.; Poretsky, Sergey A.; Pravilov, Anatoly M.; Zhironkin, Anatoly I.

    2016-05-01

    Detailed analysis of interactions between all 0g + , 1u, and 0u - weakly bound states of iodine molecule correlating with the I(2P1/2) + I(2P1/2) (bb) dissociation limit has been performed. For this purpose, the 0u - (bb) state has been described using analysis of rotationally resolved excitation spectra of luminescence from the g 0g - state populated in a three-step three-color perturbation facilitated excitation scheme via the 0u - state. Energies of 41 rovibrational levels, molecular constants, and potential energy curve have been determined. Energy gaps between closest rovibrational levels of the 0u - and 0g + , 1u (bb) states are found to be large, ˜6 cm-1. However, interaction of all three 0g + , 1u, and 0u - (bb) states has been observed. It has been found that the 0u - and 1u electronic states are mixed by heterogeneous interactions, while their mixing with the 0g + one is due to hyperfine interactions predominantly. Admixture coefficients and electronic matrix elements of the coupling between the 0g + ˜1u, 0g + ˜ 0u - , and 0u - ˜1u states have been estimated.

  5. P-1 truss moved to work stand in O&C Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The P-1 truss, a component of the International Space Station, is lowered into a work stand in the Operations and Checkout Building where it will undergo processing. Scheduled to fly in spring of 2002, the P-1 is part of a total 10-truss, girder-like structure on the Station that will ultimately extend the length of a football field. Astronauts will attach the 14-by-15 foot structure to the port side of the center truss, S0, during the spring assembly flight. The 33,000-pound P-1 will house the thermal radiator rotating joint (TRRJ) that will rotate the Station's radiators away from the sun to increase their maximum cooling efficiency.

  6. Visualization of bacteriophage P1 infection by cryo-electron tomography of tiny Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jun; Chen Chengyen; Shiomi, Daisuke; Niki, Hironori; Margolin, William

    2011-09-01

    Bacteriophage P1 has a contractile tail that targets the conserved lipopolysaccharide on the outer membrane surface of the host for initial adsorption. The mechanism by which P1 DNA enters the host cell is not well understood, mainly because the transient molecular interactions between bacteriophage and bacteria have been difficult to study by conventional approaches. Here, we engineered tiny E. coli host cells so that the initial stages of P1-host interactions could be captured in unprecedented detail by cryo-electron tomography. Analysis of three-dimensional reconstructions of frozen-hydrated specimens revealed three predominant configurations: an extended tail stage with DNA present in the phage head, a contracted tail stage with DNA, and a contracted tail stage without DNA. Comparative analysis of various conformations indicated that there is uniform penetration of the inner tail tube into the E. coli periplasm and a significant movement of the baseplate away from the outer membrane during tail contraction.

  7. Calculation of radiative corrections to hyperfine splitting in p1/2 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapirstein, J.; Cheng, K. T.

    2006-10-01

    Techniques to calculate one-loop radiative corrections to hyperfine splitting including binding corrections to all orders have been developed in the last decade for s states of atoms and ions. In this paper these methods are extended to p1/2 states for three cases. In the first case, the point-Coulomb 2p1/2 hyperfine splitting is treated for the hydrogen isoelectonic sequence, and the lowest order result, (α)/(4π)EF , is shown to have large binding corrections at high Z . In the second case, neutral alkali-metal atoms are considered. In the third case, hyperfine splitting of the 2p1/2 state of lithiumlike bismuth is treated. In the latter two cases, correlation corrections are included and, in addition, the point is stressed that uncertainties associated with nuclear structure, which complicate comparison with experiment for s states, are considerably reduced because of the smaller overlap with the nucleus.

  8. P1 and N170 components distinguish human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shuwei; Luo, Wenbo; He, Weiqi; Chen, Xu; Luo, Yuejia

    2013-06-19

    This study used event-related potentials to investigate the sensitivity of P1 and N170 components to human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli, which were derived from pictures of Peking opera characters. As predicted, human-like makeup stimuli elicited larger P1 and N170 amplitudes than did animal-like makeup stimuli. Interestingly, a right hemisphere advantage was observed for human-like but not for animal-like makeup stimuli. Dipole source analyses of 130-200-ms window showed that the bilateral fusiform face area may contribute to the differential sensitivity of the N170 component in response to human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli. The present study suggests that the amplitudes of both the P1 and the N170 are sensitive for the mouth component of face-like stimuli.

  9. P-1 truss moved to work stand in O&C Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The P-1 truss, a component of the International Space Station, is moved the length of the Operations and Checkout Building to its work stand where it will undergo processing. Scheduled to fly in spring of 2002, the P-1 is part of a total 10-truss, girder-like structure on the Station that will ultimately extend the length of a football field. Astronauts will attach the 14-by-15 foot structure to the port side of the center truss, S0, during the spring assembly flight. The 33,000-pound P-1 will house the thermal radiator rotating joint (TRRJ) that will rotate the Station's radiators away from the sun to increase their maximum cooling efficiency.

  10. Evoked alpha and early access to the knowledge system: The P1 inhibition timing hypothesis☆

    PubMed Central

    Klimesch, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a theory is presented which assumes that the visual P1 reflects the same cognitive and physiological functionality as alpha (with a frequency of about 10 Hz).Whereas alpha is an ongoing process, the P1 is the manifestation of an event-related process. It is suggested that alpha and the P1 reflect inhibition that is effective during early access to a complex knowledge system (KS). Most importantly, inhibition operates in two different ways. In potentially competing and task irrelevant networks, inhibition is used to block information processing. In task relevant neural networks, however, inhibition is used to increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR) by enabling precisely timed activity in neurons with a high level of excitation but silencing neurons with a comparatively low level of excitation. Inhibition is increased to modulate the SNR when processing complexity and network excitation increases and when certain types of attentional demands – such as top–down control, expectancy or reflexive attention – increase. A variety of findings are reviewed to demonstrate that they can well be interpreted on the basis of the suggested theory. One interesting aspect thereby is that attentional benefits (reflected e.g., by a larger P1 for attended as compared to unattended items at contralateral sites) and costs (reflected e.g., by a larger P1 at ipsilateral sites) can both be interpreted in terms of inhibition. In the former case an increased P1 is associated with a more effective processing of the presented item (due to an inhibition modulated increase in SNR), in the latter case, however, with a suppression of item processing (due to inhibition that blocks information processing). PMID:21774917

  11. New, potent P1/P2-morpholinone-based HIV-protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kazmierski, Wieslaw M; Furfine, Eric; Spaltenstein, Andrew; Wright, Lois L

    2006-10-01

    We have developed efficient synthesis of morpholinone-based cyclic mimetics of the P1/P2 portion of the HIV-1 protease inhibitor Amprenavir. This effort led to discovery of allyl- and spiro-cyclopropyl-P2-substituted inhibitors 17 and 31, both 500 times more potent than the parent inhibitor 1. These results support morpholinones as novel mimetics of the P1/P2 portion of Amprenavir and potentially of other HIV-protease inhibitors, and thus provide a novel medicinal chemistry template for optimization toward more potent and drug-like inhibitors. PMID:16904316

  12. New fluorinated agonists for targeting the sphingosin-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P(1)).

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Rizwan S; Keul, Petra; Schäfers, Michael; Levkau, Bodo; Haufe, Günter

    2015-11-15

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P1) is involved in fundamental biological processes such as regulation of immune cell trafficking, vascular barrier function and angiogenesis. This Letter presents multistep syntheses of various fluorine substituted 12-aryl analogues of the drug fingolimod (FTY720) and a seven-steps route to 2-amino-17,17-difluoro-2-(hydroxymethyl)heptadecan-1-ol. In vitro and in vivo tests proved all these compounds as potent S1P1 receptor agonists.

  13. Capitulation in Abelian extensions of some fields ℚ (√{p1p2q , }i )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Abdelmalek; Zekhnini, Abdelkader; Taous, Mohammed

    2016-02-01

    We study the capitulation of the 2-ideal classes of an infinite family of imaginary biquadratic number fields consisting of fields k =ℚ (√{p1p2q , }i ), where i =√{-1 } and p1 ≡ p2 ≡ -q ≡ 1 (mod 4) are different primes. For each of the three quadratic extensions K /k inside the absolute genus field k(*) of k , we compute the capitulation kernel of K /k . Then we deduce that each strongly ambiguous class of k /ℚ (i ) capitulates already in k(*), which is smaller than the relative genus field (k/ℚ (i )) *.

  14. Heterogeneity of Human Neutrophil CD177 Expression Results from CD177P1 Pseudogene Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Rong; Ohnesorg, Thomas; Cho, Vicky; Abhayaratna, Walter P.; Gatenby, Paul A.; Perera, Chandima; Zhang, Yafei; Whittle, Belinda; Sinclair, Andrew; Goodnow, Christopher C.; Field, Matthew; Andrews, T. Daniel; Cook, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    Most humans harbor both CD177neg and CD177pos neutrophils but 1–10% of people are CD177null, placing them at risk for formation of anti-neutrophil antibodies that can cause transfusion-related acute lung injury and neonatal alloimmune neutropenia. By deep sequencing the CD177 locus, we catalogued CD177 single nucleotide variants and identified a novel stop codon in CD177null individuals arising from a single base substitution in exon 7. This is not a mutation in CD177 itself, rather the CD177null phenotype arises when exon 7 of CD177 is supplied entirely by the CD177 pseudogene (CD177P1), which appears to have resulted from allelic gene conversion. In CD177 expressing individuals the CD177 locus contains both CD177P1 and CD177 sequences. The proportion of CD177hi neutrophils in the blood is a heritable trait. Abundance of CD177hi neutrophils correlates with homozygosity for CD177 reference allele, while heterozygosity for ectopic CD177P1 gene conversion correlates with increased CD177neg neutrophils, in which both CD177P1 partially incorporated allele and paired intact CD177 allele are transcribed. Human neutrophil heterogeneity for CD177 expression arises by ectopic allelic conversion. Resolution of the genetic basis of CD177null phenotype identifies a method for screening for individuals at risk of CD177 isoimmunisation. PMID:27227454

  15. A Cadmium-transporting P1B-type ATPase in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Adle, David J.; Sinani, Devis; Kim, Heejeong; Lee, Jaekwon

    2014-01-01

    Detoxification and homeostatic acquisition of metal ions are vital for all living organisms. We have identified PCA1 in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an overexpression suppressor of copper toxicity. PCA1 possesses signatures of a P1B-type heavy metal-transporting ATPase that is widely distributed from bacteria to humans. Copper resistance conferred by PCA1 is not dependent on catalytic activity, but it appears that a cysteine-rich region located in the N terminus sequesters copper. Unexpectedly, when compared with two independent natural isolates and an industrial S. cerevisiae strain, the PCA1 allele of the common laboratory strains we have examined possesses a missense mutation in a predicted ATP-binding residue conserved in P1B-type ATPases. Consistent with a previous report that identifies an equivalent mutation in a copper-transporting P1B-type ATPase of a Wilson disease patient, the PCA1 allele found in laboratory yeast strains is nonfunctional. Overexpression or deletion of the functional allele in yeast demonstrates that PCA1 is a cadmium efflux pump. Cadmium as well as copper and silver, but not other metals examined, dramatically increase PCA1 protein expression through post-transcriptional regulation and promote subcellular localization to the plasma membrane. Our study has revealed a novel metal detoxification mechanism in yeast mediated by a P1B-type ATPase that is unique in structure, substrate specificity, and mode of regulation. PMID:17107946

  16. 26 CFR 1.6050P-1 - Information reporting for discharges of indebtedness by certain entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... For purposes of reporting under this section, multiple discharges of indebtedness of less than $600... described in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, or upon the expiration of a statutory period for filing a...), the expiration of the non-payment testing period, as described in § 1.6050P-1(b)(2)(iv). (ii)...

  17. 26 CFR 1.6050P-1 - Information reporting for discharges of indebtedness by certain entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under this section, multiple discharges of indebtedness of less than $600 are not required to be... paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, or upon the expiration of a statutory period for filing a claim or... expiration of the non-payment testing period, as described in § 1.6050P-1(b)(2)(iv). (ii) Statute...

  18. 26 CFR 1.6050P-1 - Information reporting for discharges of indebtedness by certain entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... For purposes of reporting under this section, multiple discharges of indebtedness of less than $600... described in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, or upon the expiration of a statutory period for filing a...), the expiration of the non-payment testing period, as described in § 1.6050P-1(b)(2)(iv). (ii)...

  19. Apker Award Talk: Atomic Beam Measurement of the Indium 6p1 / 2 Scalar Polarizability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augenbraun, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    We report on the first measurement of the scalar polarizability of the indium 6p1 / 2 -excited state using two-step laser spectroscopy in an atomic beam. This is one in a series of precise atomic structure measurements by the Majumder lab at Williams College, which serve as stringent tests of abinitio calculation methods for three-valence-electron systems. We stabilize a laser to the indium 5p1 / 2 --> 6s1 / 2 410 nm transition and scan a second laser across the 6s1 / 2 --> 6p1 / 2 1343 nm transition. The two laser beams are overlapped and interact transversely with a collimated atomic beam of indium. Two-tone FM spectroscopy allows us to observe the small (< 1 part in 103) IR absorption, and characteristic sideband features in the RF-demodulated lineshape provide built-in frequency calibration. Application of DC electric fields up to 20 kV/cm give rise to Stark shifts of order 100 MHz. Because our group has previously measured the difference in polarizabilities within the 410 nm transition, we can determine the 6p1 / 2 polarizability with no loss of precision. Preliminary results are in excellent agreement with recent theoretical calculations and can be used to infer accurate values for the indium 6 p - 5 d matrix elements.

  20. A stable shuttle vector for Xylella fastidiosa based on an endogenous incP-1 plasmid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) strain RIV11 harbors a 25 kbp plasmid (pXFRIV11) belonging to the incP1 incompatibility group. Replication and stability factors of pXFRIV11 were identified and used to construct plasmids able to propagate in both Xf and Escherichia coli. Sequences required for replication i...

  1. First law of black ring thermodynamics in higher dimensional dilaton gravity with p+1 strength forms

    SciTech Connect

    Rogatko, Marek

    2006-01-15

    We derive the first law of black ring thermodynamics in n-dimensional Einstein dilaton gravity with additional (p+1)-form field strength being the simplest generalization of five-dimensional theory containing a stationary black ring solution with dipole charge. It was done by means of choosing any cross section of the event horizon to the future of the bifurcation surface.

  2. Novel S1P(1) receptor agonists--part 3: from thiophenes to pyridines.

    PubMed

    Bolli, Martin H; Abele, Stefan; Birker, Magdalena; Bravo, Roberto; Bur, Daniel; de Kanter, Ruben; Kohl, Christopher; Grimont, Julien; Hess, Patrick; Lescop, Cyrille; Mathys, Boris; Müller, Claus; Nayler, Oliver; Rey, Markus; Scherz, Michael; Schmidt, Gunther; Seifert, Jürgen; Steiner, Beat; Velker, Jörg; Weller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In preceding communications we summarized our medicinal chemistry efforts leading to the identification of potent, selective, and orally active S1P1 agonists such as the thiophene derivative 1. As a continuation of these efforts, we replaced the thiophene in 1 by a 2-, 3-, or 4-pyridine and obtained less lipophilic, potent, and selective S1P1 agonists (e.g., 2) efficiently reducing blood lymphocyte count in the rat. Structural features influencing the compounds' receptor affinity profile and pharmacokinetics are discussed. In addition, the ability to penetrate brain tissue has been studied for several compounds. As a typical example for these pyridine based S1P1 agonists, compound 53 showed EC50 values of 0.6 and 352 nM for the S1P1 and S1P3 receptor, respectively, displayed favorable PK properties, and penetrated well into brain tissue. In the rat, compound 53 maximally reduced the blood lymphocyte count for at least 24 h after oral dosing of 3 mg/kg. PMID:24367923

  3. The lytic replicon of bacteriophage P1 is controlled by an antisense RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, J; Riedel, H D; Rückert, B; Lurz, R; Schuster, H

    1995-01-01

    The lytic replicon of phage P1 is used for DNA replication during the lytic cycle. It comprises about 2% of the P1 genome and contains the P1 C1 repressor-controlled operator-promoter element Op53.P53 and the kilA and the repL genes, in that order. Transcription of the lytic replicon of P53 and synthesis of the product of repL, but not kilA, are required for replicon function. We have identified an additional promoter, termed P53as (antisense), at the 5'-end of the kilA gene from which a 180 base transcript is constitutively synthesized and in the opposite direction to the P53 transcript. By using a promoter probe plasmid we show that transcription from P53 is strongly repressed by the C1 repressor, whereas that of P53as remains unaffected. Accordingly, the C1 repressor inhibits binding of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase to P53, but not to P53as, as shown by electron microscopy. Under non-repressed conditions transcription from P53 appears to be inhibited by P53as activity and vice versa. An inhibitory effect of P53as on the P1 lytic replicon was revealed by the construction and characterization of a P53as promoter-down mutant. Under non-repressed conditions transcription of repL and, as a consequence, replication of the plasmid is strongly enhanced when P53as is inactive. The results suggest a regulatory role for P53as on the P1 lytic replicon. Images PMID:7784198

  4. Novel Mycosin Protease MycP1 Inhibitors Identified by Virtual Screening and 4D Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The rise of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis lends urgency to the need for new drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). The identification of a serine protease, mycosin protease-1 (MycP1), as the crucial agent in hydrolyzing the virulence factor, ESX-secretion-associated protein B (EspB), potentially opens the door to new tuberculosis treatment options. Using the crystal structure of mycobacterial MycP1 in the apo form, we performed an iterative ligand- and structure-based virtual screening (VS) strategy to identify novel, nonpeptide, small-molecule inhibitors against MycP1 protease. Screening of ∼485 000 ligands from databases at the Genomics Research Institute (GRI) at the University of Cincinnati and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) using our VS approach, which integrated a pharmacophore model and consensus molecular shape patterns of active ligands (4D fingerprints), identified 81 putative inhibitors, and in vitro testing subsequently confirmed two of them as active inhibitors. Thereafter, the lead structures of each VS round were used to generate a new 4D fingerprint that enabled virtual rescreening of the chemical libraries. Finally, the iterative process identified a number of diverse scaffolds as lead compounds that were tested and found to have micromolar IC50 values against the MycP1 target. This study validated the efficiency of the SABRE 4D fingerprints as a means of identifying novel lead compounds in each screening round of the databases. Together, these results underscored the value of using a combination of in silico iterative ligand- and structure-based virtual screening of chemical libraries with experimental validation for the identification of promising structural scaffolds, such as the MycP1 inhibitors. PMID:24628123

  5. Phylogeny of replication initiator protein TrfA reveals a highly divergent clade of incompatibility group P1 plasmids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incompatibility group P-1 (incP-1) includes broad host range plasmids of Gram negative bacteria and are classified into five subgroups (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon). The incP-1 replication module consists of the trfA gene, encoding the replication initiator protein TrfA, and the origin o...

  6. 26 CFR 1.409(p)-1T - Prohibited allocations of securities in an S corporation (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraph (i)(2)(ii), § 1.409(p)-1T as in effect prior to December 17, 2004 (see § 1.409(p)-1T in 26 CFR... effect prior to December 17, 2004 (see § 1.409(p)-1T in 26 CFR Part 1 revised as of April 1,...

  7. Microfabricated diffusion source

    DOEpatents

    Oborny, Michael C.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Manginell, Ronald P.

    2008-07-15

    A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

  8. Pullback attractors for nonclassical diffusion equations with delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kaixuan; Sun, Chunyou

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence of pullback attractors in C H0 1 ( Ω ) for a nonclassical diffusion equation with delay term g(t, ut) which contains some hereditary characteristics. We consider two types of nonlinearity f: one is the case of critical growth and the other one is the polynomial growth of arbitrary order p - 1(p ≥ 2).

  9. Hybrid Diffusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Chien; Alexander, Andrew L.

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion measurements in the human central nervous system are complex to characterize and a broad spectrum of methods have been proposed. In this study, a comprehensive diffusion encoding and analysis approach, Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI), is described. The HYDI encoding scheme is composed of multiple concentric “shells” of constant diffusion-weighting, which may be used to characterize the signal behavior with low, moderate and high diffusion-weighting. HYDI facilitates the application of multiple data-analyses strategies including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), multi-exponential diffusion measurements, diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) and q-ball imaging (QBI). These different analysis strategies may provide complementary information. DTI measures (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy) may be estimated from either data in the inner shells or the entire HYDI data. Fast and slow diffusivities were estimated using a nonlinear least-squares bi-exponential fit on geometric means of the HYDI shells. DSI measurements from the entire HYDI data yield empirical model-independent diffusion information and are well-suited for characterizing tissue regions with complex diffusion behavior. DSI measurements were characterized using the zero displacement probability and the mean squared displacement. The outermost HYDI shell was analyzed using QBI analysis to estimate the orientation distribution function (ODF), which is useful for characterizing the directions of multiple fiber groups within a voxel. In this study, a HYDI encoding scheme with 102 diffusion-weighted measurements was obtained over most of the human cerebrum in under 30 minutes. PMID:17481920

  10. Characterization of novel plasmid p1B146 from Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum.

    PubMed

    Wieteska, Łukasz; Szewczyk, Eligia M; Szemraj, Janusz

    2011-08-01

    Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum B146, a strain derived from healthy human skin, contains a medium copy plasmid, p1B146. This plasmid was cloned and its complete nucleotide sequence determined. As a result, p1B146 was found to be 4.2 kb in size with a 53% G+C content, plus six open reading frames (ORFs) were distinguished. According to a computer-assisted alignment, two of the ORFs exhibited significant similarities to already-known common plasmid proteins, the first being the RepA gene, responsible for plasmid replication via a rolling-circle mechanism, and the second being an FtsK-like protein, the function of which remains unclear. The presence and quantity of RNA fragments in the putative ORFs were also evaluated.

  11. P-1 truss moved to work stand in O&C Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the Operations and Checkout Building, an overhead crane lifts the top of the canister containing the P-1 truss, a component of the International Space Station. The truss, scheduled to fly in spring of 2002, is part of a total 10-truss, girder-like structure on the Station that will ultimately extend the length of a football field. Astronauts will attach the 14-by- 15 foot structure to the port side of the center truss, S0, during the spring assembly flight. The 33,000-pound P-1 will house the thermal radiator rotating joint (TRRJ) that will rotate the Station's radiators away from the sun to increase their maximum cooling efficiency.

  12. Development of Quasi-3DOF upper limb rehabilitation system using ER brake: PLEMO-P1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, T.; Fukushima, K.; Furusho, J.; Ozawa, T.

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. However, almost all the devices are active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices and they basically require high-cost safety system compared to passive-type (brake-based) devices. In this study, we developed a new practical haptic device 'PLEMO-P1'; this system adopted ER brakes as its force generators. In this paper, the mechanism of PLEMO-P1 and its software for a reaching rehabilitation are described.

  13. Geohydrologic data for test well UE-25p1, Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, R.W.; Johnson, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the following data for test well UE-25p 1 in Nye County, Nevada: drilling operations, lithology, availability of borehole geophysical logs, water levels, future availability of core analyses, water chemistry, pumping tests, borehole-flow surveys, and packer-injection tests. The well is one of a series of test wells drilled in and near Yucca Mountain adjacent to the Nevada Test Site in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. These investigations are part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations to identify suitable sites for underground storage of high-level radioactive wastes. Test well UE-25p 1 was the first in the Yucca Mountain area to penetrate rocks of Paleozoic age. To a depth of 1,244 meters, the rocks are predominantly ash-flow tuffs of Tertiary age. From 1,244 meters to a total depth of 1,805 meters, the rock is dolomite of Paleozoic age. (USGS)

  14. Lamb shift in the hydrogen atom: Lifetime of the 2p{1/2}level

    SciTech Connect

    Karshenboim, S.G.

    1995-05-01

    Corrections of order {alpha}(Z{alpha}){sup 2} to the width of the 2p{1/2} level in the hydrogen atom are considered in the logarithmic approximation. The ratio of this width to the splitting of n=2 states can be measured to high accuracy. With the aid of the experimental data available for this ratio, the new value for the Lamb splitting is found to be 1057.8576(21) MHz. 17 refs.

  15. Optimization of the 8 GeV AP3-P1 Lattice for Antiproton Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, Dave; /Fermilab

    2001-01-22

    During 8 GeV antiproton transfers between the Accumulator to the Main Injector, the antiprotons must travel through four separate beam lines, AP3, AP1, P2, and P1. This note describes the optimization of a single lattice that describes these beam lines for 8 GeV antiproton transfers from the Accumulator to the Main Injector and 8 GeV proton transfers from the Main Injector to the Accumulator.

  16. Cardiomyocyte S1P1 Receptor–mediated Extracellular Signal–related Kinase Signaling and Desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Rong; Hoover, Holly E.; Zhang, Jianqing; Honbo, Norman; Alano, Conrad C.; Karliner, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the ability of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) to desensitize extracellular signal–related kinase (ERK), a mitogen-activated protein kinase linked to antiapoptotic responses in the heart. In isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes, S1P (10 nM–5 μM) induced ERK phosphorylation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. S1P stimulation of ERK was completely inhibited by an S1P1/3 subtype receptor antagonist (VPC23019), by a Gi protein inhibitor (pertussis toxin) and by a mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase inhibitor (PD98059). A selective S1P3 receptor antagonist (CAY10444) had no effect on S1P-induced ERK activation. The selective S1P1 agonist SEW2871 also induced ERK phosphorylation. Activation of ERK by restimulation with 100 nM S1P was suppressed after 1 hour of preincubation with 100 nM S1P but recovered fully the next day, suggesting receptor recycling. Similar results were obtained in protein kinase Cε-null cardiomyocytes. Treatment with the nonselective S1P receptor agonist FTY720 for 1 hour also reduced phospho-ERK expression in response to subsequent S1P stimulation. In contrast to S1P, some desensitization to FTY720 persisted after overnight exposure. Cell death induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation was reduced by pretreatment with exogenous S1P. This enhanced survival was abrogated by pretreatment with PD98059, VPC23019, or pertussis toxin. Thus, exogenous S1P induces rapid and reversible S1P1-mediated ERK phosphorylation. S1P-induced adult mouse cardiomyocyte survival requires ERK activation mediated via an S1P1–Gi pathway. PMID:19433984

  17. The P1 biomarker for assessing cortical maturation in pediatric hearing loss: a review

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anu; Glick, Hannah; Deeves, Emily; Duncan, Erin

    2016-01-01

    We review evidence for a high degree of neuroplasticity of the central auditory pathways in early childhood, citing evidence of studies of the P1 and N1 cortical auditory evoked potentials in congenitally deaf children receiving cochlear implants at different ages during childhood, children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder and children with hearing loss and comorbid multiple disabilities. We discuss neuroplasticity, including cortico-cortical de-coupling and cross-modal re-organization that occurs in deafness. We provide evidence for the clinical utility of the P1 cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) as a non-invasive biomarker that can be used to objectively assess maturation of auditory cortex in clinical cases of cochlear implant patients and candidates. Finally, we present clinical case studies in which the P1 CAEP biomarker proved useful in clinical decision-making regarding intervention in cases of single-sided deafness, auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder, mild hearing loss and hypoplastic auditory nerve. PMID:27688594

  18. Direct Band Gap Gallium Antimony Phosphide (GaSbxP1-x) Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, H. B.; Andriotis, A. N.; Menon, M.; Jasinski, J. B.; Martinez-Garcia, A.; Sunkara, M. K.

    2016-02-01

    Here, we report direct band gap transition for Gallium Phosphide (GaP) when alloyed with just 1-2 at% antimony (Sb) utilizing both density functional theory based computations and experiments. First principles density functional theory calculations of GaSbxP1-x alloys in a 216 atom supercell configuration indicate that an indirect to direct band gap transition occurs at x = 0.0092 or higher Sb incorporation into GaSbxP1-x. Furthermore, these calculations indicate band edge straddling of the hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution reactions for compositions ranging from x = 0.0092 Sb up to at least x = 0.065 Sb making it a candidate for use in a Schottky type photoelectrochemical water splitting device. GaSbxP1-x nanowires were synthesized by reactive transport utilizing a microwave plasma discharge with average compositions ranging from x = 0.06 to x = 0.12 Sb and direct band gaps between 2.21 eV and 1.33 eV. Photoelectrochemical experiments show that the material is photoactive with p-type conductivity. This study brings attention to a relatively uninvestigated, tunable band gap semiconductor system with tremendous potential in many fields.

  19. Direct Band Gap Gallium Antimony Phosphide (GaSbxP1−x) Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Russell, H. B.; Andriotis, A. N.; Menon, M.; Jasinski, J. B.; Martinez-Garcia, A.; Sunkara, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report direct band gap transition for Gallium Phosphide (GaP) when alloyed with just 1–2 at% antimony (Sb) utilizing both density functional theory based computations and experiments. First principles density functional theory calculations of GaSbxP1−x alloys in a 216 atom supercell configuration indicate that an indirect to direct band gap transition occurs at x = 0.0092 or higher Sb incorporation into GaSbxP1−x. Furthermore, these calculations indicate band edge straddling of the hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution reactions for compositions ranging from x = 0.0092 Sb up to at least x = 0.065 Sb making it a candidate for use in a Schottky type photoelectrochemical water splitting device. GaSbxP1−x nanowires were synthesized by reactive transport utilizing a microwave plasma discharge with average compositions ranging from x = 0.06 to x = 0.12 Sb and direct band gaps between 2.21 eV and 1.33 eV. Photoelectrochemical experiments show that the material is photoactive with p-type conductivity. This study brings attention to a relatively uninvestigated, tunable band gap semiconductor system with tremendous potential in many fields. PMID:26860470

  20. Expression of Sindbis virus nsP1 and methyltransferase activity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mi, S; Stollar, V

    1991-09-01

    We have constructed two plasmids, pSR5-42 and pSR5-Toto, which under lac control expressed the SVLM21 and the SVToto forms, respectively, of the Sindbis virus nonstructural protein, nsP1. The induced protein, which was the major protein made following induction with IPTG, had an apparent molecular weight of 60,000 and an amino terminal sequence in agreement with that expected for nsP1. Following induction with IPTG, cells carrying pSR5-42 (which contains the SVLM21 gene sequence) generated much higher RNA methyltransferase activity than cells carrying pSR5-Toto (which contains the SVToto gene sequence). This result is in agreement with what is observed when methyltransferase is measured in cells infected with SVLM21 and SVSTD (or SVToto), respectively. These results provide strong evidence that nsP1 has methyltransferase activity in the absence of any other viral nonstructural proteins. PMID:1831311

  1. Recombination-induced suppression of cell division following P1-mediated generalized transduction in Klebsiella aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Bender, R A; Sambucetti, L C

    1983-01-01

    Klebsiella aerogenes recombinants resulting from bacteriophage P1-mediated generalized transduction failed to increase in number for approximately six generations after transduction. Nevertheless these recombinants continued to grow and became sensitive to penicillin after a transient resistance, suggesting that the cells were growing as long, non-dividing filaments. When filamentous cells were isolated from transduced cultures by gradient centrifugation, recombinants were 1000-fold more frequent among the filaments than among the normal-sized cells. The suppression of cell-division lasted for six generations whether markers near the origin (gln, ilv) or terminus (his, trp) of chromosome replication were used, despite a 50-fold difference in transduction frequencies for these markers. The suppression of cell division was a host response to recombination rather than to P1 invasion since cells lysogenized by P1 in these same experiments showed only a short (two generation) suppression of cell division. We speculate that the suppression of cell-division is an SOS response triggered by the degraded DNA not incorporated in the final recombinant. We demonstrate that both the filamentation and the transient penicillin resistance of recombinant cells can be exploited to enrich greatly for recombinants, raising transduction frequencies to as high as 10(-3).

  2. P1 Nonconforming Finite Element Method for the Solution of Radiation Transport Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Kab S.

    2002-01-01

    The simulation of radiation transport in the optically thick flux-limited diffusion regime has been identified as one of the most time-consuming tasks within large simulation codes. Due to multimaterial complex geometry, the radiation transport system must often be solved on unstructured grids. In this paper, we investigate the behavior and the benefits of the unstructured P(sub 1) nonconforming finite element method, which has proven to be flexible and effective on related transport problems, in solving unsteady implicit nonlinear radiation diffusion problems using Newton and Picard linearization methods. Key words. nonconforrning finite elements, radiation transport, inexact Newton linearization, multigrid preconditioning

  3. Cloning and functional analysis of human acyl coenzyme A: Cholesterol acyltransferase1 gene P1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Cheng, Bei; Qi, Benling; Peng, Wen; Wen, Hui; Bai, Lijuan; Liu, Yun; Zhai, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) catalyzes the conversion of free cholesterol (FC) to cholesterol ester. The human ACAT1 gene P1 promoter has been cloned. However, the activity and specificity of the ACAT1 gene P1 promoter in diverse cell types remains unclear. The P1 promoter fragment was digested with KpnI/XhoI from a P1 promoter cloning vector, and was subcloned into the multiple cloning site of the Firefly luciferase vector pGL3‑Enhancer to obtain the construct P1E‑1. According to the analysis of biological information, the P1E‑1 plasmid was used to generate deletions of the ACAT1 gene P1 promoter with varying 5' ends and an identical 3' end at +65 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All the 5'‑deletion constructs of the P1 promoter were identified by PCR, restriction enzyme digestion mapping and DNA sequencing. The transcriptional activity of each construct was detected after transient transfection into THP‑1, HepG2, HEK293 and Hela cells using DEAE‑dextran and Lipofectamine 2000 liposome transfection reagent. Results showed that the transcriptional activity of the ACAT1 gene P1 promoter and deletions of P1 promoter in THP‑1 and HepG2 cells was higher than that in HEK293 and HeLa cells. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of P1E‑9 was higher compared with those of other deletions in THP‑1, HepG2, HEK293 and HeLa cells. These findings indicate that the transcriptional activity of the P1 promoter and the effects of deletions vary with different cell lines. Thus, the P1 promoter may drive ACAT1 gene expression with cell‑type specificity. In addition, the core sequence of ACAT1 gene P1 promoter was suggested to be between -125 and +65 bp. PMID:27220725

  4. Diffusion bonding aeroengine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, G. A.; Broughton, T.

    1988-10-01

    The use of diffusion bonding processes at Rolls-Royce for the manufacture of titanium-alloy aircraft engine components and structures is described. A liquid-phase diffusion bonding process called activated diffusion bonding has been developed for the manufacture of the hollow titanium wide chord fan blade. In addition, solid-state diffusion bonding is being used in the manufacture of hollow vane/blade airfoil constructions mainly in conjunction with superplastic forming and hot forming techniques.

  5. Updating applied diffusion models

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, J.C.

    1985-11-01

    Most diffusion models currently used in air quality applications are substantially out of date with understanding of turbulence and diffusion in the planetary boundary layer. Under a Cooperative Agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency, the American Meteorological Society organized a workshop to help improve the basis of such models, their physics and hopefuly their performance. Reviews and recommendations were made on models in three areas: diffusion in the convective boundary layer (CBL), diffusion in the stabe boundary layer (SBL), and model uncertainty.

  6. Diffusion Strategy Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, James R.; Sanders, John R.

    A methodology is presented for planning and managing the spread of educational innovations. The first portion of the guide develops a theoretical framework for diffusion which summarizes and capitalizes on the latest marketing and on the latest marketing and diffusion research findings. Major stages in the diffusion paradigm discussed include…

  7. Reduce Confusion about Diffusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebrank, Mary R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents activities that allow students to explore the fundamental but poorly understood concept of diffusion by appealing to their kinesthetic senses first, then challenging their analytical skills as they try to deduce the mathematical principle involved. Presents a computer simulation of diffusion and discusses diffusion's limitations and…

  8. Handbook on atmospheric diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, S.R.; Briggs, G.A.; Hosker, R.P. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Basic meteorological concepts are covered as well as plume rise, source effects, and diffusion models. Chapters are included on cooling tower plumes and urban diffusion. Suggestions are given for calculating diffusion in special situations, such as for instantaneous releases over complex terrain, over long distances, and during times when chemical reactions or dry or wet deposition are important. (PSB)

  9. Diffusion of organic solutes in squalane.

    PubMed

    Kowert, Bruce A; Watson, Michael B

    2011-08-18

    The translational diffusion constants, D, of 26 hydrocarbons have been determined in squalane (2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyltetracosane) at room temperature using capillary flow techniques. These new data and previously published room-temperature D values for the same solutes in some (or all) of the n-alkanes n-C(6)-n-C(16) constitute a study of solute diffusion in media spanning a 100-fold change in viscosity; at 23 °C, η = 0.31 cP for n-C(6), 3.2 cP for n-C(16), and 30 cP for squalane. The D values in the n-alkanes and squalane show deviations from the Stokes-Einstein relation, D = k(B)T/(6πηr); the values of r, a solute's hydrodynamic radius, decrease as the viscosity increases. The deviations increase as the solute size decreases and are analyzed by fitting the diffusion constants to the modified Stokes-Einstein equation, D/T = A(SE)/η(p). Fits involving the n-alkane-only and combined n-alkane-squalane D values give comparable results with values of p < 1 that increase as the solute size increases; p = 1 for the Stokes-Einstein limit. The deviations from Stokes-Einstein behavior also are discussed in terms of the relative sizes of the solutes, the n-alkanes, and squalane.

  10. NKR-P1A is a target-specific receptor that activates natural killer cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J C; Niemi, E C; Nakamura, M C; Seaman, W E

    1995-05-01

    NKR-P1A is a lectinlike surface molecule expressed on rat natural killer (NK) cells. NKR-P1A has structural and functional features of an activating NK cell receptor, but a requirement for NKR-P1A in target cell lysis has not been determined. To define the role of NKR-P1A in natural killing, we have generated a mutant of the rat NK cell line, RNK-16, lacking expression of all members of the NKR-P1 receptor family. Although these NKR-P1-deficient NK cells were able to kill many standard tumor targets, including YAC-1, they were selectively deficient in the lysis of IC-21 macrophage, B-16 melanoma, and C1498 lymphoma targets. Reexpression of a single member of the NKR-P1 family, NKR-P1A, on mutant cells restored lysis of IC-21, and killing of IC-21 targets through rat NKR-P1A was completely blocked by F(ab')2 anti-NKR-P1A. Reexpression of NKR-P1A also restored transmembrane signaling to IC-21, as assessed by the generation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate. The generation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate was also restored in response to B-16 targets, but both B-16 and C1498 cells remained resistant to lysis, indicating that other NK cell molecules, perhaps within the NKR-P1 family, are required for the efficient killing of these tumors. These results are the first to demonstrate that NKR-P1A is a target-specific receptor that activates natural killing. PMID:7722466

  11. NKR-P1A is a target-specific receptor that activates natural killer cell cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    NKR-P1A is a lectinlike surface molecule expressed on rat natural killer (NK) cells. NKR-P1A has structural and functional features of an activating NK cell receptor, but a requirement for NKR-P1A in target cell lysis has not been determined. To define the role of NKR-P1A in natural killing, we have generated a mutant of the rat NK cell line, RNK-16, lacking expression of all members of the NKR-P1 receptor family. Although these NKR-P1-deficient NK cells were able to kill many standard tumor targets, including YAC-1, they were selectively deficient in the lysis of IC-21 macrophage, B-16 melanoma, and C1498 lymphoma targets. Reexpression of a single member of the NKR-P1 family, NKR-P1A, on mutant cells restored lysis of IC-21, and killing of IC-21 targets through rat NKR-P1A was completely blocked by F(ab')2 anti-NKR- P1A. Reexpression of NKR-P1A also restored transmembrane signaling to IC-21, as assessed by the generation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate. The generation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate was also restored in response to B-16 targets, but both B-16 and C1498 cells remained resistant to lysis, indicating that other NK cell molecules, perhaps within the NKR-P1 family, are required for the efficient killing of these tumors. These results are the first to demonstrate that NKR-P1A is a target-specific receptor that activates natural killing. PMID:7722466

  12. Heterogeneity of VP4 neutralization epitopes among serotype P1A human rotavirus strains.

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, J F; Menchaca, G E; Padilla-Noriega, L; Tamez, R S; Greenberg, H B; López, S; Arias, C F

    1995-01-01

    We have used serotype-specific VP4 and VP7 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (Nt-MAbs), as well as subgroup (SG)-specific MAbs, to characterize by enzyme immunoassay rotavirus strains isolated from diarrheic infants in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, from July 1993 to March 1994. Of a total of 465 children studied, 140 were rotavirus positive, including 3 patients infected with non-group A rotaviruses. The SG and VP7 (G) serotype specificities could be determined for 118 (84%) of the 140 rotavirus-positive stool specimens; 4 rotavirus strains were serotype G1 and SGII; 1 strain was serotype G2 and SGI+II; 112 strains were serotype G3 and SGII; 1 strain was serotype G3 and SGI; and none of the strains was serotype G4. Fifty-eight specimens, representing the 13 different group A rotavirus electropherotypes detected, were chosen for VP4 (P) serotyping. Of these, 48 (83%) strains reacted with the P1A serotype-specific Nt-MAb 1A10. None of the strains reacted with the serotype P2-specific Nt-MAbs tested. Not all viruses that reacted with Nt-MAb 1A10 were recognized by Nt-MAbs 2A3 and 2G1, which also recognize P1A strains, indicating heterogeneity of neutralization epitopes among serotype P1A human rotaviruses. This heterogeneity could be relevant for the specificity of the VP4-mediated neutralizing antibody immune response and indicates the need for antigenic characterization, in addition to genomic typing, of the VP4 proteins of circulating human rotavirus field strains. PMID:7583936

  13. Bismuth-induced Raman modes in GaP1- x Bi x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Theresa M.; Fluegel, Brian; Beaton, Daniel A.; Alberi, Kirstin; Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2016-10-01

    Dilute bismide semiconductor alloys are a promising material platform for optoelectronic devices due to drastic impacts of bismuth on the electronic structure of the alloy. At the same time, the details of bismuth incorporation in the lattice are not fully understood. In this work, we conduct Raman scattering spectroscopy on GaP1- x Bi x epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and identify several bismuth-related Raman features including gap vibration modes at 296, 303, and 314 cm-1. This study paves the way for more detailed analysis of the local symmetry at bismuth incorporation sites in the dilute bismide alloy regime.

  14. Open/closed topological mathbb{C}{mathbb{P}^{{1}}} sigma model revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitzur, Shmuel; Oz, Yaron; Rabinovici, Eliezer; Walcher, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    We consider the topological sigma-model on Riemann surfaces with genus g and h holes, and target space mathbb{C}{mathbb{P}^1} \\cong {S^2} . We calculate the correlation functions of bulk and boundary operators, and study the symmetries of the model and its most general deformation. We study the open/closed topological field theory (TFT) correspondence by summing up the boundaries. We argue that this summation can be understood as a renormalization of the closed TFT. We couple the model to topological gravity and derive constitutive relations between the correlation functions of bulk and boundary operators.

  15. Li diffusion in zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.

    2010-09-01

    Diffusion of Li under anhydrous conditions at 1 atm and under fluid-present elevated pressure (1.0-1.2 GPa) conditions has been measured in natural zircon. The source of diffusant for 1-atm experiments was ground natural spodumene, which was sealed under vacuum in silica glass capsules with polished slabs of zircon. An experiment using a Dy-bearing source was also conducted to evaluate possible rate-limiting effects on Li diffusion of slow-diffusing REE+3 that might provide charge balance. Diffusion experiments performed in the presence of H2O-CO2 fluid were run in a piston-cylinder apparatus, using a source consisting of a powdered mixture of spodumene, quartz and zircon with oxalic acid added to produce H2O-CO2 fluid. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) with the resonant nuclear reaction 7Li(p,γ)8Be was used to measure diffusion profiles for the experiments. The following Arrhenius parameters were obtained for Li diffusion normal to the c-axis over the temperature range 703-1.151°C at 1 atm for experiments run with the spodumene source: D_{text{Li}} = 7.17 × 10^{ - 7} { exp }( - 275 ± 11 {text{kJmol}}^{ - 1} /{text{RT}}){text{m}}2 {text{s}}^{ - 1}. Diffusivities are similar for transport parallel to the c-axis, indicating little anisotropy for Li diffusion in zircon. Similar Li diffusivities were also found for experiments run under fluid-present conditions and for the experiment run with the Dy-bearing source. Li diffusion is considerably faster than diffusion of other cations in zircon, with a smaller activation energy for diffusion. Although Li diffusion in zircon is comparatively rapid, zircons will be moderately retentive of Li signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures, but they are unlikely to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism.

  16. Zinc Resistance Mechanisms of P1B-type ATPases in Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Mingmei; Li, Zhefei; Liang, Jianqiang; Wei, Yibing; Rensing, Christopher; Wei, Gehong

    2016-01-01

    The Sinorhizobium meliloti (S. meliloti) strain CCNWSX0020 displayed tolerance to high levels exposures of multiple metals and growth promotion of legume plants grown in metal-contaminated soil. However, the mechanism of metal-resistant strain remains unknown. We used five P1B-ATPases deletions by designating as ∆copA1b, ∆fixI1, ∆copA3, ∆zntA and ∆nia, respectively to investigate the role of P1B-ATPases in heavy metal resistance of S. meliloti. The ∆copA1b and ∆zntA mutants were sensitive to zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in different degree, whereas the other mutants had no significant influence on the metal resistance. Moreover, the expression of zntA was induced by Zn, Cd and Pb whereas copA1b was induced by copper (Cu) and silver (Ag). This two deletions could led to the increased intracellular concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd, but not of Cu. Complementation of ∆copA1b and ∆zntA mutants showed a restoration of tolerance to Zn, Cd and Pb to a certain extent. Taken together, the results suggest an important role of copA1b and zntA in Zn homeostasis and Cd and Pb detoxification in S. meliloti CCNWSX0020. PMID:27378600

  17. Enhanced P1-N1 auditory evoked potential in patients with musicians' cramp.

    PubMed

    Lim, Vanessa K; Bradshaw, John L; Nicholls, Michael E R; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2005-12-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were examined in patients with musician's cramp (focal dystonia) in order to determine whether these patients have electrophysiological changes in a sensory system that is not usually associated with symptoms. All participants were professional guitarists and were required to listen to 2,000 monaurally presented stimuli (middle C, with duration of 7 ms). During one block, 250 stimuli were presented to one ear. Once a block was finished, another block was presented in the other ear; in total there were eight blocks of stimuli. During this task, EEGs from 10 scalp electrodes and one bipolar eye channel were continuously recorded. There were no significant latency or topographical differences in the electrophysiological recordings. However, there was a significant group difference in the peak-to-peak amplitude of the P1-N1a component. The patients had a larger peak-to-peak difference than controls (1.63 vs. 0.62 microV). The P1 and N1a are cortically generated potentials. Patients with focal dystonia had an increase in activity compared to controls when processing simple auditory stimuli. Such changes in electrophysiological responses may be a result of increases in excitation or lack of inhibition; alternatively the changes may represent cross-modal maladaptive plasticity from the somatosensory modality to the auditory modality. Thus, this study provides further evidence that patients with focal dystonia have alterations of the central nervous system that are not limited to their symptomatic sensory domain.

  18. FURTHER CONSTRAINTS ON THE OPTICAL TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF HAT-P-1b

    SciTech Connect

    Montalto, M.; Santos, N. C.; Martins, J. H. C.; Figueira, P.; Alonso, R.; Iro, N.; Desidera, S.

    2015-09-20

    We report on novel observations of HAT-P-1 aimed at constraining the optical transmission spectrum of the atmosphere of its transiting hot-Jupiter exoplanet. Ground-based differential spectrophotometry was performed over two transit windows using the DOLORES spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Our measurements imply an average planet to star radius ratio equal to R{sub p}/R{sub *} = (0.1159 ± 0.0005). This result is consistent with the value obtained from recent near-infrared measurements of this object, but differs from previously reported optical measurements, being lower by around 4.4 exoplanet scale heights. Analyzing the data over five different spectral bins of ∼600 Å wide, we observed a single peaked spectrum (3.7 σ level) with a blue cutoff corresponding to the blue edge of the broad absorption wing of sodium and an increased absorption in the region in-between 6180 and 7400 Å. We also infer that the width of the broad absorption wings due to alkali metals is likely narrower than the one implied by solar abundance clear atmospheric models. We interpret the result as evidence that HAT-P-1b has a partially clear atmosphere at optical wavelengths with a more modest contribution from an optical absorber than previously reported.

  19. ON BOUNDARY VALUES IN L_p, p > 1, OF SOLUTIONS OF ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guščin, A. K.; Mihaĭlov, V. P.

    1980-02-01

    The behavior near the boundary of generalized solutions of a second order elliptic equation \\displaystyle \\sum_{i,j=1}^n\\frac{\\partial}{\\partial x_i}\\biggl(a_{ij}(x)\\fra......artial x_j}\\biggr)=f,\\qquad x\\in Q=\\{\\vert x\\vert < 1\\}\\subset\\mathbf{R}_n,in W_p^1(\\mathcal{Q}), p > 1, is studied. It is shown that under a certain condition on the right side of the equation, the boundedness of the function \\Vert x\\Vert_{L_p(\\vert x\\vert=r)}, \\frac{1}{2}\\le r < 1, is necessary and sufficient for the existence of a limit for the solution u(rw), \\frac{1}{2}\\le r < 1, \\vert w\\vert=1, in L_p(\\vert w\\vert=1) as r\\to 1 - 0. Moreover, the summability of the function \\displaystyle (1-\\vert x\\vert)\\vert u(x)\\vert^{p - 2}\\vert\

  20. En1 directs superior olivary complex neuron positioning, survival, and expression of FoxP1.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Stefanie C; Jalabi, Walid; Zhao, Tianna; Romito-DiGiacomo, Rita R; Maricich, Stephen M

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the genetic pathways and transcription factors that control development and maturation of central auditory neurons. En1, a gene expressed by a subset of developing and mature superior olivary complex (SOC) cells, encodes a homeodomain transcription factor important for neuronal development in the midbrain, cerebellum, hindbrain and spinal cord. Using genetic fate-mapping techniques, we show that all En1-lineal cells in the SOC are neurons and that these neurons are glycinergic, cholinergic and GABAergic in neurotransmitter phenotype. En1 deletion does not interfere with specification or neural fate of these cells, but does cause aberrant positioning and subsequent death of all En1-lineal SOC neurons by early postnatal ages. En1-null cells also fail to express the transcription factor FoxP1, suggesting that FoxP1 lies downstream of En1. Our data define important roles for En1 in the development and maturation of a diverse group of brainstem auditory neurons.

  1. Zinc Resistance Mechanisms of P1B-type ATPases in Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mingmei; Li, Zhefei; Liang, Jianqiang; Wei, Yibing; Rensing, Christopher; Wei, Gehong

    2016-01-01

    The Sinorhizobium meliloti (S. meliloti) strain CCNWSX0020 displayed tolerance to high levels exposures of multiple metals and growth promotion of legume plants grown in metal-contaminated soil. However, the mechanism of metal-resistant strain remains unknown. We used five P1B-ATPases deletions by designating as ∆copA1b, ∆fixI1, ∆copA3, ∆zntA and ∆nia, respectively to investigate the role of P1B-ATPases in heavy metal resistance of S. meliloti. The ∆copA1b and ∆zntA mutants were sensitive to zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in different degree, whereas the other mutants had no significant influence on the metal resistance. Moreover, the expression of zntA was induced by Zn, Cd and Pb whereas copA1b was induced by copper (Cu) and silver (Ag). This two deletions could led to the increased intracellular concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd, but not of Cu. Complementation of ∆copA1b and ∆zntA mutants showed a restoration of tolerance to Zn, Cd and Pb to a certain extent. Taken together, the results suggest an important role of copA1b and zntA in Zn homeostasis and Cd and Pb detoxification in S. meliloti CCNWSX0020. PMID:27378600

  2. A bovine G8P[1] group A rotavirus isolated from an asymptomatically infected dog.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Michael; Rückner, Antje; Köhler, Christian; Burgener, Iwan; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are enteric pathogens with well-documented zoonotic transmissions to humans. The segmented genome of the virus enables reassortment events which might alter host susceptibility and/or disease course. Genetic analysis of rotavirus in dogs has so far only revealed RVAs with the VP7 and VP4 genome constellation G3P[3]. RVA G3P[3] have also been found in cats, humans, monkeys and bats. In the present study, we described an unusual RVA of genotype G8P[1] which was isolated from an asymptomatically infected young dog. The dog did not show signs of diarrhoea. Analysis of full-length segments of VP2, VP6 and VP7 as well as NSP1-NSP5 revealed a typical bovine-like genotype constellation G8-P[1]-I2-Rx-C2-Mx-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3. Phylogenetic analysis supported the hypothesis of an interspecies transmission from a bovine/artiodactyl species or from humans to the young dog. The isolate was likely to represent a multiple reassortant virus. PMID:25304653

  3. Structure and transport mechanism of the sodium/proton antiporter MjNhaP1

    PubMed Central

    Paulino, Cristina; Wöhlert, David; Kapotova, Ekaterina; Yildiz, Özkan; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Sodium/proton antiporters are essential for sodium and pH homeostasis and play a major role in human health and disease. We determined the structures of the archaeal sodium/proton antiporter MjNhaP1 in two complementary states. The inward-open state was obtained by x-ray crystallography in the presence of sodium at pH 8, where the transporter is highly active. The outward-open state was obtained by electron crystallography without sodium at pH 4, where MjNhaP1 is inactive. Comparison of both structures reveals a 7° tilt of the 6 helix bundle. 22Na+ uptake measurements indicate non-cooperative transport with an activity maximum at pH 7.5. We conclude that binding of a Na+ ion from the outside induces helix movements that close the extracellular cavity, open the cytoplasmic funnel, and result in a ∼5 Å vertical relocation of the ion binding site to release the substrate ion into the cytoplasm. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03583.001 PMID:25426803

  4. Improved diffusion coefficients generated from Monte Carlo codes

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, B. R.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.; Aviles, B. N.

    2013-07-01

    Monte Carlo codes are becoming more widely used for reactor analysis. Some of these applications involve the generation of diffusion theory parameters including macroscopic cross sections and diffusion coefficients. Two approximations used to generate diffusion coefficients are assessed using the Monte Carlo code MC21. The first is the method of homogenization; whether to weight either fine-group transport cross sections or fine-group diffusion coefficients when collapsing to few-group diffusion coefficients. The second is a fundamental approximation made to the energy-dependent P1 equations to derive the energy-dependent diffusion equations. Standard Monte Carlo codes usually generate a flux-weighted transport cross section with no correction to the diffusion approximation. Results indicate that this causes noticeable tilting in reconstructed pin powers in simple test lattices with L2 norm error of 3.6%. This error is reduced significantly to 0.27% when weighting fine-group diffusion coefficients by the flux and applying a correction to the diffusion approximation. Noticeable tilting in reconstructed fluxes and pin powers was reduced when applying these corrections. (authors)

  5. Updating applied diffusion models

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Most diffusion models currently used in air-quality applications are substantially out of date with understanding of turbulence and diffusion in the planetary boundary layer. Under a Cooperative Agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency, the American Meteorological Society organized a workshop to help improve the basis of such models, their physics and hopefully their performance. Reviews and recommendations were made on models in three areas: diffusion in the convective boundary layer (CBL), diffusion in the stable boundary layer (SBL), and model uncertainty. Progress has been made in all areas, but it is most significant and ready for application to practical models in the case of the CBL. This has resulted from a clear understanding of the vertical structure and diffusion in the CBL, as demonstrated by laboratory experiments, numerical simulations, and field observations. Understanding of turbulence structure and diffusion in the SBL is less complete and not yet ready for general use in applications.

  6. Gaseous diffusion system

    DOEpatents

    Garrett, George A.; Shacter, John

    1978-01-01

    1. A gaseous diffusion system comprising a plurality of diffusers connected in cascade to form a series of stages, each of said diffusers having a porous partition dividing it into a high pressure chamber and a low pressure chamber, and means for combining a portion of the enriched gas from a succeeding stage with a portion of the enriched gas from the low pressure chamber of each stage and feeding it into one extremity of the high pressure chamber thereof.

  7. Autoantibodies to the laminin P1 fragment in HgCl2-induced membranous glomerulopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Aten, J.; Veninga, A.; Coers, W.; Sonnenberg, A.; Timpl, R.; Claessen, N.; van Eendenburg, J. D.; de Heer, E.; Weening, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to mercuric chloride induces the development of a membranous glomerulopathy with high proteinuria in DZB rats, in which immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and IgG2a bound in the glomeruli were previously found to react with laminin of the EHS tumor and several unidentified glomerular basement membrane components. Monoclonal antibodies were prepared by fusing cervical and mandibular lymph node cells from a HgCl2-treated DZB rat with a nonsecreting mouse myeloma. Monoclonal antibodies were screened for reactivity with collagenase-digested glomerular basement membrane and kidney sections; upon subcloning, eight stable hybridomas were obtained, named MEC1 to MEC8. MEC2 (IgG1, kappa), MEC3 (IgM, kappa), and MEC5 (IgG1, kappa), as well as the polyclonal glomerular eluate, reacted preferentially with the P1 fragment of the laminin-1 (alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 1) isoform. MEC8 (IgM, kappa) reacted with the P1 and the E4 fragment of laminin. Both MEC6 (IgM, kappa) and MEC8 bound to actin and to various other, unidentified cellular antigens, indicating that MEC6 and MEC8 are polyreactive antibodies. MEC7 (IgM, kappa) bound to a cytoskeleton-linked cell membrane antigen, present on various epithelial cells and between heart muscle fibers and associated with small peripheral, intramuscular nerves. Several of the MEC monoclonal antibodies bound in vivo along the glomerular capillary wall. Although discrete electron-dense subepithelial immune aggregates were not detected and proteinuria was not induced, MEC3 localization changed from a continuous pattern into a fine granular pattern along the glomerular basement membrane, and focally along the TBM, upon passive transfer into naive DZB rats. These findings suggest a pathogenetic role for the P1 fragment of laminin either in the induction phase of HgCl2-induced membranous glomerulopathy as an immunogen or in the effector phase as a target antigen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7778685

  8. Inpainting using airy diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorduy Hernandez, Sara

    2015-09-01

    One inpainting procedure based on Airy diffusion is proposed, implemented via Maple and applied to some digital images. Airy diffusion is a partial differential equation with spatial derivatives of third order in contrast with the usual diffusion with spatial derivatives of second order. Airy diffusion generates the Airy semigroup in terms of the Airy functions which can be rewritten in terms of Bessel functions. The Airy diffusion can be used to smooth an image with the corresponding noise elimination via convolution. Also the Airy diffusion can be used to erase objects from an image. We build an algorithm using the Maple package ImageTools and such algorithm is tested using some images. Our results using Airy diffusion are compared with the similar results using standard diffusion. We observe that Airy diffusion generates powerful filters for image processing which could be incorporated in the usual packages for image processing such as ImageJ and Photoshop. Also is interesting to consider the possibility to incorporate the Airy filters as applications for smartphones and smart-glasses.

  9. Multicomponent diffusion revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, S. H.

    2006-07-01

    The derivation of the multicomponent diffusion law is revisited. Following Furry [Am. J. Phys. 16, 63 (1948)], Williams [Am. J. Phys. 26, 467 (1958); Combustion Theory, 2nd ed. (Benjamin/Cummings , Menlo Park, CA,1985)] heuristically rederived the classical kinetic theory results using macroscopic equations, and pointed out that the dynamics of the mixture fluid had been assumed inviscid. This paper generalizes the derivation, shows that the inviscid assumption can easily be relaxed to add a new term to the classical diffusion law, and the thermal diffusion term can also be easily recovered. The nonuniqueness of the multicomponent diffusion coefficient matrix is emphasized and discussed.

  10. Experimental study of vortex diffusers

    SciTech Connect

    Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.

  11. Anomalous photoluminescence in InP1−xBix

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Xiren; Pan, Wenwu; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Liyao; Li, Yaoyao; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Kai; Shao, Jun; Wang, Shumin

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) from InP1−xBix thin films with Bi concentrations in the 0–2.49% range reveals anomalous spectral features with strong and very broad (linewidth of 700 nm) PL signals compared to other bismide alloys. Multiple transitions are observed and their energy levels are found much smaller than the band-gap measured from absorption measurements. These transitions are related to deep levels confirmed by deep level transient spectroscopy, which effectively trap free holes and enhance radiative recombination. The broad luminescence feature is beneficial for making super-luminescence diodes, which can theoretically enhance spatial resolution beyond 1 μm in optical coherent tomography (OCT). PMID:27291823

  12. Comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught): Observations by STEREO and SOHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. H.; Morrill, J. S.; Battams, K.; Owens, M. J.; Howard, R. A.; Stenborg, G. A.

    2008-09-01

    We present January 2007 observations of comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) by the ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft's LASCO coronagraph and the twin NASA STEREO spacecraft's SECCHI heliospheric imagers. McNaught's extensive dust tail displayed a mixture of ordered and quasi-random distribution of particles that was well-captured by these instruments. Linear dust tail features termed striae were common; these can be explained by the mass-fragmentation of large dust grains within brief time periods, once the grains are well-separated from the comet's nucleus. We model this process, in an attempt to reproduce McNaught's dust tail features. The attempts to simulate the tail's appearance as seen by SOHO and STEREO are presented, and we summarize the implications of our interpretation of these simulated tail structures for the nature of the comet's dust population.

  13. Structural characterization of P1'-diversified urea-based inhibitors of glutamate carboxypeptidase II.

    PubMed

    Pavlicek, Jiri; Ptacek, Jakub; Cerny, Jiri; Byun, Youngjoo; Skultetyova, Lubica; Pomper, Martin G; Lubkowski, Jacek; Barinka, Cyril

    2014-05-15

    Urea-based inhibitors of human glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) have advanced into clinical trials for imaging metastatic prostate cancer. In parallel efforts, agents with increased lipophilicity have been designed and evaluated for targeting GCPII residing within the neuraxis. Here we report the structural and computational characterization of six complexes between GCPII and P1'-diversified urea-based inhibitors that have the C-terminal glutamate replaced by more hydrophobic moieties. The X-ray structures are complemented by quantum mechanics calculations that provide a quantitative insight into the GCPII/inhibitor interactions. These data can be used for the rational design of novel glutamate-free GCPII inhibitors with tailored physicochemical properties.

  14. As-built design specification for P1A software system modified display subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, C. L.; Story, A. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    This document contains the design of the proportional estimate processor which was written to satisfy the software requirement of Part A of the P1A experiment. The purposes of the project are: (1) to select the dots to be labelled; (2) to create tables of green numbers and brightness values for all selected dots per acquisition; (3) to create scatter plots of green numbers vs brightness for each acquisition for all selected dots. If labels have been provided then scatter plots of only categories of interest can be optionally produced; and (4) to produce trajectory plots of green number vs brightness at differing acquisition times for each dot. These plots need to be in the same order as the list of selected dots. When labels are provided only plots of dots of categories of interest are to be produced.

  15. P1 plasmid replication: measurement of initiator protein concentration in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Swack, J A; Pal, S K; Mason, R J; Abeles, A L; Chattoraj, D K

    1987-01-01

    To study the functions of the mini-P1 replication initiation protein RepA quantitatively, we have developed a method to measure RepA concentration by using immunoblotting. In vivo, there are about 20 RepA dimers per unit-copy plasmid DNA. RepA was deduced to be a dimer from gel filtration of the purified protein. Since there are 14 binding sites of the protein per replicon, the physiological concentration of the protein appears to be sufficiently low to be a rate-limiting factor for replication. Autoregulation is apparently responsible for the low protein level; at the physiological concentration of the protein, the repA promoter retains only 0.1% of its full activity as determined by gene fusions to lacZ. When the concentration is further decreased by a factor of 3 or increased by a factor of 40, replication is no longer detectable. Images PMID:3611028

  16. Incompatibility group P-1 bla+ plasmids do not increase penicillin resistance of Pseudomonas acidovorans.

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, D L; Warren, R A

    1979-01-01

    Incompatibility group P-1 plasmids with the bla+ genotype were transferred from various Escherichia coli strains to Pseudomonas acidovorans strain 29. When resistance to ampicillin was used as the criterion, none of these plasmids appeared able to express their Bla+ phenotype in this host. When the plasmids were subsequently transferred back from these ampicillin-sensitive P. acdiovorans transcipients to E. coli strains, it was found that the Bla+ phenotype was again expressed. Although beta-lactamase was not detected in cultures of P. acidovorans transcipients, macroiodometric determinations of beta-lactamase activity made on broken cell suspensions revealed that beta-lactamase was indeed synthesized. It was concluded that P. acidovorans strain 29 allows expression of the bla gene within the cell but that this organism is unable to excrete the enzyme. PMID:383693

  17. The P1-RKDG method for two-dimensional Euler equations of gas dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockburn, Bernardo; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1991-01-01

    A class of nonlinearly stable Runge-Kutta local projection discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) finite element methods for conservation laws is investigated. Two dimensional Euler equations for gas dynamics are solved using P1 elements. The generalization of the local projections, which for scalar nonlinear conservation laws was designed to satisfy a local maximum principle, to systems of conservation laws such as the Euler equations of gas dynamics using local characteristic decompositions is discussed. Numerical examples include the standard regular shock reflection problem, the forward facing step problem, and the double Mach reflection problem. These preliminary numerical examples are chosen to show the capacity of the approach to obtain nonlinearly stable results comparable with the modern nonoscillatory finite difference methods.

  18. Anomalous photoluminescence in InP1‑xBix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Xiren; Pan, Wenwu; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Liyao; Li, Yaoyao; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Kai; Shao, Jun; Wang, Shumin

    2016-06-01

    Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) from InP1‑xBix thin films with Bi concentrations in the 0–2.49% range reveals anomalous spectral features with strong and very broad (linewidth of 700 nm) PL signals compared to other bismide alloys. Multiple transitions are observed and their energy levels are found much smaller than the band-gap measured from absorption measurements. These transitions are related to deep levels confirmed by deep level transient spectroscopy, which effectively trap free holes and enhance radiative recombination. The broad luminescence feature is beneficial for making super-luminescence diodes, which can theoretically enhance spatial resolution beyond 1 μm in optical coherent tomography (OCT).

  19. Transformation mapping of the regulatory elements of the ecdysone-inducible P1 gene of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Maschat, F.; Dubertret, M.L.; Lepesant, J.A. )

    1991-05-01

    The transcription of the P1 gene is induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone in fat bodies of third-instar larvae. Germ line transformation showed that sequences between {minus}138 to +276 contain elements required for a qualitatively correct developmental and hormonal regulation of P1 transcription. Sequences from {minus}138 to {minus}68 are essential for this expression.

  20. SPITZER IRAC SECONDARY ECLIPSE PHOTOMETRY OF THE TRANSITING EXTRASOLAR PLANET HAT-P-1b

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, Kamen; Deming, Drake; Harrington, Jospeph; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bowman, William C.; Nymeyer, Sarah; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Bakos, Gaspar A.

    2010-01-01

    We report Spitzer/IRAC photometry of the transiting giant exoplanet HAT-P-1b during its secondary eclipse. This planet lies near the postulated boundary between the pM and pL-class of hot Jupiters, and is important as a test of models for temperature inversions in hot Jupiter atmospheres. We derive eclipse depths for HAT-P-1b, in units of the stellar flux, that are: 0.080% +- 0.008% [3.6 mum], 0.135% +- 0.022% [4.5 mum], 0.203% +- 0.031% [5.8 mum], and 0.238% +- 0.040% [8.0 mum]. These values are best fit using an atmosphere with a modest temperature inversion, intermediate between the archetype inverted atmosphere (HD 209458b) and a model without an inversion. The observations also suggest that this planet is radiating a large fraction of the available stellar irradiance on its dayside, with little available for redistribution by circulation. This planet has sometimes been speculated to be inflated by tidal dissipation, based on its large radius in discovery observations, and on a non-zero orbital eccentricity allowed by the radial velocity data. The timing of the secondary eclipse is very sensitive to orbital eccentricity, and we find that the central phase of the eclipse is 0.4999 +- 0.0005. The difference between the expected and observed phase indicates that the orbit is close to circular, with a 3sigma limit of |e cos omega| < 0.002.

  1. P1 plasmid replication. Role of initiator titration in copy number control.

    PubMed

    Pal, S K; Mason, R J; Chattoraj, D K

    1986-11-20

    The copy number control locus incA of unit copy plasmid P1 maps in a region containing nine 19 base-pair repeats. Previous results from studies in vivo and in vitro indicated that incA interacts with the plasmid-encoded RepA protein, which is essential for replication. It has been proposed that the repeat sequences negatively control copy number by sequestering the RepA protein, which is rate-limiting for replication. Our results lend further support to this hypothesis. Here we show that the repeats can be deleted completely from P1 miniplasmids and the deletion results in an approximately eightfold increase in plasmid copy number. So, incA sequences are totally dispensable for replication and have only a regulatory role. The copy number of incA-deleted plasmids can be reduced if incA sequences are present in trans or are reincorporated at two different positions in the plasmid. This reduction in copy number is not due to lowered expression of the repA gene in the presence of incA. We show that one repeat sequence is sufficient to bind RepA and can reduce the copy number of incA-deleted plasmids. When part of the repeat was deleted, it lost its ability to bind as well as influence copy number. These results show a strong correlation between the capacity of incA repeats to bind RepA protein both in vivo and in vitro, and the function of incA in the control of copy number.

  2. Use of Labelled tLyP-1 as a Novel Ligand Targeting the NRP Receptor to Image Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hu-bing; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Quan-shi; Han, Yan-jian; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Wen-lan; Li, Hong-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuropilin (NRP) receptors are overexpressed in glioma tumor tissue, and therefore may be a potential target for imaging markers. We investigated whether labelled tLyP-1, an NRP targeting peptide, could be used as the targeting ligand for developing reagents for imaging glioma tumors. Methods The tLyP-1 peptide (CGNKRTR) was labeled with 5-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) or 18F-fluoride. A control peptide (MAQKTSH) was also labeled with FAM. The in vitro binding between FAM-tLyP-1 and U87MG cells and in vivo biodistribution of FAM-tLyP-1 in a U87MG glioblastoma xenograft model (nude mouse) were determined. The in vivo biodistribution of 18F-tLyP-1 was also determined by microPET/CT. Results In vitro, FAM-tLyP-1 was strongly taken up by U87MG cells at very low concentrations (1μM). In vivo, FAM-tLyP-1 accumulated in glioma (U87MG) tumors, but uptake was minimal in the normal brain tissue 1 h after administration. The distribution of FAM-tLyP-1 in the tumor tissue was consistent with expression of NRP1. The tumor/brain fluorescence intensity ratio in mice treated with FAM-tLyP-1 was significantly higher than the control FAM-labeled peptide 1 h after administration (3.44 ± 0.83 vs. 1.32 ± 0.15; t = 5.547, P = 0.001). Uptake of FAM-tLyP-1 in glioma tumors could be blocked by administering an excess of non-conjugated tLyP-1 peptide. [Lys4] tLyP-1 was labeled with 18F to synthesis a PET (18F-tLyP-1). MicroPET/CT imaging showed the tumor was visualized clearly with a high tumor/brain radiolabel ratio at 60 min (2.69 ± 0.52) and 120 min (3.11±0.25). Conclusion Taken together, our results suggest that tLyP-1 could be developed as a novel fluorescent or radio labelled tracer for imaging glioma. PMID:26398657

  3. [Enhanced resistance to phytopathogenic bacteria in transgenic tobacco plants with synthetic gene of antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1].

    PubMed

    Zakharchenko, N S; Rukavtsova, E B; Gudkov, A T; Bur'ianov, Ia I

    2005-11-01

    Plasmids with a synthetic gene of the mammalian antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 (cecP1) controlled by the constitutive promoter 35S RNA of cauliflower mosaic virus were constructed. Agrobacterial transformation of tobacco plants was conducted using the obtained recombinant binary vector. The presence of gene cecP1 in the plant genome was confirmed by PCR. The expression of gene cecP1 in transgenic plants was shown by Northern blot analysis. The obtained transgenic plants exhibit enhanced resistance to phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas syringae, P. marginata, and Erwinia carotovora. The ability of transgenic plants to express cecropin P1 was transmitted to the progeny. F1 and F2 plants had the normal phenotype (except for a changed coloration of flowers) and retained the ability to produce normal viable seeds upon self-pollination. Lines of F1 plants with Mendelian segregation of transgenic traits were selected.

  4. Cosmology with matter diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Calogero, Simone; Velten, Hermano E-mail: velten@cce.ufes.br

    2013-11-01

    We construct a viable cosmological model based on velocity diffusion of matter particles. In order to ensure the conservation of the total energy-momentum tensor in the presence of diffusion, we include a cosmological scalar field φ which we identify with the dark energy component of the universe. The model is characterized by only one new degree of freedom, the diffusion parameter σ. The standard ΛCDM model can be recovered by setting σ = 0. If diffusion takes place (σ > 0) the dynamics of the matter and of the dark energy fields are coupled. We argue that the existence of a diffusion mechanism in the universe may serve as a theoretical motivation for interacting models. We constrain the background dynamics of the diffusion model with Supernovae, H(z) and BAO data. We also perform a perturbative analysis of this model in order to understand structure formation in the universe. We calculate the impact of diffusion both on the CMB spectrum, with particular attention to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe signal, and on the matter power spectrum P(k). The latter analysis places strong constraints on the magnitude of the diffusion mechanism but does not rule out the model.

  5. Speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongjian; Acton, Scott T

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides the derivation of speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD), a diffusion method tailored to ultrasonic and radar imaging applications. SRAD is the edge-sensitive diffusion for speckled images, in the same way that conventional anisotropic diffusion is the edge-sensitive diffusion for images corrupted with additive noise. We first show that the Lee and Frost filters can be cast as partial differential equations, and then we derive SRAD by allowing edge-sensitive anisotropic diffusion within this context. Just as the Lee and Frost filters utilize the coefficient of variation in adaptive filtering, SRAD exploits the instantaneous coefficient of variation, which is shown to be a function of the local gradient magnitude and Laplacian operators. We validate the new algorithm using both synthetic and real linear scan ultrasonic imagery of the carotid artery. We also demonstrate the algorithm performance with real SAR data. The performance measures obtained by means of computer simulation of carotid artery images are compared with three existing speckle reduction schemes. In the presence of speckle noise, speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion excels over the traditional speckle removal filters and over the conventional anisotropic diffusion method in terms of mean preservation, variance reduction, and edge localization.

  6. Galactic Diffuse Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Digel, Seth W.; /SLAC

    2007-10-25

    Interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar nucleons and photons make the Milky Way a bright, diffuse source of high-energy {gamma}-rays. Observationally, the results from EGRET, COMPTEL, and OSSE have now been extended to higher energies by ground-based experiments, with detections of diffuse emission in the Galactic center reported by H.E.S.S. in the range above 100 GeV and of diffuse emission in Cygnus by MILAGRO in the TeV range. In the range above 100 keV, INTEGRAL SPI has found that diffuse emission remains after point sources are accounted for. I will summarize current knowledge of diffuse {gamma}-ray emission from the Milky Way and review some open issues related to the diffuse emission -- some old, like the distribution of cosmic-ray sources and the origin of the 'excess' of GeV emission observed by EGRET, and some recently recognized, like the amount and distribution of molecular hydrogen not traced by CO emission -- and anticipate some of the advances that will be possible with the Large Area Telescope on GLAST. We plan to develop an accurate physical model for the diffuse emission, which will be useful for detecting and accurately characterizing emission from Galactic point sources as well as any Galactic diffuse emission from exotic processes, and for studying the unresolved extragalactic emission.

  7. Investigating Diffusion with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon S.; Windelborn, Augden F.

    2013-01-01

    The activities described here allow students to explore the concept of diffusion with the use of common equipment such as computers, webcams and analysis software. The procedure includes taking a series of digital pictures of a container of water with a webcam as a dye slowly diffuses. At known time points, measurements of the pixel densities…

  8. Anatomy of Particle Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringuier, E.

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses particle diffusion from a thermodynamic standpoint. The main goal of the paper is to highlight the conceptual connection between particle diffusion, which belongs to non-equilibrium statistical physics, and mechanics, which deals with particle motion, at the level of third-year university courses. We start out from the fact…

  9. Broadband absorption and reduced scattering spectra of in-vivo skin can be noninvasively determined using δ-P1 approximation based spectral analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Cheng-Hung; Chou, Ting-Chun; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we revealed that a linear gradient line source illumination (LGLSI) geometry could work with advanced diffusion models to recover the sample optical properties at wavelengths where sample absorption and reduced scattering were comparable. In this study, we employed the LGLSI geometry with a broadband light source and utilized the spectral analysis to determine the broadband absorption and scattering spectra of turbid samples in the wavelength range from 650 to 1350 nm. The performance of the LGLSI δ-P1 diffusion model based spectral analysis was evaluated using liquid phantoms, and it was found that the sample optical properties could be properly recovered even at wavelengths above 1000 nm where μs' to μa ratios were in the range between 1 to 20. Finally, we will demonstrate the use of our system for recovering the 650 to 1350 nm absorption and scattering spectra of in-vivo human skin. We expect this system can be applied to study deep vessel dilation induced hemoglobin concentration variation and determine the water and lipid concentrations of in-vivo skin in clinical settings in the future. PMID:25780735

  10. 64Cu-Labeled LyP-1-Dendrimer for PET-CT Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaque

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The ability to detect and quantify macrophage accumulation can provide important diagnostic and prognostic information for atherosclerotic plaque. We have previously shown that LyP-1, a cyclic 9-amino acid peptide, binds to p32 proteins on activated macrophages, facilitating the visualization of atherosclerotic plaque with PET. Yet, the in vivo plaque accumulation of monomeric [18F]FBA-LyP-1 was low (0.31 ± 0.05%ID/g). To increase the avidity of LyP-1 constructs to p32, we synthesized a dendritic form of LyP-1 on solid phase using lysine as the core structural element. Imaging probes (FAM or 6-BAT) were conjugated to a lysine or cysteine on the dendrimer for optical and PET studies. The N-terminus of the dendrimer was further modified with an aminooxy group in order to conjugate LyP-1 and ARAL peptides bearing a ketone. Oxime ligation of peptides to both dendrimers resulted in (LyP-1)4- and (ARAL)4-dendrimers with optical (FAM) and PET probes (6-BAT). For PET-CT studies, (LyP-1)4- and (ARAL)4-dendrimer-6-BAT were labeled with 64Cu (t1/2 = 12.7 h) and intravenously injected into the atherosclerotic (ApoE–/–) mice. After two hours of circulation, PET-CT coregistered images demonstrated greater uptake of the (LyP-1)4-dendrimer-64Cu than the (ARAL)4-dendrimer-64Cu in the aortic root and descending aorta. Ex vivo images and the biodistribution acquired at three hours after injection also demonstrated a significantly higher uptake of the (LyP-1)4-dendrimer-64Cu (1.1 ± 0.26%ID/g) than the (ARAL)4-dendrimer-64Cu (0.22 ± 0.05%ID/g) in the aorta. Similarly, subcutaneous injection of the LyP-1-dendrimeric carriers resulted in preferential accumulation in plaque-containing regions over 24 h. In the same model system, ex vivo fluorescence images within aortic plaque depict an increased accumulation and penetration of the (LyP-1)4-dendrimer-FAM as compared to the (ARAL)4-dendrimer-FAM. Taken together, the results suggest that the (LyP-1)4-dendrimer can be applied for in

  11. Combustor diffuser interaction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Ram; Thorp, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    Advances in gas turbine engine performance are achieved by using compressor systems with high stage loading and low part count, which result in high exit Mach numbers. The diffuser and combustor systems in such engines should be optimized to reduce system pressure loss and to maximize the engine thrust-to-weight ratio and minimize length. The state-of-the-art combustor-diffuser systems do not meet these requirements. Detailed understanding of the combustor-diffuser flow field interaction is required for designing advanced gas turbine engines. An experimental study of the combustor-diffuser interaction (CDI) is being conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of analytical models applicable to a wide variety of diffuser designs. The CDI program consists of four technical phases: Literature Search; Baseline Configuration; Parametric Configurations; and Performance Configurations. Phase 2 of the program is in progress.

  12. Diffusion in Coulomb crystals.

    PubMed

    Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2011-07-01

    Diffusion in Coulomb crystals can be important for the structure of neutron star crusts. We determine diffusion constants D from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that D for Coulomb crystals with relatively soft-core 1/r interactions may be larger than D for Lennard-Jones or other solids with harder-core interactions. Diffusion, for simulations of nearly perfect body-centered-cubic lattices, involves the exchange of ions in ringlike configurations. Here ions "hop" in unison without the formation of long lived vacancies. Diffusion, for imperfect crystals, involves the motion of defects. Finally, we find that diffusion, for an amorphous system rapidly quenched from Coulomb parameter Γ=175 to Coulomb parameters up to Γ=1750, is fast enough that the system starts to crystalize during long simulation runs. These results strongly suggest that Coulomb solids in cold white dwarf stars, and the crust of neutron stars, will be crystalline and not amorphous. PMID:21867316

  13. Diffusion in Coulomb crystals.

    PubMed

    Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2011-07-01

    Diffusion in Coulomb crystals can be important for the structure of neutron star crusts. We determine diffusion constants D from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that D for Coulomb crystals with relatively soft-core 1/r interactions may be larger than D for Lennard-Jones or other solids with harder-core interactions. Diffusion, for simulations of nearly perfect body-centered-cubic lattices, involves the exchange of ions in ringlike configurations. Here ions "hop" in unison without the formation of long lived vacancies. Diffusion, for imperfect crystals, involves the motion of defects. Finally, we find that diffusion, for an amorphous system rapidly quenched from Coulomb parameter Γ=175 to Coulomb parameters up to Γ=1750, is fast enough that the system starts to crystalize during long simulation runs. These results strongly suggest that Coulomb solids in cold white dwarf stars, and the crust of neutron stars, will be crystalline and not amorphous.

  14. Helium Diffusion in Olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.

    2011-12-01

    Diffusion of helium has been characterized in natural Fe-bearing olivine (~Fo90) and synthetic forsterite. Polished, oriented slabs of olivine were implanted with 3He, at 100 keV at a dose of 5x1015/cm2 or at 3.0 MeV at a dose of 1x1016/cm2. A set of experiments on the implanted olivine were run in 1-atm furnaces. In addition to the one-atm experiments, experiments on implanted samples were also run at higher pressures (2.6 and 2.7 GPa) to assess the potential effects of pressure on He diffusion and the applicability of the measured diffusivities in describing He transport in the mantle. The high-pressure experiments were conducted in a piston-cylinder apparatus using an "ultra-soft" pressure cell, with the diffusion sample directly surrounded by AgCl. 3He distributions following experiments were measured with Nuclear Reaction Analysis using the reaction 3He(d,p)4He. This direct profiling method permits us to evaluate anisotropy of diffusion, which cannot be easily assessed using bulk-release methods. For diffusion in forsterite parallel to c we obtain the following Arrhenius relation over the temperatures 250-950°C: D = 3.91x10-6exp(-159 ± 4 kJ mol-1/RT) m2/sec. The data define a single Arrhenius line spanning more than 7 orders of magnitude in D and 700°C in temperature. Diffusion parallel to a appears slightly slower, yielding an activation energy for diffusion of 135 kJ/mol and a pre-exponential factor of 3.73x10-8 m2/sec. Diffusion parallel to b is slower than diffusion parallel to a (by about two-thirds of a log unit); for this orientation an activation energy of 138 kJ/mol and a pre-exponential factor of 1.34x10-8 m2/sec are obtained. This anisotropy is broadly consistent with observations for diffusion of Ni and Fe-Mg in olivine. Diffusion in Fe-bearing olivine (transport parallel to b) agrees within uncertainty with findings for He diffusion in forsterite. The higher-pressure experiments yield diffusivities in agreement with those from the 1-atm

  15. Effect of the house dust mite allergen Der p 1 on tryptase release from human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, D Q; Shen, Y Y; Xu, J H; Tang, H

    2016-07-14

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the house dust mite allergen Der p 1 on the secretion of tryptase from the human mast cell line HMC-1. Flow cytometry was used to determine the expression levels of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on the surface of HMC-1 cells. HMC-1 cells were treated with Der p 1, SLIGRL-NH2 (PAR2 agonist), LRGILS-NH2 (control peptide for PAR2), or Der p 1 + FSLLRY (PAR2 antagonist), and the tryptase levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The biological functions of PAR2 were determined using the calcium green indicator, and intracellular calcium fluorescence intensity in the different groups (Der p 1, SLIGRL-NH2, LRGILS- NH2, Der p 1 + FSLLRY, tryptase, tryptase + FSLLRY, or cell culture medium) was detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The mast cells expressed PAR2 receptor on their surfaces. Der p 1 alone induced a significant release of intracellular calcium and tryptase in HMC-1 cells compared with the SLIGRL- NH2 treatment group and the control group. The combination of Der p 1 and FSLLRY partly inhibited intracellular calcium and tryptase release in HMC-1 cells compared with the Der p 1 treatment group. Moreover, tryptase induced a significant release of intracellular calcium in the HMC-1 cells. Der p 1 induced HMC-1 cell degranulation and the release of tryptase by activating the PAR2 receptor on the cell surfaces. Tryptase activated the PAR2 receptor and induced intracellular calcium release from the HMC-1 cells in a positive feedback loop.

  16. Effect of the house dust mite allergen Der p 1 on tryptase release from human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, D Q; Shen, Y Y; Xu, J H; Tang, H

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the house dust mite allergen Der p 1 on the secretion of tryptase from the human mast cell line HMC-1. Flow cytometry was used to determine the expression levels of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on the surface of HMC-1 cells. HMC-1 cells were treated with Der p 1, SLIGRL-NH2 (PAR2 agonist), LRGILS-NH2 (control peptide for PAR2), or Der p 1 + FSLLRY (PAR2 antagonist), and the tryptase levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The biological functions of PAR2 were determined using the calcium green indicator, and intracellular calcium fluorescence intensity in the different groups (Der p 1, SLIGRL-NH2, LRGILS- NH2, Der p 1 + FSLLRY, tryptase, tryptase + FSLLRY, or cell culture medium) was detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The mast cells expressed PAR2 receptor on their surfaces. Der p 1 alone induced a significant release of intracellular calcium and tryptase in HMC-1 cells compared with the SLIGRL- NH2 treatment group and the control group. The combination of Der p 1 and FSLLRY partly inhibited intracellular calcium and tryptase release in HMC-1 cells compared with the Der p 1 treatment group. Moreover, tryptase induced a significant release of intracellular calcium in the HMC-1 cells. Der p 1 induced HMC-1 cell degranulation and the release of tryptase by activating the PAR2 receptor on the cell surfaces. Tryptase activated the PAR2 receptor and induced intracellular calcium release from the HMC-1 cells in a positive feedback loop. PMID:27421012

  17. Neisseria meningitidis C:2b:P1.2,5 with Intermediate Resistance to Penicillin, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Ricardo; Ferreira, Eugénia

    2004-01-01

    For 1 year, serogroup, serotype, serosubtype, and penicillin susceptibility of meningococci circulating in various regions in Portugal were evaluated. Most frequent phenotypes were B:4:P1.15 (13.4%) and C:2b:P1.2,5 (75.9%), which are also common in Spain. Overall, 27.5% of C:2b:P1.2,5 strains showed intermediate resistance to penicillin. Laboratory-based surveillance of meningococcal infection in Portugal provides important information to assess the adequacy of public health measures. PMID:15109429

  18. Biochemical characterization of three distinct polygalacturonases from Neosartorya fischeri P1.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xia; Li, Ke; Ma, Rui; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Yang, Peilong; Meng, Kun; Yao, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Polygalacturonase is one of the most important industrial pectinases. To enrich the genetic resources and develop new enzyme candidates, three polygalacturonase genes (Nfpg I-III) of glycosyl hydrolase family 28 were cloned from Neosartorya fischeri P1 and functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris. The purified recombinant proteins exhibited some distinguished properties. In comparison with other counterparts, NfPG I showed the highest specific activity (40, 123 U/mg), NfPG II had the highest temperature optimum (65 °C), and the pH optimum of NfPG III was the lowest (3.5). The orders of their thermostability and resistance to chemicals tested were NfPG II>NfPG III>NfPG I and NfPG II>NfPG I>NfPG III, respectively. Combinations of these enzymes showed better performance than individuals in the processing and clarification of apple and strawberry juice. These results suggest that N. fischeri polygalacturonases have great application potentials in the food industry for juice production.

  19. Engagement of S1P1-degradative mechanisms leads to vascular leak in mice

    PubMed Central

    Oo, Myat Lin; Chang, Sung-Hee; Thangada, Shobha; Wu, Ming-Tao; Rezaul, Karim; Blaho, Victoria; Hwang, Sun-Il; Han, David K.; Hla, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    GPCR inhibitors are highly prevalent in modern therapeutics. However, interference with complex GPCR regulatory mechanisms leads to both therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects. Recently, the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor inhibitor FTY720 (also known as Fingolimod), which induces lymphopenia and prevents neuroinflammation, was adopted as a disease-modifying therapeutic in multiple sclerosis. Although highly efficacious, dose-dependent increases in adverse events have tempered its utility. We show here that FTY720P induces phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) at multiple sites, resulting in GPCR internalization, polyubiquitinylation, and degradation. We also identified the ubiquitin E3 ligase WWP2 in the GPCR complex and demonstrated its requirement in FTY720-induced receptor degradation. GPCR degradation was not essential for the induction of lymphopenia, but was critical for pulmonary vascular leak in vivo. Prevention of receptor phosphorylation, internalization, and degradation inhibited vascular leak, which suggests that discrete mechanisms of S1P receptor regulation are responsible for the efficacy and adverse events associated with this class of therapeutics. PMID:21555855

  20. Time-resolved spectroscopy of the Mercury 6 3P1 state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, J. A.; Reeves, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    The time-resolved fluorescence was observed from the Hg 6 3P1 state under the influence of the earth's magnetic field and with applied fields of up to 14 G. Modulation of the fluorescence decay signal was observed as a function of both time and space and can be interpreted in terms of a classical precession of the excited atom about the magnetic field or as quantum beats resulting from interference between coherently populated Zeeman sublevels. This modulation was studied for each of the five resolvable components of the hyperfine structure separately. The fluorescence from the even isotopes was determined to be almost completely modulated while the fluorescence from the odd isotopes was only partially modulated. The frequency of modulation of the fluorescence from the mercury-202 isotope was observed as a function of the applied magnetic field and a value for the Lande factor of 1.46 + or - 0.03 was obtained. This is within experimental error of the accepted value of 1.486. In addition, the frequency of modulation as a function of applied magnetic field was determined for each of the three resolvable components with more than one contributing isotopic hyperfine line. An investigation of the effect of radiation trapping on the degree modulation was also made.

  1. Biochemical characterization of three distinct polygalacturonases from Neosartorya fischeri P1.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xia; Li, Ke; Ma, Rui; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Yang, Peilong; Meng, Kun; Yao, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Polygalacturonase is one of the most important industrial pectinases. To enrich the genetic resources and develop new enzyme candidates, three polygalacturonase genes (Nfpg I-III) of glycosyl hydrolase family 28 were cloned from Neosartorya fischeri P1 and functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris. The purified recombinant proteins exhibited some distinguished properties. In comparison with other counterparts, NfPG I showed the highest specific activity (40, 123 U/mg), NfPG II had the highest temperature optimum (65 °C), and the pH optimum of NfPG III was the lowest (3.5). The orders of their thermostability and resistance to chemicals tested were NfPG II>NfPG III>NfPG I and NfPG II>NfPG I>NfPG III, respectively. Combinations of these enzymes showed better performance than individuals in the processing and clarification of apple and strawberry juice. These results suggest that N. fischeri polygalacturonases have great application potentials in the food industry for juice production. PMID:26041232

  2. Site-specific DNA recombination in mammalian cells by the Cre recombinase of bacteriophage P1.

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, B; Henderson, N

    1988-01-01

    The Cre protein encoded by the coliphage P1 is a 38-kDa protein that efficiently promotes both intra- and intermolecular synapsis and recombination of DNA both in Escherichia coli and in vitro. Recombination occurs at a specific site, called lox, and does not require any other protein factors. The Cre protein is shown here also to be able to cause synapsis of DNA and site-specific recombination in a mammalian cell line. A stable mouse cell line was established that expresses the Cre protein under the control of the Cd2+-inducible metallothionein I gene promoter. DNA recombination was monitored with DNA substrates containing two directly repeated lox sites. One such substrate is a circular plasmid with two directly repeated lox sites (lox2) flanking a marker gene and was introduced into cells by Ca3(PO4)2 transformation. As a second substrate we used a pseudorabies virus (a herpesvirus) containing a lox2 insertion designed to provide a sensitive detection system for recombination. In both cases, site-specific recombination in vivo is dependent on the presence of the Cre protein and occurs specifically at the 34-base-pair lox sites. These results demonstrate the controlled site-specific synapsis of DNA and recombination by a prokaryotic protein in mammalian cells and suggest that Cre-mediated site-specific recombination may be a useful tool for understanding and modulating genome rearrangements in eukaryotes. Images PMID:2839833

  3. Emotion and hypervigilance: negative affect predicts increased P1 responses to non-negative pictorial stimuli.

    PubMed

    Schomberg, Jessica; Schöne, Benjamin; Gruber, Thomas; Quirin, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that negative affect influences attentional processes. Here, we investigate whether pre-experimental negative affect predicts a hypervigilant neural response as indicated by increased event-related potential amplitudes in response to neutral and positive visual stimuli. In our study, seventeen male participants filled out the German version of the positive and negative affect schedule (Watson et al. in J Pers Soc Psychol 54:1063-1070, 1988; Krohne et al. in Diagnostica 42:139-156, 1996) and subsequently watched positive (erotica, extreme sports, beautiful women) and neutral (daily activities) photographs while electroencephalogram was recorded. In line with our hypothesis, low state negative affect but not (reduced) positive affect predicted an increase in the first positive event-related potential amplitude P1 as a typical marker of increased selective attention. As this effect occurred in response to non-threatening picture conditions, negative affect may foster an individual's general hypervigilance, a state that has formerly been associated with psychopathology only. PMID:26749180

  4. Mycobacterial p(1)-type ATPases mediate resistance to zinc poisoning in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Botella, Hélène; Peyron, Pascale; Levillain, Florence; Poincloux, Renaud; Poquet, Yannick; Brandli, Irène; Wang, Chuan; Tailleux, Ludovic; Tilleul, Sylvain; Charrière, Guillaume M; Waddell, Simon J; Foti, Maria; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Gao, Qian; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Butcher, Philip D; Castagnoli, Paola Ricciardi; Gicquel, Brigitte; de Chastellier, Chantal; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2011-09-15

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis thrives within macrophages by residing in phagosomes and preventing them from maturing and fusing with lysosomes. A parallel transcriptional survey of intracellular mycobacteria and their host macrophages revealed signatures of heavy metal poisoning. In particular, mycobacterial genes encoding heavy metal efflux P-type ATPases CtpC, CtpG, and CtpV, and host cell metallothioneins and zinc exporter ZnT1, were induced during infection. Consistent with this pattern of gene modulation, we observed a burst of free zinc inside macrophages, and intraphagosomal zinc accumulation within a few hours postinfection. Zinc exposure led to rapid CtpC induction, and ctpC deficiency caused zinc retention within the mycobacterial cytoplasm, leading to impaired intracellular growth of the bacilli. Thus, the use of P(1)-type ATPases represents a M. tuberculosis strategy to neutralize the toxic effects of zinc in macrophages. We propose that heavy metal toxicity and its counteraction might represent yet another chapter in the host-microbe arms race.

  5. The evolving activity of the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    SciTech Connect

    Bodewits, D.; Farnham, T. L.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Feaga, L. M.; Sunshine, J. M.; McKay, A.; Schleicher, D. G.

    2014-05-01

    We used the Ultraviolet-Optical Telescope on board Swift to observe the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) from a heliocentric distance of 3.5 AU pre-perihelion until 4.0 AU outbound. At 3.5 AU pre-perihelion, comet Garradd had one of the highest dust-to-gas ratios ever observed, matched only by comet Hale-Bopp. The evolving morphology of the dust in its coma suggests an outburst that ended around 2.2 AU pre-perihelion. Comparing slit-based measurements and observations acquired with larger fields of view indicated that between 3 AU and 2 AU pre-perihelion a significant extended source started producing water in the coma. We demonstrate that this source, which could be due to icy grains, disappeared quickly around perihelion. Water production by the nucleus may be attributed to a constantly active source of at least 75 km{sup 2}, estimated to be >20% of the surface. Based on our measurements, the comet lost 4 × 10{sup 11} kg of ice and dust during this apparition, corresponding to at most a few meters of its surface. Even though this was likely not the comet's first passage through the inner solar system, the activity of Garradd was complex and changed significantly during the time it was observed.

  6. The Evolving Activity of the Dynamically Young Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodewits, D.; Farnham, T. L.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Feaga, L. M.; McKay, A.; Schleicher, D. G.; Sunshine, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    We used the Ultraviolet-Optical Telescope on board Swift to observe the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) from a heliocentric distance of 3.5 AU pre-perihelion until 4.0 AU outbound. At 3.5 AU pre-perihelion, comet Garradd had one of the highest dust-to-gas ratios ever observed, matched only by comet Hale-Bopp. The evolving morphology of the dust in its coma suggests an outburst that ended around 2.2 AU pre-perihelion. Comparing slit-based measurements and observations acquired with larger fields of view indicated that between 3 AU and 2 AU pre-perihelion a significant extended source started producing water in the coma. We demonstrate that this source, which could be due to icy grains, disappeared quickly around perihelion. Water production by the nucleus may be attributed to a constantly active source of at least 75 km2, estimated to be >20% of the surface. Based on our measurements, the comet lost 4 × 1011 kg of ice and dust during this apparition, corresponding to at most a few meters of its surface. Even though this was likely not the comet's first passage through the inner solar system, the activity of Garradd was complex and changed significantly during the time it was observed.

  7. Photometric studies of comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) before the perihelion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, A. V.; Borisenko, S. A.; Andreev, M. V.

    2014-09-01

    The results of the photometric observations of comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) performed at the 60-cm Zeiss-600 telescope of the Terskol observatory have been analyzed. During the observations, the comet was at the heliocentric and geocentric distances of 1.7 and 2.0 AU, respectively. The CCD images of the comet were obtained in the standard narrowband interference filters suggested by the International research program for comet Hale-Bopp and correspondingly designated the "Hale-Bopp (HB) set." These filters were designed to isolate the BC ( λ4450/67 Å), GC ( λ5260/56 Å) and RC ( λ7128/58 Å) continua and the emission bands of C2 ( λ5141/118 Å), CN ( λ3870/62 Å), and C3 ( λ4062/62 Å). From the photometric data, the dust production rate of the comet and its color index and color excess were determined. The concentration of C2, CN, and C3 molecules and their production rates along the line of sight were estimated. The obtained results show that the physical parameters of the comet are close to the mean characteristics typical of the dynamically new comets.

  8. On the quadrilateral Q2-P1 element for the Stokes problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffi, Daniele; Gastaldi, Lucia

    2002-08-01

    The Q2 - P1 approximation is one of the most popular Stokes elements. Two possible choices are given for the definition of the pressure space: one can either use a global pressure approximation (that is on each quadrilateral the finite element space is spanned by 1 and by the global co-ordinates x and y) or a local approach (consisting in generating the local space by means of the constants and the local curvilinear co-ordinates on each quadrilateral and ). The former choice is known to provide optimal error estimates on general meshes. This has been shown, as it is standard, by proving a discrete inf-sup condition. In the present paper we check that the latter approach satisfies the inf-sup condition as well. However, recent results on quadrilateral finite elements bring to light a lack in the approximation properties for the space coming out from the local pressure approach. Numerical results actually show that the second choice (local or mapped pressure approximation) is suboptimally convergent. Copyright

  9. Purification and Characterization of Three Chitosanase Activities from Bacillus megaterium P1

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, A.; Sygusch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Bacillus megaterium P1, a bacterial strain capable of hydrolyzing chitosan, was isolated from soil samples. Chitosan-degrading activity was induced by chitosan but not by its constituent d-glucosamine. Extracellular secretion of chitosanase reached levels corresponding to 1 U/ml under optimal conditions. Three chitosan-degrading proteins (chitosanases A, B, and C) were purified to homogeneity. Chitosanase A (43 kilodaltons) was highly specific for chitosan and represented the major chitosan-hydrolyzing species. Chitosanases B (39.5 kilodaltons) and C (22 kilodaltons) corresponded to minor activities and possessed comparable specific activities toward chitosan, chitin, and cellulose. Chitosanase A was active from pH 4.5 to 6.5 and was stable on the basis of activity up to 45°C. The optimum temperature for enzymatic chitosan hydrolysis was 50°C. Kinetic studies on chitosanase A suggest that the enzyme is substrate inhibited. The apparent Km and Vmax determined at 22°C and pH 5.6 were 0.8 mg/ml and 280 U/mg, respectively. End products of chitosan hydrolysis by each of the three chitosanases were identified as glucosamine oligomers, similar to those obtained for previously reported chitosanase digestions. Images PMID:16348170

  10. Selective inhibitors of glutathione transferase P1 with trioxane structure as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Bräutigam, Maria; Teusch, Nicole; Schenk, Tobias; Sheikh, Miriam; Aricioglu, Rocky Z; Borowski, Swantje H; Neudörfl, Jörg-Martin; Baumann, Ulrich; Griesbeck, Axel G; Pietsch, Markus

    2015-04-01

    The response to chemotherapy in cancer patients is frequently compromised by drug resistance. Although chemoresistance is a multifactorial phenomenon, many studies have demonstrated that altered drug metabolism through the expression of phase II conjugating enzymes, including glutathione transferases (GSTs), in tumor cells can be directly correlated with resistance against a wide range of marketed anticancer drugs. In particular, overexpression of glutathione transferase P1 (GSTP1) appears to be a factor for poor prognosis during cancer therapy. Former and ongoing clinical trials have confirmed GSTP1 inhibition as a principle for antitumor therapy. A new series of 1,2,4-trioxane GSTP1 inhibitors were designed via a type II photooxygenation route of allylic alcohols followed by acid-catalyzed peroxyacetalization with aldehydes. A set of novel inhibitors exhibit low micromolar to high nanomolar inhibition of GSTP1, revealing preliminary SAR for further lead optimization. Importantly, high selectivity over another two human GST classes (GSTA1 and GSTM2) has been achieved. The trioxane GSTP1 inhibitors may therefore serve as a basis for the development of novel drug candidates in overcoming chemoresistance.

  11. The Properties of Sintered Calcium Phosphate with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50

    PubMed Central

    Hung, I-Ming; Shih, Wei-Jen; Hon, Min-Hsiung; Wang, Moo-Chin

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain the properties of the sintered as-dried calcium phosphate with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50, the characteristics of sintered pellets have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, Vickers hardness indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When the pellet samples were sintered between 700 °C and 1200 °C for 4 h, the hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HA) still maintained the major phase, accompanied with the rhenanite (NaCaPO4) as the secondary phase and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO4)2, β-TCP) as the minor phases. In addition, the HA partially transformed to α-tricalcium phosphate (α-Ca3(PO4)2, α-TCP) and tetracalcium phosphate (Ca4(PO4)2O, TTCP), when the pellet samples were sintered at 1300 °C and 1400 °C, respectively, for 4 h. The maximum density and Vickers Hardness (HV) of sintered pellet samples were 2.85 g/cm3 (90.18% theoretical density (T.D.)) and 407, which appeared at 1200 °C and 900 °C, respectively. PMID:23202968

  12. Evaluative conditioning of positive and negative valence affects P1 and N1 in verbal processing.

    PubMed

    Kuchinke, Lars; Fritsch, Nathalie; Müller, Christina J

    2015-10-22

    The present study examined the effect of contextual learning on the neural processing of previously meaningless pseudowords. During an evaluative conditioning session on 5 consecutive days, participants learned to associate 120 pseudowords with either positive, neutral or negative pictures. In a second session, participants were presented all conditioned pseudowords again together with 40 new pseudowords in a recognition memory task while their event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The behavioral data confirm successful learning of pseudoword valence. At the neural level, early modulations of the ERPs are visible at the P1 and the N1 components discriminating between positively and negatively conditioned pseudowords. Differences to new pseudowords were visible at later processing stages as indicated by modulations of the LPC. These results support a contextual learning hypothesis that is able to explain very early emotional ERP modulations in visual word recognition. Source localization indicates a role of medial-frontal brain regions as a likely origin of these early valence discrimination signals which are discussed to promote top-down signals to sensory processing.

  13. Noncommutative Tachyon Kinks as D(p-1)-branes from Unstable Dp-brane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Kim, Yoonbai; Kwon, O.-Kab

    2005-01-01

    We study noncommutative (NC) field theory of a real NC tachyon and NC U(1) gauge field, describing the dynamics of an unstable Dp-brane. For every given set of diagonal component of open string metric G 0 , NC parameter θ0 , and interpolating electric field hat E, we find all possible static NC kinks as exact solutions, in spite of complicated NC terms, which are classified by an array of NC kink-antikink and topological NC kinks. By computing their tensions and charges, those configurations are identified as an array of D0bar D0 and single stable D0 from the unstable D1, respectively. When the interpolating electric field has critical value as G 0 2 = hat E2 , the obtained topological kink becomes a BPS object with nonzero thickness and is identified as BPS D0 in the fluid of fundamental strings. Particularly in the scaling limit of infinite θ0 and vanishing G 0 and hat E, while keeping G 0θ0 = hat Eθ0 = 1, finiteness of the tension of NC kink corresponds to tensionless kink in ordinary effective field theory. An extension to stable D(p-1) from unstable Dp is straightforward for pure electric cases with parallel NC parameter and interpolating two-form field.

  14. Glutathione S-transferase P1 ILE105Val polymorphism in occupationally exposed bladder cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Kopps, Silke; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Prager, Hans-Martin; Roemer, Hermann C; Lohlein, Dietrich; Weistenhofer, Wobbeke; Bolt, Hermann M; Golka, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The genotype glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) influences the risk for bladder cancer among Chinese workers occupationally exposed to benzidine. Studies of Caucasian bladder cancer cases without known occupational exposures showed conflicting results. Research was thus conducted to define the role of GSTP1 genotypes in Caucasian bladder cancer cases with an occupational history of exposure to aromatic amines. DNA from 143 cases reported to the Industrial Professional Associations (Berufsgenossenschaften) in Germany from 1996 to 2004, who had contracted urothelial cancer due to occupational exposure, and 196 patients from one Department of Surgery in Dortmund, without known malignancy in their medical history, were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (LightCycler) in relation to GSTP1 A1578G (Ile105Val) polymorphism. Among the subjects with bladder cancer, 46% presented the AA genotype, 39% the AG genotype, and 15% the GG genotype. In the surgical (noncancer) control group analyzed, 42% presented the AA genotype, 42% the AG genotype, and 16% the GG genotype. A subgroup of bladder cancer cases, represented by 46 painters, showed a distribution of 41% of the AA genotype, 48% of the AG genotype, and 11% of the GG genotype. Data indicated that in Caucasians exposed to aromatic amines the GSTP1 A1578G polymorphism did not appear to play a significant role as a predisposing factor for bladder cancer incidence.

  15. Phage p1-derived artificial chromosomes facilitate heterologous expression of the FK506 gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Jones, Adam C; Gust, Bertolt; Kulik, Andreas; Heide, Lutz; Buttner, Mark J; Bibb, Mervyn J

    2013-01-01

    We describe a procedure for the conjugative transfer of phage P1-derived Artificial Chromosome (PAC) library clones containing large natural product gene clusters (≥70 kilobases) to Streptomyces coelicolor strains that have been engineered for improved heterologous production of natural products. This approach is demonstrated using the gene cluster for FK506 (tacrolimus), a clinically important immunosuppressant of high commercial value. The entire 83.5 kb FK506 gene cluster from Streptomyces tsukubaensis NRRL 18488 present in one 130 kb PAC clone was introduced into four different S. coelicolor derivatives and all produced FK506 and smaller amounts of the related compound FK520. FK506 yields were increased by approximately five-fold (from 1.2 mg L(-1) to 5.5 mg L(-1)) in S. coelicolor M1146 containing the FK506 PAC upon over-expression of the FK506 LuxR regulatory gene fkbN. The PAC-based gene cluster conjugation methodology described here provides a tractable means to evaluate and manipulate FK506 biosynthesis and is readily applicable to other large gene clusters encoding natural products of interest to medicine, agriculture and biotechnology.

  16. Tungsten diffusion in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    De Luca, A.; Texier, M.; Burle, N.; Oison, V.; Pichaud, B.; Portavoce, A.; Grosjean, C.

    2014-01-07

    Two doses (10{sup 13} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2}) of tungsten (W) atoms were implanted in different Si(001) wafers in order to study W diffusion in Si. The samples were annealed or oxidized at temperatures between 776 and 960 °C. The diffusion profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and defect formation was studied by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. W is shown to reduce Si recrystallization after implantation and to exhibit, in the temperature range investigated, a solubility limit close to 0.15%–0.2%, which is higher than the solubility limit of usual metallic impurities in Si. W diffusion exhibits unusual linear diffusion profiles with a maximum concentration always located at the Si surface, slower kinetics than other metals in Si, and promotes vacancy accumulation close to the Si surface, with the formation of hollow cavities in the case of the higher W dose. In addition, Si self-interstitial injection during oxidation is shown to promote W-Si clustering. Taking into account these observations, a diffusion model based on the simultaneous diffusion of interstitial W atoms and W-Si atomic pairs is proposed since usual models used to model diffusion of metallic impurities and dopants in Si cannot reproduce experimental observations.

  17. Tungsten diffusion in olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Van Orman, J. A.

    2014-03-01

    Diffusion of tungsten has been characterized in synthetic forsterite and natural olivine (Fo90) under dry conditions. The source of diffusant was a mixture of magnesium tungstate and olivine powders. Experiments were prepared by sealing the source material and polished olivine under vacuum in silica glass ampoules with solid buffers to buffer at NNO or IW. Prepared capsules were annealed in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from 45 min to several weeks, at temperatures from 1050 to 1450 °C. Tungsten distributions in the olivine were profiled by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relation is obtained for W diffusion in forsterite: D=1.0×10-8exp(-365±28 kJ mol/RT) m s Diffusivities for the synthetic forsterite and natural Fe-bearing olivine are similar, and tungsten diffusion in olivine shows little dependence on crystallographic orientation or oxygen fugacity. The slow diffusivities measured for W in olivine indicate that Hf-W ages in olivine-metal systems will close to diffusive exchange at higher temperatures than other chronometers commonly used in cosmochronology, and that tungsten isotopic signatures will be less likely to be reset by subsequent thermal events.

  18. Diffusion Flame Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Katta, V. R.

    2006-01-01

    Diffusion flames are commonly used for industrial burners in furnaces and flares. Oxygen/fuel burners are usually diffusion burners, primarily for safety reasons, to prevent flashback and explosion in a potentially dangerous system. Furthermore, in most fires, condensed materials pyrolyze, vaporize, and burn in air as diffusion flames. As a result of the interaction of a diffusion flame with burner or condensed-fuel surfaces, a quenched space is formed, thus leaving a diffusion flame edge, which plays an important role in flame holding in combustion systems and fire spread through condensed fuels. Despite a long history of jet diffusion flame studies, lifting/blowoff mechanisms have not yet been fully understood, compared to those of premixed flames. In this study, the structure and stability of diffusion flames of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels in coflowing air at normal earth gravity have been investigated experimentally and computationally. Measurements of the critical mean jet velocity (U(sub jc)) of methane, ethane, or propane at lifting or blowoff were made as a function of the coflowing air velocity (U(sub a)) using a tube burner (i.d.: 2.87 mm). By using a computational fluid dynamics code with 33 species and 112 elementary reaction steps, the internal chemical-kinetic structures of the stabilizing region of methane and propane flames were investigated. A peak reactivity spot, i.e., reaction kernel, is formed in the flame stabilizing region due to back-diffusion of heat and radical species against an oxygen-rich incoming flow, thus holding the trailing diffusion flame. The simulated flame base moved downstream under flow conditions close to the measured stability limit.

  19. Diffusion Flame Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Katta, Viswanath R.

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion flames are commonly used for industrial burners in furnaces and flares. Oxygen/fuel burners are usually diffusion burners, primarily for safety reasons, to prevent flashback and explosion in a potentially dangerous system. Furthermore, in most fires, condensed materials pyrolyze, vaporize, and burn in air as diffusion flames. As a result of the interaction of a diffusion flame with burner or condensed-fuel surfaces, a quenched space is formed, thus leaving a diffusion flame edge, which plays an important role in flame holding in combustion systems and fire spread through condensed fuels. Despite a long history of jet diffusion flame studies, lifting/blowoff mechanisms have not yet been fully understood, compared to those of premixed flames. In this study, the structure and stability of diffusion flames of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels in coflowing air at normal earth gravity have been investigated experimentally and computationally. Measurements of the critical mean jet velocity (U(sub jc)) of methane, ethane, or propane at lifting or blowoff were made as a function of the coflowing air velocity (U(sub a)) using a tube burner (i.d.: 2.87 mm) (Fig. 1, left). By using a computational fluid dynamics code with 33 species and 112 elementary reaction steps, the internal chemical-kinetic structures of the stabilizing region of methane and propane flames were investigated (Fig. 1, right). A peak reactivity spot, i.e., reaction kernel, is formed in the flame stabilizing region due to back-diffusion of heat and radical species against an oxygen-rich incoming flow, thus holding the trailing diffusion flame. The simulated flame base moved downstream under flow conditions close to the measured stability limit.

  20. Interaction of glutathione transferase P1-1 with captan and captafol.

    PubMed

    di Ilio, C; Sacchetta, P; Angelucci, S; Bucciarelli, T; Pennelli, A; Mazzetti, A P; Lo Bello, M; Aceto, A

    1996-07-12

    Glutathione transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) P1-1 was strongly inhibited by captan and captafol in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 values for captan and captafol were 5.8 microM and 1.5 microM, respectively. Time-course inactivation of GSTP1-1 by two pesticides was prevented by 3 microM of hexyl-glutathione, but not by methylglutathione. The fact that the inactivated enzyme recovered all the 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) titrable thiol groups, with concomitant recovery of all its original activity after treatment with 100 microM dithiothreitol, suggested that captan and captafol were able to induce the formation of disulfide bonds. That the inactivation of GSTP1-1 by captan and captafol involves the formation of disulfide bonds between the four cysteinil groups of the enzymes was confirmed by the SDS-PAGE experiments on nondenaturant conditions. In fact, on SDS-PAGE, GSTP1-1 as well as the cys47ala, cys101ala, and cys47ala/cys101ala GSTP1-1 mutants treated with captan and captafol showed several extra bands, with apparent molecular masses higher and lower than the molecular mass of native GSTP1-1 (23.5 kDa), indicating that both intra- and inter-subunit disulfide bonds were formed. These extra bands returned to the native 23.5 kDa band with concomitant restoration of activity when treated with dithiothreitol.

  1. An Efficient Q2P1 Finite Element Discretisation and Preconditioner for Variable Viscosity Stokes Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Dave; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Brown, Jed

    2014-05-01

    Here I describe a numerical method suitable for studying 3D non-linear, large deformation processes associated with crustal and lithopspheric deformation. The method employs a combination of mixed finite elements for the flow problem, coupled to the Material-Point-Method for representing material state and history variables. This computational methodology is intended to simultaneously satisfy all of the geodynamic modelling requirements. Particular emphasis is given to the development of non-linear solvers and preconditioners which are performant, practical and highly scalable - thereby enabling high resolution 3D simulations to be performed using massively parallel computational hardware. We have made a number of fundamental design choices which result in a fast, highly scalable and robust Q2P1 finite element implementation which is suitable for solving a wide range of geodynamic applications. Specifically these choices include: (i) utilizing an inf-sup stable mixed finite element (with a mapped pressure space) which provides a reliable velocity and pressure solution; (ii) expressing the problem in defect correction form so that Newton-like methods can be exploited; (iii) making extensive use of matrix-free operators which both drastically reduces the memory requirements and improves the parallel scalability of the sparse matrix-vector product; (iv) deferring a wide range of choices associated with the solver configuration to run-time. The performance characteristics of our hybrid geometric multi-grid preconditioning strategy is presented. The robustness of the preconditioner with respect to the viscosity contrast and the topology of the viscosity field, together with the parallel scalability is demonstrated. We will highlight the benefits of using hybrid coarse grid hierarchies consisting of a combination of Galerkin, assembled and matrix-free operators. The merits of using aggressive coarsening strategies will also be discussed. Examples from 3D continental

  2. Serum Glutathione S-Transferase P1 1 in Prediction of Cardiac Function

    PubMed Central

    Andrukhova, Olena; Salama, Mohamed; Rosenhek, Raphael; Gmeiner, Matthias; Perkmann, Thomas; Steindl, Johannes; Aharinejad, Seyedhossein

    2012-01-01

    Background Glutathione S-transferase P1 1 (GSTP1) belongs to the multigene isozyme family involved in cellular response to oxidative stress and apoptosis. Our initial retrospective proteomic analysis suggested that GSTP1 is associated with heart failure (HF). Although pro–B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) serves currently as a surrogate diagnostic and prognostic parameter in HF patients, its specificity remains uncertain. We hypothesized that GSTP1 might be a useful serum marker in the monitoring of HF patients. Methods and Results Serum GSTP1 and proBNP were prospectively measured in 193 patients subdivided based on their ejection fraction (EF) either in equal-sized quintiles or predefined EF groups >52%, 43%–52%, 33%–42%, 23%–32% and ≤22%. At a cutoff of ≥231 ng/mL, GSTP1 identified HF patients with EF ≤22% with 81% sensitivity and 83% specificity, and at a cutoff of ≥655 pg/mL, proBNP identified the same patient group with 84% sensitivity and 22% specificity. GSTP1 at a ≥126 ng/mL cutoff identified EF ≤42% with 90% sensitivity and 95% specificity, or proBNP at a ≥396 pg/mL cutoff had 97% sensitivity and 20% specificity. In regression analyses, GSTP1, but not proBNP, discriminated between EF ≤42% and EF >42% in HF patients. Conclusions These results suggest that GSTP1 is strongly associated with HF and could serve as a sensitive and specific marker to predict the ventricular function in HF patients. PMID:22385947

  3. The evolving activity of the Dynamically Young Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, T. L.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Feaga, L. M.; McKay, A.; Schleicher, D. G.; Sunshine, J.

    2013-10-01

    Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) was a dynamically young comet that was bright and well-observable from a heliocentric distance of 3.5 AU pre-perihelion until 4.5 AU outbound. The development of its activity was observed by many different observatories and instruments, both on the ground and in space (Deep Impact, Swift, SOHO-SWAN, VLT-UVES, IRTF, and many more). Because of this observing campaign, Garradd is the first comet for which production rates of all three main volatiles (H2O, CO, and CO2) were measured during a significant part of its passage through the inner solar system. These observations provide an invaluable key to how comets work. At -3.5 AU, Garradd had one of the highest dust-to-gas ratios ever observed, matched only by Hale-Bopp. Comparing slit-based measurements and observations acquired with larger fields of view indicated that between -3 AU and -2 AU a significant extended source started producing water in the coma (Combi et al. 2013, Paganini et al. 2012, Villanueva et al. 2012). This source, likely icy grains, disappeared quickly around perihelion (Bodewits et al. in prep.). The other volatiles observed in Garradd’s coma indicate an even more complex story. Relative abundances measured with large apertures were lowered significantly by the extended water source, indicating that these icy grains were depleted of ices more volatile than water. Differences in the volatility of cometary ices may further explain the observed trends in the abundances of CN and CO2 (mostly observed through [OI]; Decock et al. 2013). These effects do not explain the strange behavior of CO, whose production rate increased monotonically from -2 AU to +2AU (Feaga et al. submitted, and references therein). The activity of Garradd was complex and changed significantly during the time it was observed. We will discuss how these different sublimation processes fit into our understanding of cometary activity and evolution in general.

  4. Characteristics of nitrogen release from synthetic zeolite Na-P1 occluding NH4NO3.

    PubMed

    Park, Man; Kim, Jong Su; Choi, Choong Lyeal; Kim, Jang-Eok; Heo, Nam Ho; Komarneni, Sridhar; Choi, Jyung

    2005-08-18

    Zeolites can accommodate a considerable amount of occluded salt such as NH4NO3, which can serve as a good source of slow-release plant nutrient. This study evaluates the kinetics of ion release from NH4NO3-occluded Na-P1 (N-NaP) using a simulated soil solution and deionized water as leaching solutions. The patterns of ion releases were examined as a function of leaching time under both static and continuous-flow conditions for more than one month. Releases of both NH4+ and NO3- from N-NaP were found to be slow and steady under both the above conditions. The soil solution affected the release of NH4+ and NO3- differently, while deionized water released nearly the same equivalents of these ions. This clearly indicates that ion release from salt-occluded zeolite involves two different reactions, cation exchange and dissolution. The kinetics of ion release from occluded NH4NO3 under static condition was best described by the standard Elovich model while the power function model best expressed these under continuous-flow condition. The initial ion release patterns under both conditions exhibited considerable deviation from the simulated models, probably as a result of the presence of hydrated occluded NH4NO3. Flow condition and the presence of electrolytes in leaching solution affected the release kinetics significantly. Release of occluded NH4NO3 was delayed by the presence of the NH4NO3 coated on zeolite crystals. These results indicate that the ion release property of occluded salt could be predicted and controlled. This study clearly shows that NH4NO3-occluded zeolites could be developed as slow release fertilizers. PMID:15963593

  5. Characteristics of nitrogen release from synthetic zeolite Na-P1 occluding NH4NO3.

    PubMed

    Park, Man; Kim, Jong Su; Choi, Choong Lyeal; Kim, Jang-Eok; Heo, Nam Ho; Komarneni, Sridhar; Choi, Jyung

    2005-08-18

    Zeolites can accommodate a considerable amount of occluded salt such as NH4NO3, which can serve as a good source of slow-release plant nutrient. This study evaluates the kinetics of ion release from NH4NO3-occluded Na-P1 (N-NaP) using a simulated soil solution and deionized water as leaching solutions. The patterns of ion releases were examined as a function of leaching time under both static and continuous-flow conditions for more than one month. Releases of both NH4+ and NO3- from N-NaP were found to be slow and steady under both the above conditions. The soil solution affected the release of NH4+ and NO3- differently, while deionized water released nearly the same equivalents of these ions. This clearly indicates that ion release from salt-occluded zeolite involves two different reactions, cation exchange and dissolution. The kinetics of ion release from occluded NH4NO3 under static condition was best described by the standard Elovich model while the power function model best expressed these under continuous-flow condition. The initial ion release patterns under both conditions exhibited considerable deviation from the simulated models, probably as a result of the presence of hydrated occluded NH4NO3. Flow condition and the presence of electrolytes in leaching solution affected the release kinetics significantly. Release of occluded NH4NO3 was delayed by the presence of the NH4NO3 coated on zeolite crystals. These results indicate that the ion release property of occluded salt could be predicted and controlled. This study clearly shows that NH4NO3-occluded zeolites could be developed as slow release fertilizers.

  6. Uncorrelated volatile behavior during the 2011 apparition of comet C/2009 P1 Garradd

    SciTech Connect

    Feaga, Lori M.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Farnham, Tony L.; Bodewits, Dennis; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Gersch, Alan M.; Protopapa, Silvia; Yang, Bin; Drahus, Michal; Schleicher, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The High Resolution Instrument Infrared Spectrometer (HRI-IR) on board the Deep Impact Flyby spacecraft detected H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and CO in the coma of the dynamically young Oort Cloud comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) post-perihelion at a heliocentric distance of 2 AU. Production rates were derived for the parent volatiles, Q {sub H2O} = 4.6 ± 0.8 × 10{sup 28}, Q {sub CO2} = 3.9 ± 0.7 × 10{sup 27}, and Q {sub CO} = 2.9 ± 0.8 × 10{sup 28} molecules s{sup –1}, and are consistent with the trends seen by other observers and within the error bars of measurements acquired during a similar time period. When compiled with other observations of Garradd's dominant volatiles, unexpected behavior was seen in the release of CO. Garradd's H{sub 2}O outgassing, increasing and peaking pre-perihelion and then steadily decreasing, is more typical than that of CO, which monotonically increased throughout the entire apparition. Due to the temporal asymmetry in volatile release, Garradd exhibited the highest CO to H{sub 2}O abundance ratio ever observed for any comet inside the water snow line at ∼60% during the HRI-IR observations. Also, the HRI-IR made the only direct measurement of CO{sub 2}, giving a typical cometary abundance ratio of CO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O of 8% but, with only one measurement, no sense of how it varied with orbital position.

  7. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the syndrome is recommended. What are the estimated cancer risks associated with HDGC? Not everyone who ... the lifetime risk for diffuse gastric cancer is estimated to be 70% to 80% for men and ...

  8. Multinomial Diffusion Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, Ariel I.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2011-06-01

    We have developed a novel stochastic, space/time discrete representation of particle diffusion (e.g. Brownian motion) based on discrete probability distributions. We show that in the limit of both very small time step and large concentration, our description is equivalent to the space/time continuous stochastic diffusion equation. Being discrete in both time and space, our model can be used as an extremely accurate, efficient, and stable stochastic finite-difference diffusion algorithm when concentrations are so small that computationally expensive particle-based methods are usually needed. Through numerical simulations, we show that our method can generate realizations that capture the statistical properties of particle simulations. While our method converges converges to both the correct ensemble mean and ensemble variance very quickly with decreasing time step, but for small concentration, the stochastic diffusion PDE does not, even for very small time steps.

  9. Lung diffusion testing

    MedlinePlus

    Lung diffusion testing measures how well the lungs exchange gases. This is an important part of lung testing , because ... gases do not move normally across the lung tissues into the blood vessels of the lung. This ...

  10. Investigating diffusion with technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jon S.; Windelborn, Augden F.

    2013-07-01

    The activities described here allow students to explore the concept of diffusion with the use of common equipment such as computers, webcams and analysis software. The procedure includes taking a series of digital pictures of a container of water with a webcam as a dye slowly diffuses. At known time points, measurements of the pixel densities (darkness) of the digital pictures are recorded and then plotted on a graph. The resulting graph of darkness versus time allows students to see the results of diffusion of the dye over time. Through modification of the basic lesson plan, students are able to investigate the influence of a variety of variables on diffusion. Furthermore, students are able to expand the boundaries of their thinking by formulating hypotheses and testing their hypotheses through experimentation. As a result, students acquire a relevant science experience through taking measurements, organizing data into tables, analysing data and drawing conclusions.

  11. Structure of HinP1I Endonuclease Reveals a Striking Similarity to the Monomeric Restriction Enzyme MspI

    SciTech Connect

    Yang,Z.; Horton, J.; Maunus, R.; Wilson, G.; Roberts, R.; Cheng, X.

    2005-01-01

    HinP1I, a type II restriction endonuclease, recognizes and cleaves a palindromic tetranucleotide sequence (G{down_arrow}CGC) in double-stranded DNA, producing 2 nt 5' overhanging ends. Here, we report the structure of HinP1I crystallized as one protein monomer in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. HinP1I displays an elongated shape, with a conserved catalytic core domain containing an active-site motif of SDX18QXK and a putative DNA-binding domain. Without significant sequence homology, HinP1I displays striking structural similarity to MspI, an endonuclease that cleaves a similar palindromic DNA sequence (C{down_arrow}CGG) and binds to that sequence crystallographically as a monomer. Almost all the structural elements of MspI can be matched in HinP1I, including both the DNA recognition and catalytic elements. Examining the protein-protein interactions in the crystal lattice, HinP1I could be dimerized through two helices located on the opposite side of the protein to the active site, generating a molecule with two active sites and two DNA-binding surfaces opposite one another on the outer surfaces of the dimer. A possible functional link between this unusual dimerization mode and the tetrameric restriction enzymes is discussed.

  12. Enhancement of nuclease P1 production by Penicillium citrinum YL104 immobilized on activated carbon filter sponge.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Ren, Hengfei; Li, Zhenjian; Zhao, Ting; Shi, Xinchi; Cheng, Hao; Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Yong; Ying, Hanjie

    2015-02-01

    The efficiency of current methods for industrial production of the enzyme nuclease P1 is limited. In this study, we sought to improve fermentation methods for the production of nuclease P1. An immobilized fermentation system using an activated carbon filter sponge as a carrier was used for the production of nuclease P1. In an airlift internal loop reactor (ALR), the fermentation performance of three different fermentation modes, including free-cell fermentation, repeated-batch fermentation, and semi-continuous immobilized fermentation, were compared. The fermentation kinetics in the fermentation broth of the three fermentation modes, including dissolved oxygen (DO), pH value, cell concentration, residual sugar concentration, and enzyme activity, were tested. The productivity of semi-continuous immobilized fermentation reached 8.76 U/mL/h, which was 33.3 and 80.2% higher than that of repeated-batch fermentation and free-cell fermentation, respectively. The sugar consumption of free-cell, repeated-batch, and semi-continuous immobilized fermentations was 41.2, 30.8, and 25.9 g/L, respectively. These results showed that immobilized-cell fermentation by using Penicillium citrinum with activated carbon filter sponge in an ALR was advantageous for nuclease P1 production, especially in the semi-continuous immobilized fermentation mode. In spite of the significant improvement in nuclease P1 production in semi-continuous immobilized fermentation mode, the specific activity of nuclease P1 was almost equal among the three fermentation modes.

  13. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins, P1 and P2, localize to the tonoplast in the presence of virus RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Amr; Hutchens, Heather M.; Howard Berg, R.; Sue Loesch-Fries, L.

    2012-11-25

    To identify the virus components important for assembly of the Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase complex, we used live cell imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that expressed various virus cDNAs encoding native and GFP-fusion proteins of P1 and P2 replicase proteins and full-length virus RNAs. Expression of P1-GFP alone resulted in fluorescent vesicle-like bodies in the cytoplasm that colocalized with FM4-64, an endocytic marker, and RFP-AtVSR2, RabF2a/Rha1-mCherry, and RabF2b/Ara7-mCherry, all of which localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also called prevacuolar compartments, that mediate traffic to the lytic vacuole. GFP-P2 was driven from the cytosol to MVBs when expressed with P1 indicating that P1 recruited GFP-P2. P1-GFP localized on the tonoplast, which surrounds the vacuole, in the presence of infectious virus RNA, replication competent RNA2, or P2 and replication competent RNA1 or RNA3. This suggests that a functional replication complex containing P1, P2, and a full-length AMV RNA assembles on MVBs to traffic to the tonoplast.

  14. Hydrogen Diffusion in Forsterite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demouchy, S.; Mackwell, S.

    2002-12-01

    Physical and chemical properties of Earth's mantle are readily modified by interaction with volatiles, such as water. Thus, characterization of solubility and kinetics of incorporation for water in nominally anhydrous minerals is important in order to understand the behavior of Earth's interior under hydrous conditions. Experimental studies on the olivine-water system indicate that significant amounts of OH can dissolve within olivine as point defects (Bell and Rossman, 1992; Kohlstedt et al. 1996). Extending Kohlstedt and Mackwell's (1998) work, our study concerns the kinetics of hydrogen transport in the iron-free olivine-water system. This study is based on hydrogenation of forsterite samples during piston-cylinder and TZM cold-seal vessel experiments. We use infrared analyses in order to constrain the speciation of the mobile water-derived defects in forsterite single-crystal sample, and the rates of diffusion of such species under uppermost mantle conditions (0.2 to 1.5 GPa, 900 to 1100° C). Hydrogen defect transport in single crystals of forsterite is investigated for diffusion parallel to each crystallographic axis. Defect diffusivities are obtained by fitting a diffusion law to the OH content as a function of position in the sample. Our current results indicate that incorporation of hydroxyl species into iron-free olivine is a one-stage process with hydrogen diffusion linked to magnesium vacancy self-diffusion DV, such that DV = D~/3 = 10-12 m2/s at 1000° C parallel to [001], where D~ represents the chemical diffusivity. Those diffusion rates are slightly lower than in iron-bearing olivine for the same incorporation mechanism. The different concentration profiles show a clear anisotropy of diffusion, with fastest diffusion parallel to [001] as in iron-bearing olivine. Thus, while hydrogen solubilities are dependent on iron content, the rate of incorporation of water-derived species in olivine is not strongly coupled to the concentration of iron. This

  15. Nodal Diffusion & Transport Theory

    1992-02-19

    DIF3D solves multigroup diffusion theory eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed source, and criticality (concentration, buckling, and dimension search) problems in 1, 2, and 3-space dimensions for orthogonal (rectangular or cylindrical), triangular, and hexagonal geometries. Anisotropic diffusion theory coefficients are permitted. Flux and power density maps by mesh cell and regionwise balance integrals are provided. Although primarily designed for fast reactor problems, upscattering and internal black boundary conditions are also treated.

  16. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  17. Anomalous diffusion induced by enhancement of memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2014-07-01

    We introduced simple microscopic non-Markovian walk models which describe the underlying mechanism of anomalous diffusions. In the models, we considered the competitions between randomness and memory effects of previous history by introducing the probability parameters. The memory effects were considered in two aspects: one is the perfect memory of whole history and the other is the latest memory enhanced with time. In the perfect memory model superdiffusion was induced with the relation of the Hurst exponent H to the controlling parameter p as H =p for p >1/2, while in the latest memory enhancement models, anomalous diffusions involving both superdiffusion and subdiffusion were induced with the relations H =(1+α)/2 and H =(1-α)/2 for 0≤α≤1, where α is the parameter controlling the degree of the latest memory enhancement. Also we found that, although the latest memory was only considered, the memory improved with time results in the long-range correlations between steps and the correlations increase as time goes on. Thus we suggest the memory enhancement as a key origin describing anomalous diffusions.

  18. Anomalous diffusion induced by enhancement of memory.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2014-07-01

    We introduced simple microscopic non-Markovian walk models which describe the underlying mechanism of anomalous diffusions. In the models, we considered the competitions between randomness and memory effects of previous history by introducing the probability parameters. The memory effects were considered in two aspects: one is the perfect memory of whole history and the other is the latest memory enhanced with time. In the perfect memory model superdiffusion was induced with the relation of the Hurst exponent H to the controlling parameter p as H = p for p>1/2, while in the latest memory enhancement models, anomalous diffusions involving both superdiffusion and subdiffusion were induced with the relations H = (1+α)/2 and H = (1-α)/2 for 0 ≤ α ≤ 1, where α is the parameter controlling the degree of the latest memory enhancement. Also we found that, although the latest memory was only considered, the memory improved with time results in the long-range correlations between steps and the correlations increase as time goes on. Thus we suggest the memory enhancement as a key origin describing anomalous diffusions.

  19. Multispecies diffusion models: A study of uranyl species diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Zachara, John M.

    2011-12-14

    Rigorous numerical description of multi-species diffusion requires coupling of species, charge, and aqueous and surface complexation reactions that collectively affect diffusive fluxes. The applicability of a fully coupled diffusion model is, however, often constrained by the availability of species self-diffusion coefficients, as well as by computational complication for imposing charge conservation. In this study, several diffusion models with variable complexity in charge and species coupling were formulated and compared to describe reactive multi-species diffusion in groundwater. Diffusion of uranyl [U(VI)] species was used as an example in demonstrating the effectiveness of the models in describing multi-species diffusion. Numerical simulations found that a diffusion model with a single, common diffusion coefficient for all species was sufficient to describe multi-species U(VI) diffusion under steady-state condition of major chemical composition, but not under transient chemical conditions. Simulations revealed that a fully coupled diffusion model can be well approximated by a component-based diffusion model, which considers difference in diffusion coefficients between chemical components, but not between the species within each chemical component. This treatment significantly enhanced computational efficiency at the expense of minor charge conservation. The charge balance in the component-based diffusion model can be rigorously enforced, if necessary, by adding an artificial kinetic reaction term induced by the charge separation. The diffusion models were applied to describe U(VI) diffusive mass transfer in intragranular domains in two sediments collected from US Department of Energy's Hanford 300A where intragrain diffusion is a rate-limiting process controlling U(VI) adsorption and desorption. The grain-scale reactive diffusion model was able to describe U(VI) adsorption/desorption kinetics that has been described using a semi-empirical, multi-rate model

  20. Distant Jupiter family Comet P/2011 P1 (McNaught)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsun, Pavlo P.; Ivanova, Oleksandra V.; Afanasiev, Viktor L.; Kulyk, Irina V.

    2016-03-01

    The spectra and images obtained through broadband BVRc filters for Jupiter family Comet P/2011 P1 (McNaught) were analyzed. We observed the comet on November 24, 2011, when its heliocentric distance was 5.43 AU. Two dimensional long slit spectra and photometric images were obtained using the focal reducer SCORPIO attached to the prime focus of the 6-m telescope BTA (SAO RAS, Russia). The spectra cover the wavelength range of 4200-7000 Å. No emissions of C2 and CO+, which are expected in this wavelength region, were detected above 3σ level. An upper limit in gas production rate of C2 is expected to be 1.1 × 1024 mol s-1. The continuum shows a reddening effect with the normalized gradient of reflectivity along dispersion of 5.1 ± 1.2% per 1000 Å. The color indices (B-V) = 0.89 ± 0.09 and (V-Rc) = 0.42 ± 0.07 for the nucleus region or (B-V) = 0.68 ± 0.12 and (V-Rc) = 0.39 ± 0.10 for the coma region, which are derived from the photometric data, also evidence that the color of the cometary nucleus and dust are redder with respect to the Sun. The normalized gradients of 5.9 ± 2.9% per 1000 Å and 2.6 ± 1.9% per 1000 Å for VRc filters were obtained for the cometary nucleus and the dust coma, respectively. The estimated dust mass production rate is about 12 kg s-1 for Rc filter. The dust coma like a spiral galaxy edge-on was fitted using a Monte Carlo model. Since it is expected that the particles forming the dust coma consist of "dirty" ice, Greenberg's model was adopted to track grains with an icy component that evaporates slowly when exposed to solar radiation. The observed coma was fitted assuming two isolated active zones located at the cometocentric latitudes of -8° and -35° with outflow of the dust within the cones having half opening angles of 8° and 70°, respectively. About, 45% and 55% of the observed dust were originated from the high collimated and low collimated active zones, respectively. The spin-axis of the rotating nucleus is positioned in

  1. P1 Epigenetic Regulation in Leaves of High Altitude Maize Landraces: Effect of UV-B Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Rius, Sebastián P.; Emiliani, Julia; Casati, Paula

    2016-01-01

    P1 is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates the accumulation of a specific group of flavonoids in maize floral tissues, such as flavones and phlobaphenes. P1 is also highly expressed in leaves of maize landraces adapted to high altitudes and higher levels of UV-B radiation. In this work, we analyzed the epigenetic regulation of the P1 gene by UV-B in leaves of different maize landraces. Our results demonstrate that DNA methylation in the P1 proximal promoter, intron1 and intron2 is decreased by UV-B in all lines analyzed; however, the basal DNA methylation levels are lower in the landraces than in B73, a low altitude inbred line. DNA demethylation by UV-B is accompanied by a decrease in H3 methylation at Lys 9 and 27, and by an increase in H3 acetylation. smRNAs complementary to specific regions of the proximal promoter and of intron 2 3′ end are also decreased by UV-B; interestingly, P1 smRNA levels are lower in the landraces than in B73 both under control conditions and after UV-B exposure, suggesting that smRNAs regulate P1 expression by UV-B in maize leaves. Finally, we investigated if different P1 targets in flower tissues are also regulated by this transcription factor in response to UV-B. Some targets analyzed show an induction in maize landraces in response to UV-B, with higher basal expression levels in the landraces than in B73; however, not all the transcripts analyzed were found to be regulated by UV-B in leaves. PMID:27148340

  2. mRNA Capping by Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus nsP1: Functional Characterization and Implications for Antiviral Research

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changqing; Guillén, Jaime; Rabah, Nadia; Blanjoie, Alexandre; Debart, Françoise; Vasseur, Jean-Jacques; Canard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alphaviruses are known to possess a unique viral mRNA capping mechanism involving the viral nonstructural protein nsP1. This enzyme harbors methyltransferase (MTase) and nsP1 guanylylation (GT) activities catalyzing the transfer of the methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to the N7 position of a GTP molecule followed by the formation of an m7GMP-nsP1 adduct. Subsequent transfer of m7GMP onto the 5′ end of the viral mRNA has not been demonstrated in vitro yet. Here we report the biochemical characterization of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) nsP1. We have developed enzymatic assays uncoupling the different reactions steps catalyzed by nsP1. The MTase and GT reaction activities were followed using a nonhydrolyzable GTP (GIDP) substrate and an original Western blot assay using anti-m3G/m7G-cap monoclonal antibody, respectively. The GT reaction is stimulated by S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (Ado-Hcy), the product of the preceding MTase reaction, and metallic ions. The covalent linking between nsP1 and m7GMP involves a phosphamide bond between the nucleotide and a histidine residue. Final guanylyltransfer onto RNA was observed for the first time with an alphavirus nsP1 using a 5′-diphosphate RNA oligonucleotide whose sequence corresponds to the 5′ end of the viral genome. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of residues H37, H45, D63, E118, Y285, D354, R365, N369, and N375 revealed their respective roles in MT and GT reactions. Finally, the inhibitory effects of sinefungin, aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), and ribavirin triphosphate on MTase and capping reactions were investigated, providing possible avenues for antiviral research. IMPORTANCE Emergence or reemergence of alphaviruses represents a serious health concern, and the elucidation of their replication mechanisms is a prerequisite for the development of specific inhibitors targeting viral enzymes. In particular, alphaviruses are able, through an original reaction sequence, to add to their

  3. Anomalous Diffusion Near Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Synchro-betatron resonances can lead to emittance growth and the loss of luminosity. We consider the detailed dynamics of a bunch near such a low order resonance driven by crossing angles at the collision points. We characterize the nature of diffusion and find that it is anomalous and sub-diffusive. This affects both the shape of the beam distribution and the time scales for growth. Predictions of a simplified anomalous diffusion model are compared with direct simulations. Transport of particles near resonances is still not a well understood phenomenon. Often, without justification, phase space motion is assumed to be a normal diffusion process although at least one case of anomalous diffusion in beam dynamics has been reported [1]. Here we will focus on the motion near synchro-betatron resonances which can be excited by several means, including beams crossing at an angle at the collision points as in the LHC. We will consider low order resonances which couple the horizontal and longitudinal planes, both for simplicity and to observe large effects over short time scales. While the tunes we consider are not practical for a collider, nonetheless the transport mechanisms we uncover are also likely to operate at higher order resonances.

  4. Interfacial solid-state reaction at thermally oxidized In1 - xGaxAsyP1 - y alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Minoru; Sasai, Yoichi; Ogura, Mototsugu; Kohiki, Shigemi

    1988-07-01

    The interfacial reaction between thermally oxidized In1-xGaxAsyP1-y and an In1-xGaxAsyP1-y epilayer was studied using Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. In Raman spectra, it was found that the appearance of the phonon modes, i.e., the first-order longitudinal (LO) and transverse-optical (TO) modes for crystalline arsenic, was due to the In1-xGaxAsyP1-y -oxide interfacial reaction. The XPS analyses showed that this reaction corresponded to the GaAs-oxide interfacial reaction, i.e., As2O3+2GaAs→Ga2O3+4As. Furthermore, the reaction depends on the composition y of In1-xGaxAsyP1-y, which may be due to the enhancement in the initial transient reaction by thermal damage of In1-xGaxAsyP1-y occurring at the interface.

  5. Genetic Evidence for Involvement of Neuronally Expressed S1P1 Receptor in Nociceptor Sensitization and Inflammatory Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Norbert; Benetti, Camilla; Andratsch, Manfred; Leitner, Michael G.; Constantin, Cristina E.; Camprubí-Robles, Maria; Quarta, Serena; Biasio, Wolfgang; Kuner, Rohini; Gibbins, Ian L.; Kress, Michaela; Haberberger, Rainer V.

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a key regulator of immune response. Immune cells, epithelia and blood cells generate high levels of S1P in inflamed tissue. However, it is not known if S1P acts on the endings of nociceptive neurons, thereby contributing to the generation of inflammatory pain. We found that the S1P1 receptor for S1P is expressed in subpopulations of sensory neurons including nociceptors. Both S1P and agonists at the S1P1 receptor induced hypersensitivity to noxious thermal stimulation in vitro and in vivo. S1P-induced hypersensitivity was strongly attenuated in mice lacking TRPV1 channels. S1P and inflammation-induced hypersensitivity was significantly reduced in mice with a conditional nociceptor-specific deletion of the S1P1 receptor. Our data show that neuronally expressed S1P1 receptors play a significant role in regulating nociceptor function and that S1P/S1P1 signaling may be a key player in the onset of thermal hypersensitivity and hyperalgesia associated with inflammation. PMID:21359147

  6. Photodynamics of blue-light-regulated phosphodiesterase BlrP1 protein from Klebsiella pneumoniae and its photoreceptor BLUF domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, A.; Penzkofer, A.; Griese, J.; Schlichting, I.; Kirienko, Natalia V.; Gomelsky, Mark

    2008-12-01

    The BlrP1 protein from the enteric bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae consists of a BLUF and an EAL domain and may activate c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase by blue-light. The full-length protein, BlrP1, and its BLUF domain, BlrP1_BLUF, are characterized by optical absorption and emission spectroscopy. The cofactor FAD in its oxidized redox state (FAD ox) is brought from the dark-adapted receptor state to the 10-nm red-shifted putative signalling state by violet light exposure. The recovery to the receptor state occurs with a time constant of about 1 min. The quantum yield of signalling state formation is about 0.17 for BlrP1_BLUF and about 0.08 for BlrP1. The fluorescence efficiency of the FAD ox cofactor is small due to photo-induced reductive electron transfer. Prolonged light exposure converts FAD ox in the signalling state to the fully reduced hydroquinone form FAD redH - and causes low-efficient chromophore release with subsequent photo-degradation. The photo-cycle and photo-reduction dynamics in the receptor state and in the signalling state are discussed.

  7. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    DOEpatents

    Nierenberg, William A.; Pontius, Rex B.

    1976-08-10

    1. The method of testing the separation efficiency of porous permeable membranes which comprises causing a stream of a gaseous mixture to flow into contact with one face of a finely porous permeable membrane under such conditions that a major fraction of the mixture diffuses through the membrane, maintaining a rectangular cross section of the gaseous stream so flowing past said membrane, continuously recirculating the gas that diffuses through said membrane and continuously withdrawing the gas that does not diffuse through said membrane and maintaining the volume of said recirculating gas constant by continuously introducing into said continuously recirculating gas stream a mass of gas equivalent to that which is continuously withdrawn from said gas stream and comparing the concentrations of the light component in the entering gas, the withdrawn gas and the recirculated gas in order to determine the efficiency of said membrane.

  8. Cesium diffusion in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.B. III; Davis, W. Jr.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on diffusion of /sup 137/Cs in five types of graphite were performed. The document provides a completion of the report that was started and includes a presentation of all of the diffusion data, previously unpublished. Except for data on mass transfer of /sup 137/Cs in the Hawker-Siddeley graphite, analyses of experimental results were initiated but not completed. The mass transfer process of cesium in HS-1-1 graphite at 600 to 1000/sup 0/C in a helium atmosphere is essentially pure diffusion wherein values of (E/epsilon) and ..delta..E of the equation D/epsilon = (D/epsilon)/sub 0/ exp (-..delta..E/RT) are about 4 x 10/sup -2/ cm/sup 2//s and 30 kcal/mole, respectively.

  9. Identification of surface-exposed B-cell epitopes recognized by Haemophilus influenzae type b P1-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Panezutti, H; James, O; Hansen, E J; Choi, Y; Harkness, R E; Klein, M H; Chong, P

    1993-05-01

    A panel of P1 synthetic peptides was synthesized to map the surface-exposed epitopes of Haemophilus influenzae type b outer membrane protein P1 recognized by three murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs 7C8, 3E12, and 6B1). By using peptide-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, MAbs 6B1, 7C8, and 3E12 were shown to recognize distinct epitopes localized within residues 60 to 88, 165 to 193, and 400 to 437 of mature P1, respectively. Since MAb 7C8 was shown previously to be protective against certain H. influenzae type b subtypes in the infant rat model of bacteremia, its cognate epitope was further characterized by using truncated peptide analogs. Fine mapping of the 7C8 epitope by competitive inhibition studies revealed that it was localized within residues 184 and 193.

  10. Hydrogen diffusion in Zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingrin, Jannick; Zhang, Peipei

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen mobility in gem quality zircon single crystals from Madagascar was investigated through H-D exchange experiments. Thin slices were annealed in a horizontal furnace flushed with a gas mixture of Ar/D2(10%) under ambient pressure between 900 ° C to 1150 ° C. FTIR analyses were performed on oriented slices before and after each annealing run. H diffusion along [100] and [010] follow the same diffusion law D = D0exp[-E /RT], with log D0 = 2.24 ± 1.57 (in m2/s) and E = 374 ± 39 kJ/mol. H diffusion along [001] follows a slightly more rapid diffusion law, with log D0 = 1.11 ± 0.22 (in m2/s) and E = 334 ± 49 kJ/mol. H diffusion in zircon has much higher activation energy and slower diffusivity than other NAMs below 1150 ° C even iron-poor garnets which are known to be among the slowest (Blanchard and Ingrin, 2004; Kurka et al. 2005). During H-D exchange zircon incorporates also deuterium. This hydration reaction involves uranium reduction as it is shown from the exchange of U5+ and U4+ characteristic bands in the near infrared region during annealing. It is the first time that a hydration reaction U5+ + OH‑ = U4+ + O2‑ + 1/2H2, is experimentally reported. The kinetics of deuterium incorporation is slightly slower than hydrogen diffusion, suggesting that the reaction is limited by hydrogen mobility. Hydrogen isotopic memory of zircon is higher than other NAMs. Zircons will be moderately retentive of H signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures. At 500 ° C, a zircon with a radius of 300 μm would retain its H isotopic signature over more than a million years. However, a zircon is unable to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism unless the grain size is large enough. Refrences Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2004) Hydrogen diffusion in Dora Maira pyrope. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 31, 593-605. Kurka, A., Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2005) Kinetics of hydrogen extraction and deuteration in

  11. Hydrogen diffusion in Zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingrin, Jannick; Zhang, Peipei

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen mobility in gem quality zircon single crystals from Madagascar was investigated through H-D exchange experiments. Thin slices were annealed in a horizontal furnace flushed with a gas mixture of Ar/D2(10%) under ambient pressure between 900 ° C to 1150 ° C. FTIR analyses were performed on oriented slices before and after each annealing run. H diffusion along [100] and [010] follow the same diffusion law D = D0exp[-E /RT], with log D0 = 2.24 ± 1.57 (in m2/s) and E = 374 ± 39 kJ/mol. H diffusion along [001] follows a slightly more rapid diffusion law, with log D0 = 1.11 ± 0.22 (in m2/s) and E = 334 ± 49 kJ/mol. H diffusion in zircon has much higher activation energy and slower diffusivity than other NAMs below 1150 ° C even iron-poor garnets which are known to be among the slowest (Blanchard and Ingrin, 2004; Kurka et al. 2005). During H-D exchange zircon incorporates also deuterium. This hydration reaction involves uranium reduction as it is shown from the exchange of U5+ and U4+ characteristic bands in the near infrared region during annealing. It is the first time that a hydration reaction U5+ + OH- = U4+ + O2- + 1/2H2, is experimentally reported. The kinetics of deuterium incorporation is slightly slower than hydrogen diffusion, suggesting that the reaction is limited by hydrogen mobility. Hydrogen isotopic memory of zircon is higher than other NAMs. Zircons will be moderately retentive of H signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures. At 500 ° C, a zircon with a radius of 300 μm would retain its H isotopic signature over more than a million years. However, a zircon is unable to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism unless the grain size is large enough. Refrences Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2004) Hydrogen diffusion in Dora Maira pyrope. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 31, 593-605. Kurka, A., Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2005) Kinetics of hydrogen extraction and deuteration in

  12. Efficient replication of recombinant Enterovirus B types, carrying different P1 genes in the coxsackievirus B5 replicative backbone.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Nina; Sävneby, Anna; Gullberg, Maria; Evertsson, Kim; Klingel, Karin; Lindberg, A Michael

    2015-06-01

    Recombination is an important feature in the evolution of the Enterovirus genus. Phylogenetic studies of enteroviruses have revealed that the capsid genomic region (P1) is type specific, while the parts of the genome coding for the non-structural proteins (P2-P3) are species specific. Hence, the genome may be regarded as consisting of two modules that evolve independently. In this study, it was investigated whether the non-structural coding part of the genome in one type could support replication of a virus with a P1 region from another type of the same species. A cassette vector (pCas) containing a full-length cDNA copy of coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5) was used as a replicative backbone. The P1 region of pCas was replaced with the corresponding part from coxsackievirus B3 Nancy (CVB3N), coxsackievirus B6 Schmitt (CVB6S), and echovirus 7 Wallace (E7W), all members of the Enterovirus B species. The replication efficiency after transfection with clone-derived in vitro transcribed RNA was studied and compared with that of pCas. All the recombinant viruses replicated with similar efficiencies and showed threshold cycle (Ct) values, tissue culture infectivity dose 50 %, and plaque-forming unit titers comparable to viruses generated from the pCas construct. In addition to this, a clone without the P1 region was also constructed, and Western Blot and immunofluorescence staining analysis showed that the viral genome could be translated and replicated despite the lack of the structural protein-coding region. To conclude, the replicative backbone of the CVB5 cassette vector supports replication of intraspecies constructs with P1 regions derived from other members of the Enterovirus B species. In addition to this, the replicative backbone can be both translated and replicated without the presence of a P1 region.

  13. Uncovering the uncertainty: Risk factors and clinical relevance of P1 lesions on small bowel capsule endoscopy of anemic patients

    PubMed Central

    Cúrdia Gonçalves, Tiago; Barbosa, Mara; Rosa, Bruno; Moreira, Maria João; Cotter, José

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify risk factors for P1 lesions on small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) and to describe the natural history of anemic patients with such type of lesions. METHODS One hundred patients were consecutively selected for a case-control analysis performed between 37 cases with P1 lesions and 63 controls with negative SBCE. Age, gender, comorbidities and regular medication were collected. Rebleeding, further investigational studies and death were also analyzed during the follow-up. RESULTS No significant differences on gender, median age or Charlson index were found between groups. Although no differences were found on the use of proton pump inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid, anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) was associated with a higher risk of P1 lesions (OR = 12.00, 95%CI: 1.38-104.1). From the 87 patients followed at our center, 39 were submitted to additional studies for investigation of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), and this was significantly more common in those patients with no findings on SBCE (53.7% vs 30.3%, P = 0.033). A total of 29 patients had at least one rebleeding or IDA recurrence episode and 9 patients died of non-anemia related causes but no differences were found between cases and controls. CONCLUSION P1 lesions are commonly found in patients with IDA submitted to SBCE. The use of NSAID seems to be a risk factor for P1 lesions. The outcomes of patients with P1 lesions do not differ significantly from those with P0 lesions or normal SBCE. PMID:27784969

  14. Evaluation of the Eological Management and Enhancement Alernative for Remediation of the K1007-P1 Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.J.

    2005-10-31

    An evaluation of the human and ecological risks associated with the P1 Pond and surrounding environs was conducted as part of the ETTP Site-Wide Remedial Investigation. The RI provides the basis for the focus on PCBs as the most important unacceptable risk to human and ecological health in the pond. Other P1 contaminants, media, or pathways of risk to receptors are identified in the RI, but are not addressed as a major risk reduction goal for the ETTP Site-Wide Feasibility Study. Therefore, the goal of the Ecological Management alternative is to reduce unacceptable risks associated with PCBs in fish. Many of the actions proposed for this alternative, however, are likely to reduce risks associated with other contaminants and their pathways. The high PCB concentrations in fish from the P1 Pond are most certainly due in part to the current ecological condition of the pond that maximizes PCB biomagnification. This basic assumption and the factors contributing to it were evaluated by conducting an intensive field study of the P1 Pond in the summer of 2004 (for a thorough presentation of current P1 Pond biological conditions, see Peterson et al. 2005). Major hypotheses regarding the P1 Pond's current fish community, PCB fate and transport processes, pond vegetation, and limnological conditions that contribute to the high PCB levels in fish were validated by the study (Appendix A), The results of the 2004 ecological assessment, in concert with long-term datasets obtained as part of the ETTP Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) and recent abiotic sampling for the RI, provide the basis for the assessment of current conditions.

  15. Multispecies diffusion models: A study of uranyl species diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Zachara, John M.

    2011-12-01

    Rigorous numerical description of multispecies diffusion requires coupling of species, charge, and aqueous and surface complexation reactions that collectively affect diffusive fluxes. The applicability of a fully coupled diffusion model is, however, often constrained by the availability of species self-diffusion coefficients, as well as by computational complication in imposing charge conservation. In this study, several diffusion models with variable complexity in charge and species coupling were formulated and compared to describe reactive multispecies diffusion in groundwater. Diffusion of uranyl [U(VI)] species was used as an example in demonstrating the effectiveness of the models in describing multispecies diffusion. Numerical simulations found that a diffusion model with a single, common diffusion coefficient for all species was sufficient to describe multispecies U(VI) diffusion under a steady state condition of major chemical composition, but not under transient chemical conditions. Simulations revealed that for multispecies U(VI) diffusion under transient chemical conditions, a fully coupled diffusion model could be well approximated by a component-based diffusion model when the diffusion coefficient for each chemical component was properly selected. The component-based diffusion model considers the difference in diffusion coefficients between chemical components, but not between the species within each chemical component. This treatment significantly enhanced computational efficiency at the expense of minor charge conservation. The charge balance in the component-based diffusion model can be enforced, if necessary, by adding a secondary migration term resulting from model simplification. The effect of ion activity coefficient gradients on multispecies diffusion is also discussed. The diffusion models were applied to describe U(VI) diffusive mass transfer in intragranular domains in two sediments collected from U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford 300A

  16. Isotope shifts of the 2 p3 /2-2 p1 /2 transition in B-like ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubova, N. A.; Malyshev, A. V.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Shabaev, V. M.; Kozhedub, Y. S.; Plunien, G.; Brandau, C.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2016-05-01

    Isotope shifts of the 2 p3 /2-2 p1 /2 transition in B-like ions are evaluated for a wide range of the nuclear charge number: Z =8 -92 . The calculations of the relativistic nuclear recoil and nuclear size effects are performed using a large-scale configuration-interaction Dirac-Fock-Sturm method. The corresponding QED corrections are also taken into account. The results of the calculations are compared with the theoretical values obtained with other methods. The accuracy of the isotope shifts of the 2 p3 /2-2 p1 /2 transition in B-like ions is significantly improved.

  17. Transductional instability of Tn5-induced mutations: generalized and specialized transduction of Tn5 by bacteriophage P1.

    PubMed

    Berg, C M; Grullón, C A; Wang, A; Whalen, W A; Berg, D E

    1983-10-01

    Generalized transduction is commonly used to move transposon-induced mutations among bacterial strains by selecting for inheritance of a transposon-encoded resistance determinant. Although complete cotransduction of the resistance determinant and the chromosomal mutation might be expected, it is often found that when Tn5(Kan) insertion mutations are transduced by bacteriophage P1 most of the nonmutant kanamycin-resistant transductants area due to specialized transduction of Tn5. Such P1::Tn5 specialized transducing phage are not found when a mutant Tn5 element lacking a functional transposase is employed.

  18. Catastrophe in diffusion-controlled annihilation dynamics: general scaling properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipilevsky, Boris M.

    2015-11-01

    We present a systematic analytical and numerical study of the annihilation catastrophe phenomenon which develops in an open system, where species A and B diffuse from the bulk of restricted medium and die on its surface (desorb) by the reaction A + B → 0. This phenomenon arises in the diffusion-controlled limit as a result of self-organizing explosive growth (drop) of the surface concentrations of, respectively, slow and fast particles (concentration explosion) and manifests itself in the form of an abrupt singular jump of the desorption flux relaxation rate. In the recent work [B.M. Shipilevsky, Phys. Rev. E 76, 031126 (2007)] a closed scaling theory of catastrophe development has been given for the asymptotic limit when the characteristic time scale of explosion becomes much less than the characteristic time scales of diffusion of slow and fast particles at an arbitrary ratio of their diffusivities 0 < p < 1. In this paper we consider the behavior of the system at strong difference of species diffusivities p ≪ 1 and reveal a rich general pattern of catastrophe development for an arbitrary ratio of the characteristic time scales of explosion and fast particle diffusion. As striking results we find remarkable scaling properties of catastrophe evolution at the crossover between two limiting regimes with radically different dynamics.

  19. Lost P1 allele in sh2 sweet corn: quantitative effects of p1 and a1 genes on concentrations of maysin, apimaysin, methoxymaysin, and chlorogenic acid in maize silk.

    PubMed

    Guo, B Z; Zhang, Z J; Butrón, A; Widstrom, N W; Snook, M E; Lynch, R E; Plaisted, D

    2004-12-01

    In the United States, insecticide is used extensively in the production of sweet corn due to consumer demand for zero damage to ears and to a sweet corn genetic base with little or no resistance to ear-feeding insects. Growers in the southern United States depend on scheduled pesticide applications to control ear-feeding insects. In a study of quantitative genetic control over silk maysin, AM-maysin (apimaysin and methoxymaysin), and chlorogenic acid contents in an F2 population derived from GE37 (dent corn, P1A1) and 565 (sh2 sweet corn, p1a1), we demonstrate that the P1 allele from field corn, which was selected against in the development of sweet corn, has a strong epistatic interaction with the a1 allele in sh2 sweet corn. We detected that the p1 gene has significant effects (P < 0.0001) not only on silk maysin concentrations but also on AM-maysin, and chlorogenic acid concentrations. The a1 gene also has significant (P < 0.0005) effects on these silk antibiotic chemicals. Successful selection from the fourth and fifth selfed backcrosses for high-maysin individuals of sweet corn homozygous for the recessive a1 allele (tightly linked to sh2) and the dominant P1 allele has been demonstrated. These selected lines have much higher (2 to 3 times) concentrations of silk maysin and other chemicals (AM-maysin and chlorogenic acid) than the donor parent GE37 and could enhance sweet corn resistance to corn earworm and reduce the number of applications of insecticide required to produce sweet corn. PMID:15666773

  20. Osmosis and Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    OsmoBeaker is a CD-ROM designed to enhance the learning of diffusion and osmosis by presenting interactive experimentation to the student. The software provides several computer simulations that take the student through different scenarios with cells, having different concentrations of solutes in them.

  1. Thermodynamics of diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matuszak, Daniel

    Diffusion is the migration of molecules in the reference frame of a system's center of mass and it is a physical process that occurs in all chemical and biological systems. Diffusion generally involves intermolecular interactions that lead to clustering, adsorption, and phase transitions; as such, it is difficult to describe theoretically on a molecular level in systems containing both intermolecular repulsions and attractions. This work describes a simple thermodynamic approach that accounts for intermolecular attractions and repulsions (much like how the van der Waals equation does) to model and help provide an understanding of diffusion. The approach is an extension of the equilibrium Lattice Density Functional Theory of Aranovich and Donohue; it was developed with Mason and Lonsdale's guidelines on how to construct and test a transport theory. In the framework of lattice fluids, this new approach gives (a) correct equilibrium limits, (b) Fickian behavior for non-interacting systems, (c) correct departures from Fickian behavior in non-ideal systems, (d) the correct Maxwell-Stefan formulation, (e) symmetry behavior upon re-labeling species, (f) reasonable non-equilibrium phase behavior, (g) agreement with Molecular Dynamics simulations, (h) agreement with the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, (i) a vanishing diffusive flux at the critical point, and (j) other qualitatively-correct behaviors when applied to problems in porous membranes and in packed beds.

  2. Water vapor diffusion membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, F. F., Jr.; Smith, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    The program is reported, which was designed to define the membrane technology of the vapor diffusion water recovery process and to test this technology using commercially available or experimental membranes. One membrane was selected, on the basis of the defined technology, and was subjected to a 30-day demonstration trial.

  3. Ti Diffusion in Zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.

    2006-12-01

    Diffusion of Ti under anhydrous conditions at 1 atmosphere and under fluid-present conditions at 1.1-1.2 GPa has been measured in natural zircon. The source of diffusant for 1-atm experiments was a ZrO2- TiO2-ZrSiO4 mixture, with experiments run in Pt capsules. Diffusion experiments conducted in the presence of H2O-CO2 fluid were run in a piston-cylinder apparatus, using a source of ground TiO2, ZrSiO4 and SiO2, with oxalic acid added to produce H2O-CO2 vapor and partially melt the solid source material, yielding an assemblage of rutile + zircon + melt + vapor. Resonant nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) with the nuclear reaction ^{48}Ti(p,Γ)^{49}V was used to measure diffusion profiles for both sets of experiments. The following Arrhenius relation was obtained for Ti diffusion normal to c over the temperature range 1350-1550C at one atmosphere: DTi = 3.3x102 exp(-754 ± 56 kJ mol-1 /RT) m2sec-1 Ti diffusivities were found to be similar for experiments run under fluid-present conditions. A fit to all of the data yields the Arrhenius relation D = 1.3x103 exp(-741 ± 46 kJ mol-1 /RT) m2sec-1. These data suggest that zircon should be extremely retentive of Ti chemical signatures, indicating that the recently developed Ti-in-zircon crystallization geothermometer (Watson and Harrison, 2005; Watson et al., 2006) will be quite robust in preserving temperatures of zircon crystallization. Titanium diffuses somewhat faster in zircon than larger tetravalent cations U, Th, and Hf, but considerably more slowly than Pb, the REE, and oxygen; hence Ti crystallization temperatures may be retained under circumstances when radiometric ages or other types of geochemical information are lost. Watson EB, Harrison TM (2005) Science 308, 841-844. Watson EB, Wark DA, Thomas JB (2006) CMP(in press).

  4. Distribution of the carcinogenic tryptophan pyrolysis product Trp-P-1 in control, 9-hydroxyellipticine and. beta. -naphthoflavone pretreated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, I. . Dept. of Pharmacology); Gustafsson, J.A.; Rafter, J. )

    1983-10-01

    Autoradiograms obtained 1-4 h after i.v. injection of the /sup 14/C-labelled carcinogenic tryptophan pyrolysis product Trp-P-1 to albino and pigmented mice showed a pronounced uptake of radioactivity in the lymphatic system, in the endocrine system and in the liver, kidney medulla and brain. High radioactivity was present in the excretory pathways, predominantly in the bile/intestinal contents. At longer post-injection times most of the labelled substance had left the tissues, except for the liver. Trp-P-1 is known to be activated by cytochrome P-448. The uptake of radioactivity in the liver could be reduced by pretreatment with the cytochrome P-448 inhibitor 9-hydroxyellipticine suggesting that the observed accumulation of radioactivity in the liver was partly due to metabolites of Trp-P-1. After pretreatment with the cytochrome P-448 inducer ..beta..-naphthoflavone, the administration of Trp-P-1 resulted in a highly selective accumulation of radioactivity in the lung parenchyma, exceeding all other tissues. ..beta..-Naphthoflavone pretreatment also increased the uptake of radioactivity in the kidney cortex and small intestinal mucosa. As indicated by a high labelling of the pigmented tissues of the maternal and fetal eye, the carcinogen and/or its metabolites were accumulated in melanin.

  5. Wheat streak mosaic virus P1: Defining the minimal region required for the suppression of RNA silencing activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is the most economically important wheat virus in the Great Plains region of USA. WSMV is the type species of the genus Tritimovirus in the family Potyviridae, and is transmitted by the wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer. Previously, we reported that WSMV P1 f...

  6. Functional characterization of replication and stability factors of an incP-1 plasmid from Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa strain riv11 harbors a ~25 kbp plasmid (pXF-RIV11) belonging to the incP-1 incompatibility group. Replication and stability factors of pXF-RIV11 were identified and used to construct plasmids able to propagate in both X. fastidiosa and Escherichia coli. Replication in X. fastidi...

  7. Leek yellow stripe virus isolates from Brazil form a distant clade based on the P1 gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genomic sequence of a garlic isolate of Leek yellow stripe virus from Brazil (LYSV-MG) has been determined, and phylogenetic comparisons made to LYSV isolates from other parts of the world. In addition, the nucleotide sequence of the 5'UTR and part of the P1 gene of multiple LYSV isolat...

  8. Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Yingwei; Julsgaard, B.; Petersen, M. Christian; Jensen, R. V. Skougaard; Pedersen, T. Garm; Pedersen, K.; Larsen, A. Nylandsted

    2010-10-04

    Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide layers prepared by magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal growth has been investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and diffusion coefficients have been extracted from simulations based on Fick's second law of diffusion. Erbium diffusion in magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide from buried erbium distributions has in particular been studied, and in this case a simple Arrhenius law can describe the diffusivity with an activation energy of 5.3{+-}0.1 eV. Within a factor of two, the erbium diffusion coefficients at a given temperature are identical for all investigated matrices.

  9. Instrumentation in Diffuse Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse optical imaging is highly versatile and has a very broad range of applications in biology and medicine. It covers diffuse optical tomography, fluorescence diffuse optical tomography, bioluminescence, and a number of other new imaging methods. These methods of diffuse optical imaging have diversified instrument configurations but share the same core physical principle – light propagation in highly diffusive media, i.e., the biological tissue. In this review, the author summarizes the latest development in instrumentation and methodology available to diffuse optical imaging in terms of system architecture, light source, photo-detection, spectral separation, signal modulation, and lastly imaging contrast. PMID:24860804

  10. Differential FoxP2 and FoxP1 expression in a vocal learning nucleus of the developing budgerigar.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Osceola; Voyles, Tawni; Hara, Erina; Chen, Qianqian; White, Stephanie A; Wright, Timothy F

    2015-07-01

    The forkhead domain FOXP2 and FOXP1 transcription factors are implicated in several cognitive disorders with language deficits, notably autism, and thus play a central role in learned vocal motor behavior in humans. Although a similar role for FoxP2 and FoxP1 is proposed for other vertebrate species, including songbirds, the neurodevelopmental expression of these genes are unknown in a species with lifelong vocal learning abilities. Like humans, budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) learn new vocalizations throughout their entire lifetime. Like songbirds, budgerigars have distinct brain nuclei for vocal learning, which include the magnocellular nucleus of the medial striatum (MMSt), a basal ganglia region that is considered developmentally and functionally analogous to Area X in songbirds. Here, we used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to investigate FoxP2 and FoxP1 expression in the MMSt of juvenile and adult budgerigars. We found FoxP2 mRNA and protein expression levels in the MMSt that were lower than the surrounding striatum throughout development and adulthood. In contrast, FoxP1 mRNA and protein had an elevated MMSt/striatum expression ratio as birds matured, regardless of their sex. These results show that life-long vocal plasticity in budgerigars is associated with persistent low-level FoxP2 expression in the budgerigar MMSt, and suggests the possibility that FoxP1 plays an organizational role in the neurodevelopment of vocal motor circuitry. Thus, developmental regulation of the FoxP2 and FoxP1 genes in the basal ganglia appears essential for vocal mimicry in a range of species that possess this relatively rare trait. PMID:25407828

  11. Screening glioma stem cells in U251 cells based on the P1 promoter of the CD133 gene

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Lu; Xiao, Zhongdi; Wang, Yali; Liu, Tiemei; Zhang, Tianfu; Zhang, Yucheng

    2016-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation (CD)133 is an important cell surface marker of glioma stem cells (GSCs). The transcription of the CD133 gene is controlled by five alternative promoters (P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5), which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. In the present study, gene recombination technology was used to construct two types of gene expression vectors that contained the P1 promoter of the CD133 gene, which regulated either the neomycin-resistance gene or the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene. Following the stable transfection of U251 glioblastoma cells with these two gene vectors, the cells expressing the P1 promoter that regulated the neomycin-resistance gene were named CD133 (+) cells, while the cells expressing the P1 promoter regulating the HSV-TK gene were called CD133 (−) cells. The expression of CD133 was detected by flow cytometry and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to assess cell proliferation ability, while the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry, and a clone formation test was performed to evaluate the invasive capability of the cells. The results demonstrated that, due to CD133 expression, the cell proliferation ability and the invasive capability of CD133 (+) cells were significantly higher than those of CD133 (−) cells. In conclusion, the present study successfully established a novel method of screening GSCs in U251 cells based on the P1 promoter of the CD133 gene.

  12. Broad-host-range plasmids from agricultural soils have IncP-1 backbones with diverse accessory genes.

    PubMed

    Sen, Diya; Van der Auwera, Geraldine A; Rogers, Linda M; Thomas, Christopher M; Brown, Celeste J; Top, Eva M

    2011-11-01

    Broad-host-range plasmids are known to spread genes between distinct phylogenetic groups of bacteria. These genes often code for resistances to antibiotics and heavy metals or degradation of pollutants. Although some broad-host-range plasmids have been extensively studied, their evolutionary history and genetic diversity remain largely unknown. The goal of this study was to analyze and compare the genomes of 12 broad-host-range plasmids that were previously isolated from Norwegian soils by exogenous plasmid isolation and that encode mercury resistance. Complete nucleotide sequencing followed by phylogenetic analyses based on the relaxase gene traI showed that all the plasmids belong to one of two subgroups (β and ε) of the well-studied incompatibility group IncP-1. A diverse array of accessory genes was found to be involved in resistance to antimicrobials (streptomycin, spectinomycin, and sulfonamides), degradation of herbicides (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxypropionic acid), and a putative new catabolic pathway. Intramolecular transposition of insertion sequences followed by deletion was found to contribute to the diversity of some of these plasmids. The previous observation that the insertion sites of a Tn501-related element are identical in four IncP-1β plasmids (pJP4, pB10, R906, and R772) was further extended to three more IncP-1β plasmids (pAKD15, pAKD18, and pAKD29). We proposed a hypothesis for the evolution of these Tn501-bearing IncP-1β plasmids that predicts recent diversification followed by worldwide spread. Our study increases the available collection of complete IncP-1 plasmid genome sequences by 50% and will aid future studies to enhance our understanding of the evolution and function of this important plasmid family.

  13. Metabolism of 2-Chloro-4-Nitroaniline via Novel Aerobic Degradation Pathway by Rhodococcus sp. Strain MB-P1

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fazlurrahman; Pal, Deepika; Vikram, Surendra; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (2-C-4-NA) is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitor and also used in the synthesis of niclosamide, a molluscicide. It is marked as a black-listed substance due to its poor biodegradability. We report biodegradation of 2-C-4-NA and its pathway characterization by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 under aerobic conditions. The strain MB-P1 utilizes 2-C-4-NA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. In the growth medium, the degradation of 2-C-4-NA occurs with the release of nitrite ions, chloride ions, and ammonia. During the resting cell studies, the 2-C-4-NA-induced cells of strain MB-P1 transformed 2-C-4-NA stoichiometrically to 4-amino-3-chlorophenol (4-A-3-CP), which subsequently gets transformed to 6-chlorohydroxyquinol (6-CHQ) metabolite. Enzyme assays by cell-free lysates prepared from 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells, demonstrated that the first enzyme in the 2-C-4-NA degradation pathway is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the stoichiometric removal of nitro group and production of 4-A-3-CP. Oxygen uptake studies on 4-A-3-CP and related anilines by 2-C-4-NA-induced MB-P1 cells demonstrated the involvement of aniline dioxygenase in the second step of 2-C-4-NA degradation. This is the first report showing 2-C-4-NA degradation and elucidation of corresponding metabolic pathway by an aerobic bacterium. PMID:23614030

  14. Differential FoxP2 and FoxP1 expression in a vocal learning nucleus of the developing budgerigar.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Osceola; Voyles, Tawni; Hara, Erina; Chen, Qianqian; White, Stephanie A; Wright, Timothy F

    2015-07-01

    The forkhead domain FOXP2 and FOXP1 transcription factors are implicated in several cognitive disorders with language deficits, notably autism, and thus play a central role in learned vocal motor behavior in humans. Although a similar role for FoxP2 and FoxP1 is proposed for other vertebrate species, including songbirds, the neurodevelopmental expression of these genes are unknown in a species with lifelong vocal learning abilities. Like humans, budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) learn new vocalizations throughout their entire lifetime. Like songbirds, budgerigars have distinct brain nuclei for vocal learning, which include the magnocellular nucleus of the medial striatum (MMSt), a basal ganglia region that is considered developmentally and functionally analogous to Area X in songbirds. Here, we used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to investigate FoxP2 and FoxP1 expression in the MMSt of juvenile and adult budgerigars. We found FoxP2 mRNA and protein expression levels in the MMSt that were lower than the surrounding striatum throughout development and adulthood. In contrast, FoxP1 mRNA and protein had an elevated MMSt/striatum expression ratio as birds matured, regardless of their sex. These results show that life-long vocal plasticity in budgerigars is associated with persistent low-level FoxP2 expression in the budgerigar MMSt, and suggests the possibility that FoxP1 plays an organizational role in the neurodevelopment of vocal motor circuitry. Thus, developmental regulation of the FoxP2 and FoxP1 genes in the basal ganglia appears essential for vocal mimicry in a range of species that possess this relatively rare trait.

  15. Anti-idiotypic Fab Fragments Image a Conserved N-terminal Epitope Patch of Grass Pollen Allergen Phl p 1.

    PubMed

    Lukschal, Anna; Fuhrmann, Jan; Sobanov, Juryj; Neumann, Dirk; Wallmann, Julia; Knittelfelder, Regina; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Scheiner, Otto; Vogel, Monique; Stadler, Beda M; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Szalai, Krisztina

    2011-05-23

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Naturally occurring anti-idiotypic antibodies structurally mimic the original antibody epitope. Anti-idiotypes, therefore, are interesting tools for the portrayal of conformational B-cell epitopes of allergens. In this study we used this strategy particularly for major timothy grass pollen (Phleum pratense) allergen Phl p 1. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a combinatorial phage display library constructed from the peripheral IgG repertoire of a grass pollen allergic patient which was supposed to contain anti-idiotypic Fab specificities. Using purified anti-Phl p 1 IgG for biopanning, several Fab displaying phage clones could be isolated. 100 amplified colonies were screened for their binding capacity to anti-Phl p 1-specific antibodies, finally resulting in four distinct Fab clones according to sequence analysis. Interestingly, heavy chains of all clones derived from the same germ line sequence and showed high homology in their CDRs. Projecting their sequence information on the surface of the natural allergen Phl p 1 (PDB ID: 1N10) indicated matches on the N-terminal domain of the homo-dimeric allergen, including the bridging region between the two monomers. The resulting epitope patches were formed by spatially distant sections of the primary allergen sequence. CONCLUSION: In this study we report that anti-idiotypic specificities towards anti-Phl p 1 IgG, selected from a Fab library of a grass pollen allergic patient, mimic a conformational epitope patch being distinct from a previously reported IgE epitope area. PMID:22318973

  16. Construction and Functional Activities of Chimeric Mouse-Human Immunoglobulin G and Immunoglobulin M Antibodies against the Neisseria meningitidis PorA P1.7 and P1.16 Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Michaelsen, Terje E.; Ihle, Øistein; Beckstrøm, Karen Johanne; Herstad, Tove K.; Kolberg, Jan; Høiby, E. Arne; Aase, Audun

    2003-01-01

    We studied the in vitro protective activities of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG3, and IgM antibodies against group B meningococci by constructing sets of chimeric mouse-human antibodies (chIgG1, chIgG3, and chIgM, respectively) with identical binding regions against the P1.7 and P1.16 epitopes on PorA. This was done by cloning the V genes of three mouse hybridoma antibodies and subsequently transfecting vectors containing the homologous heavy- and light-chain genes into NSO cells. Cell clones secreting intact human chIgG1, chIgG3, or chIgM antibodies originating from three parent mouse antibodies were isolated. The functional affinities appeared to be similar for all human isotypes and surprisingly also for the pentameric chIgM antibody. chIgG1 exhibited greater serum bactericidal activity (SBA) than chIgG3, while chIgG3 was more efficient in inducing a respiratory burst (RB) associated with opsonophagocytosis than chIgG1 was. On the other hand, chIgM exhibited SBA similar to that of chIgG1, but it exhibited much higher RB activity than chIgG3 and chIgG1 exhibited. The antibodies against the P1.16 epitope were more efficient in terms of SBA than the antibodies against the P1.7 epitope were; thus, 10- to 40-fold-lower concentrations of antibodies against P1.16 than of antibodies against P1.7 were needed to induce SBA. On the other hand, antibodies against these epitopes were equally effective in inducing RB. Our results revealed differences in the functional activities of human chIgG1, chIgG3, and chIgM antibodies against meningococci, which might influence their protective effects against meningococcal disease. PMID:14500492

  17. Low-Level Expression of the E1B 20-Kilodalton Protein by Adenovirus 14p1 Enhances Viral Immunopathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Radke, Jay R; Yong, Sherri L; Cook, James L

    2016-01-01

    Adenovirus 14p1 (Ad14p1) is an emergent variant of Ad serotype 14 (Ad14) that has caused increased severity of respiratory illnesses during globally distributed outbreaks, including cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. We found that human cell infection with Ad14p1 results in markedly decreased expression of the E1B 20-kilodalton (20K) protein compared to that with infection with wild-type (wt) Ad14. This reduced Ad14p1 E1B 20K expression caused a loss-of-function phenotype of Ad-infected cell corpses that, in contrast to cells infected with wt Ad14, either failed to repress or increased NF-κB-dependent, proinflammatory cytokine responses of responder human alveolar macrophages. A small-animal model of Ad14-induced lung infection was used to test the translational relevance of these in vitro observations. Intratracheal infection of Syrian hamsters with Ad14p1 caused a marked, patchy bronchopneumonia, whereas hamster infection with wt Ad14 caused minimal peribronchial inflammation. These results suggest that this difference in E1B 20K gene expression during Ad14p1 infection and its modulating effect on the interactions between Ad14-infected cells and the host innate immune response could explain the increased immunopathogenic potential and associated increase in clinical illness in some people infected with the Ad14p1 outbreak strain.IMPORTANCE We previously reported that Ad-infected human cells exhibit E1B 19K-dependent repression of virally induced, NF-κB-dependent macrophage cytokine responses (J. R. Radke, F. Grigera, D. S. Ucker, and J. L. Cook, J Virol 88:2658-2669, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02372-13). The more virulent, emergent strain of Ad14, Ad14p1, causes increased cytopathology in vitro, which suggested a possible E1B 20K defect. Whether there is a linkage between these observations was unknown. We show that there is markedly reduced expression of E1B 20K in Ad14p1-infected human cells and that this causes an increased

  18. Low-Level Expression of the E1B 20-Kilodalton Protein by Adenovirus 14p1 Enhances Viral Immunopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Sherri L.; Cook, James L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adenovirus 14p1 (Ad14p1) is an emergent variant of Ad serotype 14 (Ad14) that has caused increased severity of respiratory illnesses during globally distributed outbreaks, including cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. We found that human cell infection with Ad14p1 results in markedly decreased expression of the E1B 20-kilodalton (20K) protein compared to that with infection with wild-type (wt) Ad14. This reduced Ad14p1 E1B 20K expression caused a loss-of-function phenotype of Ad-infected cell corpses that, in contrast to cells infected with wt Ad14, either failed to repress or increased NF-κB-dependent, proinflammatory cytokine responses of responder human alveolar macrophages. A small-animal model of Ad14-induced lung infection was used to test the translational relevance of these in vitro observations. Intratracheal infection of Syrian hamsters with Ad14p1 caused a marked, patchy bronchopneumonia, whereas hamster infection with wt Ad14 caused minimal peribronchial inflammation. These results suggest that this difference in E1B 20K gene expression during Ad14p1 infection and its modulating effect on the interactions between Ad14-infected cells and the host innate immune response could explain the increased immunopathogenic potential and associated increase in clinical illness in some people infected with the Ad14p1 outbreak strain. IMPORTANCE We previously reported that Ad-infected human cells exhibit E1B 19K-dependent repression of virally induced, NF-κB-dependent macrophage cytokine responses (J. R. Radke, F. Grigera, D. S. Ucker, and J. L. Cook, J Virol 88:2658–2669, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02372-13). The more virulent, emergent strain of Ad14, Ad14p1, causes increased cytopathology in vitro, which suggested a possible E1B 20K defect. Whether there is a linkage between these observations was unknown. We show that there is markedly reduced expression of E1B 20K in Ad14p1-infected human cells and that this causes an

  19. Fractal model of anomalous diffusion.

    PubMed

    Gmachowski, Lech

    2015-12-01

    An equation of motion is derived from fractal analysis of the Brownian particle trajectory in which the asymptotic fractal dimension of the trajectory has a required value. The formula makes it possible to calculate the time dependence of the mean square displacement for both short and long periods when the molecule diffuses anomalously. The anomalous diffusion which occurs after long periods is characterized by two variables, the transport coefficient and the anomalous diffusion exponent. An explicit formula is derived for the transport coefficient, which is related to the diffusion constant, as dependent on the Brownian step time, and the anomalous diffusion exponent. The model makes it possible to deduce anomalous diffusion properties from experimental data obtained even for short time periods and to estimate the transport coefficient in systems for which the diffusion behavior has been investigated. The results were confirmed for both sub and super-diffusion.

  20. Turbo fluid machinery and diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, T.

    1984-01-01

    The general theory behind turbo devices and diffusers is explained. Problems and the state of research on basic equations of flow and experimental and measuring methods are discussed. Conventional centrifugation-type compressor and fan diffusers are considered in detail.

  1. Diffuse UV Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn Henry, Richard; Murthy, J.

    2012-01-01

    The diffuse UV sky is expected to glow with significant amounts of starlight that is scattered from the interstellar dust. The albedo and scattering pattern of the dust in the ultraviolet are both well established, and are both fairly independent of wavelength from 912 Å to 3000 Å. We present 1943 Voyager spectra of the diffuse cosmic background radiation from 500 Å to 1200 Å, and we compare their brightnesses, and their distribution on the sky, to those observed (Murthy et al., ApJ 724, 1389, 2010) from the GALEX mission at longer wavelengths (1530 Å). Significant differences appear, suggesting that background radiation components in addition to dust-scattered starlight may be present in both spectral regions.

  2. Nonlocal electrical diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.; Olivares-Peregrino, V. H.; Benavides-Cruz, M.; Calderón-Ramón, C.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis and modeling of the electrical diffusion equation using the fractional calculus approach. This alternative representation for the current density is expressed in terms of the Caputo derivatives, the order for the space domain is 0<β≤1 and for the time domain is 0<γ≤2. We present solutions for the full fractional equation involving space and time fractional derivatives using numerical methods based on Fourier variable separation. The case with spatial fractional derivatives leads to Levy flight type phenomena, while the time fractional equation is related to sub- or super diffusion. We show that the mathematical concept of fractional derivatives can be useful to understand the behavior of semiconductors, the design of solar panels, electrochemical phenomena and the description of anomalous complex processes.

  3. Diffusion dans les liquides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dianoux, A. J.

    2003-09-01

    Après une brève introduction qui rappelle les concepts détaillés dans le cours de M. Bée, nous présentons un aperçu de trois de nos travaux sur l'étude de la diffusion. Tout d'abord la dynamique de l'eau, dans son état normal ou surfondu, révèle la complexité apportée par le réseau de liaisons hydrogène. Ensuite l'effet du confinement sur la dynamique de l'eau sera étudié dans le cas de la membrane Nafion. Enfin la diffusion dans les phases nématique et smectique A d'un cristal liquide permet d'obtenir la valeur du potentiel qui maintient les couches dans la phase smectique.

  4. Orientability and Diffusion Maps

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Amit; Wu, Hau-tieng

    2010-01-01

    One of the main objectives in the analysis of a high dimensional large data set is to learn its geometric and topological structure. Even though the data itself is parameterized as a point cloud in a high dimensional ambient space ℝp, the correlation between parameters often suggests the “manifold assumption” that the data points are distributed on (or near) a low dimensional Riemannian manifold ℳd embedded in ℝp, with d ≪ p. We introduce an algorithm that determines the orientability of the intrinsic manifold given a sufficiently large number of sampled data points. If the manifold is orientable, then our algorithm also provides an alternative procedure for computing the eigenfunctions of the Laplacian that are important in the diffusion map framework for reducing the dimensionality of the data. If the manifold is non-orientable, then we provide a modified diffusion mapping of its orientable double covering. PMID:21765628

  5. Galactic Diffuse Polarized Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretti, Ettore

    2011-12-01

    Diffuse polarized emission by synchrotron is a key tool to investigate magnetic fields in the Milky Way, particularly the ordered component of the large scale structure. Key observables are the synchrotron emission itself and the RM is by Faraday rotation. In this paper the main properties of the radio polarized diffuse emission and its use to investigate magnetic fields will be reviewed along with our current understanding of the galactic magnetic field and the data sets available. We will then focus on the future perspective discussing RM-synthesis - the new powerful instrument devised to unlock the information encoded in such an emission - and the surveys currently in progress like S-PASS and GMIMS.

  6. Thermal diffusivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gfroerer, Tim; Phillips, Ryan; Rossi, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The tip of a rod is heated with a torch and brought into contact with the center of a metal sheet. A thermal camera is then used to image the temperature profile of the surface as a function of time. The infrared camera is capable of recording radiometric data with 1 mK resolution in nearly 105 pixels, so thermal diffusion can be monitored with unprecedented precision. With a frame rate of approximately 10 Hz, the pace of the data acquisition minimizes the loss of accuracy due to inevitable cooling mechanisms. We report diffusivity constants equal to 1.23 ± 0.06 cm2/s in copper and 0.70 ± 0.05 cm2/s in aluminum. The behavior is modeled with a straightforward but oddly under-utilized one-dimensional finite difference method.

  7. Mass transport by diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, James K.

    1987-01-01

    For the purpose of determining diffusion coefficients as required for electrodeposition studies and other applications, a diaphragm cell and an isothermal water bath were constructed. the calibration of the system is discussed. On the basis of three calibration runs on the diaphram cell, researchers concluded that the cell constant beta equals 0.12 cm -2 . Other calibration runs in progress should permit the cell constant to be determined with an accuracy of one percent.

  8. Peridynamic thermal diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Oterkus, Selda; Madenci, Erdogan; Agwai, Abigail

    2014-05-15

    This study presents the derivation of ordinary state-based peridynamic heat conduction equation based on the Lagrangian formalism. The peridynamic heat conduction parameters are related to those of the classical theory. An explicit time stepping scheme is adopted for numerical solution of various benchmark problems with known solutions. It paves the way for applying the peridynamic theory to other physical fields such as neutronic diffusion and electrical potential distribution.

  9. Random diffusion model.

    PubMed

    Mazenko, Gene F

    2008-09-01

    We study the random diffusion model. This is a continuum model for a conserved scalar density field varphi driven by diffusive dynamics. The interesting feature of the dynamics is that the bare diffusion coefficient D is density dependent. In the simplest case, D=D[over ]+D_{1}deltavarphi , where D[over ] is the constant average diffusion constant. In the case where the driving effective Hamiltonian is quadratic, the model can be treated using perturbation theory in terms of the single nonlinear coupling D1 . We develop perturbation theory to fourth order in D1 . The are two ways of analyzing this perturbation theory. In one approach, developed by Kawasaki, at one-loop order one finds mode-coupling theory with an ergodic-nonergodic transition. An alternative more direct interpretation at one-loop order leads to a slowing down as the nonlinear coupling increases. Eventually one hits a critical coupling where the time decay becomes algebraic. Near this critical coupling a weak peak develops at a wave number well above the peak at q=0 associated with the conservation law. The width of this peak in Fourier space decreases with time and can be identified with a characteristic kinetic length which grows with a power law in time. For stronger coupling the system becomes metastable and then unstable. At two-loop order it is shown that the ergodic-nonergodic transition is not supported. It is demonstrated that the critical properties of the direct approach survive, going to higher order in perturbation theory.

  10. Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baring, Matthew

    2003-04-01

    The process of diffusive acceleration of charged particles in shocked plasmas is widely invoked in astrophysics to account for the ubiquitous presence of signatures of non-thermal relativistic electrons and ions in the universe. This statistical energization mechanism, manifested in turbulent media, was first posited by Enrico Fermi in 1949 to explain the observed cosmic ray population, which exhibits an almost power-law distribution in rigidity. The absence of a momentum scale is a key characteristic of diffusive shock acceleration, and astrophysical systems generally only impose scales at the injection (low energy) and loss (high energy) ends of the particle spectrum. The existence of structure in the cosmic ray spectrum (the "knee") at around 3000 TeV has promoted contentions that there are at least two origins for cosmic rays, a galactic one supplying those up to the knee, and perhaps an extragalactic one that can explain even the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) seen at 1-300 EeV. Accounting for the UHECRs with familiar astrophysical sites of acceleration has historically proven difficult due to the need to assume high magnetic fields in order to reduce the shortest diffusive acceleration timescale, the ion gyroperiod, to meaningful values. Yet active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts remain strong and interesting candidate sources for UHECRs, turning the theoretical focus to relativistic shocks. This review summarizes properties of diffusive shock acceleration that are salient to the issue of UHECR generation. These include spectral indices, anisotropies, acceleration efficencies and timescales, as functions of the shock speed and mean field orientation, and also the degree of field turbulence. Astrophysical sites for UHECR production are also critiqued.

  11. S1P1 Receptor Modulation with Cyclical Recovery from Lymphopenia Ameliorates Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Cabrera, Pedro J.; Cahalan, Stuart M.; Nguyen, Nhan; Sarkisyan, Gor; Leaf, Nora B.; Cameron, Michael D.; Kago, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) therapies modulate T-cell autoimmunity in the central nervous system (CNS) but may exacerbate latent infections. Fingolimod, a nonselective sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist that induces sustained lymphopenia and accumulates in the CNS, represents a new treatment modality for MS. We hypothesized that sustained lymphopenia would not be required for efficacy and that a selective, CNS-penetrant, peripherally short-acting, S1P1 agonist would show full efficacy in a mouse MS model. Using daily treatment with 10 mg/kg 2-(4-(5-(3,4-diethoxyphenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl amino)ethanol (CYM-5442) at the onset of clinical signs in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein MOG35–55- induced experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), we assessed clinical scores, CNS cellular infiltration, demyelination, and gliosis for 12 days with CYM-5442, vehicle, or fingolimod. CYM-5442 levels in CNS and plasma were determined at experiment termination, and blood lymphopenia was measured 3 and 24 h after the last injection. Plasma levels of cytokines were assayed at the end of the protocol. Changes in S1P1-enhanced green fluorescent protein expression on neurons and astrocytes during active EAE and upon CYM-5442 treatment were quantified with flow cytometry and Western blotting by using native-locus enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged S1P1 mice. S1P1 agonism alone reduced pathological features as did fingolimod (maximally lymphopenic throughout), despite full reversal of lymphopenia within each dosing interval. CYM-5442 levels in CNS but not in plasma were sustained. Neuronal and astrocytic S1P1 expression in EAE was suppressed by CYM-5442 treatment, relative to vehicle, and levels of key cytokines, such as interleukin 17A, were also significantly reduced in drug-treated mice. S1P1-selective agonists that induce reversible lymphopenia while persisting in the CNS may be effective MS treatments. PMID:22031473

  12. The activation of P1- and P2-purinoceptors in the guinea-pig left atrium by diadenosine polyphosphates.

    PubMed Central

    Hoyle, C. H.; Ziganshin, A. U.; Pintor, J.; Burnstock, G.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of P1, P2-di(adenosine) pyrophosphate (AP2A), P1, P3-di(adenosine) triphosphate (AP3A), P1,P4-di(adenosine) tetraphosphate (AP4A), P1,P5-di(adenosine) pentaphosphate (AP5A), ATP, alpha, beta-methylene ADP and 2-chloroadenosine (2-ClAd) were examined in the guinea-pig driven left atrium. 2. All these purine compounds except alpha, beta-methylene ADP produced a negative inotropic response with a rank order of potency of: 2-ClAd > > AP2A > or = ATP > or = AP4A = AP3A = AP5A. The EC50 value for 2-ClAd was approximately 1 microM, while those for the remaining compounds were in the range 10 microM-100 microM, alpha, beta-Methylene ADP (10-300 microM), a selective P2Y-purinoceptor agonist, produced a small positive inotropism. 3. The P1-purinoceptor antagonist, 8-para-sulphophenyltheophylline (8-pSPT, 20 microM) caused a right-ward shift in the concentration-response curves for 2-ClAd, ATP and AP2A, but converted the responses of AP3A, AP4A, and AP5A into positive inotropisms. 4. The non-selective P2-purinoceptor antagonist, suramin (300 microM), had no significant effect on the concentration-response curves for 2-ClAd, ATP or AP2A, but significantly antagonized inhibitory responses to AP3A, AP4A and AP5A, and excitatory responses to alpha, beta-methylene ADP. 5. In the presence of 8-pSPT (20 microM), suramin (300 microM) abolished the positive inotropic responses evoked by the dinucleotides. 6. ATP was degraded far more rapidly than any of the dinucleotides, and AP3A was the least stable of the diadenosine compounds. The relative order of stability was AP2A > AP4A = AP5A > AP3A > > ATP. Suramin (300 microM) reduced the rate of degradation of ATP and AP3A by approximately 30%. Suramin had no significant effect on the degradation of AP2A, AP4A or AP5A. 7. It is concluded that the diadenosine polyphosphates cause negative inotropic responses via P1-purinoceptors and a hitherto undefined suramin-sensitive P2-purinoceptor, and that they appear to have positive

  13. Solute diffusion in liquid metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, B. N.

    1973-01-01

    A gas model of diffusion in liquid metals is presented. In this model, ions of liquid metals are assumed to behave like the molecules in a dense gas. Diffusion coefficient of solute is discussed with reference to its mass, ionic size, and pair potential. The model is applied to the case of solute diffusion in liquid silver. An attempt was made to predict diffusion coefficients of solutes with reasonable accuracy.

  14. Percolation of interaction diffusing particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selinger, Robin Blumberg; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1990-01-01

    The connectivity properties of systems of diffusing interacting particles with the blind and myopic diffusion rules are studied. It is found that the blind rule case is equivalent to the lattice gas with J = 0 in all dimensions. The connectivity properties of blind rule diffusion are described by random site percolation due to the fact that the density on neighboring sites is uncorrelated.

  15. Ferrocene labelings as inhibitors and dual electrochemical sensors of human glutathione S-transferase P1-1.

    PubMed

    Martos-Maldonado, Manuel C; Quesada-Soriano, Indalecio; García-Maroto, Federico; Vargas-Berenguel, Antonio; García-Fuentes, Luís

    2012-12-01

    The inhibitory and sensor properties of two ferrocene conjugates, in which the ferrocene and glutathione are linked through a spacer arm of different length and chemical structure, on human Pi glutathione S-transferase, were examined by activity assays, ITC, fluorescence spectroscopy and voltammetry. Such ferrocene conjugates are strong competitive inhibitors of this enzyme with an enhanced binding affinity, the one bearing the longest spacer arm being the most potent inhibitor. Voltammetric measurements showed a strong decrease of the peak current intensity and an increase of the oxidation potential upon binding of ferrocene-glutathione conjugates to GST P1-1 showing that both conjugates can be used as dual electrochemical sensors for GST P1-1.

  16. Coliphage P1-mediated transduction of cloned DNA from Escherichia coli to Myxococcus xanthus: use for complementation and recombinational analyses.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, K A; Zusman, D R

    1983-01-01

    We have found that coliphage P1 can be used to transduce cloned DNA from Escherichia coli to Myxococcus xanthus. Transduction occurred at a high efficiency, and no evidence for DNA restriction was observed. The analysis of the transductants showed that they fall into three general categories: (i) haploid cells which contain portions of the cloned DNA substituted for homologous chromosomal DNA; (ii) heterozygous merodiploids which contain the recombinant plasmid integrated into the chromosome at a region of homology; and (iii) homozygous merodiploids which contain two copies of a portion of the cloned DNA with the loss of the chromosomal copy of the genes. The merodiploids, once formed, are relatively stable. They were used to analyze two genes necessary for aggregation and thus fruiting body formation. P1 transduction also permits the reintroduction and substitution of mutated regions of cloned DNA into M. xanthus for the analysis of the role of the DNA in cellular physiology and development. Images PMID:6305916

  17. Bacteriophage P1 pac sites inserted into the chromosome greatly increase packaging and transduction of Escherichia coli genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haomin; Masters, Millicent

    2014-11-01

    The Escherichia coli bacteriophage P1 packages host chromosome separately from phage DNA, and transfers it to recipient cells at low frequency in a process called generalized transduction. Phage genomes are packaged from concatemers beginning at a specific site, pac. To increase transduction rate, we have inserted pac into the chromosome at up to five equally spaced positions; at least this many are fully tolerated in the absence of P1 infection. A single chromosomal pac greatly increases transduction of downstream markers without decreasing phage yields; 3.5 × as much total chromosomal DNA is packaged. Additional insertions decrease phage yield by > 90% and also decrease phage DNA synthesis, although less dramatically. Packaging of chromosomal markers near to and downstream of each inserted pac site is, at the same time, increased by greater than 10 fold. Transduction of markers near an inserted pac site can be increased by over 1000-fold, potentially allowing identification of such transductants by screening.

  18. Approximation properties of generalized Bochner-Riesz means in the Hardy spaces H{sub p}, 0<p{<=}1

    SciTech Connect

    Kolomoitsev, Yuriy S

    2012-08-31

    A test for the convergence of the generalized spherical and l{sub 1} Bochner-Riesz means in the Hardy spaces H{sub p}(D{sup n}), 0<p{<=}1, is obtained, where D{sup n} is the unit polydisc. Precise orders of the approximation of functions by the generalized l{sub q} Bochner-Riesz means in terms of the K-functional and special moduli of smoothness are found. Bibliography: 31 titles.

  19. Comparative genomics of IncP-1ε plasmids from water environments reveals diverse and unique accessory genetic elements.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cláudia S; Moura, Alexandra; Henriques, Isabel; Brown, Celeste J; Rogers, Linda M; Top, Eva M; Correia, António

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine and compare the complete genome sequences of three new broad-host-range conjugative plasmids. Plasmids pMLUA1, pMLUA3 and pMLUA4 were previously recovered from estuarine water by exogenous plasmid isolation and ranged in size from ∼55 to 59 kb. Comparative genomics showed that their backbone region was identical to the prototype pKJK5 and other IncP1-ε plasmids captured from soils. The accessory region was inserted between the tra region and parA, and presented the typical IncP-1ε ISPa17 and Tn402-like transposon modules. Nevertheless, new class 1 integrons were identified (In794, carrying aadA5 and In795, carrying qacF5-aadA5), as well as a composite transposon IS26-msr(E)-mph(E)-IS26 carrying genes that confer resistance to macrolides. A new insertion sequence, termed ISUnCu17, was also identified on pMLUA3. The architecture of the accessory regions implies the occurrence of multiple insertions and deletions. These data support the notion that IncP-1 plasmids from the ε subgroup are proficient in the capture of diverse genetic elements, including antibiotic resistance genes, and thus may contribute to the co-selection of several resistance determinants. This study constitutes the first report of completely sequenced IncP-1ε plasmids from water environments, and enhances our understanding of the geographic distribution and genetic diversity of these replicons.

  20. The period ratio P1/P2 of torsional Alfvén waves with steady flows in spicules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebadi, H.; Shahmorad, S.; Vasheghani Farahani, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim here is to model the standing torsional oscillations in solar spicules in the presence of density stratification, magnetic field expansion, and steady flows. By implementing cylindrical geometry, the eigenfrequencies, eigenfunctions, and the period ratio P1/P2 of these waves is obtained for finite plasma-β. The shifts created by the steady flow justifies the divergence of the observed period ratio for the first and second periods from the number 2.

  1. Global ocean tides. Part VII. The diurnal principal solar tide (P1), atlas of tidal charts and maps. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwiderski, E.W.

    1981-05-01

    In Part I (Schwiderski, 1978a) of this report, a unique hydrodynamical interpolation technique was introduced, extensively tested, and evaluated in order to compute partial global ocean tides in great detail and with a high degree of accuracy. This novel method has been applied to construct the diurnal principal solar (P1) ocean tide with a relative accuracy of better than 5 cm anywhere in the open oceans. The resulting tidal amplitudes and phases are tabulated on a 1 deg X 1 deg grid system in an atlas of 42 deg X 71 deg overlapping charts covering the whole oceanic globe. A corresponding atlas of global corange and cotidal maps is included to provide the reader with a quick general overview of the major tidal phenomena. The specifying hydrodynamical parameters of the model are listed along with quoted sources of empirical tide data, and significant tidal features are explained and discussed. As expected, since the periods of the diurnal tides P1 (24.07h) and K1 (23.93 h) differ by only 0.14 h, these two tides resemble very closely each other (compare Part IV). Significant differences occur only in regions of rapid tidal variations. Of course, P1 resembles also the diurnal 01 tide but to a visibly lesser degree (see Part V).

  2. A 1.6-Mb P1-based physical map of the Down syndrome region on chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Miki; Suzuki, Kazunobu |; Ichikawa, Hitoshi

    1996-04-01

    The Down Syndrome (DS) region on chromosome 21, which is responsible for the main features of DS such as characteristic facial features, a congenital heart defect, and mental retardation, has been defined by molecular analysis of DS patients with partial trisomy 21. The 2.5-Mb region around the marker D21S55 between D21S17 and ERG in 21q22 is thought to be important, although contributions of other regions cannot be excluded. In this region, we focused on a 1.6-Mb region between a NotI site, LA68 (D21S396, which is mapped distal to D21S17) and ERG, because analysis of a Japanese DS family with partial trisomy 21 revealed that the proximal border of its triplicated region was distal to LA68. We constructed P1 contigs with 46 P1 clones covering more than 95% of the 1.6-Mb region. A high-resolution restriction map using BamHI was also constructed for more details analysis. Our P1 contig map supplements other physical maps previously reported and provides useful materials for further analysis including isolation and sequencing of the DS region. 31 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. The viral capping enzyme nsP1: a novel target for the inhibition of chikungunya virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Delang, L.; Li, C.; Tas, A.; Quérat, G.; Albulescu, I. C.; De Burghgraeve, T.; Guerrero, N. A. Segura; Gigante, A.; Piorkowski, G.; Decroly, E.; Jochmans, D.; Canard, B.; Snijder, E. J.; Pérez-Pérez, M. J.; van Hemert, M. J.; Coutard, B.; Leyssen, P.; Neyts, J.

    2016-01-01

    The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has become a substantial global health threat due to its massive re-emergence, the considerable disease burden and the lack of vaccines or therapeutics. We discovered a novel class of small molecules ([1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-ones) with potent in vitro activity against CHIKV isolates from different geographical regions. Drug-resistant variants were selected and these carried a P34S substitution in non-structural protein 1 (nsP1), the main enzyme involved in alphavirus RNA capping. Biochemical assays using nsP1 of the related Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus revealed that the compounds specifically inhibit the guanylylation of nsP1. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report demonstrating that the alphavirus capping machinery is an excellent antiviral drug target. Considering the lack of options to treat CHIKV infections, this series of compounds with their unique (alphavirus-specific) target offers promise for the development of therapy for CHIKV infections. PMID:27545976

  4. The viral capping enzyme nsP1: a novel target for the inhibition of chikungunya virus infection.

    PubMed

    Delang, L; Li, C; Tas, A; Quérat, G; Albulescu, I C; De Burghgraeve, T; Guerrero, N A Segura; Gigante, A; Piorkowski, G; Decroly, E; Jochmans, D; Canard, B; Snijder, E J; Pérez-Pérez, M J; van Hemert, M J; Coutard, B; Leyssen, P; Neyts, J

    2016-01-01

    The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has become a substantial global health threat due to its massive re-emergence, the considerable disease burden and the lack of vaccines or therapeutics. We discovered a novel class of small molecules ([1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-ones) with potent in vitro activity against CHIKV isolates from different geographical regions. Drug-resistant variants were selected and these carried a P34S substitution in non-structural protein 1 (nsP1), the main enzyme involved in alphavirus RNA capping. Biochemical assays using nsP1 of the related Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus revealed that the compounds specifically inhibit the guanylylation of nsP1. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report demonstrating that the alphavirus capping machinery is an excellent antiviral drug target. Considering the lack of options to treat CHIKV infections, this series of compounds with their unique (alphavirus-specific) target offers promise for the development of therapy for CHIKV infections. PMID:27545976

  5. Particle diffusion in a spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Meyerhofer, D.D.; Levinton, F.M.; Yamada, M.

    1988-01-01

    The local carbon particle diffusion coefficient was measured in the Proto S-1/C spheromak using a test particle injection scheme. When the plasma was not in a force-free Taylor state, and when there were pressure gradients in the plasma, the particle diffusion was five times that predicted by Bohm and was consistent with collisional drift wave diffusion. The diffusion appears to be driven by correlations of the fluctuating electric field and density. During the decay phase of the discharge when the plasma was in the Taylor state, the diffusion coefficient of the carbon was classical. 23 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Influence of ETR-p1/f1 antisense peptide on endothelin-induced constriction in rat renal arcuate arteries

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaochun; Richards, Nicholas T; Johns, Edward J; Kohsaka, Takeo; Nakamura, Akio; Okada, Hidechika

    1997-01-01

    This study set out to examine the endothelin receptor subtypes mediating vasoconstriction in the rat renal arcuate artery. This was done in isolated vessels 120–200 μm in diameter, incubated with a selective agonist and the novel ‘antisense' peptide to part of the human endothelinA receptor. Groups of vessels (n=6) were incubated with increasing concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1), from 1 to 100 nM, which caused a 65% maximal contraction at the highest dose with an pEC50 of 8.16±0.11 M. By contrast, in six other vessels sarafotoxin 6c over the same dose range gave a minimal contraction (around 5% of maximum). Preincubation of six vessels with the antisense peptide ETR p1/f1 at 1 μM had no effect on the ET-1 induced vasoconstriction, in terms of displacement of the concentration-response curve or the maximal tension achieved by the agonist. In the six vessels exposed to 4 μM ETR p1/f1, there was a significant shift of the concentration-response curve and a lower pEC50 at 7.78±0.09 M (P<0.05). At the highest concentrations of ETR p1/f1, there was a marked suppression of all responses to ET-1, which at the maximal concentrations tested, 0.1 μM, only reached some 10% of the maximal achievable contraction. Increasing ET-1 concentrations up to 2 μM in vessels incubated with 40 μM ETR-p1/f1 showed that the blockade could be overcome and that the relationship was shifted to the right (P<0.001) by approximately one log unit with a pEC50 of 7.13±0.11 M. A Schild plot of the data indicated the antagonist to be acting competitively at a single population of receptors. At the highest concentrations tested, 40 μM, ETR-p1/f1 had no effect on noradrenaline-induced contractions, indicating a lack of non-specific actions. Together, these data suggest that at the rat renal arcuate artery the endothelinA receptor is the predominant functional receptor mediating contraction. Furthermore, this study has shown the potential usefulness of this novel

  7. Diffuse, Warm Ionized Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haffner, L. M.

    2002-05-01

    Over the past decade, new high-sensitivity observations have significantly advanced our knowledge of the diffuse, ionized gas in spiral galaxies. This component of the interstellar medium, often referred to as Warm Ionized Medium (WIM) or Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG), plays an important role in the complex stellar-interstellar matter and energy cycle. In examining the distribution and physical properties of this gas, we learn not only about the conditions of the medium but also about processes providing heating and ionization in the halos of spiral galaxies. For the Milky Way, three new Hα surveys are available providing large sky coverage, arc-minute spatial resolution, and the ability to kinematically resolve this prominent optical emission line. These new, global views show that the Warm Ionized Medium of the Galaxy is ubiquitous as previously suspected, is rich with filamentary structure down to current resolution limits, and can be traced into the halo at large distances from the Galactic plane. Observations of additional optical emission lines are beginning to probe the physical conditions of the WIM. Early results suggest variations in the temperature and ionization state of the gas which are not adequately explained by Lyman continuum stellar photoionization alone. In parallel with this intensive work in the Milky Way have been numerous studies about the diffuse, ionized gas in other spiral galaxies. Here, deep, face-on spiral investigations provide some of the best maps of the global DIG distribution in a galaxy and begin to allow a probe of the local link between star formation and the powering of ionized gas. In addition, ionized gas has been traced out to impressive distances (z > 3 kpc) in edge-on spirals, revealing out large-scale changes in the physical conditions and kinematics of galactic halos.

  8. Diffusion in silicon isotope heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Silvestri, Hughes Howland

    2004-05-14

    The simultaneous diffusion of Si and the dopants B, P, and As has been studied by the use of a multilayer structure of isotopically enriched Si. This structure, consisting of 5 pairs of 120 nm thick natural Si and {sup 28}Si enriched layers, enables the observation of {sup 30}Si self-diffusion from the natural layers into the {sup 28}Si enriched layers, as well as dopant diffusion from an implanted source in an amorphous Si cap layer, via Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The dopant diffusion created regions of the multilayer structure that were extrinsic at the diffusion temperatures. In these regions, the Fermi level shift due to the extrinsic condition altered the concentration and charge state of the native defects involved in the diffusion process, which affected the dopant and self-diffusion. The simultaneously recorded diffusion profiles enabled the modeling of the coupled dopant and self-diffusion. From the modeling of the simultaneous diffusion, the dopant diffusion mechanisms, the native defect charge states, and the self- and dopant diffusion coefficients can be determined. This information is necessary to enhance the physical modeling of dopant diffusion in Si. It is of particular interest to the modeling of future electronic Si devices, where the nanometer-scale features have created the need for precise physical models of atomic diffusion in Si. The modeling of the experimental profiles of simultaneous diffusion of B and Si under p-type extrinsic conditions revealed that both species are mediated by neutral and singly, positively charged Si self-interstitials. The diffusion of As and Si under extrinsic n-type conditions yielded a model consisting of the interstitialcy and vacancy mechanisms of diffusion via singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral vacancies. The simultaneous diffusion of P and Si has been modeled on the basis of neutral and singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral and singly positively charged P

  9. Accelerated stochastic diffusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbaczewski, Piotr

    1990-07-01

    We give a purely probabilistic demonstration that all effects of non-random (external, conservative) forces on the diffusion process can be encoded in the Nelson ansatz for the second Newton law. Each random path of the process together with a probabilistic weight carries a phase accumulation (complex valued) weight. Random path summation (integration) of these weights leads to the transition probability density and transition amplitude respectively between two spatial points in a given time interval. The Bohm-Vigier, Fenyes-Nelson-Guerra and Feynman descriptions of the quantum particle behaviours are in fact equivalent.

  10. Turbulent forced diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect

    Arpaci, V.S.; Li, C.Y.

    1995-07-01

    It is the purpose of this study to introduce a turbulent microscale appropriate for forced diffusion flames and to propose models for fuel consumption and skin friction in terms of this scale. The study consists of four sections. Following the introduction, Section 2 recapitulates the laminar theories of reacting boundary layers in terms of dimensional arguments and proposes models for fuel consumption and skin friction. Section 3 extends these arguments by introducing a microscale appropriate for turbulent flames and, in terms of this scale, develops models for fuel consumption and skin friction, correlates the experimental data on skin friction, and Section 4 concludes the study.

  11. Diffusion from solid cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Nestor, C.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The problem considered is the diffusion of material from a solid cylinder initially containng a uniform concentration and immersed in a well-stirred bath which maintains the external concentration at zero. The Fourier-Bessel series form of the fraction of the original material removed from the cylinder as a function of time converges very slowly for small time. An alternate form was obtained, which converges reasonably rapidly for small time. The convergence acceleration method of P. Wynn was also used to provide an efficient method for computation. Numerical examples and program listings are included.

  12. Vapor Diffusion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA and VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham

  13. Vapor Diffusion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham.

  14. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    DOEpatents

    Nierenberg, William A.

    1976-08-10

    1. A diffuser separator apparatus which comprises a plurality of flow channels in a single stage, each of said channels having an inlet port and an outlet port and a constant cross sectional area between said ports, at least a portion of the defining surface of each of said channels being a diffusion separation membrane, and each of said channels having a different cross sectional area, means for connecting said channels in series so that each successive channel of said series has a smaller cross sectional area than the previous channel of said series, a source of gaseous mixture, individual means for flowing said gaseous mixture to the inlet port of each of said channels, gas receiving and analyzing means, individual means for flowing gas passing from each of said outlet ports and means for flowing gas passing through said membranes to said receiving and analyzing means, and individual means for connecting the outlet port of each channel with the inlet port of the channel having the next smaller cross sectional area.

  15. Diffusing obesity myths.

    PubMed

    Ramos Salas, X; Forhan, M; Sharma, A M

    2014-06-01

    Misinformation or myths about obesity can lead to weight bias and obesity stigma. Counteracting myths with facts and evidence has been shown to be effective educational tools to increase an individuals' knowledge about a certain condition and to reduce stigma.The purpose of this study was to identify common obesity myths within the healthcare and public domains and to develop evidence-based counterarguments to diffuse them. An online search of grey literature, media and public health information sources was conducted to identify common obesity myths. A list of 10 obesity myths was developed and reviewed by obesity experts and key opinion leaders. Counterarguments were developed using current research evidence and validated by obesity experts. A survey of obesity experts and health professionals was conducted to determine the usability and potential effectiveness of the myth-fact messages to reduce weight bias. A total of 754 individuals responded to the request to complete the survey. Of those who responded, 464 (61.5%) completed the survey. All 10 obesity myths were identified to be deeply pervasive within Canadian healthcare and public domains. Although the myth-fact messages were endorsed, respondents also indicated that they would likely not be sufficient to reduce weight bias. Diffusing deeply pervasive obesity myths will require multilevel approaches. PMID:25826775

  16. Sampling diffusive transition paths

    SciTech Connect

    F. Miller III, Thomas; Predescu, Cristian

    2006-10-12

    We address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with sampling infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with sampling the coarse features of long paths. The fine-features sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm (FSA), and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. We use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature.

  17. Anisotropic Thermal Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Anisotropic thermal diffusion in magnetized plasmas is an important physical phenomena for a diverse set of physical conditions ranging from astrophysical plasmas to MFE and ICF. Yet numerically simulating this phenomenon accurately poses significant challenges when the computational mesh is misaligned with respect to the magnetic field. Particularly when the temperature gradients are unresolved, one frequently finds entropy violating solutions with heat flowing from cold to hot zones for χ∥ /χ⊥ >=102 which is substantially smaller than the range of interest which can reach 1010 or higher. In this talk we present a new implicit algorithm for solving the anisotropic thermal diffusion equations and demonstrate its characteristics on what has become a fairly standard set of test problems in the literature. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2013-5687A.

  18. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening and medical emergency that can be caused by numerous disorders and presents with hemoptysis, anemia, and diffuse alveolar infiltrates. Early bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is usually required to confirm the diagnosis and rule out infection. Most cases of DAH are caused by capillaritis associated with systemic autoimmune diseases such as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus, but DAH may also result from coagulation disorders, drugs, inhaled toxins, or transplantation. The diagnosis of DAH relies on clinical suspicion combined with laboratory, radiologic, and pathologic findings. Early recognition is crucial, because prompt diagnosis and treatment is necessary for survival. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents remain the gold standard. In patients with DAH, biopsy of involved sites can help to identify the cause and to direct therapy. This article aims to provide a general review of the causes and clinical presentation of DAH and to recommend a diagnostic approach and a management plan for the most common causes. PMID:23678356

  19. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Park, Moo Suk

    2013-04-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening and medical emergency that can be caused by numerous disorders and presents with hemoptysis, anemia, and diffuse alveolar infiltrates. Early bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is usually required to confirm the diagnosis and rule out infection. Most cases of DAH are caused by capillaritis associated with systemic autoimmune diseases such as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus, but DAH may also result from coagulation disorders, drugs, inhaled toxins, or transplantation. The diagnosis of DAH relies on clinical suspicion combined with laboratory, radiologic, and pathologic findings. Early recognition is crucial, because prompt diagnosis and treatment is necessary for survival. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents remain the gold standard. In patients with DAH, biopsy of involved sites can help to identify the cause and to direct therapy. This article aims to provide a general review of the causes and clinical presentation of DAH and to recommend a diagnostic approach and a management plan for the most common causes.

  20. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    It has been reported that the most predominant constituents of coal extract are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Yet the experimental values of diffusivity in ethyl acetate for the most of these materials were not available in the literature. Thus, the diffusion coefficients of some of these materials were measured to increase an understanding of the diffusional behavior of coal macromolecules. In an earlier quarterly report, the authors reported the diffusion coefficients of some model coal molecules determined using their diffusion cell with polycarbonate membranes. Subsequently, they have found that these polycarbonate membranes are semi-permeable to some of the model compounds, so that the measured diffusion flux was greater than that through the pores alone. This extra solute flux could result in over estimation of the diffusion coefficients, therefore, they have now re-measured these diffusivities using polyester, rather than polycarbonate, membranes. The polyester material is not permeable to the solute molecules, except through the open pore area. Thus the only diffusion flux is that through the pores, resulting in correct diffusion coefficients as reported herein. The detailed results are presented in the body of this report. Finally in the last section the authors discuss a slight departure in methodology of some of their earlier planned work. This change will have a positive beneficial impact on the results and speed-up the collection of configurational diffusion data in actual tortuous porous media. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Sucrose diffusion in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Price, Hannah C; Mattsson, Johan; Murray, Benjamin J

    2016-07-28

    The diffusion of sugar in aqueous solution is important both in nature and in technological applications, yet measurements of diffusion coefficients at low water content are scarce. We report directly measured sucrose diffusion coefficients in aqueous solution. Our technique utilises a Raman isotope tracer method to monitor the diffusion of non-deuterated and deuterated sucrose across a boundary between the two aqueous solutions. At a water activity of 0.4 (equivalent to 90 wt% sucrose) at room temperature, the diffusion coefficient of sucrose was determined to be approximately four orders of magnitude smaller than that of water in the same material. Using literature viscosity data, we show that, although inappropriate for the prediction of water diffusion, the Stokes-Einstein equation works well for predicting sucrose diffusion under the conditions studied. As well as providing information of importance to the fundamental understanding of diffusion in binary solutions, these data have technological, pharmaceutical and medical implications, for example in cryopreservation. Moreover, in the atmosphere, slow organic diffusion may have important implications for aerosol growth, chemistry and evaporation, where processes may be limited by the inability of a molecule to diffuse between the bulk and the surface of a particle. PMID:27364512

  2. Sucrose diffusion in aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion of sugar in aqueous solution is important both in nature and in technological applications, yet measurements of diffusion coefficients at low water content are scarce. We report directly measured sucrose diffusion coefficients in aqueous solution. Our technique utilises a Raman isotope tracer method to monitor the diffusion of non-deuterated and deuterated sucrose across a boundary between the two aqueous solutions. At a water activity of 0.4 (equivalent to 90 wt% sucrose) at room temperature, the diffusion coefficient of sucrose was determined to be approximately four orders of magnitude smaller than that of water in the same material. Using literature viscosity data, we show that, although inappropriate for the prediction of water diffusion, the Stokes–Einstein equation works well for predicting sucrose diffusion under the conditions studied. As well as providing information of importance to the fundamental understanding of diffusion in binary solutions, these data have technological, pharmaceutical and medical implications, for example in cryopreservation. Moreover, in the atmosphere, slow organic diffusion may have important implications for aerosol growth, chemistry and evaporation, where processes may be limited by the inability of a molecule to diffuse between the bulk and the surface of a particle. PMID:27364512

  3. The Harrison Diffusion Kinetics Regimes in Solute Grain Boundary Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Belova, Irina; Fiedler, T; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Murch, Prof. Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the limits of the principal Harrison kinetics regimes (Type-A, B and C) for grain boundary diffusion is very important for the correct analysis of the depth profiles in a tracer diffusion experiment. These regimes for self-diffusion have been extensively studied in the past by making use of the phenomenological Lattice Monte Carlo (LMC) method with the result that the limits are now well established. The relationship of those self-diffusion limits to the corresponding ones for solute diffusion in the presence of solute segregation to the grain boundaries remains unclear. In the present study, the influence of solute segregation on the limits is investigated with the LMC method for the well-known parallel grain boundary slab model by showing the equivalence of two diffusion models. It is shown which diffusion parameters are useful for identifying the limits of the Harrison kinetics regimes for solute grain boundary diffusion. It is also shown how the measured segregation factor from the diffusion experiment in the Harrison Type-B kinetics regime may differ from the global segregation factor.

  4. Diffusing Diffusivity: Survival in a Crowded Rearranging and Bounded Domain.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rohit; Sebastian, Kizhakeyil L

    2016-09-01

    We consider a particle diffusing in a bounded, crowded, rearranging medium. The rearrangement happens on a time scale longer than the typical time scale of diffusion of the particle; as a result, effectively, the diffusion coefficient of the particle varies as a stochastic function of time. What is the probability that the particle will survive within the bounded region, given that it is absorbed the first time it hits the boundary of the region in which it diffuses? This question is of great interest in a variety of chemical and biological problems. If the diffusion coefficient is a constant, then analytical solutions for a variety of cases are available in the literature. However, there is no solution available for the case in which the diffusion coefficient is a random function of time. We discuss a class of models for which it is possible to find analytical solutions to the problem. We illustrate the method for a circular, two-dimensional region, but our methods are easy to apply to diffusion in arbitrary dimensions and spherical/rectangular regions. Our solution shows that if the dimension of the region is large, then only the average value of the diffusion coefficient determines the survival probability. However, for smaller-sized regions, one would be able to see the effects of the stochasticity of the diffusion coefficient. We also give generalizations of the results to N dimensions. PMID:27478982

  5. A study of the actions of P1-purinoceptor agonists and antagonists in the mouse vas deferens in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Blakeley, A. G.; Dunn, P. M.; Petersen, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    1. We have examined the effects of purinoceptor agonists and antagonists on the mechanical 'twitch' response, excitatory junction potential (e.j.p.) amplitude and [3H]-noradrenaline overflow in the mouse vas deferens. 2. The agonist profile for inhibition of the mechanical response was N6-([R]-2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine (L-PIA) congruent to N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) greater than 5' N-ethylcarboxamido-adenosine (NECA) greater than 2-chloroadenosine (2ClA) congruent N6-([S]-2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine (D-PIA). 3. The P1-purinoceptor agonists inhibited the e.j.p. with an agonist profile of CHA greater than L-PIA congruent to NECA greater than 2ClA. 4. 2ClA inhibited [3H]-noradrenaline overflow with an EC50 of 1.2 microM which was not significantly different from the values for inhibition of the e.j.p. and the mechanical response. 5. The inhibitory action of 2ClA on the mechanical response was antagonized by 5 microM 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT). However, neither blockade of P1-purinoceptors by 8-PT nor increasing the rate of degradation of endogenous adenosine by addition of adenosine deaminase had any effect on the mechanical response per se. 8-PT (5 microM) also failed to alter the e.j.p. amplitude or [3H]-noradrenaline overflow. 6. These results indicate that there are P1-purinoceptors present on sympathetic nerve terminals of the mouse vas deferens which are more like A1- than A2-receptors, but may be better classified as being of the A3-subtype (Ribeiro & Sebastiao, 1986). These receptors are not normally involved in the feedback regulation of transmitter release in this tissue. PMID:3401642

  6. Facilitation and inhibition in attention: Functional dissociation of pre-stimulus alpha activity, P1, and N1 components.

    PubMed

    Slagter, H A; Prinssen, S; Reteig, L C; Mazaheri, A

    2016-01-15

    Attention--the ability to attend to some things while ignoring others - can be best described as an emergent property of many neural mechanisms, facilitatory and inhibitory, working together to resolve competition for processing resources and control of behavior. Previous EEG and MEG studies examining the neural mechanisms underlying facilitation and inhibition of stimulus processing typically used paradigms requiring alternating shifts of attention in the spatial domain, with stimuli occurring at both attended and unattended locations. These studies generally observed greater pre-stimulus alpha oscillations over task-irrelevant vs. relevant posterior regions and bilateral attentional modulations of early sensory processing. In contrast, in the current series of experiments, participants continuously attended to only one hemifield and stimuli were only presented at the attended location, affording us an opportunity to elucidate the inhibitory and facilitatory effects of attention in the brain in a context in which spatial relevance was fixed. We found that continuous attention to one hemifield did not modulate prestimulus alpha activity in ipsilateral regions but did result in a perfectly lateralized P1 attention effect to ipsilateral posterior regions. Moreover, we found a bilateral N1 effect. These findings suggest that pre-stimulus alpha activity, the P1 and the N1 reflect qualitatively different aspects of attention; While pre-stimulus alpha-band activity may reflect a top-down inhibitory mechanism that critically depends on functional competition between task-relevant and irrelevant sensory regions, the ipsilateral P1 effect may reflect stimulus-triggered blocking of sensory processing in irrelevant networks, and the N1 effect facilitation of task-relevant processing.

  7. Detection of Lewis, P1, and some MNS blood group system antibodies by a solid phase assay.

    PubMed

    Rolih, S; Thomas, R; Sinor, L

    1995-01-01

    Some solid phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) assays are designed to detect IgG antibodies to red blood cell (RBC) antigens. These assays use anti-IgG-coated red cells as the indicator. It is reported that most antibodies to Lea, Leb, P1, M, and N fail to react by solid phase (SP), presumably because they are IgM antibodies. Those detected are assumed to be IgG. In one year, during routine testing using SPRCA to screen patients for intended RBC transfusion, 28 of 59 such examples were found to react: anti-Lea(9), -Leb(1), -M(14), -N(1), and -P1(3). A study was undertaken to determine if reactivity was due to crosslinking by IgM antibodies of antigen-positive indicator RBCs to antigen-positive reagent RBC monolayers, or due to detection of IgG antibodies. Antibodies were tested according to standard SP protocols, except where IgG-neutralized indicator RBCs were substituted for anti-IgG-active indicator cells. The 59 samples were retested with antigen-positive and antigen-negative indicator RBCs. Only 5 of 59 reacted optimally when antigen-positive indicator cells were used: anti-Lea(2), -Leb(1), -M(1), and -N(1). The reactions of all antibodies were abolished when the anti-IgG component of the indicator was neutralized by soluble IgG. These findings show that detection of most Lewis, P1, M, and N antibodies by SPRCA is dependent on the presence of an IgG antibody in the serum.

  8. Design and Synthesis of Novel Arylketo-containing P1-P3 Linked Macro-cyclic BACE-1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sandgren, Veronica; Belda, Oscar; Kvarnström, Ingemar; Lindberg, Jimmy; Samuelsson, Bertil; Dahlgren, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A series of arylketo-containing P1-P3 linked macrocyclic BACE-1 inhibitors were designed, synthesized, and compared with compounds with a previously known and extensively studied corresponding P2 isophthalamide moiety with the aim to improve on permeability whilst retaining the enzyme- and cell-based activities. Several inhibitors displayed substantial increases in Caco-2 cell-based permeability compared to earlier synthesized inhibitors and notably also with retained activities, showing that this approach might yield BACE-1 inhibitors with improved properties. PMID:25937848

  9. Angular distributions and polarization fractions of helium resonance radiation (n 1P - 1 1S) in the extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M. J.; Misakian, M.; Jackson, W. M.; Faris, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Angular intensity distributions of helium (n 1P - 1 1S) resonance photons with respect to the exciting electron beam are presented. The angular intensity distributions were measured at selected electron impact energies from 25 eV (near threshold) to 150 eV. Polarization fractions (Pi) were obtained by analyzing the data in terms of the theoretical relation between angular intensity distribution and Pi, i.e. Iota (theta) = Iota (90) (1 - Pi sq cos theta). The experimental values for Pi are compared with recent theoretical results and with previous experimental values for the (3 1P - 2 1S) transition.

  10. The discharge mode transition and O(5p1) production mechanism of pulsed radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. Y.; Hu, J. T.; Liu, J. H.; Xiong, Z. L.; Liu, D. W.; Lu, X. P.; Shi, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    The discharge mode transition from uniform plasma across the gas gap to the α mode happens at the rising phase of the pulsed radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma (PRF CCP). This transition is attributed to the fast increasing stochastic heating at the edge of sheath. In the second stage with the stable current and voltage amplitude, the consistency between experimental and numerical spatial-temporal 777 nm emission profile suggests that He* and He2* dominate the production of O(5p1) through dissociation and excitation of O2. Finally, the sterilization efficiency of PRF CCP is found to be higher than that of plasma jet.

  11. 31P{1H}NMR and carbonyl force constants of unsymmetrical bidentate phosphine complexes of group (VI) metal carbonyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesu Raj, Joe Gerald; Pathak, Devendra Deo; Kapoor, Pramesh N.

    2015-05-01

    In our present work we report synthesis of an unsymmetrical diphos ligand, 1-diphenylphosphino-2-di-m-tolylphosphinoethane and its coordinate complexes with group (VI) metal carbonyls such as Cr(CO)6 Mo(CO)6 and W(CO)6. The synthesized ligand and its complexes have been completely characterized by elemental analyses, FTIR, 1HNMR, 31P{1H}NMR and FAB mass spectrometry methods. Special emphasis has been given to calculations of carbonyl force constants. Based on the spectroscopic evidences it has been confirmed that these metal carbonyl complexes with the ditertiary phosphine ligand showed cis geometry in their molecular structure.

  12. The effect of doping on magnetic properties of (Fe1-xMnx)2P1-ySiy series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goraus, Jerzy; Hawełek, Lukasz; Włodarczyk, Patryk

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present results of ab initio calculations for the (Fe1-xMnx)2P1-ySiy series, where we investigate the effect of doping on magnetic properties of these materials. Such compounds, which belong to the Fe2 P class of magnetocaloric materials are now extensively studied, due to their potential applications in magnetic cooling. In the hexagonal Fe2 P-type structure, transition metals occupy two inequivalent Wyckoff positions: 3 f and 3 g. We have shown that the preference of occupation of one site by the particular transition metal leads to different dependence of magnetic properties with respect to the total doping effect.

  13. Late-stage optimization of a tercyclic class of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Horan, Joshua C; Kuzmich, Daniel; Liu, Pingrong; DiSalvo, Darren; Lord, John; Mao, Can; Hopkins, Tamara D; Yu, Hui; Harcken, Christian; Betageri, Raj; Hill-Drzewi, Melissa; Patenaude, Lori; Patel, Monica; Fletcher, Kimberly; Terenzzio, Donna; Linehan, Brian; Xia, Heather; Patel, Mita; Studwell, Debbie; Miller, Craig; Hickey, Eugene; Levin, Jeremy I; Smith, Dustin; Kemper, Raymond A; Modis, Louise K; Bannen, Lynne C; Chan, Diva S; Mac, Morrison B; Ng, Stephanie; Wang, Yong; Xu, Wei; Lemieux, René M

    2016-01-15

    Poor solubility and cationic amphiphilic drug-likeness were liabilities identified for a lead series of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 agonists originally developed from a high-throughput screening campaign. This work describes the subsequent optimization of these leads by balancing potency, selectivity, solubility and overall molecular charge. Focused SAR studies revealed favorable structural modifications that, when combined, produced compounds with overall balanced profiles. The low brain exposure observed in rat suggests that these compounds would be best suited for the potential treatment of peripheral autoimmune disorders. PMID:26687487

  14. Characterization of Mn-doped In(1-x)Ga(x)As(y)P(1-y) grown by LPEE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, Shanthi N.; Abul-Fadl, Ali; Collis, Ward J.; Khorrami, Mohammad N.

    1988-01-01

    Mn-doped In(1-x)Ga(x)As(y)P(1-y) epilayers lattice matched to InP substrate have been grown by the liquid phase electroepitaxial (LPEE) technique. The variation of growth velocity of the epilayers with current density and the doping characteristics of Mn in the epilayer has been studied. The temperature dependence of the hole concentration and the mobility has been analyzed to determine the donor and acceptor densities, thermal activation energy of the level associated with Mn and the dominant scattering mechanisms that limit the hole mobility. The photoluminescence spectra of the doped epilayers are examined at 10 K as a function of the excitation level.

  15. A remedy to prevent the P1SA scheme degradation in multidimensional S{sub n} calculations in the presence of material discontinuities

    SciTech Connect

    Voloschenko, A. M.

    2006-07-01

    In the paper a way to prevent the P1 synthetic acceleration (P1SA) scheme degradation in solving small absorption highly heterogeneous (SAHH) multidimensional problems that ensures fast pointwise convergence of the P1SA scheme is discussed. Numerical experiment has shown that the lack of the difference scheme mono-tonicity is the reason of the consistent P1SA scheme degradation in solving SAHH problems. So, improvement of the difference scheme mono-tonicity also improves convergence of the consistent P1SA scheme in solving SAHH problems. In the paper we discuss remedies those improve the difference scheme mono-tonicity without essential degradation in accuracy. We also present results which demonstrate that a suitable choice of the fix-up function in the adaptive weighted diamond difference (AWDD) scheme essentially extends the class of SAHH problems, which can be efficiently accelerated by the consistent P1SA scheme. (authors)

  16. Is anomalous transport diffusive

    SciTech Connect

    Rewoldt, G.

    1989-09-01

    It has often been assumed that the anomalous transport from saturated plasma instabilities is diffusive'' in the sense that the particle flux, {Gamma}, the electron energy flux, q{sub e}, and the ion energy flux, q{sub i}, can be written in forms that are linear in the density gradient, dn/dr, the electron temperature gradient, dT{sub e}/dr, and the ion temperature gradient dT{sub i}/dr. In the simplest form, {Gamma} = {minus} D{sub n}{sup n}(dn/dr), q{sub e} = {minus} D{sub e}{sup e}n(dT{sub e}/dr), and q{sub i} = {minus}D{sub i}{sup i}n(dT{sub i}/dr). A possible generalization of this is to include so-called off-diagonal'' terms, with {Gamma} = nV{sub n} {minus} D{sub n}{sup n}(dn/dr) {minus} D{sub n}{sup e}(n/T{sub e})(dT{sub e}/dr) {minus} D{sub n}{sup i}(n/T{sub i})(dT{sub i}/dr), with corresponding forms for the energy fluxes. Here, general results for the quasilinear particle and energy fluxes, resulting from tokamak linear microinstabilities, are evaluated to assess the relative importance of the diagonal and the off-diagonal terms. A further possible generatlization is to include also contributions to the fluxes from higher powers of the gradients, specifically quadratic'' contributions proportional to (dn/dr){sup 2}, (dn/dr)(dT{sub e}/dr), and so on. A procedure is described for evaluating the corresponding coefficients, and results are presented for illustrative realistic tokamak cases. Qualitatively, it is found that the off-diagonal diffusion coefficients can be as big as the diagonal ones, and that the quadratic terms can be larger than the linear ones. The results thus strongly suggest that the commonly used diffusive'' approximation with only diagonal terms, {Gamma} = {minus}D{sub n}{sup n}(dn/dr), and correspondingly for the energy fluxes, is not adequate in practice. 9 refs., 1 tabs.

  17. Apoplastic diffusion barriers in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Nawrath, Christiane; Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus Benni; Geldner, Niko; Reina-Pinto, José J; Kunst, Ljerka

    2013-12-27

    During the development of Arabidopsis and other land plants, diffusion barriers are formed in the apoplast of specialized tissues within a variety of plant organs. While the cuticle of the epidermis is the primary diffusion barrier in the shoot, the Casparian strips and suberin lamellae of the endodermis and the periderm represent the diffusion barriers in the root. Different classes of molecules contribute to the formation of extracellular diffusion barriers in an organ- and tissue-specific manner. Cutin and wax are the major components of the cuticle, lignin forms the early Casparian strip, and suberin is deposited in the stage II endodermis and the periderm. The current status of our understanding of the relationships between the chemical structure, ultrastructure and physiological functions of plant diffusion barriers is discussed. Specific aspects of the synthesis of diffusion barrier components and protocols that can be used for the assessment of barrier function and important barrier properties are also presented.

  18. Apoplastic Diffusion Barriers in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus Benni; Geldner, Niko; Reina-Pinto, José J.; Kunst, Ljerka

    2013-01-01

    During the development of Arabidopsis and other land plants, diffusion barriers are formed in the apoplast of specialized tissues within a variety of plant organs. While the cuticle of the epidermis is the primary diffusion barrier in the shoot, the Casparian strips and suberin lamellae of the endodermis and the periderm represent the diffusion barriers in the root. Different classes of molecules contribute to the formation of extracellular diffusion barriers in an organ- and tissue-specific manner. Cutin and wax are the major components of the cuticle, lignin forms the early Casparian strip, and suberin is deposited in the stage II endodermis and the periderm. The current status of our understanding of the relationships between the chemical structure, ultrastructure and physiological functions of plant diffusion barriers is discussed. Specific aspects of the synthesis of diffusion barrier components and protocols that can be used for the assessment of barrier function and important barrier properties are also presented. PMID:24465172

  19. Osmosis and diffusion conceptual assessment.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Kathleen M; Williams, Kathy S; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified from the previously published Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test (DODT) and some newly developed items. The ODCA, a validated instrument containing fewer items than the DODT and emphasizing different content areas within the realm of osmosis and diffusion, better aligns with our curriculum. Creation of the ODCA involved removal of six DODT item pairs, modification of another six DODT item pairs, and development of three new item pairs addressing basic osmosis and diffusion concepts. Responses to ODCA items testing the same concepts as the DODT were remarkably similar to responses to the DODT collected from students 15 yr earlier, suggesting that student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis remains elusive.

  20. ZNF300P1 Encodes a lincRNA that regulates cell polarity and is epigenetically silenced in type II epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously identified that the CpG island-associated promoter of the novel lincRNA ZNF300P1 (also known as LOC134466) is frequently hypermethylated and silenced in ovarian cancer tissues. However, the function of ZNF300P1 was unknown. In this report we demonstrate that ZNF300P1 is involved in the regulation of key cell cycle and cell motility networks in human ovarian surface epithelial cells, and may play a role in promoting metastasis in ovarian cancer cells. Methods We applied methylated DNA immunoprecipitation on whole genome promoter tiling arrays and Sequenom assays to examine methylation status of ZNF300P1 in multiple ovarian cancer cell lines, as well as in normal ovarian and ovarian tumor tissues. Transcript profiling was used to investigate the effects of ZNF300P1 suppression in ovarian cancer cells. We utilized siRNA knockdown in normal ovarian surface epithelial cells and performed cellular proliferation, migration and adhesion assays to validate and explore the profiling results. Results We demonstrate that ZNF300P1 is methylated in multiple ovarian cancer cell lines. Loss of ZNF300P1 results in decreased cell proliferation and colony formation. In addition, knockdown of the ZNF300P1 transcript results in aberrant and less persistent migration in wound healing assays due to a loss of cellular polarity. Using an ex vivo peritoneal adhesion assay, we also reveal a role for ZNF300P1 in the attachment of ovarian cancer cells to peritoneal membranes, indicating a potential function of ZNF300P1 expression in metastasis of ovarian cancer cells to sites within the peritoneal cavity. Conclusion Our findings further support ZNF300P1 as frequently methylated in ovarian cancer and reveal a novel function for ZNF300P1 lincRNA expression in regulating cell polarity, motility, and adhesion and loss of expression may contribute to the metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells. PMID:24393131

  1. Fast algorithm for computing a primitive /2 to power p + 1/p-th root of unity in GF/q squared/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.; Miller, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A quick method is described for finding the primitive (2 to power p + 1)p-th root of unity in the Galois field GF(q squared), where q = (2 to power p) - 1 and is known as a Mersenne prime. Determination of this root is necessary to implement complex integer transforms of length (2 to power k) times p over the Galois field, with k varying between 3 and p + 1.

  2. 40 CFR 721.4040 - Glycols, polyethylene-, 3-sulfo-2-hydroxypropyl-p-(1,1,3,3-tetra-methylbutyl)phenyl ether, sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hydroxypropyl-p-(1,1,3,3-tetra-methylbutyl)phenyl ether, sodium salt. 721.4040 Section 721.4040 Protection of...-, 3-sulfo-2-hydroxypropyl-p-(1,1,3,3-tetra-methylbutyl)phenyl ether, sodium salt. (a) Chemical..., polyethylene-, 3-sulfo-2-hydroxypropyl-p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethyl butyl)phenyl ether, sodium salt (P-90-1565)...

  3. Protective efficacy of a Mycoplasma pneumoniae P1C DNA vaccine fused with the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cuiming; Wang, Shiping; Hu, Shihai; Yu, Minjun; Zeng, Yanhua; You, Xiaoxing; Xiao, Jinhong; Wu, Yimou

    2012-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated the immunomodulatory responses of a DNA vaccine constructed by fusing Mycoplasma pneumoniae P1 protein carboxy terminal region (P1C) with the Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit (LTB). BALB/c mice were immunized by intranasal inoculation with control DNAs, the P1C DNA vaccine or the LTB-P1C fusion DNA vaccine. Levels of the anti-M. pneumoniae antibodies and levels of interferon-γ and IL-4 in mice were increased significantly upon inoculation of the LTB-P1C fusion DNA vaccine when compared with the inoculation with P1C DNA vaccine. The LTB-P1C fusion DNA vaccine efficiently enhanced the M. pneumoniae-specific IgA and IgG levels. The IgG2a/IgG1 ratio was significantly higher in bronchoalveolar lavages fluid and sera from mice fusion with LTB and P1C than mice receiving P1C alone. When the mice were challenged intranasally with 10(7) CFU M. pneumoniae strain (M129), the LTB-P1C fusion DNA vaccine conferred significantly better protection than P1C DNA vaccine (P < 0.05), as suggested by the results, such as less inflammation, lower histopathological score values, lower detectable number of M. pneumoniae strain, and lower mortality of challenging from 5 × 10(8) CFU M. pneumoniae. These results indicated that the LTB-P1C fusion DNA vaccine efficiently improved protective efficacy against M. pneumoniae infection and effectively attenuated development of M. pneumoniae in mice.

  4. Light diffusing fiber optic chamber

    DOEpatents

    Maitland, Duncan J.

    2002-01-01

    A light diffusion system for transmitting light to a target area. The light is transmitted in a direction from a proximal end to a distal end by an optical fiber. A diffusing chamber is operatively connected to the optical fiber for transmitting the light from the proximal end to the distal end and transmitting said light to said target area. A plug is operatively connected to the diffusing chamber for increasing the light that is transmitted to the target area.

  5. Diffusion Coefficients in White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saumon, D.; Starrett, C. E.; Daligault, J.

    2015-06-01

    Models of diffusion in white dwarfs universally rely on the coefficients calculated by Paquette et al. (1986). We present new calculations of diffusion coefficients based on an advanced microscopic theory of dense plasmas and a numerical simulation approach that intrinsically accounts for multiple collisions. Our method is validated against a state-of-the-art method and we present results for the diffusion of carbon ions in a helium plasma.

  6. Diffusion in Jammed Particle Packs.

    PubMed

    Bolintineanu, Dan S; Grest, Gary S; Lechman, Jeremy B; Silbert, Leonardo E

    2015-08-21

    Using random walk simulations we explore diffusive transport through monodisperse sphere packings over a range of packing fractions ϕ in the vicinity of the jamming transition at ϕ(c). Various diffusion properties are computed over several orders of magnitude in both time and packing pressure. Two well-separated regimes of normal "Fickian" diffusion, where the mean squared displacement is linear in time, are observed. The first corresponds to diffusion inside individual spheres, while the latter is the long-time bulk diffusion. The intermediate anomalous diffusion regime and the long-time value of the diffusion coefficient are both shown to be controlled by particle contacts, which in turn depend on proximity to ϕ(c). The time required to recover normal diffusion t* scales as (ϕ-ϕ(c))(-0.5) and the long-time diffusivity D(∞)∼(ϕ-ϕ(c))0.5, or D(∞)∼1/t*. It is shown that the distribution of mean first passage times associated with the escape of random walkers between neighboring particles controls both t* and D(∞) in the limit ϕ→ϕ(c).

  7. Enthalpy Diffusion in Multicomponent Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, A W

    2009-01-20

    The conclusions of this paper are: (1) Enthalpy diffusion preserves the second law. (2) Euler solvers will not produce correct temperatures in mixing regions. (3) Navier-Stokes solvers will only produce correct temperatures if q{sub d} is included. (4) Errors from neglecting enthalpy diffusion are most severe when differences in molecular weights are large. (5) In addition to temperature, enthalpy diffusion affects density, dilatation and other fields in subtle ways. (6) Reacting flow simulations that neglect the term are a dubious proposition. (7) Turbulence models for RANS and LES closures should preserve consistency between energy and species diffusion.

  8. Diffusion rates for elevated releases

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1983-11-01

    A search of the literature related to diffusion from elevated sources has determined that an adequate data base exists for use in developing parameterizations for estimating diffusion rates for material released from free standing stacks at nuclear power plants. A review of published data analyses indicates that a new parameterization of horizontal diffusion rates specifically for elevated releases is not likely to significantly change the magnitudes of horizontal diffusion coefficients on the average. However, the uncertainties associated with horizontal diffusion coefficient estimates under any given set of atmospheric conditions could be reduced by a new parameterization. Similarly, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates would be unlikely to significantly alter the magnitudes of diffusion coefficients for unstable atmospheric conditons. However, for neutral and stable atmospheric conditions, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates might increase vertical diffusion coefficients significantly. The increase would move ground-level time-integrated concentration maxima closer to the plant and would increase the maxima. 55 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Diffusion in Jammed Particle Packs.

    PubMed

    Bolintineanu, Dan S; Grest, Gary S; Lechman, Jeremy B; Silbert, Leonardo E

    2015-08-21

    Using random walk simulations we explore diffusive transport through monodisperse sphere packings over a range of packing fractions ϕ in the vicinity of the jamming transition at ϕ(c). Various diffusion properties are computed over several orders of magnitude in both time and packing pressure. Two well-separated regimes of normal "Fickian" diffusion, where the mean squared displacement is linear in time, are observed. The first corresponds to diffusion inside individual spheres, while the latter is the long-time bulk diffusion. The intermediate anomalous diffusion regime and the long-time value of the diffusion coefficient are both shown to be controlled by particle contacts, which in turn depend on proximity to ϕ(c). The time required to recover normal diffusion t* scales as (ϕ-ϕ(c))(-0.5) and the long-time diffusivity D(∞)∼(ϕ-ϕ(c))0.5, or D(∞)∼1/t*. It is shown that the distribution of mean first passage times associated with the escape of random walkers between neighboring particles controls both t* and D(∞) in the limit ϕ→ϕ(c). PMID:26340211

  10. 35S Promoter Methylation in Kanamycin-Resistant Kalanchoe (Kalanchoe pinnata L.) Plants Expressing the Antimicrobial Peptide Cecropin P1 Transgene.

    PubMed

    Shevchuk, T V; Zakharchenko, N S; Tarlachkov, S V; Furs, O V; Dyachenko, O V; Buryanov, Y I

    2016-09-01

    Transgenic kalanchoe plants (Kalanchoe pinnata L.) expressing the antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 gene (cecP1) under the control of the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter and the selective neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene under the control of the nopaline synthase gene promoter were studied. The 35S promoter methylation and the cecropin P1 biosynthesis levels were compared in plants growing on media with and without kanamycin. The low level of active 35S promoter methylation further decreases upon cultivation on kanamycin-containing medium, while cecropin P1 synthesis increases. PMID:27682168

  11. Discovery of Clinical Candidate GSK1842799 As a Selective S1P1 Receptor Agonist (Prodrug) for Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    To develop effective oral treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS), we discovered a series of alkyl-substituted biaryl amino alcohols as selective S1P1 modulators. One exemplar is (S)-2-amino-2-(5-(4-(octyloxy)-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)propan-1-ol (10, GSK1842799). Upon phosphorylation, the compound (10-P) showed subnanomole S1P1 agonist activity with >1000× selectivity over S1P3. The alcohol 10 demonstrated good oral bioavailability and rapid in vivo conversion to 10-P. Dosed orally at 0.1 mg/kg, 10 significantly reduced blood lymphocyte counts 6 h postdose, and at 3 mg/kg, 10 achieved efficacy equivalent to FTY720 in the mouse EAE model of MS. Further pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) study with cynomolgus monkeys indicated that, after oral dosing of 10 at 3.8 mg/kg, the active phosphate reached plasma levels that are comparable to FTY-720 phosphate (FTY-P) revealed in human clinical pharmacokinetics studies. On the basis of the favorable in vitro ADME and in vivo PK/PD properties as well as broad toxicology evaluations, compound 10 (GSK1842799) was selected as a candidate for further clinical development. PMID:24900589

  12. Simulations of symcap and layered NIF experiments with top/bottom laser asymmetry to impose P1 drive on capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, D.; Spears, B.; Casey, D.; Pak, A.; Ma, T.; Izumi, N.; Pollock, B.; Weber, C.; Kritcher, A.; Jones, O.; Milovich, J.; Town, R.; Robey, H.; Hinkel, D.; Callahan, D.; Hatchett, S.; Knauer, J.; Yeamans, C.; Bleuel, D.; Nagel, S.; Hatarik, R.; Khan, S.; Sayre, D.; Caggiano, J.; Grim, G.; Eckart, M.; Fittinghoff, D.; Merrill, F.; Bradley, D.

    2016-05-01

    Integrated hohlraum/capsule post-shot simulation of the first full-scale cryogenic layered-DT experiment with top/bottom laser asymmetries of 8% is discussed. The imposed P1 Legendre mode drive on the capsule results in downward velocity of 85 ± 15 km/s as measured by neutron time of flight (NTOF) diagnostics and x-ray imagers, which is in excellent agreement with the calculated velocity of 87 km/s. The measured DT yield is approximately 30% less than the average of two comparable shots using the same 4 shock HiFoot pulse shape without drive asymmetry. The calculated DT yield of 5.0e15 is very close to the measured value of 4.86e15 for the shot with drive asymmetry, which implies that P1 effects dominate yield reduction. The neutron activation diagnostics (NADs) give clear indication of higher areal density in the direction of the north pole in excellent agreement with calculations. Integrated post-shot simulation of an earlier symcap (capsule with appropriate ablator thicknesses to act as a surrogate for an ignition capsule) experiment with laser asymmetries show that calculated neutron-wighted velocity is a strong function of capsule shape.

  13. Possible evidence for the SIGMA* resonance with J{sup P}=1/2{sup -} around 1380 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jiajun; Dulat, S.; Zou, B. S.

    2010-04-15

    The unquenched quark models predict the new particle SIGMA* with spin-parity J{sup P}=1/2{sup -} and its mass is around the well-established SIGMA*(1385) with J{sup P}=3/2{sup +}. Here, by using the effective Lagrangian approach, we study K{sup -}p->LAMBDApi{sup -}pi{sup +} reaction at the range of LAMBDA*(1520) peak, comparing the resulting total cross section, and pi{sup +}pi{sup -}, LAMBDApi{sup +}, LAMBDApi{sup -} invariant squared mass distributions for various incident K{sup -} momenta, as well as the production angular distribution of the LAMBDA with the data from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber; we find that, apart from the existing resonance SIGMA*(1385) with J{sup P}=3/2{sup +}, there is evidence for possible existence of the new resonance SIGMA* with J{sup P}=1/2{sup -} around 1380 MeV. Higher statistic data on relevant reactions are needed to clarify the situation.

  14. The dark cloud TGU H994 P1 (LDN 1399, LDN 1400, and LDN 1402): Interstellar extinction and distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straižys, V.; Čepas, V.; Boyle, R. P.; Munari, U.; Zdanavičius, J.; Maskoliūnas, M.; Kazlauskas, A.; Zdanavičius, K.

    2016-01-01

    The results of CCD photometry in the seven-colour Vilnius system, for about 1000 stars down to V = 20 mag and their two-dimensional spectral types, are used to investigate the interstellar extinction in a 1.5 square degree area in the direction of the dark cloud TGU H994 P1 (LDN 1399, LDN 1400 and LDN 1402) in Camelopardalis. Photometric classification of 18 brightest stars down to V = 12 mag was verified by the spectra obtained with the 1.22 m telescope of the Asiago Observatory. The interstellar extinction run with distance is investigated with the results of photometry in the Vilnius system, and 504 red clump giants, identified by combining the results of infrared photometry from the 2MASS and WISE surveys. A possible distance of 140 ± 11 pc to the TGU H994 P1 cloud seems to be acceptable. Alternative distances of the cloud are discussed. The complex of the Camelopardalis clouds probably has a considerable depth along the line of sight, similar to that observed in the Taurus-Auriga complex. The maximum extinction AV in the dark filaments is found to be about 6.5 mag. Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/585/A31

  15. A native Zn/Cd pumping P(1B) ATPase from natural overexpression in a hyperaccumulator plant.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Aravind; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Yang, Mingjie; Kroneck, Peter M H; Welte, Wolfram; Lutz, Gabriela; Papoyan, Ashot; Kochian, Leon V; Küpper, Hendrik

    2007-11-01

    We report here the first purification of a P(1B) type ATPase, a group of transporters that occurs in bacteria, plants and animals incl. humans, from a eukaryotic organism in native state. TcHMA4 is a P(1B) type ATPase that is highly expressed in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens and contains a C-terminal 9-histidine repeat. After isolation from roots, we purified TcHMA4 protein via metal affinity chromatography. The purified protein exhibited Cd- and Zn-activated ATPase activity after reconstitution into lipid vesicles, showing that it was in its native state. Gels of crude root extract and of the purified protein revealed TcHMA4-specific bands of about 50 and 60kDa, respectively, while the TcHMA4 mRNA predicts a single protein with a size of 128kDa. This indicates the occurrence of post-translational processing; the properties of the two bands were characterised by their activity and binding properties. PMID:17826738

  16. The Complete Sequence of the Acacia ligulata Chloroplast Genome Reveals a Highly Divergent clpP1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Williams, Anna V; Boykin, Laura M; Howell, Katharine A; Nevill, Paul G; Small, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are a highly diverse angiosperm family that include many agriculturally important species. To date, 21 complete chloroplast genomes have been sequenced from legume crops confined to the Papilionoideae subfamily. Here we report the first chloroplast genome from the Mimosoideae, Acacia ligulata, and compare it to the previously sequenced legume genomes. The A. ligulata chloroplast genome is 174,233 bp in size, comprising inverted repeats of 38,225 bp and single-copy regions of 92,798 bp and 4,985 bp [corrected]. Acacia ligulata lacks the inversion present in many of the Papilionoideae, but is not otherwise significantly different in terms of gene and repeat content. The key feature is its highly divergent clpP1 gene, normally considered essential in chloroplast genomes. In A. ligulata, although transcribed and spliced, it probably encodes a catalytically inactive protein. This study provides a significant resource for further genetic research into Acacia and the Mimosoideae. The divergent clpP1 gene suggests that Acacia will provide an interesting source of information on the evolution and functional diversity of the chloroplast Clp protease complex.

  17. PfeT, a P1B4 -type ATPase, effluxes ferrous iron and protects Bacillus subtilis against iron intoxication.

    PubMed

    Guan, Guohua; Pinochet-Barros, Azul; Gaballa, Ahmed; Patel, Sarju J; Argüello, José M; Helmann, John D

    2015-11-01

    Iron is an essential element for nearly all cells and limited iron availability often restricts growth. However, excess iron can also be deleterious, particularly when cells expressing high affinity iron uptake systems transition to iron rich environments. Bacillus subtilis expresses numerous iron importers, but iron efflux has not been reported. Here, we describe the B. subtilis PfeT protein (formerly YkvW/ZosA) as a P1B4 -type ATPase in the PerR regulon that serves as an Fe(II) efflux pump and protects cells against iron intoxication. Iron and manganese homeostasis in B. subtilis are closely intertwined: a pfeT mutant is iron sensitive, and this sensitivity can be suppressed by low levels of Mn(II). Conversely, a pfeT mutant is more resistant to Mn(II) overload. In vitro, the PfeT ATPase is activated by both Fe(II) and Co(II), although only Fe(II) efflux is physiologically relevant in wild-type cells, and null mutants accumulate elevated levels of intracellular iron. Genetic studies indicate that PfeT together with the ferric uptake repressor (Fur) cooperate to prevent iron intoxication, with iron sequestration by the MrgA mini-ferritin playing a secondary role. Protection against iron toxicity may also be a key role for related P1B4 -type ATPases previously implicated in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:26261021

  18. The Complete Sequence of the Acacia ligulata Chloroplast Genome Reveals a Highly Divergent clpP1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Anna V.; Boykin, Laura M.; Howell, Katharine A.; Nevill, Paul G.; Small, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are a highly diverse angiosperm family that include many agriculturally important species. To date, 21 complete chloroplast genomes have been sequenced from legume crops confined to the Papilionoideae subfamily. Here we report the first chloroplast genome from the Mimosoideae, Acacia ligulata, and compare it to the previously sequenced legume genomes. The A. ligulata chloroplast genome is 158,724 bp in size, comprising inverted repeats of 25,925 bp and single-copy regions of 88,576 bp and 18,298 bp. Acacia ligulata lacks the inversion present in many of the Papilionoideae, but is not otherwise significantly different in terms of gene and repeat content. The key feature is its highly divergent clpP1 gene, normally considered essential in chloroplast genomes. In A. ligulata, although transcribed and spliced, it probably encodes a catalytically inactive protein. This study provides a significant resource for further genetic research into Acacia and the Mimosoideae. The divergent clpP1 gene suggests that Acacia will provide an interesting source of information on the evolution and functional diversity of the chloroplast Clp protease complex. PMID:25955637

  19. Discovery of Clinical Candidate GSK1842799 As a Selective S1P1 Receptor Agonist (Prodrug) for Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hongfeng; Bernier, Sylvie G; Doyle, Elisabeth; Lorusso, Jeanine; Morgan, Barry A; Westlin, William F; Evindar, Ghotas

    2013-10-10

    To develop effective oral treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS), we discovered a series of alkyl-substituted biaryl amino alcohols as selective S1P1 modulators. One exemplar is (S)-2-amino-2-(5-(4-(octyloxy)-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)propan-1-ol (10, GSK1842799). Upon phosphorylation, the compound (10-P) showed subnanomole S1P1 agonist activity with >1000× selectivity over S1P3. The alcohol 10 demonstrated good oral bioavailability and rapid in vivo conversion to 10-P. Dosed orally at 0.1 mg/kg, 10 significantly reduced blood lymphocyte counts 6 h postdose, and at 3 mg/kg, 10 achieved efficacy equivalent to FTY720 in the mouse EAE model of MS. Further pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) study with cynomolgus monkeys indicated that, after oral dosing of 10 at 3.8 mg/kg, the active phosphate reached plasma levels that are comparable to FTY-720 phosphate (FTY-P) revealed in human clinical pharmacokinetics studies. On the basis of the favorable in vitro ADME and in vivo PK/PD properties as well as broad toxicology evaluations, compound 10 (GSK1842799) was selected as a candidate for further clinical development. PMID:24900589

  20. Turing instability in reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemskov, E. P.

    2013-10-01

    The Turing instability is studied in two-component reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear diffusion terms, and the regions in parametric space where Turing patterns can form are determined. The boundaries between super- and subcritical bifurcations are found. Calculations are performed for one-dimensional brusselator and oregonator models.

  1. Turing instability in reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Zemskov, E. P.

    2013-10-15

    The Turing instability is studied in two-component reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear diffusion terms, and the regions in parametric space where Turing patterns can form are determined. The boundaries between super- and subcritical bifurcations are found. Calculations are performed for one-dimensional brusselator and oregonator models.

  2. Speckle in a thick diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Nien-An

    Theory and experiments on speckle generated from a thick diffuser are presented in this thesis. An overview of speckle from a diffuser in a 4F optical processor gives a basic understanding of the speckle formation and properties. The speckle size depends on the F number of the system, while the interior properties of a diffuser are evident in the wavelength dependence of speckle. We then move on to analyzing speckle from a thick diffuser, which is composed of particles embedded in a host medium. Emphasis on the theory is placed on solving for the wavelength decorrelation of speckle in a thick diffuser. A brief overview of the scattering theory for a particle using the Lorenz-Mie theory is included. Then we present a careful analysis of the speckle created by propagation through a thick diffuser. In the analysis we use an angular spectrum approach that is valid in the non-paraxial case together with a decomposition of the thick diffuser into a cascade of many screens. This calculation is well-suited to numerical analysis and an original computer software program has been provided as an Appendix in this thesis. By adding the scattered field from the randomly-located particles on any screen and propagating through a free space between each screen, one can generate a speckled field after going through the whole cascade. The theoretical predictions are summarized and later compared with experimental results on a series of opal milk glass diffusers. In many practical applications it is particularly advantageous to have mild thick diffusers of controllable diffusivity. We have extensively studied a new diffuser series fabricated using polystyrene spheres of various diameters embedded in gelatin. Theory and experiments are in good agreement.

  3. Pre- and Post-Perihelion Observations of C/2009 P1 (Garradd): Evidence for an Oxygen-Rich Heritage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiSanti, Michael A.; Villanueva, G. L.; Paganini, L.; Bonev, B. P.; Keane, J. V.; Meech, K. J.; Mumma, M. J.

    2013-10-01

    We present pre- and post-perihelion observations of Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd), on UT 2011 October 13 (heliocentric distance Rh = 1.83 AU) and 2012 January 8 (Rh = 1.57 AU), respectively, using the high-resolution infrared spectrometer (NIRSPEC) on the Keck II 10-m telescope on Mauna Kea, HI. On October 13, we obtained production rates for nine primary volatiles (native ices): H2O, CO, CH3OH, CH4, C2H6, HCN, C2H2, H2CO, and NH3. On January 8, we obtained production rates for three of these (H2O, CH4, and HCN) and sensitive upper limits for three others (C2H2, H2CO, and NH3). CO was enriched and C2H2 was depleted, yet C2H6 and CH3OH were close to their current mean values as measured in a dominant group of Oort cloud comets. We compare the composition of Garradd with other CO-rich comets C/1999 T1 (McNaught-Hartley), C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake), and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), and with other comets in our database. We discuss possible implications regarding the processing history of its pre-cometary ices. Our measurements of C/2009 P1 indicate consistent pre- and post-perihelion abundance ratios for trace species relative to H2O, suggesting we were measuring a homogeneous composition to the depths sampled in the nucleus. The overall gas production was lower post-perihelion despite its smaller heliocentric distance on January 8. This is qualitatively consistent with other studies of C/2009 P1. On October 13, the water profile showed a pronounced excess towards the Sun-facing hemisphere that was not seen in other molecules nor in the dust continuum. Inter-comparison of profiles from October 13 permitted us to estimate the fraction of all H2O released in the coma and contained within our slit. We attribute this excess H2O to release from relatively pure, water-rich icy grains. Similar evidence for extended release was not observed on January 8 and this, together with its overall lower gas production post-perihelion, suggests loss of one or more active regions on the nucleus

  4. Development Of Primary Volatile Production In Comet C/2009 P1 (garradd) During Its 2011-2012 Apparition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumma, Michael J.; Paganini, L.; Villanueva, G. L.; DiSanti, M. A.; Bonev, B. P.; Boehnhardt, H.; Lippi, M.; Keane, J. V.; Meech, K. J.; Blake, G. A.

    2012-10-01

    We quantified primary volatiles in comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) through pre- and post-perihelion observations acquired during its apparition in 2011-12 [1, 2, 3]. Detected volatiles include H2O, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H6, HCN, NH3, H2CO, and CH3OH. We present production rates and chemical abundance ratios (relative to water) for all species, and 1-D spatial profiles for multiple primary volatiles. We discuss these findings in the context of an emerging taxonomy based on primary volatiles in comets [4]. We used three spectrometer/telescope combinations. On UT 2011 August 7 (Rh 2.4 AU) and September 17-21 (Rh 2.0 AU), we used CRIRES at ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) [1]. On September 8 and 9 (Rh 2.1 AU), we used NIRSPEC at Keck-2 and CSHELL at IRTF [2]. Using NIRSPEC on October 13 and 2012 January 08 (Rh 1.83 and 1.57 AU, respectively), we detected nine primary volatiles pre-perihelion, and six post-perihelion [3]. CO was enriched in Garradd while C2H2 was strongly depleted. C2H6 and CH3OH displayed abundances close to those measured for the majority of Oort cloud comets observed to date. The high fractional abundance of CO identifies comet C/2009 P1 as a CO-rich comet. Spatial profiles revealed notable differences among individual primary species. Given the relatively large heliocentric distance of C/2009 P1, we explored the effect of water not being fully sublimated within our field of view and we identify the “missing” water fraction needed to reconcile the retrieved abundance ratios with the mean values found for “organics-normal” comets. We acknowledge support from NASA’s Postdoctoral, Planetary Atmospheres, Planetary Astronomy, and Astrobiology Programs, and from the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Grants Program. [1] Paganini et al. 2012, ApJ Lett. 748, L13. [2] Villanueva et al. 2012, Icarus 220:291. [3] DiSanti et al. 2012, in prep. [4] Mumma & Charnley 2011, ARAA 49:471.

  5. Diffusion in jammed particle packs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolintineanu, Dan S.; Silbert, Leonardo E.; Grest, Gary S.; Lechman, Jeremy B.

    2015-03-01

    Diffusive transport in jammed particle packs is of interest for a number of applications, as well as being a potential indicator of structural properties near the jamming point. To this end, we report stochastic simulations of equilibrium diffusion through monodisperse sphere packs near the jamming point in the limit of a perfectly insulating surrounding medium. The time dependence of various diffusion properties is resolved over several orders of magnitude. Two time regimes of expected Fickian diffusion are observed, separated by an intermediate regime of anomalous diffusion. This intermediate regime grows as the particle volume fraction approaches the critical jamming transition. The diffusion behavior is fully controlled by the extent of the contacts between neighboring particles, which in turn depend on proximity to the jamming point. In particular, the mean first passage time associated with the escape of random walkers between neighboring particles is shown to control both the time to recover Fickian diffusion and the long time diffusivity. Scaling laws are established that relate these quantities to the difference between the actual and critical jamming volume fractions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under Contract DE- AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Fractional diffusion on bounded domains

    SciTech Connect

    Defterli, Ozlem; D'Elia, Marta; Du, Qiang; Gunzburger, Max Donald; Lehoucq, Richard B.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2015-03-13

    We found that the mathematically correct specification of a fractional differential equation on a bounded domain requires specification of appropriate boundary conditions, or their fractional analogue. In this paper we discuss the application of nonlocal diffusion theory to specify well-posed fractional diffusion equations on bounded domains.

  7. Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S.; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified…

  8. Teaching Diffusion with a Coin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Hamilton; Baldo, Marcus Vinicius Chrysostomo

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an inexpensive and simple way to make students intuitively experience the probabilistic nature and nonorientated motion of diffusing particles. This understanding allows students to realize why diffusion works so well over short distances and becomes increasingly and rapidly less effective as the distances…

  9. Demonstrating Diffusion: Why the Confusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panizzon, Debra Lee

    1998-01-01

    Examines the principles of diffusion and how it may be confused with convection. Suggests that educators may be misleading students and clouding their understanding of the process. Provides two contemporary examples to explain the process of diffusion and how it differs from convection. (Author/CCM)

  10. The Diffusion of New Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Patricia M.

    The life cycle of "new math" is fertile ground for the study of the diffusion of an innovation. New math arrived in 1958 to save the day for America after the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the first successful space flight in 1957. In a period of 16 years an entire diffusion cycle was completed throughout the entire educational system of the…

  11. Thermal diffusivity of diamond films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albin, Sacharia; Winfree, William P.; Crews, B. Scott

    1990-01-01

    A laser pulse technique to measure the thermal diffusivity of diamond films deposited on a silicon substrate is developed. The effective thermal diffusivity of diamond film on silicon was measured by observing the phase and amplitude of the cyclic thermal waves generated by the laser pulses. An analytical model is developed to calculate the effective in-plane (face-parallel) diffusivity of a two layer system. The model is used to reduce the effective thermal diffusivity of the diamond/silicon sample to a value for the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of the diamond film. Phase and amplitude measurements give similar results. The thermal conductivity of the films is found to be better than that of type 1a natural diamond.

  12. Enthalpy Diffusion in Multicomponent Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, A W

    2008-11-12

    The enthalpy diffusion flux in the multicomponent energy equation is a well known yet frequently neglected term. It accounts for energy changes, associated with compositional changes, resulting from species diffusion. Enthalpy diffusion is important in flows where significant mixing occurs between species of dissimilar molecular weight. The term plays a critical role in preventing local violations of the entropy condition. In simulations of nonpremixed combustion, omission of the enthalpy flux can lead to anomalous temperature gradients, which may cause mixing regions to exceed ignition conditions. The term can also play a role in generating acoustic noise in turbulent mixing layers. Euler solvers that rely on numerical diffusion to mix fluids cannot accurately predict the temperature in mixed regions. On the other hand, Navier-Stokes solvers that incorporate enthalpy diffusion can provide much more accurate results.

  13. Heat transfer, diffusion, and evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nusselt, Wilhelm

    1954-01-01

    Although it has long been known that the differential equations of the heat-transfer and diffusion processes are identical, application to technical problems has only recently been made. In 1916 it was shown that the speed of oxidation of the carbon in iron ore depends upon the speed with which the oxygen of the combustion air diffuses through the core of gas surrounding the carbon surface. The identity previously referred to was then used to calculate the amount of oxygen diffusing to the carbon surface on the basis of the heat transfer between the gas stream and the carbon surface. Then in 1921, H. Thoma reversed that procedure; he used diffusion experiments to determine heat-transfer coefficients. Recently Lohrisch has extended this work by experiment. A technically very important application of the identity of heat transfer and diffusion is that of the cooling tower, since in this case both processes occur simultaneously.

  14. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  15. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan™ bags.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Dentoni, Licinia; Capelli, Laura; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is to verify the diffusion rate of ammonia through the Nalophan™ film that constitutes the sampling bag, considering storage times ranging from 1 to 26 h. The ammonia decay over time was evaluated using gas-chromatography for the quantification of ammonia concentration inside the bag. The research assesses the roles of both of ammonia and water concentration gradients at the polymeric film interface on the diffusion process. The results show that both the ammonia concentration gradient and, in a less pronounced way, the water concentration gradient are the main 'engines' of ammonia diffusion. Double bags seem to represent a simple solution for preventing ammonia losses during storage. Another interesting result concerns the role of the bag surface on the ammonia diffusion rate: the higher the surface/volume (S/V) ratio, the higher the ammonia diffusion rate through the polymeric film.

  16. Diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Agnese; Aassve, Arnstein; Lappegård, Trude

    2015-04-01

    The article analyzes the diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation in Norway, using municipality data over a 24-year period (1988-2011). Research has found substantial spatial heterogeneity in this phenomenon but also substantial spatial correlation, and the prevalence of childbearing within cohabitation has increased significantly over time. We consider several theoretical perspectives and implement a spatial panel model that allows accounting for autocorrelation not only on the dependent variable but also on key explanatory variables, and hence identifies the key determinants of diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation across space and over time. We find only partial support for the second demographic transition as a theory able to explain the diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation. Our results show that at least in the first phase of the diffusion (1988-1997), economic difficulties as measured by increased unemployment among men contributed to the diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation. However, the most important driver for childbearing within cohabitation is expansion in education for women.

  17. 7P1/2 hyperfine splitting in 206 , 207 , 209 , 213Fr and the hyperfine anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Gomez, E.; Aubin, S.

    2013-05-01

    We perform precision measurements on francium, the heaviest alkali with no stable isotopes, at the recently commissioned Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF. A combination of RF and optical spectroscopy allows better than 10 ppm (statistical) measurements of the 7P1 / 2 state hyperfine splitting for the isotopes 206 , 207 , 209 , 213Fr, in preparation for weak interaction studies. Together with previous measurements of the ground state hyperfine structure, it is possible to extract the hyperfine anomaly. This is a correction to the point interaction of the nuclear magnetic moment and the electron wavefunction, known as the Bohr Weisskopf effect. Our measurements extend previous measurements to the neutron closed shell isotope (213) as well as further in the neutron deficient isotopes (206, 207). Work supported by NSERC and NRC from Canada, NSF and DOE from USA, CONYACT from Mexico.

  18. Photoassociation spectroscopy of 174 Yb Bose-Einstein Condensate using the 1 S0<-->3 P1 transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Jongchul; Lee, Jeongwon; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Min-Seok; Shin, Yong-Il

    2016-05-01

    We studied the photoassociation spectrum of 174 Yb Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) using an optical Feshbach resonance near the intercombination transition (1 S0 -3 P1, 578 nm). The optical length lopt, which characterize the interaction strength of optical Feshbach resonances, of four least-bound molecular levels (ν' = - 1 ~ - 4) were precisely determined by measuring the two-body loss rate at various optical powers. We also found the parameter η =Γspon /Γmol , which characterizes the enhancement of molecular loss, to be > 1 as in the previous studies. Our BEC apparatus and experimental scheme are also introduced in this presentation. This work was supported by KRISS creative research initiative.

  19. A YAC-, P1, and cosmid-based physical map of the BRCA1 region on chromosome 17q21

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, F.J.; Castilla, L.H.; Brody, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    A familial early-onset breast cancer gene (BRCA1) has been localized to chromosome 17q21. To characterize this region and to aid in the identification of the BRCA1 gene, a physical map of a region of 1.0-1.5 Mb between the EDH17B1 and the PPY loci on chromosome 17q21 was generated. The physical map is composed of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and P1 phage contig with one gap. The majority of the interval has also been converted to a cosmid contig. Twenty-three PCR-based sequence-tagged sites (STSs) were mapped to these contigs, thereby confirming the order and overlap of individual clones. This complex physical map of the BRCA1 region was used to isolate genes by a number of gene identification techniques and to generate transcript maps of the region. 32 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Numerical calculations of photoassociation of cold 85Rb2 molecules to the 1g(5P1 / 2) State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeman, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Data obtained at the University of Connecticut by Jianbing Qi, Dajun Wang, Ye Huang, H. K. Pechkis, E. E. Eyler, P. Gould and W. C. Stwalley in 2003 have been only partially analyzed and assigned. In, transitions observed by Qi et al. to the 0u+ state were presented. Ref. analyzed transitions of 87Rb2 to the 1g(P1 / 2) state, simplified by double spin polarization, observed in the D. Heinzen Laboratory. Transitions to 0g- and 1g levels without double spin polarization are more problematical. This is a preliminary report, based on data obtained by Qi et al. with a dense array of spectral lines, having certain signal:noise limitations. Supported by US NSF.

  1. Cleavage Specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ClpP1P2 Protease and Identification of Novel Peptide Substrates and Boronate Inhibitors with Anti-bacterial Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Akopian, Tatos; Kandror, Olga; Tsu, Christopher; Lai, Jack H.; Wu, Wengen; Liu, Yuxin; Zhao, Peng; Park, Annie; Wolf, Lisa; Dick, Lawrence R.; Rubin, Eric J.; Bachovchin, William; Goldberg, Alfred L.

    2015-01-01

    The ClpP1P2 protease complex is essential for viability in Mycobacteria tuberculosis and is an attractive drug target. Using a fluorogenic tripeptide library (Ac-X3X2X1-aminomethylcoumarin) and by determining specificity constants (kcat/Km), we show that ClpP1P2 prefers Met ≫ Leu > Phe > Ala in the X1 position, basic residues or Trp in the X2 position, and Pro ≫ Ala > Trp in the X3 position. We identified peptide substrates that are hydrolyzed up to 1000 times faster than the standard ClpP substrate. These positional preferences were consistent with cleavage sites in the protein GFPssrA by ClpXP1P2. Studies of ClpP1P2 with inactive ClpP1 or ClpP2 indicated that ClpP1 was responsible for nearly all the peptidase activity, whereas both ClpP1 and ClpP2 contributed to protein degradation. Substrate-based peptide boronates were synthesized that inhibit ClpP1P2 peptidase activity in the submicromolar range. Some of them inhibited the growth of Mtb cells in the low micromolar range indicating that cleavage specificity of Mtb ClpP1P2 can be used to design novel anti-bacterial agents. PMID:25759383

  2. Regulation of the clpP1clpP2 operon by the pleiotropic regulator AdpA in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Guyet, Aurélie; Gominet, Myriam; Benaroudj, Nadia; Mazodier, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Insertion of an apramycin resistance cassette in the clpP1clpP2 operon (encoding the ClpP1 and ClpP2 peptidase subunits) affects morphological and physiological differentiation of Streptomyces lividans. Another key factor controlling Streptomyces differentiation is the pleiotropic transcriptional regulator AdpA. We have identified a spontaneous missense mutation (-1 frameshift) in the adpA (bldH) open reading frame in a clpP1clpP2 mutant that led to the synthesis of a non-functional AdpA protein. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that AdpA bound directly to clpP1clpP2 promoter region. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that AdpA regulated the clpP1clpP2 operon expression at specific growth times. In vitro, AdpA and ClgR, a transcriptional activator of clpP1clpP2 operon and other genes, were able to bind simultaneously to clpP1 promoter, which suggests that AdpA binding to clpP1 promoter did not affect that of ClgR. This study allowed to uncover an interplay between the ClpP peptidases and AdpA in S. lividans.

  3. Functional dissection of the ParB homologue (KorB) from IncP-1 plasmid RK2

    PubMed Central

    Lukaszewicz, M.; Kostelidou, K.; Bartosik, A. A.; Cooke, G. D.; Thomas, C. M.; Jagura-Burdzy, G.

    2002-01-01

    Active partitioning of low-copy number plasmids requires two proteins belonging to the ParA and ParB families and a cis-acting site which ParB acts upon. Active separation of clusters of plasmid molecules to the defined locations in the cell before cell division ensures stable inheritance of the plasmids. The central control operon of IncP-1 plasmids codes for regulatory proteins involved in the global transcriptional control of operons for vegetative replication, stable maintenance and conjugative transfer. Two of these proteins, IncC and KorB, also play a role in active partitioning, as the ParA and ParB homologues, respectively. Here we describe mapping the regions in KorB responsible for four of its different functions: dimerisation, DNA binding, repression of transcription and interaction with IncC. For DNA binding, amino acids E151 to T218 are essential, while repression depends not only on DNA binding but, additionally, on the adjacent region amino acids T218 to R255. The C-terminus of KorB is the main dimerisation domain but a secondary oligomerisation region is located centrally in the region from amino acid I174 to T218. Using three different methods (potentiation of transcriptional repression, potentiation of DNA binding and activation in the yeast two-hybrid system) we identify this region as also responsible for interactions with IncC. This IncC–KorB contact differs in location from the ParA–ParB/SopA–SopB interactions in P1/F but is similar to these systems in lying close to a masked oligomerisation determinant. PMID:11842117

  4. Blood Group Antigens C, Lub and P1 May Have a Role in HIV Infection in Africans

    PubMed Central

    Motswaledi, Modisa Sekhamo; Kasvosve, Ishmael; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi Omoniyi

    2016-01-01

    Background Botswana is among the world’s countries with the highest rates of HIV infection. It is not known whether or not this susceptibility to infection is due to genetic factors in the population. Accumulating evidence, however, points to the role of erythrocytes as potential mediators of infection. We therefore sought to establish the role, if any, of some erythrocyte antigens in HIV infection in a cross-section of the population. Methods 348 (346 HIV-negative and 2 HIV-positive) samples were obtained from the National Blood Transfusion Service as residual samples, while 194 HIV-positive samples were obtained from the Botswana-Harvard HIV Reference Laboratory. Samples were grouped for twenty three antigens. Chi-square or Fischer Exact analyses were used to compare the frequencies of the antigens in the two groups. A stepwise, binary logistic regression was used to study the interaction of the various antigens in the light of HIV-status. Results The Rh antigens C and E were associated with HIV-negative status, while blood group Jka, P1 and Lub were associated with HIV-positive status. A stepwise binary logistic regression analysis yielded group C as the most significant protective blood group while Lub and P1 were associated with significantly higher odds ratio in favor of HIV-infection. The lower-risk-associated group C was significantly lower in Africans compared to published data for Caucasians and might partially explain the difference in susceptibility to HIV-1. Conclusion The most influential antigen C, which also appears to be protective, is significantly lower in Africans than published data for Caucasians or Asians. On the other hand, there appear to be multiple antigens associated with increased risk that may override the protective role of C. A study of the distribution of these antigens in other populations may shed light on their roles in the HIV pandemic. PMID:26900853

  5. CIGS P1, P2, P3 Scribing Processes using a Pulse Programmable Industrial Fiber Laser: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Rekow, M.; Murison, R.; Panarello, T.; Dunsky, C.; Dinkel, C.; Nikumb, S.; Pern, F. J.; Mansfield, L.

    2010-10-01

    We describe a novel set of laser processes for the CIGS P1, P2 and P3 scribing steps, the development of which has been enabled by a unique pulse-programmable fiber laser. We find that the unique pulse control properties of this 1064 nm wavelength laser have significant effects on the material removal dynamics of the various film layers in the CIGS material system. In the case of the P2 and P3 processes, the shaped pulses create new laser/material interaction effects that permit the material to be cleanly and precisely removed with zero Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) at the edges of the scribe. The new P2 and P3 processes we describe demonstrate the first use of infrared nanosecond laser pulses that eliminate the HAZ and the consequent localized compositional changes in the CIGS absorber material that result in poor shunt resistance. SEM micrographs and EDX compositional scans are presented. For the P1 scribe, we process the bi-layer molybdenum from the film side as well as through the glass substrate. Microscopic inspection and compositional analysis of the scribe lines are not sufficient to determine electrical and optical performance in working PV modules. Therefore, to demonstrate the applicability of the infrared pulse-programmable laser to all three scribing processes for thin-film CIGS, we fabricate small-size multiple-cell monolithically interconnected mini-modules in partnership with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Golden, Colorado). A total of four mini-modules are produced, two utilizing all laser scribing, and two with the P2 and P3 steps mechanically scribed (by a third party) for reference. Mini-module performance data measured at NREL is presented, and we also discuss the commercialization potential of the new single-laser CIGS scribing process. Finally we present a phenomenological model to describe this physics underlying this novel ablation process.

  6. Evidence that the P1-purinoceptor in the guinea-pig taenia coli is an A2-subtype.

    PubMed Central

    Burnstock, G.; Hills, J. M.; Hoyle, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), L-NECA, 2-chloroadenosine, N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (L-PIA and D-PIA), cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), and adenosine were examined on the guinea-pig taenia coli. All the analogues except L-NECA caused relaxations; the order of potency for the series was: NECA greater than 2-chloroadenosine greater than L-PIA greater than CHA greater than D-PIA greater than adenosine. L-PIA was twice as potent as D-PIA in inducing relaxations of the guinea-pig taenia coli. Adenosine and its analogues that induce relaxation all caused a slow membrane hyperpolarization; differences in the rates of hyperpolarization and latencies were apparent, although not statistically significant. The duration of the response to adenosine was significantly less than that for any adenosine analogue. Ion studies, using the sucrose gap, revealed that responses to the analogues were attenuated in elevated extracellular potassium or reduced extracellular chloride. 8-Phenyltheophylline, a potent P1-purinoceptor antagonist, caused a rightward shift of all the adenosine and analogue concentration-response curves. Dipyridamole, an adenosine uptake inhibitor, potentiated the relaxations to adenosine but had no significant effect on the relaxations induced by the analogues. It is concluded that NECA, 2-chloroadenosine, L-PIA, CHA, D-PIA and adenosine mediate their relaxant effects via an extracellular P1-purinoceptor which displays characteristics of the A2-subtype as determined by the rank order of agonist potency. Electrophysiological analysis of the responses to each of the analogues did not reveal any marked differences in the modes of action even between NECA and L-PIA (preferential A2- and A1-receptor agonists, respectively). PMID:6320941

  7. Diffusion in membranes: Toward a two-dimensional diffusion map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toppozini, Laura; Garcia-Sakai, Victoria; Bewley, Robert; Dalgliesh, Robert; Perring, Toby; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, quasi-elastic neutron scattering has been the prime tool for studying molecular diffusion in membranes over relevant nanometer distances. These experiments are essential to our current understanding of molecular dynamics of lipids, proteins and membrane-active molecules. Recently, we presented experimental evidence from X-ray diffraction and quasi-elastic neutron scattering demonstrating that ethanol enhances the permeability of membranes. At the QENS 2014/WINS 2014 conference we presented a novel technique to measure diffusion across membranes employing 2-dimensional quasi-elastic neutron scattering. We present results from our preliminary analysis of an experiment on the cold neutron multi-chopper spectrometer LET at ISIS, where we studied the self-diffusion of water molecules along lipid membranes and have the possibility of studying the diffusion in membranes. By preparing highly oriented membrane stacks and aligning them horizontally in the spectrometer, our aim is to distinguish between lateral and transmembrane diffusion. Diffusion may also be measured at different locations in the membranes, such as the water layer and the hydrocarbon membrane core. With a complete analysis of the data, 2-dimensional mapping will enable us to determine diffusion channels of water and ethanol molecules to quantitatively determine nanoscale membrane permeability.

  8. Diffusion with optimal resetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Martin R.; Majumdar, Satya N.

    2011-10-01

    We consider the mean time to absorption by an absorbing target of a diffusive particle with the addition of a process whereby the particle is reset to its initial position with rate r. We consider several generalizations of the model of Evans and Majumdar (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett.106 160601): (i) a space-dependent resetting rate r(x); (ii) resetting to a random position z drawn from a resetting distribution { P}(z); and (iii) a spatial distribution for the absorbing target PT(x). As an example of (i) we show that the introduction of a non-resetting window around the initial position can reduce the mean time to absorption provided that the initial position is sufficiently far from the target. We address the problem of optimal resetting, that is, minimizing the mean time to absorption for a given target distribution. For an exponentially decaying target distribution centred at the origin we show that a transition in the optimal resetting distribution occurs as the target distribution narrows.

  9. Photoacoustic thermal diffusion flowmetry

    PubMed Central

    Sheinfeld, Adi; Eyal, Avishay

    2012-01-01

    Thermal Diffusion Flowmetry (TDF) (also called Heat Clearance Method or Thermal Clearance Method) is a longstanding technique for measuring blood flow or blood perfusion in living tissues. Typically, temperature transients and/or gradients are induced in a volume of interest and the temporal and/or spatial temperature variations which follow are measured and used for calculation of the flow. In this work a new method for implementing TDF is studied theoretically and experimentally. The heat deposition which is required for TDF is implemented photothermally (PT) and the measurement of the induced temperature variations is done by photoacoustic (PA) thermometry. Both excitation light beams (the PT and the PA) are produced by directly modulated 830 nm laser diodes and are conveniently delivered to the volume under test by the same optical fiber. The method was tested experimentally using a blood-filled phantom vessel and the results were compared with a theoretical prediction based on the heat and the photoacoustic equations. The fitting of a simplified lumped thermal model to the experimental data yielded estimated values of the blood velocity at different flow rates. By combining additional optical sources at different wavelengths it will be possible to utilize the method for non-invasive simultaneous measurement of blood flow and oxygen saturation using a single fiber probe. PMID:22574267

  10. Diffuse gamma radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Simpson, G. A.; Thompson, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    An examination of the intensity, energy spectrum, and spatial distribution of the diffuse gamma-radiation observed by SAS-2 satellite away from the galactic plane in the energy range above 35 MeV has shown that it consists of two components. One component is generally correlated with galactic latitudes, the atomic hydrogen column density was deduced from 21 cm measurements, and the continuum radio emission, believed to be synchrotron emission. It has an energy spectrum similar to that in the plane and joins smoothly to the intense radiation from the plane. It is therefore presumed to be of galactic origin. The other component is apparently isotropic, at least on a coarse scale, and has a steep energy spectrum. No evidence is found for a cosmic ray halo surrounding the galaxy in the shape of a sphere or oblate spheroid with galactic dimensions. Constraints for a halo model with significantly larger dimensions are set on the basis of an upper limit to the gamma-ray anisotropy.

  11. Diffuse Microwave Emission Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, R. A.; Mather, J.; Kogut, A.; Fixsen, D. J.; Seiffert, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Levin, S. M.

    1996-12-01

    The Diffuse Microwave Emission Survey (DIMES) is a mission concept selected by NASA in 1995 to answer fundamental questions about the content and history of the universe. DIMES will use a set of absolutely calibrated cryogenic radiometers from a space platform to measure the frequency spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at wavelengths 15--0.3 cm (frequency 2--100 GHz) to precision 0.1 mK or better. Measurements at centimeter wavelengths probe different physical processes than the COBE-FIRAS spectra at shorter wavelengths, and complement the anisotropy measurements from DMR, balloon and ground-based instruments, and the planned MAP and COBRAS/SAMBA satellites. DIMES will observe the free-free signal from early photoionization to establish the precise epoch of structure formation, and will measure or limit energy release at redshift 10(4) < z < 10(7) by measuring the chemical potential distortion of the CMB spectrum. Both are likely under current cosmological theory and allowed by current measurement limits; even an upper limit at the expected sensitivity 10(-5) MJy/sr will place important constraints on the matter content, structure, and evolution of the universe. Detecting these distortions or showing that they do not exist constitutes the last frontier of CMB observations.

  12. Handheld Diffusion Test Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This photo shows the Handheld Diffusion Test Cell (HH-DTC) apparatus flown on the Space Shuttle. Similar cells (inside the plastic box) will be used in the Observable Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus (OPCGA) to be operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The principal investigator is Dr. Alex McPherson of the University of California, Irvine. Each individual cell comprises two sample chambers with a rotating center section that isolates the two from each other until the start of the experiment and after it is completed. The cells are made from optical-quality quartz glass to allow photography and interferometric observations. Each cell has a small light-emitting diode and lens to back-light the solution. In protein crystal growth experiments, a precipitating agent such as a salt solution is used to absorb and hold water but repel the protein molecules. This increases the concentration of protein until the molecules nucleate to form crystals. This cell is one of 96 that make up the experiment module portion of the OPCGA.

  13. Handheld Diffusion Test Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This photo shows an individual cell from the Handheld Diffusion Test Cell (HH-DTC) apparatus flown on the Space Shuttle. Similar cells will be used in the Observable Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus (OPCGA) to be operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The principal investigator is Dr. Alex McPherson of the University of California, Irvine. Each individual cell comprises two sample chambers with a rotating center section that isolates the two from each other until the start of the experiment and after it is completed. The cells are made from optical-quality quartz glass to allow photography and interferometric observations. Each cell has a small light-emitting diode and lens to back-light the solution. In protein crystal growth experiments, a precipitating agent such as a salt solution is used to absorb and hold water but repel the protein molecules. This increases the concentration of protein until the molecules nucleate to form crystals. This cell is one of 96 that make up the experiment module portion of the OPCGA.

  14. A neutralizing recombinant single chain antibody, scFv, against BaP1, A P-I hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper snake venom.

    PubMed

    Castro, J M A; Oliveira, T S; Silveira, C R F; Caporrino, M C; Rodriguez, D; Moura-da-Silva, A M; Ramos, O H P; Rucavado, A; Gutiérrez, J M; Magalhães, G S; Faquim-Mauro, E L; Fernandes, I

    2014-09-01

    BaP1 is a P-I class snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP) relevant in the local tissue damage associated with envenomings by Bothrops asper, a medically important snake species in Central America and parts of South and North America. The main treatment for these accidents is the passive immunotherapy using antibodies raised in horses. In order to obtain more specific and batch-to-batch consistent antivenons, recombinant antibodies are considered a good option compared to animal immunization. We constructed a recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) from a monoclonal antibody against BaP1 (MABaP1) formerly secreted by a hybridoma clone. This recombinant antibody was cloned into pMST3 vector in fusion with SUMO protein and contains VH and VL domains linked by a flexible (G4S)3 polypeptide (scFvBaP1). The aim of this work was to produce scFvBaP1 and to evaluate its potential concerning the neutralization of biologically important activities of BaP1. The cytoplasmic expression of this construct was successfully achieved in C43 (DE3) bacteria. Our results showed that scFvBaP1-SUMO fusion protein presented an electrophoretic band of around 43 kDa from which SUMO alone corresponded to 13.6 kDa, and only the scFv was able to recognize BaP1 as well as the whole venom by ELISA. In contrast, neither an irrelevant scFv anti-LDL nor its MoAb partner recognized it. BaP1-induced fibrinolysis was significantly neutralized by scFvBaP1, but not by SUMO, in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, scFvBaP1, as well as MaBaP1, completely neutralized in vivo hemorrhage, muscle necrosis, and inflammation induced by the toxin. Docking analyses revealed possible modes of interaction of the recombinant antibody with BaP1. Our data showed that scFv recognized BaP1 and whole B. asper venom, and neutralized biological effects of this SVMP. This scFv antibody can be used for understanding the molecular mechanisms of neutralization of SVMPs, and for exploring the potential of

  15. A marine inducible prophage vB_CibM-P1 isolated from the aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Citromicrobium bathyomarinum JL354

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qiang; Zhang, Rui; Xu, Yongle; , Richard Allen White, III; Wang, Yu; Luo, Tingwei; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2014-11-01

    A prophage vB_CibM-P1 was induced by mitomycin C from the epipelagic strain Citromicrobium bathyomarinum JL354, a member of the alpha-IV subcluster of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB). The induced bacteriophage vB_CibM-P1 had Myoviridae-like morphology and polyhedral heads (approximately capsid 60-100 nm) with tail fibers. The vB_CibM-P1 genome is ~38 kb in size, with 66.0% GC content. The genome contains 58 proposed open reading frames that are involved in integration, DNA packaging, morphogenesis and bacterial lysis. VB_CibM-P1 is a temperate phage that can be directly induced in hosts. In response to mitomycin C induction, virus-like particles can increase to 7 × 109 per ml, while host cells decrease an order of magnitude. The vB_CibM-P1 bacteriophage is the first inducible prophage from AAPB.

  16. The ATCA REXCESS Diffuse Emission Survey (ARDES) - I. Detection of a giant radio halo and a likely radio relic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakouri, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Pratt, G. W.

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of the radio halo survey of 16 REXCESS southern clusters up to a redshift of 0.2 with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 1.4 and 2.1 GHz. This cluster sample called the ATCA REXCESS Diffuse Emission Survey (ARDES) includes clusters in a wide range of X-ray luminosities and is morphologically unbiased. We find two diffuse radio sources in the clusters RXCJ2234.5-3744 (Abell 3888) and RXCJ0225.1-2928. The diffuse radio emission in RXCJ2234.5-3744 is a giant radio halo and the diffuse emission in RXCJ0225.1-2928 is a peculiar radio relic candidate. The radio halo has a spectral index of α = -1.48 ± 0.14 and the K-corrected P1.4 is 1.9 ± 0.2 × 1024 W Hz-1. The properties of the detected halo are consistent with both the current P1.4-LX and P1.4-YSZ correlations. The putative radio relic is located approximately 1 Mpc from the cluster in a filament and has a physical extent of 346 ± 20 kpc and a power of P1.4 = 3.3 ± 0.8 × 1023 W Hz-1, which places it in the lower power region of currently known relics.

  17. Transdermal diffusion of xenon in vitro using diffusion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhovsky, A.; Petrov, E.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this research was to study the diffusion rate of xenon through guinea pig skin and how viscosity of cosmetic component capryl/capric triglyceride (CCT) facilitates to deliver xenon to surface of skin patches. They were placed in Franz cell for 24 hours and diffusion rate and permeability of xenon were calculated. Thus diffusion rate was 0.031 mg/hour*cm2 and permeability was 0.003 cm/hour. Using Brookfield viscometer it was shown that viscosity of CCT decreased upon increasing xenon concentration. Obtained results can be utilized in developing of new xenon containing drugs for topical administration.

  18. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1) is expressed by lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and endothelium and modulated during inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Karuppuchamy, Thangaraj; Behrens, En-hui; González-Cabrera, Pedro; Sarkisyan, Gor; Gima, Lauren; Boyer, Joshua D.; Bamias, Giorgos; Jedlicka, Paul; Veny, Marisol; Clark, David; Peach, Robert; Scott, Fiona; Rosen, Hugh; Rivera-Nieves, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1) agonist ozanimod ameliorates ulcerative colitis, yet its mechanism of action is unknown. Here we examine the cell subsets that express S1P1 in intestine using S1P1-eGFP mice, the regulation of S1P1 expression in lymphocytes after administration of DSS, after colitis induced by transfer of CD4+CD45RBhi cells and by crossing a mouse with TNF-driven ileitis with S1P1-eGFP mice. We then assayed the expression of enzymes that regulate intestinal S1P levels, and the effect of FTY720 on lymphocyte behavior and S1P1 expression. We found that not only T and B cells express S1P1, but also dendritic (DC) and endothelial cells. Furthermore, chronic but not acute inflammatory signals increased S1P1 expression, while the enzymes that control tissue S1P levels in mice and humans with IBD were uniformly dysregulated, favoring synthesis over degradation. Finally, we observed that FTY720 reduced T cell velocity and induced S1P1 degradation and retention of naïve but not effector T cells. Our data demonstrate that chronic inflammation modulates S1P1 expression and tissue S1P levels and suggests that the anti-inflammatory properties of S1PR agonists might not be solely due to their lymphopenic effects, but also due to potential effects on DC migration and vascular barrier function. PMID:27049060

  19. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Induces Dose-Dependent Chemotaxis or Fugetaxis of T-ALL Blasts through S1P1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Messias, Carolina V.; Santana-Van-Vliet, Eliane; Lemos, Julia P.; Moreira, Otacilio C.; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinicius; Savino, Wilson; Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Arêas

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in several physiological processes including cell migration and differentiation. S1P signaling is mediated through five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-S1P5). S1P1 is crucial to the exit of T-lymphocytes from the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs through a gradient of S1P. We have previously observed that T-ALL and T-LBL blasts express S1P1. Herein we analyzed the role of S1P receptors in the migratory pattern of human T-cell neoplastic blasts. S1P-triggered cell migration was directly related to S1P1 expression. T-ALL blasts expressing low levels of S1P1 mRNA (HPB-ALL) did not migrate toward S1P, whereas those expressing higher levels of S1P1 (MOLT-4, JURKAT and CEM) did migrate. The S1P ligand induced T-ALL cells chemotaxis in concentrations up to 500 nM and induced fugetaxis in higher concentrations (1000–10000 nM) through interactions with S1P1. When S1P1 was specifically blocked by the W146 compound, S1P-induced migration at lower concentrations was reduced, whereas higher concentrations induced cell migration. Furthermore, we observed that S1P/S1P1 interactions induced ERK and AKT phosphorylation, and modulation of Rac1 activity. Responding T-ALL blasts also expressed S1P3 mRNA but blockage of this receptor did not modify migratory responses. Our results indicate that S1P is involved in the migration of T-ALL/LBL blasts, which is dependent on S1P1 expression. Moreover, S1P concentrations in the given microenvironment might induce dose-dependent chemotaxis or fugetaxis of T-ALL blasts. PMID:26824863

  20. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Induces Dose-Dependent Chemotaxis or Fugetaxis of T-ALL Blasts through S1P1 Activation.

    PubMed

    Messias, Carolina V; Santana-Van-Vliet, Eliane; Lemos, Julia P; Moreira, Otacilio C; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinicius; Savino, Wilson; Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Arêas

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in several physiological processes including cell migration and differentiation. S1P signaling is mediated through five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-S1P5). S1P1 is crucial to the exit of T-lymphocytes from the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs through a gradient of S1P. We have previously observed that T-ALL and T-LBL blasts express S1P1. Herein we analyzed the role of S1P receptors in the migratory pattern of human T-cell neoplastic blasts. S1P-triggered cell migration was directly related to S1P1 expression. T-ALL blasts expressing low levels of S1P1 mRNA (HPB-ALL) did not migrate toward S1P, whereas those expressing higher levels of S1P1 (MOLT-4, JURKAT and CEM) did migrate. The S1P ligand induced T-ALL cells chemotaxis in concentrations up to 500 nM and induced fugetaxis in higher concentrations (1000-10000 nM) through interactions with S1P1. When S1P1 was specifically blocked by the W146 compound, S1P-induced migration at lower concentrations was reduced, whereas higher concentrations induced cell migration. Furthermore, we observed that S1P/S1P1 interactions induced ERK and AKT phosphorylation, and modulation of Rac1 activity. Responding T-ALL blasts also expressed S1P3 mRNA but blockage of this receptor did not modify migratory responses. Our results indicate that S1P is involved in the migration of T-ALL/LBL blasts, which is dependent on S1P1 expression. Moreover, S1P concentrations in the given microenvironment might induce dose-dependent chemotaxis or fugetaxis of T-ALL blasts. PMID:26824863

  1. Solution spectrum of nonlinear diffusion equations

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, W.

    1992-08-01

    The stationary version of the nonlinear diffusion equation -{partial_derivative}c/{partial_derivative}t+D{Delta}c=A{sub 1}c-A{sub 2}c{sup 2} can be solved with the ansatz c={summation}{sub p=1}{sup {infinity}} A{sub p}(cosh kx){sup -p}, inducing a band structure with regard to the ratio {lambda}{sub 1}/{lambda}{sub 2}. The resulting solution manifold can be related to an equilibrium of fluxes of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The modification of this ansatz yielding the expansion c={summation}{sub p,q=1}{sup infinity}A{sub pa}(cosh kx){sup -p}[(cosh {alpha}t){sup -q-1} sinh {alpha}t+b(cosh {alpha}t){sup -q}] represents a solution spectrum of the time-dependent nonlinear equations, and the stationary version can be found from the asymptotic behaviour of the expansion. The solutions can be associated with reactive processes such as active transport phenomena and control circuit problems is discussed. There are also applications to cellular kinetics of clonogenic cell assays and spheriods. 33 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Single file diffusion in microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutenberg, Andrew; Farrell, Spencer; Brown, Aidan

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the single file diffusion (SFD) of large particles entering a confined tubular geometry, such as luminal diffusion of proteins inside microtubules or flagella. While single-file effects have no effect on particle density, we report significant single-file effects for individually-tracked tracer particle motion. Both exact and approximate ordering statistics of particles entering semi-infinite tubes agree well with our stochastic simulations. Considering initially empty semi-infinite tubes, with particles entering at one end starting from an initial time t = 0 , tracked particles display super-diffusive effective exponents just after they enter the system and trends towards diffusive exponents at later times. Equivalently, if diffusive exponents are assumed the effective diffusivity is reduced at early times and enhanced at later times through a logarithmic factor logN , where N is the number of particles in the tube. When we number each particle from the first (n = 1) to the most recent (n = N), we find good scaling collapse of the effective diffusivity for all n. Techniques that track individual particles, or local groups of particles, such as photo-activation or photobleaching, will exhibit single-file effects.

  3. Cytoplasmic hydrogen ion diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed Central

    al-Baldawi, N F; Abercrombie, R F

    1992-01-01

    The apparent cytoplasmic proton diffusion coefficient was measured using pH electrodes and samples of cytoplasm extracted from the giant neuron of a marine invertebrate. By suddenly changing the pH at one surface of the sample and recording the relaxation of pH within the sample, an apparent diffusion coefficient of 1.4 +/- 0.5 x 10(-6) cm2/s (N = 7) was measured in the acidic or neutral range of pH (6.0-7.2). This value is approximately 5x lower than the diffusion coefficient of the mobile pH buffers (approximately 8 x 10(-6) cm2/s) and approximately 68x lower than the diffusion coefficient of the hydronium ion (93 x 10(-6) cm2/s). A mobile pH buffer (approximately 15% of the buffering power) and an immobile buffer (approximately 85% of the buffering power) could quantitatively account for the results at acidic or neutral pH. At alkaline pH (8.2-8.6), the apparent proton diffusion coefficient increased to 4.1 +/- 0.8 x 10(-6) cm2/s (N = 7). This larger diffusion coefficient at alkaline pH could be explained quantitatively by the enhanced buffering power of the mobile amino acids. Under the conditions of these experiments, it is unlikely that hydroxide movement influences the apparent hydrogen ion diffusion coefficient. PMID:1617134

  4. Amplitude equations for reaction-diffusion systems with cross diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemskov, Evgeny P.; Vanag, Vladimir K.; Epstein, Irving R.

    2011-09-01

    Using Taylor series expansion, multiscaling, and further expansion in powers of a small parameter, we develop general amplitude equations for two-variable reaction-diffusion systems with cross-diffusion terms in the cases of Hopf and Turing instabilities. We apply this analysis to the Oregonator and Brusselator models and find that inhibitor cross diffusion induced by the activator and activator cross diffusion induced by the inhibitor have opposite effects in the two models as a result of the different structure of their community matrices. Our analysis facilitates finding regions of supercritical and subcritical bifurcations, as well as wave and antiwave domains and domains of turbulent waves in the case of Hopf instability.

  5. Amplitude equations for reaction-diffusion systems with cross diffusion.

    PubMed

    Zemskov, Evgeny P; Vanag, Vladimir K; Epstein, Irving R

    2011-09-01

    Using Taylor series expansion, multiscaling, and further expansion in powers of a small parameter, we develop general amplitude equations for two-variable reaction-diffusion systems with cross-diffusion terms in the cases of Hopf and Turing instabilities. We apply this analysis to the Oregonator and Brusselator models and find that inhibitor cross diffusion induced by the activator and activator cross diffusion induced by the inhibitor have opposite effects in the two models as a result of the different structure of their community matrices. Our analysis facilitates finding regions of supercritical and subcritical bifurcations, as well as wave and antiwave domains and domains of turbulent waves in the case of Hopf instability. PMID:22060484

  6. Turing instabilities in reaction-diffusion systems with cross diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, Duccio; Cianci, Claudia; Di Patti, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    The Turing instability paradigm is revisited in the context of a multispecies diffusion scheme derived from a self-consistent microscopic formulation. The analysis is developed with reference to the case of two species. These latter share the same spatial reservoir and experience a degree of mutual interference due to the competition for the available resources. Turing instability can set in for all ratios of the main diffusivities, also when the (isolated) activator diffuses faster then the (isolated) inhibitor. This conclusion, at odd with the conventional vision, is here exemplified for the Brusselator model and ultimately stems from having assumed a generalized model of multispecies diffusion, fully anchored to first principles, which also holds under crowded conditions.

  7. Fick's Insights on Liquid Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2004-10-07

    In 1855, Adolph Fick published ''On Liquid Diffusion'', mathematically treating salt movements in liquids as a diffusion process, analogous to heat diffusion. Less recognized is the fact that Fick also provided a detailed account of the implications of salt diffusion to transport through membranes. A careful look at Fick (1855) shows that his conceptualization of molecular diffusion was more comprehensive than could be captured with the mathematical methods available to him, and therefore his expression, referred to as Fick's Law, dealt only with salt flux. He viewed salt diffusion in liquids as a binary process, with salt moving in one way and water moving in the other. Fick's analysis of the consequences of such a binary process operating in a hydrophilic pore in a membrane offers insights that are relevant to earth systems. This paper draws attention to Fick's rationale, and its implications to hydrogeological systems. Fick (1829-1901; Figure 1), a gifted scientist, published the first book on medical physics (Fick, 1858), discussing the application of optics, solid mechanics, gas diffusion, and heat budget to biological systems. Fick's paper is divisible into two parts. The first describes his experimental verification of the applicability of Fourier's equation to liquid diffusion. The second is a detailed discussion of diffusion through a membrane. Although Fick's Law specifically quantifies solute flux, Fick visualized a simultaneous movement of water and stated, ''It is evident that a volume of water equal to that of the salt passes simultaneously out of the upper stratum into the lower.'' (Fick, 1855, p.30). Fick drew upon Fourier's model purely by analogy. He assumed that concentration gradient impelled salt movement, without inquiring why concentration gradient should constitute a driving force. As for water movement, he stated intuitively, ''a force of suction comes into play on each side of the membrane, proportional to the difference of concentration

  8. ALUMINUM IMPURITY DIFFUSION IN MAGNESIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Sarah; Warren, Andrew; Coffey, Kevin; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Todd, Peter J; Sohn, Yong Ho; Klimov, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    The Al impurity diffusion in polycrystalline Mg (99.9%) via depth profiling with secondary ion mass spectrometry was studied in the temperature range of 673-573K, utilizing the thin film method and thin film solution to the diffusion equation. Multiple samples were utilized and multiple profiles were obtained to determine statistically confident coefficient with maximum standard deviation of 16%. Activation energy and pre-exponential factor of Al impurity diffusion in Mg was determined as 155 kJ/mole and 3.9 x 10-3 m2/sec.

  9. BEAM DIFFUSION MEASUREMENTS AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    FLILLER,R.P.,IIIDREES,A.GASSNER,D.MCINTYRE,G.PEGGS,S.TRBOJEVIC,D.

    2003-05-12

    During a store, particles from the beam core continually diffuse outwards into the halo through a variety of mechanisms. Understanding the diffusion rate as a function of particle amplitude can help discover which processes are important to halo growth. A collimator can be used to measure the amplitude growth rate as a function of the particle amplitude. In this paper we present results of diffusion measurements performed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) with fully stripped gold ions, deuterons, and protons. We compare these results with measurements from previous years, and simulations, and discuss any factors that relate to beam growth in RHIC.

  10. Interference of diffusive light waves.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J M; Knüttel, A; Knutson, J R

    1992-10-01

    We examine interference effects resulting from the superposition of photon-density waves produced by coherently modulated light incident upon a turbid medium. Photon-diffusion theory is used to derive expressions for the ac magnitude and phase of the aggregate diffusive wave produced in full- and half-space volumes by two sources. Using a frequency-domain spectrometer operating at 410 MHz, we verify interference patterns predicted by the model in scattering samples having optical properties similar to those of skin tissue. Potential imaging applications of interfering diffusive waves are discussed in the context of the theoretical and experimental results.

  11. Diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, Kenneth M.; Gilbert, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  12. Improved diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, K.M.; Gilbert, B.L.

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  13. Floating-diffusion electrometer with adjustable sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, John R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The effective capacitance of the floating diffusion in a floating-diffusion electrometer is modified to adjust electrometer sensitivity. This is done by changing the direct potential applied to a gate electrode proximate to the floating diffusion.

  14. Crystal Structures of Mite Allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1 Reveal Differences in Surface-Exposed Residues that May Influence Antibody Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Chapman, Martin D.; Vailes, Lisa D.; Stura, Enrico A.; Saint-Remy, Jean-Marie; Minor, Wladek; Pomés, Anna

    2009-12-01

    The Group 1 mite allergens, Der f 1 and Der p 1, are potent allergens excreted by Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, respectively. The human IgE antibody responses to the Group 1 allergens show more cross-reactivity than the murine IgG antibody responses which are largely species-specific. Here, we report the crystal structure of the mature form of Der f 1, which was isolated from its natural source, and a new, high-resolution structure of mature recombinant Der p 1. Unlike Der p 1, Der f 1 is monomeric both in the crystalline state and in solution. Moreover, no metal binding is observed in the structure of Der f 1, despite the fact that all amino acids involved in Ca{sup 2+} binding in Der p 1 are completely conserved in Der f 1. Although Der p 1 and Der f 1 share extensive sequence identity, comparison of the crystal structures of both allergens revealed structural features which could explain the differences in murine and human IgE antibody responses to these allergens. There are structural differences between Der f 1 and Der p 1 which are unevenly distributed on the allergens' surfaces. This uneven spatial arrangement of conserved versus altered residues could explain both the specificity and cross-reactivity of antibodies against Der f 1 and Der p 1.

  15. Comparative analysis of the structures of the outer membrane protein P1 genes from major clones of Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed Central

    Munson, R; Grass, S; Einhorn, M; Bailey, C; Newell, C

    1989-01-01

    P1 outer membrane proteins from Haemophilus influenzae type b are heterogeneous antigenically and with respect to apparent molecular weight in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. For determination of the molecular basis for the differences in the P1 proteins, the genes for the P1 proteins from strain 1613, representative of outer membrane protein subtype 3L, and strain 8358, representative of outer membrane protein subtype 6U, were cloned, sequenced, and compared with the previously reported gene for the P1 protein from strain MinnA, a strain with the outer membrane protein subtype 1H. These prototype strains are representatives of the three major clonal families of H. influenzae type b responsible for invasive disease in diverse areas of the world. The nucleotide sequences of the P1 genes from strains 1613 and 8358 were 94 and 90% identical to the MinnA sequence, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences were 91 and 86% identical, respectively. Heterogeneity between the MinnA and 1613 proteins was largely localized to two short variable regions; the protein from strain 8538 contained a third variable region not observed in the other P1 proteins. Thus, the outer membrane protein P1 genes are highly conserved; the variable regions may code for the previously demonstrated strain-specific antigenic determinants. Images PMID:2572549

  16. Substrate delivery by the AAA+ ClpX and ClpC1 unfoldases activates the mycobacterial ClpP1P2 peptidase

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Karl R.; Sauer, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mycobacterial Clp-family proteases function via collaboration of the heteromeric ClpP1P2 peptidase with a AAA+ partner, ClpX or ClpC1. These enzymes are essential for M. tuberculosis viability and are validated antibacterial drug targets, but the requirements for assembly and regulation of functional proteolytic complexes are poorly understood. Here, we report the reconstitution of protein degradation by mycobacterial Clp proteases in vitro and describe novel features of these enzymes that distinguish them from orthologs in other bacteria. Both ClpX and ClpC1 catalyze ATP-dependent unfolding and degradation of native protein substrates in conjunction with ClpP1P2, but neither mediates protein degradation with just ClpP1 or ClpP2. ClpP1P2 alone has negligible peptidase activity, but is strongly stimulated by translocation of protein substrates into ClpP1P2 by either AAA+ partner. Interestingly, our results support a model in which both binding of a AAA+ partner and protein-substrate delivery are required to stabilize active ClpP1P2. Our model has implications for therapeutically targeting ClpP1P2 in dormant M. tuberculosis, and our reconstituted systems should facilitate identification of novel Clp protease inhibitors and activators. PMID:24976069

  17. Analysis of the P1 promoter in response to UV-B radiation in allelic variants of high-altitude maize

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants living at high altitudes are typically exposed to elevated UV-B radiation, and harbor mechanisms to prevent the induced damage, such as the accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds. The maize R2R3-MYB transcription factor P1 controls the accumulation of several UV-B absorbing phenolics by activating a subset of flavonoid biosynthetic genes in leaves of maize landraces adapted to high altitudes. Results Here, we studied the UV-B regulation of P1 in maize leaves of high altitude landraces, and we investigated how UV-B regulates P1binding to the CHS promoter in both low and high altitude lines. In addition, we analyzed whether the expansion in the P1 expression domain between these maize landraces and inbred lines is associated to changes in the molecular structure of the proximal promoter, distal enhancer and first intron of P1. Finally, using transient expression experiments in protoplasts from various maize genotypes, we investigated whether the different expression patterns of P1 in the high altitude landraces could be attributed to trans- or cis-acting elements. Conclusions Together, our results demonstrate that, although differences in cis-acting elements exist between the different lines under study, the different patterns of P1 expression are largely a consequence of effects in trans. PMID:22702356

  18. Pre- and Post-perihelion Observations of C/2009 P1 (Garradd): Evidence for an Oxygen-rich Heritage?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disanti, Michael Antonio; Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Paganini, Lucas; Bonev, Boncho P.; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Meech, Karen J.; Mumma, Michael Jon

    2013-01-01

    We conducted pre- and post-perihelion observations of Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) on UT 2011 October 13 and 2012 January 8, at heliocentric distances of 1.83 and 1.57 AU, respectively, using the high-resolution infrared spectrometer (NIRSPEC) at the Keck II 10-m telescope on Mauna Kea, HI. Pre-perihelion, we obtained production rates for nine primary volatiles (native ices): H2O, CO, CH3OH, CH4, C2H6, HCN, C2H2, H2CO, and NH3. Post-perihelion, we obtained production rates for three of these (H2O, CH4, and HCN) and sensitive upper limits for three others (C2H2, H2CO, and NH3). CO was enriched and C2H2 was depleted, yet C2H6 and CH3OH were close to their currentmean values asmeasured in a dominant group of Oort cloud comets. This may indicate processing of its pre-cometary ices in a relatively oxygen-rich environment. Our measurements indicate consistent pre- and post-perihelion abundance ratios relative to H2O, suggesting we were measuring compositional homogeneity among measured species to the depths in the nucleus sampled. However, the overall gas production was lower post-perihelion despite its smaller heliocentric distance on January 8. This is qualitatively consistent with other studies of C/2009 P1, perhaps due to seasonal differences in the heating of one or more active regions on the nucleus. On October 13, the water profile showed a pronounced excess towards the Sun-facing hemisphere that was not seen in other molecules, including H2O on January 8, nor in the dust continuum. Inter-comparison of profiles from October 13 permitted us to quantify contributions due to release of H2O from the nucleus, and fromits release in the coma. This resulted in the latter source contributing 25-30% of the total observed water within our slit, which covered roughly +/-300 km by +/-4500 km from the nucleus. We attribute this excess H2O, which peaked at a mean projected distance of 1300-1500 km from the nucleus, to release from water-rich, relatively pure icy grains

  19. Microsatellite polymorphism in the P1 promoter region of the IGF-1 gene is associated with endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    KWASNIEWSKI, WOJCIECH; GOZDZICKA-JOZEFIAK, ANNA; WOLUN-CHOLEWA, MARIA; POLAK, GRZEGORZ; SIEROCINSKA-SAWA, JADWIGA; KWASNIEWSKA, ANNA; KOTARSKI, JAN

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common type of gynecological malignancy. Studies have demonstrated that the insulin growth factor (IGF) pathway is implicated in the development of endometrial tumors and that the serum levels of IGF-1 are affected by estrogen. Most EC cells with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) accumulate mutations at a microsatellite sequence in the IGF-1 gene. The present study investigated the CA repeat polymorphism in the P1 promoter region of the IGF-1 gene among Caucasian females with endometrial hyperplasia, EC and healthy control subjects, whose blood serum and surgical tissue specimens were analyzed. Differences or correlations between the analyzed parameters [serum levels of IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1 and IGFBP-3 as well as estrogens among the polymorphisms] were verified using the χ2, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis or Spearman's rank correlation tests. A PCR amplification and DNA sequencing analysis was used for identification of (CA)n repeats in the P1 region of IGF-1. ELISA was used to determine the blood serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3 and estrogens. Furthermore, IGF-1 was assessed in endometrial tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. The present study indicated no statistically significant differences between serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3 and estrone, estriol and estradiol in the control and study groups. A significant correlation was identified between the IGF-1 levels and estrone levels in the MSI-H polymorphism (r=−0.41, P=0.012) as well as a highly negative correlation between IGF-1 levels and the estradiol levels in the MSI-H polymorphism (r=−0.6, P=0.002). Genotypes without the 19 CA allele were predominantly found in EC. Furthermore, statistical analysis indicated that the number of IGF-1-expressing cells was significantly elevated in MSI-H type 18-20 (P= 0.0072), MSI-L type 19-20 (P=0.025) and microsatellite-stable MSS type 19-19 (P=0.024) compared with those in the MSI-H 20

  20. The Caulobacter crescentus ctrA P1 promoter is essential for the coordination of cell cycle events that prevent the overinitiation of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Alexander T; Perez Mora, Yannet G; Herrera, Anabel; Cuajungco, Math P; Murray, Sean R

    2012-10-01

    The master regulator CtrA oscillates during the Caulobacter cell cycle due to temporally regulated proteolysis and transcription. It is proteolysed during the G1-S transition and reaccumulates in predivisional cells as a result of transcription from two sequentially activated promoters, P1 and P2. CtrA reinforces its own synthesis by directly mediating the activation of P2 concurrently with repression of P1. To explore the role of P1 in cell cycle control, we engineered a mutation into the native ctrA locus that prevents transcription from P1 but not P2. As expected, the ctrA P1 mutant exhibits striking growth, morphological and DNA replication defects. Unexpectedly, we found CtrA and its antagonist SciP, but not DnaA, GcrA or CcrM accumulation to be dramatically reduced in the ctrA P1 mutant. SciP levels closely paralleled CtrA accumulation, suggesting that CtrA acts as a rheostat to modulate SciP abundance. Furthermore, the reappearance of CtrA and CcrM in predivisional cells was delayed in the P1 mutant by 0.125 cell cycle unit in synchronized cultures. High levels of ccrM transcription despite low levels of CtrA and increased transcription of ctrA P2 in the ctrA P1 mutant are two examples of robustness in the cell cycle. Thus, Caulobacter can adjust regulatory pathways to partially compensate for reduced and delayed CtrA accumulation in the ctrA P1 mutant.

  1. Characterization of a P1-Like Bacteriophage Carrying an SHV-2 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase from an Escherichia coli Strain

    PubMed Central

    Billard-Pomares, Typhaine; Fouteau, Stéphanie; Jacquet, Marie Elise; Roche, David; Barbe, Valérie; Castellanos, Miguel; Bouet, Jean Yves; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Médigue, Claudine; Blanco, Jorge; Clermont, Olivier; Denamur, Erick

    2014-01-01

    P1 bacteriophages lysogenize bacteria as independent plasmid-like elements. We describe here a P1-like bacteriophage, RCS47, carrying a blaSHV-2 gene, isolated from a clinical strain of Escherichia coli from phylogroup B1, and we report the prevalence of P1-like prophages in natural E. coli isolates. We found that 70% of the sequence of RCS47, a 115-kb circular molecule, was common to the reference P1 bacteriophage under GenBank accession no. AF234172.1, with the shared sequences being 99% identical. RCS47 had acquired two main foreign DNA fragments: a 9,636-bp fragment mobilized by two IS26 elements containing a blaSHV-2 gene, and an 8,544-bp fragment mobilized by two IS5 elements containing an operon encoding a dimethyl sulfoxide reductase. The reference P1 prophage plasmid replication gene belonged to the IncY incompatibility group, whereas that of RCS47 was from an unknown group. The lytic capacity of RCS47 and blaSHV-2 gene transduction, through the lysogenization of RCS47 in the recipient E. coli strains, were not demonstrated. The prevalence of P1-like prophages in various animal and human E. coli strain collections, as determined by the PCR detection of repL, the lytic replication gene, was 12.6%. No differences in the prevalences of these prophages were found between extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and non-ESBL-producing strains (P = 0.69), but this prevalence was lower in phylogroup B2 than in the other phylogroups (P = 0.008), suggesting epistatic interactions between P1 family phages and the genetic background of E. coli strains. P1-like phages are part of the mobile elements that carry antibiotic resistance. The high prevalence of P1-like prophages suggests their role may be underestimated. PMID:25136025

  2. AKP-11 - A Novel S1P1 Agonist with Favorable Safety Profile Attenuates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Rat Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Samuvel, Devadoss J.; Saxena, Nishant; Dhindsa, Jasdeep S.; Singh, Avtar K.; Gill, Gurmit S.; Grobelny, Damian W.; Singh, Inderjit

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) mediated regulation of lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs is recognized as the mechanism of FTY720 (Fingolimod, Gilenya) efficacy in relapsing-remitting forms of multiple sclerosis (RRMS). In this study we describe a novel S1P1 agonist AKP-11, next generation of S1P1 agonist, with immunomodulatory activities in cell culture model and for therapeutic efficacy against an animal model of MS, i.e. experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) but without the adverse effects observed with FTY720. Like FTY720, AKP-11 bound to S1P1 is internalized and activates intracellular AKT and ERKs cellular signaling pathways. In contrast to FTY720, AKP-11 mediated S1P1 downregulation is independent of sphingosine kinase activity indicating it to be a direct agonist of S1P1. The S1P1 loss and inhibition of lymphocyte egress by FTY720 leads to lymphopenia. In comparison with FTY720, oral administration of AKP-11 caused milder and reversible lymphopenia while providing a similar degree of therapeutic efficacy in the EAE animal model. Consistent with the observed reversible lymphopenia with AKP-11, the S1P1 recycled back to cell membrane in AKP-11 treated cells following its withdrawal, but not with withdrawal of FTY720. Accordingly, a smaller degree of ubiquitination and proteolysis of S1P1 was observed in AKP-11 treated cells as compared to FTY720. Consistent with previous observations, FTY720 treatment is associated with adverse effects of bradycardia and lung vascular leaks in rodents, whereas AKP-11 treatment had undetectable effects on bradycardia and reduced lung vascular leaks as compared to FTY720. Taken together, the data documents that AKP-11 treatment cause milder and reversible lymphopenia with milder adverse effects while maintaining therapeutic efficacy similar to that observed with FTY720, thus indicating therapeutic potential of AKP-11 for treatment of MS and related autoimmune disorders. PMID:26513477

  3. Flow development through interturbine diffusers

    SciTech Connect

    Dominy, R.G.; Kirkham, D.A.; Smith, A.D.

    1998-04-01

    Interturbine diffusers offer the potential advantage of reducing the flow coefficient in the following stages, leading to increased efficiency. The flows associated with these ducts differ from those in simple annular diffusers both as a consequence of their high-curvature S-shaped geometry and of the presence of wakes created by the upstream turbine. Experimental data and numerical simulations clearly reveal the generation of significant secondary flows as the flow develops through the diffuser in the presence of cross-passage pressure gradients. The further influence of inlet swirl is also demonstrated. Data from experimental measurements with and without an upstream turbine are discussed and computational simulations are shown not only to give a good prediction of the flow development within the diffuser but also to demonstrate the importance of modeling the fully three-dimensional nature of the flow.

  4. Diffusion technique stabilizes resistor values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, R. C.; Giuliano, M. N.

    1966-01-01

    Reduction of the contact resistance stabilizes the values, over a broad temperature range, of resistors used in linear integrated circuits. This reduction is accomplished by p-plus diffusion under the alloyed aluminum contacts.

  5. Geometric diffusion of quantum trajectories.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2015-07-16

    A quantum object can acquire a geometric phase (such as Berry phases and Aharonov-Bohm phases) when evolving along a path in a parameter space with non-trivial gauge structures. Inherent to quantum evolutions of wavepackets, quantum diffusion occurs along quantum trajectories. Here we show that quantum diffusion can also be geometric as characterized by the imaginary part of a geometric phase. The geometric quantum diffusion results from interference between different instantaneous eigenstate pathways which have different geometric phases during the adiabatic evolution. As a specific example, we study the quantum trajectories of optically excited electron-hole pairs in time-reversal symmetric insulators, driven by an elliptically polarized terahertz field. The imaginary geometric phase manifests itself as elliptical polarization in the terahertz sideband generation. The geometric quantum diffusion adds a new dimension to geometric phases and may have applications in many fields of physics, e.g., transport in topological insulators and novel electro-optical effects.

  6. Fractional-calculus diffusion equation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sequel to the work on the quantization of nonconservative systems using fractional calculus and quantization of a system with Brownian motion, which aims to consider the dissipation effects in quantum-mechanical description of microscale systems. Results The canonical quantization of a system represented classically by one-dimensional Fick's law, and the diffusion equation is carried out according to the Dirac method. A suitable Lagrangian, and Hamiltonian, describing the diffusive system, are constructed and the Hamiltonian is transformed to Schrodinger's equation which is solved. An application regarding implementation of the developed mathematical method to the analysis of diffusion, osmosis, which is a biological application of the diffusion process, is carried out. Schrödinger's equation is solved. Conclusions The plot of the probability function represents clearly the dissipative and drift forces and hence the osmosis, which agrees totally with the macro-scale view, or the classical-version osmosis. PMID:20492677

  7. Function analysis of proteins encoded by ORFs 1 to 8 of porcine circovirus-like virus P1 by microarray assay.

    PubMed

    Wen, Libin; Wang, Fengzhi; Zhang, Dan; He, Kongwang

    2015-12-01

    Porcine circovirus-like agent P1 is a newly discovered virus containing a single-strand circular genome. The genome of P1 is a DNA molecule of 648 nucleotides which contains eight open reading frames (ORFs) that probably encode potential proteins or polypeptides. Thus it is very important to clarify these proteins' function. Here we provide the methods and analysis of microarray data in detail to characterize the transcriptome profile of P1 with and without the ORF. The relevant microarray data sets have been deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE71945. PMID:26697373

  8. A sensitive fluorescent assay for measuring the cysteine protease activity of Der p 1, a major allergen from the dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, O; Sewell, H F; Shakib, F

    1998-01-01

    The potent allergenicity of Der p 1, a major allergen of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, is thought to be related to its cysteine protease activity. Therefore, there is considerable interest in developing a sensitive assay for measuring Der p 1 activity to screen for specific inhibitors. This study demonstrates for the first time that the activity of Der p 1 can be measured conveniently in a continuous rate assay with the fluorogenic substrate Boc-Gln-Ala-Arg-AMC (K(m) = 280 microM and kcat/K(m) = 4.6 x 10(3)/M/s). PMID:9893750

  9. Encapsidation of poliovirus replicons encoding the complete human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag gene by using a complementation system which provides the P1 capsid protein in trans.

    PubMed

    Porter, D C; Ansardi, D C; Morrow, C D

    1995-03-01

    Poliovirus genomes which contain small regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gag, pol, and env genes substituted in frame for the P1 capsid region replicate and express HIV-1 proteins as fusion proteins with the P1 capsid precursor protein upon transfection into cells (W. S. Choi, R. Pal-Ghosh, and C. D. Morrow, J. Virol. 65:2875-2883, 1991). Since these genomes, referred to as replicons, do not express capsid proteins, a complementation system was developed to encapsidate the genomes by providing P1 capsid proteins in trans from a recombinant vaccinia virus, VV-P1. Virus stocks of encapsidated replicons were generated after serial passage of the replicon genomes into cells previously infected with VV-P1 (D. C. Porter, D. C. Ansardi, W. S. Choi, and C. D. Morrow, J. Virol. 67:3712-3719, 1993). Using this system, we have further defined the role of the P1 region in viral protein expression and RNA encapsidation. In the present study, we constructed poliovirus replicons which contain the complete 1,492-bp gag gene of HIV-1 substituted for the entire P1 region of poliovirus. To investigate whether the VP4 coding region was required for the replication and encapsidation of poliovirus RNA, a second replicon in which the complete gag gene was substituted for the VP2, VP3, and VP1 capsid sequences was constructed. Transfection of replicon RNA with and without the VP4 coding region into cells resulted in similar levels of expression of the HIV-1 Gag protein and poliovirus 3CD protein, as indicated by immunoprecipitation using specific antibodies. Northern (RNA) blot analysis of RNA from transfected cells demonstrated comparable levels of RNA replication for each replicon. Transfection of the replicon genomes into cells infected with VV-P1 resulted in the encapsidation of the genomes; serial passage in the presence of VV-P1 resulted in the generation of virus stocks of encapsidated replicons. Analysis of the levels of protein expression and encapsidated

  10. Determination of the temperature-sensitive period of a new mutation lawc{sup P1} in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Simonova, O.B.; Petruk, S.F.; Gerasimova, T.I.

    1995-09-01

    Determination of the period of temperature sensitivity in the temperature-sensitive allele of the regulatory lawc{sup P1} mutation was performed. Homeotic transformation of arista into tarsus, frequency of leg deformation, and bristle superexpression were examined. The sensitive periods were detected with reciprocal changes of cultivation temperature from 28 to 17{degrees}C and from 17 to 28{degrees}C. The temperature-sensitive period (TSP) for arista transformation was shown to manifest polyphasic expression and sexual dimorphism. In females, it occurred in the late third instar larvae (the first phase) and prepupae (the second stage); in males, it includes the whole period from the late third instar larvae up to and including prepupa. TSP for the frequency of deformed legs was polyphasic and took place during the third larval instar (the first phase) and prepupa stage (the second one). TSP for bristle superexpression occurred during a single interval from the late third larval instar until the early prepupa stage. The products of the lawc gene are assumed to play a role both in the cell proliferation in the antennal and leg imaginal discs and in the control of bristle expression at the final stages of Drosophila ontogeny. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Transforming growth factor β-mediated suppression of antitumor T cells requires FoxP1 transcription factor expression.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Tom L; Rutkowski, Melanie R; Allegrezza, Michael J; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Tesone, Amelia J; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Nguyen, Jenny M; Sarmin, Fahmida; Borowsky, Mark E; Tchou, Julia; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R

    2014-09-18

    Tumor-reactive T cells become unresponsive in advanced tumors. Here we have characterized a common mechanism of T cell unresponsiveness in cancer driven by the upregulation of the transcription factor Forkhead box protein P1 (Foxp1), which prevents CD8⁺ T cells from proliferating and upregulating Granzyme-B and interferon-γ in response to tumor antigens. Accordingly, Foxp1-deficient lymphocytes induced rejection of incurable tumors and promoted protection against tumor rechallenge. Mechanistically, Foxp1 interacted with the transcription factors Smad2 and Smad3 in preactivated CD8⁺ T cells in response to microenvironmental transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and was essential for its suppressive activity. Therefore, Smad2 and Smad3-mediated c-Myc repression requires Foxp1 expression in T cells. Furthermore, Foxp1 directly mediated TGF-β-induced c-Jun transcriptional repression, which abrogated T cell activity. Our results unveil a fundamental mechanism of T cell unresponsiveness different from anergy or exhaustion, driven by TGF-β signaling on tumor-associated lymphocytes undergoing Foxp1-dependent transcriptional regulation.

  12. P1-Substituted Symmetry-Based Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors with Potent Antiviral Activity against Drug-Resistant Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    DeGoey, David A.; Grampovnik, David J.; Chen, Hui-Ju; Flosi, William J.; Klein, Larry L.; Dekhtyar, Tatyana; Stoll, Vincent; Mamo, Mulugeta; Molla, Akhteruzzaman; Kempf, Dale J.

    2013-03-07

    Because there is currently no cure for HIV infection, patients must remain on long-term drug therapy, leading to concerns over potential drug side effects and the emergence of drug resistance. For this reason, new and safe antiretroviral agents with improved potency against drug-resistant strains of HIV are needed. A series of HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) with potent activity against both wild-type (WT) virus and drug-resistant strains of HIV was designed and synthesized. The incorporation of substituents with hydrogen bond donor and acceptor groups at the P1 position of our symmetry-based inhibitor series resulted in significant potency improvements against the resistant mutants. By this approach, several compounds, such as 13, 24, and 29, were identified that demonstrated similar or improved potencies compared to 1 against highly mutated strains of HIV derived from patients who previously failed HIV PI therapy. Overall, compound 13 demonstrated the best balance of potency against drug resistant strains of HIV and oral bioavailability in pharmacokinetic studies. X-ray analysis of an HIV PI with an improved resistance profile bound to WT HIV protease is also reported.

  13. Three different up-titration regimens of ponesimod, an S1P1 receptor modulator, in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Scherz, Michael W; Brossard, Patrick; D'Ambrosio, Daniele; Ipek, Murat; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2015-06-01

    Ponesimod is a selective S1P1 receptor modulator, and induces dose-dependent reduction of circulating lymphocytes upon oral dosing. Previous studies showed that single doses up to 75 mg or multiple doses up to 40 mg once daily are well tolerated, and heart rate (HR) reduction and atrio-ventricular conduction delays upon treatment initiation are reduced by gradual up-titration to the maintenance dose. This single-center, open-label, randomized, multiple-dose, 3-treatment, 3-way crossover study compared the tolerability, safety, pharmacokinetics, cardiodynamics, and effects on lymphocytes of 3 different up-titration regimens of ponesimod in healthy male and female subjects. Up-titration regimens comprised escalating periods of b.i.d. dosing (2.5 or 5 mg) and q.d. dosing (10 or 20 mg or both). After the third up-titration period a variable-duration washout period of 1-3 days was followed by re-challenge with a single 20-mg dose of ponesimod. Adverse events were transient and mild to moderate in intensity, not different between regimens. HR decrease after the first dose was greater than after all subsequent doses, including up-titration doses. Little or no HR change was observed with morning doses of b.i.d. regimens, suggesting that 2.5 and 5 mg b.i.d. are sufficient to sustain cardiac desensitization for the 12-hours dosing interval.

  14. Optimization of Fermentation Medium for the Production of Glucose Isomerase Using Streptomyces sp. SB-P1.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Sheetal; Modi, H A

    2012-01-01

    The combination of medium ingredients has a profound influence on the metabolic pathways running in the microorganism which regulates the production of numerous metabolites. Glucose isomerase (GI), an enzyme with huge potential in the market, can isomerise glucose into fructose. GI is used widely for the production of High-Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS). HFCS is used as a sweetener in food and pharmaceutical industries. Streptomyces are well-known producers of numerous enzymes including glucose isomerase. An array of 75 isolates was screened for the production of glucose isomerase. The isolate Streptomyces sp. SB-P1 was found to produce maximum amount of extracellular GI. Sucrose and raffinose among pure carbon sources and corn cob and wheat husk among crude agro residues were found to yield high enzyme titers. Potassium nitrate among pure nitrogen sources and soy residues among crude sources gave maximum production. Quantitative effect of carbon, nitrogen, and inducer on GI was also determined. Plackett-Burman design was used to study the effect of different medium ingredients. Sucrose and xylose as carbon sources and peptone and soy residues as nitrogen sources proved to be beneficial for GI production. PMID:22900192

  15. Preliminary Data on the Effects of Inlet Pressure Distortions on the J57-P-1 Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallner, Lewis E.; Lubick, Robert J.; Einstein, Thomas H.

    1954-01-01

    An investigation to determine the steady-state and surge characteristics of the J57-P-1 two-spool turbojet engine with various inlet air-flow distortions was conducted in the altitude wind tunnel at the NACA Lewis laboratory. Along with a uniform inlet total-pressure distribution, one circumferential and three radial pressure distortions were investigated. Data were obtained over a complete range of compressor speeds both with and without intercompressor air bleed at a flight Mach number of 0.8 and at altitudes of 35,000 and 50,000 feet. Total-pressure distortions of the magnitudes investigated had very little effect on the steady-state operating line for either the outer or inner compressor. The small radial distortions investigated also had engine over that obtained with the uniform inlet pressure distribution. The circumferential distortion, however, raised the minimum speed at which the engine could operate without encountering surge when the intercompressor bleeds were closed. This increase in minimum speed resulted in a substantial reduction in the operable speed range accompanied by a reduction in the altitude operating limit.

  16. PABA/NO lead optimization: Improved targeting of cytotoxicity to glutathione S-transferase P1-overexpressing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youseung; Maciag, Anna E; Cao, Zhao; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Saavedra, Joseph E; Keefer, Larry K; Holland, Ryan J

    2015-08-01

    PABA/NO [O(2)-{2,4-dinitro-5-[4-(N-methylamino)benzoyloxy]phenyl} 1-(N,N-dimethylamino) diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate] is a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing arylating agent designed to be selectively activated by reaction with glutathione (GSH) on catalysis by glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), an enzyme frequently overexpressed in cancer cells. PABA/NO has proven active in several cancer models in vitro and in vivo, but its tendency to be metabolized via a variety of pathways, some that generate inactive metabolites and hydrolysis products, limits its potential as a drug. Here we show that a simple replacement of cyano for nitro at the 4 position to give compound 4b ('p-cyano-PABA/NO') has the dual effect of slowing the undesired side reactions while enhancing the proportion of NO release and arylating activity on catalysis by GSTP1. Compound 4b showed increased resistance to hydrolysis and uncatalyzed reaction with GSH, along with a more favorable product distribution in the presence of GSTP1. It also showed significant proapoptotic activity. The data suggest p-cyano-PABA/NO to be a more promising prodrug than PABA/NO, with better selectivity toward cancer cells.

  17. Atomic geometry, electronic states and possible hydrogen passivation of the InP(1 1 1)A surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuasiripattana, K.; Srivastava, G. P.

    2006-08-01

    We present a first-principles theoretical study of the atomic geometry and electronics states of the InP(1 1 1)A surface under In- and P-rich conditions. The In-rich surface, characterised by an In vacancy per unit ( 2×2) cell, obeys the electron counting rule (ECR) and is semiconducting. Under P-rich conditions we have considered two surface reconstructions: ( 2×2) with 3/4 monolayer (ML) P coverage and ( √{3}×√{3}) with 1 ML coverage. In complete agreement with a recent experimental work by Li et al., it is found that the ( √{3}×√{3}) reconstruction is more stable than the ( 2×2) reconstruction. However, the ( √{3}×√{3}) reconstruction has a metallic band structure and thus does not satisfy the ECR. The stability of this reconstruction is explained to arise from a competition between the ECR and a significant elastic deformation in the surface region. We confirm the suggestion by Li et al. that this surface can be passivated both chemically as well as electronically with 1/4 ML coverage of hydrogen.

  18. Use of Trichoderma reesei RT-P1 crude enzyme powder for ethanol fermentation of sweet sorghum fresh stalks.

    PubMed

    Siwarasak, Pongsri; Pajantagate, Pradatrat; Prasertlertrat, Kanoktip

    2012-03-01

    Use of Trichoderma reesei RT-P1 crude enzyme powder and of this powder with 10%v/v Saccharomyces cerevisiae for ethanol fermentation of sweet sorghum fresh stalks were investigated. The optimal conditions were determined by orthogonal experiment method. With T. reesei crude enzyme powder, the optimal condition for the Keller cultivar was at 25 g with 4 g enzyme loading and for the Cowley cultivar at 30 g with 5 g enzyme loading, both with 8 days fermentation at pH 5 and 30°C. At the optimal conditions above, ethanol concentration, productivity and yield of the Cowley cultivar (35.00 g/L, 0.18 g/Lh and 0.38 g ethanol/g substrate, respectively) were higher than those of the Keller cultivar (20.46 g/L, 0.11 g/Lh and 0.28 g ethanol/g substrate). The addition of 10%v/v S. cerevisiae to fermentation at the optimal conditions showed no significant variations in ethanol concentration, productivity and yield for both cultivars.

  19. Uphill diffusion in multicomponent mixtures.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Rajamani

    2015-05-21

    Molecular diffusion is an omnipresent phenomena that is important in a wide variety of contexts in chemical, physical, and biological processes. In the majority of cases, the diffusion process can be adequately described by Fick's law that postulates a linear relationship between the flux of any species and its own concentration gradient. Most commonly, a component diffuses down the concentration gradient. The major objective of this review is to highlight a very wide variety of situations that cause the uphill transport of one constituent in the mixture. Uphill diffusion may occur in multicomponent mixtures in which the diffusion flux of any species is strongly coupled to that of its partner species. Such coupling effects often arise from strong thermodynamic non-idealities. For a quantitative description we need to use chemical potential gradients as driving forces. The transport of ionic species in aqueous solutions is coupled with its partner ions because of the electro-neutrality constraints; such constraints may accelerate or decelerate a specific ion. When uphill diffusion occurs, we observe transient overshoots during equilibration; the equilibration process follows serpentine trajectories in composition space. For mixtures of liquids, alloys, ceramics and glasses the serpentine trajectories could cause entry into meta-stable composition zones; such entry could result in phenomena such as spinodal decomposition, spontaneous emulsification, and the Ouzo effect. For distillation of multicomponent mixtures that form azeotropes, uphill diffusion may allow crossing of distillation boundaries that are normally forbidden. For mixture separations with microporous adsorbents, uphill diffusion can cause supra-equilibrium loadings to be achieved during transient uptake within crystals; this allows the possibility of over-riding adsorption equilibrium for achieving difficult separations.

  20. Boron diffusion in silicon devices

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Kim, Dong Seop; Nakayashiki, Kenta; Rounsaville, Brian

    2010-09-07

    Disclosed are various embodiments that include a process, an arrangement, and an apparatus for boron diffusion in a wafer. In one representative embodiment, a process is provided in which a boric oxide solution is applied to a surface of the wafer. Thereafter, the wafer is subjected to a fast heat ramp-up associated with a first heating cycle that results in a release of an amount of boron for diffusion into the wafer.

  1. Visualization of Diffusion within Nanoarrays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Holzinger, Angelika; Knittel, Peter; Poltorak, Lukasz; Gamero-Quijano, Alonso; Rickard, William D A; Walcarius, Alain; Herzog, Grégoire; Kranz, Christine; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2016-07-01

    The direct experimental characterization of diffusion processes at nanoscale remains a challenge that could help elucidate processes in biology, medicine and technology. In this report, two experimental approaches were employed to visualize ion diffusion profiles at the orifices of nanopores (radius (ra) of 86 ± 6 nm) in array format: (1) electrochemically assisted formation of silica deposits based on surfactant ion transfer across nanointerfaces between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (nanoITIES); (2) combined atomic force - scanning electrochemical microscopy (AFM-SECM) imaging of topography and redox species diffusion through the nanopores. The nature of the diffusion zones formed around the pores is directly related to the interpore distance within the array. Nanopore arrays with different ratios of pore center-to-center separation (rc) to pore radius (ra) were fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) milling of silicon nitride (SiN) membranes, with 100 pores in a hexagonal arrangement. The ion diffusion profiles determined by the two visualization methods indicated the formation of overlapped or independent diffusion profiles at nanopore arrays with rc/ra ratios of 21 ± 2 and 91 ± 7, respectively. In particular, the silica deposition method resulted in formation of a single deposit encompassing the complete array with closer nanopore arrangement, whereas individual silica deposits were formed around each nanopore within the more widely spaced array. The methods reveal direct experimental evidence of diffusion zones at nanopore arrays and provide practical illustration that the pore-pore separation within such arrays has a significant impact on diffusional transport as the pore size is reduced to the nanoscale. These approaches to nanoscale diffusion zone visualization open up possibilities for better understanding of molecular transport processes within miniaturized systems. PMID:27264360

  2. Uphill diffusion in multicomponent mixtures.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Rajamani

    2015-05-21

    Molecular diffusion is an omnipresent phenomena that is important in a wide variety of contexts in chemical, physical, and biological processes. In the majority of cases, the diffusion process can be adequately described by Fick's law that postulates a linear relationship between the flux of any species and its own concentration gradient. Most commonly, a component diffuses down the concentration gradient. The major objective of this review is to highlight a very wide variety of situations that cause the uphill transport of one constituent in the mixture. Uphill diffusion may occur in multicomponent mixtures in which the diffusion flux of any species is strongly coupled to that of its partner species. Such coupling effects often arise from strong thermodynamic non-idealities. For a quantitative description we need to use chemical potential gradients as driving forces. The transport of ionic species in aqueous solutions is coupled with its partner ions because of the electro-neutrality constraints; such constraints may accelerate or decelerate a specific ion. When uphill diffusion occurs, we observe transient overshoots during equilibration; the equilibration process follows serpentine trajectories in composition space. For mixtures of liquids, alloys, ceramics and glasses the serpentine trajectories could cause entry into meta-stable composition zones; such entry could result in phenomena such as spinodal decomposition, spontaneous emulsification, and the Ouzo effect. For distillation of multicomponent mixtures that form azeotropes, uphill diffusion may allow crossing of distillation boundaries that are normally forbidden. For mixture separations with microporous adsorbents, uphill diffusion can cause supra-equilibrium loadings to be achieved during transient uptake within crystals; this allows the possibility of over-riding adsorption equilibrium for achieving difficult separations. PMID:25761383

  3. Diffusion in silicate melts: III. Empirical models for multicomponent diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liang; Richter, Frank M.; Chamberlin, Laurinda

    1997-12-01

    Empirical models for multicomponent diffusion in an isotropic fluid were derived by splitting the component's dispersion velocity into two parts: (a) an intrinsic velocity which is proportional to each component's electrochemical potential gradient and independent of reference frame and (b) a net interaction velocity which is both model and reference frame dependent. Simple molecules (e.g., M pO q) were chosen as endmember components. The interaction velocity is assumed to be either the same for each component (leading to a common relaxation velocity U) or proportional to a common interaction force ( F). U or F is constrained by requiring no local buildup in either volume or charge. The most general form of the model-derived diffusion matrix [ D] can be written as a product of a model-dependent kinetic matrix [ L] and a model independent thermodynamic matrix [ G], [ D] = [ L] · [ G]. The elements of [ G] are functions of derivatives of chemical potential with respect to concentration. The elements of [ L] are functions of concentration and partial molar volume of the endmember components, Cio and Vio, and self diffusivity Di, and charge number zi of individual diffusing species. When component n is taken as the dependent variable they can be written in a common form L ij = D jδ ij + C io[V noD n - V joD j)A i + (p nz nD n - p jz jD j)B i] where the functional forms of the scaling factors Ai and Bi depend on the model considered. The off-diagonal element Lij ( i ≠ j) is directly proportional to the concentration of component i, and thus negligible when i is a dilute component. The salient feature of kinetic interaction or relaxation is to slow down larger (volume or charge) and faster diffusing components and to speed up smaller (volume or charge) and slower moving species, in order to prevent local volume or charge buildup. Empirical models for multicomponent diffusion were tested in the ternary system CaOAl 2O 3SiO 2 at 1500°C and 1 GPa over a large

  4. Lipid diffusion in alcoholic environment.

    PubMed

    Rifici, Simona; Corsaro, Carmelo; Crupi, Cristina; Nibali, Valeria Conti; Branca, Caterina; D'Angelo, Giovanna; Wanderlingh, Ulderico

    2014-08-01

    We have studied the effects of a high concentration of butanol and octanol on the phase behavior and on the lateral mobility of 1,2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) by means of differential scanning calorimetry and pulsed-gradient stimulated-echo (PGSTE) NMR spectroscopy. A lowering of the lipid transition from the gel to the liquid-crystalline state for the membrane-alcohol systems has been observed. NMR measurements reveal three distinct diffusions in the DPPC-alcohol systems, characterized by a high, intermediate, and slow diffusivity, ascribed to the water, the alcohol, and the lipid, respectively. The lipid diffusion process is promoted in the liquid phase while it is hindered in the interdigitated phase due to the presence of alcohols. Furthermore, in the interdigitated phase, lipid lateral diffusion coefficients show a slight temperature dependence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that lateral diffusion coefficients on alcohol with so a long chain, and at low temperatures, are reported. By the Arrhenius plots of the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficients, we have evaluated the apparent activation energy in both the liquid and in the interdigitated phase. The presence of alcohol increases this value in both phases. An explanation in terms of a free volume model that takes into account also for energy factors is proposed.

  5. Gibbs Ringing in Diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Veraart, Jelle; Fieremans, Els; Jelescu, Ileana O.; Knoll, Florian; Novikov, Dmitry S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study and reduce the effect of Gibbs ringing artifact on computed diffusion parameters. Methods We reduce the ringing by extrapolating the k-space of each diffusion weighted image beyond the measured part by selecting an adequate regularization term. We evaluate several regularization terms and tune the regularization parameter to find the best compromise between anatomical accuracy of the reconstructed image and suppression of the Gibbs artifact. Results We demonstrate empirically and analytically that the Gibbs artifact, which is typically observed near sharp edges in magnetic resonance images, has a significant impact on the quantification of diffusion model parameters, even for infinitesimal diffusion weighting. We find the second order total generalized variation to be a good choice for the penalty term to regularize the extrapolation of the k-space, as it provides a parsimonious representation of images, a practically full suppression of Gibbs ringing, and the absence of staircasing artifacts typical for total variation methods. Conclusions Regularized extrapolation of the k-space data significantly reduces truncation artifacts without compromising spatial resolution in comparison to the default option of window filtering. In particular, accuracy of estimating diffusion tensor imaging and diffusion kurtosis imaging parameters improves so much that unconstrained fits become possible. PMID:26257388

  6. Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S.; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified from the previously published Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test (DODT) and some newly developed items. The ODCA, a validated instrument containing fewer items than the DODT and emphasizing different content areas within the realm of osmosis and diffusion, better aligns with our curriculum. Creation of the ODCA involved removal of six DODT item pairs, modification of another six DODT item pairs, and development of three new item pairs addressing basic osmosis and diffusion concepts. Responses to ODCA items testing the same concepts as the DODT were remarkably similar to responses to the DODT collected from students 15 yr earlier, suggesting that student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis remains elusive. PMID:22135375

  7. The Shank3 Interaction Partner ProSAPiP1 Regulates Postsynaptic SPAR Levels and the Maturation of Dendritic Spines in Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Reim, Dominik; Weis, Tobias M.; Halbedl, Sonja; Delling, Jan Philipp; Grabrucker, Andreas M.; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Schmeisser, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The postsynaptic density or PSD is a submembranous compartment containing a wide array of proteins that contribute to both morphology and function of excitatory glutamatergic synapses. In this study, we have analyzed functional aspects of the Fezzin ProSAP-interacting protein 1 (ProSAPiP1), an interaction partner of the well-known PSD proteins Shank3 and SPAR. Using lentiviral-mediated overexpression and knockdown of ProSAPiP1, we found that this protein is dispensable for the formation of both pre- and postsynaptic specializations per se. We further show that ProSAPiP1 regulates SPAR levels at the PSD and the maturation of dendritic spines. In line with previous findings on the ProSAPiP1 homolog PSD-Zip70, we conclude that Fezzins essentially contribute to the maturation of excitatory spine synapses. PMID:27252646

  8. Diffusion path representation for two-phase ternary diffusion couples

    SciTech Connect

    Dayananda, M A; Venkatasubramanian, R

    1986-01-01

    Several two-phase, solid-solid diffusion couples from diffusion studies in the ternary Cu-Ni-Zn, Fe-Ni-Al and Cu-Ag-Au systems were investigated for their analytical representation on the basis of characteristic path parameters. The concentration profiles were examined in terms of relative concentration variables for cross-over compositions and internal consistency. The diffusion paths delineated single or double S-shaped curves crossing the straight line joining the terminal alloy compositions once or thrice. Cross-over compositions were identified in the individual phase regions or at an interface. Based on the symmetry between the path segments on either side of cross-over compositions, the paths were analytically represented with the aid of cross-over compositions and path slopes at these compositions, considered as path parameters. Exprestion for the ratios of diffusion depth on the two sides of the Matano plane were derived in terms of cross-over compositions and the estimated ratios of diffusion depths were found to be consistent with those observed from the concentration profiles.

  9. GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres as potential water adsorption material: Influence of initial silica concentration on adsorptive and physical/topological properties

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pankaj; Song, Ju-Sub; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Churl-Hee

    2016-01-01

    GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples were synthesized using seven different Si/Al ratios (5–11) of the hydrothermal reaction mixtures having chemical composition Al2O3:xSiO2:14Na2O:840H2O to study the impact of Si/Al molar ratio on the water vapour adsorption potential, phase purity, morphology and crystal size of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) observations reveal that Si/Al ratio does not affect the phase purity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples as high purity GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals were obtained from all Si/Al ratios. Contrary, Si/Al ratios have remarkable effect on the morphology, crystal size and porosity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) evaluations of individual GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere demonstrate the characteristic changes in the packaging/arrangement, shape and size of primary nano crystallites. Textural characterisation using water vapour adsorption/desorption, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption data of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite predicts the existence of mix-pores i.e., microporous as well as mesoporous character. High water storage capacity 1727.5 cm3 g−1 (138.9 wt.%) has been found for as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere samples during water vapour adsorption studies. Further, the total water adsorption capacity values for P6 (1299.4 mg g−1) and P7 (1388.8 mg g−1) samples reveal that these two particular samples can absorb even more water than their own weights. PMID:26964638

  10. (7-Benzyloxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-a]indol-1-yl)acetic Acids as S1P1 Functional Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    S1P1 is a validated target for treatment of autoimmune disease, and functional antagonists with superior safety and pharmacokinetic properties are being sought as second generation therapeutics. We describe the discovery and optimization of (7-benzyloxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-a]indol-1-yl)acetic acids as potent, centrally available, direct acting S1P1 functional antagonists, with favorable pharmacokinetic and safety properties. PMID:25516794

  11. Backup Expression of the PhaP2 Phasin Compensates for phaP1 Deletion in Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Maintaining Fitness and PHB Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Luis P. S.; Teixeira, Cícero S.; Tirapelle, Evandro F.; Donatti, Lucélia; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Z.; Steffens, Maria B. R.; de Souza, Emanuel M.; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fabio; Chubatsu, Leda S.; Müller-Santos, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Phasins are important proteins controlling poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules formation, their number into the cell and stability. The genome sequencing of the endophytic and diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1 revealed two homologous phasin genes. To verify the role of the phasins on PHB accumulation in the parental strain H. seropedicae SmR1, isogenic strains defective in the expression of phaP1, phaP2 or both genes were obtained by gene deletion and characterized in this work. Despite of the high sequence similarity between PhaP1 and PhaP2, PhaP1 is the major phasin in H. seropedicae, since its deletion reduced PHB accumulation by ≈50% in comparison to the parental and ΔphaP2. Upon deletion of phaP1, the expression of phaP2 was sixfold enhanced in the ΔphaP1 strain. The responsive backup expression of phaP2 partially rescued the ΔphaP1 mutant, maintaining about 50% of the parental PHB level. The double mutant ΔphaP1.2 did not accumulate PHB in any growth stage and showed a severe reduction of growth when glucose was the carbon source, a clear demonstration of negative impact in the fitness. The co-occurrence of phaP1 and phaP2 homologous in bacteria relatives of H. seropedicae, including other endophytes, indicates that the mechanism of phasin compensation by phaP2 expression may be operating in other organisms, showing that PHB metabolism is a key factor to adaptation and efficiency of endophytic bacteria. PMID:27242754

  12. Expansion and Protection by a Virus-Specific NK Cell Subset Lacking Expression of the Inhibitory NKR-P1B Receptor during Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Mir Munir A; Wight, Andrew; Mahmoud, Ahmad Bakur; Aguilar, Oscar A; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Vidal, Silvia M; Carlyle, James R; Makrigiannis, Andrew P

    2016-09-15

    NK cells play a major role in immune defense against human and murine CMV (MCMV) infection. Although the MCMV genome encodes for MHC class I-homologous decoy ligands for inhibitory NK cell receptors to evade detection, some mouse strains have evolved activating receptors, such as Ly49H, to recognize these ligands and initiate an immune response. In this study, we demonstrate that approximately half of the Ly49H-expressing (Ly49H(+)) NK cells in the spleen and liver of C57BL/6 mice also express the inhibitory NKR-P1B receptor. During MCMV infection, the NKR-P1B(-)Ly49H(+) NK cell subset proliferates to constitute the bulk of the NK cell population. This NK cell subset also confers better protection against MCMV infection compared with the NKR-P1B(+)Ly49H(+) subset. The two populations are composed of cells that differ in their surface expression of receptors such as Ly49C/I and NKG2A/C/E, as well as developmental markers, CD27 and CD11b, and the high-affinity IL-2R (CD25) following infection. Although the NKR-P1B(+) NK cells can produce effector molecules such as IFNs and granzymes, their proliferation is inhibited during infection. A similar phenotype in MCMV-infected Clr-b-deficient mice, which lack the ligand for NKR-P1B, suggests the involvement of ligands other than the host Clr-b. Most interestingly, genetic deficiency of the NKR-P1B, but not Clr-b, results in accelerated virus clearance and recovery from MCMV infection. This study is particularly significant because the mouse NKR-P1B:Clr-b receptor:ligand system represents the closest homolog of the human NKR-P1A:LLT1 system and may have a direct relevance to human CMV infection. PMID:27511735

  13. Backup Expression of the PhaP2 Phasin Compensates for phaP1 Deletion in Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Maintaining Fitness and PHB Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Alves, Luis P S; Teixeira, Cícero S; Tirapelle, Evandro F; Donatti, Lucélia; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Z; Steffens, Maria B R; de Souza, Emanuel M; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fabio; Chubatsu, Leda S; Müller-Santos, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Phasins are important proteins controlling poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules formation, their number into the cell and stability. The genome sequencing of the endophytic and diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1 revealed two homologous phasin genes. To verify the role of the phasins on PHB accumulation in the parental strain H. seropedicae SmR1, isogenic strains defective in the expression of phaP1, phaP2 or both genes were obtained by gene deletion and characterized in this work. Despite of the high sequence similarity between PhaP1 and PhaP2, PhaP1 is the major phasin in H. seropedicae, since its deletion reduced PHB accumulation by ≈50% in comparison to the parental and ΔphaP2. Upon deletion of phaP1, the expression of phaP2 was sixfold enhanced in the ΔphaP1 strain. The responsive backup expression of phaP2 partially rescued the ΔphaP1 mutant, maintaining about 50% of the parental PHB level. The double mutant ΔphaP1.2 did not accumulate PHB in any growth stage and showed a severe reduction of growth when glucose was the carbon source, a clear demonstration of negative impact in the fitness. The co-occurrence of phaP1 and phaP2 homologous in bacteria relatives of H. seropedicae, including other endophytes, indicates that the mechanism of phasin compensation by phaP2 expression may be operating in other organisms, showing that PHB metabolism is a key factor to adaptation and efficiency of endophytic bacteria.

  14. GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres as potential water adsorption material: Influence of initial silica concentration on adsorptive and physical/topological properties.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Song, Ju-Sub; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Churl-Hee

    2016-01-01

    GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples were synthesized using seven different Si/Al ratios (5-11) of the hydrothermal reaction mixtures having chemical composition Al2O3:xSiO2:14Na2O:840H2O to study the impact of Si/Al molar ratio on the water vapour adsorption potential, phase purity, morphology and crystal size of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) observations reveal that Si/Al ratio does not affect the phase purity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples as high purity GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals were obtained from all Si/Al ratios. Contrary, Si/Al ratios have remarkable effect on the morphology, crystal size and porosity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) evaluations of individual GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere demonstrate the characteristic changes in the packaging/arrangement, shape and size of primary nano crystallites. Textural characterisation using water vapour adsorption/desorption, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption data of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite predicts the existence of mix-pores i.e., microporous as well as mesoporous character. High water storage capacity 1727.5 cm(3) g(-1) (138.9 wt.%) has been found for as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere samples during water vapour adsorption studies. Further, the total water adsorption capacity values for P6 (1299.4 mg g(-1)) and P7 (1388.8 mg g(-1)) samples reveal that these two particular samples can absorb even more water than their own weights. PMID:26964638

  15. GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres as potential water adsorption material: Influence of initial silica concentration on adsorptive and physical/topological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Song, Ju-Sub; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Churl-Hee

    2016-03-01

    GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples were synthesized using seven different Si/Al ratios (5–11) of the hydrothermal reaction mixtures having chemical composition Al2O3:xSiO2:14Na2O:840H2O to study the impact of Si/Al molar ratio on the water vapour adsorption potential, phase purity, morphology and crystal size of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) observations reveal that Si/Al ratio does not affect the phase purity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples as high purity GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals were obtained from all Si/Al ratios. Contrary, Si/Al ratios have remarkable effect on the morphology, crystal size and porosity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) evaluations of individual GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere demonstrate the characteristic changes in the packaging/arrangement, shape and size of primary nano crystallites. Textural characterisation using water vapour adsorption/desorption, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption data of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite predicts the existence of mix-pores i.e., microporous as well as mesoporous character. High water storage capacity 1727.5 cm3 g‑1 (138.9 wt.%) has been found for as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere samples during water vapour adsorption studies. Further, the total water adsorption capacity values for P6 (1299.4 mg g‑1) and P7 (1388.8 mg g‑1) samples reveal that these two particular samples can absorb even more water than their own weights.

  16. GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres as potential water adsorption material: Influence of initial silica concentration on adsorptive and physical/topological properties.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Song, Ju-Sub; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Churl-Hee

    2016-03-11

    GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples were synthesized using seven different Si/Al ratios (5-11) of the hydrothermal reaction mixtures having chemical composition Al2O3:xSiO2:14Na2O:840H2O to study the impact of Si/Al molar ratio on the water vapour adsorption potential, phase purity, morphology and crystal size of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) observations reveal that Si/Al ratio does not affect the phase purity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples as high purity GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals were obtained from all Si/Al ratios. Contrary, Si/Al ratios have remarkable effect on the morphology, crystal size and porosity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) evaluations of individual GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere demonstrate the characteristic changes in the packaging/arrangement, shape and size of primary nano crystallites. Textural characterisation using water vapour adsorption/desorption, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption data of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite predicts the existence of mix-pores i.e., microporous as well as mesoporous character. High water storage capacity 1727.5 cm(3) g(-1) (138.9 wt.%) has been found for as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere samples during water vapour adsorption studies. Further, the total water adsorption capacity values for P6 (1299.4 mg g(-1)) and P7 (1388.8 mg g(-1)) samples reveal that these two particular samples can absorb even more water than their own weights.

  17. Investigation of particle diffusion and suprathermal electrons in a magnetized helium plasma column

    SciTech Connect

    Lefevre, T.; Escarguel, A.; Stamm, R.; Godbert-Mouret, L.; Rosmej, F. B.

    2014-02-15

    Studying radiative properties of magnetized helium plasma via high-resolution spectroscopy identified close correlations between the particle diffusion and suprathermal electrons for different modes of operation of the MISTRAL installation. The standard diagnostic emission lines in neutral helium (1s3d {sup 3}D-1s2p {sup 3}P, 1s3s {sup 3}S-1s2p {sup 3}P, 1s3d {sup 1}D-1s2p {sup 1}P, and 1s3s {sup 1}S-1s2p {sup 1}P) show anomalous ratios that are related to enhanced particle diffusion and suprathermal electron generation. The supplementary investigation of singlet/triplet Rydberg series (transitions 1snd {sup 3}D-1s2p {sup 3}P and 1s5p {sup 1}P-1s2s {sup 1}S) as well as ionic lines (HeII, transitions n = 3–4 at 469 nm and n = 4–6 at 656 nm) allowed quantitative characterization. Simulations carried out with the atomic physics code SOPHIA demonstrate that simultaneous implementation of diffusion processes and suprathermal electrons matches all experimental findings. Single consideration, however, of either diffusion or hot electrons is in contradiction to the proposed extended set of HeI and HeII emission lines. The high precision achieved with the LSJ-split level structure of SOPHIA coupled to Langmuir probe measurements allowed to conclude to a Bohm type diffusion in MISTRAL.

  18. The evolution of volatile production in C/2009 P1 (Garradd) during its 2011-2012 apparition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gicquel, A.; Milam, S.; Cordiner, M.; Villanueva, G.; Charnley, S.; Coulson, I.; Remijan, A.; DiSanti, M.; Mumma, M.; Szutowicz, S.

    2014-07-01

    Comets are likely to be the most pristine objects in our Solar System. They provide a record of the physical and chemical conditions in the protosolar nebula between about 5 and 40 au during the epoch when the distinct cometary populations were being assembled (Festou et al. 2004; Jewitt 2004; Mumma & Charnley 2011). Cometary nuclei today reside in (at least) two distinct reservoirs, the Oort Cloud (OC) and the Kuiper Belt (KB). Past observations have shown that comets appear to contain a mixture of products from both interstellar and nebular chemistries and could also have been important for initiating prebiotic chemistry on the early Earth (Ehrenfreund & Charnley 2000). Although there are some differences, the volatile composition of cometary ices is generally similar to the inventory of molecules detected in the ices and gas of dense molecular clouds. Given the gradient in physical conditions expected across the proto-Solar nebula, chemical diversity in the comet population is to be expected. Here we report an analysis of long-term ground-based radio observations towards comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd). Comet C/2009 P1 Garradd is an OC comet that reached perihelion (at heliocentric distance R_h = 1.55 au) in late December 2011 and had its closest approach to the Earth on 5 March 2012. Like C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) at 7.2 au, Garradd exhibited unusual activity at large R_h (8.68 au), displaying a 15'' diameter circular coma (IAUC 9062). It is well known that some comets exhibit volatile activity at large heliocentric distances, where water ice cannot sublime efficiently. Infrared (IRTF/CSHELL, Keck 2/NIRSPEC, and VLT/CRIRES) spectroscopy of Garradd showed clear CO (R1 & R2) emission near λ = 4.7 μ m (2150 cm^{-1}), as well as a suite of molecules (e.g., C_2H_6, CH_4, CH_3OH, H_2CO, HCN, C_2H_2, NH_3) that were also detected near or beyond R_h = 2 au (Villanueva et al. 2012; Paganini et al. 2012; DiSanti et al. 2014). We monitored the abundance of parent volatiles in

  19. Abelian p-form (p = 1, 2, 3) gauge theories as the field theoretic models for the Hodge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Krishna, S.; Shukla, A.; Malik, R. P.

    2014-09-01

    Taking the simple examples of an Abelian 1-form gauge theory in two (1+1)-dimensions, a 2-form gauge theory in four (3+1)-dimensions and a 3-form gauge theory in six (5+1)-dimensions of space-time, we establish that such gauge theories respect, in addition to the gauge symmetry transformations that are generated by the first-class constraints of the theory, additional continuous symmetry transformations. We christen the latter symmetry transformations as the dual-gauge transformations. We generalize the above gauge and dual-gauge transformations to obtain the proper (anti-)BRST and (anti-)dual-BRST transformations for the Abelian 3-form gauge theory within the framework of BRST formalism. We concisely mention such symmetries for the 2D free Abelian 1-form and 4D free Abelian 2-form gauge theories and briefly discuss their topological aspects in our present endeavor. We conjecture that any arbitrary Abelian p-form gauge theory would respect the above cited additional symmetry in D = 2p(p = 1, 2, 3, …) dimensions of space-time. By exploiting the above inputs, we establish that the Abelian 3-form gauge theory, in six (5+1)-dimensions of space-time, is a perfect model for the Hodge theory whose discrete and continuous symmetry transformations provide the physical realizations of all aspects of the de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry. As far as the physical utility of the above nilpotent symmetries is concerned, we demonstrate that the 2D Abelian 1-form gauge theory is a perfect model of a new class of topological theory and 4D Abelian 2-form as well as 6D Abelian 3-form gauge theories are the field theoretic models for the quasi-topological field theory.

  20. Human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 functions as an estrogen receptor α signaling modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiyuan; An, Byoung Ha; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Jong Hoon; Kang, Young Sook; Chang, Minsun

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • GSTP induces the classical ERα signaling event. • The functional GSTP is a prerequisite for GSTP-induced ERα transcription activity. • The expression of RIP140, a transcription cofactor, was inhibited by GSTP protein. • We propose the novel non-enzymatic role of GSTP. - Abstract: Estrogen receptor α (ERα) plays a crucial role in estrogen-mediated signaling pathways and exerts its action as a nuclear transcription factor. Binding of the ligand-activated ERα to the estrogen response element (ERE) is a central part of ERα-associated signal transduction pathways and its aberrant modulation is associated with many disease conditions. Human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GSTP) functions as an enzyme in conjugation reactions in drug metabolism and as a regulator of kinase signaling pathways. It is overexpressed in tumors following chemotherapy and has been associated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer. In this study, a novel regulatory function of GSTP has been proposed in which GSTP modulates ERE-mediated ERα signaling events. Ectopic expression of GSTP was able to induce the ERα and ERE-mediated transcriptional activities in ERα-positive but GSTP-negative MCF7 human breast cancer cells. This inductive effect of GSTP on the ERE-transcription activity was diminished when the cells express a mutated form of the enzyme or are treated with a GSTP-specific chemical inhibitor. It was found that GSTP inhibited the expression of the receptor interacting protein 140 (RIP140), a negative regulator of ERα transcription, at both mRNA and protein levels. Our study suggests a novel non-enzymatic role of GSTP which plays a significant role in regulating the classical ERα signaling pathways via modification of transcription cofactors such as RIP140.

  1. Lipopolysaccharide-bound structure of the antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Baek, Mi-Hwa; Kamiya, Masakatsu; Kushibiki, Takahiro; Nakazumi, Taichi; Tomisawa, Satoshi; Abe, Chiharu; Kumaki, Yasuhiro; Kikukawa, Takashi; Demura, Makoto; Kawano, Keiichi; Aizawa, Tomoyasu

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are components of the innate immune system and may be potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics because they exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The AMP cecropin P1 (CP1), isolated from nematodes found in the stomachs of pigs, is known to exhibit antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we investigated the interaction between CP1 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is the main component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, using circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). CD results showed that CP1 formed an α-helical structure in a solution containing LPS. For NMR experiments, we expressed (15) N-labeled and (13) C-labeled CP1 in bacterial cells and successfully assigned almost all backbone and side-chain proton resonance peaks of CP1 in water for transferred nuclear Overhauser effect (Tr-NOE) experiments in LPS. We performed (15) N-edited and (13) C-edited Tr-NOE spectroscopy for CP1 bound to LPS. Tr-NOE peaks were observed at the only C-terminal region of CP1 in LPS. The results of structure calculation indicated that the C-terminal region (Lys15-Gly29) formed the well-defined α-helical structure in LPS. Finally, the docking study revealed that Lys15/Lys16 interacted with phosphate at glucosamine I via an electrostatic interaction and that Ile22/Ile26 was in close proximity with the acyl chain of lipid A.

  2. Location, location, location: the evolutionary history of CD1 genes and the NKR-P1/ligand systems.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Sally L; Kaufman, Jim

    2016-08-01

    CD1 genes encode cell surface molecules that present lipid antigens to various kinds of T lymphocytes of the immune system. The structures of CD1 genes and molecules are like the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I system, the loading of antigen and the tissue distribution for CD1 molecules are like those in the class II system, and phylogenetic analyses place CD1 between class I and class II sequences, altogether leading to the notion that CD1 is a third ancient system of antigen presentation molecules. However, thus far, CD1 genes have only been described in mammals, birds and reptiles, leaving major questions as to their origin and evolution. In this review, we recount a little history of the field so far and then consider what has been learned about the structure and functional attributes of CD1 genes and molecules in marsupials, birds and reptiles. We describe the central conundrum of CD1 evolution, the genomic location of CD1 genes in the MHC and/or MHC paralogous regions in different animals, considering the three models of evolutionary history that have been proposed. We describe the natural killer (NK) receptors NKR-P1 and ligands, also found in different genomic locations for different animals. We discuss the consequence of these three models, one of which includes the repudiation of a guiding principle for the last 20 years, that two rounds of genome-wide duplication at the base of the vertebrates provided the extra MHC genes necessary for the emergence of adaptive immune system of jawed vertebrates. PMID:27457887

  3. The reaction of Hg(6 3P1) with hydrogen molecules studied by electron spin resonance and laser induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Whikun; Satyapal, Sunita; Shafer, Neil; Bersohn, Richard

    1993-09-01

    Mercury atoms were excited to the 6 3P1 state with a pulsed laser and a lamp at 253.7 nm in the presence of H2, D2, HD, and mixtures of these gases. The hydrogen atom reaction products were detected by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser induced fluorescence. The ratio of yields of the two body channel (mercury hydride and a hydrogen atom) and the three body channel [Hg(6 1S0) and two hydrogen atoms] were determined by combining the H/D atom ratios and a literature value of the HgD/HgH ratio from reaction with HD. Assuming that the sum of the two yields is unity, the yield of the two body channel is for H2 0.63±0.15, for D2 0.79±0.11, and for HD 0.10±0.02 (HgH+D) and 0.65±0.03 (HgD+H). The average kinetic energies calculated by combining these yields with the literature data on internal energy release in the mercury hydride molecules agree with the average kinetic energies measured from the Doppler broadened fluorescence excitation curves. When the E vector of the exciting polarized light was rotated there was no effect on the hydrogen atom spectrum proving that the hydrogen atom velocity distribution is isotropic. When the mercury atoms were excited with circularly polarized light to the J=1, MJ=1 state, the hydrogen atoms exhibited no spin polarization. Electron spin resonance (ESR) signals observed when irradiating a mixture of Hg and hydrogen molecules were shown by isotopic effects to be due to hydrogen atoms dissociated from mercury hydride molecules.

  4. Glutathione S-transferase T1, M1 and P1 Genetic Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Colorectal Cancer in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gorukmez, Ozlem; Yakut, Tahsin; Gorukmez, Orhan; Sag, Sebnem Ozemri; Topak, Ali; Sahinturk, Serdar; Kanat, Ozkan

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is reported to be the third most common cancer worldwide and the fourth most common cause of cancer related deaths. CRC is considered to be a multifactorial disease whose risk varies due to the complex interaction between individual genetic basis and exposure to multiple endogenous factors. Glutathione S-transferases are pro-carcinogenic in CRC and are required for the conjugation between chemotherapeutics and broad spectrum xenobiotics. One hundred and eleven patients with CRC and 128 control subjects without any cancer history were enrolled in this study. Multiplex PCR was applied to determine polymorphisms for the GSTT1 and M1 genes, and PCR-RFLP was applied for the GSTP1 (Ile105Val) gene polymorphism. Values <0.05 were defined as statistically significant. We detected a significant high correlation between predisposition for CRC and presence of the Ile/Ile genotype of the GSTP1 (IIe105Val) gene polymorphism, but we did not find a significant relationship between predisposition for CRC and GSTT1 and M1 deletion polymorphisms. In addition, we did not determine a relationship between GSTT1, M1 and P1 gene polymorphisms and any clinicopathological features of CRC. GSTT1 null/GSTM1 positive and GSTT1 null/GSTM1 positive/GSTP1 Ile/ Ile genotypes were significantly higher in the patient group. Our results revealed that there is no relationship among CRC, its clinicopathologic features, and GSTT1 M1 gene polymorphisms. However, there was a significant correlation between CRC and the GSTP1 Ile/Ile genotype. Further studies with larger patient groups are required to delineate the relationships between GST gene polymorphisms and the clinicopathologic features of CRC in Turkey. PMID:27644629

  5. Escape factors for Paschen 2p-1s emission lines in low-temperature Ar, Kr, and Xe plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xi-Ming; Cheng, Zhi-Wen; Pu, Yi-Kang; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2016-06-01

    Radiation trapping phenomenon is often observed when investigating low-temperature plasmas. Photons emitted from the upper excited states may be reabsorbed by the lower states before they leave the plasmas. In order to account for this effect in the modelling and optical diagnostics of plasmas, either an ‘escape factor’ of a function of the optical depth or a strict solution of the radiation transfer equation can be employed. However, the former is more convenient in comparison and thus is widely adopted. Previous literatures have provided several simple expressions of the escape factor for the uniform plasmas. The emission line profiles are assumed to be dominated by the Doppler broadening, and the line splitting due to the hyperfine structure is not considered. This kind of expression is only valid for small atoms, e.g. Ar in low-pressure uniform discharges. Actually, the excited state density in many of the low-temperature plasmas is non-uniform and the emission line profile can be significantly influenced by the collisional broadening at medium and high pressures. In these cases, a new escape factor equation should be calculated. In this work, we study the escape factor equations for the often used 2p-1s transitions (Paschen’s notation) of the Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms. Possible non-uniform density profiles are considered. In addition, we include the line splitting due to the hyperfine structure for Kr and Xe. For the low-pressure plasmas, an escape factor expression mainly based on the Gaussian line profile is given and particularly verified by an experiment in a low-pressure capacitive discharge. For the high-pressure plasmas, an equation based on the Voigt line profile is also calculated. In this way, the new escape factor expression is ready for use in the modelling of the Ar, Kr, and Xe plasmas from low to atmospheric pressure.

  6. Role of PTHrP(1-34) Pulse Frequency Versus Pulse Duration to Enhance Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Chondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jennifer; Ortel, Marlen; Hagmann, Sebastien; Hoeflich, Andreas; Richter, Wiltrud

    2016-12-01

    Generation of phenotypically stable, articular chondrocytes from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is still an unaccomplished task, with formation of abundant, hyaline extracellular matrix, and avoidance of hypertrophy being prime challenges. We recently demonstrated that parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a promising factor to direct chondrogenesis of MSCs towards an articular phenotype, since intermittent PTHrP application stimulated cartilage matrix production and reduced undesired hypertrophy. We here investigated the role of frequency, pulse duration, total exposure time, and underlying mechanisms in order to unlock the full potential of PTHrP actions. Human MSC subjected to in vitro chondrogenesis for six weeks were exposed to 2.5 nM PTHrP(1-34) pulses from days 7 to 42. Application frequency was increased from three times weekly (3 × 6 h/week) to daily maintaining either the duration of individual pulses (6 h/day) or total exposure time (18 h/week; 2.6 h/day). Daily PTHrP treatment significantly increased extracellular matrix deposition regardless of pulse duration and suppressed alkaline-phosphatase activity by 87%. High total exposure time significantly reduced cell proliferation at day 14. Pulse duration was critically important to significantly reduce IHH expression, but irrelevant for PTHrP-induced suppression of the hypertrophic markers MEF2C and IBSP. COL10A1, RUNX2, and MMP13 expression remained unaltered. Decreased IGFBP-2, -3, and -6 expression suggested modulated IGF-I availability in PTHrP groups, while drop of SOX9 protein levels during the PTHrP-pulse may delay chondroblast formation and hypertrophy. Overall, the significantly optimized timing of PTHrP-pulses demonstrated a vast potential to enhance chondrogenesis of MSC and suppress hypertrophy possibly via superior balancing of IGF- and SOX9-related mechanisms. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2673-2681, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27548511

  7. The Evolution of Volatile Production in Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) during Its 2011-2012 Apparition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gicquel, A.; Milam, S. N.; Coulson, I. M.; Villanueva, G. L.; Cordiner, M. A.; Charnley, S. B.; DiSanti, M. A.; Mumma, M. J.; Szutowicz, S.

    2015-07-01

    We report observations at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths of comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) from 2011 December 28 to 2012 April 24, using the Arizona Radio Observatory submillimeter telescope (SMT) and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Garradd is a dynamically young long-period comet from the Oort Cloud, with a periodicity of 127,000 yr, that reached perihelion on 2011 December 23 (at {R}h = 1.55 AU and Δ = 20.1 AU) and made its closest approach to the Earth on 2012 March 05 (at {R}h = 1.84 AU and Δ = 1.26 AU). We obtained gas production rates, and molecular abundances relative to water for HCN, ortho-{{{H}}}2{CO}, CS, CO and {{CH}}3{OH}. A rotational temperature, {T}{rot}≈ 50 K, was determined by observing multiple methanol lines with the JCMT. By averaging the abundance ratio relative to water from the SMT and the JCMT we derive: CO: 7.03%± 1.84%, HCN: 0.04% ± 0.01%, o-{{{H}}}2{CO}: 0.14% ± 0.03% as a parent molecule (and 0.28% ± 0.06% as an extended source), CS: 0.03% ± 0.01% and {{CH}}3{OH}: {3.11}-0.51+1.86%. We concluded that Garradd is normal in {{CH}}3{OH}, depleted in HCN, o-{{{H}}}2{CO} and CS and slightly enriched in CO with respect to typically observed cometary mixing ratios. We also studied the temporal evolution of HCN and CO and find that the production of HCN has a trend similar to water (but with short-term variation), with a decrease after perihelion, while that of CO shows contrary behavior: remaining constant or increasing after perihelion.

  8. DNA polymerase alpha associated protein P1, a murine homolog of yeast MCM3, changes its intranuclear distribution during the DNA synthetic period.

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, H; Nozaki, N; Sugimoto, K

    1994-01-01

    We isolated a murine gene for the DNA polymerase alpha associated protein P1, which shares high homology with the budding yeast MCM3 protein, which is a member of a protein family involved in the early event of DNA replication having a putative DNA-dependent ATPase motif. Using a polyclonal anti-P1 antibody raised against a beta-galactosidase-P1 fusion protein, we identified at least two forms of P1 protein in the nucleus of a mouse cell line, an underphosphorylated form that was associated with a particular nuclear structure and a hyperphosphorylated form loosely bound to the nucleus. During progression through S phase, P1 disappeared, first from the euchromatic region, then from the heterochromatic region, apparently in parallel with temporally ordered DNA replication. Thus, it is likely that the underphosphorylated P1 is dissociated from the nuclear structure after DNA replication by cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation. This is the first direct observation of a protein whose behavior is consistent with that of a hypothetical factor which restricts the chromatin to replicate once per cell cycle in higher eukaryotes. Images PMID:7925275

  9. Evidence against the Bm1P1 protein as a positive transcription factor for barbiturate-mediated induction of cytochrome P450BM-1 in bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G C; Sung, C C; Liu, C H; Lin, C H

    1998-04-01

    The Bm1P1 protein was previously proposed to act as a positive transcription factor involved in barbiturate-mediated induction of cytochrome P450BM-1 in Bacillus megaterium. We now report that the bm1P1 gene encodes a protein of 217 amino acids, rather than the 98 amino acids as reported previously. In vitro gel shift assays indicate that the Bm1P1 protein did not interact with probes comprising the regulatory regions of the P450BM-1 gene. Moreover, disruption of the bm1P1 gene did not markedly affect barbiturate induction of P450BM-1 expression. A multicopy plasmid harboring only the P450BM-1 promoter region could increase expression of the chromosome-encoded P450BM-1. The level of expression is comparable with that shown by a multicopy plasmid harboring the P450BM-1 promoter region along with the bm1P1 gene. These results strongly suggest that the Bm1P1 protein is unlikely to act as a positive regulator for barbiturate induction of P450BM-1 expression. Finally, deletion of the Barbie box did not markedly diminish the effect of pentobarbital on expression of a reporter gene transcriptionally fused to the P450BM-1 promoter. This suggests that the Barbie box is unlikely to be a key element in barbiturate-mediated induction of P450BM-1. PMID:9525898

  10. Diffuse Gamma Rays Galactic and Extragalactic Diffuse Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Strong, Andrew W.; Reimer, Olaf

    2004-01-01

    Diffuse gamma rays consist of several components: truly diffuse emission from the interstellar medium, the extragalactic background, whose origin is not firmly established yet, and the contribution from unresolved and faint Galactic point sources. One approach to unravel these components is to study the diffuse emission from the interstellar medium, which traces the interactions of high energy particles with interstellar gas and radiation fields. Because of its origin such emission is potentially able to reveal much about the sources and propagation of cosmic rays. The extragalactic background, if reliably determined, can be used in cosmological and blazar studies. Studying the derived average spectrum of faint Galactic sources may be able to give a clue to the nature of the emitting objects.

  11. Kramers turnover: From energy diffusion to spatial diffusion using metadynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwary, Pratyush; Berne, B. J.

    2016-04-01

    We consider the rate of transition for a particle between two metastable states coupled to a thermal environment for various magnitudes of the coupling strength using the recently proposed infrequent metadynamics approach [P. Tiwary and M. Parrinello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 230602 (2013)]. We are interested in understanding how this approach for obtaining rate constants performs as the dynamics regime changes from energy diffusion to spatial diffusion. Reassuringly, we find that the approach works remarkably well for various coupling strengths in the strong coupling regime, and to some extent even in the weak coupling regime.

  12. A Diffusion Approach to Study Leadership Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to draw on elements of diffusion theory to understand leadership reform. Many diffusion studies examine the spread of an innovation across social units but the objective is to examine diffusion of a collective leadership model within school units. Specifically, the strength of reform diffusion is tested to account for…

  13. The Evolution of Volatile Production in Comet C-2009 P1(Garradd) During its 2011-2012 Apparition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gicquel, A.; Milam, S. N.; Coulson, I. M.; Villaneuva, G. L.; Cordiner, M. A.; Charnley, S. B.; DiSanti, M. A.; Mumma, M. J.; Szutowicz, S.

    2015-01-01

    We report observations at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths of comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) from 2011 December 28 to 2012 April 24, using the Arizona Radio Observatory submillimeter telescope (SMT) and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Garradd is a dynamically young long-period comet from the Oort Cloud, with a periodicity of 127,000 years, that reached perihelion on 2011 December 23 (at Heliocentric distance (Rh) = 1.55 Astronomical Units and delta = 20.1 Astronomical Units ) and made its closest approach to the Earth on 2012 March 05 (at Heliocentric distance (Rh) = 1.84 Astronomical Units and delta = 1.26 Astronomical Units). We obtained gas production rates, and molecular abundances relative to water for HCN, ortho-H2CO, CS, CO and CH3OH. A rotational temperature, T (sub rot) approximately equal to 50 degrees Kelvin, was determined by observing multiple methanol lines with the JCMT. By averaging the abundance ratio relative to water from the SMT and the JCMT we derive: CO: 7.03 plus or minus 1.84 percent, HCN: 0.04 plus or minus 0.01 percent, ortho H2CO: 0.14 plus or minus 0.03 percent as a parent molecule (and 0.28 plus or minus 0.06 percent as an extended source), CS: 0.03 plus or minus 0.01 percent and CH3OH: 3.11 for a range from plus 1:86 to minus 0.51 percent. We concluded that Garradd is normal in CH3OH, depleted in HCN, ortho-H2CO and CS and slightly enriched in CO with respect to typically observed cometary mixing ratios. We also studied the temporal evolution of HCN and CO and find that the production of HCN has a trend similar to water (but with short-term variation), with a decrease after perihelion, while that of CO shows contrary behavior: remaining constant or increasing after perihelion.

  14. Devitrite-based optical diffusers.

    PubMed

    Butt, Haider; Knowles, Kevin M; Montelongo, Yunuen; Amaratunga, Gehan A J; Wilkinson, Timothy D

    2014-03-25

    Devitrite is a novel material produced by heat treatment of commercial soda-lime-silica glass. It consists of fans of needle-like crystals which can extend up to several millimeters and have interspacings of up to a few hundred nanometers. To date, only the material properties of devitrite have been reported, and there has been a distinct lack of research on using it for optical applications. In this study, we demonstrate that randomly oriented fans of devitrite crystals can act as highly efficient diffusers for visible light. Devitrite crystals produce phase modulation of light because of their relatively high anisotropy. The nanoscale spacings between these needles enable light to be diffused to large scattering angles. Experimentally measured results suggest that light diffusion patterns with beam widths of up to 120° are produced. Since devitrite is an inexpensive material to produce, it has the potential to be used in a variety of commercial applications.

  15. Anomalous diffusion in silo drainage.

    PubMed

    Arévalo, R; Garcimartín, A; Maza, D

    2007-06-01

    The silo discharge process is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The development of the velocity profile and the probability density function for the displacements in the horizontal and vertical axis are obtained. The PDFs obtained at the beginning of the discharge reveal non-Gaussian statistics and superdiffusive behaviors. When the stationary flow is developed, the PDFs at shorter temporal scales are non-Gaussian too. For big orifices a well-defined transition between ballistic and diffusive regime is observed. In the case of a small outlet orifice, no well-defined transition is observed. We use a nonlinear diffusion equation introduced in the framework of non-extensive thermodynamics in order to describe the movements of the grains. The solution of this equation gives a well-defined relationship (gamma = 2/(3 - q)) between the anomalous diffusion exponent gamma and the entropic parameter q introduced by the non-extensive formalism to fit the PDF of the fluctuations.

  16. Load Diffusion in Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horgan, Cornelius O.; Simmonds, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    This research has been concerned with load diffusion in composite structures. Fundamental solid mechanics studies were carried out to provide a basis for assessing the complicated modeling necessary for large scale structures used by NASA. An understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of load diffusion in composite subcomponents is essential in developing primary composite structures. Analytical models of load diffusion behavior are extremely valuable in building an intuitive base for developing refined modeling strategies and assessing results from finite element analyses. The decay behavior of stresses and other field quantities provides a significant aid towards this process. The results are also amendable to parameter study with a large parameter space and should be useful in structural tailoring studies.

  17. Nonlinear Diffusion and Transient Osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akira, Igarashi; Lamberto, Rondoni; Antonio, Botrugno; Marco, Pizzi

    2011-08-01

    We investigate both analytically and numerically the concentration dynamics of a solution in two containers connected by a narrow and short channel, in which diffusion obeys a porous medium equation. We also consider the variation of the pressure in the containers due to the flow of matter in the channel. In particular, we identify a phenomenon, which depends on the transport of matter across nano-porous membranes, which we call “transient osmosis". We find that nonlinear diffusion of the porous medium equation type allows numerous different osmotic-like phenomena, which are not present in the case of ordinary Fickian diffusion. Experimental results suggest one possible candidate for transiently osmotic processes.

  18. Water vapor diffusion membranes, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, F. F.; Klein, E.; Smith, J. K.; Eyer, C.

    1976-01-01

    Transport mechanisms were investigated for the three different types of water vapor diffusion membranes. Membranes representing porous wetting and porous nonwetting structures as well as dense diffusive membrane structures were investigated for water permeation rate as a function of: (1) temperature, (2) solids composition in solution, and (3) such hydrodynamic parameters as sweep gas flow rate, solution flow rate and cell geometry. These properties were measured using nitrogen sweep gas to collect the effluent. In addition, the chemical stability to chromic acid-stabilized urine was measured for several of each type of membrane. A technology based on the mechanism of vapor transport was developed, whereby the vapor diffusion rates and relative susceptibility of membranes to fouling and failure could be projected for long-term vapor recovery trials using natural chromic acid-stabilized urine.

  19. The bone-specific Runx2-P1 promoter displays conserved three-dimensional chromatin structure with the syntenic Supt3h promoter

    PubMed Central

    Barutcu, A. Rasim; Tai, Phillip W. L.; Wu, Hai; Gordon, Jonathan A. R.; Whitfield, Troy W.; Dobson, Jason R.; Imbalzano, Anthony N.; Lian, Jane B.; van Wijnen, André J.; Stein, Janet L.; Stein, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional organization of chromatin is fundamental for transcriptional regulation. Tissue-specific transcriptional programs are orchestrated by transcription factors and epigenetic regulators. The RUNX2 transcription factor is required for differentiation of precursor cells into mature osteoblasts. Although organization and control of the bone-specific Runx2-P1 promoter have been studied extensively, long-range regulation has not been explored. In this study, we investigated higher-order organization of the Runx2-P1 promoter during osteoblast differentiation. Mining the ENCODE database revealed interactions between Runx2-P1 and Supt3h promoters in several non-mesenchymal human cell lines. Supt3h is a ubiquitously expressed gene located within the first intron of Runx2. These two genes show shared synteny across species from humans to sponges. Chromosome conformation capture analysis in the murine pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line revealed increased contact frequency between Runx2-P1 and Supt3h promoters during differentiation. This increase was accompanied by enhanced DNaseI hypersensitivity along with RUNX2 and CTCF binding at the Supt3h promoter. Furthermore, interplasmid-3C and luciferase reporter assays showed that the Supt3h promoter can modulate Runx2-P1 activity via direct association. Taken together, our data demonstrate physical proximity between Runx2-P1 and Supt3h promoters, consistent with their syntenic nature. Importantly, we identify the Supt3h promoter as a potential regulator of the bone-specific Runx2-P1 promoter. PMID:25120271

  20. HDL-bound sphingosine 1-phosphate acts as a biased agonist for the endothelial cell receptor S1P1 to limit vascular inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Galvani, Sylvain; Sanson, Marie; Blaho, Victoria A.; Swendeman, Steven L.; Obinata, Hideru; Conger, Heather; Dahlbäck, Björn; Kono, Mari; Proia, Richard L.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Hla, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) is abundant in endothelial cells, where it regulates vascular development and microvascular barrier function. In investigating the role of endothelial cell S1P1 in adult mice, we found that the endothelial S1P1 signal was enhanced in regions of the arterial vasculature experiencing inflammation. The abundance of proinflammatory adhesion proteins, such as ICAM-1, was enhanced in mice with endothelial cell–specific deletion of S1pr1 and suppressed in mice with endothelial cell–specific overexpression of S1pr1, suggesting a protective function of S1P1 in vascular disease. The chaperones ApoM+HDL (HDL) or albumin bind to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in the circulation; therefore, we tested the effects of S1P bound to each chaperone on S1P1 signaling in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure of HUVECs to ApoM+HDL-S1P, but not to albumin-S1P, promoted the formation of a cell surface S1P1–β-arrestin 2 complex and attenuated the ability of the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα to activate NF-κB and increase ICAM-1 abundance. Although S1P bound to either chaperone induced MAPK activation, albumin-S1P triggered greater Gi activation and receptor endocytosis. Endothelial cell–specific deletion of S1pr1 in the hypercholesterolemic Apoe−/− mouse model of atherosclerosis enhanced atherosclerotic lesion formation in the descending aorta. We propose that the ability of ApoM+HDL to act as a biased agonist on S1P1 inhibits vascular inflammation, which may partially explain the cardiovascular protective functions of HDL. PMID:26268607

  1. The diffusion of ions in unconsolidated sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.

    1970-01-01

    Diffusion in unconsolidated sediments generally proceeds at rates ranging from half to one twentieth of those applying to diffusion of ions and molecules in free solution. Diffusion rates are predictable with respect to porosity and path tortuosity in host sediments, and can be conveniently measured by determinations of electrical resistivity on bulk sediment samples. Net ion flux is further influenced by reactions of diffusing species with enclosing sediments, but such influences should not be confused with or lumped with diffusion processes. ?? 1970.

  2. Diffusion of polyelectrolytes in polyelectrolyte gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahalkar, Anand; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2015-03-01

    Using dynamic light scattering, we have investigated the diffusion coefficient of sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) in a matrix of poly(acrylamide-co-acrylate) gels. The diffusion coefficient of the probe polyelectrolyte exhibits a crossover behavior from a particle-diffusion to entropic-barrier dominated diffusion, as the molecular weight is increased. The effect of electrostatics, by varying the charge density of the matrix, on probe diffusion constant will be presented.

  3. Diffusion in Brain Extracellular Space

    PubMed Central

    Syková, Eva; Nicholson, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion in the extracellular space (ECS) of the brain is constrained by the volume fraction and the tortuosity and a modified diffusion equation represents the transport behavior of many molecules in the brain. Deviations from the equation reveal loss of molecules across the blood-brain barrier, through cellular uptake, binding or other mechanisms. Early diffusion measurements used radiolabeled sucrose and other tracers. Presently, the real-time iontophoresis (RTI) method is employed for small ions and the integrative optical imaging (IOI) method for fluorescent macromolecules, including dextrans or proteins. Theoretical models and simulations of the ECS have explored the influence of ECS geometry, effects of dead-space microdomains, extracellular matrix and interaction of macromolecules with ECS channels. Extensive experimental studies with the RTI method employing the cation tetramethylammonium (TMA) in normal brain tissue show that the volume fraction of the ECS typically is about 20% and the tortuosity about 1.6 (i.e. free diffusion coefficient of TMA is reduced by 2.6), although there are regional variations. These parameters change during development and aging. Diffusion properties have been characterized in several interventions, including brain stimulation, osmotic challenge and knockout of extracellular matrix components. Measurements have also been made during ischemia, in models of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and in human gliomas. Overall, these studies improve our conception of ECS structure and the roles of glia and extracellular matrix in modulating the ECS microenvironment. Knowledge of ECS diffusion properties are valuable in contexts ranging from understanding extrasynaptic volume transmission to the development of paradigms for drug delivery to the brain. PMID:18923183

  4. Interface analysis of diffusion barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delarosa, Mark J.

    2000-10-01

    The utilization of thin films has enabled the success for much of modern technology. One goal of the research encompassed by this thesis was to monitor the interface of thin films and investigate ways to ensure their integrity, in spite of their propensity to react or diffuse. The materials selected for investigation were fluorinated dielectrics and copper. Fluorinated films have been integrated into an extensive range of applications, due to the relative inertness of many fluorinated polymers at low temperatures. Copper has long been the material of choice for electrical conduction due to its low resistivity and high thermal conductivity. Cobalt, cobalt-silicon, tantalum and tantalum-silicon were investigated as diffusion barrier materials to stabilize the interfaces. Co-Si and Ta-Si were found to be effective diffusion barriers on the fluorinated polymers PFCB and Pa-F up to the thermal degradation temperature of these materials. Incorporated in the current thesis research was the use of atomic layer deposition (ALD) to provide extremely thin, conformal, and pinhole-free diffusion barrier films. We were able to deposit cobalt films using ALD, including a dramatic breakthrough allowing the ALD of metals onto oxidized substrates at low temperatures (300°C). The ALD of Co on Ta and Cu on Co on SiO:F were performed to demonstrate this technique. To compliment the use of ALD for fabricating thin, dense diffusion barrier films, surface science analytical techniques were incorporated in this study, including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and grazing angle x-ray diffraction. The ion beam techniques of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) were also used to analyze the diffusion barrier interfaces.

  5. Innovation Diffusion: Assessment of Strategies within the Diffusion Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enfield, Jacob; Myers, Rodney D.; Lara, Miguel; Frick, Theodore W.

    2012-01-01

    Educators increasingly view the high level of engagement and experiential learning offered by games as a means to promote learning. However, as with any designed learning experience, player experiences should provide an accurate representation of content to be learned. In this study, the authors investigated the DIFFUSION SIMULATION GAME (DSG) to…

  6. Diffusive mixing and Tsallis entropy

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, Daniel; Vesselinov, Velimir V.; Cushman, John H.

    2015-04-29

    Brownian motion, the classical diffusive process, maximizes the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy. The Tsallis q-entropy, which is non-additive, was developed as an alternative to the classical entropy for systems which are non-ergodic. A generalization of Brownian motion is provided that maximizes the Tsallis entropy rather than the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy. This process is driven by a Brownian measure with a random diffusion coefficient. In addition, the distribution of this coefficient is derived as a function of q for 1 < q < 3. Applications to transport in porous media are considered.

  7. Hindered diffusion of coal liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, T.T.; Sahimi, M. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Webster, I.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The molecules comprising coal liquids can range from less than 10 to several hundred [angstrom] in diameter. Their size is, therefore, comparable to the average pore size of most hydroprocessing catalysts. Thus, during processing, transport of these molecules into the catalyst occurs mainly by configurational'' or hindered diffusion,'' which is the result of two phenomena occurring in the pores; the distribution of solute molecules in the pores is affected by the pores and the solute molecules experience an increased hydrodynamic drag. The field of hindered diffusion has been reviewed by Deen [16]. The earliest studies in the filed were by Renkin et al. [17].

  8. Optimization of hydraulic turbine diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravec, Prokop; Hliník, Juraj; Rudolf, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic turbine diffuser recovers pressure energy from residual kinetic energy on turbine runner outlet. Efficiency of this process is especially important for high specific speed turbines, where almost 50% of available head is utilized within diffuser. Magnitude of the coefficient of pressure recovery can be significantly influenced by designing its proper shape. Present paper focuses on mathematical shape optimization method coupled with CFD. First method is based on direct search Nelder-Mead algorithm, while the second method employs adjoint solver and morphing. Results obtained with both methods are discussed and their advantages/disadvantages summarized.

  9. A framework to analyze cerebral mean diffusivity using surface guided diffusion mapping in diffusion tensor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh-Hun; Park, Hyunjin; Seo, Sang-Won; Na, Duk L.; Lee, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The mean diffusivity (MD) value has been used to describe microstructural properties in Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) in cortical gray matter (GM). Recently, researchers have applied a cortical surface generated from the T1-weighted volume. When the DTI data are analyzed using the cortical surface, it is important to assign an accurate MD value from the volume space to the vertex of the cortical surface, considering the anatomical correspondence between the DTI and the T1-weighted image. Previous studies usually sampled the MD value using the nearest-neighbor (NN) method or Linear method, even though there are geometric distortions in diffusion-weighted volumes. Here we introduce a Surface Guided Diffusion Mapping (SGDM) method to compensate for such geometric distortions. We compared our SGDM method with results using NN and Linear methods by investigating differences in the sampled MD value. We also projected the tissue classification results of non-diffusion-weighted volumes to the cortical midsurface. The CSF probability values provided by the SGDM method were lower than those produced by the NN and Linear methods. The MD values provided by the NN and Linear methods were significantly greater than those of the SGDM method in regions suffering from geometric distortion. These results indicate that the NN and Linear methods assigned the MD value in the CSF region to the cortical midsurface (GM region). Our results suggest that the SGDM method is an effective way to correct such mapping errors. PMID:26236180

  10. Spatial Mapping of Translational Diffusion Coefficients Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging: A Mathematical Description

    PubMed Central

    SHETTY, ANIL N.; CHIANG, SHARON; MALETIC-SAVATIC, MIRJANA; KASPRIAN, GREGOR; VANNUCCI, MARINA; LEE, WESLEY

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the theoretical background for diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Molecular diffusion is a random process involving thermal Brownian motion. In biological tissues, the underlying microstructures restrict the diffusion of water molecules, making diffusion directionally dependent. Water diffusion in tissue is mathematically characterized by the diffusion tensor, the elements of which contain information about the magnitude and direction of diffusion and is a function of the coordinate system. Thus, it is possible to generate contrast in tissue based primarily on diffusion effects. Expressing diffusion in terms of the measured diffusion coefficient (eigenvalue) in any one direction can lead to errors. Nowhere is this more evident than in white matter, due to the preferential orientation of myelin fibers. The directional dependency is removed by diagonalization of the diffusion tensor, which then yields a set of three eigenvalues and eigenvectors, representing the magnitude and direction of the three orthogonal axes of the diffusion ellipsoid, respectively. For example, the eigenvalue corresponding to the eigenvector along the long axis of the fiber corresponds qualitatively to diffusion with least restriction. Determination of the principal values of the diffusion tensor and various anisotropic indices provides structural information. We review the use of diffusion measurements using the modified Stejskal–Tanner diffusion equation. The anisotropy is analyzed by decomposing the diffusion tensor based on symmetrical properties describing the geometry of diffusion tensor. We further describe diffusion tensor properties in visualizing fiber tract organization of the human brain. PMID:27441031

  11. Variation in exposure to Anopheles gambiae salivary gland peptide (gSG6-P1) across different malaria transmission settings in the western Kenya highlands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The existing metrics of malaria transmission are limited in sensitivity under low transmission intensity. Robust surveillance systems are needed as interventions to monitor reduced transmission and prevention of rapid reintroduction. Serological tools based on antibody responses to parasite and vector antigens are potential tools for transmission measurements. The current study sought to evaluate antibody responses to Anopheles gambiae salivary gland peptide (gSG6- P1), as a biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles bites, in different transmission settings and seasons. The comparison between anti-MSP-119 IgG immune responders and non-responders allowed exploring the robustness of the gSG6-P1 peptide as a surveillance tool in an area of decreasing malaria transmission. Methods Total IgG levels to gSG6-P1 were measured in an age-stratified cohort (< 5, 5–14 and ≥ 15 years) in a total of 1,366 participants from three localities in western Kenya [Kisii (hypoendemic), Kakamega (mesoendemic), and Kombewa (hyperendemic)] including 607 sera that were additionally tested for MSP-119 specific responses during a low and a high malaria transmission seasons. Antibody prevalence and levels were compared between localities with different transmission intensities. Regression analysis was performed to examine the association between gSG6-P1 and MSP-119 seroprevalence and parasite prevalence. Result Seroprevalence of gSG6-P1 in the uphill population was 36% while it was 50% valley bottom (χ2 = 13.2, df = 1, p < 0.001). Median gSG6-P1 antibody levels in the Valley bottom were twice as high as that observed in the uphill population [4.50 vs. 2.05, p < 0.001] and showed seasonal variation. The odds of gSG6-P1 seropositives having MSP-119 antibodies were almost three times higher than the odds of seronegatives (OR = 2.87, 95% CI [1.977, 4.176]). The observed parasite prevalence for Kisii, Kakamega and Kombewa were 4%, 19.7% and 44.6% whilst the

  12. Full pharmacological efficacy of a novel S1P1 agonist that does not require S1P-like head-group interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Cabrera, Pedro J.; Jo, Euijung; Sanna, M. Germana; Brown, Steven; Leaf, Nora; Marsolais, David; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Chapman, Jacqueline; Cameron, Michael; Guerrero, Miguel; Roberts, Edward; Rosen, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Strong evidence exists for interactions of zwitterionic phosphate and amine groups in Sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) to conserved R and E residues present at the extracellular face of transmembrane-3 (TM3) of S1P receptors. The contribution of R120 and E121 for high affinity ligand-receptor interactions is essential, as single-point R120A or E121A S1P1 mutants neither bind S1P nor transduce S1P function. Because S1P receptors are therapeutically interesting, identifying potent selective agonists with different binding modes and in vivo efficacy is of pharmacological importance. Here we describe a modestly water-soluble highly-selective S1P1 agonist (CYM-5442) that does not require R120 or E121 residues for activating S1P1-dependent p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation, which defines a new hydrophobic pocket in S1P1. CYM-5442 is a full agonist in vitro for S1P1 internalization, phosphorylation and ubiquitination. Importantly, CYM-5442 was a full agonist for induction and maintenance of S1P1-dependent lymphopenia, decreasing B-lymphocytes by 65% and T-lymphocytes by 85% of vehicle. Induction of CYM-5442 lymphopenia was dose and time-dependent, requiring serum concentrations in the 50 nM range. In vitro measures of S1P1 activation by CYM-5442 were non-competitively inhibited by a specific S1P1 antagonist (W146), competitive for S1P, FTY720-P and SEW2871. In addition, lymphopenia by CYM-5442 was reversed by W146 administration or upon pharmacokinetic agonist clearance. Pharmacokinetics in mice also indicated that CYM-5442 partitions significantly in central nervous tissue. These data show that CYM-5442 activates S1P1-dependent pathways in vitro and to levels of full efficacy in vivo through a hydrophobic pocket, separable from the orthosteric site of S1P binding that is headgroup dependent. PMID:18708635

  13. Measurement of the scalar polarizability of the indium 6 p1 /2 state using two-step atomic-beam spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augenbraun, Benjamin L.; Carter, Allison; Rupasinghe, P. M.; Majumder, P. K.

    2016-08-01

    We completed a measurement of the Stark shift within the 115In6 s1 /2→6 p1 /2 excited-state transition using two-step laser spectroscopy in an indium atomic beam. By combining this measurement with recent experimental results we determine the scalar polarizability α0 of the 6 p1 /2 state to be 7683 ±43 a03 (in atomic units), a result which agrees very well with recent theoretical calculations. In this experiment, one laser, stabilized to the 5 p1 /2→6 s1 /2410 nm transition, was directed transversely to the atomic beam, while a second, overlapping laser was scanned across the 1343 nm 6 s1 /2→6 p1 /2 transition. We utilized two-tone frequency-modulation spectroscopy of the infrared laser beam to measure the second-step absorption in the interaction region, where the optical depth is less than 10-3. In the course of our experimental work we also determined the hyperfine splitting within the 6 p1 /2 state, improving upon the precision of an existing measurement.

  14. Amino Acid Features of P1B-ATPase Heavy Metal Transporters Enabling Small Numbers of Organisms to Cope with Heavy Metal Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi, E.; Alemzadeh, A.; Ebrahimi, M.; Ebrahimie, E.; Dadkhodaei, N.; Ebrahimi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoremediation refers to the use of plants for extraction and detoxification of pollutants, providing a new and powerful weapon against a polluted environment. In some plants, such as Thlaspi spp, heavy metal ATPases are involved in overall metal ion homeostasis and hyperaccumulation. P1B-ATPases pump a wide range of cations, especially heavy metals, across membranes against their electrochemical gradients. Determination of the protein characteristics of P1B-ATPases in hyperaccumulator plants provides a new opportuntity for engineering of phytoremediating plants. In this study, using diverse weighting and modeling approaches, 2644 protein characteristics of primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of P1B-ATPases in hyperaccumulator and nonhyperaccumulator plants were extracted and compared to identify differences between proteins in hyperaccumulator and nonhyperaccumulator pumps. Although the protein characteristics were variable in their weighting, tree and rule induction models; glycine count, frequency of glutamine-valine, and valine-phenylalanine count were the most important attributes highlighted by 10, five, and four models, respectively. In addition, a precise model was built to discriminate P1B-ATPases in different organisms based on their structural protein features. Moreover, reliable models for prediction of the hyperaccumulating activity of unknown P1B-ATPase pumps were developed. Uncovering important structural features of hyperaccumulator pumps in this study has provided the knowledge required for future modification and engineering of these pumps by techniques such as site-directed mutagenesis. PMID:21573033

  15. LyP-1-conjugated doxorubicin-loaded liposomes suppress lymphatic metastasis by inhibiting lymph node metastases and destroying tumor lymphatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhan, Changyou; Wen, Ziyi; Feng, Linglin; Wang, Fei; Liu, Yu; Yang, Xiangkun; Dong, Qing; Liu, Min; Lu, Weiyue

    2011-10-01

    Lymphatic metastasis can be greatly promoted by metastases growth and lymphangiogenesis in lymph nodes (LNs). LyP-1, a cyclic peptide, is able to specifically bind with tumor cells and tumor lymphatics in metastatic LNs. This work aimed to use LyP-1-conjugated liposomes (L-LS) loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) (L-LS/DOX) to suppress lymphatic metastasis by inhibiting both metastases and tumor lymphatics in LNs. L-LS were prepared and exhibited sizes around 90 nm and spherical morphology as characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The in vitro cellular studies showed that LyP-1 modification obviously increased liposome uptake by MDA-MB-435 tumor cells and enhanced the cytotoxicity of liposomal DOX. A popliteal and iliac LN metastases model was successfully established by subcutaneous inoculation of tumor cells to nude mice. The immunofluorescence staining analysis indicated that LyP-1 modification enabled specific binding of liposome with tumor lymphatics and enhanced the destroying effect of liposomal DOX on tumor lymphatics. The in vivo fluorescence imaging and pharmacodynamic studies showed that LyP-1 modification increased liposome uptake by metastatic LNs and that L-LS/DOX significantly decreased metastatic LN growth and LN metastasis rate. These results suggested that L-LS/DOX were an effective delivery system for suppressing lymphatic metastasis by simultaneously inhibiting LN metastases and tumor lymphatics.

  16. Human acidic ribosomal phosphoproteins P0, P1, and P2: Analysis of cDNA clones, in vitro synthesis, and assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, B.E.; Steitz, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    cDNA clones encoding three antigenically related human ribosomal phosophoproteins (P-proteins) P0, P1, and P2 were isolated and sequenced. P1 and P2 are analogous to Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L7/L12, and P0 is likely to be an analog of L10. The three proteins have a nearly identical carboxy-terminal 17-amino-acid sequence (KEESEESD(D/E)DMGFGLFD-COOH) that is the basis of their immunological cross-reactivity. The identifies of the P1 and P2 cDNAs were confirmed by the strong similarities of their encoded amino acid sequences to published primary structures of the homologous rat, brine shrimp, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins. The P0 cDNA was initially identified by translation of hybrid-selected mRNA and immunoprecipitation of the products. To demonstrate that the coding sequences are full length, the P0, P1, and P2 cDNAs were transcribed in vitro by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and the resulting mRNAs were translated in vitro. The synthetic P0, P1, and P2 proteins were serologically and electrophoretically identical to P-proteins extracted from HeLa cells. These synthetic P-proteins were incorporated into 60S but not 40S ribosomes and also assembled into a complex similar to that described for E. coli L7/L12 and L10.

  17. High prevalence of IncP-1 plasmids and IS1071 insertion sequences in on-farm biopurification systems and other pesticide-polluted environments.

    PubMed

    Dunon, Vincent; Sniegowski, Kristel; Bers, Karolien; Lavigne, Rob; Smalla, Kornelia; Springael, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are considered as key players in the adaptation of bacteria to degrade organic xenobiotic recalcitrant compounds such as pesticides. We examined the prevalence and abundance of IncP-1 plasmids and IS1071, two MGEs that are frequently linked with organic xenobiotic degradation, in laboratory and field ecosystems with and without pesticide pollution history. The ecosystems included on-farm biopurification systems (BPS) processing pesticide-contaminated wastewater and soil. Comparison of IncP-1/IS1071 prevalence between pesticide-treated and nontreated soil and BPS microcosms suggested that both IncP-1 and IS1071 proliferated as a response to pesticide treatment. The increased prevalence of IncP-1 plasmids and IS1071-specific sequences in treated systems was accompanied by an increase in the capacity to mineralize the applied pesticides. Both elements were also encountered in high abundance in field BPS ecosystems that were in operation at farmyards and that showed the capacity to degrade/mineralize a wide range of chlorinated aromatics and pesticides. In contrast, IS1071 and especially IncP-1, MGE were less abundant in field ecosystems without pesticide history although some of them still showed a high IS1071 abundance. Our data suggest that MGE-containing organisms were enriched in pesticide-contaminated environments like BPS where they might contribute to spreading of catabolic genes and to pathway assembly.

  18. Identification of lytic bacteriophage MmP1, assigned to a new member of T7-like phages infecting Morganella morganii.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junmin; Rao, Xiancai; Tan, Yinling; Xiong, Kun; Hu, Zhen; Chen, Zhijin; Jin, Xiaolin; Li, Shu; Chen, Yao; Hu, Fuquan

    2010-09-01

    MmP1 (Morganella morganii phage 1) is a lytic bacteriophage newly isolated from the host bacterium M. morganii. The entire genome was sequenced, and final assembly yielded a 38,234bp linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with a G+C content of 46.5%. In the MmP1 genome, 49 putative genes, 10 putative promoters and 2 predicted sigma-independent terminators were determined through bioinformatic analysis. A striking feature of the MmP1 genome is its high degree of similarity to the T7 group of phages. All of the 49 predicted genes exist on the same DNA strand, and functions were assigned to 35 genes based on the similarity of the homologues deposited in GenBank, which share 30-80% identity to their counterparts in T7-like phages. The analyses of MmP1 using CoreGenes, phylogenetic tree of RNA polymerase and structural proteins have demonstrated that bacteriophage MmP1 should be assigned as a new member of T7-like phages but as a relatively distant member of this family. This is the first report that a T7-like phage adaptively parasitizes in M. morganii, and this will advance our understanding of biodiversity and adaptive evolution of T7-like phages.

  19. A Sensitive and Robust High-Throughput Screening Assay for Inhibitors of the Chikungunya Virus nsP1 Capping Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Bullard-Feibelman, Kristen M.; Fuller, Benjamin P.; Geiss, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne Alphavirus that causes severe and debilitating disease symptoms. Alarmingly, transmission rates of CHIKV have increased dramatically over the last decade resulting in 1.7 million suspected cases in the Western hemisphere alone. There are currently no antivirals for treatment of CHIKV infection and novel anti-alphaviral compounds are badly needed. nsP1 is the alphavirus protein responsible for the methyltransferase and guanylyltransferase activities necessary for formation of the 5’ type 0 cap structure added to newly formed viral RNA. Formation of this cap depends on nsP1 binding GTP and transferring a methylated GMP to nascent viral RNA. We have developed a fluorescence polarization-based assay that monitors displacement of a fluorescently-labeled GTP analog in real time. Determining the relative affinities of 15 GTP analogs for nsP1 GTP revealed important structural aspects of GTP that will inform identification of inhibitors able to outcompete GTP for the nsP1 binding site. Validation of the assay for HTS was completed and a secondary orthogonal assay that measures guanylation activity was developed in order to evaluate hits from future drug screens. This platform provides an avenue for identification of potent nsP1 inhibitors, which would potentially provide compounds capable of treating disease caused by CHIKV infection. PMID:27427769

  20. Long intergenic non-coding RNA APOC1P1-3 inhibits apoptosis by decreasing α-tubulin acetylation in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liao, X-H; Wang, J-G; Li, L-Y; Zhou, D-M; Ren, K-H; Jin, Y-T; Lv, L; Yu, J-G; Yang, J-Y; Lu, Q; Zou, Q; Yu, J; Liu, X-P; Zhou, P

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) act as important regulatory factors in tumor progression. However, their roles in breast cancer remain largely unknown. In present studies, we identified aberrantly expressed long intergenic non-coding RNA APOC1P1-3 (lincRNA-APOC1P1-3) in breast cancer by microarray, verified it by quantitative real-time PCR, and assessed methylation status in the promoter region by pyrosequencing. We also investigated the biological functions with plasmid transfection and siRNA silencing experiments, and further explored their mechanisms by RNA pull-down and RNA immunoprecipitation to identify binding proteins. We found that 224 lncRNAs were upregulated in breast cancer, whereas 324 were downregulated. The lincRNA-APOC1P1-3 was overexpressed in breast cancer, which was related to tumor size and hypomethylation in its promoter region. We also found that APOC1P1-3 could directly bind to tubulin to decrease α-tubulin acetylation, to inactivate caspase-3, and to inhibit apoptosis. This study demonstrates that overexpression of APOC1P1-3 can inhibit breast cancer apoptosis. PMID:27228351