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Sample records for p21 p27 cyclin

  1. Parathyroid cell growth in patients with advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism: vitamin D receptor and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27.

    PubMed

    Tokumoto, Masanori; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Fukuda, Kyoichi; Kanai, Hidetoshi; Kuroki, Shoji; Hirakata, Hideki; Iida, Mitsuo

    2003-06-01

    Uraemic patients with advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism (2HPT) have nodular hyperplastic glands with a decreased vitamin D receptor (VDR) density. Previous studies have shown that nodular hyperplasia expressed a significantly lower VDR density as compared with diffuse hyperplasia, and the VDR density negatively correlated with both the glandular weight and the marker of cell proliferation. However, the mechanism by which the decreased VDR density leads to parathyroid cell proliferation remains unclear. In the myelomonocytic cell line, active vitamin D(3) is known to activate the transcription of both p21 and p27, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs), regulating the transition from the G(1) to the S phase of the cell cycle, in a VDR-dependent manner. Moreover, the overexpression of p21 and p27 inhibits cell proliferation. In order to elucidate the mechanism of parathyroid cell proliferation, the expression of CDKIs, p21 and p27, and the VDR was analysed immunohistochemically, and compared among nodular and diffuse hyperplastic parathyroid glands, and histologically normal parathyroid glands. The VDR expression in nodular hyperplasias was significantly decreased compared with either diffuse hyperplasias or normal parathyroid glands. The expression of both p21 and p27 was also significantly lower in nodular hyperplasias than in diffuse hyperplasias or normal parathyroid glands. Sections of parathyroid glands with a high expression of nuclear VDR highly expressed both p21 and p27. In nodular hyperplasias, the expression of both p21 and p27 correlated either positively with the nuclear VDR expression or inversely with the glandular weight. Therefore, the reduced expression of p21 and p27, being VDR dependent, is a major pathogenic factor for nodular parathyroid gland growth in advanced 2HPT.

  2. Deficiency of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} accelerates atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Akyuerek, Levent M.; Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University of Gothenburg, Goeteborg, SE-405 30; Boehm, Manfred

    2010-05-28

    Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}, are upregulated during vascular cell proliferation and negatively regulate growth of vascular cells. We hypothesized that absence of either p21{sup Cip1} or p27{sup Kip1} in apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficiency may increase atherosclerotic plaque formation. Compared to apoE{sup -/-} aortae, both apoE{sup -/-}/p21{sup -/-} and apoE{sup -/-}/p27{sup -/-} aortae exhibited significantly more atherosclerotic plaque following a high-cholesterol regimen. This increase was particularly observed in the abdominal aortic regions. Deficiency of p27{sup Kip1} accelerated plaque formation significantly more than p21{sup -/-} in apoE{sup -/-} mice. This increased plaque formation was in parallel with increased intima/mediamore » area ratios. Deficiency of p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} accelerates atherogenesis in apoE{sup -/-} mice. These findings have significant implications for our understanding of the molecular basis of atherosclerosis associated with excessive proliferation of vascular cells.« less

  3. A naturally occurring mixture of tocotrienols inhibits the growth of human prostate tumor, associated with epigenetic modifications of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Wu, Renyi; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Guo, Yue; Zheng, Xi; Yang, Chung S; Kong, Ah-Ng

    2017-02-01

    Tocotrienols, members of the vitamin E family, have three unsaturated bonds in their side chains. Recently, it has been suggested that the biological effects of tocotrienols may differ from that of tocopherols. Several in vitro studies have shown that tocotrienols have stronger anticancer effects than tocopherols. VCaP cell line used in this study is from a vertebral bone metastasis from a patient with prostate cancer. Eight-week-old male NCr(-/-) nude mice were subcutaneously injected with VCaP-luc cells in matrigel and then administered a tocotrienol mixture for 8 weeks. The tocotrienol mixture inhibited the growth of human prostate tumor xenografts in a dose-dependent manner. The concentrations of tocotrienols and their metabolites were significantly increased in treatment groups. Tocotrienols inhibited prostate tumor growth by suppressing cell proliferation, which was associated with the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 and p27. In addition, tocotrienol treatment was associated with elevated H3K9 acetylation levels at proximal promoter regions of p21 and p27 and with decreased expression of histone deacetylases. Tocotrienols inhibited human prostate tumor growth, associated with up-regulation of the CDK inhibitors p21 and p27. Elevated expression of p21 and p27 could be partly due to the suppressed expression of HDACs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular markers in dysplasia of the larynx: expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21, p27 and p53 tumour suppressor gene in predicting cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Jeannon, J-P; Soames, J V; Aston, V; Stafford, F W; Wilson, J A

    2004-12-01

    Premalignant conditions affect the larynx. Dysplasia can progress in severity resulting in cancer depending on many clinical, pathological and molecular factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of the p21 and p27 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and p53 tumour suppressor gene in dysplasia of the larynx. A total of 114 cases of untreated dysplasia were selected from the archives of the University of Newcastle. p21, p27 and p53 immunohistochemistry was performed and the cases followed up. Twenty-eight dysplasias (24%) subsequently developed into cancers. Expression of the molecular factors studied was not associated with cancer progression. p53 expression was associated with smoking (P = 0.005). In contrast, grade of dysplasia was significantly associated with cancer risk (odds ratio 6.7; P = 0.0001). The majority (75%) of cancers were detected within 12 months of dysplasia being diagnosed.

  5. ClC-3 Chloride Channel Proteins Regulate the Cell Cycle by Up-regulating cyclin D1-CDK4/6 through Suppressing p21/p27 Expression in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dong; Luo, Hai; Lai, Zhouyi; Zou, Lili; Zhu, Linyan; Mao, Jianwen; Jacob, Tim; Ye, Wencai; Wang, Liwei; Chen, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    It was shown in this study that knockdown of ClC-3 expression by ClC-3 siRNA prevented the activation of hypotonicity-induced chloride currents, and arrested cells at the G0/G1 phase in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2Z cells. Reconstitution of ClC-3 expression with ClC-3 expression plasmids could rescue the cells from the cell cycle arrest caused by ClC-3 siRNA treatments. Transfection of cells with ClC-3 siRNA decreased the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin dependent kinase 4 and 6, and increased the expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs), p21 and p27. Pretreatments of cells with p21 and p27 siRNAs depleted the inhibitory effects of ClC-3 siRNA on the expression of CDK4 and CDK6, but not on that of cyclin D1, indicating the requirement of p21 and p27 for the inhibitory effects of ClC-3 siRNA on CDK4 and CDK6 expression. ClC-3 siRNA inhibited cells to progress from the G1 phase to the S phase, but pretreatments of cells with p21 and p27 siRNAs abolished the inhibitory effects of ClC-3 siRNA on the cell cycle progress. Our data suggest that ClC-3 may regulate cell cycle transition between G0/G1 and S phases by up-regulation of the expression of CDK4 and CDK6 through suppression of p21 and p27 expression. PMID:27451945

  6. Tangeretin induces cell-cycle G1 arrest through inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4 activities as well as elevating Cdk inhibitors p21 and p27 in human colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Chen, Wei-Jen; Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2002-10-01

    Tangeretin (5,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone) is concentrated in the peel of citrus fruits. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that tangeretin blocked cell cycle progression at G1 phase in colorectal carcinoma COLO 205 cells. Over a 24 h exposure to tangeretin, the degree of phosphorylation of Rb was decreased after 12 h and G1 arrest developed. The protein expression of cyclins A, D1, and E reduced slightly under the same conditions. Immunocomplex kinase experiments showed that tangeretin inhibited the activities of cyclin-dependent kinases 2 (Cdk2) and 4 (Cdk4) in a dose-dependent manner in the cell-free system. As the cells were exposed to tangeretin (50 microM) over 48 h a gradual loss of both Cdk2 and 4 kinase activities occurred. Tangeretin also increased the content of the Cdk inhibitor p21 protein and this effect correlated with the elevation in p53 levels. In addition, tangeretin also increased the level of the Cdk inhibitor p27 protein within 18 h. These results suggest that tangeretin either exerts its growth-inhibitory effects through modulation of the activities of several key G1 regulatory proteins, such as Cdk2 and Cdk4, or mediates the increase of Cdk inhibitors p21 and p27.

  7. Plasmin-clipped beta(2)-glycoprotein-I inhibits endothelial cell growth by down-regulating cyclin A, B and D1 and up-regulating p21 and p27.

    PubMed

    Beecken, Wolf-Dietrich C; Ringel, Eva Maria; Babica, Jan; Oppermann, Elsie; Jonas, Dietger; Blaheta, Roman A

    2010-10-28

    beta(2)-Glycoprotein-I (beta(2)gpI), an abundant plasma glycoprotein, functions as a regulator of thrombosis. Previously, we demonstrated that plasmin-clipped beta(2)gpI (cbeta(2)gpI) exerts an anti-angiogenic effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The present study was focused on the molecular background responsible for this phenomenon. cbeta(2)gpI strongly reduced HUVEC growth and proliferation as evidenced by the MTT and BrdU assay and delayed cell cycle progression arresting HUVEC in the S-and G2/M-phase. Western blot analysis indicated that cbeta(2)gpI inhibited cyclin A, B and D1, and enhanced p21 and p27 expression. Activity of p38 was down-regulated independently from the cbeta(2)gpI incubation time. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was not changed early (30 and 60 min) but became enhanced later (90 min, 4h). JNK activity was reduced rapidly after cbeta(2)gpI treatment but compared to controls, increased thereafter. Annexin II blockade prevented growth inhibition and cell cycle delay evoked by cbeta(2)gpI. We assume that cbeta(2)gpI's effects on HUVEC growth is mediated via cyclin A, B and D1 suppression, up-regulation of p21 and p27 and coupled to modifications of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling pathway. cbeta(2)gpI may represent a potential endogenous angiogenesis-targeted compound, opening the possibility of a novel tool to treat cancer. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. P21 and p27: roles in carcinogenesis and drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Abukhdeir, Abde M; Park, Ben Ho

    2008-07-01

    Human cancers arise from an imbalance of cell growth and cell death. Key proteins that govern this balance are those that mediate the cell cycle. Several different molecular effectors have been identified that tightly regulate specific phases of the cell cycle, including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and CDK inhibitors. Notably, loss of expression or function of two G1-checkpoint CDK inhibitors - p21 (CDKN1A) and p27 (CDKN1B) - has been implicated in the genesis or progression of many human malignancies. Additionally, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that functional loss of p21 or p27 can mediate a drug-resistance phenotype. However, reports in the literature have also suggested p21 and p27 can promote tumours, indicating a paradoxical effect. Here, we review historic and recent studies of these two CDK inhibitors, including their identification, function, importance to carcinogenesis and finally their roles in drug resistance.

  9. Cell cycle regulation by the intrinsically disordered proteins p21 and p27.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mi-Kyung; Mitrea, Diana M; Ou, Li; Kriwacki, Richard W

    2012-10-01

    Today, it is widely accepted that proteins that lack highly defined globular three-dimensional structures, termed IDPs (intrinsically disordered proteins), play key roles in myriad biological processes. Our understanding of how intrinsic disorder mediates biological function is, however, incomplete. In the present paper, we review disorder-mediated cell cycle regulation by two intrinsically disordered proteins, p21 and p27. A structural adaptation mechanism involving a stretchable dynamic linker helix allows p21 to promiscuously recognize the various Cdk (cyclin-dependent kinase)-cyclin complexes that regulate cell division. Disorder within p27 mediates transmission of an N-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation signal to a C-terminal threonine phosphorylation, constituting a signalling conduit. These mechanisms are mediated by folding upon binding p21/p27's regulatory targets. However, residual disorder within the bound state contributes critically to these functional mechanisms. Our studies provide insights into how intrinsic protein disorder mediates regulatory processes and opportunities for designing drugs that target cancer-associated IDPs.

  10. New roles for p21 and p27 cell-cycle inhibitors: a function for each cell compartment?

    PubMed

    Coqueret, Olivier

    2003-02-01

    Cell division relies on the activation of cyclins, which bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) to induce cell-cycle progression towards S phase and later to initiate mitosis. Since uncontrolled cyclin-dependent kinase activity is often the cause of human cancer, their function is tightly regulated by cell-cycle inhibitors such as the p21 and p27 Cip/Kip proteins. Following anti-mitogenic signals or DNA damage, p21 and p27 bind to cyclin-CDK complexes to inhibit their catalytic activity and induce cell-cycle arrest. Interestingly, recent discoveries suggest that p21 and p27 might have new activities that are unrelated to their function as CDK inhibitors. The identification of new targets of Cip/Kip proteins as well as evidence of Cip/Kip cytoplasmic relocalization have revealed unexpected functions for these proteins in the control of CDK activation, in the regulation of apoptosis and in transcriptional activation. This article discusses recent insights into these possible additional functions of p21 and p27.

  11. Disorder-function relationships for the cell cycle regulatory proteins p21 and p27.

    PubMed

    Mitrea, Diana M; Yoon, Mi-Kyung; Ou, Li; Kriwacki, Richard W

    2012-04-01

    The classic structure-function paradigm has been challenged by a recently identified class of proteins: intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Despite their lack of stable secondary or tertiary structure, IDPs are prevalent in all forms of life and perform myriad cellular functions, including signaling and regulation. Importantly, disruption of IDP homeostasis is associated with numerous human diseases, including cancer and neurodegeneration. Despite wide recognition of IDPs, the molecular mechanisms underlying their functions are not fully understood. Here we review the structural features and disorder-function relationships for p21 and p27, two cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) regulators involved in controlling cell division and fate. Studies of p21 bound to Cdk2/cyclin A revealed that a helix stretching mechanism mediates binding promiscuity. Further, investigations of Tyr88-phosphorylated p27 identified a signaling conduit that controls cell division and is disrupted in certain cancers. These mechanisms rely upon a balance between nascent structure in the free state, induced folding upon binding, and persistent flexibility within functional complexes. Although these disorder-function relationships are likely to be recapitulated in other IDPs, it is also likely that the vocabulary of their mechanisms is much more extensive than is currently understood. Further study of the physical properties of IDPs and elucidation of their links with function are needed to fully understand the mechanistic language of IDPs.

  12. CDK inhibitors, p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}, participate in cell cycle exit of mammalian cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tane, Shoji; Ikenishi, Aiko; Okayama, Hitomi

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Expression of p21 and p27 in the hearts showed a peak during postnatal stages. •p21 and p27 bound to cyclin E, cyclin A and CDK2 in the hearts at postnatal stages. •Cardiomyocytes in both KO mice showed failure in the cell cycle exit at G1-phase. •These data show the first apparent phenotypes in the hearts of Cip/Kip KO mice. -- Abstract: Mammalian cardiomyocytes actively proliferate during embryonic stages, following which cardiomyocytes exit their cell cycle after birth. The irreversible cell cycle exit inhibits cardiac regeneration by the proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes. Exactly how the cell cycle exit occurs remainsmore » largely unknown. Previously, we showed that cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK activities are inhibited before the CDKs levels decrease in postnatal stages. This result suggests that factors such as CDK inhibitors (CKIs) inhibit CDK activities, and contribute to the cell cycle exit. In the present study, we focused on a Cip/Kip family, which can inhibit cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK activities. Expression of p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} but not p57{sup Kip2} showed a peak around postnatal day 5, when cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK activities start to decrease. p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} bound to cyclin E, cyclin A and CDK2 at postnatal stages. Cell cycle distribution patterns of postnatal cardiomyocytes in p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} knockout mice showed failure in the cell cycle exit at G1-phase, and endoreplication. These results indicate that p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip} play important roles in the cell cycle exit of postnatal cardiomyocytes.« less

  13. Ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of the p21(Cip1), p27(Kip1) and p57(Kip2) CDK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhimin; Hunter, Tony

    2010-06-15

    The expression levels of the p21(Cip1) family CDK inhibitors (CKIs), p21(Cip1), p27(Kip1) and p57(Kip2), play a pivotal role in the precise regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity, which is instrumental to proper cell cycle progression. The stabilities of p21(Cip1), p27(Kip1) and p57(Kip2) are all tightly and differentially regulated by ubiquitylation and proteasome-mediated degradation during various stages of the cell cycle, either in steady state or in response to extracellular stimuli, which often elicit site-specific phosphorylation of CKIs triggering their degradation.

  14. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 does not impact embryonic endochondral ossification in mice

    PubMed Central

    CHINZEI, NOBUAKI; HAYASHI, SHINYA; HASHIMOTO, SHINGO; KANZAKI, NORIYUKI; IWASA, KENJIRO; SAKATA, SHUHEI; KIHARA, SHINSUKE; FUJISHIRO, TAKAAKI; KURODA, RYOSUKE; KUROSAKA, MASAHIRO

    2015-01-01

    Endochondral ossification at the growth plate is regulated by a number of factors and hormones. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 has been identified as a cell cycle regulator and its expression has been reported to be essential for endochondral ossification in vitro. However, to the best of our knowledge, the function of p21 in endochondral ossification has not been evaluated in vivo. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the function of p21 in embryonic endochondral ossification in vivo. Wild-type (WT) and p21 knockout (KO) pregnant heterozygous mice were sacrificed on embryonic days E13.5, E15.5 and E18.5. Sagittal histological sections of the forearms of the embryos were collected and stained with Safranin O and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Additionally, the expression levels of cyclin D1, type II collagen, type X collagen, Sox9, and p16 were examined using immunohistochemistry, and the expression levels of p27 were examined using immunofluorescence. Safranin O staining revealed no structural change between the cartilage tissues of the WT and p21KO mice at any time point. Type II collagen was expressed ubiquitously, while type X collagen was only expressed in the hypertrophic zone of the cartilage tissues. No differences in the levels of Sox9 expression were observed between the two groups at any time point. The levels of cyclin D1 expression and BrdU uptake were higher in the E13.5 cartilage tissue compared with those observed in the embryonic cartilage tissue at subsequent time points. Expression of p16 and p27 was ubiquitous throughout the tissue sections. These results indicate that p21 may not be essential for embryonic endochondral ossification in articular cartilage of mice and that other signaling networks may compensate for p21 deletion. PMID:25376471

  15. PKCeta enhances cell cycle progression, the expression of G1 cyclins and p21 in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Fima, E; Shtutman, M; Libros, P; Missel, A; Shahaf, G; Kahana, G; Livneh, E

    2001-10-11

    Protein kinase C encodes a family of enzymes implicated in cellular differentiation, growth control and tumor promotion. However, not much is known with respect to the molecular mechanisms that link protein kinase C to cell cycle control. Here we report that the expression of PKCeta in MCF-7 cells, under the control of a tetracycline-responsive inducible promoter, enhanced cell growth and affected the cell cycle at several points. The induced expression of another PKC isoform, PKCdelta, in MCF-7 cells had opposite effects and inhibited their growth. PKCeta expression activated cellular pathways in these cells that resulted in the increased expression of the G1 phase cyclins, cyclin D and cyclin E. Expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1) was also specifically elevated in PKCeta expressing cells, but its overall effects were not inhibitory. Although, the protein levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) were not altered by the induced expression of PKCeta, the cyclin E associated Cdk2 kinase activity was in correlation with the p27(KIP1) bound to the cyclin E complex and not by p21(WAF1) binding. PKCeta expression enhanced the removal of p27(KIP1) from this complex, and its re-association with the cyclin D/Cdk4 complex. Reduced binding of p27(KIP1) to the cyclin D/Cdk4 complex at early time points of the cell cycle also enhanced the activity of this complex, while at later time points the decrease in bound p21(WAF1) correlated with its increased activity in PKCeta-expressing cells. Thus, PKCeta induces altered expression of several cell cycle functions, which may contribute to its ability to affect cell growth.

  16. The Rho GTPase effector ROCK regulates cyclin A, cyclin D1, and p27Kip1 levels by distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Croft, Daniel R; Olson, Michael F

    2006-06-01

    The members of the Rho GTPase family are well known for their regulation of actin cytoskeletal structures. In addition, they influence progression through the cell cycle. The RhoA and RhoC proteins regulate numerous effector proteins, with a central and vital signaling role mediated by the ROCK I and ROCK II serine/threonine kinases. The requirement for ROCK function in the proliferation of numerous cell types has been revealed by studies utilizing ROCK-selective inhibitors such as Y-27632. However, the mechanisms by which ROCK signaling promotes cell cycle progression have not been thoroughly characterized. Using a conditionally activated ROCK-estrogen receptor fusion protein, we found that ROCK activation is sufficient to stimulate G1/S cell cycle progression in NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Further analysis revealed that ROCK acts via independent pathways to alter the levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins: cyclin D1 and p21(Cip1) elevation via Ras and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, increased cyclin A via LIM kinase 2, and reduction of p27(Kip1) protein levels. Therefore, the influence of ROCK on cell cycle regulatory proteins occurs by multiple independent mechanisms.

  17. Structural and functional analysis of cyclin D1 reveals p27 and substrate inhibitor binding requirements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu; Bolger, Joshua K; Kirkland, Lindsay O; Premnath, Padmavathy N; McInnes, Campbell

    2010-12-17

    An alternative strategy for inhibition of the cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) in antitumor drug discovery is afforded through the substrate recruitment site on the cyclin positive regulatory subunit. Critical CDK substrates such as the Rb and E2F families must undergo cyclin groove binding before phosphorylation, and hence inhibitors of this interaction also block substrate specific kinase activity. This approach offers the potential to generate highly selective and cell cycle specific CDK inhibitors and to reduce the inhibition of transcription mediated through CDK7 and 9, commonly observed with ATP competitive compounds. While highly potent peptide and small molecule inhibitors of CDK2/cyclin A, E substrate recruitment have been reported, little information has been generated on the determinants of inhibitor binding to the cyclin groove of the CDK4/cyclin D1 complex. CDK4/cyclin D is a validated anticancer drug target and continues to be widely pursued in the development of new therapeutics based on cell cycle blockade. We have therefore investigated the structural basis for peptide binding to its cyclin groove and have examined the features contributing to potency and selectivity of inhibitors. Peptidic inhibitors of CDK4/cyclin D of pRb phosphorylation have been synthesized, and their complexes with CDK4/cyclin D1 crystal structures have been generated. Based on available structural information, comparisons of the cyclin grooves of cyclin A2 and D1 are presented and provide insights into the determinants for peptide binding and the basis for differential binding and inhibition. In addition, a complex structure has been generated in order to model the interactions of the CDKI, p27(KIP)¹, with cyclin D1. This information has been used to shed light onto the endogenous inhibition of CDK4 and also to identify unique aspects of cyclin D1 that can be exploited in the design of cyclin groove based CDK inhibitors. Peptidic and nonpeptidic compounds have been

  18. Cyclin E-p27 opposition and regulation of the G1 phase of the cell cycle in the murine neocortical PVE: a quantitative analysis of mRNA in situ hybridization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delalle, I.; Takahashi, T.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Tsai, L. H.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed the expression patterns of mRNAs of five cell cycle related proteins in the ventricular zone of the neocortical cerebral wall over the course of the neuronogenetic interval in the mouse. One set of mRNAs (cyclin E and p21) are initially expressed at high levels but expression then falls to a low asymptote. A second set (p27, cyclin B and cdk2) are initially expressed at low levels but ascend to peak levels only to decline again. These patterns divide the overall neuronogenetic interval into three phases. In phase 1 cyclin E and p21 levels of mRNA expression are high, while those of mRNAs of p27, cdk2 and cyclin B are low. In this phase the fraction of cells leaving the cycle after each mitosis, Q, is low and the duration of the G1 phase, TG1, is short. In phase 2 levels of expression of cyclin E and p21 fall to asymptote while levels of expression of mRNA of the other three proteins reach their peaks. Q increases to approach 0.5 and TG1 increases even more rapidly to approach its maximum length. In phase 3 levels of expression of cyclin E and p21 mRNAs remain low and those of the mRNAs of the other three proteins fall. TG1 becomes maximum and Q rapidly increases to 1.0. The character of these phases can be understood in part as consequences of the reciprocal regulatory influence of p27 and cyclin E and of the rate limiting functions of p27 at the restriction point and of cyclin E at the G1 to S transition.

  19. p21/Cyclin E pathway modulates anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1 in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wen; Zhou, Yuan; Tiwari, Agnes FY; Su, Hang; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Dandan; Lau, Victoria Ming Yi; Hau, Pok Man; Yip, Yim Ling; Cheung, Annie LM; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Tsao, Sai Wah

    2015-01-01

    Apart from regulating stem cell self-renewal, embryonic development and proliferation, Bmi-1 has been recently reported to be critical in the maintenance of genome integrity. In searching for novel mechanisms underlying the anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1, we observed, for the first time, that Bmi-1 positively regulates p21 expression. We extended the finding that Bmi-1 deficiency induced chromosome breaks in multiple cancer cell models. Interestingly, we further demonstrated that knockdown of cyclin E or ectopic overexpression of p21 rescued Bmi-1 deficiency-induced chromosome breaks. We therefore conclude that p21/cyclin E pathway is crucial in modulating the anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1. As it is well established that the overexpression of cyclin E potently induces genome instability and p21 suppresses the function of cyclin E, the novel and important implication from our findings is that Bmi-1 plays an important role in limiting genomic instability in cylin E-overexpressing cancer cells by positive regulation of p21. PMID:25131797

  20. The role of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gartel, Andrei L; Tyner, Angela L

    2002-06-01

    Cancer develops when the balance between cell proliferation and cell death is disrupted, and the ensuing aberrant proliferation leads to tumor growth. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is induced by both p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms following stress, and induction of p21 may cause cell cycle arrest. As a proliferation inhibitor, p21 is poised to play an important role in preventing tumor development. This notion is supported by data indicating that p21-null mice are more prone to spontaneous and induced tumorigenesis, and p21 synergizes with other tumor suppressors to protect against tumor progression in mice. However, a number of recent studies have pointed out that in addition to being an inhibitor of cell proliferation, p21 acts as an inhibitor of apoptosis in a number of systems, and this may counteract its tumor-suppressive functions as a growth inhibitor. In the current review, we discuss the role of p21 in regulating cell death and the potential relevance of its expression in cancer.

  1. [Immunohistochemical analysis of cell cycle-regulating protein (p21, p27 and Ki67) expression in endoscopic biopsy samples from patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shigeki; Nishiyama, Yorihiro; Ishizuka, Izumi

    2007-05-01

    We performed an immunohistochemical analysis of cell cycle-regulating protein (p21, p27 and Ki67) expression in endoscopic biopsy samples from the patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) using angled -biopsy forceps. Inflammatory cell accumulation into the lamina propria was detected even in patients with modified Los Angeles (LA) system grades N or M. In grade N or M patients with no changes in the epithelium, the area of p21, p27 and Ki67 positive cells was expanded compared to normal mucosa. The area of p21, p27 and Ki67 positive cells tended to expand upward in the epithelium with GERD severity based on the LA classification grading. These indicate that inflammatory cell infiltration into the lamina propria is initial histological change of GERD.

  2. p27Kip1 and Cyclin E Expression and Breast Cancer Survival After Treatment With Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, WE; Yeh, I-T; Lin, M-G; Yuan, X; Donato, E; Sledge, GW; Shapiro, CL; Ingle, JN; Haskell, CM; Albain, KS; Roberts, JM; Livingston, RB; Hayes, DF

    2009-01-01

    Background Abnormal expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins p27Kip1 and cyclin E may be associated with breast cancer survival and relapse. We studied these markers in a clinical trial setting with patients with breast cancer treated by a uniform drug regimen so that treatment was not associated with variability in outcome. Methods We used tissue microarrays to evaluate the expression of p27Kip1 and cyclin E protein by immunohistochemistry in tumor tissue from 2123 (68%) of 3122 patients with moderate-risk primary breast cancer who were enrolled in Southwest Oncology Group/Intergroup Trial S9313, in which patients were assigned to receive doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide administered concurrently (n = 1595) or sequentially (n = 1527). Disease-free and overall survival were equivalent in the two arms. Expression of the proteins was rated on a scale of 1-7, and the median value was used as the cutpoint. Log-rank tests and Cox regression analyses were used to assess associations with survival. Overall survival was defined as time to death from all causes; disease-free survival was defined as time to recurrence or death. All P values were from two-sided statistical tests. Results Lower p27Kip1 expression was associated with worse overall survival (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] =1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21 to1.86) and disease-free survival (unadjusted HR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.57) than higher p27Kip1 expression. Among hormone receptor-positive patients, lower p27Kip1 expression was associated with worse overall survival (HR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.94) and worse disease-free survival (HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 0.99 to 1.63) than higher p27Kip1 expression after adjustment for treatment, menopausal status, tumor size, and number of positive lymph nodes. . Among these patients, five year overall survival for higher p27 was 0.91 (95% CI 0.89-0.93) compared to 0.85 (95% CI 0.82-0.87) for lower p27. No association between p27Kip1 expression and survival

  3. Ironing out the role of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21 in cancer: Novel iron chelating agents to target p21 expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Rayan S; Park, Kyung Chan; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Richardson, Des R

    2018-03-20

    Iron (Fe) has become an important target for the development of anti-cancer therapeutics with a number of Fe chelators entering human clinical trials for advanced and resistant cancer. An important aspect of the activity of these compounds is their multiple molecular targets, including those that play roles in arresting the cell cycle, such as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21. At present, the exact mechanism by which Fe chelators regulate p21 expression remains unclear. However, recent studies indicate the ability of chelators to up-regulate p21 at the mRNA level was dependent on the chelator and cell-type investigated. Analysis of the p21 promoter identified that the Sp1-3-binding site played a significant role in the activation of p21 transcription by Fe chelators. Furthermore, there was increased Sp1/ER-α and Sp1/c-Jun complex formation in melanoma cells, suggesting these complexes were involved in p21 promoter activation. Elucidating the mechanisms involved in the regulation of p21 expression in response to Fe chelator treatment in neoplastic cells will further clarify how these agents achieve their anti-tumor activity. It will also enhance our understanding of the complex roles p21 may play in neoplastic cells and lead to the development of more effective and specific anti-cancer therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. DACH1 regulates cell cycle progression of myeloid cells through the control of cyclin D, Cdk 4/6 and p21{sup Cip1}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-Woong; Kim, Hyeng-Soo; Kim, Seonggon

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DACH1 increases cyclin D, F and Cdk 1, 4, 6 in mouse myeloid progenitor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The knockdown of DACH1 blocked the cell cycle progression of HL-60 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novel effect of DACH1 related with cell cycle regulation and leukemogenesis. -- Abstract: The cell-fate determination factor Dachshund, a component of the Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN), has a role in breast tumor proliferation through the repression of cyclin D1 and several key regulators of embryonic stem cell function, such as Nanog and Sox2. However, little is known about the role of DACH1 in a myeloid lineage asmore » a cell cycle regulator. Here, we identified the differential expression levels of extensive cell cycle regulators controlled by DACH1 in myeloid progenitor cells. The forced expression of DACH1 induced p27{sup Kip1} and repressed p21{sup Cip1}, which is a pivotal characteristic of the myeloid progenitor. Furthermore, DACH1 significantly increased the expression of cyclin D1, D3, F, and Cdk 1, 4, and 6 in myeloid progenitor cells. The knockdown of DACH1 blocked the cell cycle progression of HL-60 promyeloblastic cells through the decrease of cyclin D1, D3, F, and Cdk 1, 4, and 6 and increase in p21{sup Cip1}, which in turn decreased the phosphorylation of the Rb protein. The expression of Sox2, Oct4, and Klf4 was significantly up-regulated by the forced expression of DACH1 in mouse myeloid progenitor cells.« less

  5. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Waf1): contemporary view on its role in senescence and oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Romanov, V S; Pospelov, V A; Pospelova, T V

    2012-06-01

    p21(Waf1) was identified as a protein suppressing cyclin E/A-CDK2 activity and was originally considered as a negative regulator of the cell cycle and a tumor suppressor. It is now considered that p21(Waf1) has alternative functions, and the view of its role in cellular processes has begun to change. At present, p21(Waf1) is known to be involved in regulation of fundamental cellular programs: cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, senescence, and apoptosis. In fact, it not only exhibits antioncogenic, but also oncogenic properties. This review provides a contemporary understanding of the functions of p21(Waf1) depending on its intracellular localization. On one hand, when in the nucleus, it serves as a negative cell cycle regulator and tumor suppressor, in particular by participating in the launch of a senescence program. On the other hand, when p21(Waf1) is localized in the cytoplasm, it acts as an oncogene by regulating migration, apoptosis, and proliferation.

  6. The absence of p27Kip1, an inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases, uncouples differentiation and growth arrest during the granulosa->luteal transition.

    PubMed

    Tong, W; Kiyokawa, H; Soos, T J; Park, M S; Soares, V C; Manova, K; Pollard, J W; Koff, A

    1998-09-01

    The involvement of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in differentiation remains unclear: are the roles of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors restricted to cell cycle arrest; or also required for completion of the differentiation program; or both? Here, we report that differentiation of luteal cells can be uncoupled from growth arrest in p27-deficient mice. In these mice, female-specific infertility correlates with a failure of embryos to implant at embryonic day 4.5. We show by ovarian transplant and hormone reconstitution experiments that failure to regulate luteal cell estradiol is one physiological mechanism for infertility in these mice. This failure is not due to a failure of p27-deficient granulosa cells to differentiate after hormonal stimulation; P450scc, a marker for luteal progesterone biosynthesis, is expressed and granulosa cell-specific cyclin D2 expression is reduced. However, unlike their wild-type counterparts, p27-deficient luteal cells continue to proliferate for up to 3.5 days after hormonal stimulation. By day 5.5, however, these cells withdraw from the cell cycle, suggesting that p27 plays a role in the early events regulating withdrawal of cells from the cell cycle. We have further shown that in the absence of this timely withdrawal, estradiol regulation is perturbed, explaining in part how fertility is compromised at the level of implantation. These data support the interpretation of our previous observations on oligodendrocyte differentiation about a role for p27 in establishing the nonproliferative state, which in some cases (oligodendrocytes) is required for differentiation, whereas in other cases it is required for the proper functioning of a differentiated cell (luteal cell).

  7. Expression of p53, p21 and cyclin D1 in penile cancer: p53 predicts poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Gunia, Sven; Kakies, Christoph; Erbersdobler, Andreas; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Koch, Stefan; May, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the role of p53, p21 and cyclin D1 expression in patients with penile cancer (PC). Paraffin-embedded tissues from PC specimens from six pathology departments were subjected to a central histopathological review performed by one pathologist. The tissue microarray technique was used for immunostaining which was evaluated by two independent pathologists and correlated with cancer-specific survival (CSS). κ-statistics were used to assess interobserver variability. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis was applied to assess the independent effects of several prognostic factors on CSS over a median of 32 months (IQR 6-66 months). Specimens and clinical data from 110 men treated surgically for primary PC were collected. p53 staining was positive in 30 and negative in 62 specimens. κ-statistics showed substantial interobserver reproducibility of p53 staining evaluation (κ=0.73; p<0.001). The 5-year CSS rate for the entire study cohort was 74%. Five-year CSS was 84% in p53-negative and 51% in p53-positive PC patients (p=0.003). Multivariable analysis showed p53 (HR=3.20; p=0.041) and pT-stage (HR=4.29; p<0.001) as independent significant prognostic factors for CSS. Cyclin D1 and p21 expression were not correlated with survival. However, incorporating p21 into a multivariable Cox model did contribute to improved model quality for predicting CSS. In patients with PC, the expression of p53 in the primary tumour specimen can be reproducibly assessed and is negatively associated with cancer specific survival.

  8. Apoptosis, cell proliferation and modulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21cip1 in vascular remodelling during vein arterialization in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Borin, Thaiz Ferraz; Miyakawa, Ayumi Aurea; Cardoso, Leandro; de Figueiredo Borges, Luciano; Gonçalves, Giovana Aparecida; Krieger, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Neo-intima development and atherosclerosis limit long-term vein graft use for revascularization of ischaemic tissues. Using a rat model, which is technically less challenging than smaller rodents, we provide evidence that the temporal morphological, cellular, and key molecular events during vein arterialization resemble the human vein graft adaptation. Right jugular vein was surgically connected to carotid artery and observed up to 90 days. Morphometry demonstrated gradual thickening of the medial layer and important formation of neo-intima with deposition of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in the subendothelial layer from day 7 onwards. Transmission electron microscopy showed that SMCs switch from the contractile to synthetic phenotype on day 3 and new elastic lamellae formation occurs from day 7 onwards. Apoptosis markedly increased on day 1, while α-actin immunostaining for SMC almost disappeared by day 3. On day 7, cell proliferation reached the highest level and cellular density gradually increased until day 90. The relative magnitude of cellular changes was higher in the intima vs. the media layer (100 vs. 2 times respectively). Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p27Kip1 and p16INKA remained unchanged, whereas p21Cip1 was gradually downregulated, reaching the lowest levels by day 7 until day 90. Taken together, these data indicate for the first time that p21Cip1 is the main CDKI protein modulated during the arterialization process the rat model of vein arterialization that may be useful to identify and validate new targets and interventions to improve the long-term patency of vein grafts. PMID:19563615

  9. Involvement of cyclin D and p27 in cell proliferation mediated by ROCK inhibitors Y-27632 and Y-39983 during corneal endothelium wound healing.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Naoki; Nakano, Shinichiro; Kay, EunDuck P; Numata, Ryohei; Ota, Aya; Sowa, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Ueno, Morio; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Koizumi, Noriko

    2014-01-15

    To investigate the molecular mechanism of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitors Y-27632 and Y-39983 on corneal endothelial cell (CEC) proliferation and their wound-healing effect. The expression of G1 proteins of the cell cycle and expression of phosphorylated Akt in monkey CECs (MCECs) treated with Y-27632 were determined by Western blotting. The effect of Y-39983 on the proliferation of MCECs and human CECs (HCECs) was evaluated by both Ki67 staining and incorporation of BrdU. As an in vivo study, Y-39983 was topically instilled in a corneal-endothelial partially injured rabbit model, and CEC proliferation was then evaluated. Investigation of the molecular mechanism of Y-27632 on CEC proliferation revealed that Y-27632 facilitated degradation of p27Kip1 (p27), and promoted the expression of cyclin D. When CECs were stimulated with Y-27632, a 1.7-fold increase in the activation of Akt was seen in comparison to the control after 1 hour. The presence of LY294002, the PI 3-kinase inhibitor, sustained the level of p27. When the efficacy of Y-39983 on cell proliferation was measured in a rabbit model, Y-39983 eye-drop instillation demonstrated rapid wound healing in a concentration range of 0.095 to 0.95 mM, whereas Y-27632 demonstrated rapid wound healing in a concentration range of 3 to 10 mM. These findings show that ROCK inhibitors employ both cyclin D and p27 via PI 3-kinase signaling to promote CEC proliferation, and that Y-39983 may be a more potent agent than Y-27632 for facilitating corneal endothelium wound healing.

  10. Sulforaphane Increases Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor, p21 Protein in Human Oral Carcinoma Cells and Nude Mouse Animal Model to Induce G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun-Hee; Han Kwon, Ki; Jung, Ji-Youn; Han, Hye-Suk; Hyun Shim, Jung; Oh, SeJun; Choi, Kyeong-Hee; Choi, Eun-Sun; Shin, Ji-Ae; Leem, Dae-Ho; Soh, Yunjo; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Cho, Sung-Dae

    2010-01-01

    Previously, our group reported that sulforaphane (SFN), a naturally occurring chemopreventive agent from cruciferous vegetables, effectively inhibits the proliferation of KB and YD-10B human oral squamous carcinoma cells by causing apoptosis. In this study, treatment of 20 and 40 µM of SFN for 12 h caused a cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Cell cycle arrest induced by SFN was associated with a significant increase in the p21 protein level and a decrease in cyclin B expression, but there was no change in the cyclin A protein level. In addition, SFN increased the p21 promoter activity significantly. Furthermore, SFN induced p21 protein expression in a nude mouse xenograft model suggesting that SFN is a potent inducer of the p21 protein in human oral squamous carcinoma cells. These findings show that SFN is a promising candidate for molecular-targeting chemotherapy against human oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:20104266

  11. Expression of p21Waf1/Cip1 and cyclin D1 is increased in butyrate-resistant HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Derjuga, A; Richard, C; Crosato, M; Wright, P S; Chalifour, L; Valdez, J; Barraso, A; Crissman, H A; Nishioka, W; Bradbury, E M; Th'ng, J P

    2001-10-12

    Sodium butyrate induced cell cycle arrest in mammalian cells through an increase in p21Waf1/Cip1, although another study showed that this arrest is related to pRB signaling. We isolated variants of HeLa cells adapted to growth in 5 mm butyrate. One of these variants, clone 5.1, constitutively expressed elevated levels of p21Waf1/Cip1 when incubated in regular growth medium and in the presence of butyrate. Despite this elevated level of p21Waf1/Cip1, the cells continue to proliferate, albeit at a slower rate than parental HeLa cells. Western blot analyses showed that other cell cycle regulatory proteins were not up-regulated to compensate for the elevated expression of p21Waf1/Cip1. However, cyclin D1 was down-regulated by butyrate in HeLa cells but not in clone 5.1. We conclude that continued expression of cyclin D1 allowed clone 5.1 to grow in the presence of butyrate and elevated levels of p21Waf1/Cip1.

  12. p27Kip1 regulates alpha-synuclein expression

    PubMed Central

    Gallastegui, Edurne; Domuro, Carla; Serratosa, Joan; Larrieux, Alejandra; Sin, Laura; Martinez, Jonatan; Besson, Arnaud; Morante-Redolat, José Manuel; Orlando, Serena; Aligue, Rosa; Fariñas, Isabel; Pujol, María Jesús; Bachs, Oriol

    2018-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (α-SYN) is the main component of anomalous protein aggregates (Lewy bodies) that play a crucial role in several neurodegenerative diseases (synucleinopathies) like Parkinson’s disease and multiple system atrophy. However, the mechanisms involved in its transcriptional regulation are poorly understood. We investigated here the role of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor and transcriptional regulator p27Kip1 (p27) in the regulation of α-SYN expression. We observed that selective deletion of p27 by CRISPR/Cas9 technology in neural cells resulted in increased levels of α-SYN. Knock-down of the member of the same family p21Cip1 (p21) also led to increased α-SYN levels, indicating that p27 and p21 collaborate in the repression of α-SYN transcription. We demonstrated that this repression is mediated by the transcription factor E2F4 and the member of the retinoblastoma protein family p130 and that it is dependent of Cdk activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed specific binding sites for p27, p21 and E2F4 in the proximal α-SYN gene promoter. Finally, luciferase assays revealed a direct action of p27, p21 and E2F4 in α-SYN gene expression. Our findings reveal for the first time a negative regulatory mechanism of α-SYN expression, suggesting a putative role for cell cycle regulators in the etiology of synucleinopathies. PMID:29662651

  13. Cyclin Kinase-independent role of p21CDKN1A in the promotion of nascent DNA elongation in unstressed cells

    PubMed Central

    Mansilla, Sabrina F; Bertolin, Agustina P; Bergoglio, Valérie; Pillaire, Marie-Jeanne; González Besteiro, Marina A; Luzzani, Carlos; Miriuka, Santiago G; Hoffmann, Jean-Sébastien; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    The levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 are low in S phase and insufficient to inhibit CDKs. We show here that endogenous p21, instead of being residual, it is functional and necessary to preserve the genomic stability of unstressed cells. p21depletion slows down nascent DNA elongation, triggers permanent replication defects and promotes the instability of hard-to-replicate genomic regions, namely common fragile sites (CFS). The p21’s PCNA interacting region (PIR), and not its CDK binding domain, is needed to prevent the replication defects and the genomic instability caused by p21 depletion. The alternative polymerase kappa is accountable for such defects as they were not observed after simultaneous depletion of both p21 and polymerase kappa. Hence, in CDK-independent manner, endogenous p21 prevents a type of genomic instability which is not triggered by endogenous DNA lesions but by a dysregulation in the DNA polymerase choice during genomic DNA synthesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18020.001 PMID:27740454

  14. The Down syndrome-related protein kinase DYRK1A phosphorylates p27Kip1 and Cyclin D1 and induces cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Soppa, Ulf; Schumacher, Julian; Florencio Ortiz, Victoria; Pasqualon, Tobias; Tejedor, Francisco J; Becker, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental question in neurobiology is how the balance between proliferation and differentiation of neuronal precursors is maintained to ensure that the proper number of brain neurons is generated. Substantial evidence implicates DYRK1A (dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A) as a candidate gene responsible for altered neuronal development and brain abnormalities in Down syndrome. Recent findings support the hypothesis that DYRK1A is involved in cell cycle control. Nonetheless, how DYRK1A contributes to neuronal cell cycle regulation and thereby affects neurogenesis remains poorly understood. In the present study we have investigated the mechanisms by which DYRK1A affects cell cycle regulation and neuronal differentiation in a human cell model, mouse neurons, and mouse brain. Dependent on its kinase activity and correlated with the dosage of overexpression, DYRK1A blocked proliferation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells within 24 h and arrested the cells in G1 phase. Sustained overexpression of DYRK1A induced G0 cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that DYRK1A modulated protein stability of cell cycle-regulatory proteins. DYRK1A reduced cellular Cyclin D1 levels by phosphorylation on Thr286, which is known to induce proteasomal degradation. In addition, DYRK1A phosphorylated p27Kip1 on Ser10, resulting in protein stabilization. Inhibition of DYRK1A kinase activity reduced p27Kip1 Ser10 phosphorylation in cultured hippocampal neurons and in embryonic mouse brain. In aggregate, these results suggest a novel mechanism by which overexpression of DYRK1A may promote premature neuronal differentiation and contribute to altered brain development in Down syndrome. PMID:24806449

  15. Dixdc1 targets CyclinD1 and p21 via PI3K pathway activation to promote Schwann cell proliferation after sciatic nerve crush

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weijie; Liu, Qingqing; Liu, Yuxi

    Dixdc1 (DIX domain containing-1), the mammalian homolog of Ccd1 (Coiled-coil-Dishevelled-Axin1), is a protein containing a coiled-coil domain and a Dishevelled-Axin (DIX) domain. As a novel component of the Wnt pathway, Dixdc1 has been reported to be able to promote neural progenitor proliferation and neuronal differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. But there still remains something unknown about Dixdc1 distribution and functions in the lesion and regeneration of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), so we tried to investigate dynamic changes of Dixdc1 expression in a rat sciatic nerve crush (SNC) model in this study. First of all, we detected SNC-induced increased levels ofmore » Dixdc1 in Schwann cells and interestingly identified parallel expression of PCNA (proliferation cell nuclear antigen) with Dixdc1. Besides, we observed up-regulated Dixdc1 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation. Also, we discovered that Dixdc1 could promote G1-S phase transition accompanied with the up-regulation of CyclinD1 and down-regulation of p21. More importantly, enhanced effects of Dixdc1 on cell proliferation were confirmed to be associated with PI3K activation. Not only blocking of the PI3K but Dixdc1 knockdown led to significantly decreased ability for proliferation, as well as down-regulation of CyclinD1 and up-regulation of p21. In summary, these data demonstrated that Dixdc1 might participate in Schwann cell proliferation by targeting CyclinD1 and p21 at least partially through the PI3K/AKT activation. - Highlights: • The dynamic changes and location of Dixdc1 after sciatic nerve crush. • Dixdc1 was associated with Schwann cell proliferation. • Dixdc1 promoted Schwann cell proliferation partly via PI3K/AKT pathway.« less

  16. Neisseria meningitidis causes cell cycle arrest of human brain microvascular endothelial cells at S phase via p21 and cyclin G2.

    PubMed

    Oosthuysen, Wilhelm F; Mueller, Tobias; Dittrich, Marcus T; Schubert-Unkmeir, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Microbial pathogens have developed several mechanisms to modulate and interfere with host cell cycle progression. In this study, we analysed the effect of the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis on cell cycle in a brain endothelial cell line as well as in primary brain endothelial cells. We found that N.  Meningitidis causes an accumulation of cells in the S phase early at 3 and at 24 h post-infection that was paralleled by a decrease of cells in G2/M phase. Importantly, the outer membrane proteins of the colony opacity-associated (Opa) protein family as well as the Opc protein proved to trigger the accumulation of cells in the S phase. A focused cell cycle reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based array and integrated network analysis revealed changes in the abundance of several cell cycle regulatory mRNAs, including the cell cycle inhibitors p21(WAF1/CIP1) and cyclin G2. These alterations were reflected in changes in protein expression levels and/or relocalization in N. meningitidis-infected cells. Moreover, an increase in p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression was found to be p53 independent. Genetic ablation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) and cyclin G2 abrogated N. meningitidis-induced S phase accumulation. Finally, by measuring the levels of the biomarker 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX, we provide evidence that N. meningitidis induces oxidative DNA damage in infected cells. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Genetic characterization of the role of the Cip/Kip family of proteins as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and assembly factors.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Antonio; Martín, Alberto; Symonds, Catherine E; Odajima, Junko; Dubus, Pierre; Barbacid, Mariano; Santamaría, David

    2014-04-01

    The Cip/Kip family, namely, p21(Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2), are stoichiometric cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs). Paradoxically, they have been proposed to also act as positive regulators of Cdk4/6-cyclin D by stabilizing these heterodimers. Loss of p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) reduces Cdk4/6-cyclin D complexes, although with limited phenotypic consequences compared to the embryonic lethality of Cdk4/6 or triple cyclin D deficiency. This milder phenotype was attributed to Cdk2 compensatory mechanisms. To address this controversy using a genetic approach, we generated Cdk2(-/-) p21(-/-) p27(-/-) mice. Triple-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) displayed minimal levels of D-type cyclins and Cdk4/6-cyclin D complexes. p57(Kip2) downregulation in the absence of p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) aggravated this phenotype, yet MEFs lacking all Cip/Kip proteins exhibited increased retinoblastoma phosphorylation, together with enhanced proliferation and transformation capacity. In vivo, Cdk2 ablation induced partial perinatal lethality in p21(-/-) p27(-/-) mice, suggesting partial Cdk2-dependent compensation. However, Cdk2(-/-) p21(-/-) p27(-/-) survivors displayed all phenotypes described for p27(-/-) mice, including organomegalia and pituitary tumors. Thus, Cip/Kip deficiency does not impair interphasic Cdk activity even in the absence of Cdk2, suggesting that their Cdk-cyclin assembly function is dispensable for homeostatic control in most cell types.

  18. Urinary Bladder Lesions after the Chernobyl Accident: Immunohistochemical Assessment of p53, Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, Cyclin D1 and p21WAF1/Cip1

    PubMed Central

    Romanenko, Alina; Lee, Chyi Chia R.; Yamamoto, Shinji; Hori, Taka‐aki; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Zaparin, Wadim; Vinnichenko, Wladimir; Vozianov, Alexander

    1999-01-01

    During the 11‐year period subsequent to the Chernobyl accident, the incidence of urinary bladder cancer in Ukraine has increased from 26.2 to 36.1 per 100,000 population. Cesium‐137 (137Cs) accounts for 80–90% of the incorporated radioactivity in this population, which has been exposed to long‐term, low‐dose ionizing radiation, and 80% of the more labile pool of cesium is excreted via the urine. The present study was performed to evaluate the histopathological features and the immunohistochemical status of p53, p21WAF1/Cip1, cyclin D1 and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) in urinary bladder mucos a of 55 males (49‐92 years old) with benign prostatic hyperplasia who underwent surgery in Kiev, Ukraine, in 1995 and 1996. Group I (28 patients) inhabiting radiocontaminated areas of the country, group II (17 patients) from Kiev city with less radiocontamination and a control group III (10 patients) living in so‐called “clean” areas of Ukraine were compared. In groups I and II, an increase in multiple areas of moderate or severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ was seen in 42 (93%) of 45 cases. In addi tion, two small transitional cell carcinomas were found in one patient in each of groups I and II. Nuclear accumulation of p53, PCNA, cyclin D1, and to a lesser extent p21WAF1/Cip1, was significantly increased in both groups I and II as compared with the control group III, indicating possible transformation events or enhancement of repair activities, that may precede the defect in the regulatory pathway itself, at least in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Our results suggest that early malignant transformation is taking place in the bladder urothelium of people in the radiocontaminated areas of Ukraine and that this could possibly lead sometime in the future to an increased incidence of urinary bladder cancer. PMID:10189884

  19. Low expression of p27 indicates a poor prognosis in patients with high-grade astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Kirla, Ruut M; Haapasalo, Hannu K; Kalimo, Hannu; Salminen, Eeva K

    2003-02-01

    Two families of tumor suppressor genes, Cip/Kip (p21, p27, and 57) and INK4 (p15, p16, p18, and p19), regulate cell proliferation and neoplastic transformation. p27 exerts its suppressor effect through cyclin E-dependent kinase (CDK2) by inhibiting the phosphorylation of pRb by CDK2, which, in turn, arrests cells in the G1-phase. p21 has a similar effect in addition to participating in the p53 dependent CDK4-mediated and CDK6-mediated pathway. The authors studied the prognostic significance of p21 and p27 in patients with high-grade astrocytomas who were treated with radiotherapy. The expression of p27 and p21 was analyzed immunohistochemically in 52 glioblastomas and 25 anaplastic astrocytomas. All patients underwent surgery for the first time and were treated with adjuvant external radiotherapy. The p27 labeling index (LI) was < 30% in 36% of tumors, 30-50% in 25% of tumors, and > 50% in 39% of tumors. A significant difference in cumulative survival was observed between these groups (P = 0.0072; log-rank test). The p21 LI was < 30% in 48% of tumors, 30-50% in 39% of tumors, and > 50% in 13% of tumors; these groups did not differ significantly in survival. In multivariate Cox analysis, p27 LI was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.0008). The grade of malignancy and proliferation activity also were independent prognostic factors. Although p27 and p21 are parallel cell-cycle regulators, only p27 has independent prognostic value in patients with malignant astrocytomas. It appears that decreased levels of p21/p27 are associated with a poor prognosis and short survival. Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.DOI 10.1002/cncr.11079

  20. Increase in Ara-C cytotoxicity in the presence of valproate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, is associated with the concurrent expression of cyclin D1 and p27(Kip 1) in acute myeloblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Siitonen, Timo; Koistinen, Pirjo; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta

    2005-11-01

    The effects of valproate and butyrate were investigated in an acute myeloblastic cell line (OCI/AML-2) on cytotoxicity, cell cycle profile and expression of cell cycle regulating proteins in the presence of cytarabine (Ara-C) and etoposide. As a single agent valproate and butyrate inhibited AML cell growth but did not significantly induce cell death. A dramatic increase in cytotoxicity was observed when combining valproate or butyrate with Ara-C, whereas, co-addition of them with etoposide had much smaller effect on cell death. Valproate induced a clear G1 phase arrest and up-regulated cyclin D1 expression in the presence of Ara-C and etoposide. In addition, valporate was able to block the Ara-C-induced down-regulation of p27(Kip1) expression but not that induced by etoposide.

  1. Initiation and termination of DNA replication during S phase in relation to cyclins D1, E and A, p21WAF1, Cdt1 and the p12 subunit of DNA polymerase δ revealed in individual cells by cytometry.

    PubMed

    Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Sufang; Lee, Marietta Y W T; Lee, Ernest Y C; Zhang, Zhongtao

    2015-05-20

    During our recent studies on mechanism of the regulation of human DNA polymerase δ in preparation for DNA replication or repair, multiparameter imaging cytometry as exemplified by laser scanning cytometry (LSC) has been used to assess changes in expression of the following nuclear proteins associated with initiation of DNA replication: cyclin A, PCNA, Ki-67, p21(WAF1), DNA replication factor Cdt1 and the smallest subunit of DNA polymerase δ, p12. In the present review, rather than focusing on Pol δ, we emphasize the application of LSC in these studies and outline possibilities offered by the concurrent differential analysis of DNA replication in conjunction with expression of the nuclear proteins. A more extensive analysis of the data on a correlation between rates of EdU incorporation, likely reporting DNA replication, and expression of these proteins, is presently provided. New data, specifically on the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E with respect to EdU incorporation as well as on a relationship between expression of cyclin A vs. p21(WAF1) and Ki-67 vs. Cdt1, are also reported. Of particular interest is the observation that this approach makes it possible to assess the temporal sequence of degradation of cyclin D1, p21(WAF1), Cdt1 and p12, each with respect to initiation of DNA replication and with respect to each other. Also the sequence or reappearance of these proteins in G2 after termination of DNA replication is assessed. The reviewed data provide a more comprehensive presentation of potential markers, whose presence or absence marks the DNA replicating cells. Discussed is also usefulness of these markers as indicators of proliferative activity in cancer tissues that may bear information on tumor progression and have a prognostic value.

  2. Initiation and termination of DNA replication during S phase in relation to cyclins D1, E and A, p21WAF1, Cdt1 and the p12 subunit of DNA polymerase δ revealed in individual cells by cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Sufang; Marietta, Y.W.T. Lee; Ernest, Y.C. Lee; Zhang, Zhongtao

    2015-01-01

    During our recent studies on mechanism of the regulation of human DNA polymerase δ in preparation for DNA replication or repair, multiparameter imaging cytometry as exemplified by laser scanning cytometry (LSC) has been used to assess changes in expression of the following nuclear proteins associated with initiation of DNA replication: cyclin A, PCNA, Ki-67, p21WAF1, DNA replication factor Cdt1 and the smallest subunit of DNA polymerase δ, p12. In the present review, rather than focusing on Pol δ, we emphasize the application of LSC in these studies and outline possibilities offered by the concurrent differential analysis of DNA replication in conjunction with expression of the nuclear proteins. A more extensive analysis of the data on a correlation between rates of EdU incorporation, likely reporting DNA replication, and expression of these proteins, is presently provided. New data, specifically on the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E with respect to EdU incorporation as well as on a relationship between expression of cyclin A vs. p21WAF1 and Ki-67 vs. Cdt1, are also reported. Of particular interest is the observation that this approach makes it possible to assess the temporal sequence of degradation of cyclin D1, p21WAF1, Cdt1 and p12, each with respect to initiation of DNA replication and with respect to each other. Also the sequence or reappearance of these proteins in G2 after termination of DNA replication is assessed. The reviewed data provide a more comprehensive presentation of potential markers, whose presence or absence marks the DNA replicating cells. Discussed is also usefulness of these markers as indicators of proliferative activity in cancer tissues that may bear information on tumor progression and have a prognostic value. PMID:26059433

  3. Differential targeting of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21CIP1/WAF1, by chelators with anti-proliferative activity in a range of tumor cell-types

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Rayan S.; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Richardson, Des R.

    2015-01-01

    Chelators such as 2-hydroxy-1-napthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (311) and di-2-pyridylketone-4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT) target tumor cell iron pools and inhibit proliferation. These agents also modulate multiple targets, one of which is the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21. Hence, this investigation examined the mechanism of action of these compounds in targeting p21. All the chelators up-regulated p21 mRNA in the five tumor cell-types assessed. In contrast, examining their effect on total p21 protein levels, these agents induced either: (1) down-regulation in MCF-7 cells; (2) up-regulation in SK-MEL-28 and CFPAC-1 cells; or (3) had no effect in LNCaP and SK-N-MC cells. The nuclear localization of p21 was also differentially affected by the ligands depending upon the cell-type, with it being decreased in MCF-7 cells, but increased in SK-MEL-28 and CFPAC-1 cells. Further studies assessing the mechanisms responsible for these effects demonstrated that p21 expression was not correlated with p53 status, suggesting a p53-independent mechanism. Considering this, we examined proteins that modulate p21 independently of p53, namely NDRG1, MDM2 and ΔNp63. These studies demonstrated that a dominant negative MDM2 isoform (p75MDM2) closely resembled p21 expression in response to chelation in three cell lines. These data suggest MDM2 may be involved in the regulation of p21 by chelators. PMID:26335183

  4. Schisantherin A Improves Learning and Memory of Mice with D-Galactose-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment through Its Antioxidation and Regulation of p19/p53/p21/Cyclin D1/CDK4/RB Gene Expressions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Sun, Weijing; Li, Ning; Gao, Jiaqi; Yu, Chunyan; Wang, Chunmei; Sun, Jinghui; Jing, Shu; Chen, Jianguang; Li, He

    2018-05-31

    Schisantherin A (SCA) was evaluated for possible function in restoring the learning and memory impairment induced by D-galactose in mice. ICR mice were treated with D-galactose subcutaneously (220 mg·kg -1 ), and followed by SCA in different doses (1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 mg·kg -1 , administered orally) for 42 days. Effects of SCA on learning and memory were examined by step-through tests and Morris water maze tests. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the peripheral blood and hippocampus of mice were assayed by water-soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) methods. The contents of 8 hydroxy deoxy guanosine (8-OHdG) in the hippocampus of mice were detected by immunosorbent assay methods, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western Blot were respectively used to detect the expression of p19, p53, p21, cyclin D1, CDK4 and RB genes, and the phosphorylation of RB in the hippocampus of mice. We found that SCA significantly improved the learning and memory impairment induced by D-galactose in mice. After SCA treatment, SOD activity was increased and the content of MDA was decreased in both peripheral blood and hippocampus of mice. 8-OHDG content was also decreased in the hippocampus of mice. Furthermore, the expression of p19, p53 and p21 genes was reduced and the expression of cyclin D1 and CDK4 and the phosphorylation of RB protein were elevated in the hippocampus. SCA may improve the learning and memory impairment induced by D-galactose by enhancing the antioxidant capacity, and regulating the expression of p19/p53/p21/cyclinD1/CDK4 genes, and the phosphorylation of RB protein in the hippocampus of mice.

  5. Establishment of a dog model for the p53 family pathway and identification of a novel isoform of p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Chen, Xiangling; Kent, Michael S.; Rodriguez, Carlos O.; Chen, Xinbin

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous tumors in the dog offer a unique opportunity as models to study human cancer etiology and therapy. p53, the most commonly mutated gene in human cancers, is found to be altered in dog cancers. However, little is known about the role of p53 in dog tumorigenesis. Here, we found that upon exposure to DNA damage agents or Mdm2 inhibitor nutlin-3, canine p53 is accumulated and capable of inducing its target genes, MDM2 and p21. We also found that upon DNA damage, canine p53 is accumulated in the nucleus, followed by MDM2 nuclear translocation and increased 53BP1 foci formation. In addition, we found that canine p63 and p73 are up-regulated by DNA damage agents. Furthermore, colony formation assay showed that canine tumor cells are sensitive to DNA damage agents and nutlin-3 in a p53-dependent manner. Surprisingly, canine p21 is expressed as two isoforms. Thus, we generated multiple canine p21 mutants and found that aa 129 to 142 is required, whereas aa 139 is one of the key determinants, for two p21 isoform expression. Finally, we showed that although the full-length human p21 cDNA expresses one polypeptide, aa 139 appears to play a similar role as that in canine p21 for various migration patterns. Taken together, our results indicate that canine p53 family proteins have biological activities similar to human counterparts. These similarities make the dog as an excellent out-bred spontaneous tumor model and the dog can serve as a translation model from bench-top to cage-side and then to bed-side. PMID:19147538

  6. Probing the Role of Nascent Helicity in p27 Function as a Cell Cycle Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Steve; Kriwacki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    p27 regulates the activity of Cdk complexes which are the principal governors of phase transitions during cell division. Members of the p27 family of proteins, which also includes p21 and p57, are called the Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase regulators (CKRs). Interestingly, the Cip/Kip CKRs play critical roles in cell cycle regulation by being intrinsically unstructured, a characteristic contrary to the classical structure-function paradigm. They exhibit nascent helicity which has been localized to a segment referred to as sub-domain LH. The nascent helicity of this sub-domain is conserved and we hypothesize that it is an important determinant of their functional properties. To test this hypothesis, we successfully designed and prepared p27 variants in which domain LH was either more or less helical with respect to the wild-type protein. Thermal denaturation experiments showed that the ternary complexes of the p27 variants bound to Cdk2/Cyclin A were less stable compared to the wild-type complex. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments showed a decrease in the enthalpy of binding for all the mutants with respect to p27. The free energies of binding varied within a much narrower range. In vitro Cdk2 inhibition assays showed that the p27 variants exhibited disparate inhibitory potencies. Furthermore, when over-expressed in NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells, the less helical p27 variants were less effective in causing cell cycle arrest relative to the wild-type p27. Our results indicate that the nascent helicity of sub-domain LH plays a key role mediating the biological function of p27. PMID:23071750

  7. p21, an important mediator of quiescence during pituitary tumor formation, is dispensable for normal pituitary development during embryogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, Pamela; Himes, Ashley D.; Parfieniuk, Agata; Raetzman, Lori T.

    2011-01-01

    A delicate balance between proliferation and differentiation must be maintained in the developing pituitary to ensure the formation of the appropriate number of hormone producing cells. In the adult, proliferation is actively restrained to prevent tumor formation. The cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) of the CIP/KIP family, p21, p27 and p57, mediate cell cycle inhibition. Although p21 is induced in the pituitary upon loss of Notch signaling or initiation of tumor formation to halt cell cycle progression, its role in normal pituitary organogenesis has not been explored. In wildtype pituitaries, expression of p21 is limited to a subset of cells embryonically as well as during the postnatal proliferative phase. Mice lacking p21 do not have altered cell proliferation during early embryogenesis, but do show a slight delay in separation of proliferating progenitors from the oral ectoderm. By embryonic day 16.5, p21 mutants have an alteration in the spatial distribution of proliferating pituitary progenitors, however there is no overall change in proliferation. At postnatal day 21, there appears to be no change in proliferation, as assessed by cells expressing Ki67 protein. However, p21 mutant pituitaries have significantly less mRNA of Myc and the cyclins Ccnb1, Ccnd1, Ccnd2 and Ccne1 than wildtype pituitaries. Interestingly, unlike the redundant role in cell cycle inhibition uncovered in p27/p57 double mutants, the pituitary of p21/p27 double mutants has a similar proliferation profile to p27 single mutants at the time points examined. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that unlike p27 or p57, p21 does not play a major role in control of progenitor proliferation in the developing pituitary. However, p21 may be required to maintain normal levels of cell cycle components. PMID:22154697

  8. 123I-labeled HIV-1 tat peptide radioimmunoconjugates are imported into the nucleus of human breast cancer cells and functionally interact in vitro and in vivo with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(WAF-1/Cip-1).

    PubMed

    Hu, Meiduo; Chen, Paul; Wang, Judy; Scollard, Deborah A; Vallis, Katherine A; Reilly, Raymond M

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate the internalization and nuclear translocation of (123)I-tat-peptide radioimmunoconjugates in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells and their ability to interact with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(WAF-1/Cip-1). Peptides [GRKKRRQRRRPPQGYGC] harboring the nuclear-localizing sequence from HIV tat domain were conjugated to anti-p21(WAF-1/Cip-1) antibodies. Immunoreactivity was assessed by Western blot using lysate from MDA-MB-468 cells exposed to EGF to induce p21(WAF-1/Cip-1). Internalization and nuclear translocation were measured. The ability of tat-anti-p21(WAF-1/Cip-1) to block G(1)-S phase arrest in MDA-MB-468 cells caused by EGF-induced p21(WAF-1/Cip-1) was evaluated. Tumor and normal tissue uptake were determined at 48 h p.i. in athymic mice implanted s.c. with MDA-MB-468 xenografts injected intratumorally with EGF. There was 13.4+/-0.2% of radioactivity internalized by MDA-MB-468 cells incubated with (123)I-tat-anti-p21(WAF-1/Cip-1) and 34.6+/-3.1% imported into the nucleus. Tat-anti-p21(WAF-1/Cip-1)(8 muM) decreased the proportion of EGF-treated cells in G(1) phase from 81.9+/-0.7% to 46.1+/-0.7% (p<0.001), almost restoring the G(1) phase fraction to that of unexposed cells (25.8+/-0.2%). Non-specific tat-mouse IgG did not block EGF-induced G(1)-S phase arrest. Tumor uptake of radioactivity was higher in mice injected with EGF to induce p21(WAF-1/Cip-1) than in mice not receiving EGF (3.1+/-0.4% versus 1.8+/-0.2% ID/g; p=0.04). Western blot analysis of tumors revealed a threefold increase in the p21(WAF-1/Cip-1)/beta-actin ratio. We conclude that intracellular and nuclear epitopes in cancer cells can be functionally targeted with tat-radioimmunoconjugates to exploit many more epitopes for imaging and radiotherapeutic applications than have previously been accessible.

  9. Cooperation of p27Kip1 and p18INK4c in Progestin-Mediated Cell Cycle Arrest in T-47D Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Swarbrick, Alexander; Lee, Christine S. L.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Musgrove, Elizabeth A.

    2000-01-01

    The steroid hormone progesterone regulates proliferation and differentiation in the mammary gland and uterus by cell cycle phase-specific actions. The long-term effect of progestins on T-47D breast cancer cells is inhibition of cellular proliferation. This is accompanied by decreased G1 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activities, redistribution of the CDK inhibitor p27Kip1 among these CDK complexes, and alterations in the elution profile of cyclin E-Cdk2 upon gel filtration chromatography, such that high-molecular-weight complexes predominate. This study aimed to determine the relative contribution of CDK inhibitors to these events. Following progestin treatment, the majority of cyclin E- and D-CDK complexes were bound to p27Kip1 and few were bound to p21Cip1. In vitro, recombinant His6-p27 could quantitatively reproduce the effects on cyclin E-Cdk2 kinase activity and the shift in molecular weight observed following progestin treatment. In contrast, cyclin D-Cdk4 was not inhibited by His6-p27 in vitro or p27Kip1 in vivo. However, an increase in the expression of the Cdk4/6 inhibitor p18INK4c and its extensive association with Cdk4 and Cdk6 were apparent following progestin treatment. Recombinant p18INK4c led to the reassortment of cyclin-CDK-CDK inhibitor complexes in vitro, with consequent decrease in cyclin E-Cdk2 activity. These results suggest a concerted model of progestin action whereby p27Kip1 and p18INK4c cooperate to inhibit cyclin E-Cdk2 and Cdk4. Since similar models have been developed for growth inhibition by transforming growth factor β and during adipogenesis, interaction between the Cip/Kip and INK4 families of inhibitors may be a common theme in physiological growth arrest and differentiation. PMID:10713180

  10. Expression of the p12 subunit of human DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ), CDK inhibitor p21(WAF1), Cdt1, cyclin A, PCNA and Ki-67 in relation to DNA replication in individual cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Sufang; Xu, Dazhong; Lee, Marietta Ywt; Zhang, Zhongtao; Lee, Ernest Yc; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that the p12 subunit of human DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ4) is degraded by CRL4(Cdt2) which regulates the licensing factor Cdt1 and p21(WAF1) during the G1 to S transition. Presently, we performed multiparameter laser scanning cytometric analyses of changes in levels of p12, Cdt1 and p21(WAF1), detected immunocytochemically in individual cells, vis-à-vis the initiation and completion of DNA replication. The latter was assessed by pulse-labeling A549 cells with the DNA precursor ethynyl-2'-deoxyribose (EdU). The loss of p12 preceded the initiation of DNA replication and essentially all cells incorporating EdU were p12 negative. Completion of DNA replication and transition to G2 phase coincided with the re-appearance and rapid rise of p12 levels. Similar to p12 a decline of p21(WAF1) and Cdt1 was seen at the end of G1 phase and all DNA replicating cells were p21(WAF1) and Cdt1 negative. The loss of p21(WAF1) preceded that of Cdt1 and p12 and the disappearance of the latter coincided with the onset of DNA replication. Loss of p12 leads to conversion of Pol δ4 to its trimeric form, Pol δ3, so that the results provide strong support to the notion that Pol δ3 is engaged in DNA replication during unperturbed progression through the S phase of cell cycle. Also assessed was a correlation between EdU incorporation, likely reflecting the rate of DNA replication in individual cells, and the level of expression of positive biomarkers of replication cyclin A, PCNA and Ki-67 in these cells. Of interest was the observation of stronger correlation between EdU incorporation and expression of PCNA (r = 0.73) than expression of cyclin A (r = 0.47) or Ki-67 (r = 0.47).

  11. Slug inhibits the proliferation and tumor formation of human cervical cancer cells by up-regulating the p21/p27 proteins and down-regulating the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway via the trans-suppression Akt1/p-Akt1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Nan; Yang, Wen-Ting; Zheng, Peng-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Slug (Snai2) has been demonstrated to act as an oncogene or tumor suppressor in different human cancers, but the function of Slug in cervical cancer remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that Slug could suppress the proliferation of cervical cancer cells in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. Further experiments found that Slug could trans-suppress the expression of Akt1/p-Akt1 by binding to E-box motifs in the promoter of the Akt1 gene and then inhibit the cell proliferation and tumor formation of cervical cancer cells by up-regulating p21/p27 and/or down-regulating the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Therefore, Slug acts as a tumor suppressor during cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:27036045

  12. Inhibitory Effect of Ginseng on Breast Cancer Cell Line Growth Via Up-Regulation of Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor, p21 and p53

    PubMed

    AL Shabanah, Othman A; Alotaibi, Moureq rashed; Al Rejaie, Salim S; Alhoshani, Ali R; Almutairi, Mashal M; Alshammari, Musaad A; Hafez, Mohamed M

    2016-11-01

    Objective: Breast cancer is global female health problem worldwide. Most of the currently used agents for breast cancer treatment have toxic side-effects. Ginseng root, an oriental medicine, has many health benefits and may exhibit direct anti-cancer properties. This study was performed to assess the effects of ginseng on breast cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity of ginseng extract was measured by MTT assay after exposure of MDA-MB-231, MCF-10A and MCF-7 breast cancer cells to concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 mg/well. Expression levels of p21WAF, p16INK4A, Bcl-2, Bax and P53 genes were analyzed by quantitative real time PCR. Results: The treatment resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation in a dose-and time-dependent manner. p53, p21WAF1and p16INK4A expression levels were up-regulated in ginseng treated MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cancer cells compared to untreated controls and in MCF-10A cells. The expression levels of Bcl2 in the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells were down-regulated. In contrast, that of Bax was significantly up-regulated. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that ginseng may inhibit breast cancer cell growth by activation of the apoptotic pathway. Creative Commons Attribution License

  13. Deletion of p21/Cdkn1a confers protective effect against prostate tumorigenesis in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anil K.; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p21Cip1/Waf1 (p21) and p27Kip1 (p27) play a determining role in cell cycle progression by regulating CDK activity; however, p21 role in prostate cancer (PCa) is controversial. Whereas p21 upregulation by anticancer agents causes cell cycle arrest in various PCa cell lines, elevated p21 levels have been associated with higher Gleason score, poor survival and increased PCa recurrence. These conflicting findings suggest that more studies are needed to examine p21 role in PCa. Herein, employing genetic approach, transgenic mice harboring p21/Cdkn1a homozygous deletion (p21−/−) were crossed with the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice to characterize in vivo consequences of p21 deletion on prostate tumorigenesis. Lower urogenital tract weight of p21−/−/TRAMP mice was significantly lower than those of p21+/−/TRAMP and TRAMP mice. Histopathology further supported these observations, showing less aggressiveness in prostates of p21−/−/TRAMP. Furthermore, a significantly higher incidence of low-grade prostatic intraepithelial lesions (PIN) with a concomitant reduction in adenocarcinoma incidence was observed in p21−/−/TRAMP mice compared with TRAMP mice. In addition, whereas TRAMP mice showed the presence of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma lesions, no such lesions were observed in p21/TRAMP transgenic mice. Specifically, there was a significant reduction in the severity of lesions in both p21−/−/TRAMP and p21+/−/TRAMP mice compared with TRAMP mice. Together, our data showed that p21 deletion reduces prostate tumorigenesis by slowing-down progression of PIN (pre-malignant) to adenocarcinoma (malignant), suggesting that intact p21 expression is associated with PCa aggressiveness, while its decreased levels may in fact confer protection against prostate tumorigenesis. PMID:23624841

  14. Cell Attachment to the Extracellular Matrix Induces Proteasomal Degradation of p21CIP1 via Cdc42/Rac1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Wenjie; Thullberg, Minna; Zhang, Hongquan; Onischenko, Anatoli; Strömblad, Staffan

    2002-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) inhibitors p21CIP1 and p27KIP1 are negatively regulated by anchorage during cell proliferation, but it is unclear how integrin signaling may affect these Cdk2 inhibitors. Here, we demonstrate that integrin ligation led to rapid reduction of p21CIP1 and p27KIP1 protein levels in three distinct cell types upon attachment to various extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, including fibronectin (FN), or to immobilized agonistic anti-integrin monoclonal antibodies. Cell attachment to FN did not rapidly influence p21CIP1 mRNA levels, while the protein stability of p21CIP1 was decreased. Importantly, the down-regulation of p21CIP1 and p27KIP1 was completely blocked by three distinct proteasome inhibitors, demonstrating that integrin ligation induced proteasomal degradation of these Cdk2 inhibitors. Interestingly, ECM-induced proteasomal proteolysis of a ubiquitination-deficient p21CIP1 mutant (p21K6R) also occurred, showing that the proteasomal degradation of p21CIP1 was ubiquitin independent. Concomitant with our finding that the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 were activated by attachment to FN, constitutively active (ca) Cdc42 and ca Rac1 promoted down-regulation of p21CIP1. However, dominant negative (dn) Cdc42 and dn Rac1 mutants blocked the anchorage-induced degradation of p21CIP1, suggesting that an integrin-induced Cdc42/Rac1 signaling pathway activates proteasomal degradation of p21CIP1. Our results indicate that integrin-regulated proteasomal proteolysis might contribute to anchorage-dependent cell cycle control. PMID:12052868

  15. Differential regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Lan; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130021; Paul, Pritha

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •GRP-R signaling differentially regulated the expression of p21 and p27. •Silencing GRP/GRP-R downregulated p21, while p27 expression was upregulated. •Inhibition of GRP/GRP-R signaling enhanced PTEN expression, correlative to the increased expression of p27. •PTEN and p27 co-localized in cytoplasm and silencing PTEN decreased p27 expression. -- Abstract: Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRP-R) are highly expressed in undifferentiated neuroblastoma, and they play critical roles in oncogenesis. We previously reported that GRP activates the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to promote DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression in neuroblastoma cells. Conversely, GRP-R silencing induces cell cycle arrest. Here, we speculated thatmore » GRP/GRP-R signaling induces neuroblastoma cell proliferation via regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. Surprisingly, we found that GRP/GRP-R differentially induced expressions of p21 and p27. Silencing GRP/GRP-R decreased p21, but it increased p27 expressions in neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, we found that the intracellular localization of p21 and p27 in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, respectively. In addition, we found that GRP/GRP-R silencing increased the expression and accumulation of PTEN in the cytoplasm of neuroblastoma cells where it co-localized with p27, thus suggesting that p27 promotes the function of PTEN as a tumor suppressor by stabilizing PTEN in the cytoplasm. GRP/GRP-R regulation of CDK inhibitors and tumor suppressor PTEN may be critical for tumoriogenesis of neuroblastoma.« less

  16. Lovastatin inhibits proliferation of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells through up-regulation of p27 by interfering with the Rho/ROCK-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wen-Bin; Hsu, Sung-Po; Ho, Pei-Yin; Liang, Yu-Chih; Chang, Tien-Chun; Lee, Wen-Sen

    2011-12-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that lovastatin, a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, induced apoptosis, differentiation, and inhibition of invasiveness of human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (ATCs). Here, we further examined the effect of lovastatin on the growth of ARO cells. Lovastatin (0-20μM) concentration-dependently decreased cell number in cultured ATC and arrested the cell at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Western blot analysis revealed that lovastatin caused an increase of the protein level of p27 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4 and a decrease of the protein level of cyclin A2, cyclin D3, and phosphorylated Rb (pRb), but did not significantly change the protein levels of p21, cyclins D1 and E, and CDK2, in ARO cells. The formation of the CDK2-p27 complex was increased and the CDK2 activity was decreased in the lovastatin-treated ARO cells. Pretreatment of ARO cells with a p27, but not p21, antisense oligonucleotide prevented the lovastatin-induced G0/G1 arrest in ARO cells. The lovastatin-induced growth inhibition and translocation of RhoA and Rac1 in ARO cells were completely prevented by mevalonate and partially by geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. Treatment of ARO cells with Y27632, an inhibitor of Rho-associated kinase, abolished the GGPP-mediated prevention of lovastatin-induced anti-proliferation and up-regulation and prolonged degradation of p27. Taken together, these data suggest that lovastatin treatment caused a reduction of Rho geranylgeranylation, which in turn increased the expression and stability of p27, and then inhibited ARO cell proliferation. These data suggest that lovastatin merits further investigation as multipotent therapy for treatment ATC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Promoting effect of cyclin D1 overexpression on proliferation and epithelial mesenchymal transition of cervical squamous cell carcinoma SiHa cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Liu, S; Cheng, B; Wu, X Z; Ding, S S; Xu, L; Liu, Y; Duan, L; Sun, S Z

    2017-03-08

    Objective: To study effects of cyclin D1 overexpression on the proliferation and differentiation of cervical squamous cell carcinoma SiHa cells and to investigate related signaling molecules. Methods: Primers were designed to amplify the full length of cyclin D1 gene and cyclin D1 gene was amplified by PCR for constructing pcDNA3.1 plasmid vector. The construct was then transfected into SiHa cells, and the cells with stable overexpression of cyclin D1 were established, cyclin D1 gene and protein expression were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Cell growth curve was documented by MTT assay. CK7, E-cadherin, vimentin, Snail gene and protein expression in transfected cells were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of proliferation and differentiation-related genes like CDK4, CDK2, p21, p27, cyclin E, Rb, E2F, E6/E7 and Ki-67. After synchronization of cells, RT-PCR was used to detect of cyclin D1 and p21 mRNA expression at different time points of the cell cycle. Results: The G-3 cells with cyclin D1 overexpression were successfully established. The growth curve and Ki-67 mRNA expression accelerated in G-3 cells.Vimentin and Snail expression significantly increased at both gene and protein levels, while E-cadherin, CK7 gene and protein expression significantly decreased, indicating epithelial mesenchymal transitionoccurred in G-3 cells.Meanwhile, mRNA expression of cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK2, p21, p27, cyclin E, E2F and Rb increased, while E6/E7 and p16 showed no significant change. The expression trends of p21 and cyclin D1 were almost identical with fluctuation at different time points in the cell cycle. Conclusions: Overexpression of cyclin D1 induced by gene transfection promotes proliferation and epithelial mesenchymal transition in SiHa cells.The process is accompanied by up-regulation of CDK4, CDK2, p21, p27 and cyclin E genes.p21 expression increases synchronously with cyclin D1, suggesting a regulatory

  18. Curcumin improves the efficacy of cisplatin by targeting cancer stem-like cells through p21 and cyclin D1-mediated tumour cell inhibition in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    BAHARUDDIN, PUTERI; SATAR, NAZILAH; FAKIRUDDIN, KAMAL SHAIK; ZAKARIA, NORASHIKIN; LIM, MOON NIAN; YUSOFF, NARAZAH MOHD; ZAKARIA, ZUBAIDAH; YAHAYA, BADRUL HISHAM

    2016-01-01

    Natural compounds such as curcumin have the ability to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of common chemotherapy agents through cancer stem-like cell (CSC) sensitisation. In the present study, we showed that curcumin enhanced the sensitivity of the double-positive (CD166+/EpCAM+) CSC subpopulation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (A549 and H2170) to cisplatin-induced apoptosis and inhibition of metastasis. Our results revealed that initial exposure of NSCLC cell lines to curcumin (10–40 µM) markedly reduced the percentage of viability to an average of ~51 and ~54% compared to treatment with low dose cisplatin (3 µM) with only 94 and 86% in both the A549 and H2170 cells. Moreover, sensitisation of NSCLC cell lines to curcumin through combined treatment enhanced the single effect induced by low dose cisplatin on the apoptosis of the double-positive CSC subpopulation by 18 and 20% in the A549 and H2170 cells, respectively. Furthermore, we found that curcumin enhanced the inhibitory effects of cisplatin on the highly migratory CD166+/EpCAM+ subpopulation, marked by a reduction in cell migration to 9 and 21% in the A549 and H2170 cells, respectively, indicating that curcumin may increase the sensitivity of CSCs to cisplatin-induced migratory inhibition. We also observed that the mRNA expression of cyclin D1 was downregulated, while a substantial increased in p21 expression was noted, followed by Apaf1 and caspase-9 activation in the double-positive (CD166+/EpCAM+) CSC subpopulation of A549 cells, suggested that the combined treatments induced cell cycle arrest, therefore triggering CSC growth inhibition via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, we provided novel evidence of the previously unknown therapeutic effects of curcumin, either alone or in combination with cisplatin on the inhibition of the CD166+/EpCAM+ subpopulation of NSCLC cell lines. This finding demonstrated the potential therapeutic approach of using curcumin that may

  19. Cyclin D2 induces proliferation of cardiac myocytes and represses hypertrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Busk, Peter K.; Hinrichsen, Rebecca; Bartkova, Jirina

    2005-03-10

    The myocytes of the adult mammalian heart are considered unable to divide. Instead, mitogens induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We have investigated the effect of adenoviral overexpression of cyclin D2 on myocyte proliferation and morphology. Cardiomyocytes in culture were identified by established markers. Cyclin D2 induced DNA synthesis and proliferation of cardiomyocytes and impaired hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II and serum. At the molecular level, cyclin D2 activated CDK4/6 and lead to pRB phosphorylation and downregulation of the cell cycle inhibitors p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}. Expression of the CDK4/6 inhibitor p16 inhibited proliferation and cyclin D2 overexpressing myocytes became hypertrophic undermore » such conditions. Inhibition of hypertrophy by cyclin D2 correlated with downregulation of p27{sup Kip1}. These data show that hypertrophy and proliferation are highly related processes and suggest that cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is due to low amounts of cell cycle activators unable to overcome the block imposed by cell cycle inhibitors. Cell cycle entry upon hypertrophy may be converted to cell division by increased expression of activators such as cyclin D2.« less

  20. BCR-ABL1 promotes leukemia by converting p27 into a cytoplasmic oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Ryan J.; Besson, Arnaud; Jeng, Sophia; Carey, Alyssa; LaTocha, Dorian H.; Fleischman, Angela G.; Duquesnes, Nicolas; Eide, Christopher A.; Vasudevan, Kavin B.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Firpo, Eduardo; Cortes, Jorge E.; McWeeney, Shannon; O’Hare, Thomas; Roberts, James M.; Druker, Brian J.; Deininger, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that p27, a nuclear cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor and tumor suppressor, can acquire oncogenic activities upon mislocalization to the cytoplasm. To understand how these antagonistic activities influence oncogenesis, we dissected the nuclear and cytoplasmic functions of p27 in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a well-characterized malignancy caused by the BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase. p27 is predominantly cytoplasmic in CML and nuclear in normal cells. BCR-ABL1 regulates nuclear and cytoplasmic p27 abundance by kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. p27 knockdown in CML cell lines with predominantly cytoplasmic p27 induces apoptosis, consistent with a leukemogenic role of cytoplasmic p27. Accordingly, a p27 mutant (p27CK−) devoid of Cdk inhibitory nuclear functions enhances leukemogenesis in a murine CML model compared with complete absence of p27. In contrast, p27 mutations that enhance its stability (p27T187A) or nuclear retention (p27S10A) attenuate leukemogenesis over wild-type p27, validating the tumor-suppressor function of nuclear p27 in CML. We conclude that BCR-ABL1 kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms convert p27 from a nuclear tumor suppressor to a cytoplasmic oncogene. These findings suggest that cytoplasmic mislocalization of p27 despite BCR-ABL1 inhibition by tyrosine kinase inhibitors may contribute to drug resistance, and effective therapeutic strategies to stabilize nuclear p27 must also prevent cytoplasmic mislocalization. PMID:25293778

  1. p27{sup Kip1} inhibits tissue factor expression

    SciTech Connect

    Breitenstein, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.breitenstein@usz.ch; Cardiovascular Research, Physiology Institute, University of Zurich; Center for Integrative Human Physiology

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •p27{sup Kip1}regulates the expression of tissue factor at the transcriptional level. •This inhibitory effect of p27{sup Kip1} is independently of its cell regulatory action. •The current study provides new insights into a pleiotrophic function of p27{sup Kip1}. -- Abstract: Background: The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) p27{sup Kip1} regulates cell proliferation and thus inhibits atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling. Expression of tissue factor (TF), the key initator of the coagulation cascade, is associated with atherosclerosis. Yet, it has not been studied whether p27{sup Kip1} influences the expression of TF. Methods and results: p27{sup Kip1} overexpression in human aortic endothelial cells wasmore » achieved by adenoviral transfection. Cells were rendered quiescent for 24 h in 0.5% fetal-calf serum. After stimulation with TNF-α (5 ng/ml), TF protein expression and activity was significantly reduced (n = 4; P < 0.001) in cells transfected with p27{sup Kip1}. In line with this, p27{sup Kip1} overexpression reduced cytokine-induced TF mRNA expression (n = 4; P < 0.01) and TF promotor activity (n = 4; P < 0.05). In contrast, activation of the MAP kinases p38, ERK and JNK was not affected by p27{sup Kip1} overexpression. Conclusion: This in vitro study suggests that p27{sup Kip1} inhibits TF expression at the transcriptional level. These data indicate an interaction between p27{sup Kip1} and TF in important pathological alterations such as atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling.« less

  2. CGK733-induced LC3 II formation is positively associated with the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Waf1/Cip1 through modulation of the AMPK and PERK/CHOP signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Baron, Byron; Kitagawa, Takao; Tokuda, Kazuhiro; Akada, Junko; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2015-11-24

    Microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3)-II is essential for autophagosome formation and is widely used to monitor autophagic activity. We show that CGK733 induces LC3 II and LC3-puncta accumulation, which are not involved in the activation of autophagy. The treatment of CGK733 did not alter the autophagic flux and was unrelated to p62 degradation. Treatment with CGK733 activated the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase/CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (PERK/CHOP) pathways and elevated the expression of p21Waf1/Cip1. Inhibition of both AMPK and PERK/CHOP pathways by siRNA or chemical inhibitor could block CGK733-induced p21Waf1/Cip1 expression as well as caspase-3 cleavage. Knockdown of LC3 B (but not LC3 A) abolished CGK733-triggered LC3 II accumulation and consequently diminished AMPK and PERK/CHOP activity as well as p21Waf1/Cip1 expression. Our results demonstrate that CGK733-triggered LC3 II formation is an initial event upstream of the AMPK and PERK/CHOP pathways, both of which control p21Waf1/Cip1 expression.

  3. Modulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/Cip1) gene by Zac1 through the antagonistic regulators p53 and histone deacetylase 1 in HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Yao; Chan, James Yi-Hsin; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Wang, Sung-Ling; Liu, Shu-Ting; Ho, Ching-Liang; Chang, Li-Chien; Huang, Shih-Ming

    2008-07-01

    Zac1 is a novel seven-zinc finger protein which possesses the ability to bind specifically to GC-rich DNA elements. Zac1 not only promotes apoptosis and cell cycle arrest but also acts as a transcriptional cofactor for p53 and a number of nuclear receptors. Our previous study indicated that the enhancement of p53 activity by Zac1 is much more pronounced in HeLa cells compared with other cell lines tested. This phenomenon might be due to the coactivator effect of Zac1 on p53 and the ability of Zac1 to reverse E6 inhibition of p53. In the present study, we showed that Zac1 acted synergistically with either p53 or a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, to enhance p21(WAF1/Cip1) promoter activity. We showed that Zac1 physically interacted with some nuclear receptor corepressors such as histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and mSin3a, and the induction of p21(WAF1/Cip1) gene and protein by Zac1 was suppressed by either overexpressing HDAC1 or its deacetylase-dead mutant. In addition, our data suggest that trichostatin A-induced p21(WAF1/Cip1) protein expression might be mediated through a p53-independent and HDAC deacetylase-independent pathway. Taken together, our data suggest that Zac1 might be involved in regulating the p21(WAF1/Cip1) gene and protein expression through its protein-protein interaction with p53 and HDAC1 in HeLa cells.

  4. p21 stability: linking chaperones to a cell cycle checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Liu, Geng; Lozano, Guillermina

    2005-02-01

    Progression through the cell cycle is regulated by numerous proteins, one of which is the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21. A new study identifies a novel protein complex that stabilizes p21. The stability of this complex is critical in effecting the p53-mediated cell cycle checkpoint.

  5. Lost in transcription: p21 repression, mechanisms, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Gartel, Andrei L; Radhakrishnan, Senthil K

    2005-05-15

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 is a major player in cell cycle control and it is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level. Whereas induction of p21 predominantly leads to cell cycle arrest, repression of p21 may have a variety of outcomes depending on the context. In this review, we concentrate on transcriptional repression of p21 by cellular and viral factors, and delve in detail into its possible biological implications and its role in cancer. It seems that the major mode of p21 transcriptional repression by negative regulators is the interference with positive transcription factors without direct binding to the p21 promoter. Specifically, the negative factors may either inhibit binding of positive regulators to the promoter or hinder their transcriptional activity. The ability of p21 to inhibit proliferation may contribute to its tumor suppressor function. Because of this, it is not surprising that a number of oncogenes repress p21 to promote cell growth and tumorigenesis. However, p21 is also an inhibitor of apoptosis and p21 repression may also have an anticancer effect. For example, c-Myc and chemical p21 inhibitors, which repress p21, sensitize tumor cells to apoptosis by anticancer drugs. Further identification of factors that repress p21 is likely to contribute to the better understanding of its role in cancer.

  6. Loss of nuclear p27 (CDKN1B/KIP1) in colorectal cancer is correlated with microsatellite instability and CIMP.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Shuji; Kawasaki, Takako; Kirkner, Gregory J; Yamaji, Taiki; Loda, Massimo; Fuchs, Charles S

    2007-01-01

    Downregulation of p27 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-1B, CDKN1B or KIP1) is caused by increased ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation in colorectal cancer, and has been associated with poor prognosis. CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is a phenotype of colorectal cancer with extensive promoter methylation, and associated with high degree of microsatellite instability (MSI-H) and BRAF mutations. We have recently shown that both CIMP and MSI-H are inversely associated with downregulation of p21 (CDKN1A or CIP1), another cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. However, no study to date has examined relationship between p27 and CIMP status in colorectal cancer. Using MethyLight assays, we measured DNA methylation in five CIMP-specific gene promoters {CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, MLH1 and NEUROG1} in 706 colorectal cancer samples obtained from two large prospective cohorts. Among the 706 tumors, 112 (16%) were CIMP-high tumors with >or=4/5 methylated promoters. We assessed p27 and p53 expressions by immunohistochemistry. Loss of nuclear p27 expression {observed in 231 tumors (33%)} was significantly associated with CIMP-high, MSI-H and BRAF mutations, and these associations were much more pronounced among p53-negative tumors than p53-positive tumors. When CIMP-high and non-CIMP-high tumors were stratified by MSI status (or KRAS and BRAF status), CIMP-high and MSI-H (but not BRAF mutations) were still significantly associated with nuclear p27 loss. Nuclear p27 loss did not appear to be directly related to CDKN2A (p16) methylation. We conclude that downregulation of nuclear p27 is associated with CIMP-high and MSI-H in colorectal cancer. These associations are stronger among p53 wild-type tumors, implying important interplay of p27 and p53 functions (or dysfunctions) in the development of various molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer.

  7. p27Kip1 localizes to detergent-insoluble microdomains within lymphocyte membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Yaroslavskiy, B. B.; Stolz, D. B.; Watkins, S. C.; Alber, S. M.; Bradbury, N. A.; Steinman, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 are associated with poor prognosis in cancer. It is unclear whether this is related strictly to p27Kip1-mediated cell cycle inhibition or to other, possibly extranuclear, roles of this protein. In this study, we examined p27Kip1 expression in quiescent and activated lymphocytes. T-cell membranes have been shown to possess sphingolipid and cholesterol-rich microdomains that are insoluble in non-ionic detergents. These "rafts" provide a scaffold for signaling proteins. Signal transduction coincides with coalescence of these microdomains into larger complexes. METHODS: Localization of p27Kip1 was studied by electron and confocal microscopy. Association of p27Kip1 with membrane microdomains in unstimulated and stimulated lymphocytes was determined using Western blots analysis of isolated membranes variably treated with detergents. RESULTS: We demonstrated that p27Kip1 was present in clusters associated with the plasma membrane in normal lymphocytes. The solubility profile of p27Kip1 in isolated membranes indicated that it was localized to raft structures. When lymphocytes were stimulated, however, p27Kip1 was excluded from aggregated raft complexes. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies, for the first time, the localization of p27 within a membrane microdomain associated with signaling. Because some cell surface signaling complexes lose p27Kip1 upon cellular activation, p27Kip1 may play a functional role in modulating membrane signaling. PMID:11474127

  8. p21WAF1 and tumourigenesis: 20 years after.

    PubMed

    Warfel, Noel A; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the structure, regulation and physiological functions of p21, the product of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) gene, with a focus on its dual role in promoting and repressing biological processes that are hallmarks of tumourigenesis. Recent work has provided a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of how oncogenic signalling pathways influence p21 expression. In response to cellular stimuli, p21 expression is tightly regulated at transcriptional and post-translational levels through mechanisms involving RNA stabilization, phosphorylation and ubiquitination. As a result, growing evidence reveals that several important tumour suppressor and oncogenic signalling pathways alter p21 expression to elicit their effects on cell cycle progression and survival. Thus, p21 expression can both promote and inhibit tumourigenic processes, depending on the cellular context. Since its discovery, it has become increasingly clear that p21 can function as both a classical tumour suppressor and an oncogene. In order to effectively utilize p21 as a therapeutic target, it will be necessary to design therapeutic strategies that preferentially block the ability of p21 to promote senescence, stem cell renewal and cyclin/CDK activation, while leaving its tumour suppressive functions intact.

  9. Loss of p27Kip¹ promotes metaplasia in the pancreas via the regulation of Sox9 expression.

    PubMed

    Jeannot, Pauline; Callot, Caroline; Baer, Romain; Duquesnes, Nicolas; Guerra, Carmen; Guillermet-Guibert, Julie; Bachs, Oriol; Besson, Arnaud

    2015-11-03

    p27Kip1 (p27) is a negative regulator of proliferation and a tumor suppressor via the inhibition of cyclin-CDK activity in the nucleus. p27 is also involved in the regulation of other cellular processes, including transcription by acting as a transcriptional co-repressor. Loss of p27 expression is frequently observed in pancreatic adenocarcinomas in human and is associated with decreased patient survival. Similarly, in a mouse model of K-Ras-driven pancreatic cancer, loss of p27 accelerates tumor development and shortens survival, suggesting an important role for p27 in pancreatic tumorigenesis. Here, we sought to determine how p27 might contribute to early events leading to tumor development in the pancreas. We found that K-Ras activation in the pancreas causes p27 mislocalization at pre-neoplastic stages. Moreover, loss of p27 or expression of a mutant p27 that does not bind cyclin-CDKs causes the mislocalization of several acinar polarity markers associated with metaplasia and induces the nuclear expression of Sox9 and Pdx1 two transcription factors involved in acinar-to-ductal metaplasia. Finally, we found that p27 directly represses transcription of Sox9, but not that of Pdx1. Thus, our results suggest that K-Ras activation, the earliest known event in pancreatic carcinogenesis, may cause loss of nuclear p27 expression which results in derepression of Sox9, triggering reprogramming of acinar cells and metaplasia.

  10. Gene expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and effect of heparin on their expression in mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Lunyin; Quinn, Deborah A.; Garg, Hari G.

    The balance between cell proliferation and cell quiescence is regulated delicately by a variety of mediators, in which cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) and CDK inhibitors (CDKI) play a very important role. Heparin which inhibits pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation increases the levels of two CDKIs, p21 and p27, although only p27 is important in inhibition of PASMC growth in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we investigated the expression profile of all the cell cycle regulating genes, including all seven CDKIs (p21, p27, p57, p15, p16, p18, and p19), in the lungs of mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonarymore » hypertension. A cell cycle pathway specific gene microarray was used to profile the 96 genes involved in cell cycle regulation. We also observed the effect of heparin on gene expression. We found that (a) hypoxic exposure for two weeks significantly inhibited p27 expression and stimulated p18 activity, showing a 98% decrease in p27 and 81% increase in p18; (b) other CDKIs, p21, p57, p15, p16, and p19 were not affected significantly in response to hypoxia; (c) heparin treatment restored p27 expression, but did not influence p18; (d) ERK1/2 and p38 were mediators in heparin upregulation of p27. This study provides an expression profile of cell cycle regulating genes under hypoxia in mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and strengthens the previous finding that p27 is the only CDKI involved in heparin regulation of PASMC proliferation and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.« less

  11. p21 in cancer: intricate networks and multiple activities.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Tarek; Dutta, Anindya

    2009-06-01

    One of the main engines that drives cellular transformation is the loss of proper control of the mammalian cell cycle. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (also known as p21WAF1/Cip1) promotes cell cycle arrest in response to many stimuli. It is well positioned to function as both a sensor and an effector of multiple anti-proliferative signals. This Review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the regulation of p21 and its biological functions with emphasis on its p53-independent tumour suppressor activities and paradoxical tumour-promoting activities, and their implications in cancer.

  12. p21: A Two-Faced Genome Guardian.

    PubMed

    Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Martin, Olga A; Bonner, William M

    2017-04-01

    Upon DNA damage or other stressors, the tumor suppressor p53 is activated, leading to transient expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) p21. This either triggers momentary G1 cell cycle arrest or leads to a chronic state of senescence or apoptosis, a form of genome guardianship. In the clinic, the presence of p21 has been considered an indicator of wildtype p53 activity. However, recent evidence suggests that p21 also acts as an oncogenic factor in a p53-deficient environment. Here, we discuss the controversial aspects of the two-faced involvement of p21 in cancer and speculate on how this new information may increase our understanding of its role in cancer pathogenesis. Prevailing notions indicate that p21 might also act as antiapoptotic agent, which may have relevant implications for future therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Restrictions in Cell Cycle Progression of Adult Vestibular Supporting Cells in Response to Ectopic Cyclin D1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Loponen, Heidi; Ylikoski, Jukka; Albrecht, Jeffrey H.; Pirvola, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Sensory hair cells and supporting cells of the mammalian inner ear are quiescent cells, which do not regenerate. In contrast, non-mammalian supporting cells have the ability to re-enter the cell cycle and produce replacement hair cells. Earlier studies have demonstrated cyclin D1 expression in the developing mouse supporting cells and its downregulation along maturation. In explant cultures of the mouse utricle, we have here focused on the cell cycle control mechanisms and proliferative potential of adult supporting cells. These cells were forced into the cell cycle through adenoviral-mediated cyclin D1 overexpression. Ectopic cyclin D1 triggered robust cell cycle re-entry of supporting cells, accompanied by changes in p27Kip1 and p21Cip1 expressions. Main part of cell cycle reactivated supporting cells were DNA damaged and arrested at the G2/M boundary. Only small numbers of mitotic supporting cells and rare cells with signs of two successive replications were found. Ectopic cyclin D1-triggered cell cycle reactivation did not lead to hyperplasia of the sensory epithelium. In addition, a part of ectopic cyclin D1 was sequestered in the cytoplasm, reflecting its ineffective nuclear import. Combined, our data reveal intrinsic barriers that limit proliferative capacity of utricular supporting cells. PMID:22073316

  14. Restrictions in cell cycle progression of adult vestibular supporting cells in response to ectopic cyclin D1 expression.

    PubMed

    Loponen, Heidi; Ylikoski, Jukka; Albrecht, Jeffrey H; Pirvola, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Sensory hair cells and supporting cells of the mammalian inner ear are quiescent cells, which do not regenerate. In contrast, non-mammalian supporting cells have the ability to re-enter the cell cycle and produce replacement hair cells. Earlier studies have demonstrated cyclin D1 expression in the developing mouse supporting cells and its downregulation along maturation. In explant cultures of the mouse utricle, we have here focused on the cell cycle control mechanisms and proliferative potential of adult supporting cells. These cells were forced into the cell cycle through adenoviral-mediated cyclin D1 overexpression. Ectopic cyclin D1 triggered robust cell cycle re-entry of supporting cells, accompanied by changes in p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1) expressions. Main part of cell cycle reactivated supporting cells were DNA damaged and arrested at the G2/M boundary. Only small numbers of mitotic supporting cells and rare cells with signs of two successive replications were found. Ectopic cyclin D1-triggered cell cycle reactivation did not lead to hyperplasia of the sensory epithelium. In addition, a part of ectopic cyclin D1 was sequestered in the cytoplasm, reflecting its ineffective nuclear import. Combined, our data reveal intrinsic barriers that limit proliferative capacity of utricular supporting cells.

  15. Discovery of Small Molecules that Inhibit the Disordered Protein, p27 Kip1

    DOE PAGES

    Iconaru, Luigi I.; Ban, David; Bharatham, Kavitha; ...

    2015-10-28

    In disordered proteins we see that they are highly prevalent in biological systems. They control myriad signaling and regulatory processes, and their levels and/or cellular localization are often altered in human disease. In contrast to folded proteins, disordered proteins, due to conformational heterogeneity and dynamics, are not considered viable drug targets. We challenged this paradigm by identifying through NMR-based screening small molecules that bound specifically, albeit weakly, to the disordered cell cycle regulator, p27 Kip1 (p27). Moreover, two groups of molecules bound to sites created by transient clusters of aromatic residues within p27. Conserved chemical features within these two groupsmore » of small molecules exhibited complementarity to their binding sites within p27, establishing structure-activity relationships for small molecule: disordered protein interactions. Finally, one compound counteracted the Cdk2/cyclin A inhibitory function of p27 in vitro, providing proof-of- principle that small molecules can inhibit the function of a disordered protein (p27) through sequestration in a conformation incapable of folding and binding to a natural regulatory target (Cdk2/cyclin A).« less

  16. Discovery of Small Molecules that Inhibit the Disordered Protein, p27Kip1

    PubMed Central

    Iconaru, Luigi I.; Ban, David; Bharatham, Kavitha; Ramanathan, Arvind; Zhang, Weixing; Shelat, Anang A.; Zuo, Jian; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Disordered proteins are highly prevalent in biological systems, they control myriad signaling and regulatory processes, and their levels and/or cellular localization are often altered in human disease. In contrast to folded proteins, disordered proteins, due to conformational heterogeneity and dynamics, are not considered viable drug targets. We challenged this paradigm by identifying through NMR-based screening small molecules that bound specifically, albeit weakly, to the disordered cell cycle regulator, p27Kip1 (p27). Two groups of molecules bound to sites created by transient clusters of aromatic residues within p27. Conserved chemical features within these two groups of small molecules exhibited complementarity to their binding sites within p27, establishing structure-activity relationships for small molecule:disordered protein interactions. Finally, one compound counteracted the Cdk2/cyclin A inhibitory function of p27 in vitro, providing proof-of-principle that small molecules can inhibit the function of a disordered protein (p27) through sequestration in a conformation incapable of folding and binding to a natural regulatory target (Cdk2/cyclin A). PMID:26507530

  17. Mapping of CIP/KIP inhibitors, G1 cyclins D1, D3, E and p53 proteins in the rat term placenta.

    PubMed

    Korgun, Emin Turkay; Unek, Gozde; Herrera, Emilio; Jones, Carolyn J; Wadsack, Christian; Kipmen-Korgun, Dijle; Desoye, Gernot

    2011-09-01

    As cell cycle regulation is fundamental to the normal growth and development of the placenta, the aim of the present study was to determine the immunolocalizations of cell cycle related proteins, which have key roles in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis during the development of the rat placenta. Here immunohistochemistry has been used to localize G1 cyclins (D1, D3, E), which are major determinants of proliferation, CIP/KIP inhibitors (p21, p27, p57), p53 as a master regulator and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in all cell types of the rat term placenta. The proportion of each cell type immunolabeled was counted. Cyclin D1 and cyclin D3 were present mostly in cells of the fetal aspect of the placenta, whereas the G1/S cyclin E was present only in the spongio- and labyrinthine trophoblast populations. Among the CIP/KIP inhibitors, p21 was present only in cells of the fetal aspect whereas p27 and p57 were found in all cell types studied. p53 was only found in a small proportion of cells with no co-localization of p53 and p21. The data suggest that the cells of the fetal side of the rat placenta still have some proliferation potential which is kept in check by expression of the CIP/KIP cell cycle inhibitors, whereas cells of the maternal aspect have lost this potential. Apoptosis is only marginal in the term rat placenta. In conclusion, proliferation and apoptosis in rat placental cells appears controlled mostly by the CIP/KIP inhibitors in late pregnancy.

  18. Biochemical Characterization of Complexes with p21, a CDK Inhibitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-01

    of kinases at different stages of the cell cycle or at different times during development . Since p107 is highly related to the retinoblastoma tumor...and Materiel Command, 504 Scott Street, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Cell cycle progression and proliferation are...cells. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Breast Cancer , cell cycle , cyclin-dependent 15. NUMBER OF PAGES cycli-depedent66 kinases (Cdks), p21, p107, growth control

  19. PCTAIRE1 phosphorylates p27 and regulates mitosis in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Teruki; Krajewska, Maryla; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi; Reed, John C

    2014-10-15

    PCTAIRE1 is distant relative of the cyclin-dependent kinase family that has been implicated in spermatogenesis and neuronal development, but it has not been studied in cancer. Here, we report that PCTAIRE1 is expressed in prostate, breast, and cervical cancer cells, where its RNAi-mediated silencing causes growth inhibition with aberrant mitosis due to defects in centrosome dynamics. PCTAIRE1 was not similarly involved in proliferation of nontransformed cells, including diploid human IMR-90 fibroblasts. Through yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified tumor suppressor p27 as a PCTAIRE1 interactor. In vitro kinase assays showed PCTAIRE1 phosphorylates p27 at Ser10. PCTAIRE1 silencing modulated Ser10 phosphorylation on p27 and led to its accumulation in cancer cells but not in nontransformed cells. In a mouse xenograft model of PPC1 prostate cancer, conditional silencing of PCTAIRE1 restored p27 protein expression and suppressed tumor growth. Mechanistic studies in HeLa cells showed that PCTAIRE1 phosphorylates p27 during the S and M phases of the cell cycle. Notably, p27 silencing was sufficient to rescue cells from mitotic arrest caused by PCTAIRE1 silencing. Clinically, PCTAIRE1 was highly expressed in primary breast and prostate tumors compared with adjacent normal epithelial tissues. Together our findings reveal an unexpected role for PCTAIRE1 in regulating p27 stability, mitosis, and tumor growth, suggesting PCTAIRE1 as a candidate cancer therapeutic target. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Phosphorylation and Subcellular Localization of p27Kip1 Regulated by Hydrogen Peroxide Modulation in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ibañez, Irene L.; Bracalente, Candelaria; Notcovich, Cintia; Tropper, Ivanna; Molinari, Beatriz L.; Policastro, Lucía L.; Durán, Hebe

    2012-01-01

    The Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1) is a key protein in the decision between proliferation and cell cycle exit. Quiescent cells show nuclear p27Kip1, but this protein is exported to the cytoplasm in response to proliferating signals. We recently reported that catalase treatment increases the levels of p27Kip1 in vitro and in vivo in a murine model. In order to characterize and broaden these findings, we evaluated the regulation of p27Kip1 by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human melanoma cells and melanocytes. We observed a high percentage of p27Kip1 positive nuclei in melanoma cells overexpressing or treated with exogenous catalase, while non-treated controls showed a cytoplasmic localization of p27Kip1. Then we studied the levels of p27Kip1 phosphorylated (p27p) at serine 10 (S10) and at threonine 198 (T198) because phosphorylation at these sites enables nuclear exportation of this protein, leading to accumulation and stabilization of p27pT198 in the cytoplasm. We demonstrated by western blot a decrease in p27pS10 and p27pT198 levels in response to H2O2 removal in melanoma cells, associated with nuclear p27Kip1. Melanocytes also exhibited nuclear p27Kip1 and lower levels of p27pS10 and p27pT198 than melanoma cells, which showed cytoplasmic p27Kip1. We also showed that the addition of H2O2 (0.1 µM) to melanoma cells arrested in G1 by serum starvation induces proliferation and increases the levels of p27pS10 and p27pT198 leading to cytoplasmic localization of p27Kip1. Nuclear localization and post-translational modifications of p27Kip1 were also demonstrated by catalase treatment of colorectal carcinoma and neuroblastoma cells, extending our findings to these other human cancer types. In conclusion, we showed in the present work that H2O2 scavenging prevents nuclear exportation of p27Kip1, allowing cell cycle arrest, suggesting that cancer cells take advantage of their intrinsic pro-oxidant state to favor cytoplasmic localization of p27Kip1. PMID

  1. BRD4 inhibitor IBET upregulates p27kip/cip protein stability in neuroendocrine tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Matkar, Smita; Xie, Gengchen; An, Chiying; He, Xin; Kong, Xiangchen; Liu, Xiuheng; Hua, Xianxin

    2017-04-03

    The prevalence of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) has recently been increasing. Although various drugs such as Octreotide and its analogs show certain efficacy, NETs in many patients progress and metastasize. It is desirable to develop new interventions to improve the therapy. Here we show that human neuroendocrine tumor BON cells are resistant to several drugs commonly used for NET therapy, including Octreotide that activates somatostatin receptor-induced anti-proliferation, and Capecitabine and Temozolimide that damage DNA. In contrast, an inhibitor (IBET) to an epigenetic regulator, Brd4 that binds acetylated histones and upregulates transcription of multiple genes including protooncogene c-Myc, potently inhibited the NET cells. We found that IBET increased the protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27 kip/cip (or p27), but not its mRNA levels. Moreover, the p27 induction at protein level by IBET was at least partly through increasing the protein stability of p27. The increased protein stability of p27 likely resulted from IBET-mediated suppression of Skp2, an E3 ligase that can mediate p27 degradation by increasing its ubiquitinylation. These findings unravel a new mechanism whereby the IBET-induced repression of proliferation of neuroendocrine cells.

  2. p27 Nuclear localization and growth arrest caused by perlecan knockdown in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Katsuya; Oka, Kiyomasa; Matsumoto, Kunio

    2010-02-12

    Perlecan, a secreted heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a major component of the vascular basement membrane and participates in angiogenesis. Here, we used small interference RNA-mediated knockdown of perlecan expression to investigate the regulatory function of perlecan in the growth of human vascular endothelial cells. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced ERK phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression were unchanged by perlecan deficiency in endothelial cells; however, perlecan deficiency inhibited the Rb protein phosphorylation and DNA synthesis induced by bFGF. By contrast to cytoplasmic localization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 in control endothelial cells, p27 was localized in the nucleus and itsmore » expression increased in perlecan-deficient cells, which suggests that p27 mediates inhibition of Rb phosphorylation. In addition to the well-characterized function of perlecan as a co-receptor for heparin-binding growth factors such as bFGF, our results suggest that perlecan plays an indispensible role in endothelial cell proliferation and acts through a mechanism that involves subcellular localization of p27.« less

  3. The intricacies of p21 phosphorylation: protein/protein interactions, subcellular localization and stability.

    PubMed

    Child, Emma S; Mann, David J

    2006-06-01

    p21 was originally described as functioning as a cell cycle regulator via inhibition of both cyclin-dependent kinases and processive DNA replication. Nowadays it is recognized to play other fundamental roles including transcriptional regulation and the modulation of apoptosis. Each of these functions of p21 is achieved through direct p21/protein interactions and the subcellular localization of p21 plays an important part in dictating the binding partners to which p21 is exposed. Over recent years, a number of phosphorylation sites in p21 have been identified, these being targeted by several important intracellular signalling protein kinases. Here we review the state of our knowledge of p21 phosphorylation with respect to the kinases involved and the molecular biological effects of each phosphorylation event.

  4. The assembly, activation, and substrate specificity of Cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Stephan C.; Law, Mary E.; Corsino, Patrick E.; Rowe, Thomas C.; Davis, Bradley J.; Law, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown conflicting data regarding Cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes and, considering the widespread overexpression of Cyclin D1 in cancer, it is important to fully understand their relevance. While many have shown Cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes to form active complexes, others have failed to show activity or association. Here, using a novel p21-PCNA fusion protein as well as p21 mutant proteins, we show that p21 is a required scaffolding protein, with Cyclin D1 and Cdk2 failing to complex in its absence. These p21/Cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes are active and also bind the trimeric PCNA complex, with each trimer capable of independently binding distinct Cyclin/Cdk complexes. We also show that increased p21 levels due to treatment with chemotherapeutic agents result in increased formation and kinase activity of Cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes, and that Cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes are able to phosphorylate a number of substrates in addition to Rb. Nucleophosmin and Cdh1, two proteins important for centrosome replication and implicated in the chromosomal instability of cancer are shown to be phosphorylated by Cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes. Additionally, PSF is identified as a novel Cdk2 substrate, being phosphorylated by Cdk2 complexed with either Cyclin E or Cyclin D1, and given the many functions of PSF, it could have important implications on cellular activity. PMID:23627734

  5. Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E as Markers of Therapeutic Responsiveness in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    address whether cyclin D1 and cyclin E were predictive markers for therapeutic responsiveness in breast cancer. Both estrogen and progesterone ...although whether progesterone is tion of p 18 N K4c and increased association of the CDK stimulatory or inhibitory for normal breast epithelium remains...steroid progesterone and its synthetic ana- p2 7Ki pl and p21 ip 1 available to bind other proteins (8). Thus, logues, progestins, have complex effects

  6. Akt/p27kip1 Pathway Is Not Involved in Human Insulinoma Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Andrea Paes; Garibaldi, Paula; Rubio, Maria de los Milagros; García, Florencia; Kral, Marta; Bruno, Oscar D.

    2018-01-01

    Insulinomas are pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET), usually benign. Akt/p27kip1 is an intracellular pathway overexpressed in many pNET. There are no data regarding its expression in human insulinomas. We aimed to investigate the expression of Akt and p27kip1 in 24 human insulinomas and to compare them to their expression in normal surrounding islets. Staining was performed on embedded paraffin tissue using polyclonal antibodies against total Akt, p-Akt, p27kip1, and pp27kip1. p-Akt was the predominant form in insulinomas; they presented lower Akt and p-Akt expression than normal islets in 83.3% and 87.5% of tumors, respectively. p27kip1 and pp27kip1 were mainly cytoplasmic in both insulinomas and normal tissue. Cytoplasmic pp27kip1 staining was higher in insulinomas and surprisingly nearly half of the insulinomas also presented nuclear p27kip1 (p = 0.029). No differences were observed in the subcellular localization of p27kip1 and activation of Akt between benign and malignant insulinomas. The low expression of Akt seen in insulinomas might explain the usual benign behavior of this type of pNET. Cytoplasmic p27kip1 in both insulinomas and normal islet cells could reflect the low rate of replication of beta cells, while nuclear p27kip1 would seem to indicate stabilization and nuclear anchoring of the cyclin D-Cdk4 complex. Our data seem to suggest that the Akt pathway is not involved in human insulinoma tumorigenesis. PMID:29853883

  7. p27kip1 expression distinguishes papillary hyperplasia in Graves' disease from papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Erickson, L A; Yousef, O M; Jin, L; Lohse, C M; Pankratz, V S; Lloyd, R V

    2000-09-01

    In most cases, the histopathologic and cytologic distinction between Graves' disease and papillary thyroid carcinoma is relatively easy, but on occasion Graves' disease may simulate a thyroid papillary carcinoma. For example, papillary fronds with fibrovascular cores may be present in both Graves' disease and papillary carcinoma. p27kip1 (p27) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitory protein that has been shown to be an independent prognostic factor in a variety of human tumors. Our previous studies of p27 expression in hyperplastic and neoplastic endocrine lesions showed that the level of p27 was quite different in these two conditions. To determine if this distinction could also be made between Graves' disease and papillary carcinoma, we analyzed expression of p27 and other cell cycle proteins in a series of cases of Graves' disease with papillary hyperplasia and a series of papillary thyroid carcinomas. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 61 randomly selected patients with thyroid disease, including 29 cases of Graves' disease with papillary architectural features and 32 cases of papillary carcinoma, were analyzed for expression of p27, Ki-67, and DNA topoisomerase II alpha (topo II alpha) by immunostaining. The distribution of immunoreactivity was analyzed by quantifying the percentage of positive nuclei that was expressed as the labeling index (LI) plus or minus the standard error of the mean. The papillary hyperplasia of Graves' disease had a p27 LI of 68.2 +/- 3.1 (range, 24 to 88), whereas papillary carcinomas had a LI of 25.6 +/- 2.5 (range, 12 to 70) (P < .0001). No significant differences in Ki-67 or topo II alpha expression were identified between papillary hyperplasia in Graves' disease and papillary carcinoma. These results indicate that p27 protein expression is significantly higher in papillary hyperplasia of Graves' disease compared to papillary carcinoma, which may be diagnostically useful in difficult cases.

  8. Examination of the expanding pathways for the regulation of p21 expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong-Sam; Qian, Yingjuan; Chen, Xinbin

    2010-07-01

    p21(Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1) was originally identified as an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, a mediator of p53 in growth suppression and a marker of cellular senescence. p21 is required for proper cell cycle progression and plays a role in cell death, DNA repair, senescence and aging, and induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming. Although transcriptional regulation is considered to be the initial control point for p21 expression, there is growing evidence that post-transcriptional and post-translational regulations play a critical role in p21 expression and activity. This review will briefly discuss the activity of p21 and focus on current knowledge of the determinants that control p21 transcription, mRNA stability and translation, and protein stability and activity. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Plant HDAC inhibitor chrysin arrest cell growth and induce p21WAF1 by altering chromatin of STAT response element in A375 cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chrysin and its analogues, belongs to flavonoid family and possess potential anti-tumour activity. The aim of this study is to determine the molecular mechanism by which chrysin controls cell growth and induce apoptosis in A375 cells. Methods Effect of chrysin and its analogues on cell viability and cell cycle analysis was determined by MTT assay and flowcytometry. A series of Western blots was performed to determine the effect of chrysin on important cell cycle regulatory proteins (Cdk2, cyclin D1, p53, p21, p27). The fluorimetry and calorimetry based assays was conducted for characterization of chrysin as HDAC inhibitor. The changes in histone tail modification such as acetylation and methylation was studied after chrysin treatment was estimated by immuno-fluorescence and western blot analysis. The expression of Bcl-xL, survivin and caspase-3 was estimated in chrysin treated cells. The effect of chrysin on p21 promoter activity was studied by luciferase and ChIP assays. Results Chrysin cause G1 cell cycle arrest and found to inhibit HDAC-2 and HDAC-8. Chrysin treated cells have shown increase in the levels of H3acK14, H4acK12, H4acK16 and decrease in H3me2K9 methylation. The p21 induction by chrysin treatment was found to be independent of p53 status. The chromatin remodelling at p21WAF1 promoter induces p21 activity, increased STAT-1 expression and epigenetic modifications that are responsible for ultimate cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion Chrysin shows in vitro anti-cancer activity that is correlated with induction of histone hyperacetylation and possible recruitment of STAT-1, 3, 5 proteins at STAT (−692 to −684) region of p21 promoter. Our results also support an unexpected action of chrysin on the chromatin organization of p21WAF1 promoter through histone methylation and hyper-acetylation. It proposes previously unknown sequence specific chromatin modulations in the STAT responsive elements for regulating cell cycle progression

  10. Disassembly of the lens fiber cell nucleus to create a clear lens: The p27 descent.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Sheldon; Chang, Min-Lee; Reznikov, Natalie; Taylor, Allen

    2017-03-01

    The eye lens is unique among tissues: it is transparent, does not form tumors, and the majority of its cells degrade their organelles, including their cell nuclei. A mystery for over a century, there has been considerable recent progress in elucidating mechanisms of lens fiber cell denucleation (LFCD). In contrast to the disassembly and reassembly of the cell nucleus during mitosis, LFCD is a unidirectional process that culminates in destruction of the fiber cell nucleus. Whereas p27 Kip1 , the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, is upregulated during formation of LFC in the outermost cortex, in the inner cortex, in the nascent organelle free zone, p27 Kip1 is degraded, markedly activating cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1). This process results in phosphorylation of nuclear Lamins, dissociation of the nuclear membrane, and entry of lysosomes that liberate DNaseIIβ (DLAD) to cleave chromatin. Multiple cellular pathways, including the ubiquitin proteasome system and the unfolded protein response, converge on post-translational regulation of p27 Kip1 . Mutations that impair these pathways are associated with congenital cataracts and loss of LFCD. These findings highlight new regulatory nodes in the lens and suggest that we are close to understanding this fascinating terminal differentiation process. Such knowledge may offer a new means to confront proliferative diseases including cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The tumor suppressor functions of p27(kip1) include control of the mesenchymal/amoeboid transition.

    PubMed

    Berton, Stefania; Belletti, Barbara; Wolf, Katarina; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Lovat, Francesca; Vecchione, Andrea; Colombatti, Alfonso; Friedl, Peter; Baldassarre, Gustavo

    2009-09-01

    In many human cancers, p27 downregulation correlates with a worse prognosis, suggesting that p27 levels could represent an important determinant in cell transformation and cancer development. Using a mouse model system based on v-src-induced transformation, we show here that p27 absence is always linked to a more aggressive phenotype. When cultured in three-dimensional contexts, v-src-transformed p27-null fibroblasts undergo a morphological switch from an elongated to a rounded cell shape, accompanied by amoeboid-like morphology and motility. Importantly, the acquisition of the amoeboid motility is associated with a greater ability to move and colonize distant sites in vivo. The reintroduction of different p27 mutants in v-src-transformed p27-null cells demonstrates that the control of cell proliferation and motility represents two distinct functions of p27, both necessary for it to fully act as a tumor suppressor. Thus, we highlight here a new p27 function in driving cell plasticity that is associated with its C-terminal portion and does not depend on the control of cyclin-dependent kinase activity.

  12. Less understood issues: p21(Cip1) in mitosis and its therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Kreis, N-N; Louwen, F; Yuan, J

    2015-04-02

    p21(Cip1) is a multifunctional protein and a key player in regulating different cellular processes. The transcription of p21 is regulated by p53-dependent and -independent pathways. The expression of p21 is increased in response to various cellular stresses to arrest the cell cycle and ensure genomic stability. p21 has been shown to be a tumor suppressor and an oncogene as well. The function of p21 in mitosis has been proposed but not systematically studied. We have recently shown that p21 binds to and inhibits the activity of Cdk1/cyclin B1, and is important for a fine-tuned mitotic progression. Loss of p21 prolongs the duration of mitosis and results in severe mitotic defects like chromosome segregation and cytokinesis failures promoting consequently genomic instability. Moreover, p21 is dramatically stabilized in mitotic tumor cells upon treatment with mitotic agents like paclitaxel or mitotic kinase inhibitors. Increased p21 is mainly localized in the cytoplasm and associates with cell survival indicating a crucial role of p21 in susceptibility to mitotic agents in tumor cells. In this review we will briefly summarize the structure and general physiological functions as well as regulation of p21, discuss in detail its role in mitosis and its potential to serve as a therapeutic target.

  13. CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation regulates p27Kip1 stability in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ying-Lin; Li, Ya-Jun; Wang, Jing-Bo; Lu, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Zhen-Xiong; Feng, Shan-Shan; Hu, Jian-Guo; Zhai, Hui-Hong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanism of calcyclin binding protein/Siah-1 interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP) nuclear translocation in promoting the proliferation of gastric cancer (GC) cells. METHODS: The effect of CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation on cell cycle was investigated by cell cycle analysis. Western blot analysis was used to assess the change in expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and proteasome-mediated degradation of p27Kip1. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) analysis was performed to examine the binding of CacyBP/SIP with Skp1. A CacyBP/SIP truncation mutant which lacked the Skp1 binding site was constructed and fused to a fluorescent protein. Subsequently, the effect on Skp1 binding with the fusion protein was examined by co-IP, while localization of fluorescent fusion protein observed by confocal laser microscopy, and change in p27Kip1 protein expression assessed by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation induced by gastrin promoted progression of GC cells from G1 phase. However, while CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation was inhibited using siRNA to suppress CacyBP/SIP expression, cell cycle was clearly inhibited. CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation significantly decreased the level of cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1, increased Cyclin E protein expression whereas the levels of Skp1, Skp2, and CDK2 were not affected. Upon inhibition of CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation, there were no changes in protein levels of p27Kip1 and Cyclin E, while p27Kip1 decrease could be prevented by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Moreover, CacyBP/SIP was found to bind to Skp1 by immunoprecipitation, an event that was abolished by mutant CacyBP/SIP, which also failed to stimulate p27Kip1 degradation, even though the mutant could still translocate into the nucleus. CONCLUSION: CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation contributes to the proliferation of GC cells, and CacyBP/SIP exerts this effect, at least in part, by stimulating ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27

  14. Effects of histone acetylation and DNA methylation on p21( WAF1) regulation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jing-Yuan; Lu, You-Yong

    2002-06-01

    Cell cycle progression is regulated by interactions between cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). p21(WAF1) is one of the CIP/KIP family which inhibits CDKs activity. Increased expression of p21(WAF1) may play an important role in the growth arrest induced in transformed cells. Although the stability of the p21( WAF1) mRNA could be altered by different signals, cell differentiation and numerous influencing factors. However, recent studies suggest that two known mechanisms of epigenesis, i.e.gene inactivation by methylation in promoter region and changes to an inactive chromatin by histone deacetylation, seem to be the best candidate mechanisms for inactivation of p21( WAF1). To date, almost no coding region p21(WAF1) mutations have been found in tumor cells, despite extensive screening of hundreds of various tumors. Hypermethylation of the p21(WAF1) promoter region may represent an alternative mechanism by which the p21(WAF1/CIP1) gene can be inactivated. The reduction of cellular DNMT protein levels also induces a corresponding rapid increase in the cell cycle regulator p21(WAF1) protein demonstrating a regulatory link between DNMT and p21(WAF1) which is independent of methylation of DNA. Both histone hyperacetylation and hypoacetylation appear to be important in the carcinoma process, and induction of the p21(WAF1) gene by histone hyperacetylation may be a mechanism by which dietary fiber prevents carcinogenesis. Here, we review the influence of histone acetylation and DNA methylation on p21(WAF1) transcription, and affection of pathways or factors associated such as p 53, E2A, Sp1 as well as several histone deacetylation inhibitors.

  15. Multiple functions of p21 in cell cycle, apoptosis and transcriptional regulation after DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Karimian, Ansar; Ahmadi, Yasin; Yousefi, Bahman

    2016-06-01

    An appropriate control over cell cycle progression depends on many factors. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 (also known as p21(WAF1/Cip1)) is one of these factors that promote cell cycle arrest in response to a variety of stimuli. The inhibitory effect of P21 on cell cycle progression correlates with its nuclear localization. P21 can be induced by both p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. Some other important functions attributed to p21 include transcriptional regulation, modulation or inhibition of apoptosis. These functions are largely dependent on direct p21/protein interactions and also on p21 subcellular localizations. In addition, p21 can play a role in DNA repair by interacting with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In this review, we will focus on the multiple functions of p21 in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and gene transcription after DNA damage and briefly discuss the pathways and factors that have critical roles in p21 expression and activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterizations of 9p21 candidate genes in familial melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, G.J.; Flores, J.F.; Glendening, J.M.

    We have previously collected and characterized 16 melanoma families for the inheritance of a familial melanoma predisposition gene on 9p21. Clear evidence for genetic linkage has been detected in 8 of these families with the 9p21 markers D9S126 and 1FNA, while linkage of the remaining families to this region is less certain. A candidate for the 9p21 familial melanoma gene, the cyclin kinase inhibitor gene p16 (also known as the multiple tumor suppressor 1 (MTS1) gene), has been recently indentified. Notably, a nonsense mutation within the p16 gene has been detected in the lymphoblastoid cell line DNA from a dysplasticmore » nevus syndrome (DNS), or familial melanoma, patient. The p16 gene is also known to be frequently deleted or mutated in a variety of tumor cell lines (including melanoma) and resides within a region that has been defined as harboring the 9p21 melanoma predisposition locus. This region is delineated on the distal side by the marker D9S736 (which resides just distal to the p16 gene) and extends in a proximal direction to the marker D9S171. Overall, the entire distance between these two loci is estimated at 3-5Mb. Preliminary analysis of our two largest 9p21-linked melanoma kindreds (by direct sequencing of PCR products) has not yet revealed mutations within the coding region of the p16 gene. Others have reported that 8/11 unrelated 9p21-linked melanoma families do not appear to carry p16 mutations; thus the possibility exists that p16 is not a melanoma susceptibility gene per se, although it appears to play some role in melanoma tumor progression. Our melanoma kindred DNAs are currently being analyzed by SSCP using primers that amplify exons of other candidate genes from the 9p21 region implicated in familial melanoma. These novel genes reside within a distinct critical region of homozygous loss in melanoma which is located >2 Mb from the p16 gene on 9p21.« less

  17. CRM-1 knockdown inhibits extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tumor growth by blocking the nuclear export of p27Kip1

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jian; Chen, Yongjun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Bing; Zhou, Yanqiong; Lan, Hongzhen

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a deadly disease which responds poorly to surgery and conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Early diagnosis is difficult due to the anatomical and biological characteristics of cholangiocarcinoma. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and in the present study, we found that p27Kip1 expression was suppressed in the nucleus and increased in the cytoplasm in 53 samples of cholangiocarcinoma from patients with highly malignant tumors (poorly-differentiated and tumor-node-metastsis (TNM) stage III–IV) compared with that in samples from 10 patients with chronic cholangitis. The expression of phosphorylated (p-)p27Kip1 (Ser10), one of the phosphorylated forms of p27Kip1, was increased in the patient samples with increasing malignancy and clinical stage. Coincidentally, chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM-1; also referred to as exportin 1 or Xpo1), a critical protein responsible for protein translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, was also overexpressed in the tumor samples which were poorly differentiated and of a higher clinical stage. Through specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of CRM-1 in the cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC939, we identified an elevation of cytoplasmic p27Kip1 and a decrease of nuclear p27Kip1. Furthermore, the viability and colony formation ability of QBC939 cells was largely reduced with G1 arrest. Consistent with the findings of the in vitro experiments, in a xenograft mouse model, the tumors formed in the CRM-1 knockdown group were markedly smaller and weighed less than those in the control group in vivo. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that the interplay between CRM-1 and p27Kip1 may provide potentially potent biomarkers and functional targets for the development of future cholangiocarcinoma treatments. PMID:27279267

  18. Cortactin modulates RhoA activation and expression of Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors to promote cell cycle progression in 11q13-amplified head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Croucher, David R; Rickwood, Danny; Tactacan, Carole M; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Daly, Roger J

    2010-11-01

    The cortactin oncoprotein is frequently overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), often due to amplification of the encoding gene (CTTN). While cortactin overexpression enhances invasive potential, recent research indicates that it also promotes cell proliferation, but how cortactin regulates the cell cycle machinery is unclear. In this article we report that stable short hairpin RNA-mediated cortactin knockdown in the 11q13-amplified cell line FaDu led to increased expression of the Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2) and inhibition of S-phase entry. These effects were associated with increased binding of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) to cyclin D1- and E1-containing complexes and decreased retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. Cortactin regulated expression of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, respectively. The direct roles of p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2) downstream of cortactin were confirmed by the transient knockdown of each CDKI by specific small interfering RNAs, which led to partial rescue of cell cycle progression. Interestingly, FaDu cells with reduced cortactin levels also exhibited a significant diminution in RhoA expression and activity, together with decreased expression of Skp2, a critical component of the SCF ubiquitin ligase that targets p27(Kip1) and p57(Kip2) for degradation. Transient knockdown of RhoA in FaDu cells decreased expression of Skp2, enhanced the level of Cip/Kip CDKIs, and attenuated S-phase entry. These findings identify a novel mechanism for regulation of proliferation in 11q13-amplified HNSCC cells, in which overexpressed cortactin acts via RhoA to decrease expression of Cip/Kip CDKIs, and highlight Skp2 as a downstream effector for RhoA in this process.

  19. p21-activated kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Joachim; Crawford, James J; Hoeflich, Klaus P; Chernoff, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are Ser/Thr kinases in the STE20 kinase family with important roles in regulating cytoskeletal organization, cell migration, and signaling. The PAK enzyme family comprises six members subdivided into two groups: Group I, represented by PAK1, 2, and 3, and Group II, represented by PAK 4, 5, and 6, based on sequence and structural homology. Individual PAK isoforms were found to be overexpressed and amplified in a variety of human cancers, and in vitro and in vivo studies using genetically engineered systems as well as small-molecule tool compounds have suggested therapeutic utility of PAKs as oncology targets. The identification of potent and kinome-selective ATP-competitive PAK inhibitors has proven challenging, likely caused by the openness and unique plasticity of the ATP-binding site of PAK enzymes. Progress in achieving increased kinase selectivity has been achieved with certain inhibitors but at the expense of increased molecular weight. Allosteric inhibitors, such as IPA-3, leverage the unique Group I PAK autoregulatory domain for selective inhibition, and this approach might provide an outlet to evade the kinase selectivity challenges observed with ATP-competitive PAK inhibitors. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cables1 controls p21/Cip1 protein stability by antagonizing proteasome subunit alpha type 3.

    PubMed

    Shi, Z; Li, Z; Li, Z J; Cheng, K; Du, Y; Fu, H; Khuri, F R

    2015-05-07

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor 1A, p21/Cip1, is a vital cell cycle regulator, dysregulation of which has been associated with a large number of human malignancies. One critical mechanism that controls p21 function is through its degradation, which allows the activation of its associated cell cycle-promoting kinases, CDK2 and CDK4. Thus delineating how p21 is stabilized and degraded will enhance our understanding of cell growth control and offer a basis for potential therapeutic interventions. Here we report a novel regulatory mechanism that controls the dynamic status of p21 through its interaction with Cdk5 and Abl enzyme substrate 1 (Cables1). Cables1 has a proposed role as a tumor suppressor. We found that upregulation of Cables1 protein was correlated with increased half-life of p21 protein, which was attributed to Cables1/p21 complex formation and supported by their co-localization in the nucleus. Mechanistically, Cables1 interferes with the proteasome (Prosome, Macropain) subunit alpha type 3 (PSMA3) binding to p21 and protects p21 from PSMA3-mediated proteasomal degradation. Moreover, silencing of p21 partially reverses the ability of Cables1 to induce cell death and inhibit cell proliferation. In further support of a potential pathophysiological role of Cables1, the expression level of Cables1 is tightly associated with p21 in both cancer cell lines and human lung cancer patient tumor samples. Together, these results suggest Cables1 as a novel p21 regulator through maintaining p21 stability and support the model that the tumor-suppressive function of Cables1 occurs at least in part through enhancing the tumor-suppressive activity of p21.

  1. Recombinant adenovirus-p21 attenuates proliferative responses associated with excessive scarring.

    PubMed

    Gu, Danling; Atencio, Isabella; Kang, David W; Looper, L David; Ahmed, C M I; Levy, Alina; Maneval, Dan; Zepeda, Monica L

    2005-01-01

    Excessive cutaneous scarring is an important clinical disorder resulting in adverse tissue growth and function as well as undesirable cosmetic appearance. p21WAF-1/Cip-1 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that blocks cell cycle progression and inhibits cell proliferation. We used a recombinant adenovirus containing the human p21WAF-1/Cip-1 cDNA (rAd-p21) to evaluate proliferative responses in skin models. In vitro dose-response studies using primary human dermal fibroblasts resulted in a dose-dependent expression of p21WAF-1/Cip-1 protein and a 3- to 80-fold reduction in cell proliferation as measured by 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Further, rAd-p21 reduced type I procollagen production when compared to control virus. A rat polyvinyl alcohol sponge model was used to determine rAd-p21 effects on granulation tissue formation in vivo. Sponges pretreated with a granulation tissue stimulator, rAd-PDGF-B and subsequently rAd-p21 on a second injection, showed a p21WAF-1/Cip-1 specific dose-dependent decrease in percent granulation fill as the rAd-p21 dose increased (p < 0.001). Immunohistochemistry identified human p21WAF-1/Cip-1 expression in sponges treated with rAd-p21 5 days postinjection. Additionally, 5-bromodeoxyuridine and Ki67 staining in sponges treated with rAd-p21 showed a significant decrease in proliferation when compared to rAd-platelet-derived growth factor-B alone or vehicle control groups (p < 0.01). These data support the utility of p21WAF-1/Cip-1 in targeting hyperproliferative disorders of the skin.

  2. The p21 and PCNA partnership: a new twist for an old plot.

    PubMed

    Prives, Carol; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2008-12-15

    The contribution of error-prone DNA polymerases to the DNA damage response has been a subject of great interest in the last decade. Error-prone polymerases are required for translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), a process that involves synthesis past a DNA lesion. Under certain circumstances, TLS polymerases can achieve bypass with good efficiency and fidelity. However, they can also in some cases be mutagenic, and so negative regulators of TLS polymerases would have the important function of inhibiting their recruitment to undamaged DNA templates. Recent work from Livneh's and our groups have provided evidence regarding the role of the cyclin kinase inhibitor p21 as a negative regulator of TLS. Interestingly, both the cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) binding domains of p21 are involved in different aspects of the modulation of TLS, affecting both the interaction between PCNA and the TLS-specific pol eta as well as PCNA ubiquitination status. In line with this, p21 was shown to reduce the efficiency but increase the accuracy of TLS. Hence, in absence of DNA damage p21 may work to impede accidental loading of pol eta to undamaged DNA and avoid consequential mutagenesis. After UV irradiation, when TLS plays a decisive role, p21 is progressively degraded. This might allow gradual release of replication fork blockage by TLS polymerases. For these reasons, in higher eukaryotes p21 might represent a key regulator of the equilibrium between mutagenesis and cell survival.

  3. A role for p21 (WAF1) in the cAMP-dependent differentiation of F9 teratocarcinoma cells into parietal endoderm

    SciTech Connect

    Drdova, Blanka; Vachtenheim, Jiri

    2005-03-10

    Combined treatment of teratocarcinoma F9 cells with retinoic acid and dibutyryl-cAMP induces the differentiation into cells with a phenotype resembling parietal endoderm. We show that the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21/WAF1/Cip1 (p21) protein and mRNA are dramatically elevated at the end of this differentiation, concomitantly with the appearance of p21 in the immunoprecipitated CDK2-cyclin E complex. The induction of differentiation markers could not be achieved by expression of ectopic p21 alone and still required treatment with differentiation agents. Clones of F9 cells transfected with sense or antisense p21 cDNA constructs revealed, upon differentiation, upregulated levels of mRNA for thrombomodulin,more » a parietal endoderm-specific marker, or increased fraction of cells in sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle, respectively. Consistent with this observation, whereas p21 was strictly nuclear in undifferentiated cells, a large proportion of differentiated cells had p21 localized also in the cytoplasm, a site associated with the antiapoptotic function of p21. Furthermore, p21 activated the thrombomodulin promoter in transient reporter assays and the p21 mutant defective in binding to cyclin E was equally efficient in activation. The promoter activity in differentiated cells was reduced by cotransfection of p21-specific siRNA or antisense cDNA. Coexpression of p21 increased the activity of the GAL-p300(1-1303) fusion protein on the GAL sites-containing TM promoter. This implies that p21 might act through a derepression of the p300 N-terminal-residing repression domain, thereby enhancing the p300 coactivator function. As differentiation of F9 cells into parietal endoderm-like cells requires the cAMP signaling, the results together suggest that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 may promote specifically this pathway in F9 cells.« less

  4. Growth inhibition induced by antiprogestins RU-38486, ORG-31710, and CDB-2914 in ovarian cancer cells involves inhibition of cyclin dependent kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Goyeneche, Alicia A; Seidel, Erin E; Telleria, Carlos M

    2012-06-01

    Antiprogestins have been largely utilized in reproductive medicine, yet their repositioning for oncologic use is rapidly emerging. In this study we investigated the molecular mediators of the anti-ovarian cancer activity of the structurally related antiprogestins RU-38486, ORG-31710 and CDB-2914. We studied the responses of wt p53 OV2008 and p53 null SK-OV-3 cells to varying doses of RU-38486, ORG-31710 and CDB-2914. The steroids inhibited the growth of both cell lines with a potency of RU-38486 > ORG-31710 > CDB-2914, and were cytostatic at lower doses but lethal at higher concentrations. Antiprogestin-induced lethality associated with morphological features of apoptosis, hypodiploid DNA content, DNA fragmentation, and cleavage of executer caspase substrate PARP. Cell death ensued despite RU-38486 caused transient up-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, ORG-31710 induced transient up-regulation of inhibitor of apoptosis XIAP, and CDB-2914 up-regulated both XIAP and Bcl-2. The antiprogestins induced accumulation of Cdk inhibitors p21(cip1) and p27(kip1) and increased association of p21(cip1) and p27(kip1) with Cdk-2. They also promoted nuclear localization of p21(cip1) and p27(kip1), reduced the nuclear abundances of Cdk-2 and cyclin E, and blocked the activity of Cdk-2 in both nucleus and cytoplasm. The cytotoxic potency of the antiprogestins correlated with the magnitude of the inhibition of Cdk-2 activity, ranging from G1 cell cycle arrest towards cell death. Our results suggest that, as a consequence of their cytostatic and lethal effects, antiprogestin steroids of well-known contraceptive properties emerge as attractive new agents to be repositioned for ovarian cancer therapeutics.

  5. Requirement of ClC-3 in G0/G1 to S Phase Transition Induced by IGF-1 via ERK1/2-Cyclins Cascade in Multiple Myeloma Cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Yu; Tu, Yong-Sheng; Tang, Yong-Bo; Huang, Yun-Ying; Zhou, Fang-Min; Tian, Tian; Li, Xiao-Yan

    2018-06-01

    ClC-3 is involved in the proliferation and migration of several cancer cells. However, ClC-3 expression and its role of cell-cycle control in multiple myeloma (MM) has not yet been investigated. MM cells were treated with different concentrations of IGF (30, 100, 300 ng/mL), and their proliferation was examined by CCK-8. The effects of ClC-3 on cell cycle progression was detected by flow cytometry. Western blot was used to analyze the relative levels of ClC3, CD138, P21, P27, CDK, p-Erk1/2, and t-Erk1/2 protein expression. Transfection of RPMI8226 with gpClC-3 cDNA and siRNA alters the expression of ClC-3. We compared the expression of ClC-3 in primary myeloma cells and in MM cell lines (U266 and RPMI8266) with that in normal plasma cells (PCs) from normal subjects and found that myeloma cells from patients and MM cell lines had significantly higher expression of ClC-3. Additionally, silencing of ClC-3 with the small interfering RNA (siRNA) that targets human ClC-3 decreased proliferation of RPMI8226 after IGF-1 treatment and slowed cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S phase, which was associated with diminished phosphorylation of ERK1/2, down-expression of cyclin E, cyclin D1 and up-regulation of p27 and p21. By contrast, overexpression of ClC-3 potentiated cell proliferation induced by IGF-1, raised the percentage of S phase cells, enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, downregulated p27 and p21 and upregulated cyclin E and cyclin D1. ClC-3 accelerated G0/G1 to S phase transition in the cell cycle by modulating ERK1/2 kinase activity and expression of G1/S transition related proteins, making ClC-3 an attractive therapeutic target in MM.

  6. p21 as a Transcriptional Co-Repressor of S-Phase and Mitotic Control Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ferrándiz, Nuria; Caraballo, Juan M.; García-Gutierrez, Lucía; Devgan, Vikram; Rodriguez-Paredes, Manuel; Lafita, M. Carmen; Bretones, Gabriel; Quintanilla, Andrea; Muñoz-Alonso, M. Jose; Blanco, Rosa; Reyes, Jose C.; Agell, Neus; Delgado, M. Dolores; Dotto, G. Paolo; León, Javier

    2012-01-01

    It has been previously described that p21 functions not only as a CDK inhibitor but also as a transcriptional co-repressor in some systems. To investigate the roles of p21 in transcriptional control, we studied the gene expression changes in two human cell systems. Using a human leukemia cell line (K562) with inducible p21 expression and human primary keratinocytes with adenoviral-mediated p21 expression, we carried out microarray-based gene expression profiling. We found that p21 rapidly and strongly repressed the mRNA levels of a number of genes involved in cell cycle and mitosis. One of the most strongly down-regulated genes was CCNE2 (cyclin E2 gene). Mutational analysis in K562 cells showed that the N-terminal region of p21 is required for repression of gene expression of CCNE2 and other genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that p21 was bound to human CCNE2 and other p21-repressed genes gene in the vicinity of the transcription start site. Moreover, p21 repressed human CCNE2 promoter-luciferase constructs in K562 cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the CDE motif is present in most of the promoters of the p21-regulated genes. Altogether, the results suggest that p21 exerts a repressive effect on a relevant number of genes controlling S phase and mitosis. Thus, p21 activity as inhibitor of cell cycle progression would be mediated not only by the inhibition of CDKs but also by the transcriptional down-regulation of key genes. PMID:22662213

  7. In utero exposure to dioxin causes neocortical dysgenesis through the actions of p27Kip1

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, Takayuki; Yonemoto, Junzo; Sone, Hideko; Kosuge, Yasuhiro; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Takahashi, Takao

    2010-01-01

    Dioxins have been reported to exert various adverse effects, including cell-cycle dysregulation in vitro and impairment of spatial learning and memory after in utero exposure in rodents. Furthermore, children born to mothers who are exposed to dioxin analogs polychlorinated dibenzofurans or polychlorinated biphenyls have developmental impairments in cognitive functions. Here, we show that in utero exposure to dioxins in mice alters differentiation patterns of neural progenitors and leads to decreased numbers of non-GABAergic neurons and thinner deep neocortical layers. This reduction in number of non-GABAergic neurons is assumed to be caused by accumulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 in nuclei of neural progenitors. Lending support to this presumption, mice lacking p27Kip1 are not susceptible to in utero dioxin exposure. These results show that environmental pollutants may affect neocortical histogenesis through alterations of functions of specific gene(s)/protein(s) (in our case, dioxins), exerting adverse effects by altering functions of p27Kip1. PMID:20805476

  8. AMP-18 Targets p21 to Maintain Epithelial Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peili; Li, Yan Chun; Toback, F Gary

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated homeostasis of epithelial cells resulting in disruption of mucosal barrier function is an important pathogenic mechanism in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We have characterized a novel gastric protein, Antrum Mucosal Protein (AMP)-18, that has pleiotropic properties; it is mitogenic, anti-apoptotic and can stimulate formation of tight junctions. A 21-mer synthetic peptide derived from AMP-18 exhibits the same biological functions as the full-length protein and is an effective therapeutic agent in mouse models of IBD. In this study we set out to characterize therapeutic mechanisms and identify molecular targets by which AMP-18 maintains and restores disrupted epithelial homeostasis in cultured intestinal epithelial cells and a mouse model of IBD. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine known to mediate gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal injury in IBD, was used to induce intestinal epithelial cell injury, and study the effects of AMP-18 on apoptosis and the cell cycle. An apoptosis array used to search for targets of AMP-18 in cells exposed to TNF-α identified the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 WAF1/CIP1. Treatment with AMP-18 blunted increases in p21 expression and apoptosis, while reversing disturbed cell cycle kinetics induced by TNF-α. AMP-18 appears to act through PI3K/AKT pathways to increase p21 phosphorylation, thereby reducing its nuclear accumulation to overcome the antiproliferative effects of TNF-α. In vitamin D receptor-deficient mice with TNBS-induced IBD, the observed increase in p21 expression in colonic epithelial cells was suppressed by treatment with AMP peptide. The results indicate that AMP-18 can maintain and/or restore the homeostatic balance between proliferation and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells to protect and repair mucosal barrier homeostasis and function, suggesting a therapeutic role in IBD.

  9. Tea polyphenols can restrict benzo[a]pyrene-induced lung carcinogenesis by altered expression of p53-associated genes and H-ras, c-myc and cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Manna, Sugata; Mukherjee, Sudeshna; Roy, Anup; Das, Sukta; Panda, Chinmay Kr

    2009-05-01

    The modulatory influence of tea polyphenols (epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate and theaflavin) on benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced lung carcinogenesis in mice was analyzed using histopathological and molecular parameters. Progression of lung lesions was restricted at the hyperplastic stage by tea polyphenols. A significant reduction in cellular proliferative index and an increase in apoptotic index were noted in the restricted lung lesions. High expression of H-ras, c-myc, cyclin D1 and p53 genes was seen at the inflammatory stage (9th week) and in subsequent premalignant lesions, but down-regulation of H-ras at the hyperplastic stage (17th week). Expression of bcl-2 was high in hyperplastic lesions, whereas the expression of mdm2 and bcl-xl increased only at the moderately dysplastic stage (36th week). The tea polyphenols inhibited inflammatory response in the lung lesions on the 9th week, when decreased expression of H-ras and c-myc and increased expression of bax were noted. Prolonged treatment (>9th week) with tea polyphenols resulted in changes in the expression of some additional genes, such as reduced expression of cyclin D1 (from the 17th week), bcl-2 (from the 26th week; mild dysplasia) and p21 (on the 36th week), and high expression of p53 (from the 17th week) and p27 (on the 36th week). These observations indicate that the tea polyphenols can restrict B[a]P-induced lung carcinogenesis by differential modulation of the expression of p53 and its associated genes such as bax, bcl-2, mdm2, p21 and p27, along with H-ras, c-myc and cyclin D1, at different time points.

  10. Abnormal expression of p27kip1 protein in levator ani muscle of aging women with pelvic floor disorders – a relationship to the cellular differentiation and degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Copas, Pleas; Caudle, Michael R; Cekanova, Maria; Dassanayake, Tamara; Asbury, Bridgett; Van Meter, Stuart E; Elder, Robert F; Brown, Jeffrey B; Cross, Stephanie B

    2001-01-01

    Background Pelvic floor disorders affect almost 50% of aging women. An important role in the pelvic floor support belongs to the levator ani muscle. The p27/kip1 (p27) protein, multifunctional cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, shows changing expression in differentiating skeletal muscle cells during development, and relatively high levels of p27 RNA were detected in the normal human skeletal muscles. Methods Biopsy samples of levator ani muscle were obtained from 22 symptomatic patients with stress urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and overlaps (age range 38–74), and nine asymptomatic women (age 31–49). Cryostat sections were investigated for p27 protein expression and type I (slow twitch) and type II (fast twitch) fibers. Results All fibers exhibited strong plasma membrane (and nuclear) p27 protein expression. cytoplasmic p27 expression was virtually absent in asymptomatic women. In perimenopausal symptomatic patients (ages 38–55), muscle fibers showed hypertrophy and moderate cytoplasmic p27 staining accompanied by diminution of type II fibers. Older symptomatic patients (ages 57–74) showed cytoplasmic p27 overexpression accompanied by shrinking, cytoplasmic vacuolization and fragmentation of muscle cells. The plasma membrane and cytoplasmic p27 expression was not unique to the muscle cells. Under certain circumstances, it was also detected in other cell types (epithelium of ectocervix and luteal cells). Conclusions This is the first report on the unusual (plasma membrane and cytoplasmic) expression of p27 protein in normal and abnormal human striated muscle cells in vivo. Our data indicate that pelvic floor disorders are in perimenopausal patients associated with an appearance of moderate cytoplasmic p27 expression, accompanying hypertrophy and transition of type II into type I fibers. The patients in advanced postmenopause show shrinking and fragmentation of muscle fibers associated with strong cytoplasmic p27 expression. PMID:11696252

  11. The human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 controls cellular proliferation through regulation of p27{sup Kip1} protein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Butz, Nicole; Ruetz, Stephan; Natt, Francois

    2005-02-15

    Ubiquitin-mediated degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27{sup Kip1} was shown to be required for the activation of key cyclin-dependent kinases, thereby triggering the onset of DNA replication and cell cycle progression. Although the SCF{sup Skp2} ubiquitin ligase has been reported to mediate p27{sup Kip1} degradation, the nature of the human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme involved in this process has not yet been determined at the cellular level. Here, we show that antisense oligonucleotides targeting the human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 downregulate its expression, inhibit the degradation of p27{sup Kip1}, and prevent cellular proliferation. Elevation of p27{sup Kip1} protein level is found tomore » be the sole requirement for the inhibition of cellular proliferation induced upon downregulation of Cdc34. Indeed, reducing the expression of p27{sup Kip1} with a specific antisense oligonucleotide is sufficient to reverse the anti-proliferative phenotype elicited by the Cdc34 antisense. Furthermore, downregulation of Cdc34 is found to specifically increase the abundance of the SCF{sup Skp2} ubiquitin ligase substrate p27{sup Kip1}, but has no concomitant effect on the level of IkB{alpha} and {beta}-catenin, which are known substrates of a closely related SCF ligase.« less

  12. The Regulatory Interactions of p21 and PCNA in Human Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in multiple cellular processes including DNA replication and repair...During DNA replication , PCNA function as an accessory factor- for the DNA polymerases E arid and are part of a multiprotein DNA replication complex...a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21WAF1 ability to inhibit DNA replication in response to DNA damage has been wall characterized. Interestingly

  13. p21 induction plays a dual role in anti-cancer activity of ursolic acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xudong; Song, Xinhua; Yin, Shutao; Zhao, Chong; Fan, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that induction of G1 arrest and apoptosis by ursolic acid is associated with up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) protein p21 in multiple types of cancer cells. However, the functional role of p21 induction in G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and the mechanisms of p21 induction by ursolic acid have not been critically addressed. In the current study, we demonstrated that p21 played a mediator role in G1 cell cycle arrest by ursolic acid, whereas p21-mediated up-regulation of Mcl-1 compromised apoptotic effect of ursolic acid. These results suggest that p21 induction plays a dual role in the anti-cancer activity of ursolic acid in terms of cell cycle and apoptosis regulation. p21 induction by ursolic acid was attributed to p53 transcriptional activation. Moreover, we found that ursolic acid was able to inhibit murine double minute-2 protein (MDM2) and T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK), the two negative regulator of p53, which in turn contributed to ursolic acid-induced p53 activation. Our findings provided novel insights into understanding of the mechanisms involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction in response to ursolic acid exposure. PMID:26582056

  14. Erbin loss promotes cancer cell proliferation through feedback activation of Akt-Skp2-p27 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hao; Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Medical School of Henan University, Kaifeng 475004; Song, Yuhua

    2015-07-31

    Erbin localizes at the basolateral membrane to regulate cell junctions and polarity in epithelial cells. Dysregulation of Erbin has been implicated in tumorigenesis, and yet it is still unclear if and how disrupted Erbin regulates the biological behavior of cancer cells. We report here that depletion of Erbin leads to cancer cell excessive proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Erbin deficiency accelerates S-phase entry by down-regulating CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 via two independent mechanisms. Mechanistically, Erbin loss promotes p27 degradation by enhancing E3 ligase Skp2 activity though augmenting Akt signaling. Interestingly, we also show that Erbin is an unstable protein whenmore » the Akt-Skp2 signaling is aberrantly activated, which can be specifically destructed by SCF-Skp2 ligase. Erbin loss facilitates cell proliferation and migration in Skp2-dependent manner. Thus, our finding illustrates a novel negative feedback loop between Erbin and Akt-Skp2 signaling. It suggests disrupted Erbin links polarity loss, hyperproliferation and tumorigenesis. - Highlights: • Erbin loss leads to cancer cell excessive proliferation in vitro and in vivo. • Erbin loss accelerates cell cycle though down-regulating p21 and p27 expression. • Erbin is a novel negative modulator of Akt1-Skp2-p27 signaling pathway. • Our study suggests that Erbin loss contributes to Skp2 oncogenic function.« less

  15. SUMO regulates p21Cip1 intracellular distribution and with p21Cip1 facilitates multiprotein complex formation in the nucleolus upon DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Brun, Sonia; Abella, Neus; Berciano, Maria T; Tapia, Olga; Jaumot, Montserrat; Freire, Raimundo; Lafarga, Miguel; Agell, Neus

    2017-01-01

    We previously showed that p21Cip1 transits through the nucleolus on its way from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and that DNA damage inhibits this transit and induces the formation of p21Cip1-containing intranucleolar bodies (INoBs). Here, we demonstrate that these INoBs also contain SUMO-1 and UBC9, the E2 SUMO-conjugating enzyme. Furthermore, whereas wild type SUMO-1 localized in INoBs, a SUMO-1 mutant, which is unable to conjugate with proteins, does not, suggesting the presence of SUMOylated proteins at INoBs. Moreover, depletion of the SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBC9 or the sumo hydrolase SENP2 changed p21Cip1 intracellular distribution. In addition to SUMO-1 and p21Cip1, cell cycle regulators and DNA damage checkpoint proteins, including Cdk2, Cyclin E, PCNA, p53 and Mdm2, and PML were also detected in INoBs. Importantly, depletion of UBC9 or p21Cip1 impacted INoB biogenesis and the nucleolar accumulation of the cell cycle regulators and DNA damage checkpoint proteins following DNA damage. The impact of p21Cip1 and SUMO-1 on the accumulation of proteins in INoBs extends also to CRM1, a nuclear exportin that is also important for protein translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleolus. Thus, SUMO and p21Cip1 regulate the transit of proteins through the nucleolus, and that disruption of nucleolar export by DNA damage induces SUMO and p21Cip1 to act as hub proteins to form a multiprotein complex in the nucleolus.

  16. SUMO regulates p21Cip1 intracellular distribution and with p21Cip1 facilitates multiprotein complex formation in the nucleolus upon DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Brun, Sonia; Abella, Neus; Berciano, Maria T.; Tapia, Olga; Jaumot, Montserrat; Freire, Raimundo; Lafarga, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    We previously showed that p21Cip1 transits through the nucleolus on its way from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and that DNA damage inhibits this transit and induces the formation of p21Cip1-containing intranucleolar bodies (INoBs). Here, we demonstrate that these INoBs also contain SUMO-1 and UBC9, the E2 SUMO-conjugating enzyme. Furthermore, whereas wild type SUMO-1 localized in INoBs, a SUMO-1 mutant, which is unable to conjugate with proteins, does not, suggesting the presence of SUMOylated proteins at INoBs. Moreover, depletion of the SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBC9 or the sumo hydrolase SENP2 changed p21Cip1 intracellular distribution. In addition to SUMO-1 and p21Cip1, cell cycle regulators and DNA damage checkpoint proteins, including Cdk2, Cyclin E, PCNA, p53 and Mdm2, and PML were also detected in INoBs. Importantly, depletion of UBC9 or p21Cip1 impacted INoB biogenesis and the nucleolar accumulation of the cell cycle regulators and DNA damage checkpoint proteins following DNA damage. The impact of p21Cip1 and SUMO-1 on the accumulation of proteins in INoBs extends also to CRM1, a nuclear exportin that is also important for protein translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleolus. Thus, SUMO and p21Cip1 regulate the transit of proteins through the nucleolus, and that disruption of nucleolar export by DNA damage induces SUMO and p21Cip1 to act as hub proteins to form a multiprotein complex in the nucleolus. PMID:28582471

  17. Expression of p27 and c-Myc by immunohistochemistry in breast ductal cancers in African American women.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farhan; Ricks-Santi, Luisel J; Zafar, Rabia; Kanaan, Yasmine; Naab, Tammey

    2018-06-01

    Proteins p27 and c-Myc are both key players in the cell cycle. While p27, a tumor suppressor, inhibits progression from G1 to S phase, c-Myc, a proto-oncogene, plays a key role in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. The objective of our study was to determine the association between expression of c-Myc and the loss of p27 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the four major subtypes of breast cancer (BC) (Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2, and Triple Negative) and with other clinicopathological factors in a population of 202 African-American (AA) women. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed from FFPE tumor blocks from primary ductal breast carcinomas in 202 AA women. Five micrometer sections were stained with a mouse monoclonal antibody against p27 and a rabbit monoclonal antibody against c-Myc. The sections were evaluated for intensity of nuclear reactivity (1-3) and percentage of reactive cells; an H-score was derived from the product of these measurements. Loss of p27 expression and c-Myc overexpression showed statistical significance with ER negative (p < 0.0001), PR negative (p < 0.0001), triple negative (TN) (p < 0.0001), grade 3 (p = 0.038), and overall survival (p = 0.047). There was no statistical significant association between c-Myc expression/p27 loss and luminal A/B and Her2 overexpressing subtypes. In our study, a statistically significant association between c-Myc expression and p27 loss and the triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) was found in AA women. A recent study found that constitutive c-Myc expression is associated with inactivation of the axin 1 tumor suppressor gene. p27 inhibits cyclin dependent kinase2/cyclin A/E complex formation. Axin 1 and CDK inhibitors may represent possible therapeutic targets for TNBC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. P27/Kip1 is responsible for magnolol-induced U373 apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Ching; Lee, Wen-Sen

    2013-03-20

    Previously, we demonstrated that magnolol, a hydroxylated biphenyl compound isolated from the bark of Magnolia officinalis, at low concentrations (3-10 μM) exerted an antiproliferation effect in colon cancer, hepatoma, and glioblastoma (U373) cell lines through upregulation of the p21/Cip1 protein. Magnolol at a higher concentration of 100 μM, however, induced apoptosis and upregulated p27/Kip1 expression in U373. In the present study, we further studied whether the increased p27/Kip1 expression contributes to the magnolol-induced apoptosis in U373. Our data show that knock-down of p27/Kip1 expression significantly suppressed the magnolol-induced apoptosis, suggesting that p27/Kip1 might play an important role in the regulation of magnolol-induced apoptosis. This notion was further supported by demonstrating that magnolol induced an increase of the caspase activity in U373 in vitro and in vivo, and these effects were abolished by pretransfection of the cell with p27/Kip1 siRNA. To delineate the possible signaling pathways involved in the magnolol-induced increases of p27/Kip1 expression and apoptosis, we found that magnolol (100 μM) increased the levels of phosphorylated cSrc (p-cSrc), p-ERK, p-p38 MAP kinase (p-p38 MAPK), and p-AKT but not p-JNK in U373. Moreover, pretreatment of U373 with a cSrc inhibitor (PP2), a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002), an ERK inhibitor (PD98059), or a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) but not a JNK inhibitor (SP600125) significantly reduced the magnolol-induced increases of p27/Kip1 protein levels and apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that magnolol at a higher concentration of 100 μM induced apopotosis in U373 cells through cSrc-mediated upregulation of p27/Kip1.

  19. Intrinsic disorder mediates the diverse regulatory functions of the Cdk inhibitor p21

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuefeng; Fisher, John C.; Mathew, Rose; Ou, Li; Otieno, Steve; Sublett, Jack; Xiao, Limin; Chen, Jianhan; Roussel, Martine F.; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, well-defined three-dimensional structure was thought to be essential for protein function. However, myriad biological functions are performed by highly dynamic, intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). IDPs often fold upon binding their biological targets and frequently exhibit “binding diversity” by targeting multiple ligands. We sought to understand the physical basis of IDP binding diversity and herein report that the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor, p21Cip1, adaptively binds to and inhibits the various Cdk/cyclin complexes that regulate eukaryotic cell division. Based on results from NMR spectroscopy, and biochemical and cellular assays, we show that structural adaptability of a helical sub-domain within p21 termed LH enables two other sub-domains termed D1 and D2 to specifically bind conserved surface features of the cyclin and Cdk subunits, respectively, within otherwise structurally distinct Cdk/cyclin complexes. Adaptive folding upon binding is likely to mediate the diverse biological functions of the thousands of IDPs present in eukaryotes. PMID:21358637

  20. CRM-1 knockdown inhibits extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tumor growth by blocking the nuclear export of p27Kip1.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian; Chen, Yongjun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Bing; Zhou, Yanqiong; Lan, Hongzhen

    2016-08-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a deadly disease which responds poorly to surgery and conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Early diagnosis is difficult due to the anatomical and biological characteristics of cholangiocarcinoma. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1) is a cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor and in the present study, we found that p27Kip1 expression was suppressed in the nucleus and increased in the cytoplasm in 53 samples of cholangiocarcinoma from patients with highly malignant tumors (poorly-differentiated and tumor-node-metastsis (TNM) stage III-IV) compared with that in samples from 10 patients with chronic cholangitis. The expression of phosphorylated (p-)p27Kip1 (Ser10), one of the phosphorylated forms of p27Kip1, was increased in the patient samples with increasing malignancy and clinical stage. Coincidentally, chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM-1; also referred to as exportin 1 or Xpo1), a critical protein responsible for protein translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, was also overexpressed in the tumor samples which were poorly differentiated and of a higher clinical stage. Through specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of CRM-1 in the cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC939, we identified an elevation of cytoplasmic p27Kip1 and a decrease of nuclear p27Kip1. Furthermore, the viability and colony formation ability of QBC939 cells was largely reduced with G1 arrest. Consistent with the findings of the in vitro experiments, in a xenograft mouse model, the tumors formed in the CRM-1 knockdown group were markedly smaller and weighed less than those in the control group in vivo. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that the interplay between CRM-1 and p27Kip1 may provide potentially potent biomarkers and functional targets for the development of future cholangiocarcinoma treatments.

  1. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional upregulation of p27 mediates growth inhibition of isorhapontigenin (ISO) on human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guosong; Huang, Chao; Li, Jingxia; Huang, Haishan; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Yawei; Xie, Fei; Jin, Honglei; Zhu, Junlan; Huang, Chuanshu

    2018-03-08

    There are few approved drugs available for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Recently, we have demonstrated that isorhapontigenin (ISO), a new derivative isolated from the Chinese herb Gnetum cleistostachyum, effectively induces cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and inhibits anchorage-independent cell growth through the miR-137/Sp1/cyclin D1 axis in human MIBC cells. Herein, we found that treatment of bladder cancer (BC) cells with ISO resulted in a significant upregulation of p27, which was also observed in ISO-treated mouse BCs that were induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN). Importantly, knockdown of p27 caused a decline in the ISO-induced G0-G1 growth arrest and reversed ISO suppression of anchorage-independent growth in BC cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that ISO promoted p27 expression at mRNA transcription level through increasing direct binding of forkhead box class O1 (FOXO1) to its promoter, while knockdown of FOXO1 attenuated ISO inhibition of BC cell growth. On the other hand, ISO upregulated the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) activity of p27, which was accompanied by a reduction of miR-182 expression. In line with these observations, ectopic expression of miR-182 significantly blocked p27 3'-UTR activity, whereas mutation of the miR-182-binding site at p27 mRNA 3'-UTR effectively reversed this inhibition. Accordingly, ectopic expression of miR-182 also attenuated ISO upregulation of p27 expression and impaired ISO inhibition of BC cell growth. Our results not only provide novel insight into understanding of the underlying mechanism related to regulation of MIBC cell growth but also identify new roles and mechanisms underlying ISO inhibition of BC cell growth.

  2. p21(WAF1/CIP1) and cancer: a shifting paradigm?

    PubMed

    Gartel, Andrei L

    2009-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1) is a key mediator of p53-dependent cell cycle arrest and may play the role of a tumor suppressor in cancer. However, it has been shown that p21 may also act as an oncogene, because it inhibits apoptosis and may promote cell proliferation in some tumors. These data point out to "antagonistic duality" of p21, because it possesses anticancer and procancer properties at the same time. New data suggest that more and more proteins also may play contradictory roles in cancer thus challenging current paradigm of established oncogenes and tumor suppressors. (c) 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Cytoplasmic p21Cip1/WAF1 regulates neurite remodeling by inhibiting Rho-kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Toshihide; Asada, Minoru; Mizutani, Shuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tohyama, Masaya

    2002-01-01

    p21Cip1/WAF1 has cell cycle inhibitory activity by binding to and inhibiting both cyclin/Cdk kinases and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Here we show that p21Cip1/WAF1 is induced in the cytoplasm during the course of differentiation of chick retinal precursor cells and N1E-115 cells. Ectopic expression of p21Cip1/WAF1 lacking the nuclear localization signal in N1E-115 cells and NIH3T3 cells affects the formation of actin structures, characteristic of inactivation of Rho. p21Cip1/WAF1 forms a complex with Rho-kinase and inhibits its activity in vitro and in vivo. Neurite outgrowth and branching from the hippocampal neurons are promoted if p21Cip1/WAF1 is expressed abundantly in the cytoplasm. These results suggest that cytoplasmic p21Cip1/WAF1 may contribute to the developmental process of the newborn neurons that extend axons and dendrites into target regions. PMID:12119358

  4. Cytoplasmic p21(Cip1/WAF1) regulates neurite remodeling by inhibiting Rho-kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Toshihide; Asada, Minoru; Mizutani, Shuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tohyama, Masaya

    2002-07-22

    p21(Cip1/WAF1) has cell cycle inhibitory activity by binding to and inhibiting both cyclin/Cdk kinases and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Here we show that p21(Cip1/WAF1) is induced in the cytoplasm during the course of differentiation of chick retinal precursor cells and N1E-115 cells. Ectopic expression of p21(Cip1/WAF1) lacking the nuclear localization signal in N1E-115 cells and NIH3T3 cells affects the formation of actin structures, characteristic of inactivation of Rho. p21(Cip1/WAF1) forms a complex with Rho-kinase and inhibits its activity in vitro and in vivo. Neurite outgrowth and branching from the hippocampal neurons are promoted if p21(Cip1/WAF1) is expressed abundantly in the cytoplasm. These results suggest that cytoplasmic p21(Cip1/WAF1) may contribute to the developmental process of the newborn neurons that extend axons and dendrites into target regions.

  5. Oncogenic functions of tumour suppressor p21(Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1): association with cell senescence and tumour-promoting activities of stromal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Roninson, Igor B

    2002-05-08

    p21(Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1) is best known as a broad-specificity inhibitor of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes, but p21 also interacts with many other regulators of transcription or signal transduction. p21 induction, which is mediated by p53 and by p53-independent mechanisms, is essential for the onset of cell cycle arrest in damage response and cell senescence. The effects of p21 knockout in mice and its expression patterns in human cancer are consistent with a role for p21 as both a tumour suppressor and an oncogene. Several functions of p21 are likely to promote carcinogenesis and tumour progression. These include endoreduplication and abnormal mitosis that develop in tumour cells after release from p21-induced growth arrest, the ability of p21 to inhibit apoptosis through several different mechanisms, and its ability to stimulate transcription of secreted factors with mitogenic and anti-apoptotic activities. The latter effects of p21 show close resemblance to paracrine activities of senescent cells and to tumour-promoting functions of stromal fibroblasts. Therapeutic strategies targeting the oncogenic consequences of p21 expression may provide a new approach to chemoprevention and treatment of cancer.

  6. Role of Cyclin E as an Early Event in Ovarian Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    degradation . P27 is a powerful negative regulator of the cell cycle, preventing activation of cyclin E- cdk2 or cyclin D-cdk4 complexes and cell cycle...Ahmed M, Bavi P, et al. Bortezomib (Velcade) induces p27Kip1 expression through S-phase kinase protein 2 degradation in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res...CA1251CA72·4 CA 125 CA72-4 M-CSF CA 125/CA 72-4/M-CSFICA 15-3 CA125 CA 125/mesothelin CA 125/IL·6JIL·8NEGF;EGF CA 125/IL-6,G-CSFNEGF/EGF Leptin

  7. A novel miRNA-mediated STOP sign in lung cancer: miR-340 inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells through p27KIP1

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Serena; Risolino, Maurizio; Verde, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Oncosuppressor miRNAs inhibit cancer cell proliferation by targeting key components of the cell cycle machinery. In our recent report we showed that miR-340 is a novel tumor suppressor in non-small cell lung cancer. miR-340 inhibits neoplastic cell proliferation and induces p27KIP1 by targeting multiple translational and post-translational regulators of this cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. PMID:27308439

  8. The E3 Ligase CHIP Mediates p21 Degradation to Maintain Radioresistance

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Kuntal; Sarkar, Sukumar; Du, Kangping; Brautigan, David L.; Abbas, Tarek; Larner, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer resists radiation therapy, making it one of the deadliest forms of cancer. Here we show that human lung cancer cell lines can be rendered sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR) by RNAi knockdown of C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP/STUB1), a U-box-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets a number of stress-induced proteins. Mechanistically ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 protein is reduced by CHIP knockdown, leading to enhanced senescence of cells in response to exposure to IR. Cellular senescence and sensitivity to IR is prevented by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of the p21 gene (CDKN1A) in CHIP knockdown cells. Conversely, over-expression of CHIP potentiates p21 degradation and promotes greater radioresistance of lung cancer cells. In vitro and cell-based assays demonstrate that p21 is a novel and direct ubiquitylation substrate of CHIP that also requires the CHIP-associated chaperone heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). These data reveal that the inhibition of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP promotes radiosensitivity; thus, suggesting a novel strategy for the treatment of lung cancer. Implications The CHIP-HSP70-p21 ubiquitylation/degradation axis identified here could be exploited to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:28232384

  9. The E3 Ligase CHIP Mediates p21 Degradation to Maintain Radioresistance.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Kuntal; Sarkar, Sukumar; Du, Kangping; Brautigan, David L; Abbas, Tarek; Larner, James M

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer resists radiotherapy, making it one of the deadliest forms of cancer. Here, we show that human lung cancer cell lines can be rendered sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR) by RNAi knockdown of C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP/STUB1), a U-box-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets a number of stress-induced proteins. Mechanistically, ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, p21 protein, is reduced by CHIP knockdown, leading to enhanced senescence of cells in response to exposure to IR. Cellular senescence and sensitivity to IR is prevented by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of the p21 gene ( CDKN1A) in CHIP knockdown cells. Conversely, overexpression of CHIP potentiates p21 degradation and promotes greater radioresistance of lung cancer cells. In vitro and cell-based assays demonstrate that p21 is a novel and direct ubiquitylation substrate of CHIP that also requires the CHIP-associated chaperone HSP70. These data reveal that the inhibition of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP promotes radiosensitivity, thus suggesting a novel strategy for the treatment of lung cancer. Implications: The CHIP-HSP70-p21 ubiquitylation/degradation axis identified here could be exploited to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 15(6); 651-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Sulforaphane down-regulates SKP2 to stabilize p27(KIP1) for inducing antiproliferation in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yuan-Kai; Chi-Hung Or, Richard; Lu, Chien-Hsing; Ouyang, Wei-Ting; Yang, Shu-Yi; Chang, Chia-Che

    2015-01-01

    Sulforaphane is a cruciferous vegetable-derived isothiocyanate with promising chemopreventive and therapeutic activities. Induction of proliferation arrest and apoptosis principally contribute to sulforaphane's anticancer activity, but the precise molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The oncoprotein SKP2 is a key component of the SKP1-CULLIN1-F-box (SCF) E3 ligase complex and is responsible for directing SCF-mediated degradation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) to promote cell proliferation. We herein provide the first evidence supporting the critical involvement of the SKP2-p27(KIP1) axis in sulforaphane-induced antiproliferation in various human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Specifically, sulforaphane markedly suppressed the levels of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and clonogenicity in all tested cell lines, illustrating the antiproliferative effect of sulforaphane. Of note, sulforaphane-induced antiproliferation was accompanied with down-regulation of SKP2, leading to the stabilization and thus up-regulation of p27(KIP1). Additionally, sulforaphane was found to down-regulate SKP2 mainly through transcriptional repression, as sulforaphane lowered SKP2 mRNA expression and the SKP2 promoter activity. Furthermore, sulforaphane treatment led to the activation of both AKT and ERK, thus ruling out the possibility that sulforaphane down-regulates SKP2 by inhibiting AKT or ERK. Notably, sulforaphane-elicited suppression of BrdU incorporation and clonogenicity were significantly rescued in the context of SKP2 overexpression or p27(KIP1) depletion, therefore highlighting the important role of SKP2 down-regulation and the ensuing stabilization of p27(KIP1) in sulforaphane-induced antiproliferation. Collectively, these data expand our molecular understanding about how sulforaphane elicits proliferation arrest, but also implicate the application of sulforaphane in therapeutic modalities targeting SKP2. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology

  11. Enhancement of the p27Kip1-mediated antiproliferative effect of trastuzumab (Herceptin) on HER2-overexpressing tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Marches, Radu; Uhr, Jonathan W

    2004-11-10

    The oncogenic activity of the overexpressed HER2 tyrosine kinase receptor requires its localization in the plasma membrane. The antitumor effect of anti-HER2 antibodies (Abs) is mainly dependent on receptor downregulation and comprises p27Kip1-mediated G1 cell cycle arrest. However, one major limitation of anti-HER2 therapy is the reversibility of tumor growth inhibition after discontinuation of treatment caused by the mitogenic signaling associated with cell surface receptor re-expression. We found that the level of p27Kip1 upregulation, inhibition of Cdk2 activity and magnitude of G1 arrest induced by the humanized Ab trastuzumab (Herceptin, HCT) on BT474 and SKBr3 HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells correlates with the level of cell surface receptor. Thus, continuous exposure of cells to HCT for 72 hr results in downregulation of the cell surface receptor and a concurrent increase in the level of p27Kip1 protein. Discontinuation of Ab exposure after the first 8 hr results in failure to upregulate p27Kip1 and arrest of cell cycle progression. We show that the lysosomotropic amine chloroquine (CQ) augments receptor internalization in HER2-overexpressing cells either pretreated or continuously treated with HCT and leads to an increased and sustained inhibitory effect. The enhanced CQ-dependent loss of functional HER2 from the cell surface resulted in sustained inactivation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt, upregulation of p27Kip1 protein and inhibition of cyclin E/Cdk2 activity. Potentiation of the inhibitory effect of HCT by CQ was directly related to loss of HER2 from the plasma membrane since prevention of Ab-mediated receptor endocytosis by engagement of the receptor with immobilized HCT abrogated the effect of CQ.

  12. Accumulation of p21 proteins at DNA damage sites independent of p53 and core NHEJ factors following irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Manabu, E-mail: m_koike@nirs.go.jp; Yutoku, Yasutomo; Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} p21 accumulated rapidly at laser-irradiated sites via its C-terminal region. {yields} p21 colocalized with the DSB marker {gamma}-H2AX and the DSB sensor Ku80. {yields} Accumulation of p21 is dependent on PCNA, but not p53 and the NHEJ core factors. {yields} Accumulation activity of p21 was conserved among human and animal cells. {yields} p21 is a useful tool as a detection marker of DNA damaged sites. -- Abstract: The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 plays key roles in p53-dependent DNA-damage responses, i.e., cell cycle checkpoints, senescence, or apoptosis. p21 might also play a role in DNA repair. p21 focimore » arise at heavy-ion-irradiated DNA-double-strand break (DSB) sites, which are mainly repaired by nonhomologous DNA-end-joining (NHEJ). However, no mechanisms of p21 accumulation at double-strand break (DSB) sites have been clarified in detail. Recent works indicate that Ku70 and Ku80 are essential for the accumulation of other NHEJ core factors, e.g., DNA-PKcs, XRCC4 and XLF, and other DNA damage response factors, e.g., BRCA1. Here, we show that p21 foci arise at laser-irradiated sites in cells from various tissues from various species. The accumulation of EGFP-p21 was detected in not only normal cells, but also transformed or cancer cells. Our results also showed that EGFP-p21 accumulated rapidly at irradiated sites, and colocalized with the DSB marker {gamma}-H2AX and with the DSB sensor protein Ku80. On the other hand, the accumulation occurred in Ku70-, Ku80-, or DNA-PKcs-deficient cell lines and in human papillomavirus 18-positive cells, whereas the p21 mutant without the PCNA-binding region (EGFP-p21(1-146)) failed to accumulate at the irradiated sites. These findings suggest that the accumulation of p21, but not functional p53 and the NHEJ core factors, is dependent on PCNA. These findings also suggest that the accumulation activity of p21 at DNA damaged sites is conserved among human and animal cells, and p21 is

  13. Trans, trans-2,4-decadienal induced cell proliferation via p27 pathway in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.-C.; Lin Pinpin

    2008-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to cooking oil fumes (COF) is a risk factor for lung cancer. Trans, trans-2,4-decadienal (tt-DDE), a dienaldehyde, is abundant in heated oils and COF. Previously, we found that long-term exposure (45 days) to a sub-lethal dose (1 {mu}M) of tt-DDE significantly increased growth of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Aims of this study are to understand the mechanism of tt-DDE-induced cell proliferation and possible protective effects of antioxidant, vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in BEAS-2B cells. Utilizing the real-time RT-PCR and Western immunoblotting, wemore » found that p27 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased by 1 {mu}M tt-DDE treatment. Co-treatment with vitamin C or NAC partially prevented tt-DDE-induced cell proliferation. In addition, the downstream targets of p27, including CDK4, cyclin D{sub 1} and phosphorylated-Rb proteins, increased in 1 {mu}M tt-DDE-treated cells and these changes were prevented by NAC co-treatment. Therefore, these results suggest that tt-DDE increased cell proliferation via inhibition of p27 expression, increase in CDK4/cyclin D{sub 1} protein accumulation and enhancement of Rb phosphorylation. Increased cell proliferation is considered as the early stages of lung carcinogenesis. Administration of antioxidants may prevent COF-associated lung carcinogenesis.« less

  14. Replication of Minute Virus of Mice in Murine Cells Is Facilitated by Virally Induced Depletion of p21

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemi, Richard O.

    2012-01-01

    The DNA damage response to infection with minute virus of mice (MVM) leads to activated p53; however, p21 levels are reduced via a proteasome-mediated mechanism. This loss was sustained, as virus replicated in infected cells held at the G2/M border. Addition of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor roscovitine after S-phase entry reduced MVM replication, suggesting that CDK activity was critical for continued viral replication and virus-induced reduction of p21 may thus be necessary to prevent inhibition of CDK. PMID:22623787

  15. A Phosphorylation Switch Regulates the Transcriptional Activation of Cell Cycle Regulator p21 by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors*

    PubMed Central

    Simboeck, Elisabeth; Sawicka, Anna; Zupkovitz, Gordin; Senese, Silvia; Winter, Stefan; Dequiedt, Franck; Ogris, Egon; Di Croce, Luciano; Chiocca, Susanna; Seiser, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells and are, therefore, promising anti-cancer drugs. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is activated in histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor-treated tumor cells, and its growth-inhibitory function contributes to the anti-tumorigenic effect of HDAC inhibitors. We show here that induction of p21 by trichostatin A involves MAP kinase signaling. Activation of the MAP kinase signaling pathway by growth factors or stress signals results in histone H3 serine 10 phosphorylation at the p21 promoter and is crucial for acetylation of the neighboring lysine 14 and recruitment of activated RNA polymerase II in response to trichostatin A treatment. In non-induced cells, the protein phosphatase PP2A is associated with the p21 gene and counteracts its activation. Induction of p21 is linked to simultaneous acetylation and phosphorylation of histone H3. The dual modification mark H3S10phK14ac at the activated p21 promoter is recognized by the phospho-binding protein 14-3-3ζ, which protects the phosphoacetylation mark from being processed by PP2A. Taken together we have revealed a cross-talk of reversible phosphorylation and acetylation signals that controls the activation of p21 by HDAC inhibitors and identify the phosphatase PP2A as chromatin-associated transcriptional repressor in mammalian cells. PMID:20952396

  16. p21-activated kinases in cancer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Gururaj, Anupama E; Barnes, Christopher J

    2006-06-01

    The pivotal role of kinases in signal transduction and cellular regulation has lent them considerable appeal as pharmacological targets across a broad spectrum of cancers. p21-activated kinases (Paks) are serine/threonine kinases that function as downstream nodes for various oncogenic signalling pathways. Paks are well-known regulators of cytoskeletal remodelling and cell motility, but have recently also been shown to promote cell proliferation, regulate apoptosis and accelerate mitotic abnormalities, which results in tumour formation and cell invasiveness. Alterations in Pak expression have been detected in human tumours, which makes them an attractive new therapeutic target.

  17. Structural basis of divergent cyclin-dependent kinase activation by Spy1/RINGO proteins

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, Denise A.; Fifield, Bre‐Anne; Marceau, Aimee H.

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are principal drivers of cell division and are an important therapeutic target to inhibit aberrant proliferation. Cdk enzymatic activity is tightly controlled through cyclin interactions, posttranslational modifications, and binding of inhibitors such as the p27 tumor suppressor protein. Spy1/RINGO (Spy1) proteins bind and activate Cdk but are resistant to canonical regulatory mechanisms that establish cell-cycle checkpoints. Cancer cells exploit Spy1 to stimulate proliferation through inappropriate activation of Cdks, yet the mechanism is unknown. We have determined crystal structures of the Cdk2-Spy1 and p27-Cdk2-Spy1 complexes that reveal how Spy1 activates Cdk. We find that Spy1 confers structural changesmore » to Cdk2 that obviate the requirement of Cdk activation loop phosphorylation. Spy1 lacks the cyclin-binding site that mediates p27 and substrate affinity, explaining why Cdk-Spy1 is poorly inhibited by p27 and lacks specificity for substrates with cyclin-docking sites. We identify mutations in Spy1 that ablate its ability to activate Cdk2 and to proliferate cells. Our structural description of Spy1 provides important mechanistic insights that may be utilized for targeting upregulated Spy1 in cancer.« less

  18. AS160 controls eukaryotic cell cycle and proliferation by regulating the CDK inhibitor p21.

    PubMed

    Gongpan, Pianchou; Lu, Yanting; Wang, Fang; Xu, Yuhui; Xiong, Wenyong

    2016-07-02

    AS160 (TBC1D4) has been implicated in multiple biological processes. However, the role and the mechanism of action of AS160 in the regulation of cell proliferation remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that AS160 knockdown led to blunted cell proliferation in multiple cell types, including fibroblasts and cancer cells. The results of cell cycle analysis showed that these cells were arrested in the G1 phase. Intriguingly, this inhibition of cell proliferation and the cell cycle arrest caused by AS160 depletion were glucose independent. Moreover, AS160 silencing led to a marked upregulation of the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Furthermore, whereas AS160 overexpression resulted in p21 downregulation and rescued the arrested cell cycle in AS160-depeleted cells, p21 silencing rescued the inhibited cell cycle and proliferation in the cells. Thus, our results demonstrated that AS160 regulates glucose-independent eukaryotic cell proliferation through p21-dependent control of the cell cycle, and thereby revealed a molecular mechanism of AS160 modulation of cell cycle and proliferation that is of general physiological significance.

  19. Dual Role of p21 in the Progression of Cancer and Its Treatment.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Amna; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Kyunn, Whang Wan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer develops due to an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell death. Various mechanisms of carcinogenesis as well as of novel anticancer agents that could be targeted for the treatment of cancer have been proposed by different studies. Among these, p21 is recognized as a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that facilitates cell-cycle arrest by interacting with different stimuli such as p53, DNA repair process, CDK, E2F1, MYC, PCNA, STAT3 AP4, proteasomes, K1F, CDX2, and ER-α. p21 acts both as a tumor-suppressor gene and an inhibitor of apoptosis by interacting with various molecules and transition factors. In this review, we discuss the complex role of p21 in the development of cancer and as a target in its treatment. We conclude that, in the future, the tumor-suppressor activity of p21 should be the focus of a novel treatment strategies, which may lead to the devolvement of new and selective anti-cancer agents for the targeted therapy of cancers.

  20. Discovery of pyrrolospirooxindole derivatives as novel cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) inhibitors by catalyst-free, green approach.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ahmed; Mahesh, Rasala; Nayak, V Lakshma; Babu, Korrapati Suresh; Kumar, G Bharath; Shaik, Anver Basha; Kapure, Jeevak Sopanrao; Alarifi, Abdullah

    2016-01-27

    Aiming to develop a new target for the anticancer treatment, a series of 5'H-spiro[indoline-3,4'-pyrrolo [1,2-a]quinoxalin]-2-ones has been synthesized by simple, highly efficient and environmentally friendly method in excellent yields under catalyst-free conditions using ethanol as a green solvent. A simple filtration of the reaction mixture and subsequent drying affords analytically pure products. The synthesized derivatives were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against five different human cancer cell lines, among the congeners compound 3n showed significant cytotoxicity against the human prostate cancer (DU-145). Flow cytometric analysis revealed that this compound induces cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase and Western blot analysis suggested that reduction in Cdk4 expression level leads to apoptotic cell death. This was further confirmed by mitochondrial membrane potential ((ΔΨm), Annexin V-FITC assay and docking experiments. Furthermore, it was observed that there is an increase in expression levels of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors like Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. miR-340 inhibits tumor cell proliferation and induces apoptosis by targeting multiple negative regulators of p27 in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Serena; Risolino, Maurizio; Mandia, Nadia; Talotta, Francesco; Soini, Ylermi; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Condorelli, Gerolama; Banfi, Sandro; Verde, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control cell cycle progression by targeting the transcripts encoding for cyclins, CDKs and CDK inhibitors, such as p27KIP1 (p27). p27 expression is controlled by multiple transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, including translational inhibition by miR-221/222 and posttranslational regulation by the SCFSKP2 complex. The oncosuppressor activity of miR-340 has been recently characterized in breast, colorectal and osteosarcoma tumor cells. However, the mechanisms underlying miR-340-induced cell growth arrest have not been elucidated. Here we describe miR-340 as a novel tumor suppressor in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Starting from the observation that the growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of miR-340 correlate with the accumulation of p27 in lung adenocarcinoma and glioblastoma cells, we have analyzed the functional relationship between miR-340 and p27 expression. miR-340 targets three key negative regulators of p27. The miR-340-mediated inhibition of both Pumilio-family RNA-binding proteins (PUM1 and PUM2), required for the miR-221/222 interaction with the p27 3′UTR, antagonizes the miRNA-dependent downregulation of p27. At the same time, miR-340 induces the stabilization of p27 by targeting SKP2, the key posttranslational regulator of p27. Therefore, miR-340 controls p27 at both translational and posttranslational levels. Accordingly, the inhibition of either PUM1 or SKP2 partially recapitulates the miR-340 effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis. In addition to the effect on tumor cell proliferation, miR-340 also inhibits intercellular adhesion and motility in lung cancer cells. These changes correlate with the miR-340-mediated inhibition of previously validated (MET and ROCK1) and potentially novel (RHOA and CDH1) miR-340 target transcripts. Finally, we show that in a small cohort of NSCLC patients (n=23), representative of all four stages of lung cancer, miR-340 expression inversely correlates with clinical

  2. Silibinin induces hepatic stellate cell cycle arrest via enhancing p53/p27 and inhibiting Akt downstream signaling protein expression.

    PubMed

    Ezhilarasan, Devaraj; Evraerts, Jonathan; Sid, Brice; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Karthikeyan, Sivanesan; Sokal, Etienne; Najimi, Mustapha

    2017-02-01

    Proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) plays a pivotal role in the progression of liver fibrosis consequent to chronic liver injury. Silibinin, a flavonoid compound, has been shown to possess anti-fibrogenic effects in animal models of liver fibrosis. This was attributed to an inhibition of cell proliferation of activated HSCs. The present study was to gain insight into the molecular pathways involved in silibinin anti-fibrogenic effect. The study was conducted on LX-2 human stellate cells treated with three concentrations of silibinin (10, 50 and 100 μmol/L) for 24 and 96 hours. At the end of the treatment cell viability and proliferation were evaluated. Protein expression of p27, p21, p53, Akt and phosphorylated-Akt was evaluated by Western blotting analysis and Ki-67 protein expression was by immunocytochemistry. Sirtuin activity was evaluated by chemiluminescence based assay. Silibinin inhibits LX-2 cell proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manner; we showed that silibinin upregulated the protein expressions of p27 and p53. Such regulation was correlated to an inhibition of both downstream Akt and phosphorylated-Akt protein signaling and Ki-67 protein expression. Sirtuin activity also was correlated to silibinin-inhibited proliferation of LX-2 cells. The anti-proliferative effect of silibinin on LX-2 human stellate cells is via the inhibition of the expressions of various cell cycle targets including p27, Akt and sirtuin signaling.

  3. p21-activated kinases and gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Hong; Baldwin, Graham S

    2013-01-01

    p21-activated kinases (PAKs) were initially identified as effector proteins downstream from GTPases of the Rho family. To date, six members of the PAK family have been discovered in mammalian cells. PAKs play important roles in growth factor signalling, cytoskeletal remodelling, gene transcription, cell proliferation and oncogenic transformation. A large body of research has demonstrated that PAKs are up-regulated in several human cancers, and that their overexpression is linked to tumour progression and resistance to therapy. Structural and biochemical studies have revealed the mechanisms involved in PAK signalling, and opened the way to the development of PAK-targeted therapies for cancer treatment. Here we summarise recent findings from biological and clinical research on the role of PAKs in gastrointestinal cancer, and discuss the current status of PAK-targeted anticancer therapies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Unfolded-protein response–associated stabilization of p27(Cdkn1b) interferes with lens fiber cell denucleation, leading to cataract

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Lei; Whitcomb, Elizabeth A.; Jiang, Shuhong; Chang, Min-Lee; Gu, Yumei; Duncan, Melinda K.; Cvekl, Ales; Wang, Wei-Lin; Limi, Saima; Reneker, Lixing W.; Shang, Fu; Du, Linfang; Taylor, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Failure of lens fiber cell denucleation (LFCD) is associated with congenital cataracts, but the pathobiology awaits elucidation. Recent work has suggested that mechanisms that direct the unidirectional process of LFCD are analogous to the cyclic processes associated with mitosis. We found that lens-specific mutations that elicit an unfolded-protein response (UPR) in vivo accumulate p27(Cdkn1b), show cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-1 inhibition, retain their LFC nuclei, and are cataractous. Although a UPR was not detected in lenses expressing K6W-Ub, they also accumulated p27 and showed failed LFCD. Induction of a UPR in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) also induced accumulation of p27 associated with decreased levels of S-phase kinase-associated protein (Skp)-2, a ubiquitin ligase that regulates mitosis. These cells also showed decreased lamin A/C phosphorylation and metaphase arrest. The suppression of lamin A/C phosphorylation and metaphase transition induced by the UPR was rescued by knockdown of p27. Taken together, these data indicate that accumulation of p27, whether related to the UPR or not, prevents the phosphorylation of lamin A/C and LFCD in maturing LFCs in vivo, as well as in dividing HLECs. The former leads to cataract and the latter to metaphase arrest. These results suggest that accumulation of p27 is a common mechanism underlying retention of LFC nuclei.—Lei, L., Whitcomb, E. A., Jiang, S., Chang, M.-L., Gu, Y., Duncan, M. K., Cvekl, A., Wang, W.-L., Limi, S., Reneker, L. W., Shang, F., Du, L., Taylor, A. Unfolded protein response–associated stabilization of p27(Cdkn1b) interferes with lens fiber cell denucleation, leading to cataract. PMID:26590164

  5. Multiple roles of the cell cycle inhibitor p21(CDKN1A) in the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Cazzalini, Ornella; Scovassi, A Ivana; Savio, Monica; Stivala, Lucia A; Prosperi, Ennio

    2010-01-01

    Among cell cycle regulatory proteins that are activated following DNA damage, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(CDKN1A) plays essential roles in the DNA damage response, by inducing cell cycle arrest, direct inhibition of DNA replication, as well as by regulating fundamental processes, like apoptosis and transcription. These functions are performed through the ability of p21 to interact with a number of proteins involved in these processes. Despite an initial controversy, during the last years several lines of evidence have also indicated that p21 may be directly involved in DNA repair. In particular, the participation of p21 in nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair (BER), and DNA translesion synthesis (TLS), has been suggested to occur thanks to its interaction with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a crucial protein involved in several aspects of DNA metabolism, and cell-cycle regulation. In this review, the multiple roles of p21 in the DNA damage response, including regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis and gene transcription, are discussed together with the most recent findings supporting the direct participation of p21 protein in DNA repair processes. In particular, spatio-temporal dynamics of p21 recruitment to sites of DNA damage will be considered together with several lines of evidence indicating a regulatory role for p21. In addition, the relevance of post-translational regulation in the fate (e.g. degradation) of p21 protein after cell exposure to DNA damaging agents will be analyzed. Both sets of evidence will be discussed in terms of the overall DNA damage response. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biology of the cell cycle inhibitor p21(CDKN1A): molecular mechanisms and relevance in chemical toxicology.

    PubMed

    Dutto, Ilaria; Tillhon, Micol; Cazzalini, Ornella; Stivala, Lucia A; Prosperi, Ennio

    2015-02-01

    The cell cycle inhibitor p21(CDKN1A) is a protein playing multiple roles not only in the DNA damage response, but also in many cellular processes during unperturbed cell growth. The main, well-known function of p21 is to arrest cell cycle progression by inhibiting the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases. In addition, p21 is involved in the regulation of transcription, apoptosis, DNA repair, as well as cell motility. However, p21 appears to a have a dual-face behavior because, in addition to its tumor suppressor functions, it may act as an oncogene, depending on the cell type and on the cellular localization. As a biomarker of the cell response to different toxic stimuli, p21 expression and functions have been analyzed in an impressive number of studies investigating the activity of several types of chemicals, in order to determine their possible harmful effects on human cells. Here, we review these studies in order to highlight the different roles p21 may play in the cell response to chemical exposure and to better evaluate the information provided by this biomarker.

  7. Study of P21 Expression in Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Immunohistochemical Technique.

    PubMed

    Baghaei, Fahimeh; Shojaei, Setareh; Afshar-Moghaddam, Noushin; Zargaran, Massoumeh; Rastin, Verisheh; Nasr, Mohsen; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease that is relatively common in middle aged individuals. Some studies have shown that oral lichen planus has a potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma.p21 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that regulates the cell cycle, thus it acts as an inhibitor in cell proliferation. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the immunostaining of p21 (as a proliferation inhibitory factor) in oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this descriptive cross-sectional study, p21expression was investigated in 24 samples of oral lichen planus (OLP), 24 samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 24 samples of oral epithelial hyperplasia (OEH) by employing immunohistochemical staining. The mean percentage of p21-positive cells in OSCC (54.5±6.6) was significantly higher than that in OLP (32.8±6.08) and OEH (9.4±3.8). Moreover, OLP samples expressed p21 significantly higher than the OEH. Kruskal Wallis test revealed a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the intensity of staining (p< 0.001). According to the findings of this study, the expression of p21 might be related to the potential carcinogenic transformation of lichen planus to SCC. Therefore, continuous follow-up periods for OLP are recommended for diagnosis of the malignant transformations in early stages.

  8. The negative cell cycle regulators, p27Kip1, p18Ink4c, and GSK-3, play critical role in maintaining quiescence of adult human pancreatic β-cells and restrict their ability to proliferate

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Jeffrey; Milewski, Wieslawa M; Dey, Arunangsu

    2013-01-01

    Adult human pancreatic β-cells are primarily quiescent (G0) yet the mechanisms controlling their quiescence are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate, by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, abundant levels of the critical negative cell cycle regulators, p27(Kip1) and p18(Ink4c), 2 key members of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor family, and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a serine-threonine protein kinase, in islet β-cells of adult human pancreatic tissue. Our data show that p27(Kip1) localizes primarily in β-cell nuclei, whereas, p18(Ink4c) is mostly present in β-cell cytosol. Additionally, p-p27(S10), a phosphorylated form of p27(Kip1), which was shown to interact with and to sequester cyclinD-CDK4/6 in the cytoplasm, is present in substantial amounts in β-cell cytosol. Our immunofluorescence analysis displays similar distribution pattern of p27(Kip1), p-p27(S10), p18(Ink4c) and GSK-3 in islet β-cells of adult mouse pancreatic tissue. We demonstrate marked interaction of p27(Kip1) with cyclin D3, an abundant D-type cyclin in adult human islets, and vice versa as well as with its cognate kinase partners, CDK4 and CDK6. Likewise, we show marked interaction of p18(Ink4c) with CDK4. The data collectively suggest that inhibition of CDK function by p27(Kip1) and p18(Ink4c) contributes to human β-cell quiescence. Consistent with this, we have found by BrdU incorporation assay that combined treatments of small molecule GSK-3 inhibitor and mitogen/s lead to elevated proliferation of human β-cells, which is caused partly due to p27(Kip1) downregulation. The results altogether suggest that ex vivo expansion of human β-cells is achievable via increased proliferation for β-cell replacement therapy in diabetes. PMID:23896637

  9. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A regulates cell growth through the p53-p21 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Seung Hee; Kim, Hwa-Young, E-mail: hykim@ynu.ac.kr

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down-regulation of MsrA inhibits normal cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MsrA deficiency leads to an increase in p21 by enhanced p53 acetylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down-regulation of MsrA causes cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 2}/M stage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MsrA is a regulator of cell growth that mediates the p53-p21 pathway. -- Abstract: MsrA is an oxidoreductase that catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide to methionine. Although MsrA is well-characterized as an antioxidant and has been implicated in the aging process and cellular senescence, its roles in cell proliferation are poorly understood. Here, we report a critical role of MsrA in normal cellmore » proliferation and describe the regulation mechanism of cell growth by this protein. Down-regulation of MsrA inhibited cell proliferation, but MsrA overexpression did not promote it. MsrA deficiency led to an increase in p21, a major cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, thereby causing cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 2}/M stage. While protein levels of p53 were not altered upon MsrA deficiency, its acetylation level was significantly elevated, which subsequently activated p21 transcription. The data suggest that MsrA is a regulator of cell growth that mediates the p53-p21 pathway.« less

  10. P21 activated kinase signaling in cancer.

    PubMed

    Rane, Chetan K; Minden, Audrey

    2018-01-09

    The p21 Activated Kinases (PAKs) are a family of serine threonine kinases, that consist of 6 members, PAKs 1-6, which are positioned at an intersection of multiple signaling pathways implicated in oncogenesis. The PAKs were originally identified as protein kinases that function downstream of the Ras related Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac. PAK1 and PAK4, which belong to Group I and Group II PAKs, respectively, are most often associated with tumorigenesis. On account of their well characterized roles in cancer, several small molecule inhibitors are being developed to inhibit the PAKs, and there is interest in investigating their efficacy as either first line or adjuvant treatments for cancer. Studies to delineate PAK regulated signaling pathways as well as the long term effects of PAK overexpression on gene expression are beginning to shed light on the mechanism by which PAK proteins may lead to cancer when they are overexpressed or activated. This review will describe the association between PAK expression in cancer, with a focus on PAK1 and PAK4, which are most often associated with the disease. The current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which the PAKs operate in cancer will be discussed. We will also review some of the potential drug candidates, and discuss which of them are currently being tested for their efficacy in cancer treatments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Prevents Autoimmune-Associated Down-Regulation of p21 in Salivary Gland Cells Through a p53-Independent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Douglas; Yu, Hongfang; Ohno, Seiji; Thomas, Cristina; DeRossi, Scott; Ma, Yat-Ho; Yates, Nicole; Hahn, Emily; Bisch, Frederick; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Hsu, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The submandibular salivary glands of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model for Sjogren’s syndrome and type-1 diabetes, show an elevated level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a protein involved in cell proliferation and repair of DNA damage. We reported previously that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant green tea catechin, normalizes the PCNA level. PCNA’s activity can be regulated by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, which is also important for epithelial cell differentiation. In turn, expression of p21 and PCNA are partially regulated by Rb phosphorylation levels. EGCG was found to modulate p21 expression in epithelial cells, suggesting that EGCG-induced p21 could be associated with down-regulation of PCNA in vivo. The current study examined the protein levels of p21 and p53 (which can up-regulate p21) in NOD mice fed with either water or EGCG, and the effect of EGCG on p21 and p53 in cell line models with either normal or defective Rb. In NOD mice, the p21 level was low, and EGCG normalized it. In contrast to HSG cells with functional Rb, negligible expression of p21 in NS-SV-AC cells that lack Rb was not altered by EGCG treatment. Inhibition of p53 by siRNA demonstrated that p21 and p53 were induced independently in HSG cells by a physiological concentration range of EGCG, suggesting p53 could be an important but not conditional factor associated with p21 expression. In conclusion, PCNA and p21 levels are altered inversely in the NOD model for SS and in HSG cells, and warrant further study as candidate new markers for salivary dysfunction associated with xerostomia. Induction of p21 by EGCG could provide clinically useful normalization of salivary glands by promoting differentiation and reducing PCNA levels. PMID:24329914

  12. Deletion of chromosome 9p21 noncoding cardiovascular risk interval in mice alters Smad2 signaling and promotes vascular aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Loinard, Céline; Basatemur, Gemma; Masters, Leanne; Baker, Lauren; Harrison, James; Figg, Nichola; Vilar, José; Sage, Andrew P; Mallat, Ziad

    2014-12-01

    Vascular aneurysm is an abnormal local dilatation of an artery that can lead to vessel rupture and sudden death. The only treatment involves surgical or endovascular repair or exclusion. There is currently no approved medical therapy for this condition. Recent data established a strong association between genetic variants in the 9p21 chromosomal region in humans and the presence of cardiovascular diseases, including aneurysms. However, the mechanisms linking this 9p21 DNA variant to cardiovascular risk are still unknown. Here, we show that deletion of the orthologous 70-kb noncoding interval on mouse chromosome 4 (chr4(Δ70kb/Δ70kb) mice) is associated with reduced aortic expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes p19Arf and p15Inkb. Vascular smooth muscle cells from chr4(Δ70kb/Δ70kb) mice show reduced transforming growth factor-β-dependent canonical Smad2 signaling but increased cyclin-dependent kinase-dependent Smad2 phosphorylation at linker sites, a phenotype previously associated with tumor growth and consistent with the mechanistic link between reduced canonical transforming growth factor-β signaling and susceptibility to vascular diseases. We also show that targeted deletion of the 9p21 risk interval promotes susceptibility to aneurysm development and rupture when mice are subjected to a validated model of aneurysm formation. The vascular disease of chr4(Δ70kb/Δ70kb) mice is prevented by treatment with a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. The results establish a direct mechanistic link between 9p21 noncoding risk interval and susceptibility to aneurysm and may have important implications for the understanding and treatment of vascular diseases. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Quantitative Assessment the Relationship between p21 rs1059234 Polymorphism and Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Sheng; Fan, Qian-Qian; Li, Chuang; Nie, Meng; Quan, Hong-Yang; Wang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    p21 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which can arrest cell proliferation and serve as a tumor suppressor. Though many studies were published to assess the relationship between p21 rs1059234 polymorphism and various cancer risks, there was no definite conclusion on this association. To derive a more precise quantitative assessment of the relationship, a large scale meta-analysis of 5,963 cases and 8,405 controls from 16 eligible published case-control studies was performed. Our analysis suggested that rs1059234 was not associated with the integral cancer risk for both dominant model [(T/T+C/T) vs C/C, OR=1.00, 95% CI: 0.84-1.18] and recessive model [T/T vs (C/C+C/T), OR=1.03, 95% CI: 0.93-1.15)]. However, further stratified analysis showed rs1059234 was greatly associated with the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN). Thus, larger scale primary studies are still required to further evaluate the interaction of p21 rs1059234 polymorphism and cancer risk in specific cancer subtypes.

  14. p21WAF1/CIP1 Upregulation through the Stress Granule-Associated Protein CUGBP1 Confers Resistance to Bortezomib-Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Gareau, Cristina; Fournier, Marie-Josée; Filion, Christine; Coudert, Laetitia; Martel, David; Labelle, Yves; Mazroui, Rachid

    2011-01-01

    Background p21WAF1/CIP1 is a well known cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor induced by various stress stimuli. Depending on the stress applied, p21 upregulation can either promote apoptosis or prevent against apoptotic injury. The stress-mediated induction of p21 involves not only its transcriptional activation but also its posttranscriptional regulation, mainly through stabilization of p21 mRNA levels. We have previously reported that the proteasome inhibitor MG132 induces the stabilization of p21 mRNA, which correlates with the formation of cytoplasmic RNA stress granules. The mechanism underlying p21 mRNA stabilization, however, remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified the stress granules component CUGBP1 as a factor required for p21 mRNA stabilization following treatment with bortezomib ( =  PS-341/Velcade). This peptide boronate inhibitor of the 26S proteasome is very efficient for the treatment of myelomas and other hematological tumors. However, solid tumors are sometimes refractory to bortezomib treatment. We found that depleting CUGBP1 in cancer cells prevents bortezomib-mediated p21 upregulation. FISH experiments combined to mRNA stability assays show that this effect is largely due to a mistargeting of p21 mRNA in stress granules leading to its degradation. Altering the expression of p21 itself, either by depleting CUGBP1 or p21, promotes bortezomib-mediated apoptosis. Conclusions/Significance We propose that one key mechanism by which apoptosis is inhibited upon treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs might involve upregulation of the p21 protein through CUGBP1. PMID:21637851

  15. Cancer dormancy and cell signaling: Induction of p21waf1 initiated by membrane IgM engagement increases survival of B lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Marches, Radu; Hsueh, Robert; Uhr, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    The p21WAF1 (p21) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor plays a major role in regulating cell cycle arrest. It was recently reported that the p53-independent elevation of p21 protein levels is essential in mediating the G1 arrest resulting from signal transduction events initiated by the crosslinking of membrane IgM on Daudi Burkitt lymphoma cells. Although the role of p21 in cell cycle regulation is well documented, there is little information concerning its role in antibody-mediated apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the involvement of p21 in the regulation of apoptosis by suppressing its induction in anti-IgM-treated Daudi cells through a p21 antisense expression construct approach. Reduction in induced p21 protein levels resulted in diminished G1 arrest and increased apoptosis. The increased susceptibility to anti-IgM-mediated apoptosis was associated with increased caspase-3-like activity and poly-(ADP)ribose polymerase cleavage. These data suggest that p21 may directly interfere with the caspase cascade, thus playing a dual role in regulating both cell cycle progression and apoptosis. PMID:10411940

  16. Modulatory effect of phytoglycoprotein (38 kDa) on cyclin D1/CDK4 in BNL CL.2 cells induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2012-02-01

    In the developmental stages of cancer, cell transformation occurs after the promotion stage and is a marker of cancer progression. This cell transformation is related to abnormal proliferation during the cancer initiation stage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Styrax japonica Siebold et al. Zuccarin (SJSZ) glycoprotein on cell transformation in murine embryonic liver cells (BNL CL.2) following N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment. To determine abnormal proliferation during the initiation stage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), activities of cell cycle-related factors [cyclin D1/cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4], cell cycle inhibitors (p53, p21, and p27), nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were evaluated using Western blot analysis and real-time PCR. Our study demonstrated that SJSZ glycoprotein (50 μg/ml) reduces foci formation with combined treatment [MNNG and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate] of BNL CL.2 cells. With regard to proliferation-related signals, our finding indicated that SJSZ glycoprotein (50 μg/ml) diminished the production of intracellular ROS, activity of phosphorylated ERK, p38 MAPK, NF-κB (p50 and p65), PCNA, and cyclin D1/CDK4 in MNNG-induced BNL CL.2 cells. Taken together, these results lead us to speculate that SJSZ glycoprotein can inhibit abnormal cell proliferation at the initiation stage of hepatocarcinogenesis.

  17. p27Kip1 is expressed in proliferating cells in its form phosphorylated on threonine 187

    PubMed Central

    Troncone, Giancarlo; Martinez, Juan C; Iaccarino, Antonino; Zeppa, Pio; Caleo, Alessia; Russo, Maria; Migliaccio, Ilenia; Motti, Maria L; Califano, Daniela; Palmieri, Emiliano A; Palombini, Lucio

    2005-01-01

    Background G1/S cell cycle progression requires p27Kip1 (p27) proteolysis, which is triggered by its phosphorylation on threonine (Thr) 187. Since its levels are abundant in quiescent and scarce in cycling cells, p27 is an approved marker for quiescent cells, extensively used in histopathology and cancer research. Methods However here we showed that by using a specific phosphorylation site (pThr187) antibody, p27 is detectable also in proliferative compartments of normal, dysplastic and neoplastic tissues. Results In fact, whereas un-phosphorylated p27 and MIB-1 showed a significant inverse correlation (Spearman R = -0.55; p < 0,001), pThr187-p27 was positively and significantly correlated with MIB-1 expression (Spearman R = 0.88; p < 0,001). Thus proliferating cells only stain for pThr187-p27, whereas they are un-reactive with the regular p27 antibodies. However increasing the sensitivity of the immunocytochemistry (ICH) by the use of an ultra sensitive detection system based on tiramide signal amplification, simultaneous expression and colocalisation of both forms of p27 was shown in proliferating compartments nuclei by double immunofluorescence and laser scanning confocal microscopy studies. Conclusion Overall, our data suggest that p27 expression also occurs in proliferating cells compartments and the combined use of both regular and phospho- p27 antibodies is suggested. PMID:15725363

  18. [Cytotoxicity of chimera peptides incorporating sequences of cyclin kinases inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Kharchenko, V P; Kulinich, V G; Lunin, V G; Filiasova, E I; Shishkin, A M; Sergeenko, O V; Riazanova, E M; Voronina, O L; Bozhenko, V K

    2007-01-01

    The study is concerned with proapoptotic properties of chimera peptides which incorporate sequences of inhibitors of cyclin kinases p161NK4a and p21CIP/WAF1 as well as internalized sequences (Antp and tat). Sequences of the p16 type appeared to be more cytotoxic than the p21 one. Cytotoxic effect proved dependent on orientation with respect to the C or N terminal point of a polypeptide chain rather than on chimera sequence extent. Although p16 endogenous synthesis did not influence chimera peptide levels, apoptosis did not take place in certain cellular lines. Due to the rather unsophisticated nature of such synthesis, it might be used in designing individually-tailored chemotherapeutic drugs.

  19. Aspirin reduces the apoptotic effect of etoposide via Akt activation and up-regulation of p21(cip).

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaocheng; Lu, Bin; Xu, Yingying; Li, Qin; Zhou, Wenbai; Yang, Zhihong; Yang, Zeng; Zhao, Weiwei; Shen, Zonghou; Hu, Renming

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies on the apoptotic effect of aspirin mainly focus on colorectal cancer and breast carcinoma. Few studies have been designed to explore the effect of aspirin on hepatocellular carcinoma. In the present study, we observed that aspirin caused G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and reduced etoposide induced caspase-3 activation in hepatocellular carcinoma G2 (HepG2) cells. Further investigation demonstrated that aspirin notably enhanced the activity of Akt and ERK1/2. Blocking the activation of Akt by the PI3-K-selective inhibitor wortmannin abrogated the anti-apoptotic effect of aspirin while the MEK inhibitor U0126 did not. p21(cip), an important substrate of Akt, is involved in the regulation of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our data showed that the protein expression and ser146 phosphorylation levels of p21(cip) were significantly increased after treatment with aspirin, whereas p53 or p27 showed no change. The increase of p21(cip) protein levels was also scavenged by wortmannin but not by U0126. Moreover, reduction of caspase-3 activity induced by aspirin was attenuated by silencing p21(cip) expression. These results indicated that the anti-apoptotic effect of aspirin was dependent on activation of Akt which inhibited cell apoptosis by up-regulating p21(cip) and blocking caspase-3 activation. These findings could have clinical relevance in anticancer therapy and aspirin co-treatment of human malignancies.

  20. HIRA, the Human Homologue of Yeast Hir1p and Hir2p, Is a Novel Cyclin-cdk2 Substrate Whose Expression Blocks S-Phase Progression

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Caitlin; Nelson, David M.; Ye, Xiaofen; Baker, Kayla; DeCaprio, James A.; Seeholzer, Steven; Lipinski, Marc; Adams, Peter D.

    2001-01-01

    Substrates of cyclin-cdk2 kinases contain two distinct primary sequence motifs: a cyclin-binding RXL motif and one or more phosphoacceptor sites (consensus S/TPXK/R or S/TP). To identify novel cyclin-cdk2 substrates, we searched the database for proteins containing both of these motifs. One such protein is human HIRA, the homologue of two cell cycle-regulated repressors of histone gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Hir1p and Hir2p. Here we demonstrate that human HIRA is an in vivo substrate of a cyclin-cdk2 kinase. First, HIRA bound to and was phosphorylated by cyclin A- and E-cdk2 in vitro in an RXL-dependent manner. Second, HIRA was phosphorylated in vivo on two consensus cyclin-cdk2 phosphoacceptor sites and at least one of these, threonine 555, was phosphorylated by cyclin A-cdk2 in vitro. Third, phosphorylation of HIRA in vivo was blocked by cyclin-cdk2 inhibitor p21cip1. Fourth, HIRA became phosphorylated on threonine 555 in S phase when cyclin-cdk2 kinases are active. Fifth, HIRA was localized preferentially to the nucleus, where active cyclin A- and E-cdk2 are located. Finally, ectopic expression of HIRA in cells caused arrest in S phase and this is consistent with the notion that it is a cyclin-cdk2 substrate that has a role in control of the cell cycle. PMID:11238922

  1. Dicer-dependent production of microRNA221 in hepatocytes inhibits p27 and is required for liver regeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Oya, Yuki; Masuzaki, Ryota; Tsugawa, Daisuke; Ray, Kevin C; Dou, Yongchao; Karp, Seth J

    2017-05-01

    Dicer processes microRNAs (miRs) into active forms in a wide variety of tissues, including the liver. To determine the role of Dicer in liver regeneration, we performed a series of in vivo and in vitro studies in a murine 2/3 hepatectomy model. Dicer was downregulated after 2/3 hepatectomy, and loss of Dicer inhibited liver regeneration associated with decreased cyclin A2 and miR-221, as well as increased levels of the cell cycle inhibitor p27. In vitro, miR-221 inhibited p27 production in primary hepatocytes and increased hepatocyte proliferation. Specific reconstitution of miR-221 in hepatocyte-specific Dicer-null mice inhibited p27 and restored liver regeneration. In wild type mice, targeted inhibition of miR-221 using a cholesterol-conjugated miR-221 inhibited hepatocyte proliferation after 2/3 hepatectomy. These results identify Dicer production of miR-221 as an essential component of a miRNA-dependent mechanism for suppression of p27 that controls the rate of hepatocyte proliferation after partial hepatectomy. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our findings demonstrate a direct role for microRNAs in controlling the rate of liver regeneration after injury. By deleting Dicer, an enzyme responsible for processing microRNAs into mature forms, we determined miR-221 is a critical microRNA in the physiological process of restoration of liver mass after injury. miR-221 suppresses p27, releasing its inhibitory effects on hepatocyte proliferation. Pharmaceuticals based on miR-221 may be useful to modulate hepatocyte proliferation in the setting of liver injury. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. A dual role of p21 in stem cell aging.

    PubMed

    Ju, Zhenyu; Choudhury, Aaheli Roy; Rudolph, K Lenhard

    2007-04-01

    A decline in adult stem cell function occurs during aging, likely contributing to the decline in organ homeostasis and regeneration with age. An emerging field in aging research is to analyze molecular pathways limiting adult stem cell function in response to macromolecular damage accumulation during aging. Current data suggest that the p21 cell cycle inhibitor has a dual role in stem cell aging: On one hand, p21 protects adult stem cells from acute genotoxic stress by preventing inappropriate cycling of acutely damaged stem cells. On the other hand, p21 activation impairs stem cell function and survival of aging telomere dysfunctional mice indicating that p21 checkpoint function is disadvantageous in the context of chronic and persistent damage, which accumulates during aging. This article focuses on these dual roles of p21 in aging stem cells.

  3. p53-independent p21 induction by MELK inhibition.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Tatsuo; Kato, Taigo; Kiyotani, Kazuma; Tarhan, Yunus Emre; Saloura, Vassiliki; Chung, Suyoun; Ueda, Koji; Nakamura, Yusuke; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2017-08-29

    MELK play critical roles in human carcinogenesis through activation of cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis and maintenance of stemness. Therefore, MELK is a promising therapeutic target for a wide range of cancers. Although p21 is a well-known p53-downstream gene, we found that treatment with a potent MELK inhibitor, OTS167, could induce p21 protein expression in cancer cell lines harboring loss-of-function TP53 mutations. We also confirmed that MELK knockdown by siRNA induced the p21 expression in p53-deficient cancer cell lines and caused the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Further analysis indicated that FOXO1 and FOXO3, two known transcriptional regulators of p21, were phosphorylated by MELK and thus be involved in the induction of p21 after MELK inhibition. Collectively, our herein findings suggest that MELK inhibition may be effective for human cancers even if TP53 is mutated.

  4. p53-independent p21 induction by MELK inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Tatsuo; Kato, Taigo; Kiyotani, Kazuma; Tarhan, Yunus Emre; Saloura, Vassiliki; Chung, Suyoun; Ueda, Koji; Nakamura, Yusuke; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    MELK play critical roles in human carcinogenesis through activation of cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis and maintenance of stemness. Therefore, MELK is a promising therapeutic target for a wide range of cancers. Although p21 is a well-known p53-downstream gene, we found that treatment with a potent MELK inhibitor, OTS167, could induce p21 protein expression in cancer cell lines harboring loss-of-function TP53 mutations. We also confirmed that MELK knockdown by siRNA induced the p21 expression in p53-deficient cancer cell lines and caused the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Further analysis indicated that FOXO1 and FOXO3, two known transcriptional regulators of p21, were phosphorylated by MELK and thus be involved in the induction of p21 after MELK inhibition. Collectively, our herein findings suggest that MELK inhibition may be effective for human cancers even if TP53 is mutated. PMID:28938528

  5. Enterolactone induces G1-phase cell cycle arrest in non-small cell lung cancer cells by down-regulating cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases

    PubMed Central

    Chikara, Shireen; Lindsey, Kaitlin; Dhillon, Harsharan; Mamidi, Sujan; Kittilson, Jeffrey; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Reindl, Katie M.

    2017-01-01

    Flaxseed is a rich source of the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) which is metabolized into mammalian lignans enterodiol (ED) and enterolactone (EL) in the digestive tract. The anti-cancer properties of these lignans have been demonstrated for various cancer types, but have not been studied for lung cancer. In this study we investigated the anti-cancer effects of EL for several non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines of various genetic backgrounds. EL inhibited the growth of A549, H441, and H520 lung cancer cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners. The anti-proliferative effects of EL for lung cancer cells were not due to enhanced cell death, but rather due to G1-phase cell cycle arrest. Molecular studies revealed that EL- decreased mRNA or protein expression levels of the G1-phase promoters cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK)-2, -4, and -6, and p-cdc25A; decreased phosphorylated retinoblastoma (p-pRb) protein levels; and simultaneously increased levels of p21WAF1/CIP1, a negative regulator of the G1-phase. The results suggest that EL inhibits the growth of NSCLC cell lines by down-regulating G1-phase cyclins and CDKs, and up-regulating p21WAF1/CIP1, which leads to G1-phase cell cycle arrest. Therefore, EL may hold promise as an adjuvant treatment for lung cancer therapy. PMID:28323486

  6. Enterolactone Induces G1-phase Cell Cycle Arrest in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Cells by Downregulating Cyclins and Cyclin-dependent Kinases.

    PubMed

    Chikara, Shireen; Lindsey, Kaitlin; Dhillon, Harsharan; Mamidi, Sujan; Kittilson, Jeffrey; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Reindl, Katie M

    2017-01-01

    Flaxseed is a rich source of the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), which is metabolized into mammalian lignans enterodiol (ED) and enterolactone (EL) in the digestive tract. The anticancer properties of these lignans have been demonstrated for various cancer types, but have not been studied for lung cancer. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of EL for several nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines of various genetic backgrounds. EL inhibited the growth of A549, H441, and H520 lung cancer cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners. The antiproliferative effects of EL for lung cancer cells were not due to enhanced cell death, but rather due to G 1 -phase cell cycle arrest. Molecular studies revealed that EL decreased mRNA or protein expression levels of the G 1 -phase promoters cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK)-2, -4, and -6, and p-cdc25A; decreased phosphorylated retinoblastoma (p-pRb) protein levels; and simultaneously increased levels of p21 WAF1/CIP1 , a negative regulator of the G 1 phase. The results suggest that EL inhibits the growth of NSCLC cell lines by downregulating G 1 -phase cyclins and CDKs, and upregulating p21 WAF1/CIP1 , which leads to G 1 -phase cell cycle arrest. Therefore, EL may hold promise as an adjuvant treatment for lung cancer therapy.

  7. Serum-Nutrient Starvation Induces Cell Death Mediated by Bax and Puma That Is Counteracted by p21 and Unmasked by Bcl-xL Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Frédérique; Bertin-Ciftci, Joséphine; Gallouet, Anne-Sophie; Millour, Julie; Juin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (p21WAF1/Cip1) is a multifunctional protein known to promote cell cycle arrest and survival in response to p53-dependent and p53 independent stimuli. We herein investigated whether and how it might contribute to the survival of cancer cells that are in low-nutrient conditions during tumour growth, by culturing isogenic human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT116) and breast cancer cell lines in a medium deprived in amino acids and serum. We show that such starvation enhances, independently from p53, the expression of p21 and that of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Puma. Under these conditions, p21 prevents Puma and its downstream effector Bax from triggering the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This anti-apoptotic effect is exerted from the cytosol but it is unrelated to the ability of p21 to interfere with the effector caspase 3. The survival function of p21 is, however, overcome by RNA interference mediated Bcl-xL depletion, or by the pharmacological inhibitor ABT-737. Thus, an insufficient supply in nutrients may not have an overt effect on cancer cell viability due to p21 induction, but it primes these cells to die, and sensitizes them to the deleterious effects of Bcl-xL inhibitors regardless of their p53 status. PMID:21887277

  8. Common genetic variants in the 9p21 region and their associations with multiple tumours.

    PubMed

    Gu, F; Pfeiffer, R M; Bhattacharjee, S; Han, S S; Taylor, P R; Berndt, S; Yang, H; Sigurdson, A J; Toro, J; Mirabello, L; Greene, M H; Freedman, N D; Abnet, C C; Dawsey, S M; Hu, N; Qiao, Y-L; Ding, T; Brenner, A V; Garcia-Closas, M; Hayes, R; Brinton, L A; Lissowska, J; Wentzensen, N; Kratz, C; Moore, L E; Ziegler, R G; Chow, W-H; Savage, S A; Burdette, L; Yeager, M; Chanock, S J; Chatterjee, N; Tucker, M A; Goldstein, A M; Yang, X R

    2013-04-02

    The chromosome 9p21.3 region has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple cancers. We systematically examined up to 203 tagging SNPs of 22 genes on 9p21.3 (19.9-32.8 Mb) in eight case-control studies: thyroid cancer, endometrial cancer (EC), renal cell carcinoma, colorectal cancer (CRC), colorectal adenoma (CA), oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and osteosarcoma (OS). We used logistic regression to perform single SNP analyses for each study separately, adjusting for study-specific covariates. We combined SNP results across studies by fixed-effect meta-analyses and a newly developed subset-based statistical approach (ASSET). Gene-based P-values were obtained by the minP method using the Adaptive Rank Truncated Product program. We adjusted for multiple comparisons by Bonferroni correction. Rs3731239 in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors 2A (CDKN2A) was significantly associated with ESCC (P=7 × 10(-6)). The CDKN2A-ESCC association was further supported by gene-based analyses (Pgene=0.0001). In the meta-analyses by ASSET, four SNPs (rs3731239 in CDKN2A, rs615552 and rs573687 in CDKN2B and rs564398 in CDKN2BAS) showed significant associations with ESCC and EC (P<2.46 × 10(-4)). One SNP in MTAP (methylthioadenosine phosphorylase) (rs7023329) that was previously associated with melanoma and nevi in multiple genome-wide association studies was associated with CRC, CA and OS by ASSET (P=0.007). Our data indicate that genetic variants in CDKN2A, and possibly nearby genes, may be associated with ESCC and several other tumours, further highlighting the importance of 9p21.3 genetic variants in carcinogenesis.

  9. Age-specific functional epigenetic changes in p21 and p16 in injury-activated satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ju; Han, Suhyoun; Cousin, Wendy; Conboy, Irina M.

    2014-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of muscle dramatically decreases with age because old muscle stem cells fail to proliferate in response to tissue damage. Here we uncover key age-specific differences underlying this proliferative decline: namely, the genetic loci of CDK inhibitors (CDKI) p21 and p16 are more epigenetically silenced in young muscle stem cells, as compared to old, both in quiescent cells and those responding to tissue injury. Interestingly, phosphorylated ERK (pERK) induced in these cells by ectopic FGF-2 is found in association with p21 and p16 promoters, and moreover, only in the old cells. Importantly, in the old satellite cells FGF-2/pERK silences p21 epigenetically and transcriptionally, which leads to reduced p21 protein levels and enhanced cell proliferation. In agreement with the epigenetic silencing of the loci, young muscle stem cells do not depend as much as old on ectopic FGF/pERK for their myogenic proliferation. In addition, other CDKIs, such asp15INK4B and p27KIP1, become elevated in satellite cells with age, confirming and explaining the profound regenerative defect of old muscle. This work enhances our understanding of tissue aging, promoting strategies for combating age-imposed tissue degeneration. PMID:25447026

  10. Genetic characterization of p27(kip1) and stathmin in controlling cell proliferation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Berton, Stefania; Pellizzari, Ilenia; Fabris, Linda; D'Andrea, Sara; Segatto, Ilenia; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Marconi, Daniela; Schiappacassi, Monica; Benevol, Sara; Gattei, Valter; Colombatti, Alfonso; Belletti, Barbara; Baldassarre, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    The CDK inhibitor p27(kip1) is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression, but the mechanisms by which p27(kip1) controls cell proliferation in vivo are still not fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated that the microtubule destabilizing protein stathmin is a relevant p27(kip1) binding partner. To get more insights into the in vivo significance of this interaction, we generated p27(kip1) and stathmin double knock-out (DKO) mice. Interestingly, thorough characterization of DKO mice demonstrated that most of the phenotypes of p27(kip1) null mice linked to the hyper-proliferative behavior, such as the increased body and organ weight, the outgrowth of the retina basal layer and the development of pituitary adenomas, were reverted by co-ablation of stathmin. In vivo analyses showed a reduced proliferation rate in DKO compared to p27(kip1) null mice, linked, at molecular level, to decreased kinase activity of CDK4/6, rather than of CDK1 and CDK2. Gene expression profiling of mouse thymuses confirmed the phenotypes observed in vivo, showing that DKO clustered with WT more than with p27 knock-out tissue. Taken together, our results demonstrate that stathmin cooperates with p27(kip1) to control the early phase of G1 to S phase transition and that this function may be of particular relevance in the context of tumor progression.

  11. Genetic characterization of p27kip1 and stathmin in controlling cell proliferation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Berton, Stefania; Pellizzari, Ilenia; Fabris, Linda; D'Andrea, Sara; Segatto, Ilenia; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Marconi, Daniela; Schiappacassi, Monica; Benevol, Sara; Gattei, Valter; Colombatti, Alfonso; Belletti, Barbara; Baldassarre, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    The CDK inhibitor p27kip1 is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression, but the mechanisms by which p27kip1 controls cell proliferation in vivo are still not fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated that the microtubule destabilizing protein stathmin is a relevant p27kip1 binding partner. To get more insights into the in vivo significance of this interaction, we generated p27kip1 and stathmin double knock-out (DKO) mice. Interestingly, thorough characterization of DKO mice demonstrated that most of the phenotypes of p27kip1 null mice linked to the hyper-proliferative behavior, such as the increased body and organ weight, the outgrowth of the retina basal layer and the development of pituitary adenomas, were reverted by co-ablation of stathmin. In vivo analyses showed a reduced proliferation rate in DKO compared to p27kip1 null mice, linked, at molecular level, to decreased kinase activity of CDK4/6, rather than of CDK1 and CDK2. Gene expression profiling of mouse thymuses confirmed the phenotypes observed in vivo, showing that DKO clustered with WT more than with p27 knock-out tissue. Taken together, our results demonstrate that stathmin cooperates with p27kip1 to control the early phase of G1 to S phase transition and that this function may be of particular relevance in the context of tumor progression. PMID:25486569

  12. LincRNA-p21: Implications in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Sai-Sai; Zheng, Bi-Ying; Xiong, Xing-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which lack significant protein-coding capacity, regulate various biological processes through diverse and as yet poorly understood molecular mechanisms. However, a number of studies in the past few years have documented important functions for lncRNAs in human diseases. Among these lncRNAs, lincRNA-p21 has been proposed to be a novel regulator of cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA damage response, and involved in the initiation and progression of human diseases. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of lincRNA-p21, mainly focus on the known biological functions and its underlying mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight the growing body of evidences for the importance of lincRNA-p21 in diverse human diseases, which indicate lincRNA-p21 as a potential diagnostic marker and/or a valuable therapeutic target for these diseases. PMID:26270659

  13. LincRNA-p21: Implications in Human Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sai-Sai; Zheng, Bi-Ying; Xiong, Xing-Dong

    2015-08-11

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which lack significant protein-coding capacity, regulate various biological processes through diverse and as yet poorly understood molecular mechanisms. However, a number of studies in the past few years have documented important functions for lncRNAs in human diseases. Among these lncRNAs, lincRNA-p21 has been proposed to be a novel regulator of cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA damage response, and involved in the initiation and progression of human diseases. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of lincRNA-p21, mainly focus on the known biological functions and its underlying mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight the growing body of evidences for the importance of lincRNA-p21 in diverse human diseases, which indicate lincRNA-p21 as a potential diagnostic marker and/or a valuable therapeutic target for these diseases.

  14. RNA-Binding Protein FXR1 Regulates p21 and TERC RNA to Bypass p53-Mediated Cellular Senescence in OSCC

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Mrinmoyee; House, Reniqua; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Qie, Shuo; Day, Terrence A.; Neskey, David; Diehl, J. Alan

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBP) regulate numerous aspects of co- and post-transcriptional gene expression in cancer cells. Here, we demonstrate that RBP, fragile X-related protein 1 (FXR1), plays an essential role in cellular senescence by utilizing mRNA turnover pathway. We report that overexpressed FXR1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma targets (G-quadruplex (G4) RNA structure within) both mRNA encoding p21 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A, Cip1) and the non-coding RNA Telomerase RNA Component (TERC), and regulates their turnover to avoid senescence. Silencing of FXR1 in cancer cells triggers the activation of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors, p53, increases DNA damage, and ultimately, cellular senescence. Overexpressed FXR1 binds and destabilizes p21 mRNA, subsequently reduces p21 protein expression in oral cancer cells. In addition, FXR1 also binds and stabilizes TERC RNA and suppresses the cellular senescence possibly through telomerase activity. Finally, we report that FXR1-regulated senescence is irreversible and FXR1-depleted cells fail to form colonies to re-enter cellular proliferation. Collectively, FXR1 displays a novel mechanism of controlling the expression of p21 through p53-dependent manner to bypass cellular senescence in oral cancer cells. PMID:27606879

  15. Inhibition of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth by apigenin through induction of G2/M arrest and histone H3 acetylation-mediated p21WAF1/CIP1 expression.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Tsui-Hwa; Chien, Ming-Hsien; Lin, Wea-Lung; Wen, Yu-Ching; Chow, Jyh-Ming; Chen, Chi-Kuan; Kuo, Tsang-Chih; Lee, Wei-Jiunn

    2017-02-01

    Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavonoid commonly found in fruits and vegetables, has anticancer properties in various malignant cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of the anticancer effect remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying the induction of cell cycle arrest by apigenin. Our results showed that apigenin at the nonapoptotic induction concentration inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Immunoblot analysis indicated that apigenin suppressed the expression of cyclin A, cyclin B, and cyclin-dependent kinase-1 (CDK1), which control the G2-to-M phase transition in the cell cycle. In addition, apigenin upregulated p21 WAF1/CIP1 and increased the interaction of p21 WAF1/CIP1 with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which inhibits cell cycle progression. Furthermore, apigenin significantly inhibited histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and induced histone H3 acetylation. The subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay indicated that apigenin increased acetylation of histone H3 in the p21 WAF1/CIP1 promoter region, resulting in the increase of p21 WAF1/CIP1 transcription. In a tumor xenograft model, apigenin effectively delayed tumor growth. In these apigenin-treated tumors, we also observed reductions in the levels of cyclin A and cyclin B and increases in the levels of p21 WAF1/CIP1 and acetylated histone H3. These findings demonstrate for the first time that apigenin can be used in breast cancer prevention and treatment through epigenetic regulation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 434-444, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Pharmacologic ATM but not ATR kinase inhibition abrogates p21-dependent G1 arrest and promotes gastrointestinal syndrome after total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Vendetti, Frank P; Leibowitz, Brian J; Barnes, Jennifer; Schamus, Sandy; Kiesel, Brian F; Abberbock, Shira; Conrads, Thomas; Clump, David Andy; Cadogan, Elaine; O'Connor, Mark J; Yu, Jian; Beumer, Jan H; Bakkenist, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    We show that ATM kinase inhibition using AZ31 prior to 9 or 9.25 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) reduced median time to moribund in mice to 8 days. ATR kinase inhibition using AZD6738 prior to TBI did not reduce median time to moribund. The striking finding associated with ATM inhibition prior to TBI was increased crypt loss within the intestine epithelium. ATM inhibition reduced upregulation of p21, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, and blocked G1 arrest after TBI thereby increasing the number of S phase cells in crypts in wild-type but not Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/- mice. In contrast, ATR inhibition increased upregulation of p21 after TBI. Thus, ATM activity is essential for p21-dependent arrest while ATR inhibition may potentiate arrest in crypt cells after TBI. Nevertheless, ATM inhibition reduced median time to moribund in Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/- mice after TBI. ATM inhibition also increased cell death in crypts at 4 h in Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/-, earlier than at 24 h in wild-type mice after TBI. In contrast, ATR inhibition decreased cell death in crypts in Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/- mice at 4 h after TBI. We conclude that ATM activity is essential for p21-dependent and p21-independent mechanisms that radioprotect intestinal crypts and that ATM inhibition promotes GI syndrome after TBI.

  17. Ionizing Radiation–Inducible miR-27b Suppresses Leukemia Proliferation via Targeting Cyclin A2

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bo; Li, Dongping; Kovalchuk, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Ionizing radiation is a common carcinogen that is important for the development of leukemia. However, the underlying epigenetic mechanisms remain largely unknown. The goal of the study was to explore microRNAome alterations induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in murine thymus, and to determine the role of IR-inducible microRNA (miRNA/miR) in the development of leukemia. Methods and Materials: We used the well-established C57BL/6 mouse model and miRNA microarray profiling to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed in murine thymus in response to irradiation. TIB152 human leukemia cell line was used to determine the role of estrogen receptor–α (ERα) in miR-27bmore » transcription. The biological effects of ectopic miR-27b on leukemogenesis were measured by western immunoblotting, cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle analyses. Results: Here, we have shown that IR triggers the differential expression of miR-27b in murine thymus tissue in a dose-, time- and sex-dependent manner. miR-27b was significantly down-regulated in leukemia cell lines CCL119 and TIB152. Interestingly, ERα was overexpressed in those 2 cell lines, and it was inversely correlated with miR-27b expression. Therefore, we used TIB152 as a model system to determine the role of ERα in miR-27b expression and the contribution of miR-27b to leukemogenesis. β-Estradiol caused a rapid and transient reduction in miR-27b expression reversed by either ERα-neutralizing antibody or ERK1/2 inhibitor. Ectopic expression of miR-27b remarkably suppressed TIB152 cell proliferation, at least in part, by inducing S-phase arrest. In addition, it attenuated the expression of cyclin A2, although it had no effect on the levels of PCNA, PPARγ, CDK2, p21, p27, p-p53, and cleaved caspase-3. Conclusion: Our data reveal that β-estradiol/ERα signaling may contribute to the down-regulation of miR-27b in acute leukemia cell lines through the ERK1/2 pathway, and that miR-27b may function as a

  18. Minute Virus of Mice Inhibits Transcription of the Cyclin B1 Gene during Infection.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Matthew S; Majumder, Kinjal; Pintel, David J

    2017-07-15

    Replication of minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a sustained cellular DNA damage response (DDR) which the virus then exploits to prepare the nuclear environment for effective parvovirus takeover. An essential aspect of the MVM-induced DDR is the establishment of a potent premitotic block, which we previously found to be independent of activated p21 and ATR/Chk1 signaling. This arrest, unlike others reported previously, depends upon a significant, specific depletion of cyclin B1 and its encoding RNA, which precludes cyclin B1/CDK1 complex function, thus preventing mitotic entry. We show here that while the stability of cyclin B1 RNA was not affected by MVM infection, the production of nascent cyclin B1 RNA was substantially diminished at late times postinfection. Ectopic expression of NS1 alone did not reduce cyclin B1 expression. MVM infection also reduced the levels of cyclin B1 protein, and RNA levels normally increased in response to DNA-damaging reagents. We demonstrated that at times of reduced cyclin B1 expression during infection, there was a significantly reduced occupancy of RNA polymerase II and the essential mitotic transcription factor FoxM1 on the cyclin B1 gene promoter. Additionally, while total FoxM1 levels remained constant, there was a significant decrease of the phosphorylated, likely active, forms of FoxM1. Targeting of a constitutively active FoxM1 construct or the activation domain of FoxM1 to the cyclin B1 gene promoter via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-enzymatically inactive Cas9 in MVM-infected cells increased both cyclin B1 protein and RNA levels, implicating FoxM1 as a critical target for cyclin B1 inhibition during MVM infection. IMPORTANCE Replication of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a sustained cellular DNA damage response (DDR) which the virus exploits to prepare the nuclear environment for effective takeover. An essential aspect of the MVM-induced DDR is establishment of a

  19. Minute Virus of Mice Inhibits Transcription of the Cyclin B1 Gene during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Matthew S.; Majumder, Kinjal

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Replication of minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a sustained cellular DNA damage response (DDR) which the virus then exploits to prepare the nuclear environment for effective parvovirus takeover. An essential aspect of the MVM-induced DDR is the establishment of a potent premitotic block, which we previously found to be independent of activated p21 and ATR/Chk1 signaling. This arrest, unlike others reported previously, depends upon a significant, specific depletion of cyclin B1 and its encoding RNA, which precludes cyclin B1/CDK1 complex function, thus preventing mitotic entry. We show here that while the stability of cyclin B1 RNA was not affected by MVM infection, the production of nascent cyclin B1 RNA was substantially diminished at late times postinfection. Ectopic expression of NS1 alone did not reduce cyclin B1 expression. MVM infection also reduced the levels of cyclin B1 protein, and RNA levels normally increased in response to DNA-damaging reagents. We demonstrated that at times of reduced cyclin B1 expression during infection, there was a significantly reduced occupancy of RNA polymerase II and the essential mitotic transcription factor FoxM1 on the cyclin B1 gene promoter. Additionally, while total FoxM1 levels remained constant, there was a significant decrease of the phosphorylated, likely active, forms of FoxM1. Targeting of a constitutively active FoxM1 construct or the activation domain of FoxM1 to the cyclin B1 gene promoter via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-enzymatically inactive Cas9 in MVM-infected cells increased both cyclin B1 protein and RNA levels, implicating FoxM1 as a critical target for cyclin B1 inhibition during MVM infection. IMPORTANCE Replication of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a sustained cellular DNA damage response (DDR) which the virus exploits to prepare the nuclear environment for effective takeover. An essential aspect of the MVM-induced DDR is establishment

  20. p27(kip1) Knockout enhances collateralization in response to hindlimb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ankri-Eliahoo, Galit; Weitz, Kevin; Cox, Timothy C; Tang, Gale L

    2016-05-01

    The natural response to arterial occlusive disease is enlargement of collaterals; however, the molecular factors that control collateralization are not well understood. The gene p27(Kip1) (p27) affects human response to arterial injury. Previous studies have shown that overexpression of p27 inhibits vascular endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and angiogenesis. To test the hypothesis that knockout of p27 would improve collateralization in reaction to ischemia, we performed in vivo and in vitro experiments using p27 knockout (p27(-/-)) and wild-type (wt) mice. Hindlimb ischemia was induced by left femoral artery ligation in p27(-/-) and wt (C57BL/6) female mice. The mice underwent weekly laser Doppler perfusion imaging of the footpads until sacrifice on postoperative day 28 followed by microcomputed tomography scanning of both hindlimbs. VSMCs were isolated from p27(-/-) and wt mice and used in migration and gel contraction assays in the absence and presence of the nonspecific matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor BB94. MMP-2 and MMP-9 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in p27(-/-) and wt VSMCs. p27(-/-) mice reperfused more effectively than wt mice by laser Doppler starting from day 7 (ischemic/nonischemic ratio, 0.33 ± 0.02 vs 0.25 ± 0.02; P < .05) and continuing through day 28 (0.45 ± 0.04 vs 0.31 ± 0.04; P < .05). The gracilis collateral diameter was similar for the nonischemic hindlimbs of the p27(-/-) and wt mice, and this collateral pathway increased similarly after ischemia as assessed by microcomputed tomography. However, the p27(-/-) mice significantly enlarged a novel collateral pathway that bridged directly between the femoral artery proximal to the ligation site and the saphenous or popliteal artery distal to the ligation site more than wt mice (158 ± 18.3 vs 82 ± 22 μm; P < .001). p27(-/-) VSMCs migrated more (79% ± 5% vs 56%

  1. Attenuation of teratoma formation by p27 overexpression in induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Matsu-ura, Toru; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Okada, Motoi; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-02-15

    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells, have a great potential for regenerative medicine. Induced pluripotent stem cells, in particular, are suitable for replacement of tissue by autologous transplantation. However, tumorigenicity is a major risk in clinical application of both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. This study explores the possibility of manipulating the cell cycle for inhibition of tumorigenicity. We genetically modified mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) to overexpress p27 tumor suppressor and examined their proliferation rate, gene expression, cardiac differentiation, tumorigenicity, and therapeutic potential in a mouse model of coronary artery ligation. Overexpression of p27 inhibited cell division of miPSCs, and that inhibition was dependent on the expression level of p27. p27 overexpressing miPSCs had pluripotency characteristics but lost stemness earlier than normal miPSCs during embryoid body and teratoma formation. These cellular characteristics led to none or smaller teratoma when the cells were injected into nude mice. Transplantation of both miPSCs and p27 overexpressing miPSCs into the infarcted mouse heart reduced the infarction size and improved left ventricular function. The overexpression of p27 attenuated tumorigenicity by reducing proliferation and earlier loss of stemness of miPSCs. The overexpression of p27 did not affect pluripotency and differentiation characteristics of miPSC. Therefore, regulation of the proliferation rate of miPSCs offers great therapeutic potential for repair of the injured myocardium.

  2. Intact follicular maturation and defective luteal function in mice deficient for cyclin- dependent kinase-4.

    PubMed

    Moons, David S; Jirawatnotai, Siwanon; Tsutsui, Tateki; Franks, Roberta; Parlow, A F; Hales, Dale B; Gibori, Geula; Fazleabas, Asgerally T; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki

    2002-02-01

    Cell cycle progression of granulosa cells is critical for ovarian function, especially follicular maturation. During follicular maturation, FSH induces cyclin D2, which promotes G1 progression by activating cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (Cdk4). Because cyclin D2-deficient mice exhibit a block in follicular growth, cyclin D2/Cdk4 has been hypothesized to be required for FSH-dependent proliferation of granulosa cells. Here we investigate ovarian function in Cdk4-knockout mice we recently generated. Cdk4(-/-) females were sterile, but the morphology of their ovaries appeared normal before sexual maturation. The number of preovulatory follicles and the ovulation efficiency were modestly reduced in gonadotropin-treated Cdk4(-/-) mice. However, unlike cyclin D2-deficient mice, Cdk4(-/-) mice showed no obvious defect in FSH-induced proliferation of granulosa cells. Cdk4(-/-) ovaries displayed normal preovulatory expression of aromatase, PR, and cyclooxygenase-2. Postovulatory progesterone secretion was markedly impaired in Cdk4(-/-) mice, although granulosa cells initiated luteinization with induction of p450 side-chain cleavage cytochrome and p27(Kip1). Progesterone treatment rescued implantation and restored fertility in Cdk4(-/-) mice. Serum PRL levels after mating were significantly reduced in Cdk4(-/-) mice, suggesting the involvement of perturbed PRL regulation in luteal failure. Thus, Cdk4 is critical for luteal function, and some redundant protein(s) can compensate for the absence of Cdk4 in proliferation of granulosa cells.

  3. The inhibition of activated hepatic stellate cells proliferation by arctigenin through G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest: persistent p27(Kip1) induction by interfering with PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Ao; Wang, Jun; Wu, Mingjun; Zhang, Xiaoxun; Zhang, Hongzhi

    2015-01-15

    Proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is vital for the development of fibrosis during liver injury. In this study, we describe that arctigenin (ATG), a major bioactive component of Fructus Arctii, exhibited selective cytotoxic activity via inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-activated HSCs proliferation and arrested cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, which could not be observed in normal human hepatocytes in vitro. The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 activities could be strongly inhibited by ATG through down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4/6 expression in early G1 phase arrest. In the ATG-treated HSCs, the expression level of p27(Kip1) and the formation of CDK2-p27(Kip1) complex were also increased. p27(Kip1) silencing significantly attenuated the effect of ATG, including cell cycle arrest and suppression of proliferation in activated HSCs. We also found that ATG suppressed PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream transcription factor Forkhead box O 3a (FOXO3a), decreased binding of FOXO3a to 14-3-3 protein, and stimulated nuclear translocation of FOXO3a in activated HSCs. Furthermore, knockdown of FOXO3a expression by FOXO3a siRNA attenuated ATG-induced up-regulation of p27(Kip1) in activated HSCs. All the above findings suggested that ATG could increase the levels of p27(Kip1) protein through inhibition of Akt and improvement of FOXO3a activity, in turn inhibited the CDK2 kinase activity, and eventually caused an overall inhibition of HSCs proliferation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. LincRNa-p21: function and mechanism in cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoyun; Liang, Hairong; Yang, Hui; Zhou, Kairu; Xu, Longmei; Liu, Jiaxian; Lai, Bei; Song, Li; Luo, Hao; Peng, Jianming; Liu, Zhidong; Xiao, Yongmei; Chen, Wen; Tang, Huanwen

    2017-05-01

    In view of the rapid development of gene chips and high-throughput sequencing technology, noncoding RNAs (ncRNas) form a high percentage of the mammalian genome. Two major subgroups of ncRNAs that have been identified are the long ncRNAs (lncRNas) and the microRNAs. A number of studies in the past few years have showed crucial functions for lncRNas in cancer. LincRNa-p21 as a p53-dependent transcriptional target gene and a potential diagnostic marker is involved in proliferation, cell cycle, metabolism and reprogramming. In addition, more researches revealed that lincRNa-p21 is associated with cancer progression and contributed to the treatment and prognosis of cancer. In this review, we briefly summarize the function and molecular mechanisms of lincRNa-p21 in cancer and its regulation for the genes expression .

  5. p21-activated kinase signaling in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gururaj, Anupama E; Rayala, Suresh K; Kumar, Rakesh

    2005-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases signal through a number of cellular pathways fundamental to growth, differentiation and apoptosis. A wealth of information has accumulated at an impressive pace in the recent past, both with regard to previously identified targets for p21-activated kinases that regulate the actin cytoskeleton and cellular stress pathways and with regard to newly identified targets and their role in cancer. Emerging data also provide new clues towards a previously unappreciated link between these various cellular processes. The present review attempts to provide a quick tutorial to the reader about the evolving significance of p21-activated kinases and small GTPases in breast cancer, using information from mouse models, tissue culture studies, and human materials.

  6. The p27Kip1 Tumor Suppressor and Multi-Step Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    Breast Cancer , Cell cycle, tumor suppressor 33 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20...in many cancers , including carcinomas of the breast , colon, lung and prostate, and lymphoma. Although these studies of p27 expression in primary...of DMBA-induced pituitary tumors in p27-/- mice precluded determination of breast cancer risk in these mice. Nevertheless, the extensive mammary tissue

  7. C/EBPα regulates CRL4Cdt2-mediated degradation of p21 in response to UVB-induced DNA damage to control the G1/S checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jonathan R; Bereman, Michael S; Nepomuceno, Angelito I; Thompson, Elizabeth A; Muddiman, David C; Smart, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    The bZIP transcription factor, C/EBPα is highly inducible by UVB and other DNA damaging agents in keratinocytes. C/EBPα-deficient keratinocytes fail to undergo cell cycle arrest in G1 in response to UVB-induced DNA damage and mice lacking epidermal C/EBPα are highly susceptible to UVB-induced skin cancer. The mechanism through which C/EBPα regulates the cell cycle checkpoint in response to DNA damage is unknown. Here we report untreated C/EBPα-deficient keratinocytes have normal levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21, however, UVB-treated C/EBPα-deficient keratinocytes fail to up-regulate nuclear p21 protein levels despite normal up-regulation of Cdkn1a mRNA levels. UVB-treated C/EBPα-deficient keratinocytes displayed a 4-fold decrease in nuclear p21 protein half-life due to the increased proteasomal degradation of p21 via the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4Cdt2. Cdt2 is the substrate recognition subunit of CRL4Cdt2 and Cdt2 mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in UVB-treated C/EBPα-deficient keratinocytes. Knockdown of Cdt2 restored p21 protein levels in UVB-treated C/EBPα-deficient keratinocytes. Lastly, the failure to accumulate p21 in response to UVB in C/EBPα-deficient keratinocytes resulted in decreased p21 interactions with critical cell cycle regulatory proteins, increased CDK2 activity, and inappropriate entry into S-phase. These findings reveal C/EBPα regulates G1/S cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage via the control of CRL4Cdt2 mediated degradation of p21. PMID:25483090

  8. Inactivation of p27kip1 Promoted Nonspecific Inflammation by Enhancing Macrophage Proliferation in Islet Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Ding, Xiaoming; Fan, Ping; Guo, Jian; Tian, Xiaohui; Feng, Xinshun; Zheng, Jin; Tian, Puxun; Ding, Chenguang; Xue, Wujun

    2016-11-01

    Islet transplantation suffers from low efficiency caused by nonspecific inflammation-induced graft loss after transplantation. This study reports increased islet loss and enhanced inflammatory response in p27-deficient mice (p27-/-) and proposes a possible mechanism. Compared with wild type, p27-/- mice showed more severe functional injury of islet, with increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF-α, inducing macrophage proliferation. Furthermore, the increased number, proapoptotic proteins, and nuclear factor-kappa b (NF-κB) phosphorylation status of the infiltrating macrophages were accompanied by increased TNF-α mRNA level of islet graft site in p27-/- mice. Moreover, in vitro, we found that macrophages were still activated and cocultured with islet and promoted islet loss even blocking the direct effect of TNF-α on islets. Malondialdehyde (MDA, an end product of lipid peroxidation) in islet and media were increased after cocultured with macrophages. p27 deficiency also increased macrophage proliferation and islet injury. Therefore, p27 inactivation promotes injury islet graft loss via the elevation of proliferation and inflammatory cytokines secretion in infiltrating macrophages which induced nonspecific inflammation independent of TNF-α/nuclear factor-kappa b pathway. This potentially represents a promising therapeutic target in improving islet graft survival.

  9. Geraniol and beta-ionone inhibit proliferation, cell cycle progression, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells independent of effects on HMG-CoA reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Robin E; Lau, Dominic; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Archer, Michael C

    2004-11-01

    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase catalyzes the formation of mevalonate, a precursor of cholesterol that is also required for cell proliferation. Mevalonate depletion results in a G1 phase cell cycle arrest that is mediated in part by impaired activity of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, and decreased expression of positive regulators of G1 to S phase progression. Inhibition of mevalonate synthesis may, therefore, be a useful strategy to impair the growth of malignant cells. Plant isoprenoids, including beta-ionone and geraniol, have previously been shown to inhibit rodent mammary tumor development, and rodent and avian hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity. We hypothesized that the putative anti-proliferative and cell cycle inhibitory effects of beta-ionone and geraniol on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in culture are mediated by mevalonate depletion resulting from inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity. Flow cytometric analysis showed a G1 arrest in isoprenoid-treated MCF-7 cells, and also a G2/M arrest at higher concentrations of isoprenoids. These compounds minimally affected the growth of MCF-10F normal breast epithelial cells. Both beta-ionone and geraniol inhibited CDK 2 activity and dose-dependently decreased the expression of cyclins D1, E, and A, and CDK 2 and 4, without changing the expression of p21cip1 or p27kip1. Although both beta-ionone and geraniol also inhibited MCF-7 proliferation, only geraniol inhibited HMG-CoA reductase activity. While these effects were significantly correlated (r2=0.89, P <0.01), they were not causally related, since exogenous mevalonate did not restore growth in geraniol-inhibited cells. These findings indicate that mechanisms other than impaired mevalonate synthesis mediate the anti-proliferative and cell cycle regulatory effects of beta-ionone and geraniol in human breast cancer cells.

  10. Alterations in the proliferating compartment of gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection: the putative role of epithelial cells expressing p27(kip1).

    PubMed

    Sougioultzis, Stavros; Foukas, Periklis G; Tzivras, Michalis; Kourtessas, Dimitrios; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G; Davaris, Panayiotis; Archimandritis, Athanasios J

    2003-11-01

    The proliferating zone contains stem cells that give rise to all epithelial cells of the gastric mucosa. In the present study, we investigated the turnover of gastric epithelial cells in the proliferating zone of Helicobacter pylori-infected mucosa, with or without intestinal metaplasia, before and after eradication of the microorganism. In addition, we studied the topographical distribution of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1), which plays a critical role in cell cycle progression and differentiation programs. Twenty-eight patients (22 male), aged 32-78 years and with dyspeptic symptoms, were endoscoped, and gastric biopsies were obtained from antrum and corpus for histopathological examination and the Campylobacter-like organisms test; eradication therapy was given to infected patients, and all patients were re-endoscoped after 105 +/- 33 days (mean +/- SD). The kinetics of gastric epithelial cells and p27(Kip1) status was assessed by means of immunohistochemistry and TUNEL (Tdt-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling) assay. Twenty-one (21) of 28 patients were H. pylori positive, and 7 were found H. pylori negative and served as controls. In antrum, intestinal metaplasia was detected in 7/21 (33.3%). In H. pylori gastritis, Ki67 expression was found increased in the proliferating zone, compared with normal (P =.03); analogous results were obtained with the other proliferation markers, namely retinoblastoma protein and topoisomerase IIalpha. An inverse relationship between proliferation index and atrophy was disclosed (P =.02). A reduction in the proliferation index was observed after eradication, albeit not significant. Apoptotic epithelial cells were found significantly increased (P <.01) in H. pylori gastritis, and a significant reduction was observed after eradication (P <.01). In addition, apoptotic index was found to correlate with H. pylori density. The topographical study of p27(Kip1) revealed a p27(kip1)-positive epithelial cell population

  11. Cell cycle activation in p21 dependent pathway: An alternative mechanism of organophosphate induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Kandimalla, Ramesh J L; Sharma, Deep Raj; Kaushal, Alka; Ruban, Anand; Sunkaria, Aditya; Vallamkondu, Jayalakshmi; Chiarugi, Alberto; Reddy, P Hemachandra; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2017-07-01

    In the previous study, we demonstrated that dichlorvos induces oxidative stress in dopaminergic neuronal cells and subsequent caspase activation mediates apoptosis. In the present study, we evaluated the effect and mechanism of dichlorvos induced oxidative stress on cell cycle activation in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells. Dichlorvos exposure resulted in oxidative DNA damage along with activation of cell cycle machinery in differentiated PC12 cells. Dichlorvos exposed cells exhibited an increased expression of p53, cyclin-D1, pRb and decreased expression of p21suggesting a re-entry of differentiated cells into the cell cycle. Cell cycle analysis of dichlorvos exposed cells revealed a reduction of cells in the G 0 /G 1 phase of the cell cycle (25%), and a concomitant increase of cells in S phase (30%) and G2/M phase (43.3%) compared to control PC12 cells. Further, immunoblotting of cytochrome c, Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 revealed that dichlorvos induces a caspase-dependent cell death in PC12 cells. These results suggest that Dichlorvos exposure has the potential to generate oxidative stress which evokes activation of cell cycle machinery leading to apoptotic cell death via cytochrome c release from mitochondria and subsequent caspase-3 activation in differentiated PC12 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Up-regulation of miR-95-3p in hepatocellular carcinoma promotes tumorigenesis by targeting p21 expression

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jian; Yao, Yufeng; Song, Qixue; Li, Sisi; Hu, Zhenkun; Yu, Yubing; Hu, Changqing; Da, Xingwen; Li, Hui; Chen, Qiuyun; Wang, Qing K.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant cancers. To elucidate new regulatory mechanisms for heptocarcinogenesis, we investigated the regulation of p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor encoded by CDKN1A, in HCC. The expression level of p21 is decreased with the progression of HCC. Luciferase assays with a luciferase-p21-3′ UTR reporter and its serial deletions identified a 15-bp repressor element at the 3′-UTR of CDKN1A, which contains a binding site for miR-95-3p. Mutation of the binding site eliminated the regulatory effect of miR-95-3p on p21 expression. Posttranscriptional regulation of p21 expression by miR-95-3p is mainly on the protein level (suppression of translation). Overexpression of miR-95-3p in two different HCC cell lines, HepG2 and SMMC7721, significantly promoted cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and cell migration, whereas a miR-95-3p specific inhibitor decreased cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and cell migration. The effects of miR-95-3p on cellular functions were rescued by overexpression of p21. Overexpression of miR-95-3p promoted cell proliferation and tumor growth in HCC xenograft mouse models. Expression of miR-95-3p was significantly higher in HCC samples than in adjacent non-cancerous samples. These results demonstrate that miR-95-3p is a potential new marker for HCC and regulates hepatocarcinogenesis by directly targeting CDKN1A/p21 expression. PMID:27698442

  13. Lack of a p21waf1/cip -dependent G1/S checkpoint in neural stem and progenitor cells after DNA damage in vivo.

    PubMed

    Roque, Telma; Haton, Céline; Etienne, Olivier; Chicheportiche, Alexandra; Rousseau, Laure; Martin, Ludovic; Mouthon, Marc-André; Boussin, François D

    2012-03-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(waf1/cip) mediates the p53-dependent G1/S checkpoint, which is generally considered to be a critical requirement to maintain genomic stability after DNA damage. We used staggered 5-ethynyl-2'deoxyuridine/5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine double-labeling in vivo to investigate the cell cycle progression and the role of p21(waf1/cip) in the DNA damage response of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) after exposure of the developing mouse cortex to ionizing radiation. We observed a radiation-induced p21-dependent apoptotic response in migrating postmitotic cortical cells. However, neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) did not initiate a p21(waf1/cip1) -dependent G1/S block and continued to enter S-phase at a similar rate to the non-irradiated controls. The G1/S checkpoint is not involved in the mechanisms underlying the faithful transmission of the NSPC genome and/or the elimination of critically damaged cells. These processes typically involve intra-S and G2/M checkpoints that are rapidly activated after irradiation. p21 is normally repressed in neural cells during brain development except at the G1 to G0 transition. Lack of activation of a G1/S checkpoint and apoptosis of postmitotic migrating cells after DNA damage appear to depend on the expression of p21 in neural cells, since substantial cell-to-cell variations are found in the irradiated cortex. This suggests that repression of p21 during brain development prevents the induction of the G1/S checkpoint after DNA damage. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  14. Identification of human cyclin-dependent kinase 8, a putative protein kinase partner for cyclin C.

    PubMed Central

    Tassan, J P; Jaquenoud, M; Léopold, P; Schultz, S J; Nigg, E A

    1995-01-01

    Metazoan cyclin C was originally isolated by virtue of its ability to rescue Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells deficient in G1 cyclin function. This suggested that cyclin C might play a role in cell cycle control, but progress toward understanding the function of this cyclin has been hampered by the lack of information on a potential kinase partner. Here we report the identification of a human protein kinase, K35 [cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8)], that is likely to be a physiological partner of cyclin C. A specific interaction between K35 and cyclin C could be demonstrated after translation of CDKs and cyclins in vitro. Furthermore, cyclin C could be detected in K35 immunoprecipitates prepared from HeLa cells, indicating that the two proteins form a complex also in vivo. The K35-cyclin C complex is structurally related to SRB10-SRB11, a CDK-cyclin pair recently shown to be part of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme of S. cerevisiae. Hence, we propose that human K35(CDK8)-cyclin C might be functionally associated with the mammalian transcription apparatus, perhaps involved in relaying growth-regulatory signals. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7568034

  15. The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Ortholog pUL97 of Human Cytomegalovirus Interacts with Cyclins

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Laura; Webel, Rike; Wagner, Sabrina; Hamilton, Stuart T.; Rawlinson, William D.; Sticht, Heinrich; Marschall, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded protein kinase, pUL97, is considered a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) ortholog, due to shared structural and functional characteristics. The primary mechanism of CDK activation is binding to corresponding cyclins, including cyclin T1, which is the usual regulatory cofactor of CDK9. This study provides evidence of direct interaction between pUL97 and cyclin T1 using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed partial colocalization of pUL97 with cyclin T1 in subnuclear compartments, most pronounced in viral replication centres. The distribution patterns of pUL97 and cyclin T1 were independent of HCMV strain and host cell type. The sequence domain of pUL97 responsible for the interaction with cyclin T1 was between amino acids 231–280. Additional co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed cyclin B1 and cyclin A as further pUL97 interaction partners. Investigation of the pUL97-cyclin T1 interaction in an ATP consumption assay strongly suggested phosphorylation of pUL97 by the CDK9/cyclin T1 complex in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. This is the first demonstration of interaction between a herpesviral CDK ortholog and cellular cyclins. PMID:24351800

  16. p21-Activated kinase 5: a pleiotropic kinase.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yi-Yang; Wang, Xiao-Xia; Pei, Dong-Sheng; Zheng, Jun-Nian

    2013-12-15

    The PAKs (p21-activated kinases) are highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinases which comprise six mammalian PAKs. PAK5 (p21-activated kinase 5) is the least understood member of PAKs that regulate many intracellular processes when they are stimulated by activated forms of the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac. PAK5 takes an important part in multiple signal pathways in mammalian cells and controls a variety of cellular functions including cytoskeleton organization, cell motility and apoptosis. The main goal of this review is to describe the structure, mechanisms underlying its activity regulation, its role in apoptosis and the likely directions of further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of p21ras with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Sjölander, A; Yamamoto, K; Huber, B E; Lapetina, E G

    1991-01-01

    In mammalian cells, ras genes code for 21-kDa GTP-binding proteins. Increased expression and mutations in specific amino acids have been closely linked to alterations of normal cell morphology, growth, and differentiation and, in particular, to neoplastic transformation. The signal transduction induced by these p21ras proteins is largely unknown; however, the signaling pathways of several growth factors have been reported to involve phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase. In the present study of a Ha-ras-transformed epithelial cell line, we demonstrated increased PtdIns 3-kinase activity in anti-phosphotyrosine and anti-receptor (insulin and hybrid insulin-like growth factor I) immunoprecipitates of cells that had been stimulated with insulin or insulin-like growth factor I. The PtdIns 3-kinase activity was also immunoprecipitated in these experiments by the anti-Ras monoclonal antibody Y13-259. The specificity of this association with p21ras was ascertained by the neutralizing effect of the antigen peptide and the absence of PtdIns 3-kinase activity in Y13-259 immunoprecipitates from cells in which the ras gene was turned off. These data indicate that PtdIns 3-kinase activity is an important step in the cascade of reactions in p21ras signal transduction, suggesting that the alterations of the cytoskeleton and growth in ras-transformed cells could be mediated by PtdIns 3-kinase activity. Images PMID:1716764

  18. The role of p21-activated kinases in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Dannel; He, Hong; Baldwin, Graham S; Nikfarjam, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis and an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Management has not improved significantly over the last 30 years, and a better understanding of the genetic and molecular changes that occur is urgently required. Many of these changes appear to involve the p21-activated kinases (PAKs). The PAK family consists of 6 isoforms, 2 of which, PAK1 and PAK4, are up-regulated and/or hyperactivated in pancreatic cancer. p21-Activated kinases can mediate many different cellular processes especially those contributing to cancer development and progression. These processes include the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics and cell adhesion, the evasion of apoptosis, and the promotion of cell survival, proliferation, migration, and invasion. p21-Activated kinases may also be involved in characteristics unique to pancreatic tumors, such as interplay with the pancreatic stroma, the re-emergence of embryonic pathways, and the involvement of a subset of microRNAs and heat shock proteins. This review highlights the potential role of PAKs in pancreatic cancer and provides a foundation for more effective therapeutics to improve our current treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  19. p21WAF1 immunohistochemical expression in breast carcinoma: correlations with clinicopathological data, oestrogen receptor status, MIB1 expression, p53 gene and protein alterations and relapse-free survival.

    PubMed Central

    Barbareschi, M.; Caffo, O.; Doglioni, C.; Fina, P.; Marchetti, A.; Buttitta, F.; Leek, R.; Morelli, L.; Leonardi, E.; Bevilacqua, G.; Dalla Palma, P.; Harris, A. L.

    1996-01-01

    p21 protein (p21) inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases is a critical downstream effector in the p53-specific pathway of growth control. p21 can also be induced by p53-independent pathways in relation to terminal differentiation. We investigated p21 immunoreactivity in normal breast and in 91 breast carcinomas [three in situ ductal carcinomas (DCIS) with microinfiltration and 88 infiltrating carcinomas, 17 of which with an associated DCIS; 57 node negative and 34 node positive] with long-term follow-up (median = 58 months). Seven additional breast carcinomas with known p53 gene mutations were investigated. In normal breast p21 expression was seen in the nuclei of rare luminal cells of acinar structures, and in occasional myoepithelial cells. Poorly differentiated DCIS showed high p21 expression, whereas well-differentiated DCIS tumours showed few p21-reactive cells. p21 was seen in 82 (90%) infiltrating tumours; staining was heterogeneous; the percentage of reactive nuclei ranged from 1% to 35%. High p21 expression (more than 10% of reactive cells) was seen in 24 (26%) cases, and was associated with high tumour grade (P = 0.032); no associations were seen with tumour size, metastases, oestrogen receptor status, MIB1 expression and p53 expression. p21 expression in cases with p53 gene mutations was low in six cases and high in one. High p21 expression was associated with short relapse-free survival (P = 0.003). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8688323

  20. Role of P27 -P55 operon from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the resistance to toxic compounds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The P27-P55 (lprG-Rv1410c) operon is crucial for the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis, during infection in mice. P55 encodes an efflux pump that has been shown to provide Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG with resistance to several drugs, while P27 encodes a mannosylated glycoprotein previously described as an antigen that modulates the immune response against mycobacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the individual contribution of the proteins encoded in the P27-P55 operon to the resistance to toxic compounds and to the cell wall integrity of M. tuberculosis. Method In order to test the susceptibility of a mutant of M. tuberculosis H37Rv in the P27-P55 operon to malachite green, sodium dodecyl sulfate, ethidium bromide, and first-line antituberculosis drugs, this strain together with the wild type strain and a set of complemented strains were cultivated in the presence and in the absence of these drugs. In addition, the malachite green decolorization rate of each strain was obtained from decolorization curves of malachite green in PBS containing bacterial suspensions. Results The mutant strain decolorized malachite green faster than the wild type strain and was hypersensitive to both malachite green and ethidium bromide, and more susceptible to the first-line antituberculosis drugs: isoniazid and ethambutol. The pump inhibitor reserpine reversed M. tuberculosis resistance to ethidium bromide. These results suggest that P27-P55 functions through an efflux-pump like mechanism. In addition, deletion of the P27-P55 operon made M. tuberculosis susceptible to sodium dodecyl sulfate, suggesting that the lack of both proteins causes alterations in the cell wall permeability of the bacterium. Importantly, both P27 and P55 are required to restore the wild type phenotypes in the mutant. Conclusions The results clearly indicate that P27 and P55 are functionally connected in

  1. Fusobacterium nucleatum Potentiates Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Mice via a Toll-Like Receptor 4/p21-Activated Kinase 1 Cascade.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaxin; Wu, Jiao; Chen, Ting; Li, Qing; Peng, Wei; Li, Huan; Tang, Xiaowei; Fu, Xiangsheng

    2018-05-01

    The underlying pathogenic mechanism of Fusobacterium nucleatum in the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer has been poorly understood. Using C57BL/6-Apc Min/+ mice, we investigated gut microbial structures with F. nucleatum, antibiotics, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist TAK-242 treatment. In addition, we measured intestinal tumor formation and the expression of TLR4, p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), phosphorylated-PAK1 (p-PAK1), phosphorylated-β-catenin S675 (p-β-catenin S675), and cyclin D1 in mice with different treatments. Fusobacterium nucleatum and antibiotics treatment altered gut microbial structures in mice. In addition, F. nucleatum invaded into the intestinal mucosa in large amounts but were less abundant in the feces of F. nucleatum-fed mice. The average number and size of intestinal tumors in F. nucleatum groups was significantly increased compared to control groups in Apc Min/+ mice (P < 0.05). The expression of TLR4, PAK1, p-PAK1, p-β-catenin S675, and cyclin D1 was significantly increased in F. nucleatum groups compared to the control groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, TAK-242 significantly decreased the average number and size of intestinal tumors compared to F. nucleatum groups (P < 0.05). The expression of p-PAK1, p-β-catenin S675, and cyclin D1 was also significantly decreased in the TAK-242-treated group compared to F. nucleatum groups (P < 0.05). Fusobacterium nucleatum potentiates intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc Min/+ mice via a TLR4/p-PAK1/p-β-catenin S675 cascade. Fusobacterium nucleatum-induced intestinal tumorigenesis can be inhibited by TAK-242, implicating TLR4 as a potential target for the prevention and therapy of F. nucleatum-related colorectal cancer.

  2. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase activity triggers neuronal differentiation of mouse neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kranenburg, O; Scharnhorst, V; Van der Eb, A J; Zantema, A

    1995-10-01

    Studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal differentiation are frequently performed using cell lines established from neuroblastomas. In this study we have used mouse N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells that undergo neuronal differentiation in response to DMSO. During differentiation, cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) activities decline and phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) is lost, leading to the appearance of a pRb-containing E2F DNA-binding complex. The loss of cdk2 activity is due to a decrease in cdk2 abundance whereas loss of cdk4 activity is caused by strong association with the cdk inhibitor (CKI) p27KIP1 and concurrent loss of cdk4 phosphorylation. Moreover, neuronal differentiation can be induced by overexpression of p27KIP1 or pRb, suggesting that inhibition of cdk activity leading to loss of pRb phosphorylation, is the major determinant for neuronal differentiation.

  3. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase activity triggers neuronal differentiation of mouse neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal differentiation are frequently performed using cell lines established from neuroblastomas. In this study we have used mouse N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells that undergo neuronal differentiation in response to DMSO. During differentiation, cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) activities decline and phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) is lost, leading to the appearance of a pRb-containing E2F DNA-binding complex. The loss of cdk2 activity is due to a decrease in cdk2 abundance whereas loss of cdk4 activity is caused by strong association with the cdk inhibitor (CKI) p27KIP1 and concurrent loss of cdk4 phosphorylation. Moreover, neuronal differentiation can be induced by overexpression of p27KIP1 or pRb, suggesting that inhibition of cdk activity leading to loss of pRb phosphorylation, is the major determinant for neuronal differentiation. PMID:7559779

  4. Androgen Regulation of p27 in the Normal and Neoplastic Prostate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    IL-6 (50) or the flavanoid antioxidant silibinin (5 1) results in increased p27KIP’ expression associated with G1 arrest and neuroendocrine...Commun 257:609-614. 51. Zi X, Agarwal R 1999 Silibinin decreases prostate-specific antigen with cell growth inhibition via GI arrest, leading to

  5. A syndrome of multiorgan hyperplasia with features of gigantism, tumorigenesis, and female sterility in p27(Kip1)-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Fero, M L; Rivkin, M; Tasch, M; Porter, P; Carow, C E; Firpo, E; Polyak, K; Tsai, L H; Broudy, V; Perlmutter, R M; Kaushansky, K; Roberts, J M

    1996-05-31

    Targeted disruption of the murine p27(Kip1) gene caused a gene dose-dependent increase in animal size without other gross morphologic abnormalities. All tissues were enlarged and contained more cells, although endocrine abnormalities were not evident. Thymic hyperplasia was associated with increased T lymphocyte proliferation, and T cells showed enhanced IL-2 responsiveness in vitro. Thus, p27 deficiency may cause a cell-autonomous defect resulting in enhanced proliferation in response to mitogens. In the spleen, the absence of p27 selectively enhanced proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. p27 deletion, like deletion of the Rb gene, uniquely caused neoplastic growth of the pituitary pars intermedia, suggesting that p27 and Rb function in the same regulatory pathway. The absence of p27 also caused an ovulatory defect and female sterility. Maturation of secondary ovarian follicles into corpora lutea, which express high levels of p27, was markedly impaired.

  6. A Novel, Non-Apoptotic Role for Scythe/BAT3: A Functional Switch between the Pro- and Anti-Proliferative Roles of p21 during the Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Sheila T.; Wang, Xiao-Fan

    2012-01-01

    Background Scythe/BAT3 is a member of the BAG protein family whose role in apoptosis has been extensively studied. However, since the developmental defects observed in Bat3-null mouse embryos cannot be explained solely by defects in apoptosis, we investigated whether BAT3 is also involved in cell-cycle progression. Methods/Principal Findings Using a stable-inducible Bat3-knockdown cellular system, we demonstrated that reduced BAT3 protein level causes a delay in both G1/S transition and G2/M progression. Concurrent with these changes in cell-cycle progression, we observed a reduction in the turnover and phosphorylation of the CDK inhibitor p21, which is best known as an inhibitor of DNA replication; however, phosphorylated p21 has also been shown to promote G2/M progression. Our findings indicate that in Bat3-knockdown cells, p21 continues to be synthesized during cell-cycle phases that do not normally require p21, resulting in p21 protein accumulation and a subsequent delay in cell-cycle progression. Finally, we showed that BAT3 co-localizes with p21 during the cell cycle and is required for the translocation of p21 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus during the G1/S transition and G2/M progression. Conclusion: Our study reveals a novel, non-apoptotic role for BAT3 in cell-cycle regulation. By maintaining a low p21 protein level during the G1/S transition, BAT3 counteracts the inhibitory effect of p21 on DNA replication and thus enables the cells to progress from G1 to S phase. Conversely, during G2/M progression, BAT3 facilitates p21 phosphorylation by cyclin A/Cdk2, an event required for G2/M progression. BAT3 modulates these pro- and anti-proliferative roles of p21 at least in part by regulating cyclin A abundance, as well as p21 translocation between the cytoplasm and the nucleus to ensure that it functions in the appropriate intracellular compartment during each phase of the cell cycle. PMID:22761665

  7. p21-Activated kinase inhibitors: a patent review.

    PubMed

    Crawford, James J; Hoeflich, Klaus P; Rudolph, Joachim

    2012-03-01

    The p21-activated kinase (PAK) family of serine/threonine protein kinases is activated by binding to the small (p21) GTP-binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac. The PAK family plays important roles in cytoskeletal organisation, cellular morphogenesis and survival, and members of this family have been implicated in a wide range of diseases including cancer, infectious diseases, neurological disorders and arthritis. The present review seeks to summarise recent (up to 2011) reports of small-molecule inhibitors of p21-activated kinases. Where patent applications describe activity against a broad range of kinases and no information was provided specifically on PAK inhibition, these are excluded from this review. In patents considered to be relevant, exemplary compounds were selected and highlighted based on their representation of the chemical matter claimed, potencies, structural features and subsequent disclosure of their properties. Selected information from non-patent literature was also included. A considerable amount of research has been devoted over the past 15 years to exploring the role of PAKs in a wide range of diseases, with a focus on oncology. Published PAK inhibitors are still comparatively rare and few exhibit satisfactory kinase selectivity and 'drug-like' properties. A key question is which profile, pan-PAK, group selective or isoform selective, holds the most promise from both therapeutic and safety standpoints. To investigate this question, isoform-selective, as well as kinome-selective, PAK inhibitor tool compounds will be needed. Pfizer was the first company to progress a PAK inhibitor (pan-PAK) to clinical development; it is expected that, despite the difficulties, other PAK inhibitors will soon follow.

  8. p21-activated kinase 1: PAK'ed with potential.

    PubMed

    Ong, Christy C; Jubb, Adrian M; Zhou, Wei; Haverty, Peter M; Harris, Adrian L; Belvin, Marcia; Friedman, Lori S; Koeppen, Hartmut; Hoeflich, Klaus P

    2011-06-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are central players in growth factor signaling networks and morphogenetic processes that control proliferation, cell polarity, invasion and actin cytoskeleton organization. This raises the possibility that interfering with PAK activity may produce significant anti-tumor activity. In this perspective, we summarize recent data concerning the contribution of the PAK family member, PAK1, in growth factor signaling and tumorigenesis. We further discuss mechanisms by which inhibition of PAK1 can arrest tumor growth and promote cell apoptosis, and the types of cancers in which PAK1 inhibition may hold promise.

  9. Anti-cancer effect of novel PAK1 inhibitor via induction of PUMA-mediated cell death and p21-mediated cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Woo, Tae-Gyun; Yoon, Min-Ho; Hong, Shin-Deok; Choi, Jiyun; Ha, Nam-Chul; Sun, Hokeun; Park, Bum-Joon

    2017-04-04

    Hyper-activation of PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1) is frequently observed in human cancer and speculated as a target of novel anti-tumor drug. In previous, we also showed that PAK1 is highly activated in the Smad4-deficient condition and suppresses PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) through direct binding and phosphorylation. On the basis of this result, we have tried to find novel PAK1-PUMA binding inhibitors. Through ELISA-based blind chemical library screening, we isolated single compound, IPP-14 (IPP; Inhibitor of PAK1-PUMA), which selectively blocks the PAK1-PUMA binding and also suppresses cell proliferation via PUMA-dependent manner. Indeed, in PUMA-deficient cells, this chemical did not show anti-proliferating effect. This chemical possessed very strong PAK1 inhibition activity that it suppressed BAD (Bcl-2-asoociated death promoter) phosphorylation and meta-phase arrest via Aurora kinase inactivation in lower concentration than that of previous PAK1 kinase, FRAX486 and AG879. Moreover, our chemical obviously induced p21/WAF1/CIP1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A) expression by releasing from Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma-2) and by inhibition of AKT-mediated p21 suppression. Considering our result, IPP-14 and its derivatives would be possible candidates for PAK1 and p21 induction targeted anti-cancer drug.

  10. Anti-cancer effect of novel PAK1 inhibitor via induction of PUMA-mediated cell death and p21-mediated cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Tae-Gyun; Yoon, Min-Ho; Hong, Shin-Deok; Choi, Jiyun; Ha, Nam-Chul; Sun, Hokeun; Park, Bum-Joon

    2017-01-01

    Hyper-activation of PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1) is frequently observed in human cancer and speculated as a target of novel anti-tumor drug. In previous, we also showed that PAK1 is highly activated in the Smad4-deficient condition and suppresses PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) through direct binding and phosphorylation. On the basis of this result, we have tried to find novel PAK1-PUMA binding inhibitors. Through ELISA-based blind chemical library screening, we isolated single compound, IPP-14 (IPP; Inhibitor of PAK1-PUMA), which selectively blocks the PAK1-PUMA binding and also suppresses cell proliferation via PUMA-dependent manner. Indeed, in PUMA-deficient cells, this chemical did not show anti-proliferating effect. This chemical possessed very strong PAK1 inhibition activity that it suppressed BAD (Bcl-2-asoociated death promoter) phosphorylation and meta-phase arrest via Aurora kinase inactivation in lower concentration than that of previous PAK1 kinase, FRAX486 and AG879. Moreover, our chemical obviously induced p21/WAF1/CIP1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A) expression by releasing from Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma-2) and by inhibition of AKT-mediated p21 suppression. Considering our result, IPP-14 and its derivatives would be possible candidates for PAK1 and p21 induction targeted anti-cancer drug. PMID:28423593

  11. Distinct MAPK signaling pathways, p21 up-regulation and caspase-mediated p21 cleavage establishes the fate of U937 cells exposed to 3-hydrogenkwadaphnin: Differentiation versus apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Moosavi, Mohammad Amin; Yazdanparast, Razieh

    2008-07-01

    Despite the depth of knowledge concerning the pathogenesis of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), long-term survival remains unresolved. Therefore, new agents that act more selectively and more potently are required. In that line, we have recently characterized a novel diterpene ester, called 3-hydrogenkwadaphnin (3-HK), with capability to induce both differentiation and apoptosis in various leukemia cell lines. These effects of 3-HK were mediated through inhibition of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase, a selective up-regulated enzyme in cancerous cells, especially leukemia. However, it remains elusive to understand how cells display different fates in response to 3-HK. Here, we report the distinct molecular signaling pathwaysmore » involved in forcing of 3-HK-treated U937 cells to undergo differentiation and apoptosis. After 3-HK (15 nM) treatment, a portion of U937 cells adhered to the culture plates and showed macrophage criteria while others remained in suspension and underwent apoptosis. The differentiated cells arrested in G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase of cell cycle and showed early activation of ERK1/2 pathway (3 h) along with ERK-dependent p21{sup Cip/WAF1} (p21) up-regulation and expression of p27{sup Kip1} and Bcl-2. In contrast, the suspension cells underwent apoptosis through Fas/FasL and mitochondrial pathways. The occurrence of apoptosis in these cells were accompanied with caspase-8-mediated p21 cleavage and delayed activation (24 h) of JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Taken together, these results suggest that distinct signaling pathways play a pivotal role in fates of drug-treated leukemia cells, thus this may pave some novel therapeutical utilities.« less

  12. p14ARF Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Nuclear Cyclin D1 in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells: Discrimination between a Good and Bad Prognosis?

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Eileen M.; Tran, Nham; Alling, Nikki; Yagoub, Daniel; Sedger, Lisa M.; Martiniello-Wilks, Rosetta

    2012-01-01

    As part of a cell’s inherent protection against carcinogenesis, p14ARF is upregulated in response to hyperproliferative signalling to induce cell cycle arrest. This property makes p14ARF a leading candidate for cancer therapy. This study explores the consequences of reactivating p14ARF in breast cancer and the potential of targeting p14ARF in breast cancer treatment. Our results show that activation of the p14ARF-p53-p21-Rb pathway in the estrogen sensitive MCF-7 breast cancer cells induces many hallmarks of senescence including a large flat cell morphology, multinucleation, senescence-associated-β-gal staining, and rapid G1 and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. P14ARF also induces the expression of the proto-oncogene cyclin D1, which is most often associated with a transition from G1-S phase and is highly expressed in breast cancers with poor clinical prognosis. In this study, siRNA knockdown of cyclin D1, p21 and p53 show p21 plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of high cyclin D1 expression, cell cycle and growth arrest post-p14ARF induction. High p53 and p14ARF expression and low p21/cyclin D1 did not cause cell-cycle arrest. Knockdown of cyclin D1 stops proliferation but does not reverse senescence-associated cell growth. Furthermore, cyclin D1 accumulation in the nucleus post-p14ARF activation correlated with a rapid loss of nucleolar Ki-67 protein and inhibition of DNA synthesis. Latent effects of the p14ARF-induced cellular processes resulting from high nuclear cyclin D1 accumulation included a redistribution of Ki-67 into the nucleoli, aberrant nuclear growth (multinucleation), and cell proliferation. Lastly, downregulation of cyclin D1 through inhibition of ER abrogated latent recurrence. The mediation of these latent effects by continuous expression of p14ARF further suggests a novel mechanism whereby dysregulation of cyclin D1 could have a double-edged effect. Our results suggest that p14ARF induced-senescence is related to late-onset breast cancer in

  13. Eya4 Induces Hypertrophy via Regulation of p27kip1.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tatjana; Hundertmark, Moritz; Nordbeck, Peter; Voll, Sabine; Arias-Loza, Paula Anahi; Oppelt, Daniel; Mühlfelder, Melanie; Schraut, Susanna; Elsner, Ines; Czolbe, Martin; Seidlmayer, Lea; Heinze, Britta; Hahner, Stefanie; Heinze, Katrin; Schönberger, Jost; Jakob, Peter; Ritter, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    E193, a heterozygous truncating mutation in the human transcription cofactor Eyes absent 4 (Eya4), causes hearing impairment followed by dilative cardiomyopathy. In this study, we first show Eya4 and E193 alter the expression of p27(kip1) in vitro, suggesting Eya4 is a negative regulator of p27. Next, we generated transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of Eya4 or E193. Luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed Eya4 and E193 bind and regulate p27 expression in a contradictory manner. Activity and phosphorylation status of the downstream molecules casein kinase-2α and histone deacetylase 2 were significantly elevated in Eya4- but significantly reduced in E193-overexpressing animals compared with wild-type littermates. Magnetic resonance imaging and hemodynamic analysis indicate Eya4-overexpression results in an age-dependent development of hypertrophy already under baseline conditions with no obvious functional effects, whereas E193 animals develop onset of dilative cardiomyopathy as seen in human E193 patients. Both cardiac phenotypes were aggravated on pressure overload. Finally, we identified a new heterozygous truncating Eya4 mutation, E215, which leads to similar clinical features of disease and a stable myocardial expression of the mutant protein as seen with E193. Our results implicate Eya4/Six1 regulates normal cardiac function via p27/casein kinase-2α/histone deacetylase 2 and indicate that mutations within this transcriptional complex and signaling cascade lead to the development of cardiomyopathy. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. LincRNA-p21 activates p21 in cis to promote Polycomb target gene expression and to enforce the G1/S checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova, Nadya; Zamudio, Jesse R.; Jong, Robyn M.; Soukup, Dylan; Resnick, Rebecca; Sarma, Kavitha; Ward, Amanda J.; Raj, Arjun; Lee, Jeannie; Sharp, Phillip A.; Jacks, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The p53-regulated long non-coding RNA lincRNA-p21 has been proposed to act in trans via several mechanisms ranging from repressing genes in the p53 transcriptional network to regulating mRNA translation and protein stability. To further examine lincRNA-p21 function we generated a conditional knockout mouse model. We find that lincRNA-p21 predominantly functions in cis to activate expression of its neighboring gene, p21. Mechanistically, we show that lincRNA-p21 acts in concert with hnRNP-K as a co-activator for p53-dependent p21 transcription. Additional phenotypes of lincRNA-p21 deficiency could be attributed to diminished p21 levels, including deregulated expression and altered chromatin state of some Polycomb target genes, defective G1/S checkpoint, increased proliferation rates, and enhanced reprogramming efficiency. These findings indicate that lincRNA-p21 affects global gene expression and influences the p53 tumor suppressor pathway by acting in cis as a locus-restricted co-activator for p53-mediated p21 expression. PMID:24857549

  15. oxLDL induces endothelial cell proliferation via Rho/ROCK/Akt/p27kip1 signaling: opposite effects of oxLDL and cholesterol loading.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongxu; Adamos, Crystal; Oh, Myung-Jin; Baruah, Jugajyoti; Ayee, Manuela A A; Mehta, Dolly; Wary, Kishore K; Levitan, Irena

    2017-09-01

    Oxidized modifications of LDL (oxLDL) play a key role in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of oxLDL-mediated cellular behavior are not completely understood. Here, we compared the effects of two major types of oxLDL, copper-oxidized LDL (Cu 2+ -oxLDL) and lipoxygenase-oxidized LDL (LPO-oxLDL), on proliferation of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Cu 2+ -oxLDL enhanced HAECs' proliferation in a dose- and degree of oxidation-dependent manner. Similarly, LPO-oxLDL also enhanced HAEC proliferation. Mechanistically, both Cu 2+ -oxLDL and LPO-oxLDL enhance HAEC proliferation via activation of Rho, Akt phosphorylation, and a decrease in the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27 kip1 ). Both Cu 2+ -oxLDL or LPO-oxLDL significantly increased Akt phosphorylation, whereas an Akt inhibitor, MK2206, blocked oxLDL-induced increase in HAEC proliferation. Blocking Rho with C3 or its downstream target ROCK with Y27632 significantly inhibited oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation and proliferation mediated by both Cu 2+ - and LPO-oxLDL. Activation of RhoA was blocked by Rho-GDI-1, which also abrogated oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation and HAEC proliferation. In contrast, blocking Rac1 in these cells had no effect on oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation or cell proliferation. Moreover, oxLDL-induced Rho/Akt signaling downregulated cell cycle inhibitor p27 kip1 Preloading these cells with cholesterol, however, prevented oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation and HAEC proliferation. These findings provide a new understanding of the effects of oxLDL on endothelial proliferation, which is essential for developing new treatments against neovascularization and progression of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. P21 activated kinases: structure, regulation, and functions.

    PubMed

    Rane, Chetan K; Minden, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    The p21 activated kinases (Paks) are well known effector proteins for the Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac. The Paks contain 6 members, which fall into 2 families of proteins. The first family consists of Paks 1, 2, and 3, and the second consists of Paks 4, 5, and 6. While some of the Paks are ubiquitously expressed, others have more restrictive tissue specificity. All of them are found in the nervous system. Studies using cell culture, transgenic mice, and knockout mice, have revealed important roles for the Paks in cytoskeletal organization and in many aspects of cell growth and development. This review discusses the basic structures of the Paks, and their roles in cell growth, development, and in cancer.

  17. Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Ray, Ramesh M.; Johnson, Leonard R.

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis of the gastrointestinal epithelium is dependent upon a balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are well known for their role in cell proliferation. Previous studies from our group have shown that polyamine-depletion of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) decreases cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) activity, increases p53 and p21Cip1 protein levels, induces G1 arrest, and protects cells from camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis. Although emerging evidence suggests that members of the Cdk family are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, their roles directing apoptosis of IEC-6 cells are not known. In this study, we report that inhibition of Cdk1, 2, and 9 (with the broad range Cdk inhibitor, AZD5438) in proliferating IEC-6 cells triggered DNA damage, activated p53 signaling, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis. By contrast, inhibition of Cdk2 (with NU6140) increased p53 protein and activity, inhibited proliferation, but had no effect on apoptosis. Notably, AZD5438 sensitized, whereas, NU6140 rescued proliferating IEC-6 cells from CPT-induced apoptosis. However, in colon carcinoma (Caco2) cells with mutant p53, treatment with either AZD5438 or NU6140 blocked proliferation, albeit more robustly with AZD5438. Both Cdk inhibitors induced apoptosis in Caco2 cells in a p53-independent manner. In serum starved quiescent IEC-6 cells, both AZD5438 and NU6140 decreased TNF- /CPT-induced activation of p53 and, consequently, rescued cells from apoptosis, indicating that sustained Cdk activity is required for apoptosis of quiescent cells. Furthermore, AZD5438 partially reversed the protective effect of polyamine depletion whereas NU6140 had no effect. Together, these results demonstrate that Cdks possess opposing roles in the control of apoptosis in quiescent and proliferating cells. In addition, Cdk inhibitors uncouple proliferation from apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:24242917

  18. The G1/S Specific Cyclin D2 Is a Regulator of HIV-1 Restriction in Non-proliferating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Badia, Roger; Pujantell, Maria; Riveira-Muñoz, Eva; Puig, Teresa; Torres-Torronteras, Javier; Martí, Ramón; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ampudia, Rosa M.; Ballana, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population strongly influenced by differentiation stimuli that become susceptible to HIV-1 infection after inactivation of the restriction factor SAMHD1 by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). Here, we have used primary human monocyte-derived macrophages differentiated through different stimuli to evaluate macrophage heterogeneity on cell activation and proliferation and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Stimulation of monocytes with GM-CSF induces a non-proliferating macrophage population highly restrictive to HIV-1 infection, characterized by the upregulation of the G1/S-specific cyclin D2, known to control early steps of cell cycle progression. Knockdown of cyclin D2, enhances HIV-1 replication in GM-CSF macrophages through inactivation of SAMHD1 restriction factor by phosphorylation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that cyclin D2 forms a complex with CDK4 and p21, a factor known to restrict HIV-1 replication by affecting the function of the downstream cascade that leads to SAMHD1 deactivation. Thus, we demonstrate that cyclin D2 acts as regulator of cell cycle proteins affecting SAMHD1-mediated HIV-1 restriction in non-proliferating macrophages. PMID:27541004

  19. Therapeutically targeting cyclin D1 in primary tumors arising from loss of Ini1

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Melissa E.; Cimica, Velasco; Chinni, Srinivasa; Jana, Suman; Koba, Wade; Yang, Zhixia; Fine, Eugene; Zagzag, David; Montagna, Cristina; Kalpana, Ganjam V.

    2011-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumors (RTs) are rare, highly aggressive pediatric malignancies with poor prognosis and with no standard or effective treatment strategies. RTs are characterized by biallelic inactivation of the INI1 tumor suppressor gene. INI1 directly represses CCND1 and activates cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors p16Ink4a and p21CIP. RTs are exquisitely dependent on cyclin D1 for genesis and survival. To facilitate translation of unique therapeutic strategies, we have used genetically engineered, Ini1+/− mice for therapeutic testing. We found that PET can be used to noninvasively and accurately detect primary tumors in Ini1+/− mice. In a PET-guided longitudinal study, we found that treating Ini1+/− mice bearing primary tumors with the pan-cdk inhibitor flavopiridol resulted in complete and stable regression of some tumors. Other tumors showed resistance to flavopiridol, and one of the resistant tumors overexpressed cyclin D1, more than flavopiridol-sensitive cells. The concentration of flavopiridol used was not sufficient to down-modulate the high level of cyclin D1 and failed to induce cell death in the resistant cells. Furthermore, FISH and PCR analyses indicated that there is aneuploidy and increased CCND1 copy number in resistant cells. These studies indicate that resistance to flavopiridol may be correlated to elevated cyclin D1 levels. Our studies also indicate that Ini1+/− mice are valuable tools for testing unique therapeutic strategies and for understanding mechanisms of drug resistance in tumors that arise owing to loss of Ini1, which is essential for developing effective treatment strategies against these aggressive tumors. PMID:21173237

  20. MAP kinase dependent cyclinE/cdk2 activity promotes DNA replication in early sea urchin embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kisielewska, J.; Philipova, R.; Huang, J.-Y.; Whitaker, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sea urchins provide an excellent model for studying cell cycle control mechanisms governing DNA replication in vivo. Fertilization and cell cycle progression are tightly coordinated by Ca2+ signals, but the mechanisms underlying the onset of DNA replication after fertilization remain less clear. In this study we demonstrate that calcium-dependent activation of ERK1 promotes accumulation of cyclinE/cdk2 into the male and female pronucleus and entry into first S-phase. We show that cdk2 activity rises quickly after fertilization to a maximum at 4 min, corresponding in timing to the early ERK1 activity peak. Abolishing MAP kinase activity after fertilization with MEK inhibitor, U0126, substantially reduces the early peak of cdk2 activity and prevents cyclinE and cdk2 accumulation in both sperm pronucleus and zygote nucleus in vivo. Both p27kip1 and roscovitine, cdk2 inhibitors, prevented DNA replication suggesting cdk2 involvement in this process in sea urchin. Inhibition of cdk2 activity using p27kip1 had no effect on the phosphorylation of MBP by ERK, but completely abolished phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein, a cdk2 substrate, indicating that cdk2 activity is downstream of ERK1 activation. This pattern of regulation of DNA synthesis conforms to the pattern observed in mammalian somatic cells. PMID:19665013

  1. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p20 controls circadian cell-cycle timing

    PubMed Central

    Laranjeiro, Ricardo; Tamai, T. Katherine; Peyric, Elodie; Krusche, Peter; Ott, Sascha; Whitmore, David

    2013-01-01

    Specific stages of the cell cycle are often restricted to particular times of day because of regulation by the circadian clock. In zebrafish, both mitosis (M phase) and DNA synthesis (S phase) are clock-controlled in cell lines and during embryo development. Despite the ubiquitousness of this phenomenon, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanism linking the clock to the cell cycle. In this study, we describe an evolutionarily conserved cell-cycle regulator, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1d (20 kDa protein, p20), which along with p21, is a strongly rhythmic gene and directly clock-controlled. Both p20 and p21 regulate the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. However, their expression patterns differ, with p20 predominant in developing brain and peak expression occurring 6 h earlier than p21. p20 expression is also p53-independent in contrast to p21 regulation. Such differences provide a unique mechanism whereby S phase is set to different times of day in a tissue-specific manner, depending on the balance of these two inhibitors. PMID:23569261

  2. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p20 controls circadian cell-cycle timing.

    PubMed

    Laranjeiro, Ricardo; Tamai, T Katherine; Peyric, Elodie; Krusche, Peter; Ott, Sascha; Whitmore, David

    2013-04-23

    Specific stages of the cell cycle are often restricted to particular times of day because of regulation by the circadian clock. In zebrafish, both mitosis (M phase) and DNA synthesis (S phase) are clock-controlled in cell lines and during embryo development. Despite the ubiquitousness of this phenomenon, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanism linking the clock to the cell cycle. In this study, we describe an evolutionarily conserved cell-cycle regulator, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1d (20 kDa protein, p20), which along with p21, is a strongly rhythmic gene and directly clock-controlled. Both p20 and p21 regulate the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. However, their expression patterns differ, with p20 predominant in developing brain and peak expression occurring 6 h earlier than p21. p20 expression is also p53-independent in contrast to p21 regulation. Such differences provide a unique mechanism whereby S phase is set to different times of day in a tissue-specific manner, depending on the balance of these two inhibitors.

  3. p21 Restricts HIV-1 in Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells through the Reduction of Deoxynucleoside Triphosphate Biosynthesis and Regulation of SAMHD1 Antiviral Activity.

    PubMed

    Valle-Casuso, Jose Carlos; Allouch, Awatef; David, Annie; Lenzi, Gina M; Studdard, Lydia; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela; Kim, Baek; Pancino, Gianfranco; Sáez-Cirión, Asier

    2017-12-01

    HIV-1 infection of noncycling cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs), is impaired due to limited availability of deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), which are needed for HIV-1 reverse transcription. The levels of dNTPs are tightly regulated during the cell cycle and depend on the balance between dNTP biosynthesis and degradation. SAMHD1 potently blocks HIV-1 replication in DCs, although the underlying mechanism is still unclear. SAMHD1 has been reported to be able to degrade dNTPs and viral nucleic acids, which may both hamper HIV-1 reverse transcription. The relative contribution of these activities may differ in cycling and noncycling cells. Here, we show that inhibition of HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) is associated with an increased expression of p21cip1/waf, a cell cycle regulator that is involved in the differentiation and maturation of DCs. Induction of p21 in MDDCs decreases the pool of dNTPs and increases the antiviral active isoform of SAMHD1. Although both processes are complementary in inhibiting HIV-1 replication, the antiviral activity of SAMHD1 in our primary cell model appears to be, at least partially, independent of its dNTPase activity. The reduction in the pool of dNTPs in MDDCs appears rather mostly due to a p21-mediated suppression of several enzymes involved in dNTP synthesis (i.e., RNR2, TYMS, and TK-1). These results are important to better understand the interplay between HIV-1 and DCs and may inform the design of new therapeutic approaches to decrease viral dissemination and improve immune responses against HIV-1. IMPORTANCE DCs play a key role in the induction of immune responses against HIV. However, HIV has evolved ways to exploit these cells, facilitating immune evasion and virus dissemination. We have found that the expression of p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor involved in cell cycle regulation and monocyte differentiation and maturation, potentially can contribute to the inhibition of HIV-1 replication

  4. Induction of differentiation in human promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cells activates p21, WAF1/CIP1, expression in the absence of p53.

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, H.; Lin, J.; Su, Z.-Z.

    The melanoma differentiation associated gene, mda-6, which is identical to the P53-inducible gene WAF1/CIP1, encodes an M(r) 21,000 protein (p21) that can directly inhibit cell growth by repressing cyclin dependent kinases. mda-6 was identified using subtraction hybridization by virtue of its enhanced expression in human melanoma cells induced to terminally differentiate by treatment with human fibroblast interferon and the anti-leukemic compound mezerein (Jiang and Fisher, 1993). In the present study, we demonstrate that mda-6 (WAF1/CIP1) is an immediate early response gene induced during differentiation of the promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cell line along the granulocytic or macrophage/monocyte pathway. mda-6 gene expressionmore » in HL-60 cells is induced within 1 to 3 h during differentiation along the macrophage/monocyte pathway evoked by 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Vit D3) or the granulocytic pathway produced by retinoic acid (RA) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Immunoprecipitation analyses using an anti-p21 antibody indicate a temporal induction of p21 protein following treatment with TPA, DMSO or RA. A relationship between rapid induction of mda-6 gene expression and differentiation is indicated by a delay in this expression in an HL-60 cell variant resistant to TPA-induced growth arrest and differentiation. A similar delay in mda-6 gene expression is not observed in Vit D3 treated TPA-resistant variant cells that are also sensitive to induction of monocytic differentiation. Since HL-60 cells have a null-p53 phenotype, these results demonstrate that p21 induction occurs during initiation of terminal differentiation in a p53-independent manner. In this context, p21 may play a more global role in growth control and differentiation than originally envisioned.« less

  5. Antisense imaging of epidermal growth factor-induced p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) gene expression in MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Judy; Chen, Paul; Mrkobrada, Marko; Hu, Meiduo; Vallis, Katherine A; Reilly, Raymond M

    2003-09-01

    Molecular imaging of the expression of key genes which determine the response to DNA damage following cancer treatment may predict the effectiveness of a particular treatment strategy. A prominent early response gene for DNA damage is the gene encoding p21(WAF-1/CIP-1), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that regulates progression through the cell cycle. In this study, we explored the feasibility of imaging p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) gene expression at the mRNA level using an 18-mer phosphorothioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) labeled with (111)In. The known induction of the p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) gene in MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cells following exposure to epidermal growth factor (EGF) was used as an experimental tool. Treatment of MDA-MB-468 cells in vitro with EGF (20 n M) increased the ratio of p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) mRNA/beta-actin mRNA threefold within 2 h as measured by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A concentration-dependent inhibition of EGF-induced p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) protein expression was achieved in MDA-MB-468 cells by treatment with antisense ODNs with up to a tenfold decrease observed at 1 microM. There was a fourfold lower inhibition of p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) protein expression by control sense or random sequence ODNs. Intratumoral injections of EGF (15 microg/dayx3 days) were employed to induce p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) gene expression in MDA-MB-468 xenografts implanted subcutaneously into athymic mice. RT-PCR of explanted tumors showed a threefold increased level of p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) mRNA compared with normal saline-treated tumors. Successful imaging of EGF-induced p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) gene expression in MDA-MB-468 xenografts was achieved at 48 h post injection of (111)In-labeled antisense ODNs (3.7 MBq; 2 microg). Tumors displaying basal levels of p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) gene expression in the absence of EGF treatment could not be visualized. Biodistribution studies showed a significantly higher tumor accumulation of (111)In-labeled antisense ODNs in

  6. Identification of an hexapeptide that binds to a surface pocket in cyclin A and inhibits the catalytic activity of the complex cyclin-dependent kinase 2-cyclin A.

    PubMed

    Canela, Núria; Orzáez, Mar; Fucho, Raquel; Mateo, Francesca; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Pineda-Lucena, Antonio; Bachs, Oriol; Pérez-Payá, Enrique

    2006-11-24

    The protein-protein complexes formed between different cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are central to cell cycle regulation. These complexes represent interesting points of chemical intervention for the development of antineoplastic molecules. Here we describe the identification of an all d-amino acid hexapeptide, termed NBI1, that inhibits the kinase activity of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (cdk2)-cyclin A complex through selective binding to cyclin A. The mechanism of inhibition is non-competitive for ATP and non-competitive for protein substrates. In contrast to the existing CDKs peptide inhibitors, the hexapeptide NBI1 interferes with the formation of the cdk2-cyclin A complex. Furthermore, a cell-permeable derivative of NBI1 induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of tumor cell lines. Thus, the NBI1-binding site on cyclin A may represent a new target site for the selective inhibition of activity cdk2-cyclin A complex.

  7. Overexpression of K-p21Ras play a prominent role in lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng-bo; Zhou, Xin-liang; Yang, Ju-lun

    2018-06-01

    The proto-oncogene ras product, p21Ras, has been found overexpression in many human tumors. However, the subtypes of overexpressed p21Ras still remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate overexpressed isoforms of p21Ras and their roles in the progress of lung cancer. Method: The expression of total p21Ras in normal lung tissues and lung cancers was determined by immunohistochemically staining with monoclonal antibody (Mab) KGHR-1 which could recognize and broad spectrum reaction with the (K/H/N) ras protein. Then, the isoforms of p21Ras was examined by specific Mab for each p21Ras subtypes. Results: Low expression of total p21Ras was found in 26.67% (8/30) of normal lung tissues, and 81.31% (87/107) of adenocarcinoma harbored overexpressed total p21Ras. Besides, 70.00% (35/50) of squamous cell carcinoma were detected overexpressed total p21Ras. In addition, 122 lung cancer tissues from overexpression of total p21Ras protein were selected to detect the expression of each subtype. And all the 122 lung cancer tissues were K-p21Ras overexpression. Moreover, there was a statistical significance difference between the expression level of total p21Ras and differentiation, and the same results were observed between the expression level of total p21Ras and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). However, there was no correlation between the expression level of total p21Ras and gender, age, tumor size (P>0.05). Conclusions: Overexpression of K-p21Ras plays a prominent role in the progress of lung cancer and it is suggested that the p21Ras could serve as a promising treatment target in lung cancer.

  8. Assessment of Mycobacterium bovis deleted in p27-p55 virulence operon as candidate vaccine against tuberculosis in animal models.

    PubMed

    Bianco, María V; Clark, Simon; Blanco, Federico C; Garbaccio, Sergio; García, Elizabeth; Cataldi, Angel A; Williams, Ann; Bigi, Fabiana

    2014-01-01

    A Mycobacterium bovis knockout in p27-p55 operon was tested as an antituberculosis experimental vaccine in animal models. The mutant MbΔp27-p55 was significantly more attenuated in nude mice than its parental strain but more virulent than BCG Pasteur. Challenge experiments in mice and guinea pigs using M. bovis or M. tuberculosis strains showed similar protection conferred by MbΔp27-p55 mutant than BCG in terms of pathology and bacterial loads in spleen but lower protection than BCG in lungs. When tested in cattle, MbΔp27-p55 did not induce IL-2 expression and induced a very low production of IFNγ, suggesting that the lack of P27/P55 reduces the capacity of M. bovis of triggering an adequate Th1 response.

  9. P21-activated kinase in inflammatory and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Taglieri, Domenico M; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Monasky, Michelle M

    2014-09-01

    P-21 activated kinases, or PAKs, are serine-threonine kinases that serve a role in diverse biological functions and organ system diseases. Although PAK signaling has been the focus of many investigations, still our understanding of the role of PAK in inflammation is incomplete. This review consolidates what is known about PAK1 across several cell types, highlighting the role of PAK1 and PAK2 in inflammation in relation to NADPH oxidase activation. This review explores the physiological functions of PAK during inflammation, the role of PAK in several organ diseases with an emphasis on cardiovascular disease, and the PAK signaling pathway, including activators and targets of PAK. Also, we discuss PAK1 as a pharmacological anti-inflammatory target, explore the potentials and the limitations of the current pharmacological tools to regulate PAK1 activity during inflammation, and provide indications for future research. We conclude that a vast amount of evidence supports the idea that PAK is a central molecule in inflammatory signaling, thus making PAK1 itself a promising prospective pharmacological target. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Organ differences in the impact of p27(kip1) deficiency on carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kumiko; Murasaki, Toshiya; Sugiura, Satoshi; Nakanishi, Makoto; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of p27 on carcinogenesis in various organs, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), a direct-acting alkylating agent, was given to p27 knock-out mice. Groups of 20-40 male and female mice with null, hetero- or wild-type p27 alleles were given drinking water containing 240 ppm MNU or distilled water every other week for five cycles. The incidence and multiplicity of the induced proliferative lesions were then histologically evaluated at weeks 14 and 20. MNU treatment induced various lesions including squamous hyperplasia and squamous cell carcinoma in the forestomach, atypical hyperplasia and adenocarcinomas in the fundic and pyloric glands, adenomas and adenocarcinomas in the duodenum, malignant lymphomas in the thymus, liver, kidney and spleen and alveolar hyperplasia, adenomas, adenocarcinomas and malignant lymphomas in the lung. Although the incidences of the lesions in the forestomach, fundic and pyloric glands did not differ among the p27 genotypes, those of alveolar hyperplasia of the lung and malignant lymphoma of the thymus were significantly increased in p27-null males as compared with both wild- and hetero-type animals. Moreover, in both p27(+/+) and p27(+/-) cases, the rates for p27-positive cells were obviously increased in proliferative lesions of the pyloric gland and the lung. However, an increased rate of p27-positive cells was not observed in malignant lymphoma of the thymus. These findings suggest that p27 does not control the cell cycle equally in all organs affected by MNU-induced carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Disruption of the G1/S Transition in Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7-Expressing Human Cells Is Associated with Altered Regulation of Cyclin E

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Larry G.; Demers, G. William; Galloway, Denise A.

    1998-01-01

    The development of neoplasia frequently involves inactivation of the p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor pathways and disruption of cell cycle checkpoints that monitor the integrity of replication and cell division. The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) oncoproteins, E6 and E7, have been shown to bind p53 and Rb, respectively. To further delineate the mechanisms by which E6 and E7 affect cell cycle control, we examined various aspects of the cell cycle machinery. The low-risk HPV-6 E6 and E7 proteins did not cause any significant change in the levels of cell cycle proteins analyzed. HPV-16 E6 resulted in very low levels of p53 and p21 and globally elevated cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. In contrast, HPV-16 E7 had a profound effect on several aspects of the cell cycle machinery. A number of cyclins and CDKs were elevated, and despite the elevation of the levels of at least two CDK inhibitors, p21 and p16, CDK activity was globally increased. Most strikingly, cyclin E expression was deregulated both transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally and persisted at high levels in S and G2/M. Transit through G1 was shortened by the premature activation of cyclin E-associated kinase activity. Elevation of cyclin E levels required both the CR1 and CR2 domains of E7. These data suggest that cyclin E may be a critical target of HPV-16 E7 in the disruption of G1/S cell cycle progression and that the ability of E7 to regulate cyclin E involves activities in addition to the release of E2F. PMID:9444990

  12. In vitro differentiation of HT-29 M6 mucus-secreting colon cancer cells involves a trychostatin A and p27(KIP1)-inducible transcriptional program of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Clara; Lloreta, Josep; Real, Francisco X; Mayol, Xavier

    2007-07-01

    Tumor cell dedifferentiation-such as the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion in epithelial tumors-is associated with tumor progression. To better understand the mechanisms that maintain carcinoma cells in a differentiated state, we have dissected in vitro differentiation pathways in the mucus-secretor HT-29 M6 colon cancer cell line, which spontaneously differentiates in postconfluent cultures. By lowering the extracellular calcium concentration to levels that prevent intercellular adhesion and epithelial polarization, our results reveal that differentiation is calcium-dependent and involves: (i) a process of cell cycle exit to G(0) and (ii) the induction of a transcriptional program of differentiation gene expression (i.e., mucins MUC1 and MUC5AC, and the apical membrane peptidase DPPIV). In calcium-deprived, non-differentiated postconfluent cultures, differentiation gene promoters are repressed by a trichostatin A (TSA)-sensitive mechanism, indicating that loss of gene expression by dedifferentiation is driven by histone deacetylases (HDAC). Since TSA treatment or extracellular calcium restoration allow gene promoter activation to similar levels, we suggest that induction of differentiation is one mechanism of HDAC inhibitor antitumor action. Moreover, transcriptional de-repression can also be induced in non-differentiating culture conditions by overexpressing the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1), which is normally induced during spontaneous differentiation. Since p27(KIP1) downregulation in colon cancer is associated with poor prognosis independently of tumor cell division rates, we propose that p27 (KIP1) may prevent tumor progression by, at least in part, enhancing the expression of some differentiation genes. Therefore, the HT-29 M6 model allows the identification of some basic mechanisms of cancer cell differentiation control, so far revealing HDAC and p27(KIP1) as key regulatory factors of differentiation gene expression.

  13. Jab1 regulates Schwann cell proliferation and axonal sorting through p27

    PubMed Central

    Porrello, Emanuela; Rivellini, Cristina; Dina, Giorgia; Triolo, Daniela; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Ungaro, Daniela; Panattoni, Martina; Feltri, Maria Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Pardi, Ruggero; Quattrini, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Axonal sorting is a crucial event in nerve formation and requires proper Schwann cell proliferation, differentiation, and contact with axons. Any defect in axonal sorting results in dysmyelinating peripheral neuropathies. Evidence from mouse models shows that axonal sorting is regulated by laminin211– and, possibly, neuregulin 1 (Nrg1)–derived signals. However, how these signals are integrated in Schwann cells is largely unknown. We now report that the nuclear Jun activation domain–binding protein 1 (Jab1) may transduce laminin211 signals to regulate Schwann cell number and differentiation during axonal sorting. Mice with inactivation of Jab1 in Schwann cells develop a dysmyelinating neuropathy with axonal sorting defects. Loss of Jab1 increases p27 levels in Schwann cells, which causes defective cell cycle progression and aberrant differentiation. Genetic down-regulation of p27 levels in Jab1-null mice restores Schwann cell number, differentiation, and axonal sorting and rescues the dysmyelinating neuropathy. Thus, Jab1 constitutes a regulatory molecule that integrates laminin211 signals in Schwann cells to govern cell cycle, cell number, and differentiation. Finally, Jab1 may constitute a key molecule in the pathogenesis of dysmyelinating neuropathies. PMID:24344238

  14. Cyclin d1 expression in odontogenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, Nasim; Modabbernia, Shirin; Akbarzadeh, Alireza; Sajjadi, Samad

    2013-01-01

    In the present study expression of cyclin D1 in the epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocyst, radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and glandular odontogenic cyst was investigated to compare proliferative activity in these lesions. Immunohistochemical staining of cyclin D1 on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of odontogenic keratocysts (n=23), dentigerous cysts (n=20), radicular cysts (n=20) and glandular odontogenic cysts (n=5) was performed by standard EnVision method. Then, slides were studied to evaluate the following parameters in epithelial lining of cysts: expression, expression pattern, staining intensity and localization of expression. The data analysis showed statistically significant difference in cyclin D1 expression in studied groups (p < 0.001). Assessment of staining intensity and staining pattern showed more strong intensity and focally pattern in odontogenic keratocysts, but difference was not statistically significant among groups respectively (p=0.204, 0.469). Considering expression localization, cyclin D1 positive cells in odontogenic keratocysts and dentigerous cysts were frequently confined in parabasal layer, different from radicular cysts and glandular odontogenic cysts. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Findings showed higher expression of cyclin D1 in parabasal layer of odontogenic keratocyst and the entire cystic epithelium of glandular odontogenic cysts comparing to dentigerous cysts and radicular cysts, implying the possible role of G1-S cell cycle phase disturbances in the aggressiveness of odontogenic keratocyst and glandular odontogenic cyst.

  15. Effect of p27 gene combined with Pientzehuang ([characters: see text]) on tumor growth in osteosarcoma-bearing nude mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shou-song; Yuan, Fang; Liu, Ying-hong; Zhou, Le-tian; Li, Jun

    2015-11-01

    To observe the effect of p27 gene recombinant adenovirus combined with Chinese medicine Pientzehuang ([characters: see text]) on the growth of xenografted human osteosarcoma in nude mice. Tissue transplantation was used to construct the orthotopic model of human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cell in nude mice. Thirty tumor-bearing nude mice were randomly divided into 5 groups with 6 mice in each group: blank control group (model of osteosarcoma), empty vector group (recombinant adeno-associated virus-multiple cloning site), Pientzehuang group, p27 gene group and combined treatment group (p27 gene combined with Pientzehuang). The effect of combined treatment on human osteosarcoma was analyzed through the tumor formation, tumor volume and inhibition rate of tumor growth. The expression of p27 was measured by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot. The orthotopic model of osteosarcoma in nude mice was successfully constructed. The general appearance of tumor-bearing nude mice in Pientzehuang and p27 gene groups was markedly improved compared with the blank control group; and in the combined treatment group it was significantly improved compared with the Pientzehuang and p27 gene groups. The tumor growth in the Pientzehuang and p27 gene groups was significantly inhibited compared with the blank control group P<0.05); while in the combined treatment group it was markedly inhibited compared with the Pientzehuang and p27 gene groups (P<0.05). The rates of tumor growth inhibition were 34.1%, 56.5% and 63.8% in the Pientzehuang, p27 gene and combined treatment groups, respectively. Meanwhile, the protein expression of p27 gene in the p27 gene group was significantly increased compared with the blank control group (P<0.05); and it was significantly increased in the combined treatment group compared with the p27 gene and Pientzehuang groups (P<0.05). p27 gene introduced by adenovirus combined with Pientzehuang can inhibit the growth of human osteosarcoma cell Saos-2 in nude mice.

  16. The p27 Pathway Modulates the Regulation of Skeletal Growth and Osteoblastic Bone Formation by Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Zhan; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Rong; Karaplis, Andrew; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2015-11-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) 1-84 knock-in mice (Pthrp KI) develop skeletal growth retardation and defective osteoblastic bone formation. To further examine the mechanisms underlying this phenotype, microarray analyses of differential gene expression profiles were performed in long bone extracts from Pthrp KI mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. We found that the expression levels of p27, p16, and p53 were significantly upregulated in Pthrp KI mice relative to WT littermates. To determine whether p27 was involved in the regulation by PTHrP of skeletal growth and development in vivo, we generated compound mutant mice, which were homozygous for both p27 deletion and the Pthrp KI mutation (p27(-/-) Pthrp KI). We then compared p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice with p27(-/-), Pthrp KI, and WT littermates. Deletion of p27 in Pthrp KI mice resulted in a longer lifespan, increased body weight, and improvement in skeletal growth. At 2 weeks of age, skeletal parameters, including length of long bones, size of epiphyses, numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive chondrocytes, bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-, type I collagen-, and osteocalcin-positive bone areas were increased in p27(-/-) mice and reduced in both Pthrp KI and p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with WT mice; however, these parameters were increased in p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with Pthrp KI mice. As well, protein expression levels of PTHR, IGF-1, and Bmi-1, and the numbers of total colony-forming unit fibroblastic (CFU-f) and ALP-positive CFU-f were similarly increased in p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with Pthrp KI mice. Our results demonstrate that deletion of p27 in Pthrp KI mice can partially rescue defects in skeletal growth and osteoblastic bone formation by enhancing endochondral bone formation and osteogenesis. These studies, therefore, indicate that the p27 pathway may function downstream in the action

  17. ARTD1 regulates cyclin E expression and consequently cell-cycle re-entry and G1/S progression in T24 bladder carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Léger, Karolin; Hopp, Ann-Katrin; Fey, Monika; Hottiger, Michael O

    2016-08-02

    ADP-ribosylation is involved in a variety of biological processes, many of which are chromatin-dependent and linked to important functions during the cell cycle. However, any study on ADP-ribosylation and the cell cycle faces the problem that synchronization with chemical agents or by serum starvation and subsequent growth factor addition already activates ADP-ribosylation by itself. Here, we investigated the functional contribution of ARTD1 in cell cycle re-entry and G1/S cell cycle progression using T24 urinary bladder carcinoma cells, which synchronously re-enter the cell cycle after splitting without any additional stimuli. In synchronized cells, ARTD1 knockdown, but not inhibition of its enzymatic activity, caused specific down-regulation of cyclin E during cell cycle re-entry and G1/S progression through alterations of the chromatin composition and histone acetylation, but not of other E2F-1 target genes. Although Cdk2 formed a functional complex with the residual cyclin E, p27(Kip 1) protein levels increased in G1 upon ARTD1 knockdown most likely due to inappropriate cyclin E-Cdk2-induced phosphorylation-dependent degradation, leading to decelerated G1/S progression. These results provide evidence that ARTD1 regulates cell cycle re-entry and G1/S progression via cyclin E expression and p27(Kip 1) stability independently of its enzymatic activity, uncovering a novel cell cycle regulatory mechanism.

  18. Expressions of p53 and p21 in primary gastric lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Go, J. H.; Yang, W. I.

    2001-01-01

    The p21 overexpression is thought to be a consequence of the p53 induced activation of the p21 gene. The immunohistochemical evaluation of p53 and p21 can be a valuable means of assessing the functional status of the p53 gene product. We examined the overexpression of p21 and p53 proteins in primary gastric lymphomas and the correlation with prognosis. A total of 32 cases of gastric lymphomas was classified into low-grade lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (n=16) and high-grade B-cell lymphomas (n=16). In low-grade lymphomas, only one case showed p53 positivity and all cases were p21-negative. In high-grade lymphomas, seven cases were p53+/p21- (44%), one case was p53+/p21+ (6%), and eight cases were p53-/p21- (50%). The p53+/p21- cases had a much lower percentage of patients sustaining a continuous complete remission state (3/7, 43%) compared with other cases (6/7, 86%). From these results, we concluded that p21 expression is rare in primary gastric lymphomas. Therefore, p53-positive lymphomas can be assumed as having p53 mutation. And combined studies of p53 and p21 may be used as a prognostic indicator in primary gastric high-grade lymphomas. PMID:11748353

  19. The caspase-generated cleavage product of Ets-1 p51 and Ets-1 p27, Cp17, induces apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Choul-Li, Souhaila; Tulasne, David; Aumercier, Marc

    2016-11-04

    The transcription factor Ets-1 is involved in various physiological processes and invasive pathologies. Human Ets-1 exists under three isoforms: p51, the predominant full-length isoform, p42 and p27, shorter alternatively spliced isoforms. We have previously demonstrated that Ets-1 p51, but not the spliced variant Ets-1 p42, is processed by caspases in vitro and during apoptosis. However, the caspase cleavage of the second spliced variant Ets-1 p27 remains to investigate. In the present study, we demonstrate that Ets-1 p27 is a cleavage substrate of caspases. We show that Ets-1 p27 is processed in vitro by caspase-3, resulting in three C-terminal fragments Cp20, Cp17 and Cp14. Similarly, Ets-1 p27 was cleaved during apoptotic cell death induced by anisomycin, producing fragments consistent with those observed in in vitro cleavage assay. These fragments are generated by cleavage at three sites located in the exon VII-encoded region of Ets-1 p27. As a functional consequences, Cp17 fragment, the major cleavage product generated during apoptosis, induced itself apoptosis when transfected into cells. Our results show that Ets-1 p27 is cleaved in the same manner as Ets-1 p51 within the exon VII-encoded region, thus generating a stable C-terminal fragment that induces cell death by initiating apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of chloroquine and amodiaquine through p21-mediated suppression of T cell proliferation and Th1 cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sera; Shin, Ji Hyun; Jang, Eun Jung

    Chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (AQ) have been used for treating or preventing malaria for decades, and their application has expanded into treating inflammatory disease in humans. CQ and AQ are applicable for controlling rheumatoid arthritis, but their molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of CQ and AQ on T cell activation and T cell-mediated immune response. CQ had no significant effect on T cell numbers, but decreased the population of T cells with a high division rate. However, AQ treatment significantly increased the number of cells with low division ratesmore » and eliminated cells with high division rates, resulting in the inhibition of T cell proliferation triggered by T cell receptor stimulation, of which inhibition occurred in developing effector T helper and regulatory T cells, regardless of the different exogenous cytokines. Interestingly, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 was significantly and dose-dependently increased by CQ, and more potently by AQ, while other cell cycle regulators were unchanged. Both CQ and AQ elevated the transcription level of p21 though the activation of p53, but also blocked p21 protein degradation in the presence of cycloheximide, causing p21 protein accumulation mainly in the nucleus. Sustained treatment of developing T cells with either CQ or AQ suppressed IFN-γ production in a dose dependent manner and potently inhibited the differentiation of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. These results demonstrate that CQ and AQ increase the expression level of p21 and inhibit T cell proliferation and the development of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells, thereby revealing beneficial roles in treating a wide range of chronic inflammatory diseases mediated by inflammatory T cells. -- Highlights: •T cell division rates are suppressed by chloroquine and amodiaquine treatment. •Chloroquine and amodiaquine potently increased the p21 expression. •The p21

  1. Cyclin D1 Determines Mitochondrial Function In Vivo†

    PubMed Central

    Sakamaki, Toshiyuki; Casimiro, Mathew C.; Ju, Xiaoming; Quong, Andrew A.; Katiyar, Sanjay; Liu, Manran; Jiao, Xuanmao; Li, Anping; Zhang, Xueping; Lu, Yinan; Wang, Chenguang; Byers, Stephen; Nicholson, Robert; Link, Todd; Shemluck, Melvin; Yang, Jianguo; Fricke, Stanley T.; Novikoff, Phyllis M.; Papanikolaou, Alexandros; Arnold, Andrew; Albanese, Christopher; Pestell, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The cyclin D1 gene encodes a regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the pRb tumor suppressor to promote nuclear DNA synthesis. cyclin D1 is overexpressed in human breast cancers and is sufficient for the development of murine mammary tumors. Herein, cyclin D1 is shown to perform a novel function, inhibiting mitochondrial function and size. Mitochondrial activity was enhanced by genetic deletion or antisense or small interfering RNA to cyclin D1. Global gene expression profiling and functional analysis of mammary epithelial cell-targeted cyclin D1 antisense transgenics demonstrated that cyclin D1 inhibits mitochondrial activity and aerobic glycolysis in vivo. Reciprocal regulation of these genes was observed in cyclin D1-induced mammary tumors. Cyclin D1 thus integrates nuclear DNA synthesis and mitochondrial function. PMID:16809779

  2. Both cyclin A and cyclin E have S-phase promoting (SPF) activity in Xenopus egg extracts.

    PubMed

    Strausfeld, U P; Howell, M; Descombes, P; Chevalier, S; Rempel, R E; Adamczewski, J; Maller, J L; Hunt, T; Blow, J J

    1996-06-01

    Extracts of activated Xenopus eggs in which protein synthesis has been inhibited support a single round of chromosomal DNA replication. Affinity-depletion of cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks) from these extracts blocks the initiation of DNA replication. We define 'S-phase promoting factor' (SPF) as the Cdk activity required for DNA replication in these Cdk-depleted extracts. Recombinant cyclins A and E, but not cyclin B, showed significant SPF activity. High concentrations of cyclin A promoted entry into mitosis, which inhibited DNA replication. In contrast, high concentrations of cyclin E1 promoted neither nuclear envelope disassembly nor full chromosome condensation. In the early embryo cyclin E1 complexes exclusively with Cdk2 and cyclin A is complexed predominantly with Cdc2; only later in development does cyclin A associate with Cdk2. We show that baculovirus-produced complexes of cyclin A-Cd2, cyclin A-Cdk2 and cyclin E-Cdk2 could each provide SPF activity. These results suggest that although in the early Xenopus embryo cyclin E1-Cdk2 is sufficient to support entry into S-phase, cyclin A-Cdc2 provides a significant additional quantity of SPF as its levels rise during S phase.

  3. Dux4 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through upregulation of p21 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Zhaoxia; Jin, Suqin

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Dux4 induced TE671 cell proliferation defect and G1 phase arrest. • Dux4 upregulated p21 expression without activating p53. • Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. • Sp1 binding site was required for Dux4-induced p21 promoter activation. - Abstract: It has been implicated that Dux4 plays crucial roles in development of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. But the underlying myopathic mechanisms and related down-stream events of this retrogene were far from clear. Here, we reported that overexpression of Dux4 in a cell model TE671 reduced cell proliferation rate, and increased G1 phase accumulation. We also determined themore » impact of Dux4 on p53/p21 signal pathway, which controls the checkpoint in cell cycle progression. Overexpression of Dux4 increased p21 mRNA and protein level, while expression of p53, phospho-p53 remained unchanged. Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrated that enhanced Dux4 expression increased p21 promoter activity and elevated expression of Sp1 transcription factor. Mutation of Sp1 binding site decreased dux4 induced p21 promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the Dux4-induced binding of Sp1 to p21 promoter in vivo. These results suggest that Dux4 might induce proliferation inhibition and G1 phase arrest through upregulation of p21.« less

  4. p21 differentially regulates DNA replication and DNA-repair-associated processes after UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Soria, Gaston; Speroni, Juliana; Podhajcer, Osvaldo L; Prives, Carol; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2008-10-01

    Although p21 upregulation is required to block cell-cycle progression following many types of genotoxic insult, UV irradiation triggers p21 proteolysis. The significance of the increased p21 turnover is unclear and might be associated with DNA repair. While the role of p21 in nucleotide excision repair (NER) remains controversial, recent reports have explored its effect on translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), a process that avoids replication blockage during S phase. Herein, we analyze the effect of p21 on different PCNA-driven processes including DNA replication, NER and TLS. Whereas only the CDK-binding domain of p21 is required for cell-cycle arrest in unstressed cells, neither the CDK-binding nor the PCNA-binding domain of p21 is able to block early and late steps of NER. Intriguingly, through its PCNA-binding domain, p21 inhibits the interaction of the TLS polymerase, pol eta (pol eta), with PCNA and impairs the assembly of pol eta foci after UV. Moreover, this obstruction correlates with accumulation of phosphorylated H2AX and increased apoptosis. By showing that p21 is a negative regulator of PCNA-pol eta interaction, our data unveil a link between efficient TLS and UV-induced degradation of p21.

  5. Linkage and association study of late-onset Alzheimer disease families linked to 9p21.3.

    PubMed

    Züchner, S; Gilbert, J R; Martin, E R; Leon-Guerrero, C R; Xu, P-T; Browning, C; Bronson, P G; Whitehead, P; Schmechel, D E; Haines, J L; Pericak-Vance, M A

    2008-11-01

    A chromosomal locus for late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has previously been mapped to 9p21.3. The most significant results were reported in a sample of autopsy-confirmed families. Linkage to this locus has been independently confirmed in AD families from a consanguineous Israeli-Arab community. In the present study we analyzed an expanded clinical sample of 674 late-onset AD families, independently ascertained by three different consortia. Sample subsets were stratified by site and autopsy-confirmation. Linkage analysis of a dense array of SNPs across the chromosomal locus revealed the most significant results in the 166 autopsy-confirmed families of the NIMH sample. Peak HLOD scores of 4.95 at D9S741 and 2.81 at the nearby SNP rs2772677 were obtained in a dominant model. The linked region included the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A gene (CDKN2A), which has been suggested as an AD candidate gene. By re-sequencing all exons in the vicinity of CDKN2A in 48 AD cases, we identified and genotyped four novel SNPs, including a non-synonymous, a synonymous, and two variations located in untranslated RNA sequences. Family-based allelic and genotypic association analysis yielded significant results in CDKN2A (rs11515: PDT p = 0.003, genotype-PDT p = 0.014). We conclude that CDKN2A is a promising new candidate gene potentially contributing to AD susceptibility on chromosome 9p.

  6. Expression of p27 and its ubiquitin ligase subunit Skp2 in upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Langner, Cord; von Wasielewski, Reinhard; Ratschek, Manfred; Rehak, Peter; Zigeuner, Richard

    2004-09-01

    To analyze p27 and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) expression in upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) with respect to biologic significance. p27 (p27/kip1) is involved in cell cycle control, and loss of p27 protein expression may result in tumor development and/or progression. The association of p27 with the ubiquitin ligase subunit Skp2 targets p27 for degradation. A total of 53 upper urinary tract TCC specimens were investigated immunohistochemically using a tissue microarray technique. The immunoreactivity of p27 and Skp2 was analyzed with respect to associations with pT stage, grade, and prognosis. Non-neoplastic renal tissue showed p27 immunoreactivity in tubule epithelium and pelvic urothelium, but lacked immunoreactivity for Skp2. In the TCC specimens, p27 immunoreactivity was noted in 47 (89%) of 53 cases. High p27 expression (50% or greater of tumor cell nuclei) tended to decrease with rising tumor stage (14 [45%] of 31 with pT1-pT2 versus 4 [18%] of 22 with pT3; P = 0.076), but was independent of tumor grade (11 [39%] of 28 grade 2 versus 7 [28%] of 25 grade 3-4; P = 0.56). Skp2 immunoreactivity was noted in 32 (60%) of 53 tumors. Skp2 expression increased with rising tumor stage (9 [41%] of 22 pT1 versus 23 [74%] of 31 pT2-pT3; P = 0.023) and tumor grade (12 [43%] of 28 grade 2 versus 20 [80%] of 25 grade 3; P = 0.043) and was associated with angioinvasion (P = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, tumor stage proved to be the only independent prognostic factor regarding disease-free survival. p27 and Skp2 are additional biomarkers in urogenital pathologic findings. The statistically significant association of Skp2 expression with high-grade TCC, as well as the lack of expression in non-neoplastic tissue, suggests that Skp2 could be a promising target for future cancer therapy strategies.

  7. Identification of Cyclin A Binders with a Fluorescent Peptide Sensor.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Elena; Mascareñas, José L; Vázquez, M Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    A peptide sensor that integrates the 4-dimethylaminophthalimide (4-DMAP) fluorophore in a short cyclin A binding sequence displays a large fluorescence emission increase upon interacting with the cyclin A Binding Groove (CBG). Competitive displacement assays of this probe allow the straightforward identification of peptides that interact with the CBG, which could potentially block the recognition of CDK/cyclin A kinase substrates.

  8. Down-regulation of p21 (CDKN1A/CIP1) is inversely associated with microsatellite instability and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ogino, S; Kawasaki, T; Kirkner, G J; Ogawa, A; Dorfman, I; Loda, M; Fuchs, C S

    2006-10-01

    p21 (CDKN1A/CIP1/WAF1), one of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, plays a key role in regulating the cell cycle and is transcriptionally regulated by p53. Down-regulation of p21 is caused by TP53 mutations in colorectal cancer. CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) appears to be a distinct subtype of colorectal cancer with concordant methylation of multiple gene promoters and is associated with a high degree of microsatellite instability (MSI-H) and BRAF mutations. However, no study to date has evaluated the relationship between p21 expression and CIMP in colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the inter-relationships between p21, p53, CIMP, MSI and KRAS/BRAF status in colorectal cancer. We utilized 737 relatively unbiased samples of colorectal cancers from two large prospective cohort studies. Using quantitative real-time PCR (MethyLight), we measured DNA methylation in five CIMP-specific gene promoters [CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16/INK4A), CRABP1, MLH1 and NEUROG1]. CIMP-high (>or=4/5 methylated promoters) was diagnosed in 118 (16%) of the 737 tumours. We also assessed expression of p21 and p53 by immunohistochemistry. Among the 737 tumours, 371 (50%) showed p21 loss. Both p21 loss and p53 positivity were inversely associated with CIMP-high, MSI-H and BRAF mutations. The associations of p21 with these molecular features were still present after tumours were stratified by p53 status. In contrast, the associations of p53 positivity with the molecular features were no longer present after tumours were stratified by p21 status. When CIMP-high and non-CIMP-high tumours were stratified by MSI or KRAS/BRAF status, CIMP-high and MSI-H (but not BRAF mutations) were still inversely associated with p21 loss. In conclusion, down-regulation of p21 is inversely correlated with CIMP-high and MSI-H in colorectal cancer, independent of TP53 and BRAF status.

  9. Proteomic Interaction Patterns between Human Cyclins, the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Ortholog pUL97 and Additional Cytomegalovirus Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Steingruber, Mirjam; Kraut, Alexandra; Socher, Eileen; Sticht, Heinrich; Reichel, Anna; Stamminger, Thomas; Amin, Bushra; Couté, Yohann; Hutterer, Corina; Marschall, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) ortholog pUL97 associates with human cyclin B1 and other types of cyclins. Here, the question was addressed whether cyclin interaction of pUL97 and additional viral proteins is detectable by mass spectrometry-based approaches. Proteomic data were validated by coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP), Western blot, in vitro kinase and bioinformatic analyses. Our findings suggest that: (i) pUL97 shows differential affinities to human cyclins; (ii) pUL97 inhibitor maribavir (MBV) disrupts the interaction with cyclin B1, but not with other cyclin types; (iii) cyclin H is identified as a new high-affinity interactor of pUL97 in HCMV-infected cells; (iv) even more viral phosphoproteins, including all known substrates of pUL97, are detectable in the cyclin-associated complexes; and (v) a first functional validation of pUL97-cyclin B1 interaction, analyzed by in vitro kinase assay, points to a cyclin-mediated modulation of pUL97 substrate preference. In addition, our bioinformatic analyses suggest individual, cyclin-specific binding interfaces for pUL97-cyclin interaction, which could explain the different strengths of interactions and the selective inhibitory effect of MBV on pUL97-cyclin B1 interaction. Combined, the detection of cyclin-associated proteins in HCMV-infected cells suggests a complex pattern of substrate phosphorylation and a role of cyclins in the fine-modulation of pUL97 activities. PMID:27548200

  10. Correlations between radiation-induced double strand breaks, cell division delay, and cyclin-dependent signaling in x-irradiated NIH3T3 fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariveau, Mickael J.

    2005-07-01

    Molecular responses to radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSB) are mediated by the phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX which forms identifiable gamma-H2AX foci at the site of the DSB. This event is thought to be linked with the down-regulation of signaling proteins contributing to the checkpoints regulating cell cycle progression and, vis-a-vis , the induction of cell division delay. However, it is unclear whether this division delay is directly related to the number of DSB (gamma-H2AX foci) sustained by an irradiated cell and, if so, whether this number drives cells into cell cycle delay or apoptosis. For this reason, studies were conducted in the immortalized NIH/3T3 fibroblast cell in order to establish correlations between the temporal appearance of the gamma-H2AX foci (a DSB) and the expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin E, A, B1, and their cyclin kinase inhibitor, p21. Cell cycle kinetics and flow cytometry were used to establish radiation-induced division delay over a dose range of 1--6 Gy where a mitotic delay of 2.65 min/cGy was established. Correlations between the expression of cyclin E, A, B1, p21, and the generation of DSB were established in NIH/3T3 cells exposed to 2 or 4 Gy x-irradiation. The data suggest that the G1/S and S phase delay (cyclin E and cyclin A protein levels) are dependent on the dose of radiation while the G2/M (cyclin B1 protein levels) delay is dependent on the quantity of DSB sustained by the irradiated cell.

  11. Effects of Activin and TGFβ on p21 in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Jennifer; Gomez, Jessica; Jung, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Activin and TGFβ share SMAD signaling and colon cancers can inactivate either pathway alone or simultaneously. The differential effects of activin and TGFβ signaling in colon cancer have not been previously dissected. A key downstream target of TGFβ signaling is the cdk2 inhibitor p21 (p21cip1/waf1). Here, we evaluate activin-specific effects on p21 regulation and resulting functions. We find that TGFβ is a more potent inducer of growth suppression, while activin is a more potent inducer of apoptosis. Further, growth suppression and apoptosis by both ligands are dependent on SMAD4. However, activin downregulates p21 protein in a SMAD4-independent fashion in conjunction with increased ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation to enhance migration, while TGFβ upregulates p21 in a SMAD4-dependent fashion to affect growth arrest. Activin-induced growth suppression and cell death are dependent on p21, while activin-induced migration is counteracted by p21. Further, primary colon cancers show differential p21 expression consistent with their ACVR2/TGFBR2 receptor status. In summary, we report p21 as a differentially affected activin/TGFβ target and mediator of ligand-specific functions in colon cancer, which may be exploited for future risk stratification and therapeutic intervention. PMID:22761777

  12. BTK suppresses myeloma cellular senescence through activating AKT/P27/Rb signaling.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chunyan; Peng, Hailin; Lu, Yue; Yang, Hongbao; Tian, Zhidan; Yin, Gang; Zhang, Wen; Lu, Sicheng; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Ye

    2017-08-22

    We previously explored the role of BTK in maintaining multiple myeloma stem cells (MMSCs) self-renewal and drug-resistance. Here we investigated the elevation of BTK suppressing MM cellular senescence, a state of irreversible cellular growth arrest. We firstly discovered that an increased expression of BTK in MM samples compared to normal controls by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and significant chromosomal gain in primary samples. In addition, BTK high-expressing MM patients are associated with poor outcome in both Total Therapy 2 (TT2) and TT3 cohorts. Knockdown BTK expression by shRNA induced MM cellular senescence using β-galactosidase (SA-b-gal) staining, cell growth arrest by cell cycle staining and decreased clonogenicity while forcing BTK expression in MM cells abrogated these characteristics. We also validated this feature in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs), which showed that elevated BTK expression was resistant to MEF senescence after serial cultivation in vitro . Further mechanism study revealed that BTK activated AKT signaling leading to down-regulation of P27 expression and hindered RB activity while AKT inhibitor, LY294002, overcame BTK-overexpression induced cellular senescence resistance. Eventually we demonstrated that BTK inhibitor, CGI-1746, induced MM cellular senescence, colony reduction and tumorigenecity inhibition in vivo . Summarily, we designate a novel mechanism of BTK in mediating MM growth, and BTK inhibitor is of great potential in vivo and in vitro suggesting BTK is a promising therapeutic target for MM.

  13. BTK suppresses myeloma cellular senescence through activating AKT/P27/Rb signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yue; Yang, Hongbao; Tian, Zhidan; Yin, Gang; Zhang, Wen; Lu, Sicheng; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Ye

    2017-01-01

    We previously explored the role of BTK in maintaining multiple myeloma stem cells (MMSCs) self-renewal and drug-resistance. Here we investigated the elevation of BTK suppressing MM cellular senescence, a state of irreversible cellular growth arrest. We firstly discovered that an increased expression of BTK in MM samples compared to normal controls by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and significant chromosomal gain in primary samples. In addition, BTK high-expressing MM patients are associated with poor outcome in both Total Therapy 2 (TT2) and TT3 cohorts. Knockdown BTK expression by shRNA induced MM cellular senescence using β-galactosidase (SA-b-gal) staining, cell growth arrest by cell cycle staining and decreased clonogenicity while forcing BTK expression in MM cells abrogated these characteristics. We also validated this feature in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs), which showed that elevated BTK expression was resistant to MEF senescence after serial cultivation in vitro. Further mechanism study revealed that BTK activated AKT signaling leading to down-regulation of P27 expression and hindered RB activity while AKT inhibitor, LY294002, overcame BTK-overexpression induced cellular senescence resistance. Eventually we demonstrated that BTK inhibitor, CGI-1746, induced MM cellular senescence, colony reduction and tumorigenecity inhibition in vivo. Summarily, we designate a novel mechanism of BTK in mediating MM growth, and BTK inhibitor is of great potential in vivo and in vitro suggesting BTK is a promising therapeutic target for MM. PMID:28915637

  14. Molecular evolution of cyclin proteins in animals and fungi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The passage through the cell cycle is controlled by complexes of cyclins, the regulatory units, with cyclin-dependent kinases, the catalytic units. It is also known that cyclins form several families, which differ considerably in primary structure from one eukaryotic organism to another. Despite these lines of evidence, the relationship between the evolution of cyclins and their function is an open issue. Here we present the results of our study on the molecular evolution of A-, B-, D-, E-type cyclin proteins in animals and fungi. Results We constructed phylogenetic trees for these proteins, their ancestral sequences and analyzed patterns of amino acid replacements. The analysis of infrequently fixed atypical amino acid replacements in cyclins evidenced that accelerated evolution proceeded predominantly during paralog duplication or after it in animals and fungi and that it was related to aromorphic changes in animals. It was shown also that evolutionary flexibility of cyclin function may be provided by consequential reorganization of regions on protein surface remote from CDK binding sites in animal and fungal cyclins and by functional differentiation of paralogous cyclins formed in animal evolution. Conclusions The results suggested that changes in the number and/or nature of cyclin-binding proteins may underlie the evolutionary role of the alterations in the molecular structure of cyclins and their involvement in diverse molecular-genetic events. PMID:21798004

  15. Misexpression of cyclin B3 leads to aberrant spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Refik-Rogers, Jale; Manova, Katia; Koff, Andrew

    2006-09-01

    Mus musculus cyclin B3 is an early meiotic cyclin that is expressed in leptotene and zygotene phases during gametogenesis. In order to determine whether downregulation of cyclin B3 at zygotene-pachytene transition was important for normal spermatogenesis, we investigated the consequences of expressing H. sapiens cyclin B3 after zygotene in mouse testes. Prolonging expression of cyclin B3 until the end of meiosis led to a reduction in sperm counts and disruption of spermatogenesis in four independent lines of transgenic mice. There were three distinct morphological defects associated with the ectopic expression of cyclin B3. Seminiferous tubules were either depleted of germ cells, had an abnormal cell mass in the lumen, or were characterized by the presence of abnormal round spermatids. These defects were associated with increased apoptosis in the testes. These results suggest that downregulation of cyclin B3 at the zygotene-pachytene transition is required to ensure normal spermatogenesis.

  16. Cytoplasmic localization and ubiquitination of p21{sup Cip1} by reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Chae Young; Kim, Ick Young; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2007-06-22

    Reactive oxygen species were previously shown to trigger p21{sup Cip1} protein degradation through a proteasome-dependent pathway, however the detailed mechanism of degradation remains to be elucidated. In this report, we showed that p21{sup Cip1} was degraded at an early phase after low dose H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment of a variety of cell types and that preincubation of cells with the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, prolonged p21{sup Cip1} half-life. A mutant p21{sup Cip1} in which all six lysines were changed to arginines was protected against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. Direct interaction between p21{sup Cip1} and Skp2 was elevated in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-treatedmore » cells. Disruption of the two nuclear export signal (NES) sequences in p21{sup Cip1}, or treatment with leptomycin B blocked H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced p21{sup Cip1} degradation. Altogether, these results demonstrate that reactive oxygen species induce p21{sup Cip1} degradation through an NES-, Skp2-, and ubiquitin-dependent pathway.« less

  17. Expression of p27Kip1 and E-cadherin in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Indonesian Patients.

    PubMed

    E I, Auerkari; V, Joewono; D R, Handjari; A T, Sarwono; A W, Suhartono; K, Eto; M A, Ikeda

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells exhibit characteristic damage of DNA and its expression. The expression of the tumor suppressors E-cadherin and p27(Kip1) has been tested on 57 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) of Indonesian subjects. HNSCC tumor samples including both primary and (unrelated) nodal cases were obtained from the archives of Indonesian hospitals, in accordance with acknowledged ethical requirements. Only modest correlation was found between reduced expression of E-cadherin or p27(Kip1) with increased malignancy of primary and nodal growth. The observed strong correlation regardless of malignancy between the expressed levels of E-cadherin and p27(Kip1) suggests that also in combination these would not help to better predict the outcome of HNSCC.

  18. Ovarian expression of cellular Ki-ras p21 varies with physiological status.

    PubMed Central

    Palejwala, S; Goldsmith, L T

    1992-01-01

    To elucidate the potential role of the ras protooncogene proteins in a specific tissue, the present study determined the levels of individual c-ras-encoded p21 proteins in the rat ovary during various stages of physiological function. p21 protein was extracted from ovaries taken from immature normal female rats, mature nonpregnant animals in the metestrus stage of the estrus cycle, rats at various stages of pregnancy, and actively lactating animals. Levels of individual p21s were evaluated by immunoblot analysis with specific antibodies to the p21 proteins encoded by the Kirsten, Harvey, and neuroblastoma c-ras protooncogenes, c-Ki-ras, c-Ha-ras, and N-ras. Results showed that c-Ki-ras p21 is at its lowest level in the immature ovary and increases with development of the corpora lutea to its highest levels at day 16 of pregnancy, after which levels decline and then rise again during lactation. This pattern, which mimics that of circulating progesterone levels, suggests that ovarian c-Ki-ras p21 levels are regulated and that c-Ki-ras p21 plays a role in the differentiated function of the rat ovary, likely the luteal compartment. In contrast, levels of c-N-ras p21 did not appear to vary with changes in the physiological function of the ovary but appeared to be constitutive. A preferential role for the c-Ki-ras p21 may be due to the documented unique differences in the structure of the carboxyl terminus of this particular c-ras p21. Images PMID:1570348

  19. Subcellular targeting of p33ING1b by phosphorylation-dependent 14-3-3 binding regulates p21WAF1 expression.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wei; Russell, Michael; Suzuki, Keiko; Riabowol, Karl

    2006-04-01

    ING1 is a type II tumor suppressor that affects cell growth, stress signaling, apoptosis, and DNA repair by altering chromatin structure and regulating transcription. Decreased ING1 expression is seen in several human cancers, and mislocalization has been noted in diverse types of cancer cells. Aberrant targeting may, therefore, functionally inactivate ING1. Bioinformatics analysis identified a sequence between the nuclear localization sequence and plant homeodomain domains of ING1 that closely matched the binding motif of 14-3-3 proteins that target cargo proteins to specific subcellular locales. We find that the widely expressed p33(ING1b) splicing isoform of ING1 interacts with members of the 14-3-3 family of proteins and that this interaction is regulated by the phosphorylation status of ING1. 14-3-3 binding resulted in significant amounts of p33(ING1b) protein being tethered in the cytoplasm. As shown previously, ectopic expression of p33(ING1b) increased levels of the p21(Waf1) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor upon UV-induced DNA damage. Overexpression of 14-3-3 inhibited the up-regulation of p21(Waf1) by p33(ING1b), consistent with the idea that mislocalization blocks at least one of ING1's biological activities. These data support the idea that the 14-3-3 proteins play a crucial role in regulating the activity of p33(ING1b) by directing its subcellular localization.

  20. Roles of p53 and p27 Kip1 in the regulation of neurogenesis in the murine adult subventricular zone

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Perotin, Sara; Haines, Jeffery D.; Kaur, Jasbir; Marin-Husstege, Mireya; Spinetta, Michael J.; Kim, Kwi-Hye; Duran-Moreno, Maria; Schallert, Timothy; Zindy, Frederique; Roussel, Martine F.; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose M.; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 (Trp53) and the cell cycle inhibitor p27 Kip1 (Cdknb1) have both been implicated in regulating proliferation of adult subventricular zone (aSVZ) cells. We previously reported that genetic ablation of Trp53 (Trp53 −/−) or Cdknb1 (p27 Kip1−/−) increased proliferation of cells in the aSVZ, but differentially affected the number of adult born neuroblasts. We therefore hypothesized that these molecules might play non-redundant roles. To test this hypothesis we generated mice lacking both genes (Trp53 −/−;p27 Kip1−/−) and analysed the consequences on aSVZ cells and adult neuroblasts. Proliferation and self-renewal of cultured aSVZ cells were increased in the double mutants compared with control, but the mice did not develop spontaneous brain tumors. In contrast, the number of adult-born neuroblasts in the double mutants was similar to wild-type animals and suggested a complementation of the p27 Kip1−/− phenotype due to loss of Trp53. Cellular differences detected in the aSVZ correlated with cellular changes in the olfactory bulb and behavioral data on novel odor recognition. The exploration time for new odors was reduced in p27 Kip1−/− mice, increased in Trp53 −/− mice and normalized in the double Trp53−/−;p27 Kip1−/− mutants. At the molecular level, Trp53 −/− aSVZ cells were characterized by higher levels of NeuroD and Math3 and by the ability to generate neurons more readily. In contrast, p27 Kip1−/− cells generated fewer neurons, due to enhanced proteasomal degradation of pro-neural transcription factors. Together, these results suggest that p27 Kip1 and p53 function non-redundantly to modulate proliferation and self-renewal of aSVZ cells and antagonistically in regulating adult neurogenesis. PMID:21899604

  1. Bimodal regulation of p21waf1 protein as function of DNA damage levels

    PubMed Central

    Buscemi, G; Ricci, C; Zannini, L; Fontanella, E; Plevani, P; Delia, D

    2014-01-01

    Human p21Waf1 protein is well known for being transcriptionally induced by p53 and activating the cell cycle checkpoint arrest in response to DNA breaks. Here we report that p21Waf1 protein undergoes a bimodal regulation, being upregulated in response to low doses of DNA damage but rapidly and transiently degraded in response to high doses of DNA lesions. Responsible for this degradation is the checkpoint kinase Chk1, which phosphorylates p21Waf1 on T145 and S146 residues and induces its proteasome-dependent proteolysis. The initial p21Waf1 degradation is then counteracted by the ATM-Chk2 pathway, which promotes the p53-dependent accumulation of p21Waf1 at any dose of damage. We also found that p21Waf1 ablation favors the activation of an apoptotic program to eliminate otherwise irreparable cells. These findings support a model in which in human cells a balance between ATM-Chk2-p53 and the ATR-Chk1 pathways modulates p21Waf1 protein levels in relation to cytostatic and cytotoxic doses of DNA damage. PMID:25486478

  2. Identification of an intracellular protein that specifically interacts with photoaffinity-labeled oncogenic p21 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, G; Ronai, Z A; Pincus, M R; Brandt-Rauf, P W; Murphy, R B; Delohery, T M; Nishimura, S; Yamaizumi, Z; Weinstein, I B

    1989-01-01

    An oncogenic 21-kDa (p21) protein (Harvey RAS protein with Val-12) has been covalently modified with a functional reagent that contains a photoactivatable aromatic azide group. This modified p21 protein has been introduced quantitatively into NIH 3T3 cells using an erythrocyte-mediated fusion technique. The introduced p21 protein was capable of inducing enhanced pinocytosis and DNA synthesis in the recipient cells. To identify the putative intracellular protein(s) that specifically interact with the modified p21 protein, the cells were pulsed with [35S]methionine at selected times after fusion and then UV-irradiated to activate the azide group. The resulting nitrene covalently binds to amino acid residues in adjacent proteins, thus linking the p21 protein to these proteins. The cells were then lysed, and the lysate was immunoprecipitated with the anti-p21 monoclonal antibody Y13-259. The immunoprecipitate was analyzed by SDS/PAGE to identify p21-protein complexes. By using this technique, we found that three protein complexes of 51, 64, and 82 kDa were labeled specifically and reproducibly. The most prominent band is the 64-kDa protein complex that shows a time-dependent rise and fall, peaking within a 5-hr period after introduction of the p21 protein into the cells. These studies provide evidence that in vitro the p21 protein becomes associated with a protein whose mass is about 43 kDa. We suggest that the formation of this complex may play a role in mediating early events involved with cell transformation induced by RAS oncogenes. Images PMID:2682656

  3. Identification of an intracellular protein that specifically interacts with photoaffinity-labeled oncogenic p21 protein.

    PubMed

    Lee, G; Ronai, Z A; Pincus, M R; Brandt-Rauf, P W; Murphy, R B; Delohery, T M; Nishimura, S; Yamaizumi, Z; Weinstein, I B

    1989-11-01

    An oncogenic 21-kDa (p21) protein (Harvey RAS protein with Val-12) has been covalently modified with a functional reagent that contains a photoactivatable aromatic azide group. This modified p21 protein has been introduced quantitatively into NIH 3T3 cells using an erythrocyte-mediated fusion technique. The introduced p21 protein was capable of inducing enhanced pinocytosis and DNA synthesis in the recipient cells. To identify the putative intracellular protein(s) that specifically interact with the modified p21 protein, the cells were pulsed with [35S]methionine at selected times after fusion and then UV-irradiated to activate the azide group. The resulting nitrene covalently binds to amino acid residues in adjacent proteins, thus linking the p21 protein to these proteins. The cells were then lysed, and the lysate was immunoprecipitated with the anti-p21 monoclonal antibody Y13-259. The immunoprecipitate was analyzed by SDS/PAGE to identify p21-protein complexes. By using this technique, we found that three protein complexes of 51, 64, and 82 kDa were labeled specifically and reproducibly. The most prominent band is the 64-kDa protein complex that shows a time-dependent rise and fall, peaking within a 5-hr period after introduction of the p21 protein into the cells. These studies provide evidence that in vitro the p21 protein becomes associated with a protein whose mass is about 43 kDa. We suggest that the formation of this complex may play a role in mediating early events involved with cell transformation induced by RAS oncogenes.

  4. p21 controls patterning but not homologous recombination in RPE development.

    PubMed

    Bishop, A J R; Kosaras, B; Hollander, M C; Fornace, A; Sidman, R L; Schiestl, R H

    2006-01-05

    p21/WAF1/CIP1/MDA6 is a key cell cycle regulator. Cell cycle regulation is an important part of development, differentiation, DNA repair and apoptosis. Following DNA damage, p53 dependent expression of p21 results in a rapid cell cycle arrest. p21 also appears to be important for the development of melanocytes, promoting their differentiation and melanogenesis. Here, we examine the effect of p21 deficiency on the development of another pigmented tissue, the retinal pigment epithelium. The murine mutation pink-eyed unstable (p(un)) spontaneously reverts to a wild-type allele by homologous recombination. In a retinal pigment epithelium cell this results in pigmentation, which can be observed in the adult eye. The clonal expansion of such cells during development has provided insight into the pattern of retinal pigment epithelium development. In contrast to previous results with Atm, p53 and Gadd45, p(un) reversion events in p21 deficient mice did not show any significant change. These results suggest that p21 does not play any role in maintaining overall genomic stability by regulating homologous recombination frequencies during development. However, the absence of p21 caused a distinct change in the positions of the reversion events within the retinal pigment epithelium. Those events that would normally arrest to produce single cell events continued to proliferate uncovering a cell cycle dysregulation phenotype. It is likely that p21 is involved in controlling the developmental pattern of the retinal pigment. We also found a C57BL/6J specific p21 dependent ocular defect in retinal folding, similar to those reported in the absence of p53.

  5. Parvovirus-Induced Depletion of Cyclin B1 Prevents Mitotic Entry of Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemi, Richard O.; Pintel, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Parvoviruses halt cell cycle progression following initiation of their replication during S-phase and continue to replicate their genomes for extended periods of time in arrested cells. The parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a DNA damage response that is required for viral replication and induction of the S/G2 cell cycle block. However, p21 and Chk1, major effectors typically associated with S-phase and G2-phase cell cycle arrest in response to diverse DNA damage stimuli, are either down-regulated, or inactivated, respectively, during MVM infection. This suggested that parvoviruses can modulate cell cycle progression by another mechanism. In this work we show that the MVM-induced, p21- and Chk1-independent, cell cycle block proceeds via a two-step process unlike that seen in response to other DNA-damaging agents or virus infections. MVM infection induced Chk2 activation early in infection which led to a transient S-phase block associated with proteasome-mediated CDC25A degradation. This step was necessary for efficient viral replication; however, Chk2 activation and CDC25A loss were not sufficient to keep infected cells in the sustained G2-arrested state which characterizes this infection. Rather, although the phosphorylation of CDK1 that normally inhibits entry into mitosis was lost, the MVM induced DDR resulted first in a targeted mis-localization and then significant depletion of cyclin B1, thus directly inhibiting cyclin B1-CDK1 complex function and preventing mitotic entry. MVM infection thus uses a novel strategy to ensure a pseudo S-phase, pre-mitotic, nuclear environment for sustained viral replication. PMID:24415942

  6. Parvovirus-induced depletion of cyclin B1 prevents mitotic entry of infected cells.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Richard O; Pintel, David J

    2014-01-01

    Parvoviruses halt cell cycle progression following initiation of their replication during S-phase and continue to replicate their genomes for extended periods of time in arrested cells. The parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a DNA damage response that is required for viral replication and induction of the S/G2 cell cycle block. However, p21 and Chk1, major effectors typically associated with S-phase and G2-phase cell cycle arrest in response to diverse DNA damage stimuli, are either down-regulated, or inactivated, respectively, during MVM infection. This suggested that parvoviruses can modulate cell cycle progression by another mechanism. In this work we show that the MVM-induced, p21- and Chk1-independent, cell cycle block proceeds via a two-step process unlike that seen in response to other DNA-damaging agents or virus infections. MVM infection induced Chk2 activation early in infection which led to a transient S-phase block associated with proteasome-mediated CDC25A degradation. This step was necessary for efficient viral replication; however, Chk2 activation and CDC25A loss were not sufficient to keep infected cells in the sustained G2-arrested state which characterizes this infection. Rather, although the phosphorylation of CDK1 that normally inhibits entry into mitosis was lost, the MVM induced DDR resulted first in a targeted mis-localization and then significant depletion of cyclin B1, thus directly inhibiting cyclin B1-CDK1 complex function and preventing mitotic entry. MVM infection thus uses a novel strategy to ensure a pseudo S-phase, pre-mitotic, nuclear environment for sustained viral replication.

  7. KLF4, p21 and context-dependent opposing forces in cancer.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Benjamin D; Peeper, Daniel S

    2006-01-01

    Krüppel-like factors are transcriptional regulators that influence several cellular functions, including proliferation. Recent studies have shown that one family member, KLF4, can function both as a tumour suppressor and an oncogene. The ability of KLF4 to affect the levels of expression of the cell-cycle regulator p21 seems to be involved, in that this protein might function as a switch that determines the outcome of KLF4 signalling. Is this role of p21 restricted to KLF4, or does p21 represent a nodal point for signals from multiple other factors with opposing functions in cancer?

  8. TGF-β Signaling Regulates Pancreatic β-Cell Proliferation through Control of Cell Cycle Regulator p27 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Dai, Ping; Hatakeyama, Tomoya; Harada, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hideo; Yoshimura, Norio; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation of pancreatic β-cells is an important mechanism underlying β-cell mass adaptation to metabolic demands. Increasing β-cell mass by regeneration may ameliorate or correct both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which both result from inadequate production of insulin by β-cells of the pancreatic islet. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling is essential for fetal development and growth of pancreatic islets. In this study, we exposed HIT-T15, a clonal pancreatic β-cell line, to TGF-β signaling. We found that inhibition of TGF-β signaling promotes proliferation of the cells significantly, while TGF-β signaling stimulation inhibits proliferation of the cells remarkably. We confirmed that this proliferative regulation by TGF-β signaling is due to the changed expression of the cell cycle regulator p27. Furthermore, we demonstrated that there is no observed effect on transcriptional activity of p27 by TGF-β signaling. Our data show that TGF-β signaling mediates the cell-cycle progression of pancreatic β-cells by regulating the nuclear localization of CDK inhibitor, p27. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling reduces the nuclear accumulation of p27, and as a result this inhibition promotes proliferation of β-cells. PMID:23720603

  9. Myeloid Leukemia Factor 1 inhibits erythropoietin-induced differentiation, cell cycle exit and p27Kip1 accumulation.

    PubMed

    Winteringham, Louise Natalie; Kobelke, Simon; Williams, James Howard; Ingley, Evan; Klinken, Svend Peter

    2004-06-24

    Myeloid leukemia factor 1 (MLF1) is a novel oncoprotein involved in translocations associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), especially erythroleukemias. In this study, we demonstrate that ectopic expression of Mlf1 prevented J2E erythroleukemic cells from undergoing biological and morphological maturation in response to erythropoietin (Epo). We show that Mlf1 inhibited Epo-induced cell cycle exit and suppressed a rise in the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1). Unlike differentiating J2E cells, Mlf1-expressing cells did not downregulate Cul1 and Skp2, components of the ubiquitin E3 ligase complex SCF(Skp2) involved in the proteasomal degradation of p27(Kip1). In contrast, Mlf1 did not interfere with increases in p27(Kip1) and terminal differentiation initiated by thyroid hormone withdrawal from erythroid cells, or cytokine-stimulated maturation of myeloid cells. These data demonstrate that Mlf1 interferes with an Epo-responsive pathway involving p27(Kip1) accumulation, which inhibits cell cycle arrest essential for erythroid terminal differentiation.

  10. Mcl1 regulates the terminal mitosis of neural precursor cells in the mammalian brain through p27Kip1.

    PubMed

    Hasan, S M Mahmudul; Sheen, Ashley D; Power, Angela M; Langevin, Lisa Marie; Xiong, Jieying; Furlong, Michael; Day, Kristine; Schuurmans, Carol; Opferman, Joseph T; Vanderluit, Jacqueline L

    2013-08-01

    Cortical development requires the precise timing of neural precursor cell (NPC) terminal mitosis. Although cell cycle proteins regulate terminal mitosis, the factors that influence the cell cycle machinery are incompletely understood. Here we show in mice that myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl1), an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein required for the survival of NPCs, also regulates their terminal differentiation through the cell cycle regulator p27(Kip1). A BrdU-Ki67 cell profiling assay revealed that in utero electroporation of Mcl1 into NPCs in the embryonic neocortex increased NPC cell cycle exit (the leaving fraction). This was further supported by a decrease in proliferating NPCs (Pax6(+) radial glial cells and Tbr2(+) neural progenitors) and an increase in differentiating cells (Dcx(+) neuroblasts and Tbr1(+) neurons). Similarly, BrdU birth dating demonstrated that Mcl1 promotes premature NPC terminal mitosis giving rise to neurons of the deeper cortical layers, confirming their earlier birthdate. Changes in Mcl1 expression within NPCs caused concomitant changes in the levels of p27(Kip1) protein, a key regulator of NPC differentiation. Furthermore, in the absence of p27(Kip1), Mcl1 failed to induce NPC cell cycle exit, demonstrating that p27(Kip1) is required for Mcl1-mediated NPC terminal mitosis. In summary, we have identified a novel physiological role for anti-apoptotic Mcl1 in regulating NPC terminal differentiation.

  11. Parkin Knockout Inhibits Neuronal Development via Regulation of Proteasomal Degradation of p21.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Hee; Lee, Hwa-Jeong; Lee, Hye Lim; Son, Dong Ju; Ju, Jung Hoon; Hyun, Byung Kook; Jung, Sung Hee; Song, Ju-Kyoung; Lee, Dong Hun; Hwang, Chul Ju; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Sanghyeon; Hong, Jin Tae

    2017-01-01

    PARK2 encodes for the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin and is implicated in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the neuroprotective role of parkin is well known, the mechanism of PARK2's function in neural stem differentiation has not yet been thoroughly studied. Co-expressions network analysis showed that synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were positively correlated with parkin, but negatively correlated with p21 in human patient brain. We investigated a link between the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin and proteasomal degradation of p21 for the control of neural stem cell differentiation. We found that the neurogenesis was lowered in PARK2 knockout (KO) mice compared with non-tg mice. Expression of the marker protein for neural cell differentiation such as class III beta tubulin (TUBBIII), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament, as well as SNAP25 and BDNF, was down regulated in PARK2 KO mice. Associated with the loss of differentiation function, p21 protein was highly accumulated in the neural stem cells of PARK2 KO mice. We discovered that p21 directly binds with parkin and is ubiquitinated by parkin which resulted in the loss of cell differentiation ability. Introduction of p21 shRNA in PARK2 KO mice significantly rescued the differentiation efficacy as well as SNAP25 and BDNF expression. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is implicated in neurogenesis and p21 degradation. We also defined the decreased p21 ubiquitination and differentiation ability were reversed after treatment with JNK inhibitor, SP600125 in PARK2 KO mice derived neural stem cells. Thus, the present study indicated that parkin knockout inhibits neural stem cell differentiation by JNK-dependent proteasomal degradation of p21.

  12. K-ras p21 expression and activity in lung and lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, G; Sithanandam, G; Cheng, R Y; Fornwald, L W; Smith, G T; Diwan, B A; Anderson, L M

    2000-12-01

    Although K-ras is mutated in many human and mouse lung adenocarcinomas, the function of K-ras p21 in lung is not known. We sought evidence for the prevalent hypothesis that K-ras p21 activates raf, which in turn passes the signal through the extracellular signal regulated kinases (Erks) to stimulate cell division, and that this pathway is upregulated when K-ras is mutated. Results from both mouse lung tumors and immortalized cultured E10 and C10 lung type II cells failed to substantiate this hypothesis. Lung tumors did not have more total K-ras p21 or K-ras p21 GTP than normal lung tissue, nor were high levels of these proteins found in tumors with mutant K-ras. Activated K-ras p21-GTP levels did not correlate with proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Special features of tumors with mutant K-ras included small size of carcinomas compared with carcinomas lacking this mutation, and correlation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen with raf-1. In nontransformed type II cells in culture, both total and activated K-ras p21 increased markedly at confluence but not after serum stimulation, whereas both Erk1/2 and the protein kinase Akt were rapidly activated by the serum treatment. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays of K-ras mRNA indicated an increase in confluent and especially in postconfluent cells. Together the findings indicate that normal K-ras p21 activity is associated with growth arrest of lung type II cells, and that the exact contribution of mutated K-ras p21 to tumor development remains to be discovered.

  13. Parkin Knockout Inhibits Neuronal Development via Regulation of Proteasomal Degradation of p21

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mi Hee; Lee, Hwa-Jeong; Lee, Hye Lim; Son, Dong Ju; Ju, Jung Hoon; Hyun, Byung Kook; Jung, Sung Hee; Song, Ju-Kyoung; Lee, Dong Hun; Hwang, Chul Ju; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Sanghyeon; Hong, Jin Tae

    2017-01-01

    PARK2 encodes for the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin and is implicated in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the neuroprotective role of parkin is well known, the mechanism of PARK2's function in neural stem differentiation has not yet been thoroughly studied. Co-expressions network analysis showed that synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were positively correlated with parkin, but negatively correlated with p21 in human patient brain. We investigated a link between the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin and proteasomal degradation of p21 for the control of neural stem cell differentiation. We found that the neurogenesis was lowered in PARK2 knockout (KO) mice compared with non-tg mice. Expression of the marker protein for neural cell differentiation such as class III beta tubulin (TUBBIII), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament, as well as SNAP25 and BDNF, was down regulated in PARK2 KO mice. Associated with the loss of differentiation function, p21 protein was highly accumulated in the neural stem cells of PARK2 KO mice. We discovered that p21 directly binds with parkin and is ubiquitinated by parkin which resulted in the loss of cell differentiation ability. Introduction of p21 shRNA in PARK2 KO mice significantly rescued the differentiation efficacy as well as SNAP25 and BDNF expression. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is implicated in neurogenesis and p21 degradation. We also defined the decreased p21 ubiquitination and differentiation ability were reversed after treatment with JNK inhibitor, SP600125 in PARK2 KO mice derived neural stem cells. Thus, the present study indicated that parkin knockout inhibits neural stem cell differentiation by JNK-dependent proteasomal degradation of p21. PMID:28656059

  14. p21 is Responsible for Ionizing Radiation-induced Bypass of Mitosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu Rui; Liu, Yong Ai; Sun, Fang; Li, He; Lei, Su Wen; Wang, Ju Fang

    2016-07-01

    To explore the role of p21 in ionizing radiation-induced changes in protein levels during the G2/M transition and long-term G2 arrest. Protein expression levels were assessed by western blot in the human uveal melanoma 92-1 cells after treatment with ionizing radiation. Depletion of p21 was carried out by employing the siRNA technique. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry combined with histone H3 phosphorylation at Ser28, an M-phase marker. Senescence was assessed by senescence- associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining combined with Ki67 staining, a cell proliferation marker. Accompanying increased p21, the protein levels of G2/M transition genes declined significantly in 92-1 cells irradiated with 5 Gy of X-rays. Furthermore, these irradiated cells were blocked at the G2 phase followed by cellular senescence. Depletion of p21 rescued radiation-induced G2 arrest as demonstrated by the upregulation of G2/M transition kinases, as well as the high expression of histone H3 phosphorylated at Ser28. Knockdown of p21 resulted in entry into mitosis of irradiated 92-1 cells. However, cells with serious DNA damage failed to undergo cytokinesis, leading to the accumulation of multinucleated cells. Our results indicated that p21 was responsible for the downregulation of G2/M transition regulatory proteins and the bypass of mitosis induced by irradiation. Downregulation of p21 by siRNA resulted in G2-arrested cells entering into mitosis with serious DNA damage. This is the first report on elucidating the role of p21 in the bypass of mitosis. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  15. Oncogenic role of p21 in hepatocarcinogenesis suggests a new treatment strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ohkoshi, Shogo; Yano, Masahiko; Matsuda, Yasunobu

    2015-01-01

    A well-known tumor suppressor, p21, acts paradoxically by promoting tumor growth in some cellular conditions. These conflicting functions have been demonstrated in association with the HBx gene and in hepatocarcinogenesis. The molecular behavior of p21 depends on its subcellular localization. Nuclear p21 may inhibit cell proliferation and be proapoptotic, while cytoplasmic p21 may have oncogenic and anti-apoptotic functions. Because most typical tumor suppressive proteins also have different effects according to subcellular localization, elucidating the regulatory mechanisms underlying nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of these proteins would be significant and may lead to a new strategy for anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy. Chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) is a major nuclear export receptor involved in transport of tumor suppressors from nucleus to cytoplasm. Expression of CRM1 is enhanced in a variety of malignancies and in vitro studies have shown the efficacy of specific inhibition of CRM1 against cancer cell lines. Interestingly, interferon may keep p21 in the nucleus; this is one of the mechanisms of its anti-hepatocarcinogenic function. Here we review the oncogenic property of p21, which depends on its subcellular localization, and discuss the rationale underlying a new strategy for HCC treatment and prevention. PMID:26576099

  16. Oncogenic role of p21 in hepatocarcinogenesis suggests a new treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Ohkoshi, Shogo; Yano, Masahiko; Matsuda, Yasunobu

    2015-11-14

    A well-known tumor suppressor, p21, acts paradoxically by promoting tumor growth in some cellular conditions. These conflicting functions have been demonstrated in association with the HBx gene and in hepatocarcinogenesis. The molecular behavior of p21 depends on its subcellular localization. Nuclear p21 may inhibit cell proliferation and be proapoptotic, while cytoplasmic p21 may have oncogenic and anti-apoptotic functions. Because most typical tumor suppressive proteins also have different effects according to subcellular localization, elucidating the regulatory mechanisms underlying nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of these proteins would be significant and may lead to a new strategy for anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy. Chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) is a major nuclear export receptor involved in transport of tumor suppressors from nucleus to cytoplasm. Expression of CRM1 is enhanced in a variety of malignancies and in vitro studies have shown the efficacy of specific inhibition of CRM1 against cancer cell lines. Interestingly, interferon may keep p21 in the nucleus; this is one of the mechanisms of its anti-hepatocarcinogenic function. Here we review the oncogenic property of p21, which depends on its subcellular localization, and discuss the rationale underlying a new strategy for HCC treatment and prevention.

  17. PCNA-coupled p21 degradation after DNA damage: The exception that confirms the rule?

    PubMed

    Soria, Gastón; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2010-04-04

    While many are the examples of DNA damaging treatments that induce p21 accumulation, the conception of p21 upregulation as the universal response to genotoxic stress has come to an end. Compelling evidences have demonstrated the existence of converging signals that negatively regulate p21 bellow basal levels when replication forks are blocked. Moreover, conclusive reports identified the E3-ligase CRL4(CDT2) (CUL4-DDB1-CDT2) as the enzymatic complex that promotes p21 proteolysis when treatments such as UV irradiation trigger replication fork stress. A pre-requisite for CRL4(CDT2)-driven proteolysis is the interaction of p21 with PCNA. Interestingly as well, CRL4(CDT2)-dependent proteolysis is not limited to p21 and affects other PCNA partners, including the specialized DNA polymerase eta (pol eta). These recent discoveries are particularly intriguing since the UV-induced degradation of p21 has been shown to be required for efficient pol eta recruitment to DNA lesions. Herein we review the findings that lead to the identification of the molecular mechanism that triggers damage-induced PCNA-coupled protein proteolysis. We propose a novel model in which CRL4(CDT2)-dependent protein degradation facilitates a sequential and dynamic exchange between PIP box bearing proteins at stall forks during Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS). Moreover, given the tight spatiotemporal control that CRL4(CDT2)-driven proteolysis is able to confer to PCNA-regulated processes, we discuss the impact that this degradation mechanism might have in other molecular switches associated with the repair of damaged DNA. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Arsenic trioxide phosphorylates c-Fos to transactivate p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} expression

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zimiao; Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan; Huang, H.-S.

    2008-12-01

    An infamous poison, arsenic also has been used as a drug for nearly 2400 years; in recently years, arsenic has been effective in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Increasing evidence suggests that opposite effects of arsenic trioxide (ATO) on tumors depend on its concentrations. For this reason, the mechanisms of action of the drug should be elucidated, and it should be used therapeutically only with extreme caution. Previously, we demonstrated the opposing effects of ERK1/2 and JNK on p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} (p21) expression in response to ATO in A431 cells. In addition, JNK phosphorylates c-Jun (Ser{sup 63/73}) to recruit TGIF/HDAC1more » to suppress p21 gene expression. Presently, we demonstrated that a high concentration of ATO sustains ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and increases c-Fos biosynthesis and stability, which enhances p21 gene expression. Using site-directed mutagenesis, a DNA affinity precipitation assay, and functional assays, we demonstrated that phosphorylation of the C-terminus of c-Fos (Thr{sup 232}, Thr{sup 325}, Thr{sup 331}, and Ser{sup 374}) plays an important role in its binding to the p21 promoter, and in conjunction with N-terminus phosphorylation of c-Fos (Ser{sup 70}) to transactivate p21 promoter expression. In conclusion, a high concentration of ATO can sustain ERK1/2 activation to enhance c-Fos expression, then dimerize with dephosphorylated c-Jun (Ser{sup 63/73}) and recruit p300/CBP to the Sp1 sites (- 84/- 64) to activate p21 gene expression in A431 cells.« less

  19. Analytical validation of a reference laboratory ELISA for the detection of feline leukemia virus p27 antigen.

    PubMed

    Buch, Jesse S; Clark, Genevieve H; Cahill, Roberta; Thatcher, Brendon; Smith, Peter; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Leutenegger, Christian M; O'Connor, Thomas P; Beall, Melissa J

    2017-09-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is an oncogenic retrovirus of cats. Immunoassays for the p27 core protein of FeLV aid in the detection of FeLV infections. Commercial microtiter-plate ELISAs have rapid protocols and visual result interpretation, limiting their usefulness in high-throughput situations. The purpose of our study was to validate the PetChek FeLV 15 ELISA, which is designed for the reference laboratory, and incorporates sequential, orthogonal screening and confirmatory protocols. A cutoff for the screening assay was established with 100% accuracy using 309 feline samples (244 negative, 65 positive) defined by the combined results of FeLV PCR and an independent reference p27 antigen ELISA. Precision of the screening assay was measured using a panel of 3 samples (negative, low-positive, and high-positive). The intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3.9-7.9%; the inter-assay CV was 6.0-8.6%. For the confirmatory assay, the intra-assay CV was 3.0-4.7%, and the inter-assay CV was 7.4-9.7%. The analytical sensitivity for p27 antigen was 3.7 ng/mL for inactivated whole FeLV and 1.2 ng/mL for purified recombinant FeLV p27. Analytical specificity was demonstrated based on the absence of cross-reactivity to related retroviruses. No interference was observed for samples containing added bilirubin, hemoglobin, or lipids. Based on these results, the new high-throughput design of the PetChek FeLV 15 ELISA makes it suitable for use in reference laboratory settings and maintains overall analytical performance.

  20. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α regulates autophagy via the p27-E2F1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pan; Long, Meijing; Zhang, Shijie; Cheng, Zhenyun; Zhao, Xin; He, Fucheng; Liu, Hongchun; Ming, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved process by which the cell contents are delivered to lysosomes for degradation, or are used to provide macromolecules for energy generation under conditions of nutritional starvation. It has previously been demonstrated that cancer cells in hypoxic regions, with an oxygen concentration below the normal physiological level, express hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, in order to adapt and survive. HIF-1α is important in the regulation of oxygen homeostasis and the transcription of hundreds of genes in response to conditions of hypoxia, hence maintaining energy and redox homeostasis. To determine if HIF-1α modulates autophagy and the underlying molecular mechanisms regulating this process, the human esophageal cancer EC109 and IMR90 human diploid fibroblast cell lines were exposed to normoxic or hypoxic conditions and the expression levels of various proteins subsequently examined. Small interfering RNA was used to silence p27, in order to investigate its role in the process of HIF-1α regulated autophagy. Hypoxia induced autophagy in IMR90 cells and it was revealed that immature IMR90 cells demonstrated an increased rate of autophagy compared with mature cells. HIF-1α promoted EC109 cell autophagy via positively modulating p27, whereas silencing of p27 abolished the autophagy induced by hypoxia. The present study identified the primary components of the p27-E2F1 signaling pathway by which HIF-1α regulates autophagy. A previously unidentified mechanism is here presented, via which cancer cells may generate energy, or obtain macromolecules for survival. PMID:28627618

  1. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57Kip2 regulates cell cycle exit, differentiation, and migration of embryonic cerebral cortical precursors.

    PubMed

    Tury, Anna; Mairet-Coello, Georges; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel

    2011-08-01

    Mounting evidence indicates cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (CKIs) of the Cip/Kip family, including p57(Kip2) and p27(Kip1), control not only cell cycle exit but also corticogenesis. Nevertheless, distinct activities of p57(Kip2) remain poorly defined. Using in vivo and culture approaches, we show p57(Kip2) overexpression at E14.5-15.5 elicits precursor cell cycle exit, promotes transition from proliferation to neuronal differentiation, and enhances process outgrowth, while opposite effects occur in p57(Kip2)-deficient precursors. Studies at later ages indicate p57(Kip2) overexpression also induces precocious glial differentiation, suggesting stage-dependent effects. In embryonic cortex, p57(Kip2) overexpression advances cell radial migration and alters postnatal laminar positioning. While both CKIs induce differentiation, p57(Kip2) was twice as effective as p27(Kip1) in inducing neuronal differentiation and was not permissive to astrogliogenic effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor, suggesting that the CKIs differentially modulate cell fate decisions. At molecular levels, although highly conserved N-terminal regions of both CKIs elicit cycle withdrawal and differentiation, the C-terminal region of p57(Kip2) alone inhibits in vivo migration. Furthermore, p57(Kip2) effects on neurogenesis and gliogenesis require the N-terminal cyclin/CDK binding/inhibitory domains, while previous p27(Kip1) studies report cell cycle-independent functions. These observations suggest p57(Kip2) coordinates multiple stages of corticogenesis and exhibits distinct and common activities compared with related family member p27(Kip1).

  2. Physical interaction of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax with cyclin-dependent kinase 4 stimulates the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein.

    PubMed

    Haller, Kerstin; Wu, Yalin; Derow, Elisabeth; Schmitt, Iris; Jeang, Kuan-Teh; Grassmann, Ralph

    2002-05-01

    The Tax oncoprotein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) induces leukemia in transgenic mice and permanent T-cell growth in vitro. In transformed lymphocytes, it acts as an essential growth factor. Tax stimulates the cell cycle in the G(1) phase by activating the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) CDK4 and CDK6 holoenzyme complexes. Here we show that Tax directly interacts with CDK4. This binding to CDK4 was specific, since Tax did not bind to either CDK2 or CDK1. The interaction with CDK4/cyclin D complexes was observed in vitro, in transfected fibroblasts, in HTLV-1-infected T cells, and in adult T-cell leukemia-derived cultures. Binding studies with several point and deletion mutants indicated that the N terminus of Tax mediates the interaction with CDK4. The Tax/CDK complex represented an active holoenzyme which capably phosphorylates the Rb protein in vitro and is resistant to repression by the inhibitor p21(CIP). Binding-deficient Tax mutants failed to activate CDK4, indicating that direct association with Tax is required for enhanced kinase activity. Tax also increased the association of CDK4 with its positive cyclin regulatory subunit. Thus, protein-protein contact between Tax and the components of the cyclin D/CDK complexes provides a further mechanistic explanation for the mitogenic and immortalizing effects of this HTLV-1 oncoprotein.

  3. Physical Interaction of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax with Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 Stimulates the Phosphorylation of Retinoblastoma Protein

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Kerstin; Wu, Yalin; Derow, Elisabeth; Schmitt, Iris; Jeang, Kuan-Teh; Grassmann, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    The Tax oncoprotein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) induces leukemia in transgenic mice and permanent T-cell growth in vitro. In transformed lymphocytes, it acts as an essential growth factor. Tax stimulates the cell cycle in the G1 phase by activating the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) CDK4 and CDK6 holoenzyme complexes. Here we show that Tax directly interacts with CDK4. This binding to CDK4 was specific, since Tax did not bind to either CDK2 or CDK1. The interaction with CDK4/cyclin D complexes was observed in vitro, in transfected fibroblasts, in HTLV-1-infected T cells, and in adult T-cell leukemia-derived cultures. Binding studies with several point and deletion mutants indicated that the N terminus of Tax mediates the interaction with CDK4. The Tax/CDK complex represented an active holoenzyme which capably phosphorylates the Rb protein in vitro and is resistant to repression by the inhibitor p21CIP. Binding-deficient Tax mutants failed to activate CDK4, indicating that direct association with Tax is required for enhanced kinase activity. Tax also increased the association of CDK4 with its positive cyclin regulatory subunit. Thus, protein-protein contact between Tax and the components of the cyclin D/CDK complexes provides a further mechanistic explanation for the mitogenic and immortalizing effects of this HTLV-1 oncoprotein. PMID:11971966

  4. Deciphering the binding behavior of flavonoids to the cyclin dependent kinase 6/cyclin D complex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxiao; Zhang, Lilei; Xu, Yangcheng; Jiang, Shanshan; Shao, Yueyue

    2018-01-01

    Flavonoids, a class of natural compounds with variable phenolic structures, have been found to possess anti-cancer activities by modulating different enzymes and receptors like CDK6. To understand the binding behavior of flavonoids that inhibit the active CDK6, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed on six inhibitors, chrysin (M01), fisetin (M03), galangin (M04), genistein (M05), quercetin (M06) and kaempferol (M07), complexed with CDK6/cyclin D. For all six flavonoids, the 3'-OH and 4'-OH of B-ring were found to be favorable for hydrogen bond formation, but the 3-OH on the C-ring and 5-OH on the A-ring were unfavorable, which were confirmed by the MD simulation results of the test molecule, 3', 4', 7-trihydroxyflavone (M15). The binding efficiencies of flavonoids against the CDK6/cyclin D complex were mainly through the electrostatic (especially the H-bond force) and vdW interactions with residues ILE19, VAL27, ALA41, GLU61, PHE98, GLN103, ASP163 and LEU152. The order of binding affinities of these flavonoids toward the CDK6/cyclin D was M03 > M01 > M07 > M15 > M06 > M05 > M04. It is anticipated that the binding features of flavonoid inhibitors studied in the present work may provide valuable insights for the development of CDK6 inhibitors.

  5. Dependence of Cisplatin-Induced Cell Death In Vitro and In Vivo on Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Price, Peter M.; Yu, Fang; Kaldis, Philipp; Aleem, Eiman; Nowak, Grażyna; Safirstein, Robert L.; Megyesi, Judit

    2006-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutics, but its usefulness is limited by its toxicity to normal tissues, including cells of the kidney proximal tubule. The purpose of these studies was to determine the mechanism of cisplatin cytotoxicity. It was shown in vivo that cisplatin administration induces upregulation of the gene for the p21 cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor in kidney cells. This protein is a positive effector on the fate of cisplatin-exposed renal tubule cells in vivo and in vitro; adenoviral transduction of p21 completely protected proximal tubule cells from cisplatin toxicity. Herein is reported that cdk2 inhibitory drugs protect kidney cells in vivo and in vitro, that transduction of kidney cells in vitro with dominant-negative cdk2 also protected, and that cdk2 knockout cells were resistant to cisplatin. The cdk2 knockout cells regained cisplatin sensitivity after transduction with wild-type cdk2. It is concluded that cisplatin cytotoxicity depends on cdk2 activation and that the mechanism of p21 protection is by direct inhibition of cdk2. This demonstrated the involvement of a protein that previously was associated with cell-cycle progression with pathways of apoptosis. It also was demonstrated that this pathway of cisplatin-induced cell death can be interceded in vivo to prevent nephrotoxicity. PMID:16914540

  6. The nitric oxide-sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway mediates S-nitrosoglutathione-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Maristela; Batista, Wagner L; Ogata, Fernando T; Stern, Arnold; Monteiro, Hugo P; Arai, Roberto J

    2008-05-16

    p21Ras protein plays a critical role in cellular signaling that induces either cell cycle progression or apoptosis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been consistently reported to activate p21Ras through the redox sensitive cysteine residue (118). In this study, we demonstrated that the p21Ras-ERK pathway regulates THP-1 monocyte/macrophage apoptosis induced by S-nitrosoglutathione (SNOG). This was apparent from studies in THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras (p21Ras(C118S)) where the pro-apoptotic action of SNOG was almost abrogated. Three major MAP kinase pathways (ERK, JNK, and p38) that are downstream to p21Ras were investigated. It was observed that only the activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases by SNOG in THP-1 cells was attributable to p21Ras. The inhibition of the ERK pathway by PD98059 markedly attenuated apoptosis in SNOG-treated THP-1 cells, but had a marginal effect on SNOG-treated THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras. The inhibition of the JNK and p38 pathways by selective inhibitors had no marked effects on the percentage of apoptosis. The induction of p21Waf1 expression by SNOG was observed in THP-1 cells harboring mutant and wild-type p21Ras, however in cells expressing mutant Ras, the expression of p21Waf1 was significantly attenuated. The treatment of THP-1 cells expressing wild-type p21Ras with PD98059 resulted in significant attenuation of p21Waf1 expression. These results indicate that the redox sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway plays a critical role in sensing and delivering the pro-apoptotic signaling mediated by SNOG.

  7. The nitric oxide-sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway mediates S-nitrosoglutathione-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujita, Maristela; Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP; Batista, Wagner L.

    2008-05-16

    p21Ras protein plays a critical role in cellular signaling that induces either cell cycle progression or apoptosis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been consistently reported to activate p21Ras through the redox sensitive cysteine residue (118). In this study, we demonstrated that the p21Ras-ERK pathway regulates THP-1 monocyte/macrophage apoptosis induced by S-nitrosoglutathione (SNOG). This was apparent from studies in THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras (p21Ras{sup C118S}) where the pro-apoptotic action of SNOG was almost abrogated. Three major MAP kinase pathways (ERK, JNK, and p38) that are downstream to p21Ras were investigated. It was observed that only the activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinasesmore » by SNOG in THP-1 cells was attributable to p21Ras. The inhibition of the ERK pathway by PD98059 markedly attenuated apoptosis in SNOG-treated THP-1 cells, but had a marginal effect on SNOG-treated THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras. The inhibition of the JNK and p38 pathways by selective inhibitors had no marked effects on the percentage of apoptosis. The induction of p21Waf1 expression by SNOG was observed in THP-1 cells harboring mutant and wild-type p21Ras, however in cells expressing mutant Ras, the expression of p21Waf1 was significantly attenuated. The treatment of THP-1 cells expressing wild-type p21Ras with PD98059 resulted in significant attenuation of p21Waf1 expression. These results indicate that the redox sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway plays a critical role in sensing and delivering the pro-apoptotic signaling mediated by SNOG.« less

  8. Sumoylation in p27kip1 via RanBP2 promotes cancer cell growth in cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC939.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Liu, Yan; Wang, Bing; Lan, Hongzhen; Liu, Ying; Chen, Fei; Zhang, Ju; Luo, Jian

    2017-09-07

    Cholangiocarcinoma is one of the deadly disease with poor 5-year survival and poor response to conventional therapies. Previously, we found that p27kip1 nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation confers proliferation potential to cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC939 and this process is mediated by crm-1. However, no other post-transcriptional regulation was found in this process including sumoylation in cholangiocarcinoma. In this study, we explored the role of sumoylation in the nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of p27kip1 and its involvement of QBC939 cells' proliferation. First, we identified K73 as the sumoylation site in p27kip1. By utilizing plasmid flag-p27kip1, HA-RanBP2, GST-RanBP2 and His-p27kip1 and immunoprecipitation assay, we validated that p27kip1 can serve as the sumoylation target of RanBP2 in QBC939. Furthermore, we confirmed crm-1's role in promoting nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of p27kip1 and found that RanBP2's function relies on crm-1. However, K73R mutated p27kip1 can't be identified by crm-1 or RanBP2 in p27kip1 translocation process, suggesting sumoylation of p27kip1 via K73 site is necessary in this process by RanBP2 and crm-1. Phenotypically, the overexpression of either RanBP2 or crm-1 can partially rescue the anti-proliferative effect brought by p27kip1 overexpression in both the MTS and EdU assay. For the first time, we identified and validated the K73 sumoylation site in p27kip1, which is critical to RanBP2 and crm-1 in p27kip1 nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation process. Taken together, targeted inhibition of sumoylation of p27kip1 may serve as a potentially potent therapeutic target in the eradication of cholangiocarcinoma development and relapses.

  9. Rho GTPases and p21-activated kinase in the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis by gastrins.

    PubMed

    He, Hong; Baldwin, Graham S

    2008-01-01

    Gastrins, including amidated gastrin (Gamide) and glycine-extended gastrin (Ggly), accelerate the growth of gastrointestinal cancer cells by stimulation of proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis. Gamide and Ggly activate different G proteins of the Rho family of small GTPases. For example, Gamide signals Rac/Cdc42 to activate p21-activated kinase 1 while Ggly signals Rho to activate Rho-activated kinase. p21-activated kinase 1 and Rho-activated kinase induce changes in phosphorylation or expression, respectively, of proteins of the Bcl-2 family, which then affect the caspase cascade with consequent inhibition of apoptosis. In addition, interaction of p21-activated kinase 1 with beta-catenin results in phosphorylation of beta-catenin, which enhances its translocation in to the nucleus, activation of TCF4-dependent transcription, and proliferation and migration. The central role of the beta-catenin pathway in carcinogenesis suggests that specific inhibitors of p21-activated kinase 1 may in the future provide novel therapies for gastrointestinal malignancies.

  10. p21(WAF1) Mediates Cell-Cycle Inhibition, Relevant to Cancer Suppression and Therapy.

    PubMed

    El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2016-09-15

    p21 (WAF1/CIP1; CDKN1a) is a universal cell-cycle inhibitor directly controlled by p53 and p53-independent pathways. Knowledge of the regulation and function of p21 in normal and cancer cells has opened up several areas of investigation and has led to novel therapeutic strategies. The discovery in 1993 and subsequent work on p21 has illuminated basic cellular growth control, stem cell phenotypes, the physiology of differentiation, as well as how cells respond to stress. There remain open questions in the signaling networks, the ultimate role of p21 in the p53-deficiency phenotype in the context of other p53 target defects, and therapeutic strategies continue to be a work in progress. Cancer Res; 76(18); 5189-91. ©2016 AACRSee related article by El-Deiry et al., Cancer Res 1994;54:1169-74Visit the Cancer Research 75(th) Anniversary timeline. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. BAF180 regulates cellular senescence and hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis through p21

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyemin; Dai, Fangyan; Zhuang, Li; Xiao, Zhen-Dong; Kim, Jongchan; Zhang, Yilei; Ma, Li; You, M. James; Wang, Zhong; Gan, Boyi

    2016-01-01

    BAF180 (also called PBRM1), a subunit of the SWI/SNF complex, plays critical roles in the regulation of chromatin remodeling and gene transcription, and is frequently mutated in several human cancers. However, the role of mammalian BAF180 in tumor suppression and tissue maintenance in vivo remains largely unknown. Here, using a conditional somatic knockout approach, we explored the cellular and organismal functions of BAF180 in mouse. BAF180 deletion in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) triggers profound cell cycle arrest, premature cellular senescence, without affecting DNA damage response or chromosomal integrity. While somatic deletion of BAF180 in adult mice does not provoke tumor development, BAF180 deficient mice exhibit defects in hematopoietic system characterized by progressive reduction of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), defective long-term repopulating potential, and hematopoietic lineage developmental aberrations. BAF180 deletion results in elevated p21 expression in both MEFs and HSCs. Mechanistically, we showed that BAF180 binds to p21 promoter, and BAF180 deletion enhances the binding of modified histones associated with transcriptional activation on p21 promoter. Deletion of p21 rescues cell cycle arrest and premature senescence in BAF180 deficient MEFs, and partially rescues hematopoietic defects in BAF180 deficient mice. Together, our study identifies BAF180 as a critical regulator of cellular senescence and HSC homeostasis, which is at least partially regulated through BAF180-mediated suppression of p21 expression. Our results also suggest that senescence triggered by BAF180 inactivation may serve as a failsafe mechanism to restrain BAF180 deficiency-associated tumor development, providing a conceptual framework to further understand BAF180 function in tumor biology. PMID:26992241

  12. p21{sup WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1} knockout mice respond to doxorubicin with reduced cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Terrand, Jerome; Xu, Beibei; Morrissy, Steve

    2011-11-15

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an antineoplastic agent that can cause cardiomyopathy in humans and experimental animals. As an inducer of reactive oxygen species and a DNA damaging agent, Dox causes elevated expression of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1} (p21) gene. Elevated levels of p21 mRNA and p21 protein have been detected in the myocardium of mice following Dox treatment. With chronic treatment of Dox, wild type (WT) animals develop cardiomyopathy evidenced by elongated nuclei, mitochondrial swelling, myofilamental disarray, reduced cardiac output, reduced ejection fraction, reduced left ventricular contractility, and elevated expression of ANF gene. In contrast, p21 knockout (p21KO) mice did not show significantmore » changes in the same parameters in response to Dox treatment. In an effort to understand the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy, we measured levels of antioxidant enzymes and found that p21KO mice did not contain elevated basal or inducible levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements of 6 circulating cytokines indicated elevation of IL-6, IL-12, IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} in Dox treated WT mice but not p21KO mice. Dox induced elevation of IL-6 mRNA was detected in the myocardium of WT mice but not p21KO mice. While the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy remains unclear, lack of inflammatory response may contribute to the observed cardiac protection in p21KO mice. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin induces p21 elevation in the myocardium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin causes dilated cardiomyopathy in wild type mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21 Knockout mice are resistant against doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lack of inflammatory response correlates with the resistance in p21 knockout mice.« less

  13. Rational design of a cyclin A fluorescent peptide sensor.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Elena; Pérez, Miguel; Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo; Orzáez, Mar; Guevara, Tatiana; Mascareñas, José L; Vázquez, M Eugenio

    2011-10-26

    We report the design and development of a fluorescent sensor specifically designed to target cyclin A, a protein that plays a key role in the regulation of the cell cycle. Computational studies provide a molecular picture that explains the observed emission increase, suggesting that the 4-DMAP fluorophore in the peptide is protected from the bulk solvent when inserted into the hydrophobic binding groove of cyclin A.

  14. Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0564 TITLE : Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Panagiotis A...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0564 5c... box protein M1, Retinoblastoma 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON

  15. Enhanced expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in aniline-induced cell proliferation in rat spleen

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianling; Wang, Gangduo; Ma, Huaxian; Khan, M. Firoze

    2010-01-01

    Aniline exposure is associated with toxicity to the spleen leading to splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis and a variety of sarcomas of the spleen on chronic exposure. In earlier studies, we have shown that aniline exposure leads to iron overload, oxidative stress and activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors, which could regulate various genes leading to a tumorigenic response in the spleen. However, molecular mechanisms leading to aniline-induced cellular proliferation in the spleen remain largely unknown. This study was, therefore, undertaken on the regulation of G1 phase cell cycle proteins (cyclins), expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and cell proliferation in the spleen, in an experimental condition preceding a tumorigenic response. Male SD rats were treated with aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day via drinking water) for 30 days (controls received drinking water only), and splenocyte proliferation, protein expression of G1 phase cyclins, CDKs and pRB were measured. Aniline treatment resulted in significant increases in splenocyte proliferation, based on cell counts, cell proliferation markers including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), nuclear Ki67 protein (Ki67) and minichromosome maintenance (MCM), MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. Western blot analysis of splenocyte proteins from aniline-treated rats showed significantly increased expression of cyclins D1, D2, D3 and cyclin E, as compared to the controls. Similarly, real-time PCR analysis showed significantly increased mRNA expression for cyclins D1, D2, D3 and E in the spleens of aniline-treated rats. The overexpression of these cyclins was associated with increases in the expression of CDK4, CDK6, CDK2 as well as phosphorylation of pRB protein. Our data suggest that increased expression of cyclins, CDKs and phosphorylation of pRB protein could be critical in cell proliferation, and may contribute to aniline-induced tumorigenic

  16. Regulation of T Cell Differentiation and Alloimmunity by the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p18ink4c

    PubMed Central

    Rowell, Emily A.; Wang, Liqing; Chunder, Neelanjana; Hancock, Wayne W.; Wells, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular proliferation in response to mitogenic stimuli is negatively regulated by the Cip/Kip and the Ink4 families of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. Several of these proteins are elevated in anergic T cells, suggesting a potential role in the induction or maintenance of tolerance. Our previous studies showed that p27kip1 is required for the induction of T cell anergy and transplantation tolerance by costimulatory blockade, but a role for Ink4 proteins in these processes has not been established. Here we show that CD4+ T cells from mice genetically deficient for p18ink4c divide more rapidly than wild-type cells in response to antigenic, costimulatory and growth factor signals. However, this gain of proliferative function was accompanied by a moderate increase in the rate of cell death, and was accompanied by an overall defect in the generation of alloreactive IFNγ-producing effector cells. Consistent with this, p18ink4c-deficient T cells were unable to induce graft-vs-host disease in vivo, and p18ink4c deficiency cooperated with costimulatory blockade to significantly increase the survival of fully mismatched allografts in a cardiac transplantation model. While both p18ink4c and p27kip1 act to restrict T cell proliferation, p18ink4c exerts an opposite effect from p27kip1 on alloimmunity and organ transplant rejection, most likely by sustaining T cell survival and the development of effector function. Our studies point to additional important links between the cell cycle machinery and the processes of T cell differentiation, survival and tolerance. PMID:24614758

  17. An emerging role for p21-activated kinases (Paks) in viral infections.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeke, Celine; Radu, Maria; Chernoff, Jonathan; Favoreel, Herman W

    2010-03-01

    p21-activated protein kinases (Paks) are cytosolic serine/threonine protein kinases that act as effectors for small (p21) GTPases of the Cdc42 and Rac families. It has long been established that Paks play a major role in a host of vital cellular functions such as proliferation, survival and motility, and abnormal Pak function is associated with a number of human diseases. Here, we discuss emerging evidence that these enzymes also play a major role in the entry, replication and spread of many important pathogenic human viruses, including HIV. Careful assessment of the potential role of Paks in antiviral immunity will be pivotal to evaluate thoroughly the potential of agents that inhibit Pak as a new class of anti-viral therapeutics.

  18. Roles of P21-activated kinases and associated proteins in epithelial wound healing.

    PubMed

    Zegers, Mirjam

    2008-01-01

    The primary function of epithelia is to provide a barrier between the extracellular environment and the interior of the body. Efficient epithelial repair mechanisms are therefore crucial for homeostasis. The epithelial wound-healing process involves highly regulated morphogenetic changes of epithelial cells that are driven by dynamic changes of the cytoskeleton. P21-activated kinases are serine/threonine kinases that have emerged as important regulators of the cytoskeleton. These kinases, which are activated downsteam of the Rho GTPases Rac and cd42, were initially mostly implicated in the regulation of cell migration. More recently, however, these kinases were shown to have many additional functions that are relevant to the regulation of epithelial wound healing. Here, we provide an overview of the morphogenetic changes of epithelial cells during wound healing and the many functions of p21-activated kinases in these processes.

  19. Matrix mechanics controls FHL2 movement to the nucleus to activate p21 expression

    PubMed Central

    Nakazawa, Naotaka; Sathe, Aneesh R.; Shivashankar, G. V.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Substrate rigidity affects many physiological processes through mechanochemical signals from focal adhesion (FA) complexes that subsequently modulate gene expression. We find that shuttling of the LIM domain (domain discovered in the proteins, Lin11, Isl-1, and Mec-3) protein four-and-a-half LIM domains 2 (FHL2) between FAs and the nucleus depends on matrix mechanics. In particular, on soft surfaces or after the loss of force, FHL2 moves from FAs into the nucleus and concentrates at RNA polymerase (Pol) II sites, where it acts as a transcriptional cofactor, causing an increase in p21 gene expression that will inhibit growth on soft surfaces. At the molecular level, shuttling requires a specific tyrosine in FHL2, as well as phosphorylation by active FA kinase (FAK). Thus, we suggest that FHL2 phosphorylation by FAK is a critical, mechanically dependent step in signaling from soft matrices to the nucleus to inhibit cell proliferation by increasing p21 expression. PMID:27742790

  20. PDK1-dependent activation of atypical PKC leads to degradation of the p21 tumour modifier protein

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Mary T.; Ingram, Angela; Ball, Kathryn L.

    2002-01-01

    p21WAF1/CIP1 contributes to positive and negative growth control on multiple levels. We previously mapped phosphorylation sites within the C-terminal domain of p21 that regulate proliferating cell nucear antigen binding. In the current study, a kinase has been fractionated from mammalian cells that stoichiometrically phosphorylates p21 at the Ser146 site, and the enzyme has been identified as an insulin-responsive atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). Expression of PKCζ or activation of the endogenous kinase by 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) decreased the half-life of p21. Conversely, dnPKCζ or dnPDK1 increased p21 protein half-life, and a PDK1-dependent increase in the rate of p21 degradation was mediated by aPKC. Insulin stimulation gave a biphasic response with a rapid transient decrease in p21 protein levels during the initial signalling phase that was dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3- kinase, PKC and proteasome activity. Thus, aPKC provides a physiological signal for the degradation of p21. The rapid degradation of p21 protein during the signalling phase of insulin stimulation identifies a novel link between energy metabolism and a key modulator of cell cycle progression. PMID:12485998

  1. Curcumin induces Apaf-1-dependent, p21-mediated caspase activation and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Honghao; Jones, Anthony; Verone, Alissa; Pitarresi, Jason; Jandhyam, Sirisha; Prabhu, Varun; Black, Jennifer D

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that curcumin induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. However, understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying curcumin-induced cell death remains limited. In this study, we demonstrate that curcumin treatment of cancer cells caused dose- and time-dependent caspase 3 activation, which is required for apoptosis as confirmed using the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD. Knockdown experiments and knockout cells excluded a role for caspase 8 in curcumin-induced caspase 3 activation. In contrast, Apaf-1 deficiency or silencing inhibited the activity of caspase 3, pointing to a requisite role of Apaf-1 in curcumin-induced apoptotic cell death. Curcumin treatment led to Apaf-1 upregulation, both at the protein and mRNA levels. Cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol in curcumin-treated cells was associated with upregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins, such as Bax, Bak, Bid and Bim. Cross-linking experiments demonstrated Bax oligomerization during curcumin-induced apoptosis, suggesting that induced expression of Bax, Bid and Bim causes Bax channel formation on the mitochondrial membrane. The release of cytochrome c was unaltered in p53-deficient cells, whereas absence of p21 blocked cytochrome c release, caspase activation and apoptosis. Importantly, p21 deficiency resulted in reduced expression of Apaf-1 during curcumin treatment, indicating a requirement for p21 in Apaf-1-dependent caspase activation and apoptosis. Together, our findings identify Apaf-1, Bax and p21 as novel potential targets for curcumin or curcumin-based anticancer agents. PMID:22101335

  2. Anti-cancer peptides from ras-p21 and p53 proteins.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Matthew R; Fenelus, Maly; Sarafraz-Yazdi, Ehsan; Adler, Victor; Bowne, Wilbur; Michl, Josef

    2011-01-01

    We have employed computer-based molecular modeling approaches to design peptides from the ras-p21 and p53 proteins that either induce tumor cell reversion to the untransformed phenotype or induce tumor cell necrosis without affecting normal cells. For rasp21, we have computed and superimposed the average low energy structures for the wild-type protein and oncogenic forms of this protein and found that specific domains change conformation in the oncogenic proteins. We have synthesized peptides corresponding to these and found that ras peptides, 35-47 (PNC-7) and 96-110 (PNC-2), block oncogenic ras-p21-induced oocyte maturation but have no effect on insulin-induced oocyte maturation that requires activation of endogenous wild-type ras-p21. These results show signal transduction pathway differences between oncogenic and activated wild-type ras-p21. Both peptides, attached to a membrane-penetrating peptide (membrane residency peptide or MRP), either induce phenotypic reversion to the untransformed phenotype or tumor cell necrosis of several ras-transformed cell lines, but have no effect on the growth of normal cells. Using other computational methods, we have designed two peptides, PNC-27 and 28, containing HDM-2-protein-binding domain sequences from p53 linked on their C-termini to the MRP that induce pore formation in the membranes of a wide range of cancer cells but not any normal cells tested. This is due to the expression of HDM-2 in the cancer cell membrane that does not occur in normal cells. These peptides eradicate a highly malignant tumor in nude mice with no apparent side effects. Both ras and p53 peptides show promise as anti-tumor agents in humans.

  3. Cucurbitacin E Induces G2/M Phase Arrest through STAT3/p53/p21 Signaling and Provokes Apoptosis via Fas/CD95 and Mitochondria-Dependent Pathways in Human Bladder Cancer T24 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Wen; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lin, Meng-Wei; Chen, Po-Yuan; Chiou, Shang-Ming; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Pai, Shu-Jen; Tsuzuki, Minoru; Ho, Wai-Jane; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-01-01

    Cucurbitacin E, a tetracyclic triterpenes compound extracted from cucurbitaceous plants, has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether cucurbitacin E promotes cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis in T24 cells and further to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. The effects of cucurbitacin E on T24 cell's growth and accompanied morphological changes were examined by MTT assay and a phase-contrast microscope. DNA content, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and annexin V/PI staining were determined by flow cytometry. The protein levels were measured by Western blotting. Our results demonstrated that cucurbitacin E-induced G2/M arrest was associated with a marked increase in the levels of p53, p21 and a decrease in phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and cyclin B. Cucurbitacin E-triggered apoptosis was accompanied with up-regulation of Fas/CD95, truncated BID (t-BID) and a loss of ΔΨm, resulting in the releases of cytochrome c, apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and sequential activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3. Our findings provided the first evidence that STAT3/p53/p21 signaling, Fas/CD95 and mitochondria-dependent pathways play critical roles in cucurbitacin E-induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis of T24 cells. PMID:22272214

  4. Retrospective study reveals the circulation of norovirus genotype GII.P21-GII.2 in Romania

    PubMed

    Dinu, Sorin; Szmal, Camelia; Damian, Maria; Oprişan, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, causing significant economic burden globally. Infection is self-limiting, occurring as sporadic cases or producing outbreaks associated with consumption of contaminated water or food. All age groups are affected and person to person transmission is frequent. Except a recent outbreak in Romania caused by the emergent genotype GII.P17-GII.17, few data regarding the circulation of noroviruses in our country are available. We retrospectively analyzed stool samples from acute gastroenteritis patients hospitalized in Romania between 2005 and 2008. Noroviruses were detected by RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis was inferred from partial sequences spanning ORF1 and ORF2. Recombinant GII.P21-GII.2 isolates were found in two adult patients from a cluster of acute gastroenteritis in 2006. Molecular analysis based on partial genomic sequences indicated high degree of similarity between the two isolates and grouped them with cosmopolitan strains circulating in the same period of time. Along with the high rate of mutation, recombination is an important driving force in norovirus evolution. GII.P21 isolates, formerly known as GII.b recombinants, have been detected in Europe since 2000 and associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. This is the first work describing norovirus GII.P21-GII.2 identified in Romania.

  5. Postnatal telomere dysfunction induces cardiomyocyte cell-cycle arrest through p21 activation

    PubMed Central

    Aix, Esther; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Óscar; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlota; Aguado, Tania

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that drive mammalian cardiomyocytes out of the cell cycle soon after birth remain largely unknown. Here, we identify telomere dysfunction as a critical physiological signal for cardiomyocyte cell-cycle arrest. We show that telomerase activity and cardiomyocyte telomere length decrease sharply in wild-type mouse hearts after birth, resulting in cardiomyocytes with dysfunctional telomeres and anaphase bridges and positive for the cell-cycle arrest protein p21. We further show that premature telomere dysfunction pushes cardiomyocytes out of the cell cycle. Cardiomyocytes from telomerase-deficient mice with dysfunctional telomeres (G3 Terc−/−) show precocious development of anaphase-bridge formation, p21 up-regulation, and binucleation. In line with these findings, the cardiomyocyte proliferative response after cardiac injury was lost in G3 Terc−/− newborns but rescued in G3 Terc−/−/p21−/− mice. These results reveal telomere dysfunction as a crucial signal for cardiomyocyte cell-cycle arrest after birth and suggest interventions to augment the regeneration capacity of mammalian hearts. PMID:27241915

  6. MicroRNA-520g Confers Drug Resistance by Regulating p21 Expression in Colorectal Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Geng, Liying; Talmon, Geoffrey; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Development of drug resistance is one of the major causes of colorectal cancer recurrence, yet mechanistic understanding and therapeutic options remain limited. Here, we show that expression of microRNA (miR)-520g is correlated with drug resistance of colon cancer cells. Ectopic expression of miR-520g conferred resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)- or oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis in vitro and reduced the effectiveness of 5-FU in the inhibition of tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model in vivo. Further studies indicated that miR-520g mediated drug resistance through down-regulation of p21 expression. Moreover, p53 suppressed miR-520g expression, and deletion of p53 up-regulated miR-520g expression. Inhibition of miR-520g in p53−/− cells increased their sensitivity to 5-FU treatment. Importantly, studies of patient samples indicated that expression of miR-520g correlated with chemoresistance in colorectal cancer. These findings indicate that the p53/miR-520g/p21 signaling axis plays an important role in the response of colorectal cancer to chemotherapy. A major implication of our studies is that inhibition of miR-520g or restoration of p21 expression may have considerable therapeutic potential to overcome drug resistance in colorectal cancer patients, especially in those with mutant p53. PMID:25616665

  7. Clenbuterol Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in C2C12 Myoblasts by Delaying p27 Degradation through β-arrestin 2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Liu, Chuncheng; Wang, Meng; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Kuo; Zheng, Yu; Yu, Zhengquan; Li, Xiangdong; Guo, Wei; Li, Ning; Meng, Qingyong

    2017-01-01

    β2-Adrenoceptor (β2-AR) agonists promote muscle growth. The aim of this study was to elucidate some effects of the selective β2-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol (CLB) on myoblast proliferation. We found that CLB induces cell cycle arrest in C2C12 myoblasts. This effect is partly due to the enhanced stability of p27, rather than the increased gene transcription via cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Specifically, CLB treatment enhanced the accumulation of p27 in the nucleus while depleting it from the cytosol via a mechanism that requires β2-AR. Surprisingly, p27 accumulation was not reversed by the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89, but interestingly, was alleviated by the knockdown of β-arrestin 2. Thus, our work provides a basis for β2-AR agonists inhibit myoblasts proliferation through signaling via β2-AR, β-arrestin 2, and p27. PMID:29104500

  8. p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} deficiency induces mitochondrial dysfunction in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ae Jeong; Jee, Hye Jin; Song, Naree

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells exhibited an increase in mitochondrial mass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression levels of PGC-1{alpha} and AMPK were upregulated in p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proliferation of p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells in galactose medium was significantly impaired. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21 may play a role in maintaining proper mitochondrial mass and respiratory function. -- Abstract: p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression. However, the role of p21 in mitochondrial function remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the effect of p21 deficiency on mitochondrial function in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. We found thatmore » there was a significant increase in the mitochondrial mass of p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells, as measured by 10-N-nonyl-acridine orange staining, as well as an increase in the mitochondrial DNA content. In contrast, p53{sup -/-} cells had a mitochondrial mass comparable to that of wild-type HCT116 cells. In addition, the expression levels of the mitochondrial biogenesis regulators PGC-1{alpha} and TFAM and AMPK activity were also elevated in p21{sup -/-} cells, indicating that p21 deficiency induces the rate of mitochondrial biogenesis through the AMPK-PGC-1{alpha} axis. However, the increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in p21{sup -/-} cells did not accompany an increase in the cellular steady-state level of ATP. Furthermore, p21{sup -/-} cells exhibited significant proliferation impairment in galactose medium, suggesting that p21 deficiency induces a defect in the mitochondrial respiratory chain in HCT116 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the loss of p21 results in an aberrant increase in the mitochondrial mass and in mitochondrial dysfunction in HCT116 cells, indicating that p21 is required to maintain proper mitochondrial mass and respiratory function.« less

  9. Mechanistic insights into avian reovirus p17-modulated suppression of cell-cycle CDK/cyclin complexes and enhancement of p53 and cyclin H interaction.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hung-Chuan; Huang, Wei-Ru; Liao, Tsai-Ling; Chi, Pei-I; Nielsen, Brent L; Liu, Jyung-Hurng; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2018-06-15

    The avian reovirus (ARV) p17 protein is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein. Although we have demonstrated that p17 causes cell growth retardation via activation of p53, the precise mechanisms remains unclear. This is the first report that ARV p17 possesses broad inhibitory effects on cell-cycle CDKs, cyclins, CDK/cyclin complexes, and CDK activating kinase (CAK) activity in various mammalian, avian, and cancer cell lines. Suppression of CDK activity by p17 occurs by direct binding to CDKs, cyclins, and CDK/cyclin complexes, transcriptional downregulation of CDKs, cytoplasmic retention of CDKs and cyclins, and inhibition of CAK activity by promoting p53/cyclin H interaction. p17 binds to CDK/cyclin except for CDK1/cyclin B1 and CDK7/cyclin H complexes. We have determined that the negatively charged 151 LAVxDxDxE/DDGADPN 165 motif in cyclin B1 interacts with a positively charged region of CDK1. p17 mimics the cyclin B1 sequence to compete for CDK1 binding. The PSTAIRE motif is not required for interaction of CDK1/cyclin B1, but is required for other CDK/cyclin complexes. p17 interacts with cyclins by its cyclin-binding motif 125 RXL 127 Sequence and mutagenic analyses of p17 indicated that a 140 WXFD 143 motif and residues D113 and K122 in p17 are critical for CDK2 and CDK6 binding, leading to their sequestration in the cytoplasm. Exogenous expression of p17 significantly enhanced virus replication while p17 mutants with low binding ability to cell-cycle CDKs have no effect on virus yield, suggesting that p17 inhibits cell growth and the cell cycle benefiting virus replication. An in vivo tumorigenesis assay also showed a significant reduction in tumor size. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Distinct Sequence Elements of Cyclin B1 Promote Localization to Chromatin, Centrosomes, and Kinetochores during Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Anna M.; Normand, Guillaume; Hoyt, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The mitotic cyclins promote cell division by binding and activating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Each cyclin has a unique pattern of subcellular localization that plays a vital role in regulating cell division. During mitosis, cyclin B1 is known to localize to centrosomes, microtubules, and chromatin. To determine the mechanisms of cyclin B1 localization in M phase, we imaged full-length and mutant versions of human cyclin B1-enhanced green fluorescent protein in live cells by using spinning disk confocal microscopy. In addition to centrosome, microtubule, and chromatin localization, we found that cyclin B1 also localizes to unattached kinetochores after nuclear envelope breakdown. Kinetochore recruitment of cyclin B1 required the kinetochore proteins Hec1 and Mad2, and it was stimulated by microtubule destabilization. Mutagenesis studies revealed that cyclin B1 is recruited to kinetochores through both CDK1-dependent and -independent mechanisms. In contrast, localization of cyclin B1 to chromatin and centrosomes is independent of CDK1 binding. The N-terminal domain of cyclin B1 is necessary and sufficient for chromatin association, whereas centrosome recruitment relies on sequences within the cyclin box. Our data support a role for cyclin B1 function at unattached kinetochores, and they demonstrate that separable and distinct sequence elements target cyclin B1 to kinetochores, chromatin, and centrosomes during mitosis. PMID:17881737

  11. Cyclin D regulation of a sexually dimorphic asymmetric cell division

    PubMed Central

    Tilmann, Christopher; Kimble, Judith

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY The C. elegans somatic gonadal precursor cell (SGP) divides asymmetrically to establish gonad-specific coordinates in both sexes. In addition, the SGP division is sexually dimorphic and initiates sex-specific programs of gonadogenesis. Wnt/MAPK signaling determines the gonadal axes, and the FKH-6 transcription factor specifies the male mode of SGP division. In this paper, we demonstrate that C. elegans cyclin D controls POP-1/TCF asymmetry in the SGP daughters as well as fkh-6 and rnr expression in the SGPs. Although cyclin D mutants have delayed SGP divisions, the cyclin D defects are not mimicked by other methods of retarding the SGP division. We find that EFL-1/E2F has an antagonistic effect on fkh-6 expression and gonadogenesis, which is relieved by cyclin D activity. We propose that cyclin D and other canonical regulators of the G1/S transition coordinate key regulators of axis formation and sex determination with cell cycle progression to achieve the sexually dimorphic SGP asymmetric division. PMID:16198291

  12. A U-Rich Element in the 5′ Untranslated Region Is Necessary for the Translation of p27 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Millard, S. Sean; Vidal, Anxo; Markus, Maurice; Koff, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Increased translation of p27 mRNA correlates with withdrawal of cells from the cell cycle. This raised the possibility that antimitogenic signals might mediate their effects on p27 expression by altering complexes that formed on p27 mRNA, regulating its translation. In this report, we identify a U-rich sequence in the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) of p27 mRNA that is necessary for efficient translation in proliferating and nonproliferating cells. We show that a number of factors bind to the 5′UTR in vitro in a manner dependent on the U-rich element, and their availability in the cytosol is controlled in a growth- and cell cycle-dependent fashion. One of these factors is HuR, a protein previously implicated in mRNA stability, transport, and translation. Another is hnRNP C1 and C2, proteins implicated in mRNA processing and the translation of a specific subset of mRNAs expressed in differentiated cells. In lovastatin-treated MDA468 cells, the mobility of the associated hnRNP C1 and C2 proteins changed, and this correlated with increased p27 expression. Together, these data suggest that the U-rich dependent RNP complex on the 5′UTR may regulate the translation of p27 mRNA and may be a target of antimitogenic signals. PMID:10913178

  13. Differential effects of cell cycle regulatory protein p21(WAF1/Cip1) on apoptosis and sensitivity to cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Suxing; Bishop, W Robert; Liu, Ming

    2003-08-01

    p21(WAF1/Cip1) was initially identified as a cell cycle regulatory protein that can cause cell cycle arrest. It is induced by both p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. This mini-review briefly discusses its currently known functions in apoptosis and drug sensitivity. As an inhibitor of cell proliferation, p21(WAF1/Cip1) plays an important role in drug-induced tumor suppression. Nevertheless, a number of recent studies have shown that p21(WAF1/Cip1) can assume both pro- or anti-apoptotic functions in response to anti-tumor agents depending on cell type and cellular context. This dual role of p21(WAF1/Cip1) in cancer cells complicates using p21(WAF1/Cip1) status to predict response to anti-tumor agents. However, it is possible to develop p21(WAF1/Cip1)-targeted reagents or p21(WAF1/Cip1) gene transfer techniques to have a beneficial effect within a well-defined therapeutic context. Better understanding of the roles of p21(WAF1/Cip1) in tumors should enable a more rational approach to anti-tumor drug design and therapy.

  14. [The mechanisms of p21WAF1/Cip-1 expression in MOLT-4 cell line induced by TSA].

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Liu, Mei-Ju; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Qian, Jun-Jie; Dong, Yan; Liu, Hua; Sun, Guo-Jing; Mei, Zhu-Zhong; Liu, Bin; Tian, Bao-Lei; Sun, Zhi-Xian

    2005-04-01

    To investigate the function and molecular mechanism of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) expression in MOLT-4 cells induced by HDAC inhibitor TSA, the expression pattern of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) and the distribution of cell cycle in TSA treated cells were analyzed. The results showed that TSA could effectively induce G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis of MOLT-4 cells. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that p21(WAF1/Cip-1) were upregulated quickly before cell arrested in G(2)/M and began decreasing at the early stage of apoptosis. Meanwhile, the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 could inhibit the decrease of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) at the early stage of apoptosis, which showed that proteasome pathway involved in p21(WAF1/Cip-1) degradation during the TSA induced G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis responses. This study also identified that the protein level of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) was highly associated with the cell cycle change induced by TSA. Compared to cells treated by TSA only, exposure MOLT-4 cells to TSA meanwhile treatment with MG-132 increased the protein level of p21(WAF1/Cip-1) and increased the numbers of cell in G(2)/M-phase, whereas the cell apoptosis were delayed. It is concluded that p21(WAF1/Cip-1) plays a significant role in G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis signaling induced by TSA in MOLT-4 cells.

  15. Efficient Parvovirus Replication Requires CRL4Cdt2-Targeted Depletion of p21 to Prevent Its Inhibitory Interaction with PCNA

    PubMed Central

    Pintel, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Infection by the autonomous parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a vigorous DNA damage response in host cells which it utilizes for its efficient replication. Although p53 remains activated, p21 protein levels remain low throughout the course of infection. We show here that efficient MVM replication required the targeting for degradation of p21 during this time by the CRL4Cdt2 E3-ubiquitin ligase which became re-localized to MVM replication centers. PCNA provides a molecular platform for substrate recognition by the CRL4Cdt2 E3-ubiquitin ligase and p21 targeting during MVM infection required its interaction both with Cdt2 and PCNA. PCNA is also an important co-factor for MVM replication which can be antagonized by p21 in vitro. Expression of a stable p21 mutant that retained interaction with PCNA inhibited MVM replication, while a stable p21 mutant which lacked this interaction did not. Thus, while interaction with PCNA was important for targeting p21 to the CRL4Cdt2 ligase re-localized to MVM replication centers, efficient viral replication required subsequent depletion of p21 to abrogate its inhibition of PCNA. PMID:24699724

  16. Efficient parvovirus replication requires CRL4Cdt2-targeted depletion of p21 to prevent its inhibitory interaction with PCNA.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Richard O; Fuller, Matthew S; Pintel, David J

    2014-04-01

    Infection by the autonomous parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a vigorous DNA damage response in host cells which it utilizes for its efficient replication. Although p53 remains activated, p21 protein levels remain low throughout the course of infection. We show here that efficient MVM replication required the targeting for degradation of p21 during this time by the CRL4Cdt2 E3-ubiquitin ligase which became re-localized to MVM replication centers. PCNA provides a molecular platform for substrate recognition by the CRL4Cdt2 E3-ubiquitin ligase and p21 targeting during MVM infection required its interaction both with Cdt2 and PCNA. PCNA is also an important co-factor for MVM replication which can be antagonized by p21 in vitro. Expression of a stable p21 mutant that retained interaction with PCNA inhibited MVM replication, while a stable p21 mutant which lacked this interaction did not. Thus, while interaction with PCNA was important for targeting p21 to the CRL4Cdt2 ligase re-localized to MVM replication centers, efficient viral replication required subsequent depletion of p21 to abrogate its inhibition of PCNA.

  17. The Prognostic Impact of p53 Expression on Sporadic Colorectal Cancer Is Dependent on p21 Status.

    PubMed

    Kruschewski, Martin; Mueller, Kathrin; Lipka, Sybille; Budczies, Jan; Noske, Aurelia; Buhr, Heinz Johannes; Elezkurtaj, Sefer

    2011-03-11

    The prognostic value of p53 and p21 expression in colorectal cancer is still under debate. We hypothesize that the prognostic impact of p53 expression is dependent on p21 status. The expression of p53 and p21 was immunohistochemically investigated in a prospective cohort of 116 patients with UICC stage II and III sporadic colorectal cancer. The results were correlated with overall and recurrence-free survival. The mean observation period was 51.8 ± 2.5 months. Expression of p53 was observed in 72 tumors (63%). Overall survival was significantly better in patients with p53-positive carcinomas than in those without p53 expression (p = 0.048). No differences were found in recurrence-free survival (p = 0.161). The p53+/p21- combination was seen in 68% (n = 49), the p53+/p21+ combination in 32% (n = 23). Patients with p53+/p21- carcinomas had significantly better overall and recurrence-free survival than those with p53+/p21+ (p < 0.0001 resp. p = 0.003). Our data suggest that the prognostic impact of p53 expression on sporadic colorectal cancer is dependent on p21 status.

  18. Comprehensive phenotypic analysis of knockout mice deficient in cyclin G1 and cyclin G2

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Shouichi; Ikeda, Jun-ichiro; Naito, Yoko; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Sasakura, Towa; Fukushima, Kohshiro; Nishikawa, Yukihiro; Ota, Kaori; Kato, Yorika; Wang, Mian; Torigata, Kosuke; Kasama, Takashi; Uchihashi, Toshihiro; Miura, Daisaku; Yabuta, Norikazu; Morii, Eiichi; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin G1 (CycG1) and Cyclin G2 (CycG2) play similar roles during the DNA damage response (DDR), but their detailed roles remain elusive. To investigate their distinct roles, we generated knockout mice deficient in CycG1 (G1KO) or CycG2 (G2KO), as well as double knockout mice (DKO) deficient in both proteins. All knockouts developed normally and were fertile. Generation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from these mice revealed that G2KO MEFs, but not G1KO or DKO MEFs, were resistant to DNA damage insults caused by camptothecin and ionizing radiation (IR) and underwent cell cycle arrest. CycG2, but not CycG1, co-localized with γH2AX foci in the nucleus after γ-IR, and γH2AX-mediated DNA repair and dephosphorylation of CHK2 were delayed in G2KO MEFs. H2AX associated with CycG1, CycG2, and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), suggesting that γH2AX affects the function of PP2A via direct interaction with its B’γ subunit. Furthermore, expression of CycG2, but not CycG1, was abnormal in various cancer cell lines. Kaplan–Meier curves based on TCGA data disclosed that head and neck cancer patients with reduced CycG2 expression have poorer clinical prognoses. Taken together, our data suggest that reduced CycG2 expression could be useful as a novel prognostic marker of cancer. PMID:27982046

  19. BmCyclin B and BmCyclin B3 are required for cell cycle progression in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Pan, Minhui; Hong, Kaili; Chen, Xiangyun; Pan, Chun; Chen, Xuemei; Kuang, Xiuxiu; Lu, Cheng

    2013-04-01

    Cyclin B is an important regulator of the cell cycle G2 to M phase transition. The silkworm genomic database shows that there are two Cyclin B genes in the silkworm (Bombyx mori), BmCyclin B and BmCyclin B3. Using silkworm EST data, the cyclin B3 (EU074796) gene was cloned. Its complete cDNA was 1665 bp with an ORF of 1536 bp derived from seven exons and six introns. The BmCyclin B3 gene encodes 511 amino acids, and the predicted molecular weight is 57.8 kD with an isoelectric point of 9.18. The protein contains one protein damage box and two cyclin boxes. RNA interference-mediated reduction of BmCyclin B and BmCyclin B3 expression induced cell cycle arrest in G2 or M phase in BmN-SWU1 cells, thus inhibiting cell proliferation. These results suggest that BmCyclin B and BmCyclin B3 are necessary for completing the cell cycle in silkworm cells.

  20. Foci of cyclin A2 interact with actin and RhoA in mitosis.

    PubMed

    Loukil, Abdelhalim; Izard, Fanny; Georgieva, Mariya; Mashayekhan, Shaereh; Blanchard, Jean-Marie; Parmeggiani, Andrea; Peter, Marion

    2016-06-09

    Cyclin A2 is a key player in the regulation of the cell cycle. Its degradation in mid-mitosis depends primarily on the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), while autophagy also contributes. However, a fraction of cyclin A2 persists beyond metaphase. In this work, we focus on cyclin A2-rich foci detected in mitosis by high resolution imaging and analyse their movements. We demonstrate that cyclin A2 interacts with actin and RhoA during mitosis, and that cyclin A2 depletion induces a dramatic decrease in active RhoA in mitosis. Our data suggest cyclin A2 participation in RhoA activation in late mitosis.

  1. LincRNA-p21 Impacts Prognosis in Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients through Angiogenesis Regulation.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Joan J; Navarro, Alfons; Viñolas, Nuria; Marrades, Ramon M; Moises, Jorge; Cordeiro, Anna; Saco, Adela; Muñoz, Carmen; Fuster, Dolors; Molins, Laureano; Ramirez, Josep; Monzo, Mariano

    2016-12-01

    Long intergenic noncoding RNA-p21 (lincRNA-p21) is a long noncoding RNA transcriptionally activated by tumor protein p53 (TP53) and hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha subunit (HIF1A). It is involved in the regulation of TP53-dependent apoptosis and the Warburg effect. We have investigated the role of lincRNA-p21 in NSCLC. LincRNA-p21 expression was assessed in tumor and normal tissue from 128 patients with NSCLC and correlated with time to relapse and cancer-specific survival (CSS). H23, H1299, and HCC-44 cell lines were cultured in hypoxic conditions after silencing of lincRNA-p21. The TaqMan human angiogenesis array was used to explore angiogenesis-related gene expression. Levels of the protein vascular endothelial growth factor A were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the cell supernatants. Angiogenic capability was measured by human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube formation assay. Microvascular density in tumor samples was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. LincRNA-p21 was down-regulated in tumor tissue, but no association was observed with TP53 mutational status. High lincRNA-p21 levels were associated with poor CSS in all patients (p = 0.032). When patients were classified according to histological subtypes, the impact of lincRNA-p21 was confined to patients with adenocarcinoma in both time to relapse (p = 0.006) and CSS (p < 0.001). To explain the poor outcome of patients with high lincRNA-p21 expression, we studied the role of lincRNA-p21 in angiogenesis in vitro and observed a global downregulation in the expression of angiogenesis-related genes when lincRNA-p21 was inhibited. Moreover, supernatants from lincRNA-p21-inhibited cells were significantly less angiogenic and had lower levels of secreted vascular endothelial growth factor A than controls did. Finally, tumor samples with high lincRNA-p21 levels had higher microvascular density. Our findings suggest that lincRNA-p21 affects outcome in patients with NSCLC adenocarcinoma through

  2. Retinoic Acid Signaling Mediates Hair Cell Regeneration by Repressing p27kip and sox2 in Supporting Cells.

    PubMed

    Rubbini, Davide; Robert-Moreno, Àlex; Hoijman, Esteban; Alsina, Berta

    2015-11-25

    During development, otic sensory progenitors give rise to hair cells and supporting cells. In mammalian adults, differentiated and quiescent sensory cells are unable to generate new hair cells when these are lost due to various insults, leading to irreversible hearing loss. Retinoic acid (RA) has strong regenerative capacity in several organs, but its role in hair cell regeneration is unknown. Here, we use genetic and pharmacological inhibition to show that the RA pathway is required for hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. When regeneration is induced by laser ablation in the inner ear or by neomycin treatment in the lateral line, we observe rapid activation of several components of the RA pathway, with dynamics that position RA signaling upstream of other signaling pathways. We demonstrate that blockade of the RA pathway impairs cell proliferation of supporting cells in the inner ear and lateral line. Moreover, in neuromast, RA pathway regulates the transcription of p27(kip) and sox2 in supporting cells but not fgf3. Finally, genetic cell-lineage tracing using Kaede photoconversion demonstrates that de novo hair cells derive from FGF-active supporting cells. Our findings reveal that RA has a pivotal role in zebrafish hair cell regeneration by inducing supporting cell proliferation, and shed light on the underlying transcriptional mechanisms involved. This signaling pathway might be a promising approach for hearing recovery. Hair cells are the specialized mechanosensory cells of the inner ear that capture auditory and balance sensory input. Hair cells die after acoustic trauma, ototoxic drugs or aging diseases, leading to progressive hearing loss. Mammals, in contrast to zebrafish, lack the ability to regenerate hair cells. Here, we find that retinoic acid (RA) pathway is required for hair cell regeneration in vivo in the zebrafish inner ear and lateral line. RA pathway is activated very early upon hair cell loss, promotes cell proliferation of progenitor cells

  3. Tbx1 Regulates Progenitor Cell Proliferation in the Dental Epithelium by Modulating PITX2 Activation of p21

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huojun; Florez, Sergio; Amen, Melanie; Huynh, Tuong; Skobe, Ziedonis; Baldini, Antonio; Amendt, Brad A.

    2012-01-01

    Tbx1−/− mice present with phenotypic effects observed in DiGeorge syndrome patients however, the molecular mechanisms of Tbx1 regulating craniofacial and tooth development are unclear. Analyses of the Tbx1 null mice reveal incisor microdontia, small cervical loops and BrdU labeling reveals a defect in epithelial cell proliferation. Furthermore, Tbx1 null mice molars are lacking normal cusp morphology. Interestingly, p21 (associated with cell cycle arrest) is up regulated in the dental epithelium of Tbx1−/− embryos. These data suggest that Tbx1 inhibits p21 expression to allow for cell proliferation in the dental epithelial cervical loop, however Tbx1 does not directly regulate p21 expression. A new molecular mechanism has been identified where Tbx1 inhibits Pitx2 transcriptional activity and decreases the expression of Pitx2 target genes, p21, Lef-1 and Pitx2c. p21 protein is increased in PITX2C transgenic mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate endogenous Pitx2 binding to the p21 promoter. Tbx1 attenuates PITX2 activation of endogenous p21 expression and Tbx1 null MEFs reveal increased Pitx2a and activation of Pitx2c isoform expression. Tbx1 physically interacts with the PITX2 C-terminus and represses PITX2 transcriptional activation of the p21, LEF-1, and Pitx2c promoters. Tbx1−/+/Pitx2−/+ double heterozygous mice present with an extra premolar-like tooth revealing a genetic interaction between these factors. The ability of Tbx1 to repress PITX2 activation of p21 may promote cell proliferation. In addition, PITX2 regulation of p21 reveals a new role for PITX2 in repressing cell proliferation. These data demonstrate new functional mechanisms for Tbx1 in tooth morphogenesis and provide a molecular basis for craniofacial defects in DiGeorge syndrome patients. PMID:20816801

  4. Tbx1 regulates progenitor cell proliferation in the dental epithelium by modulating Pitx2 activation of p21.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huojun; Florez, Sergio; Amen, Melanie; Huynh, Tuong; Skobe, Ziedonis; Baldini, Antonio; Amendt, Brad A

    2010-11-15

    Tbx1(-/-) mice present with phenotypic effects observed in DiGeorge syndrome patients however, the molecular mechanisms of Tbx1 regulating craniofacial and tooth development are unclear. Analyses of the Tbx1 null mice reveal incisor microdontia, small cervical loops and BrdU labeling reveals a defect in epithelial cell proliferation. Furthermore, Tbx1 null mice molars are lacking normal cusp morphology. Interestingly, p21 (associated with cell cycle arrest) is up regulated in the dental epithelium of Tbx1(-/-) embryos. These data suggest that Tbx1 inhibits p21 expression to allow for cell proliferation in the dental epithelial cervical loop, however Tbx1 does not directly regulate p21 expression. A new molecular mechanism has been identified where Tbx1 inhibits Pitx2 transcriptional activity and decreases the expression of Pitx2 target genes, p21, Lef-1 and Pitx2c. p21 protein is increased in PITX2C transgenic mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate endogenous Pitx2 binding to the p21 promoter. Tbx1 attenuates PITX2 activation of endogenous p21 expression and Tbx1 null MEFs reveal increased Pitx2a and activation of Pitx2c isoform expression. Tbx1 physically interacts with the PITX2 C-terminus and represses PITX2 transcriptional activation of the p21, LEF-1, and Pitx2c promoters. Tbx1(-/+)/Pitx2(-/+) double heterozygous mice present with an extra premolar-like tooth revealing a genetic interaction between these factors. The ability of Tbx1 to repress PITX2 activation of p21 may promote cell proliferation. In addition, PITX2 regulation of p21 reveals a new role for PITX2 in repressing cell proliferation. These data demonstrate new functional mechanisms for Tbx1 in tooth morphogenesis and provide a molecular basis for craniofacial defects in DiGeorge syndrome patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA binding of the p21 repressor ZBTB2 is inhibited by cytosine hydroxymethylation

    SciTech Connect

    Lafaye, Céline; Barbier, Ewa; Miscioscia, Audrey

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • 5-hmC epigenetic modification is measurable in HeLa, SH-SY5Y and UT7-MPL cell lines. • ZBTB2 binds to DNA probes containing 5-mC but not to sequences containing 5-hmC. • This differential binding is verified with DNA sequences involved in p21 regulation. - Abstract: Recent studies have demonstrated that the modified base 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is detectable at various rates in DNA extracted from human tissues. This oxidative product of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) constitutes a new and important actor of epigenetic mechanisms. We designed a DNA pull down assay to trap and identify nuclear proteins bound to 5-hmC and/or 5-mC. We applied thismore » strategy to three cancerous cell lines (HeLa, SH-SY5Y and UT7-MPL) in which we also measured 5-mC and 5-hmC levels by HPLC-MS/MS. We found that the putative oncoprotein Zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 2 (ZBTB2) is associated with methylated DNA sequences and that this interaction is inhibited by the presence of 5-hmC replacing 5-mC. As published data mention ZBTB2 recognition of p21 regulating sequences, we verified that this sequence specific binding was also alleviated by 5-hmC. ZBTB2 being considered as a multifunctional cell proliferation activator, notably through p21 repression, this work points out new epigenetic processes potentially involved in carcinogenesis.« less

  6. Chromosome 9p21 In Ischemic Stroke: Population Structure and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, CD; Biffi, A; Rost, NS; Cortellini, L; Furie, KL; Rosand, J

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Sequence variants on chromosome 9p21.3 are implicated in coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI), but studies in ischemic stroke have produced inconsistent results. We investigated whether these conflicting findings were due to false positive studies confounded by population stratification, or false negative studies that failed to account for effects specific to certain stroke subtypes. Methods After assessing for population stratification at 9p21.3 using genome-wide data, we meta-analyzed 8 ischemic stroke studies. This analysis focused on two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1537378 and rs10757278, as these variants are in strong linkage disequilibrium with most SNPs analyzed in prior studies of the region. Results Principal component analysis of the genome-wide data showed no evidence of population stratification at that locus. Meta-analysis confirmed that both rs1537378 and rs10757278 are risk factors for ischemic stroke (odds ratios 1.09, [p = 0.0014], and 1.11, [p = 0.001] respectively). Subtype analysis revealed a substantial increase in the effect of each SNP for risk of large artery (LA) stroke, achieving an effect size similar to that seen in CAD/MI. Conclusions Variants on 9p21.3 are associated with ischemic stroke, and restriction of analysis to LA stroke increases effect size towards that observed in prior association studies of CAD/MI. Previous inconsistent findings are best explained by this subtype-specificity rather than any unmeasured confounding by population stratification. PMID:20395606

  7. The role of p21-activated kinases in hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Tse, Edith Yuk Ting; Ching, Yick Pang

    2014-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are downstream effectors of the Rho family small GTPases as well as a wide variety of mitogenic factors and have been implicated in cancer formation, development and metastasis. PAKs phosphorylate a wide spectrum of substrates to mediate extracellular signals and regulate cytoskeletal remodeling, cell motility and survival. In this review, we aim to summarize the findings regarding the oncogenic role and the underlying mechanisms of PAKs signaling in various cancers, and in particular highlight the prime importance of PAKs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression and metastasis. Recent studies exploring the potential therapeutic application of PAK inhibitors will also be discussed.

  8. [P21-activated kinases and their role in the nervous system].

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuan; Ding, Yue-Min; Xia, Qiang

    2012-12-25

    P21-activated kinases (PAK) participate in a variety of important cellular activities, such as cytoskeleton remodeling, cell migration, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis or survival. PAK also has an important impact on brain development, neuronal differentiation, and regulation of synaptic plasticity in the nervous system. PAK abnormalities result in diseases including cancer, Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and neural retardation. Therefore, it is of vital physiological significance to investigate the neuronal function of PAK. In this paper we review the advancement of research on the neuronal biological function and the underlying mechanisms of PAK.

  9. Recent advances in the development of p21-activated kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Natalia; Kissil, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are downstream effectors of the small G-proteins of the Rac and cdc42 family and have been implicated as essential for cell proliferation and survival. Recent studies have also demonstrated the promise of PAKs as therapeutic targets in various types of cancers. The PAKs are divided into two major groups (group I and II) based on sequence similarities. Although the different roles the PAK groups might play are not well understood, recent efforts have focused on the identification of kinase inhibitors that can discriminate between the two groups. In this review these efforts and newly identified inhibitors will be described and future directions discussed.

  10. Group I p21-activated kinases: emerging roles in immune function and viral pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Almudena; Chernoff, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Group I p21-activated kinases are a highly conserved three-member family of serine/threonine kinases that act as key effectors for the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac. In man, these enzymes have been implicated in a wide range of biological processes and are beginning to draw the attention of the pharmaceutical industry as potential therapeutic targets in cancer and in inflammatory processes. In this review, we summarize basic properties of group I Paks and discuss recently uncovered roles for these kinases in immune function and in viral infection.

  11. Intestinal Cell Proliferation and Senescence Are Regulated by Receptor Guanylyl Cyclase C and p21*

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Nirmalya; Saha, Sayanti; Khan, Imran; Ramachandra, Subbaraya G.; Visweswariah, Sandhya S.

    2014-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) is expressed in intestinal epithelial cells and serves as the receptor for bacterial heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) peptides and the guanylin family of gastrointestinal hormones. Activation of GC-C elevates intracellular cGMP, which modulates intestinal fluid-ion homeostasis and differentiation of enterocytes along the crypt-villus axis. GC-C activity can regulate colonic cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest, and mice lacking GC-C display increased cell proliferation in colonic crypts. Activation of GC-C by administration of ST to wild type, but not Gucy2c−/−, mice resulted in a reduction in carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci formation. In p53-deficient human colorectal carcinoma cells, ST led to a transcriptional up-regulation of p21, the cell cycle inhibitor, via activation of the cGMP-responsive kinase PKGII and p38 MAPK. Prolonged treatment of human colonic carcinoma cells with ST led to nuclear accumulation of p21, resulting in cellular senescence and reduced tumorigenic potential. Our results, therefore, identify downstream effectors for GC-C that contribute to regulating intestinal cell proliferation. Thus, genomic responses to a bacterial toxin can influence intestinal neoplasia and senescence. PMID:24217248

  12. P21-activated kinase 4--not just one of the PAK.

    PubMed

    Dart, Anna E; Wells, Claire M

    2013-01-01

    P21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) is a member of the p21-activated kinase (PAK) family. Historically much of the attention has been directed towards founding family member PAK1 but the focus is now shifting towards PAK4. It is a pluripotent serine/threonine kinase traditionally recognised as a downstream effector of the Rho-family GTPases. However, emerging research over the last few years has revealed that this kinase is much more than that. New findings have shed light on the molecular mechanism of PAK4 activation and how this kinase is critical for early development. Moreover, the number of PAK4 substrates and binding partners is rapidly expanding highlighting the increasing amount of cellular functions controlled by PAK4. We propose that PAK4 should be considered a signalling integrator regulating numerous fundamental cellular processes, including actin cytoskeletal dynamics, cell morphology and motility, cell survival, embryonic development, immune defence and oncogenic transformation. This review will outline our current understanding of PAK4 biology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. MYC Targeted Long Noncoding RNA DANCR Promotes Cancer in Part by Reducing p21 Levels.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunqi; Hu, Zhongyi; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Stine, Zachary E; Hu, Xiaowen; Jiang, Dahai; Xiang, Yan; Zhang, Youyou; Pradeep, Sunila; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Sood, Anil K; Zhang, Lin; Dang, Chi V

    2018-01-01

    The MYC oncogene broadly promotes transcription mediated by all nuclear RNA polymerases, thereby acting as a positive modifier of global gene expression. Here, we report that MYC stimulates the transcription of DANCR, a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is widely overexpressed in human cancer. We identified DANCR through its overexpression in a transgenic model of MYC-induced lymphoma, but found that it was broadly upregulated in many human cancer cell lines and cancers, including most notably in prostate and ovarian cancers. Mechanistic investigations indicated that DANCR limited the expression of cell-cycle inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A) and that the inhibitory effects of DANCR loss on cell proliferation could be partially rescued by p21 silencing. In a xenograft model of human ovarian cancer, a nanoparticle-mediated siRNA strategy to target DANCR in vivo was sufficient to strongly inhibit tumor growth. Our observations expand knowledge of how MYC drives cancer cell proliferation by identifying DANCR as a critical lncRNA widely overexpressed in human cancers. Significance: These findings expand knowledge of how MYC drives cancer cell proliferation by identifying an oncogenic long noncoding RNA that is widely overexpressed in human cancers. Cancer Res; 78(1); 64-74. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. The 2p21 deletion syndrome: characterization of the transcription content.

    PubMed

    Parvari, Ruti; Gonen, Yael; Alshafee, Ismael; Buriakovsky, Sophia; Regev, Kfir; Hershkovitz, Eli

    2005-08-01

    The vast majority of small-deletion syndromes are caused by haploinsufficiency of one or several genes and are transmitted as dominant traits. We have previously identified a homozygous deletion of 179,311 bp on chromosome 2p21 as the cause of a unique syndrome, inherited in a recessive mode, consisting of cystinuria, neonatal seizures, hypotonia, severe somatic and developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, and reduced activity of all the respiratory chain enzymatic complexes that are encoded in the mitochondria. We now present the transcription content of this region: Multiple splicing variants of the genes protein phosphatase 1B (formerly 2C) magnesium-dependent, beta isoform (PPM1B), SLC3A1, and KIAA0436 (approved gene symbol PREPL) were identified and their patterns of expression analyzed. The spliced variants are predicted to have additional functions compared to the known variants and their patterns of expression fit the tissues affected by the syndrome. The first exon of an additional gene (C2orf34) is encoded in the deleted region and the gene is not expressed in the patients. In addition several transcripts with very short open reading frames are also encoded in the deletion. The identification of all transcripts encoded in the region deleted in the patients is the first step in the study of the genotype-phenotype correlation of the 2p21 patients.

  15. Targeting RhoA/Rho kinase and p21-activated kinase signaling to prevent cancer development and progression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Wen E; Bean, Ronald R; Jakobi, Rolf

    2009-06-01

    Elevated RhoA/Rho kinase and p21-activated kinase signaling have been shown to promote cancer development and metastasis and have drawn much attention as potential targets of anti-cancer therapy. Elevated RhoA and Rho kinase activity promote cancer cell invasion and eventually lead to metastasis by disrupting E-cadherin-mediated adherens junctions and degradation of the extracellular matrix. Elevated p21-activated kinase activity promotes invasion by stimulating cell motility but also promotes cancer cell survival and growth. In this review we describe normal functions of RhoA/Rho kinase and p21-activated kinase signaling, mechanisms that lead to constitutive activation of RhoA/Rho kinase and p21-activated kinase pathways, and processes by which constitutive RhoA/Rho kinase and p21-activated kinase activity promote cancer development and progression to more aggressive and metastatic phenotypes. In addition, we summarize relevant patents on RhoA/Rho kinase and p21-activated kinase as targets of anti-cancer therapy and discuss the clinical potential of different approaches to modulate RhoA/Rho kinase and p21-activated kinase signaling.

  16. Analysis of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat 3) pathway in multiple myeloma: Stat 3 activation and cyclin D1 dysregulation are mutually exclusive events.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Kremer, Marcus; Specht, Katja; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Nathrath, Michaela; Schaich, Robert; Höfler, Heinz; Fend, Falko

    2003-05-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription molecules (Stats) play key roles in cytokine-induced signal transduction. Recently, it was proposed that constitutively activated Stat 3 (Stat 3 phosphorylated) contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) by preventing apoptosis and inducing proliferation. The study aim was to investigate Stat 3 activation in a series of multiple myeloma (MM) cases and its effect on downstream targets such as the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, and Bcl-2, and the cell-cycle protein cyclin D1. Forty-eight cases of MM were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin sections using antibodies against cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, p21, Stat 3, and Stat 3 phosphorylated (P). Their specificity was corroborated by Western blot analysis using eight human MM cell lines as control. The proliferation rate was assessed with the antibody MiB1. In addition, the mRNA levels of cyclin D1 and Stat 3 were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of paraffin-embedded microdissected tissue. Three different groups determined by the expression of Stat 3P and cyclin D1 (protein and mRNA) were identified: group 1, Stat 3-activated (23 cases, 48%). All cases revealed nuclear expression of Stat 3P. No elevation of Stat 3 mRNA was identified in any of the cases. Three cases in this group showed intermediate to low cyclin D1 protein and mRNA expression. Group 2 included 15 (31%) cases with cyclin D1 staining and lack of Stat 3P. All cases showed intermediate to high levels of cyclin D1 mRNA expression. Group 3 included 10 (21%) cases with no expression of either cyclin D1 or Stat 3P. High levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 were identified in 89% and 100% of all cases, respectively. In contrast to Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, the expression of Bcl-2 showed an inverse correlation with proliferation rate (P: 0.0003). No significant differences were found between the three

  17. Cyclin D1 Repression of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Expression and Transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenguang; Pattabiraman, Nagarajan; Zhou, Jian Nian; Fu, Maofu; Sakamaki, Toshiyuki; Albanese, Chris; Li, Zhiping; Wu, Kongming; Hulit, James; Neumeister, Peter; Novikoff, Phyllis M.; Brownlee, Michael; Scherer, Philipp E.; Jones, Joan G.; Whitney, Kathleen D.; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Harris, Emily L.; Rohan, Thomas; Johns, David C.; Pestell, Richard G.

    2003-01-01

    The cyclin D1 gene is overexpressed in human breast cancers and is required for oncogene-induced tumorigenesis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor selectively activated by ligands of the thiazolidinedione class. PPARγ induces hepatic steatosis, and liganded PPARγ promotes adipocyte differentiation. Herein, cyclin D1 inhibited ligand-induced PPARγ function, transactivation, expression, and promoter activity. PPARγ transactivation induced by the ligand BRL49653 was inhibited by cyclin D1 through a pRB- and cdk-independent mechanism, requiring a region predicted to form an helix-loop-helix (HLH) structure. The cyclin D1 HLH region was also required for repression of the PPARγ ligand-binding domain linked to a heterologous DNA binding domain. Adipocyte differentiation by PPARγ-specific ligands (BRL49653, troglitazone) was enhanced in cyclin D1−/− fibroblasts and reversed by retroviral expression of cyclin D1. Homozygous deletion of the cyclin D1 gene, enhanced expression by PPARγ ligands of PPARγ and PPARγ-responsive genes, and cyclin D1−/− mice exhibit hepatic steatosis. Finally, reduction of cyclin D1 abundance in vivo using ponasterone-inducible cyclin D1 antisense transgenic mice, increased expression of PPARγ in vivo. The inhibition of PPARγ function by cyclin D1 is a new mechanism of signal transduction cross talk between PPARγ ligands and mitogenic signals that induce cyclin D1. PMID:12917338

  18. Differential effects of chromosome 9p21 variation on subphenotypes of intracranial aneurysm: site distribution.

    PubMed

    Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Tomoko; Akiyama, Koichi; Cui, Tailin; Tajima, Atsushi; Krischek, Boris; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Hata, Akira; Inoue, Ituro

    2010-08-01

    Recently, a genome-wide association study identified associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 9p21 and risk of harboring intracranial aneurysm (IA). Aneurysm characteristics or subphenotypes of IAs, such as history of subarachnoid hemorrhage, presence of multiple IAs and location of IAs, are clinically important. We investigated whether the association between 9p21 variation and risk of IA varied among these subphenotypes. We conducted a case-control study of 981 cases and 699 controls in Japanese. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms tagging the 9p21 risk locus were genotyped. The OR and 95% CI were estimated using logistic regression analyses. Among the 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs1333040 showed the strongest evidence of association with IA (P=1.5x10(-6); per allele OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.24-1.66). None of the patient characteristics (gender, age, smoking, and hypertension) was a significant confounder or effect modifier of the association. Subgroup analyses of IA subphenotypes showed that among the most common sites of IAs, the association was strongest for IAs of the posterior communicating artery (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.26-2.26) and not significant for IAs in the anterior communicating artery (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.96-1.57). When dichotomizing IA sites, the association was stronger for IAs of the posterior circulation-posterior communicating artery group (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.32-2.26) vs the anterior circulation group (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.53). Heterogeneity in these ORs was significant (P=0.032). The associations did not vary when stratifying by history of subarachnoid hemorrhage (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.71 for ruptured IA; OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.00-1.62 for unruptured IA) or by multiplicity of IA (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.21-2.03 for multiple IAs; OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.15-1.61 for single IA). Our results suggest that genetic influence on formation may vary between IA subphenotypes.

  19. miR-221 and miR-222 expression affects the proliferation potential of human prostate carcinoma cell lines by targeting p27Kip1.

    PubMed

    Galardi, Silvia; Mercatelli, Neri; Giorda, Ezio; Massalini, Simone; Frajese, Giovanni Vanni; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Farace, Maria Giulia

    2007-08-10

    MicroRNAs are short regulatory RNAs that negatively modulate protein expression at a post-transcriptional level and are deeply involved in the pathogenesis of several types of cancers. Here we show that miR-221 and miR-222, encoded in tandem on chromosome X, are overexpressed in the PC3 cellular model of aggressive prostate carcinoma, as compared with LNCaP and 22Rv1 cell line models of slowly growing carcinomas. In all cell lines tested, we show an inverse relationship between the expression of miR-221 and miR-222 and the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1). We recognize two target sites for the microRNAs in the 3' untranslated region of p27 mRNA, and we show that miR-221/222 ectopic overexpression directly results in p27 down-regulation in LNCaP cells. In those cells, we demonstrate that the ectopic overexpression of miR-221/222 strongly affects their growth potential by inducing a G(1) to S shift in the cell cycle and is sufficient to induce a powerful enhancement of their colony-forming potential in soft agar. Consistently, miR-221 and miR-222 knock-down through antisense LNA oligonucleotides increases p27(Kip1) in PC3 cells and strongly reduces their clonogenicity in vitro. Our results suggest that miR-221/222 can be regarded as a new family of oncogenes, directly targeting the tumor suppressor p27(Kip1), and that their overexpression might be one of the factors contributing to the oncogenesis and progression of prostate carcinoma through p27(Kip1) down-regulation.

  20. Cyclin-dependent protein kinase and cyclin homologs SSN3 and SSN8 contribute to transcriptional control in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Kuchin, S; Yeghiayan, P; Carlson, M

    1995-01-01

    The SSN3 and SSN8 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified by mutations that suppress a defect in SNF1, a protein kinase required for release from glucose repression. Mutations in SSN3 and SSN8 also act synergistically with a mutation of the MIG1 repressor protein to relieve glucose repression. We have cloned the SSN3 and SSN8 genes. SSN3 encodes a cyclin-dependent protein kinase (cdk) homolog and is identical to UME5. SSN8 encodes a cyclin homolog 35% identical to human cyclin C. SSN3 and SSN8 fusion proteins interact in the two-hybrid system and coimmunoprecipitate from yeast cell extracts. Using an immune complex assay, we detected protein kinase activity that depends on both SSN3 and SSN8. Thus, the two SSN proteins are likely to function as a cdk-cyclin pair. Genetic analysis indicates that the SSN3-SSN8 complex contributes to transcriptional repression of diversely regulated genes and also affects induction of the GAL1 promoter. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7732022

  1. Nuclear p21-activated kinase 1 in breast cancer packs off tamoxifen sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Rayala, Suresh K; Molli, Poonam R; Kumar, Rakesh

    2006-06-15

    There is significant clinical interest in the factors that influence the development of tamoxifen resistance in estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha)-positive breast cancers. Recent studies suggest that in ER-positive breast tumor cells, elevated protein levels, and in particular, nuclear localization of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), is associated with the progressive limitation of tamoxifen sensitivity. These phenotypic effects of PAK1 in model systems are mechanistically linked with the ability of PAK1 to phosphorylate ER-alpha on serine 305 and subsequent secondary activation of serine 118. These findings prompt further investigation of how nuclear signaling by PAK1 may affect estrogen's action and whether tamoxifen resistance might be prevented or reversed by PAK1 inhibition.

  2. Group II p21-activated kinases as therapeutic targets in gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yang-Guang; Ning, Ke; Li, Feng

    2016-01-21

    P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are central players in various oncogenic signaling pathways. The six PAK family members are classified into group I (PAK1-3) and group II (PAK4-6). Focus is currently shifting from group I PAKs to group II PAKs. Group II PAKs play important roles in many fundamental cellular processes, some of which have particular significance in the development and progression of cancer. Because of their important functions, group II PAKs have become popular potential drug target candidates. However, few group II PAKs inhibitors have been reported, and most do not exhibit satisfactory kinase selectivity and "drug-like" properties. Isoform- and kinase-selective PAK inhibitors remain to be developed. This review describes the biological activities of group II PAKs, the importance of group II PAKs in the development and progression of gastrointestinal cancer, and small-molecule inhibitors of group II PAKs for the treatment of cancer.

  3. UnPAKing the class differences among p21-activated kinases.

    PubMed

    Eswaran, Jeyanthy; Soundararajan, Meera; Kumar, Rakesh; Knapp, Stefan

    2008-08-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are signal transducers, central to many vital cellular processes, including cell morphology, motility, survival, gene transcription and hormone signalling. The mammalian PAK family contains six serine/threonine kinases divided into two subgroups, group I (PAK 1-3) and group II (PAK4-6), based on their domain architecture and regulation. PAKs functioning as dynamic signalling nodes present themselves as attractive therapeutic targets in tumours, neurological diseases and infection. The recent findings across all PAKs, including newly reported structures, shed light on the cellular functions of PAKs, highlighting molecular mechanisms of activation, catalysis and substrate specificity. We believe that a comprehensive understanding of the entire PAK family is essential for developing strategies towards PAK-targeted therapeutics.

  4. Unique catalytic activities and scaffolding of p21 activated kinase-1 in cardiovascular signaling.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yunbo; Lei, Ming; Wang, Xin; Solaro, R John

    2013-09-27

    P21 activated kinase-1 (Pak1) has diverse functions in mammalian cells. Although a large number of phosphoproteins have been designated as Pak1 substrates from in vitro studies, emerging evidence has indicated that Pak1 may function as a signaling molecule through a unique molecular mechanism - scaffolding. By scaffolding, Pak1 delivers signals through an auto-phosphorylation-induced conformational change without transfer of a phosphate group to its immediate downstream effector(s). Here we review evidence for this regulatory mechanism based on structural and functional studies of Pak1 in different cell types and research models as well as in vitro biochemical assays. We also discuss the implications of Pak1 scaffolding in disease-related signaling processes and the potential in cardiovascular drug development.

  5. Signaling, Regulation, and Specificity of the Type II p21-activated Kinases.

    PubMed

    Ha, Byung Hak; Morse, Elizabeth M; Turk, Benjamin E; Boggon, Titus J

    2015-05-22

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of six serine/threonine kinases that act as key effectors of RHO family GTPases in mammalian cells. PAKs are subdivided into two groups: type I PAKs (PAK1, PAK2, and PAK3) and type II PAKs (PAK4, PAK5, and PAK6). Although these groups are involved in common signaling pathways, recent work indicates that the two groups have distinct modes of regulation and have both unique and common substrates. Here, we review recent insights into the molecular level details that govern regulation of type II PAK signaling. We also consider mechanisms by which signal transduction is regulated at the level of substrate specificity. Finally, we discuss the implications of these studies for clinical targeting of these kinases. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Role of p21-activated kinases in cardiovascular development and function.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Mollie L; Astsaturov, Artyom; Chernoff, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    p21-activated kinases (Paks) are a group of six serine/threonine kinases (Pak1-6) that are involved in a variety of biological processes. Recently, Paks, more specifically Pak1, -2, and -4, have been shown to play important roles in cardiovascular development and function in a range of model organisms including zebrafish and mice. These functions include proper morphogenesis and conductance of the heart, cardiac contractility, and development and integrity of the vasculature. The mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully known, but they likely differ among the various Pak isoforms and include both kinase-dependent and -independent functions. In this review, we discuss aspects of Pak function relevant to cardiovascular biology as well as potential therapeutic implications of small-molecule Pak inhibitors in cardiovascular disease.

  7. HSP27 Knockdown Increases Cytoplasmic p21 and Cisplatin Sensitivity in Ovarian Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Sun, Chaoyang; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Bo; Guo, Ensong; Shan, Wanying; Xia, Meng; Li, Kezhen; Weng, Danhui; Meng, Li; Xu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Junbo; Ma, Ding; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance is the leading cause of chemotherapy failure in the treatment of ovarian cancer. So far, little is known about the mechanism of chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. In this study, we explored the mechanism that HSP27 was involved in cisplatin resistance of ovarian cancer both in vitro and clinically. HSP27 protein was found to be upregulated and expressed in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell line C13*, and HSP27 siRNA transfection reversed the chemoresistance of C13*. We found that HSP27 exerted its chemoresistant role by inhibiting p21 transferring from the nucleus to the plasma through the activation of phosphorylated-Akt pathway. These findings have implications for clinical trials aimed at a potential therapeutic target for ovarian tumors that are refractory to conventional treatment.

  8. Genetic instability of 3p12-p21-specific microsatellite sequences in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Willers, C P; Siebert, R; Bardenheuer, W; Lux, A; Michaelis, S; Seeber, S; Luboldt, H J; Opalka, B; Schütte, J

    1996-04-01

    To determine the role of structural alterations of human chromosome region 3p12-p21 in the possible inactivation of one or more tumour-suppressor genes in the pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), lung cancer and other neoplasms. As microsatellite instability (MI), in particular MI with loss of heterozygosity (LOH), may indicate putative tumour-suppressor gene loci, 20 kidney tumours, including 14 clear cell carcinomas and six non-clear cell neoplasms, were investigated with 10 polymorphic simple sequence-repeat markers spanning 3p12-p21. Six of these markers map to the region of deletion flanked by markers D3S1285 and D3S1295 bracketing the t(3;8) translocation break-point in 3p14.2 of hereditary RCC. Twelve of 14 clear cell RCCs displayed MI for at least one locus, as opposed to none of the non-clear cell tumours (P = 0.001). Locus D3S1274 in 3p13 located in the region deleted in lung cancer line U2020 and loci D3S1313 and D3S1300 in 3p14.3 characterized common regions of instability and LOH. Two patients with RCC who also had lung cancer and colon cancer, respectively, showed LOH at D3S1313 or D3S1300 as the only alterations of their kidney tumours. These results suggest that human chromosome region 3p14.3 distal to the hereditary t(3;8) translocation breakpoint and the region deleted in the U2020 lung cancer cell line might be involved in the tumorigenesis or progression of clear cell RCC.

  9. Expression of Immune Genes on Chromosome 6p21.3-22.1 in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sinkus, Melissa L.; Adams, Catherine E.; Logel, Judith; Freedman, Robert; Leonard, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common mental illness with a large genetic component. Three genome-wide association studies have implicated the major histocompatibility complex gene region on chromosome 6p21.3-22.1 in schizophrenia. In addition, nicotine, which is commonly abused in schizophrenia, affects the expression of central nervous system immune genes. Messenger RNA levels for genes in the 6p21.3-22.1 region were measured in human postmortem hippocampus of 89 subjects. The effects of schizophrenia diagnosis, smoking and systemic inflammatory illness were compared. Cell-specific expression patterns for the class I major histocompatibility complex gene HLA-A were explored utilizing in situ hybridization. Expression of five genes was altered in schizophrenic subjects. Messenger RNA levels for the class I major histocompatibility complex antigen HLA-B were increased in schizophrenic nonsmokers, while levels for smokers were indistinguishable from those of controls. β2 microglobulin, HLA-A and Notch4 were all expressed in a pattern where inflammatory illness was associated with increased expression in controls but not in subjects with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia was also associated with increased expression of Butyrophilin 2A2. HLA-A was expressed in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in the dentate gyrus, hilus, and the stratum pyramidale of the CA1-CA4 regions of the hippocampus, but not in astrocytes. In conclusion, the expression of genes from the major histocompatibility complex region of chromosome 6 with likely roles in synaptic development is altered in schizophrenia. There were also significant interactions between schizophrenia diagnosis and both inflammatory illness and smoking. PMID:23395714

  10. Evodiamine selectively targets cancer stem-like cells through the p53-p21-Rb pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seula; Woo, Jong Kyu; Jung, Yuchae

    In spite of the recent improvements, the resistance to chemotherapy/radiotherapy followed by relapse is the main hurdle for the successful treatment of breast cancer, a leading cause of death in women. A small population of breast cancer cells that have stem-like characteristics (cancer stem-like cells; CSLC) may contribute to this resistance and relapse. Here, we report on a component of a traditional Chinese medicine, evodiamine, which selectively targets CSLC of breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDAMB 231 at a concentration that does show a little or no cytotoxic effect on bulk cancer cells. While evodiamine caused the accumulation of bulkmore » cancer cells at the G2/M phase, it did not hold CSLC in a specific cell cycle phase but instead, selectively killed CSLC. This was not due to the culture of CSLC in suspension or without FBS. A proteomic analysis and western blotting revealed that evodiamine changed the expression of cell cycle regulating molecules more efficiently in CSLC cells than in bulk cancer cells. Surprisingly, evodiamine selectively activated p53 and p21 and decreased inactive Rb, the master molecules in G1/S checkpoint. These data collectively suggest a novel mechanism involving CSLC-specific targeting by evodiamine and its possible use to the therapy of breast cancer. - Highlights: • Evodiamine selectively kills breast cancer stem like cells at G1 phase. • Evodiamine utilizes different mechanism of cell cycle modulation in CSLC and in bulk cancer cells. • Evodiamine activate the p53, p21 and Rb pathway.« less

  11. Immunohistochemical study of p21 and Bcl-2 in leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sutariya, Rakesh V; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha

    2016-11-01

    Oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) results from genetic damage, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation of damaged cells and the cell death. In the course of its progression, visible changes are taking place at the cellular level (atypical) and the resultant at the tissue level (epithelial dysplasia). The Aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the expressions of intensity of p21 and Bcl-2 in Leukoplakia, oralsubmucous fibrosis (OSMF) and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Total 60 cases, 30 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma, 15 cases of oral submucous fibrosis and 15 cases of Leukoplakia were evaluated immunohistochemically for p21 and Bcl-2 expression. p21 showed positive expression in 13 (86.67%) cases out of 15 cases of OSMF, 12 (80%) cases of leukoplakia out of 15 cases and 24 (80%) cases out of 30 cases of OSCC. The Bcl-2 expression was positive in 13 (86.67%) cases of OSMF, all cases of Leukoplakia and 25 (83.33%) cases of OSCC. No statistical significance was noted in the expression of p21 and Bcl-2 positive expression between OSMF, Leukoplakia and OSCC. Statistical analysis for comparison of intensity of p21 expression in different grades of OSCC showed no significance. Statistical significance difference was found between the expressions of Bcl-2 in moderately and poorly differentiated SCC. The intensity of p21 and Bcl-2 expressions in different grades of OSCC indicates a key role in progression of oral neoplasia.

  12. p21 mediates macrophage reprogramming through regulation of p50-p50 NF-κB and IFN-β

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Jiménez, Enrique; Shokri, Rahman; Carmona-Rodríguez, Lorena; Mañes, Santos; Álvarez-Mon, Melchor; López-Collazo, Eduardo; Martínez-A, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes, which mediate proinflammatory and antiinflammatory functions, respectively, represent the extremes of immunoregulatory plasticity in the macrophage population. This plasticity can also result in intermediate macrophage states that support a balance between these opposing functions. In sepsis, M1 macrophages can compensate for hyperinflammation by acquiring an M2-like immunosuppressed status that increases the risk of secondary infection and death. The M1 to M2 macrophage reprogramming that develops during LPS tolerance resembles the pathological antiinflammatory response to sepsis. Here, we determined that p21 regulates macrophage reprogramming by shifting the balance between active p65-p50 and inhibitory p50-p50 NF-κB pathways. p21 deficiency reduced the DNA-binding affinity of the p50-p50 homodimer in LPS-primed and -rechallenged macrophages, impairing their ability to attenuate IFN-β production and acquire an M2-like hyporesponsive status. High p21 levels in sepsis patients correlated with low IFN-β expression, and p21 knockdown in human monocytes corroborated its role in IFN-β regulation. The data demonstrate that p21 adjusts the equilibrium between p65-p50 and p50-p50 NF-κB pathways to mediate macrophage plasticity in LPS tolerance. Identifying p21-related pathways involved in monocyte reprogramming may lead to potential targets for sepsis treatment. PMID:27427981

  13. Wig1 prevents cellular senescence by regulating p21 mRNA decay through control of RISC recruitment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong Cho; Lee, Hyung Chul; Lee, Je-Jung; Choi, Chang-Min; Kim, Dong-Kwan; Lee, Jae Cheol; Ko, Young-Gyu; Lee, Jae-Seon

    2012-11-14

    Premature senescence, a key strategy used to suppress carcinogenesis, can be driven by p53/p21 proteins in response to various stresses. Here, we demonstrate that Wig1 plays a critical role in this process through regulation of p21 mRNA stability. Wig1 controls the association of Argonaute2 (Ago2), a central component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), with target p21 mRNA via binding of the stem-loop structure near the microRNA (miRNA) target site. Depletion of Wig1 prohibited miRNA-mediated p21 mRNA decay and resulted in premature senescence. Wig1 plays an essential role in cell proliferation, as demonstrated in tumour xenografts in mice, and Wig1 and p21 mRNA levels are inversely correlated in human normal and cancer tissues. Together, our data indicate a novel role of Wig1 in RISC target accessibility, which is a key step in RNA-mediated gene silencing. In addition, these findings indicate that fine-tuning of p21 levels by Wig1 is essential for the prevention of cellular senescence.

  14. Wig1 prevents cellular senescence by regulating p21 mRNA decay through control of RISC recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong Cho; Lee, Hyung Chul; Lee, Je-Jung; Choi, Chang-Min; Kim, Dong-Kwan; Lee, Jae Cheol; Ko, Young-Gyu; Lee, Jae-Seon

    2012-01-01

    Premature senescence, a key strategy used to suppress carcinogenesis, can be driven by p53/p21 proteins in response to various stresses. Here, we demonstrate that Wig1 plays a critical role in this process through regulation of p21 mRNA stability. Wig1 controls the association of Argonaute2 (Ago2), a central component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), with target p21 mRNA via binding of the stem-loop structure near the microRNA (miRNA) target site. Depletion of Wig1 prohibited miRNA-mediated p21 mRNA decay and resulted in premature senescence. Wig1 plays an essential role in cell proliferation, as demonstrated in tumour xenografts in mice, and Wig1 and p21 mRNA levels are inversely correlated in human normal and cancer tissues. Together, our data indicate a novel role of Wig1 in RISC target accessibility, which is a key step in RNA-mediated gene silencing. In addition, these findings indicate that fine-tuning of p21 levels by Wig1 is essential for the prevention of cellular senescence. PMID:23085987

  15. p21Cip1 plays a critical role in the physiological adaptation to fasting through activation of PPARα.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Guadamillas, Elena; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J; Pantoja, Cristina; Muñoz-Martin, Maribel; Martínez, Dolores; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; Valverde, Angela M; Serrano, Manuel

    2016-10-10

    Fasting is a physiological stress that elicits well-known metabolic adaptations, however, little is known about the role of stress-responsive tumor suppressors in fasting. Here, we have examined the expression of several tumor suppressors upon fasting in mice. Interestingly, p21 mRNA is uniquely induced in all the tissues tested, particularly in liver and muscle (>10 fold), and this upregulation is independent of p53. Remarkably, in contrast to wild-type mice, p21-null mice become severely morbid after prolonged fasting. The defective adaptation to fasting of p21-null mice is associated to elevated energy expenditure, accelerated depletion of fat stores, and premature activation of protein catabolism in the muscle. Analysis of the liver transcriptome and cell-based assays revealed that the absence of p21 partially impairs the transcriptional program of PPARα, a key regulator of fasting metabolism. Finally, treatment of p21-null mice with a PPARα agonist substantially protects them from their accelerated loss of fat upon fasting. We conclude that p21 plays a relevant role in fasting adaptation through the positive regulation of PPARα.

  16. Genetic analysis of the relationship between activation loop phosphorylation and cyclin binding in the activation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc28p cyclin-dependent kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, F R; Levine, K

    2000-01-01

    We showed recently that a screen for mutant CDC28 with improved binding to a defective Cln2p G1 cyclin yielded a spectrum of mutations similar to those yielded by a screen for intragenic suppressors of the requirement for activation loop phosphorylation (T169E suppressors). Recombination among these mutations yielded CDC28 mutants that bypassed the G1 cyclin requirement. Here we analyze further the interrelationship between T169E suppression, interaction with defective cyclin, and G1 cyclin bypass. DNA shuffling of mutations from the various screens and recombination onto a T169E-encoding 3' end yielded CDC28 mutants with strong T169E suppression. Some of the strongest T169E suppressors could suppress the defective Cln2p G1 cyclin even while retaining T169E. The strong T169E suppressors did not exhibit bypass of the G1 cyclin requirement but did so when T169E was reverted to T. These results suggested that for these mutants, activation loop phosphorylation and cyclin binding might be alternative means of activation rather than independent requirements for activation (as with wild type). These results suggest mechanistic overlap between the conformational shift induced by cyclin binding and that induced by activation loop phosphorylation. This conclusion was supported by analysis of suppressors of a mutation in the Cdk phosphothreonine-binding pocket created by cyclin binding. PMID:10747052

  17. The Kinetics of G2 and M Transitions Regulated by B Cyclins

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yehong; Sramkoski, R. Michael; Jacobberger, James W.

    2013-01-01

    B cyclins regulate G2-M transition. Because human somatic cells continue to cycle after reduction of cyclin B1 (cycB1) or cyclin B2 (cycB2) by RNA interference (RNAi), and because cycB2 knockout mice are viable, the existence of two genes should be an optimization. To explore this idea, we generated HeLa BD™ Tet-Off cell lines with inducible cyclin B1- or B2-EGFP that were RNAi resistant. Cultures were treated with RNAi and/or doxycycline (Dox) and bromodeoxyuridine. We measured G2 and M transit times and 4C cell accumulation. In the absence of ectopic B cyclin expression, knockdown (kd) of either cyclin increased G2 transit. M transit was increased by cycB1 kd but decreased by cycB2 depletion. This novel difference was further supported by time-lapse microscopy. This suggests that cycB2 tunes mitotic timing, and we speculate that this is through regulation of a Golgi checkpoint. In the presence of endogenous cyclins, expression of active B cyclin-EGFPs did not affect G2 or M phase times. As previously shown, B cyclin co-depletion induced G2 arrest. Expression of either B cyclin-EGFP completely rescued knockdown of the respective endogenous cyclin in single kd experiments, and either cyclin-EGFP completely rescued endogenous cyclin co-depletion. Most of the rescue occurred at relatively low levels of exogenous cyclin expression. Therefore, cycB1 and cycB2 are interchangeable for ability to promote G2 and M transition in this experimental setting. Cyclin B1 is thought to be required for the mammalian somatic cell cycle, while cyclin B2 is thought to be dispensable. However, residual levels of cyclin B1 or cyclin B2 in double knockdown experiments are not sufficient to promote successful mitosis, yet residual levels are sufficient to promote mitosis in the presence of the dispensible cyclin B2. We discuss a simple model that would explain most data if cyclin B1 is necessary. PMID:24324638

  18. In vitro fusion of endocytic vesicles is inhibited by cyclin A-cdc2 kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, P G; Adamczewski, J P; Hunt, T; Warren, G

    1993-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis and recycling are inhibited in mitotic mammalian cells, and previous studies have shown that inhibition of endocytic vesicle fusion in vitro occurs via cyclin B-cdc2 kinase. To test for the ability of cyclin A-cdc2 kinase to inhibit endocytic vesicle fusion, we employed recombinant cyclin A proteins. Addition of cyclin A to interphase extracts activated a histone kinase and markedly reduced the efficiency of endocytic vesicle fusion. By a number of criteria, inhibition of fusion was shown to be due to the action of cyclin A, via the mitosis-specific cdc2 kinase, and not an indirect effect through cyclin B. Two-stage incubations were used to demonstrate that at least one target of cyclin A-cdc2 kinase is a cytosolic component of the fusion apparatus. Reconstitution experiments showed that this component was also modified in mitotic cytosols and was unaffected by N-ethyl maleimide treatment. Images PMID:8334308

  19. In vitro fusion of endocytic vesicles is inhibited by cyclin A-cdc2 kinase.

    PubMed

    Woodman, P G; Adamczewski, J P; Hunt, T; Warren, G

    1993-05-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis and recycling are inhibited in mitotic mammalian cells, and previous studies have shown that inhibition of endocytic vesicle fusion in vitro occurs via cyclin B-cdc2 kinase. To test for the ability of cyclin A-cdc2 kinase to inhibit endocytic vesicle fusion, we employed recombinant cyclin A proteins. Addition of cyclin A to interphase extracts activated a histone kinase and markedly reduced the efficiency of endocytic vesicle fusion. By a number of criteria, inhibition of fusion was shown to be due to the action of cyclin A, via the mitosis-specific cdc2 kinase, and not an indirect effect through cyclin B. Two-stage incubations were used to demonstrate that at least one target of cyclin A-cdc2 kinase is a cytosolic component of the fusion apparatus. Reconstitution experiments showed that this component was also modified in mitotic cytosols and was unaffected by N-ethyl maleimide treatment.

  20. Knockdown of AMPKα2 Promotes Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells Proliferation via mTOR/Skp2/p27Kip1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Rui; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Yanting; Li, Shaojun; Xie, Xinming; Li, Fangwei; Song, Yang; Yang, Lan; Gao, Li; Li, Manxiang

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) suppresses proliferation of a variety of tumor cells as well as nonmalignant cells. In this study, we used post-transcriptional gene silencing with small interfering RNA (siRNA) to specifically examine the effect of AMPK on pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) proliferation and to further elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that knockdown of AMPKα2 promoted primary cultured PASMCs proliferation; this was accompanied with the elevation of phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) protein level and reduction of p27Kip1. Importantly, prior silencing of mTOR with siRNA abolished AMPKα2 knockdown-induced Skp2 upregulation, p27Kip1 reduction as well as PASMCs proliferation. Furthermore, pre-depletion of Skp2 by siRNA also eliminated p27Kip1 downregulation and PASMCs proliferation caused by AMPKα2 knockdown. Taken together, our study indicates that AMPKα2 isoform plays an important role in regulation of PASMCs proliferation by modulating mTOR/Skp2/p27Kip1 axis, and suggests that activation of AMPKα2 might have potential value in the prevention and treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:27258250

  1. Regulation of the p27Kip1 tumor suppressor by miR-221 and miR-222 promotes cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    le Sage, Carlos; Nagel, Remco; Egan, David A; Schrier, Mariette; Mesman, Elly; Mangiola, Annunziato; Anile, Corrado; Maira, Giulio; Mercatelli, Neri; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Farace, Maria Giulia; Agami, Reuven

    2007-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent post-transcriptional regulators of protein coding genes. Patterns of misexpression of miRNAs in cancer suggest key functions of miRNAs in tumorigenesis. However, current bioinformatics tools do not entirely support the identification and characterization of the mode of action of such miRNAs. Here, we used a novel functional genetic approach and identified miR-221 and miR-222 (miR-221&222) as potent regulators of p27Kip1, a cell cycle inhibitor and tumor suppressor. Using miRNA inhibitors, we demonstrate that certain cancer cell lines require high activity of miR-221&222 to maintain low p27Kip1 levels and continuous proliferation. Interestingly, high levels of miR-221&222 appear in glioblastomas and correlate with low levels of p27Kip1 protein. Thus, deregulated expression of miR-221&222 promotes cancerous growth by inhibiting the expression of p27Kip1. PMID:17627278

  2. Loss of p21{sup Sdi1} expression in senescent cells after DNA damage accompanied with increase of miR-93 expression and reduced p53 interaction with p21{sup Sdi1} gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Ok Ran; Lim, In Kyoung, E-mail: iklim@ajou.ac.kr

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} Reduced p21 expression in senescent cells treated with DNA damaging agents. {yields} Increase of [{sup 3}H]thymidine and BrdU incorporations in DNA damaged-senescent cells. {yields} Upregulation of miR-93 expression in senescent cells in response to DSB. {yields} Failure of p53 binding to p21 promoter in senescent cells in response to DSB. {yields} Molecular mechanism of increased cancer development in aged than young individuals. -- Abstract: To answer what is a critical event for higher incidence of tumor development in old than young individuals, primary culture of human diploid fibroblasts were employed and DNA damage was induced by doxorubicin ormore » X-ray irradiation. Response to the damage was different between young and old cells; loss of p21{sup sdi1} expression in spite of p53{sup S15} activation in old cells along with [{sup 3}H]thymidine and BrdU incorporation, but not in young cells. The phenomenon was confirmed by other tissue fibroblasts obtained from different donor ages. Induction of miR-93 expression and reduced p53 binding to p21 gene promoter account for loss of p21{sup sdi1} expression in senescent cells after DNA damage, suggesting a mechanism of in vivo carcinogenesis in aged tissue without repair arrest.« less

  3. Chromosome 9p21 in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Finland: A Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Laaksovirta, Hannu; Peuralinna, Terhi; Schymick, Jennifer C.; Scholz, Sonja W.; Lai, Shaoi-Lin; Myllykangas, Liisa; Sulkava, Raimo; Jansson, Lilja; Hernandez, Dena G.; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Nalls, Michael A.; Heckerman, David; Tienari, Pentti J.; Traynor, Bryan J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The genetic etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not well understood. Finland is a well-suited location for a genome-wide association study of ALS, as the incidence of the disease is one of the highest in the world, and because the genetic homogeneity of the Finnish population enhances the ability to detect risk loci. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study of 442 Finnish patients diagnosed with ALS, and 521 Finnish control subjects using Illumina genome-wide genotyping arrays. DNA was collected from patients attending an ALS specialty clinic that receives referrals from neurologists throughout Finland, whereas the control samples were obtained from a population-based study of elderly Finnish individuals. Individuals known to carry D90A alleles of the SOD1 gene (n = 40) were included in the final analysis as positive controls to determine if our GWAS was able to detect an association signal at this locus. Findings We identified two association peaks that exceeded genome-wide significance. One of these was located on chromosome 21q22 (rs13048019, p = 2·58×10−8) that corresponded to the known autosomal recessive D90A allele of the SOD1 gene. The other was detected in a 232kb block of linkage disequilibrium (rs3849942, p = 9·11×10−11) in a region of chromosome 9p that has been previously identified by linkage studies of ALS families. Within this region, we defined a 42-SNP haplotype that significantly increased risk of developing ALS (p = 4·2×10−33 among familial cases, odds ratio = 21·0, 95% CI = 11·2–39·1), and which overlapped with an association locus recently reported for fronto-temporal dementia (FTD). Based on the 93 familial ALS cases included in the analysis, population attributable risk percent for the chromosome 9p21 locus was 37.9% (95% CI, 27·7 – 48·1%), and for D90A homozygosity was 25·5% (95% CI, 16·9 – 34·1%). Interpretation In summary, we present evidence that the chromosome 9p21 ALS

  4. Cyclin-dependent kinases: engines, clocks, and microprocessors.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D O

    1997-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) play a well-established role in the regulation of the eukaryotic cell division cycle and have also been implicated in the control of gene transcription and other processes. Cdk activity is governed by a complex network of regulatory subunits and phosphorylation events whose precise effects on Cdk conformation have been revealed by recent crystallographic studies. In the cell, these regulatory mechanisms generate an interlinked series of Cdk oscillators that trigger the events of cell division.

  5. Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0566 TITLE : Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dipanjan...RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2015 - 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND...amplification, Homologous Recombination, Platinum analogues, MicroRNAs, Heat shock protein 90 inhibitors, Forkhead box protein M1, Retinoblastoma 16

  6. Self-assembling HA/PEI/dsRNA-p21 ternary complexes for CD44 mediated small active RNA delivery to colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chen-Lin; Han, Yan-Xing; Guo, Hui-Hui; Ma, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2017-11-01

    Our previous work proved that sequence specific double strand RNA (dsRNA-p21) effectively activated p21 gene expression of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and consequently suppressed CRC growth. However, efficient delivery system is a significant challenge to achieve sufficient therapy. In this study, a self-assembled HA/PEI/dsRNA-p21 ternary complex (TC-dsRNA-p21) was developed for the tumor-target delivery of dsRNA-p21 into CRC cells. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was introduced to shield the PEI/dsRNA-p21 binary complexes (BC-dsRNA-p21) for reducing the cytotoxicity of PEI and for increasing the tumor-targeted intracellular uptake by cancer cells through HA-CD44 mediated endocytosis. Comparing to the BC-dsRNA-p21, the TC-dsRNA-p21 showed increase in size, decrease in zeta potential, low cytotoxicity as well as high stability in physiological conditions due to the anionic shielding. Confocal microscopy analysis and flow cytometry confirmed that TC-dsRNA-p21 had high transfection efficiency in the CD44-abundant Lovo cells, as compared with binary complex. In vitro physiological experiment showed that, comparing to the control group, the TC-dsRNA-p21 effectively activated the expression of p21 mRNA and P21 protein, causing blockage of cell cycle at G 0 /G 1 phase and suppression of cancer cell proliferation as well as colony formation. Furthermore, in vivo distribution experiment demonstrated that the TC-dsRNA-p21 could effectively accumulate at rectal wall for up to 10 h, following in situ application. These findings indicated that TC-dsRNA-p21 might hold great potential for delivering dsRNA-p21 to treat CRC.

  7. Activation of GPR30 inhibits growth of prostate cancer cells via sustained activation of Erk1/2, c-jun/c-fos-dependent upregulation of p21, and induction of G2 cell-cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Queeny K.Y.; Lam, Hung-Ming; Ng, Chi-Fai; Lee, Amy Y.Y.; Chan, Eddie S.Y.; Ng, Ho-Keung; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Lau, Kin-Mang

    2010-01-01

    G protein–coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) exhibits estrogen-binding affinity and mediates nongenomic signaling of estrogen to regulate cell growth. We here demonstrated for the first time, in contrast to the reported promoting action of GPR30 on the growth of breast and ovarian cancer cells, that activation of GPR30 by the receptor-specific, non-estrogenic ligand G-1 inhibited growth of androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer (PCa) cells in vitro and PC-3 xenografts in vivo. However, G-1 elicited no growth or histological changes in the prostates of intact mice and did not inhibit growth in quiescent BPH-1, an immortalized benign prostatic epithelial cell line. Treatment of PC-3 cells with G-1-induced cell-cycle arrest at the G2 phase and reduced the expression of G2-checkpoint regulators (cyclin A2, cyclin B1, cdc25c, and cdc2) and the phosphorylation of their common transcriptional regulator NF-YA in PC-3 cells. With the extensive use of siRNA knockdown experiments and the MEK inhibitor PD98059 in the present study, we dissected the mechanism underlying G-1–induced inhibition of PC-3 cell growth, which was mediated through GPR30, followed by a sustained activation of Erk1/2 and a c-jun/c-fos-dependent upregulation of p21, resulting in the arrest of PC-3 growth at the G2 phase. The discovery of this signaling pathway lays the foundation for future development of GPR30-based therapies for PCa. PMID:20203690

  8. Normal p21Ras/MAP kinase pathway expression and function in PBMC from patients with polycystic ovary disease.

    PubMed

    Buchs, A; Chagag, P; Weiss, M; Kish, E; Levinson, R; Aharoni, D; Rapoport, M J

    2004-04-01

    Polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) is associated with insulin resistance and increased prevalence of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The p21Ras/MAP kinase is a major intracellular signaling pathway mediating insulin signaling in insulin responsive tissues. The expression, regulation and function of the p21Ras/MAP kinase pathway in PCOD patients were examined. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from ten patients with PCOD and ten controls. The expression of p21Ras and its regulatory proteins; hSOS1 and p120GAP were studied. The basal and phytohemaglutinin (PHA) or insulin stimulated phosphorylation of MAP kinase was determined. Expression of p21Ras, and its regulatory proteins hSOS1 and p120GAP were similar in PCOD patients and controls. Basal, PHA and insulin stimulated phosphorylation of MAP kinase, were also comparable in the two groups as well as their PBMC proliferative response. These data indicate that the expression and overall function of the p21Ras/MAP kinase pathway remain intact in non-diabetic patients with PCOD.

  9. Long Noncoding RNA PVT1 Promotes EMT and Cell Proliferation and Migration Through Downregulating p21 in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bao-Qiang; Jiang, Yong; Zhu, Feng; Sun, Dong-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim: Long noncoding RNA-plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 is identified to be highly expressed and exhibits oncogenic activity in a variety of human malignancies, including pancreatic cancer. However, little is known about the overall biological role and mechanism of plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 in pancreatic cancer so far. In this study, we investigated the effect of plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and migration as well as epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Methods: Pancreatic cancer tissue specimens and cell line were used in this study, with normal tissue and cell line acting as control. Results: It showed that plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 expression was significantly upregulated in pancreatic cancer tissues or cell line compared to normal groups. Plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 downregulation significantly inhibited zinc finger E-box-binding protein 1/Snail expression but promoted p21 expression, and it also inhibited the cell proliferation and migration. Additionally, p21 downregulation enhanced, and p21 overexpression repressed, zinc finger E-box-binding protein 1/Snail expression and cells proliferation in PANC-1 cells. However, p21 downregulation reversed the effect of plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 downregulation on zinc finger E-box-binding protein 1/Snail expression and cell proliferation and migration. Conclusion: Plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 promoted epithelial–mesenchymal transition and cell proliferation and migration through downregulating p21 in pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:28355965

  10. Regulation of cardiac excitation and contraction by p21 activated kinase-1.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yunbo; Lei, Ming; Solaro, R John

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac excitation and contraction are regulated by a variety of signaling molecules. Central to the regulatory scheme are protein kinases and phosphatases that carry out reversible phosphorylation of different effectors. The process of beta-adrenergic stimulation mediated by cAMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) forms a well-known pathway considered as the most significant control mechanism in excitation and contraction as well as many other regulatory mechanisms in cardiac function. However, although dephosphorylation pathways are critical to these regulatory processes, signaling to phosphatases is relatively poorly understood. Emerging evidence indicates that regulation of phosphatases, which dampen the effect of beta-adrenergic stimulation, is also important. We review here functional studies of p21 activated kinase-1 (Pak1) and its potential role as an upstream signal for protein phosphatase PP2A in the heart. Pak1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase directly activated by the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1. Pak1 is highly expressed in different regions of the heart and modulates the activities of ion channels, sarcomeric proteins, and other phosphoproteins through up-regulation of PP2A activity. Coordination of Pak1 and PP2A activities is not only potentially involved in regulation of normal cardiac function, but is likely to be important in patho-physiological conditions.

  11. p21 Activated kinase 1: Nuclear activity and its role during DNA damage repair.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Yépez, Eloy Andrés; Saldívar-Cerón, Héctor Iván; Villamar-Cruz, Olga; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Arias-Romero, Luis Enrique

    2018-05-01

    p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is a serine/threonine kinase activated by the small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42. It is located in the chromosome 11q13 and is amplified and/or overexpressed in several human cancer types including 25-30% of breast tumors. This enzyme plays a pivotal role in the control of a number of fundamental cellular processes by phosphorylating its downstream substrates. In addition to its role in the cytoplasm, it is well documented that PAK1 also plays crucial roles in the nucleus participating in mitotic events and gene expression through its association and/or phosphorylation of several transcription factors, transcriptional co-regulators and cell cycle-related proteins, including Aurora kinase A (AURKA), polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), the forkhead transcription factor (FKHR), estrogen receptor α (ERα), and Snail. More recently, PAK signaling has emerged as a component of the DNA damage response (DDR) as PAK1 activity influences the cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation and promotes the expression of several genes involved in the Fanconi Anemia/BRCA pathway. This review will focus on the nuclear functions of PAK1 and its role in the regulation of DNA damage repair. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Subverting Host Cell P21-Activated Kinase: A Case of Convergent Evolution across Pathogens.

    PubMed

    John Von Freyend, Simona; Kwok-Schuelein, Terry; Netter, Hans J; Haqshenas, Gholamreza; Semblat, Jean-Philippe; Doerig, Christian

    2017-04-21

    Intracellular pathogens have evolved a wide range of strategies to not only escape from the immune systems of their hosts, but also to directly exploit a variety of host factors to facilitate the infection process. One such strategy is to subvert host cell signalling pathways to the advantage of the pathogen. Recent research has highlighted that the human serine/threonine kinase PAK, or p21-activated kinase, is a central component of host-pathogen interactions in many infection systems involving viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotic pathogens. PAK paralogues are found in most mammalian tissues, where they play vital roles in a wide range of functions. The role of PAKs in cell proliferation and survival, and their involvement in a number of cancers, is of great interest in the context of drug discovery. In this review we discuss the latest insights into the surprisingly central role human PAK1 plays for the infection by such different infectious disease agents as viruses, bacteria, and parasitic protists. It is our intention to open serious discussion on the applicability of PAK inhibitors for the treatment, not only of neoplastic diseases, which is currently the primary objective of drug discovery research targeting these enzymes, but also of a wide range of infectious diseases.

  13. p21-Activated protein kinases and their emerging roles in glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yu-ting Alex; Jin, Tianru

    2014-04-01

    p21-Activated protein kinases (PAKs) are centrally involved in a plethora of cellular processes and functions. Their function as effectors of small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 has been extensively studied during the past two decades, particularly in the realms of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and hence tumorigenesis, as well as cytoskeletal remodeling and related cellular events in health and disease. In recent years, a large number of studies have shed light onto the fundamental role of group I PAKs, most notably PAK1, in metabolic homeostasis. In skeletal muscle, PAK1 was shown to mediate the function of insulin on stimulating GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake, while in pancreatic β-cells, PAK1 participates in insulin granule localization and vesicle release. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PAK1 mediates the cross talk between insulin and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways and hence regulates gut proglucagon gene expression and the production of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The utilization of chemical inhibitors of PAK and the characterization of Pak1(-/-) mice enabled us to gain mechanistic insights as well as to assess the overall contribution of PAKs in metabolic homeostasis. This review summarizes our current understanding of PAKs, with an emphasis on the emerging roles of PAK1 in glucose homeostasis.

  14. Molecular pathways: targeting p21-activated kinase 1 signaling in cancer--opportunities, challenges, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Eswaran, Jeyanthy; Li, Da-Qiang; Shah, Anil; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-07-15

    The evolution of cancer cells involves deregulation of highly regulated fundamental pathways that are central to normal cellular architecture and functions. p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) was initially identified as a downstream effector of the GTPases Rac and Cdc42. Subsequent studies uncovered a variety of new functions for this kinase in growth factor and steroid receptor signaling, cytoskeleton remodeling, cell survival, oncogenic transformation, and gene transcription, largely through systematic discovery of its direct, physiologically relevant substrates. PAK1 is widely upregulated in several human cancers, such as hormone-dependent cancer, and is intimately linked to tumor progression and therapeutic resistance. These exciting developments combined with the kinase-independent role of PAK1-centered phenotypic signaling in cancer cells elevated PAK1 as an attractive drug target. Structural and biochemical studies revealed the precise mechanism of PAK1 activation, offering the possibility to develop PAK1-targeted cancer therapeutic approaches. In addition, emerging reports suggest the potential of PAK1 and its specific phosphorylated substrates as cancer prognostic markers. Here, we summarize recent findings about the PAK1 molecular pathways in human cancer and discuss the current status of PAK1-targeted anticancer therapies.

  15. P21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) regulates glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Pallavi; Dey, Chinmoy Sankar

    2016-07-05

    P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are recently reported as important players of insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis in tissues like muscle, pancreas and liver. However, their role in neuronal insulin signaling is still unknown. Present study reports the involvement of PAK2 in neuronal insulin signaling, glucose uptake and insulin resistance. Irrespective of insulin sensitivity, insulin stimulation decreased PAK2 activity. PAK2 downregulation displayed marked enhancement of GLUT4 translocation with increase in glucose uptake whereas PAK2 over-expression showed its reduction. Treatment with Akti-1/2 and wortmannin suggested that Akt and PI3K are mediators of insulin effect on PAK2 and glucose uptake. Rac1 inhibition demonstrated decreased PAK2 activity while inhibition of PP2A resulted in increased PAK2 activity, with corresponding changes in glucose uptake. Taken together, present study demonstrates an inhibitory role of insulin signaling (via PI3K-Akt) and PP2A on PAK2 activity and establishes PAK2 as a Rac1-dependent negative regulator of neuronal glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Feedback between p21 and reactive oxygen production is necessary for cell senescence

    PubMed Central

    Passos, João F; Nelson, Glyn; Wang, Chunfang; Richter, Torsten; Simillion, Cedric; Proctor, Carole J; Miwa, Satomi; Olijslagers, Sharon; Hallinan, Jennifer; Wipat, Anil; Saretzki, Gabriele; Rudolph, Karl Lenhard; Kirkwood, Tom B L; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Cellular senescence—the permanent arrest of cycling in normally proliferating cells such as fibroblasts—contributes both to age-related loss of mammalian tissue homeostasis and acts as a tumour suppressor mechanism. The pathways leading to establishment of senescence are proving to be more complex than was previously envisaged. Combining in-silico interactome analysis and functional target gene inhibition, stochastic modelling and live cell microscopy, we show here that there exists a dynamic feedback loop that is triggered by a DNA damage response (DDR) and, which after a delay of several days, locks the cell into an actively maintained state of ‘deep' cellular senescence. The essential feature of the loop is that long-term activation of the checkpoint gene CDKN1A (p21) induces mitochondrial dysfunction and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through serial signalling through GADD45-MAPK14(p38MAPK)-GRB2-TGFBR2-TGFβ. These ROS in turn replenish short-lived DNA damage foci and maintain an ongoing DDR. We show that this loop is both necessary and sufficient for the stability of growth arrest during the establishment of the senescent phenotype. PMID:20160708

  17. Cyclin D2 is sufficient to drive β cell self-renewal and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diabetes results from an inadequate mass of functional β cells, due to either β cell loss caused by autoimmune destruction (type I diabetes) or β cell failure in response to insulin resistance (type II diabetes). Elucidating the mechanisms that regulate β cell mass may be key to developing new techniques that foster β cell regeneration as a cellular therapy to treat diabetes. While previous studies concluded that cyclin D2 is required for postnatal β cell self-renewal in mice, it is not clear if cyclin D2 is sufficient to drive β cell self-renewal. Using transgenic mice that overexpress cyclin D2 specifically in β cells, we show that cyclin D2 overexpression increases β cell self-renewal post-weaning and results in increased β cell mass. β cells that overexpress cyclin D2 are responsive to glucose stimulation, suggesting they are functionally mature. β cells that overexpress cyclin D2 demonstrate an enhanced regenerative capacity after injury induced by streptozotocin toxicity. To understand if cyclin D2 overexpression is sufficient to drive β cell self-renewal, we generated a novel mouse model where cyclin D2 is only expressed in β cells of cyclin D2−/− mice. Transgenic overexpression of cyclin D2 in cyclin D2−/− β cells was sufficient to restore β cell mass, maintain normoglycaemia, and improve regenerative capacity when compared with cyclin D2−/− littermates. Taken together, our results indicate that cyclin D2 is sufficient to regulate β cell self-renewal and that manipulation of its expression could be used to enhance β cell regeneration. PMID:28763258

  18. Cyclin D2 is sufficient to drive β cell self-renewal and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tschen, Shuen-Ing; Zeng, Chun; Field, Loren; Dhawan, Sangeeta; Bhushan, Anil; Georgia, Senta

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes results from an inadequate mass of functional β cells, due to either β cell loss caused by autoimmune destruction (type I diabetes) or β cell failure in response to insulin resistance (type II diabetes). Elucidating the mechanisms that regulate β cell mass may be key to developing new techniques that foster β cell regeneration as a cellular therapy to treat diabetes. While previous studies concluded that cyclin D2 is required for postnatal β cell self-renewal in mice, it is not clear if cyclin D2 is sufficient to drive β cell self-renewal. Using transgenic mice that overexpress cyclin D2 specifically in β cells, we show that cyclin D2 overexpression increases β cell self-renewal post-weaning and results in increased β cell mass. β cells that overexpress cyclin D2 are responsive to glucose stimulation, suggesting they are functionally mature. β cells that overexpress cyclin D2 demonstrate an enhanced regenerative capacity after injury induced by streptozotocin toxicity. To understand if cyclin D2 overexpression is sufficient to drive β cell self-renewal, we generated a novel mouse model where cyclin D2 is only expressed in β cells of cyclin D2 -/- mice. Transgenic overexpression of cyclin D2 in cyclin D2 - / - β cells was sufficient to restore β cell mass, maintain normoglycaemia, and improve regenerative capacity when compared with cyclin D2 -/- littermates. Taken together, our results indicate that cyclin D2 is sufficient to regulate β cell self-renewal and that manipulation of its expression could be used to enhance β cell regeneration.

  19. Inhibition of FoxO1 acetylation by INHAT subunit SET/TAF-Iβ induces p21 transcription.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yun-Cheol; Kim, Kee-Beom; Kang, Joo-Young; Kim, Se-Ryeon; Jung, Hyeon-Soo; Seo, Sang-Beom

    2014-08-25

    Post-translational modification of forkhead family transcription factor, FoxO1, is an important regulatory mode for its diverse activities. FoxO1 is acetylated by HAT coactivators and its transcriptional activity is decreased via reduced DNA binding affinity. Here, we report that SET/TAF-Iβ inhibited p300-mediated FoxO1 acetylation in an INHAT domain-dependent manner. SET/TAF-Iβ interacted with FoxO1 and activated transcription of FoxO1 target gene, p21. Moreover, SET/TAF-Iβ inhibited acetylation of FoxO1 and increased p21 transcription induced by oxidative stress. Our results suggest that SET/TAF-Iβ inhibits FoxO1 acetylation and activates its transcriptional activity toward p21. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. miR-340 inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation by suppressing CDK6, cyclin-D1 and cyclin-D2

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xuesong; Gong, Xuhai; Chen, Jing

    Glioblastoma development is often associated with alteration in the activity and expression of cell cycle regulators, such as cyclin-dependent kinases (CKDs) and cyclins, resulting in aberrant cell proliferation. Recent studies have highlighted the pivotal roles of miRNAs in controlling the development and growth of glioblastoma. Here, we provide evidence for a function of miR-340 in the inhibition of glioblastoma cell proliferation. We found that miR-340 is downregulated in human glioblastoma tissue samples and several established glioblastoma cell lines. Proliferation and neurosphere formation assays revealed that miR-340 plays an oncosuppressive role in glioblastoma, and that its ectopic expression causes significant defectmore » in glioblastoma cell growth. Further, using bioinformatics, luciferase assay and western blot, we found that miR-340 specifically targets the 3′UTRs of CDK6, cyclin-D1 and cyclin-D2, leading to the arrest of glioblastoma cells in the G0/G1 cell cycle phase. Confirming these results, we found that re-introducing CDK6, cyclin-D1 or cyclin-D2 expression partially, but significantly, rescues cells from the suppression of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest mediated by miR-340. Collectively, our results demonstrate that miR-340 plays a tumor-suppressive role in glioblastoma and may be useful as a diagnostic biomarker and/or a therapeutic avenue for glioblastoma. - Highlights: • miR-340 is downregulated in glioblastoma samples and cell lines. • miR-340 inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation. • miR-340 directly targets CDK6, cyclin-D1, and cyclin-D2. • miR-340 regulates glioblastoma cell proliferation via CDK6, cyclin-D1 and cyclin-D2.« less

  1. CDKN2B expression and subcutaneous adipose tissue expandability: Possible influence of the 9p21 atherosclerosis locus

    SciTech Connect

    Svensson, Per-Arne; Wahlstrand, Björn; Olsson, Maja

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • The tumor suppressor gene CDKN2B is highly expressed in human adipose tissue. • Risk alleles at the 9p21 locus modify CDKN2B expression in a BMI-dependent fashion. • There is an inverse relationship between expression of CDKN2B and adipogenic genes. • CDKN2B expression influences to postprandial triacylglycerol clearance. • CDKN2B expression in adipose tissue is linked to markers of hepatic steatosis. - Abstract: Risk alleles within a gene desert at the 9p21 locus constitute the most prevalent genetic determinant of cardiovascular disease. Previous research has demonstrated that 9p21 risk variants influence gene expression in vascular tissues, yet the biologicalmore » mechanisms by which this would mediate atherosclerosis merits further investigation. To investigate possible influences of this locus on other tissues, we explored expression patterns of 9p21-regulated genes in a panel of multiple human tissues and found that the tumor suppressor CDKN2B was highly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). CDKN2B expression was regulated by obesity status, and this effect was stronger in carriers of 9p21 risk alleles. Covariation between expression of CDKN2B and genes implemented in adipogenesis was consistent with an inhibitory effect of CDKN2B on SAT proliferation. Moreover, studies of postprandial triacylglycerol clearance indicated that CDKN2B is involved in down-regulation of SAT fatty acid trafficking. CDKN2B expression in SAT correlated with indicators of ectopic fat accumulation, including markers of hepatic steatosis. Among genes regulated by 9p21 risk variants, CDKN2B appears to play a significant role in the regulation of SAT expandability, which is a strong determinant of lipotoxicity and therefore might contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.« less

  2. Protein expression patterns of cell cycle regulators in operable breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zagouri, Flora; Kotoula, Vassiliki; Kouvatseas, George; Sotiropoulou, Maria; Koletsa, Triantafyllia; Gavressea, Theofani; Valavanis, Christos; Trihia, Helen; Bobos, Mattheos; Lazaridis, Georgios; Koutras, Angelos; Pentheroudakis, George; Skarlos, Pantelis; Bafaloukos, Dimitrios; Arnogiannaki, Niki; Chrisafi, Sofia; Christodoulou, Christos; Papakostas, Pavlos; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Kosmidis, Paris; Karanikiotis, Charisios; Zografos, George; Papadimitriou, Christos; Fountzilas, George

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic role of elaborate molecular clusters encompassing cyclin D1, cyclin E1, p21, p27 and p53 in the context of various breast cancer subtypes. Cyclin E1, cyclin D1, p53, p21 and p27 were evaluated with immunohistochemistry in 1077 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from breast cancer patients who had been treated within clinical trials. Jaccard distances were computed for the markers and the resulted matrix was used for conducting unsupervised hierarchical clustering, in order to identify distinct groups correlating with prognosis. Luminal B and triple-negative (TNBC) tumors presented with the highest and lowest levels of cyclin D1 expression, respectively. By contrast, TNBC frequently expressed Cyclin E1, whereas ER-positive tumors did not. Absence of Cyclin D1 predicted for worse OS, while absence of Cyclin E1 for poorer DFS. The expression patterns of all examined proteins yielded 3 distinct clusters; (1) Cyclin D1 and/or E1 positive with moderate p21 expression; (2) Cyclin D1 and/or E1, and p27 positive, p53 protein negative; and, (3) Cyclin D1 or E1 positive, p53 positive, p21 and p27 negative or moderately positive. The 5-year DFS rates for clusters 1, 2 and 3 were 70.0%, 79.1%, 67.4% and OS 88.4%, 90.4%, 78.9%, respectively. It seems that the expression of cell cycle regulators in the absence of p53 protein is associated with favorable prognosis in operable breast cancer.

  3. Sliding p21-activated kinase 1 to nucleus impacts tamoxifen sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Rayala, Suresh K; Kumar, Rakesh

    2007-08-01

    The anti-estrogen, tamoxifen is the most commonly used treatment for patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha-positive breast cancer. Recent data suggest that levels of ER coregulatory proteins as well as extra- and intracellular signaling in response to growth factor stimulation of breast cancer cells play an important role in acquiring resistance to anti-estrogen action. P21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), a major target of the small GTPases, growth factors and lipid signaling, regulates cell motility, hormone action, invasiveness, and survival, all of which are required for both tumor development and normal mammary gland development. Over the years, the PAK1 has been regarded as cytosolic serine-threonine kinase with regulatory function in cytoskeleton reorganization and motility. However, emerging data now provide evidence of PAK1 function in the nucleus of breast cancer cells. Elevated PAK1 expression in premenopausal breast cancer patients correlates well with the lack of tamoxifen response despite the presence of ER-alpha expression, and such relationship was even distinctly stronger in breast tumors with nuclear PAK1. These typical effects of PAK1 are mechanistically linked with the ability of PAK1 to phosphorylate ER-alpha on serine 305, accompanied by secondary activation of serine 118, and such structural modifications may participate in the development of tamoxifen resistance. These findings suggest that the levels, subcellular localization, and activation status of PAK1 are likely to be important determinants of tamoxifen resistance, and that raising the possibility that tamoxifen resistance might be prevented or reversed by PAK1 inhibition.

  4. p21-Activated kinase-1 and its role in integrated regulation of cardiac contractility.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Katherine A; Ke, Yunbo; Solaro, R John

    2007-09-01

    We review here a novel concept in the regulation of cardiac contractility involving variations in the activity of the multifunctional enzyme, p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1), a member of a family of proteins in the small G protein-signaling pathway that is activated by Cdc42 and Rac1. There is a large body of evidence from studies in noncardiac tissue that Pak1 activity is key in regulation of a number of cellular functions, including cytoskeletal dynamics, cell motility, growth, and proliferation. Although of significant potential impact, the role of Pak1 in regulation of the heart has been investigated in only a few laboratories. In this review, we discuss the structure of Pak1 and its sites of posttranslational modification and molecular interactions. We assemble an overview of the current data on Pak1 signaling in noncardiac tissues relative to similar signaling pathways in the heart, and we identify potential roles of Pak1 in cardiac regulation. Finally, we discuss the current state of Pak1 research in the heart in regard to regulation of contractility through functional myofilament and Ca(2+)-flux modification. An important aspect of this regulation is the modulation of kinase and phosphatase activity. We have focused on Pak1 regulation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which is abundant in cardiac muscle, thereby mediating dephosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins and sensitizing the myofilaments to Ca(2+). We present a model for Pak1 signaling that provides a mechanism for specifically affecting cardiac cellular processes in which regulation of protein phosphorylation states by PP2A dephosphorylation predominates.

  5. Targeted deletion of the 9p21 noncoding coronary artery disease risk interval in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Visel, Axel; Zhu, Yiwen; May, Dalit

    2010-01-01

    Sequence polymorphisms in a 58kb interval on chromosome 9p21 confer a markedly increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), the leading cause of death worldwide 1,2. The variants have a substantial impact on the epidemiology of CAD and other life?threatening vascular conditions since nearly a quarter of Caucasians are homozygous for risk alleles. However, the risk interval is devoid of protein?coding genes and the mechanism linking the region to CAD risk has remained enigmatic. Here we show that deletion of the orthologous 70kb noncoding interval on mouse chromosome 4 affects cardiac expression of neighboring genes, as well as proliferation propertiesmore » of vascular cells. Chr4delta70kb/delta70kb mice are viable, but show increased mortality both during development and as adults. Cardiac expression of two genes near the noncoding interval, Cdkn2a and Cdkn2b, is severely reduced in chr4delta70kb/delta70kb mice, indicating that distant-acting gene regulatory functions are located in the noncoding CAD risk interval. Allelespecific expression of Cdkn2b transcripts in heterozygous mice revealed that the deletion affects expression through a cis-acting mechanism. Primary cultures of chr4delta70kb/delta70kb aortic smooth muscle cells exhibited excessive proliferation and diminished senescence, a cellular phenotype consistent with accelerated CAD pathogenesis. Taken together, our results provide direct evidence that the CAD risk interval plays a pivotal role in regulation of cardiac Cdkn2a/b expression and suggest that this region affects CAD progression by altering the dynamics of vascular cell proliferation.« less

  6. Ethanol extracts from the branch of Taxillus yadoriki parasitic to Neolitsea sericea induces cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation through cyclin D1 nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Park, Su Bin; Park, Gwang Hun; Kim, Ha Na; Song, Hun Min; Son, Ho-Jun; Park, Ji Ae; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2018-06-20

    Although the inhibitory effect of mistletoe on cancer cell growth has been reported, the underlying mechanisms to explain its anti-proliferative activity are not fully studied. Thus, we elucidated the potential molecular mechanism of the branch from Taxillus yadoriki (TY) parasitic to Neolitsea sericea (NS) (TY-NS-B) for the anti-proliferative effect. Anti-cell proliferative effect was evaluated by MTT assay. The change of cyclin D1 protein or mRNA level was evaluated by Western blot and RT-RCR, respectively. In comparison of anti-proliferative effect of TY from the host trees such as Cryptomeria japonica (CJ), Neolitsea sericea (NS), Prunus serrulata (PS), Cinnamomum camphora (CC) and Quercus acutissima (QA), TY-NS showed higher anti-cell proliferative effect than TY-CJ, TY-PS, TY-CC or TY-QA. In addition, the anti-proliferative effect of branch from TY from all host trees was better than leaves. Thus, we selected the branch from Taxillus yadoriki parasitic to Neolitsea sericea (TY-NS-B) for the further study. TY-NS-B inhibited the cell proliferation in the various cancer cells and downregulated cyclin D1 protein level. MG132 treatment attenuated cyclin D1 downregulation of cyclin D1 protein level by TY-NS-B. In addition, TY-NS-B increased threonine-286 (T286) phosphorylation of cyclin D1, and the mutation of T286 to alanine (T286A) blocked cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation by TY-NS-B. But the upstream factors related to cyclin D1 degradation such as ERK1/2, p38, JNK, GSK3β, PI3K, IκK or ROS did not affect cyclin D1 degradation by TY-NS-B. However, LMB treatment was observed to inhibit cyclin D1 degradation by TY-NS-B, and T286A blocked cyclin D1 degradation through suppressing cyclin D1 redistribution from nucleus to cytoplasm by TY-NS-B. In addition, TY-NS-B activated CRM1 expression. Our results suggest that TY-NS-B may suppress cell proliferation by downregulating cyclin D1 protein level through proteasomal degradation via T286 phosphorylation

  7. Regulation of p21/CIP1/WAF-1 mediated cell-cycle arrest by RNase L and tristetraprolin, and involvement of AU-rich elements

    PubMed Central

    Al-Haj, Latifa; Blackshear, Perry J.; Khabar, Khalid S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The p21Cip1/WAF1 plays an important role in cell-cycle arrest. Here, we find that RNase L regulates p21-mediated G1 growth arrest in AU-rich elements-dependent manner. We found a significant loss of p21 mRNA expression in RNASEL−/− MEFs and that the overexpression of RNase L in HeLa cells induces p21 mRNA expression. The p21 mRNA half-life significantly changes as a result of RNase L modulation, indicating a post-transcriptional effect. Indeed, we found that RNase L promotes tristetraprolin (TTP/ZFP36) mRNA decay. This activity was not seen with dimerization- and nuclease-deficient RNase L mutants. Deficiency in TTP led to increases in p21 mRNA and protein. With induced ablation of RNase L, TTP mRNA and protein expressions were higher, while p21 expression became reduced. We further establish that TTP, but not C124R TTP mutant, binds to, and accelerates the decay of p21 mRNA. The p21 mRNA half-life was prolonged in TTP−/− MEFs. The TTP regulation of p21 mRNA decay required functional AU-rich elements. Thus, we demonstrate a novel mechanism of regulating G1 growth arrest by an RNase L-TTP-p21 axis. PMID:22718976

  8. The Cell Cycle Inhibitor p27KIP1: A Key Mediator of G1 Arrest by Androgen Ablation an dby Vitamin D3 Analog

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-01

    al., 1996; Tyers, 1996). gland . Higher doses of androgen cause growth arrest by p27 increases during differentiation in many cell inducing...innocuous hormones in human prostate cancer patients. These vitamin D3 analogs can inhibit prostate cancer growth and yet they do not cause the negative side...Vitamin D3 and a physiologic does of DHT could cause a synergistic growth arrest in prostate cancer cells (22). The vitamin D3 analogue EB 1089 has the

  9. TGF-beta-induced apoptosis in human thyrocytes is mediated by p27kip1 reduction and is overridden in neoplastic thyrocytes by NF-kappaB activation.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Susana B; Pampín, Sandra; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José; Carneiro, Carmen; Domínguez, Fernando; Barreiro, Francisco; Alvarez, Clara V

    2003-10-30

    Millions of people worldwide suffer goiter, a proliferative disease of the follicular cells of the thyroid that may become neoplastic. Thyroid neoplasms have low proliferative index, low apoptotic index and a high incidence of metastasis. TGF-beta is overexpressed in thyroid follicular tumor cells. To investigate the role of TGF-beta in thyroid tumor progression, we established cultures of human thyrocytes from different proliferative pathologies (Grave's disease, multinodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary carcinoma), lymph node metastasis, and a normal thyroid sample. All cultures maintained the thyrocyte phenotype. TGF-beta induced cell-cycle arrest in all cultures, in contrast with results reported for other epithelial tumors. In deprived medium, TGF-beta induced apoptosis in normal thyrocyte cultures and all neoplastic cultures except the metastatic cultures. This apoptosis was mediated by a reduction in p27kip1 levels, inducing cell-cycle initiation. Antisense p27 expression induced apoptosis in the absence of TGF-beta. By contrast, in cells in which p27 was overexpressed, TGF-beta had a survival effect. In growth medium, a net survival effect occurs in neoplastic thyrocytes only, not normal thyrocytes, due to activation of the NF-kappaB survival program. Together, these findings suggest that (a) thyroid neoplasms are due to reduced apoptosis, not increased division, in line with the low proliferative index of these pathologies, and (b) TGF-beta induces apoptosis in normal thyrocytes via p27 reduction, but that in neoplastic thyrocytes this effect is overridden by activation of the NF-kappaB program.

  10. Insect peptide CopA3-induced protein degradation of p27Kip1 stimulates proliferation and protects neuronal cells from apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Min Bum

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •CopA3 peptide isolated from the Korean dung beetle has antimicrobial activity. •Our study reported that CopA3 has anticancer and immunosuppressive effects. •We here demonstrated that CopA3 has neurotropic and neuroprotective effects. •CopA3 degrades p27Kip1 protein and this mediates effects of CopA3 on neuronal cells. -- Abstract: We recently demonstrated that the antibacterial peptide, CopA3 (a D-type disulfide dimer peptide, LLCIALRKK), inhibits LPS-induced macrophage activation and also has anticancer activity in leukemia cells. Here, we examined whether CopA3 could affect neuronal cell proliferation. We found that CopA3 time-dependently increased cell proliferation by up to 31 ± 2% in human neuroblastomamore » SH-SY5Y cells, and up to 29 ± 2% in neural stem cells isolated from neonatal mouse brains. In both cell types, CopA3 also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and viability losses caused by 6-hydroxy dopamine (a Parkinson disease-mimicking agent) and okadaic acid (an Alzheimer’s disease-mimicking agent). Immunoblotting revealed that the p27Kip1 protein (a negative regulator of cell cycle progression) was markedly degraded in CopA3-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Conversely, an adenovirus expressing p27Kip1 significantly inhibited the antiapoptotic effects of CopA3 against 6-hydroxy dopamine- and okadaic acid-induced apoptosis, and decreased the neurotropic effects of CopA3. These results collectively suggest that CopA3-mediated protein degradation of p27Kip1 may be the main mechanism through which CopA3 exerts neuroprotective and neurotropic effects.« less

  11. p27kip1 overexpression regulates IL-1β in the microenvironment of stem cells and eutopic endometriosis co-cultures.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, G A; Invitti, A L; Parreira, R M; Kopelman, A; Schor, E; Girão, M J B C

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis is a gynecological benign chronic disease defined as the growth of endometrial glands and stroma in extra-uterine sites, most commonly implanted over visceral and peritoneal surfaces within the female pelvis causing inflammatory lesions. It affects around 10% of the female population and is often accompanied by chronic pelvic pain, adhesion formation and infertility. Therefore, endometriosis could be considered a "social disease", since it affects the quality of life, reproductivity and also has a socio-economic impact. The expression of cell cycle and inflammatory proteins is modified in the endometriotic tissues. Immunostaining of glandular and stromal cells in endometrial biopsies obtained from patients with endometriosis compared with those of healthy control demonstrated that endometriotic tissues have lower levels of p27 kip1 protein. Endometriosis endometrial cells cultures have also lower levels of p27 kip1 compared to health endometrial cells cultures and restore the cell cycle balance when transduced with an adenoviral vector carring the p27 kip1 coding gene (Adp27EGFP). The low levels of p27 kip1 are related to the S phase in the cell cycle, whereas higher levels lead to a G1 cell cycle arrest. The inflammatory cytokine IL-1β was recently identified as another key protein in the endometriosis proliferation. This cytokine has elevated levels during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. In endometriosis endometrial cells cultures the IL-1β stimulates the production of IL-6 and IL-8, increasing the cell proliferation and reducing the apoptosis and Bax expression in these cells. According to these remarks, this work aims to evaluate the inflammatory effects in vitro, but more next to what happens in a woman's body, associating endometrial cells with stem cells, thus mimicking the endometrial microenvironment, with gene therapy using Adp27, notoriously known as controller cell cycle, apoptosis and potent modulator of

  12. Inverted repeat Alu elements in the human lincRNA-p21 adopt a conserved secondary structure that regulates RNA function

    PubMed Central

    Chillón, Isabel; Pyle, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    LincRNA-p21 is a long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) involved in the p53-mediated stress response. We sequenced the human lincRNA-p21 (hLincRNA-p21) and found that it has a single exon that includes inverted repeat Alu elements (IRAlus). Sense and antisense Alu elements fold independently of one another into a secondary structure that is conserved in lincRNA-p21 among primates. Moreover, the structures formed by IRAlus are involved in the localization of hLincRNA-p21 in the nucleus, where hLincRNA-p21 colocalizes with paraspeckles. Our results underscore the importance of IRAlus structures for the function of hLincRNA-p21 during the stress response. PMID:27378782

  13. Forkhead Box O1 Is Present in Quiescent Pituitary Cells during Development and Is Increased in the Absence of p27Kip1

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sreeparna; Farris, Corrie L.; Kabat, Brock E.; Jung, Deborah O.; Ellsworth, Buffy S.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital pituitary hormone deficiencies have been reported in approximately one in 4,000 live births, however studies reporting mutations in some widely studied transcription factors account for only a fraction of congenital hormone deficiencies in humans. Anterior pituitary hormones are required for development and function of several glands including gonads, adrenals, and thyroid. In order to identify additional factors that contribute to human congenital hormone deficiencies, we are investigating the forkhead transcription factor, FOXO1, which has been implicated in development of several organs including ovary, testis, and brain. We find that FOXO1 is present in the nuclei of non-dividing pituitary cells during embryonic development, consistent with a role in limiting proliferation and/or promoting differentiation. FOXO1 is present in a subset of differentiated cells at e18.5 and in adult with highest level of expression in somatotrope cells. We detected FOXO1 in p27Kip1-positive cells at e14.5. In the absence of p27Kip1 the number of pituitary cells containing FOXO1 is significantly increased at e14.5 suggesting that a feedback loop regulates the interplay between FOXO1 and p27Kip1. PMID:23251696

  14. Cyclin D1-AR Crosstalk: Potential Implications for Therapeutic Response in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    expression of degradation- resistant and –proficient alleles of cyclin D1 in xenograft model (months 18 -21) B. Randomize mice in 6 groups: intact...inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 arrests the growth of glioblastoma multiforme intracranial xenografts . Cancer Res 2010; 70: 3228–3238. 33...cancer, cyclin D1 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18 . NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a

  15. Lupeol induces p53 and cyclin-B-mediated G2/M arrest and targets apoptosis through activation of caspase in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Nigam, Nidhi; Prasad, Sahdeo; George, Jasmine

    2009-04-03

    Lupeol, present in fruits and medicinal plants, is a biologically active compound that has been shown to have various pharmacological properties in experimental studies. In the present study, we demonstrated the modulatory effect of lupeol on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced alterations on cell proliferation in the skin of Swiss albino mice. Lupeol treatment showed significant (p < 0.05) preventive effects with marked inhibition at 48, 72, and 96 h against DMBA-mediated neoplastic events. Cell-cycle analysis showed that lupeol-induced G2/M-phase arrest (16-37%) until 72 h, and these inhibitory effects were mediated through inhibition of the cyclin-B-regulated signaling pathway involving p53, p21/WAF1, cdc25C, cdc2,more » and cyclin-B gene expression. Further lupeol-induced apoptosis was observed, as shown by an increased sub-G1 peak (28%) at 96 h, with upregulation of bax and caspase-3 genes and downregulation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and survivin genes. Thus, our results indicate that lupeol has novel anti-proliferative and apoptotic potential that may be helpful in designing strategies to fight skin cancer.« less

  16. Knocking down cyclin D1b inhibits breast cancer cell growth and suppresses tumor development in a breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Zhu, Li; Li, Yafen; Chen, Weiguo; Han, Baosan; Wang, Zhiwei; He, Jianrong; Yao, Hongliang; Yang, Zhongyin; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Bingya; Gu, Qinlong; Zhu, Zhenggang; Shen, Kunwei

    2011-08-01

    Cyclin D1 is aberrantly expressed in many types of cancers, including breast cancer. High levels of cyclin D1b, the truncated isoform of cyclin D1, have been reported to be associated with a poor prognosis for breast cancer patients. In the present study, we used siRNA to target cyclin D1b overexpression and assessed its ability to suppress breast cancer growth in nude mice. Cyclin D1b siRNA effectively inhibited overexpression of cyclin D1b. Depletion of cyclin D1b promoted apoptosis of cyclin D1b-overexpressing cells and blocked their proliferation and transformation phenotypes. Notably, cyclin D1b overexpression is correlated with triple-negative basal-like breast cancers, which lack specific therapeutic targets. Administration of cyclin D1b siRNA inhibited breast tumor growth in nude mice and cyclin D1b siRNA synergistically enhanced the cell killing effects of doxorubicin in cell culture, with this combination significantly suppressing tumor growth in the mouse model. In conclusion, the results indicate that cyclin D1b, which is overexpressed in breast cancer, may serve as a novel and effective therapeutic target. More importantly, the present study clearly demonstrated a very promising therapeutic potential for cyclin D1b siRNA in the treatment of cyclin D1b-overexpressing breast cancers, including the very malignant triple-negative breast cancers. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  17. The PP2A-B56 Phosphatase Opposes Cyclin E Autocatalytic Degradation via Site-Specific Dephosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ryan J.; Swanger, Jherek; Hughes, Bridget T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyclin E, in conjunction with its catalytic partner cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), regulates cell cycle progression as cells exit quiescence and enter S-phase. Multiple mechanisms control cyclin E periodicity during the cell cycle, including phosphorylation-dependent cyclin E ubiquitylation by the SCFFbw7 ubiquitin ligase. Serine 384 (S384) is the critical cyclin E phosphorylation site that stimulates Fbw7 binding and cyclin E ubiquitylation and degradation. Because S384 is autophosphorylated by bound CDK2, this presents a paradox as to how cyclin E can evade autocatalytically induced degradation in order to phosphorylate its other substrates. We found that S384 phosphorylation is dynamically regulated in cells and that cyclin E is specifically dephosphorylated at S384 by the PP2A-B56 phosphatase, thereby uncoupling cyclin E degradation from cyclin E-CDK2 activity. Furthermore, the rate of S384 dephosphorylation is high in interphase but low in mitosis. This provides a mechanism whereby interphase cells can oppose autocatalytic cyclin E degradation and maintain cyclin E-CDK2 activity while also enabling cyclin E destruction in mitosis, when inappropriate cyclin E expression is genotoxic. PMID:28137908

  18. Cytoplasmic sequestration of cyclin D1 associated with cell cycle withdrawal of neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sumrejkanchanakij, Piyamas; Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330; Eto, Kazuhiro

    2006-02-03

    The regulation of D-type cyclin-dependent kinase activity is critical for neuronal differentiation and apoptosis. We recently showed that cyclin D1 is sequestered in the cytoplasm and that its nuclear localization induces apoptosis in postmitotic primary neurons. Here, we further investigated the role of the subcellular localization of cyclin D1 in cell cycle withdrawal during the differentiation of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. We show that cyclin D1 became predominantly cytoplasmic after differentiation. Targeting cyclin D1 expression to the nucleus induced phosphorylation of Rb and cdk2 kinase activity. Furthermore, cyclin D1 nuclear localization promoted differentiated N1E-115 cells to reenter the cell cycle, amore » process that was inhibited by p16{sup INK4a}, a specific inhibitor of D-type cyclin activity. These results indicate that cytoplasmic sequestration of cyclin D1 plays a role in neuronal cell cycle withdrawal, and suggests that the abrogation of machinery involved in monitoring aberrant nuclear cyclin D1 activity contributes to neuronal tumorigenesis.« less

  19. Cytoplasmic sequestration of cyclin D1 associated with cell cycle withdrawal of neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sumrejkanchanakij, Piyamas; Eto, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Masa-Aki

    2006-02-03

    The regulation of D-type cyclin-dependent kinase activity is critical for neuronal differentiation and apoptosis. We recently showed that cyclin D1 is sequestered in the cytoplasm and that its nuclear localization induces apoptosis in postmitotic primary neurons. Here, we further investigated the role of the subcellular localization of cyclin D1 in cell cycle withdrawal during the differentiation of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. We show that cyclin D1 became predominantly cytoplasmic after differentiation. Targeting cyclin D1 expression to the nucleus induced phosphorylation of Rb and cdk2 kinase activity. Furthermore, cyclin D1 nuclear localization promoted differentiated N1E-115 cells to reenter the cell cycle, a process that was inhibited by p16(INK4a), a specific inhibitor of D-type cyclin activity. These results indicate that cytoplasmic sequestration of cyclin D1 plays a role in neuronal cell cycle withdrawal, and suggests that the abrogation of machinery involved in monitoring aberrant nuclear cyclin D1 activity contributes to neuronal tumorigenesis.

  20. IL-6 modulates hepatocyte proliferation via induction of HGF/p21{sup cip1}: Regulation by SOCS3

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Rui; Jaruga, Barbara; Kulkarni, Shailin

    2005-12-30

    The precise role of IL-6 in liver regeneration and hepatocyte proliferation is controversial and the role of SOCS3 in liver regeneration remains unknown. Here we show that in vitro treatment with IL-6 inhibited primary mouse hepatocyte proliferation. IL-6 induced p21{sup cip1} protein expression in primary mouse hepatocytes. Disruption of the p21{sup cip1} gene abolished the inhibitory effect of IL-6 on cell proliferation. Co-culture with nonparenchymal liver cells diminished IL-6 inhibition of hepatocyte proliferation, which was likely due to IL-6 stimulation of nonparenchymal cells to produce HGF. Finally, IL-6 induced higher levels of p21{sup cip1} protein expression and a slightly strongermore » inhibition of cell proliferation in SOCS3{sup +/-} mouse hepatocytes compared to wild-type hepatocytes, while liver regeneration was enhanced and prolonged in SOCS3{sup +/-} mice. Our findings suggest that IL-6 directly inhibits hepatocyte proliferation via a p21{sup cip1}-dependent mechanism and indirectly enhances hepatocyte proliferation via stimulating nonparenchymal cells to produce HGF. SOCS3 negatively regulates liver regeneration.« less

  1. Ki-67 Contributes to Normal Cell Cycle Progression and Inactive X Heterochromatin in p21 Checkpoint-Proficient Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoming; Bizhanova, Aizhan; Matheson, Timothy D.; Yu, Jun; Zhu, Lihua Julie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Ki-67 protein is widely used as a tumor proliferation marker. However, whether Ki-67 affects cell cycle progression has been controversial. Here we demonstrate that depletion of Ki-67 in human hTERT-RPE1, WI-38, IMR90, and hTERT-BJ cell lines and primary fibroblast cells slowed entry into S phase and coordinately downregulated genes related to DNA replication. Some gene expression changes were partially relieved in Ki-67-depleted hTERT-RPE1 cells by codepletion of the Rb checkpoint protein, but more thorough suppression of the transcriptional and cell cycle defects was observed upon depletion of the cell cycle inhibitor p21. Notably, induction of p21 upon depletion of Ki-67 was a consistent hallmark of cell types in which transcription and cell cycle distribution were sensitive to Ki-67; these responses were absent in cells that did not induce p21. Furthermore, upon Ki-67 depletion, a subset of inactive X (Xi) chromosomes in female hTERT-RPE1 cells displayed several features of compromised heterochromatin maintenance, including decreased H3K27me3 and H4K20me1 labeling. These chromatin alterations were limited to Xi chromosomes localized away from the nuclear lamina and were not observed in checkpoint-deficient 293T cells. Altogether, our results indicate that Ki-67 integrates normal S-phase progression and Xi heterochromatin maintenance in p21 checkpoint-proficient human cells. PMID:28630280

  2. Preeclampsia does not share common risk alleles in 9p21 with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kaartokallio, Tea; Lokki, A Inkeri; Peterson, Hanna; Kivinen, Katja; Hiltunen, Leena; Salmela, Elina; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Maanselkä, Paula; Heino, Sanna; Knuutila, Sakari; Sayed, Ayat; Poston, Lucilla; Brennecke, Shaun P; Johnson, Matthew P; Morgan, Linda; Moses, Eric K; Kere, Juha; Laivuori, Hannele

    2016-08-01

    Preeclampsia is a common and partially genetic pregnancy complication characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Association with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes has been reported in 9p21 by several genome-wide association studies. It has been hypothesized that cardiometabolic diseases may share common etiology with preeclampsia. We tested association with the 9p21 region to preeclampsia in the Finnish population by genotyping 23 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15 extended preeclampsia families and in a nationwide cohort consisting of 281 cases and 349 matched controls. Replication was conducted in additional datasets. Four SNPs (rs7044859, rs496892, rs564398 and rs7865618) showed nominal association (p ≤ 0.024 uncorrected) with preeclampsia in the case-control cohort. To increase power, we genotyped two SNPs in additional 388 cases and 341 controls from the Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium (FINNPEC) cohort. Partial replication was also attempted in a UK cohort (237 cases and 199 controls) and in 74 preeclamptic families from Australia/New Zealand. We were unable to replicate the initial association in the extended Finnish dataset or in the two international cohorts. Our study did not find evidence for the involvement of the 9p21 region in the risk of preeclampsia. Key Message Chromosome 9p21 is not associated with preeclampsia.

  3. SKP2 siRNA inhibits the degradation of P27kip1 and down-regulates the expression of MRP in HL-60/A cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jie; Yin, Songmei; Li, Yiqing; Xie, Shuangfeng; Nie, Danian; Ma, Liping; Wang, Xiuju; Wu, Yudan; Feng, Jianhong

    2009-08-01

    S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) gene is a tumor suppressor gene, and is involved in the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of P27kip1. SKP2 and P27kip1 affect the proceeding and prognosis of leukemia through regulating the proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of leukemia cells. In this study, we explored the mechanism of reversing of HL-60/A drug resistance through SKP2 down-regulation. HL-60/A cells were nucleofected by Amaxa Nucleofector System with SKP2 siRNA. The gene and protein expression levels of Skp2, P27kip1, and multi-drug resistance associated protein (MRP) were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The 50% inhibitory concentration value was calculated using cytotoxic analysis according to the death rate of these two kinds of cells under different concentrations of chemotherapeutics to compare the sensitivity of the cells. HL-60/A cells showed multi-drug resistance phenotype characteristic by cross-resistance to adriamycin, daunorubicin, and arabinosylcytosine, due to the expression of MRP. We found that the expression of SKP2 was higher in HL-60/A cells than in HL-60 cells, but the expression of P27kip1 was lower. The expression of SKP2 in HL-60/A cells nucleofected by SKP2 siRNA was down-regulated whereas the protein level of P27kip1 was up-regulated. Compared with the MRP expression level in the control group (nucleofected by control siRNA), the mRNA and protein expression levels of MRP in HL-60/A cells nucleofected by SKP2 siRNA were lower, and the latter cells were more sensitive to adriamycin, daunorubicin, and arabinosylcytosine. Down-regulating the SKP2 expression and arresting cells in the G0/G1 phase improve drug sensitivity of leukemia cells with down-regulated MRP expression.

  4. Identification of a Bipolar Disorder Vulnerable Gene CHDH at 3p21.1.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong; Li, Lingyi; Peng, Tao; Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria; Bergen, Sarah E; Landén, Mikael; Hultman, Christina M; Forstner, Andreas J; Strohmaier, Jana; Hecker, Julian; Schulze, Thomas G; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Reif, Andreas; Mitchell, Philip B; Martin, Nicholas G; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M; Jamain, Stéphane; Leboyer, Marion; Bellivier, Frank; Etain, Bruno; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Henry, Chantal; Rietschel, Marcella; Xiao, Xiao; Li, Ming

    2017-09-01

    Genome-wide analysis (GWA) is an effective strategy to discover extreme effects surpassing genome-wide significant levels in studying complex disorders; however, when sample size is limited, the true effects may fail to achieve genome-wide significance. In such case, there may be authentic results among the pools of nominal candidates, and an alternative approach is to consider nominal candidates but are replicable across different samples. Here, we found that mRNA expression of the choline dehydrogenase gene (CHDH) was uniformly upregulated in the brains of bipolar disorder (BPD) patients compared with healthy controls across different studies. Follow-up genetic analyses of CHDH variants in multiple independent clinical datasets (including 11,564 cases and 17,686 controls) identified a risk SNP rs9836592 showing consistent associations with BPD (P meta  = 5.72 × 10 -4 ), and the risk allele indicated an increased CHDH expression in multiple neuronal tissues (lowest P = 6.70 × 10 -16 ). These converging results may identify a nominal but true BPD susceptibility gene CHDH. Further exploratory analysis revealed suggestive associations of rs9836592 with childhood intelligence (P = 0.044) and educational attainment (P = 0.0039), a "proxy phenotype" of general cognitive abilities. Intriguingly, the CHDH gene is located at chromosome 3p21.1, a risk region implicated in previous BPD genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but CHDH is lying outside of the core GWAS linkage disequilibrium (LD) region, and our studied SNP rs9836592 is ∼1.2 Mb 3' downstream of the previous GWAS loci (e.g., rs2251219) with no LD between them; thus, the association observed here is unlikely a reflection of previous GWAS signals. In summary, our results imply that CHDH may play a previously unknown role in the etiology of BPD and also highlight the informative value of integrating gene expression and genetic code in advancing our understanding of its biological basis.

  5. EZH2 mediates lidamycin-induced cellular senescence through regulating p21 expression in human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Ming-Quan; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Li, Liang; Li, Li-Hui; Li, Yi; Dong, Tian-Geng; Niu, Wei-Xin; Jia, Li-Jun; Shao, Rong-Guang; Zhen, Yong-Su; Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Lidamycin (LDM) is a novel member of the enediyne antibiotics identified in China with potent antitumor activity. However, it remains unclear whether LDM has potential molecular targets that may affect its antitumor activity. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) functions as a histone lysine methyltransferase and mediates trimethylation on histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3). High EZH2 level is found to be positively correlated with the aggressiveness, metastasis and poor prognosis of cancer. Here, we aim to study the role of EZH2 in LDM-induced senescence, as well as in the cytotoxicity of LDM in human colon cancer cells. LDM is found to be relatively more potent in inhibiting the colon cancer cells harboring high EZH2 level and induces irreversible cellular senescence at IC50 dose range, as evidenced by senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining, cell cycle arrest and molecular changes of senescence regulators including p21 in HCT116 and SW620 cells. More importantly, LDM is found to markedly inhibit EZH2 expression at both protein and mRNA levels upon the induction of p21 and cellular senescence. LDM also selectively inhibits EZH2 expression as compared with other histone lysine methyltransferases. Knockdown of p21 with siRNAs abolishes LDM-induced senescence, whereas EZH2 knockdown markedly increases p21 expression and causes senescent phenotype. Enrichment of both EZH2 and H3K27me3 levels in the p21 promoter region is reduced by LDM. Moreover, EZH2 overexpression reduces cellular senescence, p21 expression and DNA damage response upon LDM exposure. LDM also demonstrates potent antitumor efficacy in xenografted animal models. Collectively, our work provides first demonstration that EZH2 may mediate, at least partially, the senescence-inducing effects of LDM by regulating p21 expression and DNA damage effect. Thus, EZH2 may serve as a potential target and biomarker to indicate the clinical efficacy of the potent enediyne antitumor drug. PMID:27882937

  6. Mitomycin C and decarbamoyl mitomycin C induce p53-independent p21WAF1/CIP1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shu-Yuan; Seo, Jiwon; Huang, Bik Tzu; Napolitano, Tanya; Champeil, Elise

    2016-01-01

    Mitomycin C (MC), a commonly used anticancer drug, induces DNA damage via DNA alkylation. Decarbamoyl mitomycin C (DMC), another mitomycin lacking the carbamate at C10, generates similar lesions as MC. Interstrand cross-links (ICLs) are believed to be the lesions primarily responsible for the cytotoxicity of MC and DMC. The major ICL generated by MC (α-ICL) has a trans stereochemistry at the guanine-drug linkage whereas the major ICL from DMC (β-ICL) has the opposite, cis, stereochemistry. In addition, DMC can provoke strong p53-independent cell death. Our hypothesis is that the stereochemistry of the major unique β-ICL generated by DMC is responsible for this p53-independent cell death signaling. p53 gene is inactively mutated in more than half of human cancers. p21WAF1/CIP1 known as a major effector of p53 is involved in p53-dependent and -independent control of cell proliferation and death. This study revealed the role of p21WAF1/CIP1 on MC and DMC triggered cell damage. MCF-7 (p53-proficient) and K562 (p53-deficient) cells were used. Cell cycle distributions were shifted to the G1/S phase in MCF-7 treated with MC and DMC, but were shifted to the S phase in K562. p21WAF1/CIP1 activation was observed in both cells treated with MC and DMC, and DMC triggered more significant activation. Knocking down p53 in MCF-7 did not attenuate MC and DMC induced p21WAF1/CIP1 activation. The α-ICL itself was enough to cause p21WAF1/CIP1 activation. PMID:27666201

  7. Treatment with bisphenol A and methoxychlor results in the growth of human breast cancer cells and alteration of the expression of cell cycle-related genes, cyclin D1 and p21, via an estrogen receptor-dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Rim; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Min-Ah; Yi, Bo-Rim; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2012-05-01

    Various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds found in the environment and have the potential to interfere with the endocrine system and hormonal regulation. Among EDCs, bisphenol A (BPA) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenol)-ethane [methoxychlor (MXC)] have estrogenic activity resulting in a variety of dysfunctions in the E2-mediated response by binding to estrogen receptors (ERs), causing human health problems such as abnormal reproduction and carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of BPA and MXC on cell proliferation facilitated by ER signaling in human breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells are known to be ERα-positive and to be a highly E2-responsive cancer cell line; these cells are, therefore, a useful in vitro model for detecting estrogenic activity in response to EDCs. We evaluated cancer cell proliferation following BPA and MXC treatment using an MTT assay. We analyzed alterations in the expression of genes associated with the cell cycle in MCF-7 cells by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR following treatment with BPA or MXC compared to EtOH. To determine whether BPA and MXC stimulate cancer cell growth though ER signaling, we co-treated the cells with agonists (propyl pyrazoletriol, PPT; and diarylpropionitrile, DPN) or an antagonist (ICI 182,780) of ER signaling and reduced ERα gene expression via siRNA in MCF-7 cells before treatment with EDCs. These studies confirmed the carcinogenicity of EDCs in vitro. As a result, BPA and MXC induced the cancer cell proliferation by the upregulation of genes that promote the cell cycle and the downregulation of anti-proliferative genes, especially ones affecting the G1/S transition via ERα signaling. These collective results confirm the carcinogenicity of these EDCs in vitro. Further studies are required to determine whether EDCs promote carcinogenesis in vivo.

  8. The CDK inhibitor p21 is a novel target gene of ATF4 and contributes to cell survival under ER stress.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yasumichi; Kawachi, Shiori; Ohkubo, Tsubasa; Nagasaka, Mai; Ito, Shogo; Fukuura, Keishi; Itoh, Yuka; Ohoka, Nobumichi; Morishita, Daisuke; Hayashi, Hidetoshi

    2017-11-01

    Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is well known for its role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. ATF4 also transcriptionally induces multiple effectors that determine cell fate depending on cellular context. In addition, ATF4 can communicate both pro-apoptotic and pro-survival signals. How ATF4 mediates its prosurvival roles, however, requires further investigation. Here, we report that the CDK inhibitor p21 is a novel target gene of ATF4. We identified two ATF4-responsive elements, one of which directly binds ATF4, within the first intron of the p21 gene. Importantly, overexpression of p21 enhances cell survival following ER stress induction, while p21 knockdown increases cell death. These results suggest that p21 induction plays a vital role in the cellular response to ER stress and indicate that p21 is a prosurvival effector of ATF4. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. In X. laevis embryos high levels of the anti-apoptotic factor p27BBP/eIF6 are stage-dependently found in BrdU and TUNEL-reactive territories.

    PubMed

    De Marco, N; Campanella, C; Carotenuto, R

    2011-05-01

    p27BBP/eIF6 (β4 binding protein/eukaryotic initiation factor 6) is a highly conserved protein necessary for cell life. In adult eIF6 mice, a 50% decrease in the protein levels in all tissues is accompanied by a reduction in cell proliferation only in the liver, fat cells and cultured fibroblasts. During X. laevis embryogenesis expression of p27BBP/eIF6 is abundant in high proliferative territories. However, in Xenopus cell proliferation appears unaffected following p27BBP/eIF6 over-expression or down-regulation. Indeed, p27BBP/eIF6 is an anti-apoptotic factor acting upstream of Bcl2 that reduces endogenous apoptosis. We studied p27BBP/eIF6 protein localization in wild type embryos and compared it to proliferation and apoptosis. At the beginning of embryogenesis, high levels of p27BBP/eIF6, proliferation and apoptosis overlap. In later development stages high proliferation levels are present in the same regions where higher p27BBP/eIF6 expression is observed, while apoptosis does not appear specifically concentrated in the same sites. The higher presence of p27BBP/eIF6 would appear related to an increased need of apoptosis control in the regions where cell death is essential for normal development.

  10. The retinoid X receptor agonist, 9-cis UAB30, inhibits cutaneous T-cell lymphoma proliferation through the SKP2-p27kip1 axis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chu-Fang; Hsieh, Yu-Hua; Grubbs, Clinton J; Atigadda, Venkatram R; Mobley, James A; Dummer, Reinhard; Muccio, Donald D; Eto, Isao; Elmets, Craig A; Garvey, W Timothy; Chang, Pi-Ling

    2018-06-01

    Bexarotene (Targretin ® ) is currently the only FDA approved retinoid X receptor (RXR) -selective agonist for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs). The main side effects of bexarotene are hypothyroidism and elevation of serum triglycerides (TGs). The novel RXR ligand, 9-cis UAB30 (UAB30) does not elevate serum TGs or induce hypothyroidism in normal subjects. To assess preclinical efficacy and mechanism of action of UAB30 in the treatment of CTCLs and compare its action with bexarotene. With patient-derived CTCL cell lines, we evaluated UAB30 function in regulating growth, apoptosis, cell cycle check points, and cell cycle-related markers. Compared to bexarotene, UAB30 had lower half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values and was more effective in inhibiting the G1 cell cycle checkpoint. Both rexinoids increased the stability of the cell cycle inhibitor, p27kip1 protein, in part, through targeting components involved in the ubiquitination-proteasome system: 1) decreasing SKP2, a F-box protein that binds and targets p27kip1 for degradation by 26S proteasome and 2) suppressing 20S proteasome activity (cell line-dependent) through downregulation of PSMA7, a component of the 20S proteolytic complex in 26S proteasome. UAB30 and bexarotene induce both early cell apoptosis and suppress cell proliferation. Inhibition of the G1 to S cell cycle transition by rexinoids is mediated, in part, through downregulation of SKP2 and/or 20S proteasome activity, leading to increased p27kip1 protein stability. Because UAB30 has minimal effect in elevating serum TGs and inducing hypothyroidism, it is potentially a better alternative to bexarotene for the treatment of CTCLs. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In vivo regulation of colonic cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and P27Kip1 by dietary fish oil and butyrate in rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mee Young; Turner, Nancy D; Murphy, Mary E; Carroll, Raymond J; Chapkin, Robert S; Lupton, Joanne R

    2015-11-01

    We have shown that dietary fish oil is protective against experimentally induced colon cancer, and the protective effect is enhanced by coadministration of pectin. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that fish oil with butyrate, a pectin fermentation product, protects against colon cancer initiation by decreasing cell proliferation and increasing differentiation and apoptosis through a p27(Kip1)-mediated mechanism. Rats were provided diets of corn or fish oil, with/without butyrate, and terminated 12, 24, or 48 hours after azoxymethane (AOM) injection. Proliferation (Ki-67), differentiation (Dolichos Biflorus Agglutinin), apoptosis (TUNEL), and p27(Kip1) (cell-cycle mediator) were measured in the same cell within crypts in order to examine the coordination of cell cycle as a function of diet. DNA damage (N(7)-methylguanine) was determined by quantitative IHC analysis. Dietary fish oil decreased DNA damage by 19% (P = 0.001) and proliferation by 50% (P = 0.003) and increased differentiation by 56% (P = 0.039) compared with corn oil. When combined with butyrate, fish oil enhanced apoptosis 24 hours after AOM injection compared with a corn oil/butyrate diet (P = 0.039). There was an inverse relationship between crypt height and apoptosis in the fish oil/butyrate group (r = -0.53, P = 0.040). The corn oil/butyrate group showed a positive correlation between p27(Kip1) expression and proliferation (r = 0.61, P = 0.035). These results indicate the in vivo effect of butyrate on apoptosis and proliferation is dependent on dietary lipid source. These results demonstrate the presence of an early coordinated colonocyte response by which fish oil and butyrate protects against colon tumorigenesis. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Cyclin D1 expression and facial function outcome after vestibular schwannoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Lassaletta, Luis; Del Rio, Laura; Torres-Martin, Miguel; Rey, Juan A; Patrón, Mercedes; Madero, Rosario; Roda, Jose Maria; Gavilan, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The proto-oncogen cyclin D1 has been implicated in the development and behavior of vestibular schwannoma. This study evaluates the association between cyclin D1 expression and other known prognostic factors in facial function outcome 1 year after vestibular schwannoma surgery. Sixty-four patients undergoing surgery for vestibular schwannoma were studied. Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed with anticyclin D1 in all cases.