Sample records for p21 p27 cyclin

  1. P21 and p27: roles in carcinogenesis and drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Abukhdeir, Abde M; Park, Ben Ho

    2008-07-01

    Human cancers arise from an imbalance of cell growth and cell death. Key proteins that govern this balance are those that mediate the cell cycle. Several different molecular effectors have been identified that tightly regulate specific phases of the cell cycle, including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and CDK inhibitors. Notably, loss of expression or function of two G1-checkpoint CDK inhibitors - p21 (CDKN1A) and p27 (CDKN1B) - has been implicated in the genesis or progression of many human malignancies. Additionally, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that functional loss of p21 or p27 can mediate a drug-resistance phenotype. However, reports in the literature have also suggested p21 and p27 can promote tumours, indicating a paradoxical effect. Here, we review historic and recent studies of these two CDK inhibitors, including their identification, function, importance to carcinogenesis and finally their roles in drug resistance.

  2. New roles for p21 and p27 cell-cycle inhibitors: a function for each cell compartment?

    PubMed

    Coqueret, Olivier

    2003-02-01

    Cell division relies on the activation of cyclins, which bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) to induce cell-cycle progression towards S phase and later to initiate mitosis. Since uncontrolled cyclin-dependent kinase activity is often the cause of human cancer, their function is tightly regulated by cell-cycle inhibitors such as the p21 and p27 Cip/Kip proteins. Following anti-mitogenic signals or DNA damage, p21 and p27 bind to cyclin-CDK complexes to inhibit their catalytic activity and induce cell-cycle arrest. Interestingly, recent discoveries suggest that p21 and p27 might have new activities that are unrelated to their function as CDK inhibitors. The identification of new targets of Cip/Kip proteins as well as evidence of Cip/Kip cytoplasmic relocalization have revealed unexpected functions for these proteins in the control of CDK activation, in the regulation of apoptosis and in transcriptional activation. This article discusses recent insights into these possible additional functions of p21 and p27.

  3. ClC-3 Chloride Channel Proteins Regulate the Cell Cycle by Up-regulating cyclin D1-CDK4/6 through Suppressing p21/p27 Expression in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dong; Luo, Hai; Lai, Zhouyi; Zou, Lili; Zhu, Linyan; Mao, Jianwen; Jacob, Tim; Ye, Wencai; Wang, Liwei; Chen, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    It was shown in this study that knockdown of ClC-3 expression by ClC-3 siRNA prevented the activation of hypotonicity-induced chloride currents, and arrested cells at the G0/G1 phase in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2Z cells. Reconstitution of ClC-3 expression with ClC-3 expression plasmids could rescue the cells from the cell cycle arrest caused by ClC-3 siRNA treatments. Transfection of cells with ClC-3 siRNA decreased the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin dependent kinase 4 and 6, and increased the expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs), p21 and p27. Pretreatments of cells with p21 and p27 siRNAs depleted the inhibitory effects of ClC-3 siRNA on the expression of CDK4 and CDK6, but not on that of cyclin D1, indicating the requirement of p21 and p27 for the inhibitory effects of ClC-3 siRNA on CDK4 and CDK6 expression. ClC-3 siRNA inhibited cells to progress from the G1 phase to the S phase, but pretreatments of cells with p21 and p27 siRNAs abolished the inhibitory effects of ClC-3 siRNA on the cell cycle progress. Our data suggest that ClC-3 may regulate cell cycle transition between G0/G1 and S phases by up-regulation of the expression of CDK4 and CDK6 through suppression of p21 and p27 expression. PMID:27451945

  4. Deficiency of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} accelerates atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Akyuerek, Levent M.; Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University of Gothenburg, Goeteborg, SE-405 30; Boehm, Manfred

    2010-05-28

    Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}, are upregulated during vascular cell proliferation and negatively regulate growth of vascular cells. We hypothesized that absence of either p21{sup Cip1} or p27{sup Kip1} in apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficiency may increase atherosclerotic plaque formation. Compared to apoE{sup -/-} aortae, both apoE{sup -/-}/p21{sup -/-} and apoE{sup -/-}/p27{sup -/-} aortae exhibited significantly more atherosclerotic plaque following a high-cholesterol regimen. This increase was particularly observed in the abdominal aortic regions. Deficiency of p27{sup Kip1} accelerated plaque formation significantly more than p21{sup -/-} in apoE{sup -/-} mice. This increased plaque formation was in parallel with increased intima/mediamore » area ratios. Deficiency of p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} accelerates atherogenesis in apoE{sup -/-} mice. These findings have significant implications for our understanding of the molecular basis of atherosclerosis associated with excessive proliferation of vascular cells.« less

  5. CDK inhibitors, p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}, participate in cell cycle exit of mammalian cardiomyocytes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tane, Shoji; Ikenishi, Aiko; Okayama, Hitomi

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Expression of p21 and p27 in the hearts showed a peak during postnatal stages. •p21 and p27 bound to cyclin E, cyclin A and CDK2 in the hearts at postnatal stages. •Cardiomyocytes in both KO mice showed failure in the cell cycle exit at G1-phase. •These data show the first apparent phenotypes in the hearts of Cip/Kip KO mice. -- Abstract: Mammalian cardiomyocytes actively proliferate during embryonic stages, following which cardiomyocytes exit their cell cycle after birth. The irreversible cell cycle exit inhibits cardiac regeneration by the proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes. Exactly how the cell cycle exit occurs remainsmore » largely unknown. Previously, we showed that cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK activities are inhibited before the CDKs levels decrease in postnatal stages. This result suggests that factors such as CDK inhibitors (CKIs) inhibit CDK activities, and contribute to the cell cycle exit. In the present study, we focused on a Cip/Kip family, which can inhibit cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK activities. Expression of p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} but not p57{sup Kip2} showed a peak around postnatal day 5, when cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK activities start to decrease. p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} bound to cyclin E, cyclin A and CDK2 at postnatal stages. Cell cycle distribution patterns of postnatal cardiomyocytes in p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} knockout mice showed failure in the cell cycle exit at G1-phase, and endoreplication. These results indicate that p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip} play important roles in the cell cycle exit of postnatal cardiomyocytes.« less

  6. Cell cycle regulation by the intrinsically disordered proteins p21 and p27.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mi-Kyung; Mitrea, Diana M; Ou, Li; Kriwacki, Richard W

    2012-10-01

    Today, it is widely accepted that proteins that lack highly defined globular three-dimensional structures, termed IDPs (intrinsically disordered proteins), play key roles in myriad biological processes. Our understanding of how intrinsic disorder mediates biological function is, however, incomplete. In the present paper, we review disorder-mediated cell cycle regulation by two intrinsically disordered proteins, p21 and p27. A structural adaptation mechanism involving a stretchable dynamic linker helix allows p21 to promiscuously recognize the various Cdk (cyclin-dependent kinase)-cyclin complexes that regulate cell division. Disorder within p27 mediates transmission of an N-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation signal to a C-terminal threonine phosphorylation, constituting a signalling conduit. These mechanisms are mediated by folding upon binding p21/p27's regulatory targets. However, residual disorder within the bound state contributes critically to these functional mechanisms. Our studies provide insights into how intrinsic protein disorder mediates regulatory processes and opportunities for designing drugs that target cancer-associated IDPs.

  7. Parathyroid cell growth in patients with advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism: vitamin D receptor and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27.

    PubMed

    Tokumoto, Masanori; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Fukuda, Kyoichi; Kanai, Hidetoshi; Kuroki, Shoji; Hirakata, Hideki; Iida, Mitsuo

    2003-06-01

    Uraemic patients with advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism (2HPT) have nodular hyperplastic glands with a decreased vitamin D receptor (VDR) density. Previous studies have shown that nodular hyperplasia expressed a significantly lower VDR density as compared with diffuse hyperplasia, and the VDR density negatively correlated with both the glandular weight and the marker of cell proliferation. However, the mechanism by which the decreased VDR density leads to parathyroid cell proliferation remains unclear. In the myelomonocytic cell line, active vitamin D(3) is known to activate the transcription of both p21 and p27, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs), regulating the transition from the G(1) to the S phase of the cell cycle, in a VDR-dependent manner. Moreover, the overexpression of p21 and p27 inhibits cell proliferation. In order to elucidate the mechanism of parathyroid cell proliferation, the expression of CDKIs, p21 and p27, and the VDR was analysed immunohistochemically, and compared among nodular and diffuse hyperplastic parathyroid glands, and histologically normal parathyroid glands. The VDR expression in nodular hyperplasias was significantly decreased compared with either diffuse hyperplasias or normal parathyroid glands. The expression of both p21 and p27 was also significantly lower in nodular hyperplasias than in diffuse hyperplasias or normal parathyroid glands. Sections of parathyroid glands with a high expression of nuclear VDR highly expressed both p21 and p27. In nodular hyperplasias, the expression of both p21 and p27 correlated either positively with the nuclear VDR expression or inversely with the glandular weight. Therefore, the reduced expression of p21 and p27, being VDR dependent, is a major pathogenic factor for nodular parathyroid gland growth in advanced 2HPT.

  8. Molecular markers in dysplasia of the larynx: expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21, p27 and p53 tumour suppressor gene in predicting cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Jeannon, J-P; Soames, J V; Aston, V; Stafford, F W; Wilson, J A

    2004-12-01

    Premalignant conditions affect the larynx. Dysplasia can progress in severity resulting in cancer depending on many clinical, pathological and molecular factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of the p21 and p27 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and p53 tumour suppressor gene in dysplasia of the larynx. A total of 114 cases of untreated dysplasia were selected from the archives of the University of Newcastle. p21, p27 and p53 immunohistochemistry was performed and the cases followed up. Twenty-eight dysplasias (24%) subsequently developed into cancers. Expression of the molecular factors studied was not associated with cancer progression. p53 expression was associated with smoking (P = 0.005). In contrast, grade of dysplasia was significantly associated with cancer risk (odds ratio 6.7; P = 0.0001). The majority (75%) of cancers were detected within 12 months of dysplasia being diagnosed.

  9. PKCeta enhances cell cycle progression, the expression of G1 cyclins and p21 in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Fima, E; Shtutman, M; Libros, P; Missel, A; Shahaf, G; Kahana, G; Livneh, E

    2001-10-11

    Protein kinase C encodes a family of enzymes implicated in cellular differentiation, growth control and tumor promotion. However, not much is known with respect to the molecular mechanisms that link protein kinase C to cell cycle control. Here we report that the expression of PKCeta in MCF-7 cells, under the control of a tetracycline-responsive inducible promoter, enhanced cell growth and affected the cell cycle at several points. The induced expression of another PKC isoform, PKCdelta, in MCF-7 cells had opposite effects and inhibited their growth. PKCeta expression activated cellular pathways in these cells that resulted in the increased expression of the G1 phase cyclins, cyclin D and cyclin E. Expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1) was also specifically elevated in PKCeta expressing cells, but its overall effects were not inhibitory. Although, the protein levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) were not altered by the induced expression of PKCeta, the cyclin E associated Cdk2 kinase activity was in correlation with the p27(KIP1) bound to the cyclin E complex and not by p21(WAF1) binding. PKCeta expression enhanced the removal of p27(KIP1) from this complex, and its re-association with the cyclin D/Cdk4 complex. Reduced binding of p27(KIP1) to the cyclin D/Cdk4 complex at early time points of the cell cycle also enhanced the activity of this complex, while at later time points the decrease in bound p21(WAF1) correlated with its increased activity in PKCeta-expressing cells. Thus, PKCeta induces altered expression of several cell cycle functions, which may contribute to its ability to affect cell growth.

  10. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 does not impact embryonic endochondral ossification in mice

    PubMed Central

    CHINZEI, NOBUAKI; HAYASHI, SHINYA; HASHIMOTO, SHINGO; KANZAKI, NORIYUKI; IWASA, KENJIRO; SAKATA, SHUHEI; KIHARA, SHINSUKE; FUJISHIRO, TAKAAKI; KURODA, RYOSUKE; KUROSAKA, MASAHIRO

    2015-01-01

    Endochondral ossification at the growth plate is regulated by a number of factors and hormones. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 has been identified as a cell cycle regulator and its expression has been reported to be essential for endochondral ossification in vitro. However, to the best of our knowledge, the function of p21 in endochondral ossification has not been evaluated in vivo. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the function of p21 in embryonic endochondral ossification in vivo. Wild-type (WT) and p21 knockout (KO) pregnant heterozygous mice were sacrificed on embryonic days E13.5, E15.5 and E18.5. Sagittal histological sections of the forearms of the embryos were collected and stained with Safranin O and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Additionally, the expression levels of cyclin D1, type II collagen, type X collagen, Sox9, and p16 were examined using immunohistochemistry, and the expression levels of p27 were examined using immunofluorescence. Safranin O staining revealed no structural change between the cartilage tissues of the WT and p21KO mice at any time point. Type II collagen was expressed ubiquitously, while type X collagen was only expressed in the hypertrophic zone of the cartilage tissues. No differences in the levels of Sox9 expression were observed between the two groups at any time point. The levels of cyclin D1 expression and BrdU uptake were higher in the E13.5 cartilage tissue compared with those observed in the embryonic cartilage tissue at subsequent time points. Expression of p16 and p27 was ubiquitous throughout the tissue sections. These results indicate that p21 may not be essential for embryonic endochondral ossification in articular cartilage of mice and that other signaling networks may compensate for p21 deletion. PMID:25376471

  11. A naturally occurring mixture of tocotrienols inhibits the growth of human prostate tumor, associated with epigenetic modifications of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Wu, Renyi; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Guo, Yue; Zheng, Xi; Yang, Chung S; Kong, Ah-Ng

    2017-02-01

    Tocotrienols, members of the vitamin E family, have three unsaturated bonds in their side chains. Recently, it has been suggested that the biological effects of tocotrienols may differ from that of tocopherols. Several in vitro studies have shown that tocotrienols have stronger anticancer effects than tocopherols. VCaP cell line used in this study is from a vertebral bone metastasis from a patient with prostate cancer. Eight-week-old male NCr(-/-) nude mice were subcutaneously injected with VCaP-luc cells in matrigel and then administered a tocotrienol mixture for 8 weeks. The tocotrienol mixture inhibited the growth of human prostate tumor xenografts in a dose-dependent manner. The concentrations of tocotrienols and their metabolites were significantly increased in treatment groups. Tocotrienols inhibited prostate tumor growth by suppressing cell proliferation, which was associated with the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 and p27. In addition, tocotrienol treatment was associated with elevated H3K9 acetylation levels at proximal promoter regions of p21 and p27 and with decreased expression of histone deacetylases. Tocotrienols inhibited human prostate tumor growth, associated with up-regulation of the CDK inhibitors p21 and p27. Elevated expression of p21 and p27 could be partly due to the suppressed expression of HDACs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of the p21(Cip1), p27(Kip1) and p57(Kip2) CDK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhimin; Hunter, Tony

    2010-06-15

    The expression levels of the p21(Cip1) family CDK inhibitors (CKIs), p21(Cip1), p27(Kip1) and p57(Kip2), play a pivotal role in the precise regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity, which is instrumental to proper cell cycle progression. The stabilities of p21(Cip1), p27(Kip1) and p57(Kip2) are all tightly and differentially regulated by ubiquitylation and proteasome-mediated degradation during various stages of the cell cycle, either in steady state or in response to extracellular stimuli, which often elicit site-specific phosphorylation of CKIs triggering their degradation.

  13. p21/Cyclin E pathway modulates anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1 in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wen; Zhou, Yuan; Tiwari, Agnes FY; Su, Hang; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Dandan; Lau, Victoria Ming Yi; Hau, Pok Man; Yip, Yim Ling; Cheung, Annie LM; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Tsao, Sai Wah

    2015-01-01

    Apart from regulating stem cell self-renewal, embryonic development and proliferation, Bmi-1 has been recently reported to be critical in the maintenance of genome integrity. In searching for novel mechanisms underlying the anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1, we observed, for the first time, that Bmi-1 positively regulates p21 expression. We extended the finding that Bmi-1 deficiency induced chromosome breaks in multiple cancer cell models. Interestingly, we further demonstrated that knockdown of cyclin E or ectopic overexpression of p21 rescued Bmi-1 deficiency-induced chromosome breaks. We therefore conclude that p21/cyclin E pathway is crucial in modulating the anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1. As it is well established that the overexpression of cyclin E potently induces genome instability and p21 suppresses the function of cyclin E, the novel and important implication from our findings is that Bmi-1 plays an important role in limiting genomic instability in cylin E-overexpressing cancer cells by positive regulation of p21. PMID:25131797

  14. Plasmin-clipped beta(2)-glycoprotein-I inhibits endothelial cell growth by down-regulating cyclin A, B and D1 and up-regulating p21 and p27.

    PubMed

    Beecken, Wolf-Dietrich C; Ringel, Eva Maria; Babica, Jan; Oppermann, Elsie; Jonas, Dietger; Blaheta, Roman A

    2010-10-28

    beta(2)-Glycoprotein-I (beta(2)gpI), an abundant plasma glycoprotein, functions as a regulator of thrombosis. Previously, we demonstrated that plasmin-clipped beta(2)gpI (cbeta(2)gpI) exerts an anti-angiogenic effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The present study was focused on the molecular background responsible for this phenomenon. cbeta(2)gpI strongly reduced HUVEC growth and proliferation as evidenced by the MTT and BrdU assay and delayed cell cycle progression arresting HUVEC in the S-and G2/M-phase. Western blot analysis indicated that cbeta(2)gpI inhibited cyclin A, B and D1, and enhanced p21 and p27 expression. Activity of p38 was down-regulated independently from the cbeta(2)gpI incubation time. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was not changed early (30 and 60 min) but became enhanced later (90 min, 4h). JNK activity was reduced rapidly after cbeta(2)gpI treatment but compared to controls, increased thereafter. Annexin II blockade prevented growth inhibition and cell cycle delay evoked by cbeta(2)gpI. We assume that cbeta(2)gpI's effects on HUVEC growth is mediated via cyclin A, B and D1 suppression, up-regulation of p21 and p27 and coupled to modifications of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling pathway. cbeta(2)gpI may represent a potential endogenous angiogenesis-targeted compound, opening the possibility of a novel tool to treat cancer. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Disorder-function relationships for the cell cycle regulatory proteins p21 and p27.

    PubMed

    Mitrea, Diana M; Yoon, Mi-Kyung; Ou, Li; Kriwacki, Richard W

    2012-04-01

    The classic structure-function paradigm has been challenged by a recently identified class of proteins: intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Despite their lack of stable secondary or tertiary structure, IDPs are prevalent in all forms of life and perform myriad cellular functions, including signaling and regulation. Importantly, disruption of IDP homeostasis is associated with numerous human diseases, including cancer and neurodegeneration. Despite wide recognition of IDPs, the molecular mechanisms underlying their functions are not fully understood. Here we review the structural features and disorder-function relationships for p21 and p27, two cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) regulators involved in controlling cell division and fate. Studies of p21 bound to Cdk2/cyclin A revealed that a helix stretching mechanism mediates binding promiscuity. Further, investigations of Tyr88-phosphorylated p27 identified a signaling conduit that controls cell division and is disrupted in certain cancers. These mechanisms rely upon a balance between nascent structure in the free state, induced folding upon binding, and persistent flexibility within functional complexes. Although these disorder-function relationships are likely to be recapitulated in other IDPs, it is also likely that the vocabulary of their mechanisms is much more extensive than is currently understood. Further study of the physical properties of IDPs and elucidation of their links with function are needed to fully understand the mechanistic language of IDPs.

  16. Tangeretin induces cell-cycle G1 arrest through inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4 activities as well as elevating Cdk inhibitors p21 and p27 in human colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Chen, Wei-Jen; Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2002-10-01

    Tangeretin (5,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone) is concentrated in the peel of citrus fruits. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that tangeretin blocked cell cycle progression at G1 phase in colorectal carcinoma COLO 205 cells. Over a 24 h exposure to tangeretin, the degree of phosphorylation of Rb was decreased after 12 h and G1 arrest developed. The protein expression of cyclins A, D1, and E reduced slightly under the same conditions. Immunocomplex kinase experiments showed that tangeretin inhibited the activities of cyclin-dependent kinases 2 (Cdk2) and 4 (Cdk4) in a dose-dependent manner in the cell-free system. As the cells were exposed to tangeretin (50 microM) over 48 h a gradual loss of both Cdk2 and 4 kinase activities occurred. Tangeretin also increased the content of the Cdk inhibitor p21 protein and this effect correlated with the elevation in p53 levels. In addition, tangeretin also increased the level of the Cdk inhibitor p27 protein within 18 h. These results suggest that tangeretin either exerts its growth-inhibitory effects through modulation of the activities of several key G1 regulatory proteins, such as Cdk2 and Cdk4, or mediates the increase of Cdk inhibitors p21 and p27.

  17. Expression of p53, p21 and cyclin D1 in penile cancer: p53 predicts poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Gunia, Sven; Kakies, Christoph; Erbersdobler, Andreas; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Koch, Stefan; May, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the role of p53, p21 and cyclin D1 expression in patients with penile cancer (PC). Paraffin-embedded tissues from PC specimens from six pathology departments were subjected to a central histopathological review performed by one pathologist. The tissue microarray technique was used for immunostaining which was evaluated by two independent pathologists and correlated with cancer-specific survival (CSS). κ-statistics were used to assess interobserver variability. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis was applied to assess the independent effects of several prognostic factors on CSS over a median of 32 months (IQR 6-66 months). Specimens and clinical data from 110 men treated surgically for primary PC were collected. p53 staining was positive in 30 and negative in 62 specimens. κ-statistics showed substantial interobserver reproducibility of p53 staining evaluation (κ=0.73; p<0.001). The 5-year CSS rate for the entire study cohort was 74%. Five-year CSS was 84% in p53-negative and 51% in p53-positive PC patients (p=0.003). Multivariable analysis showed p53 (HR=3.20; p=0.041) and pT-stage (HR=4.29; p<0.001) as independent significant prognostic factors for CSS. Cyclin D1 and p21 expression were not correlated with survival. However, incorporating p21 into a multivariable Cox model did contribute to improved model quality for predicting CSS. In patients with PC, the expression of p53 in the primary tumour specimen can be reproducibly assessed and is negatively associated with cancer specific survival.

  18. Cyclin E-p27 opposition and regulation of the G1 phase of the cell cycle in the murine neocortical PVE: a quantitative analysis of mRNA in situ hybridization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delalle, I.; Takahashi, T.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Tsai, L. H.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed the expression patterns of mRNAs of five cell cycle related proteins in the ventricular zone of the neocortical cerebral wall over the course of the neuronogenetic interval in the mouse. One set of mRNAs (cyclin E and p21) are initially expressed at high levels but expression then falls to a low asymptote. A second set (p27, cyclin B and cdk2) are initially expressed at low levels but ascend to peak levels only to decline again. These patterns divide the overall neuronogenetic interval into three phases. In phase 1 cyclin E and p21 levels of mRNA expression are high, while those of mRNAs of p27, cdk2 and cyclin B are low. In this phase the fraction of cells leaving the cycle after each mitosis, Q, is low and the duration of the G1 phase, TG1, is short. In phase 2 levels of expression of cyclin E and p21 fall to asymptote while levels of expression of mRNA of the other three proteins reach their peaks. Q increases to approach 0.5 and TG1 increases even more rapidly to approach its maximum length. In phase 3 levels of expression of cyclin E and p21 mRNAs remain low and those of the mRNAs of the other three proteins fall. TG1 becomes maximum and Q rapidly increases to 1.0. The character of these phases can be understood in part as consequences of the reciprocal regulatory influence of p27 and cyclin E and of the rate limiting functions of p27 at the restriction point and of cyclin E at the G1 to S transition.

  19. p27Kip1 and Cyclin E Expression and Breast Cancer Survival After Treatment With Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, WE; Yeh, I-T; Lin, M-G; Yuan, X; Donato, E; Sledge, GW; Shapiro, CL; Ingle, JN; Haskell, CM; Albain, KS; Roberts, JM; Livingston, RB; Hayes, DF

    2009-01-01

    Background Abnormal expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins p27Kip1 and cyclin E may be associated with breast cancer survival and relapse. We studied these markers in a clinical trial setting with patients with breast cancer treated by a uniform drug regimen so that treatment was not associated with variability in outcome. Methods We used tissue microarrays to evaluate the expression of p27Kip1 and cyclin E protein by immunohistochemistry in tumor tissue from 2123 (68%) of 3122 patients with moderate-risk primary breast cancer who were enrolled in Southwest Oncology Group/Intergroup Trial S9313, in which patients were assigned to receive doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide administered concurrently (n = 1595) or sequentially (n = 1527). Disease-free and overall survival were equivalent in the two arms. Expression of the proteins was rated on a scale of 1-7, and the median value was used as the cutpoint. Log-rank tests and Cox regression analyses were used to assess associations with survival. Overall survival was defined as time to death from all causes; disease-free survival was defined as time to recurrence or death. All P values were from two-sided statistical tests. Results Lower p27Kip1 expression was associated with worse overall survival (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] =1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21 to1.86) and disease-free survival (unadjusted HR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.57) than higher p27Kip1 expression. Among hormone receptor-positive patients, lower p27Kip1 expression was associated with worse overall survival (HR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.94) and worse disease-free survival (HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 0.99 to 1.63) than higher p27Kip1 expression after adjustment for treatment, menopausal status, tumor size, and number of positive lymph nodes. . Among these patients, five year overall survival for higher p27 was 0.91 (95% CI 0.89-0.93) compared to 0.85 (95% CI 0.82-0.87) for lower p27. No association between p27Kip1 expression and survival

  20. The role of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gartel, Andrei L; Tyner, Angela L

    2002-06-01

    Cancer develops when the balance between cell proliferation and cell death is disrupted, and the ensuing aberrant proliferation leads to tumor growth. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is induced by both p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms following stress, and induction of p21 may cause cell cycle arrest. As a proliferation inhibitor, p21 is poised to play an important role in preventing tumor development. This notion is supported by data indicating that p21-null mice are more prone to spontaneous and induced tumorigenesis, and p21 synergizes with other tumor suppressors to protect against tumor progression in mice. However, a number of recent studies have pointed out that in addition to being an inhibitor of cell proliferation, p21 acts as an inhibitor of apoptosis in a number of systems, and this may counteract its tumor-suppressive functions as a growth inhibitor. In the current review, we discuss the role of p21 in regulating cell death and the potential relevance of its expression in cancer.

  1. The Rho GTPase effector ROCK regulates cyclin A, cyclin D1, and p27Kip1 levels by distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Croft, Daniel R; Olson, Michael F

    2006-06-01

    The members of the Rho GTPase family are well known for their regulation of actin cytoskeletal structures. In addition, they influence progression through the cell cycle. The RhoA and RhoC proteins regulate numerous effector proteins, with a central and vital signaling role mediated by the ROCK I and ROCK II serine/threonine kinases. The requirement for ROCK function in the proliferation of numerous cell types has been revealed by studies utilizing ROCK-selective inhibitors such as Y-27632. However, the mechanisms by which ROCK signaling promotes cell cycle progression have not been thoroughly characterized. Using a conditionally activated ROCK-estrogen receptor fusion protein, we found that ROCK activation is sufficient to stimulate G1/S cell cycle progression in NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Further analysis revealed that ROCK acts via independent pathways to alter the levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins: cyclin D1 and p21(Cip1) elevation via Ras and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, increased cyclin A via LIM kinase 2, and reduction of p27(Kip1) protein levels. Therefore, the influence of ROCK on cell cycle regulatory proteins occurs by multiple independent mechanisms.

  2. p27Kip1 regulates alpha-synuclein expression

    PubMed Central

    Gallastegui, Edurne; Domuro, Carla; Serratosa, Joan; Larrieux, Alejandra; Sin, Laura; Martinez, Jonatan; Besson, Arnaud; Morante-Redolat, José Manuel; Orlando, Serena; Aligue, Rosa; Fariñas, Isabel; Pujol, María Jesús; Bachs, Oriol

    2018-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (α-SYN) is the main component of anomalous protein aggregates (Lewy bodies) that play a crucial role in several neurodegenerative diseases (synucleinopathies) like Parkinson’s disease and multiple system atrophy. However, the mechanisms involved in its transcriptional regulation are poorly understood. We investigated here the role of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor and transcriptional regulator p27Kip1 (p27) in the regulation of α-SYN expression. We observed that selective deletion of p27 by CRISPR/Cas9 technology in neural cells resulted in increased levels of α-SYN. Knock-down of the member of the same family p21Cip1 (p21) also led to increased α-SYN levels, indicating that p27 and p21 collaborate in the repression of α-SYN transcription. We demonstrated that this repression is mediated by the transcription factor E2F4 and the member of the retinoblastoma protein family p130 and that it is dependent of Cdk activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed specific binding sites for p27, p21 and E2F4 in the proximal α-SYN gene promoter. Finally, luciferase assays revealed a direct action of p27, p21 and E2F4 in α-SYN gene expression. Our findings reveal for the first time a negative regulatory mechanism of α-SYN expression, suggesting a putative role for cell cycle regulators in the etiology of synucleinopathies. PMID:29662651

  3. Cooperation of p27Kip1 and p18INK4c in Progestin-Mediated Cell Cycle Arrest in T-47D Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Swarbrick, Alexander; Lee, Christine S. L.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Musgrove, Elizabeth A.

    2000-01-01

    The steroid hormone progesterone regulates proliferation and differentiation in the mammary gland and uterus by cell cycle phase-specific actions. The long-term effect of progestins on T-47D breast cancer cells is inhibition of cellular proliferation. This is accompanied by decreased G1 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activities, redistribution of the CDK inhibitor p27Kip1 among these CDK complexes, and alterations in the elution profile of cyclin E-Cdk2 upon gel filtration chromatography, such that high-molecular-weight complexes predominate. This study aimed to determine the relative contribution of CDK inhibitors to these events. Following progestin treatment, the majority of cyclin E- and D-CDK complexes were bound to p27Kip1 and few were bound to p21Cip1. In vitro, recombinant His6-p27 could quantitatively reproduce the effects on cyclin E-Cdk2 kinase activity and the shift in molecular weight observed following progestin treatment. In contrast, cyclin D-Cdk4 was not inhibited by His6-p27 in vitro or p27Kip1 in vivo. However, an increase in the expression of the Cdk4/6 inhibitor p18INK4c and its extensive association with Cdk4 and Cdk6 were apparent following progestin treatment. Recombinant p18INK4c led to the reassortment of cyclin-CDK-CDK inhibitor complexes in vitro, with consequent decrease in cyclin E-Cdk2 activity. These results suggest a concerted model of progestin action whereby p27Kip1 and p18INK4c cooperate to inhibit cyclin E-Cdk2 and Cdk4. Since similar models have been developed for growth inhibition by transforming growth factor β and during adipogenesis, interaction between the Cip/Kip and INK4 families of inhibitors may be a common theme in physiological growth arrest and differentiation. PMID:10713180

  4. Structural and functional analysis of cyclin D1 reveals p27 and substrate inhibitor binding requirements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu; Bolger, Joshua K; Kirkland, Lindsay O; Premnath, Padmavathy N; McInnes, Campbell

    2010-12-17

    An alternative strategy for inhibition of the cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) in antitumor drug discovery is afforded through the substrate recruitment site on the cyclin positive regulatory subunit. Critical CDK substrates such as the Rb and E2F families must undergo cyclin groove binding before phosphorylation, and hence inhibitors of this interaction also block substrate specific kinase activity. This approach offers the potential to generate highly selective and cell cycle specific CDK inhibitors and to reduce the inhibition of transcription mediated through CDK7 and 9, commonly observed with ATP competitive compounds. While highly potent peptide and small molecule inhibitors of CDK2/cyclin A, E substrate recruitment have been reported, little information has been generated on the determinants of inhibitor binding to the cyclin groove of the CDK4/cyclin D1 complex. CDK4/cyclin D is a validated anticancer drug target and continues to be widely pursued in the development of new therapeutics based on cell cycle blockade. We have therefore investigated the structural basis for peptide binding to its cyclin groove and have examined the features contributing to potency and selectivity of inhibitors. Peptidic inhibitors of CDK4/cyclin D of pRb phosphorylation have been synthesized, and their complexes with CDK4/cyclin D1 crystal structures have been generated. Based on available structural information, comparisons of the cyclin grooves of cyclin A2 and D1 are presented and provide insights into the determinants for peptide binding and the basis for differential binding and inhibition. In addition, a complex structure has been generated in order to model the interactions of the CDKI, p27(KIP)¹, with cyclin D1. This information has been used to shed light onto the endogenous inhibition of CDK4 and also to identify unique aspects of cyclin D1 that can be exploited in the design of cyclin groove based CDK inhibitors. Peptidic and nonpeptidic compounds have been

  5. The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Ortholog pUL97 of Human Cytomegalovirus Interacts with Cyclins

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Laura; Webel, Rike; Wagner, Sabrina; Hamilton, Stuart T.; Rawlinson, William D.; Sticht, Heinrich; Marschall, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded protein kinase, pUL97, is considered a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) ortholog, due to shared structural and functional characteristics. The primary mechanism of CDK activation is binding to corresponding cyclins, including cyclin T1, which is the usual regulatory cofactor of CDK9. This study provides evidence of direct interaction between pUL97 and cyclin T1 using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed partial colocalization of pUL97 with cyclin T1 in subnuclear compartments, most pronounced in viral replication centres. The distribution patterns of pUL97 and cyclin T1 were independent of HCMV strain and host cell type. The sequence domain of pUL97 responsible for the interaction with cyclin T1 was between amino acids 231–280. Additional co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed cyclin B1 and cyclin A as further pUL97 interaction partners. Investigation of the pUL97-cyclin T1 interaction in an ATP consumption assay strongly suggested phosphorylation of pUL97 by the CDK9/cyclin T1 complex in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. This is the first demonstration of interaction between a herpesviral CDK ortholog and cellular cyclins. PMID:24351800

  6. Ironing out the role of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21 in cancer: Novel iron chelating agents to target p21 expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Rayan S; Park, Kyung Chan; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Richardson, Des R

    2018-03-20

    Iron (Fe) has become an important target for the development of anti-cancer therapeutics with a number of Fe chelators entering human clinical trials for advanced and resistant cancer. An important aspect of the activity of these compounds is their multiple molecular targets, including those that play roles in arresting the cell cycle, such as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21. At present, the exact mechanism by which Fe chelators regulate p21 expression remains unclear. However, recent studies indicate the ability of chelators to up-regulate p21 at the mRNA level was dependent on the chelator and cell-type investigated. Analysis of the p21 promoter identified that the Sp1-3-binding site played a significant role in the activation of p21 transcription by Fe chelators. Furthermore, there was increased Sp1/ER-α and Sp1/c-Jun complex formation in melanoma cells, suggesting these complexes were involved in p21 promoter activation. Elucidating the mechanisms involved in the regulation of p21 expression in response to Fe chelator treatment in neoplastic cells will further clarify how these agents achieve their anti-tumor activity. It will also enhance our understanding of the complex roles p21 may play in neoplastic cells and lead to the development of more effective and specific anti-cancer therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression of p21Waf1/Cip1 and cyclin D1 is increased in butyrate-resistant HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Derjuga, A; Richard, C; Crosato, M; Wright, P S; Chalifour, L; Valdez, J; Barraso, A; Crissman, H A; Nishioka, W; Bradbury, E M; Th'ng, J P

    2001-10-12

    Sodium butyrate induced cell cycle arrest in mammalian cells through an increase in p21Waf1/Cip1, although another study showed that this arrest is related to pRB signaling. We isolated variants of HeLa cells adapted to growth in 5 mm butyrate. One of these variants, clone 5.1, constitutively expressed elevated levels of p21Waf1/Cip1 when incubated in regular growth medium and in the presence of butyrate. Despite this elevated level of p21Waf1/Cip1, the cells continue to proliferate, albeit at a slower rate than parental HeLa cells. Western blot analyses showed that other cell cycle regulatory proteins were not up-regulated to compensate for the elevated expression of p21Waf1/Cip1. However, cyclin D1 was down-regulated by butyrate in HeLa cells but not in clone 5.1. We conclude that continued expression of cyclin D1 allowed clone 5.1 to grow in the presence of butyrate and elevated levels of p21Waf1/Cip1.

  8. Mechanistic insights into avian reovirus p17-modulated suppression of cell-cycle CDK/cyclin complexes and enhancement of p53 and cyclin H interaction.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hung-Chuan; Huang, Wei-Ru; Liao, Tsai-Ling; Chi, Pei-I; Nielsen, Brent L; Liu, Jyung-Hurng; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2018-06-15

    The avian reovirus (ARV) p17 protein is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein. Although we have demonstrated that p17 causes cell growth retardation via activation of p53, the precise mechanisms remains unclear. This is the first report that ARV p17 possesses broad inhibitory effects on cell-cycle CDKs, cyclins, CDK/cyclin complexes, and CDK activating kinase (CAK) activity in various mammalian, avian, and cancer cell lines. Suppression of CDK activity by p17 occurs by direct binding to CDKs, cyclins, and CDK/cyclin complexes, transcriptional downregulation of CDKs, cytoplasmic retention of CDKs and cyclins, and inhibition of CAK activity by promoting p53/cyclin H interaction. p17 binds to CDK/cyclin except for CDK1/cyclin B1 and CDK7/cyclin H complexes. We have determined that the negatively charged 151 LAVxDxDxE/DDGADPN 165 motif in cyclin B1 interacts with a positively charged region of CDK1. p17 mimics the cyclin B1 sequence to compete for CDK1 binding. The PSTAIRE motif is not required for interaction of CDK1/cyclin B1, but is required for other CDK/cyclin complexes. p17 interacts with cyclins by its cyclin-binding motif 125 RXL 127 Sequence and mutagenic analyses of p17 indicated that a 140 WXFD 143 motif and residues D113 and K122 in p17 are critical for CDK2 and CDK6 binding, leading to their sequestration in the cytoplasm. Exogenous expression of p17 significantly enhanced virus replication while p17 mutants with low binding ability to cell-cycle CDKs have no effect on virus yield, suggesting that p17 inhibits cell growth and the cell cycle benefiting virus replication. An in vivo tumorigenesis assay also showed a significant reduction in tumor size. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Mapping of CIP/KIP inhibitors, G1 cyclins D1, D3, E and p53 proteins in the rat term placenta.

    PubMed

    Korgun, Emin Turkay; Unek, Gozde; Herrera, Emilio; Jones, Carolyn J; Wadsack, Christian; Kipmen-Korgun, Dijle; Desoye, Gernot

    2011-09-01

    As cell cycle regulation is fundamental to the normal growth and development of the placenta, the aim of the present study was to determine the immunolocalizations of cell cycle related proteins, which have key roles in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis during the development of the rat placenta. Here immunohistochemistry has been used to localize G1 cyclins (D1, D3, E), which are major determinants of proliferation, CIP/KIP inhibitors (p21, p27, p57), p53 as a master regulator and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in all cell types of the rat term placenta. The proportion of each cell type immunolabeled was counted. Cyclin D1 and cyclin D3 were present mostly in cells of the fetal aspect of the placenta, whereas the G1/S cyclin E was present only in the spongio- and labyrinthine trophoblast populations. Among the CIP/KIP inhibitors, p21 was present only in cells of the fetal aspect whereas p27 and p57 were found in all cell types studied. p53 was only found in a small proportion of cells with no co-localization of p53 and p21. The data suggest that the cells of the fetal side of the rat placenta still have some proliferation potential which is kept in check by expression of the CIP/KIP cell cycle inhibitors, whereas cells of the maternal aspect have lost this potential. Apoptosis is only marginal in the term rat placenta. In conclusion, proliferation and apoptosis in rat placental cells appears controlled mostly by the CIP/KIP inhibitors in late pregnancy.

  10. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Waf1): contemporary view on its role in senescence and oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Romanov, V S; Pospelov, V A; Pospelova, T V

    2012-06-01

    p21(Waf1) was identified as a protein suppressing cyclin E/A-CDK2 activity and was originally considered as a negative regulator of the cell cycle and a tumor suppressor. It is now considered that p21(Waf1) has alternative functions, and the view of its role in cellular processes has begun to change. At present, p21(Waf1) is known to be involved in regulation of fundamental cellular programs: cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, senescence, and apoptosis. In fact, it not only exhibits antioncogenic, but also oncogenic properties. This review provides a contemporary understanding of the functions of p21(Waf1) depending on its intracellular localization. On one hand, when in the nucleus, it serves as a negative cell cycle regulator and tumor suppressor, in particular by participating in the launch of a senescence program. On the other hand, when p21(Waf1) is localized in the cytoplasm, it acts as an oncogene by regulating migration, apoptosis, and proliferation.

  11. Proteomic Interaction Patterns between Human Cyclins, the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Ortholog pUL97 and Additional Cytomegalovirus Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Steingruber, Mirjam; Kraut, Alexandra; Socher, Eileen; Sticht, Heinrich; Reichel, Anna; Stamminger, Thomas; Amin, Bushra; Couté, Yohann; Hutterer, Corina; Marschall, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) ortholog pUL97 associates with human cyclin B1 and other types of cyclins. Here, the question was addressed whether cyclin interaction of pUL97 and additional viral proteins is detectable by mass spectrometry-based approaches. Proteomic data were validated by coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP), Western blot, in vitro kinase and bioinformatic analyses. Our findings suggest that: (i) pUL97 shows differential affinities to human cyclins; (ii) pUL97 inhibitor maribavir (MBV) disrupts the interaction with cyclin B1, but not with other cyclin types; (iii) cyclin H is identified as a new high-affinity interactor of pUL97 in HCMV-infected cells; (iv) even more viral phosphoproteins, including all known substrates of pUL97, are detectable in the cyclin-associated complexes; and (v) a first functional validation of pUL97-cyclin B1 interaction, analyzed by in vitro kinase assay, points to a cyclin-mediated modulation of pUL97 substrate preference. In addition, our bioinformatic analyses suggest individual, cyclin-specific binding interfaces for pUL97-cyclin interaction, which could explain the different strengths of interactions and the selective inhibitory effect of MBV on pUL97-cyclin B1 interaction. Combined, the detection of cyclin-associated proteins in HCMV-infected cells suggests a complex pattern of substrate phosphorylation and a role of cyclins in the fine-modulation of pUL97 activities. PMID:27548200

  12. DACH1 regulates cell cycle progression of myeloid cells through the control of cyclin D, Cdk 4/6 and p21{sup Cip1}

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lee, Jae-Woong; Kim, Hyeng-Soo; Kim, Seonggon

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DACH1 increases cyclin D, F and Cdk 1, 4, 6 in mouse myeloid progenitor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The knockdown of DACH1 blocked the cell cycle progression of HL-60 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novel effect of DACH1 related with cell cycle regulation and leukemogenesis. -- Abstract: The cell-fate determination factor Dachshund, a component of the Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN), has a role in breast tumor proliferation through the repression of cyclin D1 and several key regulators of embryonic stem cell function, such as Nanog and Sox2. However, little is known about the role of DACH1 in a myeloid lineage asmore » a cell cycle regulator. Here, we identified the differential expression levels of extensive cell cycle regulators controlled by DACH1 in myeloid progenitor cells. The forced expression of DACH1 induced p27{sup Kip1} and repressed p21{sup Cip1}, which is a pivotal characteristic of the myeloid progenitor. Furthermore, DACH1 significantly increased the expression of cyclin D1, D3, F, and Cdk 1, 4, and 6 in myeloid progenitor cells. The knockdown of DACH1 blocked the cell cycle progression of HL-60 promyeloblastic cells through the decrease of cyclin D1, D3, F, and Cdk 1, 4, and 6 and increase in p21{sup Cip1}, which in turn decreased the phosphorylation of the Rb protein. The expression of Sox2, Oct4, and Klf4 was significantly up-regulated by the forced expression of DACH1 in mouse myeloid progenitor cells.« less

  13. Low expression of p27 indicates a poor prognosis in patients with high-grade astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Kirla, Ruut M; Haapasalo, Hannu K; Kalimo, Hannu; Salminen, Eeva K

    2003-02-01

    Two families of tumor suppressor genes, Cip/Kip (p21, p27, and 57) and INK4 (p15, p16, p18, and p19), regulate cell proliferation and neoplastic transformation. p27 exerts its suppressor effect through cyclin E-dependent kinase (CDK2) by inhibiting the phosphorylation of pRb by CDK2, which, in turn, arrests cells in the G1-phase. p21 has a similar effect in addition to participating in the p53 dependent CDK4-mediated and CDK6-mediated pathway. The authors studied the prognostic significance of p21 and p27 in patients with high-grade astrocytomas who were treated with radiotherapy. The expression of p27 and p21 was analyzed immunohistochemically in 52 glioblastomas and 25 anaplastic astrocytomas. All patients underwent surgery for the first time and were treated with adjuvant external radiotherapy. The p27 labeling index (LI) was < 30% in 36% of tumors, 30-50% in 25% of tumors, and > 50% in 39% of tumors. A significant difference in cumulative survival was observed between these groups (P = 0.0072; log-rank test). The p21 LI was < 30% in 48% of tumors, 30-50% in 39% of tumors, and > 50% in 13% of tumors; these groups did not differ significantly in survival. In multivariate Cox analysis, p27 LI was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.0008). The grade of malignancy and proliferation activity also were independent prognostic factors. Although p27 and p21 are parallel cell-cycle regulators, only p27 has independent prognostic value in patients with malignant astrocytomas. It appears that decreased levels of p21/p27 are associated with a poor prognosis and short survival. Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.DOI 10.1002/cncr.11079

  14. The absence of p27Kip1, an inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases, uncouples differentiation and growth arrest during the granulosa->luteal transition.

    PubMed

    Tong, W; Kiyokawa, H; Soos, T J; Park, M S; Soares, V C; Manova, K; Pollard, J W; Koff, A

    1998-09-01

    The involvement of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in differentiation remains unclear: are the roles of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors restricted to cell cycle arrest; or also required for completion of the differentiation program; or both? Here, we report that differentiation of luteal cells can be uncoupled from growth arrest in p27-deficient mice. In these mice, female-specific infertility correlates with a failure of embryos to implant at embryonic day 4.5. We show by ovarian transplant and hormone reconstitution experiments that failure to regulate luteal cell estradiol is one physiological mechanism for infertility in these mice. This failure is not due to a failure of p27-deficient granulosa cells to differentiate after hormonal stimulation; P450scc, a marker for luteal progesterone biosynthesis, is expressed and granulosa cell-specific cyclin D2 expression is reduced. However, unlike their wild-type counterparts, p27-deficient luteal cells continue to proliferate for up to 3.5 days after hormonal stimulation. By day 5.5, however, these cells withdraw from the cell cycle, suggesting that p27 plays a role in the early events regulating withdrawal of cells from the cell cycle. We have further shown that in the absence of this timely withdrawal, estradiol regulation is perturbed, explaining in part how fertility is compromised at the level of implantation. These data support the interpretation of our previous observations on oligodendrocyte differentiation about a role for p27 in establishing the nonproliferative state, which in some cases (oligodendrocytes) is required for differentiation, whereas in other cases it is required for the proper functioning of a differentiated cell (luteal cell).

  15. Schisantherin A Improves Learning and Memory of Mice with D-Galactose-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment through Its Antioxidation and Regulation of p19/p53/p21/Cyclin D1/CDK4/RB Gene Expressions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Sun, Weijing; Li, Ning; Gao, Jiaqi; Yu, Chunyan; Wang, Chunmei; Sun, Jinghui; Jing, Shu; Chen, Jianguang; Li, He

    2018-05-31

    Schisantherin A (SCA) was evaluated for possible function in restoring the learning and memory impairment induced by D-galactose in mice. ICR mice were treated with D-galactose subcutaneously (220 mg·kg -1 ), and followed by SCA in different doses (1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 mg·kg -1 , administered orally) for 42 days. Effects of SCA on learning and memory were examined by step-through tests and Morris water maze tests. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the peripheral blood and hippocampus of mice were assayed by water-soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) methods. The contents of 8 hydroxy deoxy guanosine (8-OHdG) in the hippocampus of mice were detected by immunosorbent assay methods, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western Blot were respectively used to detect the expression of p19, p53, p21, cyclin D1, CDK4 and RB genes, and the phosphorylation of RB in the hippocampus of mice. We found that SCA significantly improved the learning and memory impairment induced by D-galactose in mice. After SCA treatment, SOD activity was increased and the content of MDA was decreased in both peripheral blood and hippocampus of mice. 8-OHDG content was also decreased in the hippocampus of mice. Furthermore, the expression of p19, p53 and p21 genes was reduced and the expression of cyclin D1 and CDK4 and the phosphorylation of RB protein were elevated in the hippocampus. SCA may improve the learning and memory impairment induced by D-galactose by enhancing the antioxidant capacity, and regulating the expression of p19/p53/p21/cyclinD1/CDK4 genes, and the phosphorylation of RB protein in the hippocampus of mice.

  16. Stress and developmental regulation of the yeast C-type cyclin Ume3p (Srb11p/Ssn8p).

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, K F; Mallory, M J; Smith, J B; Strich, R

    1997-01-01

    The ume3-1 allele was identified as a mutation that allowed the aberrant expression of several meiotic genes (e.g. SPO11, SPO13) during mitotic cell division in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we report that UME3 is also required for the full repression of the HSP70 family member SSA1. UME3 encodes a non-essential C-type cyclin (Ume3p) whose levels do not vary through the mitotic cell cycle. However, Ume3p is destroyed during meiosis or when cultures are subjected to heat shock. Ume3p mutants resistant to degradation resulted in a 2-fold reduction in SPO13 mRNA levels during meiosis, indicating that the down-regulation of this cyclin is important for normal meiotic gene expression. Mutational analysis identified two regions (PEST-rich and RXXL) that mediate Ume3p degradation. A third destruction signal lies within the highly conserved cyclin box, a region that mediates cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) interactions. However, the Cdk activated by Ume3p (Ume5p) is not required for the rapid destruction of this cyclin. Finally, Ume3p destruction was not affected in mutants defective for ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. These results support a model in which Ume3p, when exposed to heat shock or sporulation conditions, is targeted for destruction to allow the expression of genes necessary for the cell to respond correctly to these environmental cues. PMID:9303311

  17. p21, an important mediator of quiescence during pituitary tumor formation, is dispensable for normal pituitary development during embryogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, Pamela; Himes, Ashley D.; Parfieniuk, Agata; Raetzman, Lori T.

    2011-01-01

    A delicate balance between proliferation and differentiation must be maintained in the developing pituitary to ensure the formation of the appropriate number of hormone producing cells. In the adult, proliferation is actively restrained to prevent tumor formation. The cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) of the CIP/KIP family, p21, p27 and p57, mediate cell cycle inhibition. Although p21 is induced in the pituitary upon loss of Notch signaling or initiation of tumor formation to halt cell cycle progression, its role in normal pituitary organogenesis has not been explored. In wildtype pituitaries, expression of p21 is limited to a subset of cells embryonically as well as during the postnatal proliferative phase. Mice lacking p21 do not have altered cell proliferation during early embryogenesis, but do show a slight delay in separation of proliferating progenitors from the oral ectoderm. By embryonic day 16.5, p21 mutants have an alteration in the spatial distribution of proliferating pituitary progenitors, however there is no overall change in proliferation. At postnatal day 21, there appears to be no change in proliferation, as assessed by cells expressing Ki67 protein. However, p21 mutant pituitaries have significantly less mRNA of Myc and the cyclins Ccnb1, Ccnd1, Ccnd2 and Ccne1 than wildtype pituitaries. Interestingly, unlike the redundant role in cell cycle inhibition uncovered in p27/p57 double mutants, the pituitary of p21/p27 double mutants has a similar proliferation profile to p27 single mutants at the time points examined. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that unlike p27 or p57, p21 does not play a major role in control of progenitor proliferation in the developing pituitary. However, p21 may be required to maintain normal levels of cell cycle components. PMID:22154697

  18. Genetic characterization of the role of the Cip/Kip family of proteins as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and assembly factors.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Antonio; Martín, Alberto; Symonds, Catherine E; Odajima, Junko; Dubus, Pierre; Barbacid, Mariano; Santamaría, David

    2014-04-01

    The Cip/Kip family, namely, p21(Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2), are stoichiometric cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs). Paradoxically, they have been proposed to also act as positive regulators of Cdk4/6-cyclin D by stabilizing these heterodimers. Loss of p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) reduces Cdk4/6-cyclin D complexes, although with limited phenotypic consequences compared to the embryonic lethality of Cdk4/6 or triple cyclin D deficiency. This milder phenotype was attributed to Cdk2 compensatory mechanisms. To address this controversy using a genetic approach, we generated Cdk2(-/-) p21(-/-) p27(-/-) mice. Triple-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) displayed minimal levels of D-type cyclins and Cdk4/6-cyclin D complexes. p57(Kip2) downregulation in the absence of p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) aggravated this phenotype, yet MEFs lacking all Cip/Kip proteins exhibited increased retinoblastoma phosphorylation, together with enhanced proliferation and transformation capacity. In vivo, Cdk2 ablation induced partial perinatal lethality in p21(-/-) p27(-/-) mice, suggesting partial Cdk2-dependent compensation. However, Cdk2(-/-) p21(-/-) p27(-/-) survivors displayed all phenotypes described for p27(-/-) mice, including organomegalia and pituitary tumors. Thus, Cip/Kip deficiency does not impair interphasic Cdk activity even in the absence of Cdk2, suggesting that their Cdk-cyclin assembly function is dispensable for homeostatic control in most cell types.

  19. Cyclin Kinase-independent role of p21CDKN1A in the promotion of nascent DNA elongation in unstressed cells

    PubMed Central

    Mansilla, Sabrina F; Bertolin, Agustina P; Bergoglio, Valérie; Pillaire, Marie-Jeanne; González Besteiro, Marina A; Luzzani, Carlos; Miriuka, Santiago G; Hoffmann, Jean-Sébastien; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    The levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 are low in S phase and insufficient to inhibit CDKs. We show here that endogenous p21, instead of being residual, it is functional and necessary to preserve the genomic stability of unstressed cells. p21depletion slows down nascent DNA elongation, triggers permanent replication defects and promotes the instability of hard-to-replicate genomic regions, namely common fragile sites (CFS). The p21’s PCNA interacting region (PIR), and not its CDK binding domain, is needed to prevent the replication defects and the genomic instability caused by p21 depletion. The alternative polymerase kappa is accountable for such defects as they were not observed after simultaneous depletion of both p21 and polymerase kappa. Hence, in CDK-independent manner, endogenous p21 prevents a type of genomic instability which is not triggered by endogenous DNA lesions but by a dysregulation in the DNA polymerase choice during genomic DNA synthesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18020.001 PMID:27740454

  20. Probing the Role of Nascent Helicity in p27 Function as a Cell Cycle Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Steve; Kriwacki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    p27 regulates the activity of Cdk complexes which are the principal governors of phase transitions during cell division. Members of the p27 family of proteins, which also includes p21 and p57, are called the Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase regulators (CKRs). Interestingly, the Cip/Kip CKRs play critical roles in cell cycle regulation by being intrinsically unstructured, a characteristic contrary to the classical structure-function paradigm. They exhibit nascent helicity which has been localized to a segment referred to as sub-domain LH. The nascent helicity of this sub-domain is conserved and we hypothesize that it is an important determinant of their functional properties. To test this hypothesis, we successfully designed and prepared p27 variants in which domain LH was either more or less helical with respect to the wild-type protein. Thermal denaturation experiments showed that the ternary complexes of the p27 variants bound to Cdk2/Cyclin A were less stable compared to the wild-type complex. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments showed a decrease in the enthalpy of binding for all the mutants with respect to p27. The free energies of binding varied within a much narrower range. In vitro Cdk2 inhibition assays showed that the p27 variants exhibited disparate inhibitory potencies. Furthermore, when over-expressed in NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells, the less helical p27 variants were less effective in causing cell cycle arrest relative to the wild-type p27. Our results indicate that the nascent helicity of sub-domain LH plays a key role mediating the biological function of p27. PMID:23071750

  1. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p20 controls circadian cell-cycle timing

    PubMed Central

    Laranjeiro, Ricardo; Tamai, T. Katherine; Peyric, Elodie; Krusche, Peter; Ott, Sascha; Whitmore, David

    2013-01-01

    Specific stages of the cell cycle are often restricted to particular times of day because of regulation by the circadian clock. In zebrafish, both mitosis (M phase) and DNA synthesis (S phase) are clock-controlled in cell lines and during embryo development. Despite the ubiquitousness of this phenomenon, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanism linking the clock to the cell cycle. In this study, we describe an evolutionarily conserved cell-cycle regulator, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1d (20 kDa protein, p20), which along with p21, is a strongly rhythmic gene and directly clock-controlled. Both p20 and p21 regulate the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. However, their expression patterns differ, with p20 predominant in developing brain and peak expression occurring 6 h earlier than p21. p20 expression is also p53-independent in contrast to p21 regulation. Such differences provide a unique mechanism whereby S phase is set to different times of day in a tissue-specific manner, depending on the balance of these two inhibitors. PMID:23569261

  2. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p20 controls circadian cell-cycle timing.

    PubMed

    Laranjeiro, Ricardo; Tamai, T Katherine; Peyric, Elodie; Krusche, Peter; Ott, Sascha; Whitmore, David

    2013-04-23

    Specific stages of the cell cycle are often restricted to particular times of day because of regulation by the circadian clock. In zebrafish, both mitosis (M phase) and DNA synthesis (S phase) are clock-controlled in cell lines and during embryo development. Despite the ubiquitousness of this phenomenon, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanism linking the clock to the cell cycle. In this study, we describe an evolutionarily conserved cell-cycle regulator, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1d (20 kDa protein, p20), which along with p21, is a strongly rhythmic gene and directly clock-controlled. Both p20 and p21 regulate the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. However, their expression patterns differ, with p20 predominant in developing brain and peak expression occurring 6 h earlier than p21. p20 expression is also p53-independent in contrast to p21 regulation. Such differences provide a unique mechanism whereby S phase is set to different times of day in a tissue-specific manner, depending on the balance of these two inhibitors.

  3. Lovastatin inhibits proliferation of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells through up-regulation of p27 by interfering with the Rho/ROCK-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wen-Bin; Hsu, Sung-Po; Ho, Pei-Yin; Liang, Yu-Chih; Chang, Tien-Chun; Lee, Wen-Sen

    2011-12-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that lovastatin, a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, induced apoptosis, differentiation, and inhibition of invasiveness of human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (ATCs). Here, we further examined the effect of lovastatin on the growth of ARO cells. Lovastatin (0-20μM) concentration-dependently decreased cell number in cultured ATC and arrested the cell at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Western blot analysis revealed that lovastatin caused an increase of the protein level of p27 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4 and a decrease of the protein level of cyclin A2, cyclin D3, and phosphorylated Rb (pRb), but did not significantly change the protein levels of p21, cyclins D1 and E, and CDK2, in ARO cells. The formation of the CDK2-p27 complex was increased and the CDK2 activity was decreased in the lovastatin-treated ARO cells. Pretreatment of ARO cells with a p27, but not p21, antisense oligonucleotide prevented the lovastatin-induced G0/G1 arrest in ARO cells. The lovastatin-induced growth inhibition and translocation of RhoA and Rac1 in ARO cells were completely prevented by mevalonate and partially by geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. Treatment of ARO cells with Y27632, an inhibitor of Rho-associated kinase, abolished the GGPP-mediated prevention of lovastatin-induced anti-proliferation and up-regulation and prolonged degradation of p27. Taken together, these data suggest that lovastatin treatment caused a reduction of Rho geranylgeranylation, which in turn increased the expression and stability of p27, and then inhibited ARO cell proliferation. These data suggest that lovastatin merits further investigation as multipotent therapy for treatment ATC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. p21WAF1 and tumourigenesis: 20 years after.

    PubMed

    Warfel, Noel A; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the structure, regulation and physiological functions of p21, the product of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) gene, with a focus on its dual role in promoting and repressing biological processes that are hallmarks of tumourigenesis. Recent work has provided a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of how oncogenic signalling pathways influence p21 expression. In response to cellular stimuli, p21 expression is tightly regulated at transcriptional and post-translational levels through mechanisms involving RNA stabilization, phosphorylation and ubiquitination. As a result, growing evidence reveals that several important tumour suppressor and oncogenic signalling pathways alter p21 expression to elicit their effects on cell cycle progression and survival. Thus, p21 expression can both promote and inhibit tumourigenic processes, depending on the cellular context. Since its discovery, it has become increasingly clear that p21 can function as both a classical tumour suppressor and an oncogene. In order to effectively utilize p21 as a therapeutic target, it will be necessary to design therapeutic strategies that preferentially block the ability of p21 to promote senescence, stem cell renewal and cyclin/CDK activation, while leaving its tumour suppressive functions intact.

  5. Discovery of Small Molecules that Inhibit the Disordered Protein, p27Kip1

    PubMed Central

    Iconaru, Luigi I.; Ban, David; Bharatham, Kavitha; Ramanathan, Arvind; Zhang, Weixing; Shelat, Anang A.; Zuo, Jian; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Disordered proteins are highly prevalent in biological systems, they control myriad signaling and regulatory processes, and their levels and/or cellular localization are often altered in human disease. In contrast to folded proteins, disordered proteins, due to conformational heterogeneity and dynamics, are not considered viable drug targets. We challenged this paradigm by identifying through NMR-based screening small molecules that bound specifically, albeit weakly, to the disordered cell cycle regulator, p27Kip1 (p27). Two groups of molecules bound to sites created by transient clusters of aromatic residues within p27. Conserved chemical features within these two groups of small molecules exhibited complementarity to their binding sites within p27, establishing structure-activity relationships for small molecule:disordered protein interactions. Finally, one compound counteracted the Cdk2/cyclin A inhibitory function of p27 in vitro, providing proof-of-principle that small molecules can inhibit the function of a disordered protein (p27) through sequestration in a conformation incapable of folding and binding to a natural regulatory target (Cdk2/cyclin A). PMID:26507530

  6. Canine gastric carcinoma: immunohistochemical expression of cell cycle proteins (p53, p21, and p16) and heat shock proteins (Hsp27 and Hsp70).

    PubMed

    Carrasco, V; Canfrán, S; Rodríguez-Franco, F; Benito, A; Sáinz, A; Rodríguez-Bertos, A

    2011-01-01

    Immunohistochemical staining for cell cycle proteins and heat shock proteins was performed on 17 canine gastric carcinomas. The immunoexpression of p53, p21, p16, Hsp27, and Hsp70 was investigated. A study was conducted to determine the histological type and parameters related to tumor malignancy. Possible associations and trends were assessed between the immunoexpression of each protein and tumor type as well as specific parameters of malignancy. High intratumor frequency of cellular p53 immunostaining was observed (61.96% average), but lower frequencies of p21 and p16 expression were present (34.65% and 10.41%, respectively). The p53 overexpression was associated with tumor infiltration (P = .0258). Expression of p21 was lower in undifferentiated carcinomas, and the loss of expression was associated with histopathological parameters characteristic of a poor prognosis such as lymphatic vessel invasion (P = .0258). The lack of p16 immunoreactivity was related to histopathological characteristics of malignancy such as the presence of evident and multiple nucleoli (P = .0475). In contrast, deep tumor infiltration was observed in those carcinomas with a high p16 index (P = .0475). Hsp70 appeared to be overexpressed in all gastric neoplasms included in this study. This is in contrast to Hsp27, because a group of tumors showed complete lack of Hsp27 immunoexpression, whereas the others displayed extensive Hsp27 immunostaining. The differences in Hsp27 did not correlate with any of the histopathological parameters, but Hsp27 immunoexpression was higher in the undifferentiated carcinoma. No significant differences in the expression of the proteins were found in canine gastric carcinomas according to their histological type. These findings may be useful for establishing a prognosis for canine gastric carcinoma.

  7. Sulforaphane Increases Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor, p21 Protein in Human Oral Carcinoma Cells and Nude Mouse Animal Model to Induce G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun-Hee; Han Kwon, Ki; Jung, Ji-Youn; Han, Hye-Suk; Hyun Shim, Jung; Oh, SeJun; Choi, Kyeong-Hee; Choi, Eun-Sun; Shin, Ji-Ae; Leem, Dae-Ho; Soh, Yunjo; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Cho, Sung-Dae

    2010-01-01

    Previously, our group reported that sulforaphane (SFN), a naturally occurring chemopreventive agent from cruciferous vegetables, effectively inhibits the proliferation of KB and YD-10B human oral squamous carcinoma cells by causing apoptosis. In this study, treatment of 20 and 40 µM of SFN for 12 h caused a cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Cell cycle arrest induced by SFN was associated with a significant increase in the p21 protein level and a decrease in cyclin B expression, but there was no change in the cyclin A protein level. In addition, SFN increased the p21 promoter activity significantly. Furthermore, SFN induced p21 protein expression in a nude mouse xenograft model suggesting that SFN is a potent inducer of the p21 protein in human oral squamous carcinoma cells. These findings show that SFN is a promising candidate for molecular-targeting chemotherapy against human oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:20104266

  8. p14ARF Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Nuclear Cyclin D1 in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells: Discrimination between a Good and Bad Prognosis?

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Eileen M.; Tran, Nham; Alling, Nikki; Yagoub, Daniel; Sedger, Lisa M.; Martiniello-Wilks, Rosetta

    2012-01-01

    As part of a cell’s inherent protection against carcinogenesis, p14ARF is upregulated in response to hyperproliferative signalling to induce cell cycle arrest. This property makes p14ARF a leading candidate for cancer therapy. This study explores the consequences of reactivating p14ARF in breast cancer and the potential of targeting p14ARF in breast cancer treatment. Our results show that activation of the p14ARF-p53-p21-Rb pathway in the estrogen sensitive MCF-7 breast cancer cells induces many hallmarks of senescence including a large flat cell morphology, multinucleation, senescence-associated-β-gal staining, and rapid G1 and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. P14ARF also induces the expression of the proto-oncogene cyclin D1, which is most often associated with a transition from G1-S phase and is highly expressed in breast cancers with poor clinical prognosis. In this study, siRNA knockdown of cyclin D1, p21 and p53 show p21 plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of high cyclin D1 expression, cell cycle and growth arrest post-p14ARF induction. High p53 and p14ARF expression and low p21/cyclin D1 did not cause cell-cycle arrest. Knockdown of cyclin D1 stops proliferation but does not reverse senescence-associated cell growth. Furthermore, cyclin D1 accumulation in the nucleus post-p14ARF activation correlated with a rapid loss of nucleolar Ki-67 protein and inhibition of DNA synthesis. Latent effects of the p14ARF-induced cellular processes resulting from high nuclear cyclin D1 accumulation included a redistribution of Ki-67 into the nucleoli, aberrant nuclear growth (multinucleation), and cell proliferation. Lastly, downregulation of cyclin D1 through inhibition of ER abrogated latent recurrence. The mediation of these latent effects by continuous expression of p14ARF further suggests a novel mechanism whereby dysregulation of cyclin D1 could have a double-edged effect. Our results suggest that p14ARF induced-senescence is related to late-onset breast cancer in

  9. Discovery of Small Molecules that Inhibit the Disordered Protein, p27 Kip1

    DOE PAGES

    Iconaru, Luigi I.; Ban, David; Bharatham, Kavitha; ...

    2015-10-28

    In disordered proteins we see that they are highly prevalent in biological systems. They control myriad signaling and regulatory processes, and their levels and/or cellular localization are often altered in human disease. In contrast to folded proteins, disordered proteins, due to conformational heterogeneity and dynamics, are not considered viable drug targets. We challenged this paradigm by identifying through NMR-based screening small molecules that bound specifically, albeit weakly, to the disordered cell cycle regulator, p27 Kip1 (p27). Moreover, two groups of molecules bound to sites created by transient clusters of aromatic residues within p27. Conserved chemical features within these two groupsmore » of small molecules exhibited complementarity to their binding sites within p27, establishing structure-activity relationships for small molecule: disordered protein interactions. Finally, one compound counteracted the Cdk2/cyclin A inhibitory function of p27 in vitro, providing proof-of- principle that small molecules can inhibit the function of a disordered protein (p27) through sequestration in a conformation incapable of folding and binding to a natural regulatory target (Cdk2/cyclin A).« less

  10. p21: A Two-Faced Genome Guardian.

    PubMed

    Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Martin, Olga A; Bonner, William M

    2017-04-01

    Upon DNA damage or other stressors, the tumor suppressor p53 is activated, leading to transient expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) p21. This either triggers momentary G1 cell cycle arrest or leads to a chronic state of senescence or apoptosis, a form of genome guardianship. In the clinic, the presence of p21 has been considered an indicator of wildtype p53 activity. However, recent evidence suggests that p21 also acts as an oncogenic factor in a p53-deficient environment. Here, we discuss the controversial aspects of the two-faced involvement of p21 in cancer and speculate on how this new information may increase our understanding of its role in cancer pathogenesis. Prevailing notions indicate that p21 might also act as antiapoptotic agent, which may have relevant implications for future therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. p21 stability: linking chaperones to a cell cycle checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Liu, Geng; Lozano, Guillermina

    2005-02-01

    Progression through the cell cycle is regulated by numerous proteins, one of which is the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21. A new study identifies a novel protein complex that stabilizes p21. The stability of this complex is critical in effecting the p53-mediated cell cycle checkpoint.

  12. HIRA, the Human Homologue of Yeast Hir1p and Hir2p, Is a Novel Cyclin-cdk2 Substrate Whose Expression Blocks S-Phase Progression

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Caitlin; Nelson, David M.; Ye, Xiaofen; Baker, Kayla; DeCaprio, James A.; Seeholzer, Steven; Lipinski, Marc; Adams, Peter D.

    2001-01-01

    Substrates of cyclin-cdk2 kinases contain two distinct primary sequence motifs: a cyclin-binding RXL motif and one or more phosphoacceptor sites (consensus S/TPXK/R or S/TP). To identify novel cyclin-cdk2 substrates, we searched the database for proteins containing both of these motifs. One such protein is human HIRA, the homologue of two cell cycle-regulated repressors of histone gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Hir1p and Hir2p. Here we demonstrate that human HIRA is an in vivo substrate of a cyclin-cdk2 kinase. First, HIRA bound to and was phosphorylated by cyclin A- and E-cdk2 in vitro in an RXL-dependent manner. Second, HIRA was phosphorylated in vivo on two consensus cyclin-cdk2 phosphoacceptor sites and at least one of these, threonine 555, was phosphorylated by cyclin A-cdk2 in vitro. Third, phosphorylation of HIRA in vivo was blocked by cyclin-cdk2 inhibitor p21cip1. Fourth, HIRA became phosphorylated on threonine 555 in S phase when cyclin-cdk2 kinases are active. Fifth, HIRA was localized preferentially to the nucleus, where active cyclin A- and E-cdk2 are located. Finally, ectopic expression of HIRA in cells caused arrest in S phase and this is consistent with the notion that it is a cyclin-cdk2 substrate that has a role in control of the cell cycle. PMID:11238922

  13. Involvement of cyclin D and p27 in cell proliferation mediated by ROCK inhibitors Y-27632 and Y-39983 during corneal endothelium wound healing.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Naoki; Nakano, Shinichiro; Kay, EunDuck P; Numata, Ryohei; Ota, Aya; Sowa, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Ueno, Morio; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Koizumi, Noriko

    2014-01-15

    To investigate the molecular mechanism of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitors Y-27632 and Y-39983 on corneal endothelial cell (CEC) proliferation and their wound-healing effect. The expression of G1 proteins of the cell cycle and expression of phosphorylated Akt in monkey CECs (MCECs) treated with Y-27632 were determined by Western blotting. The effect of Y-39983 on the proliferation of MCECs and human CECs (HCECs) was evaluated by both Ki67 staining and incorporation of BrdU. As an in vivo study, Y-39983 was topically instilled in a corneal-endothelial partially injured rabbit model, and CEC proliferation was then evaluated. Investigation of the molecular mechanism of Y-27632 on CEC proliferation revealed that Y-27632 facilitated degradation of p27Kip1 (p27), and promoted the expression of cyclin D. When CECs were stimulated with Y-27632, a 1.7-fold increase in the activation of Akt was seen in comparison to the control after 1 hour. The presence of LY294002, the PI 3-kinase inhibitor, sustained the level of p27. When the efficacy of Y-39983 on cell proliferation was measured in a rabbit model, Y-39983 eye-drop instillation demonstrated rapid wound healing in a concentration range of 0.095 to 0.95 mM, whereas Y-27632 demonstrated rapid wound healing in a concentration range of 3 to 10 mM. These findings show that ROCK inhibitors employ both cyclin D and p27 via PI 3-kinase signaling to promote CEC proliferation, and that Y-39983 may be a more potent agent than Y-27632 for facilitating corneal endothelium wound healing.

  14. Initiation and termination of DNA replication during S phase in relation to cyclins D1, E and A, p21WAF1, Cdt1 and the p12 subunit of DNA polymerase δ revealed in individual cells by cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Sufang; Marietta, Y.W.T. Lee; Ernest, Y.C. Lee; Zhang, Zhongtao

    2015-01-01

    During our recent studies on mechanism of the regulation of human DNA polymerase δ in preparation for DNA replication or repair, multiparameter imaging cytometry as exemplified by laser scanning cytometry (LSC) has been used to assess changes in expression of the following nuclear proteins associated with initiation of DNA replication: cyclin A, PCNA, Ki-67, p21WAF1, DNA replication factor Cdt1 and the smallest subunit of DNA polymerase δ, p12. In the present review, rather than focusing on Pol δ, we emphasize the application of LSC in these studies and outline possibilities offered by the concurrent differential analysis of DNA replication in conjunction with expression of the nuclear proteins. A more extensive analysis of the data on a correlation between rates of EdU incorporation, likely reporting DNA replication, and expression of these proteins, is presently provided. New data, specifically on the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E with respect to EdU incorporation as well as on a relationship between expression of cyclin A vs. p21WAF1 and Ki-67 vs. Cdt1, are also reported. Of particular interest is the observation that this approach makes it possible to assess the temporal sequence of degradation of cyclin D1, p21WAF1, Cdt1 and p12, each with respect to initiation of DNA replication and with respect to each other. Also the sequence or reappearance of these proteins in G2 after termination of DNA replication is assessed. The reviewed data provide a more comprehensive presentation of potential markers, whose presence or absence marks the DNA replicating cells. Discussed is also usefulness of these markers as indicators of proliferative activity in cancer tissues that may bear information on tumor progression and have a prognostic value. PMID:26059433

  15. Initiation and termination of DNA replication during S phase in relation to cyclins D1, E and A, p21WAF1, Cdt1 and the p12 subunit of DNA polymerase δ revealed in individual cells by cytometry.

    PubMed

    Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Sufang; Lee, Marietta Y W T; Lee, Ernest Y C; Zhang, Zhongtao

    2015-05-20

    During our recent studies on mechanism of the regulation of human DNA polymerase δ in preparation for DNA replication or repair, multiparameter imaging cytometry as exemplified by laser scanning cytometry (LSC) has been used to assess changes in expression of the following nuclear proteins associated with initiation of DNA replication: cyclin A, PCNA, Ki-67, p21(WAF1), DNA replication factor Cdt1 and the smallest subunit of DNA polymerase δ, p12. In the present review, rather than focusing on Pol δ, we emphasize the application of LSC in these studies and outline possibilities offered by the concurrent differential analysis of DNA replication in conjunction with expression of the nuclear proteins. A more extensive analysis of the data on a correlation between rates of EdU incorporation, likely reporting DNA replication, and expression of these proteins, is presently provided. New data, specifically on the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E with respect to EdU incorporation as well as on a relationship between expression of cyclin A vs. p21(WAF1) and Ki-67 vs. Cdt1, are also reported. Of particular interest is the observation that this approach makes it possible to assess the temporal sequence of degradation of cyclin D1, p21(WAF1), Cdt1 and p12, each with respect to initiation of DNA replication and with respect to each other. Also the sequence or reappearance of these proteins in G2 after termination of DNA replication is assessed. The reviewed data provide a more comprehensive presentation of potential markers, whose presence or absence marks the DNA replicating cells. Discussed is also usefulness of these markers as indicators of proliferative activity in cancer tissues that may bear information on tumor progression and have a prognostic value.

  16. Cyclin A-mediated inhibition of intra-Golgi transport requires p34cdc2.

    PubMed

    Mackay, D; Kieckbusch, R; Adamczewski, J; Warren, G

    1993-12-28

    An in vitro assay was used to study the role of p34cdc2 in cyclin A-mediated vesicular transport inhibition. It was shown that the S-phase kinase p33cdk2 reduced the effect of cyclin A on transport assays performed with sHeLa cytosol, even though histone kinase was strongly activated. Also, transport with FT210 cytosol (which is temperature-sensitive for p34cdc2) was inhibited by cyclin A only at the permissive temperature. However, the phosphatase inhibitor microcystin inhibited transport without any requirement for p34cdc2 activity. These results show that transport is inhibited by cyclin A via p34cdc2, and also by another kinase, possibly downstream of p34cdc2.

  17. p27{sup Kip1} inhibits tissue factor expression

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Breitenstein, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.breitenstein@usz.ch; Cardiovascular Research, Physiology Institute, University of Zurich; Center for Integrative Human Physiology

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •p27{sup Kip1}regulates the expression of tissue factor at the transcriptional level. •This inhibitory effect of p27{sup Kip1} is independently of its cell regulatory action. •The current study provides new insights into a pleiotrophic function of p27{sup Kip1}. -- Abstract: Background: The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) p27{sup Kip1} regulates cell proliferation and thus inhibits atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling. Expression of tissue factor (TF), the key initator of the coagulation cascade, is associated with atherosclerosis. Yet, it has not been studied whether p27{sup Kip1} influences the expression of TF. Methods and results: p27{sup Kip1} overexpression in human aortic endothelial cells wasmore » achieved by adenoviral transfection. Cells were rendered quiescent for 24 h in 0.5% fetal-calf serum. After stimulation with TNF-α (5 ng/ml), TF protein expression and activity was significantly reduced (n = 4; P < 0.001) in cells transfected with p27{sup Kip1}. In line with this, p27{sup Kip1} overexpression reduced cytokine-induced TF mRNA expression (n = 4; P < 0.01) and TF promotor activity (n = 4; P < 0.05). In contrast, activation of the MAP kinases p38, ERK and JNK was not affected by p27{sup Kip1} overexpression. Conclusion: This in vitro study suggests that p27{sup Kip1} inhibits TF expression at the transcriptional level. These data indicate an interaction between p27{sup Kip1} and TF in important pathological alterations such as atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling.« less

  18. Cyclin A recruits p33cdk2 to the cellular transcription factor DRTF1.

    PubMed

    Bandara, L R; Adamczewski, J P; Zamanian, M; Poon, R Y; Hunt, T; Thangue, N B

    1992-01-01

    Cyclins are regulatory molecules that undergo periodic accumulation and destruction during each cell cycle. By activating p34cdc2 and related kinase subunits they control important events required for normal cell cycle progression. Cyclin A, for example, regulates at least two distinct kinase subunits, the mitotic kinase subunit p34cdc2 and related subunit p33cdk2, and is widely believed to be necessary for progression through S phase. However, cyclin A also forms a stable complex with the cellular transcription factor DRTF1 and thus may perform other functions during S phase. DRTF1, in addition, associates with the tumour suppressor retinoblastoma (Rb) gene product and the Rb-related protein p107. We now show, using biologically active fusion proteins, that cyclin A can direct the binding of the cdc2-like kinase subunit, p33cdk2, to complexed DRTF1, containing either Rb or p107, as well as activate its histone H1 kinase activity. Cyclin A cannot, however, direct p34cdc2 to the DRTF1 complex and we present evidence suggesting that the stability of the cyclin A-p33cdk2 complex is influenced by DRTF1 or an associated protein. Cyclin A, therefore, serves as an activating and targeting subunit of p33cdk2. The ability of cyclin A to activate and recruit p33cdk2 to DRTF1 may play an important role in regulating cell cycle progression and moreover defines a mechanism for coupling cell-cycle events to transcriptional initiation.

  19. Tea polyphenols can restrict benzo[a]pyrene-induced lung carcinogenesis by altered expression of p53-associated genes and H-ras, c-myc and cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Manna, Sugata; Mukherjee, Sudeshna; Roy, Anup; Das, Sukta; Panda, Chinmay Kr

    2009-05-01

    The modulatory influence of tea polyphenols (epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate and theaflavin) on benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced lung carcinogenesis in mice was analyzed using histopathological and molecular parameters. Progression of lung lesions was restricted at the hyperplastic stage by tea polyphenols. A significant reduction in cellular proliferative index and an increase in apoptotic index were noted in the restricted lung lesions. High expression of H-ras, c-myc, cyclin D1 and p53 genes was seen at the inflammatory stage (9th week) and in subsequent premalignant lesions, but down-regulation of H-ras at the hyperplastic stage (17th week). Expression of bcl-2 was high in hyperplastic lesions, whereas the expression of mdm2 and bcl-xl increased only at the moderately dysplastic stage (36th week). The tea polyphenols inhibited inflammatory response in the lung lesions on the 9th week, when decreased expression of H-ras and c-myc and increased expression of bax were noted. Prolonged treatment (>9th week) with tea polyphenols resulted in changes in the expression of some additional genes, such as reduced expression of cyclin D1 (from the 17th week), bcl-2 (from the 26th week; mild dysplasia) and p21 (on the 36th week), and high expression of p53 (from the 17th week) and p27 (on the 36th week). These observations indicate that the tea polyphenols can restrict B[a]P-induced lung carcinogenesis by differential modulation of the expression of p53 and its associated genes such as bax, bcl-2, mdm2, p21 and p27, along with H-ras, c-myc and cyclin D1, at different time points.

  20. Expression of the p12 subunit of human DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ), CDK inhibitor p21(WAF1), Cdt1, cyclin A, PCNA and Ki-67 in relation to DNA replication in individual cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Sufang; Xu, Dazhong; Lee, Marietta Ywt; Zhang, Zhongtao; Lee, Ernest Yc; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that the p12 subunit of human DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ4) is degraded by CRL4(Cdt2) which regulates the licensing factor Cdt1 and p21(WAF1) during the G1 to S transition. Presently, we performed multiparameter laser scanning cytometric analyses of changes in levels of p12, Cdt1 and p21(WAF1), detected immunocytochemically in individual cells, vis-à-vis the initiation and completion of DNA replication. The latter was assessed by pulse-labeling A549 cells with the DNA precursor ethynyl-2'-deoxyribose (EdU). The loss of p12 preceded the initiation of DNA replication and essentially all cells incorporating EdU were p12 negative. Completion of DNA replication and transition to G2 phase coincided with the re-appearance and rapid rise of p12 levels. Similar to p12 a decline of p21(WAF1) and Cdt1 was seen at the end of G1 phase and all DNA replicating cells were p21(WAF1) and Cdt1 negative. The loss of p21(WAF1) preceded that of Cdt1 and p12 and the disappearance of the latter coincided with the onset of DNA replication. Loss of p12 leads to conversion of Pol δ4 to its trimeric form, Pol δ3, so that the results provide strong support to the notion that Pol δ3 is engaged in DNA replication during unperturbed progression through the S phase of cell cycle. Also assessed was a correlation between EdU incorporation, likely reflecting the rate of DNA replication in individual cells, and the level of expression of positive biomarkers of replication cyclin A, PCNA and Ki-67 in these cells. Of interest was the observation of stronger correlation between EdU incorporation and expression of PCNA (r = 0.73) than expression of cyclin A (r = 0.47) or Ki-67 (r = 0.47).

  1. Neisseria meningitidis causes cell cycle arrest of human brain microvascular endothelial cells at S phase via p21 and cyclin G2.

    PubMed

    Oosthuysen, Wilhelm F; Mueller, Tobias; Dittrich, Marcus T; Schubert-Unkmeir, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Microbial pathogens have developed several mechanisms to modulate and interfere with host cell cycle progression. In this study, we analysed the effect of the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis on cell cycle in a brain endothelial cell line as well as in primary brain endothelial cells. We found that N.  Meningitidis causes an accumulation of cells in the S phase early at 3 and at 24 h post-infection that was paralleled by a decrease of cells in G2/M phase. Importantly, the outer membrane proteins of the colony opacity-associated (Opa) protein family as well as the Opc protein proved to trigger the accumulation of cells in the S phase. A focused cell cycle reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based array and integrated network analysis revealed changes in the abundance of several cell cycle regulatory mRNAs, including the cell cycle inhibitors p21(WAF1/CIP1) and cyclin G2. These alterations were reflected in changes in protein expression levels and/or relocalization in N. meningitidis-infected cells. Moreover, an increase in p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression was found to be p53 independent. Genetic ablation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) and cyclin G2 abrogated N. meningitidis-induced S phase accumulation. Finally, by measuring the levels of the biomarker 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX, we provide evidence that N. meningitidis induces oxidative DNA damage in infected cells. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. p21 in cancer: intricate networks and multiple activities.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Tarek; Dutta, Anindya

    2009-06-01

    One of the main engines that drives cellular transformation is the loss of proper control of the mammalian cell cycle. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (also known as p21WAF1/Cip1) promotes cell cycle arrest in response to many stimuli. It is well positioned to function as both a sensor and an effector of multiple anti-proliferative signals. This Review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the regulation of p21 and its biological functions with emphasis on its p53-independent tumour suppressor activities and paradoxical tumour-promoting activities, and their implications in cancer.

  3. [Promoting effect of cyclin D1 overexpression on proliferation and epithelial mesenchymal transition of cervical squamous cell carcinoma SiHa cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Liu, S; Cheng, B; Wu, X Z; Ding, S S; Xu, L; Liu, Y; Duan, L; Sun, S Z

    2017-03-08

    Objective: To study effects of cyclin D1 overexpression on the proliferation and differentiation of cervical squamous cell carcinoma SiHa cells and to investigate related signaling molecules. Methods: Primers were designed to amplify the full length of cyclin D1 gene and cyclin D1 gene was amplified by PCR for constructing pcDNA3.1 plasmid vector. The construct was then transfected into SiHa cells, and the cells with stable overexpression of cyclin D1 were established, cyclin D1 gene and protein expression were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Cell growth curve was documented by MTT assay. CK7, E-cadherin, vimentin, Snail gene and protein expression in transfected cells were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of proliferation and differentiation-related genes like CDK4, CDK2, p21, p27, cyclin E, Rb, E2F, E6/E7 and Ki-67. After synchronization of cells, RT-PCR was used to detect of cyclin D1 and p21 mRNA expression at different time points of the cell cycle. Results: The G-3 cells with cyclin D1 overexpression were successfully established. The growth curve and Ki-67 mRNA expression accelerated in G-3 cells.Vimentin and Snail expression significantly increased at both gene and protein levels, while E-cadherin, CK7 gene and protein expression significantly decreased, indicating epithelial mesenchymal transitionoccurred in G-3 cells.Meanwhile, mRNA expression of cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK2, p21, p27, cyclin E, E2F and Rb increased, while E6/E7 and p16 showed no significant change. The expression trends of p21 and cyclin D1 were almost identical with fluctuation at different time points in the cell cycle. Conclusions: Overexpression of cyclin D1 induced by gene transfection promotes proliferation and epithelial mesenchymal transition in SiHa cells.The process is accompanied by up-regulation of CDK4, CDK2, p21, p27 and cyclin E genes.p21 expression increases synchronously with cyclin D1, suggesting a regulatory

  4. The p-ERK–p-c-Jun–cyclinD1 pathway is involved in proliferation of smooth muscle cells after exposure to cigarette smoke extract

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Li, Tianjia; Song, Ting; Ni, Leng

    Highlights: • Smooth muscle cells proliferated after exposure to cigarette smoke extract. • The p-ERK, p-c-Jun, and cyclinD1 expressions increased in the process. • The p-ERK inhibitor, U0126, can reverse these effects. • The p-ERK → p-c-Jun → cyclinD1 pathway is involved in the process. - Abstract: An epidemiological survey has shown that smoking is closely related to atherosclerosis, in which excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) plays a key role. To investigate the mechanism underlying this unusual smoking-induced proliferation, cigarette smoke extract (CSE), prepared as smoke-bubbled phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), was used to induce effects mimicking those exertedmore » by smoking on SMCs. As assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 detection (an improved MTT assay), SMC viability increased significantly after exposure to CSE. Western blot analysis demonstrated that p-ERK, p-c-Jun, and cyclinD1 expression increased. When p-ERK was inhibited using U0126 (inhibitor of p-ERK), cell viability decreased and the expression of p-c-Jun and cyclinD1 was reduced accordingly, suggesting that p-ERK functions upstream of p-c-Jun and cyclinD1. When a c-Jun over-expression plasmid was transfected into SMCs, the level of cyclinD1 in these cells increased. Moreover, when c-Jun was knocked down by siRNA, cyclinD1 levels decreased. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the p-ERK–p-c-Jun–cyclinD1 pathway is involved in the excessive proliferation of SMCs exposed to CSE.« less

  5. Urinary Bladder Lesions after the Chernobyl Accident: Immunohistochemical Assessment of p53, Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, Cyclin D1 and p21WAF1/Cip1

    PubMed Central

    Romanenko, Alina; Lee, Chyi Chia R.; Yamamoto, Shinji; Hori, Taka‐aki; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Zaparin, Wadim; Vinnichenko, Wladimir; Vozianov, Alexander

    1999-01-01

    During the 11‐year period subsequent to the Chernobyl accident, the incidence of urinary bladder cancer in Ukraine has increased from 26.2 to 36.1 per 100,000 population. Cesium‐137 (137Cs) accounts for 80–90% of the incorporated radioactivity in this population, which has been exposed to long‐term, low‐dose ionizing radiation, and 80% of the more labile pool of cesium is excreted via the urine. The present study was performed to evaluate the histopathological features and the immunohistochemical status of p53, p21WAF1/Cip1, cyclin D1 and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) in urinary bladder mucos a of 55 males (49‐92 years old) with benign prostatic hyperplasia who underwent surgery in Kiev, Ukraine, in 1995 and 1996. Group I (28 patients) inhabiting radiocontaminated areas of the country, group II (17 patients) from Kiev city with less radiocontamination and a control group III (10 patients) living in so‐called “clean” areas of Ukraine were compared. In groups I and II, an increase in multiple areas of moderate or severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ was seen in 42 (93%) of 45 cases. In addi tion, two small transitional cell carcinomas were found in one patient in each of groups I and II. Nuclear accumulation of p53, PCNA, cyclin D1, and to a lesser extent p21WAF1/Cip1, was significantly increased in both groups I and II as compared with the control group III, indicating possible transformation events or enhancement of repair activities, that may precede the defect in the regulatory pathway itself, at least in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Our results suggest that early malignant transformation is taking place in the bladder urothelium of people in the radiocontaminated areas of Ukraine and that this could possibly lead sometime in the future to an increased incidence of urinary bladder cancer. PMID:10189884

  6. [Immunohistochemical analysis of cell cycle-regulating protein (p21, p27 and Ki67) expression in endoscopic biopsy samples from patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shigeki; Nishiyama, Yorihiro; Ishizuka, Izumi

    2007-05-01

    We performed an immunohistochemical analysis of cell cycle-regulating protein (p21, p27 and Ki67) expression in endoscopic biopsy samples from the patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) using angled -biopsy forceps. Inflammatory cell accumulation into the lamina propria was detected even in patients with modified Los Angeles (LA) system grades N or M. In grade N or M patients with no changes in the epithelium, the area of p21, p27 and Ki67 positive cells was expanded compared to normal mucosa. The area of p21, p27 and Ki67 positive cells tended to expand upward in the epithelium with GERD severity based on the LA classification grading. These indicate that inflammatory cell infiltration into the lamina propria is initial histological change of GERD.

  7. Loss of nuclear p27 (CDKN1B/KIP1) in colorectal cancer is correlated with microsatellite instability and CIMP.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Shuji; Kawasaki, Takako; Kirkner, Gregory J; Yamaji, Taiki; Loda, Massimo; Fuchs, Charles S

    2007-01-01

    Downregulation of p27 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-1B, CDKN1B or KIP1) is caused by increased ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation in colorectal cancer, and has been associated with poor prognosis. CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is a phenotype of colorectal cancer with extensive promoter methylation, and associated with high degree of microsatellite instability (MSI-H) and BRAF mutations. We have recently shown that both CIMP and MSI-H are inversely associated with downregulation of p21 (CDKN1A or CIP1), another cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. However, no study to date has examined relationship between p27 and CIMP status in colorectal cancer. Using MethyLight assays, we measured DNA methylation in five CIMP-specific gene promoters {CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, MLH1 and NEUROG1} in 706 colorectal cancer samples obtained from two large prospective cohorts. Among the 706 tumors, 112 (16%) were CIMP-high tumors with >or=4/5 methylated promoters. We assessed p27 and p53 expressions by immunohistochemistry. Loss of nuclear p27 expression {observed in 231 tumors (33%)} was significantly associated with CIMP-high, MSI-H and BRAF mutations, and these associations were much more pronounced among p53-negative tumors than p53-positive tumors. When CIMP-high and non-CIMP-high tumors were stratified by MSI status (or KRAS and BRAF status), CIMP-high and MSI-H (but not BRAF mutations) were still significantly associated with nuclear p27 loss. Nuclear p27 loss did not appear to be directly related to CDKN2A (p16) methylation. We conclude that downregulation of nuclear p27 is associated with CIMP-high and MSI-H in colorectal cancer. These associations are stronger among p53 wild-type tumors, implying important interplay of p27 and p53 functions (or dysfunctions) in the development of various molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer.

  8. The negative cell cycle regulators, p27Kip1, p18Ink4c, and GSK-3, play critical role in maintaining quiescence of adult human pancreatic β-cells and restrict their ability to proliferate

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Jeffrey; Milewski, Wieslawa M; Dey, Arunangsu

    2013-01-01

    Adult human pancreatic β-cells are primarily quiescent (G0) yet the mechanisms controlling their quiescence are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate, by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, abundant levels of the critical negative cell cycle regulators, p27(Kip1) and p18(Ink4c), 2 key members of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor family, and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a serine-threonine protein kinase, in islet β-cells of adult human pancreatic tissue. Our data show that p27(Kip1) localizes primarily in β-cell nuclei, whereas, p18(Ink4c) is mostly present in β-cell cytosol. Additionally, p-p27(S10), a phosphorylated form of p27(Kip1), which was shown to interact with and to sequester cyclinD-CDK4/6 in the cytoplasm, is present in substantial amounts in β-cell cytosol. Our immunofluorescence analysis displays similar distribution pattern of p27(Kip1), p-p27(S10), p18(Ink4c) and GSK-3 in islet β-cells of adult mouse pancreatic tissue. We demonstrate marked interaction of p27(Kip1) with cyclin D3, an abundant D-type cyclin in adult human islets, and vice versa as well as with its cognate kinase partners, CDK4 and CDK6. Likewise, we show marked interaction of p18(Ink4c) with CDK4. The data collectively suggest that inhibition of CDK function by p27(Kip1) and p18(Ink4c) contributes to human β-cell quiescence. Consistent with this, we have found by BrdU incorporation assay that combined treatments of small molecule GSK-3 inhibitor and mitogen/s lead to elevated proliferation of human β-cells, which is caused partly due to p27(Kip1) downregulation. The results altogether suggest that ex vivo expansion of human β-cells is achievable via increased proliferation for β-cell replacement therapy in diabetes. PMID:23896637

  9. Apoptosis, cell proliferation and modulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21cip1 in vascular remodelling during vein arterialization in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Borin, Thaiz Ferraz; Miyakawa, Ayumi Aurea; Cardoso, Leandro; de Figueiredo Borges, Luciano; Gonçalves, Giovana Aparecida; Krieger, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Neo-intima development and atherosclerosis limit long-term vein graft use for revascularization of ischaemic tissues. Using a rat model, which is technically less challenging than smaller rodents, we provide evidence that the temporal morphological, cellular, and key molecular events during vein arterialization resemble the human vein graft adaptation. Right jugular vein was surgically connected to carotid artery and observed up to 90 days. Morphometry demonstrated gradual thickening of the medial layer and important formation of neo-intima with deposition of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in the subendothelial layer from day 7 onwards. Transmission electron microscopy showed that SMCs switch from the contractile to synthetic phenotype on day 3 and new elastic lamellae formation occurs from day 7 onwards. Apoptosis markedly increased on day 1, while α-actin immunostaining for SMC almost disappeared by day 3. On day 7, cell proliferation reached the highest level and cellular density gradually increased until day 90. The relative magnitude of cellular changes was higher in the intima vs. the media layer (100 vs. 2 times respectively). Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p27Kip1 and p16INKA remained unchanged, whereas p21Cip1 was gradually downregulated, reaching the lowest levels by day 7 until day 90. Taken together, these data indicate for the first time that p21Cip1 is the main CDKI protein modulated during the arterialization process the rat model of vein arterialization that may be useful to identify and validate new targets and interventions to improve the long-term patency of vein grafts. PMID:19563615

  10. Dixdc1 targets CyclinD1 and p21 via PI3K pathway activation to promote Schwann cell proliferation after sciatic nerve crush

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wu, Weijie; Liu, Qingqing; Liu, Yuxi

    Dixdc1 (DIX domain containing-1), the mammalian homolog of Ccd1 (Coiled-coil-Dishevelled-Axin1), is a protein containing a coiled-coil domain and a Dishevelled-Axin (DIX) domain. As a novel component of the Wnt pathway, Dixdc1 has been reported to be able to promote neural progenitor proliferation and neuronal differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. But there still remains something unknown about Dixdc1 distribution and functions in the lesion and regeneration of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), so we tried to investigate dynamic changes of Dixdc1 expression in a rat sciatic nerve crush (SNC) model in this study. First of all, we detected SNC-induced increased levels ofmore » Dixdc1 in Schwann cells and interestingly identified parallel expression of PCNA (proliferation cell nuclear antigen) with Dixdc1. Besides, we observed up-regulated Dixdc1 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation. Also, we discovered that Dixdc1 could promote G1-S phase transition accompanied with the up-regulation of CyclinD1 and down-regulation of p21. More importantly, enhanced effects of Dixdc1 on cell proliferation were confirmed to be associated with PI3K activation. Not only blocking of the PI3K but Dixdc1 knockdown led to significantly decreased ability for proliferation, as well as down-regulation of CyclinD1 and up-regulation of p21. In summary, these data demonstrated that Dixdc1 might participate in Schwann cell proliferation by targeting CyclinD1 and p21 at least partially through the PI3K/AKT activation. - Highlights: • The dynamic changes and location of Dixdc1 after sciatic nerve crush. • Dixdc1 was associated with Schwann cell proliferation. • Dixdc1 promoted Schwann cell proliferation partly via PI3K/AKT pathway.« less

  11. p27 Nuclear localization and growth arrest caused by perlecan knockdown in human endothelial cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sakai, Katsuya; Oka, Kiyomasa; Matsumoto, Kunio

    2010-02-12

    Perlecan, a secreted heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a major component of the vascular basement membrane and participates in angiogenesis. Here, we used small interference RNA-mediated knockdown of perlecan expression to investigate the regulatory function of perlecan in the growth of human vascular endothelial cells. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced ERK phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression were unchanged by perlecan deficiency in endothelial cells; however, perlecan deficiency inhibited the Rb protein phosphorylation and DNA synthesis induced by bFGF. By contrast to cytoplasmic localization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 in control endothelial cells, p27 was localized in the nucleus and itsmore » expression increased in perlecan-deficient cells, which suggests that p27 mediates inhibition of Rb phosphorylation. In addition to the well-characterized function of perlecan as a co-receptor for heparin-binding growth factors such as bFGF, our results suggest that perlecan plays an indispensible role in endothelial cell proliferation and acts through a mechanism that involves subcellular localization of p27.« less

  12. NF-{kappa}B p65 represses {beta}-catenin-activated transcription of cyclin D1

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hwang, Injoo; Choi, Yong Seok; Jeon, Mi-Ya

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Cyclin D1 transcription is directly activated by {beta}-catenin; however, {beta}-catenin-induced cyclin D1 transcription is reduced by NF-{kappa}B p65. {yields} Protein-protein interaction between NF-{kappa}B p65 and {beta}-catenin might be responsible for p65-mediated repression of cyclin D1. {yields} One of five putative binding sites, located further upstream of other sites, is the major {beta}-catenin binding site in the cyclin D1 promoter. {yields} NF-{kappa}B binding site in cyclin D1 is occupied not only by p65 but also by {beta}-catenin, which is dynamically regulated by the signal. -- Abstract: Signaling crosstalk between the {beta}-catenin and NF-{kappa}B pathways represents a functional network.more » To test whether the crosstalk also occurs on their common target genes, the cyclin D1 promoter was used as a model because it contains binding sites for both proteins. {beta}-catenin activated transcription from the cyclin D1 promoter, while co-expression of NF-{kappa}B p65 reduced {beta}-catenin-induced transcription. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed lithium chloride-induced binding of {beta}-catenin on one of the T-cell activating factor binding sites. More interestingly, {beta}-catenin binding was greatly reduced by NF-{kappa}B p65, possibly by the protein-protein interaction between the two proteins. Such a dynamic and complex binding of {beta}-catenin and NF-{kappa}B on promoters might contribute to the regulated expression of their target genes.« less

  13. Cyclin D2 induces proliferation of cardiac myocytes and represses hypertrophy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Busk, Peter K.; Hinrichsen, Rebecca; Bartkova, Jirina

    2005-03-10

    The myocytes of the adult mammalian heart are considered unable to divide. Instead, mitogens induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We have investigated the effect of adenoviral overexpression of cyclin D2 on myocyte proliferation and morphology. Cardiomyocytes in culture were identified by established markers. Cyclin D2 induced DNA synthesis and proliferation of cardiomyocytes and impaired hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II and serum. At the molecular level, cyclin D2 activated CDK4/6 and lead to pRB phosphorylation and downregulation of the cell cycle inhibitors p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}. Expression of the CDK4/6 inhibitor p16 inhibited proliferation and cyclin D2 overexpressing myocytes became hypertrophic undermore » such conditions. Inhibition of hypertrophy by cyclin D2 correlated with downregulation of p27{sup Kip1}. These data show that hypertrophy and proliferation are highly related processes and suggest that cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is due to low amounts of cell cycle activators unable to overcome the block imposed by cell cycle inhibitors. Cell cycle entry upon hypertrophy may be converted to cell division by increased expression of activators such as cyclin D2.« less

  14. Loss of p27Kip¹ promotes metaplasia in the pancreas via the regulation of Sox9 expression.

    PubMed

    Jeannot, Pauline; Callot, Caroline; Baer, Romain; Duquesnes, Nicolas; Guerra, Carmen; Guillermet-Guibert, Julie; Bachs, Oriol; Besson, Arnaud

    2015-11-03

    p27Kip1 (p27) is a negative regulator of proliferation and a tumor suppressor via the inhibition of cyclin-CDK activity in the nucleus. p27 is also involved in the regulation of other cellular processes, including transcription by acting as a transcriptional co-repressor. Loss of p27 expression is frequently observed in pancreatic adenocarcinomas in human and is associated with decreased patient survival. Similarly, in a mouse model of K-Ras-driven pancreatic cancer, loss of p27 accelerates tumor development and shortens survival, suggesting an important role for p27 in pancreatic tumorigenesis. Here, we sought to determine how p27 might contribute to early events leading to tumor development in the pancreas. We found that K-Ras activation in the pancreas causes p27 mislocalization at pre-neoplastic stages. Moreover, loss of p27 or expression of a mutant p27 that does not bind cyclin-CDKs causes the mislocalization of several acinar polarity markers associated with metaplasia and induces the nuclear expression of Sox9 and Pdx1 two transcription factors involved in acinar-to-ductal metaplasia. Finally, we found that p27 directly represses transcription of Sox9, but not that of Pdx1. Thus, our results suggest that K-Ras activation, the earliest known event in pancreatic carcinogenesis, may cause loss of nuclear p27 expression which results in derepression of Sox9, triggering reprogramming of acinar cells and metaplasia.

  15. BCR-ABL1 promotes leukemia by converting p27 into a cytoplasmic oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Ryan J.; Besson, Arnaud; Jeng, Sophia; Carey, Alyssa; LaTocha, Dorian H.; Fleischman, Angela G.; Duquesnes, Nicolas; Eide, Christopher A.; Vasudevan, Kavin B.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Firpo, Eduardo; Cortes, Jorge E.; McWeeney, Shannon; O’Hare, Thomas; Roberts, James M.; Druker, Brian J.; Deininger, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that p27, a nuclear cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor and tumor suppressor, can acquire oncogenic activities upon mislocalization to the cytoplasm. To understand how these antagonistic activities influence oncogenesis, we dissected the nuclear and cytoplasmic functions of p27 in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a well-characterized malignancy caused by the BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase. p27 is predominantly cytoplasmic in CML and nuclear in normal cells. BCR-ABL1 regulates nuclear and cytoplasmic p27 abundance by kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. p27 knockdown in CML cell lines with predominantly cytoplasmic p27 induces apoptosis, consistent with a leukemogenic role of cytoplasmic p27. Accordingly, a p27 mutant (p27CK−) devoid of Cdk inhibitory nuclear functions enhances leukemogenesis in a murine CML model compared with complete absence of p27. In contrast, p27 mutations that enhance its stability (p27T187A) or nuclear retention (p27S10A) attenuate leukemogenesis over wild-type p27, validating the tumor-suppressor function of nuclear p27 in CML. We conclude that BCR-ABL1 kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms convert p27 from a nuclear tumor suppressor to a cytoplasmic oncogene. These findings suggest that cytoplasmic mislocalization of p27 despite BCR-ABL1 inhibition by tyrosine kinase inhibitors may contribute to drug resistance, and effective therapeutic strategies to stabilize nuclear p27 must also prevent cytoplasmic mislocalization. PMID:25293778

  16. Lost in transcription: p21 repression, mechanisms, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Gartel, Andrei L; Radhakrishnan, Senthil K

    2005-05-15

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 is a major player in cell cycle control and it is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level. Whereas induction of p21 predominantly leads to cell cycle arrest, repression of p21 may have a variety of outcomes depending on the context. In this review, we concentrate on transcriptional repression of p21 by cellular and viral factors, and delve in detail into its possible biological implications and its role in cancer. It seems that the major mode of p21 transcriptional repression by negative regulators is the interference with positive transcription factors without direct binding to the p21 promoter. Specifically, the negative factors may either inhibit binding of positive regulators to the promoter or hinder their transcriptional activity. The ability of p21 to inhibit proliferation may contribute to its tumor suppressor function. Because of this, it is not surprising that a number of oncogenes repress p21 to promote cell growth and tumorigenesis. However, p21 is also an inhibitor of apoptosis and p21 repression may also have an anticancer effect. For example, c-Myc and chemical p21 inhibitors, which repress p21, sensitize tumor cells to apoptosis by anticancer drugs. Further identification of factors that repress p21 is likely to contribute to the better understanding of its role in cancer.

  17. Immunohistochemical study of cyclin A and p16 expression in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Latic, Dragana; Radojevic-Skodric, Sanja; Nikolic, Srdjan; Prvanovic, Mirjana; Lazic, Miodrag; Dzamic, Zoran; Bogdanovic, Ljiljana; Radunovic, Milena; Vukovic, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignant kidney tumor in adults. Dysregulation of the cell cycle can lead to cancer development. In this study, the mitosis-associated cyclin A and p16, a negative controller, were investigated as potential key points in the RCC development. This retrospective study included 74 patients with RCC. The expression of cyclin A and p16 and their correlation to histopathological parameters (TNM stage, histological subtype, nuclear grade, tumor size), gender, age, and clinical outcome were studied and analyzed. The highest median value for cyclin A (40%; range 0-70)) and for p16 (57.5%); range 35-80) were found in the papillary histological subtype. Survival analysis showed that in the group of patients that had died before September 2015, the median value for cyclin A was 20% (range 0-60), which was significantly higher than 5% (range 0-70), found in the group of patients that survived (p=0.019). In relation to the histological subtype, the papillary type of RCC was associated with a significantly higher expression of cyclin A and p16 compared to other subtypes of RCC. High expression of cyclin A indicated worse prognosis, therefore cyclin A could be considered to be a significant prognostic marker.

  18. RNA-Binding Protein FXR1 Regulates p21 and TERC RNA to Bypass p53-Mediated Cellular Senescence in OSCC

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Mrinmoyee; House, Reniqua; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Qie, Shuo; Day, Terrence A.; Neskey, David; Diehl, J. Alan

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBP) regulate numerous aspects of co- and post-transcriptional gene expression in cancer cells. Here, we demonstrate that RBP, fragile X-related protein 1 (FXR1), plays an essential role in cellular senescence by utilizing mRNA turnover pathway. We report that overexpressed FXR1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma targets (G-quadruplex (G4) RNA structure within) both mRNA encoding p21 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A, Cip1) and the non-coding RNA Telomerase RNA Component (TERC), and regulates their turnover to avoid senescence. Silencing of FXR1 in cancer cells triggers the activation of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors, p53, increases DNA damage, and ultimately, cellular senescence. Overexpressed FXR1 binds and destabilizes p21 mRNA, subsequently reduces p21 protein expression in oral cancer cells. In addition, FXR1 also binds and stabilizes TERC RNA and suppresses the cellular senescence possibly through telomerase activity. Finally, we report that FXR1-regulated senescence is irreversible and FXR1-depleted cells fail to form colonies to re-enter cellular proliferation. Collectively, FXR1 displays a novel mechanism of controlling the expression of p21 through p53-dependent manner to bypass cellular senescence in oral cancer cells. PMID:27606879

  19. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57Kip2 regulates cell cycle exit, differentiation, and migration of embryonic cerebral cortical precursors.

    PubMed

    Tury, Anna; Mairet-Coello, Georges; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel

    2011-08-01

    Mounting evidence indicates cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (CKIs) of the Cip/Kip family, including p57(Kip2) and p27(Kip1), control not only cell cycle exit but also corticogenesis. Nevertheless, distinct activities of p57(Kip2) remain poorly defined. Using in vivo and culture approaches, we show p57(Kip2) overexpression at E14.5-15.5 elicits precursor cell cycle exit, promotes transition from proliferation to neuronal differentiation, and enhances process outgrowth, while opposite effects occur in p57(Kip2)-deficient precursors. Studies at later ages indicate p57(Kip2) overexpression also induces precocious glial differentiation, suggesting stage-dependent effects. In embryonic cortex, p57(Kip2) overexpression advances cell radial migration and alters postnatal laminar positioning. While both CKIs induce differentiation, p57(Kip2) was twice as effective as p27(Kip1) in inducing neuronal differentiation and was not permissive to astrogliogenic effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor, suggesting that the CKIs differentially modulate cell fate decisions. At molecular levels, although highly conserved N-terminal regions of both CKIs elicit cycle withdrawal and differentiation, the C-terminal region of p57(Kip2) alone inhibits in vivo migration. Furthermore, p57(Kip2) effects on neurogenesis and gliogenesis require the N-terminal cyclin/CDK binding/inhibitory domains, while previous p27(Kip1) studies report cell cycle-independent functions. These observations suggest p57(Kip2) coordinates multiple stages of corticogenesis and exhibits distinct and common activities compared with related family member p27(Kip1).

  20. Oleanolic acid induces p53-dependent apoptosis via the ERK/JNK/AKT pathway in cancer cell lines in prostatic cancer xenografts in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyeong-Ji; Jo, Hyeon-Ju; Lee, Kwon-Jai; Choi, Jeong Woo; An, Jeung Hee

    2018-05-29

    We evaluated oleanolic acid (OA)-induced anti-cancer activity, apoptotic mechanism, cell cycle status, and MAPK kinase signaling in DU145 (prostate cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer), U87 (human glioblastoma), normal murine liver cell (BNL CL.2) and human foreskin fibroblast cell lines (Hs 68). The IC50 values for OA-induced cytotoxicity were 112.57 in DU145, 132.29 in MCF-7, and 163.60 in U87 cells, respectively. OA did not exhibit toxicity in BNL CL. 2 and Hs 68 cell lines in our experiments. OA, at 100 µg/mL, increased the number of apoptotic cells to 27.0% in DU145, 27.0% in MCF-7, and 15.7% in U87, when compared to control cells. This enhanced apoptosis was due to increases in p53, cytochrome c, Bax, PARP-1 and caspase-3 expression in DU145, MCF-7 and U87 cell lines. OA-treated DU145 cells were arrested in G2 because of the activation of p-AKT, p-JNK, p21 and p27, and the decrease in p-ERK, cyclin B1 and CDK2 expression; OA-treated MCF-7 cells were arrested in G1 owing to the activation of p-JNK, p-ERK, p21, and p27, and the decrease in p-AKT, cyclin D1, CDK4, cyclin E, and CDK2; and OA-treated U87 cells also exhibited G1 phase arrest caused by the increase in p-ERK, p-JNK, p-AKT, p21, and p27, and the decrease in cyclin D1, CDK4, cyclin E and CDK2. Thus, OA arrested the cell cycle at different phases and induced apoptosis in cancer cells. These results suggested that OA possibly altered the expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins differently in varying types of cancer.

  1. Cyclin B Proteolysis and the Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor rum1p Are Required for Pheromone-induced G1 Arrest in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Bodo; Nurse, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The blocking of G1 progression by fission yeast pheromones requires inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase cdc2p associated with the B-cyclins cdc13p and cig2p. We show that cyclosome-mediated degradation of cdc13p and cig2p is necessary for down-regulation of B-cyclin–associated cdc2p kinase activity and for phermone-induced G1 arrest. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor rum1p is also required to maintain this G1 arrest; it binds both cdc13p and cig2p and is specifically required for cdc13p proteolysis. We propose that rum1p acts as an adaptor targeting cdc13p for degradation by the cyclosome. In contrast, the cig2p–cdc2p kinase can be down-regulated, and the cyclin cig2p can be proteolyzed independently of rum1p. We suggest that pheromone signaling inhibits the cig2p–cdc2p kinase, bringing about a transient G1 arrest. As a consequence, rum1p levels increase, thus inhibiting and inducing proteolysis of the cdc13p–cdc2p kinase; this is necessary to maintain G1 arrest. We have also shown that pheromone-induced transcription occurs only in G1 and is independent of rum1p. PMID:9614176

  2. p27Kip1 localizes to detergent-insoluble microdomains within lymphocyte membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Yaroslavskiy, B. B.; Stolz, D. B.; Watkins, S. C.; Alber, S. M.; Bradbury, N. A.; Steinman, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 are associated with poor prognosis in cancer. It is unclear whether this is related strictly to p27Kip1-mediated cell cycle inhibition or to other, possibly extranuclear, roles of this protein. In this study, we examined p27Kip1 expression in quiescent and activated lymphocytes. T-cell membranes have been shown to possess sphingolipid and cholesterol-rich microdomains that are insoluble in non-ionic detergents. These "rafts" provide a scaffold for signaling proteins. Signal transduction coincides with coalescence of these microdomains into larger complexes. METHODS: Localization of p27Kip1 was studied by electron and confocal microscopy. Association of p27Kip1 with membrane microdomains in unstimulated and stimulated lymphocytes was determined using Western blots analysis of isolated membranes variably treated with detergents. RESULTS: We demonstrated that p27Kip1 was present in clusters associated with the plasma membrane in normal lymphocytes. The solubility profile of p27Kip1 in isolated membranes indicated that it was localized to raft structures. When lymphocytes were stimulated, however, p27Kip1 was excluded from aggregated raft complexes. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies, for the first time, the localization of p27 within a membrane microdomain associated with signaling. Because some cell surface signaling complexes lose p27Kip1 upon cellular activation, p27Kip1 may play a functional role in modulating membrane signaling. PMID:11474127

  3. Cell Attachment to the Extracellular Matrix Induces Proteasomal Degradation of p21CIP1 via Cdc42/Rac1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Wenjie; Thullberg, Minna; Zhang, Hongquan; Onischenko, Anatoli; Strömblad, Staffan

    2002-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) inhibitors p21CIP1 and p27KIP1 are negatively regulated by anchorage during cell proliferation, but it is unclear how integrin signaling may affect these Cdk2 inhibitors. Here, we demonstrate that integrin ligation led to rapid reduction of p21CIP1 and p27KIP1 protein levels in three distinct cell types upon attachment to various extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, including fibronectin (FN), or to immobilized agonistic anti-integrin monoclonal antibodies. Cell attachment to FN did not rapidly influence p21CIP1 mRNA levels, while the protein stability of p21CIP1 was decreased. Importantly, the down-regulation of p21CIP1 and p27KIP1 was completely blocked by three distinct proteasome inhibitors, demonstrating that integrin ligation induced proteasomal degradation of these Cdk2 inhibitors. Interestingly, ECM-induced proteasomal proteolysis of a ubiquitination-deficient p21CIP1 mutant (p21K6R) also occurred, showing that the proteasomal degradation of p21CIP1 was ubiquitin independent. Concomitant with our finding that the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 were activated by attachment to FN, constitutively active (ca) Cdc42 and ca Rac1 promoted down-regulation of p21CIP1. However, dominant negative (dn) Cdc42 and dn Rac1 mutants blocked the anchorage-induced degradation of p21CIP1, suggesting that an integrin-induced Cdc42/Rac1 signaling pathway activates proteasomal degradation of p21CIP1. Our results indicate that integrin-regulated proteasomal proteolysis might contribute to anchorage-dependent cell cycle control. PMID:12052868

  4. Intrinsic disorder mediates the diverse regulatory functions of the Cdk inhibitor p21

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuefeng; Fisher, John C.; Mathew, Rose; Ou, Li; Otieno, Steve; Sublett, Jack; Xiao, Limin; Chen, Jianhan; Roussel, Martine F.; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, well-defined three-dimensional structure was thought to be essential for protein function. However, myriad biological functions are performed by highly dynamic, intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). IDPs often fold upon binding their biological targets and frequently exhibit “binding diversity” by targeting multiple ligands. We sought to understand the physical basis of IDP binding diversity and herein report that the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor, p21Cip1, adaptively binds to and inhibits the various Cdk/cyclin complexes that regulate eukaryotic cell division. Based on results from NMR spectroscopy, and biochemical and cellular assays, we show that structural adaptability of a helical sub-domain within p21 termed LH enables two other sub-domains termed D1 and D2 to specifically bind conserved surface features of the cyclin and Cdk subunits, respectively, within otherwise structurally distinct Cdk/cyclin complexes. Adaptive folding upon binding is likely to mediate the diverse biological functions of the thousands of IDPs present in eukaryotes. PMID:21358637

  5. Biochemical Characterization of Complexes with p21, a CDK Inhibitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-01

    of kinases at different stages of the cell cycle or at different times during development . Since p107 is highly related to the retinoblastoma tumor...and Materiel Command, 504 Scott Street, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Cell cycle progression and proliferation are...cells. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Breast Cancer , cell cycle , cyclin-dependent 15. NUMBER OF PAGES cycli-depedent66 kinases (Cdks), p21, p107, growth control

  6. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A regulates cell growth through the p53-p21 pathway

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Kim, Hwa-Young, E-mail: hykim@ynu.ac.kr

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down-regulation of MsrA inhibits normal cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MsrA deficiency leads to an increase in p21 by enhanced p53 acetylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down-regulation of MsrA causes cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 2}/M stage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MsrA is a regulator of cell growth that mediates the p53-p21 pathway. -- Abstract: MsrA is an oxidoreductase that catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide to methionine. Although MsrA is well-characterized as an antioxidant and has been implicated in the aging process and cellular senescence, its roles in cell proliferation are poorly understood. Here, we report a critical role of MsrA in normal cellmore » proliferation and describe the regulation mechanism of cell growth by this protein. Down-regulation of MsrA inhibited cell proliferation, but MsrA overexpression did not promote it. MsrA deficiency led to an increase in p21, a major cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, thereby causing cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 2}/M stage. While protein levels of p53 were not altered upon MsrA deficiency, its acetylation level was significantly elevated, which subsequently activated p21 transcription. The data suggest that MsrA is a regulator of cell growth that mediates the p53-p21 pathway.« less

  7. Adenovirally mediated p53 overexpression diversely influence the cell cycle of HEp-2 and CAL 27 cell lines upon cisplatin and methotrexate treatment.

    PubMed

    Kraljević Pavelić, Sandra; Marjanović, Marko; Poznić, Miroslav; Kralj, Marijeta

    2009-12-01

    p53 gene plays a crucial role in the response to therapy. Since it is inactivated in the majority of human cancers, it is strongly believed that the p53 mutations confer resistance to therapeutics. In this paper we analyzed the influence of two mechanistically diverse antitumor agents--cisplatin and methotrexate on the proliferation and cell cycle of two head and neck squamous cancer cell lines HEp-2 (wild type p53 gene, but HPV 18/E6-inactivated protein) and CAL 27 (mutated p53 gene), along with the influence of adenovirally mediated p53 overexpression in modulation of cisplatin and methoterexate effects, whereby subtoxic vector/compound concentrations were employed. p53 gene was introduced into tumor cells using adenoviral vector (AdCMV-p53). The cell cycle perturbations were measured by two parameter flow cytometry. The expression of p53, p21(WAF1/CIP1) and cyclin B1 proteins was examined using immunocytochemistry and western blot methods. In CAL 27 cells overexpression of p53 completely abrogated high S phase content observed in methotrexate-treated cells into a G1 and slight G2 arrest, while it sustained G2 arrest of the cells treated with cisplatin, along with the reduction of DNA synthesis and cyclin B1 expression. On the other hand, in HEp-2 cell line p53 overexpression slightly slowed down the progression through S phase in cells treated with methotrexate, decreased the cyclin B1 expression only after 24 h, and failed to sustain the G2 arrest after treatment with cisplatin alone. Instead, it increased the population of S phase cells that were not actively synthesizing DNA, sustained cyclin B1 expression and allowed the G2 cells to progress through mitosis. This study demonstrates that adenovirally mediated p53 overexpression at sub-cytotoxic levels enhanced the activity of low doses of cisplatin and methotrexate in HEp-2 and CAL 27 cells through changes in the cell cycle. However, the mechanisms of these effects differ depending on the genetic context and

  8. Effects of histone acetylation and DNA methylation on p21( WAF1) regulation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jing-Yuan; Lu, You-Yong

    2002-06-01

    Cell cycle progression is regulated by interactions between cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). p21(WAF1) is one of the CIP/KIP family which inhibits CDKs activity. Increased expression of p21(WAF1) may play an important role in the growth arrest induced in transformed cells. Although the stability of the p21( WAF1) mRNA could be altered by different signals, cell differentiation and numerous influencing factors. However, recent studies suggest that two known mechanisms of epigenesis, i.e.gene inactivation by methylation in promoter region and changes to an inactive chromatin by histone deacetylation, seem to be the best candidate mechanisms for inactivation of p21( WAF1). To date, almost no coding region p21(WAF1) mutations have been found in tumor cells, despite extensive screening of hundreds of various tumors. Hypermethylation of the p21(WAF1) promoter region may represent an alternative mechanism by which the p21(WAF1/CIP1) gene can be inactivated. The reduction of cellular DNMT protein levels also induces a corresponding rapid increase in the cell cycle regulator p21(WAF1) protein demonstrating a regulatory link between DNMT and p21(WAF1) which is independent of methylation of DNA. Both histone hyperacetylation and hypoacetylation appear to be important in the carcinoma process, and induction of the p21(WAF1) gene by histone hyperacetylation may be a mechanism by which dietary fiber prevents carcinogenesis. Here, we review the influence of histone acetylation and DNA methylation on p21(WAF1) transcription, and affection of pathways or factors associated such as p 53, E2A, Sp1 as well as several histone deacetylation inhibitors.

  9. Identification of the domains in cyclin A required for binding to, and activation of, p34cdc2 and p32cdk2 protein kinase subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, H; Stewart, E; Poon, R; Adamczewski, J P; Gannon, J; Hunt, T

    1992-01-01

    The binding of cyclin A to p34cdc2 and p32cdk2 and the protein kinase activity of the complexes has been measured by cell-free translation of the corresponding mRNA in extracts of frog eggs, followed by immunoprecipitation. A variety of mutant cyclin A molecules have been constructed and tested in this assay. Small deletions and point mutations of highly conserved residues in the 100-residue "cyclin box" abolish binding and activation of both p34cdc2 and p32cdk2. By contrast, large deletions at the N-terminus have no effect on kinase binding and activation, until they remove residues beyond 161, where the first conserved amino acids are found in all known examples of cyclin A. At the C-terminus, removal of 14 or more amino acids abolishes activity. We also demonstrate that deletion of, or point mutations, in the cyclin A homologue of the 10-residue "destruction box," previously described in cyclin B (Glotzer et al., 1991) abolish cyclin proteolysis at the transition from M-phase to interphase. Images PMID:1333843

  10. Identification of the domains in cyclin A required for binding to, and activation of, p34cdc2 and p32cdk2 protein kinase subunits.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, H; Stewart, E; Poon, R; Adamczewski, J P; Gannon, J; Hunt, T

    1992-11-01

    The binding of cyclin A to p34cdc2 and p32cdk2 and the protein kinase activity of the complexes has been measured by cell-free translation of the corresponding mRNA in extracts of frog eggs, followed by immunoprecipitation. A variety of mutant cyclin A molecules have been constructed and tested in this assay. Small deletions and point mutations of highly conserved residues in the 100-residue "cyclin box" abolish binding and activation of both p34cdc2 and p32cdk2. By contrast, large deletions at the N-terminus have no effect on kinase binding and activation, until they remove residues beyond 161, where the first conserved amino acids are found in all known examples of cyclin A. At the C-terminus, removal of 14 or more amino acids abolishes activity. We also demonstrate that deletion of, or point mutations, in the cyclin A homologue of the 10-residue "destruction box," previously described in cyclin B (Glotzer et al., 1991) abolish cyclin proteolysis at the transition from M-phase to interphase.

  11. PCTAIRE1 phosphorylates p27 and regulates mitosis in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Teruki; Krajewska, Maryla; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi; Reed, John C

    2014-10-15

    PCTAIRE1 is distant relative of the cyclin-dependent kinase family that has been implicated in spermatogenesis and neuronal development, but it has not been studied in cancer. Here, we report that PCTAIRE1 is expressed in prostate, breast, and cervical cancer cells, where its RNAi-mediated silencing causes growth inhibition with aberrant mitosis due to defects in centrosome dynamics. PCTAIRE1 was not similarly involved in proliferation of nontransformed cells, including diploid human IMR-90 fibroblasts. Through yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified tumor suppressor p27 as a PCTAIRE1 interactor. In vitro kinase assays showed PCTAIRE1 phosphorylates p27 at Ser10. PCTAIRE1 silencing modulated Ser10 phosphorylation on p27 and led to its accumulation in cancer cells but not in nontransformed cells. In a mouse xenograft model of PPC1 prostate cancer, conditional silencing of PCTAIRE1 restored p27 protein expression and suppressed tumor growth. Mechanistic studies in HeLa cells showed that PCTAIRE1 phosphorylates p27 during the S and M phases of the cell cycle. Notably, p27 silencing was sufficient to rescue cells from mitotic arrest caused by PCTAIRE1 silencing. Clinically, PCTAIRE1 was highly expressed in primary breast and prostate tumors compared with adjacent normal epithelial tissues. Together our findings reveal an unexpected role for PCTAIRE1 in regulating p27 stability, mitosis, and tumor growth, suggesting PCTAIRE1 as a candidate cancer therapeutic target. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Differential targeting of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21CIP1/WAF1, by chelators with anti-proliferative activity in a range of tumor cell-types

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Rayan S.; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Richardson, Des R.

    2015-01-01

    Chelators such as 2-hydroxy-1-napthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (311) and di-2-pyridylketone-4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT) target tumor cell iron pools and inhibit proliferation. These agents also modulate multiple targets, one of which is the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21. Hence, this investigation examined the mechanism of action of these compounds in targeting p21. All the chelators up-regulated p21 mRNA in the five tumor cell-types assessed. In contrast, examining their effect on total p21 protein levels, these agents induced either: (1) down-regulation in MCF-7 cells; (2) up-regulation in SK-MEL-28 and CFPAC-1 cells; or (3) had no effect in LNCaP and SK-N-MC cells. The nuclear localization of p21 was also differentially affected by the ligands depending upon the cell-type, with it being decreased in MCF-7 cells, but increased in SK-MEL-28 and CFPAC-1 cells. Further studies assessing the mechanisms responsible for these effects demonstrated that p21 expression was not correlated with p53 status, suggesting a p53-independent mechanism. Considering this, we examined proteins that modulate p21 independently of p53, namely NDRG1, MDM2 and ΔNp63. These studies demonstrated that a dominant negative MDM2 isoform (p75MDM2) closely resembled p21 expression in response to chelation in three cell lines. These data suggest MDM2 may be involved in the regulation of p21 by chelators. PMID:26335183

  13. Akt/p27kip1 Pathway Is Not Involved in Human Insulinoma Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Andrea Paes; Garibaldi, Paula; Rubio, Maria de los Milagros; García, Florencia; Kral, Marta; Bruno, Oscar D.

    2018-01-01

    Insulinomas are pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET), usually benign. Akt/p27kip1 is an intracellular pathway overexpressed in many pNET. There are no data regarding its expression in human insulinomas. We aimed to investigate the expression of Akt and p27kip1 in 24 human insulinomas and to compare them to their expression in normal surrounding islets. Staining was performed on embedded paraffin tissue using polyclonal antibodies against total Akt, p-Akt, p27kip1, and pp27kip1. p-Akt was the predominant form in insulinomas; they presented lower Akt and p-Akt expression than normal islets in 83.3% and 87.5% of tumors, respectively. p27kip1 and pp27kip1 were mainly cytoplasmic in both insulinomas and normal tissue. Cytoplasmic pp27kip1 staining was higher in insulinomas and surprisingly nearly half of the insulinomas also presented nuclear p27kip1 (p = 0.029). No differences were observed in the subcellular localization of p27kip1 and activation of Akt between benign and malignant insulinomas. The low expression of Akt seen in insulinomas might explain the usual benign behavior of this type of pNET. Cytoplasmic p27kip1 in both insulinomas and normal islet cells could reflect the low rate of replication of beta cells, while nuclear p27kip1 would seem to indicate stabilization and nuclear anchoring of the cyclin D-Cdk4 complex. Our data seem to suggest that the Akt pathway is not involved in human insulinoma tumorigenesis. PMID:29853883

  14. The intricacies of p21 phosphorylation: protein/protein interactions, subcellular localization and stability.

    PubMed

    Child, Emma S; Mann, David J

    2006-06-01

    p21 was originally described as functioning as a cell cycle regulator via inhibition of both cyclin-dependent kinases and processive DNA replication. Nowadays it is recognized to play other fundamental roles including transcriptional regulation and the modulation of apoptosis. Each of these functions of p21 is achieved through direct p21/protein interactions and the subcellular localization of p21 plays an important part in dictating the binding partners to which p21 is exposed. Over recent years, a number of phosphorylation sites in p21 have been identified, these being targeted by several important intracellular signalling protein kinases. Here we review the state of our knowledge of p21 phosphorylation with respect to the kinases involved and the molecular biological effects of each phosphorylation event.

  15. p21(WAF1/CIP1) and cancer: a shifting paradigm?

    PubMed

    Gartel, Andrei L

    2009-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1) is a key mediator of p53-dependent cell cycle arrest and may play the role of a tumor suppressor in cancer. However, it has been shown that p21 may also act as an oncogene, because it inhibits apoptosis and may promote cell proliferation in some tumors. These data point out to "antagonistic duality" of p21, because it possesses anticancer and procancer properties at the same time. New data suggest that more and more proteins also may play contradictory roles in cancer thus challenging current paradigm of established oncogenes and tumor suppressors. (c) 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. A role for p21 (WAF1) in the cAMP-dependent differentiation of F9 teratocarcinoma cells into parietal endoderm

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Drdova, Blanka; Vachtenheim, Jiri

    2005-03-10

    Combined treatment of teratocarcinoma F9 cells with retinoic acid and dibutyryl-cAMP induces the differentiation into cells with a phenotype resembling parietal endoderm. We show that the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21/WAF1/Cip1 (p21) protein and mRNA are dramatically elevated at the end of this differentiation, concomitantly with the appearance of p21 in the immunoprecipitated CDK2-cyclin E complex. The induction of differentiation markers could not be achieved by expression of ectopic p21 alone and still required treatment with differentiation agents. Clones of F9 cells transfected with sense or antisense p21 cDNA constructs revealed, upon differentiation, upregulated levels of mRNA for thrombomodulin,more » a parietal endoderm-specific marker, or increased fraction of cells in sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle, respectively. Consistent with this observation, whereas p21 was strictly nuclear in undifferentiated cells, a large proportion of differentiated cells had p21 localized also in the cytoplasm, a site associated with the antiapoptotic function of p21. Furthermore, p21 activated the thrombomodulin promoter in transient reporter assays and the p21 mutant defective in binding to cyclin E was equally efficient in activation. The promoter activity in differentiated cells was reduced by cotransfection of p21-specific siRNA or antisense cDNA. Coexpression of p21 increased the activity of the GAL-p300(1-1303) fusion protein on the GAL sites-containing TM promoter. This implies that p21 might act through a derepression of the p300 N-terminal-residing repression domain, thereby enhancing the p300 coactivator function. As differentiation of F9 cells into parietal endoderm-like cells requires the cAMP signaling, the results together suggest that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 may promote specifically this pathway in F9 cells.« less

  17. Deletion of p21/Cdkn1a confers protective effect against prostate tumorigenesis in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anil K.; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p21Cip1/Waf1 (p21) and p27Kip1 (p27) play a determining role in cell cycle progression by regulating CDK activity; however, p21 role in prostate cancer (PCa) is controversial. Whereas p21 upregulation by anticancer agents causes cell cycle arrest in various PCa cell lines, elevated p21 levels have been associated with higher Gleason score, poor survival and increased PCa recurrence. These conflicting findings suggest that more studies are needed to examine p21 role in PCa. Herein, employing genetic approach, transgenic mice harboring p21/Cdkn1a homozygous deletion (p21−/−) were crossed with the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice to characterize in vivo consequences of p21 deletion on prostate tumorigenesis. Lower urogenital tract weight of p21−/−/TRAMP mice was significantly lower than those of p21+/−/TRAMP and TRAMP mice. Histopathology further supported these observations, showing less aggressiveness in prostates of p21−/−/TRAMP. Furthermore, a significantly higher incidence of low-grade prostatic intraepithelial lesions (PIN) with a concomitant reduction in adenocarcinoma incidence was observed in p21−/−/TRAMP mice compared with TRAMP mice. In addition, whereas TRAMP mice showed the presence of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma lesions, no such lesions were observed in p21/TRAMP transgenic mice. Specifically, there was a significant reduction in the severity of lesions in both p21−/−/TRAMP and p21+/−/TRAMP mice compared with TRAMP mice. Together, our data showed that p21 deletion reduces prostate tumorigenesis by slowing-down progression of PIN (pre-malignant) to adenocarcinoma (malignant), suggesting that intact p21 expression is associated with PCa aggressiveness, while its decreased levels may in fact confer protection against prostate tumorigenesis. PMID:23624841

  18. Ground-based transit observations of the HAT-P-18, HAT-P-19, HAT-P-27/WASP40 and WASP-21 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeliger, M.; Kitze, M.; Errmann, R.; Richter, S.; Ohlert, J. M.; Chen, W. P.; Guo, J. K.; Göğüş, E.; Güver, T.; Aydın, B.; Mottola, S.; Hellmich, S.; Fernandez, M.; Aceituno, F. J.; Dimitrov, D.; Kjurkchieva, D.; Jensen, E.; Cohen, D.; Kundra, E.; Pribulla, T.; Vaňko, M.; Budaj, J.; Mallonn, M.; Wu, Z.-Y.; Zhou, X.; Raetz, St.; Adam, C.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Ide, A.; Mugrauer, M.; Marschall, L.; Hackstein, M.; Chini, R.; Haas, M.; Ak, T.; Güzel, E.; Özdönmez, A.; Ginski, C.; Marka, C.; Schmidt, J. G.; Dincel, B.; Werner, K.; Dathe, A.; Greif, J.; Wolf, V.; Buder, S.; Pannicke, A.; Puchalski, D.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2015-08-01

    As part of our ongoing effort to investigate transit timing variations (TTVs) of known exoplanets, we monitored transits of the four exoplanets HAT-P-18b, HAT-P-19b, HAT-P-27b/WASP-40b and WASP-21b. All of them are suspected to show TTVs due to the known properties of their host systems based on the respective discovery papers. During the past three years 46 transit observations were carried out, mostly using telescopes of the Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative. The analyses are used to refine the systems' orbital parameters. In all cases we found no hints for significant TTVs, or changes in the system parameters inclination, fractional stellar radius and planet-to-star radius ratio. However, comparing our results with those available in the literature shows that we can confirm the already published values.

  19. Differential regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in neuroblastoma cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Qiao, Lan; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130021; Paul, Pritha

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •GRP-R signaling differentially regulated the expression of p21 and p27. •Silencing GRP/GRP-R downregulated p21, while p27 expression was upregulated. •Inhibition of GRP/GRP-R signaling enhanced PTEN expression, correlative to the increased expression of p27. •PTEN and p27 co-localized in cytoplasm and silencing PTEN decreased p27 expression. -- Abstract: Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRP-R) are highly expressed in undifferentiated neuroblastoma, and they play critical roles in oncogenesis. We previously reported that GRP activates the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to promote DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression in neuroblastoma cells. Conversely, GRP-R silencing induces cell cycle arrest. Here, we speculated thatmore » GRP/GRP-R signaling induces neuroblastoma cell proliferation via regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. Surprisingly, we found that GRP/GRP-R differentially induced expressions of p21 and p27. Silencing GRP/GRP-R decreased p21, but it increased p27 expressions in neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, we found that the intracellular localization of p21 and p27 in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, respectively. In addition, we found that GRP/GRP-R silencing increased the expression and accumulation of PTEN in the cytoplasm of neuroblastoma cells where it co-localized with p27, thus suggesting that p27 promotes the function of PTEN as a tumor suppressor by stabilizing PTEN in the cytoplasm. GRP/GRP-R regulation of CDK inhibitors and tumor suppressor PTEN may be critical for tumoriogenesis of neuroblastoma.« less

  20. The tumor suppressor functions of p27(kip1) include control of the mesenchymal/amoeboid transition.

    PubMed

    Berton, Stefania; Belletti, Barbara; Wolf, Katarina; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Lovat, Francesca; Vecchione, Andrea; Colombatti, Alfonso; Friedl, Peter; Baldassarre, Gustavo

    2009-09-01

    In many human cancers, p27 downregulation correlates with a worse prognosis, suggesting that p27 levels could represent an important determinant in cell transformation and cancer development. Using a mouse model system based on v-src-induced transformation, we show here that p27 absence is always linked to a more aggressive phenotype. When cultured in three-dimensional contexts, v-src-transformed p27-null fibroblasts undergo a morphological switch from an elongated to a rounded cell shape, accompanied by amoeboid-like morphology and motility. Importantly, the acquisition of the amoeboid motility is associated with a greater ability to move and colonize distant sites in vivo. The reintroduction of different p27 mutants in v-src-transformed p27-null cells demonstrates that the control of cell proliferation and motility represents two distinct functions of p27, both necessary for it to fully act as a tumor suppressor. Thus, we highlight here a new p27 function in driving cell plasticity that is associated with its C-terminal portion and does not depend on the control of cyclin-dependent kinase activity.

  1. The p21 and PCNA partnership: a new twist for an old plot.

    PubMed

    Prives, Carol; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2008-12-15

    The contribution of error-prone DNA polymerases to the DNA damage response has been a subject of great interest in the last decade. Error-prone polymerases are required for translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), a process that involves synthesis past a DNA lesion. Under certain circumstances, TLS polymerases can achieve bypass with good efficiency and fidelity. However, they can also in some cases be mutagenic, and so negative regulators of TLS polymerases would have the important function of inhibiting their recruitment to undamaged DNA templates. Recent work from Livneh's and our groups have provided evidence regarding the role of the cyclin kinase inhibitor p21 as a negative regulator of TLS. Interestingly, both the cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) binding domains of p21 are involved in different aspects of the modulation of TLS, affecting both the interaction between PCNA and the TLS-specific pol eta as well as PCNA ubiquitination status. In line with this, p21 was shown to reduce the efficiency but increase the accuracy of TLS. Hence, in absence of DNA damage p21 may work to impede accidental loading of pol eta to undamaged DNA and avoid consequential mutagenesis. After UV irradiation, when TLS plays a decisive role, p21 is progressively degraded. This might allow gradual release of replication fork blockage by TLS polymerases. For these reasons, in higher eukaryotes p21 might represent a key regulator of the equilibrium between mutagenesis and cell survival.

  2. Ionizing Radiation–Inducible miR-27b Suppresses Leukemia Proliferation via Targeting Cyclin A2

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, Bo; Li, Dongping; Kovalchuk, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Ionizing radiation is a common carcinogen that is important for the development of leukemia. However, the underlying epigenetic mechanisms remain largely unknown. The goal of the study was to explore microRNAome alterations induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in murine thymus, and to determine the role of IR-inducible microRNA (miRNA/miR) in the development of leukemia. Methods and Materials: We used the well-established C57BL/6 mouse model and miRNA microarray profiling to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed in murine thymus in response to irradiation. TIB152 human leukemia cell line was used to determine the role of estrogen receptor–α (ERα) in miR-27bmore » transcription. The biological effects of ectopic miR-27b on leukemogenesis were measured by western immunoblotting, cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle analyses. Results: Here, we have shown that IR triggers the differential expression of miR-27b in murine thymus tissue in a dose-, time- and sex-dependent manner. miR-27b was significantly down-regulated in leukemia cell lines CCL119 and TIB152. Interestingly, ERα was overexpressed in those 2 cell lines, and it was inversely correlated with miR-27b expression. Therefore, we used TIB152 as a model system to determine the role of ERα in miR-27b expression and the contribution of miR-27b to leukemogenesis. β-Estradiol caused a rapid and transient reduction in miR-27b expression reversed by either ERα-neutralizing antibody or ERK1/2 inhibitor. Ectopic expression of miR-27b remarkably suppressed TIB152 cell proliferation, at least in part, by inducing S-phase arrest. In addition, it attenuated the expression of cyclin A2, although it had no effect on the levels of PCNA, PPARγ, CDK2, p21, p27, p-p53, and cleaved caspase-3. Conclusion: Our data reveal that β-estradiol/ERα signaling may contribute to the down-regulation of miR-27b in acute leukemia cell lines through the ERK1/2 pathway, and that miR-27b may function as a

  3. Expression of p27 and c-Myc by immunohistochemistry in breast ductal cancers in African American women.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farhan; Ricks-Santi, Luisel J; Zafar, Rabia; Kanaan, Yasmine; Naab, Tammey

    2018-06-01

    Proteins p27 and c-Myc are both key players in the cell cycle. While p27, a tumor suppressor, inhibits progression from G1 to S phase, c-Myc, a proto-oncogene, plays a key role in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. The objective of our study was to determine the association between expression of c-Myc and the loss of p27 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the four major subtypes of breast cancer (BC) (Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2, and Triple Negative) and with other clinicopathological factors in a population of 202 African-American (AA) women. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed from FFPE tumor blocks from primary ductal breast carcinomas in 202 AA women. Five micrometer sections were stained with a mouse monoclonal antibody against p27 and a rabbit monoclonal antibody against c-Myc. The sections were evaluated for intensity of nuclear reactivity (1-3) and percentage of reactive cells; an H-score was derived from the product of these measurements. Loss of p27 expression and c-Myc overexpression showed statistical significance with ER negative (p < 0.0001), PR negative (p < 0.0001), triple negative (TN) (p < 0.0001), grade 3 (p = 0.038), and overall survival (p = 0.047). There was no statistical significant association between c-Myc expression/p27 loss and luminal A/B and Her2 overexpressing subtypes. In our study, a statistically significant association between c-Myc expression and p27 loss and the triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) was found in AA women. A recent study found that constitutive c-Myc expression is associated with inactivation of the axin 1 tumor suppressor gene. p27 inhibits cyclin dependent kinase2/cyclin A/E complex formation. Axin 1 and CDK inhibitors may represent possible therapeutic targets for TNBC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Examination of the expanding pathways for the regulation of p21 expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong-Sam; Qian, Yingjuan; Chen, Xinbin

    2010-07-01

    p21(Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1) was originally identified as an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, a mediator of p53 in growth suppression and a marker of cellular senescence. p21 is required for proper cell cycle progression and plays a role in cell death, DNA repair, senescence and aging, and induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming. Although transcriptional regulation is considered to be the initial control point for p21 expression, there is growing evidence that post-transcriptional and post-translational regulations play a critical role in p21 expression and activity. This review will briefly discuss the activity of p21 and focus on current knowledge of the determinants that control p21 transcription, mRNA stability and translation, and protein stability and activity. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Up-regulation of miR-95-3p in hepatocellular carcinoma promotes tumorigenesis by targeting p21 expression

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jian; Yao, Yufeng; Song, Qixue; Li, Sisi; Hu, Zhenkun; Yu, Yubing; Hu, Changqing; Da, Xingwen; Li, Hui; Chen, Qiuyun; Wang, Qing K.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant cancers. To elucidate new regulatory mechanisms for heptocarcinogenesis, we investigated the regulation of p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor encoded by CDKN1A, in HCC. The expression level of p21 is decreased with the progression of HCC. Luciferase assays with a luciferase-p21-3′ UTR reporter and its serial deletions identified a 15-bp repressor element at the 3′-UTR of CDKN1A, which contains a binding site for miR-95-3p. Mutation of the binding site eliminated the regulatory effect of miR-95-3p on p21 expression. Posttranscriptional regulation of p21 expression by miR-95-3p is mainly on the protein level (suppression of translation). Overexpression of miR-95-3p in two different HCC cell lines, HepG2 and SMMC7721, significantly promoted cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and cell migration, whereas a miR-95-3p specific inhibitor decreased cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and cell migration. The effects of miR-95-3p on cellular functions were rescued by overexpression of p21. Overexpression of miR-95-3p promoted cell proliferation and tumor growth in HCC xenograft mouse models. Expression of miR-95-3p was significantly higher in HCC samples than in adjacent non-cancerous samples. These results demonstrate that miR-95-3p is a potential new marker for HCC and regulates hepatocarcinogenesis by directly targeting CDKN1A/p21 expression. PMID:27698442

  6. Simian virus 40 large T antigen associates with cyclin A and p33cdk2.

    PubMed

    Adamczewski, J P; Gannon, J V; Hunt, T

    1993-11-01

    In this paper we provide evidence that a fraction of large T antigen of simian virus 40 (SV40) interacts with cyclin A and p33cdk2 in both virus-infected and stably transformed cells. Immunoprecipitates of SV40 large T antigen from SV40-infected or SV40 large-T-antigen-transformed cells contain cyclin A, p33cdk2, and histone H1 kinase activity. Conversely, immunoprecipitates of cyclin A from these cells contain SV40 large T antigen. In this respect, SV40 large T antigen has properties similar to those of the E1A oncogene of adenoviruses and the E7 oncogene of human papillomaviruses.

  7. Recombinant adenovirus-p21 attenuates proliferative responses associated with excessive scarring.

    PubMed

    Gu, Danling; Atencio, Isabella; Kang, David W; Looper, L David; Ahmed, C M I; Levy, Alina; Maneval, Dan; Zepeda, Monica L

    2005-01-01

    Excessive cutaneous scarring is an important clinical disorder resulting in adverse tissue growth and function as well as undesirable cosmetic appearance. p21WAF-1/Cip-1 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that blocks cell cycle progression and inhibits cell proliferation. We used a recombinant adenovirus containing the human p21WAF-1/Cip-1 cDNA (rAd-p21) to evaluate proliferative responses in skin models. In vitro dose-response studies using primary human dermal fibroblasts resulted in a dose-dependent expression of p21WAF-1/Cip-1 protein and a 3- to 80-fold reduction in cell proliferation as measured by 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Further, rAd-p21 reduced type I procollagen production when compared to control virus. A rat polyvinyl alcohol sponge model was used to determine rAd-p21 effects on granulation tissue formation in vivo. Sponges pretreated with a granulation tissue stimulator, rAd-PDGF-B and subsequently rAd-p21 on a second injection, showed a p21WAF-1/Cip-1 specific dose-dependent decrease in percent granulation fill as the rAd-p21 dose increased (p < 0.001). Immunohistochemistry identified human p21WAF-1/Cip-1 expression in sponges treated with rAd-p21 5 days postinjection. Additionally, 5-bromodeoxyuridine and Ki67 staining in sponges treated with rAd-p21 showed a significant decrease in proliferation when compared to rAd-platelet-derived growth factor-B alone or vehicle control groups (p < 0.01). These data support the utility of p21WAF-1/Cip-1 in targeting hyperproliferative disorders of the skin.

  8. The human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 controls cellular proliferation through regulation of p27{sup Kip1} protein levels

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Butz, Nicole; Ruetz, Stephan; Natt, Francois

    2005-02-15

    Ubiquitin-mediated degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27{sup Kip1} was shown to be required for the activation of key cyclin-dependent kinases, thereby triggering the onset of DNA replication and cell cycle progression. Although the SCF{sup Skp2} ubiquitin ligase has been reported to mediate p27{sup Kip1} degradation, the nature of the human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme involved in this process has not yet been determined at the cellular level. Here, we show that antisense oligonucleotides targeting the human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 downregulate its expression, inhibit the degradation of p27{sup Kip1}, and prevent cellular proliferation. Elevation of p27{sup Kip1} protein level is found tomore » be the sole requirement for the inhibition of cellular proliferation induced upon downregulation of Cdc34. Indeed, reducing the expression of p27{sup Kip1} with a specific antisense oligonucleotide is sufficient to reverse the anti-proliferative phenotype elicited by the Cdc34 antisense. Furthermore, downregulation of Cdc34 is found to specifically increase the abundance of the SCF{sup Skp2} ubiquitin ligase substrate p27{sup Kip1}, but has no concomitant effect on the level of IkB{alpha} and {beta}-catenin, which are known substrates of a closely related SCF ligase.« less

  9. CRM-1 knockdown inhibits extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tumor growth by blocking the nuclear export of p27Kip1

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jian; Chen, Yongjun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Bing; Zhou, Yanqiong; Lan, Hongzhen

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a deadly disease which responds poorly to surgery and conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Early diagnosis is difficult due to the anatomical and biological characteristics of cholangiocarcinoma. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and in the present study, we found that p27Kip1 expression was suppressed in the nucleus and increased in the cytoplasm in 53 samples of cholangiocarcinoma from patients with highly malignant tumors (poorly-differentiated and tumor-node-metastsis (TNM) stage III–IV) compared with that in samples from 10 patients with chronic cholangitis. The expression of phosphorylated (p-)p27Kip1 (Ser10), one of the phosphorylated forms of p27Kip1, was increased in the patient samples with increasing malignancy and clinical stage. Coincidentally, chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM-1; also referred to as exportin 1 or Xpo1), a critical protein responsible for protein translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, was also overexpressed in the tumor samples which were poorly differentiated and of a higher clinical stage. Through specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of CRM-1 in the cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC939, we identified an elevation of cytoplasmic p27Kip1 and a decrease of nuclear p27Kip1. Furthermore, the viability and colony formation ability of QBC939 cells was largely reduced with G1 arrest. Consistent with the findings of the in vitro experiments, in a xenograft mouse model, the tumors formed in the CRM-1 knockdown group were markedly smaller and weighed less than those in the control group in vivo. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that the interplay between CRM-1 and p27Kip1 may provide potentially potent biomarkers and functional targets for the development of future cholangiocarcinoma treatments. PMID:27279267

  10. Simian virus 40 large T antigen associates with cyclin A and p33cdk2.

    PubMed Central

    Adamczewski, J P; Gannon, J V; Hunt, T

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we provide evidence that a fraction of large T antigen of simian virus 40 (SV40) interacts with cyclin A and p33cdk2 in both virus-infected and stably transformed cells. Immunoprecipitates of SV40 large T antigen from SV40-infected or SV40 large-T-antigen-transformed cells contain cyclin A, p33cdk2, and histone H1 kinase activity. Conversely, immunoprecipitates of cyclin A from these cells contain SV40 large T antigen. In this respect, SV40 large T antigen has properties similar to those of the E1A oncogene of adenoviruses and the E7 oncogene of human papillomaviruses. Images PMID:8411358

  11. SUMO regulates p21Cip1 intracellular distribution and with p21Cip1 facilitates multiprotein complex formation in the nucleolus upon DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Brun, Sonia; Abella, Neus; Berciano, Maria T; Tapia, Olga; Jaumot, Montserrat; Freire, Raimundo; Lafarga, Miguel; Agell, Neus

    2017-01-01

    We previously showed that p21Cip1 transits through the nucleolus on its way from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and that DNA damage inhibits this transit and induces the formation of p21Cip1-containing intranucleolar bodies (INoBs). Here, we demonstrate that these INoBs also contain SUMO-1 and UBC9, the E2 SUMO-conjugating enzyme. Furthermore, whereas wild type SUMO-1 localized in INoBs, a SUMO-1 mutant, which is unable to conjugate with proteins, does not, suggesting the presence of SUMOylated proteins at INoBs. Moreover, depletion of the SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBC9 or the sumo hydrolase SENP2 changed p21Cip1 intracellular distribution. In addition to SUMO-1 and p21Cip1, cell cycle regulators and DNA damage checkpoint proteins, including Cdk2, Cyclin E, PCNA, p53 and Mdm2, and PML were also detected in INoBs. Importantly, depletion of UBC9 or p21Cip1 impacted INoB biogenesis and the nucleolar accumulation of the cell cycle regulators and DNA damage checkpoint proteins following DNA damage. The impact of p21Cip1 and SUMO-1 on the accumulation of proteins in INoBs extends also to CRM1, a nuclear exportin that is also important for protein translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleolus. Thus, SUMO and p21Cip1 regulate the transit of proteins through the nucleolus, and that disruption of nucleolar export by DNA damage induces SUMO and p21Cip1 to act as hub proteins to form a multiprotein complex in the nucleolus.

  12. SUMO regulates p21Cip1 intracellular distribution and with p21Cip1 facilitates multiprotein complex formation in the nucleolus upon DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Brun, Sonia; Abella, Neus; Berciano, Maria T.; Tapia, Olga; Jaumot, Montserrat; Freire, Raimundo; Lafarga, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    We previously showed that p21Cip1 transits through the nucleolus on its way from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and that DNA damage inhibits this transit and induces the formation of p21Cip1-containing intranucleolar bodies (INoBs). Here, we demonstrate that these INoBs also contain SUMO-1 and UBC9, the E2 SUMO-conjugating enzyme. Furthermore, whereas wild type SUMO-1 localized in INoBs, a SUMO-1 mutant, which is unable to conjugate with proteins, does not, suggesting the presence of SUMOylated proteins at INoBs. Moreover, depletion of the SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBC9 or the sumo hydrolase SENP2 changed p21Cip1 intracellular distribution. In addition to SUMO-1 and p21Cip1, cell cycle regulators and DNA damage checkpoint proteins, including Cdk2, Cyclin E, PCNA, p53 and Mdm2, and PML were also detected in INoBs. Importantly, depletion of UBC9 or p21Cip1 impacted INoB biogenesis and the nucleolar accumulation of the cell cycle regulators and DNA damage checkpoint proteins following DNA damage. The impact of p21Cip1 and SUMO-1 on the accumulation of proteins in INoBs extends also to CRM1, a nuclear exportin that is also important for protein translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleolus. Thus, SUMO and p21Cip1 regulate the transit of proteins through the nucleolus, and that disruption of nucleolar export by DNA damage induces SUMO and p21Cip1 to act as hub proteins to form a multiprotein complex in the nucleolus. PMID:28582471

  13. Multiple functions of p21 in cell cycle, apoptosis and transcriptional regulation after DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Karimian, Ansar; Ahmadi, Yasin; Yousefi, Bahman

    2016-06-01

    An appropriate control over cell cycle progression depends on many factors. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 (also known as p21(WAF1/Cip1)) is one of these factors that promote cell cycle arrest in response to a variety of stimuli. The inhibitory effect of P21 on cell cycle progression correlates with its nuclear localization. P21 can be induced by both p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. Some other important functions attributed to p21 include transcriptional regulation, modulation or inhibition of apoptosis. These functions are largely dependent on direct p21/protein interactions and also on p21 subcellular localizations. In addition, p21 can play a role in DNA repair by interacting with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In this review, we will focus on the multiple functions of p21 in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and gene transcription after DNA damage and briefly discuss the pathways and factors that have critical roles in p21 expression and activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation regulates p27Kip1 stability in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ying-Lin; Li, Ya-Jun; Wang, Jing-Bo; Lu, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Zhen-Xiong; Feng, Shan-Shan; Hu, Jian-Guo; Zhai, Hui-Hong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanism of calcyclin binding protein/Siah-1 interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP) nuclear translocation in promoting the proliferation of gastric cancer (GC) cells. METHODS: The effect of CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation on cell cycle was investigated by cell cycle analysis. Western blot analysis was used to assess the change in expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and proteasome-mediated degradation of p27Kip1. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) analysis was performed to examine the binding of CacyBP/SIP with Skp1. A CacyBP/SIP truncation mutant which lacked the Skp1 binding site was constructed and fused to a fluorescent protein. Subsequently, the effect on Skp1 binding with the fusion protein was examined by co-IP, while localization of fluorescent fusion protein observed by confocal laser microscopy, and change in p27Kip1 protein expression assessed by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation induced by gastrin promoted progression of GC cells from G1 phase. However, while CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation was inhibited using siRNA to suppress CacyBP/SIP expression, cell cycle was clearly inhibited. CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation significantly decreased the level of cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1, increased Cyclin E protein expression whereas the levels of Skp1, Skp2, and CDK2 were not affected. Upon inhibition of CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation, there were no changes in protein levels of p27Kip1 and Cyclin E, while p27Kip1 decrease could be prevented by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Moreover, CacyBP/SIP was found to bind to Skp1 by immunoprecipitation, an event that was abolished by mutant CacyBP/SIP, which also failed to stimulate p27Kip1 degradation, even though the mutant could still translocate into the nucleus. CONCLUSION: CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation contributes to the proliferation of GC cells, and CacyBP/SIP exerts this effect, at least in part, by stimulating ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27

  15. Cyclin-dependent kinase 11p110 (CDK11p110) is crucial for human breast cancer cell proliferation and growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yubing; Han, Chao; Li, Duolu; Yu, Zujiang; Li, Fengmei; Li, Feng; An, Qi; Bai, Huili; Zhang, Xiaojian; Duan, Zhenfeng; Kan, Quancheng

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play important roles in the development of many types of cancers by binding with their paired cyclins. However, the function of CDK11 larger protein isomer, CDK11p110, in the tumorigenesis of human breast cancer remains unclear. In the present study, we explored the effects and molecular mechanisms of CDK11p110 in the proliferation and growth of breast cancer cells by determining the expression of CDK11p110 in breast tumor tissues and examining the phenotypic changes of breast cancer cells after CDK11p110 knockdown. We found that CDK11p110 was highly expressed in breast tumor tissues and cell lines. Tissue microarray analysis showed that elevated CDK11p110 expression in breast cancer tissues significantly correlated with poor differentiation, and was also associated with advanced TNM stage and poor clinical prognosis for breast cancer patients. In vitro knockdown of CDK11p110 by siRNA significantly inhibited cell growth and migration, and dramatically induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Flow cytometry demonstrated that cells were markedly arrested in G1 phase of the cell cycle after CDK11p110 downregulation. These findings suggest that CDK11p110 is critical for the proliferation and growth of breast cancer cells, which highlights CDK11p110 may be a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25990212

  16. Less understood issues: p21(Cip1) in mitosis and its therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Kreis, N-N; Louwen, F; Yuan, J

    2015-04-02

    p21(Cip1) is a multifunctional protein and a key player in regulating different cellular processes. The transcription of p21 is regulated by p53-dependent and -independent pathways. The expression of p21 is increased in response to various cellular stresses to arrest the cell cycle and ensure genomic stability. p21 has been shown to be a tumor suppressor and an oncogene as well. The function of p21 in mitosis has been proposed but not systematically studied. We have recently shown that p21 binds to and inhibits the activity of Cdk1/cyclin B1, and is important for a fine-tuned mitotic progression. Loss of p21 prolongs the duration of mitosis and results in severe mitotic defects like chromosome segregation and cytokinesis failures promoting consequently genomic instability. Moreover, p21 is dramatically stabilized in mitotic tumor cells upon treatment with mitotic agents like paclitaxel or mitotic kinase inhibitors. Increased p21 is mainly localized in the cytoplasm and associates with cell survival indicating a crucial role of p21 in susceptibility to mitotic agents in tumor cells. In this review we will briefly summarize the structure and general physiological functions as well as regulation of p21, discuss in detail its role in mitosis and its potential to serve as a therapeutic target.

  17. BRD4 inhibitor IBET upregulates p27kip/cip protein stability in neuroendocrine tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Matkar, Smita; Xie, Gengchen; An, Chiying; He, Xin; Kong, Xiangchen; Liu, Xiuheng; Hua, Xianxin

    2017-04-03

    The prevalence of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) has recently been increasing. Although various drugs such as Octreotide and its analogs show certain efficacy, NETs in many patients progress and metastasize. It is desirable to develop new interventions to improve the therapy. Here we show that human neuroendocrine tumor BON cells are resistant to several drugs commonly used for NET therapy, including Octreotide that activates somatostatin receptor-induced anti-proliferation, and Capecitabine and Temozolimide that damage DNA. In contrast, an inhibitor (IBET) to an epigenetic regulator, Brd4 that binds acetylated histones and upregulates transcription of multiple genes including protooncogene c-Myc, potently inhibited the NET cells. We found that IBET increased the protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27 kip/cip (or p27), but not its mRNA levels. Moreover, the p27 induction at protein level by IBET was at least partly through increasing the protein stability of p27. The increased protein stability of p27 likely resulted from IBET-mediated suppression of Skp2, an E3 ligase that can mediate p27 degradation by increasing its ubiquitinylation. These findings unravel a new mechanism whereby the IBET-induced repression of proliferation of neuroendocrine cells.

  18. NFκB-mediated cyclin D1 expression by microRNA-21 influences renal cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Bera, Amit; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Dey, Nirmalya; Das, Falguni; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S; Abboud, Hanna E; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2013-12-01

    MicroRNAs regulate post-transcriptomic landscape in many tumors including renal cell carcinoma. We have recently shown significantly increased expression of miR-21 in renal tumors and that this miRNA contributes to the proliferation of renal cancer cells in culture. However, the mechanism by which miR-21 regulates renal cancer cell proliferation is poorly understood. Addiction to constitutive NFκB activity is hallmark of many cancers including renal cancer. Using miR-21 Sponge in renal cancer cells to block endogenous function of miR-21, we show inhibition of phosphorylation of p65 subunit of NFκB, IKKβ and IκB, which results in attenuation of NFκB transcriptional activity. Subtle reduction in the tumor suppressor PTEN has been linked to various malignancies. We showed previously that miR-21 targeted PTEN in renal cancer cells. Inhibition of PTEN by siRNAs restored miR-21 Sponge-induced suppression of phosphorylation of p65, IKKβ, IκB and NFκB transcriptional activity along with reversal of miR-21 Sponge-reduced phosphorylation of Akt. Expression of constitutively active Akt protected against miR-21 Sponge- and PTEN-mediated decrease in p65/IKKβ/IκB phosphorylation and NFκB transcriptional activity. Furthermore, IKKβ and p65 were required for miR-21-induced renal cancer cell proliferation. Interestingly, miR-21 controlled the expression of cyclin D1 through NFκB-dependent transcription. Finally, we demonstrate that miR-21-regulated renal cancer cell proliferation is mediated by cyclin D1 and CDK4. Together, our results establish a molecular order of a phosphatase-kinase couple involving PTEN/Akt/IKKβ and NFκB-dependent cyclin D1 expression for renal carcinoma cell proliferation by increased miR-21 levels. © 2013.

  19. NFκB-mediated cyclin D1 expression by microRNA-21 influences renal cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Amit; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Dey, Nirmalya; Das, Falguni; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.; Abboud, Hanna E.; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs regulate post-transcriptomic landscape in many tumors including renal cell carcinoma. We have recently shown significantly increased expression of miR-21 in renal tumors and that this miRNA contributes to the proliferation of renal cancer cells in culture. However, the mechanism by which miR-21 regulates renal cancer cells proliferation is poorly understood. Addiction to constitutive NFκB activity is hallmark of many cancers including renal cancer. Using miR-21 Sponge in renal cancer cells to block endogenous function of miR-21, we show inhibition of phosphorylation of p65 subunit of NFκB, IKKβ and IκB, which results in attenuation of NFκB transcriptional activity. Subtle reduction in the tumor suppressor PTEN has been linked to various malignancies. We showed previously that miR-21 targeted PTEN in renal cancer cells. Inhibition of PTEN by siRNAs restored miR-21 Sponge-induced suppression of phosphorylation of p65, IKKβ, IκB and NFκB transcriptional activity along with reversal of miR-21 Sponge-reduced phosphorylation of Akt. Expression of constitutively active Akt protected against miR-21 Sponge- and PTEN-mediated decrease in p65/IKKβ/IκB phosphorylation and NFκB transcriptional activity. Furthermore, IKKβ and p65 were required for miR-21-induced renal cancer cell proliferation. Interestingly, miR-21 controlled the expression of cyclin D1 through NFκB-dependent transcription. Finally, we demonstrate that miR-21-regulated renal cancer cell proliferation is mediated by cyclin D1 and CDK4. Together, our results establish a molecular order of a phosphatase-kinase couple involving PTEN/Akt/IKKβ and NFκB-dependent cyclin D1 expression for renal carcinoma cell proliferation by increased miR-21 levels. PMID:23981302

  20. Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E as Markers of Therapeutic Responsiveness in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    address whether cyclin D1 and cyclin E were predictive markers for therapeutic responsiveness in breast cancer. Both estrogen and progesterone ...although whether progesterone is tion of p 18 N K4c and increased association of the CDK stimulatory or inhibitory for normal breast epithelium remains...steroid progesterone and its synthetic ana- p2 7Ki pl and p21 ip 1 available to bind other proteins (8). Thus, logues, progestins, have complex effects

  1. Genetic analysis of the relationship between activation loop phosphorylation and cyclin binding in the activation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc28p cyclin-dependent kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, F R; Levine, K

    2000-01-01

    We showed recently that a screen for mutant CDC28 with improved binding to a defective Cln2p G1 cyclin yielded a spectrum of mutations similar to those yielded by a screen for intragenic suppressors of the requirement for activation loop phosphorylation (T169E suppressors). Recombination among these mutations yielded CDC28 mutants that bypassed the G1 cyclin requirement. Here we analyze further the interrelationship between T169E suppression, interaction with defective cyclin, and G1 cyclin bypass. DNA shuffling of mutations from the various screens and recombination onto a T169E-encoding 3' end yielded CDC28 mutants with strong T169E suppression. Some of the strongest T169E suppressors could suppress the defective Cln2p G1 cyclin even while retaining T169E. The strong T169E suppressors did not exhibit bypass of the G1 cyclin requirement but did so when T169E was reverted to T. These results suggested that for these mutants, activation loop phosphorylation and cyclin binding might be alternative means of activation rather than independent requirements for activation (as with wild type). These results suggest mechanistic overlap between the conformational shift induced by cyclin binding and that induced by activation loop phosphorylation. This conclusion was supported by analysis of suppressors of a mutation in the Cdk phosphothreonine-binding pocket created by cyclin binding. PMID:10747052

  2. Overexpression of microRNA-95-3p suppresses brain metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma through downregulation of cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Su Jin; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Hye Ree; Song, Hye Jin; Lee, Dong Heon; Lee, Hong; Shin, Chang Hoon; Joung, Je-Gun; Kim, Duk-Hwan; Joo, Kyeung Min; Kim, Hyeon Ho

    2015-08-21

    Despite great efforts to improve survival rates, the prognosis of lung cancer patients is still very poor, mainly due to high invasiveness. We developed brain metastatic PC14PE6/LvBr4 cells through intracardiac injection of lung adenocarcinoma PC14PE6 cells. Western blot and RT-qPCR analyses revealed that PC14PE6/LvBr4 cells had mesenchymal characteristics and higher invasiveness than PC14PE6 cells. We found that cyclin D1 was upregulated, miR-95-3p was inversely downregulated, and pri-miR-95 and its host gene, ABLIM2, were consistently decreased in PC14PE6/LvBr4 cells. MiR-95-3p suppressed cyclin D1 expression through direct binding to the 3' UTR of cyclin D1 mRNA and suppressed invasiveness, proliferation, and clonogenicity of PC14PE6/LvBr4 cells. Ectopic cyclin D1 reversed miR-95-3p-mediated inhibition of invasiveness and clonogenicity, demonstrating cyclin D1 downregulation is involved in function of miR-95-3p. Using bioluminescence imaging, we found that miR-95-3p suppressed orthotopic tumorigenicity and brain metastasis in vivo and increased overall survival and brain metastasis-free survival. Consistent with in vitro metastatic cells, the levels of miR-95-3p, pri-miR-95, and ABLIM2 mRNA were decreased in brain metastatic tissues compared with lung cancer tissues and higher cyclin D1 expression was involved in poor prognosis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that miR-95-3p is a potential therapeutic target for brain metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  3. Accumulation of p21 proteins at DNA damage sites independent of p53 and core NHEJ factors following irradiation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Koike, Manabu, E-mail: m_koike@nirs.go.jp; Yutoku, Yasutomo; Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} p21 accumulated rapidly at laser-irradiated sites via its C-terminal region. {yields} p21 colocalized with the DSB marker {gamma}-H2AX and the DSB sensor Ku80. {yields} Accumulation of p21 is dependent on PCNA, but not p53 and the NHEJ core factors. {yields} Accumulation activity of p21 was conserved among human and animal cells. {yields} p21 is a useful tool as a detection marker of DNA damaged sites. -- Abstract: The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 plays key roles in p53-dependent DNA-damage responses, i.e., cell cycle checkpoints, senescence, or apoptosis. p21 might also play a role in DNA repair. p21 focimore » arise at heavy-ion-irradiated DNA-double-strand break (DSB) sites, which are mainly repaired by nonhomologous DNA-end-joining (NHEJ). However, no mechanisms of p21 accumulation at double-strand break (DSB) sites have been clarified in detail. Recent works indicate that Ku70 and Ku80 are essential for the accumulation of other NHEJ core factors, e.g., DNA-PKcs, XRCC4 and XLF, and other DNA damage response factors, e.g., BRCA1. Here, we show that p21 foci arise at laser-irradiated sites in cells from various tissues from various species. The accumulation of EGFP-p21 was detected in not only normal cells, but also transformed or cancer cells. Our results also showed that EGFP-p21 accumulated rapidly at irradiated sites, and colocalized with the DSB marker {gamma}-H2AX and with the DSB sensor protein Ku80. On the other hand, the accumulation occurred in Ku70-, Ku80-, or DNA-PKcs-deficient cell lines and in human papillomavirus 18-positive cells, whereas the p21 mutant without the PCNA-binding region (EGFP-p21(1-146)) failed to accumulate at the irradiated sites. These findings suggest that the accumulation of p21, but not functional p53 and the NHEJ core factors, is dependent on PCNA. These findings also suggest that the accumulation activity of p21 at DNA damaged sites is conserved among human and animal cells, and p21 is

  4. The assembly, activation, and substrate specificity of Cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Stephan C.; Law, Mary E.; Corsino, Patrick E.; Rowe, Thomas C.; Davis, Bradley J.; Law, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown conflicting data regarding Cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes and, considering the widespread overexpression of Cyclin D1 in cancer, it is important to fully understand their relevance. While many have shown Cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes to form active complexes, others have failed to show activity or association. Here, using a novel p21-PCNA fusion protein as well as p21 mutant proteins, we show that p21 is a required scaffolding protein, with Cyclin D1 and Cdk2 failing to complex in its absence. These p21/Cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes are active and also bind the trimeric PCNA complex, with each trimer capable of independently binding distinct Cyclin/Cdk complexes. We also show that increased p21 levels due to treatment with chemotherapeutic agents result in increased formation and kinase activity of Cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes, and that Cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes are able to phosphorylate a number of substrates in addition to Rb. Nucleophosmin and Cdh1, two proteins important for centrosome replication and implicated in the chromosomal instability of cancer are shown to be phosphorylated by Cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes. Additionally, PSF is identified as a novel Cdk2 substrate, being phosphorylated by Cdk2 complexed with either Cyclin E or Cyclin D1, and given the many functions of PSF, it could have important implications on cellular activity. PMID:23627734

  5. Disassembly of the lens fiber cell nucleus to create a clear lens: The p27 descent.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Sheldon; Chang, Min-Lee; Reznikov, Natalie; Taylor, Allen

    2017-03-01

    The eye lens is unique among tissues: it is transparent, does not form tumors, and the majority of its cells degrade their organelles, including their cell nuclei. A mystery for over a century, there has been considerable recent progress in elucidating mechanisms of lens fiber cell denucleation (LFCD). In contrast to the disassembly and reassembly of the cell nucleus during mitosis, LFCD is a unidirectional process that culminates in destruction of the fiber cell nucleus. Whereas p27 Kip1 , the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, is upregulated during formation of LFC in the outermost cortex, in the inner cortex, in the nascent organelle free zone, p27 Kip1 is degraded, markedly activating cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1). This process results in phosphorylation of nuclear Lamins, dissociation of the nuclear membrane, and entry of lysosomes that liberate DNaseIIβ (DLAD) to cleave chromatin. Multiple cellular pathways, including the ubiquitin proteasome system and the unfolded protein response, converge on post-translational regulation of p27 Kip1 . Mutations that impair these pathways are associated with congenital cataracts and loss of LFCD. These findings highlight new regulatory nodes in the lens and suggest that we are close to understanding this fascinating terminal differentiation process. Such knowledge may offer a new means to confront proliferative diseases including cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Prevents Autoimmune-Associated Down-Regulation of p21 in Salivary Gland Cells Through a p53-Independent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Douglas; Yu, Hongfang; Ohno, Seiji; Thomas, Cristina; DeRossi, Scott; Ma, Yat-Ho; Yates, Nicole; Hahn, Emily; Bisch, Frederick; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Hsu, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The submandibular salivary glands of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model for Sjogren’s syndrome and type-1 diabetes, show an elevated level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a protein involved in cell proliferation and repair of DNA damage. We reported previously that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant green tea catechin, normalizes the PCNA level. PCNA’s activity can be regulated by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, which is also important for epithelial cell differentiation. In turn, expression of p21 and PCNA are partially regulated by Rb phosphorylation levels. EGCG was found to modulate p21 expression in epithelial cells, suggesting that EGCG-induced p21 could be associated with down-regulation of PCNA in vivo. The current study examined the protein levels of p21 and p53 (which can up-regulate p21) in NOD mice fed with either water or EGCG, and the effect of EGCG on p21 and p53 in cell line models with either normal or defective Rb. In NOD mice, the p21 level was low, and EGCG normalized it. In contrast to HSG cells with functional Rb, negligible expression of p21 in NS-SV-AC cells that lack Rb was not altered by EGCG treatment. Inhibition of p53 by siRNA demonstrated that p21 and p53 were induced independently in HSG cells by a physiological concentration range of EGCG, suggesting p53 could be an important but not conditional factor associated with p21 expression. In conclusion, PCNA and p21 levels are altered inversely in the NOD model for SS and in HSG cells, and warrant further study as candidate new markers for salivary dysfunction associated with xerostomia. Induction of p21 by EGCG could provide clinically useful normalization of salivary glands by promoting differentiation and reducing PCNA levels. PMID:24329914

  7. Cytoplasmic p21(Cip1/WAF1) regulates neurite remodeling by inhibiting Rho-kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Toshihide; Asada, Minoru; Mizutani, Shuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tohyama, Masaya

    2002-07-22

    p21(Cip1/WAF1) has cell cycle inhibitory activity by binding to and inhibiting both cyclin/Cdk kinases and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Here we show that p21(Cip1/WAF1) is induced in the cytoplasm during the course of differentiation of chick retinal precursor cells and N1E-115 cells. Ectopic expression of p21(Cip1/WAF1) lacking the nuclear localization signal in N1E-115 cells and NIH3T3 cells affects the formation of actin structures, characteristic of inactivation of Rho. p21(Cip1/WAF1) forms a complex with Rho-kinase and inhibits its activity in vitro and in vivo. Neurite outgrowth and branching from the hippocampal neurons are promoted if p21(Cip1/WAF1) is expressed abundantly in the cytoplasm. These results suggest that cytoplasmic p21(Cip1/WAF1) may contribute to the developmental process of the newborn neurons that extend axons and dendrites into target regions.

  8. p21 induction plays a dual role in anti-cancer activity of ursolic acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xudong; Song, Xinhua; Yin, Shutao; Zhao, Chong; Fan, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that induction of G1 arrest and apoptosis by ursolic acid is associated with up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) protein p21 in multiple types of cancer cells. However, the functional role of p21 induction in G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and the mechanisms of p21 induction by ursolic acid have not been critically addressed. In the current study, we demonstrated that p21 played a mediator role in G1 cell cycle arrest by ursolic acid, whereas p21-mediated up-regulation of Mcl-1 compromised apoptotic effect of ursolic acid. These results suggest that p21 induction plays a dual role in the anti-cancer activity of ursolic acid in terms of cell cycle and apoptosis regulation. p21 induction by ursolic acid was attributed to p53 transcriptional activation. Moreover, we found that ursolic acid was able to inhibit murine double minute-2 protein (MDM2) and T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK), the two negative regulator of p53, which in turn contributed to ursolic acid-induced p53 activation. Our findings provided novel insights into understanding of the mechanisms involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction in response to ursolic acid exposure. PMID:26582056

  9. Characterizations of 9p21 candidate genes in familial melanoma

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Walker, G.J.; Flores, J.F.; Glendening, J.M.

    We have previously collected and characterized 16 melanoma families for the inheritance of a familial melanoma predisposition gene on 9p21. Clear evidence for genetic linkage has been detected in 8 of these families with the 9p21 markers D9S126 and 1FNA, while linkage of the remaining families to this region is less certain. A candidate for the 9p21 familial melanoma gene, the cyclin kinase inhibitor gene p16 (also known as the multiple tumor suppressor 1 (MTS1) gene), has been recently indentified. Notably, a nonsense mutation within the p16 gene has been detected in the lymphoblastoid cell line DNA from a dysplasticmore » nevus syndrome (DNS), or familial melanoma, patient. The p16 gene is also known to be frequently deleted or mutated in a variety of tumor cell lines (including melanoma) and resides within a region that has been defined as harboring the 9p21 melanoma predisposition locus. This region is delineated on the distal side by the marker D9S736 (which resides just distal to the p16 gene) and extends in a proximal direction to the marker D9S171. Overall, the entire distance between these two loci is estimated at 3-5Mb. Preliminary analysis of our two largest 9p21-linked melanoma kindreds (by direct sequencing of PCR products) has not yet revealed mutations within the coding region of the p16 gene. Others have reported that 8/11 unrelated 9p21-linked melanoma families do not appear to carry p16 mutations; thus the possibility exists that p16 is not a melanoma susceptibility gene per se, although it appears to play some role in melanoma tumor progression. Our melanoma kindred DNAs are currently being analyzed by SSCP using primers that amplify exons of other candidate genes from the 9p21 region implicated in familial melanoma. These novel genes reside within a distinct critical region of homozygous loss in melanoma which is located >2 Mb from the p16 gene on 9p21.« less

  10. Establishment of a dog model for the p53 family pathway and identification of a novel isoform of p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Chen, Xiangling; Kent, Michael S.; Rodriguez, Carlos O.; Chen, Xinbin

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous tumors in the dog offer a unique opportunity as models to study human cancer etiology and therapy. p53, the most commonly mutated gene in human cancers, is found to be altered in dog cancers. However, little is known about the role of p53 in dog tumorigenesis. Here, we found that upon exposure to DNA damage agents or Mdm2 inhibitor nutlin-3, canine p53 is accumulated and capable of inducing its target genes, MDM2 and p21. We also found that upon DNA damage, canine p53 is accumulated in the nucleus, followed by MDM2 nuclear translocation and increased 53BP1 foci formation. In addition, we found that canine p63 and p73 are up-regulated by DNA damage agents. Furthermore, colony formation assay showed that canine tumor cells are sensitive to DNA damage agents and nutlin-3 in a p53-dependent manner. Surprisingly, canine p21 is expressed as two isoforms. Thus, we generated multiple canine p21 mutants and found that aa 129 to 142 is required, whereas aa 139 is one of the key determinants, for two p21 isoform expression. Finally, we showed that although the full-length human p21 cDNA expresses one polypeptide, aa 139 appears to play a similar role as that in canine p21 for various migration patterns. Taken together, our results indicate that canine p53 family proteins have biological activities similar to human counterparts. These similarities make the dog as an excellent out-bred spontaneous tumor model and the dog can serve as a translation model from bench-top to cage-side and then to bed-side. PMID:19147538

  11. HSP27 Knockdown Increases Cytoplasmic p21 and Cisplatin Sensitivity in Ovarian Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Sun, Chaoyang; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Bo; Guo, Ensong; Shan, Wanying; Xia, Meng; Li, Kezhen; Weng, Danhui; Meng, Li; Xu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Junbo; Ma, Ding; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance is the leading cause of chemotherapy failure in the treatment of ovarian cancer. So far, little is known about the mechanism of chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. In this study, we explored the mechanism that HSP27 was involved in cisplatin resistance of ovarian cancer both in vitro and clinically. HSP27 protein was found to be upregulated and expressed in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell line C13*, and HSP27 siRNA transfection reversed the chemoresistance of C13*. We found that HSP27 exerted its chemoresistant role by inhibiting p21 transferring from the nucleus to the plasma through the activation of phosphorylated-Akt pathway. These findings have implications for clinical trials aimed at a potential therapeutic target for ovarian tumors that are refractory to conventional treatment.

  12. Oncogenic functions of tumour suppressor p21(Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1): association with cell senescence and tumour-promoting activities of stromal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Roninson, Igor B

    2002-05-08

    p21(Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1) is best known as a broad-specificity inhibitor of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes, but p21 also interacts with many other regulators of transcription or signal transduction. p21 induction, which is mediated by p53 and by p53-independent mechanisms, is essential for the onset of cell cycle arrest in damage response and cell senescence. The effects of p21 knockout in mice and its expression patterns in human cancer are consistent with a role for p21 as both a tumour suppressor and an oncogene. Several functions of p21 are likely to promote carcinogenesis and tumour progression. These include endoreduplication and abnormal mitosis that develop in tumour cells after release from p21-induced growth arrest, the ability of p21 to inhibit apoptosis through several different mechanisms, and its ability to stimulate transcription of secreted factors with mitogenic and anti-apoptotic activities. The latter effects of p21 show close resemblance to paracrine activities of senescent cells and to tumour-promoting functions of stromal fibroblasts. Therapeutic strategies targeting the oncogenic consequences of p21 expression may provide a new approach to chemoprevention and treatment of cancer.

  13. Regulation of T Cell Differentiation and Alloimmunity by the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p18ink4c

    PubMed Central

    Rowell, Emily A.; Wang, Liqing; Chunder, Neelanjana; Hancock, Wayne W.; Wells, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular proliferation in response to mitogenic stimuli is negatively regulated by the Cip/Kip and the Ink4 families of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. Several of these proteins are elevated in anergic T cells, suggesting a potential role in the induction or maintenance of tolerance. Our previous studies showed that p27kip1 is required for the induction of T cell anergy and transplantation tolerance by costimulatory blockade, but a role for Ink4 proteins in these processes has not been established. Here we show that CD4+ T cells from mice genetically deficient for p18ink4c divide more rapidly than wild-type cells in response to antigenic, costimulatory and growth factor signals. However, this gain of proliferative function was accompanied by a moderate increase in the rate of cell death, and was accompanied by an overall defect in the generation of alloreactive IFNγ-producing effector cells. Consistent with this, p18ink4c-deficient T cells were unable to induce graft-vs-host disease in vivo, and p18ink4c deficiency cooperated with costimulatory blockade to significantly increase the survival of fully mismatched allografts in a cardiac transplantation model. While both p18ink4c and p27kip1 act to restrict T cell proliferation, p18ink4c exerts an opposite effect from p27kip1 on alloimmunity and organ transplant rejection, most likely by sustaining T cell survival and the development of effector function. Our studies point to additional important links between the cell cycle machinery and the processes of T cell differentiation, survival and tolerance. PMID:24614758

  14. Dual Role of p21 in the Progression of Cancer and Its Treatment.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Amna; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Kyunn, Whang Wan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer develops due to an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell death. Various mechanisms of carcinogenesis as well as of novel anticancer agents that could be targeted for the treatment of cancer have been proposed by different studies. Among these, p21 is recognized as a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that facilitates cell-cycle arrest by interacting with different stimuli such as p53, DNA repair process, CDK, E2F1, MYC, PCNA, STAT3 AP4, proteasomes, K1F, CDX2, and ER-α. p21 acts both as a tumor-suppressor gene and an inhibitor of apoptosis by interacting with various molecules and transition factors. In this review, we discuss the complex role of p21 in the development of cancer and as a target in its treatment. We conclude that, in the future, the tumor-suppressor activity of p21 should be the focus of a novel treatment strategies, which may lead to the devolvement of new and selective anti-cancer agents for the targeted therapy of cancers.

  15. p21 as a Transcriptional Co-Repressor of S-Phase and Mitotic Control Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ferrándiz, Nuria; Caraballo, Juan M.; García-Gutierrez, Lucía; Devgan, Vikram; Rodriguez-Paredes, Manuel; Lafita, M. Carmen; Bretones, Gabriel; Quintanilla, Andrea; Muñoz-Alonso, M. Jose; Blanco, Rosa; Reyes, Jose C.; Agell, Neus; Delgado, M. Dolores; Dotto, G. Paolo; León, Javier

    2012-01-01

    It has been previously described that p21 functions not only as a CDK inhibitor but also as a transcriptional co-repressor in some systems. To investigate the roles of p21 in transcriptional control, we studied the gene expression changes in two human cell systems. Using a human leukemia cell line (K562) with inducible p21 expression and human primary keratinocytes with adenoviral-mediated p21 expression, we carried out microarray-based gene expression profiling. We found that p21 rapidly and strongly repressed the mRNA levels of a number of genes involved in cell cycle and mitosis. One of the most strongly down-regulated genes was CCNE2 (cyclin E2 gene). Mutational analysis in K562 cells showed that the N-terminal region of p21 is required for repression of gene expression of CCNE2 and other genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that p21 was bound to human CCNE2 and other p21-repressed genes gene in the vicinity of the transcription start site. Moreover, p21 repressed human CCNE2 promoter-luciferase constructs in K562 cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the CDE motif is present in most of the promoters of the p21-regulated genes. Altogether, the results suggest that p21 exerts a repressive effect on a relevant number of genes controlling S phase and mitosis. Thus, p21 activity as inhibitor of cell cycle progression would be mediated not only by the inhibition of CDKs but also by the transcriptional down-regulation of key genes. PMID:22662213

  16. Phosphorylation and Subcellular Localization of p27Kip1 Regulated by Hydrogen Peroxide Modulation in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ibañez, Irene L.; Bracalente, Candelaria; Notcovich, Cintia; Tropper, Ivanna; Molinari, Beatriz L.; Policastro, Lucía L.; Durán, Hebe

    2012-01-01

    The Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1) is a key protein in the decision between proliferation and cell cycle exit. Quiescent cells show nuclear p27Kip1, but this protein is exported to the cytoplasm in response to proliferating signals. We recently reported that catalase treatment increases the levels of p27Kip1 in vitro and in vivo in a murine model. In order to characterize and broaden these findings, we evaluated the regulation of p27Kip1 by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human melanoma cells and melanocytes. We observed a high percentage of p27Kip1 positive nuclei in melanoma cells overexpressing or treated with exogenous catalase, while non-treated controls showed a cytoplasmic localization of p27Kip1. Then we studied the levels of p27Kip1 phosphorylated (p27p) at serine 10 (S10) and at threonine 198 (T198) because phosphorylation at these sites enables nuclear exportation of this protein, leading to accumulation and stabilization of p27pT198 in the cytoplasm. We demonstrated by western blot a decrease in p27pS10 and p27pT198 levels in response to H2O2 removal in melanoma cells, associated with nuclear p27Kip1. Melanocytes also exhibited nuclear p27Kip1 and lower levels of p27pS10 and p27pT198 than melanoma cells, which showed cytoplasmic p27Kip1. We also showed that the addition of H2O2 (0.1 µM) to melanoma cells arrested in G1 by serum starvation induces proliferation and increases the levels of p27pS10 and p27pT198 leading to cytoplasmic localization of p27Kip1. Nuclear localization and post-translational modifications of p27Kip1 were also demonstrated by catalase treatment of colorectal carcinoma and neuroblastoma cells, extending our findings to these other human cancer types. In conclusion, we showed in the present work that H2O2 scavenging prevents nuclear exportation of p27Kip1, allowing cell cycle arrest, suggesting that cancer cells take advantage of their intrinsic pro-oxidant state to favor cytoplasmic localization of p27Kip1. PMID

  17. Cytoplasmic p21Cip1/WAF1 regulates neurite remodeling by inhibiting Rho-kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Toshihide; Asada, Minoru; Mizutani, Shuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tohyama, Masaya

    2002-01-01

    p21Cip1/WAF1 has cell cycle inhibitory activity by binding to and inhibiting both cyclin/Cdk kinases and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Here we show that p21Cip1/WAF1 is induced in the cytoplasm during the course of differentiation of chick retinal precursor cells and N1E-115 cells. Ectopic expression of p21Cip1/WAF1 lacking the nuclear localization signal in N1E-115 cells and NIH3T3 cells affects the formation of actin structures, characteristic of inactivation of Rho. p21Cip1/WAF1 forms a complex with Rho-kinase and inhibits its activity in vitro and in vivo. Neurite outgrowth and branching from the hippocampal neurons are promoted if p21Cip1/WAF1 is expressed abundantly in the cytoplasm. These results suggest that cytoplasmic p21Cip1/WAF1 may contribute to the developmental process of the newborn neurons that extend axons and dendrites into target regions. PMID:12119358

  18. The Regulatory Interactions of p21 and PCNA in Human Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in multiple cellular processes including DNA replication and repair...During DNA replication , PCNA function as an accessory factor- for the DNA polymerases E arid and are part of a multiprotein DNA replication complex...a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21WAF1 ability to inhibit DNA replication in response to DNA damage has been wall characterized. Interestingly

  19. Anti-cancer peptides from ras-p21 and p53 proteins.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Matthew R; Fenelus, Maly; Sarafraz-Yazdi, Ehsan; Adler, Victor; Bowne, Wilbur; Michl, Josef

    2011-01-01

    We have employed computer-based molecular modeling approaches to design peptides from the ras-p21 and p53 proteins that either induce tumor cell reversion to the untransformed phenotype or induce tumor cell necrosis without affecting normal cells. For rasp21, we have computed and superimposed the average low energy structures for the wild-type protein and oncogenic forms of this protein and found that specific domains change conformation in the oncogenic proteins. We have synthesized peptides corresponding to these and found that ras peptides, 35-47 (PNC-7) and 96-110 (PNC-2), block oncogenic ras-p21-induced oocyte maturation but have no effect on insulin-induced oocyte maturation that requires activation of endogenous wild-type ras-p21. These results show signal transduction pathway differences between oncogenic and activated wild-type ras-p21. Both peptides, attached to a membrane-penetrating peptide (membrane residency peptide or MRP), either induce phenotypic reversion to the untransformed phenotype or tumor cell necrosis of several ras-transformed cell lines, but have no effect on the growth of normal cells. Using other computational methods, we have designed two peptides, PNC-27 and 28, containing HDM-2-protein-binding domain sequences from p53 linked on their C-termini to the MRP that induce pore formation in the membranes of a wide range of cancer cells but not any normal cells tested. This is due to the expression of HDM-2 in the cancer cell membrane that does not occur in normal cells. These peptides eradicate a highly malignant tumor in nude mice with no apparent side effects. Both ras and p53 peptides show promise as anti-tumor agents in humans.

  20. In utero exposure to dioxin causes neocortical dysgenesis through the actions of p27Kip1

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, Takayuki; Yonemoto, Junzo; Sone, Hideko; Kosuge, Yasuhiro; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Takahashi, Takao

    2010-01-01

    Dioxins have been reported to exert various adverse effects, including cell-cycle dysregulation in vitro and impairment of spatial learning and memory after in utero exposure in rodents. Furthermore, children born to mothers who are exposed to dioxin analogs polychlorinated dibenzofurans or polychlorinated biphenyls have developmental impairments in cognitive functions. Here, we show that in utero exposure to dioxins in mice alters differentiation patterns of neural progenitors and leads to decreased numbers of non-GABAergic neurons and thinner deep neocortical layers. This reduction in number of non-GABAergic neurons is assumed to be caused by accumulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 in nuclei of neural progenitors. Lending support to this presumption, mice lacking p27Kip1 are not susceptible to in utero dioxin exposure. These results show that environmental pollutants may affect neocortical histogenesis through alterations of functions of specific gene(s)/protein(s) (in our case, dioxins), exerting adverse effects by altering functions of p27Kip1. PMID:20805476

  1. A Cyclin T1 point mutation that abolishes positive transcription elongation factor (P-TEFb) binding to Hexim1 and HIV tat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) plays an essential role in activating HIV genome transcription. It is recruited to the HIV LTR promoter through an interaction between the Tat viral protein and its Cyclin T1 subunit. P-TEFb activity is inhibited by direct binding of its subunit Cyclin T (1 or 2) with Hexim (1 or 2), a cellular protein, bound to the 7SK small nuclear RNA. Hexim1 competes with Tat for P-TEFb binding. Results Mutations that impair human Cyclin T1/Hexim1 interaction were searched using systematic mutagenesis of these proteins coupled with a yeast two-hybrid screen for loss of protein interaction. Evolutionary conserved Hexim1 residues belonging to an unstructured peptide located N-terminal of the dimerization domain, were found to be critical for P-TEFb binding. Random mutagenesis of the N-terminal region of Cyclin T1 provided identification of single amino-acid mutations that impair Hexim1 binding in human cells. Furthermore, conservation of critical residues supported the existence of a functional Hexim1 homologue in nematodes. Conclusions Single Cyclin T1 amino-acid mutations that impair Hexim1 binding are located on a groove between the two cyclin folds and define a surface overlapping the HIV-1 Tat protein binding surface. One residue, Y175, in the centre of this groove was identified as essential for both Hexim1 and Tat binding to P-TEFb as well as for HIV transcription. PMID:24985203

  2. Effects of the Kava Chalcone Flavokawain A Differ in Bladder Cancer Cells with Wild-type versus Mutant p53

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yaxiong; Simoneau, Anne R.; Xie, Jun; Shahandeh, Babbak; Zi, Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    Flavokawain A is the predominant chalcone from kava extract. We have assessed the mechanisms of flavokawain A's action on cell cycle regulation. In a p53 wild-type, low-grade, and papillary bladder cancer cell line (RT4), flavokawain A increased p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1, which resulted in a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) kinase activity and subsequent G1 arrest. The increase of p21/WAF1 protein corresponded to an increased mRNA level, whereas p27/KIP1 accumulation was associated with the down-regulation of SKP2 and then increased the stability of the p27/KIP1 protein. The accumulation of p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1 was independent of cell cycle position and thus not a result of the cell cycle arrest. In contrast, flavokawain A induced a G2-M arrest in six p53 mutant-type, high-grade bladder cancer cell lines (T24, UMUC3, TCCSUP, 5637, HT1376, and HT1197). Flavokawain A significantly reduced the expression of CDK1-inhibitory kinases, Myt1 and Wee1, and caused cyclin B1 protein accumulation leading to CDK1 activation in T24 cells. Suppression of p53 expression by small interfering RNA in RT4 cells restored Cdc25C expression and down-regulated p21/WAF1 expression, which allowed Cdc25C and CDK1 activation and then led to a G2-M arrest and an enhanced growth-inhibitory effect by flavokawain A. Consistently, flavokawain A also caused a pronounced CDK1 activation and G2-M arrest in p53 knockout but not in p53 wild-type HCT116 cells. This selectivity of flavokawain A for inducing a G2-M arrest in p53-defective cells deserves further investigation as a new mechanism for the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:19138991

  3. Oncogenic collaboration of the cyclin D1 (PRAD1, bcl-1) gene with a mutated p53 and an activated ras oncogene in neoplastic transformation.

    PubMed

    Uchimaru, K; Endo, K; Fujinuma, H; Zukerberg, L; Arnold, A; Motokura, T

    1996-05-01

    Cyclin D1 is one of the key regulators in G1 progression in the cell cycle and is also a candidate oncogene (termed PRAD1 or bcl-1) in several types of human tumors. We report a collaboration of the cyclin D1 gene with ras and a mutated form of p53 (p53-mt) in neoplastic transformation. Transfection of cyclin D1 alone or in combination with ras or with p53-mt was not sufficient for focus formation of rat embryonic fibroblasts. However, focus formation induced by co-transfection of ras and p53-mt was enhanced in the presence of the cyclin D1-expression plasmid. Co-transfection of ras- and p53-mt-transformants with the cyclin D1-expression plasmid resulted in reduced serum dependency in vitro. Furthermore, the transformants expressing exogenous cyclin D1 grew faster than those without the cyclin D1 plasmid when injected into nude mice. These observations strengthen the significance of cyclin D1 overexpression through gene rearrangement or gene amplification observed in human tumors as a step in multistep oncogenesis; deregulated expression of cyclin D1 may reduce the requirement for growth factors and may stimulate in vivo growth.

  4. 27 CFR 21.92 - Denaturants listed as U.S.P. or N.F.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....P. or N.F. 21.92 Section 21.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... for Denaturants § 21.92 Denaturants listed as U.S.P. or N.F. Denaturing materials and products listed in this part as “U.S.P.” or “N.F.” shall meet the specifications set forth in the current United...

  5. 27 CFR 21.92 - Denaturants listed as U.S.P. or N.F.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....P. or N.F. 21.92 Section 21.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... for Denaturants § 21.92 Denaturants listed as U.S.P. or N.F. Denaturing materials and products listed in this part as “U.S.P.” or “N.F.” shall meet the specifications set forth in the current United...

  6. 27 CFR 21.92 - Denaturants listed as U.S.P. or N.F.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....P. or N.F. 21.92 Section 21.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... for Denaturants § 21.92 Denaturants listed as U.S.P. or N.F. Denaturing materials and products listed in this part as “U.S.P.” or “N.F.” shall meet the specifications set forth in the current United...

  7. 27 CFR 21.92 - Denaturants listed as U.S.P. or N.F.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....P. or N.F. 21.92 Section 21.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... for Denaturants § 21.92 Denaturants listed as U.S.P. or N.F. Denaturing materials and products listed in this part as “U.S.P.” or “N.F.” shall meet the specifications set forth in the current United...

  8. 27 CFR 21.92 - Denaturants listed as U.S.P. or N.F.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....P. or N.F. 21.92 Section 21.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... for Denaturants § 21.92 Denaturants listed as U.S.P. or N.F. Denaturing materials and products listed in this part as “U.S.P.” or “N.F.” shall meet the specifications set forth in the current United...

  9. Trans, trans-2,4-decadienal induced cell proliferation via p27 pathway in human bronchial epithelial cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chang, Y.-C.; Lin Pinpin

    2008-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to cooking oil fumes (COF) is a risk factor for lung cancer. Trans, trans-2,4-decadienal (tt-DDE), a dienaldehyde, is abundant in heated oils and COF. Previously, we found that long-term exposure (45 days) to a sub-lethal dose (1 {mu}M) of tt-DDE significantly increased growth of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Aims of this study are to understand the mechanism of tt-DDE-induced cell proliferation and possible protective effects of antioxidant, vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in BEAS-2B cells. Utilizing the real-time RT-PCR and Western immunoblotting, wemore » found that p27 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased by 1 {mu}M tt-DDE treatment. Co-treatment with vitamin C or NAC partially prevented tt-DDE-induced cell proliferation. In addition, the downstream targets of p27, including CDK4, cyclin D{sub 1} and phosphorylated-Rb proteins, increased in 1 {mu}M tt-DDE-treated cells and these changes were prevented by NAC co-treatment. Therefore, these results suggest that tt-DDE increased cell proliferation via inhibition of p27 expression, increase in CDK4/cyclin D{sub 1} protein accumulation and enhancement of Rb phosphorylation. Increased cell proliferation is considered as the early stages of lung carcinogenesis. Administration of antioxidants may prevent COF-associated lung carcinogenesis.« less

  10. Deletion of chromosome 9p21 noncoding cardiovascular risk interval in mice alters Smad2 signaling and promotes vascular aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Loinard, Céline; Basatemur, Gemma; Masters, Leanne; Baker, Lauren; Harrison, James; Figg, Nichola; Vilar, José; Sage, Andrew P; Mallat, Ziad

    2014-12-01

    Vascular aneurysm is an abnormal local dilatation of an artery that can lead to vessel rupture and sudden death. The only treatment involves surgical or endovascular repair or exclusion. There is currently no approved medical therapy for this condition. Recent data established a strong association between genetic variants in the 9p21 chromosomal region in humans and the presence of cardiovascular diseases, including aneurysms. However, the mechanisms linking this 9p21 DNA variant to cardiovascular risk are still unknown. Here, we show that deletion of the orthologous 70-kb noncoding interval on mouse chromosome 4 (chr4(Δ70kb/Δ70kb) mice) is associated with reduced aortic expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes p19Arf and p15Inkb. Vascular smooth muscle cells from chr4(Δ70kb/Δ70kb) mice show reduced transforming growth factor-β-dependent canonical Smad2 signaling but increased cyclin-dependent kinase-dependent Smad2 phosphorylation at linker sites, a phenotype previously associated with tumor growth and consistent with the mechanistic link between reduced canonical transforming growth factor-β signaling and susceptibility to vascular diseases. We also show that targeted deletion of the 9p21 risk interval promotes susceptibility to aneurysm development and rupture when mice are subjected to a validated model of aneurysm formation. The vascular disease of chr4(Δ70kb/Δ70kb) mice is prevented by treatment with a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. The results establish a direct mechanistic link between 9p21 noncoding risk interval and susceptibility to aneurysm and may have important implications for the understanding and treatment of vascular diseases. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. The E3 Ligase CHIP Mediates p21 Degradation to Maintain Radioresistance

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Kuntal; Sarkar, Sukumar; Du, Kangping; Brautigan, David L.; Abbas, Tarek; Larner, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer resists radiation therapy, making it one of the deadliest forms of cancer. Here we show that human lung cancer cell lines can be rendered sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR) by RNAi knockdown of C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP/STUB1), a U-box-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets a number of stress-induced proteins. Mechanistically ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 protein is reduced by CHIP knockdown, leading to enhanced senescence of cells in response to exposure to IR. Cellular senescence and sensitivity to IR is prevented by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of the p21 gene (CDKN1A) in CHIP knockdown cells. Conversely, over-expression of CHIP potentiates p21 degradation and promotes greater radioresistance of lung cancer cells. In vitro and cell-based assays demonstrate that p21 is a novel and direct ubiquitylation substrate of CHIP that also requires the CHIP-associated chaperone heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). These data reveal that the inhibition of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP promotes radiosensitivity; thus, suggesting a novel strategy for the treatment of lung cancer. Implications The CHIP-HSP70-p21 ubiquitylation/degradation axis identified here could be exploited to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:28232384

  12. p27kip1 expression distinguishes papillary hyperplasia in Graves' disease from papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Erickson, L A; Yousef, O M; Jin, L; Lohse, C M; Pankratz, V S; Lloyd, R V

    2000-09-01

    In most cases, the histopathologic and cytologic distinction between Graves' disease and papillary thyroid carcinoma is relatively easy, but on occasion Graves' disease may simulate a thyroid papillary carcinoma. For example, papillary fronds with fibrovascular cores may be present in both Graves' disease and papillary carcinoma. p27kip1 (p27) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitory protein that has been shown to be an independent prognostic factor in a variety of human tumors. Our previous studies of p27 expression in hyperplastic and neoplastic endocrine lesions showed that the level of p27 was quite different in these two conditions. To determine if this distinction could also be made between Graves' disease and papillary carcinoma, we analyzed expression of p27 and other cell cycle proteins in a series of cases of Graves' disease with papillary hyperplasia and a series of papillary thyroid carcinomas. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 61 randomly selected patients with thyroid disease, including 29 cases of Graves' disease with papillary architectural features and 32 cases of papillary carcinoma, were analyzed for expression of p27, Ki-67, and DNA topoisomerase II alpha (topo II alpha) by immunostaining. The distribution of immunoreactivity was analyzed by quantifying the percentage of positive nuclei that was expressed as the labeling index (LI) plus or minus the standard error of the mean. The papillary hyperplasia of Graves' disease had a p27 LI of 68.2 +/- 3.1 (range, 24 to 88), whereas papillary carcinomas had a LI of 25.6 +/- 2.5 (range, 12 to 70) (P < .0001). No significant differences in Ki-67 or topo II alpha expression were identified between papillary hyperplasia in Graves' disease and papillary carcinoma. These results indicate that p27 protein expression is significantly higher in papillary hyperplasia of Graves' disease compared to papillary carcinoma, which may be diagnostically useful in difficult cases.

  13. Plasmodium P-Type Cyclin CYC3 Modulates Endomitotic Growth during Oocyst Development in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, David J. P.; Kaindama, Mbinda L.; Brusini, Lorenzo; Joshi, Nimitray; Rchiad, Zineb; Brady, Declan; Guttery, David S.; Wheatley, Sally P.; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Holder, Anthony A.; Pain, Arnab; Wickstead, Bill; Tewari, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Cell-cycle progression and cell division in eukaryotes are governed in part by the cyclin family and their regulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Cyclins are very well characterised in model systems such as yeast and human cells, but surprisingly little is known about their number and role in Plasmodium, the unicellular protozoan parasite that causes malaria. Malaria parasite cell division and proliferation differs from that of many eukaryotes. During its life cycle it undergoes two types of mitosis: endomitosis in asexual stages and an extremely rapid mitotic process during male gametogenesis. Both schizogony (producing merozoites) in host liver and red blood cells, and sporogony (producing sporozoites) in the mosquito vector, are endomitotic with repeated nuclear replication, without chromosome condensation, before cell division. The role of specific cyclins during Plasmodium cell proliferation was unknown. We show here that the Plasmodium genome contains only three cyclin genes, representing an unusual repertoire of cyclin classes. Expression and reverse genetic analyses of the single Plant (P)-type cyclin, CYC3, in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear location of the GFP-tagged protein throughout the lifecycle. Deletion of cyc3 resulted in defects in size, number and growth of oocysts, with abnormalities in budding and sporozoite formation. Furthermore, global transcript analysis of the cyc3-deleted and wild type parasites at gametocyte and ookinete stages identified differentially expressed genes required for signalling, invasion and oocyst development. Collectively these data suggest that cyc3 modulates oocyst endomitotic development in Plasmodium berghei. PMID:26565797

  14. Replication of Minute Virus of Mice in Murine Cells Is Facilitated by Virally Induced Depletion of p21

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemi, Richard O.

    2012-01-01

    The DNA damage response to infection with minute virus of mice (MVM) leads to activated p53; however, p21 levels are reduced via a proteasome-mediated mechanism. This loss was sustained, as virus replicated in infected cells held at the G2/M border. Addition of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor roscovitine after S-phase entry reduced MVM replication, suggesting that CDK activity was critical for continued viral replication and virus-induced reduction of p21 may thus be necessary to prevent inhibition of CDK. PMID:22623787

  15. Evaluation of the interaction of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 with activator p25 and with p25-derived inhibitor CIP.

    PubMed

    Cardone, Antonio; Albers, R Wayne; Sriram, Ram D; Pant, Harish C

    2010-05-01

    A high-affinity inhibitor protein called CIP, produced by small truncations of p35, was experimentally identified. P35 is a physiological activator of the cyclin-dependent kinase cdk5. P25 is derived from proteolytic truncation of p35 within "stressed" neurons, and it is associated with the hyperphosphorylation of specific neuronal proteins, typically occurring in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. Here, we report a study of the binding mechanisms of the cdk5-p25 and cdk5-CIP complexes. This provides a better understanding of the source of the inhibitory activity of the protein CIP. We use a geometry-based technique to test the hypothesis that p25's truncation increases the flexibility of CIP and thus prevents cdk5 from reaching its active conformation. Our study is based on a geometry-based alignment algorithm, which aligns two given protein conformations with respect to their interfaces. Our results support the flexibility hypothesis and will be used as a basis for targeted molecular dynamics simulations.

  16. Comparative analysis of Homo sapiens and Mus musculus cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor genes p16 (MTS1) and p15 (MTS2).

    PubMed

    Jiang, P; Stone, S; Wagner, R; Wang, S; Dayananth, P; Kozak, C A; Wold, B; Kamb, A

    1995-12-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors are a growing family of molecules that regulate important transitions in the cell cycle. At least one of these molecules, p16, has been implicated in human tumorigenesis while its close homolog, p15, is induced by cell contact and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). To investigate the evolutionary and functional features of p15 and p16, we have isolated mouse (Mus musculus) homologs of each gene. Comparative analysis of these sequences provides evidence that the genes have similar functions in mouse and human. In addition, the comparison suggests that a gene conversion event is part of the evolution of the human p15 and p16 genes.

  17. AMP-18 Targets p21 to Maintain Epithelial Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peili; Li, Yan Chun; Toback, F Gary

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated homeostasis of epithelial cells resulting in disruption of mucosal barrier function is an important pathogenic mechanism in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We have characterized a novel gastric protein, Antrum Mucosal Protein (AMP)-18, that has pleiotropic properties; it is mitogenic, anti-apoptotic and can stimulate formation of tight junctions. A 21-mer synthetic peptide derived from AMP-18 exhibits the same biological functions as the full-length protein and is an effective therapeutic agent in mouse models of IBD. In this study we set out to characterize therapeutic mechanisms and identify molecular targets by which AMP-18 maintains and restores disrupted epithelial homeostasis in cultured intestinal epithelial cells and a mouse model of IBD. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine known to mediate gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal injury in IBD, was used to induce intestinal epithelial cell injury, and study the effects of AMP-18 on apoptosis and the cell cycle. An apoptosis array used to search for targets of AMP-18 in cells exposed to TNF-α identified the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 WAF1/CIP1. Treatment with AMP-18 blunted increases in p21 expression and apoptosis, while reversing disturbed cell cycle kinetics induced by TNF-α. AMP-18 appears to act through PI3K/AKT pathways to increase p21 phosphorylation, thereby reducing its nuclear accumulation to overcome the antiproliferative effects of TNF-α. In vitamin D receptor-deficient mice with TNBS-induced IBD, the observed increase in p21 expression in colonic epithelial cells was suppressed by treatment with AMP peptide. The results indicate that AMP-18 can maintain and/or restore the homeostatic balance between proliferation and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells to protect and repair mucosal barrier homeostasis and function, suggesting a therapeutic role in IBD.

  18. p21WAF1 immunohistochemical expression in breast carcinoma: correlations with clinicopathological data, oestrogen receptor status, MIB1 expression, p53 gene and protein alterations and relapse-free survival.

    PubMed Central

    Barbareschi, M.; Caffo, O.; Doglioni, C.; Fina, P.; Marchetti, A.; Buttitta, F.; Leek, R.; Morelli, L.; Leonardi, E.; Bevilacqua, G.; Dalla Palma, P.; Harris, A. L.

    1996-01-01

    p21 protein (p21) inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases is a critical downstream effector in the p53-specific pathway of growth control. p21 can also be induced by p53-independent pathways in relation to terminal differentiation. We investigated p21 immunoreactivity in normal breast and in 91 breast carcinomas [three in situ ductal carcinomas (DCIS) with microinfiltration and 88 infiltrating carcinomas, 17 of which with an associated DCIS; 57 node negative and 34 node positive] with long-term follow-up (median = 58 months). Seven additional breast carcinomas with known p53 gene mutations were investigated. In normal breast p21 expression was seen in the nuclei of rare luminal cells of acinar structures, and in occasional myoepithelial cells. Poorly differentiated DCIS showed high p21 expression, whereas well-differentiated DCIS tumours showed few p21-reactive cells. p21 was seen in 82 (90%) infiltrating tumours; staining was heterogeneous; the percentage of reactive nuclei ranged from 1% to 35%. High p21 expression (more than 10% of reactive cells) was seen in 24 (26%) cases, and was associated with high tumour grade (P = 0.032); no associations were seen with tumour size, metastases, oestrogen receptor status, MIB1 expression and p53 expression. p21 expression in cases with p53 gene mutations was low in six cases and high in one. High p21 expression was associated with short relapse-free survival (P = 0.003). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8688323

  19. Expressions of p53 and p21 in primary gastric lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Go, J. H.; Yang, W. I.

    2001-01-01

    The p21 overexpression is thought to be a consequence of the p53 induced activation of the p21 gene. The immunohistochemical evaluation of p53 and p21 can be a valuable means of assessing the functional status of the p53 gene product. We examined the overexpression of p21 and p53 proteins in primary gastric lymphomas and the correlation with prognosis. A total of 32 cases of gastric lymphomas was classified into low-grade lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (n=16) and high-grade B-cell lymphomas (n=16). In low-grade lymphomas, only one case showed p53 positivity and all cases were p21-negative. In high-grade lymphomas, seven cases were p53+/p21- (44%), one case was p53+/p21+ (6%), and eight cases were p53-/p21- (50%). The p53+/p21- cases had a much lower percentage of patients sustaining a continuous complete remission state (3/7, 43%) compared with other cases (6/7, 86%). From these results, we concluded that p21 expression is rare in primary gastric lymphomas. Therefore, p53-positive lymphomas can be assumed as having p53 mutation. And combined studies of p53 and p21 may be used as a prognostic indicator in primary gastric high-grade lymphomas. PMID:11748353

  20. The E3 Ligase CHIP Mediates p21 Degradation to Maintain Radioresistance.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Kuntal; Sarkar, Sukumar; Du, Kangping; Brautigan, David L; Abbas, Tarek; Larner, James M

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer resists radiotherapy, making it one of the deadliest forms of cancer. Here, we show that human lung cancer cell lines can be rendered sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR) by RNAi knockdown of C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP/STUB1), a U-box-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets a number of stress-induced proteins. Mechanistically, ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, p21 protein, is reduced by CHIP knockdown, leading to enhanced senescence of cells in response to exposure to IR. Cellular senescence and sensitivity to IR is prevented by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of the p21 gene ( CDKN1A) in CHIP knockdown cells. Conversely, overexpression of CHIP potentiates p21 degradation and promotes greater radioresistance of lung cancer cells. In vitro and cell-based assays demonstrate that p21 is a novel and direct ubiquitylation substrate of CHIP that also requires the CHIP-associated chaperone HSP70. These data reveal that the inhibition of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP promotes radiosensitivity, thus suggesting a novel strategy for the treatment of lung cancer. Implications: The CHIP-HSP70-p21 ubiquitylation/degradation axis identified here could be exploited to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 15(6); 651-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Lupeol induces p53 and cyclin-B-mediated G2/M arrest and targets apoptosis through activation of caspase in mouse skin

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nigam, Nidhi; Prasad, Sahdeo; George, Jasmine

    2009-04-03

    Lupeol, present in fruits and medicinal plants, is a biologically active compound that has been shown to have various pharmacological properties in experimental studies. In the present study, we demonstrated the modulatory effect of lupeol on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced alterations on cell proliferation in the skin of Swiss albino mice. Lupeol treatment showed significant (p < 0.05) preventive effects with marked inhibition at 48, 72, and 96 h against DMBA-mediated neoplastic events. Cell-cycle analysis showed that lupeol-induced G2/M-phase arrest (16-37%) until 72 h, and these inhibitory effects were mediated through inhibition of the cyclin-B-regulated signaling pathway involving p53, p21/WAF1, cdc25C, cdc2,more » and cyclin-B gene expression. Further lupeol-induced apoptosis was observed, as shown by an increased sub-G1 peak (28%) at 96 h, with upregulation of bax and caspase-3 genes and downregulation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and survivin genes. Thus, our results indicate that lupeol has novel anti-proliferative and apoptotic potential that may be helpful in designing strategies to fight skin cancer.« less

  2. Age-specific functional epigenetic changes in p21 and p16 in injury-activated satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ju; Han, Suhyoun; Cousin, Wendy; Conboy, Irina M.

    2014-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of muscle dramatically decreases with age because old muscle stem cells fail to proliferate in response to tissue damage. Here we uncover key age-specific differences underlying this proliferative decline: namely, the genetic loci of CDK inhibitors (CDKI) p21 and p16 are more epigenetically silenced in young muscle stem cells, as compared to old, both in quiescent cells and those responding to tissue injury. Interestingly, phosphorylated ERK (pERK) induced in these cells by ectopic FGF-2 is found in association with p21 and p16 promoters, and moreover, only in the old cells. Importantly, in the old satellite cells FGF-2/pERK silences p21 epigenetically and transcriptionally, which leads to reduced p21 protein levels and enhanced cell proliferation. In agreement with the epigenetic silencing of the loci, young muscle stem cells do not depend as much as old on ectopic FGF/pERK for their myogenic proliferation. In addition, other CDKIs, such asp15INK4B and p27KIP1, become elevated in satellite cells with age, confirming and explaining the profound regenerative defect of old muscle. This work enhances our understanding of tissue aging, promoting strategies for combating age-imposed tissue degeneration. PMID:25447026

  3. Cyclin-dependent Kinases Phosphorylate the Cytomegalovirus RNA Export Protein pUL69 and Modulate Its Nuclear Localization and Activity*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Rechter, Sabine; Scott, Gillian M.; Eickhoff, Jan; Zielke, Katrin; Auerochs, Sabrina; Müller, Regina; Stamminger, Thomas; Rawlinson, William D.; Marschall, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Replication of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is subject to regulation by cellular protein kinases. Recently, we and others reported that inhibition of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) or the viral CDK ortholog pUL97 can induce intranuclear speckled aggregation of the viral mRNA export factor, pUL69. Here we provide the first evidence for a direct regulatory role of CDKs on pUL69 functionality. Although replication of all HCMV strains was dependent on CDK activity, we found strain-specific differences in the amount of CDK inhibitor-induced pUL69 aggregate formation. In all cases analyzed, the inhibitor-induced pUL69 aggregates were clearly localized within viral replication centers but not subnuclear splicing, pore complex, or aggresome structures. The CDK9 and cyclin T1 proteins colocalized with these pUL69 aggregates, whereas other CDKs behaved differently. Phosphorylation analyses in vivo and in vitro demonstrated pUL69 was strongly phosphorylated in HCMV-infected fibroblasts and that CDKs represent a novel class of pUL69-phosphorylating kinases. Moreover, the analysis of CDK inhibitors in a pUL69-dependent nuclear mRNA export assay provided evidence for functional impairment of pUL69 under suppression of CDK activity. Thus, our data underline the crucial importance of CDKs for HCMV replication, and indicate a direct impact of CDK9-cyclin T1 on the nuclear localization and activity of the viral regulator pUL69. PMID:19179338

  4. Role of Cyclin E as an Early Event in Ovarian Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    degradation . P27 is a powerful negative regulator of the cell cycle, preventing activation of cyclin E- cdk2 or cyclin D-cdk4 complexes and cell cycle...Ahmed M, Bavi P, et al. Bortezomib (Velcade) induces p27Kip1 expression through S-phase kinase protein 2 degradation in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res...CA1251CA72·4 CA 125 CA72-4 M-CSF CA 125/CA 72-4/M-CSFICA 15-3 CA125 CA 125/mesothelin CA 125/IL·6JIL·8NEGF;EGF CA 125/IL-6,G-CSFNEGF/EGF Leptin

  5. p53-independent p21 induction by MELK inhibition.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Tatsuo; Kato, Taigo; Kiyotani, Kazuma; Tarhan, Yunus Emre; Saloura, Vassiliki; Chung, Suyoun; Ueda, Koji; Nakamura, Yusuke; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2017-08-29

    MELK play critical roles in human carcinogenesis through activation of cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis and maintenance of stemness. Therefore, MELK is a promising therapeutic target for a wide range of cancers. Although p21 is a well-known p53-downstream gene, we found that treatment with a potent MELK inhibitor, OTS167, could induce p21 protein expression in cancer cell lines harboring loss-of-function TP53 mutations. We also confirmed that MELK knockdown by siRNA induced the p21 expression in p53-deficient cancer cell lines and caused the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Further analysis indicated that FOXO1 and FOXO3, two known transcriptional regulators of p21, were phosphorylated by MELK and thus be involved in the induction of p21 after MELK inhibition. Collectively, our herein findings suggest that MELK inhibition may be effective for human cancers even if TP53 is mutated.

  6. p53-independent p21 induction by MELK inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Tatsuo; Kato, Taigo; Kiyotani, Kazuma; Tarhan, Yunus Emre; Saloura, Vassiliki; Chung, Suyoun; Ueda, Koji; Nakamura, Yusuke; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    MELK play critical roles in human carcinogenesis through activation of cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis and maintenance of stemness. Therefore, MELK is a promising therapeutic target for a wide range of cancers. Although p21 is a well-known p53-downstream gene, we found that treatment with a potent MELK inhibitor, OTS167, could induce p21 protein expression in cancer cell lines harboring loss-of-function TP53 mutations. We also confirmed that MELK knockdown by siRNA induced the p21 expression in p53-deficient cancer cell lines and caused the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Further analysis indicated that FOXO1 and FOXO3, two known transcriptional regulators of p21, were phosphorylated by MELK and thus be involved in the induction of p21 after MELK inhibition. Collectively, our herein findings suggest that MELK inhibition may be effective for human cancers even if TP53 is mutated. PMID:28938528

  7. HPV16 E7 protein associates with the protein kinase p33CDK2 and cyclin A.

    PubMed

    Tommasino, M; Adamczewski, J P; Carlotti, F; Barth, C F; Manetti, R; Contorni, M; Cavalieri, F; Hunt, T; Crawford, L

    1993-01-01

    E7 is the major transforming protein of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16). It has been found to associate with the retinoblastoma protein Rb1. We investigated whether HPV16 E7 protein was associated with other cellular proteins, in particular with those involved in cell cycle control. Immunoprecipitates from CaSki cell extracts with an anti E7 monoclonal antibody contained a histone H1 kinase. Recombinant E7, synthesized in yeast, when mixed with protein extracts from epithelial cells bound histone H1 kinase activity in vitro. The in vivo and the in vitro-formed E7-kinase complex had the same periodicity of activity during the cell cycle, being most active in S and G2/M. Immunoblotting of E7 immunoprecipitates with an antibody raised against the p33CDK2, revealed a 33 kDa protein band not detected by an anti-p34cdc2 antibody, suggesting that the E7-associated kinase activity is due to the p33CDK2. The interaction appears to be via cyclin A, since probing of similar immunoblots showed a 50 kDa band corresponding to cyclin A. The association of E7 with cyclin A appeared to be direct, not involving Rb 1 or other proteins.

  8. Structural basis of divergent cyclin-dependent kinase activation by Spy1/RINGO proteins

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    McGrath, Denise A.; Fifield, Bre‐Anne; Marceau, Aimee H.

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are principal drivers of cell division and are an important therapeutic target to inhibit aberrant proliferation. Cdk enzymatic activity is tightly controlled through cyclin interactions, posttranslational modifications, and binding of inhibitors such as the p27 tumor suppressor protein. Spy1/RINGO (Spy1) proteins bind and activate Cdk but are resistant to canonical regulatory mechanisms that establish cell-cycle checkpoints. Cancer cells exploit Spy1 to stimulate proliferation through inappropriate activation of Cdks, yet the mechanism is unknown. We have determined crystal structures of the Cdk2-Spy1 and p27-Cdk2-Spy1 complexes that reveal how Spy1 activates Cdk. We find that Spy1 confers structural changesmore » to Cdk2 that obviate the requirement of Cdk activation loop phosphorylation. Spy1 lacks the cyclin-binding site that mediates p27 and substrate affinity, explaining why Cdk-Spy1 is poorly inhibited by p27 and lacks specificity for substrates with cyclin-docking sites. We identify mutations in Spy1 that ablate its ability to activate Cdk2 and to proliferate cells. Our structural description of Spy1 provides important mechanistic insights that may be utilized for targeting upregulated Spy1 in cancer.« less

  9. Quantitative Assessment the Relationship between p21 rs1059234 Polymorphism and Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Sheng; Fan, Qian-Qian; Li, Chuang; Nie, Meng; Quan, Hong-Yang; Wang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    p21 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which can arrest cell proliferation and serve as a tumor suppressor. Though many studies were published to assess the relationship between p21 rs1059234 polymorphism and various cancer risks, there was no definite conclusion on this association. To derive a more precise quantitative assessment of the relationship, a large scale meta-analysis of 5,963 cases and 8,405 controls from 16 eligible published case-control studies was performed. Our analysis suggested that rs1059234 was not associated with the integral cancer risk for both dominant model [(T/T+C/T) vs C/C, OR=1.00, 95% CI: 0.84-1.18] and recessive model [T/T vs (C/C+C/T), OR=1.03, 95% CI: 0.93-1.15)]. However, further stratified analysis showed rs1059234 was greatly associated with the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN). Thus, larger scale primary studies are still required to further evaluate the interaction of p21 rs1059234 polymorphism and cancer risk in specific cancer subtypes.

  10. Cables1 controls p21/Cip1 protein stability by antagonizing proteasome subunit alpha type 3.

    PubMed

    Shi, Z; Li, Z; Li, Z J; Cheng, K; Du, Y; Fu, H; Khuri, F R

    2015-05-07

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor 1A, p21/Cip1, is a vital cell cycle regulator, dysregulation of which has been associated with a large number of human malignancies. One critical mechanism that controls p21 function is through its degradation, which allows the activation of its associated cell cycle-promoting kinases, CDK2 and CDK4. Thus delineating how p21 is stabilized and degraded will enhance our understanding of cell growth control and offer a basis for potential therapeutic interventions. Here we report a novel regulatory mechanism that controls the dynamic status of p21 through its interaction with Cdk5 and Abl enzyme substrate 1 (Cables1). Cables1 has a proposed role as a tumor suppressor. We found that upregulation of Cables1 protein was correlated with increased half-life of p21 protein, which was attributed to Cables1/p21 complex formation and supported by their co-localization in the nucleus. Mechanistically, Cables1 interferes with the proteasome (Prosome, Macropain) subunit alpha type 3 (PSMA3) binding to p21 and protects p21 from PSMA3-mediated proteasomal degradation. Moreover, silencing of p21 partially reverses the ability of Cables1 to induce cell death and inhibit cell proliferation. In further support of a potential pathophysiological role of Cables1, the expression level of Cables1 is tightly associated with p21 in both cancer cell lines and human lung cancer patient tumor samples. Together, these results suggest Cables1 as a novel p21 regulator through maintaining p21 stability and support the model that the tumor-suppressive function of Cables1 occurs at least in part through enhancing the tumor-suppressive activity of p21.

  11. Enterolactone Induces G1-phase Cell Cycle Arrest in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Cells by Downregulating Cyclins and Cyclin-dependent Kinases.

    PubMed

    Chikara, Shireen; Lindsey, Kaitlin; Dhillon, Harsharan; Mamidi, Sujan; Kittilson, Jeffrey; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Reindl, Katie M

    2017-01-01

    Flaxseed is a rich source of the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), which is metabolized into mammalian lignans enterodiol (ED) and enterolactone (EL) in the digestive tract. The anticancer properties of these lignans have been demonstrated for various cancer types, but have not been studied for lung cancer. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of EL for several nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines of various genetic backgrounds. EL inhibited the growth of A549, H441, and H520 lung cancer cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners. The antiproliferative effects of EL for lung cancer cells were not due to enhanced cell death, but rather due to G 1 -phase cell cycle arrest. Molecular studies revealed that EL decreased mRNA or protein expression levels of the G 1 -phase promoters cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK)-2, -4, and -6, and p-cdc25A; decreased phosphorylated retinoblastoma (p-pRb) protein levels; and simultaneously increased levels of p21 WAF1/CIP1 , a negative regulator of the G 1 phase. The results suggest that EL inhibits the growth of NSCLC cell lines by downregulating G 1 -phase cyclins and CDKs, and upregulating p21 WAF1/CIP1 , which leads to G 1 -phase cell cycle arrest. Therefore, EL may hold promise as an adjuvant treatment for lung cancer therapy.

  12. Alterations in the proliferating compartment of gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection: the putative role of epithelial cells expressing p27(kip1).

    PubMed

    Sougioultzis, Stavros; Foukas, Periklis G; Tzivras, Michalis; Kourtessas, Dimitrios; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G; Davaris, Panayiotis; Archimandritis, Athanasios J

    2003-11-01

    The proliferating zone contains stem cells that give rise to all epithelial cells of the gastric mucosa. In the present study, we investigated the turnover of gastric epithelial cells in the proliferating zone of Helicobacter pylori-infected mucosa, with or without intestinal metaplasia, before and after eradication of the microorganism. In addition, we studied the topographical distribution of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1), which plays a critical role in cell cycle progression and differentiation programs. Twenty-eight patients (22 male), aged 32-78 years and with dyspeptic symptoms, were endoscoped, and gastric biopsies were obtained from antrum and corpus for histopathological examination and the Campylobacter-like organisms test; eradication therapy was given to infected patients, and all patients were re-endoscoped after 105 +/- 33 days (mean +/- SD). The kinetics of gastric epithelial cells and p27(Kip1) status was assessed by means of immunohistochemistry and TUNEL (Tdt-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling) assay. Twenty-one (21) of 28 patients were H. pylori positive, and 7 were found H. pylori negative and served as controls. In antrum, intestinal metaplasia was detected in 7/21 (33.3%). In H. pylori gastritis, Ki67 expression was found increased in the proliferating zone, compared with normal (P =.03); analogous results were obtained with the other proliferation markers, namely retinoblastoma protein and topoisomerase IIalpha. An inverse relationship between proliferation index and atrophy was disclosed (P =.02). A reduction in the proliferation index was observed after eradication, albeit not significant. Apoptotic epithelial cells were found significantly increased (P <.01) in H. pylori gastritis, and a significant reduction was observed after eradication (P <.01). In addition, apoptotic index was found to correlate with H. pylori density. The topographical study of p27(Kip1) revealed a p27(kip1)-positive epithelial cell population

  13. Inhibitory Effect of Ginseng on Breast Cancer Cell Line Growth Via Up-Regulation of Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor, p21 and p53

    PubMed

    AL Shabanah, Othman A; Alotaibi, Moureq rashed; Al Rejaie, Salim S; Alhoshani, Ali R; Almutairi, Mashal M; Alshammari, Musaad A; Hafez, Mohamed M

    2016-11-01

    Objective: Breast cancer is global female health problem worldwide. Most of the currently used agents for breast cancer treatment have toxic side-effects. Ginseng root, an oriental medicine, has many health benefits and may exhibit direct anti-cancer properties. This study was performed to assess the effects of ginseng on breast cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity of ginseng extract was measured by MTT assay after exposure of MDA-MB-231, MCF-10A and MCF-7 breast cancer cells to concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 mg/well. Expression levels of p21WAF, p16INK4A, Bcl-2, Bax and P53 genes were analyzed by quantitative real time PCR. Results: The treatment resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation in a dose-and time-dependent manner. p53, p21WAF1and p16INK4A expression levels were up-regulated in ginseng treated MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cancer cells compared to untreated controls and in MCF-10A cells. The expression levels of Bcl2 in the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells were down-regulated. In contrast, that of Bax was significantly up-regulated. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that ginseng may inhibit breast cancer cell growth by activation of the apoptotic pathway. Creative Commons Attribution License

  14. Requirement of ClC-3 in G0/G1 to S Phase Transition Induced by IGF-1 via ERK1/2-Cyclins Cascade in Multiple Myeloma Cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Yu; Tu, Yong-Sheng; Tang, Yong-Bo; Huang, Yun-Ying; Zhou, Fang-Min; Tian, Tian; Li, Xiao-Yan

    2018-06-01

    ClC-3 is involved in the proliferation and migration of several cancer cells. However, ClC-3 expression and its role of cell-cycle control in multiple myeloma (MM) has not yet been investigated. MM cells were treated with different concentrations of IGF (30, 100, 300 ng/mL), and their proliferation was examined by CCK-8. The effects of ClC-3 on cell cycle progression was detected by flow cytometry. Western blot was used to analyze the relative levels of ClC3, CD138, P21, P27, CDK, p-Erk1/2, and t-Erk1/2 protein expression. Transfection of RPMI8226 with gpClC-3 cDNA and siRNA alters the expression of ClC-3. We compared the expression of ClC-3 in primary myeloma cells and in MM cell lines (U266 and RPMI8266) with that in normal plasma cells (PCs) from normal subjects and found that myeloma cells from patients and MM cell lines had significantly higher expression of ClC-3. Additionally, silencing of ClC-3 with the small interfering RNA (siRNA) that targets human ClC-3 decreased proliferation of RPMI8226 after IGF-1 treatment and slowed cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S phase, which was associated with diminished phosphorylation of ERK1/2, down-expression of cyclin E, cyclin D1 and up-regulation of p27 and p21. By contrast, overexpression of ClC-3 potentiated cell proliferation induced by IGF-1, raised the percentage of S phase cells, enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, downregulated p27 and p21 and upregulated cyclin E and cyclin D1. ClC-3 accelerated G0/G1 to S phase transition in the cell cycle by modulating ERK1/2 kinase activity and expression of G1/S transition related proteins, making ClC-3 an attractive therapeutic target in MM.

  15. Induction of differentiation in human promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cells activates p21, WAF1/CIP1, expression in the absence of p53.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jiang, H.; Lin, J.; Su, Z.-Z.

    The melanoma differentiation associated gene, mda-6, which is identical to the P53-inducible gene WAF1/CIP1, encodes an M(r) 21,000 protein (p21) that can directly inhibit cell growth by repressing cyclin dependent kinases. mda-6 was identified using subtraction hybridization by virtue of its enhanced expression in human melanoma cells induced to terminally differentiate by treatment with human fibroblast interferon and the anti-leukemic compound mezerein (Jiang and Fisher, 1993). In the present study, we demonstrate that mda-6 (WAF1/CIP1) is an immediate early response gene induced during differentiation of the promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cell line along the granulocytic or macrophage/monocyte pathway. mda-6 gene expressionmore » in HL-60 cells is induced within 1 to 3 h during differentiation along the macrophage/monocyte pathway evoked by 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Vit D3) or the granulocytic pathway produced by retinoic acid (RA) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Immunoprecipitation analyses using an anti-p21 antibody indicate a temporal induction of p21 protein following treatment with TPA, DMSO or RA. A relationship between rapid induction of mda-6 gene expression and differentiation is indicated by a delay in this expression in an HL-60 cell variant resistant to TPA-induced growth arrest and differentiation. A similar delay in mda-6 gene expression is not observed in Vit D3 treated TPA-resistant variant cells that are also sensitive to induction of monocytic differentiation. Since HL-60 cells have a null-p53 phenotype, these results demonstrate that p21 induction occurs during initiation of terminal differentiation in a p53-independent manner. In this context, p21 may play a more global role in growth control and differentiation than originally envisioned.« less

  16. 27 CFR 21.54 - Formula No. 27-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Authorized Uses § 21.54 Formula No. 27-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 100 pounds of green soap, U.S.P. Note. The requirements of this formula... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 27-B. 21.54...

  17. Subcellular targeting of p33ING1b by phosphorylation-dependent 14-3-3 binding regulates p21WAF1 expression.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wei; Russell, Michael; Suzuki, Keiko; Riabowol, Karl

    2006-04-01

    ING1 is a type II tumor suppressor that affects cell growth, stress signaling, apoptosis, and DNA repair by altering chromatin structure and regulating transcription. Decreased ING1 expression is seen in several human cancers, and mislocalization has been noted in diverse types of cancer cells. Aberrant targeting may, therefore, functionally inactivate ING1. Bioinformatics analysis identified a sequence between the nuclear localization sequence and plant homeodomain domains of ING1 that closely matched the binding motif of 14-3-3 proteins that target cargo proteins to specific subcellular locales. We find that the widely expressed p33(ING1b) splicing isoform of ING1 interacts with members of the 14-3-3 family of proteins and that this interaction is regulated by the phosphorylation status of ING1. 14-3-3 binding resulted in significant amounts of p33(ING1b) protein being tethered in the cytoplasm. As shown previously, ectopic expression of p33(ING1b) increased levels of the p21(Waf1) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor upon UV-induced DNA damage. Overexpression of 14-3-3 inhibited the up-regulation of p21(Waf1) by p33(ING1b), consistent with the idea that mislocalization blocks at least one of ING1's biological activities. These data support the idea that the 14-3-3 proteins play a crucial role in regulating the activity of p33(ING1b) by directing its subcellular localization.

  18. Biology of the cell cycle inhibitor p21(CDKN1A): molecular mechanisms and relevance in chemical toxicology.

    PubMed

    Dutto, Ilaria; Tillhon, Micol; Cazzalini, Ornella; Stivala, Lucia A; Prosperi, Ennio

    2015-02-01

    The cell cycle inhibitor p21(CDKN1A) is a protein playing multiple roles not only in the DNA damage response, but also in many cellular processes during unperturbed cell growth. The main, well-known function of p21 is to arrest cell cycle progression by inhibiting the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases. In addition, p21 is involved in the regulation of transcription, apoptosis, DNA repair, as well as cell motility. However, p21 appears to a have a dual-face behavior because, in addition to its tumor suppressor functions, it may act as an oncogene, depending on the cell type and on the cellular localization. As a biomarker of the cell response to different toxic stimuli, p21 expression and functions have been analyzed in an impressive number of studies investigating the activity of several types of chemicals, in order to determine their possible harmful effects on human cells. Here, we review these studies in order to highlight the different roles p21 may play in the cell response to chemical exposure and to better evaluate the information provided by this biomarker.

  19. AS160 controls eukaryotic cell cycle and proliferation by regulating the CDK inhibitor p21.

    PubMed

    Gongpan, Pianchou; Lu, Yanting; Wang, Fang; Xu, Yuhui; Xiong, Wenyong

    2016-07-02

    AS160 (TBC1D4) has been implicated in multiple biological processes. However, the role and the mechanism of action of AS160 in the regulation of cell proliferation remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that AS160 knockdown led to blunted cell proliferation in multiple cell types, including fibroblasts and cancer cells. The results of cell cycle analysis showed that these cells were arrested in the G1 phase. Intriguingly, this inhibition of cell proliferation and the cell cycle arrest caused by AS160 depletion were glucose independent. Moreover, AS160 silencing led to a marked upregulation of the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Furthermore, whereas AS160 overexpression resulted in p21 downregulation and rescued the arrested cell cycle in AS160-depeleted cells, p21 silencing rescued the inhibited cell cycle and proliferation in the cells. Thus, our results demonstrated that AS160 regulates glucose-independent eukaryotic cell proliferation through p21-dependent control of the cell cycle, and thereby revealed a molecular mechanism of AS160 modulation of cell cycle and proliferation that is of general physiological significance.

  20. Gene expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and effect of heparin on their expression in mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yu Lunyin; Quinn, Deborah A.; Garg, Hari G.

    The balance between cell proliferation and cell quiescence is regulated delicately by a variety of mediators, in which cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) and CDK inhibitors (CDKI) play a very important role. Heparin which inhibits pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation increases the levels of two CDKIs, p21 and p27, although only p27 is important in inhibition of PASMC growth in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we investigated the expression profile of all the cell cycle regulating genes, including all seven CDKIs (p21, p27, p57, p15, p16, p18, and p19), in the lungs of mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonarymore » hypertension. A cell cycle pathway specific gene microarray was used to profile the 96 genes involved in cell cycle regulation. We also observed the effect of heparin on gene expression. We found that (a) hypoxic exposure for two weeks significantly inhibited p27 expression and stimulated p18 activity, showing a 98% decrease in p27 and 81% increase in p18; (b) other CDKIs, p21, p57, p15, p16, and p19 were not affected significantly in response to hypoxia; (c) heparin treatment restored p27 expression, but did not influence p18; (d) ERK1/2 and p38 were mediators in heparin upregulation of p27. This study provides an expression profile of cell cycle regulating genes under hypoxia in mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and strengthens the previous finding that p27 is the only CDKI involved in heparin regulation of PASMC proliferation and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.« less

  1. Study of P21 Expression in Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Immunohistochemical Technique.

    PubMed

    Baghaei, Fahimeh; Shojaei, Setareh; Afshar-Moghaddam, Noushin; Zargaran, Massoumeh; Rastin, Verisheh; Nasr, Mohsen; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease that is relatively common in middle aged individuals. Some studies have shown that oral lichen planus has a potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma.p21 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that regulates the cell cycle, thus it acts as an inhibitor in cell proliferation. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the immunostaining of p21 (as a proliferation inhibitory factor) in oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this descriptive cross-sectional study, p21expression was investigated in 24 samples of oral lichen planus (OLP), 24 samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 24 samples of oral epithelial hyperplasia (OEH) by employing immunohistochemical staining. The mean percentage of p21-positive cells in OSCC (54.5±6.6) was significantly higher than that in OLP (32.8±6.08) and OEH (9.4±3.8). Moreover, OLP samples expressed p21 significantly higher than the OEH. Kruskal Wallis test revealed a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the intensity of staining (p< 0.001). According to the findings of this study, the expression of p21 might be related to the potential carcinogenic transformation of lichen planus to SCC. Therefore, continuous follow-up periods for OLP are recommended for diagnosis of the malignant transformations in early stages.

  2. The ethanol extract from Artemisia princeps Pampanini induces p53-mediated G1 phase arrest in A172 human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Lee, Kyung-Won; Lee, Heon-Woo; Cho, Young-Wuk; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, Hae-Gon; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Choi, Myung-Sook; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2008-06-01

    In the present study, the antiproliferative effects of the ethanol extract of Artemisia princeps Pampanini (EAPP) and the mechanism involved were investigated. Of the various cancer cells examined, human neuroblastoma A172 cells were most sensitive to EAPP, and their proliferation was dose- and time-dependently inhibited by EAPP. DNA flow cytometry analysis indicated that EAPP notably induced the G(1) phase arrest in A172 cells. Of the G(1) phase cycle-related proteins examined, the expressions of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, CDK4, and CDK6 and of cyclin D(1), D(2), and D(3) were found to be markedly reduced by EAPP, whereas cyclin E was unaffected. Moreover, the protein and mRNA levels of the CDK inhibitors p16(INK4a), p21(CIP1/WAF1), and p27(KIP1) were increased, and the activities of CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6 were reduced. Furthermore, the expressions of E2F-1 and of phosphorylated pRb were also decreased, and the protein levels of p53 and pp53 (Ser15) were increased. Up-regulation of p21(CIP1/WAF1) was found to be mediated by a p53-dependent pathway in EAPP-induced G(1)-arrested A172 cells. When these data are taken together, the EAPP was found to potently inhibit the proliferation of human neuroblastoma A172 cells via G(1) phase cell cycle arrest.

  3. Phosphorylated Hsp27 activates ATM-dependent p53 signaling and mediates the resistance of MCF-7 cells to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yimiao; Diao, Ying; Qi, Shimei; Pan, Xiaolong; Wang, Qi; Xin, Yinqiang; Cao, Xiang; Ruan, Jie; Zhao, Zhihui; Luo, Lan; Liu, Chang; Yin, Zhimin

    2013-05-01

    DNA damage activates p53 and its downstream target genes, which further leads to apoptosis or survival either by the cell cycle arrest or by DNA repair. In many tumors, the heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is expressed at high levels to provide protection against anticancer drugs. However, the roles of Hsp27 in p53-mediated cellular responses to DNA damage are controversial. Here, we investigated the interplay between the phosphorylation status of Hsp27 and p53 in kidney 293A (HEK293A) cells and found that over-expressing phosphorylated Hsp27 mimics (Hsp27-3D) activated p53/p21 in an ATM-dependent manner. In addition, incubation with doxorubicin (Dox), an anticancer drug, induced Hsp27 phosphorylation in human adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7). In contrast, inhibition of Hsp27 phosphorylation retarded both p53 induction and p21 accumulation, and led to cell apoptosis. Furthermore, phosphorylated Hsp27 increased p53 nuclear importing and its downstream target gene expression such as p21 and MDM2, while de-phosphorylated Hsp27 impeded this procession. Taken together, our data suggest that Hsp27, in its phosphorylated or de-phosphorylated status, plays different roles in regulating p53 pathway and cell survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional upregulation of p27 mediates growth inhibition of isorhapontigenin (ISO) on human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guosong; Huang, Chao; Li, Jingxia; Huang, Haishan; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Yawei; Xie, Fei; Jin, Honglei; Zhu, Junlan; Huang, Chuanshu

    2018-03-08

    There are few approved drugs available for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Recently, we have demonstrated that isorhapontigenin (ISO), a new derivative isolated from the Chinese herb Gnetum cleistostachyum, effectively induces cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and inhibits anchorage-independent cell growth through the miR-137/Sp1/cyclin D1 axis in human MIBC cells. Herein, we found that treatment of bladder cancer (BC) cells with ISO resulted in a significant upregulation of p27, which was also observed in ISO-treated mouse BCs that were induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN). Importantly, knockdown of p27 caused a decline in the ISO-induced G0-G1 growth arrest and reversed ISO suppression of anchorage-independent growth in BC cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that ISO promoted p27 expression at mRNA transcription level through increasing direct binding of forkhead box class O1 (FOXO1) to its promoter, while knockdown of FOXO1 attenuated ISO inhibition of BC cell growth. On the other hand, ISO upregulated the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) activity of p27, which was accompanied by a reduction of miR-182 expression. In line with these observations, ectopic expression of miR-182 significantly blocked p27 3'-UTR activity, whereas mutation of the miR-182-binding site at p27 mRNA 3'-UTR effectively reversed this inhibition. Accordingly, ectopic expression of miR-182 also attenuated ISO upregulation of p27 expression and impaired ISO inhibition of BC cell growth. Our results not only provide novel insight into understanding of the underlying mechanism related to regulation of MIBC cell growth but also identify new roles and mechanisms underlying ISO inhibition of BC cell growth.

  5. A Phosphorylation Switch Regulates the Transcriptional Activation of Cell Cycle Regulator p21 by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors*

    PubMed Central

    Simboeck, Elisabeth; Sawicka, Anna; Zupkovitz, Gordin; Senese, Silvia; Winter, Stefan; Dequiedt, Franck; Ogris, Egon; Di Croce, Luciano; Chiocca, Susanna; Seiser, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells and are, therefore, promising anti-cancer drugs. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is activated in histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor-treated tumor cells, and its growth-inhibitory function contributes to the anti-tumorigenic effect of HDAC inhibitors. We show here that induction of p21 by trichostatin A involves MAP kinase signaling. Activation of the MAP kinase signaling pathway by growth factors or stress signals results in histone H3 serine 10 phosphorylation at the p21 promoter and is crucial for acetylation of the neighboring lysine 14 and recruitment of activated RNA polymerase II in response to trichostatin A treatment. In non-induced cells, the protein phosphatase PP2A is associated with the p21 gene and counteracts its activation. Induction of p21 is linked to simultaneous acetylation and phosphorylation of histone H3. The dual modification mark H3S10phK14ac at the activated p21 promoter is recognized by the phospho-binding protein 14-3-3ζ, which protects the phosphoacetylation mark from being processed by PP2A. Taken together we have revealed a cross-talk of reversible phosphorylation and acetylation signals that controls the activation of p21 by HDAC inhibitors and identify the phosphatase PP2A as chromatin-associated transcriptional repressor in mammalian cells. PMID:20952396

  6. CRM-1 knockdown inhibits extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tumor growth by blocking the nuclear export of p27Kip1.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian; Chen, Yongjun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Bing; Zhou, Yanqiong; Lan, Hongzhen

    2016-08-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a deadly disease which responds poorly to surgery and conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Early diagnosis is difficult due to the anatomical and biological characteristics of cholangiocarcinoma. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1) is a cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor and in the present study, we found that p27Kip1 expression was suppressed in the nucleus and increased in the cytoplasm in 53 samples of cholangiocarcinoma from patients with highly malignant tumors (poorly-differentiated and tumor-node-metastsis (TNM) stage III-IV) compared with that in samples from 10 patients with chronic cholangitis. The expression of phosphorylated (p-)p27Kip1 (Ser10), one of the phosphorylated forms of p27Kip1, was increased in the patient samples with increasing malignancy and clinical stage. Coincidentally, chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM-1; also referred to as exportin 1 or Xpo1), a critical protein responsible for protein translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, was also overexpressed in the tumor samples which were poorly differentiated and of a higher clinical stage. Through specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of CRM-1 in the cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC939, we identified an elevation of cytoplasmic p27Kip1 and a decrease of nuclear p27Kip1. Furthermore, the viability and colony formation ability of QBC939 cells was largely reduced with G1 arrest. Consistent with the findings of the in vitro experiments, in a xenograft mouse model, the tumors formed in the CRM-1 knockdown group were markedly smaller and weighed less than those in the control group in vivo. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that the interplay between CRM-1 and p27Kip1 may provide potentially potent biomarkers and functional targets for the development of future cholangiocarcinoma treatments.

  7. Multiple roles of the cell cycle inhibitor p21(CDKN1A) in the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Cazzalini, Ornella; Scovassi, A Ivana; Savio, Monica; Stivala, Lucia A; Prosperi, Ennio

    2010-01-01

    Among cell cycle regulatory proteins that are activated following DNA damage, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(CDKN1A) plays essential roles in the DNA damage response, by inducing cell cycle arrest, direct inhibition of DNA replication, as well as by regulating fundamental processes, like apoptosis and transcription. These functions are performed through the ability of p21 to interact with a number of proteins involved in these processes. Despite an initial controversy, during the last years several lines of evidence have also indicated that p21 may be directly involved in DNA repair. In particular, the participation of p21 in nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair (BER), and DNA translesion synthesis (TLS), has been suggested to occur thanks to its interaction with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a crucial protein involved in several aspects of DNA metabolism, and cell-cycle regulation. In this review, the multiple roles of p21 in the DNA damage response, including regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis and gene transcription, are discussed together with the most recent findings supporting the direct participation of p21 protein in DNA repair processes. In particular, spatio-temporal dynamics of p21 recruitment to sites of DNA damage will be considered together with several lines of evidence indicating a regulatory role for p21. In addition, the relevance of post-translational regulation in the fate (e.g. degradation) of p21 protein after cell exposure to DNA damaging agents will be analyzed. Both sets of evidence will be discussed in terms of the overall DNA damage response. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enterolactone induces G1-phase cell cycle arrest in non-small cell lung cancer cells by down-regulating cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases

    PubMed Central

    Chikara, Shireen; Lindsey, Kaitlin; Dhillon, Harsharan; Mamidi, Sujan; Kittilson, Jeffrey; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Reindl, Katie M.

    2017-01-01

    Flaxseed is a rich source of the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) which is metabolized into mammalian lignans enterodiol (ED) and enterolactone (EL) in the digestive tract. The anti-cancer properties of these lignans have been demonstrated for various cancer types, but have not been studied for lung cancer. In this study we investigated the anti-cancer effects of EL for several non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines of various genetic backgrounds. EL inhibited the growth of A549, H441, and H520 lung cancer cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners. The anti-proliferative effects of EL for lung cancer cells were not due to enhanced cell death, but rather due to G1-phase cell cycle arrest. Molecular studies revealed that EL- decreased mRNA or protein expression levels of the G1-phase promoters cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK)-2, -4, and -6, and p-cdc25A; decreased phosphorylated retinoblastoma (p-pRb) protein levels; and simultaneously increased levels of p21WAF1/CIP1, a negative regulator of the G1-phase. The results suggest that EL inhibits the growth of NSCLC cell lines by down-regulating G1-phase cyclins and CDKs, and up-regulating p21WAF1/CIP1, which leads to G1-phase cell cycle arrest. Therefore, EL may hold promise as an adjuvant treatment for lung cancer therapy. PMID:28323486

  9. The Down syndrome-related protein kinase DYRK1A phosphorylates p27Kip1 and Cyclin D1 and induces cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Soppa, Ulf; Schumacher, Julian; Florencio Ortiz, Victoria; Pasqualon, Tobias; Tejedor, Francisco J; Becker, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental question in neurobiology is how the balance between proliferation and differentiation of neuronal precursors is maintained to ensure that the proper number of brain neurons is generated. Substantial evidence implicates DYRK1A (dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A) as a candidate gene responsible for altered neuronal development and brain abnormalities in Down syndrome. Recent findings support the hypothesis that DYRK1A is involved in cell cycle control. Nonetheless, how DYRK1A contributes to neuronal cell cycle regulation and thereby affects neurogenesis remains poorly understood. In the present study we have investigated the mechanisms by which DYRK1A affects cell cycle regulation and neuronal differentiation in a human cell model, mouse neurons, and mouse brain. Dependent on its kinase activity and correlated with the dosage of overexpression, DYRK1A blocked proliferation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells within 24 h and arrested the cells in G1 phase. Sustained overexpression of DYRK1A induced G0 cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that DYRK1A modulated protein stability of cell cycle-regulatory proteins. DYRK1A reduced cellular Cyclin D1 levels by phosphorylation on Thr286, which is known to induce proteasomal degradation. In addition, DYRK1A phosphorylated p27Kip1 on Ser10, resulting in protein stabilization. Inhibition of DYRK1A kinase activity reduced p27Kip1 Ser10 phosphorylation in cultured hippocampal neurons and in embryonic mouse brain. In aggregate, these results suggest a novel mechanism by which overexpression of DYRK1A may promote premature neuronal differentiation and contribute to altered brain development in Down syndrome. PMID:24806449

  10. Expression of retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) in mantle cell lymphomas. Correlation with cyclin D1 (PRAD1/CCND1) mRNA levels and proliferative activity.

    PubMed Central

    Jares, P.; Campo, E.; Pinyol, M.; Bosch, F.; Miquel, R.; Fernandez, P. L.; Sanchez-Beato, M.; Soler, F.; Perez-Losada, A.; Nayach, I.; Mallofré, C.; Piris, M. A.; Montserrat, E.; Cardesa, A.

    1996-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphomas (MCLs) are molecularly characterized by bcl-1 rearrangement and constant cyclin D1 (PRAD-1/CCND1) gene overexpression. Cyclin D1 is a G1 cyclin that participates in the control of the cell cycle progression by interacting with the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb). Inactivation of the Rb tumor suppressor gene has been implicated in the development of different types of human tumors including some high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. To determine the role of the retinoblastoma gene in the pathogenesis of MCLs and its possible interaction with cyclin D1, pRb expression was examined in 23 MCLs including 17 typical and 6 blastic variants by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Rb gene structure was studied in 13 cases by Southern blot. Cytogenetic analysis was performed in 5 cases. The results were compared with the cyclin D1 mRNA levels examined by Northern analysis, and the proliferative activity of the tumors was measured by Ki-67 growth fraction and flow cytometry. pRb was expressed in all MCLs. The expression varied from case to case (mean, 14.1% of positive cells; range, 1.3 to 42%) with a significant correlation with the proliferative activity of the tumors (mitotic index r = 0.85; Ki-67 r = 0.7; S phase = 0.73). Blastic variants showed higher numbers of pRb-positive cells (mean, 29%) than the typical cases (10%; P < 0.005) by immunohistochemistry and, concordantly, higher levels of expression by Western blot. In addition, the blastic cases also had an increased expression of the phosphorylated protein. No alterations in Rb gene structure were observed by Southern blot analysis. Cyclin D1 mRNA levels were independent of pRb expression and the proliferative activity of the tumors. These findings suggest that pRb in MCLs is normally regulated in relation to the proliferative activity of the tumors. Cyclin D1 overexpression may play a role in the maintenance of cell proliferation by overcoming the suppressive growth control of pRb. Images

  11. Protein expression patterns of cell cycle regulators in operable breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zagouri, Flora; Kotoula, Vassiliki; Kouvatseas, George; Sotiropoulou, Maria; Koletsa, Triantafyllia; Gavressea, Theofani; Valavanis, Christos; Trihia, Helen; Bobos, Mattheos; Lazaridis, Georgios; Koutras, Angelos; Pentheroudakis, George; Skarlos, Pantelis; Bafaloukos, Dimitrios; Arnogiannaki, Niki; Chrisafi, Sofia; Christodoulou, Christos; Papakostas, Pavlos; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Kosmidis, Paris; Karanikiotis, Charisios; Zografos, George; Papadimitriou, Christos; Fountzilas, George

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic role of elaborate molecular clusters encompassing cyclin D1, cyclin E1, p21, p27 and p53 in the context of various breast cancer subtypes. Cyclin E1, cyclin D1, p53, p21 and p27 were evaluated with immunohistochemistry in 1077 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from breast cancer patients who had been treated within clinical trials. Jaccard distances were computed for the markers and the resulted matrix was used for conducting unsupervised hierarchical clustering, in order to identify distinct groups correlating with prognosis. Luminal B and triple-negative (TNBC) tumors presented with the highest and lowest levels of cyclin D1 expression, respectively. By contrast, TNBC frequently expressed Cyclin E1, whereas ER-positive tumors did not. Absence of Cyclin D1 predicted for worse OS, while absence of Cyclin E1 for poorer DFS. The expression patterns of all examined proteins yielded 3 distinct clusters; (1) Cyclin D1 and/or E1 positive with moderate p21 expression; (2) Cyclin D1 and/or E1, and p27 positive, p53 protein negative; and, (3) Cyclin D1 or E1 positive, p53 positive, p21 and p27 negative or moderately positive. The 5-year DFS rates for clusters 1, 2 and 3 were 70.0%, 79.1%, 67.4% and OS 88.4%, 90.4%, 78.9%, respectively. It seems that the expression of cell cycle regulators in the absence of p53 protein is associated with favorable prognosis in operable breast cancer.

  12. Inhibition of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth by apigenin through induction of G2/M arrest and histone H3 acetylation-mediated p21WAF1/CIP1 expression.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Tsui-Hwa; Chien, Ming-Hsien; Lin, Wea-Lung; Wen, Yu-Ching; Chow, Jyh-Ming; Chen, Chi-Kuan; Kuo, Tsang-Chih; Lee, Wei-Jiunn

    2017-02-01

    Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavonoid commonly found in fruits and vegetables, has anticancer properties in various malignant cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of the anticancer effect remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying the induction of cell cycle arrest by apigenin. Our results showed that apigenin at the nonapoptotic induction concentration inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Immunoblot analysis indicated that apigenin suppressed the expression of cyclin A, cyclin B, and cyclin-dependent kinase-1 (CDK1), which control the G2-to-M phase transition in the cell cycle. In addition, apigenin upregulated p21 WAF1/CIP1 and increased the interaction of p21 WAF1/CIP1 with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which inhibits cell cycle progression. Furthermore, apigenin significantly inhibited histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and induced histone H3 acetylation. The subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay indicated that apigenin increased acetylation of histone H3 in the p21 WAF1/CIP1 promoter region, resulting in the increase of p21 WAF1/CIP1 transcription. In a tumor xenograft model, apigenin effectively delayed tumor growth. In these apigenin-treated tumors, we also observed reductions in the levels of cyclin A and cyclin B and increases in the levels of p21 WAF1/CIP1 and acetylated histone H3. These findings demonstrate for the first time that apigenin can be used in breast cancer prevention and treatment through epigenetic regulation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 434-444, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Fusobacterium nucleatum Potentiates Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Mice via a Toll-Like Receptor 4/p21-Activated Kinase 1 Cascade.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaxin; Wu, Jiao; Chen, Ting; Li, Qing; Peng, Wei; Li, Huan; Tang, Xiaowei; Fu, Xiangsheng

    2018-05-01

    The underlying pathogenic mechanism of Fusobacterium nucleatum in the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer has been poorly understood. Using C57BL/6-Apc Min/+ mice, we investigated gut microbial structures with F. nucleatum, antibiotics, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist TAK-242 treatment. In addition, we measured intestinal tumor formation and the expression of TLR4, p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), phosphorylated-PAK1 (p-PAK1), phosphorylated-β-catenin S675 (p-β-catenin S675), and cyclin D1 in mice with different treatments. Fusobacterium nucleatum and antibiotics treatment altered gut microbial structures in mice. In addition, F. nucleatum invaded into the intestinal mucosa in large amounts but were less abundant in the feces of F. nucleatum-fed mice. The average number and size of intestinal tumors in F. nucleatum groups was significantly increased compared to control groups in Apc Min/+ mice (P < 0.05). The expression of TLR4, PAK1, p-PAK1, p-β-catenin S675, and cyclin D1 was significantly increased in F. nucleatum groups compared to the control groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, TAK-242 significantly decreased the average number and size of intestinal tumors compared to F. nucleatum groups (P < 0.05). The expression of p-PAK1, p-β-catenin S675, and cyclin D1 was also significantly decreased in the TAK-242-treated group compared to F. nucleatum groups (P < 0.05). Fusobacterium nucleatum potentiates intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc Min/+ mice via a TLR4/p-PAK1/p-β-catenin S675 cascade. Fusobacterium nucleatum-induced intestinal tumorigenesis can be inhibited by TAK-242, implicating TLR4 as a potential target for the prevention and therapy of F. nucleatum-related colorectal cancer.

  14. Unfolded-protein response–associated stabilization of p27(Cdkn1b) interferes with lens fiber cell denucleation, leading to cataract

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Lei; Whitcomb, Elizabeth A.; Jiang, Shuhong; Chang, Min-Lee; Gu, Yumei; Duncan, Melinda K.; Cvekl, Ales; Wang, Wei-Lin; Limi, Saima; Reneker, Lixing W.; Shang, Fu; Du, Linfang; Taylor, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Failure of lens fiber cell denucleation (LFCD) is associated with congenital cataracts, but the pathobiology awaits elucidation. Recent work has suggested that mechanisms that direct the unidirectional process of LFCD are analogous to the cyclic processes associated with mitosis. We found that lens-specific mutations that elicit an unfolded-protein response (UPR) in vivo accumulate p27(Cdkn1b), show cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-1 inhibition, retain their LFC nuclei, and are cataractous. Although a UPR was not detected in lenses expressing K6W-Ub, they also accumulated p27 and showed failed LFCD. Induction of a UPR in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) also induced accumulation of p27 associated with decreased levels of S-phase kinase-associated protein (Skp)-2, a ubiquitin ligase that regulates mitosis. These cells also showed decreased lamin A/C phosphorylation and metaphase arrest. The suppression of lamin A/C phosphorylation and metaphase transition induced by the UPR was rescued by knockdown of p27. Taken together, these data indicate that accumulation of p27, whether related to the UPR or not, prevents the phosphorylation of lamin A/C and LFCD in maturing LFCs in vivo, as well as in dividing HLECs. The former leads to cataract and the latter to metaphase arrest. These results suggest that accumulation of p27 is a common mechanism underlying retention of LFC nuclei.—Lei, L., Whitcomb, E. A., Jiang, S., Chang, M.-L., Gu, Y., Duncan, M. K., Cvekl, A., Wang, W.-L., Limi, S., Reneker, L. W., Shang, F., Du, L., Taylor, A. Unfolded protein response–associated stabilization of p27(Cdkn1b) interferes with lens fiber cell denucleation, leading to cataract. PMID:26590164

  15. Cortactin modulates RhoA activation and expression of Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors to promote cell cycle progression in 11q13-amplified head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Croucher, David R; Rickwood, Danny; Tactacan, Carole M; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Daly, Roger J

    2010-11-01

    The cortactin oncoprotein is frequently overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), often due to amplification of the encoding gene (CTTN). While cortactin overexpression enhances invasive potential, recent research indicates that it also promotes cell proliferation, but how cortactin regulates the cell cycle machinery is unclear. In this article we report that stable short hairpin RNA-mediated cortactin knockdown in the 11q13-amplified cell line FaDu led to increased expression of the Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2) and inhibition of S-phase entry. These effects were associated with increased binding of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) to cyclin D1- and E1-containing complexes and decreased retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. Cortactin regulated expression of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, respectively. The direct roles of p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2) downstream of cortactin were confirmed by the transient knockdown of each CDKI by specific small interfering RNAs, which led to partial rescue of cell cycle progression. Interestingly, FaDu cells with reduced cortactin levels also exhibited a significant diminution in RhoA expression and activity, together with decreased expression of Skp2, a critical component of the SCF ubiquitin ligase that targets p27(Kip1) and p57(Kip2) for degradation. Transient knockdown of RhoA in FaDu cells decreased expression of Skp2, enhanced the level of Cip/Kip CDKIs, and attenuated S-phase entry. These findings identify a novel mechanism for regulation of proliferation in 11q13-amplified HNSCC cells, in which overexpressed cortactin acts via RhoA to decrease expression of Cip/Kip CDKIs, and highlight Skp2 as a downstream effector for RhoA in this process.

  16. Cancer dormancy and cell signaling: Induction of p21waf1 initiated by membrane IgM engagement increases survival of B lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Marches, Radu; Hsueh, Robert; Uhr, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    The p21WAF1 (p21) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor plays a major role in regulating cell cycle arrest. It was recently reported that the p53-independent elevation of p21 protein levels is essential in mediating the G1 arrest resulting from signal transduction events initiated by the crosslinking of membrane IgM on Daudi Burkitt lymphoma cells. Although the role of p21 in cell cycle regulation is well documented, there is little information concerning its role in antibody-mediated apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the involvement of p21 in the regulation of apoptosis by suppressing its induction in anti-IgM-treated Daudi cells through a p21 antisense expression construct approach. Reduction in induced p21 protein levels resulted in diminished G1 arrest and increased apoptosis. The increased susceptibility to anti-IgM-mediated apoptosis was associated with increased caspase-3-like activity and poly-(ADP)ribose polymerase cleavage. These data suggest that p21 may directly interfere with the caspase cascade, thus playing a dual role in regulating both cell cycle progression and apoptosis. PMID:10411940

  17. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax and cell cycle progression: role of cyclin D-cdk and p110Rb.

    PubMed

    Neuveut, C; Low, K G; Maldarelli, F; Schmitt, I; Majone, F; Grassmann, R; Jeang, K T

    1998-06-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 is etiologically linked to the development of adult T-cell leukemia and various human neuropathies. The Tax protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type I has been implicated in cellular transformation. Like other oncoproteins, such as Myc, Jun, and Fos, Tax is a transcriptional activator. How it mechanistically dysregulates the cell cycle is unclear. Previously, it was suggested that Tax affects cell-phase transition by forming a direct protein-protein complex with p16(INK4a), thereby inactivating an inhibitor of G1-to-S-phase progression. Here we show that, in T cells deleted for p16(INK4a), Tax can compel an egress of cells from G0/G1 into S despite the absence of serum. We also show that in undifferentiated myocytes, expression of Tax represses cellular differentiation. In both settings, Tax expression was found to increase cyclin D-cdk activity and to enhance pRb phosphorylation. In T cells, a Tax-associated increase in steady-state E2F2 protein was also documented. In searching for a molecular explanation for these observations, we found that Tax forms a protein-protein complex with cyclin D3, whereas a point-mutated and transcriptionally inert Tax mutant failed to form such a complex. Interestingly, expression of wild-type Tax protein in cells was also correlated with the induction of a novel hyperphosphorylated cyclin D3 protein. Taken together, these findings suggest that Tax might directly influence cyclin D-cdk activity and function, perhaps by a route independent of cdk inhibitors such as p16(INK4a).

  18. Role of P27 -P55 operon from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the resistance to toxic compounds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The P27-P55 (lprG-Rv1410c) operon is crucial for the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis, during infection in mice. P55 encodes an efflux pump that has been shown to provide Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG with resistance to several drugs, while P27 encodes a mannosylated glycoprotein previously described as an antigen that modulates the immune response against mycobacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the individual contribution of the proteins encoded in the P27-P55 operon to the resistance to toxic compounds and to the cell wall integrity of M. tuberculosis. Method In order to test the susceptibility of a mutant of M. tuberculosis H37Rv in the P27-P55 operon to malachite green, sodium dodecyl sulfate, ethidium bromide, and first-line antituberculosis drugs, this strain together with the wild type strain and a set of complemented strains were cultivated in the presence and in the absence of these drugs. In addition, the malachite green decolorization rate of each strain was obtained from decolorization curves of malachite green in PBS containing bacterial suspensions. Results The mutant strain decolorized malachite green faster than the wild type strain and was hypersensitive to both malachite green and ethidium bromide, and more susceptible to the first-line antituberculosis drugs: isoniazid and ethambutol. The pump inhibitor reserpine reversed M. tuberculosis resistance to ethidium bromide. These results suggest that P27-P55 functions through an efflux-pump like mechanism. In addition, deletion of the P27-P55 operon made M. tuberculosis susceptible to sodium dodecyl sulfate, suggesting that the lack of both proteins causes alterations in the cell wall permeability of the bacterium. Importantly, both P27 and P55 are required to restore the wild type phenotypes in the mutant. Conclusions The results clearly indicate that P27 and P55 are functionally connected in

  19. p21 mediates macrophage reprogramming through regulation of p50-p50 NF-κB and IFN-β

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Jiménez, Enrique; Shokri, Rahman; Carmona-Rodríguez, Lorena; Mañes, Santos; Álvarez-Mon, Melchor; López-Collazo, Eduardo; Martínez-A, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes, which mediate proinflammatory and antiinflammatory functions, respectively, represent the extremes of immunoregulatory plasticity in the macrophage population. This plasticity can also result in intermediate macrophage states that support a balance between these opposing functions. In sepsis, M1 macrophages can compensate for hyperinflammation by acquiring an M2-like immunosuppressed status that increases the risk of secondary infection and death. The M1 to M2 macrophage reprogramming that develops during LPS tolerance resembles the pathological antiinflammatory response to sepsis. Here, we determined that p21 regulates macrophage reprogramming by shifting the balance between active p65-p50 and inhibitory p50-p50 NF-κB pathways. p21 deficiency reduced the DNA-binding affinity of the p50-p50 homodimer in LPS-primed and -rechallenged macrophages, impairing their ability to attenuate IFN-β production and acquire an M2-like hyporesponsive status. High p21 levels in sepsis patients correlated with low IFN-β expression, and p21 knockdown in human monocytes corroborated its role in IFN-β regulation. The data demonstrate that p21 adjusts the equilibrium between p65-p50 and p50-p50 NF-κB pathways to mediate macrophage plasticity in LPS tolerance. Identifying p21-related pathways involved in monocyte reprogramming may lead to potential targets for sepsis treatment. PMID:27427981

  20. p21WAF1/CIP1 Upregulation through the Stress Granule-Associated Protein CUGBP1 Confers Resistance to Bortezomib-Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Gareau, Cristina; Fournier, Marie-Josée; Filion, Christine; Coudert, Laetitia; Martel, David; Labelle, Yves; Mazroui, Rachid

    2011-01-01

    Background p21WAF1/CIP1 is a well known cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor induced by various stress stimuli. Depending on the stress applied, p21 upregulation can either promote apoptosis or prevent against apoptotic injury. The stress-mediated induction of p21 involves not only its transcriptional activation but also its posttranscriptional regulation, mainly through stabilization of p21 mRNA levels. We have previously reported that the proteasome inhibitor MG132 induces the stabilization of p21 mRNA, which correlates with the formation of cytoplasmic RNA stress granules. The mechanism underlying p21 mRNA stabilization, however, remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified the stress granules component CUGBP1 as a factor required for p21 mRNA stabilization following treatment with bortezomib ( =  PS-341/Velcade). This peptide boronate inhibitor of the 26S proteasome is very efficient for the treatment of myelomas and other hematological tumors. However, solid tumors are sometimes refractory to bortezomib treatment. We found that depleting CUGBP1 in cancer cells prevents bortezomib-mediated p21 upregulation. FISH experiments combined to mRNA stability assays show that this effect is largely due to a mistargeting of p21 mRNA in stress granules leading to its degradation. Altering the expression of p21 itself, either by depleting CUGBP1 or p21, promotes bortezomib-mediated apoptosis. Conclusions/Significance We propose that one key mechanism by which apoptosis is inhibited upon treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs might involve upregulation of the p21 protein through CUGBP1. PMID:21637851

  1. 123I-labeled HIV-1 tat peptide radioimmunoconjugates are imported into the nucleus of human breast cancer cells and functionally interact in vitro and in vivo with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(WAF-1/Cip-1).

    PubMed

    Hu, Meiduo; Chen, Paul; Wang, Judy; Scollard, Deborah A; Vallis, Katherine A; Reilly, Raymond M

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate the internalization and nuclear translocation of (123)I-tat-peptide radioimmunoconjugates in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells and their ability to interact with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(WAF-1/Cip-1). Peptides [GRKKRRQRRRPPQGYGC] harboring the nuclear-localizing sequence from HIV tat domain were conjugated to anti-p21(WAF-1/Cip-1) antibodies. Immunoreactivity was assessed by Western blot using lysate from MDA-MB-468 cells exposed to EGF to induce p21(WAF-1/Cip-1). Internalization and nuclear translocation were measured. The ability of tat-anti-p21(WAF-1/Cip-1) to block G(1)-S phase arrest in MDA-MB-468 cells caused by EGF-induced p21(WAF-1/Cip-1) was evaluated. Tumor and normal tissue uptake were determined at 48 h p.i. in athymic mice implanted s.c. with MDA-MB-468 xenografts injected intratumorally with EGF. There was 13.4+/-0.2% of radioactivity internalized by MDA-MB-468 cells incubated with (123)I-tat-anti-p21(WAF-1/Cip-1) and 34.6+/-3.1% imported into the nucleus. Tat-anti-p21(WAF-1/Cip-1)(8 muM) decreased the proportion of EGF-treated cells in G(1) phase from 81.9+/-0.7% to 46.1+/-0.7% (p<0.001), almost restoring the G(1) phase fraction to that of unexposed cells (25.8+/-0.2%). Non-specific tat-mouse IgG did not block EGF-induced G(1)-S phase arrest. Tumor uptake of radioactivity was higher in mice injected with EGF to induce p21(WAF-1/Cip-1) than in mice not receiving EGF (3.1+/-0.4% versus 1.8+/-0.2% ID/g; p=0.04). Western blot analysis of tumors revealed a threefold increase in the p21(WAF-1/Cip-1)/beta-actin ratio. We conclude that intracellular and nuclear epitopes in cancer cells can be functionally targeted with tat-radioimmunoconjugates to exploit many more epitopes for imaging and radiotherapeutic applications than have previously been accessible.

  2. Abrogation of p53 by its antisense in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells increases cyclin D1 via activation of Akt and promotion of cell proliferation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Kumari, Ratna; Upadhyay, Ankur Kumar

    2007-11-15

    The p53 protein has been a subject of intense research interest since its discovery as about 50% of human cancers carry p53 mutations. Mutations in the p53 gene are the most frequent genetic lesions in breast cancers suggesting a critical role of p53 in breast cancer development, growth and chemosensitivity. This report describes the derivation and characterization of MCF-7As53, an isogenic cell line derived from MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells in which p53 was abrogated by antisense p53 cDNA. Similar to MCF-7 and simultaneously selected hygromycin resistant MCF-7H cells, MCF-7As53 cells have consistent basal epithelial phenotype, morphology, and estrogen receptor expressionmore » levels at normal growth conditions. Present work documents investigation of molecular variations, growth kinetics, and cell cycle related studies in relation to absence of wild-type p53 protein and its transactivation potential as well. Even though wild-type tumor suppressor p53 is an activator of cell growth arrest and apoptosis-mediator genes such as p21, Bax, and GADD45 in MCF-7As53 cells, no alterations in expression levels of these genes were detected. The doubling time of these cells decreased due to depletion of G0/G1 cell phase because of constitutive activation of Akt and increase in cyclin D1 protein levels. This proliferative property was abrogated by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway. Therefore this p53 null cell line indicates that p53 is an indispensable component of cellular signaling system which is regulated by caveolin-1 expression, involving Akt activation and increase in cyclin D1, thereby promoting proliferation of breast cancer cells.« less

  3. Plant HDAC inhibitor chrysin arrest cell growth and induce p21WAF1 by altering chromatin of STAT response element in A375 cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chrysin and its analogues, belongs to flavonoid family and possess potential anti-tumour activity. The aim of this study is to determine the molecular mechanism by which chrysin controls cell growth and induce apoptosis in A375 cells. Methods Effect of chrysin and its analogues on cell viability and cell cycle analysis was determined by MTT assay and flowcytometry. A series of Western blots was performed to determine the effect of chrysin on important cell cycle regulatory proteins (Cdk2, cyclin D1, p53, p21, p27). The fluorimetry and calorimetry based assays was conducted for characterization of chrysin as HDAC inhibitor. The changes in histone tail modification such as acetylation and methylation was studied after chrysin treatment was estimated by immuno-fluorescence and western blot analysis. The expression of Bcl-xL, survivin and caspase-3 was estimated in chrysin treated cells. The effect of chrysin on p21 promoter activity was studied by luciferase and ChIP assays. Results Chrysin cause G1 cell cycle arrest and found to inhibit HDAC-2 and HDAC-8. Chrysin treated cells have shown increase in the levels of H3acK14, H4acK12, H4acK16 and decrease in H3me2K9 methylation. The p21 induction by chrysin treatment was found to be independent of p53 status. The chromatin remodelling at p21WAF1 promoter induces p21 activity, increased STAT-1 expression and epigenetic modifications that are responsible for ultimate cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion Chrysin shows in vitro anti-cancer activity that is correlated with induction of histone hyperacetylation and possible recruitment of STAT-1, 3, 5 proteins at STAT (−692 to −684) region of p21 promoter. Our results also support an unexpected action of chrysin on the chromatin organization of p21WAF1 promoter through histone methylation and hyper-acetylation. It proposes previously unknown sequence specific chromatin modulations in the STAT responsive elements for regulating cell cycle progression

  4. Restrictions in Cell Cycle Progression of Adult Vestibular Supporting Cells in Response to Ectopic Cyclin D1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Loponen, Heidi; Ylikoski, Jukka; Albrecht, Jeffrey H.; Pirvola, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Sensory hair cells and supporting cells of the mammalian inner ear are quiescent cells, which do not regenerate. In contrast, non-mammalian supporting cells have the ability to re-enter the cell cycle and produce replacement hair cells. Earlier studies have demonstrated cyclin D1 expression in the developing mouse supporting cells and its downregulation along maturation. In explant cultures of the mouse utricle, we have here focused on the cell cycle control mechanisms and proliferative potential of adult supporting cells. These cells were forced into the cell cycle through adenoviral-mediated cyclin D1 overexpression. Ectopic cyclin D1 triggered robust cell cycle re-entry of supporting cells, accompanied by changes in p27Kip1 and p21Cip1 expressions. Main part of cell cycle reactivated supporting cells were DNA damaged and arrested at the G2/M boundary. Only small numbers of mitotic supporting cells and rare cells with signs of two successive replications were found. Ectopic cyclin D1-triggered cell cycle reactivation did not lead to hyperplasia of the sensory epithelium. In addition, a part of ectopic cyclin D1 was sequestered in the cytoplasm, reflecting its ineffective nuclear import. Combined, our data reveal intrinsic barriers that limit proliferative capacity of utricular supporting cells. PMID:22073316

  5. Restrictions in cell cycle progression of adult vestibular supporting cells in response to ectopic cyclin D1 expression.

    PubMed

    Loponen, Heidi; Ylikoski, Jukka; Albrecht, Jeffrey H; Pirvola, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Sensory hair cells and supporting cells of the mammalian inner ear are quiescent cells, which do not regenerate. In contrast, non-mammalian supporting cells have the ability to re-enter the cell cycle and produce replacement hair cells. Earlier studies have demonstrated cyclin D1 expression in the developing mouse supporting cells and its downregulation along maturation. In explant cultures of the mouse utricle, we have here focused on the cell cycle control mechanisms and proliferative potential of adult supporting cells. These cells were forced into the cell cycle through adenoviral-mediated cyclin D1 overexpression. Ectopic cyclin D1 triggered robust cell cycle re-entry of supporting cells, accompanied by changes in p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1) expressions. Main part of cell cycle reactivated supporting cells were DNA damaged and arrested at the G2/M boundary. Only small numbers of mitotic supporting cells and rare cells with signs of two successive replications were found. Ectopic cyclin D1-triggered cell cycle reactivation did not lead to hyperplasia of the sensory epithelium. In addition, a part of ectopic cyclin D1 was sequestered in the cytoplasm, reflecting its ineffective nuclear import. Combined, our data reveal intrinsic barriers that limit proliferative capacity of utricular supporting cells.

  6. A Novel, Non-Apoptotic Role for Scythe/BAT3: A Functional Switch between the Pro- and Anti-Proliferative Roles of p21 during the Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Sheila T.; Wang, Xiao-Fan

    2012-01-01

    Background Scythe/BAT3 is a member of the BAG protein family whose role in apoptosis has been extensively studied. However, since the developmental defects observed in Bat3-null mouse embryos cannot be explained solely by defects in apoptosis, we investigated whether BAT3 is also involved in cell-cycle progression. Methods/Principal Findings Using a stable-inducible Bat3-knockdown cellular system, we demonstrated that reduced BAT3 protein level causes a delay in both G1/S transition and G2/M progression. Concurrent with these changes in cell-cycle progression, we observed a reduction in the turnover and phosphorylation of the CDK inhibitor p21, which is best known as an inhibitor of DNA replication; however, phosphorylated p21 has also been shown to promote G2/M progression. Our findings indicate that in Bat3-knockdown cells, p21 continues to be synthesized during cell-cycle phases that do not normally require p21, resulting in p21 protein accumulation and a subsequent delay in cell-cycle progression. Finally, we showed that BAT3 co-localizes with p21 during the cell cycle and is required for the translocation of p21 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus during the G1/S transition and G2/M progression. Conclusion: Our study reveals a novel, non-apoptotic role for BAT3 in cell-cycle regulation. By maintaining a low p21 protein level during the G1/S transition, BAT3 counteracts the inhibitory effect of p21 on DNA replication and thus enables the cells to progress from G1 to S phase. Conversely, during G2/M progression, BAT3 facilitates p21 phosphorylation by cyclin A/Cdk2, an event required for G2/M progression. BAT3 modulates these pro- and anti-proliferative roles of p21 at least in part by regulating cyclin A abundance, as well as p21 translocation between the cytoplasm and the nucleus to ensure that it functions in the appropriate intracellular compartment during each phase of the cell cycle. PMID:22761665

  7. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting under...

  9. Silibinin induces hepatic stellate cell cycle arrest via enhancing p53/p27 and inhibiting Akt downstream signaling protein expression.

    PubMed

    Ezhilarasan, Devaraj; Evraerts, Jonathan; Sid, Brice; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Karthikeyan, Sivanesan; Sokal, Etienne; Najimi, Mustapha

    2017-02-01

    Proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) plays a pivotal role in the progression of liver fibrosis consequent to chronic liver injury. Silibinin, a flavonoid compound, has been shown to possess anti-fibrogenic effects in animal models of liver fibrosis. This was attributed to an inhibition of cell proliferation of activated HSCs. The present study was to gain insight into the molecular pathways involved in silibinin anti-fibrogenic effect. The study was conducted on LX-2 human stellate cells treated with three concentrations of silibinin (10, 50 and 100 μmol/L) for 24 and 96 hours. At the end of the treatment cell viability and proliferation were evaluated. Protein expression of p27, p21, p53, Akt and phosphorylated-Akt was evaluated by Western blotting analysis and Ki-67 protein expression was by immunocytochemistry. Sirtuin activity was evaluated by chemiluminescence based assay. Silibinin inhibits LX-2 cell proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manner; we showed that silibinin upregulated the protein expressions of p27 and p53. Such regulation was correlated to an inhibition of both downstream Akt and phosphorylated-Akt protein signaling and Ki-67 protein expression. Sirtuin activity also was correlated to silibinin-inhibited proliferation of LX-2 cells. The anti-proliferative effect of silibinin on LX-2 human stellate cells is via the inhibition of the expressions of various cell cycle targets including p27, Akt and sirtuin signaling.

  10. Involvement of cyclin D1/CDK4 and pRb mediated by PI3K/AKT pathway activation in Pb{sup 2+}-induced neuronal death in cultured hippocampal neurons

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Li Chenchen; Xing Tairan; Tang Mingliang

    2008-06-15

    Lead (Pb) is widely recognized as a neurotoxicant. One of the suggested mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity is apoptotic cell death. And the mechanism by which Pb{sup 2+} causes neuronal death is not well understood. The present study sought to examine the obligate nature of cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), phosphorylation of its substrate retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and its select upstream signal phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway in the death of primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons evoked by Pb{sup 2+}. Our data showed that lead treatment of primary hippocampal cultures results in dose-dependent cell death. Inhibition of CDK4 prevented Pb{sup 2+}-induced neuronalmore » death significantly but was incomplete. In addition, we demonstrated that the levels of cyclin D1 and pRb/p107 were increased during Pb{sup 2+} treatment. These elevated expression persisted up to 48 h, returning to control levels after 72 h. We also presented pharmacological and morphological evidences that cyclin D1/CDK4 and pRb/p107 were required for such kind of neuronal death. Addition of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (30 {mu}M) or wortmannin (100 nM) significantly rescued the cultured hippocampal neurons from death caused by Pb{sup 2+}. And that Pb{sup 2+}-elicited phospho-AKT (Ser473) participated in the induction of cyclin D1 and partial pRb/p107 expression. These results provide evidences that cell cycle elements play a required role in the death of neurons evoked by Pb{sup 2+} and suggest that certain signaling elements upstream of cyclin D1/CDK4 are modified and/or required for this form of neuronal death.« less

  11. Cucurbitacin E Induces G2/M Phase Arrest through STAT3/p53/p21 Signaling and Provokes Apoptosis via Fas/CD95 and Mitochondria-Dependent Pathways in Human Bladder Cancer T24 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Wen; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lin, Meng-Wei; Chen, Po-Yuan; Chiou, Shang-Ming; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Pai, Shu-Jen; Tsuzuki, Minoru; Ho, Wai-Jane; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-01-01

    Cucurbitacin E, a tetracyclic triterpenes compound extracted from cucurbitaceous plants, has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether cucurbitacin E promotes cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis in T24 cells and further to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. The effects of cucurbitacin E on T24 cell's growth and accompanied morphological changes were examined by MTT assay and a phase-contrast microscope. DNA content, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and annexin V/PI staining were determined by flow cytometry. The protein levels were measured by Western blotting. Our results demonstrated that cucurbitacin E-induced G2/M arrest was associated with a marked increase in the levels of p53, p21 and a decrease in phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and cyclin B. Cucurbitacin E-triggered apoptosis was accompanied with up-regulation of Fas/CD95, truncated BID (t-BID) and a loss of ΔΨm, resulting in the releases of cytochrome c, apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and sequential activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3. Our findings provided the first evidence that STAT3/p53/p21 signaling, Fas/CD95 and mitochondria-dependent pathways play critical roles in cucurbitacin E-induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis of T24 cells. PMID:22272214

  12. Increase in Ara-C cytotoxicity in the presence of valproate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, is associated with the concurrent expression of cyclin D1 and p27(Kip 1) in acute myeloblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Siitonen, Timo; Koistinen, Pirjo; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta

    2005-11-01

    The effects of valproate and butyrate were investigated in an acute myeloblastic cell line (OCI/AML-2) on cytotoxicity, cell cycle profile and expression of cell cycle regulating proteins in the presence of cytarabine (Ara-C) and etoposide. As a single agent valproate and butyrate inhibited AML cell growth but did not significantly induce cell death. A dramatic increase in cytotoxicity was observed when combining valproate or butyrate with Ara-C, whereas, co-addition of them with etoposide had much smaller effect on cell death. Valproate induced a clear G1 phase arrest and up-regulated cyclin D1 expression in the presence of Ara-C and etoposide. In addition, valporate was able to block the Ara-C-induced down-regulation of p27(Kip1) expression but not that induced by etoposide.

  13. Modulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/Cip1) gene by Zac1 through the antagonistic regulators p53 and histone deacetylase 1 in HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Yao; Chan, James Yi-Hsin; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Wang, Sung-Ling; Liu, Shu-Ting; Ho, Ching-Liang; Chang, Li-Chien; Huang, Shih-Ming

    2008-07-01

    Zac1 is a novel seven-zinc finger protein which possesses the ability to bind specifically to GC-rich DNA elements. Zac1 not only promotes apoptosis and cell cycle arrest but also acts as a transcriptional cofactor for p53 and a number of nuclear receptors. Our previous study indicated that the enhancement of p53 activity by Zac1 is much more pronounced in HeLa cells compared with other cell lines tested. This phenomenon might be due to the coactivator effect of Zac1 on p53 and the ability of Zac1 to reverse E6 inhibition of p53. In the present study, we showed that Zac1 acted synergistically with either p53 or a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, to enhance p21(WAF1/Cip1) promoter activity. We showed that Zac1 physically interacted with some nuclear receptor corepressors such as histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and mSin3a, and the induction of p21(WAF1/Cip1) gene and protein by Zac1 was suppressed by either overexpressing HDAC1 or its deacetylase-dead mutant. In addition, our data suggest that trichostatin A-induced p21(WAF1/Cip1) protein expression might be mediated through a p53-independent and HDAC deacetylase-independent pathway. Taken together, our data suggest that Zac1 might be involved in regulating the p21(WAF1/Cip1) gene and protein expression through its protein-protein interaction with p53 and HDAC1 in HeLa cells.

  14. Inactivation of p16INK4a, with retention of pRB and p53/p21cip1 function, in human MRC5 fibroblasts that overcome a telomere-independent crisis during immortalization.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lisa M; James, Alexander; Schuller, Christine E; Brce, Jesena; Lock, Richard B; Mackenzie, Karen L

    2004-10-15

    Recent investigations, including our own, have shown that specific strains of fibroblasts expressing telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) have an extended lifespan, but are not immortal. We previously demonstrated that hTERT-transduced MRC5 fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC5hTERTs) bypassed senescence but eventually succumbed to a second mortality barrier (crisis). In the present study, 67 MRC5hTERT clones were established by limiting dilution of a mass culture. Whereas 39/67 clones had an extended lifespan, all 39 extended lifespan clones underwent crisis. 11 of 39 clones escaped crisis and were immortalized. There was no apparent relationship between the fate of clones at crisis and the level of telomerase activity. Telomeres were hyperextended in the majority of the clones analyzed. There was no difference in telomere length of pre-crisis compared with post-crisis and immortal clones, indicating that hyperextended telomeres were conducive for immortalization and confirming that crisis was independent of telomere length. Immortalization of MRC5hTERT cells was associated with repression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16INK4a and up-regulation of pRB. However, the regulation of pRB phosphorylation and the response of the p53/p21cip1/waf1 pathway were normal in immortal cells subject to genotoxic stress. Overexpression of oncogenic ras failed to de-repress p16INK4a in immortal cells. Furthermore, expression of ras enforced senescent-like growth arrest in p16INK4a-positive, but not p16INK4a-negative MRC5hTERT cells. Immortal cells expressing ras formed small, infrequent colonies in soft agarose, but were non-tumorigenic. Overall, these results implicate the inactivation of p16INK4a as a critical event for overcoming telomere-independent crisis, immortalizing MRC5 fibroblasts and overcoming ras-induced premature senescence.

  15. Dicer-dependent production of microRNA221 in hepatocytes inhibits p27 and is required for liver regeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Oya, Yuki; Masuzaki, Ryota; Tsugawa, Daisuke; Ray, Kevin C; Dou, Yongchao; Karp, Seth J

    2017-05-01

    Dicer processes microRNAs (miRs) into active forms in a wide variety of tissues, including the liver. To determine the role of Dicer in liver regeneration, we performed a series of in vivo and in vitro studies in a murine 2/3 hepatectomy model. Dicer was downregulated after 2/3 hepatectomy, and loss of Dicer inhibited liver regeneration associated with decreased cyclin A2 and miR-221, as well as increased levels of the cell cycle inhibitor p27. In vitro, miR-221 inhibited p27 production in primary hepatocytes and increased hepatocyte proliferation. Specific reconstitution of miR-221 in hepatocyte-specific Dicer-null mice inhibited p27 and restored liver regeneration. In wild type mice, targeted inhibition of miR-221 using a cholesterol-conjugated miR-221 inhibited hepatocyte proliferation after 2/3 hepatectomy. These results identify Dicer production of miR-221 as an essential component of a miRNA-dependent mechanism for suppression of p27 that controls the rate of hepatocyte proliferation after partial hepatectomy. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our findings demonstrate a direct role for microRNAs in controlling the rate of liver regeneration after injury. By deleting Dicer, an enzyme responsible for processing microRNAs into mature forms, we determined miR-221 is a critical microRNA in the physiological process of restoration of liver mass after injury. miR-221 suppresses p27, releasing its inhibitory effects on hepatocyte proliferation. Pharmaceuticals based on miR-221 may be useful to modulate hepatocyte proliferation in the setting of liver injury. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Sulforaphane down-regulates SKP2 to stabilize p27(KIP1) for inducing antiproliferation in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yuan-Kai; Chi-Hung Or, Richard; Lu, Chien-Hsing; Ouyang, Wei-Ting; Yang, Shu-Yi; Chang, Chia-Che

    2015-01-01

    Sulforaphane is a cruciferous vegetable-derived isothiocyanate with promising chemopreventive and therapeutic activities. Induction of proliferation arrest and apoptosis principally contribute to sulforaphane's anticancer activity, but the precise molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The oncoprotein SKP2 is a key component of the SKP1-CULLIN1-F-box (SCF) E3 ligase complex and is responsible for directing SCF-mediated degradation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) to promote cell proliferation. We herein provide the first evidence supporting the critical involvement of the SKP2-p27(KIP1) axis in sulforaphane-induced antiproliferation in various human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Specifically, sulforaphane markedly suppressed the levels of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and clonogenicity in all tested cell lines, illustrating the antiproliferative effect of sulforaphane. Of note, sulforaphane-induced antiproliferation was accompanied with down-regulation of SKP2, leading to the stabilization and thus up-regulation of p27(KIP1). Additionally, sulforaphane was found to down-regulate SKP2 mainly through transcriptional repression, as sulforaphane lowered SKP2 mRNA expression and the SKP2 promoter activity. Furthermore, sulforaphane treatment led to the activation of both AKT and ERK, thus ruling out the possibility that sulforaphane down-regulates SKP2 by inhibiting AKT or ERK. Notably, sulforaphane-elicited suppression of BrdU incorporation and clonogenicity were significantly rescued in the context of SKP2 overexpression or p27(KIP1) depletion, therefore highlighting the important role of SKP2 down-regulation and the ensuing stabilization of p27(KIP1) in sulforaphane-induced antiproliferation. Collectively, these data expand our molecular understanding about how sulforaphane elicits proliferation arrest, but also implicate the application of sulforaphane in therapeutic modalities targeting SKP2. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology

  17. Enhancement of the p27Kip1-mediated antiproliferative effect of trastuzumab (Herceptin) on HER2-overexpressing tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Marches, Radu; Uhr, Jonathan W

    2004-11-10

    The oncogenic activity of the overexpressed HER2 tyrosine kinase receptor requires its localization in the plasma membrane. The antitumor effect of anti-HER2 antibodies (Abs) is mainly dependent on receptor downregulation and comprises p27Kip1-mediated G1 cell cycle arrest. However, one major limitation of anti-HER2 therapy is the reversibility of tumor growth inhibition after discontinuation of treatment caused by the mitogenic signaling associated with cell surface receptor re-expression. We found that the level of p27Kip1 upregulation, inhibition of Cdk2 activity and magnitude of G1 arrest induced by the humanized Ab trastuzumab (Herceptin, HCT) on BT474 and SKBr3 HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells correlates with the level of cell surface receptor. Thus, continuous exposure of cells to HCT for 72 hr results in downregulation of the cell surface receptor and a concurrent increase in the level of p27Kip1 protein. Discontinuation of Ab exposure after the first 8 hr results in failure to upregulate p27Kip1 and arrest of cell cycle progression. We show that the lysosomotropic amine chloroquine (CQ) augments receptor internalization in HER2-overexpressing cells either pretreated or continuously treated with HCT and leads to an increased and sustained inhibitory effect. The enhanced CQ-dependent loss of functional HER2 from the cell surface resulted in sustained inactivation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt, upregulation of p27Kip1 protein and inhibition of cyclin E/Cdk2 activity. Potentiation of the inhibitory effect of HCT by CQ was directly related to loss of HER2 from the plasma membrane since prevention of Ab-mediated receptor endocytosis by engagement of the receptor with immobilized HCT abrogated the effect of CQ.

  18. Erbin loss promotes cancer cell proliferation through feedback activation of Akt-Skp2-p27 signaling

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Huang, Hao; Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Medical School of Henan University, Kaifeng 475004; Song, Yuhua

    2015-07-31

    Erbin localizes at the basolateral membrane to regulate cell junctions and polarity in epithelial cells. Dysregulation of Erbin has been implicated in tumorigenesis, and yet it is still unclear if and how disrupted Erbin regulates the biological behavior of cancer cells. We report here that depletion of Erbin leads to cancer cell excessive proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Erbin deficiency accelerates S-phase entry by down-regulating CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 via two independent mechanisms. Mechanistically, Erbin loss promotes p27 degradation by enhancing E3 ligase Skp2 activity though augmenting Akt signaling. Interestingly, we also show that Erbin is an unstable protein whenmore » the Akt-Skp2 signaling is aberrantly activated, which can be specifically destructed by SCF-Skp2 ligase. Erbin loss facilitates cell proliferation and migration in Skp2-dependent manner. Thus, our finding illustrates a novel negative feedback loop between Erbin and Akt-Skp2 signaling. It suggests disrupted Erbin links polarity loss, hyperproliferation and tumorigenesis. - Highlights: • Erbin loss leads to cancer cell excessive proliferation in vitro and in vivo. • Erbin loss accelerates cell cycle though down-regulating p21 and p27 expression. • Erbin is a novel negative modulator of Akt1-Skp2-p27 signaling pathway. • Our study suggests that Erbin loss contributes to Skp2 oncogenic function.« less

  19. A novel miRNA-mediated STOP sign in lung cancer: miR-340 inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells through p27KIP1

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Serena; Risolino, Maurizio; Verde, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Oncosuppressor miRNAs inhibit cancer cell proliferation by targeting key components of the cell cycle machinery. In our recent report we showed that miR-340 is a novel tumor suppressor in non-small cell lung cancer. miR-340 inhibits neoplastic cell proliferation and induces p27KIP1 by targeting multiple translational and post-translational regulators of this cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. PMID:27308439

  20. Common genetic variants in the 9p21 region and their associations with multiple tumours.

    PubMed

    Gu, F; Pfeiffer, R M; Bhattacharjee, S; Han, S S; Taylor, P R; Berndt, S; Yang, H; Sigurdson, A J; Toro, J; Mirabello, L; Greene, M H; Freedman, N D; Abnet, C C; Dawsey, S M; Hu, N; Qiao, Y-L; Ding, T; Brenner, A V; Garcia-Closas, M; Hayes, R; Brinton, L A; Lissowska, J; Wentzensen, N; Kratz, C; Moore, L E; Ziegler, R G; Chow, W-H; Savage, S A; Burdette, L; Yeager, M; Chanock, S J; Chatterjee, N; Tucker, M A; Goldstein, A M; Yang, X R

    2013-04-02

    The chromosome 9p21.3 region has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple cancers. We systematically examined up to 203 tagging SNPs of 22 genes on 9p21.3 (19.9-32.8 Mb) in eight case-control studies: thyroid cancer, endometrial cancer (EC), renal cell carcinoma, colorectal cancer (CRC), colorectal adenoma (CA), oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and osteosarcoma (OS). We used logistic regression to perform single SNP analyses for each study separately, adjusting for study-specific covariates. We combined SNP results across studies by fixed-effect meta-analyses and a newly developed subset-based statistical approach (ASSET). Gene-based P-values were obtained by the minP method using the Adaptive Rank Truncated Product program. We adjusted for multiple comparisons by Bonferroni correction. Rs3731239 in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors 2A (CDKN2A) was significantly associated with ESCC (P=7 × 10(-6)). The CDKN2A-ESCC association was further supported by gene-based analyses (Pgene=0.0001). In the meta-analyses by ASSET, four SNPs (rs3731239 in CDKN2A, rs615552 and rs573687 in CDKN2B and rs564398 in CDKN2BAS) showed significant associations with ESCC and EC (P<2.46 × 10(-4)). One SNP in MTAP (methylthioadenosine phosphorylase) (rs7023329) that was previously associated with melanoma and nevi in multiple genome-wide association studies was associated with CRC, CA and OS by ASSET (P=0.007). Our data indicate that genetic variants in CDKN2A, and possibly nearby genes, may be associated with ESCC and several other tumours, further highlighting the importance of 9p21.3 genetic variants in carcinogenesis.

  1. The caspase-generated cleavage product of Ets-1 p51 and Ets-1 p27, Cp17, induces apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Choul-Li, Souhaila; Tulasne, David; Aumercier, Marc

    2016-11-04

    The transcription factor Ets-1 is involved in various physiological processes and invasive pathologies. Human Ets-1 exists under three isoforms: p51, the predominant full-length isoform, p42 and p27, shorter alternatively spliced isoforms. We have previously demonstrated that Ets-1 p51, but not the spliced variant Ets-1 p42, is processed by caspases in vitro and during apoptosis. However, the caspase cleavage of the second spliced variant Ets-1 p27 remains to investigate. In the present study, we demonstrate that Ets-1 p27 is a cleavage substrate of caspases. We show that Ets-1 p27 is processed in vitro by caspase-3, resulting in three C-terminal fragments Cp20, Cp17 and Cp14. Similarly, Ets-1 p27 was cleaved during apoptotic cell death induced by anisomycin, producing fragments consistent with those observed in in vitro cleavage assay. These fragments are generated by cleavage at three sites located in the exon VII-encoded region of Ets-1 p27. As a functional consequences, Cp17 fragment, the major cleavage product generated during apoptosis, induced itself apoptosis when transfected into cells. Our results show that Ets-1 p27 is cleaved in the same manner as Ets-1 p51 within the exon VII-encoded region, thus generating a stable C-terminal fragment that induces cell death by initiating apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of Mycobacterium bovis deleted in p27-p55 virulence operon as candidate vaccine against tuberculosis in animal models.

    PubMed

    Bianco, María V; Clark, Simon; Blanco, Federico C; Garbaccio, Sergio; García, Elizabeth; Cataldi, Angel A; Williams, Ann; Bigi, Fabiana

    2014-01-01

    A Mycobacterium bovis knockout in p27-p55 operon was tested as an antituberculosis experimental vaccine in animal models. The mutant MbΔp27-p55 was significantly more attenuated in nude mice than its parental strain but more virulent than BCG Pasteur. Challenge experiments in mice and guinea pigs using M. bovis or M. tuberculosis strains showed similar protection conferred by MbΔp27-p55 mutant than BCG in terms of pathology and bacterial loads in spleen but lower protection than BCG in lungs. When tested in cattle, MbΔp27-p55 did not induce IL-2 expression and induced a very low production of IFNγ, suggesting that the lack of P27/P55 reduces the capacity of M. bovis of triggering an adequate Th1 response.

  3. Abnormal expression of p27kip1 protein in levator ani muscle of aging women with pelvic floor disorders – a relationship to the cellular differentiation and degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Copas, Pleas; Caudle, Michael R; Cekanova, Maria; Dassanayake, Tamara; Asbury, Bridgett; Van Meter, Stuart E; Elder, Robert F; Brown, Jeffrey B; Cross, Stephanie B

    2001-01-01

    Background Pelvic floor disorders affect almost 50% of aging women. An important role in the pelvic floor support belongs to the levator ani muscle. The p27/kip1 (p27) protein, multifunctional cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, shows changing expression in differentiating skeletal muscle cells during development, and relatively high levels of p27 RNA were detected in the normal human skeletal muscles. Methods Biopsy samples of levator ani muscle were obtained from 22 symptomatic patients with stress urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and overlaps (age range 38–74), and nine asymptomatic women (age 31–49). Cryostat sections were investigated for p27 protein expression and type I (slow twitch) and type II (fast twitch) fibers. Results All fibers exhibited strong plasma membrane (and nuclear) p27 protein expression. cytoplasmic p27 expression was virtually absent in asymptomatic women. In perimenopausal symptomatic patients (ages 38–55), muscle fibers showed hypertrophy and moderate cytoplasmic p27 staining accompanied by diminution of type II fibers. Older symptomatic patients (ages 57–74) showed cytoplasmic p27 overexpression accompanied by shrinking, cytoplasmic vacuolization and fragmentation of muscle cells. The plasma membrane and cytoplasmic p27 expression was not unique to the muscle cells. Under certain circumstances, it was also detected in other cell types (epithelium of ectocervix and luteal cells). Conclusions This is the first report on the unusual (plasma membrane and cytoplasmic) expression of p27 protein in normal and abnormal human striated muscle cells in vivo. Our data indicate that pelvic floor disorders are in perimenopausal patients associated with an appearance of moderate cytoplasmic p27 expression, accompanying hypertrophy and transition of type II into type I fibers. The patients in advanced postmenopause show shrinking and fragmentation of muscle fibers associated with strong cytoplasmic p27 expression. PMID:11696252

  4. Serum-Nutrient Starvation Induces Cell Death Mediated by Bax and Puma That Is Counteracted by p21 and Unmasked by Bcl-xL Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Frédérique; Bertin-Ciftci, Joséphine; Gallouet, Anne-Sophie; Millour, Julie; Juin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (p21WAF1/Cip1) is a multifunctional protein known to promote cell cycle arrest and survival in response to p53-dependent and p53 independent stimuli. We herein investigated whether and how it might contribute to the survival of cancer cells that are in low-nutrient conditions during tumour growth, by culturing isogenic human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT116) and breast cancer cell lines in a medium deprived in amino acids and serum. We show that such starvation enhances, independently from p53, the expression of p21 and that of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Puma. Under these conditions, p21 prevents Puma and its downstream effector Bax from triggering the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This anti-apoptotic effect is exerted from the cytosol but it is unrelated to the ability of p21 to interfere with the effector caspase 3. The survival function of p21 is, however, overcome by RNA interference mediated Bcl-xL depletion, or by the pharmacological inhibitor ABT-737. Thus, an insufficient supply in nutrients may not have an overt effect on cancer cell viability due to p21 induction, but it primes these cells to die, and sensitizes them to the deleterious effects of Bcl-xL inhibitors regardless of their p53 status. PMID:21887277

  5. Interaction of the Tumor Suppressor p53 with Replication Protein A.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    The DNA replication factor RPA physically associates with the tumor suppressor protein p53, an interaction that could be important for the function...binding single-stranded DNA, this mutant of RPA fails to support DNA replication . Therefore the region of RPA which interacts with p53 is essential for...of p53, p21/WAFl/CIPl, inhibits the cell-cycle by associating with cyclin-cdk kinases. It also inhibits DNA replication by interacting with a

  6. Pharmacologic ATM but not ATR kinase inhibition abrogates p21-dependent G1 arrest and promotes gastrointestinal syndrome after total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Vendetti, Frank P; Leibowitz, Brian J; Barnes, Jennifer; Schamus, Sandy; Kiesel, Brian F; Abberbock, Shira; Conrads, Thomas; Clump, David Andy; Cadogan, Elaine; O'Connor, Mark J; Yu, Jian; Beumer, Jan H; Bakkenist, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    We show that ATM kinase inhibition using AZ31 prior to 9 or 9.25 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) reduced median time to moribund in mice to 8 days. ATR kinase inhibition using AZD6738 prior to TBI did not reduce median time to moribund. The striking finding associated with ATM inhibition prior to TBI was increased crypt loss within the intestine epithelium. ATM inhibition reduced upregulation of p21, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, and blocked G1 arrest after TBI thereby increasing the number of S phase cells in crypts in wild-type but not Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/- mice. In contrast, ATR inhibition increased upregulation of p21 after TBI. Thus, ATM activity is essential for p21-dependent arrest while ATR inhibition may potentiate arrest in crypt cells after TBI. Nevertheless, ATM inhibition reduced median time to moribund in Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/- mice after TBI. ATM inhibition also increased cell death in crypts at 4 h in Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/-, earlier than at 24 h in wild-type mice after TBI. In contrast, ATR inhibition decreased cell death in crypts in Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/- mice at 4 h after TBI. We conclude that ATM activity is essential for p21-dependent and p21-independent mechanisms that radioprotect intestinal crypts and that ATM inhibition promotes GI syndrome after TBI.

  7. LincRNA-p21 activates p21 in cis to promote Polycomb target gene expression and to enforce the G1/S checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova, Nadya; Zamudio, Jesse R.; Jong, Robyn M.; Soukup, Dylan; Resnick, Rebecca; Sarma, Kavitha; Ward, Amanda J.; Raj, Arjun; Lee, Jeannie; Sharp, Phillip A.; Jacks, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The p53-regulated long non-coding RNA lincRNA-p21 has been proposed to act in trans via several mechanisms ranging from repressing genes in the p53 transcriptional network to regulating mRNA translation and protein stability. To further examine lincRNA-p21 function we generated a conditional knockout mouse model. We find that lincRNA-p21 predominantly functions in cis to activate expression of its neighboring gene, p21. Mechanistically, we show that lincRNA-p21 acts in concert with hnRNP-K as a co-activator for p53-dependent p21 transcription. Additional phenotypes of lincRNA-p21 deficiency could be attributed to diminished p21 levels, including deregulated expression and altered chromatin state of some Polycomb target genes, defective G1/S checkpoint, increased proliferation rates, and enhanced reprogramming efficiency. These findings indicate that lincRNA-p21 affects global gene expression and influences the p53 tumor suppressor pathway by acting in cis as a locus-restricted co-activator for p53-mediated p21 expression. PMID:24857549

  8. The Prognostic Impact of p53 Expression on Sporadic Colorectal Cancer Is Dependent on p21 Status.

    PubMed

    Kruschewski, Martin; Mueller, Kathrin; Lipka, Sybille; Budczies, Jan; Noske, Aurelia; Buhr, Heinz Johannes; Elezkurtaj, Sefer

    2011-03-11

    The prognostic value of p53 and p21 expression in colorectal cancer is still under debate. We hypothesize that the prognostic impact of p53 expression is dependent on p21 status. The expression of p53 and p21 was immunohistochemically investigated in a prospective cohort of 116 patients with UICC stage II and III sporadic colorectal cancer. The results were correlated with overall and recurrence-free survival. The mean observation period was 51.8 ± 2.5 months. Expression of p53 was observed in 72 tumors (63%). Overall survival was significantly better in patients with p53-positive carcinomas than in those without p53 expression (p = 0.048). No differences were found in recurrence-free survival (p = 0.161). The p53+/p21- combination was seen in 68% (n = 49), the p53+/p21+ combination in 32% (n = 23). Patients with p53+/p21- carcinomas had significantly better overall and recurrence-free survival than those with p53+/p21+ (p < 0.0001 resp. p = 0.003). Our data suggest that the prognostic impact of p53 expression on sporadic colorectal cancer is dependent on p21 status.

  9. miR-340 inhibits tumor cell proliferation and induces apoptosis by targeting multiple negative regulators of p27 in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Serena; Risolino, Maurizio; Mandia, Nadia; Talotta, Francesco; Soini, Ylermi; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Condorelli, Gerolama; Banfi, Sandro; Verde, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control cell cycle progression by targeting the transcripts encoding for cyclins, CDKs and CDK inhibitors, such as p27KIP1 (p27). p27 expression is controlled by multiple transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, including translational inhibition by miR-221/222 and posttranslational regulation by the SCFSKP2 complex. The oncosuppressor activity of miR-340 has been recently characterized in breast, colorectal and osteosarcoma tumor cells. However, the mechanisms underlying miR-340-induced cell growth arrest have not been elucidated. Here we describe miR-340 as a novel tumor suppressor in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Starting from the observation that the growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of miR-340 correlate with the accumulation of p27 in lung adenocarcinoma and glioblastoma cells, we have analyzed the functional relationship between miR-340 and p27 expression. miR-340 targets three key negative regulators of p27. The miR-340-mediated inhibition of both Pumilio-family RNA-binding proteins (PUM1 and PUM2), required for the miR-221/222 interaction with the p27 3′UTR, antagonizes the miRNA-dependent downregulation of p27. At the same time, miR-340 induces the stabilization of p27 by targeting SKP2, the key posttranslational regulator of p27. Therefore, miR-340 controls p27 at both translational and posttranslational levels. Accordingly, the inhibition of either PUM1 or SKP2 partially recapitulates the miR-340 effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis. In addition to the effect on tumor cell proliferation, miR-340 also inhibits intercellular adhesion and motility in lung cancer cells. These changes correlate with the miR-340-mediated inhibition of previously validated (MET and ROCK1) and potentially novel (RHOA and CDH1) miR-340 target transcripts. Finally, we show that in a small cohort of NSCLC patients (n=23), representative of all four stages of lung cancer, miR-340 expression inversely correlates with clinical

  10. Quiescence does not affect p53 and stress response by irradiation in human lung fibroblasts

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dai, Jiawen; Itahana, Koji, E-mail: koji.itahana@duke-nus.edu.sg; Baskar, Rajamanickam, E-mail: r.baskar@nccs.com.sg

    Cells in many organs exist in both proliferating and quiescent states. Proliferating cells are more radio-sensitive, DNA damage pathways including p53 pathway are activated to undergo either G{sub 1}/S or G{sub 2}/M arrest to avoid entering S and M phase with DNA damage. On the other hand, quiescent cells are already arrested in G{sub 0}, therefore there may be fundamental difference of irradiation response between proliferating and quiescent cells, and this difference may affect their radiosensitivity. To understand these differences, proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblasts were exposed to 0.10–1 Gy of γ-radiation. The response of key proteins involvedmore » in the cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were examined. Interestingly, p53 and p53 phosphorylation (Ser-15), as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, were induced similarly in both proliferating and quiescent cells after irradiation. Furthermore, the p53 protein half-life, and expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, or cytochrome c expression as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were comparable after irradiation in both phases of cells. The effect of radioprotection by a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor on p53 pathway was also similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. Our results showed that quiescence does not affect irradiation response of key proteins involved in stress and DNA damage at least in normal fibroblasts, providing a better understanding of the radiation response in quiescent cells, which is crucial for tissue repair and regeneration. - Highlights: • p53 response by irradiation was similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. • Quiescent cells showed similar profiles of cell cycle proteins after irradiation. • Radioprotection of GSK-3β inhibitor caused similar effects between these cells. • Quiescence did not affect p53 response

  11. P27/Kip1 is responsible for magnolol-induced U373 apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Ching; Lee, Wen-Sen

    2013-03-20

    Previously, we demonstrated that magnolol, a hydroxylated biphenyl compound isolated from the bark of Magnolia officinalis, at low concentrations (3-10 μM) exerted an antiproliferation effect in colon cancer, hepatoma, and glioblastoma (U373) cell lines through upregulation of the p21/Cip1 protein. Magnolol at a higher concentration of 100 μM, however, induced apoptosis and upregulated p27/Kip1 expression in U373. In the present study, we further studied whether the increased p27/Kip1 expression contributes to the magnolol-induced apoptosis in U373. Our data show that knock-down of p27/Kip1 expression significantly suppressed the magnolol-induced apoptosis, suggesting that p27/Kip1 might play an important role in the regulation of magnolol-induced apoptosis. This notion was further supported by demonstrating that magnolol induced an increase of the caspase activity in U373 in vitro and in vivo, and these effects were abolished by pretransfection of the cell with p27/Kip1 siRNA. To delineate the possible signaling pathways involved in the magnolol-induced increases of p27/Kip1 expression and apoptosis, we found that magnolol (100 μM) increased the levels of phosphorylated cSrc (p-cSrc), p-ERK, p-p38 MAP kinase (p-p38 MAPK), and p-AKT but not p-JNK in U373. Moreover, pretreatment of U373 with a cSrc inhibitor (PP2), a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002), an ERK inhibitor (PD98059), or a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) but not a JNK inhibitor (SP600125) significantly reduced the magnolol-induced increases of p27/Kip1 protein levels and apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that magnolol at a higher concentration of 100 μM induced apopotosis in U373 cells through cSrc-mediated upregulation of p27/Kip1.

  12. Novel Pactamycin Analogs Induce p53 Dependent Cell-Cycle Arrest at S-Phase in Human Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Gunjan; Liang, Xiaobo; Kulesz-Martin, Molly F.; Mahmud, Taifo; Indra, Arup Kumar; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali

    2015-01-01

    Pactamycin, although putatively touted as a potent antitumor agent, has never been used as an anticancer drug due to its high cytotoxicity. In this study, we characterized the effects of two novel biosynthetically engineered analogs of pactamycin, de-6MSA-7-demethyl-7-deoxypactamycin (TM-025) and 7-demethyl-7-deoxypactamycin (TM-026), in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines SCC25 and SCC104. Both TM-025 and TM-026 exert growth inhibitory effects on HNSCC cells by inhibiting cell proliferation. Interestingly, unlike their parent compound pactamycin, the analogs do not inhibit synthesis of nascent protein in a cell-based assay. Furthermore, they do not induce apoptosis or autophagy in a dose- or a time-dependent manner, but induce mild senescence in the tested cell lines. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that both analogs significantly induce cell cycle arrest of the HNSCC cells at S-phase resulting in reduced accumulation of G2/M-phase cells. The pactamycin analogs induce expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins including master regulator p53, its downstream target p21Cip1/WAF1, p27kip21, p19, cyclin E, total and phospho Cdc2 (Tyr15) and Cdc25C. Besides, the analogs mildly reduce cyclin D1 expression without affecting expression of cyclin B, Cdk2 and Cdk4. Specific inhibition of p53 by pifithrin-α reduces the percentage of cells accumulated in S-phase, suggesting contribution of p53 to S-phase increase. Altogether, our results demonstrate that Pactamycin analogs TM-025 and TM-026 induce senescence and inhibit proliferation of HNSCC cells via accumulation in S-phase through possible contribution of p53. The two PCT analogs can be widely used as research tools for cell cycle inhibition studies in proliferating cancer cells with specific mechanisms of action. PMID:25938491

  13. p27(kip1) Knockout enhances collateralization in response to hindlimb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ankri-Eliahoo, Galit; Weitz, Kevin; Cox, Timothy C; Tang, Gale L

    2016-05-01

    The natural response to arterial occlusive disease is enlargement of collaterals; however, the molecular factors that control collateralization are not well understood. The gene p27(Kip1) (p27) affects human response to arterial injury. Previous studies have shown that overexpression of p27 inhibits vascular endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and angiogenesis. To test the hypothesis that knockout of p27 would improve collateralization in reaction to ischemia, we performed in vivo and in vitro experiments using p27 knockout (p27(-/-)) and wild-type (wt) mice. Hindlimb ischemia was induced by left femoral artery ligation in p27(-/-) and wt (C57BL/6) female mice. The mice underwent weekly laser Doppler perfusion imaging of the footpads until sacrifice on postoperative day 28 followed by microcomputed tomography scanning of both hindlimbs. VSMCs were isolated from p27(-/-) and wt mice and used in migration and gel contraction assays in the absence and presence of the nonspecific matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor BB94. MMP-2 and MMP-9 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in p27(-/-) and wt VSMCs. p27(-/-) mice reperfused more effectively than wt mice by laser Doppler starting from day 7 (ischemic/nonischemic ratio, 0.33 ± 0.02 vs 0.25 ± 0.02; P < .05) and continuing through day 28 (0.45 ± 0.04 vs 0.31 ± 0.04; P < .05). The gracilis collateral diameter was similar for the nonischemic hindlimbs of the p27(-/-) and wt mice, and this collateral pathway increased similarly after ischemia as assessed by microcomputed tomography. However, the p27(-/-) mice significantly enlarged a novel collateral pathway that bridged directly between the femoral artery proximal to the ligation site and the saphenous or popliteal artery distal to the ligation site more than wt mice (158 ± 18.3 vs 82 ± 22 μm; P < .001). p27(-/-) VSMCs migrated more (79% ± 5% vs 56%

  14. Slug inhibits the proliferation and tumor formation of human cervical cancer cells by up-regulating the p21/p27 proteins and down-regulating the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway via the trans-suppression Akt1/p-Akt1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Nan; Yang, Wen-Ting; Zheng, Peng-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Slug (Snai2) has been demonstrated to act as an oncogene or tumor suppressor in different human cancers, but the function of Slug in cervical cancer remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that Slug could suppress the proliferation of cervical cancer cells in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. Further experiments found that Slug could trans-suppress the expression of Akt1/p-Akt1 by binding to E-box motifs in the promoter of the Akt1 gene and then inhibit the cell proliferation and tumor formation of cervical cancer cells by up-regulating p21/p27 and/or down-regulating the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Therefore, Slug acts as a tumor suppressor during cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:27036045

  15. Inducible Knockout of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 Activator p35 Alters Hippocampal Spatial Coding and Neuronal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Kamiki, Eriko; Boehringer, Roman; Polygalov, Denis; Ohshima, Toshio; McHugh, Thomas J.

    2018-01-01

    p35 is an activating co-factor of Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a protein whose dysfunction has been implicated in a wide-range of neurological disorders including cognitive impairment and disease. Inducible deletion of the p35 gene in adult mice results in profound deficits in hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and synaptic physiology, however the impact of the loss of p35 function on hippocampal in vivo physiology and spatial coding remains unknown. Here, we recorded CA1 pyramidal cell activity in freely behaving p35 cKO and control mice and found that place cells in the mutant mice have elevated firing rates and impaired spatial coding, accompanied by changes in the temporal organization of spiking both during exploration and rest. These data shed light on the role of p35 in maintaining cellular and network excitability and provide a physiological correlate of the spatial learning deficits in these mice. PMID:29867369

  16. The prognostic implication of the expression of EGFR, p53, cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and p16 in primary locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma cases: a tissue microarray study.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Monica Charlotte; Vidyasagar, M S; Fernandes, Donald; Guddattu, Vasudev; Mathew, Mary; Shergill, Ankur Kaur; Carnelio, Sunitha; Chandrashekar, Chetana

    2016-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas comprise a heterogeneous tumor cell population with varied molecular characteristics, which makes prognostication of these tumors a complex and challenging issue. Thus, molecular profiling of these tumors is advantageous for an accurate prognostication and treatment planning. This is a retrospective study on a cohort of primary locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinomas (n = 178) of an Indian rural population. The expression of EGFR, p53, cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and p16 in a cohort of primary locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinomas was evaluated. A potential biomarker that can predict the tumor response to treatment was identified. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor blocks of (n = 178) of histopathologically diagnosed cases of locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinomas were selected. Tissue microarray blocks were constructed with 2 cores of 2 mm diameter from each tumor block. Four-micron-thick sections were cut from these tissue microarray blocks. These tissue microarray sections were immunohistochemically stained for EGFR, p53, Bcl-2, cyclin D1 and p16. In this cohort, EGFR was the most frequently expressed 150/178 (84%) biomarker of the cases. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant association (p = 0.038) between expression of p53 and a poor prognosis. A Poisson regression analysis showed that tumors that expressed p53 had a two times greater chance of recurrence (unadjusted IRR-95% CI 2.08 (1.03, 4.5), adjusted IRR-2.29 (1.08, 4.8) compared with the tumors that did not express this biomarker. Molecular profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas will enable us to categorize our patients into more realistic risk groups. With biologically guided tumor characterization, personalized treatment protocols can be designed for individual patients, which will improve the quality of life of these patients.

  17. The cdc2-related protein p40MO15 is the catalytic subunit of a protein kinase that can activate p33cdk2 and p34cdc2.

    PubMed Central

    Poon, R Y; Yamashita, K; Adamczewski, J P; Hunt, T; Shuttleworth, J

    1993-01-01

    Activation of the cyclin-dependent protein kinases p34cdc2 and p33cdk2 requires binding with a cyclin partner and phosphorylation on the first threonine residue in the sequence THEVVTLWYRAPE. We present evidence that this threonine residue, number 160 in p33cdk2, can be specifically phosphorylated by a cdc2-related protein kinase from Xenopus oocytes called p40MO15. Binding to cyclin A and phosphorylation of this threonine are both required to activate fully the histone H1 kinase activity of p33cdk2. In cell extracts, a portion of p40MO15 is found in a high molecular weight complex that is considerably more active than a lower molecular weight form. Wild-type MO15 protein expressed in bacteria does not possess kinase activity, but acquires p33cdk2-T160 kinase activity after incubation with cell extract and ATP. We conclude that p40MO15 corresponds to CAK (cdc2/cdk2 activating kinase) and speculate that, like p33cdk2 and p34cdc2, p40MO15 requires activation by phosphorylation and association with a companion subunit. Images PMID:8393783

  18. The cdc2-related protein p40MO15 is the catalytic subunit of a protein kinase that can activate p33cdk2 and p34cdc2.

    PubMed

    Poon, R Y; Yamashita, K; Adamczewski, J P; Hunt, T; Shuttleworth, J

    1993-08-01

    Activation of the cyclin-dependent protein kinases p34cdc2 and p33cdk2 requires binding with a cyclin partner and phosphorylation on the first threonine residue in the sequence THEVVTLWYRAPE. We present evidence that this threonine residue, number 160 in p33cdk2, can be specifically phosphorylated by a cdc2-related protein kinase from Xenopus oocytes called p40MO15. Binding to cyclin A and phosphorylation of this threonine are both required to activate fully the histone H1 kinase activity of p33cdk2. In cell extracts, a portion of p40MO15 is found in a high molecular weight complex that is considerably more active than a lower molecular weight form. Wild-type MO15 protein expressed in bacteria does not possess kinase activity, but acquires p33cdk2-T160 kinase activity after incubation with cell extract and ATP. We conclude that p40MO15 corresponds to CAK (cdc2/cdk2 activating kinase) and speculate that, like p33cdk2 and p34cdc2, p40MO15 requires activation by phosphorylation and association with a companion subunit.

  19. Gain-of-function mutant p53 but not p53 deletion promotes head and neck cancer progression in response to oncogenic K-ras

    PubMed Central

    Acin, Sergio; Li, Zhongyou; Mejia, Olga; Roop, Dennis R; El-Naggar, Adel K; Caulin, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in p53 occur in over 50% of the human head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (SCCHN). The majority of these mutations result in the expression of mutant forms of p53, rather than deletions in the p53 gene. Some p53 mutants are associated with poor prognosis in SCCHN patients. However, the molecular mechanisms that determine the poor outcome of cancers carrying p53 mutations are unknown. Here, we generated a mouse model for SCCHN and found that activation of the endogenous p53 gain-of-function mutation p53R172H, but not deletion of p53, cooperates with oncogenic K-ras during SCCHN initiation, accelerates oral tumour growth, and promotes progression to carcinoma. Mechanistically, expression profiling of the tumours that developed in these mice and studies using cell lines derived from these tumours determined that mutant p53 induces the expression of genes involved in mitosis, including cyclin B1 and cyclin A, and accelerates entry in mitosis. Additionally, we discovered that this oncogenic function of mutant p53 was dependent on K-ras because the expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin A decreased, and entry in mitosis was delayed, after suppressing K-ras expression in oral tumour cells that express p53R172H. The presence of double-strand breaks in the tumours suggests that oncogene-dependent DNA damage resulting from K-ras activation promotes the oncogenic function of mutant p53. Accordingly, DNA damage induced by doxorubicin also induced increased expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin A in cells that express p53R172H. These findings represent strong in vivo evidence for an oncogenic function of endogenous p53 gain-of-function mutations in SCCHN and provide a mechanistic explanation for the genetic interaction between oncogenic K-ras and mutant p53. PMID:21952947

  20. [Cytotoxicity of chimera peptides incorporating sequences of cyclin kinases inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Kharchenko, V P; Kulinich, V G; Lunin, V G; Filiasova, E I; Shishkin, A M; Sergeenko, O V; Riazanova, E M; Voronina, O L; Bozhenko, V K

    2007-01-01

    The study is concerned with proapoptotic properties of chimera peptides which incorporate sequences of inhibitors of cyclin kinases p161NK4a and p21CIP/WAF1 as well as internalized sequences (Antp and tat). Sequences of the p16 type appeared to be more cytotoxic than the p21 one. Cytotoxic effect proved dependent on orientation with respect to the C or N terminal point of a polypeptide chain rather than on chimera sequence extent. Although p16 endogenous synthesis did not influence chimera peptide levels, apoptosis did not take place in certain cellular lines. Due to the rather unsophisticated nature of such synthesis, it might be used in designing individually-tailored chemotherapeutic drugs.

  1. Inhibitor of p52 NF-κB subunit and androgen receptor (AR) interaction reduces growth of human prostate cancer cells by abrogating nuclear translocation of p52 and phosphorylated ARser81

    PubMed Central

    Mehraein-Ghomi, Farideh; Church, Dawn R.; Schreiber, Cynthia L.; Weichmann, Ashley M.; Basu, Hirak S.; Wilding, George

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that androgen receptor (AR) activation and signaling plays a key role in growth and progression in all stages of prostate cancer, even under low androgen levels or in the absence of androgen in the castration-resistant prostate cancer. Sustained activation of AR under androgen-deprived conditions may be due to its interaction with co-activators, such as p52 NF-κB subunit, and/or an increase in its stability by phosphorylation that delays its degradation. Here we identified a specific inhibitor of AR/p52 interaction, AR/p52-02, via a high throughput screen based on the reconstitution of Gaussia Luciferase. We found that AR/p52-02 markedly inhibited growth of both castration-resistant C4-2 (IC50 ∼6 μM) and parental androgen-dependent LNCaP (IC50 ∼4 μM) human prostate cancer cells under low androgen conditions. Growth inhibition was associated with significantly reduced nuclear p52 levels and DNA binding activity, as well as decreased phosphorylation of AR at serine 81, increased AR ubiquitination, and decreased AR transcriptional activity as indicated by decreased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) mRNA levels in both cell lines. AR/p52-02 also caused a reduction in levels of p21WAF/CIP1, which is a direct AR targeted gene in that its expression correlates with androgen stimulation and mitogenic proliferation in prostate cancer under physiologic levels of androgen, likely by disrupting the AR signaling axis. The reduced level of cyclinD1 reported previously for this compound may be due to the reduction in nuclear presence and activity of p52, which directly regulates cyclinD1 expression, as well as the reduction in p21WAF/CIP1, since p21WAF/CIP1 is reported to stabilize nuclear cyclinD1 in prostate cancer. Overall, the data suggest that specifically inhibiting the interaction of AR with p52 and blocking activity of p52 and pARser81 may be an effective means of reducing castration-resistant prostate cancer cell growth. PMID:26622945

  2. The roles of p53R2 in cancer progression based on the new function of mutant p53 and cytoplasmic p21.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Bahman; Rahmati, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Yasin

    2014-03-18

    Although the deregulated expression of p53R2, a p53-inducible protein and homologue of the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, has been detected in several human cancers, p53R2 roles in cancer progression and malignancy still remains controversial. In this article, we present a viable hypothesis about the roles of p53R2 in cancer progression and therapy resistance based on the roles of cytoplasmic p21 and mutant p53. Since p53R2 can up-regulate p21 and p21, it in turn has a dual role in cell cycle. Hence, p53R2 can play a dual role in cell cycle progression. In addition, because p53 is the main regulator of p53R2, the mutant p53 may induce the expression of p53R2 in some cancer cells based on the "keep of function" phenomenon. Therefore, depending on the locations of p21 and the new abilities of mutant p53, p53R2 has dual role in cell cycle progression. Since the DNA damaging therapies induce p53R2 expression through the induction of p53, p53R2 can be the main therapy resistance mediator in cancers with cytoplasmic p21. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The renal cell carcinoma-associated oncogenic fusion protein PRCCTFE3 provokes p21{sup W{sup A{sup F{sup 1{sup /{sup C{sup I{sup P{sup 1}}}}}}}}}-mediated cell cycle delay

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Medendorp, Klaas; Groningen, Jan J.M. van; Vreede, Lilian

    2009-08-15

    Previously, we found that in t(X;1)(p11;q21)-positive renal cell carcinomas the bHLH-LZ transcription factor TFE3 is fused to a novel protein designated PRCC. In addition, we found that the PRCCTFE3 fusion protein, which has retained all known functional domains of TFE3, acts as a more potent transcriptional activator than wild type TFE3. We also found that PRCCTFE3 expression confers in vitro and in vivo transformation onto various cell types, including those of the kidney. Here we show that de novo expression of the PRCCTFE3 fusion protein provokes cell cycle delay. This delay, which is mediated by induction of the cyclin-dependent kinasemore » inhibitor p21{sup W{sup A{sup F{sup 1{sup /{sup C{sup I{sup P{sup 1}}}}}}}}}, affects both the G1/S and the G2/M phases of the cell cycle and prevents the cells from undergoing polyploidization. We also show that the PRCCTFE3 fusion protein binds directly to the p21{sup W{sup A{sup F{sup 1{sup /{sup C{sup I{sup P{sup 1}}}}}}}}} promoter and that the PRCCTFE3-induced up-regulation of p21{sup W{sup A{sup F{sup 1{sup /{sup C{sup I{sup P{sup 1}}}}}}}}} leads to activation of the pRB pathway. Finally, we show that in t(X;1)(p11;q21)-positive renal tumor cells several processes that link PRCCTFE3 expression to p21{sup W{sup A{sup F{sup 1{sup /{sup C{sup I{sup P{sup 1}}}}}}}}}-mediated cell cycle delay are abrogated. Our data suggest a scenario in which, during the course of renal cell carcinoma development, an initial PRCCTFE3-induced cell cycle delay must be numbed, thus permitting continued proliferation and progression towards full-blown malignancy.« less

  4. EZH2 mediates lidamycin-induced cellular senescence through regulating p21 expression in human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Ming-Quan; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Li, Liang; Li, Li-Hui; Li, Yi; Dong, Tian-Geng; Niu, Wei-Xin; Jia, Li-Jun; Shao, Rong-Guang; Zhen, Yong-Su; Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Lidamycin (LDM) is a novel member of the enediyne antibiotics identified in China with potent antitumor activity. However, it remains unclear whether LDM has potential molecular targets that may affect its antitumor activity. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) functions as a histone lysine methyltransferase and mediates trimethylation on histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3). High EZH2 level is found to be positively correlated with the aggressiveness, metastasis and poor prognosis of cancer. Here, we aim to study the role of EZH2 in LDM-induced senescence, as well as in the cytotoxicity of LDM in human colon cancer cells. LDM is found to be relatively more potent in inhibiting the colon cancer cells harboring high EZH2 level and induces irreversible cellular senescence at IC50 dose range, as evidenced by senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining, cell cycle arrest and molecular changes of senescence regulators including p21 in HCT116 and SW620 cells. More importantly, LDM is found to markedly inhibit EZH2 expression at both protein and mRNA levels upon the induction of p21 and cellular senescence. LDM also selectively inhibits EZH2 expression as compared with other histone lysine methyltransferases. Knockdown of p21 with siRNAs abolishes LDM-induced senescence, whereas EZH2 knockdown markedly increases p21 expression and causes senescent phenotype. Enrichment of both EZH2 and H3K27me3 levels in the p21 promoter region is reduced by LDM. Moreover, EZH2 overexpression reduces cellular senescence, p21 expression and DNA damage response upon LDM exposure. LDM also demonstrates potent antitumor efficacy in xenografted animal models. Collectively, our work provides first demonstration that EZH2 may mediate, at least partially, the senescence-inducing effects of LDM by regulating p21 expression and DNA damage effect. Thus, EZH2 may serve as a potential target and biomarker to indicate the clinical efficacy of the potent enediyne antitumor drug. PMID:27882937

  5. 21 CFR 177.1635 - Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p... Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene). Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methylstyrene) identified in this section may be safely used as components of articles...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1635 - Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p... Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene). Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methylstyrene) identified in this section may be safely used as components of articles...

  7. Roles of p53 and p27 Kip1 in the regulation of neurogenesis in the murine adult subventricular zone

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Perotin, Sara; Haines, Jeffery D.; Kaur, Jasbir; Marin-Husstege, Mireya; Spinetta, Michael J.; Kim, Kwi-Hye; Duran-Moreno, Maria; Schallert, Timothy; Zindy, Frederique; Roussel, Martine F.; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose M.; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 (Trp53) and the cell cycle inhibitor p27 Kip1 (Cdknb1) have both been implicated in regulating proliferation of adult subventricular zone (aSVZ) cells. We previously reported that genetic ablation of Trp53 (Trp53 −/−) or Cdknb1 (p27 Kip1−/−) increased proliferation of cells in the aSVZ, but differentially affected the number of adult born neuroblasts. We therefore hypothesized that these molecules might play non-redundant roles. To test this hypothesis we generated mice lacking both genes (Trp53 −/−;p27 Kip1−/−) and analysed the consequences on aSVZ cells and adult neuroblasts. Proliferation and self-renewal of cultured aSVZ cells were increased in the double mutants compared with control, but the mice did not develop spontaneous brain tumors. In contrast, the number of adult-born neuroblasts in the double mutants was similar to wild-type animals and suggested a complementation of the p27 Kip1−/− phenotype due to loss of Trp53. Cellular differences detected in the aSVZ correlated with cellular changes in the olfactory bulb and behavioral data on novel odor recognition. The exploration time for new odors was reduced in p27 Kip1−/− mice, increased in Trp53 −/− mice and normalized in the double Trp53−/−;p27 Kip1−/− mutants. At the molecular level, Trp53 −/− aSVZ cells were characterized by higher levels of NeuroD and Math3 and by the ability to generate neurons more readily. In contrast, p27 Kip1−/− cells generated fewer neurons, due to enhanced proteasomal degradation of pro-neural transcription factors. Together, these results suggest that p27 Kip1 and p53 function non-redundantly to modulate proliferation and self-renewal of aSVZ cells and antagonistically in regulating adult neurogenesis. PMID:21899604

  8. 21 CFR 177.1635 - Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1635 Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene). Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methylstyrene) identified...

  9. Factor Xa Inhibitor Suppresses the Release of Phosphorylated HSP27 from Collagen-Stimulated Human Platelets: Inhibition of HSP27 Phosphorylation via p44/p42 MAP Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Masanori; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Kito, Yuko; Enomoto, Yukiko; Iida, Hiroki; Ogura, Shinji; Otsuka, Takanobu; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Kozawa, Osamu; Iwama, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Selective inhibitors of factor Xa (FXa) are widely recognized as useful therapeutic tools for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation or venous thrombosis. Thrombin, which is rapidly generated from pro-thrombin through the activation of factor X to FXa, acts as a potent activator of human platelets. Thus, the reduction of thrombin generation by FXa inhibitor eventually causes a suppressive effect on platelet aggregation. However, little is known whether FXa inhibitors directly affect the function of human platelets. We have previously reported that collagen induces the phosphorylation of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), a low-molecular weight heat shock protein via Rac-dependent activation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in human platelets, eventually resulting in the release of HSP27. In the present study, we investigated the direct effect of FXa inhibitor on the collagen-induced human platelet activation. Rivaroxaban as well as edoxaban significantly reduced the collagen-induced phosphorylation of both HSP27 and p44/p42 MAP kinase without affecting the platelet aggregation. Rivaroxaban significantly inhibited the release of phosphorylated HSP27 from collagen-stimulated platelets but not the secretion of platelet derived growth factor-AB. In patients administrated with rivaroxaban, the collagen-induced levels of phosphorylated HSP27 were markedly diminished after 2 days of administration, which failed to affect the platelet aggregation. These results strongly suggest that FXa inhibitor reduces the collagen-stimulated release of phosphorylated HSP27 from human platelets due to the inhibition of HSP27 phosphorylation via p44/p42 MAP kinase. PMID:26867010

  10. Factor Xa Inhibitor Suppresses the Release of Phosphorylated HSP27 from Collagen-Stimulated Human Platelets: Inhibition of HSP27 Phosphorylation via p44/p42 MAP Kinase.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Masanori; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Kito, Yuko; Enomoto, Yukiko; Iida, Hiroki; Ogura, Shinji; Otsuka, Takanobu; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Kozawa, Osamu; Iwama, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Selective inhibitors of factor Xa (FXa) are widely recognized as useful therapeutic tools for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation or venous thrombosis. Thrombin, which is rapidly generated from pro-thrombin through the activation of factor X to FXa, acts as a potent activator of human platelets. Thus, the reduction of thrombin generation by FXa inhibitor eventually causes a suppressive effect on platelet aggregation. However, little is known whether FXa inhibitors directly affect the function of human platelets. We have previously reported that collagen induces the phosphorylation of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), a low-molecular weight heat shock protein via Rac-dependent activation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in human platelets, eventually resulting in the release of HSP27. In the present study, we investigated the direct effect of FXa inhibitor on the collagen-induced human platelet activation. Rivaroxaban as well as edoxaban significantly reduced the collagen-induced phosphorylation of both HSP27 and p44/p42 MAP kinase without affecting the platelet aggregation. Rivaroxaban significantly inhibited the release of phosphorylated HSP27 from collagen-stimulated platelets but not the secretion of platelet derived growth factor-AB. In patients administrated with rivaroxaban, the collagen-induced levels of phosphorylated HSP27 were markedly diminished after 2 days of administration, which failed to affect the platelet aggregation. These results strongly suggest that FXa inhibitor reduces the collagen-stimulated release of phosphorylated HSP27 from human platelets due to the inhibition of HSP27 phosphorylation via p44/p42 MAP kinase.

  11. The inhibition of activated hepatic stellate cells proliferation by arctigenin through G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest: persistent p27(Kip1) induction by interfering with PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Ao; Wang, Jun; Wu, Mingjun; Zhang, Xiaoxun; Zhang, Hongzhi

    2015-01-15

    Proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is vital for the development of fibrosis during liver injury. In this study, we describe that arctigenin (ATG), a major bioactive component of Fructus Arctii, exhibited selective cytotoxic activity via inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-activated HSCs proliferation and arrested cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, which could not be observed in normal human hepatocytes in vitro. The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 activities could be strongly inhibited by ATG through down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4/6 expression in early G1 phase arrest. In the ATG-treated HSCs, the expression level of p27(Kip1) and the formation of CDK2-p27(Kip1) complex were also increased. p27(Kip1) silencing significantly attenuated the effect of ATG, including cell cycle arrest and suppression of proliferation in activated HSCs. We also found that ATG suppressed PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream transcription factor Forkhead box O 3a (FOXO3a), decreased binding of FOXO3a to 14-3-3 protein, and stimulated nuclear translocation of FOXO3a in activated HSCs. Furthermore, knockdown of FOXO3a expression by FOXO3a siRNA attenuated ATG-induced up-regulation of p27(Kip1) in activated HSCs. All the above findings suggested that ATG could increase the levels of p27(Kip1) protein through inhibition of Akt and improvement of FOXO3a activity, in turn inhibited the CDK2 kinase activity, and eventually caused an overall inhibition of HSCs proliferation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulation of proliferation in developing human tooth germs by MSX homeodomain proteins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19INK4d.

    PubMed

    Kero, Darko; Vukojevic, Katarina; Stazic, Petra; Sundov, Danijela; Mardesic Brakus, Snjezana; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2017-10-02

    Before the secretion of hard dental tissues, tooth germs undergo several distinctive stages of development (dental lamina, bud, cap and bell). Every stage is characterized by specific proliferation patterns, which is regulated by various morphogens, growth factors and homeodomain proteins. The role of MSX homeodomain proteins in odontogenesis is rather complex. Expression domains of genes encoding for murine Msx1/2 during development are observed in tissues containing highly proliferative progenitor cells. Arrest of tooth development in Msx knockout mice can be attributed to impaired proliferation of progenitor cells. In Msx1 knockout mice, these progenitor cells start to differentiate prematurely as they strongly express cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19 INK4d . p19 INK4d induces terminal differentiation of cells by blocking the cell cycle in mitogen-responsive G1 phase. Direct suppression of p19 INK4d by Msx1 protein is, therefore, important for maintaining proliferation of progenitor cells at levels required for the normal progression of tooth development. In this study, we examined the expression patterns of MSX1, MSX2 and p19 INK4d in human incisor tooth germs during the bud, cap and early bell stages of development. The distribution of expression domains of p19 INK4d throughout the investigated period indicates that p19 INK4d plays active role during human tooth development. Furthermore, comparison of expression domains of p19 INK4d with those of MSX1, MSX2 and proliferation markers Ki67, Cyclin A2 and pRb, indicates that MSX-mediated regulation of proliferation in human tooth germs might not be executed by the mechanism similar to one described in developing tooth germs of wild-type mouse.

  13. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 inhibits p21{sup WAF1} transcription independently of p53 by inactivating p150{sup Sal2}

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Parroche, Peggy; Institut Federatif de Recherche 128 BioSciences Gerland-Lyon Sud; Touka, Majid

    2011-09-01

    HPV16 E6 deregulates G1/S cell cycle progression through p53 degradation preventing transcription of the CDK inhibitor p21{sup WAF1}. However, additional mechanisms independent of p53 inactivation appear to exist. Here, we report that HPV16 E6 targets the cellular factor p150{sup Sal2}, which positively regulates p21{sup WAF1} transcription. HPV16 E6 associates with p150{sup Sal2}, inducing its functional inhibition by preventing its binding to cis elements on the p21{sup WAF1} promoter. A HPV16 E6 mutant, L110Q, which was unable to bind p150{sup Sal2}, did not affect the ability of the cellular protein to bind p21{sup WAF1} promoter, underlining the linkage between these events.more » These data describe a novel mechanism by which HPV16 E6 induces cell cycle deregulation with a p53-independent pathway. The viral oncoprotein targets p150{sup Sal2}, a positive transcription regulator of p21{sup WAF1} gene, preventing G1/S arrest and allowing cellular proliferation and efficient viral DNA replication.« less

  14. Anti-cancer effect of novel PAK1 inhibitor via induction of PUMA-mediated cell death and p21-mediated cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Woo, Tae-Gyun; Yoon, Min-Ho; Hong, Shin-Deok; Choi, Jiyun; Ha, Nam-Chul; Sun, Hokeun; Park, Bum-Joon

    2017-04-04

    Hyper-activation of PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1) is frequently observed in human cancer and speculated as a target of novel anti-tumor drug. In previous, we also showed that PAK1 is highly activated in the Smad4-deficient condition and suppresses PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) through direct binding and phosphorylation. On the basis of this result, we have tried to find novel PAK1-PUMA binding inhibitors. Through ELISA-based blind chemical library screening, we isolated single compound, IPP-14 (IPP; Inhibitor of PAK1-PUMA), which selectively blocks the PAK1-PUMA binding and also suppresses cell proliferation via PUMA-dependent manner. Indeed, in PUMA-deficient cells, this chemical did not show anti-proliferating effect. This chemical possessed very strong PAK1 inhibition activity that it suppressed BAD (Bcl-2-asoociated death promoter) phosphorylation and meta-phase arrest via Aurora kinase inactivation in lower concentration than that of previous PAK1 kinase, FRAX486 and AG879. Moreover, our chemical obviously induced p21/WAF1/CIP1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A) expression by releasing from Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma-2) and by inhibition of AKT-mediated p21 suppression. Considering our result, IPP-14 and its derivatives would be possible candidates for PAK1 and p21 induction targeted anti-cancer drug.

  15. Anti-cancer effect of novel PAK1 inhibitor via induction of PUMA-mediated cell death and p21-mediated cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Tae-Gyun; Yoon, Min-Ho; Hong, Shin-Deok; Choi, Jiyun; Ha, Nam-Chul; Sun, Hokeun; Park, Bum-Joon

    2017-01-01

    Hyper-activation of PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1) is frequently observed in human cancer and speculated as a target of novel anti-tumor drug. In previous, we also showed that PAK1 is highly activated in the Smad4-deficient condition and suppresses PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) through direct binding and phosphorylation. On the basis of this result, we have tried to find novel PAK1-PUMA binding inhibitors. Through ELISA-based blind chemical library screening, we isolated single compound, IPP-14 (IPP; Inhibitor of PAK1-PUMA), which selectively blocks the PAK1-PUMA binding and also suppresses cell proliferation via PUMA-dependent manner. Indeed, in PUMA-deficient cells, this chemical did not show anti-proliferating effect. This chemical possessed very strong PAK1 inhibition activity that it suppressed BAD (Bcl-2-asoociated death promoter) phosphorylation and meta-phase arrest via Aurora kinase inactivation in lower concentration than that of previous PAK1 kinase, FRAX486 and AG879. Moreover, our chemical obviously induced p21/WAF1/CIP1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A) expression by releasing from Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma-2) and by inhibition of AKT-mediated p21 suppression. Considering our result, IPP-14 and its derivatives would be possible candidates for PAK1 and p21 induction targeted anti-cancer drug. PMID:28423593

  16. P276-00, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, modulates cell cycle and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo in mantle cell lymphoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a well-defined aggressive lymphoid neoplasm characterized by proliferation of mature B-lymphocytes that have a remarkable tendency to disseminate. This tumor is considered as one of the most aggressive lymphoid neoplasms with poor responses to conventional chemotherapy and relatively short survival. Since cyclin D1 and cell cycle control appears as a natural target, small-molecule inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and cyclins may play important role in the therapy of this disorder. We explored P276-00, a novel selective potent Cdk4-D1, Cdk1-B and Cdk9-T1 inhibitor discovered by us against MCL and elucidated its potential mechanism of action. Methods The cytotoxic effect of P276-00 in three human MCL cell lines was evaluated in vitro. The effect of P276-00 on the regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis and transcription was assessed, which are implied in the pathogenesis of MCL. Flow cytometry, western blot, immunoflourescence and siRNA studies were performed. The in vivo efficacy and effect on survival of P276-00 was evaluated in a Jeko-1 xenograft model developed in SCID mice. PK/PD analysis of tumors were performed using LC-MS and western blot analysis. Results P276-00 showed a potent cytotoxic effect against MCL cell lines. Mechanistic studies confirmed down regulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins with apoptosis. P276-00 causes time and dose dependent increase in the sub G1 population as early as from 24 h. Reverse transcription PCR studies provide evidence that P276-00 treatment down regulated transcription of antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 which is a potential pathogenic protein for MCL. Most importantly, in vivo studies have revealed significant efficacy as a single agent with increased survival period compared to vehicle treated. Further, preliminary combination studies of P276-00 with doxorubicin and bortezomib showed in vitro synergism. Conclusion Our studies thus provide evidence and rational that P276

  17. Down-regulation of p21 (CDKN1A/CIP1) is inversely associated with microsatellite instability and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ogino, S; Kawasaki, T; Kirkner, G J; Ogawa, A; Dorfman, I; Loda, M; Fuchs, C S

    2006-10-01

    p21 (CDKN1A/CIP1/WAF1), one of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, plays a key role in regulating the cell cycle and is transcriptionally regulated by p53. Down-regulation of p21 is caused by TP53 mutations in colorectal cancer. CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) appears to be a distinct subtype of colorectal cancer with concordant methylation of multiple gene promoters and is associated with a high degree of microsatellite instability (MSI-H) and BRAF mutations. However, no study to date has evaluated the relationship between p21 expression and CIMP in colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the inter-relationships between p21, p53, CIMP, MSI and KRAS/BRAF status in colorectal cancer. We utilized 737 relatively unbiased samples of colorectal cancers from two large prospective cohort studies. Using quantitative real-time PCR (MethyLight), we measured DNA methylation in five CIMP-specific gene promoters [CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16/INK4A), CRABP1, MLH1 and NEUROG1]. CIMP-high (>or=4/5 methylated promoters) was diagnosed in 118 (16%) of the 737 tumours. We also assessed expression of p21 and p53 by immunohistochemistry. Among the 737 tumours, 371 (50%) showed p21 loss. Both p21 loss and p53 positivity were inversely associated with CIMP-high, MSI-H and BRAF mutations. The associations of p21 with these molecular features were still present after tumours were stratified by p53 status. In contrast, the associations of p53 positivity with the molecular features were no longer present after tumours were stratified by p21 status. When CIMP-high and non-CIMP-high tumours were stratified by MSI or KRAS/BRAF status, CIMP-high and MSI-H (but not BRAF mutations) were still inversely associated with p21 loss. In conclusion, down-regulation of p21 is inversely correlated with CIMP-high and MSI-H in colorectal cancer, independent of TP53 and BRAF status.

  18. Enhanced expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in aniline-induced cell proliferation in rat spleen

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianling; Wang, Gangduo; Ma, Huaxian; Khan, M. Firoze

    2010-01-01

    Aniline exposure is associated with toxicity to the spleen leading to splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis and a variety of sarcomas of the spleen on chronic exposure. In earlier studies, we have shown that aniline exposure leads to iron overload, oxidative stress and activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors, which could regulate various genes leading to a tumorigenic response in the spleen. However, molecular mechanisms leading to aniline-induced cellular proliferation in the spleen remain largely unknown. This study was, therefore, undertaken on the regulation of G1 phase cell cycle proteins (cyclins), expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and cell proliferation in the spleen, in an experimental condition preceding a tumorigenic response. Male SD rats were treated with aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day via drinking water) for 30 days (controls received drinking water only), and splenocyte proliferation, protein expression of G1 phase cyclins, CDKs and pRB were measured. Aniline treatment resulted in significant increases in splenocyte proliferation, based on cell counts, cell proliferation markers including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), nuclear Ki67 protein (Ki67) and minichromosome maintenance (MCM), MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. Western blot analysis of splenocyte proteins from aniline-treated rats showed significantly increased expression of cyclins D1, D2, D3 and cyclin E, as compared to the controls. Similarly, real-time PCR analysis showed significantly increased mRNA expression for cyclins D1, D2, D3 and E in the spleens of aniline-treated rats. The overexpression of these cyclins was associated with increases in the expression of CDK4, CDK6, CDK2 as well as phosphorylation of pRB protein. Our data suggest that increased expression of cyclins, CDKs and phosphorylation of pRB protein could be critical in cell proliferation, and may contribute to aniline-induced tumorigenic

  19. Molecular evidence for increased antitumor activity of gemcitabine in combination with a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, P276-00 in pancreatic cancers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background P276-00 is a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor currently in Phase II clinical trials. Gemcitabine is a standard of care for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. The present study investigated the effect of the combination of P276-00 and gemcitabine in five pancreatic cancer cell lines. Methods Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by Propidium Iodide assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Genes and proteins known to inhibit apoptosis and contribute to chemoresistance were analysed using western blot analysis and RT-PCR. In vivo efficacy was studied in PANC-1 xenograft model. Results The combination of gemcitabine followed by P276-00 was found to be highly to weakly synergistic in various pancreatic cancer cell lines as assessed by the combination index. Enhancement of apoptosis in PANC-1 cells and decrease in the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and survivin was seen. P276-00 potentiated the gemcitabine-induced cytotoxicity by modulation of proteins involved in chemoresistance to gemcitabine and cell cycle viz. antiapoptotic proteins p8 and cox-2, proapoptotic protein BNIP3 and cell cycle related proteins Cdk4 and cyclin D1. The above results could explain the novel mechanisms of action of the combination therapy. We also show here that gemcitabine in combination with P276-00 is much more effective as an antitumor agent compared with either agent alone in the PANC-1 xenograft tumor model in SCID mice. Conclusions The chemosensitzation of pancreatic tumors to gemcitabine would likely be an important and novel strategy for treatment of pancreatic cancer and enable the use of lower and safer concentrations, to pave the way for a more effective treatment in this devastating disease. Phase IIb clinical trials of P276-00 in combination with gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer patients are ongoing. PMID:22873289

  20. Molecular evidence for increased antitumor activity of gemcitabine in combination with a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, P276-00 in pancreatic cancers.

    PubMed

    Rathos, Maggie J; Joshi, Kavita; Khanwalkar, Harshal; Manohar, Sonal M; Joshi, Kalpana S

    2012-08-08

    P276-00 is a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor currently in Phase II clinical trials. Gemcitabine is a standard of care for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. The present study investigated the effect of the combination of P276-00 and gemcitabine in five pancreatic cancer cell lines. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by Propidium Iodide assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Genes and proteins known to inhibit apoptosis and contribute to chemoresistance were analysed using western blot analysis and RT-PCR. In vivo efficacy was studied in PANC-1 xenograft model. The combination of gemcitabine followed by P276-00 was found to be highly to weakly synergistic in various pancreatic cancer cell lines as assessed by the combination index. Enhancement of apoptosis in PANC-1 cells and decrease in the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and survivin was seen. P276-00 potentiated the gemcitabine-induced cytotoxicity by modulation of proteins involved in chemoresistance to gemcitabine and cell cycle viz. antiapoptotic proteins p8 and cox-2, proapoptotic protein BNIP3 and cell cycle related proteins Cdk4 and cyclin D1. The above results could explain the novel mechanisms of action of the combination therapy. We also show here that gemcitabine in combination with P276-00 is much more effective as an antitumor agent compared with either agent alone in the PANC-1 xenograft tumor model in SCID mice. The chemosensitzation of pancreatic tumors to gemcitabine would likely be an important and novel strategy for treatment of pancreatic cancer and enable the use of lower and safer concentrations, to pave the way for a more effective treatment in this devastating disease. Phase IIb clinical trials of P276-00 in combination with gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer patients are ongoing.

  1. Lack of a p21waf1/cip -dependent G1/S checkpoint in neural stem and progenitor cells after DNA damage in vivo.

    PubMed

    Roque, Telma; Haton, Céline; Etienne, Olivier; Chicheportiche, Alexandra; Rousseau, Laure; Martin, Ludovic; Mouthon, Marc-André; Boussin, François D

    2012-03-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(waf1/cip) mediates the p53-dependent G1/S checkpoint, which is generally considered to be a critical requirement to maintain genomic stability after DNA damage. We used staggered 5-ethynyl-2'deoxyuridine/5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine double-labeling in vivo to investigate the cell cycle progression and the role of p21(waf1/cip) in the DNA damage response of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) after exposure of the developing mouse cortex to ionizing radiation. We observed a radiation-induced p21-dependent apoptotic response in migrating postmitotic cortical cells. However, neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) did not initiate a p21(waf1/cip1) -dependent G1/S block and continued to enter S-phase at a similar rate to the non-irradiated controls. The G1/S checkpoint is not involved in the mechanisms underlying the faithful transmission of the NSPC genome and/or the elimination of critically damaged cells. These processes typically involve intra-S and G2/M checkpoints that are rapidly activated after irradiation. p21 is normally repressed in neural cells during brain development except at the G1 to G0 transition. Lack of activation of a G1/S checkpoint and apoptosis of postmitotic migrating cells after DNA damage appear to depend on the expression of p21 in neural cells, since substantial cell-to-cell variations are found in the irradiated cortex. This suggests that repression of p21 during brain development prevents the induction of the G1/S checkpoint after DNA damage. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  2. LincRNA-p21: Implications in Human Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sai-Sai; Zheng, Bi-Ying; Xiong, Xing-Dong

    2015-08-11

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which lack significant protein-coding capacity, regulate various biological processes through diverse and as yet poorly understood molecular mechanisms. However, a number of studies in the past few years have documented important functions for lncRNAs in human diseases. Among these lncRNAs, lincRNA-p21 has been proposed to be a novel regulator of cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA damage response, and involved in the initiation and progression of human diseases. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of lincRNA-p21, mainly focus on the known biological functions and its underlying mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight the growing body of evidences for the importance of lincRNA-p21 in diverse human diseases, which indicate lincRNA-p21 as a potential diagnostic marker and/or a valuable therapeutic target for these diseases.

  3. Human Cytochrome P450 21A2, the Major Steroid 21-Hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    Pallan, Pradeep S.; Wang, Chunxue; Lei, Li; Yoshimoto, Francis K.; Auchus, Richard J.; Waterman, Michael R.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Egli, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 21A2 is the major steroid 21-hydroxylase, and deficiency of this enzyme is involved in ∼95% of cases of human congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis. A structure of the bovine enzyme that we published previously (Zhao, B., Lei, L., Kagawa, N., Sundaramoorthy, M., Banerjee, S., Nagy, L. D., Guengerich, F. P., and Waterman, M. R. (2012) Three-dimensional structure of steroid 21-hydroxylase (cytochrome P450 21A2) with two substrates reveals locations of disease-associated variants. J. Biol. Chem. 287, 10613–10622), containing two molecules of the substrate 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, has been used as a template for understanding genetic deficiencies. We have now obtained a crystal structure of human P450 21A2 in complex with progesterone, a substrate in adrenal 21-hydroxylation. Substrate binding and release were fast for human P450 21A2 with both substrates, and pre-steady-state kinetics showed a partial burst but only with progesterone as substrate and not 17α-hydroxyprogesterone. High intermolecular non-competitive kinetic deuterium isotope effects on both kcat and kcat/Km, from 5 to 11, were observed with both substrates, indicative of rate-limiting C–H bond cleavage and suggesting that the juxtaposition of the C21 carbon in the active site is critical for efficient oxidation. The estimated rate of binding of the substrate progesterone (kon 2.4 × 107 m−1 s−1) is only ∼2-fold greater than the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km = 1.3 × 107 m−1 s−1) with this substrate, suggesting that the rate of substrate binding may also be partially rate-limiting. The structure of the human P450 21A2-substrate complex provides direct insight into mechanistic effects of genetic variants. PMID:25855791

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of chloroquine and amodiaquine through p21-mediated suppression of T cell proliferation and Th1 cell differentiation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Oh, Sera; Shin, Ji Hyun; Jang, Eun Jung

    Chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (AQ) have been used for treating or preventing malaria for decades, and their application has expanded into treating inflammatory disease in humans. CQ and AQ are applicable for controlling rheumatoid arthritis, but their molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of CQ and AQ on T cell activation and T cell-mediated immune response. CQ had no significant effect on T cell numbers, but decreased the population of T cells with a high division rate. However, AQ treatment significantly increased the number of cells with low division ratesmore » and eliminated cells with high division rates, resulting in the inhibition of T cell proliferation triggered by T cell receptor stimulation, of which inhibition occurred in developing effector T helper and regulatory T cells, regardless of the different exogenous cytokines. Interestingly, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 was significantly and dose-dependently increased by CQ, and more potently by AQ, while other cell cycle regulators were unchanged. Both CQ and AQ elevated the transcription level of p21 though the activation of p53, but also blocked p21 protein degradation in the presence of cycloheximide, causing p21 protein accumulation mainly in the nucleus. Sustained treatment of developing T cells with either CQ or AQ suppressed IFN-γ production in a dose dependent manner and potently inhibited the differentiation of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. These results demonstrate that CQ and AQ increase the expression level of p21 and inhibit T cell proliferation and the development of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells, thereby revealing beneficial roles in treating a wide range of chronic inflammatory diseases mediated by inflammatory T cells. -- Highlights: •T cell division rates are suppressed by chloroquine and amodiaquine treatment. •Chloroquine and amodiaquine potently increased the p21 expression. •The p21

  5. The activity and stability of the intrinsically disordered Cip/Kip protein family are regulated by non-receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Steve; Lelli, Moreno; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    The Cip/Kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors includes p21Cip1, p27Kip1 and p57Kip2. Their kinase inhibitory activities are mediated by a homologous N-terminal kinase-inhibitory domain (KID). The Cdk inhibitory activity and stability of p27 have been shown to be regulated by a two-step phosphorylation mechanism involving a tyrosine residue within the KID and a threonine residue within the flexible C-terminus. We show that these residues are conserved in p21 and p57, suggesting that a similar phosphorylation cascade regulates these Cdk inhibitors. However, the presence of a cyclin binding motif within its C-terminus alters the regulatory interplay between p21 and Cdk2/cyclin A, and its responses to tyrosine phosphorylation and altered p21:Cdk2/cyclin A stoichiometry. We also show that the Cip/Kip proteins can be phosphorylated in vitro by representatives of many non-receptor tyrosine kinase (NRTK) sub-families, suggesting that NRTKs may generally regulate the activity and stability of these Cdk inhibitors. Our results further suggest that the Cip/Kip proteins integrate signals from various NRTK pathways and cell cycle regulation. PMID:25463440

  6. LincRNA-p21: Implications in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Sai-Sai; Zheng, Bi-Ying; Xiong, Xing-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which lack significant protein-coding capacity, regulate various biological processes through diverse and as yet poorly understood molecular mechanisms. However, a number of studies in the past few years have documented important functions for lncRNAs in human diseases. Among these lncRNAs, lincRNA-p21 has been proposed to be a novel regulator of cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA damage response, and involved in the initiation and progression of human diseases. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of lincRNA-p21, mainly focus on the known biological functions and its underlying mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight the growing body of evidences for the importance of lincRNA-p21 in diverse human diseases, which indicate lincRNA-p21 as a potential diagnostic marker and/or a valuable therapeutic target for these diseases. PMID:26270659

  7. P53-dependent antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of trichostatin A (TSA) in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bajbouj, K; Mawrin, C; Hartig, R; Schulze-Luehrmann, J; Wilisch-Neumann, A; Roessner, A; Schneider-Stock, R

    2012-05-01

    Glioblastomas are known to be highly chemoresistant, but HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have been shown to be of therapeutic relevance for this aggressive tumor type. We treated U87 glioblastoma cells with trichostatin A (TSA) to define potential epigenetic targets for HDACi-mediated antitumor effects. Using a cDNA array analysis covering 96 cell cycle genes, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1) was identified as the major player in TSA-induced cell cycle arrest. TSA slightly inhibited proliferation and viability of U87 cells, cumulating in a G1/S cell cycle arrest. This effect was accompanied by a significant up-regulation of p53 and its transcriptional target p21(WAF1) and by down-regulation of key G1/S regulators, such as cdk4, cdk6, and cyclin D1. Nevertheless, TSA did not induce apoptosis in U87 cells. As expected, TSA promoted the accumulation of total acetylated histones H3 and H4 and a decrease in endogenous HDAC activity. Characterizing the chromatin modulation around the p21(WAF1) promoter after TSA treatment using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we found (1) a release of HDAC1, (2) an increase of acetylated H4 binding, and (3) enhanced recruitment of p53. p53-depleted U87 cells showed an abrogation of the G1/S arrest and re-entered the cell cycle. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that TSA induced the nuclear translocation of p21(WAF1) verifying a cell cycle arrest. On the other hand, a significant portion of p21(WAF1) was present in the cytoplasmic compartment causing apoptosis resistance. Furthermore, TSA-treated p53-mutant cell line U138 failed to show an induction in p21(WAF1), showed a deficient G2/M checkpoint, and underwent mitotic catastrophe. We suggest that HDAC inhibition in combination with other clinically used drugs may be considered an effective strategy to overcome chemoresistance in glioblastoma cells.

  8. miR-24-3p Suppresses Malignant Behavior of Lacrimal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma by Targeting PRKCH to Regulate p53/p21 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Xue; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Hong; Tang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) may function as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor in tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism of miRNAs in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is unclear. Here, we provide evidence that miR-24-3p was downreglated and functions as a tumor suppressor in human lacrimal adenoid cystic carcinoma by suppressing proliferation and migration/invasion while promoting apoptosis. miR-24-3p down-regulated protein kinase C eta (PRKCH) by binding to its untranslated region (3'UTR). PRKCH increased the of the cell growth and migration/invasion in ACC cells and suppressed the expression of p53 and p21 in both mRNA and protein level. The overexpression of miR-24-3p decreased its malignant phenotype. Ectopic expression of PRKCH counteracted the suppression of malignancy induced by miR-24-3p, as well as ectopic expression of miR-24-3p rescued the suppression of PRKCH in the p53/p21 pathway. These results suggest that miR-24-3p promotes the p53/p21 pathway by down-regulating PRKCH expression in lacrimal adenoid cystic carcinoma cells.

  9. 27 CFR 19.386 - Adjusting pH of denatured spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... will counteract or reduce the effect of the denaturants. A proprietor who adjusts the pH of denatured... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adjusting pH of denatured... of Articles Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants § 19.386 Adjusting pH of denatured...

  10. 27 CFR 19.386 - Adjusting pH of denatured spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... will counteract or reduce the effect of the denaturants. A proprietor who adjusts the pH of denatured... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjusting pH of denatured... of Articles Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants § 19.386 Adjusting pH of denatured...

  11. 27 CFR 19.386 - Adjusting pH of denatured spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... will counteract or reduce the effect of the denaturants. A proprietor who adjusts the pH of denatured... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjusting pH of denatured... of Articles Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants § 19.386 Adjusting pH of denatured...

  12. 27 CFR 19.386 - Adjusting pH of denatured spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... will counteract or reduce the effect of the denaturants. A proprietor who adjusts the pH of denatured... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjusting pH of denatured... of Articles Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants § 19.386 Adjusting pH of denatured...

  13. Disruption of the G1/S Transition in Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7-Expressing Human Cells Is Associated with Altered Regulation of Cyclin E

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Larry G.; Demers, G. William; Galloway, Denise A.

    1998-01-01

    The development of neoplasia frequently involves inactivation of the p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor pathways and disruption of cell cycle checkpoints that monitor the integrity of replication and cell division. The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) oncoproteins, E6 and E7, have been shown to bind p53 and Rb, respectively. To further delineate the mechanisms by which E6 and E7 affect cell cycle control, we examined various aspects of the cell cycle machinery. The low-risk HPV-6 E6 and E7 proteins did not cause any significant change in the levels of cell cycle proteins analyzed. HPV-16 E6 resulted in very low levels of p53 and p21 and globally elevated cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. In contrast, HPV-16 E7 had a profound effect on several aspects of the cell cycle machinery. A number of cyclins and CDKs were elevated, and despite the elevation of the levels of at least two CDK inhibitors, p21 and p16, CDK activity was globally increased. Most strikingly, cyclin E expression was deregulated both transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally and persisted at high levels in S and G2/M. Transit through G1 was shortened by the premature activation of cyclin E-associated kinase activity. Elevation of cyclin E levels required both the CR1 and CR2 domains of E7. These data suggest that cyclin E may be a critical target of HPV-16 E7 in the disruption of G1/S cell cycle progression and that the ability of E7 to regulate cyclin E involves activities in addition to the release of E2F. PMID:9444990

  14. The Beta-Delayed Proton and Gamma Decay of 27P for Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleskey, E.; Banu, A.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B.; Saastamoinen, A.; Spiridon, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.; Davinson, T.; Doherty, D.; Lotay, G. J.; Wallace, J.; Woods, P. J.

    2013-10-01

    The main creation site of 26Al is currently under debate. The reactions for its creation or destruction are also not completely known. When 26Al is created in novae, the reaction chain is: 24Mg(p,γ)25Al(β + v)25Mg(p,γ)26Al, but this chain can be by-passed by another chain: 25Al(p,γ)26Si(p,γ)27P and it can also be destroyed directly. Another way to by-pass it is through 26mAl(p,γ)27Si* which is dominated by resonant capture. Using the Momentum Achromat Recoil Spectrometer (MARS) at the Texas A&M Cyclotron Institute and inverse kinematics, this destruction reaction was studied by the beta-delayed proton and gamma decay of 27P. Due to selection rules, states populated above the proton threshold in the compound system (27Si*) can decay to 26mAl, which are the states of interest for the capture reaction. James Madison University, VA, USA.

  15. Modulatory effect of phytoglycoprotein (38 kDa) on cyclin D1/CDK4 in BNL CL.2 cells induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2012-02-01

    In the developmental stages of cancer, cell transformation occurs after the promotion stage and is a marker of cancer progression. This cell transformation is related to abnormal proliferation during the cancer initiation stage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Styrax japonica Siebold et al. Zuccarin (SJSZ) glycoprotein on cell transformation in murine embryonic liver cells (BNL CL.2) following N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment. To determine abnormal proliferation during the initiation stage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), activities of cell cycle-related factors [cyclin D1/cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4], cell cycle inhibitors (p53, p21, and p27), nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were evaluated using Western blot analysis and real-time PCR. Our study demonstrated that SJSZ glycoprotein (50 μg/ml) reduces foci formation with combined treatment [MNNG and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate] of BNL CL.2 cells. With regard to proliferation-related signals, our finding indicated that SJSZ glycoprotein (50 μg/ml) diminished the production of intracellular ROS, activity of phosphorylated ERK, p38 MAPK, NF-κB (p50 and p65), PCNA, and cyclin D1/CDK4 in MNNG-induced BNL CL.2 cells. Taken together, these results lead us to speculate that SJSZ glycoprotein can inhibit abnormal cell proliferation at the initiation stage of hepatocarcinogenesis.

  16. p27Kip1 is expressed in proliferating cells in its form phosphorylated on threonine 187

    PubMed Central

    Troncone, Giancarlo; Martinez, Juan C; Iaccarino, Antonino; Zeppa, Pio; Caleo, Alessia; Russo, Maria; Migliaccio, Ilenia; Motti, Maria L; Califano, Daniela; Palmieri, Emiliano A; Palombini, Lucio

    2005-01-01

    Background G1/S cell cycle progression requires p27Kip1 (p27) proteolysis, which is triggered by its phosphorylation on threonine (Thr) 187. Since its levels are abundant in quiescent and scarce in cycling cells, p27 is an approved marker for quiescent cells, extensively used in histopathology and cancer research. Methods However here we showed that by using a specific phosphorylation site (pThr187) antibody, p27 is detectable also in proliferative compartments of normal, dysplastic and neoplastic tissues. Results In fact, whereas un-phosphorylated p27 and MIB-1 showed a significant inverse correlation (Spearman R = -0.55; p < 0,001), pThr187-p27 was positively and significantly correlated with MIB-1 expression (Spearman R = 0.88; p < 0,001). Thus proliferating cells only stain for pThr187-p27, whereas they are un-reactive with the regular p27 antibodies. However increasing the sensitivity of the immunocytochemistry (ICH) by the use of an ultra sensitive detection system based on tiramide signal amplification, simultaneous expression and colocalisation of both forms of p27 was shown in proliferating compartments nuclei by double immunofluorescence and laser scanning confocal microscopy studies. Conclusion Overall, our data suggest that p27 expression also occurs in proliferating cells compartments and the combined use of both regular and phospho- p27 antibodies is suggested. PMID:15725363

  17. Mitomycin C and decarbamoyl mitomycin C induce p53-independent p21WAF1/CIP1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shu-Yuan; Seo, Jiwon; Huang, Bik Tzu; Napolitano, Tanya; Champeil, Elise

    2016-01-01

    Mitomycin C (MC), a commonly used anticancer drug, induces DNA damage via DNA alkylation. Decarbamoyl mitomycin C (DMC), another mitomycin lacking the carbamate at C10, generates similar lesions as MC. Interstrand cross-links (ICLs) are believed to be the lesions primarily responsible for the cytotoxicity of MC and DMC. The major ICL generated by MC (α-ICL) has a trans stereochemistry at the guanine-drug linkage whereas the major ICL from DMC (β-ICL) has the opposite, cis, stereochemistry. In addition, DMC can provoke strong p53-independent cell death. Our hypothesis is that the stereochemistry of the major unique β-ICL generated by DMC is responsible for this p53-independent cell death signaling. p53 gene is inactively mutated in more than half of human cancers. p21WAF1/CIP1 known as a major effector of p53 is involved in p53-dependent and -independent control of cell proliferation and death. This study revealed the role of p21WAF1/CIP1 on MC and DMC triggered cell damage. MCF-7 (p53-proficient) and K562 (p53-deficient) cells were used. Cell cycle distributions were shifted to the G1/S phase in MCF-7 treated with MC and DMC, but were shifted to the S phase in K562. p21WAF1/CIP1 activation was observed in both cells treated with MC and DMC, and DMC triggered more significant activation. Knocking down p53 in MCF-7 did not attenuate MC and DMC induced p21WAF1/CIP1 activation. The α-ICL itself was enough to cause p21WAF1/CIP1 activation. PMID:27666201

  18. The UbL-UBA Ubiquilin4 protein functions as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer by p53-dependent and p53-independent regulation of p21.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengkai; Li, Yan; Yuan, Xinghua; Zhao, Mei; Wang, Jia; Li, You; Li, Yuan; Lin, Hong; Zhang, Qiao; Wang, Wenjie; Li, Dongdong; Dong, Xin; Li, Lanfen; Liu, Min; Huang, Weiyan; Huang, Changzhi

    2018-06-13

    Ubiquilin4 (Ubqln4), a member of the UbL-UBA protein family, serves as an adaptor in the degradation of specific substrates via the proteasomal pathway. However, the biological function of Ubqln4 remains largely unknown, especially in cancer. Here, we reported that Ubqln4 was downregulated in gastric cancer tissues and functioned as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting gastric cancer cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Overexpression of Ubqln4-induced cellular senescence and G1-S cell cycle arrest in gastric cancer cells and activated the p53/p21 axis. Moreover, Ubqln4 regulated p21 through both p53-dependent and p53-independent manners. Ubqln4 interacted with RNF114, an E3 ubiquitin ligase of p21, and negatively regulated its expression level, which in turn stabilized p21 by attenuating proteasomal degradation of p21. These effects of Ubqln4 were partly abrogated in gastric cancer cells upon silencing of p21. Our findings not only establish the anti-tumor potential of Ubqln4 in gastric cancer but also reveal a role for Ubqln4 in regulation of the cell cycle and cellular senescence via stabilizing p21.

  19. C/EBPα regulates CRL4Cdt2-mediated degradation of p21 in response to UVB-induced DNA damage to control the G1/S checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jonathan R; Bereman, Michael S; Nepomuceno, Angelito I; Thompson, Elizabeth A; Muddiman, David C; Smart, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    The bZIP transcription factor, C/EBPα is highly inducible by UVB and other DNA damaging agents in keratinocytes. C/EBPα-deficient keratinocytes fail to undergo cell cycle arrest in G1 in response to UVB-induced DNA damage and mice lacking epidermal C/EBPα are highly susceptible to UVB-induced skin cancer. The mechanism through which C/EBPα regulates the cell cycle checkpoint in response to DNA damage is unknown. Here we report untreated C/EBPα-deficient keratinocytes have normal levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21, however, UVB-treated C/EBPα-deficient keratinocytes fail to up-regulate nuclear p21 protein levels despite normal up-regulation of Cdkn1a mRNA levels. UVB-treated C/EBPα-deficient keratinocytes displayed a 4-fold decrease in nuclear p21 protein half-life due to the increased proteasomal degradation of p21 via the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4Cdt2. Cdt2 is the substrate recognition subunit of CRL4Cdt2 and Cdt2 mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in UVB-treated C/EBPα-deficient keratinocytes. Knockdown of Cdt2 restored p21 protein levels in UVB-treated C/EBPα-deficient keratinocytes. Lastly, the failure to accumulate p21 in response to UVB in C/EBPα-deficient keratinocytes resulted in decreased p21 interactions with critical cell cycle regulatory proteins, increased CDK2 activity, and inappropriate entry into S-phase. These findings reveal C/EBPα regulates G1/S cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage via the control of CRL4Cdt2 mediated degradation of p21. PMID:25483090

  20. Physalis angulata induced G2/M phase arrest in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Huang, Kuan-Yuh; Lin, Hui-Yi; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2006-07-01

    Physalis angulata (PA) is employed in herbal medicine around the world. It is used to treat diabetes, hepatitis, asthma and malaria in Taiwan. We have evaluated PA as a cancer chemopreventive agent in vitro by studying the role of PA in regulation of proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines. PA inhibited cell proliferation and induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer MAD-MB 231 and MCF-7 cell lines. In this study, under treatment with various concentrations of PA in MDA-MB 231 cell line, we checked mRNA levels for cyclin A and cyclin B1 and the protein levels of cyclin A and cyclin B1, Cdc2 (cyclin-dependent kinases), p21(waf1/cip1) and P27(Kip1) (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors), Cdc25C, Chk2 and Wee1 kinase (cyclin-dependent kinase relative factors) in cell cycle G2/M phase. From those results, we determined that PA arrests MDA-MB 231 cells at the G2/M phase by (i) inhibiting synthesis or stability of mRNA and their downstream protein levels of cyclin A and cyclin B1, (ii) increasing p21(waf1/cip1) and P27(kip1) levels, (iii) increasing Chk2, thus causing an increase in Cdc25C phosphorylation/inactivation and inducing a decrease in Cdc2 levels and an increase in Wee1 level. According to the results obtained, PA appears to possess anticarcinogenic properties; these results suggest that the effect of PA on the levels of phosphorylated/inactivated Cdc25C are mediated by Chk2 activation, at least in part, via p21(waf1/cip1) and P27(kip1) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors pathway to arrest cells at G2/M phase in breast cancer carcinoma cells.

  1. Attenuation of teratoma formation by p27 overexpression in induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Matsu-ura, Toru; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Okada, Motoi; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-02-15

    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells, have a great potential for regenerative medicine. Induced pluripotent stem cells, in particular, are suitable for replacement of tissue by autologous transplantation. However, tumorigenicity is a major risk in clinical application of both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. This study explores the possibility of manipulating the cell cycle for inhibition of tumorigenicity. We genetically modified mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) to overexpress p27 tumor suppressor and examined their proliferation rate, gene expression, cardiac differentiation, tumorigenicity, and therapeutic potential in a mouse model of coronary artery ligation. Overexpression of p27 inhibited cell division of miPSCs, and that inhibition was dependent on the expression level of p27. p27 overexpressing miPSCs had pluripotency characteristics but lost stemness earlier than normal miPSCs during embryoid body and teratoma formation. These cellular characteristics led to none or smaller teratoma when the cells were injected into nude mice. Transplantation of both miPSCs and p27 overexpressing miPSCs into the infarcted mouse heart reduced the infarction size and improved left ventricular function. The overexpression of p27 attenuated tumorigenicity by reducing proliferation and earlier loss of stemness of miPSCs. The overexpression of p27 did not affect pluripotency and differentiation characteristics of miPSC. Therefore, regulation of the proliferation rate of miPSCs offers great therapeutic potential for repair of the injured myocardium.

  2. p21-activated kinase signaling in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gururaj, Anupama E; Rayala, Suresh K; Kumar, Rakesh

    2005-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases signal through a number of cellular pathways fundamental to growth, differentiation and apoptosis. A wealth of information has accumulated at an impressive pace in the recent past, both with regard to previously identified targets for p21-activated kinases that regulate the actin cytoskeleton and cellular stress pathways and with regard to newly identified targets and their role in cancer. Emerging data also provide new clues towards a previously unappreciated link between these various cellular processes. The present review attempts to provide a quick tutorial to the reader about the evolving significance of p21-activated kinases and small GTPases in breast cancer, using information from mouse models, tissue culture studies, and human materials.

  3. p21 controls patterning but not homologous recombination in RPE development.

    PubMed

    Bishop, A J R; Kosaras, B; Hollander, M C; Fornace, A; Sidman, R L; Schiestl, R H

    2006-01-05

    p21/WAF1/CIP1/MDA6 is a key cell cycle regulator. Cell cycle regulation is an important part of development, differentiation, DNA repair and apoptosis. Following DNA damage, p53 dependent expression of p21 results in a rapid cell cycle arrest. p21 also appears to be important for the development of melanocytes, promoting their differentiation and melanogenesis. Here, we examine the effect of p21 deficiency on the development of another pigmented tissue, the retinal pigment epithelium. The murine mutation pink-eyed unstable (p(un)) spontaneously reverts to a wild-type allele by homologous recombination. In a retinal pigment epithelium cell this results in pigmentation, which can be observed in the adult eye. The clonal expansion of such cells during development has provided insight into the pattern of retinal pigment epithelium development. In contrast to previous results with Atm, p53 and Gadd45, p(un) reversion events in p21 deficient mice did not show any significant change. These results suggest that p21 does not play any role in maintaining overall genomic stability by regulating homologous recombination frequencies during development. However, the absence of p21 caused a distinct change in the positions of the reversion events within the retinal pigment epithelium. Those events that would normally arrest to produce single cell events continued to proliferate uncovering a cell cycle dysregulation phenotype. It is likely that p21 is involved in controlling the developmental pattern of the retinal pigment. We also found a C57BL/6J specific p21 dependent ocular defect in retinal folding, similar to those reported in the absence of p53.

  4. Growth inhibition induced by antiprogestins RU-38486, ORG-31710, and CDB-2914 in ovarian cancer cells involves inhibition of cyclin dependent kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Goyeneche, Alicia A; Seidel, Erin E; Telleria, Carlos M

    2012-06-01

    Antiprogestins have been largely utilized in reproductive medicine, yet their repositioning for oncologic use is rapidly emerging. In this study we investigated the molecular mediators of the anti-ovarian cancer activity of the structurally related antiprogestins RU-38486, ORG-31710 and CDB-2914. We studied the responses of wt p53 OV2008 and p53 null SK-OV-3 cells to varying doses of RU-38486, ORG-31710 and CDB-2914. The steroids inhibited the growth of both cell lines with a potency of RU-38486 > ORG-31710 > CDB-2914, and were cytostatic at lower doses but lethal at higher concentrations. Antiprogestin-induced lethality associated with morphological features of apoptosis, hypodiploid DNA content, DNA fragmentation, and cleavage of executer caspase substrate PARP. Cell death ensued despite RU-38486 caused transient up-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, ORG-31710 induced transient up-regulation of inhibitor of apoptosis XIAP, and CDB-2914 up-regulated both XIAP and Bcl-2. The antiprogestins induced accumulation of Cdk inhibitors p21(cip1) and p27(kip1) and increased association of p21(cip1) and p27(kip1) with Cdk-2. They also promoted nuclear localization of p21(cip1) and p27(kip1), reduced the nuclear abundances of Cdk-2 and cyclin E, and blocked the activity of Cdk-2 in both nucleus and cytoplasm. The cytotoxic potency of the antiprogestins correlated with the magnitude of the inhibition of Cdk-2 activity, ranging from G1 cell cycle arrest towards cell death. Our results suggest that, as a consequence of their cytostatic and lethal effects, antiprogestin steroids of well-known contraceptive properties emerge as attractive new agents to be repositioned for ovarian cancer therapeutics.

  5. Effects of Activin and TGFβ on p21 in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Jennifer; Gomez, Jessica; Jung, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Activin and TGFβ share SMAD signaling and colon cancers can inactivate either pathway alone or simultaneously. The differential effects of activin and TGFβ signaling in colon cancer have not been previously dissected. A key downstream target of TGFβ signaling is the cdk2 inhibitor p21 (p21cip1/waf1). Here, we evaluate activin-specific effects on p21 regulation and resulting functions. We find that TGFβ is a more potent inducer of growth suppression, while activin is a more potent inducer of apoptosis. Further, growth suppression and apoptosis by both ligands are dependent on SMAD4. However, activin downregulates p21 protein in a SMAD4-independent fashion in conjunction with increased ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation to enhance migration, while TGFβ upregulates p21 in a SMAD4-dependent fashion to affect growth arrest. Activin-induced growth suppression and cell death are dependent on p21, while activin-induced migration is counteracted by p21. Further, primary colon cancers show differential p21 expression consistent with their ACVR2/TGFBR2 receptor status. In summary, we report p21 as a differentially affected activin/TGFβ target and mediator of ligand-specific functions in colon cancer, which may be exploited for future risk stratification and therapeutic intervention. PMID:22761777

  6. Distinct MAPK signaling pathways, p21 up-regulation and caspase-mediated p21 cleavage establishes the fate of U937 cells exposed to 3-hydrogenkwadaphnin: Differentiation versus apoptosis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Moosavi, Mohammad Amin; Yazdanparast, Razieh

    2008-07-01

    Despite the depth of knowledge concerning the pathogenesis of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), long-term survival remains unresolved. Therefore, new agents that act more selectively and more potently are required. In that line, we have recently characterized a novel diterpene ester, called 3-hydrogenkwadaphnin (3-HK), with capability to induce both differentiation and apoptosis in various leukemia cell lines. These effects of 3-HK were mediated through inhibition of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase, a selective up-regulated enzyme in cancerous cells, especially leukemia. However, it remains elusive to understand how cells display different fates in response to 3-HK. Here, we report the distinct molecular signaling pathwaysmore » involved in forcing of 3-HK-treated U937 cells to undergo differentiation and apoptosis. After 3-HK (15 nM) treatment, a portion of U937 cells adhered to the culture plates and showed macrophage criteria while others remained in suspension and underwent apoptosis. The differentiated cells arrested in G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase of cell cycle and showed early activation of ERK1/2 pathway (3 h) along with ERK-dependent p21{sup Cip/WAF1} (p21) up-regulation and expression of p27{sup Kip1} and Bcl-2. In contrast, the suspension cells underwent apoptosis through Fas/FasL and mitochondrial pathways. The occurrence of apoptosis in these cells were accompanied with caspase-8-mediated p21 cleavage and delayed activation (24 h) of JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Taken together, these results suggest that distinct signaling pathways play a pivotal role in fates of drug-treated leukemia cells, thus this may pave some novel therapeutical utilities.« less

  7. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase activity triggers neuronal differentiation of mouse neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kranenburg, O; Scharnhorst, V; Van der Eb, A J; Zantema, A

    1995-10-01

    Studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal differentiation are frequently performed using cell lines established from neuroblastomas. In this study we have used mouse N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells that undergo neuronal differentiation in response to DMSO. During differentiation, cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) activities decline and phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) is lost, leading to the appearance of a pRb-containing E2F DNA-binding complex. The loss of cdk2 activity is due to a decrease in cdk2 abundance whereas loss of cdk4 activity is caused by strong association with the cdk inhibitor (CKI) p27KIP1 and concurrent loss of cdk4 phosphorylation. Moreover, neuronal differentiation can be induced by overexpression of p27KIP1 or pRb, suggesting that inhibition of cdk activity leading to loss of pRb phosphorylation, is the major determinant for neuronal differentiation.

  8. Altered expression of key cell cycle regulators in renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation.

    PubMed

    Barroca, H; Castedo, S; Vieira, J; Teixeira, M; Müller-Höcker, J

    2009-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a rare tumor in the pediatric population. Recently, a phenotypically and genetically distinct kidney carcinoma, mainly prevalent in children and associated with an Xp11.2 translocation or TFE3 gene fusion, has been described. It has been advanced that in this subtype of RCC, there is an accumulation of cyclin D1, cyclin D3, and p21 ((wafl/cip1)). The aim of the present study was to figure out in two pediatric RCC recently diagnosed in our department (one clear cell-type RCC and one TFE3-positive RCC) whether those features are indeed specific of the latter tumor or occur in pediatric RCC irrespective of the tumor type. The following immunostains were performed in both cases: Ki67, p16(ink4a), p21 ((wafl/cip1)), p27(kip1), p53, p63, mdm2, cyclin D1, cyclin D3, TFE3, CD10, vimentin, E-cadherin, and RCC-antigen. We observed in the TFE3-positive carcinoma an intense immunoreaction for p21 ((wafl/cip1)), cyclin D1, and cyclin D3, without expression for p53, p16, p27(kip1), and mdm2, whereas the immunoexpression profile observed in the classic RCC was similar to that of clear cell, adult-type RCC. Our study confirms that TFE3-positive RCC exhibits a deregulation of the cell cycle apparently unrelated to the young age of the patients.

  9. Senescence and quiescence in adipose-derived stromal cells: Effects of human platelet lysate, fetal bovine serum and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Rebekka Harary; Follin, Bjarke; Lund, Lisbeth Drozd; Juhl, Morten; Ekblond, Annette; Kastrup, Jens; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana

    2017-01-01

    Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are attractive sources for cell-based therapies. The hypoxic niche of ASCs in vivo implies that cells will benefit from hypoxia during in vitro expansion. Human platelet lysate (hPL) enhances ASC proliferation rates, compared with fetal bovine serum (FBS) at normoxia. However, the low proliferation rates of FBS-expanded ASCs could be signs of senescence or quiescence. We aimed to determine the effects of hypoxia and hPL on the expansion of ASCs and whether FBS-expanded ASCs are senescent or quiescent. ASCs expanded in FBS or hPL at normoxia or hypoxia until passage 7 (P7), or in FBS until P5 followed by culture in hPL until P7, were evaluated by proliferation rates, cell cycle analyses, gene expression and β-galactosidase activity. hPL at normoxia and hypoxia enhanced proliferation rates and expression of cyclins, and decreased G0/G1 fractions and expression of p21 and p27, compared with FBS. The shift from FBS to hPL enhanced cyclin levels, decreased p21 and p27 levels and tended to decrease G0/G1 fractions. Hypoxia does not add to the effect of hPL during ASC expansion with regard to proliferation, cell cycle regulation and expression of cyclins, p21 and p27. hPL rejuvenates FBS-expanded ASCs with regard to cell cycle regulation and expression of cyclins, p21 and p27. This indicates a reversible arrest. Therefore, we conclude that ASCs expanded until P7 are not senescent regardless of culture conditions. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. p53-dependent p21-mediated growth arrest pre-empts and protects HCT116 cells from PUMA-mediated apoptosis induced by EGCG

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Vijay S; Amin, A.R.M. Ruhul; Paul, Rajib K; Gupta, Kalpana; Hastak, Kedar; Agarwal, Mukesh K; Jackson, Mark W; Wald, David N; Mukhtar, Hasan; Agarwal, Munna L

    2010-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a key role in regulation of negative cellular growth in response to EGCG. To further explore the role of p53 signaling and elucidate the molecular mechanism, we employed colon cancer HCT116 cell line and its derivatives in which a specific transcriptional target of p53 is knocked down by homologous recombination. Cells expressing p53 and p21 accumulate in G1 upon treatment with EGCG. In contrast, same cells lacking p21 traverse through the cell cycle and eventually undergo apoptosis as revealed by TUNEL staining. Treatment with EGCG leads to induction of p53, p21 and PUMA in p21 wild-type, and p53 and PUMA in p21−/− cells. Ablation of p53 by RNAi protects p21−/− cells, thus indicating a p53-dependent apoptosis by EGCG. Furthermore, analysis of cells lacking PUMA or Bax with or without p21 but with p53 reveals that all the cells expressing p53 and p21 survived after EGCG treatment. More interestingly, cells lacking both PUMA and p21 survived ECGC treatment whereas those lacking p21 and Bax did not. Taken together, our results present a novel concept wherein p21-dependent growth arrest pre-empts and protects cells from otherwise, in its absence, apoptosis which is mediated by activation of pro-apoptotic protein PUMA. Furthermore, we find that p53-dependent activation of PUMA in response to EGCG directly leads to apoptosis with out requiring Bax as is the case in response to agents that induce DNA damage. p21, thus can be used as a molecular switch for therapeutic intervention of colon cancer. PMID:20444544

  11. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH (hydrogen...

  12. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH (hydrogen...

  13. The p27Kip1 Tumor Suppressor and Multi-Step Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    Breast Cancer , Cell cycle, tumor suppressor 33 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20...in many cancers , including carcinomas of the breast , colon, lung and prostate, and lymphoma. Although these studies of p27 expression in primary...of DMBA-induced pituitary tumors in p27-/- mice precluded determination of breast cancer risk in these mice. Nevertheless, the extensive mammary tissue

  14. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). 721.10135 Section 721.10135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). 721.10135 Section 721.10135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). 721.10135 Section 721.10135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135...

  17. The activity and stability of the intrinsically disordered Cip/Kip protein family are regulated by non-receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongqi; Yoon, Mi-Kyung; Otieno, Steve; Lelli, Moreno; Kriwacki, Richard W

    2015-01-30

    The Cip/Kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors includes p21(Cip1), p27(Kip1) and p57(Kip2). Their kinase inhibitory activities are mediated by a homologous N-terminal kinase inhibitory domain. The Cdk inhibitory activity and stability of p27 have been shown to be regulated by a two-step phosphorylation mechanism involving a tyrosine residue within the kinase inhibitory domain and a threonine residue within the flexible C-terminus. We show that these residues are conserved in p21 and p57, suggesting that a similar phosphorylation cascade regulates these Cdk inhibitors. However, the presence of a cyclin binding motif within its C-terminus alters the regulatory interplay between p21 and Cdk2/cyclin A, as well as its responses to tyrosine phosphorylation and altered p21:Cdk2/cyclin A stoichiometry. We also show that the Cip/Kip proteins can be phosphorylated in vitro by representatives of many non-receptor tyrosine kinase (NRTK) sub-families, suggesting that NRTKs may generally regulate the activity and stability of these Cdk inhibitors. Our results further suggest that the Cip/Kip proteins integrate signals from various NRTK pathways and cell cycle regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Imbalance between pSmad3 and Notch induces CDK inhibitors in old muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Morgan E; Hsu, Michael; Conboy, Irina M

    2008-07-24

    Adult skeletal muscle robustly regenerates throughout an organism's life, but as the muscle ages, its ability to repair diminishes and eventually fails. Previous work suggests that the regenerative potential of muscle stem cells (satellite cells) is not triggered in the old muscle because of a decline in Notch activation, and that it can be rejuvenated by forced local activation of Notch. Here we report that, in addition to the loss of Notch activation, old muscle produces excessive transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta (but not myostatin), which induces unusually high levels of TGF-beta pSmad3 in resident satellite cells and interferes with their regenerative capacity. Importantly, endogenous Notch and pSmad3 antagonize each other in the control of satellite-cell proliferation, such that activation of Notch blocks the TGF-beta-dependent upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p15, p16, p21 and p27, whereas inhibition of Notch induces them. Furthermore, in muscle stem cells, Notch activity determines the binding of pSmad3 to the promoters of these negative regulators of cell-cycle progression. Attenuation of TGF-beta/pSmad3 in old, injured muscle restores regeneration to satellite cells in vivo. Thus a balance between endogenous pSmad3 and active Notch controls the regenerative competence of muscle stem cells, and deregulation of this balance in the old muscle microniche interferes with regeneration.

  19. A dual role of p21 in stem cell aging.

    PubMed

    Ju, Zhenyu; Choudhury, Aaheli Roy; Rudolph, K Lenhard

    2007-04-01

    A decline in adult stem cell function occurs during aging, likely contributing to the decline in organ homeostasis and regeneration with age. An emerging field in aging research is to analyze molecular pathways limiting adult stem cell function in response to macromolecular damage accumulation during aging. Current data suggest that the p21 cell cycle inhibitor has a dual role in stem cell aging: On one hand, p21 protects adult stem cells from acute genotoxic stress by preventing inappropriate cycling of acutely damaged stem cells. On the other hand, p21 activation impairs stem cell function and survival of aging telomere dysfunctional mice indicating that p21 checkpoint function is disadvantageous in the context of chronic and persistent damage, which accumulates during aging. This article focuses on these dual roles of p21 in aging stem cells.

  20. p39, the Primary Activator for Cyclin-dependent Kinase 5 (Cdk5) in Oligodendroglia, Is Essential for Oligodendroglia Differentiation and Myelin Repair*

    PubMed Central

    Bankston, Andrew N.; Li, Wenqi; Zhang, Hui; Ku, Li; Liu, Guanglu; Papa, Filomena; Zhao, Lixia; Bibb, James A.; Cambi, Franca; Tiwari-Woodruff, Seema K.; Feng, Yue

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) plays key roles in normal brain development and function. Dysregulation of Cdk5 may cause neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. Besides the well demonstrated role of Cdk5 in neurons, emerging evidence suggests the functional requirement of Cdk5 in oligodendroglia (OL) and CNS myelin development. However, whether neurons and OLs employ similar or distinct mechanisms to regulate Cdk5 activity remains elusive. We report here that in contrast to neurons that harbor high levels of two Cdk5 activators, p35 and p39, OLs express abundant p39 but negligible p35. In addition, p39 is selectively up-regulated in OLs during differentiation along with elevated Cdk5 activity, whereas p35 expression remains unaltered. Specific knockdown of p39 by siRNA significantly attenuates Cdk5 activity and OL differentiation without affecting p35. Finally, expression of p39, but not p35, is increased during myelin repair, and remyelination is impaired in p39−/− mice. Together, these results reveal that neurons and OLs harbor distinct preference of Cdk5 activators and demonstrate important functions of p39-dependent Cdk5 activation in OL differentiation during de novo myelin development and myelin repair. PMID:23645679

  1. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus through p53-dependent pathway causes cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pei; Wu, Haoyang; Huang, Jiali; Xu, Ying; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Xingang

    2018-05-22

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteropathogenic Alphacoronavirus, has caused enormous economic losses in the swine industry. p53 protein exists in a wide variety of animal cells, which is involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell differentiation and other biological functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of PEDV infection on the cell cycle of Vero cells and p53 activation. The results demonstrated that PEDV infection induces cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in Vero cells, while UV-inactivated PEDV does not cause cell cycle arrest. PEDV infection up-regulates the levels of p21, cdc2, cdk2, cdk4, Cyclin A protein and down-regulates Cyclin E protein. Further research results showed that inhibition of p53 signaling pathway can reverse the cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase induced by PEDV infection and cancel out the up-regulation of p21 and corresponding Cyclin/cdk mentioned above. In addition, PEDV infection of the cells synchronized in various stages of cell cycle showed that viral subgenomic RNA and virus titer were higher in the cells released from G0/G1 phase synchronized cells than that in the cells released from the G1/S phase and G2/M phase synchronized or asynchronous cells after 18 h p.i.. This is the first report to demonstrate that the p53-dependent pathway plays an important role in PEDV induced cell cycle arrest and beneficially contributes to viral infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase activity triggers neuronal differentiation of mouse neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal differentiation are frequently performed using cell lines established from neuroblastomas. In this study we have used mouse N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells that undergo neuronal differentiation in response to DMSO. During differentiation, cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) activities decline and phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) is lost, leading to the appearance of a pRb-containing E2F DNA-binding complex. The loss of cdk2 activity is due to a decrease in cdk2 abundance whereas loss of cdk4 activity is caused by strong association with the cdk inhibitor (CKI) p27KIP1 and concurrent loss of cdk4 phosphorylation. Moreover, neuronal differentiation can be induced by overexpression of p27KIP1 or pRb, suggesting that inhibition of cdk activity leading to loss of pRb phosphorylation, is the major determinant for neuronal differentiation. PMID:7559779

  3. Investigation of the thermonuclear 18Ne(α,p)21Na reaction rate via resonant elastic scattering of 21Na + p

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. Y.; He, J. J.; Parikh, A.; Xu, S. W.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Kubono, S.; Mohr, P.; Hu, J.; Ma, P.; Chen, S. Z.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Wang, H. W.; Tian, W. D.; Chen, R. F.; Guo, B.; Hashimoto, T.; Togano, Y.; Hayakawa, S.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Yamada, T.; Komatsubara, T.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhou, X. H.

    2014-01-01

    The 18Ne(α,p)21Na reaction is thought to be one of the key breakout reactions from the hot CNO cycles to the rp process in type I x-ray bursts. In this work, the resonant properties of the compound nucleus 22Mg have been investigated by measuring the resonant elastic scattering of 21Na + p. An 89-MeV 21Na radioactive beam delivered from the CNS Radioactive Ion Beam Separator bombarded an 8.8 mg/cm2 thick polyethylene (CH2)n target. The 21Na beam intensity was about 2×105 pps, with a purity of about 70% on target. The recoiled protons were measured at the center-of-mass scattering angles of θc.m.≈175.2∘, 152.2∘, and 150.5∘ by three sets of ΔE-E telescopes, respectively. The excitation function was obtained with the thick-target method over energies Ex(22Mg)=5.5-9.2 MeV. In total, 23 states above the proton-threshold in 22Mg were observed, and their resonant parameters were determined via an R-matrix analysis of the excitation functions. We have made several new Jπ assignments and confirmed some tentative assignments made in previous work. The thermonuclear 18Ne(α,p)21Na rate has been recalculated based on our recommended spin-parity assignments. The astrophysical impact of our new rate has been investigated through one-zone postprocessing x-ray burst calculations. We find that the 18Ne(α,p)21Na rate significantly affects the peak nuclear energy generation rate, reaction fluxes, and onset temperature of this breakout reaction in these astrophysical phenomena.

  4. High density lipoprotein promotes proliferation of adipose-derived stem cells via S1P1 receptor and Akt, ERK1/2 signal pathways.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haitao; Zhou, Enchen; Wei, Xiujing; Fu, Zhiwei; Niu, Chenguang; Li, Yang; Pan, Bing; Mathew, Anna V; Wang, Xu; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Zheng, Lemin; Wang, Yongyu

    2015-05-15

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) are non-hematopoietic mesenchymal stem cells that have shown great promise in their ability to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Their ubiquitous nature and the ease of harvesting have attracted the attention of many researchers, and they pose as an ideal candidate for applications in regenerative medicine. Several reports have demonstrated that transplanting ADSC can promote repair of injured tissue and angiogenesis in animal models. Survival of these cells after transplant remains a key limiting factor for the success of ADSC transplantation. Circulating factors like High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) has been known to promote survival of other stems cells like bone marrow derived stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells, both by proliferation and by inhibiting cell apoptosis. The effect of HDL on transplanted adipose-derived stem cells in vivo is largely unknown. This study focused on exploring the effects of plasma HDL on ADSC and delineating the mechanisms involved in their proliferation after entering the bloodstream. Using the MTT and BrdU assays, we tested the effects of HDL on ADSC proliferation. We probed the downstream intracellular Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and expression of cyclin proteins in ADSC using western blot. Our study found that HDL promotes proliferation of ADSC, by binding to sphingosine-1- phosphate receptor-1(S1P1) on the cell membrane. This interaction led to activation of intracellular Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, resulting in increased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and simultaneous reduction in expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, therefore promoting cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. These studies raise the possibility that HDL may be a physiologic regulator of stem cells and increasing HDL concentrations may be valuable strategy to promote ADSC transplantation.

  5. Overexpression of K-p21Ras play a prominent role in lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng-bo; Zhou, Xin-liang; Yang, Ju-lun

    2018-06-01

    The proto-oncogene ras product, p21Ras, has been found overexpression in many human tumors. However, the subtypes of overexpressed p21Ras still remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate overexpressed isoforms of p21Ras and their roles in the progress of lung cancer. Method: The expression of total p21Ras in normal lung tissues and lung cancers was determined by immunohistochemically staining with monoclonal antibody (Mab) KGHR-1 which could recognize and broad spectrum reaction with the (K/H/N) ras protein. Then, the isoforms of p21Ras was examined by specific Mab for each p21Ras subtypes. Results: Low expression of total p21Ras was found in 26.67% (8/30) of normal lung tissues, and 81.31% (87/107) of adenocarcinoma harbored overexpressed total p21Ras. Besides, 70.00% (35/50) of squamous cell carcinoma were detected overexpressed total p21Ras. In addition, 122 lung cancer tissues from overexpression of total p21Ras protein were selected to detect the expression of each subtype. And all the 122 lung cancer tissues were K-p21Ras overexpression. Moreover, there was a statistical significance difference between the expression level of total p21Ras and differentiation, and the same results were observed between the expression level of total p21Ras and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). However, there was no correlation between the expression level of total p21Ras and gender, age, tumor size (P>0.05). Conclusions: Overexpression of K-p21Ras plays a prominent role in the progress of lung cancer and it is suggested that the p21Ras could serve as a promising treatment target in lung cancer.

  6. The KIP/CIP family members p21^{Waf1/Cip1} and p57^{Kip2} as diagnostic markers for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zohny, Samir F; Baothman, Othman A; El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Zamzami, Mazin A; Choudhry, Hani

    2017-01-01

    We examined the expression status of p21^{Waf1/Cip1} and p57^{Kip2} in breast cancer as well as their relationship with clinicopathological factors. Moreover, the diagnostic value of gene promoter methylation of p21^Waf1/Cip1 and p57^Kip2 was assessed in breast cancer patients. This study involved 85 patients diagnosed with breast cancer and 36 patients with benign breast lesions. The expression of p21^{Waf1/Cip1} and p57^{Kip2} in cell lysates was analyzed by ELISA and Western blot, respectively. The gene promoter methylation of p21^Waf1/Cip1 and p57^Kip2 was examined in cell lysates by methylation specific PCR. p21^{Waf1/Cip1} expression was higher while p57^{Kip2} level was lower in breast cancer patients compared to patients with benign breast lesions. The combined use of p21^{Waf1/Cip1} and p57^{Kip2} provided sensitivity and specificity of 82.35% and 86.11%, respectively. None of the malignant and benign breast tumors were found to be hypermethylated at p21^Waf1/Cip1 gene promoter. However, aberrant methylation of p57^Kip2 gene promoter was detected in 49 of 85 (57.65%) of breast cancer tumors. High p21^{Waf1/Cip1} level was associated with high grade, late stages and lymph node involvement, whereas low p57^{Kip2} level was correlated with high grade and HER2 overexpressing breast cancer. Moreover, hypermethylated p57^Kip2 gene promoter was associated with high grade. Our findings show that the overexpression of p21^{Waf1/Cip1}, down-expression of p57^{Kip2} and gene promoter methylation of p57^Kip2 could be considered as promising diagnostic markers for breast cancer.

  7. Aspirin reduces the apoptotic effect of etoposide via Akt activation and up-regulation of p21(cip).

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaocheng; Lu, Bin; Xu, Yingying; Li, Qin; Zhou, Wenbai; Yang, Zhihong; Yang, Zeng; Zhao, Weiwei; Shen, Zonghou; Hu, Renming

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies on the apoptotic effect of aspirin mainly focus on colorectal cancer and breast carcinoma. Few studies have been designed to explore the effect of aspirin on hepatocellular carcinoma. In the present study, we observed that aspirin caused G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and reduced etoposide induced caspase-3 activation in hepatocellular carcinoma G2 (HepG2) cells. Further investigation demonstrated that aspirin notably enhanced the activity of Akt and ERK1/2. Blocking the activation of Akt by the PI3-K-selective inhibitor wortmannin abrogated the anti-apoptotic effect of aspirin while the MEK inhibitor U0126 did not. p21(cip), an important substrate of Akt, is involved in the regulation of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our data showed that the protein expression and ser146 phosphorylation levels of p21(cip) were significantly increased after treatment with aspirin, whereas p53 or p27 showed no change. The increase of p21(cip) protein levels was also scavenged by wortmannin but not by U0126. Moreover, reduction of caspase-3 activity induced by aspirin was attenuated by silencing p21(cip) expression. These results indicated that the anti-apoptotic effect of aspirin was dependent on activation of Akt which inhibited cell apoptosis by up-regulating p21(cip) and blocking caspase-3 activation. These findings could have clinical relevance in anticancer therapy and aspirin co-treatment of human malignancies.

  8. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ion concentration). The pH electrode is at the end of a flexible lead which may be inserted into the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a...

  9. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ion concentration). The pH electrode is at the end of a flexible lead which may be inserted into the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a...

  10. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ion concentration). The pH electrode is at the end of a flexible lead which may be inserted into the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a...

  11. LincRNa-p21: function and mechanism in cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoyun; Liang, Hairong; Yang, Hui; Zhou, Kairu; Xu, Longmei; Liu, Jiaxian; Lai, Bei; Song, Li; Luo, Hao; Peng, Jianming; Liu, Zhidong; Xiao, Yongmei; Chen, Wen; Tang, Huanwen

    2017-05-01

    In view of the rapid development of gene chips and high-throughput sequencing technology, noncoding RNAs (ncRNas) form a high percentage of the mammalian genome. Two major subgroups of ncRNAs that have been identified are the long ncRNAs (lncRNas) and the microRNAs. A number of studies in the past few years have showed crucial functions for lncRNas in cancer. LincRNa-p21 as a p53-dependent transcriptional target gene and a potential diagnostic marker is involved in proliferation, cell cycle, metabolism and reprogramming. In addition, more researches revealed that lincRNa-p21 is associated with cancer progression and contributed to the treatment and prognosis of cancer. In this review, we briefly summarize the function and molecular mechanisms of lincRNa-p21 in cancer and its regulation for the genes expression .

  12. Genetic characterization of p27(kip1) and stathmin in controlling cell proliferation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Berton, Stefania; Pellizzari, Ilenia; Fabris, Linda; D'Andrea, Sara; Segatto, Ilenia; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Marconi, Daniela; Schiappacassi, Monica; Benevol, Sara; Gattei, Valter; Colombatti, Alfonso; Belletti, Barbara; Baldassarre, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    The CDK inhibitor p27(kip1) is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression, but the mechanisms by which p27(kip1) controls cell proliferation in vivo are still not fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated that the microtubule destabilizing protein stathmin is a relevant p27(kip1) binding partner. To get more insights into the in vivo significance of this interaction, we generated p27(kip1) and stathmin double knock-out (DKO) mice. Interestingly, thorough characterization of DKO mice demonstrated that most of the phenotypes of p27(kip1) null mice linked to the hyper-proliferative behavior, such as the increased body and organ weight, the outgrowth of the retina basal layer and the development of pituitary adenomas, were reverted by co-ablation of stathmin. In vivo analyses showed a reduced proliferation rate in DKO compared to p27(kip1) null mice, linked, at molecular level, to decreased kinase activity of CDK4/6, rather than of CDK1 and CDK2. Gene expression profiling of mouse thymuses confirmed the phenotypes observed in vivo, showing that DKO clustered with WT more than with p27 knock-out tissue. Taken together, our results demonstrate that stathmin cooperates with p27(kip1) to control the early phase of G1 to S phase transition and that this function may be of particular relevance in the context of tumor progression.

  13. Genetic characterization of p27kip1 and stathmin in controlling cell proliferation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Berton, Stefania; Pellizzari, Ilenia; Fabris, Linda; D'Andrea, Sara; Segatto, Ilenia; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Marconi, Daniela; Schiappacassi, Monica; Benevol, Sara; Gattei, Valter; Colombatti, Alfonso; Belletti, Barbara; Baldassarre, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    The CDK inhibitor p27kip1 is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression, but the mechanisms by which p27kip1 controls cell proliferation in vivo are still not fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated that the microtubule destabilizing protein stathmin is a relevant p27kip1 binding partner. To get more insights into the in vivo significance of this interaction, we generated p27kip1 and stathmin double knock-out (DKO) mice. Interestingly, thorough characterization of DKO mice demonstrated that most of the phenotypes of p27kip1 null mice linked to the hyper-proliferative behavior, such as the increased body and organ weight, the outgrowth of the retina basal layer and the development of pituitary adenomas, were reverted by co-ablation of stathmin. In vivo analyses showed a reduced proliferation rate in DKO compared to p27kip1 null mice, linked, at molecular level, to decreased kinase activity of CDK4/6, rather than of CDK1 and CDK2. Gene expression profiling of mouse thymuses confirmed the phenotypes observed in vivo, showing that DKO clustered with WT more than with p27 knock-out tissue. Taken together, our results demonstrate that stathmin cooperates with p27kip1 to control the early phase of G1 to S phase transition and that this function may be of particular relevance in the context of tumor progression. PMID:25486569

  14. [6]-Gingerol Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Death of Mutant p53-expressing Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yon Jung; Wen, Jing; Bang, Seungmin; Park, Seung Woo

    2006-01-01

    [6]-Gingerol, a major phenolic compound derived from ginger, has anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. While several molecular mechanisms have been described to underlie its effects on cells in vitro and in vivo, the underlying mechanisms by which [6]-gingerol exerts anti-tumorigenic effects are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the action of [6]-gingerol on two human pancreatic cancer cell lines, HPAC expressing wild-type (wt) p53 and BxPC-3 expressing mutated p53. We found that [6]-gingerol inhibited the cell growth through cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in both cell lines. Western blot analyses indicated that [6]-gingerol decreased both Cyclin A and Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) expression. These events led to reduction in Rb phosphorylation followed by blocking of S phase entry. p53 expression was decreased by [6]-gingerol treatment in both cell lines suggesting that the induction of Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21cip1, was p53-independent. [6]-Gingerol induced mostly apoptotic death in the mutant p53-expressing cells, while no signs of early apoptosis were detected in wild type p53-expressing cells and this was related to the increased phosphorylation of AKT. These results suggest that [6]-gingerol can circumvent the resistance of mutant p53-expressing cells towards chemotherapy by inducing apoptotic cell death while it exerts cytostatic effect on wild type p53-expressing cells by inducing temporal growth arrest. PMID:17066513

  15. Pleurotus ostreatus inhibits proliferation of human breast and colon cancer cells through p53-dependent as well as p53-independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    JEDINAK, ANDREJ; SLIVA, DANIEL

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the global consumption of mushrooms, only two epidemiological studies demonstrated an inverse correlation between mushroom intake and the risk of cancer. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated whether extracts from edible mushrooms Agaricus bisporus (portabella), Flammulina velutipes (enoki), Lentinula edodes (shiitake) and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster) affect the growth of breast and colon cancer cells. Here, we identified as the most potent, P. ostreatus (oyster mushroom) which suppressed proliferation of breast cancer (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) and colon cancer (HT-29, HCT-116) cells, without affecting proliferation of epithelial mammary MCF-10A and normal colon FHC cells. Flow cytometry revealed that the inhibition of cell proliferation by P. ostreatus was associated with the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in MCF-7 and HT-29 cells. Moreover, P. ostreatus induced the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(CIP1/WAF1), whereas inhibited the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma Rb protein in MCF-7 cells. In addition, P. ostreatus also up-regulated expression of p21 and inhibited Rb phosphorylation in HT-29 cells, suggesting that that P. ostreatus suppresses the proliferation of breast and colon cancer cells via p53-dependent as well as p53-independent pathway. In conclusion, our results indicated that the edible oyster mushroom has potential therapeutic/preventive effects on breast and colon cancer. PMID:19020765

  16. Linkage and association study of late-onset Alzheimer disease families linked to 9p21.3.

    PubMed

    Züchner, S; Gilbert, J R; Martin, E R; Leon-Guerrero, C R; Xu, P-T; Browning, C; Bronson, P G; Whitehead, P; Schmechel, D E; Haines, J L; Pericak-Vance, M A

    2008-11-01

    A chromosomal locus for late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has previously been mapped to 9p21.3. The most significant results were reported in a sample of autopsy-confirmed families. Linkage to this locus has been independently confirmed in AD families from a consanguineous Israeli-Arab community. In the present study we analyzed an expanded clinical sample of 674 late-onset AD families, independently ascertained by three different consortia. Sample subsets were stratified by site and autopsy-confirmation. Linkage analysis of a dense array of SNPs across the chromosomal locus revealed the most significant results in the 166 autopsy-confirmed families of the NIMH sample. Peak HLOD scores of 4.95 at D9S741 and 2.81 at the nearby SNP rs2772677 were obtained in a dominant model. The linked region included the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A gene (CDKN2A), which has been suggested as an AD candidate gene. By re-sequencing all exons in the vicinity of CDKN2A in 48 AD cases, we identified and genotyped four novel SNPs, including a non-synonymous, a synonymous, and two variations located in untranslated RNA sequences. Family-based allelic and genotypic association analysis yielded significant results in CDKN2A (rs11515: PDT p = 0.003, genotype-PDT p = 0.014). We conclude that CDKN2A is a promising new candidate gene potentially contributing to AD susceptibility on chromosome 9p.

  17. P16INK4a MEDIATED SUPPRESSION OF TELOMERASE IN NORMAL AND MALIGNANT HUMAN BREAST CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Bazarov, Alexey V.; van Sluis, Marjolein; Hines, Curtis; Bassett, Ekaterina; Beliveau, Alain; Campeau, Eric; Mukhopadhyay, Rituparna; Lee, Won Jae; Melodyev, Sonya; Zaslavsky, Yuri; Lee, Leonard; Rodier, Francis; Chicas, Agustin; Lowe, Scott W.; Benhattar, Jean; Ren, Bing; Campisi, Judith; Yaswen, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Summary The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16INK4a (CDKN2A) is an important tumor-suppressor gene frequently inactivated in human tumors. p16 suppresses the development of cancer by triggering an irreversible arrest of cell proliferation termed cellular senescence. Here, we describe another anti-oncogenic function of p16 in addition to its ability to halt cell cycle progression. We show that transient expression of p16 stably represses the hTERT gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of telomerase, in both normal and malignant breast epithelial cells. Short-term p16 expression increases the amount of histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 27 (H3K27) bound to the hTERT promoter, resulting in transcriptional silencing, likely mediated by polycomb complexes. Our results indicate that transient p16 exposure may prevent malignant progression in dividing cells by irreversible repression of genes, such as hTERT, whose activity is necessary for extensive self-renewal. PMID:20569236

  18. Ovarian expression of cellular Ki-ras p21 varies with physiological status.

    PubMed Central

    Palejwala, S; Goldsmith, L T

    1992-01-01

    To elucidate the potential role of the ras protooncogene proteins in a specific tissue, the present study determined the levels of individual c-ras-encoded p21 proteins in the rat ovary during various stages of physiological function. p21 protein was extracted from ovaries taken from immature normal female rats, mature nonpregnant animals in the metestrus stage of the estrus cycle, rats at various stages of pregnancy, and actively lactating animals. Levels of individual p21s were evaluated by immunoblot analysis with specific antibodies to the p21 proteins encoded by the Kirsten, Harvey, and neuroblastoma c-ras protooncogenes, c-Ki-ras, c-Ha-ras, and N-ras. Results showed that c-Ki-ras p21 is at its lowest level in the immature ovary and increases with development of the corpora lutea to its highest levels at day 16 of pregnancy, after which levels decline and then rise again during lactation. This pattern, which mimics that of circulating progesterone levels, suggests that ovarian c-Ki-ras p21 levels are regulated and that c-Ki-ras p21 plays a role in the differentiated function of the rat ovary, likely the luteal compartment. In contrast, levels of c-N-ras p21 did not appear to vary with changes in the physiological function of the ovary but appeared to be constitutive. A preferential role for the c-Ki-ras p21 may be due to the documented unique differences in the structure of the carboxyl terminus of this particular c-ras p21. Images PMID:1570348

  19. Loss of p21{sup Sdi1} expression in senescent cells after DNA damage accompanied with increase of miR-93 expression and reduced p53 interaction with p21{sup Sdi1} gene promoter

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Choi, Ok Ran; Lim, In Kyoung, E-mail: iklim@ajou.ac.kr

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} Reduced p21 expression in senescent cells treated with DNA damaging agents. {yields} Increase of [{sup 3}H]thymidine and BrdU incorporations in DNA damaged-senescent cells. {yields} Upregulation of miR-93 expression in senescent cells in response to DSB. {yields} Failure of p53 binding to p21 promoter in senescent cells in response to DSB. {yields} Molecular mechanism of increased cancer development in aged than young individuals. -- Abstract: To answer what is a critical event for higher incidence of tumor development in old than young individuals, primary culture of human diploid fibroblasts were employed and DNA damage was induced by doxorubicin ormore » X-ray irradiation. Response to the damage was different between young and old cells; loss of p21{sup sdi1} expression in spite of p53{sup S15} activation in old cells along with [{sup 3}H]thymidine and BrdU incorporation, but not in young cells. The phenomenon was confirmed by other tissue fibroblasts obtained from different donor ages. Induction of miR-93 expression and reduced p53 binding to p21 gene promoter account for loss of p21{sup sdi1} expression in senescent cells after DNA damage, suggesting a mechanism of in vivo carcinogenesis in aged tissue without repair arrest.« less

  20. Expression and mutational analysis of Cip/Kip family in early glottic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, D-K; Lee, J H; Lee, O J; Park, C H

    2015-02-01

    Genetic alteration of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors has been associated with carcinogenesis mechanisms in various organs. This study aimed to evaluate the expression and mutational analysis of Cip/Kip family cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p21CIP1/WAF1, p27KIP1 and p57KIP2) in early glottic cancer. Expressions of Cip/Kip family and p53 were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and densitometry. For the analysis of p21 inactivation, sequence alteration was assessed using single-strand conformational polymorphism polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, the inactivation mechanism of p27 and p57 were investigated using DNA methylation analysis. Reduced expression of p27 and p57 were detected in all samples, whereas the expression of p21 was incompletely down-regulated in 6 of 11 samples. Additionally, single-strand conformational polymorphism polymerase chain reaction analysis showed the p53 mutation at exon 6. Methylation of p27 and p57 was detected by DNA methylation assay. Our results suggest that the Cip/Kip family may have a role as a molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis in early glottic cancer.

  1. Metformin and Resveratrol Inhibited High Glucose-Induced Metabolic Memory of Endothelial Senescence through SIRT1/p300/p53/p21 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haiyang; Xu, Ruixia; Teng, Siyong; Wu, Yongjian

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial senescence plays crucial roles in diabetic vascular complication. Recent evidence indicated that transient hyperglycaemia could potentiate persistent diabetic vascular complications, a phenomenon known as “metabolic memory.” Although SIRT1 has been demonstrated to mediate high glucose-induced endothelial senescence, whether and how “metabolic memory” would affect endothelial senescence through SIRT1 signaling remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of SIRT1 axis as well as the protective effects of resveratrol (RSV) and metformin (MET), two potent SIRT1 activators, during the occurrence of “metabolic memory” of cellular senescence (senescent “memory”). Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in either normal glucose (NG)/high glucose (HG) media for 6 days, or 3 days of HG followed by 3 days of NG (HN), with or without RSV or MET treatment. It was shown that HN incubation triggered persistent downregulation of deacetylase SIRT1 and upregulation of acetyltransferase p300, leading to sustained hyperacetylation (at K382) and activation of p53, and subsequent p53/p21-mediated senescent “memory.” In contrast, senescent “memory” was abrogated by overexpression of SIRT1 or knockdown of p300. Interestingly, we found that SIRT1 and p300 could regulate each other in response to HN stimulation, suggesting that a delicate balance between acetyltransferases and deacetylases may be particularly important for sustained acetylation and activation of non-histone proteins (such as p53), and eventually the occurrence of “metabolic memory.” Furthermore, we found that RSV or MET treatment prevented senescent “memory” by modulating SIRT1/p300/p53/p21 pathway. Notably, early and continuous treatment of MET, but not RSV, was particularly important for preventing senescent “memory.” In conclusion, short-term high glucose stimulation could induce sustained endothelial senescence via SIRT

  2. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and the p25 activator of cyclin dependent kinase 5 increase pausing of mitochondria in neurons.

    PubMed

    Morel, M; Authelet, M; Dedecker, R; Brion, J P

    2010-06-02

    The complex bi-directional axoplasmic transport of mitochondria is essential for proper metabolic functioning of neurons and is controlled by phosphorylation. We have investigated by time-lapse imaging the effects of increased expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) and of the p25 activator of cyclin dependent kinase 5 on mitochondria movements in mammalian cortical neurons and in PC12 cells. Both GSK-3beta and p25 increased the stationary behaviour of mitochondria in PC12 and in neurons, decreased their anterograde transport but did not affect the intrinsic velocities of mitochondria. The microtubule-associated tau proteins were more phosphorylated in GSK-3beta and p25 transfected neurons, but ultrastructural observation showed that these cells still contained microtubules and nocodazole treatment further reduced residual mitochondria movements in GSK-3beta or p25 transfected neurons, indicating that microtubule disruption was not the primary cause of increased mitochondrial stationary behaviour in GSK-3beta or p25 transfected neurons. Our results suggest that increased expression of GSK-3beta and p25 acted rather by decreasing the frequency of mitochondrial movements driven by molecular motors and that GSK-3beta and p25 might regulate these transports by controlling the time that mitochondria spend pausing, rather than their velocities. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cell cycle activation in p21 dependent pathway: An alternative mechanism of organophosphate induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Kandimalla, Ramesh J L; Sharma, Deep Raj; Kaushal, Alka; Ruban, Anand; Sunkaria, Aditya; Vallamkondu, Jayalakshmi; Chiarugi, Alberto; Reddy, P Hemachandra; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2017-07-01

    In the previous study, we demonstrated that dichlorvos induces oxidative stress in dopaminergic neuronal cells and subsequent caspase activation mediates apoptosis. In the present study, we evaluated the effect and mechanism of dichlorvos induced oxidative stress on cell cycle activation in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells. Dichlorvos exposure resulted in oxidative DNA damage along with activation of cell cycle machinery in differentiated PC12 cells. Dichlorvos exposed cells exhibited an increased expression of p53, cyclin-D1, pRb and decreased expression of p21suggesting a re-entry of differentiated cells into the cell cycle. Cell cycle analysis of dichlorvos exposed cells revealed a reduction of cells in the G 0 /G 1 phase of the cell cycle (25%), and a concomitant increase of cells in S phase (30%) and G2/M phase (43.3%) compared to control PC12 cells. Further, immunoblotting of cytochrome c, Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 revealed that dichlorvos induces a caspase-dependent cell death in PC12 cells. These results suggest that Dichlorvos exposure has the potential to generate oxidative stress which evokes activation of cell cycle machinery leading to apoptotic cell death via cytochrome c release from mitochondria and subsequent caspase-3 activation in differentiated PC12 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cyclin D1 Determines Mitochondrial Function In Vivo†

    PubMed Central

    Sakamaki, Toshiyuki; Casimiro, Mathew C.; Ju, Xiaoming; Quong, Andrew A.; Katiyar, Sanjay; Liu, Manran; Jiao, Xuanmao; Li, Anping; Zhang, Xueping; Lu, Yinan; Wang, Chenguang; Byers, Stephen; Nicholson, Robert; Link, Todd; Shemluck, Melvin; Yang, Jianguo; Fricke, Stanley T.; Novikoff, Phyllis M.; Papanikolaou, Alexandros; Arnold, Andrew; Albanese, Christopher; Pestell, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The cyclin D1 gene encodes a regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the pRb tumor suppressor to promote nuclear DNA synthesis. cyclin D1 is overexpressed in human breast cancers and is sufficient for the development of murine mammary tumors. Herein, cyclin D1 is shown to perform a novel function, inhibiting mitochondrial function and size. Mitochondrial activity was enhanced by genetic deletion or antisense or small interfering RNA to cyclin D1. Global gene expression profiling and functional analysis of mammary epithelial cell-targeted cyclin D1 antisense transgenics demonstrated that cyclin D1 inhibits mitochondrial activity and aerobic glycolysis in vivo. Reciprocal regulation of these genes was observed in cyclin D1-induced mammary tumors. Cyclin D1 thus integrates nuclear DNA synthesis and mitochondrial function. PMID:16809779

  5. Cyclin d1 expression in odontogenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, Nasim; Modabbernia, Shirin; Akbarzadeh, Alireza; Sajjadi, Samad

    2013-01-01

    In the present study expression of cyclin D1 in the epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocyst, radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and glandular odontogenic cyst was investigated to compare proliferative activity in these lesions. Immunohistochemical staining of cyclin D1 on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of odontogenic keratocysts (n=23), dentigerous cysts (n=20), radicular cysts (n=20) and glandular odontogenic cysts (n=5) was performed by standard EnVision method. Then, slides were studied to evaluate the following parameters in epithelial lining of cysts: expression, expression pattern, staining intensity and localization of expression. The data analysis showed statistically significant difference in cyclin D1 expression in studied groups (p < 0.001). Assessment of staining intensity and staining pattern showed more strong intensity and focally pattern in odontogenic keratocysts, but difference was not statistically significant among groups respectively (p=0.204, 0.469). Considering expression localization, cyclin D1 positive cells in odontogenic keratocysts and dentigerous cysts were frequently confined in parabasal layer, different from radicular cysts and glandular odontogenic cysts. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Findings showed higher expression of cyclin D1 in parabasal layer of odontogenic keratocyst and the entire cystic epithelium of glandular odontogenic cysts comparing to dentigerous cysts and radicular cysts, implying the possible role of G1-S cell cycle phase disturbances in the aggressiveness of odontogenic keratocyst and glandular odontogenic cyst.

  6. The proliferation marker pKi-67 organizes the nucleolus during the cell cycle depending on Ran and cyclin B.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Mirko H H; Broll, Rainer; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Bögler, Oliver; Duchrow, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The proliferation marker pKi-67 ('Ki-67 antigen') is commonly used in clinical and research pathology to detect proliferating cells, as it is only expressed during cell-cycle progression. Despite the fact that this antigen has been known for nearly two decades, there is still no adequate understanding of its function. This study has therefore identified proteins that interact with pKi-67, using a yeast two-hybrid system. A mammalian two-hybrid system and immunoprecipitation studies were used to verify these interactions. Among other cell-cycle regulatory proteins, two binding partners associated with the small GTPase Ran were identified. In addition, DNA-structural and nucleolus-associated proteins binding to pKi-67 were found. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the N-terminal domain of pKi-67 is capable of self-binding to its own repeat region encoded by exon 13. Since RanBP, a protein involved in the transport of macromolecules over the nuclear lamina, was found to be a binding partner, a possible effect of pKi-67 on the localization of cell-cycle regulatory proteins was proposed. To test this hypothesis, a tetracycline-responsive gene expression system was used to induce the pKi-67 fragments previously used for the two-hybrid screens in HeLa cells. Subsequent immunostaining revealed the translocation of cyclin B1 from cytoplasm to nucleoli in response to this expression. It is suggested that pKi-67 is a Ran-associated protein with a role in the disintegration and reformation of the nucleolus and thereby in entry into and exit from the M-phase. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Two inhibitory systems and CKIs regulate cell cycle exit of mammalian cardiomyocytes after birth

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tane, Shoji; Okayama, Hitomi; Ikenishi, Aiko

    Mammalian cardiomyocytes actively proliferate during embryonic stages, following which they exit their cell cycle after birth, and the exit is maintained. Previously, we showed that two inhibitory systems (the G1-phase inhibitory system: repression of cyclin D1 expression; the M-phase inhibitory system: inhibition of CDK1 activation) maintain the cell cycle exit of mouse adult cardiomyocytes. We also showed that two CDK inhibitors (CKIs), p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}, regulate the cell cycle exit in a portion of postnatal cardiomyocytes. It remains unknown whether the two inhibitory systems are involved in the cell cycle exit of postnatal cardiomyocytes and whether p21{sup Cip1}more » and p27{sup Kip1} also inhibit entry to M-phase. Here, we showed that more than 40% of cardiomyocytes entered an additional cell cycle by induction of cyclin D1 expression at postnatal stages, but M-phase entry was inhibited in the majority of cardiomyocytes. Marked cell cycle progression and endoreplication were observed in cardiomyocytes of p21{sup Cip1} knockout mice at 4 weeks of age. In addition, tri- and tetranucleated cardiomyocytes increased significantly in p21{sup Cip1} knockout mice. These data showed that the G1-phase inhibitory system and two CKIs (p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}) inhibit entry to an additional cell cycle in postnatal cardiomyocytes, and that the M-phase inhibitory system and p21{sup Cip1} inhibit M-phase entry of cardiomyocytes which have entered the additional cell cycle. - Highlights: • Many postnatal cardiomyocytes entered an additional cell cycle by cyclin D1 induction. • The majority of cardiomyocytes could not enter M-phase after cyclin D1 induction. • Cell cycle progressed markedly in p21{sup Cip1} knockout mice after postnatal day 14. • Tri- and tetranucleated cardiomyocytes increased in p21{sup Cip1} knockout mice.« less

  8. Eya4 Induces Hypertrophy via Regulation of p27kip1.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tatjana; Hundertmark, Moritz; Nordbeck, Peter; Voll, Sabine; Arias-Loza, Paula Anahi; Oppelt, Daniel; Mühlfelder, Melanie; Schraut, Susanna; Elsner, Ines; Czolbe, Martin; Seidlmayer, Lea; Heinze, Britta; Hahner, Stefanie; Heinze, Katrin; Schönberger, Jost; Jakob, Peter; Ritter, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    E193, a heterozygous truncating mutation in the human transcription cofactor Eyes absent 4 (Eya4), causes hearing impairment followed by dilative cardiomyopathy. In this study, we first show Eya4 and E193 alter the expression of p27(kip1) in vitro, suggesting Eya4 is a negative regulator of p27. Next, we generated transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of Eya4 or E193. Luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed Eya4 and E193 bind and regulate p27 expression in a contradictory manner. Activity and phosphorylation status of the downstream molecules casein kinase-2α and histone deacetylase 2 were significantly elevated in Eya4- but significantly reduced in E193-overexpressing animals compared with wild-type littermates. Magnetic resonance imaging and hemodynamic analysis indicate Eya4-overexpression results in an age-dependent development of hypertrophy already under baseline conditions with no obvious functional effects, whereas E193 animals develop onset of dilative cardiomyopathy as seen in human E193 patients. Both cardiac phenotypes were aggravated on pressure overload. Finally, we identified a new heterozygous truncating Eya4 mutation, E215, which leads to similar clinical features of disease and a stable myocardial expression of the mutant protein as seen with E193. Our results implicate Eya4/Six1 regulates normal cardiac function via p27/casein kinase-2α/histone deacetylase 2 and indicate that mutations within this transcriptional complex and signaling cascade lead to the development of cardiomyopathy. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. 21 CFR 189.175 - P-4000.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true P-4000. 189.175 Section 189.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN HUMAN FOOD Substances Generally Prohibited From...

  10. 21 CFR 189.175 - P-4000.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false P-4000. 189.175 Section 189.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN HUMAN FOOD Substances Generally Prohibited From...

  11. 21 CFR 189.175 - P-4000.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false P-4000. 189.175 Section 189.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN HUMAN FOOD Substances Generally Prohibited From...

  12. Expression of p27 and its ubiquitin ligase subunit Skp2 in upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Langner, Cord; von Wasielewski, Reinhard; Ratschek, Manfred; Rehak, Peter; Zigeuner, Richard

    2004-09-01

    To analyze p27 and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) expression in upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) with respect to biologic significance. p27 (p27/kip1) is involved in cell cycle control, and loss of p27 protein expression may result in tumor development and/or progression. The association of p27 with the ubiquitin ligase subunit Skp2 targets p27 for degradation. A total of 53 upper urinary tract TCC specimens were investigated immunohistochemically using a tissue microarray technique. The immunoreactivity of p27 and Skp2 was analyzed with respect to associations with pT stage, grade, and prognosis. Non-neoplastic renal tissue showed p27 immunoreactivity in tubule epithelium and pelvic urothelium, but lacked immunoreactivity for Skp2. In the TCC specimens, p27 immunoreactivity was noted in 47 (89%) of 53 cases. High p27 expression (50% or greater of tumor cell nuclei) tended to decrease with rising tumor stage (14 [45%] of 31 with pT1-pT2 versus 4 [18%] of 22 with pT3; P = 0.076), but was independent of tumor grade (11 [39%] of 28 grade 2 versus 7 [28%] of 25 grade 3-4; P = 0.56). Skp2 immunoreactivity was noted in 32 (60%) of 53 tumors. Skp2 expression increased with rising tumor stage (9 [41%] of 22 pT1 versus 23 [74%] of 31 pT2-pT3; P = 0.023) and tumor grade (12 [43%] of 28 grade 2 versus 20 [80%] of 25 grade 3; P = 0.043) and was associated with angioinvasion (P = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, tumor stage proved to be the only independent prognostic factor regarding disease-free survival. p27 and Skp2 are additional biomarkers in urogenital pathologic findings. The statistically significant association of Skp2 expression with high-grade TCC, as well as the lack of expression in non-neoplastic tissue, suggests that Skp2 could be a promising target for future cancer therapy strategies.

  13. p21 is Responsible for Ionizing Radiation-induced Bypass of Mitosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu Rui; Liu, Yong Ai; Sun, Fang; Li, He; Lei, Su Wen; Wang, Ju Fang

    2016-07-01

    To explore the role of p21 in ionizing radiation-induced changes in protein levels during the G2/M transition and long-term G2 arrest. Protein expression levels were assessed by western blot in the human uveal melanoma 92-1 cells after treatment with ionizing radiation. Depletion of p21 was carried out by employing the siRNA technique. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry combined with histone H3 phosphorylation at Ser28, an M-phase marker. Senescence was assessed by senescence- associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining combined with Ki67 staining, a cell proliferation marker. Accompanying increased p21, the protein levels of G2/M transition genes declined significantly in 92-1 cells irradiated with 5 Gy of X-rays. Furthermore, these irradiated cells were blocked at the G2 phase followed by cellular senescence. Depletion of p21 rescued radiation-induced G2 arrest as demonstrated by the upregulation of G2/M transition kinases, as well as the high expression of histone H3 phosphorylated at Ser28. Knockdown of p21 resulted in entry into mitosis of irradiated 92-1 cells. However, cells with serious DNA damage failed to undergo cytokinesis, leading to the accumulation of multinucleated cells. Our results indicated that p21 was responsible for the downregulation of G2/M transition regulatory proteins and the bypass of mitosis induced by irradiation. Downregulation of p21 by siRNA resulted in G2-arrested cells entering into mitosis with serious DNA damage. This is the first report on elucidating the role of p21 in the bypass of mitosis. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  14. Fisetin, a novel dietary flavonoid, causes apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naghma; Afaq, Farrukh; Syed, Deeba N.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Novel dietary agents for prevention and therapy of prostate cancer (PCa) are desired. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fisetin, a tetrahydroxyflavone, on inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in human PCa cells. Treatment of fisetin (10–60 μM, 48 h) was found to result in a decrease in the viability of LNCaP, CWR22Rυ1 and PC-3 cells but had only minimal effects on normal prostate epithelial cells as assessed by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide assay. Treatment of LNCaP cells with fisetin also resulted in G1-phase arrest that was associated with a marked decrease in the protein expression of cyclins D1, D2 and E and their activating partner cyclin-dependent kinases 2, 4 and 6 with concomitant induction of WAF1/p21 and KIP1/p27. Fisetin treatment also resulted in induction of apoptosis, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, modulation in the expressions of Bcl-2 family proteins, inhibition of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase and phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 and Thr308. There was also induction of mitochondrial release of cytochrome c into cytosol, downregulation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and upregulation of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase/direct inhibitor of apoptosis-binding protein with low pI on treatment of cells with fisetin. Treatment of cells with fisetin also resulted in significant activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9. Pretreatment of cells with caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) blocked fisetin-induced activation of caspases. These data provide the first evidence that fisetin could be developed as an agent against PCa. PMID:18359761

  15. Genetic instability of 3p12-p21-specific microsatellite sequences in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Willers, C P; Siebert, R; Bardenheuer, W; Lux, A; Michaelis, S; Seeber, S; Luboldt, H J; Opalka, B; Schütte, J

    1996-04-01

    To determine the role of structural alterations of human chromosome region 3p12-p21 in the possible inactivation of one or more tumour-suppressor genes in the pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), lung cancer and other neoplasms. As microsatellite instability (MI), in particular MI with loss of heterozygosity (LOH), may indicate putative tumour-suppressor gene loci, 20 kidney tumours, including 14 clear cell carcinomas and six non-clear cell neoplasms, were investigated with 10 polymorphic simple sequence-repeat markers spanning 3p12-p21. Six of these markers map to the region of deletion flanked by markers D3S1285 and D3S1295 bracketing the t(3;8) translocation break-point in 3p14.2 of hereditary RCC. Twelve of 14 clear cell RCCs displayed MI for at least one locus, as opposed to none of the non-clear cell tumours (P = 0.001). Locus D3S1274 in 3p13 located in the region deleted in lung cancer line U2020 and loci D3S1313 and D3S1300 in 3p14.3 characterized common regions of instability and LOH. Two patients with RCC who also had lung cancer and colon cancer, respectively, showed LOH at D3S1313 or D3S1300 as the only alterations of their kidney tumours. These results suggest that human chromosome region 3p14.3 distal to the hereditary t(3;8) translocation breakpoint and the region deleted in the U2020 lung cancer cell line might be involved in the tumorigenesis or progression of clear cell RCC.

  16. Increased expression of p53 and p21 (Waf1/Cip1) in the lesional skin of bleomycin-induced scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Nishioka, Kiyoshi

    2005-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix in the affected skin as well as various internal organs, vascular injury and immune abnormality; however, the etiology of SSc remains still unknown. We previously established an experimental mouse model for scleroderma by repeated local injections of bleomycin, a DNA damaging agent. In this study, we examined the induction of apoptosis and the expression of p53, p21 (Waf1/Cip1), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the lesional skin following bleomycin exposure in this model. Dermal sclerosis was induced by alternate day's injections of bleomycin for 4 weeks. TUNEL assay showed that apoptotic cells began to appear at 1 week after bleomycin exposure, and were prominently detected at 3-4 weeks. Immunohistochemical examination showed increased expression of p53 and p21 mainly in the infiltrating mononuclear cells at 2 weeks after bleomycin treatment. Bleomycin treatment markedly enhanced PCNA expression at 1-2 weeks, mainly in mesenchyme, as compared with control phosphate buffered saline treatment. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the expression of p53 and p21 mRNA was concurrently upregulated at 1-2 weeks after bleomycin treatment. Taken together, coordinate increased levels of p53 and p21 preceded the maximal induction of apoptosis and dermal sclerosis. Our findings suggest that apoptotic processes are involved in the pathophysiology of bleomycin-induced scleroderma, which may be mediated, in part, by the upregulation of p53 and p21.

  17. An unusual methylene aziridine refined in P2(1)/c and the nonstandard setting P2(1)/n.

    PubMed

    Feast, George C; Haestier, James; Page, Lee W; Robertson, Jeremy; Thompson, Amber L; Watkin, David J

    2009-12-01

    The unusual methylene aziridine 6-tert-butyl-3-oxa-2-thia-1-azabicyclo[5.1.0]oct-6-ene 2,2-dioxide, C(9)H(15)NO(3)S, was found to crystallize with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure was solved in both the approximately orthogonal and the oblique settings of space group No. 14, viz. P2(1)/n and P2(1)/c, respectively. A comparison of these results clearly displayed an increase in the correlation between coordinates in the ac plane for the oblique cell. The increase in the corresponding covariances makes a significant contribution to the standard uncertainties of derived parameters, e.g. bond lengths. Since there is yet no CIF definition for the full variance-covariance matrix, there are clear advantages to reporting the structure in the nonstandard space-group setting.

  18. A new case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with an 11p15 duplication of paternal origin [46,XY,-21,+der(21), t(11;21)(p15.2;q22.3)pat].

    PubMed

    Krajewska-Walasek, M; Gutkowska, A; Mospinek-Krasnopolska, M; Chrzanowska, K

    1996-01-01

    We present a new case of 11p15 duplication (trisomy 11p15) in a boy (46,XY,-21,+der(21), t(11;21)(p15.2;q22.3)] suffering from Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), whose phenotypically normal father carries a balanced translocation between chromosomes 11 and 21[46,XY, t(11;21)(p15.2;q22.3)]. The paternal grandmother has the same balanced translocation and is also clinically normal. BWS was suspected when the boy was 6 months old because of gigantism, macroglossia, visceromegaly, ear lobe creases and abdominal distention. Apart from the characteristic BWS phenotype, the boy has other features which are almost exclusively observed in 11p trisomy (high forehead with frontal upsweep of hair, wide central nose bridge, slightly beaked nose, chubby cheeks and severe mental retardation). So far, at least eight cases of 11p15 duplication have been described as patients with BWS. In six of these, the duplication was due to inheritance of a translocated or rearranged paternal chromosome. This was also the case in our patient. In the two other previously published cases, the 11p15 duplications were de novo, but in one of these, DNA analysis has subsequently shown that the duplication was of paternal origin. We discuss our observations in relation to the above-mentioned previous cases of 11p15 duplication and the possible role of genomic imprinting in the etiology of BWS.

  19. Intact follicular maturation and defective luteal function in mice deficient for cyclin- dependent kinase-4.

    PubMed

    Moons, David S; Jirawatnotai, Siwanon; Tsutsui, Tateki; Franks, Roberta; Parlow, A F; Hales, Dale B; Gibori, Geula; Fazleabas, Asgerally T; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki

    2002-02-01

    Cell cycle progression of granulosa cells is critical for ovarian function, especially follicular maturation. During follicular maturation, FSH induces cyclin D2, which promotes G1 progression by activating cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (Cdk4). Because cyclin D2-deficient mice exhibit a block in follicular growth, cyclin D2/Cdk4 has been hypothesized to be required for FSH-dependent proliferation of granulosa cells. Here we investigate ovarian function in Cdk4-knockout mice we recently generated. Cdk4(-/-) females were sterile, but the morphology of their ovaries appeared normal before sexual maturation. The number of preovulatory follicles and the ovulation efficiency were modestly reduced in gonadotropin-treated Cdk4(-/-) mice. However, unlike cyclin D2-deficient mice, Cdk4(-/-) mice showed no obvious defect in FSH-induced proliferation of granulosa cells. Cdk4(-/-) ovaries displayed normal preovulatory expression of aromatase, PR, and cyclooxygenase-2. Postovulatory progesterone secretion was markedly impaired in Cdk4(-/-) mice, although granulosa cells initiated luteinization with induction of p450 side-chain cleavage cytochrome and p27(Kip1). Progesterone treatment rescued implantation and restored fertility in Cdk4(-/-) mice. Serum PRL levels after mating were significantly reduced in Cdk4(-/-) mice, suggesting the involvement of perturbed PRL regulation in luteal failure. Thus, Cdk4 is critical for luteal function, and some redundant protein(s) can compensate for the absence of Cdk4 in proliferation of granulosa cells.

  20. MAP kinase dependent cyclinE/cdk2 activity promotes DNA replication in early sea urchin embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kisielewska, J.; Philipova, R.; Huang, J.-Y.; Whitaker, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sea urchins provide an excellent model for studying cell cycle control mechanisms governing DNA replication in vivo. Fertilization and cell cycle progression are tightly coordinated by Ca2+ signals, but the mechanisms underlying the onset of DNA replication after fertilization remain less clear. In this study we demonstrate that calcium-dependent activation of ERK1 promotes accumulation of cyclinE/cdk2 into the male and female pronucleus and entry into first S-phase. We show that cdk2 activity rises quickly after fertilization to a maximum at 4 min, corresponding in timing to the early ERK1 activity peak. Abolishing MAP kinase activity after fertilization with MEK inhibitor, U0126, substantially reduces the early peak of cdk2 activity and prevents cyclinE and cdk2 accumulation in both sperm pronucleus and zygote nucleus in vivo. Both p27kip1 and roscovitine, cdk2 inhibitors, prevented DNA replication suggesting cdk2 involvement in this process in sea urchin. Inhibition of cdk2 activity using p27kip1 had no effect on the phosphorylation of MBP by ERK, but completely abolished phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein, a cdk2 substrate, indicating that cdk2 activity is downstream of ERK1 activation. This pattern of regulation of DNA synthesis conforms to the pattern observed in mammalian somatic cells. PMID:19665013

  1. 21 CFR 189.175 - P-4000.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false P-4000. 189.175 Section 189.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN HUMAN FOOD Substances Generally Prohibited From Direct Addition or Use as Human Food § 189...

  2. The nitric oxide-sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway mediates S-nitrosoglutathione-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Maristela; Batista, Wagner L; Ogata, Fernando T; Stern, Arnold; Monteiro, Hugo P; Arai, Roberto J

    2008-05-16

    p21Ras protein plays a critical role in cellular signaling that induces either cell cycle progression or apoptosis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been consistently reported to activate p21Ras through the redox sensitive cysteine residue (118). In this study, we demonstrated that the p21Ras-ERK pathway regulates THP-1 monocyte/macrophage apoptosis induced by S-nitrosoglutathione (SNOG). This was apparent from studies in THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras (p21Ras(C118S)) where the pro-apoptotic action of SNOG was almost abrogated. Three major MAP kinase pathways (ERK, JNK, and p38) that are downstream to p21Ras were investigated. It was observed that only the activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases by SNOG in THP-1 cells was attributable to p21Ras. The inhibition of the ERK pathway by PD98059 markedly attenuated apoptosis in SNOG-treated THP-1 cells, but had a marginal effect on SNOG-treated THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras. The inhibition of the JNK and p38 pathways by selective inhibitors had no marked effects on the percentage of apoptosis. The induction of p21Waf1 expression by SNOG was observed in THP-1 cells harboring mutant and wild-type p21Ras, however in cells expressing mutant Ras, the expression of p21Waf1 was significantly attenuated. The treatment of THP-1 cells expressing wild-type p21Ras with PD98059 resulted in significant attenuation of p21Waf1 expression. These results indicate that the redox sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway plays a critical role in sensing and delivering the pro-apoptotic signaling mediated by SNOG.

  3. The nitric oxide-sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway mediates S-nitrosoglutathione-induced apoptosis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tsujita, Maristela; Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP; Batista, Wagner L.

    2008-05-16

    p21Ras protein plays a critical role in cellular signaling that induces either cell cycle progression or apoptosis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been consistently reported to activate p21Ras through the redox sensitive cysteine residue (118). In this study, we demonstrated that the p21Ras-ERK pathway regulates THP-1 monocyte/macrophage apoptosis induced by S-nitrosoglutathione (SNOG). This was apparent from studies in THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras (p21Ras{sup C118S}) where the pro-apoptotic action of SNOG was almost abrogated. Three major MAP kinase pathways (ERK, JNK, and p38) that are downstream to p21Ras were investigated. It was observed that only the activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinasesmore » by SNOG in THP-1 cells was attributable to p21Ras. The inhibition of the ERK pathway by PD98059 markedly attenuated apoptosis in SNOG-treated THP-1 cells, but had a marginal effect on SNOG-treated THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras. The inhibition of the JNK and p38 pathways by selective inhibitors had no marked effects on the percentage of apoptosis. The induction of p21Waf1 expression by SNOG was observed in THP-1 cells harboring mutant and wild-type p21Ras, however in cells expressing mutant Ras, the expression of p21Waf1 was significantly attenuated. The treatment of THP-1 cells expressing wild-type p21Ras with PD98059 resulted in significant attenuation of p21Waf1 expression. These results indicate that the redox sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway plays a critical role in sensing and delivering the pro-apoptotic signaling mediated by SNOG.« less

  4. 24Mg(p, α) 21Na reaction study for spectroscopy of 21Na

    DOE PAGES

    Cha, S. M.; Chae, K. Y.; Kim, A.; ...

    2015-11-03

    The Mg-24(p, alpha)Na-21 reaction was measured at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to better constrain the spins and parities of the energy levels in Na-21 for the astrophysically important F-17(alpha, p)Ne-20 reaction rate calculation. 31-MeV proton beams from the 25-MV tandem accelerator and enriched Mg-24 solid targets were used. When recoiling He-4 particles from the Mg-24(p, alpha)Na-21 reaction we used a highly segmented silicon detector array to detect them; it measured the yields of He-4 particles over a range of angles simultaneously. A observed a new level at 6661 ± 5 keVmore » in the present work. The extracted angular distributions for the first four levels of Na-21 and the results from distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations were compared to verify and extract the angular momentum transfer.« less

  5. Strategies to re-express epigenetically silenced p15(INK4b) and p21(WAF1) genes in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Geyer, C Ronald

    2010-01-01

    p15(INK4B) and p21(WAF1) are TGF-β targets that are silenced in leukemia by epigenetic mechanisms involving DNA methylation and/or histone modifications. Mechanisms for establishing and maintaining epigenetic silencing of p15(INK4B) and p21(WAF1) are not well established. The reversible nature of epigenetic modifications has lead to the development of drugs that target DNA methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, and histone methyltransferases, which have been used to re-express aberrantly silenced genes in leukemia. Recently, non-coding RNA, referred to as natural antisense transcripts (NATs), have been implicated in the regulation of epigenetic modifications. Here, we review epigenetic mechanisms for silencing p15(INK4B) and p21(WAF1) and the role of NATs in this process. We also review epigenetic drugs and drug combinations used to re-express p15(INK4B) and p21(WAF1). Lastly, we discuss the potential use of NATs to target the activity of epigenetic drugs to specific genes and to permanently re-express epigenetically silenced genes.

  6. Analysis of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat 3) pathway in multiple myeloma: Stat 3 activation and cyclin D1 dysregulation are mutually exclusive events.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Kremer, Marcus; Specht, Katja; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Nathrath, Michaela; Schaich, Robert; Höfler, Heinz; Fend, Falko

    2003-05-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription molecules (Stats) play key roles in cytokine-induced signal transduction. Recently, it was proposed that constitutively activated Stat 3 (Stat 3 phosphorylated) contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) by preventing apoptosis and inducing proliferation. The study aim was to investigate Stat 3 activation in a series of multiple myeloma (MM) cases and its effect on downstream targets such as the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, and Bcl-2, and the cell-cycle protein cyclin D1. Forty-eight cases of MM were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin sections using antibodies against cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, p21, Stat 3, and Stat 3 phosphorylated (P). Their specificity was corroborated by Western blot analysis using eight human MM cell lines as control. The proliferation rate was assessed with the antibody MiB1. In addition, the mRNA levels of cyclin D1 and Stat 3 were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of paraffin-embedded microdissected tissue. Three different groups determined by the expression of Stat 3P and cyclin D1 (protein and mRNA) were identified: group 1, Stat 3-activated (23 cases, 48%). All cases revealed nuclear expression of Stat 3P. No elevation of Stat 3 mRNA was identified in any of the cases. Three cases in this group showed intermediate to low cyclin D1 protein and mRNA expression. Group 2 included 15 (31%) cases with cyclin D1 staining and lack of Stat 3P. All cases showed intermediate to high levels of cyclin D1 mRNA expression. Group 3 included 10 (21%) cases with no expression of either cyclin D1 or Stat 3P. High levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 were identified in 89% and 100% of all cases, respectively. In contrast to Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, the expression of Bcl-2 showed an inverse correlation with proliferation rate (P: 0.0003). No significant differences were found between the three

  7. MiR-27b-3p Regulation in Browning of Human Visceral Adipose Related to Central Obesity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Lv, Yifan; Di, Wenjuan; Liu, Juan; Kong, Xiaocen; Sheng, Yunlu; Huang, Min; Lv, Shan; Qi, Hanmei; Gao, Mei; Liang, Hui; Kim, Sarah; Fu, Zan; Zhou, Hong; Ding, Guoxian

    2018-02-01

    Given the rising prevalence of central obesity and the discovery that beige cells appear within white adipose tissue, strategies to enhance these energy-expending adipocytes or "browning" within white adipose depots have become of therapeutic interest to combat obesity and its associated disorders. This study focused on, the role of microRNA (miRNA)-27b-3p in human visceral adipose tissue (VAT) browning. Expression of miR-27b-3p and UCP1 in VAT and serum of humans was measured. MiR-27b-3p was overexpressed or suppressed in human visceral stromal fraction cells to analyze the potential role of miR-27b-3p. UCP1 expression in human VAT decreased with elevated BMI and waist-hip ratio, whereas expression of miR-27b-3p was found to correlate positively with BMI and waist-hip ratio. High expression of miR-27b-3p was associated with reduced browning ability of human visceral adipocytes. Antagonism of miR-27b-3p led to the enhancement of browning ability in human visceral adipocytes. These findings highlight the decreased browning ability of VAT from humans with obesity and the role of miR-27b-3p in regulating browning of human visceral adipocytes. They suggest that miR-27b-3p should be further explored as a potential target for the treatment of central obesity. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  8. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, July 27, 1940, Stanley P. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, July 27, 1940, Stanley P. Mixon, Photographer, (G) INTERIOR, WEST SIDE OF REAR ROOM, FIRST FLOOR (FIREPLACE WAS REBUILT, I(#(). - Lasher House, State Route 9G Vicinity, Germantown, Columbia County, NY

  9. Magic wavelengths for the 6{s}^{2}{}^{1}{S}_{0}{--}6s6p{}^{3}{P}_{1}^{o} transition in ytterbium atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhi-Ming; Yu, Yan-Mei; Jiang, Jun; Dong, Chen-Zhong

    2018-06-01

    The static and dynamic electric dipole polarizabilities of the 6{s}2{}1{S}0 and 6s6p{}3{P}1o states of Yb are calculated by using the relativistic ab initio method. Focusing on the red detuning region to the 6{s}2{}1{S}0{--}6s6p{}3{P}1o transition, we find two magic wavelengths at 1035.7(2) and 612.9(2) nm for the 6{s}2{}1{S}0{--}6s6p{}3{P}1o,{M}J=0 transition and three magic wavelengths at 1517.68(6), 1036.0(3) and 858(12) nm for the 6{s}2{}1{S}0{--}6s6p{}3{P}1o,{M}J=+/- 1 transitions. Such magic wavelengths are of particular interest for attaining the state-insensitive cooling, trapping, and quantum manipulation of neutral Yb atom.

  10. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 represses transcription of p21CIP1 by inhibition of transcription activation by p53 and Sp1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Kim, Sung-Eun; Choi, Kang-Yell; Kim, Se Hoon; Hur, Man-Wook

    2009-05-08

    Aberrant transcriptional repression through chromatin remodeling and histone deacetylation has been postulated as the driving force for tumorigenesis. FBI-1 (formerly called Pokemon) is a member of the POK family of transcriptional repressors. Recently, FBI-1 was characterized as a critical oncogenic factor that specifically represses transcription of the tumor suppressor gene ARF, potentially leading indirectly to p53 inactivation. Our investigations on transcriptional repression of the p53 pathway revealed that FBI-1 represses transcription of ARF, Hdm2 (human analogue of mouse double minute oncogene), and p21CIP1 (hereafter indicated as p21) but not of p53. FBI-1 showed a more potent repressive effect on p21 than on p53. Our data suggested that FBI-1 is a master controller of the ARF-Hdm2-p53-p21 pathway, ultimately impinging on cell cycle arrest factor p21, by inhibiting upstream regulators at the transcriptional and protein levels. FBI-1 acted as a competitive transcriptional repressor of p53 and Sp1 and was shown to bind the proximal Sp1-3 GC-box and the distal p53-responsive elements of p21. Repression involved direct binding competition of FBI-1 with Sp1 and p53. FBI-1 also interacted with corepressors, such as mSin3A, NCoR, and SMRT, thereby deacetylating Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 histones at the promoter. FBI-1 caused cellular transformation, promoted cell cycle proliferation, and significantly increased the number of cells in S phase. FBI-1 is aberrantly overexpressed in many human solid tumors, particularly in adenocarcinomas and squamous carcinomas. The role of FBI-1 as a master controller of the p53 pathway therefore makes it an attractive therapeutic target.

  11. p16(INK4a) -mediated suppression of telomerase in normal and malignant human breast cells.

    PubMed

    Bazarov, Alexey V; Van Sluis, Marjolein; Hines, William C; Bassett, Ekaterina; Beliveau, Alain; Campeau, Eric; Mukhopadhyay, Rituparna; Lee, Won Jae; Melodyev, Sonya; Zaslavsky, Yuri; Lee, Leonard; Rodier, Francis; Chicas, Agustin; Lowe, Scott W; Benhattar, Jean; Ren, Bing; Campisi, Judith; Yaswen, Paul

    2010-10-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4a) (CDKN2A) is an important tumor suppressor gene frequently inactivated in human tumors. p16 suppresses the development of cancer by triggering an irreversible arrest of cell proliferation termed cellular senescence. Here, we describe another anti-oncogenic function of p16 in addition to its ability to halt cell cycle progression. We show that transient expression of p16 stably represses the hTERT gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of telomerase, in both normal and malignant breast epithelial cells. Short-term p16 expression increases the amount of histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 27 (H3K27) bound to the hTERT promoter, resulting in transcriptional silencing, likely mediated by polycomb complexes. Our results indicate that transient p16 exposure may prevent malignant progression in dividing cells by irreversible repression of genes, such as hTERT, whose activity is necessary for extensive self-renewal. © 2010 The Authors Aging Cell © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. The inhibitory effects of capillarisin on cell proliferation and invasion of prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chang, Ying-Ling; Yang, Pei-Shan; Hou, Chen-Pang; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Bing-Wei; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2018-04-01

    Capillarisin (Cap), an active component of Artemisia capillaris root extracts, is characterized by its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties. Nevertheless, the functions of Cap in prostate cancer have not been fully explored. We evaluated the potential actions of Cap on the cell proliferation, migration and invasion of prostate carcinoma cells. Cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution were measured by water-soluble tetrazolium-1 and flow cytometry assays. The expression of cyclins, p21, p27, survivin, matrix metallopeptidase (MMP2 and MMP9) were assessed by immunoblotting assays. Effects of Cap on invasion and migration were determined by wound closure and matrigel transmigration assays. The constitutive and interlukin-6 (IL-6)-inducible STAT3 activation of prostate carcinoma cells were determined by immunoblotting and reporter assays. Capillarisin inhibited androgen-independent DU145 and androgen-dependent LNCaP cell growth through the induction of cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase by upregulating p21 and p27 while downregulating expression of cyclin D1, cyclin A and cyclin B. Cap decreased protein expression of survivin, MMP-2, and MMP-9 and therefore blocked the migration and invasion of DU145 cells. Cap suppressed constitutive and IL-6-inducible STAT3 activation in DU145 and LNCaP cells. Our data indicate that Cap blocked cell growth by modulation of p21, p27 and cyclins. The inhibitory effects of Cap on survivin, MMP-2, MMP-9 and STAT3 activation may account for the suppression of invasion in prostate carcinoma cells. Our data suggest that Cap might be a therapeutic agent in treating advanced prostate cancer with constitutive STAT3 or IL-6-inducible STAT3 activation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Del(12)(p11.21p12.2) associated with an asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy or chondroectodermal dysplasia-like syndrome

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nagai, T.; Kato, R.; Hasegawa, T.

    1995-01-02

    We describe a 5-year-old Japanese boy who has some radiographic findings characteristic of asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD)-chondroectodermal dysplasia with a de novo chromosome abnormality. He also has mild mental retardation, short stature, hypoplastic hair and skin, oligodontia, small thoracic cage, hypoplastic pelvis and cone-shaped epiphyses of hands. On cytogenetic studies he was found to have a de novo del(12)(p11.21p12.2). These results suggest that the locus of the gene associated with ATD-chondroectodermal dysplasia may be situated at 12p11.21p12.2. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Antisense imaging of epidermal growth factor-induced p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) gene expression in MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Judy; Chen, Paul; Mrkobrada, Marko; Hu, Meiduo; Vallis, Katherine A; Reilly, Raymond M

    2003-09-01

    Molecular imaging of the expression of key genes which determine the response to DNA damage following cancer treatment may predict the effectiveness of a particular treatment strategy. A prominent early response gene for DNA damage is the gene encoding p21(WAF-1/CIP-1), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that regulates progression through the cell cycle. In this study, we explored the feasibility of imaging p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) gene expression at the mRNA level using an 18-mer phosphorothioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) labeled with (111)In. The known induction of the p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) gene in MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cells following exposure to epidermal growth factor (EGF) was used as an experimental tool. Treatment of MDA-MB-468 cells in vitro with EGF (20 n M) increased the ratio of p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) mRNA/beta-actin mRNA threefold within 2 h as measured by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A concentration-dependent inhibition of EGF-induced p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) protein expression was achieved in MDA-MB-468 cells by treatment with antisense ODNs with up to a tenfold decrease observed at 1 microM. There was a fourfold lower inhibition of p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) protein expression by control sense or random sequence ODNs. Intratumoral injections of EGF (15 microg/dayx3 days) were employed to induce p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) gene expression in MDA-MB-468 xenografts implanted subcutaneously into athymic mice. RT-PCR of explanted tumors showed a threefold increased level of p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) mRNA compared with normal saline-treated tumors. Successful imaging of EGF-induced p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) gene expression in MDA-MB-468 xenografts was achieved at 48 h post injection of (111)In-labeled antisense ODNs (3.7 MBq; 2 microg). Tumors displaying basal levels of p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) gene expression in the absence of EGF treatment could not be visualized. Biodistribution studies showed a significantly higher tumor accumulation of (111)In-labeled antisense ODNs in

  15. Galangin Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells Through Mitochondrial Pathway and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; You, Pengtao; Luo, Yan; Yang, Min; Liu, Yanwen

    2018-06-07

    The study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis induction by galangin against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to assess cell viability and flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis. The expression level of apoptosis-related proteins (cleaved-caspase-9, cleaved-caspase-8, cleaved-caspase-3, Bad, cleaved-Bid, Bcl-2, Bax, p-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3K], and p-Akt) and cell cycle-related proteins (cyclin D3, cyclin B1, cyclin-dependent kinases CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, p21, p27, p53) were evaluated by Western blotting. Galangin increased the expression of Bax and decreased the expression of Bcl-2 in a concentration-dependent manner, inhibited cell viability, and induced apoptosis. Meanwhile, the expression of cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-3, Bid, and Bad increased significantly while the expression of p-PI3K and p-Akt proteins decreased. In addition, the protein levels of cyclin D3, cyclin B1, CDK1, CDK2, and CDK4 were downregulated while the expression levels of p21, p27, and p53 were upregulated significantly. Galangin could suppress the viability of MCF-7 cells and induce cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and PI3K/Akt inhibition as well as cell cycle arrest. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. p21 differentially regulates DNA replication and DNA-repair-associated processes after UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Soria, Gaston; Speroni, Juliana; Podhajcer, Osvaldo L; Prives, Carol; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2008-10-01

    Although p21 upregulation is required to block cell-cycle progression following many types of genotoxic insult, UV irradiation triggers p21 proteolysis. The significance of the increased p21 turnover is unclear and might be associated with DNA repair. While the role of p21 in nucleotide excision repair (NER) remains controversial, recent reports have explored its effect on translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), a process that avoids replication blockage during S phase. Herein, we analyze the effect of p21 on different PCNA-driven processes including DNA replication, NER and TLS. Whereas only the CDK-binding domain of p21 is required for cell-cycle arrest in unstressed cells, neither the CDK-binding nor the PCNA-binding domain of p21 is able to block early and late steps of NER. Intriguingly, through its PCNA-binding domain, p21 inhibits the interaction of the TLS polymerase, pol eta (pol eta), with PCNA and impairs the assembly of pol eta foci after UV. Moreover, this obstruction correlates with accumulation of phosphorylated H2AX and increased apoptosis. By showing that p21 is a negative regulator of PCNA-pol eta interaction, our data unveil a link between efficient TLS and UV-induced degradation of p21.

  17. Circulating microRNA miR-21-5p, miR-150-5p and miR-30e-5p correlate with clinical status in late onset myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Sabre, Liis; Maddison, Paul; Sadalage, Girija; Ambrose, Philip Alexander; Punga, Anna Rostedt

    2018-05-08

    There are no biomarkers for late onset myasthenia gravis (LOMG; onset >50 years). We evaluated circulating microRNA in a discovery cohort of 4 LOMG patients and 4 healthy controls and in a prospective diagnostic validation cohort of 73 LOMG patients (48 male) with longitudinal follow-up samples. In immunosuppression naïve patients, levels of miRNAs miR-150-5p, miR-21-5p and miR-30e-5p decreased in parallel with clinical improvement after initiation of immunosuppression and their levels positively correlated with the clinical MG composite score. Levels of miR-150-5p and miR-21-5p were lower in patients with ocular compared to generalized LOMG. Circulating miR-150-5p, miR-21-5p and miR-30e-5p correlate with the clinical course in LOMG. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. K-ras p21 expression and activity in lung and lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, G; Sithanandam, G; Cheng, R Y; Fornwald, L W; Smith, G T; Diwan, B A; Anderson, L M

    2000-12-01

    Although K-ras is mutated in many human and mouse lung adenocarcinomas, the function of K-ras p21 in lung is not known. We sought evidence for the prevalent hypothesis that K-ras p21 activates raf, which in turn passes the signal through the extracellular signal regulated kinases (Erks) to stimulate cell division, and that this pathway is upregulated when K-ras is mutated. Results from both mouse lung tumors and immortalized cultured E10 and C10 lung type II cells failed to substantiate this hypothesis. Lung tumors did not have more total K-ras p21 or K-ras p21 GTP than normal lung tissue, nor were high levels of these proteins found in tumors with mutant K-ras. Activated K-ras p21-GTP levels did not correlate with proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Special features of tumors with mutant K-ras included small size of carcinomas compared with carcinomas lacking this mutation, and correlation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen with raf-1. In nontransformed type II cells in culture, both total and activated K-ras p21 increased markedly at confluence but not after serum stimulation, whereas both Erk1/2 and the protein kinase Akt were rapidly activated by the serum treatment. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays of K-ras mRNA indicated an increase in confluent and especially in postconfluent cells. Together the findings indicate that normal K-ras p21 activity is associated with growth arrest of lung type II cells, and that the exact contribution of mutated K-ras p21 to tumor development remains to be discovered.

  19. Differential p16/INK4A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor expression correlates with chemotherapy efficacy in a cohort of 88 malignant pleural mesothelioma patients.

    PubMed

    Jennings, C J; Murer, B; O'Grady, A; Hearn, L M; Harvey, B J; Kay, E W; Thomas, W

    2015-06-30

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and essentially incurable malignancy most often linked with occupational exposure to asbestos fibres. In common with other malignancies, the development and progression of MPM is associated with extensive dysregulation of cell cycle checkpoint proteins that modulate cell proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair and senescence. The expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16/INK4A was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using tumour biopsy specimens from 88 MPM cases and a semi-quantitative score for p16/INK4A expression was obtained. Post-diagnosis survival and the survival benefit of chemotherapeutic intervention was correlated with p16/INK4A expression. A low, intermediate and high score for p16/INK4A expression was observed for 45 (51.1%), 28 (31.8%) and 15 (17.1%) of the MPM cases, respectively. Those cases with intermediate or high p16/INK4A tumour expression had a significantly better post-diagnosis survival than those cases whose tumours lost p16 expression (log-rank P<0.001). Those patients with sustained p16/INK4A expression who received chemotherapy also had a better survival than those treated patients whose tumours had lost p16/INK4A expression (log-rank P<0.001). Sustained p16/INK4A expression predicts better post-diagnosis survival in MPM and also better survival following chemotherapeutic intervention.

  20. Effect of p27 gene combined with Pientzehuang ([characters: see text]) on tumor growth in osteosarcoma-bearing nude mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shou-song; Yuan, Fang; Liu, Ying-hong; Zhou, Le-tian; Li, Jun

    2015-11-01

    To observe the effect of p27 gene recombinant adenovirus combined with Chinese medicine Pientzehuang ([characters: see text]) on the growth of xenografted human osteosarcoma in nude mice. Tissue transplantation was used to construct the orthotopic model of human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cell in nude mice. Thirty tumor-bearing nude mice were randomly divided into 5 groups with 6 mice in each group: blank control group (model of osteosarcoma), empty vector group (recombinant adeno-associated virus-multiple cloning site), Pientzehuang group, p27 gene group and combined treatment group (p27 gene combined with Pientzehuang). The effect of combined treatment on human osteosarcoma was analyzed through the tumor formation, tumor volume and inhibition rate of tumor growth. The expression of p27 was measured by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot. The orthotopic model of osteosarcoma in nude mice was successfully constructed. The general appearance of tumor-bearing nude mice in Pientzehuang and p27 gene groups was markedly improved compared with the blank control group; and in the combined treatment group it was significantly improved compared with the Pientzehuang and p27 gene groups. The tumor growth in the Pientzehuang and p27 gene groups was significantly inhibited compared with the blank control group P<0.05); while in the combined treatment group it was markedly inhibited compared with the Pientzehuang and p27 gene groups (P<0.05). The rates of tumor growth inhibition were 34.1%, 56.5% and 63.8% in the Pientzehuang, p27 gene and combined treatment groups, respectively. Meanwhile, the protein expression of p27 gene in the p27 gene group was significantly increased compared with the blank control group (P<0.05); and it was significantly increased in the combined treatment group compared with the p27 gene and Pientzehuang groups (P<0.05). p27 gene introduced by adenovirus combined with Pientzehuang can inhibit the growth of human osteosarcoma cell Saos-2 in nude mice.

  1. Effects of PTHrP on chondrocytes of sika deer antler.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Wang, Shou-Tang; Duan, Cui-Cui; Li, Dang-Dang; Tian, Xue-Chao; Wang, Qu-Yuan; Yue, Zhan-Peng

    2013-11-01

    Parathyroid-hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is an important regulator of chondrocyte differentiation in growth plates but little is known about its role in deer antler cartilage. The aim of the present study was to use the deer antler as a model to determine the possible role of PTHrP in regulating chondrocyte differentiation of deer antler. PTHrP and its receptor PTH1R mRNA were highly expressed in the perichondrium and cartilage of sika deer antler, as shown by in situ hybridization. Chondrocytes of deer antler were identified by toluidine blue staining of glycosaminoglycan and immunocytochemical staining of type II collagen (Col II). Treatment with PTHrP (1-34) reduced the expression of prehypertrophic chondrocyte marker Col IX and hypertrophic chondrocyte marker Col X. In order to confirm the mechanism of action of PTHrP, we initially examined the expression of cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in sika deer antler by in situ hybridization and found that cyclin D1, Runx2 and Bcl-2 mRNA were also expressed in antler chondrocytes. Exogenous PTHrP induced the expression of cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 mRNA by various signalling pathways, whereas it inhibited Runx2 expression through PKA, p38MAPK, MEK and PI3K signalling pathways. Thus, PTHrP might promote the proliferation of antler chondrocytes and prevent their differentiation; it might furthermore influence the growth and development of sika deer antler.

  2. Association Between p21 Ser31Arg Polymorphism and Gastrointestinal Tract Tumor Risk: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ying; Wang, Xiaohua; Ye, Xiaofeng; Wang, Guanhua; Li, Yan; Wang, Ningju; Yang, Yinxue; Chen, Zhiqiang; Yang, Wenjun

    2015-10-01

    Human p21 gene is characterized by a polymorphism at codon 31 leading to a Serine-to- Arginine (S/R), two different alleles of p21 Ser31Arg (rs 1801270) polymorphism have been shown to differ significantly in their transcriptional efficiency. More and more investigations are now being carried out to examine a possible link between the p21 Ser31Arg polymorphism and cancer. However, the results were inconclusive. Therefore, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine whether this polymorphism is associated with gastrointestinal tract tumor in Asian. Seven studies (n = 2690), comprising 967 cases and 1723 controls in Asian population, were included in our study. The meta-analysis showed significant association between Ser-allele or Ser/Ser genotype and the susceptibility to gastrointestinal tract tumor in overall studies (Ser-allele vs. Arg-allele: OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04-1.31; Ser/Ser vs. Arg/Arg: OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.09-1.75; Ser/Ser vs. Arg/Ser: OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.05-1.53; Ser/Ser vs. Arg/Ser + Arg/Arg: OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.07-1.54). Despite the limitations, the results of the present meta-analysis suggested that, in the p21 Ser31Arg polymorphism, Ser-allele and Ser/Ser genotype might be risk factors for gastrointestinal tract tumor in Asian populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Patterns of Proteins that Associate with p53 or with p53 Binding Sites Present in the Ribosomal Gene Cluster and MDM2 (P2) Promoter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) cells were infected with a recombinant baculovirus expressing the wild-type human p53. 3-4 and 10-1 cells were grown at 37 ’C in...for further use. Spodoptera fugiperda (Sf21) cells were grown at 27 0C in TC-100 medium (GIBCO), supplemented with 10% of heat inactivated Fetal

  4. p21-Activated kinase 5: a pleiotropic kinase.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yi-Yang; Wang, Xiao-Xia; Pei, Dong-Sheng; Zheng, Jun-Nian

    2013-12-15

    The PAKs (p21-activated kinases) are highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinases which comprise six mammalian PAKs. PAK5 (p21-activated kinase 5) is the least understood member of PAKs that regulate many intracellular processes when they are stimulated by activated forms of the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac. PAK5 takes an important part in multiple signal pathways in mammalian cells and controls a variety of cellular functions including cytoskeleton organization, cell motility and apoptosis. The main goal of this review is to describe the structure, mechanisms underlying its activity regulation, its role in apoptosis and the likely directions of further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro differentiation of HT-29 M6 mucus-secreting colon cancer cells involves a trychostatin A and p27(KIP1)-inducible transcriptional program of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Clara; Lloreta, Josep; Real, Francisco X; Mayol, Xavier

    2007-07-01

    Tumor cell dedifferentiation-such as the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion in epithelial tumors-is associated with tumor progression. To better understand the mechanisms that maintain carcinoma cells in a differentiated state, we have dissected in vitro differentiation pathways in the mucus-secretor HT-29 M6 colon cancer cell line, which spontaneously differentiates in postconfluent cultures. By lowering the extracellular calcium concentration to levels that prevent intercellular adhesion and epithelial polarization, our results reveal that differentiation is calcium-dependent and involves: (i) a process of cell cycle exit to G(0) and (ii) the induction of a transcriptional program of differentiation gene expression (i.e., mucins MUC1 and MUC5AC, and the apical membrane peptidase DPPIV). In calcium-deprived, non-differentiated postconfluent cultures, differentiation gene promoters are repressed by a trichostatin A (TSA)-sensitive mechanism, indicating that loss of gene expression by dedifferentiation is driven by histone deacetylases (HDAC). Since TSA treatment or extracellular calcium restoration allow gene promoter activation to similar levels, we suggest that induction of differentiation is one mechanism of HDAC inhibitor antitumor action. Moreover, transcriptional de-repression can also be induced in non-differentiating culture conditions by overexpressing the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1), which is normally induced during spontaneous differentiation. Since p27(KIP1) downregulation in colon cancer is associated with poor prognosis independently of tumor cell division rates, we propose that p27 (KIP1) may prevent tumor progression by, at least in part, enhancing the expression of some differentiation genes. Therefore, the HT-29 M6 model allows the identification of some basic mechanisms of cancer cell differentiation control, so far revealing HDAC and p27(KIP1) as key regulatory factors of differentiation gene expression.

  6. Inactivation of p27kip1 Promoted Nonspecific Inflammation by Enhancing Macrophage Proliferation in Islet Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Ding, Xiaoming; Fan, Ping; Guo, Jian; Tian, Xiaohui; Feng, Xinshun; Zheng, Jin; Tian, Puxun; Ding, Chenguang; Xue, Wujun

    2016-11-01

    Islet transplantation suffers from low efficiency caused by nonspecific inflammation-induced graft loss after transplantation. This study reports increased islet loss and enhanced inflammatory response in p27-deficient mice (p27-/-) and proposes a possible mechanism. Compared with wild type, p27-/- mice showed more severe functional injury of islet, with increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF-α, inducing macrophage proliferation. Furthermore, the increased number, proapoptotic proteins, and nuclear factor-kappa b (NF-κB) phosphorylation status of the infiltrating macrophages were accompanied by increased TNF-α mRNA level of islet graft site in p27-/- mice. Moreover, in vitro, we found that macrophages were still activated and cocultured with islet and promoted islet loss even blocking the direct effect of TNF-α on islets. Malondialdehyde (MDA, an end product of lipid peroxidation) in islet and media were increased after cocultured with macrophages. p27 deficiency also increased macrophage proliferation and islet injury. Therefore, p27 inactivation promotes injury islet graft loss via the elevation of proliferation and inflammatory cytokines secretion in infiltrating macrophages which induced nonspecific inflammation independent of TNF-α/nuclear factor-kappa b pathway. This potentially represents a promising therapeutic target in improving islet graft survival.

  7. 21 CFR 1271.21 - When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and... Listing § 1271.21 When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates? (a) You must register and submit a list of every HCT/P that your establishment manufactures within 5 days after beginning...

  8. 21 CFR 1271.21 - When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and... Listing § 1271.21 When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates? (a) You must register and submit a list of every HCT/P that your establishment manufactures within 5 days after beginning...

  9. 21 CFR 1271.21 - When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and... Listing § 1271.21 When do I register, submit an HCT/P list, and submit updates? (a) You must register and submit a list of every HCT/P that your establishment manufactures within 5 days after beginning...

  10. The p27 Pathway Modulates the Regulation of Skeletal Growth and Osteoblastic Bone Formation by Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Zhan; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Rong; Karaplis, Andrew; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2015-11-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) 1-84 knock-in mice (Pthrp KI) develop skeletal growth retardation and defective osteoblastic bone formation. To further examine the mechanisms underlying this phenotype, microarray analyses of differential gene expression profiles were performed in long bone extracts from Pthrp KI mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. We found that the expression levels of p27, p16, and p53 were significantly upregulated in Pthrp KI mice relative to WT littermates. To determine whether p27 was involved in the regulation by PTHrP of skeletal growth and development in vivo, we generated compound mutant mice, which were homozygous for both p27 deletion and the Pthrp KI mutation (p27(-/-) Pthrp KI). We then compared p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice with p27(-/-), Pthrp KI, and WT littermates. Deletion of p27 in Pthrp KI mice resulted in a longer lifespan, increased body weight, and improvement in skeletal growth. At 2 weeks of age, skeletal parameters, including length of long bones, size of epiphyses, numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive chondrocytes, bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-, type I collagen-, and osteocalcin-positive bone areas were increased in p27(-/-) mice and reduced in both Pthrp KI and p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with WT mice; however, these parameters were increased in p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with Pthrp KI mice. As well, protein expression levels of PTHR, IGF-1, and Bmi-1, and the numbers of total colony-forming unit fibroblastic (CFU-f) and ALP-positive CFU-f were similarly increased in p27(-/-) Pthrp KI mice compared with Pthrp KI mice. Our results demonstrate that deletion of p27 in Pthrp KI mice can partially rescue defects in skeletal growth and osteoblastic bone formation by enhancing endochondral bone formation and osteogenesis. These studies, therefore, indicate that the p27 pathway may function downstream in the action

  11. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 Represses Transcription of p21CIP1 by Inhibition of Transcription Activation by p53 and Sp1*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Kim, Sung-Eun; Choi, Kang-Yell; Kim, Se Hoon; Hur, Man-Wook

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant transcriptional repression through chromatin remodeling and histone deacetylation has been postulated as the driving force for tumorigenesis. FBI-1 (formerly called Pokemon) is a member of the POK family of transcriptional repressors. Recently, FBI-1 was characterized as a critical oncogenic factor that specifically represses transcription of the tumor suppressor gene ARF, potentially leading indirectly to p53 inactivation. Our investigations on transcriptional repression of the p53 pathway revealed that FBI-1 represses transcription of ARF, Hdm2 (human analogue of mouse double minute oncogene), and p21CIP1 (hereafter indicated as p21) but not of p53. FBI-1 showed a more potent repressive effect on p21 than on p53. Our data suggested that FBI-1 is a master controller of the ARF-Hdm2-p53-p21 pathway, ultimately impinging on cell cycle arrest factor p21, by inhibiting upstream regulators at the transcriptional and protein levels. FBI-1 acted as a competitive transcriptional repressor of p53 and Sp1 and was shown to bind the proximal Sp1–3 GC-box and the distal p53-responsive elements of p21. Repression involved direct binding competition of FBI-1 with Sp1 and p53. FBI-1 also interacted with corepressors, such as mSin3A, NCoR, and SMRT, thereby deacetylating Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 histones at the promoter. FBI-1 caused cellular transformation, promoted cell cycle proliferation, and significantly increased the number of cells in S phase. FBI-1 is aberrantly overexpressed in many human solid tumors, particularly in adenocarcinomas and squamous carcinomas. The role of FBI-1 as a master controller of the p53 pathway therefore makes it an attractive therapeutic target. PMID:19244234

  12. Prognostic significance of CDKN2A (p16) promoter methylation and loss of expression in 902 colorectal cancers: Cohort study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shima, Kaori; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Baba, Yoshifumi; Cantor, Mami; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji

    2011-03-01

    A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN2A (p16/Ink4a) is a tumor suppressor and upregulated in cellular senescence. CDKN2A promoter methylation and gene silencing are associated with the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colon cancer. However, prognostic significance of CDKN2A methylation or loss of CDKN2A (p16) expression independent of CIMP status remains uncertain. Using a database of 902 colorectal cancers in 2 independent cohort studies (the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study), we quantified CDKN2A promoter methylation and detected hypermethylation in 269 tumors (30%). By immunohistochemistry, we detected loss of CDKN2A (p16) expression in 25% (200/804) of tumors. We analyzed for LINE-1 hypomethylation and hypermethylation at 7 CIMP-specific CpG islands (CACNA1G, CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1); microsatellite instability (MSI); KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations; and expression of TP53 (p53), CTNNB1 (β-catenin), CDKN1A (p21), CDKN1B (p27), CCND1 (cyclin D1), FASN (fatty acid synthase) and PTGS2 (cyclooxygenase-2). CDKN2A promoter methylation and loss of CDKN2A (p16) were associated with shorter overall survival in univariate Cox regression analysis [hazard ratio (HR): 1.36, 95% CI: 1.10-1.66, p = 0.0036 for CDKN2A methylation; HR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.03-1.63, p = 0.026 for CDKN2A (p16) loss] but not in multivariate analysis that adjusted for clinical and tumor variables, including CIMP, MSI and LINE-1 methylation. Neither CDKN2A promoter methylation nor loss of CDKN2A (p16) was associated with colorectal cancer-specific mortality in uni- or multivariate analysis. Despite its well-established role in carcinogenesis, CDKN2A (p16) promoter methylation or loss of expression in colorectal cancer is not independently associated with patient prognosis. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  13. KLF4, p21 and context-dependent opposing forces in cancer.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Benjamin D; Peeper, Daniel S

    2006-01-01

    Krüppel-like factors are transcriptional regulators that influence several cellular functions, including proliferation. Recent studies have shown that one family member, KLF4, can function both as a tumour suppressor and an oncogene. The ability of KLF4 to affect the levels of expression of the cell-cycle regulator p21 seems to be involved, in that this protein might function as a switch that determines the outcome of KLF4 signalling. Is this role of p21 restricted to KLF4, or does p21 represent a nodal point for signals from multiple other factors with opposing functions in cancer?

  14. Oncogenic role of p21 in hepatocarcinogenesis suggests a new treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Ohkoshi, Shogo; Yano, Masahiko; Matsuda, Yasunobu

    2015-11-14

    A well-known tumor suppressor, p21, acts paradoxically by promoting tumor growth in some cellular conditions. These conflicting functions have been demonstrated in association with the HBx gene and in hepatocarcinogenesis. The molecular behavior of p21 depends on its subcellular localization. Nuclear p21 may inhibit cell proliferation and be proapoptotic, while cytoplasmic p21 may have oncogenic and anti-apoptotic functions. Because most typical tumor suppressive proteins also have different effects according to subcellular localization, elucidating the regulatory mechanisms underlying nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of these proteins would be significant and may lead to a new strategy for anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy. Chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) is a major nuclear export receptor involved in transport of tumor suppressors from nucleus to cytoplasm. Expression of CRM1 is enhanced in a variety of malignancies and in vitro studies have shown the efficacy of specific inhibition of CRM1 against cancer cell lines. Interestingly, interferon may keep p21 in the nucleus; this is one of the mechanisms of its anti-hepatocarcinogenic function. Here we review the oncogenic property of p21, which depends on its subcellular localization, and discuss the rationale underlying a new strategy for HCC treatment and prevention.

  15. Oncogenic role of p21 in hepatocarcinogenesis suggests a new treatment strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ohkoshi, Shogo; Yano, Masahiko; Matsuda, Yasunobu

    2015-01-01

    A well-known tumor suppressor, p21, acts paradoxically by promoting tumor growth in some cellular conditions. These conflicting functions have been demonstrated in association with the HBx gene and in hepatocarcinogenesis. The molecular behavior of p21 depends on its subcellular localization. Nuclear p21 may inhibit cell proliferation and be proapoptotic, while cytoplasmic p21 may have oncogenic and anti-apoptotic functions. Because most typical tumor suppressive proteins also have different effects according to subcellular localization, elucidating the regulatory mechanisms underlying nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of these proteins would be significant and may lead to a new strategy for anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy. Chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) is a major nuclear export receptor involved in transport of tumor suppressors from nucleus to cytoplasm. Expression of CRM1 is enhanced in a variety of malignancies and in vitro studies have shown the efficacy of specific inhibition of CRM1 against cancer cell lines. Interestingly, interferon may keep p21 in the nucleus; this is one of the mechanisms of its anti-hepatocarcinogenic function. Here we review the oncogenic property of p21, which depends on its subcellular localization, and discuss the rationale underlying a new strategy for HCC treatment and prevention. PMID:26576099

  16. Bimodal regulation of p21waf1 protein as function of DNA damage levels

    PubMed Central

    Buscemi, G; Ricci, C; Zannini, L; Fontanella, E; Plevani, P; Delia, D

    2014-01-01

    Human p21Waf1 protein is well known for being transcriptionally induced by p53 and activating the cell cycle checkpoint arrest in response to DNA breaks. Here we report that p21Waf1 protein undergoes a bimodal regulation, being upregulated in response to low doses of DNA damage but rapidly and transiently degraded in response to high doses of DNA lesions. Responsible for this degradation is the checkpoint kinase Chk1, which phosphorylates p21Waf1 on T145 and S146 residues and induces its proteasome-dependent proteolysis. The initial p21Waf1 degradation is then counteracted by the ATM-Chk2 pathway, which promotes the p53-dependent accumulation of p21Waf1 at any dose of damage. We also found that p21Waf1 ablation favors the activation of an apoptotic program to eliminate otherwise irreparable cells. These findings support a model in which in human cells a balance between ATM-Chk2-p53 and the ATR-Chk1 pathways modulates p21Waf1 protein levels in relation to cytostatic and cytotoxic doses of DNA damage. PMID:25486478

  17. The p53/p21(WAF/CIP) pathway mediates oxidative stress and senescence in dyskeratosis congenita cells with telomerase insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Westin, Erik R; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet; Buckingham, Erin M; Spitz, Douglas R; Goldman, Frederick D; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J

    2011-03-15

    Telomere attrition is a natural process that occurs due to inadequate telomere maintenance. Once at a critically short threshold, telomeres signal growth arrest, leading to senescence. Telomeres can be elongated by the enzyme telomerase, which adds de novo telomere repeats to the ends of chromosomes. Mutations in genes for telomere binding proteins or components of telomerase give rise to the premature aging disorder dyskeratosis congenita (DC), which is characterized by extremely short telomeres and an aging phenotype. The current study demonstrates that DC cells signal a DNA damage response through p53 and its downstream mediator, p21(WAF/CIP), which is accompanied by an elevation in steady-state levels of superoxide and percent glutathione disulfide, both indicators of oxidative stress. Poor proliferation of DC cells can be partially overcome by reducing O(2) tension from 21% to 4%. Further, restoring telomerase activity or inhibiting p53 or p21(WAF/CIP) significantly mitigated growth inhibition as well as caused a significant decrease in steady-state levels of superoxide. Our results support a model in which telomerase insufficiency in DC leads to p21(WAF/CIP) signaling, via p53, to cause increased steady-state levels of superoxide, metabolic oxidative stress, and senescence.

  18. The 19q12 bladder cancer GWAS signal: association with cyclin E function and aggressive disease

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yi-Ping; Kohaar, Indu; Moore, Lee E.; Lenz, Petra; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Tang, Wei; Porter-Gill, Patricia; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Scott-Johnson, Alexandra; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Muchmore, Brian; Baris, Dalsu; Paquin, Ashley; Ylaya, Kris; Schwenn, Molly; Apolo, Andrea B.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Tarway, McAnthony; Johnson, Alison; Mumy, Adam; Schned, Alan; Guedez, Liliana; Jones, Michael A.; Kida, Masatoshi; Monawar Hosain, GM; Malats, Nuria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Tardon, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; Garcia-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Wu, Xifeng; Purdue, Mark; Andriole, Gerald L.; Grubb, Robert L.; Black, Amanda; Landi, Maria T.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Vineis, Paolo; Siddiq, Afshan; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Ljungberg, Börje; Severi, Gianluca; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Krogh, Vittorio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Travis, Ruth C.; Tjønneland, Anne; Brennan, Paul; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Riboli, Elio; Prescott, Jennifer; Chen, Constance; De Vivo, Immaculata; Govannucci, Edward; Hunter, David; Kraft, Peter; Lindstrom, Sara; Gapstur, Susan M.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Albanes, Demetrius; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Kooperberg, Charles; Hohensee, Chancellor; Rodabough, Rebecca J.; Cortessis, Victoria K.; Conti, David V.; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Stern, Mariana C.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Van Den Berg, David; Yuan, Jian-Min; Haiman, Christopher A.; Cussenot, Olivier; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Roupret, Morgan; Comperat, Eva; Porru, Stefano; Carta, Angela; Pavanello, Sofia; Arici, Cecilia; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Grossman, H. Barton; Wang, Zhaoming; Deng, Xiang; Chung, Charles C.; Hutchinson, Amy; Burdette, Laurie; Wheeler, William; Fraumeni, Joseph; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Silverman, Debra T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of bladder cancer identified a genetic marker rs8102137 within the 19q12 region as a novel susceptibility variant. This marker is located upstream of the CCNE1 gene, which encodes cyclin E, a cell cycle protein. We performed genetic fine mapping analysis of the CCNE1 region using data from two bladder cancer GWAS (5,942 cases and 10,857 controls). We found that the original GWAS marker rs8102137 represents a group of 47 linked SNPs (with r2≥0.7) associated with increased bladder cancer risk. From this group we selected a functional promoter variant rs7257330, which showed strong allele-specific binding of nuclear proteins in several cell lines. In both GWAS, rs7257330 was associated only with aggressive bladder cancer, with a combined per-allele odds ratio (OR) =1.18 (95%CI=1.09-1.27, p=4.67×10−5 vs. OR =1.01 (95%CI=0.93-1.10, p=0.79) for non-aggressive disease, with p=0.0015 for case-only analysis. Cyclin E protein expression analyzed in 265 bladder tumors was increased in aggressive tumors (p=0.013) and, independently, with each rs7257330-A risk allele (ptrend=0.024). Over-expression of recombinant cyclin E in cell lines caused significant acceleration of cell cycle. In conclusion, we defined the 19q12 signal as the first GWAS signal specific for aggressive bladder cancer. Molecular mechanisms of this genetic association may be related to cyclin E over-expression and alteration of cell cycle in carriers of CCNE1 risk variants. In combination with established bladder cancer risk factors and other somatic and germline genetic markers, the CCNE1 variants could be useful for inclusion into bladder cancer risk prediction models. PMID:25320178

  19. Contiguous gene deletion of chromosome 2p16.3-p21 as a cause of Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salo-Mullen, Erin E; Lynn, Patricio B; Wang, Lu; Walsh, Michael; Gopalan, Anuradha; Shia, Jinru; Tran, Christina; Man, Fung Ying; McBride, Sean; Schattner, Mark; Zhang, Liying; Weiser, Martin R; Stadler, Zsofia K

    2018-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition caused by pathogenic mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Although commonly associated with clinical features such as intellectual disability and congenital anomalies, contiguous gene deletions may also result in cancer predisposition syndromes. We report on a 52-year-old male with Lynch syndrome caused by deletion of chromosome 2p16.3-p21. The patient had intellectual disability and presented with a prostatic adenocarcinoma with an incidentally identified synchronous sigmoid adenocarcinoma that exhibited deficient MMR with an absence of MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression. Family history was unrevealing. Physical exam revealed short stature, brachycephaly with a narrow forehead and short philtrum, brachydactyly of the hands, palmar transverse crease, broad and small feet with hyperpigmentation of the soles. The patient underwent total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis for a pT3N1 sigmoid adenocarcinoma. Germline genetic testing of the MSH2, MSH6, and EPCAM genes revealed full gene deletions. SNP-array based DNA copy number analysis identified a deletion of 4.8 Mb at 2p16.3-p21. In addition to the three Lynch syndrome associated genes, the deleted chromosomal section encompassed genes including NRXN1, CRIPT, CALM2, FBXO11, LHCGR, MCFD2, TTC7A, EPAS1, PRKCE, and 15 others. Contiguous gene deletions have been described in other inherited cancer predisposition syndromes, such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis. Our report and review of the literature suggests that contiguous gene deletion within the 2p16-p21 chromosomal region is a rare cause of Lynch syndrome, but presents with distinct phenotypic features, highlighting the need for recognition and awareness of this syndromic entity.

  20. P16 UV mutations in human skin epithelial tumors.

    PubMed

    Soufir, N; Molès, J P; Vilmer, C; Moch, C; Verola, O; Rivet, J; Tesniere, A; Dubertret, L; Basset-Seguin, N

    1999-09-23

    The p16 gene expresses two alternative transcripts (p16alpha and p16beta) involved in tumor suppression via the retinoblastoma (Rb) or p53 pathways. Disruption of these pathways can occur through inactivation of p16 or p53, or activating mutations of cyclin dependant kinase 4 gene (Cdk4). We searched for p16, Cdk4 and p53 gene mutations in 20 squamous cell carcinomas (SSCs), 1 actinic keratosis (AK), and 28 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), using PCR-SSCP. A deletion and methylation analysis of p16 was also performed. Six different mutations (12%) were detected in exon 2 of p16 (common to p16alpha and p16beta), in five out of 21 squamous lesions (24%) (one AK and four SCCs) and one out of 28 BCCs (3.5%). These included four (66%) ultraviolet (UV)-type mutations (two tandems CC : GG to TT : AA transitions and two C : G to T : A transitions at dipyrimidic site) and two transversions. P53 mutations were present in 18 samples (37%), mostly of UV type. Of these, only two (one BCC and one AK) harboured simultaneously mutations of p16, but with no consequence on p16beta transcript. Our data demonstrate for the first time the presence of p16 UV induced mutations in non melanoma skin cancer, particularly in the most aggressive SCC type, and support that p16 and p53 are involved in two independent pathways in skin carcinogenesis.

  1. MicroRNA-21a-5p promotes fibrosis in spinal fibroblasts after mechanical trauma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenzhao; Tang, Shi; Li, Hongfei; Liu, Ronghan; Su, Yanlin; Shen, Lin; Sun, Mingjie; Ning, Bin

    2018-06-05

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes permanent disability to at least 180,000 people per year worldwide. Early regulation of spinal fibroblast proliferation may inhibit fibrotic scar formation, allowing the creation of a favorable environment for neuronal regeneration and thereby enhancing recovery from traumatic SCIs. In this study, we aimed to identify the role of microRNA-21a-5p (miR-21a-5p) in regulating spinal fibroblasts after mechanical trauma and to investigate the dysregulation of miR-21a-5p in the pathological process of spinal SCI. We investigated the differential expression of microRNAs in primary spinal fibroblasts after mechanical trauma and found that the expression of miR-21a-5p was higher in spinal fibroblasts after scratch damage (SD). In addition, mouse spinal fibroblasts were transfected with miR-21a-5p mimics/inhibitor, and the role of miR-21a-5p in spinal fibrogenic activation was analyzed. These experiments demonstrated that miR-21a-5p overexpression promoted fibrogenic activity in spinal fibroblasts after mechanical trauma, as well as enhancing proliferation and attenuating apoptosis in spinal fibroblasts. Finally, the potential role of miR-21a-5p in regulating the Smad signaling pathway was examined. MiR-21a-5p activated the Smad signaling pathway by enhancing Smad2/3 phosphorylation. These results suggest that miR-21a-5p promotes spinal fibrosis after mechanical trauma. Based on these findings, we propose a close relationship between miR-21a-5p and spinal fibrosis, providing a new potential therapeutic target for SCI. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Agmatine Ameliorates High Glucose-Induced Neuronal Cell Senescence by Regulating the p21 and p53 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Song, Juhyun; Lee, Byeori; Kang, Somang; Oh, Yumi; Kim, Eosu; Kim, Chul-Hoon; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Jong Eun

    2016-02-01

    Neuronal senescence caused by diabetic neuropathy is considered a common complication of diabetes mellitus. Neuronal senescence leads to the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the production of reactive oxygen species, and the alteration of cellular homeostasis. Agmatine, which is biosynthesized by arginine decarboxylation, has been reported in previous in vitro to exert a protective effect against various stresses. In present study, agmatine attenuated the cell death and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-alpha and CCL2 in high glucose in vitro conditions. Moreover, the senescence associated-β-galatosidase's activity in high glucose exposed neuronal cells was reduced by agmatine. Increased p21 and reduced p53 in high glucose conditioned cells were changed by agmatine. Ultimately, agmatine inhibits the neuronal cell senescence through the activation of p53 and the inhibition of p21. Here, we propose that agmatine may ameliorate neuronal cell senescence in hyperglycemia.

  3. Characterization of the Akt2 Domain Essential for Binding Nuclear p21cip1 to Promote Cell Cycle Arrest during Myogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Heron-Milhavet, Lisa; Franckhauser, Celine; Fernandez, Anne; Lamb, Ned J.

    2013-01-01

    The binding of the cdk inhibitor p21cip1 to Akt2 in the nucleus is an essential component in determining the specific role of Akt2 in the cell cycle arrest that precedes myogenic differentiation. Here, through a combination of biochemical and cell biology approaches, we have addressed the molecular basis of this binding. Using amino-terminal truncation of Akt2, we show that p21cip1 binds at the carboxy terminal of Akt2 since deletion of the first 400 amino acids did not affect the interaction between Akt2 and p21cip1. Pull down using carboxy terminal-truncated Akt2 protein revealed the importance of the region between amino acids 400 and 445 for the binding to p21cip1. Since Akt2_400–445 and Akt2_420–445 peptides could both bind p21cip1, this refines the binding domain on Akt2 between amino acids 420 and 445. In order to confirm these data in living cells, we developed a protocol to synchronize myoblasts at the cell cycle exit point when p21cip1 expression is induced by MyoD before myogenic differentiation. When a synthetic Akt2 peptide spanning the region (410–437) was microinjected in p21-expressing myoblasts, p21cip1 no longer localized exclusively in the nucleus, instead being redistributed throughout the cell, thus showing that injected peptide 410–437 acts to compete with the binding of endogenous Akt2 to p21cip1. Taken together, our data suggest that this 27 amino acid sequence on Akt2 is necessary and sufficient to bind p21cip1 both in vitro and in living cells. PMID:24194853

  4. Alpha-santalol, a chemopreventive agent against skin cancer, causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in both p53-mutated human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and p53 wild-type human melanoma UACC-62 cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background α-Santalol, an active component of sandalwood oil, has shown chemopreventive effects on skin cancer in different murine models. However, effects of α-santalol on cell cycle have not been studied. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate effects of α-santalol on cell cycle progression in both p53 mutated human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and p53 wild-type human melanoma UACC-62 cells to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action. Methods MTT assay was used to determine cell viability in A431 cells and UACC-62; fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of propidium iodide staining was used for determining cell cycle distribution in A431 cells and UACC-62 cells; immunoblotting was used for determining the expression of various proteins and protein complexes involved in the cell cycle progression; siRNA were used to knockdown of p21 or p53 in A431 and UACC-62 cells and immunofluorescence microscopy was used to investigate microtubules in UACC-62 cells. Results α-Santalol at 50-100 μM decreased cell viability from 24 h treatment and α-santalol at 50 μM-75 μM induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest from 6 h treatment in both A431 and UACC-62 cells. α-Santalol altered expressions of cell cycle proteins such as cyclin A, cyclin B1, Cdc2, Cdc25c, p-Cdc25c and Cdk2. All of these proteins are critical for G2/M transition. α-Santalol treatment up-regulated the expression of p21 and suppressed expressions of mutated p53 in A431 cells; whereas, α-santalol treatment increased expressions of wild-type p53 in UACC-62 cells. Knockdown of p21 in A431 cells, knockdown of p21 and p53 in UACC-62 cells did not affect cell cycle arrest caused by α-santalol. Furthermore, α-santalol caused depolymerization of microtubules similar to vinblastine in UACC-62 cells. Conclusions This study for the first time identifies effects of α-santalol in G2/M phase arrest and describes detailed mechanisms of G2/M phase arrest by this agent, which might be

  5. 21 CFR 862.1550 - Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1550 Section 862.1550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 862.1550 Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary pH...

  6. Cytoplasmic localization and ubiquitination of p21{sup Cip1} by reactive oxygen species

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hwang, Chae Young; Kim, Ick Young; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2007-06-22

    Reactive oxygen species were previously shown to trigger p21{sup Cip1} protein degradation through a proteasome-dependent pathway, however the detailed mechanism of degradation remains to be elucidated. In this report, we showed that p21{sup Cip1} was degraded at an early phase after low dose H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment of a variety of cell types and that preincubation of cells with the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, prolonged p21{sup Cip1} half-life. A mutant p21{sup Cip1} in which all six lysines were changed to arginines was protected against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. Direct interaction between p21{sup Cip1} and Skp2 was elevated in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-treatedmore » cells. Disruption of the two nuclear export signal (NES) sequences in p21{sup Cip1}, or treatment with leptomycin B blocked H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced p21{sup Cip1} degradation. Altogether, these results demonstrate that reactive oxygen species induce p21{sup Cip1} degradation through an NES-, Skp2-, and ubiquitin-dependent pathway.« less

  7. Multiple degradation pathways regulate versatile CIP/KIP CDK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Starostina, Natalia G; Kipreos, Edward T

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian CIP/KIP family of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (CKIs) comprises three proteins--p21(Cip1/WAF1), p27(Kip1), and p57(Kip2)--that bind and inhibit cyclin-CDK complexes, which are key regulators of the cell cycle. CIP/KIP CKIs have additional independent functions in regulating transcription, apoptosis and actin cytoskeletal dynamics. These divergent functions are performed in distinct cellular compartments and contribute to the seemingly contradictory observation that the CKIs can both suppress and promote cancer. Multiple ubiquitin ligases (E3s) direct the proteasome-mediated degradation of p21, p27 and p57. This review analyzes recent data highlighting our current understanding of how distinct E3 pathways regulate subpopulations of the CKIs to control their diverse functions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Resistance to maribavir is associated with the exclusion of pUL27 from nucleoli during human cytomegalovirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Hakki, Morgan; Drummond, Coyne; Houser, Benjamin; Marousek, Gail; Chou, Sunwen

    2011-01-01

    Select mutations in the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene UL27 confer low-grade resistance to the HCMV UL97 kinase inhibitor maribavir (MBV). It has been reported that the 608-amino acid UL27 gene product (pUL27) normally localizes to cell nuclei and nucleoli, whereas its truncation at codon 415, as found in a MBV-resistant mutant, results in cytoplasmic localization. We now show that in the context of full-length pUL27, diverse single amino acid substitutions associated with MBV resistance result in loss of its nucleolar localization when visualized after transient transfection, whereas substitutions representing normal interstrain polymorphism had no such effect. The same differences in localization were observed during a complete infection cycle with recombinant HCMV strains over-expressing full-length fluorescent pUL27 variants. Nested UL27 C-terminal truncation expression plasmids showed that amino acids 596–599 were required for the nucleolar localization of pUL27. These results indicate that the loss of a nucleolar function of pUL27 may contribute to MBV resistance, and that the nucleolar localization of pUL27 during HCMV infection depends not only on a carboxy-terminal domain but also on a property of pUL27 that is affected by MBV-resistant mutations, such as an interaction with component(s) of the nucleolus. PMID:21906628

  9. Differential p16/INK4A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor expression correlates with chemotherapy efficacy in a cohort of 88 malignant pleural mesothelioma patients

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, C J; Murer, B; O'Grady, A; Hearn, L M; Harvey, B J; Kay, E W; Thomas, W

    2015-01-01

    Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and essentially incurable malignancy most often linked with occupational exposure to asbestos fibres. In common with other malignancies, the development and progression of MPM is associated with extensive dysregulation of cell cycle checkpoint proteins that modulate cell proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair and senescence. Methods: The expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16/INK4A was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using tumour biopsy specimens from 88 MPM cases and a semi-quantitative score for p16/INK4A expression was obtained. Post-diagnosis survival and the survival benefit of chemotherapeutic intervention was correlated with p16/INK4A expression. Results: A low, intermediate and high score for p16/INK4A expression was observed for 45 (51.1%), 28 (31.8%) and 15 (17.1%) of the MPM cases, respectively. Those cases with intermediate or high p16/INK4A tumour expression had a significantly better post-diagnosis survival than those cases whose tumours lost p16 expression (log-rank P<0.001). Those patients with sustained p16/INK4A expression who received chemotherapy also had a better survival than those treated patients whose tumours had lost p16/INK4A expression (log-rank P<0.001). Conclusions: Sustained p16/INK4A expression predicts better post-diagnosis survival in MPM and also better survival following chemotherapeutic intervention. PMID:26057448

  10. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of cyclin D1 amplification in patients with breast cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Qi; Wu, Jingxun; Liu, Xin-Li; Ma, Yi-Han; Wu, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Wen-Yi; An, Han-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Cyclin D1 plays a critical role in tumorigenesis and the regulation of the G1/S transition in the cell cycle. The relationship between cyclin D1 amplification and clinicopathological parameters in patients with breast cancer remains controversial and its impact on survival outcome is not completely clear. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the associations between cyclin D1 gene amplification and certain clinicopathological characteristics and the prognosis in breast cancer. Literature search of PubMed (up to August 3, 2016) was performed. We used Stata 12.0 (Stata Corporation, Texas, US) to analyze the correlations between cyclin D1 amplification and clinicopathological features and the prognostic indicator relapse free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with breast cancer. Publication bias analysis and sensitivity analysis were performed. A total of 9,238 breast cancer patients from 21 studies were included. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) indicated that cyclin D1 amplification was significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), histological grade and lymph node status, but not associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) and tumor size. The combined hazard ratios (HRs) for RFS and OS showed that patients with cyclin D1 amplification displayed a 1.31-fold higher risk of recurrence (HR =1.31, 95% confidence interval (95% CI):1.02-1.60, p<0.01), and a risk of mortality 1.22-fold higher times greater than those without cyclin D1 amplification (HR=1.22, 95% CI:0.99- 1.44, p<0.01), respectively. Our meta-analysis indicated that cyclin D1 amplification is significantly associated with established clinicopathological variables and can be used as a poor prognostic indicator for patients with breast cancer.

  11. Downregulation of B-myb promotes senescence via the ROS-mediated p53/p21 pathway, in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhihui; Yin, Yanlin; Chang, Qun; Sun, Guanqun; Lin, Jiahui; Dai, Yalei

    2017-04-01

    To reveal whether B-myb is involved in preventing senescence of vascular endothelial cells, and if so, to identify possible mechanisms for it. C57/BL6 male mice and primary human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were used. Bleomycin was applied to induce stress-related premature senescence. B-myb knockdown was achieved using an siRNA technique and cell senescence was assessed using the senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was analysed using an ROS assay kit and cell proliferation was evaluated using KFluor488 EdU kit. Capillary tube network formation was determined by Matrigel assay. Expressions of mRNA and protein levels were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting. B-myb expression significantly decreased, while p53 and p21 expressions increased in the aortas of aged mice. This expression pattern was also found in replicative senescent HAECs and senescent HAECs induced by bleomycin. B-myb knockdown resulted in upregulation of p22 phox , ROS accumulation and cell senescence of HAECs. Downregulation of B-myb significantly inhibited cell proliferation and capillary tube network formation and activated the p53/p21 signalling pathway. Blocking ROS production or inhibiting p53 activation remarkably attenuated SA-β-gal activity and delayed cell senescence induced by B-myb-silencing. Downregulation of B-myb induced senescence by upregulation of p22 phox and activation of the ROS/p53/p21 pathway, in our vascular endothelial cells, suggesting that B-myb may be a novel candidate for regulating cell senescence to protect against endothelial senescence-related cardiovascular diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Correlation Among Six Biologic Factors (p53, p21{sup WAF1}, MIB-1, EGFR, HER2, and Bcl-2) and Clinical Outcomes After Curative Chemoradiation Therapy in Squamous Cell Cervical Cancer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Murakami, Naoya; Asari, Takao

    Purpose: The expressions of six cell-cycle-associated proteins were analyzed in cervical squamous cell carcinomas in correlation in a search for prognostic correlations in tumors treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy (cCRT). Methods and Materials: The expressions of p53, p21/waf1/cip1, molecular immunology borstel-1 (MIB-1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), and Bcl-2 were studied using an immunohistochemical method in 57 cases of cervical squamous cell carcinoma treated with cCRT. Patients received cCRT between 1998 and 2005. The mean patient age was 61 years (range, 27-82 years). The number of patients with Stage II, III, andmore » IVA disease was 18, 29, and 10, respectively. Results: The number of patients with tumors positive for p53, p21/waf1/cip1, MIB-1, EGFR, HER2, and Bcl-2 was 26, 24, 49, 26, 13, and 11, respectively; no significant correlation was noted. The 5-year overall survival rates of HER2-positive and -negative patients was 76% vs. 44%, which was of borderline significance (p = 0.0675). No significant correlation was noted between overall survival and expressions of p53, p21/waf1/cip1, MIB-1, EGFR, and Bcl-2. No correlation was observed between local control and expression of any of the proteins. Conclusion: Expression of HER2 protein had a weak impact of borderline significance on overall survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with cCRT. However, no clinical associations could be established for p53, p21/waf1/cip1, MIB-1, EGFR, and Bcl-2 protein expressions.« less

  13. Structural and dynamic determinants of ligand binding and regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 by pathological activator p25 and inhibitory peptide CIP.

    PubMed

    Cardone, A; Hassan, S A; Albers, R W; Sriram, R D; Pant, H C

    2010-08-20

    The crystal structure of the cdk5/p25 complex has provided information on possible molecular mechanisms of the ligand binding, specificity, and regulation of the kinase. Comparative molecular dynamics simulations are reported here for physiological conditions. This study provides new insight on the mechanisms that modulate such processes, which may be exploited to control pathological activation by p25. The structural changes observed in the kinase are stabilized by a network of interactions involving highly conserved residues within the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) family. Collective motions of the proteins (cdk5, p25, and CIP) and their complexes are identified by principal component analysis, revealing two conformational states of the activation loop upon p25 complexation, which are absent in the uncomplexed kinase and not apparent from the crystal. Simulations of the uncomplexed inhibitor CIP show structural rearrangements and increased flexibility of the interfacial loop containing the critical residue E240, which becomes fully hydrated and available for interactions with one of several positively charged residues in the kinase. These changes provide a rationale for the observed high affinity and enhanced inhibitory action of CIP when compared to either p25 or the physiological activators of cdk5. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. IFI27, a novel epidermal growth factor-stabilized protein, is functionally involved in proliferation and cell cycling of human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, W-L; Huang, Y-H; Wang, T-M; Ming, Y-C; Tsai, C-N; Pang, J-H S

    2015-04-01

    IFI27 is highly expressed in psoriatic lesions but its function has not been known. The present study aimed to explore its role in proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. IFI27 knockdown and over-expression in keratinocytes were used to compare their proliferation, by MTT assay, apoptosis (by annexin V binding) and cell cycle progression by flow cytometry. Formation of cyclin A/CDK1 complex was examined by a co-immunoprecipitaion method. Anti-proliferation effects of IFI27 were also examined in vivo by topical application of IFI27 siRNA on imiquimod-induced psoriatic lesions, in a mouse model. Epidermal growth factor was demonstrated to increase IFI27 expression by prolonging half-life of IFI27 protein. The IFI27 knockdown in keratinocytes reduced the proliferation rate, but had no effect on apoptosis nor on apoptosis-related genes. Interestingly, IFI27 knockdown resulted in S-phase arrest that was found to be associated with increased Tyr15 phosphorylation of CDK1, reduced CDC25B and reduced formation of cyclin A/CDK1 complex. In addition, IFI27 knockdown was also shown to activate p53 by Ser15 phosphorylation and increase p21 expression. Topical application of IFI27 siRNA on imiquimod-induced psoriatic lesion in a mouse model reduced epidermal thickness, formation of rete ridges and PCNA expression. Our study demonstrates for the first time, that cell function of IFI27 is involved in proliferation of skin keratinocytes both in vitro and in vivo. It suggests that IFI27 might be a suitable target for development of a novel anti-psoriasis therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. MiR-20a-5p promotes radio-resistance by targeting Rab27B in nasopharyngeal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dabing; Bian, Geng; Pan, Yueyin; Han, Xinghua; Sun, Yubei; Wang, Yong; Shen, Guodong; Cheng, Min; Fang, Xiang; Hu, Shilian

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) was reported to be involved in cancer radio-resistance, which remains a major obstacle for effective cancer therapy. The differently expressed miRNAs were detected by RNA-seq experiment in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) cells. MiR-20a-5p was selected as our target, which was subject to finding its target gene Rab27B via bioinformatics analysis. The qRT-PCR, western blot and the luciferase reporter assays were performed to confirm Rab27B as the target of miR-20a-5p. In addition, the roles of miR-20a-5p in NPC radio-resistance were detected by transfection of either miR-20a-5p-mimic or miR-20a-5p-antagomiR. The involvement of Rab27B with NPC radio-resistance was also detected by the experiments with siRNA-mediated repression of Rab27B or over-expression of GFP-Rab27B. Wound healing and invasion assays were performed to detect the roles of both miR-20a-5p and Rab27B. MiR-20a-5p promotes NPC radio-resistance. We identified that its target gene Rab27B negatively correlates with miR-20a-5p-mediated NPC radio-resistance by systematic studies of a radio-sensitive (CNE-2) and resistant (CNE-1) NPC cell lines. Repression of Rab27B by siRNA suppresses cell apoptosis and passivates CNE-2 cells, whereas over-expression of Rab27B triggered cell apoptosis and sensitizes CNE-1 cells. MiR-20a-5p and its target gene Rab27B might be involved in the NPC radio-resistance. Thus the key players and regulators involved in this pathway might be the potential targets for developing effective therapeutic strategies against NPC.

  16. Organ differences in the impact of p27(kip1) deficiency on carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kumiko; Murasaki, Toshiya; Sugiura, Satoshi; Nakanishi, Makoto; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of p27 on carcinogenesis in various organs, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), a direct-acting alkylating agent, was given to p27 knock-out mice. Groups of 20-40 male and female mice with null, hetero- or wild-type p27 alleles were given drinking water containing 240 ppm MNU or distilled water every other week for five cycles. The incidence and multiplicity of the induced proliferative lesions were then histologically evaluated at weeks 14 and 20. MNU treatment induced various lesions including squamous hyperplasia and squamous cell carcinoma in the forestomach, atypical hyperplasia and adenocarcinomas in the fundic and pyloric glands, adenomas and adenocarcinomas in the duodenum, malignant lymphomas in the thymus, liver, kidney and spleen and alveolar hyperplasia, adenomas, adenocarcinomas and malignant lymphomas in the lung. Although the incidences of the lesions in the forestomach, fundic and pyloric glands did not differ among the p27 genotypes, those of alveolar hyperplasia of the lung and malignant lymphoma of the thymus were significantly increased in p27-null males as compared with both wild- and hetero-type animals. Moreover, in both p27(+/+) and p27(+/-) cases, the rates for p27-positive cells were obviously increased in proliferative lesions of the pyloric gland and the lung. However, an increased rate of p27-positive cells was not observed in malignant lymphoma of the thymus. These findings suggest that p27 does not control the cell cycle equally in all organs affected by MNU-induced carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The Peptide Repertoire of HLA-B27 may include Ligands with Lysine at P2 Anchor Position.

    PubMed

    Yair-Sabag, Shira; Tedeschi, Valentina; Vitulano, Carolina; Barnea, Eilon; Glaser, Fabian; Melamed Kadosh, Dganit; Taurog, Joel D; Fiorillo, Maria Teresa; Sorrentino, Rosa; Admon, Arie

    2018-05-01

    The HLA-B*27 peptidome has drawn significant attention due to the genetic association between some of the HLA-B*27 alleles and the inflammatory rheumatic disease ankylosing spondylitis (AS), for which a comprehensive biological explanation is still lacking. This study aims to expand the known limits of the HLA-B*27 peptidome to facilitate selection and testing of new peptides, possibly involved in the disease. The HLA peptidomes of HeLa and C1R cell lines stably transfected with the AS-associated HLA-B*27:05 allele, the nonassociated HLA-B*27:09 allele, or their cysteine 67 to serine mutants (C67S), are analyzed on a very large scale. In addition, the peptidomes of HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*27:05-C67S are analyzed from the spleens of rats transgenic for these alleles. The results indicate that C67S mutation increases the percentage of peptides with glutamine or lysine at their P2 position (P2-Lys), in both HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*27:09. Furthermore, a small fraction of HLA-B*27 peptides contains lysine at their second position (P2), in addition to the more commonly found peptides with arginine (P2-Arg) or the less common glutamine (P2-Gln) located at this anchor position. Overall these data indicate that peptides with P2-Lys should be considered as real ligands of HLA-B*27 molecules and taken into account while looking for putative peptides implicated in the AS. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. t(1;3)(p36;p21): presentation of a patient with MDS/AML (M2) and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Güven, Gülgün S; Tarkan Argüden, Yelda; Öngören, Şeniz; Deviren, Ayhan; Aydın, Yıldız; Hacıhanefioglu, Seniha

    2006-06-05

    t(1;3)(p36;p21) is a recurrent reciprocal translocation found in a subset of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) characterized by trilineage dysplasia, especially dysmegakaryopoiesis and poor prognosis. In the literature, some authors have suggested that this recurrent translocation is closely associated with prior chemotherapy including alkylating agents in various hematologic malignancies. We identified a recurring translocation, t(1;3)(p36;p21), in our patient with MDS/AML(M2), although she had not been given any kind of treatment previously.

  19. Mutational signatures reveal the role of RAD52 in p53-independent p21-driven genomic instability.

    PubMed

    Galanos, Panagiotis; Pappas, George; Polyzos, Alexander; Kotsinas, Athanassios; Svolaki, Ioanna; Giakoumakis, Nickolaos N; Glytsou, Christina; Pateras, Ioannis S; Swain, Umakanta; Souliotis, Vassilis L; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Geacintov, Nicholas; Scorrano, Luca; Lukas, Claudia; Lukas, Jiri; Livneh, Zvi; Lygerou, Zoi; Chowdhury, Dipanjan; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Bartek, Jiri; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G

    2018-03-16

    Genomic instability promotes evolution and heterogeneity of tumors. Unraveling its mechanistic basis is essential for the design of appropriate therapeutic strategies. In a previous study, we reported an unexpected oncogenic property of p21 WAF1/Cip1 , showing that its chronic expression in a p53-deficient environment causes genomic instability by deregulation of the replication licensing machinery. We now demonstrate that p21 WAF1/Cip1 can further fuel genomic instability by suppressing the repair capacity of low- and high-fidelity pathways that deal with nucleotide abnormalities. Consequently, fewer single nucleotide substitutions (SNSs) occur, while formation of highly deleterious DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is enhanced, crafting a characteristic mutational signature landscape. Guided by the mutational signatures formed, we find that the DSBs are repaired by Rad52-dependent break-induced replication (BIR) and single-strand annealing (SSA) repair pathways. Conversely, the error-free synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) repair route is deficient. Surprisingly, Rad52 is activated transcriptionally in an E2F1-dependent manner, rather than post-translationally as is common for DNA repair factor activation. Our results signify the importance of mutational signatures as guides to disclose the repair history leading to genomic instability. We unveil how chronic p21 WAF1/Cip1 expression rewires the repair process and identifies Rad52 as a source of genomic instability and a candidate therapeutic target.

  20. p21 Restricts HIV-1 in Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells through the Reduction of Deoxynucleoside Triphosphate Biosynthesis and Regulation of SAMHD1 Antiviral Activity.

    PubMed

    Valle-Casuso, Jose Carlos; Allouch, Awatef; David, Annie; Lenzi, Gina M; Studdard, Lydia; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela; Kim, Baek; Pancino, Gianfranco; Sáez-Cirión, Asier

    2017-12-01

    HIV-1 infection of noncycling cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs), is impaired due to limited availability of deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), which are needed for HIV-1 reverse transcription. The levels of dNTPs are tightly regulated during the cell cycle and depend on the balance between dNTP biosynthesis and degradation. SAMHD1 potently blocks HIV-1 replication in DCs, although the underlying mechanism is still unclear. SAMHD1 has been reported to be able to degrade dNTPs and viral nucleic acids, which may both hamper HIV-1 reverse transcription. The relative contribution of these activities may differ in cycling and noncycling cells. Here, we show that inhibition of HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) is associated with an increased expression of p21cip1/waf, a cell cycle regulator that is involved in the differentiation and maturation of DCs. Induction of p21 in MDDCs decreases the pool of dNTPs and increases the antiviral active isoform of SAMHD1. Although both processes are complementary in inhibiting HIV-1 replication, the antiviral activity of SAMHD1 in our primary cell model appears to be, at least partially, independent of its dNTPase activity. The reduction in the pool of dNTPs in MDDCs appears rather mostly due to a p21-mediated suppression of several enzymes involved in dNTP synthesis (i.e., RNR2, TYMS, and TK-1). These results are important to better understand the interplay between HIV-1 and DCs and may inform the design of new therapeutic approaches to decrease viral dissemination and improve immune responses against HIV-1. IMPORTANCE DCs play a key role in the induction of immune responses against HIV. However, HIV has evolved ways to exploit these cells, facilitating immune evasion and virus dissemination. We have found that the expression of p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor involved in cell cycle regulation and monocyte differentiation and maturation, potentially can contribute to the inhibition of HIV-1 replication

  1. Dust Production of Comet 21P/Giacobini Zinner Using Broadband Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaauw, Rhiannon; Suggs, Robert M.; Cooke, William

    2012-01-01

    Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner is a Jupiter family comet that was discovered in December of 1900 by the French astronomer Michel Giacobini, and rediscovered two orbits later by German astronomer Ernst Zinner in 1913. 21P is approximately 2 km in diameter, and is the parent of the Draconids, a meteor shower known to undergo dramatic outbursts. In 1933 and 1946, up to 10,000 meteors per hour were reported for the Draconids; and 2011 saw a minor Draconid outburst. As meteor stream modeling/ forecasting is a primary focus for the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office, it was decided to monitor 21P for three purposes: firstly to find the apparent and absolute magnitude with respect to heliocentric distance; second to calculate Af(rho), a quantity that describes the dust production rate and is used in models to predict the activity of the Draconids; thirdly to detect possible increases in cometary activity, which could correspond to future Draconid meteor outbursts. Giacobini-Zinner is unique in several ways. It was the first comet to have measurements made in situ. Comet 21P was visited by ICE (International Cometary Explorer) in 1985 to study the interaction of the cometary atmosphere with the flowing solar-wind plasma. It is a carbon-depleted comet, and most studies show that it peaks in gas and dust production pre-perihelion, specifically in two very studied passages; 1985 and 1998. A prior study was conducted by Pittic