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Sample records for p27kip1 reveals cancer

  1. High-Throughput Screening Reveals Alsterpaullone, 2-Cyanoethyl as a Potent p27Kip1 Transcriptional Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Brandon J.; Lin, Wenwei; Diao, Shiyong; Brimble, Mark; Iconaru, Luigi I.; Dearman, Jennifer; Goktug, Asli; Chen, Taosheng; Zuo, Jian

    2014-01-01

    p27Kip1 is a cell cycle inhibitor that prevents cyclin dependent kinase (CDK)/cyclin complexes from phosphorylating their targets. p27Kip1 is a known tumor suppressor, as the germline loss of p27Kip1 results in sporadic pituitary formation in aged rodents, and its presence in human cancers is indicative of a poor prognosis. In addition to its role in cancer, loss of p27Kip1 results in regenerative phenotypes in some tissues and maintenance of stem cell pluripotency, suggesting that p27Kip1 inhibitors could be beneficial for tissue regeneration. Because p27Kip1 is an intrinsically disordered protein, identifying direct inhibitors of the p27Kip1 protein is difficult. Therefore, we pursued a high-throughput screening strategy to identify novel p27Kip1 transcriptional inhibitors. We utilized a luciferase reporter plasmid driven by the p27Kip1 promoter to transiently transfect HeLa cells and used cyclohexamide as a positive control for non-specific inhibition. We screened a “bioactive” library consisting of 8,904 (4,359 unique) compounds, of which 830 are Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved. From this screen, we successfully identified 111 primary hits with inhibitory effect against the promoter of p27Kip1. These hits were further refined using a battery of secondary screens. Here we report four novel p27Kip1 transcriptional inhibitors, and further demonstrate that our most potent hit compound (IC50 = 200 nM) Alsterpaullone 2-cyanoethyl, inhibits p27Kip1 transcription by preventing FoxO3a from binding to the p27Kip1 promoter. This screen represents one of the first attempts to identify inhibitors of p27Kip1 and may prove useful for future tissue regeneration studies. PMID:24646893

  2. Cytoplasmic expression of p27kip1 is associated with a favourable prognosis in colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nicholas FS; Durrant, Lindy G; Scholefield, John H; Madjd, Zahra; Scrimgeour, Duncan; Spendlove, Ian; Ellis, Ian O; Patel, Poulam M

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognostic significance of p27kip1 in colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: Cytoplasmic and nuclear p27kip1 expression was evaluated in 418 colorectal cancers using tissue microarrays. Data were associated with known patient and tumor variables and long-term patient outcomes, providing further insight into the mechanisms by which p27kip1 may influence tumor development. RESULTS: Nuclear and cytoplasmic p27Kip1 expressions were detected in 59% and 19% of tumors respectively. Cytoplasmic p27Kip1 was almost invariably associated with positive nuclear p27Kip1 expression. Neither case correlated with known clinical or pathological variables, including tumor stage, grade or extramural vascular invasion. Furthermore, nuclear p27kip1 expression had no impact on survival. However, we identified a significant correlation between expression of cytoplasmic p27kip1 and longer disease-specific survival times. On multivariate analysis, TNM stage and extramural vascular invasion were highly significant independent prognostic factors, with positive cytoplasmic p27 expression showing a trend towards improved patient survival (P = 0.059). CONCLUSION: These findings support the recent evidence that cytoplasmic p27kip1 has a distinct and important biological role that can influence tumor outcome. PMID:17072952

  3. A prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia-dependent p27kip1 checkpoint induces senescence, inhibits cell proliferation and cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Pradip K.; Grisanzio, Chiara; O’Connell, Fionnuala; Barry, Marc; Brito, Joseph M.; Xu, Qing; Guney, Isil; Berger, Raanan; Herman, Paula; Bikoff, Rachel; Fedele, Giuseppe; Baek, Won-Ki; Wang, Shunyou; Ellwood-Yen, Katharine; Wu, Hong; Sawyers, Charles L.; Signoretti, Sabina; Hahn, William C.; Loda, Massimo; Sellers, William R.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Transgenic expression of activated AKT1 in the murine prostate induces Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN) that does not progress to invasive prostate cancer (CaP). In luminal epithelial cells of Akt-driven PIN we show the concomitant induction of p27kip1 and senescence. Genetic ablation of p27Kip1 led to down regulation of senescence markers and progression to cancer. In humans, p27Kip1 and senescence markers were elevated in PIN not associated with CaP, but were decreased and absent, respectively in cancer-associated PIN and in CaP. Importantly, p27Kip1 up-regulation in mouse and human in situ lesions did not depend upon mTOR or Akt activation but was instead specifically associated with alterations in cellular polarity, architecture and adhesion molecules. These data suggest that a p27Kip1-driven checkpoint limits progression of PIN to CaP. PMID:18691549

  4. Phosphorylation and subcellular localization of p27Kip1 regulated by hydrogen peroxide modulation in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Irene L; Bracalente, Candelaria; Notcovich, Cintia; Tropper, Ivanna; Molinari, Beatriz L; Policastro, Lucía L; Durán, Hebe

    2012-01-01

    The Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1) is a key protein in the decision between proliferation and cell cycle exit. Quiescent cells show nuclear p27Kip1, but this protein is exported to the cytoplasm in response to proliferating signals. We recently reported that catalase treatment increases the levels of p27Kip1 in vitro and in vivo in a murine model. In order to characterize and broaden these findings, we evaluated the regulation of p27Kip1 by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in human melanoma cells and melanocytes. We observed a high percentage of p27Kip1 positive nuclei in melanoma cells overexpressing or treated with exogenous catalase, while non-treated controls showed a cytoplasmic localization of p27Kip1. Then we studied the levels of p27Kip1 phosphorylated (p27p) at serine 10 (S10) and at threonine 198 (T198) because phosphorylation at these sites enables nuclear exportation of this protein, leading to accumulation and stabilization of p27pT198 in the cytoplasm. We demonstrated by western blot a decrease in p27pS10 and p27pT198 levels in response to H(2)O(2) removal in melanoma cells, associated with nuclear p27Kip1. Melanocytes also exhibited nuclear p27Kip1 and lower levels of p27pS10 and p27pT198 than melanoma cells, which showed cytoplasmic p27Kip1. We also showed that the addition of H(2)O(2) (0.1 µM) to melanoma cells arrested in G1 by serum starvation induces proliferation and increases the levels of p27pS10 and p27pT198 leading to cytoplasmic localization of p27Kip1. Nuclear localization and post-translational modifications of p27Kip1 were also demonstrated by catalase treatment of colorectal carcinoma and neuroblastoma cells, extending our findings to these other human cancer types. In conclusion, we showed in the present work that H(2)O(2) scavenging prevents nuclear exportation of p27Kip1, allowing cell cycle arrest, suggesting that cancer cells take advantage of their intrinsic pro-oxidant state to favor cytoplasmic localization of p27

  5. Phosphorylation and Subcellular Localization of p27Kip1 Regulated by Hydrogen Peroxide Modulation in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ibañez, Irene L.; Bracalente, Candelaria; Notcovich, Cintia; Tropper, Ivanna; Molinari, Beatriz L.; Policastro, Lucía L.; Durán, Hebe

    2012-01-01

    The Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1) is a key protein in the decision between proliferation and cell cycle exit. Quiescent cells show nuclear p27Kip1, but this protein is exported to the cytoplasm in response to proliferating signals. We recently reported that catalase treatment increases the levels of p27Kip1 in vitro and in vivo in a murine model. In order to characterize and broaden these findings, we evaluated the regulation of p27Kip1 by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human melanoma cells and melanocytes. We observed a high percentage of p27Kip1 positive nuclei in melanoma cells overexpressing or treated with exogenous catalase, while non-treated controls showed a cytoplasmic localization of p27Kip1. Then we studied the levels of p27Kip1 phosphorylated (p27p) at serine 10 (S10) and at threonine 198 (T198) because phosphorylation at these sites enables nuclear exportation of this protein, leading to accumulation and stabilization of p27pT198 in the cytoplasm. We demonstrated by western blot a decrease in p27pS10 and p27pT198 levels in response to H2O2 removal in melanoma cells, associated with nuclear p27Kip1. Melanocytes also exhibited nuclear p27Kip1 and lower levels of p27pS10 and p27pT198 than melanoma cells, which showed cytoplasmic p27Kip1. We also showed that the addition of H2O2 (0.1 µM) to melanoma cells arrested in G1 by serum starvation induces proliferation and increases the levels of p27pS10 and p27pT198 leading to cytoplasmic localization of p27Kip1. Nuclear localization and post-translational modifications of p27Kip1 were also demonstrated by catalase treatment of colorectal carcinoma and neuroblastoma cells, extending our findings to these other human cancer types. In conclusion, we showed in the present work that H2O2 scavenging prevents nuclear exportation of p27Kip1, allowing cell cycle arrest, suggesting that cancer cells take advantage of their intrinsic pro-oxidant state to favor cytoplasmic localization of p27Kip1. PMID

  6. Nkx3.1 and p27(KIP1) cooperate in proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in human androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Ma, Qi; Luo, JinDan; Liu, Ben; Tan, FuQing; Zhang, ZhiGen; Chen, ZhaoDian

    2009-05-01

    Prostate cancer (PC), which responds well to androgen ablation initially, invariably progresses to treatment resistance. The so-called androgen-independent PC is also a concern, since there is no effective therapy so far. Nkx3.1 is a putative prostate tumor suppressor that is expressed exclusively in the prostate under the regulation of androgen, and p27(KIP1) functions as a cell proliferation inhibitor and apoptosis trigger by disrupting the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-cyclin complex. Lack of expressions of Nkx3.1 and/or p27(KIP1) have been detected in most advanced PC and is associated with poor clinical progression. Here, we show that endogenous expressions of both Nkx3.1 and p27(KIP1) are lost in the androgen-independent PC3 PC cells, while remaining intact in LNCaP PC cells, which contain functional androgen receptor (AR) and are hormone-responsive. Ectopic restoration of either Nkx3.1 or p27(KIP1) in PC3 cells results in reduced cell proliferation, and increased cell death. Both effects are synergistically enhanced when the two molecules are coexpressed. p27(KIP1) overexpression in PC3 results in increased cell population ceased at the G0/G1 phase, and this cell-cycle-arresting effect is significantly enhanced by the coexpression of Nkx3.1. Flow cytometry further revealed that Nkx3.1 and p27(KIP1) also cooperatively render more PC3 cells undergoing apoptosis. Consistently, the coexpression of Nkx3.1 and p27(KIP1) leads to the decreased expression of Bcl-2 oncogene and a concomitantly upregulated Bax expression. It also activates caspase 3 and leads to increased cleavage of PARP. Our findings thus reveal the crucial relevance of the combined antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities of Nkx3.1 and p27(KIP1) in androgen-independent PC cells, and further suggest that a combined, rather than single gene manipulation may be of clinical value for hormone-refractory PC.

  7. Prognostic role of p27Kip1 and apoptosis in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Shen, Z-Z; Lu, J-S; Jiang, M; Han, Q-X; Fontana, J A; Barsky, S H; Shao, Z-M

    1999-01-01

    Human breast carcinoma is biologically heterogeneous, and its clinical course may vary from an indolent slowly progressive one to a course associated with rapid progression and metastatic spread. It is important to establish prognostic factors which will define subgroups of patients with low vs high risk of recurrence so as to better define the need for additional therapy. Additional characterization of the molecular make-up of breast cancer phenotypes should provide important insights into the biology of breast cancer. In the present study, we investigated apoptosis, expression of p27Kip1 and p53 retrospectively in 181 human breast cancer specimens. In addition, their relevance to the biological behaviour of breast cancer was examined. Our studies found a significant association among high histological grade, high p53, low apoptosis and low p27. Our results also demonstrated that, in human breast cancer, low levels of p27 and apoptotic index (AI) strongly correlated with the presence of lymph node metastasis and decreased patient survival. In node-negative patients, however, p27 also had prognostic value for relapse-free and overall survival in multivariate analysis. Furthermore p27 and AI had predictive value for the benefits of chemotherapy. These latter observations should prompt prospective randomized studies designed to investigate the predictive role of p27 and AI in determining who should receive chemotherapy in node-negative patients. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10188908

  8. miR-222 is upregulated in epithelial ovarian cancer and promotes cell proliferation by downregulating P27(kip1.)

    PubMed

    Sun, Chaoyang; Li, Na; Zhou, Bo; Yang, Zongyuan; Ding, Dong; Weng, Danhui; Meng, Li; Wang, Shixuan; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ma, Ding; Chen, Gang

    2013-08-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of female reproductive system cancer mortality in females. The majority of cases of ovarian carcinomas are not identified until a late stage. Identifying the molecular changes that occur during the development and progression of ovarian cancer is an urgent requirement. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as gene expression regulators that induce mRNA degradation or translation blockade through pairing to the 3' untranslated region (3-'UTR) of the target mRNAs. In the present study, miR-222 was observed to be frequently upregulated in ovarian cancer. miR-222 upregulation induced an enhancement of ovarian cancer cell proliferation potential, possibly by downregulating its target, P27(Kip1). A bioinformatic analysis showed that the 3'-UTR of the P27(Kip1) mRNA contained a highly-conserved putative miR-222 binding site. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that P27(Kip1) was a direct target of miR-222. Consistently, there was an inverse correlation between the P27(Kip1) and miR-222 expression levels in the ovarian cancer cell lines and tissues. Overall, the present results suggest that miR-222 upregulation in human ovarian cancer may promote ovarian cancer cell proliferation during ovarian carcinogenesis.

  9. miR-222 induces Adriamycin resistance in breast cancer through PTEN/Akt/p27(kip1) pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Yang, Su-Jin; Chen, Xiu; Shen, Hong-Yu; Luo, Long-Ji; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Zhong, Shan-Liang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Tang, Jin-Hai

    2016-11-01

    The high resistant rate of Adriamycin (Adr) is associated with a poor prognosis of breast cancer in women worldwide. Since miR-222 might contribute to chemoresistance in many cancer types, in this study, we aimed to investigate its efficacy in breast cancer through PTEN/Akt/p27 (kip1) pathway. Firstly, in vivo, we verified that miR-222 was upregulated in chemoresistant tissues after surgery compared with the paired preneoadjuvant samples of 21 breast cancer patients. Then, human breast cancer Adr-resistant cell line (MCF-7/Adr) was constructed to validate the pathway from the parental sensitive cell line (MCF-7/S). MCF-7/Adr and MCF-7/S were transfected with miR-222 mimics, miR-222 inhibitors, or their negative controls, respectively. The results showed that inhibition of miR-222 in MCF-7/Adr significantly increased the expressions of PTEN and p27 (kip1) and decreased phospho-Akt (p-Akt) both in mRNA and protein levels (p < 0.05) by using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot. MTT and flow cytometry suggested that lower expressed miR-222 enhanced apoptosis and decreased the IC50 of MCF-7/Adr cells. Additionally, immunofluorescence demonstrated that the subcellular location of p27 (kip1) was dislocated resulting from the alteration of miR-222. Conversely, in MCF-7/S transfected with miR-222 mimics, upregulation of miR-222 is associated with decreasing PTEN and p27 (kip1) and increasing Akt accompanied by less apoptosis and higher IC50. Importantly, Adr resistance induced by miR-222 overexpression through PTEN/Akt/p27 was completely blocked by LY294002, an Akt inhibitor. Taken together, these data firstly elucidated that miR-222 could reduce the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to Adr through PTEN/Akt/p27 (kip1) signaling pathway, which provided a potential target to increase the sensitivity to Adr in breast cancer treatment and further improved the prognosis of breast cancer patients.

  10. The Role of p27Kip1 in Dasatinib-Enhanced Paclitaxel Cytotoxicity in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Weiqun; He, Guangan; Claret, Francois-Xavier; Xia, Weiya; Ahmed, Ahmed Ashour; Hung, Mien-Chie; Siddik, Zahid H.; Bast, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Less than 50% of ovarian cancers respond to paclitaxel. Effective strategies are needed to enhance paclitaxel sensitivity. Methods A library of silencing RNAs (siRNAs) was used to identify kinases that regulate paclitaxel sensitivity in human ovarian cancer SKOv3 cells. The effect of dasatinib, an inhibitor of Src and Abl kinases, on paclitaxel sensitivity was measured in ovarian cancer cells and HEY xenografts. The roles of p27Kip1, Bcl-2, and Cdk1 in apoptosis induced by dasatinib and paclitaxel were assessed using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, siRNA knockdown of gene expression, transfection with Bcl-2 and Cdk1 expression vectors, and flow cytometry. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Src family and Abl kinases were identified as modulators of paclitaxel sensitivity in SKOv3 cells. The siRNA knockdown of Src, Fyn, or Abl1 enhanced paclitaxel-mediated growth inhibition in ovarian cancer cells compared with a control siRNA. HEY cells treated with dasatinib plus paclitaxel formed fewer colonies than did cells treated with either agent alone. Treatment of HEY xenograft–bearing mice with dasatinib plus paclitaxel inhibited tumor growth more than treatment with either agent alone (average tumor volume per mouse, dasatinib + paclitaxel vs paclitaxel: 0.28 vs 0.81 cm3, difference = 0.53 cm3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.44 to 0.62 cm3, P = .014); dasatinib + paclitaxel vs dasatinib: 0.28 vs 0.55 cm3, difference = 0.27 cm3, 95% CI = 0.21 to 0.33 cm3, P = .035). Combined treatment induced more TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells than did either agent alone. The siRNA knockdown of p27Kip1 decreased dasatinib- and paclitaxel-induced apoptosis compared with a negative control siRNA (sub-G1 fraction, control siRNA vs p27Kip1 siRNA: 42.5% vs 20.1%, difference = 22.4%, 95% CI = 20.1% to 24.7%, P = .017). Studies with forced expression and siRNA knockdown of Bcl-2 and Cdk1 suggest that dasatinib

  11. PI3K/AKT pathway-mediated regulation of p27(Kip1) is associated with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Shyam Babu; Yadav, Suresh Singh; Das, Mitali; Modi, Arusha; Kumari, Soni; Pandey, Lakshmi Kant; Singh, Sunita; Pradhan, Satyajit; Narayan, Gopeshwar

    2015-06-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) is known to act as a putative tumor suppressor in several human cancers, including cervical cancer. Down-regulation of p27(Kip1) may occur either through transcription inhibition or through phosphorylation-dependent proteolytic degradation. As yet, the mechanism underlying p27(Kip1) down-regulation and its putative downstream effects on cervical cancer development are poorly understood. Here we assessed the expression and sub-cellular localization of p27(Kip1) and its effects on proliferation, cell cycle progression and (inhibition of) apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Primary cervical cancer samples (n = 70), normal cervical tissue samples (n = 30) and cervical cancer-derived cell lines (n = 8) were used to assess the expression of p27(Kip1) and AKT1 by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The effects of the PI3K inhibitor LY294004 and the proteasome inhibitor MG132 on cervical cancer cell proliferation were investigated using a MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle analyses were carried out using flow cytometry, and sub-cellular p27(Kip1) localization analyses were carried out using immunofluorescence assays. We observed p27(Kip1) down-regulation (p = 0.045) and AKT1 up-regulation (p = 0.046) in both the primary cervical cancer samples and the cervical cancer-derived cell lines, compared to the normal cervical tissue samples tested. Treatment of cervical cancer-derived cell lines with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 resulted in a reduced AKT1 activity. We also observed a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability after treatment of these cell lines with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Treatment of the cells with LY294002 resulted in a G1 cell cycle arrest, a nuclear expression of p27(Kip1), and a cytoplasmic p27(Kip1) accumulation after subsequent treatment with MG132. Additionally, we found that the synergistic effect of MG132 and LY294002 resulted in a sub-G1 cell cycle

  12. Cip2a promotes cell cycle progression in triple-negative breast cancer cells by regulating the expression and nuclear export of p27Kip1.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Qiu, H; Song, Y; Liu, Y; Wang, H; Lu, M; Deng, M; Gu, Y; Yin, J; Luo, K; Zhang, Z; Jia, X; Zheng, G; He, Z

    2016-10-03

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is very aggressive and currently has no specific therapeutic targets; as a consequence, TNBC exhibits poor clinical outcome. In this study, we showed that cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (Cip2a) represents a promising target in TNBC because Cip2a was highly expressed in TNBC cells and tumor tissues, and its expression showed an inverse correlation with overall survival in patients with TNBC. We found that inhibition of Cip2a in TNBC cells induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, inhibited cell proliferation and delayed tumor growth in the xenograft model. Moreover, Cip2a markedly decreased the expression and nuclear localization of p27Kip1 and this is critical for the ability of Cip2a to promote TNBC progression. Mechanistically, our studies showed that Cip2a promoted p27Kip1 phosphoration at Ser10 via inhibiting Akt-associated PP2A activity, which seems to relocalize p27Kip1 to the cytoplasm in TNBC cells. On the other hand, Cip2a also recruited c-myc to mediate the transcriptional inhibition of p27Kip1. Notably, we observed negative correlation between Cip2a and p27Kip1 expression in TNBC specimens. In addition, our data showed that Cip2a depletion could sensitize TNBC to PARP inhibition. Collectively, these data suggested that Cip2a effectively promotes TNBC cell cycle progression and tumor growth via regulation of PP2A/c-myc/p27Kip1 signaling, which could serve as a potential therapeutic target for TNBC patients.Oncogene advance online publication, 3 October 2016; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.355.

  13. p27Kip1 in Stage III Colon Cancer: Implications for Outcome Following Adjuvant Chemotherapy in CALGB 89803

    PubMed Central

    Bertagnolli, Monica M.; Warren, Robert S.; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Mueller, Elke; Compton, Carolyn C.; Redston, Mark; Hall, Margaret; Hahn, Hejin P.; Jewell, Scott D.; Mayer, Robert J.; Goldberg, Richard M.; Saltz, Leonard B.; Loda, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Background In retrospective studies, loss of p27Kip1 (p27), a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, has been associated with poor prognosis following colorectal cancer treatment. In a prospective study, we validated this relationship in patients enrolled on a trial of adjuvant chemotherapy for Stage III colon cancer. Methods Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) protocol 89803 randomized 1264 stage III colon cancer patients to receive weekly bolus fluorouracil/leucovorin (5FU/LV) or weekly bolus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (IFL). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS); disease-free survival (DFS) was a secondary endpoint. Expression of p27 and DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in primary tumor and normal tissue from paraffin blocks. Data were analyzed using logrank test. Results Of 601 tumors analyzed, 207 (34.4%) demonstrated p27 loss, 377 (62.8%) retained p27, and 17 (2.8%) were indeterminate. Patients with p27 negative tumors showed reduced OS (5-year 66%; 95%CI 0.59-0.72 vs. 75%; 95%CI 0.70-0.79, logrank p=0.021). This relationship was not influenced by treatment arm. Combination of p27 status with MMR status, however, identified a small subset of patients that may benefit from IFL (n=36; 5-year DFS 81%; 95%CI 0.64-0.98 vs. 47%; 95%CI 0.21-0.72, logrank p=0.042; 5-year OS 81%; 95%CI 0.64-0.98 vs. 60%; 95%CI 0.35-0.85; logrank p=0.128). Conclusions Loss of p27 is associated with reduced survival in stage III colon cancer, but by itself does not indicate a significant difference in outcome between patients treated IFL or 5FU-LV. PMID:19276255

  14. miR-222 confers the resistance of breast cancer cells to Adriamycin through suppression of p27(kip1) expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Li, Jian; Sha, Huan-Huan; Chen, Xiu; Yang, Su-Jin; Shen, Hong-Yu; Zhong, Shan-Liang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Tang, Jin-Hai

    2016-09-15

    Adriamycin (Adr) is a potent chemotherapeutic agent for chemotherapy of breast cancer patients. Despite impressive initial clinical responses, some developed drug resistance to Adr-based therapy and the mechanisms underlying breast cancer cells resistance to Adr are not well known. In our previous study, in vitro, we verified that miR-222 was upregulated in Adr-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/Adr) compared with the sensitive parental cells (MCF-7/S). Here, miR-222 inhibitors or mimics were transfected into MCF-7 cell lines. RT-qPCR and western blot were used to detect the expression of p27(kip1). Immunofluorescence showed that miR-222 altered the subcellular location of p27(kip1) in nucleus. MTT was employed to verify the sensitivity of breast cancer cell lines to Adr. Flow cytometry showed the apoptosis and cell cycles of the cells after adding Adr. The results showed that downregulation of miR-222 in MCF-7/Adr increased sensitivity to Adr and Adr-induced apoptosis, and arrested the cells in G1 phase, accompanied by more expressions of p27(kip1), especially in nucleus. Furthermore, overexpressed miR-222 in MCF-7/S had the inverse results. Taken together, the results found that miR-222 induced Adr-resistance at least in part via suppressing p27(kip1) expression and altering its subcellular localization, and miR-222 inhibitors could reverse Adr-resistance of breast cancer cells. These results disclosed that the future holds much promise for the targeted therapeutic in the treatment of Adr-resistant breast cancer.

  15. Sumoylation in p27kip1 via RanBP2 promotes cancer cell growth in cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC939.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Liu, Yan; Wang, Bing; Lan, Hongzhen; Liu, Ying; Chen, Fei; Zhang, Ju; Luo, Jian

    2017-09-07

    Cholangiocarcinoma is one of the deadly disease with poor 5-year survival and poor response to conventional therapies. Previously, we found that p27kip1 nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation confers proliferation potential to cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC939 and this process is mediated by crm-1. However, no other post-transcriptional regulation was found in this process including sumoylation in cholangiocarcinoma. In this study, we explored the role of sumoylation in the nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of p27kip1 and its involvement of QBC939 cells' proliferation. First, we identified K73 as the sumoylation site in p27kip1. By utilizing plasmid flag-p27kip1, HA-RanBP2, GST-RanBP2 and His-p27kip1 and immunoprecipitation assay, we validated that p27kip1 can serve as the sumoylation target of RanBP2 in QBC939. Furthermore, we confirmed crm-1's role in promoting nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of p27kip1 and found that RanBP2's function relies on crm-1. However, K73R mutated p27kip1 can't be identified by crm-1 or RanBP2 in p27kip1 translocation process, suggesting sumoylation of p27kip1 via K73 site is necessary in this process by RanBP2 and crm-1. Phenotypically, the overexpression of either RanBP2 or crm-1 can partially rescue the anti-proliferative effect brought by p27kip1 overexpression in both the MTS and EdU assay. For the first time, we identified and validated the K73 sumoylation site in p27kip1, which is critical to RanBP2 and crm-1 in p27kip1 nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation process. Taken together, targeted inhibition of sumoylation of p27kip1 may serve as a potentially potent therapeutic target in the eradication of cholangiocarcinoma development and relapses.

  16. KDM4B and KDM4A promote endometrial cancer progression by regulating androgen receptor, c-myc, and p27kip1.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mei-Ting; Fan, Qiong; Zhu, Zhu; Kwan, Suet-Ying; Chen, Limo; Chen, Jin-Hong; Ying, Zuo-Lin; Zhou, Ye; Gu, Wei; Wang, Li-Hua; Cheng, Wei-Wei; Zeng, Jianfang; Wan, Xiao-Ping; Mok, Samuel C; Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Bao, Wei

    2015-10-13

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that elevated androgen levels and genetic variation related to the androgen receptor (AR) increase the risk of endometrial cancer (EC). However, the role of AR in EC is poorly understood. We report that two members of the histone demethylase KDM4 family act as major regulators of AR transcriptional activityin EC. In the MFE-296 cell line, KDM4B and AR upregulate c-myc expression, while in AN3CA cells KDM4A and AR downregulate p27kip1. Additionally, KDM4B expression is positively correlated with AR expression in EC cell lines with high baseline AR expression, while KDM4A and AR expression are positively correlated in low-AR cell lines. In clinical specimens, both KDM4B and KDM4A expression are significantly higher in EC tissues than that in normal endometrium. Finally, patients with alterations in AR, KDM4B, KDM4A, and c-myc have poor overall and disease-free survival rates. Together, these findings demonstrate that KDM4B and KDM4A promote EC progression by regulating AR activity.

  17. KDM4B and KDM4A promote endometrial cancer progression by regulating androgen receptor, c-myc, and p27kip1

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Suet-Ying; Chen, Limo; Chen, Jin-Hong; Ying, Zuo-Lin; Zhou, Ye; Gu, Wei; Wang, Li-Hua; Cheng, Wei-Wei; Zeng, Jianfang; Wan, Xiao-Ping; Mok, Samuel C.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Bao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that elevated androgen levels and genetic variation related to the androgen receptor (AR) increase the risk of endometrial cancer (EC). However, the role of AR in EC is poorly understood. We report that two members of the histone demethylase KDM4 family act as major regulators of AR transcriptional activityin EC. In the MFE-296 cell line, KDM4B and AR upregulate c-myc expression, while in AN3CA cells KDM4A and AR downregulate p27kip1. Additionally, KDM4B expression is positively correlated with AR expression in EC cell lines with high baseline AR expression, while KDM4A and AR expression are positively correlated in low-AR cell lines. In clinical specimens, both KDM4B and KDM4A expression are significantly higher in EC tissues than that in normal endometrium. Finally, patients with alterations in AR, KDM4B, KDM4A, and c-myc have poor overall and disease-free survival rates. Together, these findings demonstrate that KDM4B and KDM4A promote EC progression by regulating AR activity. PMID:26397136

  18. Carfilzomib induces G2/M cell cycle arrest in human endometrial cancer cells via upregulation of p21(Waf1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ke; Zhen, Shuai; Wang, Ruili; Luo, Wenjuan

    2016-12-01

    Carfilzomib is a second-generation tetrapeptide epoxyketone proteasome inhibitor used in current clinical therapy of hematologic malignancies. The mechanism of proteasome inhibition in endometrial cancer is not very clear. Carfilzomib inhibition of type I endometrial carcinoma cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase was investigated in our study. HEC-1-A and Ishikawa endometrial carcinoma cell lines and three tumor cell lines were treated by different concentrations of carfilzomib. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to detect cell viability. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle. Western blot was used to detect proteins involved in cell cycle progression. Carfilzomib impaired viability of myelogenous leukemia cell line K562, cervical cancer cell line HeLa, hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMCC-7721, and endometrial carcinoma cell lines HEC-1-A and Ishikawa. The cell cycle was arrested at the G2/M phase in carfilzomib-treated HEC-1-A endometrial carcinoma cells, while it was arrested at both S and G2/M phases in carfilzomib-treated Ishikawa cells. Carfilzomib treatment significantly induced p21(Waf1/ Cip1) and p27, while substantially reduced cyclin D3 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1. This study showed that carfilzomib inhibited endometrial cancer proliferation by upregulating cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(Waf1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1), and reducing cyclin-dependent kinase 1 to arrest the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. JAB1 expression is associated with inverse expression of p27(kip1) in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jun; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, You; Ma, Lilin; Ni, Qichao; Ke, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that overexpression of c-jun activation domain binding protein 1 (JAB1) and reduced expression of p27(kip1) are associated with advanced tumor stage and poor prognosis in several human cancers. Here, We investigated the functional role and correlation of JAB1 and p27(kip1) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immunohistochemical study for JAB1, p27(kip1) was performed on 76 cases of HCC and adjacent nontumorous tissues. 6 Fresh specimens of HCC and the adjacent liver tissue were collected for Western blot analysis. The influence of As2O3 on HCC SMMC-7721 cells, was detected by flow cytometry and Hochest staining. The expression and subcellular localization of p27(kip1) and JAB1 were investigated by Western blot and immunofluorescence. The expression of JAB1 was higher but p27(kip1) was lower in HCC than that in adjacent liver tissue. As2O3 treatment inhibited the growth of SMMC-7721 cells. In As2O3-treated cells, p27(kip1) expression was increased while JAB1 was decreased. The location of p27(kip1) and JAB1 were transferred from cytoplasm to nucleus. In HCC, JAB1 was inversely correlated with p27(kip1). As2O3 attenuated the expression of JAB1, disturbed the location and expression of p27(kip1), which may participate in regulating the growth of human hepatoma cells.

  20. p21/Cip1 and p27/Kip1 Are essential molecular targets of inositol hexaphosphate for its antitumor efficacy against prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Roy, Srirupa; Gu, Mallikarjuna; Ramasamy, Kumaraguruparan; Singh, Rana P; Agarwal, Chapla; Siriwardana, Sunitha; Sclafani, Robert A; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2009-02-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) causes G(1) arrest and increases cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21/Cip1 and p27/Kip1 protein levels in human prostate cancer (PCa) DU145 cells lacking functional p53. However, whether cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor I induction by IP6 plays any role in its antitumor efficacy is unknown. Herein, we observed that either p21 or p27 knockdown by small interfering RNA has no considerable effect on IP6-induced G(1) arrest, growth inhibition, and death in DU145 cells; however, the simultaneous knockdown of both p21 and p27 reversed the effects of IP6. To further confirm these findings both in vitro and in vivo, we generated DU145 cell variants with knockdown levels of p21 (DU-p21), p27 (DU-p27), or both (DU-p21+p27) via retroviral transduction of respective short hairpin RNAs. Knocking down p21 or p27 individually did not alter IP6-caused cell growth inhibition and G(1) arrest; however, their simultaneous ablation completely reversed the effects of IP6. In tumor xenograft studies, IP6 (2% w/v, in drinking water) caused a comparable reduction in tumor volume (40-46%) and tumor cell proliferation (26-28%) in DU-EV (control), DU-p21, and DU-p27 tumors but lost most of its effect in DU-p21+p27 tumors. IP6-caused apoptosis also occurred in a Cip/Kip-dependent manner because DU-p21+p27 cells were completely resistant to IP6-induced apoptosis both in cell culture and xenograft. Together, these results provide evidence, for the first time, of the critical role of p21 and p27 in mediating the anticancer efficacy of IP6, and suggest their redundant role in the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of IP6 in p53-lacking human PCa cells, both in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Magnolol elicits activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway by inducing p27KIP1-mediated G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest in human urinary bladder cancer 5637 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Se-Jung; Cho, Young-Hwa; Park, Keerang; Kim, Eun-Jung; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2008-06-15

    Magnolol has been reported to play a role in antitumor activity. However, the relevant pathway integrating cell cycle regulation and signaling pathways involved in growth inhibition in cancer cells remains to be identified. In the present study, magnolol treatment of these cells resulted in significant dose-dependent growth inhibition together with apoptosis, G1- and G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest at a 60 microM (IC50) dose in 5637 bladder cancer cells. In addition, magnolol treatment strongly induced p27KIP1 expression, and down-regulated expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins. Moreover, treatment with magnolol-induced phosphorylation of ERK, p38 MAP kinase, and JNK. Among the pathway inhibitors examined, only PD98059, an ERK-specific inhibitor, blocked magnolol-dependent p27KIP1 expression. Blockade of ERK function consistently reversed magnolol-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation and decreased G2/M cell cycle proteins, but not G1 cell cycle proteins. Furthermore, magnolol treatment increased both Ras and Raf activation. Transfection of cells with dominant negative Ras (RasN17) and Raf (RafS621A) mutant genes suppressed magnolol-induced ERK activity and p27KIP1 expression. Finally, the magnolol-induced reduction in cell proliferation and G2/M cell cycle proteins was also abolished in the presence of RasN17 and RafS621A mutant genes. These data demonstrate that the Ras/Raf/ERK pathway participates in p27KIP1 induction, leading to a decrease in the levels of cyclin B1/Cdc2 complexes and magnolol-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Overall, these novel findings concerning the molecular mechanisms of magnolol in 5637 bladder cancer cells provide a theoretical basis for therapeutic treatment of malignancies.

  2. Prodigiosin down-regulates SKP2 to induce p27KIP1 stabilization and antiproliferation in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Hsin-Ying; Shieh, Jeng-Jer; Chen, Chun-Jung; Pan, Mu-Yun; Yang, Shu-Yi; Lin, Shin-Chang; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Chang, Chia-Che

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE High levels of SKP2 are a poor prognostic factor in multiple human cancers and mostly correlate with low p27KIP1 levels. Prodigiosin is a bacterial tripyrrole pigment with strong pro-apoptotic activity. Induction of cell cycle blockade underlies one of its anticancer actions but the mechanisms involved are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the role of the SKP2–p27KIP1 axis in prodigiosin's cytostatic effect on human lung adenocarcinoma cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Prodigiosin's effects on cell cycle progression and long-term cell proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma cells were characterized by flow cytometry and colony formation assay, respectively. Real-time RT-PCR and promoter activity analyses were performed for assessing transcriptional control, while cycloheximide chase analysis evaluated protein stability. Immunoblotting was employed for mechanistic study. KEY RESULTS Prodigiosin increased p27KIP1 expression mainly by stabilizing p27KIP1 through transcriptional repression of SKP2. Importantly, SKP2 overexpression or p27KIP1 depletion restored the colony forming capacity of prodigiosin-treated cells. Furthermore, prodigiosin induced PKB dephosphorylation, leading to PKB inhibition as revealed by decreased serine 9 phosphorylation of GSK-3β. Constitutive PKB activation reduced prodigiosin-induced SKP2 repression. Prodigiosin also down-regulated E2F1 (mediates PI3K/PKB-induced SKP2 transcription), but E2F1 overexpression failed to restore SKP2 expression in prodigiosin-treated cells. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Transcriptional repression of SKP2 and the consequent accumulation of p27KIP1 are essential for prodigiosin's antiproliferative action. Mechanistically, prodigiosin induces PKB inhibition to down-regulate SKP2 in a GSK-3β- and E2F1-independent manner. Our findings further implicate the potential for developing prodigiosin as a novel class of SKP2-targeting anticancer agent. PMID:22372491

  3. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) blocks proliferation of human breast cancer cells through a PKCdelta-dependent increase in p27Kip1 and decrease in retinoblastoma protein (pRb) phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Vucenik, Ivana; Ramakrishna, Gayatri; Tantivejkul, Kwanchanit; Anderson, Lucy M; Ramljak, Danica

    2005-05-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate with demonstrated anti-proliferative and anti-cancer activity in mammary cells. We hypothesized that IP6 modulates cell cycle proteins by action on cytoplasmic signaling molecules. The effects of both pharmacological (2 mM) and physiological (100 microM) doses of IP6 on major PKC isoforms (PKCalpha, delta, epsilon, beta and zeta), PI3-K/Akt and ras/Erk1/2 were evaluated. Treatment of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells with 2 mM IP6 for 24 h caused a 3.1-fold increase in the expression of anti-proliferative PKCdelta. Similar results were observed with 100 microM IP6 at only 30-60 min post-treatment. IP6 also caused an increase in PKCdelta activity, shown by its translocation from cytosol to membrane. No changes in expression of PKC alpha, delta, epsilon, beta and zeta were detected. Additionally, IP6 caused a decrease of Erk1/2 and Akt activity. Among cell cycle control proteins, IP6 resulted in increased p27Kip1 protein levels and marked reduction of pRb phosphorylation. Specificity of the IP6 effects on p27Kip1 and pRb in MCF-7 cells (hormone-dependent) were additionally confirmed in highly invasive hormone-independent MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells. Use of specific pharmaclogical inhibitors of PKC delta, MEK/Erk, and PI3K/Akt pathways indicated that the IP6-mediated effects on PKC delta were responsible for up-regulation of p27Kip, and pRb hypo-phosphorylation. In addition, IP6-induced apoptosis detected in MCF-7 cells appeared also to be PKC delta-dependent. Our data suggest potential usefulness of IP6 as a novel therapeutic modulator of PKC delta and p27Kip1, an important prognostic factor in human breast cancers.

  4. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induced cell cycle arrest and growth inhibition in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells via regulation of Skp2, p53, p21Cip1 and p27Kip1.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ping; Lin, Ching-Yu; Huo, Chieh; Hsiao, Ping-Hsuan; Su, Liang-Cheng; Jiang, Shih Sheng; Chan, Tzu-Min; Chang, Chung-Ho; Chen, Li-Tzong; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Wang, Horng-Dar; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2015-03-30

    Prostate cancer (PCa) patients receiving the androgen ablation therapy ultimately develop recurrent castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) within 1-3 years. Treatment with caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) suppressed cell survival and proliferation via induction of G1 or G2/M cell cycle arrest in LNCaP 104-R1, DU-145, 22Rv1, and C4-2 CRPC cells. CAPE treatment also inhibited soft agar colony formation and retarded nude mice xenograft growth of LNCaP 104-R1 cells. We identified that CAPE treatment significantly reduced protein abundance of Skp2, Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk7, Rb, phospho-Rb S807/811, cyclin A, cyclin D1, cyclin H, E2F1, c-Myc, SGK, phospho-p70S6kinase T421/S424, phospho-mTOR Ser2481, phospho-GSK3α Ser21, but induced p21Cip1, p27Kip1, ATF4, cyclin E, p53, TRIB3, phospho-p53 (Ser6, Ser33, Ser46, Ser392), phospho-p38 MAPK Thr180/Tyr182, Chk1, Chk2, phospho-ATM S1981, phospho-ATR S428, and phospho-p90RSK Ser380. CAPE treatment decreased Skp2 and Akt1 protein expression in LNCaP 104-R1 tumors as compared to control group. Overexpression of Skp2, or siRNA knockdown of p21Cip1, p27Kip1, or p53 blocked suppressive effect of CAPE treatment. Co-treatment of CAPE with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT737 showed synergistic suppressive effects. Our finding suggested that CAPE treatment induced cell cycle arrest and growth inhibition in CRPC cells via regulation of Skp2, p53, p21Cip1, and p27Kip1.

  5. Downregulation of the KIP family members p27(KIP1) and p57(KIP2) by SKP2 and the role of methylation in p57(KIP2) inactivation in nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pateras, Ioannis S; Apostolopoulou, Kalliopi; Koutsami, Marilena; Evangelou, Kostas; Tsantoulis, Petros; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Nikolaidis, Giorgos; Sigala, Fragiska; Kittas, Christos; Field, John K; Kotsinas, Athanassios; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G

    2006-12-01

    Knowing the status of molecules involved in cell cycle control in cancer is vital for therapeutic approaches aiming at their restoration. The p27(KIP1) and p57(KIP2) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors are nodal factors controlling normal cell cycle. Their expression in normal lung raises the question whether they have a mutual exclusive or redundant role in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A comparative comprehensive analysis was performed in a series of 70 NSCLCs. The majority of cases showed significantly reduced expression of both members compared to normal counterparts. Low KIP protein levels correlated with increased proliferation, which seems to be histological subtype preponderant. At mechanistic level, degradation by SKP2 was demonstrated, in vivo and in vitro, by siRNA-methodology, to be the most important downregulating mechanism of both KIPs in NSCLC. Decreased p57(KIP) (2)-transcription complements the above procedure in lowering p57(KIP2)-protein levels. Methylation was the main cause of decreased p57(KIP) (2)-mRNA levels. Allelic loss and imprinting from LIT1 mRNA contribute also to decreased p57(KIP2) transcription. In vitro recapitulation of the in vivo findings, in A549 lung cells (INK4A-B((-/-))), suggested that inhibition of the SKP2-degradation mechanism restores p27(KIP1) and p57(KIP2) expression. Double siRNA treatments demonstrated that each KIP is independently capable of restraining cell growth. An additional demethylation step is required for complete reconstitution of p57(KIP2) expression in NSCLC.

  6. CBP and p27KIP1 in Prostate Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    acid ( SAHA ), are effective for the treatment of prostate tumors developed in CBP/p27KIP1 mice. As scheduled in our proposal, we have generated CBP...on tumors developed in CBP/p27KIP1 double knockout mice. 6. References Fero ML et al., A syndrome of multiorgan hyperplasia with features of

  7. Genetic association between the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor gene p27/Kip1 polymorphism (rs34330) and cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao-Ke; Wang, Xue-Jun; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ren, Xue-Qun

    2017-01-01

    The p27 rs34330 (-79C/T) polymorphism has been widely studied for human cancer susceptibility. The current findings, however, still remained controversial. Therefore, we performed the meta-analysis to provide a more accurate result. Eligible studies were identified from PubMed database up to June 2015. The association of p27 rs34330 polymorphism and cancer susceptibility was estimated with odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. The meta-analysis was performed with Stata 12. A total of ten studies with 11,214 cases and more than 8,776 controls were included in the meta-analysis (including breast, lung, thyroid, endometrial, and hepatocellular cancer). In pooled analysis, p27 gene rs34330 polymorphism significantly increased the cancer susceptibility. Subgroup analysis indicated that the elevated risk was observed under all the genetic models for Asians and under three genetic models for Caucasians. Results of sensitivity analysis were similar to the overall results. The results suggested that the p27 rs34330 polymorphism increased the cancer susceptibility, especially in Asians. Further well-designed and large sample size studies are warranted to verify the conclusion. PMID:28317869

  8. The interplay between TEAD4 and KLF5 promotes breast cancer partially through inhibiting the transcription of p27Kip1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunyan; Nie, Zhi; Zhou, Zhongmei; Zhang, Hailin; Liu, Rong; Wu, Jing; Qin, Junying; Ma, Yun; Chen, Liang; Li, Shumo; Chen, Wenlin; Li, Fubing; Shi, Peiguo; Wu, Yingying; Shen, Jian; Chen, Ceshi

    2015-07-10

    Growing evidence suggests that YAP/TAZ are mediators of the Hippo pathway and promote breast cancer. However, the roles of YAP/TAZ transcription factor partners TEADs in breast cancer remain unclear. Here we found that TEAD4 was expressed in breast cancer cell lines, especially in triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) cell lines. TEAD4 binds to KLF5. Knockdown of either TEAD4 or KLF5 in HCC1937 and HCC1806 cells induced the expression of CDK inhibitor p27. Depletion of either TEAD4 or KLF5 activated the p27 gene promoter and increased the p27 mRNA levels. Depletion of p27 partially prevents growth inhibition caused by TEAD4 and KLF5 knockdown. TEAD4 overexpression stimulated proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in mice, while stable knockdown of TEAD4 inhibited proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in mice. Thus TEAD4 and KLF5, in collaboration, promoted TNBC cell proliferation and tumor growth in part by inhibiting p27 gene transcription. TEAD4 is a potential target and biomarker for the development of novel therapeutics for breast cancer.

  9. The interplay between TEAD4 and KLF5 promotes breast cancer partially through inhibiting the transcription of p27Kip1

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhongmei; Zhang, Hailin; Liu, Rong; Wu, Jing; Qin, Junying; Ma, Yun; Chen, Liang; Li, Shumo; Chen, Wenlin; Li, Fubing; Shi, Peiguo; Wu, Yingying; Shen, Jian; Chen, Ceshi

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that YAP/TAZ are mediators of the Hippo pathway and promote breast cancer. However, the roles of YAP/TAZ transcription factor partners TEADs in breast cancer remain unclear. Here we found that TEAD4 was expressed in breast cancer cell lines, especially in triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) cell lines. TEAD4 binds to KLF5. Knockdown of either TEAD4 or KLF5 in HCC1937 and HCC1806 cells induced the expression of CDK inhibitor p27. Depletion of either TEAD4 or KLF5 activated the p27 gene promoter and increased the p27 mRNA levels. Depletion of p27 partially prevents growth inhibition caused by TEAD4 and KLF5 knockdown. TEAD4 overexpression stimulated proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in mice, while stable knockdown of TEAD4 inhibited proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in mice. Thus TEAD4 and KLF5, in collaboration, promoted TNBC cell proliferation and tumor growth in part by inhibiting p27 gene transcription. TEAD4 is a potential target and biomarker for the development of novel therapeutics for breast cancer. PMID:25970772

  10. p27kip1 overexpression promotes paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in pRb-defective SaOs-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Gabellini, Chiara; Pucci, Bruna; Valdivieso, Paola; D'Andrilli, Giuseppina; Tafani, Marco; De Luca, Antonio; Masciullo, Valeria

    2006-08-15

    p27kip1 is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, which controls several cellular processes in strict collaboration with pRb. We evaluated the role of p27kip1 in paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in the pRb-defective SaOs-2 cells. Following 48 h of exposure of SaOs-2 cells to 100 nM paclitaxel, we observed an increase in p27kip1 expression caused by the decrease of the ubiquitin-proteasome activity. Such increase was not observed in SaOs-2 cells treated with the caspase inhibitors Z-VAD-FMK, suggesting that p27kip1 enhancement at 48 h is strictly related to apoptosis. Finally, we demonstrated that SaOs-2 cells transiently overexpressing the p27kip1 protein are more susceptible to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis than SaOs-2 cells transiently transfected with the empty vector. Indeed, after 48 h of paclitaxel treatment, 41.8% of SaOs-2 cells transiently transfected with a pcDNA3-p27kip1 construct were Annexin V-positive compared to 30.6% of SaOs-2 cells transfected with the empty vector (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrated that transfection of the pRb-defective SaOs-2 cells with the p27kip1 gene via plasmid increases their susceptibility to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. The promoting effect of p27kip1 overexpression on apoptosis makes p27kip1 and proteasomal inhibitors interesting tools for therapy in patients with pRb-defective cancers. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Clinicopathological Comparison of Adenocarcinoma of Cervix and Endometrium Using Cell Cycle Markers: P16ink4a, P21waf1, and p27Kip1 on 132 Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Marican Abu Backer, Farveen; Nik Mustapha, Nik Raihan; Othman, Nor Hayati

    2011-01-01

    Objective. We studied the clinicopathological parameters of adenocarcinoma arising from endocervix (ECA) and from endometrium (EMA) based on the expression of P16ink4a, P21waf1, and p27Kip1 proteins. Study Design. Immunohistochemistry was done on sections of confirmed ECA and EMA from hysterectomy specimens which have had no prior chemotherapy/radiotherapy. Results. There were 40 ECAs and 92 EMAs. The mean age of ECA was 49.82 (SD 10.29); the youngest was 30 years old and the oldest 75 years old. The mean age of EMA was 54.45 (SD 10.92); the youngest was 30 years old and the oldest was 82 years old. For ECA, the size of the tumour is significantly associated with age and with depth of infiltration. FIGO stage is associated with histological grade. p21WAF1 expression is significantly associated with infiltration of the corpus and lymph node metastasis. p27Kip1 expression is significantly associated with lymph node invasion. The presence of lymph node metastasis is strongly associated when p16INK4a and p27Kip1 expressions are analyzed in combination. For EMA, p16INK4a expression is associated with histologic grade. Conclusion. Our study shows that we could use these cell cycle markers as predictors for more aggressive subsets of adenocarcinoma of the cervix and endometrium. PMID:22114462

  12. The homeodomain protein Cux1 interacts with Grg4 to repress p27 kip1 expression during kidney development.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Madhulika; Brantley, Jennifer G; Vassmer, Dianne; Chaturvedi, Gaurav; Baas, Jennifer; Vanden Heuvel, Gregory B

    2009-06-15

    The homeodomain protein Cux1 is highly expressed in the nephrogenic zone of the developing kidney where it functions to regulate cell proliferation. Here we show that Cux1 directly interacts with the co-repressor Grg4 (Groucho 4), a known effector of Notch signaling. Promoter reporter based luciferase assays revealed enhanced repression of p27(kip1) promoter activity by Cux1 in the presence of Grg4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated the direct interaction of Cux1 with p27(kip1) in newborn kidney tissue in vivo. ChIP assays also identified interactions of Cux1, Grg4, HDAC1, and HDAC3 with p27(kip1) at two separate sites in the p27(kip1) promoter. DNAse1 footprinting experiments revealed that Cux1 binds to the p27(kip1) promoter on the sequence containing two Sp1 sites and a CCAAT box approximately 500 bp from the transcriptional start site, and to an AT rich sequence approximately 1.5 kb from the transcriptional start site. Taken together, these results identify Grg4 as an interacting partner for Cux1 and suggest a mechanism of p27(kip1) repression by Cux1 during kidney development.

  13. Inhibitors of SCF-Skp2/Cks1 E3 Ligase Block Estrogen-Induced Growth Stimulation and Degradation of Nuclear p27kip1: Therapeutic Potential for Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pavlides, Savvas C.; Huang, Kuang-Tzu; Reid, Dylan A.; Wu, Lily; Blank, Stephanie V.; Mittal, Khushbakhat; Guo, Lankai; Rothenberg, Eli; Rueda, Bo; Cardozo, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In many human cancers, the tumor suppressor, p27kip1 (p27), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor critical to cell cycle arrest, undergoes perpetual ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation by the E3 ligase complex SCF-Skp2/Cks1 and/or cytoplasmic mislocalization. Lack of nuclear p27 causes aberrant cell cycle progression, and cytoplasmic p27 mediates cell migration/metastasis. We previously showed that mitogenic 17-β-estradiol (E2) induces degradation of p27 by the E3 ligase Skp1-Cullin1-F-Box- S phase kinase-associated protein2/cyclin dependent kinase regulatory subunit 1 in primary endometrial epithelial cells and endometrial carcinoma (ECA) cell lines, suggesting a pathogenic mechanism for type I ECA, an E2-induced cancer. The current studies show that treatment of endometrial carcinoma cells-1 (ECC-1) with small molecule inhibitors of Skp2/Cks1 E3 ligase activity (Skp2E3LIs) stabilizes p27 in the nucleus, decreases p27 in the cytoplasm, and prevents E2-induced proliferation and degradation of p27 in endometrial carcinoma cells-1 and primary ECA cells. Furthermore, Skp2E3LIs increase p27 half-life by 6 hours, inhibit cell proliferation (IC50, 14.3μM), block retinoblastoma protein (pRB) phosphorylation, induce G1 phase block, and are not cytotoxic. Similarly, using super resolution fluorescence localization microscopy and quantification, Skp2E3LIs increase p27 protein in the nucleus by 1.8-fold. In vivo, injection of Skp2E3LIs significantly increases nuclear p27 and reduces proliferation of endometrial epithelial cells by 42%–62% in ovariectomized E2-primed mice. Skp2E3LIs are specific inhibitors of proteolytic degradation that pharmacologically target the binding interaction between the E3 ligase, SCF-Skp2/Cks1, and p27 to stabilize nuclear p27 and prevent cell cycle progression. These targeted inhibitors have the potential to be an important therapeutic advance over general proteasome inhibitors for cancers characterized by SCF-Skp2/Cks1-mediated

  14. p27Kip1 Is Required to Mediate a G1 Cell Cycle Arrest Downstream of ATM following Genotoxic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cassimere, Erica K.; Mauvais, Claire; Denicourt, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is a coordinated signaling network that ensures the maintenance of genome stability under DNA damaging stress. In response to DNA lesions, activation of the DDR leads to the establishment of cell cycle checkpoints that delay cell-cycle progression and allow repair of the defects. The tumor suppressor p27Kip1 is a cyclin-CDK inhibitor that plays an important role in regulating quiescence in a variety of tissues. Several studies have suggested that p27Kip1 also plays a role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Here we demonstrate that p27Kip1 is essential for the establishment of a G1 checkpoint arrest after DNA damage. We also uncovered that ATM phosphorylates p27Kip1 on a previously uncharacterized residue (Ser-140), which leads to its stabilization after induction of DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of this stabilization by replacing endogenous p27Kip1 with a Ser-140 phospho-mutant (S140A) significantly sensitized cells to IR treatments. Our findings reveal a novel role for p27Kip1 in the DNA damage response pathway and suggest that part of its tumor suppressing functions relies in its ability to mediate a G1 arrest after the induction of DNA double strand breaks. PMID:27611996

  15. The B56γ3 regulatory subunit-containing protein phosphatase 2A outcompetes Akt to regulate p27KIP1 subcellular localization by selectively dephosphorylating phospho-Thr157 of p27KIP1

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tai-Yu; Yang, Yu-San; Hong, Wei-Fu; Chiang, Chi-Wu

    2016-01-01

    The B56γ-containing protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-B56γ) has been postulated to have tumor suppressive functions. Here, we report regulation of p27KIP1 subcellular localization by PP2A-B56γ3. B56γ3 overexpression enhanced nuclear localization of p27KIP1, whereas knockdown of B56γ3 decreased p27KIP1 nuclear localization. B56γ3 overexpression decreased phosphorylation at Thr157 (phospho-Thr157), whose phosphorylation promotes cytoplasmic localization of p27KIP1, whereas B56γ3 knockdown significantly increased the level of phospho-Thr157. In vitro, PP2A-B56γ3 catalyzed dephosphorylation of phospho-Thr157 in a dose-dependent and okadaic acid-sensitive manner. B56γ3 did not increase p27KIP1 nuclear localization by down-regulating the upstream kinase Akt activity and outcompeted a myristoylated constitutively active Akt (Aktca) in regulating Thr157 phosphorylation and subcellular localization of p27KIP1. In addition, results of interaction domain mapping revealed that both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of p27 and a domain at the C-terminus of B56γ3 are required for interaction between p27 and B56γ3. Furthermore, we demonstrated that p27KIP1 levels are positively correlated with B56γ levels in both non-tumor and tumor parts of a set of human colon tissue specimens. However, positive correlation between nuclear p27KIP1 levels and B56γ levels was found only in the non-tumor parts, but not in tumor parts of these tissues, implicating a dysregulation in PP2A-B56γ3-regulated p27KIP1 nuclear localization in these tumor tissues. Altogether, this study provides a new mechanism by which the PP2A-B56γ3 holoenzyme plays its tumor suppressor role. PMID:26684356

  16. p27KIP1 is abnormally expressed in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas and is associated with an adverse clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, Al; Sánchez, E; Sánchez-Beato, M; Cruz, M A; Chacón, I; Muñoz, E; Camacho, F I; Martínez-Montero, J C; Mollejo, M; Garcia, J F; Piris, M A

    1999-01-01

    Cell cycle progression is regulated by the combined action of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and CDK-inhibitors (CDKi), which are negative cell cycle regulators. p27KIP1 is a CDKi key in cell cycle regulation, whose degradation is required for G1/S transition. In spite of the absence of p27KIP1 expression in proliferating lymphocytes, some aggressive B-cell lymphomas have been reported to show an anomalous p27KIP1 staining. We analysed p27KIP1 expression in a series of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), correlating it with the proliferative index and clinical outcome, to characterize the implications of this anomalous staining in lymphomagenesis in greater depth. For the above mentioned purposes, an immunohistochemical technique in paraffin-embedded tissues was employed, using commercially available antibodies, in a series of 133 patients with known clinical outcomes. Statistical analysis was performed in order to ascertain which clinical and molecular variables may influence outcome, in terms of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The relationships between p27KIP1 and MIB-1 (Ki-67) were also tested. An abnormally high expression of p27KIP1 was found in lymphomas of this type. The overall correlation between p27KIP1 and MIB-1 showed there to be no significant relationship between these two parameters, this differing from observations in reactive lymphoid and other tissues. Analysis of the clinical relevance of these findings showed that a high level of p27KIP1 expression in this type of tumour is an adverse prognostic marker, in both univariate and multivariate analysis. These results show that there is abnormal p27KIP1 expression in DLBCL, with adverse clinical significance, suggesting that this anomalous p27KIP1 protein may be rendered non-functional through interaction with other cell cycle regulator proteins. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10424746

  17. Interferon-γ-induced p27KIP1 binds to and targets MYC for proteasome-mediated degradation

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Siti Mariam; Frings, Oliver; Fahlén, Sara; Nilsson, Helén; Goodwin, Jacob; von der Lehr, Natalie; Su, Yingtao; Lüscher, Bernhard; Castell, Alina; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The Myc oncoprotein is tightly regulated at multiple levels including ubiquitin-mediated protein turnover. We recently demonstrated that inhibition of Cdk2-mediated phosphorylation of Myc at Ser-62 pharmacologically or through interferon (IFN)-γ-induced expression of p27Kip1 (p27) repressed Myc's activity to suppress cellular senescence and differentiation. In this study we identified an additional activity of p27 to interfere with Myc independent of Ser-62 phosphorylation. p27 is required and sufficient for IFN-γ-induced turnover of Myc. p27 interacted with Myc in the nucleus involving the C-termini of the two proteins, including Myc box 4 of Myc. The C-terminus but not the Cdk2 binding fragment of p27 was sufficient for inducing Myc degradation. Protein expression data of The Cancer Genome Atlas breast invasive carcinoma set revealed significantly lower Myc protein levels in tumors with highly expressed p27 lacking phosphorylation at Thr-157 - a marker for active p27 localized in the nucleus. Further, these conditions correlated with favorable tumor stage and patient outcome. This novel regulation of Myc by IFN-γ/p27KIP1 potentially offers new possibilities for therapeutic intervention in tumors with deregulated Myc. PMID:26701207

  18. Contact inhibition modulates intracellular levels of miR-223 in a p27kip1-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Armenia, Joshua; Fabris, Linda; Lovat, Francesca; Berton, Stefania; Segatto, Ilenia; D'Andrea, Sara; Ivan, Cristina; Cascione, Luciano; Calin, George A.; Croce, Carlo M.; Colombatti, Alfonso; Vecchione, Andrea; Belletti, Barbara; Baldassarre, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are a large class of small regulatory RNAs that function as nodes of signaling networks. This implicates that miRs expression has to be finely tuned, as observed during cell cycle progression. Here, using an expression profiling approach, we provide evidence that the CDK inhibitor p27Kip1 regulates miRs expression following cell cycle exit. By using wild type and p27KO cells harvested in different phases of the cell cycle we identified several miRs regulated by p27Kip1 during the G1 to S phase transition. Among these miRs, we identified miR-223 as a miR specifically upregulated by p27Kip1 in G1 arrested cells. Our data demonstrate that p27Kip1 regulated the expression of miR-223, via two distinct mechanisms. p27Kip1 directly stabilized mature miR-223 expression, acting as a RNA binding protein and it controlled E2F1 expression that, in turn, regulated miR-223 promoter activity. The resulting elevated miR-223 levels ultimately participated to arresting cell cycle progression following contact inhibition. Importantly, this mechanism of growth control was conserved in human cells and deranged in breast cancers. Here, we identify a novel and conserved function of p27Kip1 that, by modulating miR-223 expression, contributes to proper regulation of cell cycle exit following contact inhibition. Thus we propose a new role for miR-223 in the regulation of breast cancer progression. PMID:24727437

  19. Contact inhibition modulates intracellular levels of miR-223 in a p27kip1-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Armenia, Joshua; Fabris, Linda; Lovat, Francesca; Berton, Stefania; Segatto, Ilenia; D'Andrea, Sara; Ivan, Cristina; Cascione, Luciano; Calin, George A; Croce, Carlo M; Colombatti, Alfonso; Vecchione, Andrea; Belletti, Barbara; Baldassarre, Gustavo

    2014-03-15

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are a large class of small regulatory RNAs that function as nodes of signaling networks. This implicates that miRs expression has to be finely tuned, as observed during cell cycle progression. Here, using an expression profiling approach, we provide evidence that the CDK inhibitor p27Kip1 regulates miRs expression following cell cycle exit. By using wild type and p27KO cells harvested in different phases of the cell cycle we identified several miRs regulated by p27Kip1 during the G1 to S phase transition. Among these miRs, we identified miR-223 as a miR specifically upregulated by p27Kip1 in G1 arrested cells. Our data demonstrate that p27Kip1 regulated the expression of miR-223, via two distinct mechanisms. p27Kip1 directly stabilized mature miR-223 expression, acting as a RNA binding protein and it controlled E2F1 expression that, in turn, regulated miR-223 promoter activity. The resulting elevated miR-223 levels ultimately participated to arresting cell cycle progression following contact inhibition. Importantly, this mechanism of growth control was conserved in human cells and deranged in breast cancers. Here, we identify a novel and conserved function of p27Kip1 that, by modulating miR-223 expression, contributes to proper regulation of cell cycle exit following contact inhibition. Thus we propose a new role for miR-223 in the regulation of breast cancer progression.

  20. The p27Kip1 tumor suppressor gene: Still a suspect or proven guilty?

    PubMed

    Polyak, Kornelia

    2006-11-01

    The p27Kip1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor is considered to be a tumor suppressor even though somatic mutations in p27Kip1 are only rarely detected in human tumors. On the other hand, overwhelming evidence indicates that its hemizygous or posttranscriptional loss plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Based on these data, p27Kip1 was classified as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor whose protein level has to be fine-tuned for optimal function. However, a recent study links germline mutations in p27Kip1 to multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome in rats and humans, thus establishing p27Kip1 as a bona fide tumor suppressor gene.

  1. Mcl1 regulates the terminal mitosis of neural precursor cells in the mammalian brain through p27Kip1.

    PubMed

    Hasan, S M Mahmudul; Sheen, Ashley D; Power, Angela M; Langevin, Lisa Marie; Xiong, Jieying; Furlong, Michael; Day, Kristine; Schuurmans, Carol; Opferman, Joseph T; Vanderluit, Jacqueline L

    2013-08-01

    Cortical development requires the precise timing of neural precursor cell (NPC) terminal mitosis. Although cell cycle proteins regulate terminal mitosis, the factors that influence the cell cycle machinery are incompletely understood. Here we show in mice that myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl1), an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein required for the survival of NPCs, also regulates their terminal differentiation through the cell cycle regulator p27(Kip1). A BrdU-Ki67 cell profiling assay revealed that in utero electroporation of Mcl1 into NPCs in the embryonic neocortex increased NPC cell cycle exit (the leaving fraction). This was further supported by a decrease in proliferating NPCs (Pax6(+) radial glial cells and Tbr2(+) neural progenitors) and an increase in differentiating cells (Dcx(+) neuroblasts and Tbr1(+) neurons). Similarly, BrdU birth dating demonstrated that Mcl1 promotes premature NPC terminal mitosis giving rise to neurons of the deeper cortical layers, confirming their earlier birthdate. Changes in Mcl1 expression within NPCs caused concomitant changes in the levels of p27(Kip1) protein, a key regulator of NPC differentiation. Furthermore, in the absence of p27(Kip1), Mcl1 failed to induce NPC cell cycle exit, demonstrating that p27(Kip1) is required for Mcl1-mediated NPC terminal mitosis. In summary, we have identified a novel physiological role for anti-apoptotic Mcl1 in regulating NPC terminal differentiation.

  2. p27kip1 expression limits H-Ras-driven transformation and tumorigenesis by both canonical and non-canonical mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Segatto, Ilenia; Citron, Francesca; D'Andrea, Sara; Cusan, Martina; Benevol, Sara; Perin, Tiziana; Massarut, Samuele; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Schiappacassi, Monica; Belletti, Barbara; Baldassarre, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein p27Kip1 plays a pivotal role in the control of cell growth and metastasis formation. Several studies pointed to different roles for p27Kip1 in the control of Ras induced transformation, although no explanation has been provided to elucidate these differences. We recently demonstrated that p27kip1 regulates H-Ras activity via its interaction with stathmin. Here, using in vitro and in vivo models, we show that p27kip1 is an important regulator of Ras induced transformation. In H-RasV12 transformed cells, p27kip1 suppressed cell proliferation and tumor growth via two distinct mechanisms: 1) inhibition of CDK activity and 2) impairment of MT-destabilizing activity of stathmin. Conversely, in K-Ras4BV12 transformed cells, p27kip1 acted mainly in a CDK-dependent but stathmin-independent manner. Using human cancer-derived cell lines and primary breast and sarcoma samples, we confirmed in human models what we observed in mice. Overall, we highlight a pathway, conserved from mouse to human, important in the regulation of H-Ras oncogenic activity that could have therapeutic and diagnostic implication in patients that may benefit from anti-H-Ras therapies. PMID:27579539

  3. p27kip1 expression limits H-Ras-driven transformation and tumorigenesis by both canonical and non-canonical mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pellizzari, Ilenia; Fabris, Linda; Berton, Stefania; Segatto, Ilenia; Citron, Francesca; D'Andrea, Sara; Cusan, Martina; Benevol, Sara; Perin, Tiziana; Massarut, Samuele; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Schiappacassi, Monica; Belletti, Barbara; Baldassarre, Gustavo

    2016-10-04

    The tumor suppressor protein p27Kip1 plays a pivotal role in the control of cell growth and metastasis formation.Several studies pointed to different roles for p27Kip1 in the control of Ras induced transformation, although no explanation has been provided to elucidate these differences. We recently demonstrated that p27kip1 regulates H-Ras activity via its interaction with stathmin.Here, using in vitro and in vivo models, we show that p27kip1 is an important regulator of Ras induced transformation. In H-RasV12 transformed cells, p27kip1 suppressed cell proliferation and tumor growth via two distinct mechanisms: 1) inhibition of CDK activity and 2) impairment of MT-destabilizing activity of stathmin. Conversely, in K-Ras4BV12 transformed cells, p27kip1 acted mainly in a CDK-dependent but stathmin-independent manner.Using human cancer-derived cell lines and primary breast and sarcoma samples, we confirmed in human models what we observed in mice.Overall, we highlight a pathway, conserved from mouse to human, important in the regulation of H-Ras oncogenic activity that could have therapeutic and diagnostic implication in patients that may benefit from anti-H-Ras therapies.

  4. MAD1 and p27KIP1 Cooperate To Promote Terminal Differentiation of Granulocytes and To Inhibit Myc Expression and Cyclin E-CDK2 Activity

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Grant A.; Foley, Kevin P.; Fero, Matthew L.; Walkley, Carl R.; Deans, Andrew J.; Roberts, James M.; Eisenman, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    To understand how cellular differentiation is coupled to withdrawal from the cell cycle, we have focused on two negative regulators of the cell cycle, the MYC antagonist MAD1 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27KIP1. Generation of Mad1/p27KIP1 double-null mice revealed a number of synthetic effects between the null alleles of Mad1 and p27KIP1, including embryonic lethality, increased proliferation, and impaired differentiation of granulocyte precursors. Furthermore, with granulocyte cell lines derived from the Mad1/p27KIP1 double-null mice, we observed constitutive Myc expression and cyclin E-CDK2 kinase activity as well as impaired differentiation following treatment with an inducer of differentiation. By contrast, similar treatment of granulocytes from Mad1 or p27KIP1 single-null mice resulted in differentiation accompanied by downregulation of both Myc expression and cyclin E-CDK2 kinase activity. In the double-null granulocytic cells, addition of a CDK2 inhibitor in the presence of differentiation inducer was sufficient to restore differentiation and reduce Myc levels. We conclude that Mad1 and p27KIP1 operate, at least in part, by distinct mechanisms to downregulate CDK2 activity and Myc expression in order to promote cell cycle exit during differentiation. PMID:11940659

  5. Nanog induces suppression of senescence through downregulation of p27KIP1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Münst, Bernhard; Thier, Marc Christian; Winnemöller, Dirk; Helfen, Martina; Thummer, Rajkumar P.; Edenhofer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A comprehensive analysis of the molecular network of cellular factors establishing and maintaining pluripotency as well as self renewal of pluripotent stem cells is key for further progress in understanding basic stem cell biology. Nanog is necessary for the natural induction of pluripotency in early mammalian development but dispensable for both its maintenance and its artificial induction. To gain further insight into the molecular activity of Nanog, we analyzed the outcomes of Nanog gain-of-function in various cell models employing a recently developed biologically active recombinant cell-permeant protein, Nanog-TAT. We found that Nanog enhances the proliferation of both NIH 3T3 and primary fibroblast cells. Nanog transduction into primary fibroblasts results in suppression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Investigation of cell cycle factors revealed that transient activation of Nanog correlates with consistent downregulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27KIP1 (also known as CDKN1B). By performing chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we confirmed bona fide Nanog-binding sites upstream of the p27KIP1 gene, establishing a direct link between physical occupancy and functional regulation. Our data demonstrates that Nanog enhances proliferation of fibroblasts through transcriptional regulation of cell cycle inhibitor p27 gene. PMID:26795560

  6. Levels of p27(kip1) determine Aplidin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Moneo, Victoria; Serelde, Beatriz G; Leal, Juan F M; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; Diaz-Uriarte, Ramon; Aracil, Miguel; Tercero, Juan C; Jimeno, José; Carnero, Amancio

    2007-04-01

    Aplidin (plitidepsin) is a novel anticancer drug isolated from the marine tunicate Aplidium albicans. Aplidin shows potent antitumor activity in preclinical models against a wide variety of human tumors. Aplidin is currently in phase II clinical trials in a variety of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Moreover, clinical studies of Aplidin in combination with other agents are ongoing because it generally lacks cross-resistance with other known cytotoxic drugs. The mode of action of Aplidin in tumor cells is only partially understood. Aplidin induces an early oxidative stress response, which results in a rapid and sustained activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, the nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase Src, and the serine threonine kinases c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Here, we show that sensitivity to Aplidin correlates inversely with the levels of expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip1) (p27) in a panel of low passaged human sarcoma cell lines. Aplidin induces p27 through an oxidation-dependent mechanism and the reduction of p27 levels by specific short hairpin RNA increases Aplidin sensitivity. We confirmed these results in p27 null mouse embryonic fibroblasts corroborating the specificity of the p27 role in Aplidin response because p21(waf1) null mouse embryonic fibroblasts do not show this increased sensitivity. We propose a mechanism of action of Aplidin involving p27 and support the analysis of p27 in the response to Aplidin in currently ongoing clinical trials to establish the levels of this protein as response predictor.

  7. p27(Kip1) negatively regulates the activation of murine primordial oocytes.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Yumiko; Moniruzzaman, Mohammad; Miyano, Takashi

    2011-04-01

    In mice, small oocytes (primordial oocytes) are enclosed within flattened granulosa cells to form primordial follicles around birth. A small number of primordial oocytes enter the growth phase, whereas others are quiescent. The mechanism regulating this selection of primordial oocytes is not well understood. The objective of the present study was to understand the role of p27(Kip1), which regulates cell cycle progression in somatic cells, in the growth initiation of primordial oocytes in neonatal mice. We studied the localization of p27(Kip1) in 0-, 3-, 5-, 7- and 21-day-old mouse ovaries by immunohistochemistry. Ovaries from 3-day-old mice were treated with p27(Kip1) siRNAs (small interfering RNAs), and knockdown of p27(Kip1) was determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Ovaries treated with siRNAs were organ-cultured for 6 days, and oocyte growth was estimated histologically. Expression of p27(Kip1) was undetectable in the primordial oocytes of newborn mice. In the 3-day-old ovaries (n=3), p27(Kip1) was demonstrated in the nucleus of 36 ± 6% primordial oocytes. The percentage of p27(Kip1)-positive primordial oocytes increased to 72 ± 8 (n=3), 85 ± 7 (n=3) and 93 ± 5 (n=3) in the 5-, 7- and 21-day-old mouse ovaries, respectively. After knockdown of the p27(Kip1) protein by siRNAs, a higher proportion of oocytes entered the growth phase in cultured ovaries than those in the control. These results suggest that p27(Kip1) negatively regulates primordial oocyte growth and that knockdown of p27(Kip1) leads primordial oocytes to enter the growth phase in vitro.

  8. Accelerated turnover of taste bud cells in mice deficient for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mammalian taste buds contain several specialized cell types that coordinately respond to tastants and communicate with sensory nerves. While it has long been appreciated that these cells undergo continual turnover, little is known concerning how adequate numbers of cells are generated and maintained. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 has been shown to influence cell number in several developing tissues, by coordinating cell cycle exit during cell differentiation. Here, we investigated its involvement in the control of taste cell replacement by examining adult mice with targeted ablation of the p27Kip1 gene. Results Histological and morphometric analyses of fungiform and circumvallate taste buds reveal no structural differences between wild-type and p27Kip1-null mice. However, when examined in functional assays, mutants show substantial proliferative changes. In BrdU incorporation experiments, more S-phase-labeled precursors appear within circumvallate taste buds at 1 day post-injection, the earliest time point examined. After 1 week, twice as many labeled intragemmal cells are present, but numbers return to wild-type levels by 2 weeks. Mutant taste buds also contain more TUNEL-labeled cells and 50% more apoptotic bodies than wild-type controls. In normal mice, p27 Kip1 is evident in a subset of receptor and presynaptic taste cells beginning about 3 days post-injection, correlating with the onset of taste cell maturation. Loss of gene function, however, does not alter the proportions of distinct immunohistochemically-identified cell types. Conclusions p27Kip1 participates in taste cell replacement by regulating the number of precursor cells available for entry into taste buds. This is consistent with a role for the protein in timing cell cycle withdrawal in progenitor cells. The equivalence of mutant and wild-type taste buds with regard to cell number, cell types and general structure contrasts with the hyperplasia and tissue disruption seen

  9. Genetic characterization of p27kip1 and stathmin in controlling cell proliferation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Berton, Stefania; Pellizzari, Ilenia; Fabris, Linda; D'Andrea, Sara; Segatto, Ilenia; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Marconi, Daniela; Schiappacassi, Monica; Benevol, Sara; Gattei, Valter; Colombatti, Alfonso; Belletti, Barbara; Baldassarre, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    The CDK inhibitor p27kip1 is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression, but the mechanisms by which p27kip1 controls cell proliferation in vivo are still not fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated that the microtubule destabilizing protein stathmin is a relevant p27kip1 binding partner. To get more insights into the in vivo significance of this interaction, we generated p27kip1 and stathmin double knock-out (DKO) mice. Interestingly, thorough characterization of DKO mice demonstrated that most of the phenotypes of p27kip1 null mice linked to the hyper-proliferative behavior, such as the increased body and organ weight, the outgrowth of the retina basal layer and the development of pituitary adenomas, were reverted by co-ablation of stathmin. In vivo analyses showed a reduced proliferation rate in DKO compared to p27kip1 null mice, linked, at molecular level, to decreased kinase activity of CDK4/6, rather than of CDK1 and CDK2. Gene expression profiling of mouse thymuses confirmed the phenotypes observed in vivo, showing that DKO clustered with WT more than with p27 knock-out tissue. Taken together, our results demonstrate that stathmin cooperates with p27kip1 to control the early phase of G1 to S phase transition and that this function may be of particular relevance in the context of tumor progression. PMID:25486569

  10. Genetic characterization of p27(kip1) and stathmin in controlling cell proliferation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Berton, Stefania; Pellizzari, Ilenia; Fabris, Linda; D'Andrea, Sara; Segatto, Ilenia; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Marconi, Daniela; Schiappacassi, Monica; Benevol, Sara; Gattei, Valter; Colombatti, Alfonso; Belletti, Barbara; Baldassarre, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    The CDK inhibitor p27(kip1) is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression, but the mechanisms by which p27(kip1) controls cell proliferation in vivo are still not fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated that the microtubule destabilizing protein stathmin is a relevant p27(kip1) binding partner. To get more insights into the in vivo significance of this interaction, we generated p27(kip1) and stathmin double knock-out (DKO) mice. Interestingly, thorough characterization of DKO mice demonstrated that most of the phenotypes of p27(kip1) null mice linked to the hyper-proliferative behavior, such as the increased body and organ weight, the outgrowth of the retina basal layer and the development of pituitary adenomas, were reverted by co-ablation of stathmin. In vivo analyses showed a reduced proliferation rate in DKO compared to p27(kip1) null mice, linked, at molecular level, to decreased kinase activity of CDK4/6, rather than of CDK1 and CDK2. Gene expression profiling of mouse thymuses confirmed the phenotypes observed in vivo, showing that DKO clustered with WT more than with p27 knock-out tissue. Taken together, our results demonstrate that stathmin cooperates with p27(kip1) to control the early phase of G1 to S phase transition and that this function may be of particular relevance in the context of tumor progression.

  11. Oligodendrocyte regeneration after neonatal hypoxia requires FoxO1-mediated p27Kip1 expression.

    PubMed

    Jablonska, Beata; Scafidi, Joseph; Aguirre, Adan; Vaccarino, Flora; Nguyen, Vien; Borok, Erzsebet; Horvath, Tamas L; Rowitch, David H; Gallo, Vittorio

    2012-10-17

    Diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) caused by hypoxia is associated with permanent neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. The cellular and molecular mechanisms producing DWMI are poorly defined. Using a mouse model of neonatal hypoxia, we demonstrate a biphasic effect on oligodendrocyte development, resulting in hypomyelination. Oligodendrocyte death and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) proliferation during the week after hypoxia were followed by delayed oligodendrocyte differentiation and abnormal myelination, as demonstrated by electron microscopy. Cdk2 activation was essential for the regenerative OPC response after hypoxia and was accompanied by reduced FoxO1-dependent p27(Kip1) expression. p27(Kip1) was also reduced in OPCs in human infant white matter lesions after hypoxia. The negative effects of hypoxia on oligodendrogenesis and myelination were more pronounced in p27(Kip1)-null mice; conversely, overexpression of FoxO1 or p27(Kip1) in OPCs after hypoxia promoted oligodendrogenesis. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that neonatal hypoxia affects the Foxo1/p27(Kip1) pathway during white matter development. We also show that molecular manipulation of this pathway enhances oligodendrocyte regeneration during a critical developmental time window after DWMI. Thus, FoxO1 and p27(Kip1) may serve as promising target molecules for promoting timely oligodendrogenesis in neonatal DWMI.

  12. Oligodendrocyte Regeneration after Neonatal Hypoxia Requires FoxO1-Mediated p27Kip1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jablonska, Beata; Scafidi, Joseph; Aguirre, Adan; Vaccarino, Flora; Nguyen, Vien; Borok, Erzsebet; Horvath, Tamas L.; Rowitch, David H.; Gallo, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) caused by hypoxia is associated with permanent neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. The cellular and molecular mechanisms producing DWMI are poorly defined. Using a mouse model of neonatal hypoxia, we demonstrate a biphasic effect on oligodendrocyte development, resulting in hypomyelination. Oligodendrocyte death and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) proliferation during the week after hypoxia were followed by delayed oligodendrocyte differentiation and abnormal myelination, as demonstrated by electron microscopy. Cdk2 activation was essential for the regenerative OPC response after hypoxia and was accompanied by reduced FoxO1-dependent p27 Kip1 expression. p27 Kip1 was also reduced in OPCs in human infant white matter lesions after hypoxia. The negative effects of hypoxia on oligodendrogenesis and myelination were more pronounced in p27 Kip1-null mice; conversely, overexpression of FoxO1 or p27 Kip1 in OPCs after hypoxia promoted oligodendrogenesis. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that neonatal hypoxia affects the Foxo1/p27 Kip1 pathway during white matter development. We also show that molecular manipulation of this pathway enhances oligodendrocyte regeneration during a critical developmental time window after DWMI. Thus, FoxO1 and p27 Kip1 may serve as promising target molecules for promoting timely oligodendrogenesis in neonatal DWMI. PMID:23077062

  13. NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5)-induced reactive oxygen signaling modulates normoxic HIF-1α and p27(Kip1) expression in malignant melanoma and other human tumors.

    PubMed

    Antony, Smitha; Jiang, Guojian; Wu, Yongzhong; Meitzler, Jennifer L; Makhlouf, Hala R; Haines, Diana C; Butcher, Donna; Hoon, Dave S; Ji, Jiuping; Zhang, Yiping; Juhasz, Agnes; Lu, Jiamo; Liu, Han; Dahan, Iris; Konate, Mariam; Roy, Krishnendu K; Doroshow, James H

    2017-08-01

    NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5) generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in signaling cascades that regulate cancer cell proliferation. To evaluate and validate NOX5 expression in human tumors, we screened a broad range of tissue microarrays (TMAs), and report substantial overexpression of NOX5 in malignant melanoma and cancers of the prostate, breast, and ovary. In human UACC-257 melanoma cells that possesses high levels of functional endogenous NOX5, overexpression of NOX5 resulted in enhanced cell growth, increased numbers of BrdU positive cells, and increased γ-H2AX levels. Additionally, NOX5-overexpressing (stable and inducible) UACC-257 cells demonstrated increased normoxic HIF-1α expression and decreased p27(Kip1) expression. Similarly, increased normoxic HIF-1α expression and decreased p27(Kip1) expression were observed in stable NOX5-overexpressing clones of KARPAS 299 human lymphoma cells and in the human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous NOX5 in UACC-257 cells resulted in decreased cell growth, decreased HIF-1α expression, and increased p27(Kip1) expression. Likewise, in an additional human melanoma cell line, WM852, and in PC-3 cells, transient knockdown of endogenous NOX5 resulted in increased p27(Kip1) and decreased HIF-1α expression. Knockdown of endogenous NOX5 in UACC-257 cells resulted in decreased Akt and GSK3β phosphorylation, signaling pathways known to modulate p27(Kip1) levels. In summary, our findings suggest that NOX5 expression in human UACC-257 melanoma cells could contribute to cell proliferation due, in part, to the generation of high local concentrations of extracellular ROS that modulate multiple pathways that regulate HIF-1α and networks that signal through Akt/GSK3β/p27(Kip1) . © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Resveratrol induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis with docetaxel in prostate cancer cells via a p53/ p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Banerjee, Saswati; Acosta, Edward P; Lillard, James W; Singh, Rajesh

    2017-02-13

    Resveratrol (RES) is the most effective natural products used for the treatment of a variety of cancers. In this study, we tested the effect of RES in enhancing the efficacy of docetaxel (DTX) treatment in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. The C4-2B and DU-145 cell lines were treated with RES, DTX and combination followed by evaluating the apoptosis and cell cycle progression. The combined drug treatment up-regulates the pro-apoptotic genes (BAX, BID, and BAK), cleaved PARP and down regulates the anti-apoptotic genes (MCL-1, BCL-2, BCL-XL) promoting apoptosis. In C4-2B cells the combination up regulated the expression of p53, and cell cycle inhibitors (p21WAF1/CIP1, p27KIP), which, in turn, inhibited the expression of CDK4, cyclin D1, cyclin E1 and induced hypo-phosphorylation of Rb thus blocking the transition of cells in the G0/G1 to S phase. In contrast, the synergistic effect was not profound in DU145 due to its lesser sensitivity to DTX. The suppression of cyclin B1 and CDK1 expression in both cell lines inhibits the further progression of cells in G2/M phase. The current study demonstrates that combination treatment blocks the cell cycle arrest by modulation of key regulators and promotes apoptosis via p53 dependent and independent mechanism in PCa.

  15. p27Kip1, PCAF and PAX5 cooperate in the transcriptional regulation of specific target genes

    PubMed Central

    Perearnau, Anna; Orlando, Serena; Islam, Abul B.M.M.K.; Gallastegui, Edurne; Martínez, Jonatan; Jordan, Albert; Bigas, Anna; Aligué, Rosa; Pujol, Maria Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 (p27) also behaves as a transcriptional repressor. Data showing that the p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) acetylates p27 inducing its degradation suggested that PCAF and p27 could collaborate in the regulation of transcription. However, this possibility remained to be explored. We analyzed here the transcriptional programs regulated by PCAF and p27 in the colon cancer cell line HCT116 by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq). We identified 269 protein-encoding genes that contain both p27 and PCAF binding sites being the majority of these sites different for PCAF and p27. PCAF or p27 knock down revealed that both regulate the expression of these genes, PCAF as an activator and p27 as a repressor. The double knock down of PCAF and p27 strongly reduced their expression indicating that the activating role of PCAF overrides the repressive effect of p27. We also observed that the transcription factor Pax5 interacts with both p27 and PCAF and that the knock down of Pax5 induces the expression of p27/PCAF target genes indicating that it also participates in the transcriptional regulation mediated by p27/PCAF. In summary, we report here a previously unknown mechanism of transcriptional regulation mediated by p27, Pax5 and PCAF. PMID:28158851

  16. MicroRNAs 221 and 222 target p27Kip1 in Marek's disease virus-transformed tumour cell line MSB-1.

    PubMed

    Lambeth, Luke S; Yao, Yongxiu; Smith, Lorraine P; Zhao, Yuguang; Nair, Venugopal

    2009-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short RNAs that function as post-transcriptional suppressors of protein expression and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including oncogenesis. Several recent studies have implicated the involvement of miR-221 and miR-222 in tumorigenesis as these miRNAs are upregulated in a number of cancers and affect the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins such as the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor p27(Kip1). Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a highly oncogenic herpesvirus that affects poultry, causing acute neoplastic disease with lymphomatous lesions in several organs. MDV-encoded oncogenes such as Meq are directly implicated in the neoplastic transformation of T cells and have been well studied. More recently, however, the involvement of both host and virus-encoded miRNAs in the induction of MD lymphomas is being increasingly recognized. We analysed the miRNA expression profiles in the MDV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line MSB-1 and found that endogenous miRNAs miR-221 and miR-222 were significantly upregulated. Demonstration of the conserved binding sites for these miRNAs in the chicken p27(Kip1) 3'-untranslated region sequence and the repression of luciferase activity of reporter constructs indicated that miR-221 and miR-222 target p27(Kip1) in these cells. We also found that overexpression of miR-221 and miR-222 decreased p27(Kip1) levels and that treatment with retrovirally expressed antagomiRs partially alleviated this suppression. These data show that an oncogenic herpesvirus, as in the case of many cancers, can exploit the miRNA machinery for suppressing cell cycle regulatory molecules such as p27(Kip1) in the induction and progression of T-cell lymphomas.

  17. p27kip1 controls H-Ras/MAPK activation and cell cycle entry via modulation of MT stability

    PubMed Central

    Fabris, Linda; Berton, Stefania; Pellizzari, Ilenia; Segatto, Ilenia; D’Andrea, Sara; Armenia, Joshua; Bomben, Riccardo; Schiappacassi, Monica; Gattei, Valter; Philips, Mark R.; Vecchione, Andrea; Belletti, Barbara; Baldassarre, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27kip1 is a critical regulator of the G1/S-phase transition of the cell cycle and also regulates microtubule (MT) stability. This latter function is exerted by modulating the activity of stathmin, an MT-destabilizing protein, and by direct binding to MTs. We recently demonstrated that increased proliferation in p27kip1-null mice is reverted by concomitant deletion of stathmin in p27kip1/stathmin double-KO mice, suggesting that a CDK-independent function of p27kip1 contributes to the control of cell proliferation. Whether the regulation of MT stability by p27kip1 impinges on signaling pathway activation and contributes to the decision to enter the cell cycle is largely unknown. Here, we report that faster cell cycle entry of p27kip1-null cells was impaired by the concomitant deletion of stathmin. Using gene expression profiling coupled with bioinformatic analyses, we show that p27kip1 and stathmin conjunctly control activation of the MAPK pathway. From a molecular point of view, we observed that p27kip1, by controlling MT stability, impinges on H-Ras trafficking and ubiquitination levels, eventually restraining its full activation. Our study identifies a regulatory axis controlling the G1/S-phase transition, relying on the regulation of MT stability by p27kip1 and finely controlling the spatiotemporal activation of the Ras-MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:26512117

  18. p27kip1 controls H-Ras/MAPK activation and cell cycle entry via modulation of MT stability.

    PubMed

    Fabris, Linda; Berton, Stefania; Pellizzari, Ilenia; Segatto, Ilenia; D'Andrea, Sara; Armenia, Joshua; Bomben, Riccardo; Schiappacassi, Monica; Gattei, Valter; Philips, Mark R; Vecchione, Andrea; Belletti, Barbara; Baldassarre, Gustavo

    2015-11-10

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27(kip1) is a critical regulator of the G1/S-phase transition of the cell cycle and also regulates microtubule (MT) stability. This latter function is exerted by modulating the activity of stathmin, an MT-destabilizing protein, and by direct binding to MTs. We recently demonstrated that increased proliferation in p27(kip1)-null mice is reverted by concomitant deletion of stathmin in p27(kip1)/stathmin double-KO mice, suggesting that a CDK-independent function of p27(kip1) contributes to the control of cell proliferation. Whether the regulation of MT stability by p27(kip1) impinges on signaling pathway activation and contributes to the decision to enter the cell cycle is largely unknown. Here, we report that faster cell cycle entry of p27(kip1)-null cells was impaired by the concomitant deletion of stathmin. Using gene expression profiling coupled with bioinformatic analyses, we show that p27(kip1) and stathmin conjunctly control activation of the MAPK pathway. From a molecular point of view, we observed that p27(kip1), by controlling MT stability, impinges on H-Ras trafficking and ubiquitination levels, eventually restraining its full activation. Our study identifies a regulatory axis controlling the G1/S-phase transition, relying on the regulation of MT stability by p27(kip1) and finely controlling the spatiotemporal activation of the Ras-MAPK signaling pathway.

  19. Differential Regulation of P27Kip1 Expression by Mitogenic and Hypertrophic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Servant, Marc J.; Coulombe, Philippe; Turgeon, Benjamin; Meloche, Sylvain

    2000-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) acts as a full mitogen for cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC), promoting DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. In contrast, angiotensin II (Ang II) induces cellular hypertrophy as a result of increased protein synthesis, but is unable to drive cells into S phase. In an effort to understand the molecular basis for this differential growth response, we have examined the downstream effects of PDGF-BB and Ang II on regulators of the cell cycle machinery in rat aortic SMC. Both PDGF-BB and Ang II were found to stimulate the accumulation of G1 cyclins with similar kinetics. In addition, little difference was observed in the expression level of their catalytic partners, Cdk4 and Cdk2. However, while both factors increased the enzymatic activity of Cdk4, only PDGF-BB stimulated Cdk2 activity in late G1 phase. The lack of activation of Cdk2 in Ang II-treated cells was causally related to the failure of Ang II to stimulate phosphorylation of the enzyme on threonine and to downregulate p27Kip1 expression. By contrast, exposure to PDGF-BB resulted in a progressive and dramatic reduction in the level of p27Kip1 protein. The time course of p27Kip1 decline was correlated with a reduced rate of synthesis and an increased rate of degradation of the protein. Importantly, the repression of p27Kip1 synthesis by PDGF-BB was associated with a marked attenuation of Kip1 gene transcription and a corresponding decrease in Kip1 mRNA accumulation. We also show that the failure of Ang II to promote S phase entry is not related to the autocrine production of transforming growth factor-β1 by aortic SMC. These results identify p27Kip1 as an important regulator of the phenotypic response of vascular SMC to mitogenic and hypertrophic stimuli. PMID:10662779

  20. PRMT5 is upregulated in malignant and metastatic melanoma and regulates expression of MITF and p27(Kip1.).

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Courtney; Yang, Jennifer; Peters, Sara B; Bill, Matthew A; Baiocchi, Robert A; Yan, Fengting; Sïf, Saïd; Tae, Sookil; Gaudio, Eugenio; Wu, Xin; Grever, Michael R; Young, Gregory S; Lesinski, Gregory B

    2013-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase-5 (PRMT5) is a Type II arginine methyltransferase that regulates various cellular functions. We hypothesized that PRMT5 plays a role in regulating the growth of human melanoma cells. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated significant upregulation of PRMT5 in human melanocytic nevi, malignant melanomas and metastatic melanomas as compared to normal epidermis. Furthermore, nuclear PRMT5 was significantly decreased in metastatic melanomas as compared to primary cutaneous melanomas. In human metastatic melanoma cell lines, PRMT5 was predominantly cytoplasmic, and associated with its enzymatic cofactor Mep50, but not STAT3 or cyclin D1. However, histologic examination of tumor xenografts from athymic mice revealed heterogeneous nuclear and cytoplasmic PRMT5 expression. Depletion of PRMT5 via siRNA inhibited proliferation in a subset of melanoma cell lines, while it accelerated growth of others. Loss of PRMT5 also led to reduced expression of MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor), a melanocyte-lineage specific oncogene, and increased expression of the cell cycle regulator p27(Kip1). These results are the first to report elevated PRMT5 expression in human melanoma specimens and indicate this protein may regulate MITF and p27(Kip1) expression in human melanoma cells.

  1. p27kip1 in Intestinal Tumorigenesis and Chemoprevention in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Yang, WanCai; Bancroft, Laura; Liang, Jiao; Zhuang, Min; Augenlicht, Leonard H.

    2010-01-01

    Targeted inactivation of p27kip1 was sufficient for intestinal tumor formation in mice, but this was strictly a function of diet: tumors formed in p27+/− or p27−/− mice fed control AIN-76A diet and were increased by a western-style diet but did not develop in mice fed standard chow diet. When crossed with the Apc1638N+/− mouse, Apc+/−,p27+/− or Apc+/−,p27−/− mice not only formed twice as many tumors than the sum of the tumors from mutation at either locus alone, but on AIN76A diet also developed intestinal intussusception, a tumor-associated pathology in patients leading to intestinal blockage that has not been reported for intestinal cancer in mouse models. Moreover, the frequency of intussusception was increased when the compound mutant mice were maintained on the western diet, leading to early death. Despite this more aggressive tumor phenotype generated by inactivation of p27 than by inactivation of another cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21WAF1/cip1, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac was still effective in inhibiting intestinal tumor formation in Apc+/−,p27+/− or Apc+/−,p27−/− mice, which contrasts with the abrogation of the effects of sulindac in Apc+/−,p21+/− or Apc+/−,p21−/− mice, indicating that p27 is not necessary for tumor inhibition by sulindac. Furthermore, tumor inhibition by sulindac was linked to the induction of p21 expression by the drug, regardless of p27 status, leading to suppression of cell proliferation and promotion of cell differentiation and apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:16230399

  2. Identification of cdk2 binding sites on the p27Kip1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kwon, T K; Nordin, A A

    1998-02-12

    A cdk2 binding domain on p27Kip1 located within the sequence of amino acids 53-85 was further characterized by generating a series of point mutations within amino acid residues 62-75. Two regions, FDF (residues 62-64) and GXY (residues 72 and 74), were identified within the beta hairpin region of p27Kip1. Mutations within these regions essentially completely inhibited the binding to in vitro translated cdk2 and cdk2/cyclin E complexes formed in vitro or in vivo. The p27Kip1 GST-fusion protein of the point mutation that replaces phenylalanine at residue 64 to alanine (F64A) showed approximately twofold less inhibition of cdk2 kinase activity. The cellular response to the introduction of the F64A mutant form of p27Kip1 was compared to that of p27Kip1 wild type by transfecting HeLa cells with constructs of full length sense and antisense coding sequences. Overexpression of the F64A mutant form of p27Kip1 bound significantly lower levels of cdk2 as compared to wild type and did not affect the cdk2 related kinase activity of the transfected HeLa cells. Overexpression of wild type p27Kip1 resulted in a reduction of the level of cdk2 kinase activity and effectively suppressed the growth of the transfected HeLa cells.

  3. Insect peptide CopA3-induced protein degradation of p27Kip1 stimulates proliferation and protects neuronal cells from apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Min Bum; Nam, Hyo Jung; Kang, Jin Ku; Park, Mi Jung; Lee, Ik Hwan; Seok, Heon; Lee, Dong Gun; Hwang, Jae Sam; Kim, Ho

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •CopA3 peptide isolated from the Korean dung beetle has antimicrobial activity. •Our study reported that CopA3 has anticancer and immunosuppressive effects. •We here demonstrated that CopA3 has neurotropic and neuroprotective effects. •CopA3 degrades p27Kip1 protein and this mediates effects of CopA3 on neuronal cells. -- Abstract: We recently demonstrated that the antibacterial peptide, CopA3 (a D-type disulfide dimer peptide, LLCIALRKK), inhibits LPS-induced macrophage activation and also has anticancer activity in leukemia cells. Here, we examined whether CopA3 could affect neuronal cell proliferation. We found that CopA3 time-dependently increased cell proliferation by up to 31 ± 2% in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and up to 29 ± 2% in neural stem cells isolated from neonatal mouse brains. In both cell types, CopA3 also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and viability losses caused by 6-hydroxy dopamine (a Parkinson disease-mimicking agent) and okadaic acid (an Alzheimer’s disease-mimicking agent). Immunoblotting revealed that the p27Kip1 protein (a negative regulator of cell cycle progression) was markedly degraded in CopA3-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Conversely, an adenovirus expressing p27Kip1 significantly inhibited the antiapoptotic effects of CopA3 against 6-hydroxy dopamine- and okadaic acid-induced apoptosis, and decreased the neurotropic effects of CopA3. These results collectively suggest that CopA3-mediated protein degradation of p27Kip1 may be the main mechanism through which CopA3 exerts neuroprotective and neurotropic effects.

  4. Insect peptide CopA3-induced protein degradation of p27Kip1 stimulates proliferation and protects neuronal cells from apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Min Bum; Nam, Hyo Jung; Kang, Jin Ku; Park, Mi Jung; Lee, Ik Hwan; Seok, Heon; Lee, Dong Gun; Hwang, Jae Sam; Kim, Ho

    2013-07-19

    We recently demonstrated that the antibacterial peptide, CopA3 (a D-type disulfide dimer peptide, LLCIALRKK), inhibits LPS-induced macrophage activation and also has anticancer activity in leukemia cells. Here, we examined whether CopA3 could affect neuronal cell proliferation. We found that CopA3 time-dependently increased cell proliferation by up to 31 ± 2% in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and up to 29 ± 2% in neural stem cells isolated from neonatal mouse brains. In both cell types, CopA3 also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and viability losses caused by 6-hydroxy dopamine (a Parkinson disease-mimicking agent) and okadaic acid (an Alzheimer's disease-mimicking agent). Immunoblotting revealed that the p27Kip1 protein (a negative regulator of cell cycle progression) was markedly degraded in CopA3-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Conversely, an adenovirus expressing p27Kip1 significantly inhibited the antiapoptotic effects of CopA3 against 6-hydroxy dopamine- and okadaic acid-induced apoptosis, and decreased the neurotropic effects of CopA3. These results collectively suggest that CopA3-mediated protein degradation of p27Kip1 may be the main mechanism through which CopA3 exerts neuroprotective and neurotropic effects.

  5. Gfer inhibits Jab1-mediated degradation of p27kip1 to restrict proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Ellen C.; Todd, Lance R.; Ribar, Thomas J.; Lento, William; Dimascio, Leah; Means, Anthony R.; Sankar, Uma

    2011-01-01

    Growth factor erv1-like (Gfer) is an evolutionarily conserved sulfhydryl oxidase that is enriched in embryonic and adult stem cells and plays an essential prosurvival role in pluripotent embryonic stem cells. Here we show that knockdown (KD) of Gfer in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compromises their in vivo engraftment potential and triggers a hyper-proliferative response that leads to their exhaustion. KD of Gfer in HSCs does not elicit a significant alteration of mitochondrial morphology or loss of cell viability. However, these cells possess significantly reduced levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27kip1. In contrast, overexpression of Gfer in HSCs results in significantly elevated total and nuclear p27kip1. KD of Gfer results in enhanced binding of p27kip1 to its inhibitor, the COP9 signalosome subunit jun activation-domain binding protein 1 (Jab1), leading to its down-regulation. Conversely, overexpression of Gfer results in its enhanced binding to Jab1 and inhibition of the Jab1-p27kip1 interaction. Furthermore, normalization of p27kip1 in Gfer-KD HSCs rescues their in vitro proliferation deficits. Taken together, our data demonstrate the presence of a novel Gfer-Jab1-p27kip1 pathway in HSCs that functions to restrict abnormal proliferation. PMID:21346186

  6. Contact with fibrillar collagen inhibits melanoma cell proliferation by up-regulating p27KIP1

    PubMed Central

    Henriet, Patrick; Zhong, Zhi-Duan; Brooks, Peter C.; Weinberg, Kenneth I.; DeClerck, Yves A.

    2000-01-01

    It is known that the extracellular matrix regulates normal cell proliferation, and it is assumed that anchorage-independent malignant cells escape this regulatory function. Here we demonstrate that human M24met melanoma cells remain responsive to growth regulatory signals that result from contact with type I collagen and that the effect on proliferation depends on the physical structure of the collagen. On polymerized fibrillar collagen, M24met cells are growth arrested at the G1/S checkpoint and maintain high levels of p27KIP1 mRNA and protein. In contrast, on nonfibrillar (denatured) collagen, the cells enter the cell cycle, and p27KIP1 is down-regulated. These growth regulatory effects involve contact between type I collagen and the collagen-binding integrin α2β1, which appears restricted in the presence of fibrillar collagen. Thus melanoma cells remain sensitive to negative growth regulatory signals originating from fibrillar collagen, and the proteolytic degradation of fibrils is a mechanism allowing tumor cells to escape these restrictive signals. PMID:10944199

  7. CRM-1 knockdown inhibits extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tumor growth by blocking the nuclear export of p27Kip1

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jian; Chen, Yongjun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Bing; Zhou, Yanqiong; Lan, Hongzhen

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a deadly disease which responds poorly to surgery and conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Early diagnosis is difficult due to the anatomical and biological characteristics of cholangiocarcinoma. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and in the present study, we found that p27Kip1 expression was suppressed in the nucleus and increased in the cytoplasm in 53 samples of cholangiocarcinoma from patients with highly malignant tumors (poorly-differentiated and tumor-node-metastsis (TNM) stage III–IV) compared with that in samples from 10 patients with chronic cholangitis. The expression of phosphorylated (p-)p27Kip1 (Ser10), one of the phosphorylated forms of p27Kip1, was increased in the patient samples with increasing malignancy and clinical stage. Coincidentally, chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM-1; also referred to as exportin 1 or Xpo1), a critical protein responsible for protein translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, was also overexpressed in the tumor samples which were poorly differentiated and of a higher clinical stage. Through specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of CRM-1 in the cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC939, we identified an elevation of cytoplasmic p27Kip1 and a decrease of nuclear p27Kip1. Furthermore, the viability and colony formation ability of QBC939 cells was largely reduced with G1 arrest. Consistent with the findings of the in vitro experiments, in a xenograft mouse model, the tumors formed in the CRM-1 knockdown group were markedly smaller and weighed less than those in the control group in vivo. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that the interplay between CRM-1 and p27Kip1 may provide potentially potent biomarkers and functional targets for the development of future cholangiocarcinoma treatments. PMID:27279267

  8. CRM-1 knockdown inhibits extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tumor growth by blocking the nuclear export of p27Kip1.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian; Chen, Yongjun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Bing; Zhou, Yanqiong; Lan, Hongzhen

    2016-08-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a deadly disease which responds poorly to surgery and conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Early diagnosis is difficult due to the anatomical and biological characteristics of cholangiocarcinoma. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1) is a cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor and in the present study, we found that p27Kip1 expression was suppressed in the nucleus and increased in the cytoplasm in 53 samples of cholangiocarcinoma from patients with highly malignant tumors (poorly-differentiated and tumor-node-metastsis (TNM) stage III-IV) compared with that in samples from 10 patients with chronic cholangitis. The expression of phosphorylated (p-)p27Kip1 (Ser10), one of the phosphorylated forms of p27Kip1, was increased in the patient samples with increasing malignancy and clinical stage. Coincidentally, chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM-1; also referred to as exportin 1 or Xpo1), a critical protein responsible for protein translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, was also overexpressed in the tumor samples which were poorly differentiated and of a higher clinical stage. Through specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of CRM-1 in the cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC939, we identified an elevation of cytoplasmic p27Kip1 and a decrease of nuclear p27Kip1. Furthermore, the viability and colony formation ability of QBC939 cells was largely reduced with G1 arrest. Consistent with the findings of the in vitro experiments, in a xenograft mouse model, the tumors formed in the CRM-1 knockdown group were markedly smaller and weighed less than those in the control group in vivo. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that the interplay between CRM-1 and p27Kip1 may provide potentially potent biomarkers and functional targets for the development of future cholangiocarcinoma treatments.

  9. AKT1 induces caspase-mediated cleavage of the CDK inhibitor p27Kip1 during cell cycle progression in leukemia cells transformed by FLT3-ITD

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xinping; Liu, Suiyang; Kharbanda, Surender; Stone, Richard M

    2011-01-01

    p27Kip1 cleavage and caspase-3 regulate cell cycle in human myeloma cells and B cells however regulation of p27Kip1 cleavage during the cell cycle is not known. In BaF3-FLT3-ITD cells, p27Kip1 undergoes C-terminal cleavage. Inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway is associated with decreased cleavage of p27Kip1 and G1 phase arrest. The caspase-3 inhibitor reduces p27Kip1 cleavage and inhibits cell proliferation. Knockdown shRNA against AKT1 reduces cleavage of p27Kip1, inhibits caspase-3 activation, and is associated with a delay in cell cycle progression. Taken together, these findings indicate that AKT1 induces caspase-mediated cleavage of p27Kip1, required for G1-S progression in FLT3-ITD cells. PMID:22142798

  10. Siah1/SIP regulates p27(kip1) stability and cell migration under metabolic stress.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Yoshito; Fukushima, Toru; Okemoto, Kazuo; Tanaka, Keiichiro; Bowtell, David D L; Ronai, Ze'ev; Reed, John C; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi

    2011-08-01

    p27(kip1) has been implicated in cell cycle regulation, functioning as an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase activity. In addition, p27 was also shown to affect cell migration, with accumulation of cytoplasmic p27 associated with tumor invasiveness. However, the mechanism underlying p27 regulation as a cytoplasmic protein is poorly understood. Here we show that glucose starvation induces proteasome-dependent degradation of cytoplasmic p27, accompanied by a decrease in cell motility. We also show that the glucose limitation-induced p27 degradation is regulated through an ubiquitin E3 ligase complex involving Siah1 and SIP/CacyBP. SIP (-/-) embryonic fibroblasts have increased levels of cytosolic p27 and exhibit increased cell motility compared to wild-type cells. These observations suggest that the Siah1/SIP E3 ligase complex regulates cell motility through degradation of p27.

  11. MARCKS Signaling Differentially Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle and Endothelial Cell Proliferation through a KIS-, p27kip1- Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dan; Makkar, George; Dong, Tuo; Strickland, Dudley K.; Sarkar, Rajabrata; Monahan, Thomas Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Background Overexpression of the myristolated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) occurs in vascular proliferative diseases such as restenosis after bypass surgery. MARCKS knockdown results in arrest of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation with little effect on endothelial cell (EC) proliferation. We sought to identify the mechanism of differential regulation by MARCKS of VSMC and EC proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Results siRNA-mediated MARCKS knockdown in VSMCs inhibited proliferation and prevented progression from phase G0/G1 to S. Protein expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27kip1, but not p21cip1 was increased by MARCKS knockdown. MARCKS knockdown did not affect proliferation in VSMCs derived from p27kip1-/- mice indicating that the effect of MARCKS is p27kip1-dependent. MARCKS knockdown resulted in decreased phosphorylation of p27kip1 at threonine 187 and serine 10 as well as, kinase interacting with stathmin (KIS), cyclin D1, and Skp2 expression. Phosphorylation of p27kip1 at serine 10 by KIS is required for nuclear export and degradation of p27kip1. MARCKS knockdown caused nuclear trapping of p27kip1. Both p27kip1 nuclear trapping and cell cycle arrest were released by overexpression of KIS, but not catalytically inactive KIS. In ECs, MARCKS knockdown paradoxically increased KIS expression and cell proliferation. MARCKS knockdown in a murine aortic injury model resulted in decreased VSMC proliferation determined by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) integration assay, and inhibition of vascular wall thickening. MARCKS knockdown increased the rate of re-endothelialization. Conclusions MARCKS knockdown arrested VSMC cell cycle by decreasing KIS expression. Decreased KIS expression resulted in nuclear trapping of p27kip1 in VSMCs. MARCKS knockdown paradoxically increased KIS expression in ECs resulting in increased EC proliferation. MARCKS knockdown significantly attenuated the VSMC proliferative response to vascular

  12. In vivo regulation of colonic cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and P27Kip1 by dietary fish oil and butyrate in rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mee Young; Turner, Nancy D; Murphy, Mary E; Carroll, Raymond J; Chapkin, Robert S; Lupton, Joanne R

    2015-11-01

    We have shown that dietary fish oil is protective against experimentally induced colon cancer, and the protective effect is enhanced by coadministration of pectin. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that fish oil with butyrate, a pectin fermentation product, protects against colon cancer initiation by decreasing cell proliferation and increasing differentiation and apoptosis through a p27(Kip1)-mediated mechanism. Rats were provided diets of corn or fish oil, with/without butyrate, and terminated 12, 24, or 48 hours after azoxymethane (AOM) injection. Proliferation (Ki-67), differentiation (Dolichos Biflorus Agglutinin), apoptosis (TUNEL), and p27(Kip1) (cell-cycle mediator) were measured in the same cell within crypts in order to examine the coordination of cell cycle as a function of diet. DNA damage (N(7)-methylguanine) was determined by quantitative IHC analysis. Dietary fish oil decreased DNA damage by 19% (P = 0.001) and proliferation by 50% (P = 0.003) and increased differentiation by 56% (P = 0.039) compared with corn oil. When combined with butyrate, fish oil enhanced apoptosis 24 hours after AOM injection compared with a corn oil/butyrate diet (P = 0.039). There was an inverse relationship between crypt height and apoptosis in the fish oil/butyrate group (r = -0.53, P = 0.040). The corn oil/butyrate group showed a positive correlation between p27(Kip1) expression and proliferation (r = 0.61, P = 0.035). These results indicate the in vivo effect of butyrate on apoptosis and proliferation is dependent on dietary lipid source. These results demonstrate the presence of an early coordinated colonocyte response by which fish oil and butyrate protects against colon tumorigenesis. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Cytoplasmic p27Kip1 counteracts the pro-apoptotic function of the open conformation of PTEN by retention and destabilization of PTEN outside of the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Pons, Amparo; Gil, Anabel; Oliver, María D; Sotelo, Natalia-Soledad; Pulido, Rafael

    2012-02-01

    The tumor suppressor activity of p27Kip1 takes place in the cell nucleus by inhibitory binding to cyclin/CDK complexes. p27Kip1 can also be localized in the cytoplasm, where it has been proposed to have oncogenic properties. Here, we describe a novel role for cytoplasmic p27Kip1 which could account for its activity as an oncoprotein by negative regulation of the PTEN tumor suppressor. p27Kip1 physically interacted with the open conformation of PTEN, which is competent to enter the nucleus. In mammalian cells, cytoplasmic p27Kip1 retained to nuclear-targeted PTEN in the cytoplasm. This retention was exerted by the C-terminal p27Kip1 region, and was independent of cyclin/CDK-binding. The nuclear accumulation of PTEN triggered by pro-apoptotic TNFα treatment was abolished by cytoplasmic p27Kip1. Furthermore, conformationally-open PTEN displayed diminished protein stability and pro-apoptotic activity in the presence of cytoplasmic p27Kip1. Our results support a conformationally-dependent model of cytoplasmic retention and negative regulation of the activity of nuclear PTEN by oncogenic cytoplasmic p27Kip1, and suggest the existence of reciprocal mechanisms to regulate the levels of both p27Kip1 and PTEN. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In Vivo Regulation of Colonic Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, Apoptosis and P27Kip1 by Dietary Fish Oil and Butyrate in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mee Young; Turner, Nancy D.; Murphy, Mary E.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Chapkin, Robert S.; Lupton, Joanne R.

    2015-01-01

    We have shown that dietary fish oil is protective against experimentally-induced colon cancer and the protective effect is enhanced by co-administration of pectin. However, the underlying mechanism(s) have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that fish oil with butyrate, a pectin fermentation product, protects against colon cancer initiation by decreasing cell proliferation and increasing differentiation and apoptosis through a p27Kip1 mediated mechanism. Rats were provided diets of corn or fish oil, with/without butyrate, and terminated 12, 24 or 48 h post azoxymethane (AOM) injection. Proliferation (Ki-67), differentiation (Dolichos Biflorus Agglutinin), apoptosis (TUNEL) and p27Kip1 (cell cycle mediator) were measured in the same cell within crypts in order to examine the coordination of cell cycle as a function of diet. DNA damage (N7-methylguanine) was determined by quantitative immunohistochemical analysis. Dietary fish oil decreased DNA damage by 19% (P=0.001) and proliferation by 50% (P=0.003) and increased differentiation by 56% (P=0.039) compared to corn oil. When combined with butyrate, fish oil enhanced apoptosis 24 h post AOM injection compared to a corn oil/butyrate diet (P=0.039). There was an inverse relationship between crypt height and apoptosis in fish oil/butyrate group (r= −0.53, P=0.040). Corn oil/butyrate group showed a positive correlation between p27Kip1 expression and proliferation (r= 0.61, P=0.035). These results indicate the in vivo effect of butyrate on apoptosis and proliferation is dependent on dietary lipid source. These results demonstrate the presence of an early coordinated colonocyte response by which fish oil and butyrate protects against colon tumorigenesis. PMID:26323483

  15. p27kip1 stabilization is essential for the maintenance of cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado, Myriam; Gutierrez-Martinez, Paula; Swat, Aneta; Nebreda, Angel R.; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    One of the current models of cancer proposes that oncogenes activate a DNA damage response (DDR), which would limit the growth of the tumor in its earliest stages. In this context, and in contrast to studies focused on the acute responses to a one-time genotoxic insult, understanding how cells respond to a persistent source of DNA damage might become critical for future studies in the field. We here report the discovery of a novel damage-responsive pathway, which involves p27kip1 and retinoblastoma tumour suppressors (TS), and which is only implemented after a persistent exposure to clastogens. In agreement with its late activation, we show that this pathway is critical for the maintenance –but not the initiation- of the cell cycle arrest triggered by DNA damage. Interestingly, this late response is independent of the canonical ATM- and ATR-dependent DDR, but downstream of p38 MAPK. Our results might help to reconcile the oncogene-induced DNA damage model with the clinical evidence that points to non-DDR members as the most important TSs in human cancer. PMID:19843869

  16. Roles of p53 and p27 Kip1 in the regulation of neurogenesis in the murine adult subventricular zone

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Perotin, Sara; Haines, Jeffery D.; Kaur, Jasbir; Marin-Husstege, Mireya; Spinetta, Michael J.; Kim, Kwi-Hye; Duran-Moreno, Maria; Schallert, Timothy; Zindy, Frederique; Roussel, Martine F.; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose M.; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 (Trp53) and the cell cycle inhibitor p27 Kip1 (Cdknb1) have both been implicated in regulating proliferation of adult subventricular zone (aSVZ) cells. We previously reported that genetic ablation of Trp53 (Trp53 −/−) or Cdknb1 (p27 Kip1−/−) increased proliferation of cells in the aSVZ, but differentially affected the number of adult born neuroblasts. We therefore hypothesized that these molecules might play non-redundant roles. To test this hypothesis we generated mice lacking both genes (Trp53 −/−;p27 Kip1−/−) and analysed the consequences on aSVZ cells and adult neuroblasts. Proliferation and self-renewal of cultured aSVZ cells were increased in the double mutants compared with control, but the mice did not develop spontaneous brain tumors. In contrast, the number of adult-born neuroblasts in the double mutants was similar to wild-type animals and suggested a complementation of the p27 Kip1−/− phenotype due to loss of Trp53. Cellular differences detected in the aSVZ correlated with cellular changes in the olfactory bulb and behavioral data on novel odor recognition. The exploration time for new odors was reduced in p27 Kip1−/− mice, increased in Trp53 −/− mice and normalized in the double Trp53−/−;p27 Kip1−/− mutants. At the molecular level, Trp53 −/− aSVZ cells were characterized by higher levels of NeuroD and Math3 and by the ability to generate neurons more readily. In contrast, p27 Kip1−/− cells generated fewer neurons, due to enhanced proteasomal degradation of pro-neural transcription factors. Together, these results suggest that p27 Kip1 and p53 function non-redundantly to modulate proliferation and self-renewal of aSVZ cells and antagonistically in regulating adult neurogenesis. PMID:21899604

  17. The Rho GTPase effector ROCK regulates cyclin A, cyclin D1, and p27Kip1 levels by distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Croft, Daniel R; Olson, Michael F

    2006-06-01

    The members of the Rho GTPase family are well known for their regulation of actin cytoskeletal structures. In addition, they influence progression through the cell cycle. The RhoA and RhoC proteins regulate numerous effector proteins, with a central and vital signaling role mediated by the ROCK I and ROCK II serine/threonine kinases. The requirement for ROCK function in the proliferation of numerous cell types has been revealed by studies utilizing ROCK-selective inhibitors such as Y-27632. However, the mechanisms by which ROCK signaling promotes cell cycle progression have not been thoroughly characterized. Using a conditionally activated ROCK-estrogen receptor fusion protein, we found that ROCK activation is sufficient to stimulate G1/S cell cycle progression in NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Further analysis revealed that ROCK acts via independent pathways to alter the levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins: cyclin D1 and p21(Cip1) elevation via Ras and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, increased cyclin A via LIM kinase 2, and reduction of p27(Kip1) protein levels. Therefore, the influence of ROCK on cell cycle regulatory proteins occurs by multiple independent mechanisms.

  18. SIRT6 delays cellular senescence by promoting p27Kip1 ubiquitin-proteasome degradation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ganye; Wang, Hui; Xu, Chenzhong; Wang, Pan; Chen, Jun; Wang, Pengfeng; Sun, Zhaomeng; Su, Yuanyuan; Wang, Zhao; Han, Limin; Tong, Tanjun

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuin6 (SIRT6) has been implicated as a key factor in aging and aging-related diseases. However, the role of SIRT6 in cellular senescence has not been fully understood. Here, we show that SIRT6 repressed the expression of p27Kip1 (p27) in cellular senescence. The expression of SIRT6 was reduced during cellular senescence, whereas enforced SIRT6 expression promoted cell proliferation and antagonized cellular senescence. In addition, we demonstrated that SIRT6 promoted p27 degradation by proteasome and SIRT6 decreased the acetylation level and protein half-life of p27. p27 acetylation increased its protein stability. Furthermore, SIRT6 directly interacted with p27. Importantly, p27 was strongly acetylated and had a prolonged protein half-life with the reduction of SIRT6 when cells were senescent, compared with those young cells. Finally, SIRT6 markedly rescued senescence induced by p27. Our findings indicate that SIRT6 decreases p27 acetylation, leading to its degradation via ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and then delays cellular senescence. PMID:27794562

  19. Discovery of Small Molecules that Inhibit the Disordered Protein, p27Kip1

    DOE PAGES

    Iconaru, Luigi I.; Ban, David; Bharatham, Kavitha; ...

    2015-10-28

    In disordered proteins we see that they are highly prevalent in biological systems. They control myriad signaling and regulatory processes, and their levels and/or cellular localization are often altered in human disease. In contrast to folded proteins, disordered proteins, due to conformational heterogeneity and dynamics, are not considered viable drug targets. We challenged this paradigm by identifying through NMR-based screening small molecules that bound specifically, albeit weakly, to the disordered cell cycle regulator, p27Kip1 (p27). Moreover, two groups of molecules bound to sites created by transient clusters of aromatic residues within p27. Conserved chemical features within these two groups ofmore » small molecules exhibited complementarity to their binding sites within p27, establishing structure-activity relationships for small molecule: disordered protein interactions. Finally, one compound counteracted the Cdk2/cyclin A inhibitory function of p27 in vitro, providing proof-of- principle that small molecules can inhibit the function of a disordered protein (p27) through sequestration in a conformation incapable of folding and binding to a natural regulatory target (Cdk2/cyclin A).« less

  20. Discovery of Small Molecules that Inhibit the Disordered Protein, p27Kip1

    PubMed Central

    Iconaru, Luigi I.; Ban, David; Bharatham, Kavitha; Ramanathan, Arvind; Zhang, Weixing; Shelat, Anang A.; Zuo, Jian; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Disordered proteins are highly prevalent in biological systems, they control myriad signaling and regulatory processes, and their levels and/or cellular localization are often altered in human disease. In contrast to folded proteins, disordered proteins, due to conformational heterogeneity and dynamics, are not considered viable drug targets. We challenged this paradigm by identifying through NMR-based screening small molecules that bound specifically, albeit weakly, to the disordered cell cycle regulator, p27Kip1 (p27). Two groups of molecules bound to sites created by transient clusters of aromatic residues within p27. Conserved chemical features within these two groups of small molecules exhibited complementarity to their binding sites within p27, establishing structure-activity relationships for small molecule:disordered protein interactions. Finally, one compound counteracted the Cdk2/cyclin A inhibitory function of p27 in vitro, providing proof-of-principle that small molecules can inhibit the function of a disordered protein (p27) through sequestration in a conformation incapable of folding and binding to a natural regulatory target (Cdk2/cyclin A). PMID:26507530

  1. Cloning and characterization of rat p27Kip1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Nomura, H; Sawada, Y; Fujinaga, K; Ohtaki, S

    1997-06-03

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors play significant roles in the cell cycle control of various biological phenomena. To characterize the role of Cdk inhibitors in rat cells, we isolated a cDNA encoding rat p27Kip1, a 27-kDa Cdk inhibitor. The 1.04-kb cDNA of rat p27 contained an open reading frame of 197 amino acids that shared high homology with mammalian p27 and significant homology with mammalian p21Cip1 and p57Kip2. p27 mRNA was detected in most rat tissues and cell lines. The levels of p27 protein expression were similar in rat cell lines transformed by E1A and in normal cells. Rat p27 was able to interact with Cdk 2/4 and cyclin A/D in rat cells, but the amounts of rat p27 in Cdk2 complexes were different between transformed cells and normal cells. Thus, the formation of stable complexes of rat p27 may be modulated by E1A. Rat p27 protein could inhibit the increased Cdk2-associated kinase activity in transformed rat cells.

  2. Sulforaphane down-regulates SKP2 to stabilize p27(KIP1) for inducing antiproliferation in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yuan-Kai; Chi-Hung Or, Richard; Lu, Chien-Hsing; Ouyang, Wei-Ting; Yang, Shu-Yi; Chang, Chia-Che

    2015-01-01

    Sulforaphane is a cruciferous vegetable-derived isothiocyanate with promising chemopreventive and therapeutic activities. Induction of proliferation arrest and apoptosis principally contribute to sulforaphane's anticancer activity, but the precise molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The oncoprotein SKP2 is a key component of the SKP1-CULLIN1-F-box (SCF) E3 ligase complex and is responsible for directing SCF-mediated degradation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) to promote cell proliferation. We herein provide the first evidence supporting the critical involvement of the SKP2-p27(KIP1) axis in sulforaphane-induced antiproliferation in various human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Specifically, sulforaphane markedly suppressed the levels of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and clonogenicity in all tested cell lines, illustrating the antiproliferative effect of sulforaphane. Of note, sulforaphane-induced antiproliferation was accompanied with down-regulation of SKP2, leading to the stabilization and thus up-regulation of p27(KIP1). Additionally, sulforaphane was found to down-regulate SKP2 mainly through transcriptional repression, as sulforaphane lowered SKP2 mRNA expression and the SKP2 promoter activity. Furthermore, sulforaphane treatment led to the activation of both AKT and ERK, thus ruling out the possibility that sulforaphane down-regulates SKP2 by inhibiting AKT or ERK. Notably, sulforaphane-elicited suppression of BrdU incorporation and clonogenicity were significantly rescued in the context of SKP2 overexpression or p27(KIP1) depletion, therefore highlighting the important role of SKP2 down-regulation and the ensuing stabilization of p27(KIP1) in sulforaphane-induced antiproliferation. Collectively, these data expand our molecular understanding about how sulforaphane elicits proliferation arrest, but also implicate the application of sulforaphane in therapeutic modalities targeting SKP2. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology

  3. A Cytostatic Ruthenium(II)-Platinum(II) Bis(terpyridyl) Anticancer Complex That Blocks Entry into S Phase by Up-regulating p27(KIP1).

    PubMed

    Ramu, Vadde; Gill, Martin R; Jarman, Paul J; Turton, David; Thomas, Jim A; Das, Amitava; Smythe, Carl

    2015-06-15

    Cytostatic agents that interfere with specific cellular components to prevent cancer cell growth offer an attractive alternative, or complement, to traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a new binuclear Ru(II) -Pt(II) complex [Ru(tpy)(tpypma)Pt(Cl)(DMSO)](3+) (tpy=2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and tpypma=4-([2,2':6',2''-terpyridine]-4'-yl)-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)aniline), VR54, which employs the extended terpyridine tpypma ligand to link the two metal centres. In cell-free conditions, VR54 binds DNA by non-intercalative reversible mechanisms (Kb =1.3×10(5)  M(-1) ) and does not irreversibly bind guanosine. Cellular studies reveal that VR54 suppresses proliferation of A2780 ovarian cancer cells with no cross-resistance in the A2780CIS cisplatin-resistant cell line. Through the preparation of mononuclear Ru(II) and Pt(II) structural derivatives it was determined that both metal centres are required for this anti-proliferative activity. In stark contrast to cisplatin, VR54 neither activates the DNA-damage response network nor induces significant levels of cell death. Instead, VR54 is cytostatic and inhibits cell proliferation by up-regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) and inhibiting retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation, which blocks entry into S phase and results in G1 cell cycle arrest. Thus, VR54 inhibits cancer cell growth by a gain of function at the G1 restriction point. This is the first metal-coordination compound to demonstrate such activity.

  4. Effect of hypoxia and Beraprost sodium on human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation: the role of p27kip1

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Maiko; Mizuno, Shiro; Demura, Yoshiki; Ameshima, Shingo; Miyamori, Isamu; Ishizaki, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    Background Hypoxia induces the proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) in vivo and in vitro, and prostacyclin analogues are thought to inhibit the growth of PASMC. Previous studies suggest that p27kip1, a kind of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, play an important role in the smooth muscle cell proliferation. However, the mechanism of hypoxia and the subcellular interactions between p27kip1 and prostacyclin analogues in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (HPASMC) are not fully understood. Methods We investigated the role of p27kip1 in the ability of Beraprost sodium (BPS; a stable prostacyclin analogue) to inhibit the proliferation of HPASMC during hypoxia. To clarify the biological effects of hypoxic air exposure and BPS on HPASMC, the cells were cultured in a hypoxic chamber under various oxygen concentrations (0.1–21%). Thereafter, DNA synthesis was measured as bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining. The p27kip1 mRNA and protein expression and it's stability was measured by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Further, we assessed the role of p27kip1 in HPASMC proliferation using p27kip1 gene knockdown using small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. Results Although severe hypoxia (0.1% oxygen) suppressed the proliferation of serum-stimulated HPASMC, moderate hypoxia (2% oxygen) enhanced proliferation in accordance with enhanced p27kip1 protein degradation, whereas BPS suppressed HPASMC proliferation under both hypoxic and normoxic conditions by suppressing p27kip1 degradation with intracellular cAMP-elevation. The 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP), a cAMP analogue, had similar action as BPS in the regulation of p27kip1. Moderate hypoxia did not affect the stability of p27kip1 protein expression, but PDGF, known as major hypoxia-induced growth factors, significantly decreased p27kip1 protein stability. We also demonstrated that

  5. Parathyroid hyperplasia, adenomas, and carcinomas: differential expression of p27Kip1 protein.

    PubMed

    Erickson, L A; Jin, L; Wollan, P; Thompson, G B; van Heerden, J A; Lloyd, R V

    1999-03-01

    The histologic spectrum of proliferative parathyroid lesions (hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma) often overlap, and differentiation between these lesions may at times be difficult. p27kip1 (p27) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that helps regulate the transition from the G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle. Significantly higher levels of p27 expression have been detected in some normal tissues than in their neoplastic counterparts. The authors analyzed a series of parathyroid lesions to determine if expression of this cell cycle protein may be useful in distinguishing between parathyroid hyperplasia, adenomas, and carcinomas. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from randomly selected patients (22 histologically normal parathyroid glands, 33 cases of hyperplasia, 43 adenomas, and 17 carcinomas) were analyzed for expression of p27 by immunostaining. All cases were also immunostained for Ki67 with antibody MIB-1. The distribution of immunoreactivity was analyzed by quantifying the percentage of positive nuclei that was expressed as the labeling index (LI). In situ hybridization (ISH) for p27 mRNA was done using a cRNA probe with 30 of these cases. Normal parathyroid glands had the highest p27 LI (89.6 +/- 1.4), followed by hyperplasia (69.6 +/- 7.5), adenomas (56.8 +/- 3.4), and carcinomas (13.9 +/- 2.6). ISH showed no differences in p27 mRNA, indicating that the expression of the p27 gene was controlled at a posttranslational level in parathyroid tissues. Ki67 expression was significantly higher in carcinomas (LI = 8.4 +/- 1.9) than in adenomas (LI = 2.7 +/- 0.2) and hyperplasia (LI = 3.3 +/- 0.4). These results suggest that both p27 and Ki67 may be helpful in the diagnosis of histologically difficult parathyroid lesions.

  6. Methylation of tumor suppressor genes p16(INK4a), p27(Kip1) and E-cadherin in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Auerkari, Elza Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    Not only genomic mutations but also abnormal epigenetic methylation can significantly contribute to gene silencing and carcinogenesis. Methylation is particularly often observed in the CpG islands of the promoter regions in the regulatory genes. However, there are considerable differences in the incidence of methylation e.g. in the tumor suppressor genes, so that aberrant methylation of p16(INK4a) is relatively frequently observed in tumors, p27(Kip1) methylation is rare, and the incidence of E-cadherin methylation occurs at an intermediate rate. Although true genomic defects are generally much less common than methylation, parallel tendencies for both are often observed, probably reflecting the different levels of evolutionary advantage for tumor cells from inactivation of different genes. This also suggests that loss of p27 expression could be more a consequence of carcinogenesis, while lost p16 expression is a true oncogenic event. Due to the role of p27 in maintaining cellular quiescence, however, loss of its expression can still be a useful partial indicator of the aggressiveness of cancer. Loss of E-cadherin or its catenin partners of cellular adhesion will result in increasing invasiveness and metastatic potential of neoplastic cells but, because of several alternative routes to the same effect, incidence of lost expression for one component gene like E-cadherin does not need to be very high. Similarly, there must be a relatively high number of genes with modest or low incidence of aberrant silencing by methylation, to reflect multiple alternatives for the multistep process of carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, methylation of different genes also shows characteristic differences between different cancer and tumor types, and the epigenetic methylation patterns therefore have considerable diagnostic and prognostic potential. Realising this potential requires efficient methods for profiling the status of methylation. Such profiling methods have only recently become

  7. Substituting threonine 187 with alanine in p27Kip1 prevents pituitary tumorigenesis by two-hit loss of Rb1 and enhances humoral immunity in old age.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongling; Bauzon, Frederick; Bi, Enguang; Yu, J Jessica; Fu, Hao; Lu, Zhonglei; Cui, Jinhua; Jeon, Hyungjun; Zang, Xingxing; Ye, B Hilda; Zhu, Liang

    2015-02-27

    p27Kip1 (p27) is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Inhibiting p27 protein degradation is an actively developing cancer therapy strategy. One focus has been to identify small molecule inhibitors to block recruitment of Thr-187-phosphorylated p27 (p27T187p) to SCF(Skp2/Cks1) ubiquitin ligase. Since phosphorylation of Thr-187 is required for this recruitment, p27T187A knockin (KI) mice were generated to determine the effects of systemically blocking interaction between p27 and Skp2/Cks1 on tumor susceptibility and other proliferation related mouse physiology. Rb1(+/-) mice develop pituitary tumors with full penetrance and the tumors are invariably Rb1(-/-), modeling tumorigenesis by two-hit loss of RB1 in humans. Immunization induced humoral immunity depends on rapid B cell proliferation and clonal selection in germinal centers (GCs) and declines with age in mice and humans. Here, we show that p27T187A KI prevented pituitary tumorigenesis in Rb1(+/-) mice and corrected decline in humoral immunity in older mice following immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). These findings reveal physiological contexts that depend on p27 ubiquitination by SCF(Skp2-Cks1) ubiquitin ligase and therefore help forecast clinical potentials of Skp2/Cks1-p27T187p interaction inhibitors. We further show that GC B cells and T cells use different mechanisms to regulate their p27 protein levels, and propose a T helper cell exhaustion model resembling that of stem cell exhaustion to understand decline in T cell-dependent humoral immunity in older age.

  8. Substituting Threonine 187 with Alanine in p27Kip1 Prevents Pituitary Tumorigenesis by Two-Hit Loss of Rb1 and Enhances Humoral Immunity in Old Age*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongling; Bauzon, Frederick; Bi, Enguang; Yu, J. Jessica; Fu, Hao; Lu, Zhonglei; Cui, Jinhua; Jeon, Hyungjun; Zang, Xingxing; Ye, B. Hilda; Zhu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    p27Kip1 (p27) is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Inhibiting p27 protein degradation is an actively developing cancer therapy strategy. One focus has been to identify small molecule inhibitors to block recruitment of Thr-187-phosphorylated p27 (p27T187p) to SCFSkp2/Cks1 ubiquitin ligase. Since phosphorylation of Thr-187 is required for this recruitment, p27T187A knockin (KI) mice were generated to determine the effects of systemically blocking interaction between p27 and Skp2/Cks1 on tumor susceptibility and other proliferation related mouse physiology. Rb1+/− mice develop pituitary tumors with full penetrance and the tumors are invariably Rb1−/−, modeling tumorigenesis by two-hit loss of RB1 in humans. Immunization induced humoral immunity depends on rapid B cell proliferation and clonal selection in germinal centers (GCs) and declines with age in mice and humans. Here, we show that p27T187A KI prevented pituitary tumorigenesis in Rb1+/− mice and corrected decline in humoral immunity in older mice following immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). These findings reveal physiological contexts that depend on p27 ubiquitination by SCFSkp2-Cks1 ubiquitin ligase and therefore help forecast clinical potentials of Skp2/Cks1-p27T187p interaction inhibitors. We further show that GC B cells and T cells use different mechanisms to regulate their p27 protein levels, and propose a T helper cell exhaustion model resembling that of stem cell exhaustion to understand decline in T cell-dependent humoral immunity in older age. PMID:25583987

  9. Regulation of p27Kip1 phosphorylation and G1 cell cycle progression by protein phosphatase PPM1G

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chuang; Wang, Gaohang; Wrighton, Katharine H; Lin, Han; Songyang, Zhou; Feng, Xin-Hua; Lin, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The cell cycle, an essential process leading to the cell division, is stringently controlled by the key cell cycle regulators, cyclin-CDK complexes, whose activity is further regulated by a variety of mechanisms. p27Kip1 is a cyclin-CDK inhibitor that arrests the cell cycle at the G1 phase by blocking the activation of cyclin E-CDK2 complex, preventing the improper entry to the cell cycle. Dysfunction of p27 has been frequently observed in many types of human cancers, resulting from p27 protein degradation and cytoplasmic mislocalization, which are highly regulated by the phosphorylation status of p27. Although the kinases that phosphorylate p27 have been extensively studied, phosphatases that dephosphorylate p27 remain to be elucidated. By using genomic phosphatase screening, we identified a PPM family phosphatase, PPM1G, which could reduce p27 phosphorylation at T198. We further confirmed that PPM1G is a novel p27 phosphatase by demonstrating that PPM1G can interact with and dephosphorylate p27 in cells and in vitro. Functionally, ectopic expression of PPM1G enhanced p27 protein stability and delayed cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase. In accordance, knockdown of PPM1G accelerated p27 degradation during G1 phase and rendered cells resistant to the cell cycle arrest induced by serum deprivation. Mechanistically, PPM1G inhibited the interaction of p27 to 14-3-3θ, a chaperone protein that facilitates p27 nuclear export. Knockdown of PPM1G promoted the cytoplasmic localization of p27. Taken together, our studies identified PPM1G as a novel regulator of p27 that dephosphorylates p27 at T198 site and, together with p27 kinases, PPM1G controls cell cycle progression by maintaining the proper level of p27 protein. PMID:27822412

  10. A p27Kip1 mutant that does not inhibit CDK activity promotes centrosome amplification and micronucleation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S S; Ma, L; Bagui, T K; Forinash, K D; Pledger, W J

    2012-08-30

    Mitotic catastrophe occurs when cells enter mitosis with damaged DNA or excess centrosomes. Cells overexpressing the centrosome protein CP110 or depleted of cyclin F, which targets CP110 for destruction, have more than two centrosomes and undergo mitotic catastrophe. Our studies show centrosome reduplication and mitotic catastrophe in osteosarcoma cells inducibly expressing a p27Kip1 mutant (termed p27K) that binds cyclins but not cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). p27K inhibited cell proliferation but not CDK activity or cell cycle progression. It did not induce apoptosis; however, cells expressing p27K had more than two centrosomes and, indicative of mitotic catastrophe, irregularly shaped nuclei or multiple micronuclei. p27K interacted with cyclin F in vivo (as did endogenous p27Kip1) and displaced cyclin F from CP110. Depletion of CP110 rescued p27K-expressing cells from centrosome reduplication and mitotic catastrophe. Collectively, our data show that p27Kip1 can perturb mitosis and suggest that it does so by sequestering cyclin F, which prevents its interaction with and the subsequent degradation of CP110, ultimately resulting in centrosome reduplication, mitotic catastrophe and abrogation of cell proliferation.

  11. The Cell Cycle Inhibitors p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) Control Proliferation but Enhance DNA Damage Resistance of Glioma Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Morris-Hanon, Olivia; Furmento, Verónica Alejandra; Rodríguez-Varela, María Soledad; Mucci, Sofía; Fernandez-Espinosa, Damián Darío; Romorini, Leonardo; Sevlever, Gustavo Emilio; Scassa, María Elida; Videla-Richardson, Guillermo Agustín

    2017-07-01

    High-grade gliomas are the most prevalent and lethal primary brain tumors. They display a hierarchical arrangement with a population of self-renewing and highly tumorigenic cells called cancer stem cells. These cells are thought to be responsible for tumor recurrence, which make them main candidates for targeted therapies. Unbridled cell cycle progression may explain the selective sensitivity of some cancer cells to treatments. The members of the Cip/Kip family p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) were initially considered as tumor suppressors based on their ability to block proliferation. However, they are currently looked at as proteins with dual roles in cancer: one as tumor suppressor and the other as oncogene. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the functions of these cell cycle inhibitors in five patient-derived glioma stem cell-enriched cell lines. We found that these proteins are functional in glioma stem cells. They negatively regulate cell cycle progression both in unstressed conditions and in response to genotoxic stress. In addition, p27(Kip1) is upregulated in nutrient-restricted and differentiating cells, suggesting that this Cip/Kip is a mediator of antimitogenic signals in glioma cells. Importantly, the lack of these proteins impairs cell cycle halt in response to genotoxic agents, rendering cells more vulnerable to DNA damage. For these reasons, these proteins may operate both as tumor suppressors, limiting cell proliferation, and as oncogenes, conferring cell resistance to DNA damage. Thus, deepening our knowledge on the biological functions of these Cip/Kips may shed light on how some cancer cells develop drug resistance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Notch Signaling Activates Stem Cell Properties of Müller Glia through Transcriptional Regulation and Skp2-mediated Degradation of p27Kip1

    PubMed Central

    Parameswaran, Sowmya; Mathews, Saumi; Xia, Xiaohuan; Zheng, Li; Neville, Andrew J.; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Müller glia (MG), the sole glial cells generated by retinal progenitors, have emerged as a viable cellular target for therapeutic regeneration in degenerative blinding diseases, as they possess dormant stem cell properties. However, the mammalian MG does not display the neurogenic potential of their lower vertebrate counterparts, precluding their practical clinical use. The answer to this barrier may be found in two interlinked processes underlying the neurogenic potential, i.e., the activation of the dormant stem cell properties of MG and their differentiation along the neuronal lineage. Here, we have focused on the former and examined Notch signaling-mediated activation of MG. We demonstrate that one of the targets of Notch signaling is the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI), p27Kip1, which is highly expressed in quiescent MG. Notch signaling facilitates the activation of MG by inhibiting p27Kip1 expression. This is likely achieved through the Notch- p27Kip1 and Notch-Skp2-p27Kip1 axes, the former inhibiting the expression of p27Kip1 transcripts and the latter levels of p27Kip1 proteins by Skp2-mediated proteasomal degradation. Thus, Notch signaling may facilitate re-entry of MG into the cell cycle by inhibiting p27Kip1 expression both transcriptionally and post-translationally. PMID:27011052

  13. Lymph node metastasis in lower lip squamous cell carcinoma in relation to tumour size, histologic variables and p27Kip1 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Rodolico, Vito; Barresi, Elisa; Di Lorenzo, Roberto; Leonardi, Vincenza; Napoli, Pietro; Rappa, Francesca; Di Bernardo, Cristofaro

    2004-01-01

    We studied a consecutive series of 95 patients undergoing radical surgical resection of lower lip squamous cell carcinoma (LLSCC) to assess the correlation between lymph node status and several prognostic variables, such as sex and age, tumour size, histologic grading, maximal microscopic tumour thickness, perineural infiltration and p27Kip1 protein status, to see which of these might be predictive of the development of lymph node metastases. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant association between node status and tumour size, histological grading, maximal thickness, perineural invasion and p27Kip1 protein expression; additionally to node metastasis, low p27Kip1 protein expression was significant correlated with high microscopic thickness. These results indicate that lower lip squamous cell carcinomas of >2 cm, with G3-G4 histological grading, maximal thickness of >6 mm, perineural invasion and low p27Kip1 protein expression (LI<19.7%) are at high risk for the development of lymph node metastases.

  14. Damage-specific DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1) is involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of p27Kip1 in response to UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Iovine, Barbara; Iannella, Maria Luigia; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

    2011-05-01

    Damage-specific DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1) is a conserved protein component of the damaged DNA binding protein complex (DDB) that recognizes UV-induced DNA lesions and initiates the nucleotide excision repair process. DDB1 is also part of an E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex that targets a variety of substrates for proteolysis including the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1). The mechanism regulating the trafficking of DDB1 and its relationship with UV irradiation is not known, although cell cycle progression is implicated in the molecular machinery driving DDB1 into the nucleus. We evaluated the involvement of DDB1 in ubiquitination of the cdk inhibitor p27(Kip1) in response to UV irradiation. First, we observed that low and high doses of UV irradiation exert different effects on p27(Kip1) protein levels. Indeed, low but not high UV doses induced p27(Kip1) protein proteolysis in several human cell lines and UV-dependent degradation is dominant over other genotoxic agents such as cisplatin. We also demonstrate that p27(Kip1) reduction is not due to transcriptional regulation and that the proteasome inhibitor MG132 affects p27(Kip1) degradation. We observed that at low UV doses the decrease in p27(Kip1) nuclear protein related with DDB1 translocation into the nucleus; conversely, high doses of UV-induced p27(Kip1) accumulation and unchanged level of DDB1. The knockdown of DDB1 or Skp2 prevents UV-induced degradation of p27(Kip1) suggesting that DDB1 is essential to regulation of p27(kip1) turnover after a mild DNA damage. Our findings support the concept that DDB1 contributes to the activation of DNA repair mechanisms and could be a key factor in regulating the cell cycle in response to UV-induced DNA damage. Although the temporal order with which DDB1 contributes to ubiquitination of p27(Kip1) or initiates the nucleotide excision repair process remains to be established, our results represent a major step towards clarifying these issues.

  15. T-cell intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of p27Kip1 in the regulation of CD8 T-cell memory.

    PubMed

    Jatzek, Anna; Marie Tejera, Melba; Plisch, Erin H; Fero, Matthew L; Suresh, M

    2013-02-01

    CD8 T cells exhibit dynamic alterations in proliferation and apoptosis during various phases of the CD8 T-cell response, but the mechanisms that regulate cellular proliferation from the standpoint of CD8 T-cell memory are not well defined. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) functions as a negative regulator of the cell cycle in T cells, and it has been implicated in regulating cellular processes, including differentiation, transcription and migration. Here, we investigated whether p27(Kip1) regulates CD8 T-cell memory by T-cell-intrinsic or T-cell-extrinsic mechanisms, by conditional ablation of p27(Kip1) in T cells or non-T cells. Studies of T-cell responses to an acute viral infection show that p27(Kip1) negatively regulates the proliferation of CD8 T cells by T-cell-intrinsic mechanisms. However, the enhanced proliferation of CD8 T cells induced by T-cell-specific p27(Kip1) deficiency minimally affects the primary expansion or the magnitude of CD8 T-cell memory. Unexpectedly, p27(Kip1) ablation in non-T cells markedly augmented the number of high-quality memory CD8 T cells by enhancing the accumulation of memory precursor effector cells without increasing their proliferation. Further studies show that p27(Kip1) deficiency in immunizing dendritic cells fail to enhance CD8 T-cell memory. Nevertheless, we have delineated the T-cell-intrinsic, anti-proliferative activities of p27(Kip1) in CD8 T cells from its role as a factor in non-T cells that restricts the development of CD8 T-cell memory. These findings have implications in vaccine development and understanding the mechanisms that maintain T-cell homeostasis.

  16. Rho/ROCK pathway inhibition by the CDK inhibitor p27(kip1) participates in the onset of macrophage 3D-mesenchymal migration.

    PubMed

    Gui, Philippe; Labrousse, Arnaud; Van Goethem, Emeline; Besson, Arnaud; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Le Cabec, Véronique

    2014-09-15

    Infiltration of macrophages into tissue can promote tumour development. Depending on the extracellular matrix architecture, macrophages can adopt two migration modes: amoeboid migration--common to all leukocytes, and mesenchymal migration--restricted to macrophages and certain tumour cells. Here, we investigate the initiating mechanisms involved in macrophage mesenchymal migration. We show that a single macrophage is able to use both migration modes. Macrophage mesenchymal migration is correlated with decreased activity of Rho/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) and is potentiated when ROCK is inhibited, suggesting that amoeboid inhibition participates in mechanisms that initiate mesenchymal migration. We identify the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27(kip1) (also known as CDKN1B) as a new effector of macrophage 3D-migration. By using p27(kip1) mutant mice and small interfering RNA targeting p27(kip1), we show that p27(kip1) promotes mesenchymal migration and hinders amoeboid migration upstream of the Rho/ROCK pathway, a process associated with a relocation of the protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Finally, we observe that cytoplasmic p27(kip1) is required for in vivo infiltration of macrophages within induced tumours in mice. This study provides the first evidence that silencing of amoeboid migration through inhibition of the Rho/ROCK pathway by p27(kip1) participates in the onset of macrophage mesenchymal migration.

  17. Loss of Cell Cycle Regulators p27Kip1 and Cyclin E in Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder Correlates with Tumor Grade and Patient Survival

    PubMed Central

    Del Pizzo, Joseph J.; Borkowski, Andrew; Jacobs, Stephen C.; Kyprianou, Natasha

    1999-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 is a powerful molecular determinant of cell cycle progression. Loss of expression of p27Kip1 has been shown to be predictive of disease progression in several human malignancies. In this study we investigated the expression of two key cell cycle regulators, p27Kip1 and cyclin E, in the progression of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. An immunohistochemical analysis was conducted in a series of 50 bladder tumor specimens, including 3 metastatic lymph nodes, and 7 normal bladder specimens, using specific antibodies against the two regulators of the cell cycle, p27Kip1 and cyclin E. The degree of immunoreactivity was correlated with the pathological tumor grade, stage, and patient survival. A uniformly intense immunoreactivity for p27Kip1 and cyclin E was observed in epithelial cells of normal bladder tissue. Malignant bladder tissue demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern of significantly reduced p27Kip1 and cyclin E immunoreactivity, compared with normal urothelium (P < 0.01). In addition, there was progressive loss of expression of both cell cycle proteins with increasing tumor grade and pathological stage. Expression of p27Kip1 was significantly lower in the poorly differentiated tumors (grades III) compared to well and moderately differentiated (grades I and II) tumors (P = 0.004). Moreover, the expression of cyclin E was lower in grade III tumors compared to grade I and II lesions, although this difference failed to reach statistical significance. Most significantly, Kaplan-Meier plots of patient survival show increased mortality risk associated with low levels of p27Kip1 (P = 0.001) and cyclin E (P = 0.002) expression. This is the first evidence that loss of expression of p27Kip1 and cyclin E in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells correlates with advancing histological aggressiveness and poor patient survival. These results have clinical importance, because they support a role for p27Kip1 and

  18. Rat Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase η Suppresses the Neoplastic Phenotype of Retrovirally Transformed Thyroid Cells through the Stabilization of p27Kip1

    PubMed Central

    Trapasso, Francesco; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Boccia, Angelo; Stella, Antonella; Visconti, Roberta; Bruni, Paola; Baldassarre, Gustavo; Santoro, Massimo; Viglietto, Giuseppe; Fusco, Alfredo

    2000-01-01

    The r-PTPη gene encodes a rat receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase whose expression is negatively regulated by neoplastic cell transformation. Here we first demonstrate a dramatic reduction in DEP-1/HPTPη (the human homolog of r-PTPη) expression in a panel of human thyroid carcinomas. Subsequently, we show that the reexpression of the r-PTPη gene in highly malignant rat thyroid cells transformed by retroviruses carrying the v-mos and v-ras-Ki oncogenes suppresses their malignant phenotype. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that r-PTPη caused G1 growth arrest and increased the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 protein level by reducing the proteasome-dependent degradation rate. We propose that the r-PTPη tumor suppressor activity is mediated by p27Kip1 protein stabilization, because suppression of p27Kip1 protein synthesis using p27-specific antisense oligonucleotides blocked the growth-inhibitory effect induced by r-PTPη. Furthermore, we provide evidence that in v-mos- or v-ras-Ki-transformed thyroid cells, the p27Kip1 protein level was regulated by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway and that r-PTPη regulated p27Kip1 stability by preventing v-mos- or v-ras-Ki-induced MAP kinase activation. PMID:11094075

  19. CKS1B, overexpressed in aggressive disease, regulates multiple myeloma growth and survival through SKP2- and p27Kip1-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Colla, Simona; Wu, Xiaosong; Chen, Bangzheng; Stewart, James P.; Kuehl, W. Michael; Barlogie, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Overexpression of CKS1B, a gene mapping within a minimally amplified region between 153 to 154 Mb of chromosome 1q21, is linked to a poor prognosis in multiple myeloma (MM). CKS1B binds to and activates cyclin-dependent kinases and also interacts with SKP2 to promote the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of p27Kip1. Overexpression of CKS1B or SKP2 contributes to increased p27Kip1 turnover, cell proliferation, and a poor prognosis in many tumor types. Using 4 MM cell lines harboring MAF-, FGFR3/MMSET-, or CCND1-activating translocations, we show that lentiviral delivery of shRNA directed against CKS1B resulted in ablation of CKS1B mRNA and protein with concomitant stabilization of p27Kip1, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Although shRNA-mediated knockdown of SKP2 and forced expression of a nondegradable form of p27Kip1 (p27T187A) led to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis was modest. Of importance, while knockdown of SKP2 or overexpression of p27T187A induced cell cycle arrest in KMS28PE, an MM cell line with biallelic deletion of CDKN1B/p27Kip1, CKS1B ablation induced strong apoptosis. These data suggest that CKS1B influences myeloma cell growth and survival through SKP2- and p27Kip1-dependent and -independent mechanisms and that therapeutic strategies aimed at abolishing CKS1B function may hold promise for the treatment of high-risk disease for which effective therapies are currently lacking. PMID:17303695

  20. Induction of anergy in Th1 cells associated with increased levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21Cip1 and p27Kip1.

    PubMed

    Jackson, S K; DeLoose, A; Gilbert, K M

    2001-01-15

    Th1 cells exposed to Ag and the G(1) blocker n-butyrate in primary cultures lose their ability to proliferate in Ag-stimulated secondary cultures. The ability of n-butyrate to induce anergy in Ag-stimulated, but not resting, Th1 cells was shown here to be blocked by cycloheximide. Subsequent experiments to delineate the nature of the protein apparently required for n-butyrate-induced Th1 cell anergy focused on the role of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1). Normally, entry into S phase by Th1 cells occurs around 24 h after Ag stimulation and corresponds with relatively low levels of both p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1). However, unlike control Th1 cells, anergic Th1 cells contained high levels of both p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) when examined 24 h after Ag stimulation. The increase in p21(Cip1) observed in Ag-stimulated anergic Th1 cells appeared to be initiated in primary cultures. In contrast, the increase in p27(Kip1) observed in these anergic Th1 cells appears to represent a re-expression of the protein much earlier than control cells following Ag stimulation in secondary cultures. The anergic Th1 cells contained functionally active cdk inhibitors capable of inhibiting the activity of both endogenous and exogenous cdks. Consequently, it appears that n-butyrate-induced anergy in Th1 cells correlated with the up-regulation of p21(Cip1) and perhaps the downstream failure to maintain low levels of p27(Kip1). Increased levels of both p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) at the end of G(1) could prevent cdk-mediated entry into S phase, and thus help maintain the proliferative unresponsiveness found in the anergic Th1 cells.

  1. Accumulation of p27(kip1) is associated with cyclin D3 overexpression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Troncone, G; Iaccarino, A; Russo, M; Palmieri, E A; Volante, M; Papotti, M; Viglietto, G; Palombini, L

    2007-01-01

    Background The down regulation of protein p27kip1 (p27) in most cases of thyroid cancer has relevant diagnostic and prognostic implications. However, the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma expresses more p27 than benign oxyphilic lesions do. Aim To evaluate the mechanism underlying this difference in expression of p27. Methods Because high levels of cyclin D3 lead to p27 accumulation in cell lines and clinical samples of thyroid cancer, the immunocytochemical pattern of cyclin D3 in oxyphilic (n = 47) and non‐oxyphilic (n = 70) thyroid neoplasms was investigated. Results In the whole study sample, there was a significant correlation between p27 and cyclin D3 expression (Spearman's r: 0.64; p<0.001). The expression of cyclin D3 and p27 was significantly higher in the oxyphilic variant of follicular carcinomas than in non‐oxyphilic carcinomas (p<0.001). In the former, cyclin D3 overexpression and p27 accumulation were observed in a median of 75% and 55% of cells, respectively. In co‐immunoprecipitation experiments, the level of p27‐bound cyclin D3 was much higher in oxyphilic neoplasias than in normal thyroids and other thyroid tumours. Conclusion These results show that increased p27 expression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma results from cyclin D3 overexpression. PMID:16798934

  2. Cooperative role between p21cip1/waf1 and p27kip1 in premature senescence in glandular proliferative lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, R A; García-Palencia, P; Suarez, C; Sánchez, M A; Gil-Gómez, G; Sánchez, B; Rollán, E; Martín-Caballero, J; Flores, J M

    2014-03-01

    Cellular senescence has been considered a novel target for cancer therapy. It has also been pointed out that p21(cip1/waf1) and p27(kip1) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) play a role in cellular senescence in some tumor types. Therefore, in order to address the possibility of a cooperative role between p21 and p27 proteins in senescence in vivo we analyzed cellular senescence in spontaneous glandular proliferative lesions (adrenal, thyroid and pituitary glands) in a double-KO mice model, using γH2AX, p53, p16, PTEN and Ki67 as senescence markers. The results obtained showed that p21p27 double-null mice had the lowest number of γH2AX positive cells in glandular hyperplasias and benign tumors. Also, in this group, Ki67 proliferation index correlated with a lower immunohistochemical expression of γH2AX and p53. The expression of p16 and PTEN do not seem to cause synergism of senescence in the benign lesions analyzed in p21p27 double-KO mice. These observations suggest an intrinsic cooperation between p21 and p27 CKIs in the activation of stress-induced cellular senescence and tumor progression in vivo, which would be a physiological mechanism to prevent tumor cell proliferation.

  3. Role of Intrinsic Flexibility in Signal Transduction Mediated by the Cell Cycle Regulator, p27Kip1

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Charles A.; Nourse, Amanda; Wang, Yuefeng; Sivakolundu, Sivashankar G.; Heller, William T.; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    Summary p27Kip1 (p27), which controls eukaryotic cell division through interactions with cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), integrates and transduces pro-mitogenic signals from various non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs) by orchestrating its own phosphorylation, ubiquitination and degradation. Intrinsic flexibility allows p27 to act as a “conduit” for sequential signaling mediated by tyrosine and threonine phosphorylation and ubiquitination. While the structural features of the Cdk/cyclin-binding domain of p27 are understood, how the C-terminal regulatory domain coordinates multi-step signaling leading to p27 degradation is poorly understood. We show that the 100-residue p27 C-terminal domain is extended and flexible when p27 is bound to Cdk2/cyclin A. We propose that the intrinsic flexibility of p27 provides a molecular basis for the sequential signal transduction conduit that regulates p27 degradation and cell division. Other intrinsically unstructured proteins possessing multiple sites of post-translational modification may participate in similar signaling conduits. PMID:18177895

  4. Growth arrest by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 is abrogated by c-Myc.

    PubMed Central

    Vlach, J; Hennecke, S; Alevizopoulos, K; Conti, D; Amati, B

    1996-01-01

    We show here that c-Myc antagonizes the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27Kip1. p27 expressed from recombinant retroviruses in Rat1 cells associated with and inhibited cyclin E/CDK2 complexes, induced accumulation of the pRb and p130 proteins in their hypophosphorylated forms, and arrested cells in G1. Prior expression of c-Myc prevented inactivation of cyclin E/CDK2 as well as dephosphorylation of pRb and p130, and allowed continuous cell proliferation in the presence of p27. This effect did not require ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27. Myc altered neither the susceptibility of cyclin E/CDK2 to inhibition by p27, nor the intrinsic CDK-inhibitory activity of p27, but induced sequestration of p27 in a form unable to bind cyclin E/CDK2. Neither Myc itself nor other G1-cyclin/CDK complexes were directly responsible for p27 sequestration. Retroviral expression of G1 cyclins (D1-3, E or A) or of the Cdc25A phosphatase did not overcome p27-induced arrest. Growth rescue by Myc required dimerization with Max, DNA binding and an intact transcriptional activation domain, as previously shown for cellular transformation. We propose that this activity is mediated by the product of an as yet unknown Myc-Max target gene(s) and represents an essential aspect of Myc's mitogenic and oncogenic functions. Images PMID:8978686

  5. Butein inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest in acute lymphoblastic leukemia via FOXO3a/p27kip1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Na; Tian, Yun; Shi, Dingbo; Wang, Jingshu; Qin, Ge; Li, Anchuan; Liang, Yan-Ni; Zhou, Huan-Juan; Ke, Zhi-Yong; Huang, Wenlin; Deng, Wuguo; Luo, Xue-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a common hematological malignancy characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of leukemia cells in children. Discovering and developing effective chemotherapeutic drugs are needed for ALL. In this study, we investigated the anti-leukemic activity of butein and its action mechanisms in ALL. Butein was found to significantly suppress the cellular proliferation of ALL cell lines and primary ALL blasts in a dose-dependent manner. It also induced cell cycle arrest by decreasing the expression of cyclin E and CDK2. We also found that butein promoted nuclear Forkhead Class box O3a (FOXO3a) localization, enhanced the binding of FOXO3a on the p27kip1 gene promoter and then increased the expression of p27kip1. Moreover, we showed that FOXO3a knockdown significantly decreased the proliferation inhibition by butein, whereas overexpression of FOXO3a enhanced the butein-mediated proliferation inhibition. However, overexpression of FOXO3a mutation (C-terminally truncated FOXO3a DNA-binding domain) decreased the proliferation inhibition by butein through decreasing the expression of p27kip1. Our results therefore demonstrate the therapeutic potential of butein for ALL via FOXO3a/p27kip1 pathway. PMID:26919107

  6. Knockdown of AMPKα2 Promotes Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells Proliferation via mTOR/Skp2/p27Kip1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Rui; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Yanting; Li, Shaojun; Xie, Xinming; Li, Fangwei; Song, Yang; Yang, Lan; Gao, Li; Li, Manxiang

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) suppresses proliferation of a variety of tumor cells as well as nonmalignant cells. In this study, we used post-transcriptional gene silencing with small interfering RNA (siRNA) to specifically examine the effect of AMPK on pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) proliferation and to further elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that knockdown of AMPKα2 promoted primary cultured PASMCs proliferation; this was accompanied with the elevation of phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) protein level and reduction of p27Kip1. Importantly, prior silencing of mTOR with siRNA abolished AMPKα2 knockdown-induced Skp2 upregulation, p27Kip1 reduction as well as PASMCs proliferation. Furthermore, pre-depletion of Skp2 by siRNA also eliminated p27Kip1 downregulation and PASMCs proliferation caused by AMPKα2 knockdown. Taken together, our study indicates that AMPKα2 isoform plays an important role in regulation of PASMCs proliferation by modulating mTOR/Skp2/p27Kip1 axis, and suggests that activation of AMPKα2 might have potential value in the prevention and treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:27258250

  7. Knockdown of AMPKα2 Promotes Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells Proliferation via mTOR/Skp2/p27(Kip1) Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ke, Rui; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Yanting; Li, Shaojun; Xie, Xinming; Li, Fangwei; Song, Yang; Yang, Lan; Gao, Li; Li, Manxiang

    2016-05-31

    It has been shown that activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) suppresses proliferation of a variety of tumor cells as well as nonmalignant cells. In this study, we used post-transcriptional gene silencing with small interfering RNA (siRNA) to specifically examine the effect of AMPK on pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) proliferation and to further elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that knockdown of AMPKα2 promoted primary cultured PASMCs proliferation; this was accompanied with the elevation of phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) protein level and reduction of p27(Kip1). Importantly, prior silencing of mTOR with siRNA abolished AMPKα2 knockdown-induced Skp2 upregulation, p27(Kip1) reduction as well as PASMCs proliferation. Furthermore, pre-depletion of Skp2 by siRNA also eliminated p27(Kip1) downregulation and PASMCs proliferation caused by AMPKα2 knockdown. Taken together, our study indicates that AMPKα2 isoform plays an important role in regulation of PASMCs proliferation by modulating mTOR/Skp2/p27(Kip1) axis, and suggests that activation of AMPKα2 might have potential value in the prevention and treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

  8. Parathyroid hormone-related protein induces hypertrophy in podocytes via TGF-beta(1) and p27(Kip1): implications for diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Romero, Montserrat; Ortega, Arantxa; Izquierdo, Adriana; López-Luna, Pilar; Bosch, Ricardo J

    2010-08-01

    Hypertrophy of podocytes is characteristic in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Previously, we observed the upregulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and its receptor PTH1R, in experimental DN, associated with renal hypertrophy. Herein, we test the hypothesis that PTHrP participates in the mechanism of high glucose (HG)-induced podocyte hypertrophy. On mouse podocytes, hypertrophy was assessed by protein content/cell and [H(3)]leucine incorporation. Podocytes were stimulated with HG (25 mM), PTHrP(1-36) (100 nM), angiotensin II (AngII) (100 nM) or TGF-beta(1) (5 ng/mL) in the presence or absence of PTHrP-neutralizing antibodies (alpha-PTHrP), the PTH1R antagonist JB4250 (10 microM), PTHrP silencer RNA (siRNA) or TGF-beta(1) siRNA. Protein expression was analysed by western blot and immunohistochemistry. HG-induced hypertrophy was abolished in the presence of either alpha-PTHrP or PTHrP siRNA. This effect was associated with an inhibition of the upregulation of TGF-beta(1) and p27(Kip1). JB4250 also inhibited HG-induced p27(Kip1) upregulation. Interestingly, whilst HG and AngII were unable to stimulate the expression of p27(Kip1) on PTHrP siRNA-transfected podocytes, TGF-beta(1) was still able to upregulate p27(Kip1) in these cells. Moreover, HG and PTHrP-induced hypertrophy as well as p27(Kip1) upregulation were abolished on TGF-beta(1) siRNA-transfected podocytes. Furthermore, the glomeruli of transgenic PTHrP-overexpressing mice showed a constitutive overexpression of TGF-beta(1) and p27(Kip1) to a degree similar to that of diabetic animals. PTHrP seems to participate in the hypertrophic signalling triggered by HG. In this condition, AngII induces the upregulation of PTHrP, which might induce the expression of TGF-beta(1) and p27(Kip1). These findings provide new insights into the protective effects of AngII antagonists in DN, opening new paths for intervention.

  9. CEP1612, a dipeptidyl proteasome inhibitor, induces p21WAF1 and p27KIP1 expression and apoptosis and inhibits the growth of the human lung adenocarcinoma A-549 in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Nam, S; Lee, C S; Li, B; Coppola, D; Hamilton, A D; Dou, Q P; Sebti, S M

    2001-02-15

    The ubiquitin proteasome system is responsible for the proteolysis of important cell cycle and apoptosis-regulatory proteins. In this paper we report that the dipeptidyl proteasome inhibitor, phthalimide-(CH2)8CH-(cyclopentyl) CO-Arg(NO2)-Leu-H (CEP1612), induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth of the human lung cancer cell line A-549 in an in vivo model. In cultured A-549 cells, CEP1612 treatment results in accumulation of two proteasome natural substrates, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21WAF1 and p27KIP1, indicating its ability to inhibit proteasome activity in intact cells. Furthermore, CEP1612 induces apoptosis as evident by caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Treatment of A-549 tumor-bearing nude mice with CEP1612 (10 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 31 days) resulted in massive induction of apoptosis and significant (68%; P < 0.05) tumor growth inhibition, as shown by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end labeling. Furthermore, immunostaining of tumor specimens demonstrated in vivo accumulation of p21WAF1 and p27KIP1 after CEP1612 treatment. The results suggest that CEP1612 is a promising candidate for further development as an anticancer drug and demonstrate the feasibility of using proteasome inhibitors as novel antitumor agents.

  10. TGF-β activates APC through Cdh1 binding for Cks1 and Skp2 proteasomal destruction stabilizing p27kip1 for normal endometrial growth

    PubMed Central

    Pavlides, Savvas C.; Lecanda, Jon; Daubriac, Julien; Pandya, Unnati M.; Gama, Patricia; Blank, Stephanie; Mittal, Khushbakhat; Shukla, Pratibha; Gold, Leslie I.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously reported that aberrant TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling in endometrial cancer (ECA) leads to continuous ubiquitylation of p27kip1(p27) by the E3 ligase SCF-Skp2/Cks1 causing its degradation, as a putative mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of this cancer. In contrast, normal intact TGF-β signaling prevents degradation of nuclear p27 by SCF-Skp2/Cks1 thereby accumulating p27 to block Cdk2 for growth arrest. Here we show that in ECA cell lines and normal primary endometrial epithelial cells, TGF-β increases Cdh1 and its binding to APC/C to form the E3 ligase complex that ubiquitylates Cks1 and Skp2 prompting their proteasomal degradation and thus, leaving p27 intact. Knocking-down Cdh1 in ECA cell lines increased Skp2/Cks1 E3 ligase activity, completely diminished nuclear and cytoplasmic p27, and obviated TGF-β-mediated inhibition of proliferation. Protein synthesis was not required for TGF-β-induced increase in nuclear p27 and decrease in Cks1 and Skp2. Moreover, half-lives of Cks1 and Skp2 were extended in the Cdh1-depleted cells. These results suggest that the levels of p27, Skp2 and Cks1 are strongly or solely regulated by proteasomal degradation. Finally, an inverse relationship of low p27 and high Cks1 in the nucleus was shown in patients in normal proliferative endometrium and grade I-III ECAs whereas differentiated secretory endometrium showed the reverse. These studies implicate Cdh1 as the master regulator of TGF-β-induced preservation of p27 tumor suppressor activity. Thus, Cdh1 is a potential therapeutic target for ECA and other human cancers showing an inverse relationship between Cks1/Skp2 and p27 and/or dysregulated TGF-β signaling. PMID:26963853

  11. TGF-β activates APC through Cdh1 binding for Cks1 and Skp2 proteasomal destruction stabilizing p27kip1 for normal endometrial growth.

    PubMed

    Pavlides, Savvas C; Lecanda, Jon; Daubriac, Julien; Pandya, Unnati M; Gama, Patricia; Blank, Stephanie; Mittal, Khushbakhat; Shukla, Pratibha; Gold, Leslie I

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that aberrant TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling in endometrial cancer (ECA) leads to continuous ubiquitylation of p27(kip1)(p27) by the E3 ligase SCF-Skp2/Cks1 causing its degradation, as a putative mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of this cancer. In contrast, normal intact TGF-β signaling prevents degradation of nuclear p27 by SCF-Skp2/Cks1 thereby accumulating p27 to block Cdk2 for growth arrest. Here we show that in ECA cell lines and normal primary endometrial epithelial cells, TGF-β increases Cdh1 and its binding to APC/C to form the E3 ligase complex that ubiquitylates Cks1 and Skp2 prompting their proteasomal degradation and thus, leaving p27 intact. Knocking-down Cdh1 in ECA cell lines increased Skp2/Cks1 E3 ligase activity, completely diminished nuclear and cytoplasmic p27, and obviated TGF-β-mediated inhibition of proliferation. Protein synthesis was not required for TGF-β-induced increase in nuclear p27 and decrease in Cks1 and Skp2. Moreover, half-lives of Cks1 and Skp2 were extended in the Cdh1-depleted cells. These results suggest that the levels of p27, Skp2 and Cks1 are strongly or solely regulated by proteasomal degradation. Finally, an inverse relationship of low p27 and high Cks1 in the nucleus was shown in patients in normal proliferative endometrium and grade I-III ECAs whereas differentiated secretory endometrium showed the reverse. These studies implicate Cdh1 as the master regulator of TGF-β-induced preservation of p27 tumor suppressor activity. Thus, Cdh1 is a potential therapeutic target for ECA and other human cancers showing an inverse relationship between Cks1/Skp2 and p27 and/or dysregulated TGF-β signaling.

  12. Role of RhoA, mDia, and ROCK in cell shape-dependent control of the Skp2-p27kip1 pathway and the G1/S transition.

    PubMed

    Mammoto, Akiko; Huang, Sui; Moore, Kimberly; Oh, Philmo; Ingber, Donald E

    2004-06-18

    Cell shape-dependent control of cell-cycle progression underlies the spatial differentials of growth that drive tissue morphogenesis, yet little is known about how cell distortion impacts the biochemical signaling machinery that is responsible for growth control. Here we show that the Rho family GTPase, RhoA, conveys the "cell shape signal" to the cell-cycle machinery in human capillary endothelial cells. Cells accumulating p27(kip1) and arrested in mid G(1) phase when spreading were inhibited by restricted extracellular matrix adhesion, whereas constitutively active RhoA increased expression of the F-box protein Skp2 required for ubiquitination-dependent degradation of p27(kip1) and restored G(1) progression in these cells. Studies with dominant-negative and constitutively active forms of mDia1, a downstream effector of RhoA, and with a pharmacological inhibitor of ROCK, another RhoA target, revealed that RhoA promoted G(1) progression by altering the balance of activities between these two downstream effectors. These data indicate that signaling proteins such as mDia1 and ROCK, which are thought to be involved primarily in cytoskeletal remodeling, also mediate cell growth regulation by coupling cell shape to the cell-cycle machinery at the level of signal transduction.

  13. SKP2 oncogene is a direct MYC target gene and MYC down-regulates p27(KIP1) through SKP2 in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Bretones, Gabriel; Acosta, Juan C; Caraballo, Juan M; Ferrándiz, Nuria; Gómez-Casares, M Teresa; Albajar, Marta; Blanco, Rosa; Ruiz, Paula; Hung, Wen-Chun; Albero, M Pilar; Perez-Roger, Ignacio; León, Javier

    2011-03-18

    SKP2 is the ubiquitin ligase subunit that targets p27(KIP1) (p27) for degradation. SKP2 is induced in the G(1)-S transit of the cell cycle, is frequently overexpressed in human cancer, and displays transformation activity in experimental models. Here we show that MYC induces SKP2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human myeloid leukemia K562 cells with conditional MYC expression. Importantly, in these systems, induction of MYC did not activate cell proliferation, ruling out SKP2 up-regulation as a consequence of cell cycle entry. MYC-dependent SKP2 expression was also detected in other cell types such as lymphoid, fibroblastic, and epithelial cell lines. MYC induced SKP2 mRNA expression in the absence of protein synthesis and activated the SKP2 promoter in luciferase reporter assays. With chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, MYC was detected bound to a region of human SKP2 gene promoter that includes E-boxes. The K562 cell line derives from human chronic myeloid leukemia. In a cohort of chronic myeloid leukemia bone marrow samples, we found a correlation between MYC and SKP2 mRNA levels. Analysis of cancer expression databases also indicated a correlation between MYC and SKP2 expression in lymphoma. Finally, MYC-induced SKP2 expression resulted in a decrease in p27 protein in K562 cells. Moreover, silencing of SKP2 abrogated the MYC-mediated down-regulation of p27. Our data show that SKP2 is a direct MYC target gene and that MYC-mediated SKP2 induction leads to reduced p27 levels. The results suggest the induction of SKP2 oncogene as a new mechanism for MYC-dependent transformation.

  14. SKP2 Oncogene Is a Direct MYC Target Gene and MYC Down-regulates p27KIP1 through SKP2 in Human Leukemia Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Bretones, Gabriel; Acosta, Juan C.; Caraballo, Juan M.; Ferrándiz, Nuria; Gómez-Casares, M. Teresa; Albajar, Marta; Blanco, Rosa; Ruiz, Paula; Hung, Wen-Chun; Albero, M. Pilar; Perez-Roger, Ignacio; León, Javier

    2011-01-01

    SKP2 is the ubiquitin ligase subunit that targets p27KIP1 (p27) for degradation. SKP2 is induced in the G1-S transit of the cell cycle, is frequently overexpressed in human cancer, and displays transformation activity in experimental models. Here we show that MYC induces SKP2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human myeloid leukemia K562 cells with conditional MYC expression. Importantly, in these systems, induction of MYC did not activate cell proliferation, ruling out SKP2 up-regulation as a consequence of cell cycle entry. MYC-dependent SKP2 expression was also detected in other cell types such as lymphoid, fibroblastic, and epithelial cell lines. MYC induced SKP2 mRNA expression in the absence of protein synthesis and activated the SKP2 promoter in luciferase reporter assays. With chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, MYC was detected bound to a region of human SKP2 gene promoter that includes E-boxes. The K562 cell line derives from human chronic myeloid leukemia. In a cohort of chronic myeloid leukemia bone marrow samples, we found a correlation between MYC and SKP2 mRNA levels. Analysis of cancer expression databases also indicated a correlation between MYC and SKP2 expression in lymphoma. Finally, MYC-induced SKP2 expression resulted in a decrease in p27 protein in K562 cells. Moreover, silencing of SKP2 abrogated the MYC-mediated down-regulation of p27. Our data show that SKP2 is a direct MYC target gene and that MYC-mediated SKP2 induction leads to reduced p27 levels. The results suggest the induction of SKP2 oncogene as a new mechanism for MYC-dependent transformation. PMID:21245140

  15. c-Myc represses FOXO3a-mediated transcription of the gene encoding the p27(Kip1) cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Chandramohan, Vidyalakshmi; Mineva, Nora D; Burke, Brian; Jeay, Sébastien; Wu, Min; Shen, Jian; Yang, William; Hann, Stephen R; Sonenshein, Gail E

    2008-08-15

    The p27(Kip1) (p27) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and c-Myc oncoprotein play essential roles in control of cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Induction of p27 (CDKN1B) gene transcription by Forkhead box O proteins such as FOXO3a leads to growth arrest and apoptosis. Previously, we observed that B cell receptor (surface IgM) engagement of WEHI 231 immature B lymphoma cells with an anti-IgM antibody results in activation of FOXO3a, growth arrest and apoptosis. As ectopic c-Myc expression in these cells prevented anti-IgM induction of p27 and cell death, we hypothesized that c-Myc represses FOXO3a-mediated transcription. Here we show that c-Myc inhibits FOXO3a-mediated activation of the p27 promoter in multiple cell lines. The mechanism of this repression was explored using a combination of co-immunoprecipitation, oligonucleotide precipitation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. The studies demonstrate a functional association of FOXO3a and c-Myc on a proximal Forkhead binding element in the p27 promoter. This association involves the Myc box II domain of c-Myc and the N-terminal DNA-binding portion of FOXO3a. Analysis of publicly available microarray datasets showed an inverse pattern of c-MYC and p27 RNA expression in primary acute myeloid leukemia, prostate cancer and tongue squamous cell carcinoma samples. The inhibition of FOXO3a-mediated activation of the p27 gene by the high aberrant expression of c-Myc in many tumor cells likely contributes to their uncontrolled proliferation and invasive phenotype.

  16. High-Sensitivity IHC Detection of Phosphorylated p27/Kip1 in Human Tissues Using Secondary Antibody Conjugated to Polymer-HRP.

    PubMed

    Grahek, Michael; Ptak, Ana; Kalyuzhny, Alexander E

    2017-01-01

    A complex composed of goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody conjugated to a polymer coated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) molecules was used to develop rapid and highly sensitive immunostaining protocol for the detection of phosphorylated p27/Kip1 (T157) in human tissues. This polymer-HRP complex produced much better sensitivity detection compared to conventional biotin-streptavidin-HRP chemistry. Using polymer-HRP made it possible to reduce primary antibody concentration, eliminate some incubation steps such as avidin-biotin blocking and incubation with separate biotinylated secondary antibodies, and shorten the incubation time with primary antibody. Specificity of the detection was confirmed by eliminating labeling after treating tissues with lambda phosphatase to remove phosphate groups from p27/Kip1. Secondary antibodies conjugated to polymer-HRP is a reagent of choice in both research and diagnostic pathology allowing detecting low abundant and weakly expressed tissue targets.

  17. Cooperation between the Cdk inhibitors p27KIP1 and p57KIP2 in the control of tissue growth and development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pumin; Wong, Calvin; DePinho, Ronald A.; Harper, J. Wade; Elledge, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Cell cycle exit is required for terminal differentiation of many cell types. The retinoblastoma protein Rb has been implicated both in cell cycle exit and differentiation in several tissues. Rb is negatively regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). The main effectors that down-regulate Cdk activity to activate Rb are not known in the lens or other tissues. In this study, using multiple mutant mice, we show that the Cdk inhibitors p27KIP1 and p57KIP2 function redundantly to control cell cycle exit and differentiation of lens fiber cells and placental trophoblasts. These studies demonstrate that p27KIP1 and p57KIP2 are critical terminal effectors of signal transduction pathways that control cell differentiation. PMID:9784491

  18. Forkhead Box O1 Is Present in Quiescent Pituitary Cells during Development and Is Increased in the Absence of p27Kip1

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sreeparna; Farris, Corrie L.; Kabat, Brock E.; Jung, Deborah O.; Ellsworth, Buffy S.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital pituitary hormone deficiencies have been reported in approximately one in 4,000 live births, however studies reporting mutations in some widely studied transcription factors account for only a fraction of congenital hormone deficiencies in humans. Anterior pituitary hormones are required for development and function of several glands including gonads, adrenals, and thyroid. In order to identify additional factors that contribute to human congenital hormone deficiencies, we are investigating the forkhead transcription factor, FOXO1, which has been implicated in development of several organs including ovary, testis, and brain. We find that FOXO1 is present in the nuclei of non-dividing pituitary cells during embryonic development, consistent with a role in limiting proliferation and/or promoting differentiation. FOXO1 is present in a subset of differentiated cells at e18.5 and in adult with highest level of expression in somatotrope cells. We detected FOXO1 in p27Kip1-positive cells at e14.5. In the absence of p27Kip1 the number of pituitary cells containing FOXO1 is significantly increased at e14.5 suggesting that a feedback loop regulates the interplay between FOXO1 and p27Kip1. PMID:23251696

  19. Forkhead Box O1 is present in quiescent pituitary cells during development and is increased in the absence of p27 Kip1.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sreeparna; Farris, Corrie L; Kabat, Brock E; Jung, Deborah O; Ellsworth, Buffy S

    2012-01-01

    Congenital pituitary hormone deficiencies have been reported in approximately one in 4,000 live births, however studies reporting mutations in some widely studied transcription factors account for only a fraction of congenital hormone deficiencies in humans. Anterior pituitary hormones are required for development and function of several glands including gonads, adrenals, and thyroid. In order to identify additional factors that contribute to human congenital hormone deficiencies, we are investigating the forkhead transcription factor, FOXO1, which has been implicated in development of several organs including ovary, testis, and brain. We find that FOXO1 is present in the nuclei of non-dividing pituitary cells during embryonic development, consistent with a role in limiting proliferation and/or promoting differentiation. FOXO1 is present in a subset of differentiated cells at e18.5 and in adult with highest level of expression in somatotrope cells. We detected FOXO1 in p27(Kip1)-positive cells at e14.5. In the absence of p27(Kip1) the number of pituitary cells containing FOXO1 is significantly increased at e14.5 suggesting that a feedback loop regulates the interplay between FOXO1 and p27(Kip1).

  20. SKP2 siRNA inhibits the degradation of P27kip1 and down-regulates the expression of MRP in HL-60/A cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jie; Yin, Songmei; Li, Yiqing; Xie, Shuangfeng; Nie, Danian; Ma, Liping; Wang, Xiuju; Wu, Yudan; Feng, Jianhong

    2009-08-01

    S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) gene is a tumor suppressor gene, and is involved in the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of P27kip1. SKP2 and P27kip1 affect the proceeding and prognosis of leukemia through regulating the proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of leukemia cells. In this study, we explored the mechanism of reversing of HL-60/A drug resistance through SKP2 down-regulation. HL-60/A cells were nucleofected by Amaxa Nucleofector System with SKP2 siRNA. The gene and protein expression levels of Skp2, P27kip1, and multi-drug resistance associated protein (MRP) were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The 50% inhibitory concentration value was calculated using cytotoxic analysis according to the death rate of these two kinds of cells under different concentrations of chemotherapeutics to compare the sensitivity of the cells. HL-60/A cells showed multi-drug resistance phenotype characteristic by cross-resistance to adriamycin, daunorubicin, and arabinosylcytosine, due to the expression of MRP. We found that the expression of SKP2 was higher in HL-60/A cells than in HL-60 cells, but the expression of P27kip1 was lower. The expression of SKP2 in HL-60/A cells nucleofected by SKP2 siRNA was down-regulated whereas the protein level of P27kip1 was up-regulated. Compared with the MRP expression level in the control group (nucleofected by control siRNA), the mRNA and protein expression levels of MRP in HL-60/A cells nucleofected by SKP2 siRNA were lower, and the latter cells were more sensitive to adriamycin, daunorubicin, and arabinosylcytosine. Down-regulating the SKP2 expression and arresting cells in the G0/G1 phase improve drug sensitivity of leukemia cells with down-regulated MRP expression.

  1. Multiparameter immunohistochemical analysis of the cell cycle proteins cyclin D1, Ki-67, p21WAF1, p27KIP1, and p53 in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Izban, K F; Alkan, S; Singleton, T P; Hsi, E D

    2000-10-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by overexpression of cyclin D1, a G1 cyclin that participates in the control of cell cycle progression at the G1 to S phase transition. In addition to cyclin D1, other cell cycle regulatory molecules may be involved in the proliferation and progression of MCL. Mutation of p53, deletion of p16(INK4a), and loss of p21(WAF1) expression have been reported in some cases of blastoid MCL. We sought to examine levels of expression of these proteins in typical and blastoid MCL and to determine whether differences were present between these subtypes of lymphomas. A retrospective series of typical and blastoid MCLs was evaluated for expression of the cell cycle-related proteins cyclin D1, p21(WAF1), p27(KIP1), Ki-67, and p53, as well as mitotic index. Paraffin-embedded archival tissues from 24 MCL specimens (17 typical, 7 blastoid) were immunostained with antibodies to p21(WAF1), p27(KIP1), p53, Ki-67, and cyclin D1. The percentage of positive cells for each specimen was estimated by counting 1500 cells under oil immersion microscopy. Levels of antigen expression were compared for the typical and blastoid MCLs. The mitotic index was estimated using twenty 100x oil immersion fields (OIFs) for each specimen. Cyclin D1 expression was seen in 22/24 specimens (92%). Blastoid MCLs were characterized by a significantly higher mean mitotic index (>20 mitoses/20 OIFs) and Ki-67 index (>45%) when compared with typical MCLs (P <.001 and P <.008, respectively; Fisher's exact test). High expression of p27(KIP1) (>25% staining) was seen more frequently in typical MCLs than in the blastoid variants (P =.03; Fisher's exact test). No significant differences were found between typical and blastoid MCLs for the expression of p21(WAF1) or p53. A significantly higher mitotic index and Ki-67 index were found in blastoid MCLs as compared with typical MCLs. Low p27(KIP1) expression was associated with the blastoid MCL variant. These findings confirm the

  2. Effects of adenovirus-mediated expression of p27Kip1, p21Waf1 and p16INK4A in cell lines derived from t(2;5) anaplastic large cell lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Turturro, Franceso; Arnold, Marilyn D; Frist, Audrey Y; Seth, Prem

    2002-06-01

    We investigated the response of SUDHL-1 and L428 cells, derived from t(2;5)-anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and Hodgkin's disease (HD), respectively, to recombinant adenoviruses expressing cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p27Kip1 (Adp27), p21Waf1 (Adp21) and p16INK4A (Adp16). Cell cycle analysis of SUDHL-1 cells after 24 h of infection with 200 multiplicity of infection (MOI) of Adp27, Adp21, and Adp16, showed very high levels of cell debris in the subG1 area. The magnitude of cell debris-events was Adp27/Adp21 > Adp16. Cell cycle analysis of L428 cells revealed absence of cell debris and increased G2 phase in all the groups of cells tested as compared to the controls (mock and AdNull). A minimal increase in G1 phase was also evident in cells infected with Adp27 (52%) compared to uninfected cells (43%), AdNull (45%) and to cells infected with Adp21 (37%) and Adp16 (31%). The presence of significant levels of Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) on the cell surface of L428 cells excluded the cell membrane-barrier as responsible for the differences in cell observed in response to the recombinant adenovirus-mediated CDKIs expression as compared to SUDHL-1. We also showed that the recombinant adenovirus-mediated cytotoxicity measured as apoptosis was MOI- and vector-dependent in SUDHL-1 cells at lower MOI (100). In conclusion, the therapeutic effect induced by recombinant adenoviruses expressing p27Kip1, p21Waf1 and p16INK4A is cell-dependent in cells derived from selected lymphoid malignancies. Biochemical cellular differences more than cell surface barriers seem to be responsible for differences in response to recombinant adenovirus-mediated expression of cytotoxic genes. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of recombinant adenoviruses expressing p27Kip1, p21Waf1 and p16INK4A may be further explored as a tool for gene therapy of t(2;5)-derived ALCL.

  3. Synergistic effect of melatonin and ghrelin in preventing cisplatin-induced ovarian damage via regulation of FOXO3a phosphorylation and binding to the p27(Kip1) promoter in primordial follicles.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hoon; Na, Younghwa; Hong, Kwonho; Lee, Sangho; Moon, Sohyeon; Cho, Minha; Park, Miseon; Lee, Ok-Hee; Chang, Eun Mi; Lee, Dong Ryul; Ko, Jung Jae; Lee, Woo Sik; Choi, Youngsok

    2017-10-01

    Premature ovarian failure during chemotherapy is a serious problem for young women with cancer. To preserve the fertility of these patients, approaches to prevent chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure are needed. In a previous study, we reported that melatonin treatment prevents the depletion of the dormant follicle pool via repression of the simultaneous activation of dormant primordial follicles by cisplatin. However, melatonin's protective effect was only partial and thus insufficient. In this study, we found that the hormone ghrelin enhances the protective effect of melatonin against cisplatin-induced ovarian failure in mouse model. Co-administration of melatonin and ghrelin more effectively prevented cisplatin-induced follicle disruption. Simultaneous treatment with melatonin and ghrelin almost restored the number of primordial follicles and the corpus luteum in cisplatin-treated ovaries, compared with single administration. We found melatonin and ghrelin receptors on the cell membrane of premature oocytes of primordial follicles. In addition, melatonin and ghrelin co-administration inhibited the cisplatin-induced phosphorylation of PTEN and FOXO3a that induces cytoplasmic translocation of FOXO3a. Inhibition of FOXO3a phosphorylation by melatonin and ghrelin increased the binding affinity of FOXO3a for the p27(Kip1) promoter in primordial follicles. Co-administration of melatonin and ghrelin in cisplatin-treated ovaries restored the expression of p27(Kip1) , which is critical for retention of the dormant status of primordial follicles. In conclusion, these findings suggest that melatonin and ghrelin co-administration is suitable for use as a fertoprotective adjuvant therapy during cisplatin chemotherapy in young female cancer patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. p27KIP1 loss promotes proliferation and phagocytosis but prevents epithelial–mesenchymal transition in RPE cells after photoreceptor damage

    PubMed Central

    ul Quraish, Reeshan; Sudou, Norihiro; Nomura-Komoike, Kaori; Sato, Fumi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose p27KIP1 (p27), originally identified as a cell cycle inhibitor, is now known to have multifaceted roles beyond cell cycle regulation. p27 is required for the normal histogenesis of the RPE, but the role of p27 in the mature RPE remains elusive. To define the role of p27 in the maintenance and function of the RPE, we investigated the effects of p27 deletion on the responses of the RPE after photoreceptor damage. Methods Photoreceptor damage was induced in wild-type (WT) and p27 knockout (KO) mice with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) treatment. Damage-induced responses of the RPE were investigated with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assays, immunofluorescence, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays at different stages after MNU treatment. Subcellular localization of p27 in the WT RPE was also analyzed in vivo and in vitro. Results MNU treatment induced photoreceptor-specific degeneration in the WT and KO retinas. BrdU incorporation assays revealed virtually no proliferation of RPE cells in the WT retinas while, in the KO retinas, approximately 16% of the RPE cells incorporated BrdU at day 2 after MNU treatment. The RPE in the KO retinas developed aberrant protrusions into the outer nuclear layer in response to photoreceptor damage and engulfed outer segment debris, as well as TUNEL-positive photoreceptor cells. Increased phosphorylation of myosin light chains and their association with rhodopsin-positive phagosomes were observed in the mutant RPE, suggesting possible deregulation of cytoskeletal dynamics. In addition, WT RPE cells exhibited evidence of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), including morphological changes, induction of α-smooth muscle actin expression, and attenuated expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 while these changes were absent in the KO retinas. In the normal WT retinas, p27 was localized to the nuclei of RPE cells while nuclear and cytoplasmic p27 was detected in RPE cells

  5. Auditory Hair Cell-Specific Deletion of p27Kip1 in Postnatal Mice Promotes Cell-Autonomous Generation of New Hair Cells and Normal Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Bradley J.; Liu, Zhiyong; Crabtree, Mark; Coak, Emily; Cox, Brandon C.

    2014-01-01

    Hearing in mammals relies upon the transduction of sound by hair cells (HCs) in the organ of Corti within the cochlea of the inner ear. Sensorineural hearing loss is a widespread and permanent disability due largely to a lack of HC regeneration in mammals. Recent studies suggest that targeting the retinoblastoma (Rb)/E2F pathway can elicit proliferation of auditory HCs. However, previous attempts to induce HC proliferation in this manner have resulted in abnormal cochlear morphology, HC death, and hearing loss. Here we show that cochlear HCs readily proliferate and survive following neonatal, HC-specific, conditional knock-out of p27Kip1 (p27CKO), a tumor suppressor upstream of Rb. Indeed, HC-specific p27CKO results in proliferation of these cells without the upregulation of the supporting cell or progenitor cell proteins, Prox1 or Sox2, suggesting that they remain HCs. Furthermore, p27CKO leads to a significant addition of postnatally derived HCs that express characteristic synaptic and stereociliary markers and survive to adulthood, although a portion of the newly derived inner HCs exhibit cytocauds and lack VGlut3 expression. Despite this, p27CKO mice exhibit normal hearing as measured by evoked auditory brainstem responses, which suggests that the newly generated HCs may contribute to, or at least do not greatly detract from, function. These results show that p27Kip1 actively maintains HC quiescence in postnatal mice, and suggest that inhibition of p27Kip1 in residual HCs represents a potential strategy for cell-autonomous auditory HC regeneration. PMID:25411503

  6. Auditory hair cell-specific deletion of p27Kip1 in postnatal mice promotes cell-autonomous generation of new hair cells and normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Walters, Bradley J; Liu, Zhiyong; Crabtree, Mark; Coak, Emily; Cox, Brandon C; Zuo, Jian

    2014-11-19

    Hearing in mammals relies upon the transduction of sound by hair cells (HCs) in the organ of Corti within the cochlea of the inner ear. Sensorineural hearing loss is a widespread and permanent disability due largely to a lack of HC regeneration in mammals. Recent studies suggest that targeting the retinoblastoma (Rb)/E2F pathway can elicit proliferation of auditory HCs. However, previous attempts to induce HC proliferation in this manner have resulted in abnormal cochlear morphology, HC death, and hearing loss. Here we show that cochlear HCs readily proliferate and survive following neonatal, HC-specific, conditional knock-out of p27(Kip1) (p27CKO), a tumor suppressor upstream of Rb. Indeed, HC-specific p27CKO results in proliferation of these cells without the upregulation of the supporting cell or progenitor cell proteins, Prox1 or Sox2, suggesting that they remain HCs. Furthermore, p27CKO leads to a significant addition of postnatally derived HCs that express characteristic synaptic and stereociliary markers and survive to adulthood, although a portion of the newly derived inner HCs exhibit cytocauds and lack VGlut3 expression. Despite this, p27CKO mice exhibit normal hearing as measured by evoked auditory brainstem responses, which suggests that the newly generated HCs may contribute to, or at least do not greatly detract from, function. These results show that p27(Kip1) actively maintains HC quiescence in postnatal mice, and suggest that inhibition of p27(Kip1) in residual HCs represents a potential strategy for cell-autonomous auditory HC regeneration.

  7. Tuberous sclerosis complex suppression in cerebellar development and medulloblastoma: separate regulation of mTOR activity and p27Kip1 localization

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Bobby; Northcott, Paul A.; Hambardzumyan, Dolores; Govindarajan, Baskaran; Brat, Daniel J.; Arbiser, Jack L.; Holland, Eric C.; Taylor, Michael D.; Kenney, Anna Marie

    2009-01-01

    During development, proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs), candidate cells-of-origin for the pediatric brain tumor medulloblastoma, requires signaling by Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF), whose pathways are also implicated in medulloblastoma. One of the consequences of IGF signaling is inactivation of the mTOR-suppressing Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), comprised of TSC1 and TSC2, leading to increased mRNA translation. We show that mice in which TSC function is impaired display increased mTOR pathway activation, enhanced CGNP proliferation, GSK-3α/β inactivation, and cytoplasmic localization of the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor p27Kip1, which has been proposed to cause its inactivation or gain of oncogenic functions. We observed the same characteristics in wild-type primary cultures of CGNPs in which TSC1 and/or TSC2 were knocked down, and in mouse medulloblastomas induced by ectopic Shh pathway activation. Moreover, Shh-induced mouse medulloblastomas manifested Akt-mediated TSC2 inactivation, and the mutant TSC2 allele synergized with aberrant Shh signaling to increase medulloblastoma incidence in mice. Driving exogenous TSC2 expression in Shh-induced medulloblastoma cells corrected p27Kip1 localization and reduced proliferation. GSK-3α/β inactivation in the tumors in vivo and in primary CGNP cultures was mTOR-dependent, whereas p27Kip1 cytoplasmic localization was regulated upstream of mTOR, by TSC2. These results indicate that a balance between Shh mitogenic signaling and TSC function regulating new protein synthesis and cdk inhibition is essential for normal development and prevention of tumor formation or expansion. PMID:19738049

  8. Herbal composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra prevents atherosclerosis by upregulating p27 (Kip1) expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Won-Kyung; Han, Joo-Hui; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-07-28

    Kiom-18 is a novel composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra. Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra, which are traditional medicines in Asia, have been reported to demonstrate preventive effects against atherosclerosis; however, they have not yet been developed into functional atherosclerosis treatments. We therefore studied the anti-atherosclerotic effects and possible molecular mechanisms of Kiom-18 using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To assess the anti-proliferative effect of Kiom-18 in vitro, we performed thymidine incorporation, cell cycle progression, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays in VSMCs stimulated by platelet derived-growth factor (PDGF)-BB. In addition, we used LDLr knockout mice to identify the effects of Kiom-18 as a preliminary result in an atherosclerosis animal model. Kiom-18 inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated-VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis. Additionally, Kiom-18 arrested the cell cycle transition of G0/G1 stimulated by PDGF-BB and its cell cycle-related proteins. Correspondingly, the level of p27(kip1) expression was upregulated in the presence of the Kiom-18 extract. Moreover, in an atherosclerosis animal model of LDLr knockout mice, Kiom-18 extract showed a preventive effect for the formation of atherosclerotic plaque and suppressed body weight, fat weight, food treatment efficiency, neutrophil count, and triglyceride level. These results indicate that Kiom-18 exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects by inhibiting VSMC proliferation via G0/G1 arrest, which upregulates p27(Kip1) expression.

  9. HBx-dependent cell cycle deregulation involves interaction with cyclin E/A-cdk2 complex and destabilization of p27Kip1.

    PubMed

    Mukherji, Atish; Janbandhu, Vaibhao C; Kumar, Vijay

    2007-01-01

    The HBx (X protein of hepatitis B virus) is a promiscuous transactivator implicated to play a key role in hepatocellular carcinoma. However, HBx-regulated molecular events leading to deregulation of cell cycle or establishment of a permissive environment for hepatocarcinogenesis are not fully understood. Our cell culture-based studies suggested that HBx had a profound effect on cell cycle progression even in the absence of serum. HBx presence led to an early and sustained level of cyclin-cdk2 complex during the cell cycle combined with increased protein kinase activity of cdk2 heralding an early proliferative signal. The increased cdk2 activity also led to an early proteasomal degradation of p27(Kip1) that could be reversed by HBx-specific RNA interference and blocked by a chemical inhibitor of cdk2 or the T187A mutant of p27. Further, our co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro binding studies with recombinant proteins suggested a direct interaction between HBx and the cyclin E/A-cdk2 complex. Interference with different signalling cascades known to be activated by HBx suggested a constitutive requirement of Src kinases for the association of HBx with these complexes. Notably, the HBx mutant that did not interact with cyclin E/A failed to destabilize p27(Kip1) or deregulate the cell cycle. Thus HBx appears to deregulate the cell cycle by interacting with the key cell cycle regulators independent of its well-established role in transactivation.

  10. Protein conformational transitions coupled to binding in molecular recognition of unstructured proteins: deciphering the effect of intermolecular interactions on computational structure prediction of the p27Kip1 protein bound to the cyclin A-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 complex.

    PubMed

    Verkhivker, Gennady M

    2005-02-15

    The relationship between folding mechanism coupled to binding and structure prediction of the tertiary complexes is studied for the p27(Kip) (1) protein which has an intrinsically disordered unbound form and undergoes a functional folding transition during complex formation with the phosphorylated cyclin A-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) binary complex. Hierarchy of p27(Kip1) structural loss determined in our earlier studies from temperature-induced Monte Carlo simulations and subsequent characterization of the transition state ensemble (TSE) for the folding reaction have shown that simultaneous ordering of the p27(Kip1) native intermolecular interface for the beta-hairpin and beta-strand secondary structure elements is critical for nucleating a rapid kinetic transition to the native tertiary complex. In the present study, we investigate the effect of forming specific intermolecular interactions on structure prediction of the p27(Kip1) tertiary complex. By constraining different secondary structure elements of p27(Kip1) in their native bound conformations and conducting multiple simulated annealing simulations, we analyze differences in the success rate of predicting the native structure of p27(Kip1) in the tertiary complex. In accordance with the nucleation-condensation mechanism, we have found that further stabilization of the native intermolecular interface for the beta-hairpin and beta-strand elements of p27(Kip1), that become ordered in the TSE, but are hardly populated in the unbound state, results in a consistent acquisition of the native bound structure. Conversely, the excessive stablization of the local secondary structure elements, which are rarely detected in the TSE, has a detrimental effect on convergence to the native bound structure. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. BMP-4 Induction of Arrest and Differentiation of Osteoblast-Like Cells via p21CIP1 and p27KIP1 Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shun-Fu; Chang, Ting-Kuo; Peng, Hsin-Hsin; Yeh, Yi-Ting; Lee, Ding-Yu; Yeh, Chiuan-Ren; Zhou, Jing; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Chang, Cheng Allen; Chiu, Jeng-Jiann

    2009-01-01

    Cell cycle regulation by differentiation signals is critical for eukaryote development. We investigated the roles of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4, an important stimulator of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, in regulating cell cycle distribution in four osteoblast-like cell lines and mouse primary osteoblasts, and the underlying mechanisms. In all cells used, BMP-4 induced G0/G1 arrest. The molecular basis of the BMP-4 effect was analyzed, and the presentation on molecular mechanism is focused on human MG63 cells. BMP-4 induced p21CIP1 and p27KIP1 expressions and hence cell differentiation but had no effects on the expressions of cyclins A, B1, D1, and E, cyclin-dependent protein kinase-2, -4, and -6. Using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA), we found that BMP-4-induced G0/G1 arrest, and p21CIP1 and p27KIP1 expressions were mediated by BMP receptor type IA (BMPRIA)-specific Sma- and Mad-related protein (Smad)1/5. BMP-4 induced transient phosphorylations of ERK; transfection of MG63 cells with ERK2, but not ERK1, -specific siRNA inhibited the BMP-4-induced responses in MG63 cells. Pretreatment of MG63 cells with Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser, which blocks the cell-extracellular matrix interaction, or transfection with β3 integrin-specific siRNA inhibited BMP-4-induced ERK and Smad1/5 phosphorylations. BMP-4 induced transient increases in associations of β3-integrin with focal adhesion kinase and Shc, the dominant-negative mutants of which inhibited BMP-4-induced ERK and Smad1/5 phosphorylations. Our results indicate that BMP-4 induces G0/G1 arrest and hence differentiation in osteoblast-like cells through increased expressions of p21CIP1 and p27KIP1, which are mediated by BMPRIA-specific Smad1/5. The extracellular matrix/β3 integrin/ focal adhesion kinase/Shc/ERK2 signaling pathway is involved in these BMP-4-induced responses in osteoblast-like cells. PMID:19819988

  12. oxLDL induces endothelial cell proliferation via Rho/ROCK/Akt/p27(kip1) signaling: opposite effects of oxLDL and cholesterol loading.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongxu; Adamos, Crystal; Oh, Myung-Jin; Baruah, Jugajyoti; Ayee, Manuela A A; Mehta, Dolly; Wary, Kishore K; Levitan, Irena

    2017-09-01

    Oxidized modifications of LDL (oxLDL) play a key role in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of oxLDL-mediated cellular behavior are not completely understood. Here, we compared the effects of two major types of oxLDL, copper-oxidized LDL (Cu(2+)-oxLDL) and lipoxygenase-oxidized LDL (LPO-oxLDL), on proliferation of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Cu(2+)-oxLDL enhanced HAECs' proliferation in a dose- and degree of oxidation-dependent manner. Similarly, LPO-oxLDL also enhanced HAEC proliferation. Mechanistically, both Cu(2+)-oxLDL and LPO-oxLDL enhance HAEC proliferation via activation of Rho, Akt phosphorylation, and a decrease in the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27(kip1)). Both Cu(2+)-oxLDL or LPO-oxLDL significantly increased Akt phosphorylation, whereas an Akt inhibitor, MK2206, blocked oxLDL-induced increase in HAEC proliferation. Blocking Rho with C3 or its downstream target ROCK with Y27632 significantly inhibited oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation and proliferation mediated by both Cu(2+)- and LPO-oxLDL. Activation of RhoA was blocked by Rho-GDI-1, which also abrogated oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation and HAEC proliferation. In contrast, blocking Rac1 in these cells had no effect on oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation or cell proliferation. Moreover, oxLDL-induced Rho/Akt signaling downregulated cell cycle inhibitor p27(kip1) Preloading these cells with cholesterol, however, prevented oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation and HAEC proliferation. These findings provide a new understanding of the effects of oxLDL on endothelial proliferation, which is essential for developing new treatments against neovascularization and progression of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Increased number of multi-oocyte follicles (MOFs) in juvenile p27Kip1 mutant mice: potential role of granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sanz, J; Arluzea, J; Matorras, R; González-Santiago, N; Bilbao, J; Yeh, N; Barlas, A; Romin, Y; Manova-Todorova, K; Koff, A; de la Hoz, C

    2013-04-01

    Why are female mice that lack a functional p27 protein infertile? The absence of a functional p27 leads to a dramatic increase in the number of multi-oocyte follicles (MOFs) in juvenile female mice; p27 would promote the individualization of follicles favoring the development of fertile eggs. p27-/- female mice are infertile. p27 suppresses excessive follicular endowment and activation and promotes follicular atresia in mice. Ovaries from wild type (WT) and p27Kip1 mutant mice aged 2, 4 and 12 weeks were subjected to immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence. The slides with whole organs serially sectioned were scanned and examined by image analysis. Compared with WT, p27Kip1 mutant pre-pubertal mice had a greater number of oocytes, a greater number of growing follicles and a greater number of MOFs. These differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05), particularly in the case of MOFs (P > 0.001). The unusually large number of MOFs in juvenile p27-deficient mice is a novel observation. In WT mice p27 protein remains present in the oocyte nucleus but gradually decreases in the ooplasm during follicular growth, while granulosa cells show dynamic, follicle stage-related changes. These results have been obtained in mice and they cannot be directly extrapolated to humans. The dramatic increase in the numbers of MOFs in juvenile p27 mutants has not been previously reported. The number of MOFs declines sharply as the mice become sexually mature, pointing to their negative selection. These findings open a new approach to the study of sterility. This study has been funded by the Basque Government, Dept. of Health grant 2007111063 and Dept. of Industry (Saiotek) grant S-PC11UN008. Jairo Perez-Sanz was the recipient of a grant from Fundación Jesús de Gangoiti Barrera. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

  14. Cell adhesion induces p27Kip1-associated cell-cycle arrest through down-regulation of the SCFSkp2 ubiquitin ligase pathway in mantle-cell and other non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Lwin, Tint; Hazlehurst, Lori A; Dessureault, Sophie; Lai, Raymond; Bai, Wenlong; Sotomayor, Eduardo; Moscinski, Lynn C; Dalton, William S; Tao, Jianguo

    2007-09-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that dynamic interactions between a tumor and its microenvironment play a critical role in tumor development, cell-cycle progression, and response to therapy. In this study, we used mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) as a model to characterize the mechanisms by which stroma regulate cell-cycle progression. We demonstrated that adhesion of MCL and other non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cells to bone marrow stromal cells resulted in a reversible G(1) arrest associated with elevated p27(Kip1) and p21 (WAF1) proteins. The adhesion-mediated p27(Kip1) and p21 increases were posttranslationally regulated via the down-regulation of Skp2, a subunit of SCF(Skp2) ubiquitin ligase. Overexpression of Skp2 in MCL decreased p27(Kip1), whereas inhibition of Skp2 by siRNA increased p27(Kip1) and p21 levels. Furthermore, we found cell adhesion up-regulated Cdh1 (an activating subunit of anaphase-promoting complex [APC] ubiquitin ligase), and reduction of Cdh1 by siRNA induced Skp2 accumulation and hence p27(Kip1) degradation, thus implicating Cdh1 as an upstream effector of the Skp2/p27(Kip1) signaling pathway. Overall, this report, for the first time, demonstrates that cell-cell contact controls the tumor cell cycle via ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathways in MCL and other NHLs. The understanding of this novel molecular pathway may prove valuable in designing new therapeutic approaches for modifying tumor cell growth and response to therapy.

  15. Cellular mechanism through which parathyroid hormone-related protein induces proliferation in arterial smooth muscle cells: definition of an arterial smooth muscle PTHrP/p27kip1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Fiaschi-Taesch, Nathalie; Sicari, Brian M; Ubriani, Kiran; Bigatel, Todd; Takane, Karen K; Cozar-Castellano, Irene; Bisello, Alessandro; Law, Brian; Stewart, Andrew F

    2006-10-27

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is present in vascular smooth muscle (VSM), is markedly upregulated in response to arterial injury, is essential for normal VSM proliferation, and also markedly accentuates neointima formation following rat carotid angioplasty. PTHrP contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS) through which it enters the nucleus and leads to marked increases in retinoblastoma protein (pRb) phosphorylation and cell cycle progression. Our goal was to define key cell cycle molecules upstream of pRb that mediate cell cycle acceleration induced by PTHrP. The cyclin D/cdk-4,-6 system and its upstream regulators, the inhibitory kinases (INKs), are not appreciably influenced by PTHrP. In striking contrast, cyclin E/cdk-2 kinase activity is markedly increased by PTHrP, and this is a result of a specific, marked, PTHrP-induced proteasomal degradation of p27(kip1). Adenoviral restoration of p27(kip1) fully reverses PTHrP-induced cell cycle progression, indicating that PTHrP mediates its cell cycle acceleration in VSM via p27(kip1). In confirmation, adenoviral delivery of PTHrP to murine primary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) significantly decreases p27(kip1) expression and accelerates cell cycle progression. p27(kip1) is well known to be a central cell cycle regulatory molecule involved in both normal and pathological VSM proliferation and is a target of widely used drug-eluting stents. The current observations define a novel "PTHrP/p27(kip1) pathway" in the arterial wall and suggest that this pathway is important in normal arterial biology and a potential target for therapeutic manipulation of the arterial response to injury.

  16. Cell adhesion induces p27Kip1-associated cell-cycle arrest through down-regulation of the SCFSkp2 ubiquitin ligase pathway in mantle-cell and other non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Lwin, Tint; Hazlehurst, Lori A.; Dessureault, Sophie; Lai, Raymond; Bai, Wenlong; Sotomayor, Eduardo; Moscinski, Lynn C.; Dalton, William S.

    2007-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that dynamic interactions between a tumor and its microenvironment play a critical role in tumor development, cell-cycle progression, and response to therapy. In this study, we used mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) as a model to characterize the mechanisms by which stroma regulate cell-cycle progression. We demonstrated that adhesion of MCL and other non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cells to bone marrow stromal cells resulted in a reversible G1 arrest associated with elevated p27Kip1 and p21 (WAF1) proteins. The adhesion-mediated p27Kip1 and p21 increases were posttranslationally regulated via the down-regulation of Skp2, a subunit of SCFSkp2 ubiquitin ligase. Overexpression of Skp2 in MCL decreased p27Kip1, whereas inhibition of Skp2 by siRNA increased p27Kip1 and p21 levels. Furthermore, we found cell adhesion up-regulated Cdh1 (an activating subunit of anaphase-promoting complex [APC] ubiquitin ligase), and reduction of Cdh1 by siRNA induced Skp2 accumulation and hence p27Kip1 degradation, thus implicating Cdh1 as an upstream effector of the Skp2/p27Kip1 signaling pathway. Overall, this report, for the first time, demonstrates that cell-cell contact controls the tumor cell cycle via ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathways in MCL and other NHLs. The understanding of this novel molecular pathway may prove valuable in designing new therapeutic approaches for modifying tumor cell growth and response to therapy. PMID:17502456

  17. In vivo antitumor effects of 4,7-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,3-benzodioxole isolated from the fruiting body of Antrodia camphorata through activation of the p53-mediated p27/Kip1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tu, Shih-Hsin; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Li-Ching; Huang, Ching-Shui; Chang, Hui-Wen; Chang, Chien-Hsi; Lien, Hsiu-Man; Ho, Yuan-Soon

    2012-04-11

    In this study, 4,7-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,3-benzodioxole (SY-1) was isolated from three different sources of dried Antrodia camphorata (AC) fruiting bodies. AC is a medicinal mushroom that grows on the inner heartwood wall of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hay (Lauraceae), which is an endemic species that is used in Chinese medicine for its antitumor properties. We demonstrated that SY-1 [given as a 1-30 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneal (ip) injection three times per week] profoundly decreased the growth of COLO-205 human colon cancer cell tumor xenografts in an athymic nude mouse model. We further demonstrated that significant AC extract-mediated antitumor effects were observed at the highest concentration (5 g/kg body weight/day). No gross toxicity signs were observed (i.e., body weight changes, general appearance, or individual organ effects). Frozen COLO-205 xenograft tumors were pulverized in liquid N(2), and the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins was detected by immunoblotting. We found that the p53-mediated p27/Kip1 protein was significantly induced in the low-dose (1 mg/kg body weight) SY-1-treated tumors, whereas the p21/Cip1 protein levels did not change. The G0/G1 phase cell cycle regulators induced by SY-1 were also associated with a significant decrease in cyclins D1, D3, and A. These results provide further evidence that SY-1 may have significance for cancer chemotherapy.

  18. p27 kip1 haplo-insufficiency improves cardiac function in early-stages of myocardial infarction by protecting myocardium and increasing angiogenesis by promoting IKK activation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ningtian; Fu, Yuxuan; Wang, Yunle; Chen, Pengsheng; Meng, Haoyu; Guo, Shouyu; Zhang, Min; Yang, Zhijian; Ge, Yingbin

    2014-08-07

    p27(kip1) (p27) is widely known as a potent cell cycle inhibitor in several organs, especially in the heart. However, its role has not been fully defined during the early phase of myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, we investigated the relationships between p27, vascular endothelial growth factor/hepatocyte growth factor (VEGF/HGF) and NF-κB in post-MI cardiac function repair both in vivo and in the hypoxia/ischemia-induced rat myocardiocyte model. In vivo, haplo-insufficiency of p27 improved cardiac function, diminished the infarct zone, protected myocardiocytes and increased angiogenesis by enhancing the production of VEGF/HGF. In vitro, the presence of conditioned medium from hypoxia/ischemia-induced p27 knockdown myocardiocytes reduced the injury caused by hypoxia/ischemia in myocardiocytes, and this effect was reversed by VEGF/HGF neutralizing antibodies, consistent with the cardioprotection being due to VEGF/HGF secretion. We also observed that p27 bound to IKK and that p27 haplo-insufficiency promoted IKK/p65 activation both in vivo and in vitro, thereby inducing the NF-κB downstream regulator, VEGF/HGF. Furthermore, IKKi and IKK inhibitor negated the effect of VEGF/HGF. Therefore, we conclude that p27 haplo-insufficiency protects against heart injury by VEGF/HGF mediated cardioprotection and increased angiogenesis through promoting IKK activation.

  19. SIRT1-mediated downregulation of p27Kip1 is essential for overcoming contact inhibition of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus transformed cells.

    PubMed

    He, Meilan; Yuan, Hongfeng; Tan, Brandon; Bai, Rosemary; Kim, Heon Seok; Bae, Sangsu; Che, Lu; Kim, Jin-Soo; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2016-11-15

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic virus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a malignancy commonly found in AIDS patients. Despite intensive studies in the last two decades, the mechanism of KSHV-induced cellular transformation and tumorigenesis remains unclear. In this study, we found that the expression of SIRT1, a metabolic sensor, was upregulated in a variety of KSHV-infected cells. In a model of KSHV-induced cellular transformation, SIRT1 knockdown with shRNAs or knockout by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing dramatically suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation in soft agar of KSHV-transformed cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and contact inhibition. SIRT1 knockdown or knockout induced the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1). Consequently, p27 knockdown rescued the inhibitory effect of SIRT1 knockdown or knockout on cell proliferation and colony formation. Furthermore, treatment of KSHV-transformed cells with a SIRT1 inhibitor, nicotinamide (NAM), had the same effect as SIRT1 knockdown and knockout. NAM significantly inhibited cell proliferation in culture and colony formation in soft agar, and induced cell cycle arrest. Significantly, NAM inhibited the progression of tumors and extended the survival of mice in a KSHV-induced tumor model. Collectively, these results demonstrate that SIRT1 suppression of p27 is required for KSHV-induced tumorigenesis and identify a potential therapeutic target for KS.

  20. SIRT1-mediated downregulation of p27Kip1 is essential for overcoming contact inhibition of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus transformed cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Brandon; Bai, Rosemary; Kim, Heon Seok; Bae, Sangsu; Che, Lu; Kim, Jin-Soo; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic virus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a malignancy commonly found in AIDS patients. Despite intensive studies in the last two decades, the mechanism of KSHV-induced cellular transformation and tumorigenesis remains unclear. In this study, we found that the expression of SIRT1, a metabolic sensor, was upregulated in a variety of KSHV-infected cells. In a model of KSHV-induced cellular transformation, SIRT1 knockdown with shRNAs or knockout by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing dramatically suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation in soft agar of KSHV-transformed cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and contact inhibition. SIRT1 knockdown or knockout induced the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1). Consequently, p27 knockdown rescued the inhibitory effect of SIRT1 knockdown or knockout on cell proliferation and colony formation. Furthermore, treatment of KSHV-transformed cells with a SIRT1 inhibitor, nicotinamide (NAM), had the same effect as SIRT1 knockdown and knockout. NAM significantly inhibited cell proliferation in culture and colony formation in soft agar, and induced cell cycle arrest. Significantly, NAM inhibited the progression of tumors and extended the survival of mice in a KSHV-induced tumor model. Collectively, these results demonstrate that SIRT1 suppression of p27 is required for KSHV-induced tumorigenesis and identify a potential therapeutic target for KS. PMID:27708228

  1. The inhibition of activated hepatic stellate cells proliferation by arctigenin through G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest: persistent p27(Kip1) induction by interfering with PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Ao; Wang, Jun; Wu, Mingjun; Zhang, Xiaoxun; Zhang, Hongzhi

    2015-01-15

    Proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is vital for the development of fibrosis during liver injury. In this study, we describe that arctigenin (ATG), a major bioactive component of Fructus Arctii, exhibited selective cytotoxic activity via inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-activated HSCs proliferation and arrested cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, which could not be observed in normal human hepatocytes in vitro. The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 activities could be strongly inhibited by ATG through down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4/6 expression in early G1 phase arrest. In the ATG-treated HSCs, the expression level of p27(Kip1) and the formation of CDK2-p27(Kip1) complex were also increased. p27(Kip1) silencing significantly attenuated the effect of ATG, including cell cycle arrest and suppression of proliferation in activated HSCs. We also found that ATG suppressed PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream transcription factor Forkhead box O 3a (FOXO3a), decreased binding of FOXO3a to 14-3-3 protein, and stimulated nuclear translocation of FOXO3a in activated HSCs. Furthermore, knockdown of FOXO3a expression by FOXO3a siRNA attenuated ATG-induced up-regulation of p27(Kip1) in activated HSCs. All the above findings suggested that ATG could increase the levels of p27(Kip1) protein through inhibition of Akt and improvement of FOXO3a activity, in turn inhibited the CDK2 kinase activity, and eventually caused an overall inhibition of HSCs proliferation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Abnormal expression of p27kip1 protein in levator ani muscle of aging women with pelvic floor disorders – a relationship to the cellular differentiation and degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Copas, Pleas; Caudle, Michael R; Cekanova, Maria; Dassanayake, Tamara; Asbury, Bridgett; Van Meter, Stuart E; Elder, Robert F; Brown, Jeffrey B; Cross, Stephanie B

    2001-01-01

    Background Pelvic floor disorders affect almost 50% of aging women. An important role in the pelvic floor support belongs to the levator ani muscle. The p27/kip1 (p27) protein, multifunctional cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, shows changing expression in differentiating skeletal muscle cells during development, and relatively high levels of p27 RNA were detected in the normal human skeletal muscles. Methods Biopsy samples of levator ani muscle were obtained from 22 symptomatic patients with stress urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and overlaps (age range 38–74), and nine asymptomatic women (age 31–49). Cryostat sections were investigated for p27 protein expression and type I (slow twitch) and type II (fast twitch) fibers. Results All fibers exhibited strong plasma membrane (and nuclear) p27 protein expression. cytoplasmic p27 expression was virtually absent in asymptomatic women. In perimenopausal symptomatic patients (ages 38–55), muscle fibers showed hypertrophy and moderate cytoplasmic p27 staining accompanied by diminution of type II fibers. Older symptomatic patients (ages 57–74) showed cytoplasmic p27 overexpression accompanied by shrinking, cytoplasmic vacuolization and fragmentation of muscle cells. The plasma membrane and cytoplasmic p27 expression was not unique to the muscle cells. Under certain circumstances, it was also detected in other cell types (epithelium of ectocervix and luteal cells). Conclusions This is the first report on the unusual (plasma membrane and cytoplasmic) expression of p27 protein in normal and abnormal human striated muscle cells in vivo. Our data indicate that pelvic floor disorders are in perimenopausal patients associated with an appearance of moderate cytoplasmic p27 expression, accompanying hypertrophy and transition of type II into type I fibers. The patients in advanced postmenopause show shrinking and fragmentation of muscle fibers associated with strong cytoplasmic p27 expression. PMID:11696252

  3. Apigenin induces apoptosis via downregulation of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2-mediated induction of p27Kip1 in primary effusion lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hussain, A R; Khan, A S; Ahmed, S O; Ahmed, M; Platanias, L C; Al-Kuraya, K S; Uddin, S

    2010-04-01

    The mechanisms that regulate mitogenic and antiapoptotic signals in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) are not well known. In efforts to identify novel approaches to block the proliferation of PEL cells, we assessed the effect of apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavonoid on a panel of PEL cell lines. We studied the effect of apigenin on four PEL cell lines. Apoptosis was measured by annexin V/PI dual staining and DNA laddering. Protein expression was measured by immunoblotting. Apigenin induced apoptosis in PEL cell lines in a dose dependent manner. Such effects of apigenin appeared to result from suppression of constitutively active kinase AKT resulting in down-regulation of SKP2, hypo-phosphorylation of Rb and accumulation of p27Kip1. Apigenin treatment of PEL cells caused dephosphorylation of p-Bad protein leading to down regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2 and an increase in Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Apigenin treatment also triggered Bax conformational change and subsequently translocation from cytosole to mitochondria causing loss of mitochondrial membrane potential with subsequent release of cytochrome c. Released cytochrome c onto the cytosole activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, followed by polyadenosin-5'-diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Finally, treatment of PEL cells with apigenin down-regulated the expression of inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAPs). Altogether, these data suggest a novel function for apigenin, acting as a suppressor of AKT/PKB pathway in PEL cells, and raise the possibility that this agent may have a future therapeutic role in PEL and possibly other malignancies with constitutive activation of the AKT/PKB pathway.

  4. [Effects of Rapamycin and Rapamycin-loaded Poly(lactic-co-glycolic)Acid Nanoparticles on Apoptosis and Expression of bcl-2 and p27(kip1) Proteins of Human Umbilical Arterial Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell].

    PubMed

    Miao, Li-fu; Cui, Yong-liang; Yin, Yan-ping; Chen, Lian-feng; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Pei-mao; Zhu, Wen-ling; Song, Cun-Xian; Yang, Jing

    2015-12-01

    To investgate the effects of rapamycin(RPM)and RPM-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid(PLGA)nanoparticles(NPs)on the apoptosis of human umbilical arterial vascular smooth muscle cells(HUASMCs)in vitro and expression of bcl-2 and p27(kip1) protein. HUASMCs were cultured in vitro and divided to RPM and RPM-PLGA-NPs groups treated at 3 different concentration by 12 and 24 hours,with M231-smooth muscle growth supplements medium and null-PLGA-NPs treated groups as controlled. The apoptosis of HUASMCs was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling staining and flow cytometry. The expressions of bcl-2 and p27(kip1) were detected by streptacidin/peroxidase immunohistochemical method. The effect on cellular proliferation was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromidecolorimetry. The proliferation of HUASMCs was inhibited by RPM and RPM-PLGA-NPs in a dose-dependent manner. DNA electrophoresis showed DNA ladder in RPM and RPM-PLGA-NPs groups and classical scalar strips in control groups. The apoptotic indexes of RPM 100 ng/ml group and RPM-PLGA-NPs 500 ng/ml group detected by flow cytometry were(45.45<2.36)% and(35.04<5.64)%,respectively,which were significantly higher than that of M231-smooth muscle growth supplements control group [(2.60<0.95)%,all P<0.01]. The apoptotic indexes of groups incubated with RPM and RPM-PLGA-NPs for 24 hours were significantly higher than those of groups which incubated for 12 hours(P<0.05,P<0.01). The positive expression indexes(PEI)of p27(kip1) and bcl-2 protein were higher in RPM and RPM-PLGA-NPs groups than that of control groups. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test showed that there was no significant correlation between the PEI of p27(kip1) and the apoptotic indexes in the RPM group and RPM-PLGA-NPs group(P>0.05). Rapamycin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles and rapamycin have similar effects in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis

  5. Expression of p27Kip1, a cell cycle repressor protein, is inversely associated with potential carcinogenic risk in the genetic rodent models of obesity and long-lived Ames dwarf mice.

    PubMed

    Eto, Isao

    2013-06-01

    The association of genetic rodent models of obesity and cancer still remains a controversial issue. Although this controversy has largely been resolved in recent years for homozygous leptin receptor-deficient obese Zucker rats and homozygous long-lived Ames dwarf mice, it is still unresolved for homozygous leptin-deficient obese ob/ob mice. The objective of the present study described below was to investigate whether the expression of the cell cycle repressor protein p27(Kip1) is (a) down-regulated in the tumor-free homozygous leptin receptor-deficient obese Zucker rats as well as tumor-free homozygous leptin-deficient obese ob/ob mice and (b) up-regulated in the tumor-free homozygous long-lived Ames dwarf mice. To achieve this objective, we first performed western immunoblot analysis of the hepatic expression of p27. We then performed western immunoblot analysis and proteomic analysis of the hepatic expression of the proteins involved in the upstream molecular signaling pathways for the expression of p27. Lastly, we analyzed the serum levels of glucose, insulin, and branched-chain amino acids, all of which have been shown to regulate, causally and inversely, the expression of p27. The results indicated that the hepatic expression of p27 was down-regulated in the homozygous leptin receptor-deficient obese Zucker rats and up-regulated in the homozygous long-lived Ames dwarf mice as expected. We also found that the hepatic expression of p27 was down-regulated in the homozygous leptin-deficient obese ob/ob mice. This last observation was not completely consistent with all of the results of the published studies where homozygous leptin-deficient obese ob/ob mice were used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Attenuated expression of menin and p27 (Kip1) in an aggressive case of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) associated with an atypical prolactinoma and a malignant pancreatic endocrine tumor.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Emi; Yamada, Masanobu; Horiguchi, Kazuhiko; Taguchi, Ryo; Ozawa, Atsushi; Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Koshi; Satoh, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Sachiko; Tanaka, Yoshiki; Yokota, Machiko; Tosaka, Masahiko; Hirato, Junko; Yamada, Shozo; Yoshimoto, Yuhei; Mori, Masatomo

    2011-01-01

    Tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) are generally benign. Since information on the pathogenesis of MEN1 in malignant cases is limited, we conducted genetic analysis and compared the expression of menin, p27(Kip1)(p27)/CDKN1B and p18(Ink4C)(p18)/CDKN2C with levels in benign cases. We describe the case of a 56 year-old male with an atypical prolactinoma and malignant pancreatic neuroenocrine tumor. At age 50, he had undergone transsphenoidal surgery to remove a prolactinoma. However, the tumor relapsed twice. Histological analysis of the recurrent prolactinoma revealed the presence of prolactin, a high MIB-1 index (32.1 %), p53-positive cells (0.2%), and an unusual association with FSH-positive cells. A few years later, he was also found to have a non-functioning pancreatic tumor with probable metastasis to the extradullar region. The metastatic region tested positive for chromogranin and CD56, and negative for prolactin, with 1.2 % of cells p53-positive. Although genetic analyses of the MEN1, p27, and p18 genes demonstrated no mutation, numbers of menin, p27 and p18 immuno-positive cells were significantly down-regulated in the recurrent prolactinoma, but that of p18 was intact in the metastatic region. Furthermore, MEN1 and p27 mRNA levels of the recurrent prolactinoma were down-regulated, particularly the MEN1 mRNA level, compared to levels in 10 cases of benign prolactinoma, while the p18 mRNA level was similar to that of normal pituitary. The tumor in this case may be a subtype of MEN1 showing more aggressive and malignant features probably induced by low levels of menin and p27.

  7. Sanguinarine-induced G1-phase arrest of the cell cycle results from increased p27KIP1 expression mediated via activation of the Ras/ERK signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Beobyi; Lee, Se-Jung; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Si-Kwan; Kim, Sung-Ryong; Jung, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2008-03-15

    The present study identified a novel mechanism for the effects of sanguinarine in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Sanguinarine treatment of VSMC resulted in significant growth inhibition as a result of G1-phase cell-cycle arrest mediated by induction of p27KIP1 expression, and resulted in a down-regulation of the expression of cyclins and CDKs in VSMC. Moreover, sanguinarine-induced inhibition of cell growth appeared to be linked to activation of Ras/ERK through p27KIP1-mediated G1-phase cell-cycle arrest. Overall, the unexpected effects of sanguinarine treatment in VSMC provide a theoretical basis for clinical use of therapeutic agents in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  8. Transforming growth factor-beta, transforming growth factor-beta receptor II, and p27Kip1 expression in nontumorous and neoplastic human pituitaries.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, L.; Qian, X.; Kulig, E.; Sanno, N.; Scheithauer, B. W.; Kovacs, K.; Young, W. F.; Lloyd, R. V.

    1997-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta has been implicated in the regulation of normal and neoplastic anterior pituitary cell function. TGF-beta regulates the expression of various proteins, including p27Kip1 (p27), a cell cycle inhibitory protein. We examined TGF-beta, TGF-beta type II receptor (TGF-beta-RII), and p27 expression in normal pituitaries, pituitary adenomas, and carcinomas to analyze the possible roles of these proteins in pituitary tumorigenesis. Normal pituitary, pituitary adenomas, and pituitary carcinomas all expressed TGF-beta and TGF-beta-RII immunoreactivity. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed TGF-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3 isoforms and TGF-beta-RII in normal pituitaries and pituitary adenomas. Pituitary adenomas cells cultured for 7 days in defined media showed a biphasic response to TGF-beta with significant inhibition of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion at higher concentrations (10(-9) mol/L) and stimulation of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion at lower concentrations (10(-13) mol/L) of TGF-beta 1 in gonadotroph adenomas. Immunohistochemical analysis for p27 protein expression showed the highest levels in nontumorous pituitaries with decreased immunoreactivity in adenomas and carcinomas. When nontumorous pituitaries and various adenomas were analyzed for p27 and specific hormone production, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone cells and tumors had the highest percentages of cells expressing p27, whereas adrenocorticotrophic hormone cells and tumors had the lowest percentages. Immunoblotting analysis showed that adrenocorticotrophic hormone adenomas also had the lowest levels of p27 protein. Semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern hybridization analysis did not show significant differences in p27 mRNA expression in the various types of adenomas or in nontumorous pituitaries. In situ hybridization for p27 mRNA showed similar

  9. Ras/ERK1 pathway regulation of p27KIP1-mediated G1-phase cell-cycle arrest in cordycepin-induced inhibition of the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Su-Mi; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2012-04-15

    Cordycepin, the main constituent of Cordyceps militaris, demonstrated an anti-atherogenic effect in experimental animals. However, the effects of cordycepin on cell-cycle regulation and the signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) remain largely unknown; therefore, unexpected roles of cordycepin-induced inhibition in VSMC growth were investigated. Mechanisms in cordycepin-treated VSMC were examined via an MTT assay, a thymidine uptake experiment, FACS analysis, immunoblot analysis, kinase assay, immunoprecipitation assay, and transient transfection assays. Cordycepin inhibited cell growth, induced G1-phase cell-cycle arrest, down-regulated cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) expression, and up-regulated p27KIP1 expression in VSMC. Cordycepin induced activation of JNK, p38MAPK and ERK1/2. Blocking of the ERK function using either ERK1/2-specific inhibitor U0126 or a small interfering RNA (si-ERK1) reversed p27KIP1 expression, inhibition of cell growth, and decreased cell-cycle proteins in cordycepin-treated VSMC. Ras activation was increased by cordycepin. Transfection of cells with dominant negative Ras (RasN17) mutant genes rescued cordycepin-induced ERK1/2 activity, increased p27KIP1 expression, inhibited cell proliferation, and reduced cell cycle proteins. In conclusion, our findings indicate that Ras/ERK1 pathways participate in p27KIP1-mediated G1-phase cell-cycle arrest induced by cordycepin via a decrease in cyclin/CDK complexes in VSMC. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. PKCη promotes a proliferation to differentiation switch in keratinocytes via upregulation of p27Kip1 mRNA through suppression of JNK/c-Jun signaling under stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hara, T; Miyazaki, M; Hakuno, F; Takahashi, S; Chida, K

    2011-01-01

    To maintain epidermal homeostasis, the balance between keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation is tightly controlled. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this balance remain unclear. In 3D organotypic coculture with mouse keratinocytes and fibroblasts, the thickness of stratified cell layers was prolonged, and growth arrest and terminal differentiation were delayed when PKCη-null keratinocytes were used. Re-expression of PKCη in PKCη-null keratinocytes restored stratified cell layer thickness, growth arrest and terminal differentiation. We show that in 3D cocultured PKCη-null keratinocytes, p27Kip1 mRNA was downregulated, whereas JNK/c-Jun signaling was enhanced. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK/c-Jun signaling in PKCη-null keratinocytes led to upregulation of p27Kip1 mRNA, and to thinner stratified cell layers. Collectively, our findings indicate that PKCη upregulates p27Kip1 mRNA through suppression of JNK/c-Jun signaling. This results in promoting a proliferation to differentiation switch in keratinocytes. PMID:21593789

  11. Ras activity late in G1 phase required for p27kip1 downregulation, passage through the restriction point, and entry into S phase in growth factor-stimulated NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Takuwa, N; Takuwa, Y

    1997-01-01

    It is well documented that Ras functions as a molecular switch for reentry into the cell cycle at the border between G0 and G1 by transducing extracellular growth stimuli into early G1 mitogenic signals. In the present study, we investigated the role of Ras during the late stage of the G1 phase by using NIH 3T3 (M17) fibroblasts in which the expression of a dominant negative Ras mutant, p21(Ha-Ras[Asn17]), is induced in response to dexamethasone treatment. We found that delaying the expression of Ras(Asn17) until late in the G1 phase by introducing dexamethasone 3 h after the addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) abolished the downregulation of the p27kip1 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor which normally occurred during this period, with resultant suppression of cyclin Ds/CDK4 and cyclin E/CDK2 and G1 arrest. The immunodepletion of p27kip1 completely eliminated the CDK inhibitor activity from EGF-stimulated, dexamethasone-treated cell lysate. The failure of p27kip1 downregulation and G1 arrest was also observed in cells in which Ras(Asn17) was induced after growth stimulation with a phorbol ester or alpha-thrombin and was mimicked by the addition late in the G1 phase of inhibitors for phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase. Ras-mediated downregulation of p27kip1 involved both the suppression of synthesis and the stimulation of the degradation of the protein. Unlike the earlier expression of Ras(Asn17) at the border between G0 and G1, its delayed expression did not compromise the EGF-stimulated transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases or inhibit the stimulated expression of a principal D-type cyclin, cyclin D1, until close to the border between G1 and S. We conclude that Ras plays temporally distinct, phase-specific roles throughout the G1 phase and that Ras function late in G1 is required for p27kip1 downregulation and passage through the restriction point, a prerequisite for entry into the S phase. PMID:9271412

  12. [P27(Kip1), cyclin E and endogenous TGF-beta1 changes in apoptosis of NB4 cells induced by As(2)O(3) and/or TGF-beta1 and their significance].

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying; Li, Yan; Wang, Yue; Li, Xia; Wang, Ping-Ping; Wang, Bai-Xun

    2009-02-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) and/or transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)on cell apoptosis and the changes of P27(Kip1), cyclin E and endogenous TGF-beta1 mRNA levels in NB4 cells. As(2)O(3) cytotoxicity to NB4 cells and the IC(50) were assayed with MTT, the apoptotic morphological changes were observed by Wright-Giemsa staining; the cell cycle and apoptosis were detected with flow cytometry. Semiquantitative RT-PCR was used to examine P27(Kip1), cyclin E and endogenous TGF-beta1 mRNA levels. The results showed that the As(2)O(3) and TGF-beta1 significantly suppressed the growth of NB4 cells, and promoted the apoptosis of these cells. The growth inhibition and apoptosis of NB4 cells treated with As(2)O(3) were in dose-and time-dependent manners. IC(50) were about 12 micromol/L for 24 hours, about 5 micromol/L for 48 hours, and about 3 micromol/L for 72 hours respectively. Cell cycle arrest in NB4 cells was induced by As(2)O(3) and/or TGF-beta1. The arrest of NB4 cells treated by 5 micromol/L As(2)O(3) was in G(2)/M phase, and 5 ng/ml TGF-beta1 in G(1) phase. However, the arrest of NB4 cells caused by combination of As(2)O(3) and TGF-beta1 was in S phase. After treating with As(2)O(3), P27(Kip1) and endogenous TGF-beta1 mRNA expressions of NB4 cells were up-regulated, and cyclin E mRNA expression was down-regulated. When NB4 cells were treated with TGF-beta1 alone, P27(Kip1) and cyclin E mRNA expressions were the same as that treated by As(2)O(3). Exogenous TGF-beta1 enhanced the above effects of As(2)O(3) in combination group. It is concluded that As(2)O(3) and TGF-beta1 are able to induce apoptosis and cell cycle abnormal distribution in NB4 cells. As(2)O(3) and exogenous TGF-beta1 may up-regulate endogenous TGF-beta1, which induce apoptosis of NB4 cells through consequently high expression of P27(Kip1). TGF-beta1 may lead to cell cycle arrest by inhibiting the expression of cyclin E directly, or by the

  13. Nardostachys chinensis induces granulocytic differentiation with the suppression of cell growth through p27(Kip1) protein-related G0/G1 phase arrest in human promyelocytic leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Ju, Sung-Min; Lee, Jun; Kang, Jun-Gue; Jeong, Sun-Oh; Park, Jang-Ho; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Lee, Guem-San; Kim, Won-Sin; Lyu, Yeoung-Su; Jeon, Byung-Hun

    2015-07-01

    Nardostachys chinensis Batalin (Valerianaceae) has been used in Korean traditional medicine to elicit stomachic and sedative effects. However, the anti-leukemic activities of N. chinensis have not been well examined. To investigate the effect of N. chinensis on differentiation and proliferation in the human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells. The dried roots and stems of N. chiensis are extracted using hot water and then freeze-dried. The yield of extract was 12.82% (w/w). The HL-60 cells were treated with 25-200 μg/ml of N. chinensis for 72 h or 100 μg/ml of N. chinensis for 24-72 h. Nardostachys chinensis significantly inhibited cell viability dose dependently with an IC50 of 100 μg/ml in HL-60 cells. Nardostachys chinensis induced differentiation of the cells as measured by reduction activity of NBT and expression of CD11b but not of CD14 as analyzed by flow cytometry, which indicates a differentiation toward the granulocytic lineage. Nardostachys chinensis also induced growth inhibition through G0/G1 phase arrest in the cell cycle of HL-60 cells. Among the G0/G1 phase in the cell cycle-related protein, the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27(Kip1) was increased in N. chinensis-treated HL-60 cells, whereas the expression levels of CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1, cyclin D3, cyclin E, and cyclin A were decreased. Interestingly, N. chinensis markedly enhanced the binding of p27(Kip1) with CDK2 and CDK6. This study demonstrated that N. chinensis is capable of inducing cellular differentiation and growth inhibition through p27(Kip1) protein-related G0/G1 phase arrest in HL-60 cells.

  14. Alterations in TP53, cyclin D2, c-Myc, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1 expression associated with progression in B-CLL.

    PubMed

    Halina, Antosz; Artur, Paterski; Barbara, Marzec-Kotarska; Joanna, Sajewicz; Anna, Dmoszyńska

    2010-12-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) originates from B lymphocytes that may differ in the activation level, maturation state or cellular subgroups in peripheral blood. Tumour progression in CLL B cells seems to result in gradual accumulation of the clone of resting B lymphocytes in the early phases (G0/G1) of the cell cycle. The G1 phase is impaired in B-CLL. We investigated the gene expression of five key cell cycle regulators: TP 53, c-Myc, cyclin D2, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1, which primarily regulate the G1 phase of the cell cycle, or S-phase entry and ultimately control the proliferation and cell growth as well as their role in B-CLL progression. The study was conducted in peripheral blood CLL lymphocytes of 40 previously untreated patients. Statistical analysis of correlations of TP53, cyclin D2, c-Myc, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1 expressions in B-CLL patients with different Rai stages demonstrated that the progression of disease was accompanied by increases in p53, cyclin D2 and c-Myc mRNA expression. The expression of p27KIP1 was nearly statistically significant whereas that of p21 WAF1/CIP1 showed no such correlation. Moreover, high expression levels of TP53 and c-Myc genes were found to be closely associated with more aggressive forms of the disease requiring earlier therapy.

  15. Interferon-induces expression of cyclin-dependent kinase-inhibitors p21WAF1 and p27Kip1 that prevent activation of cyclin-dependent kinase by CDK-activating kinase (CAK).

    PubMed

    Mandal, M; Bandyopadhyay, D; Goepfert, T M; Kumar, R

    1998-01-15

    To understand the mechanism of interferon (IFN)-mediated suppression of cell cycle progression, we have earlier shown that IFN-alpha enhances the expression of underphosphorylated retinoblastoma protein by inhibiting the cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK-2) activity (Kumar and Atlas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89, 6599-6603, 1992; Zhang and Kumar, Biochem. Biophysi. Res. Comm., 200, 522-528, 1994). In the studies presented here, we investigated the mechanism of inhibition of CDKs in IFN-treated cells by delineating the potential role(s) of CDK-inhibitors (CKIs) and CDK-activating kinase (CAK). We report that IFN-alpha inhibits the H-1 kinase activity associated with CDK-4 or CDK-2 due to induction of expression of CDK-inhibitor p21WAF1 (but not p27Kip1) as its immunodepletion from IFN-treated extracts restored the CDK-associated H-1 kinase activity. In addition, we also show that IFN-gamma induces expression of CDK-inhibitors p21WAF1 and p27Kip1 and inhibited the H-1 kinase activity associated with CDK-2 or CDK-4. The observed IFN-gamma-mediated inhibition of CDK-2 and CDK-4 kinase activity was due to enhanced interactions with p21WAF1 and p27Kip1, respectively. We also demonstrated that IFN-induced CKIs prevent CAK from activating the CDK-2 as immunodepletion of induced CKIs from the inhibitory extracts resulted in the restoration of CAK-mediated activation of CDK-2.

  16. Fad24, a Positive Regulator of Adipogenesis, Is Required for S Phase Re-entry of C2C12 Myoblasts Arrested in G0 Phase and Involved in p27(Kip1) Expression at the Protein Level.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Natsuki; Nishizuka, Makoto; Osada, Shigehiro; Imagawa, Masayoshi

    2016-05-01

    Factor for adipocyte differentiation 24 (fad24) is a positive regulator of adipogenesis. We previously found that human fad24 is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscle. However, the function of fad24 in skeletal muscle remains largely unknown. Because skeletal muscle is a highly regenerative tissue, we focused on the function of fad24 in skeletal muscle regeneration. In this paper, we investigated the role of fad24 in the cell cycle re-entry of quiescent C2C12 myoblasts-mimicked satellite cells. The expression levels of fad24 and histone acetyltransferase binding to ORC1 (hbo1), a FAD24-interacting factor, were elevated at the early phase of the regeneration process in response to cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury. The knockdown of fad24 inhibited the proliferation of quiescent myoblasts, whereas fad24 knockdown did not affect differentiation. S phase entry following serum activation is abrogated by fad24 knockdown in quiescent cells. Furthermore, fad24 knockdown cells show a marked accumulation of p27(Kip1) protein. These results suggest that fad24 may have an important role in the S phase re-entry of quiescent C2C12 cells through the regulation of p27(Kip1) at the protein level.

  17. The Cell Cycle Inhibitor p27KIP1: A Key of G1 Arrest by Androgen Ablation and by Vitamin D3 Analog

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-01

    EB 1089 . Work during final year of the grant period has addressed how processes regulating p27 are altered during prostate cancer progression...Effects of androgens and vDR activation by EB 1089 on p27 function were assayed. We demonstrated that physiologic concentrations of DHT and EB 1089 have...DHT and EB 1089 in pre-clinical trials using LNCaP xenografts in immunodeficient mice. Our preliminary data analysis of these in vivo studies in

  18. Identification of Genes, including the Gene Encoding p27Kip1, Regulated by Serine 276 Phosphorylation of the p65 Subunit of NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Ratna Chakraborty; Wang, Xiaohui L.; Law, Brian K.; Davis, Bradley; Green, Gail; Boone, Braden; Sims, Lauren; Law, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB is required for its transcriptional activity. Recent reports show that phosphorylation of p65 at serine 276 regulates only a subset of genes, such as those encoding IL-6, IL-8, Gro-β, and ICAM-1. In order to identify additional genes regulated by serine 276 phosphorylation, HepG2 hepatoma cells were infected with adenoviruses encoding either wild-type p65 or the S276A mutant of p65, followed by DNA microarray analysis. The results show that mutation of serine 276 affected the expression of several genes that encode proteins involved in cell cycle regulation, signal transduction, transcription, and metabolism. Notably, expression of S276A increased the mRNA and protein level of p27, a cell cycle inhibitory protein, which led to an increased association of p27 with cdk2, and inhibition of cdk2 activity. Furthermore, while wild-type NF-κB is known to increase cell proliferation in a number of different cancer cell lines, our data show that S276A inhibits cell proliferation. Evidence is mounting that NF-κB plays a pivotal role in oncogenesis. Therapeutic agents that regulate the phosphorylation of serine 276 and p27 gene expression, therefore, may be useful as anti-cancer agents in the future. PMID:19038492

  19. Structural basis of the Cks1-dependent recognition of p27(Kip1) by the SCF(Skp2) ubiquitin ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, B.; Zheng, N.; Schulman, B.A.; Wu, G.; Miller, J.J.; Pagano, M.; Pavletich, N.P.

    2010-07-19

    The ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of the Cdk2 inhibitor p27{sup Kip1} plays a central role in cell cycle progression, and enhanced degradation of p27{sup Kip1} is associated with many common cancers. Proteolysis of p27{sup Kip1} is triggered by Thr187 phosphorylation, which leads to the binding of the SCF{sup Skp2} (Skp1-Cul1-Rbx1-Skp2) ubiquitin ligase complex. Unlike other known SCF substrates, p27{sup Kip1} ubiquitination also requires the accessory protein Cks1. The crystal structure of the Skp1-Skp2-Cks1 complex bound to a p27{sup Kip1} phosphopeptide shows that Cks1 binds to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain and C-terminal tail of Skp2, whereas p27{sup Kip1} binds to both Cks1 and Skp2. The phosphorylated Thr187 side chain of p27{sup Kip1} is recognized by a Cks1 phosphate binding site, whereas the side chain of an invariant Glu185 inserts into the interface between Skp2 and Cks1, interacting with both. The structure and biochemical data support the proposed model that Cdk2-cyclin A contributes to the recruitment of p27{sup Kip1} to the SCF{sup Skp2}-Cks1 complex.

  20. Aortic endothelial cells regulate proliferation of human monocytes in vitro via a mechanism synergistic with macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Convergence at the cyclin E/p27(Kip1) regulatory checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Antonov, A S; Munn, D H; Kolodgie, F D; Virmani, R; Gerrity, R G

    1997-06-15

    Monocyte-derived macrophages (Mphis) are pivotal participants in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Evidence from both animal and human plaques indicates that local proliferation may contribute to accumulation of lesion Mphis, and the major Mphi growth factor, macrophage colony stimulating factor (MCSF), is present in atherosclerotic plaques. However, most in vitro studies have failed to demonstrate that human monocytes/Mphis possess significant proliferative capacity. We now report that, although human monocytes cultured in isolation showed only limited MCSF-induced proliferation, monocytes cocultured with aortic endothelial cells at identical MCSF concentrations underwent enhanced (up to 40-fold) and prolonged (21 d) proliferation. In contrast with monocytes in isolation, this was optimal at low seeding densities, required endothelial cell contact, and could not be reproduced by coculture with smooth muscle cells. Intimal Mphi isolated from human aortas likewise showed endothelial cell contact-dependent, MCSF-induced proliferation. Consistent with a two-signal mechanism governing Mphi proliferation, the cell cycle regulatory protein, cyclin E, was rapidly upregulated by endothelial cell contact in an MCSFindependent fashion, but MCSF was required for successful downregulation of the cell cycle inhibitory protein p27(Kip1) before cell cycling. Thus endothelial cells and MCSF differentially and synergistically regulate two Mphi genes critical for progression through the cell cycle.

  1. 2′,4′-dihydroxychalcone, a flavonoid isolated from Herba oxytropis, suppresses PC-3 human prostate cancer cell growth by induction of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    SHENG, YUQING; ZOU, MINGCHANG; WANG, YAN; LI, QIHENG

    2015-01-01

    Natural products are a promising source for the development of novel cancer therapies, due to their potential effectiveness and low toxicity profiles. As a main component of Herba oxytropis, 2′,4′-dihydroxychalcone (TFC) is known to demonstrate anti-tumor activity in vitro. In the present study, TFC was found to potently inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. The results demonstrated that the induction of apoptosis is associated with cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and activation of caspase-3/-7. Additional mechanistic studies of two biomarkers, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1), in prostate cancer revealed that TFC treatment significantly upregulated the expression of PTEN and p27Kip1. The findings of the present study indicate that TFC-induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells via upregulation of PTEN and p27Kip1, which results in cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase, activation of caspase-3/-7 and induction of apoptosis. Therefore, TFC may be a potential compound for human prostate cancer therapy. PMID:26788200

  2. Effects of the combined blockade of EGFR and ErbB-2 on signal transduction and regulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    D'Alessio, Amelia; De Luca, Antonella; Maiello, Monica R; Lamura, Luana; Rachiglio, Anna Maria; Napolitano, Maria; Gallo, Marianna; Normanno, Nicola

    2010-09-01

    Treatment of breast cancer cells with a combination of the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) gefitinib and the anti-ErbB-2 monoclonal antibody trastuzumab results in a synergistic antitumor effect. In this study, we addressed the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon. The activation of signaling pathways and the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins were studied in SK-Br-3 and BT-474 breast cancer cells, following treatment with EGFR and/or ErbB-2 inhibitors. Treatment with the gefitinib/trastuzumab combination produced, as compared with a single agent, a more prolonged blockade of AKT and MAPK activation, a more pronounced accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, a more significant increase in the levels of p27(kip1) and of hypophosphorylated pRb2, and a decrease in the levels of Cyclin D1 and survivin. Similar findings were observed with the EGFR/ErbB-2 inhibitor lapatinib. Gefitinib, trastuzumab, and their combination increased the stability of p27(kip1), with the combination showing the highest effects. Blockade of both receptors with gefitinib/trastuzumab or lapatinib induced a significant increase in the levels of p27(kip1) mRNA and in the nuclear levels of the p27(kip1) transcription factor FKHRL-1. Inhibition of PI3K signaling also produced a significant raise in p27(kip1) mRNA. Finally, down-modulation of FKHRL-1 with siRNAs prevented the lapatinib-induced increase of p27(kip1) mRNA. The synergism deriving from EGFR and ErbB-2 blockade is mediated by several different alterations in the activation of signaling proteins and in the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, including transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of p27(kip1) expression.

  3. The expression of the ubiquitin ligase subunit Cks1 in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Slotky, Merav; Shapira, Ma'anit; Ben-Izhak, Ofer; Linn, Shai; Futerman, Boris; Tsalic, Medy; Hershko, Dan D

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Loss of the cell-cycle inhibitory protein p27Kip1 is associated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer. The decrease in the levels of this protein is the result of increased proteasome-dependent degradation, mediated and rate-limited by its specific ubiquitin ligase subunits S-phase kinase protein 2 (Skp2) and cyclin-dependent kinase subunit 1 (Cks1). Skp2 was recently found to be overexpressed in breast cancers, but the role of Cks1 in these cancers is unknown. The present study was undertaken to examine the role of Cks1 expression in breast cancer and its relation to p27Kip1 and Skp2 expression and to tumor aggressiveness. Methods The expressions of Cks1, Skp2, and p27Kip1 were examined immunohistochemically on formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax-embedded tissue sections from 50 patients with breast cancer and by immunoblot analysis on breast cancer cell lines. The relation between Cks1 levels and patients' clinical and histological parameters were examined by Cox regression and the Kaplan–Meier method. Results The expression of Cks1 was strongly associated with Skp2 expression (r = 0.477; P = 0.001) and inversely with p27Kip1 (r = -0.726; P < 0.0001). Overexpression of Cks1 was associated with loss of tumor differentiation, young age, lack of expression of estrogen receptors and of progesterone receptors, and decreased disease-free (P = 0.0007) and overall (P = 0.041) survival. In addition, Cks1 and Skp2 expression were increased by estradiol in estrogen-dependent cell lines but were down-regulated by tamoxifen. Conclusion These results suggest that Cks1 is involved in p27Kip1 down-regulation and may have an important role in the development of aggressive tumor behavior in breast cancer. PMID:16168119

  4. The p27Kip1 Tumor Suppressor and Multi-Step Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    completion of the Celera mouse genome . Sequenced IPCR clones were searched against the Celera database and clones that fell within the same Celera ...in all of the lymphomas containing XPC-1 insertions. There is significant sequence conservation between the murine XPC-1 locus and the syntenic human ...Xq26 region, and sequences homologous to A1464896 and the cloned insertion sites are present in the human Xq26 region with spacing quite similar to

  5. CacyBP/SIP promotes the proliferation of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Huihong; Shi, Yongquan; Chen, Xiong; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Faming; Liu, Zhengxiong; Lei, Ting; Fan, Daiming

    2017-01-01

    CacyBP/SIP is a component of the ubiquitin pathway and is overexpressed in several transformed tumor tissues, including colon cancer, which is one of the most common cancers worldwide. It is unknown whether CacyBP/SIP promotes the proliferation of colon cancer cells. This study examined the expression level, subcellular localization, and binding activity of CacyBP/SIP in human colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of the hormone gastrin. We found that CacyBP/SIP was expressed in a high percentage of colon cancer cells, but not in normal colonic surface epithelium. CacyBP/SIP promoted the cell proliferation of colon cancer cells under both basal and gastrin stimulated conditions as shown by knockdown studies. Gastrin stimulation triggered the translocation of CacyBP/SIP to the nucleus, and enhanced interaction between CacyBP/SIP and SKP1, a key component of ubiquitination pathway which further mediated the proteasome-dependent degradation of p27kip1 protein. The gastrin induced reduction in p27kip1 was prevented when cells were treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. These results suggest that CacyBP/SIP may be promoting growth of colon cancer cells by enhancing ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27kip1.

  6. CacyBP/SIP promotes the proliferation of colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiong; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Faming; Liu, Zhengxiong; Lei, Ting; Fan, Daiming

    2017-01-01

    CacyBP/SIP is a component of the ubiquitin pathway and is overexpressed in several transformed tumor tissues, including colon cancer, which is one of the most common cancers worldwide. It is unknown whether CacyBP/SIP promotes the proliferation of colon cancer cells. This study examined the expression level, subcellular localization, and binding activity of CacyBP/SIP in human colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of the hormone gastrin. We found that CacyBP/SIP was expressed in a high percentage of colon cancer cells, but not in normal colonic surface epithelium. CacyBP/SIP promoted the cell proliferation of colon cancer cells under both basal and gastrin stimulated conditions as shown by knockdown studies. Gastrin stimulation triggered the translocation of CacyBP/SIP to the nucleus, and enhanced interaction between CacyBP/SIP and SKP1, a key component of ubiquitination pathway which further mediated the proteasome-dependent degradation of p27kip1 protein. The gastrin induced reduction in p27kip1 was prevented when cells were treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. These results suggest that CacyBP/SIP may be promoting growth of colon cancer cells by enhancing ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27kip1. PMID:28196083

  7. Effects of the kava chalcone flavokawain A differ in bladder cancer cells with wild-type versus mutant p53.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yaxiong; Simoneau, Anne R; Xie, Jun; Shahandeh, Babbak; Zi, Xiaolin

    2008-11-01

    Flavokawain A is the predominant chalcone from kava extract. We have assessed the mechanisms of flavokawain A's action on cell cycle regulation. In a p53 wild-type, low-grade, and papillary bladder cancer cell line (RT4), flavokawain A increased p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1, which resulted in a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) kinase activity and subsequent G(1) arrest. The increase of p21/WAF1 protein corresponded to an increased mRNA level, whereas p27/KIP1 accumulation was associated with the down-regulation of SKP2, which then increased the stability of the p27/KIP1 protein. The accumulation of p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1 was independent of cell cycle position and thus not a result of the cell cycle arrest. In contrast, flavokawain A induced a G(2)-M arrest in six p53 mutant-type, high-grade bladder cancer cell lines (T24, UMUC3, TCCSUP, 5637, HT1376, and HT1197). Flavokawain A significantly reduced the expression of CDK1-inhibitory kinases, Myt1 and Wee1, and caused cyclin B1 protein accumulation leading to CDK1 activation in T24 cells. Suppression of p53 expression by small interfering RNA in RT4 cells restored Cdc25C expression and down-regulated p21/WAF1 expression, which allowed Cdc25C and CDK1 activation, which then led to a G(2)-M arrest and an enhanced growth-inhibitory effect by flavokawain A. Consistently, flavokawain A also caused a pronounced CDK1 activation and G(2)-M arrest in p53 knockout but not in p53 wild-type HCT116 cells. This selectivity of flavokawain A for inducing a G(2)-M arrest in p53-defective cells deserves further investigation as a new mechanism for the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer.

  8. Salinomycin possesses anti-tumor activity and inhibits breast cancer stem-like cells via an apoptosis-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    An, Hyunsook; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Nahyun; Cho, Youngkwan; Oh, Eunhye; Seo, Jae Hong

    2015-10-30

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play important roles in the formation, growth and recurrence of tumors, particularly following therapeutic intervention. Salinomycin has received recent attention for its ability to target breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), but the mechanisms of action involved are not fully understood. In the present study, we sought to investigate the mechanisms responsible for salinomycin's selective targeting of BCSCs and its anti-tumor activity. Salinomycin suppressed cell viability, concomitant with the downregulation of cyclin D1 and increased p27(kip1) nuclear accumulation. Mammosphere formation assays revealed that salinomycin suppresses self-renewal of ALDH1-positive BCSCs and downregulates the transcription factors Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2. TUNEL analysis of MDA-MB-231-derived xenografts revealed that salinomycin administration elicited a significant reduction in tumor growth with a marked downregulation of ALDH1 and CD44 levels, but seemingly without the induction of apoptosis. Our findings shed further light on the mechanisms responsible for salinomycin's effects on BCSCs.

  9. MicroRNA-302a Suppresses Tumor Cell Proliferation by Inhibiting AKT in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gui-Ming; Bao, Chun-Yang; Wan, Fang-Ning; Cao, Da-Long; Qin, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Zhu, Yao; Dai, Bo; Shi, Guo-Hai; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Micro (mi) RNAs are important regulators involved in various physical and pathological processes, including cancer. The miRNA-302 family has been documented as playing a critical role in carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of miRNA-302a in prostate cancer (PCa). MiRNA-302a expression was detected in 44 PCa tissues and 10 normal prostate tissues, and their clinicopathological significance was analyzed. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed on PCa cells that stably expressed miRNA-302a. The target gene of miRNA-302a and the downstream pathway were further investigated. Compared with normal prostate tissues, miRNA-302a expression was downregulated in PCa tissues, and was even lower in PCa tissues with a Gleason score ≥8. Overexpression of miRNA-302a induced G1/S cell cycle arrest in PCa cells, and suppressed PCa cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, miRNA-302a inhibits AKT expression by directly binding to its 3΄ untranslated region, resulting in subsequent alterations of the AKT-GSK3β-cyclin D1 and AKT-p27Kip1 pathway. These results reveal miRNA-302a as a tumor suppressor in PCa, suggesting that miRNA-302a may be used as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in PCa. PMID:25922934

  10. Targeting prostate cancer based on signal transduction and cell cycle pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John T.; Lehmann, Brian D.; Terrian, David M.; Chappell, William H.; Stivala, Franca; Libra, Massimo; Martelli, Alberto M.; Steelman, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains a leading cause of death in men despite increased capacity to diagnose at earlier stages. After prostate cancer has become hormone independent, which often occurs after hormonal ablation therapies, it is difficult to effectively treat. Prostate cancer may arise from mutations and dysregulation of various genes involved in regulation signal transduction (e.g., PTEN, Akt, etc.,) and the cell cycle (e.g., p53, p21Cip1, p27Kip1, Rb, etc.,). This review focuses on the aberrant interactions of signal transduction and cell cycle genes products and how they can contribute to prostate cancer and alter therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:18594202

  11. Accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27/Kip1 and the timing of oligodendrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Durand, B; Gao, F B; Raff, M

    1997-01-01

    Many types of vertebrate precursor cells divide a limited number of times before they stop and terminally differentiate. In no case is it known what causes them to stop dividing. We have been studying this problem in the proliferating precursor cells that give rise to postmitotic oligodendrocytes, the cells that make myelin in the central nervous system. We show here that two components of the cell cycle control system, cyclin D1 and the Cdc2 kinase, are present in the proliferating precursor cells but not in differentiated oligodendrocytes, suggesting that the control system is dismantled in the oligodendrocytes. More importantly, we show that the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27 progressively accumulates in the precursor cells as they proliferate and is present at high levels in oligodendrocytes. Our findings are consistent with the possibility that the accumulation of p27 is part of both the intrinsic counting mechanism that determines when precursor cell proliferation stops and differentiation begins and the effector mechanism that arrests the cell cycle when the counting mechanism indicates it is time. The recent findings of others that p27-deficient mice have an increased number of cells in all of the organs examined suggest that this function of p27 is not restricted to the oligodendrocyte cell lineage. PMID:9029151

  12. The Role of Intrinsic Flexibility in Signal Transduction Mediated by the Cell Cycle Regulator, p27Kip1

    SciTech Connect

    Galea, Charles A.; Nourse, Amanda; Wang, Yuefeng; Sivakolundu, Sivashankar G.; Heller, William T; Kriwacki, Richard W

    2008-02-01

    p27{sup Kip1} (p27), which controls eukaryotic cell division through interactions with cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), integrates and transduces promitogenic signals from various nonreceptor tyrosine kinases by orchestrating its own phosphorylation, ubiquitination and degradation. Intrinsic flexibility allows p27 to act as a 'conduit' for sequential signaling mediated by tyrosine and threonine phosphorylation and ubiquitination. While the structural features of the Cdk/cyclin-binding domain of p27 are understood, how the C-terminal regulatory domain coordinates multistep signaling leading to p27 degradation is poorly understood. We show that the 100-residue p27 C-terminal domain is extended and flexible when p27 is bound to Cdk2/cyclin A. We propose that the intrinsic flexibility of p27 provides a molecular basis for the sequential signal transduction conduit that regulates p27 degradation and cell division. Other intrinsically unstructured proteins possessing multiple sites of posttranslational modification may participate in similar signaling conduits.

  13. Protein Kinase C alpha (PKCα) dependent signaling mediates endometrial cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Haughian, James M.; Reno, Elaine M.; Thorne, Alicia M.; Bradford, Andrew P.

    2009-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy, yet molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways underlying its etiology and pathophysiology remain poorly characterized. We sought to define a functional role for the protein kinase C (PKC) isoform, PKCα, in an established cell model of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Ishikawa cells depleted of PKCα protein grew slower, formed fewer colonies in anchorage-independent growth assays and exhibited impaired xenograft tumor formation in nude mice. Consistent with impaired growth, PKCα knockdown increased levels of the cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21Cip1/WAF1 (p21) and p27Kip1 (p27). Despite the absence of functional phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) protein in Ishikawa cells, PKCα knockdown reduced Akt phosphorylation at serine 473 and concomitantly inhibited phosphorylation of the Akt target, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). PKCα knockdown also resulted in decreased basal ERK phosphorylation and attenuated ERK activation following EGF stimulation. p21 and p27 expression was not increased by treatment of Ishikawa cells with ERK and Akt inhibitors, suggesting PKCα regulates CDK expression independently of Akt and ERK. Immunohistochemical analysis of grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma revealed aberrant PKCα expression, with foci of elevated PKCα staining, not observed in normal endometrium. These studies demonstrate a critical role for PKCα signaling in endometrial tumorigenesis by regulating expression of CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 and activation of Akt and ERK dependent proliferative pathways. Thus, targeting PKCα may provide novel therapeutic options in endometrial tumors. PMID:19672862

  14. Physalis angulata induced G2/M phase arrest in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Huang, Kuan-Yuh; Lin, Hui-Yi; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2006-07-01

    Physalis angulata (PA) is employed in herbal medicine around the world. It is used to treat diabetes, hepatitis, asthma and malaria in Taiwan. We have evaluated PA as a cancer chemopreventive agent in vitro by studying the role of PA in regulation of proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines. PA inhibited cell proliferation and induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer MAD-MB 231 and MCF-7 cell lines. In this study, under treatment with various concentrations of PA in MDA-MB 231 cell line, we checked mRNA levels for cyclin A and cyclin B1 and the protein levels of cyclin A and cyclin B1, Cdc2 (cyclin-dependent kinases), p21(waf1/cip1) and P27(Kip1) (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors), Cdc25C, Chk2 and Wee1 kinase (cyclin-dependent kinase relative factors) in cell cycle G2/M phase. From those results, we determined that PA arrests MDA-MB 231 cells at the G2/M phase by (i) inhibiting synthesis or stability of mRNA and their downstream protein levels of cyclin A and cyclin B1, (ii) increasing p21(waf1/cip1) and P27(kip1) levels, (iii) increasing Chk2, thus causing an increase in Cdc25C phosphorylation/inactivation and inducing a decrease in Cdc2 levels and an increase in Wee1 level. According to the results obtained, PA appears to possess anticarcinogenic properties; these results suggest that the effect of PA on the levels of phosphorylated/inactivated Cdc25C are mediated by Chk2 activation, at least in part, via p21(waf1/cip1) and P27(kip1) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors pathway to arrest cells at G2/M phase in breast cancer carcinoma cells.

  15. Anti-Cancer Effect of IN-2001 in MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung Nan; Joung, Ki Eun; Kim, Dae-Kee; Sheen, Yhun Yhong

    2012-05-01

    In recent years, inhibition of HDACs has emerged as a potential strategy to reverse aberrant epigenetic changes associated with cancer, and several classes of HDAC inhibitors have been found to have potent and specific anticancer activities in preclinical studies. But their precise mechanism of action has not been elucidated. In this study, a novel synthetic inhibitor of HDAC, 3-(4-dimethylamino phenyl)-N-hydroxy-2-propenamide [IN-2001] was examined for its antitumor activity and the underlying molecular mechanisms of any such activity on human breast cancer cell lines. IN-2001 effectively inhibited cellular HDAC activity (IC50 = 0.585 nM) in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. IN-2001 caused a significant dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation in estrogen receptor (ER) negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed that the gowth inhibitory effects of IN-2001 might be attributed to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 and/or G2/Mphase and subsequent apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. These events are accompanied by modulating several cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory genes such as CDK inhibitors p21(WAF1) and p27(KIP1) cyclin D1, and other tumor suppressor genes such as cyclin D2. Collectively, IN-2001 inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells and these findings may provide new therapeutic approaches, combination of antiestrogen together with a HDAC inhibitor, in the hormonal therapy-resistant ER-negative breast cancers. In summary, our data suggest that this histone deacetylase inhibitor, IN-2001, is a novel promising therapeutic agent with potent antitumor effects against human breast cancers.

  16. Flavokawain A induces deNEDDylation and Skp2 degradation leading to inhibition of tumorigenesis and cancer progression in the TRAMP transgenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuesen; Yokoyama, Noriko N.; Zhang, Saiyang; Ding, Lina; Liu, Hong-min; Lilly, Michael B.; Mercola, Dan; Zi, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    S phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) has been shown to be required for spontaneous tumor development that occurs in the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) deficient mice. Here we have demonstrated that flavokawain A (FKA), a novel chalcone from the kava plant, selectively inhibited the growth of pRb deficient cell lines and resulted in a proteasome-dependent and ubiquitination-mediated Skp2 degradation. Degradation of Skp2 by FKA was found to be involved in a functional Cullin1, but independent of Cdh1 expression. Further studies have demonstrated that FKA docked into the ATP binding pocket of the precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8)-activating enzyme (NAE) complex, inhibited NEDD8 conjugations to both Cullin1 and Ubc12 in PC3 cells and Ubc12 NEDDylation in an in vitro assay. Finally, dietary feeding of the autochthonous transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice with FKA inhibited the formation of high-grade prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia lesions (HG-PIN) and prostate adenocarcinomas, reduced the tumor burden and completely abolished distant organ metastasis. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed that dietary FKA feeding resulted in marked anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects via down-regulation of Skp2 and NEDD8 and up-regulation of p27/Kip1 in the prostate of TRAMP mice. Our findings therefore provide evidence that FKA is a promising NEDDylation inhibitor for targeting Skp2 degradation in prostate cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:26497688

  17. Flavokawain A induces deNEDDylation and Skp2 degradation leading to inhibition of tumorigenesis and cancer progression in the TRAMP transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuesen; Yokoyama, Noriko N; Zhang, Saiyang; Ding, Lina; Liu, Hong-min; Lilly, Michael B; Mercola, Dan; Zi, Xiaolin

    2015-12-08

    S phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) has been shown to be required for spontaneous tumor development that occurs in the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) deficient mice. Here we have demonstrated that flavokawain A (FKA), a novel chalcone from the kava plant, selectively inhibited the growth of pRb deficient cell lines and resulted in a proteasome-dependent and ubiquitination-mediated Skp2 degradation. Degradation of Skp2 by FKA was found to be involved in a functional Cullin1, but independent of Cdh1 expression. Further studies have demonstrated that FKA docked into the ATP binding pocket of the precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8)-activating enzyme (NAE) complex, inhibited NEDD8 conjugations to both Cullin1 and Ubc12 in PC3 cells and Ubc12 NEDDylation in an in vitro assay. Finally, dietary feeding of the autochthonous transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice with FKA inhibited the formation of high-grade prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia lesions (HG-PIN) and prostate adenocarcinomas, reduced the tumor burden and completely abolished distant organ metastasis. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed that dietary FKA feeding resulted in marked anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects via down-regulation of Skp2 and NEDD8 and up-regulation of p27/Kip1 in the prostate of TRAMP mice. Our findings therefore provide evidence that FKA is a promising NEDDylation inhibitor for targeting Skp2 degradation in prostate cancer prevention and treatment.

  18. From microRNA functions to microRNA therapeutics: novel targets and novel drugs in breast cancer research and treatment (Review).

    PubMed

    Piva, Roberta; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Gambari, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are a family of small non‑coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by the sequence-selective targeting of mRNAs, leading to translational repression or mRNA degradation, depending on the degree of complementarity with target mRNA sequences. miRNAs play a crucial role in cancer. In the case of breast tumors, several studies have demonstrated a correlation between: i) the expression profile of oncogenic miRNAs (oncomiRs) and tumor suppressor miRNAs; and ii) the tumorigenic potential of triple-negative [estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Her2/neu] primary breast cancers. Among the miRNAs involved in breast cancer, miR-221 plays a crucial role for the following reasons: i) miR-221 is significantly overexpressed in triple-negative primary breast cancer; ii) the oncosuppressor p27Kip1, a validated miR-221 target is downregulated in aggressive cancer cell lines; and iii) the upregulation of a key transcription factor, Slug, appears to be crucial, since it binds to the miR-221/miR-222 promoter and is responsible for the high expression of the miR-221/miR-222 cluster in breast cancer cells. A Slug/miR-221 network has been suggested, linking miR-221 activity with the downregulation of a Slug repressor, leading to Slug/miR-221 upregulation and p27Kip1 downregulation. Interference with this process can be achieved using antisense miRNA (antagomiR) molecules targeting miR-221, inducing the downregulation of Slug and the upregulation of p27Kip1.

  19. Hypersensitivity to contact inhibition provides a clue to cancer resistance of naked mole-rat.

    PubMed

    Seluanov, Andrei; Hine, Christopher; Azpurua, Jorge; Feigenson, Marina; Bozzella, Michael; Mao, Zhiyong; Catania, Kenneth C; Gorbunova, Vera

    2009-11-17

    The naked mole-rat is the longest living rodent with a maximum lifespan exceeding 28 years. In addition to its longevity, naked mole-rats have an extraordinary resistance to cancer as tumors have never been observed in these rodents. Furthermore, we show that a combination of activated Ras and SV40 LT fails to induce robust anchorage-independent growth in naked mole-rat cells, while it readily transforms mouse fibroblasts. The mechanisms responsible for the cancer resistance of naked mole-rats were unknown. Here we show that naked mole-rat fibroblasts display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition, a phenomenon we termed "early contact inhibition." Contact inhibition is a key anticancer mechanism that arrests cell division when cells reach a high density. In cell culture, naked mole-rat fibroblasts arrest at a much lower density than those from a mouse. We demonstrate that early contact inhibition requires the activity of p53 and pRb tumor suppressor pathways. Inactivation of both p53 and pRb attenuates early contact inhibition. Contact inhibition in human and mouse is triggered by the induction of p27(Kip1). In contrast, early contact inhibition in naked mole-rat is associated with the induction of p16(Ink4a). Furthermore, we show that the roles of p16(Ink4a) and p27(Kip1) in the control of contact inhibition became temporally separated in this species: the early contact inhibition is controlled by p16(Ink4a), and regular contact inhibition is controlled by p27(Kip1). We propose that the additional layer of protection conferred by two-tiered contact inhibition contributes to the remarkable tumor resistance of the naked mole-rat.

  20. Hypersensitivity to contact inhibition provides a clue to cancer resistance of naked mole-rat

    PubMed Central

    Seluanov, Andrei; Hine, Christopher; Azpurua, Jorge; Feigenson, Marina; Bozzella, Michael; Mao, Zhiyong; Catania, Kenneth C.; Gorbunova, Vera

    2009-01-01

    The naked mole-rat is the longest living rodent with a maximum lifespan exceeding 28 years. In addition to its longevity, naked mole-rats have an extraordinary resistance to cancer as tumors have never been observed in these rodents. Furthermore, we show that a combination of activated Ras and SV40 LT fails to induce robust anchorage-independent growth in naked mole-rat cells, while it readily transforms mouse fibroblasts. The mechanisms responsible for the cancer resistance of naked mole-rats were unknown. Here we show that naked mole-rat fibroblasts display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition, a phenomenon we termed “early contact inhibition.” Contact inhibition is a key anticancer mechanism that arrests cell division when cells reach a high density. In cell culture, naked mole-rat fibroblasts arrest at a much lower density than those from a mouse. We demonstrate that early contact inhibition requires the activity of p53 and pRb tumor suppressor pathways. Inactivation of both p53 and pRb attenuates early contact inhibition. Contact inhibition in human and mouse is triggered by the induction of p27Kip1. In contrast, early contact inhibition in naked mole-rat is associated with the induction of p16Ink4a. Furthermore, we show that the roles of p16Ink4a and p27Kip1 in the control of contact inhibition became temporally separated in this species: the early contact inhibition is controlled by p16Ink4a, and regular contact inhibition is controlled by p27Kip1. We propose that the additional layer of protection conferred by two-tiered contact inhibition contributes to the remarkable tumor resistance of the naked mole-rat. PMID:19858485

  1. Detection of Metastatic Potential in Breast Cancer by RhoC-GTPase and WISP3 Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    WISP3 polyclonal antibody (gift from Dr Matthew Warman), p27kip1, p21waf1, PCNA (Zymed, San Francisco , CA, USA) cyclin E (SC-247, Santa Cruz, CA, USA...Zamora P, Arias JI, Salazar R, et al. (2004). The variant E233G of the RAD51D gene could be a low-penetrance allele in high-risk breast cancer...gene expression in epithelial tumour cells. Nat Cell Biol 2000, 2:84-89. 37. Cano A, Perez -Moreno MA, Rodrigo I, Locascio A, Blanco MJ, del Barrio MG

  2. Anti-Cancer Effect of IN-2001 in T47D Human Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Joung, Ki Eun; Min, Kyung Nan; Kim, Dae-Kee; Sheen, Yhun Yhong

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes involved in the remodelling of chromatin, and have a key role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are emerging as an exciting new class of potential anti-cancer agents. In recent years, a number of structurally diverse HDAC inhibitors have been identified and these HDAC inhibitors induce growth arrest, differentiation and/or apoptosis of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed at investigating the anti-tumor activity of various HDAC inhibitors, IN-2001, using T47D human breast cancer cells. Moreover, the possible mechanism by which HDAC inhibitors exhibit anti-tumor activity was also explored. In estrogen receptor positive T47D cells, IN-2001, HDAC inhibitor showed anti-proliferative effects in dose-and time-dependent manner. In T47D human breast cancer cells showed anti-tumor activity of IN-2001 and the growth inhibitory effects of IN-2001 were related to the cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Flow cytometry studies revealed that IN-2001 showed accumulation of cells at G2/M phase. At the same time, IN-2001 treatment time-dependently increased sub-G1 population, representing apoptotic cells. IN-2001-mediated cell cycle arrest was associated with induction of cdk inhibitor expression. In T47D cells, IN-2001 as well as other HDAC inhibitors treatment significantly increased p21(WAF1) and p27(KIP1) expression. In addition, thymidylate synthase, an essential enzyme for DNA replication and repair, was down-regulated by IN-2001 and other HDAC inhibitors in the T47D human breast cancer cells. In summary, IN-2001 with a higher potency than other HDAC inhibitors induced growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and eventual apoptosis in human breast cancer possibly through modulation of cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory proteins, such as cdk inhibitors, cyclins, and thymidylate synthase.

  3. E3 Ubiquitin Ligases as Molecular Targets in Human Oral Cancers.

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Kazuma; Kitagawa, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is involved in various biological processes. Several oncogenic E3 ligases target tumor suppressor proteins for ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Alternatively, some other E3 ligases play as a tumor suppressor specifically targeting oncogene products. Deregulation of these E3 ligases induces unbalance between oncogenic signal and tumor suppressor pathway and leads to cellular transformation, tumor growth and metastasis in various human malignancies including oral, and head and neck cancers. Facilitated degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27(Kip1) has been observed in oral, and head and neck cancers, and is correlated with their poor prognosis. SCF(Skp2), KPC complex, Pirh2 and CRL4(DDB2-Artemis) have been reported as E3 ligases targeting p27(Kip1) for degradation. In oral cancers, it is reported that overexpression of Skp2 and Pirh2 is associated with poor prognosis. Thus, chemical inhibitors against these E3 ligases are applicable for oral cancer therapy. Some potential compounds that inhibit E3 ligase activity of SCF(Skp2) have been reported. Moreover, the HECT-type E3 ligase WWP family and Smurf1 are also involved in the development and growth of human oral cancers. Therefore, small molecule inhibitors against HECT-type E3 ligases are discussed as anti-oral cancer drugs.

  4. Persistent p21Cip1 induction mediates G(1) cell cycle arrest by methylseleninic acid in DU145 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Chai, Yubo; Hu, Hongbo; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yong; Jiang, Cheng; Lü, Junxuan

    2010-05-01

    The induction of G(1) cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by second-generation selenium compounds (e.g., methylselenol precursors such as methylseleninic acid, MSeA) may contribute to their anti-cancer activities. We have documented previously induction of G(1) arrest and apoptosis by MSeA in association with upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) proteins p21Cip1 and/or p27Kip1 in DU145 prostate cancer cells. However, whether these CDKIs play a critical mediator role in G(1) arrest and apoptosis by MSeA has not been addressed. In the present work, we show exposure of p53-mutant DU145 cells to sub-apoptotic concentrations of MSeA induced p21cip1 mRNA (3 h) and protein (6 h) much faster than p27kip1 mRNA (12 h) and protein (12 h). Knocking down of p21 by siRNA completely abolished G(1) arrest induction by MSeA in DU145 cells, yet si-p27 RNA had no attenuation effect on the G(1) arrest. Depletion of p21Cip1 alone or both p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 increased MSeA-induced caspase-mediated apoptosis. Immunoprecipitation detected increased binding of p21Cip1 to CDK2 and CDK6 in MSeA-exposed DU145 cells. In DU145 xenografts from mice acutely treated with MSeA p.o., the induction of p21Cip1 was observed at 72 h of daily exposure. In p53-wild type LNCaP PCa cells and p53-null PC-3 PCa cells, MSeA modestly and transiently upregulated p21Cip1 protein level, subsiding to basal level by 24 h, without affecting P27Kip1 abundance in the same duration. Si-p21 RNA knockdown in these cells have only a partial effect to reverse G(1) arrest induction by MSeA. Together, our data support persistent, p53-independent, p21Cip1 induction as a critical mediator of MSeA-induced G(1) arrest in DU145 PCa cells, however, p21Cip1 induction and G(1) arrest were not necessary for, and may antagonize, caspase-mediated apoptosis.

  5. Additively enhanced antiproliferative effect of interferon combined with proanthocyanidin on bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Andrew I; Johnson, Blake; Alexander, Bobby; Won, John; Choudhury, Muhammad; Konno, Sensuke

    2012-01-01

    Although interferon (IFN) has been often used as immunotherapy for bladder cancer, its efficacy is rather unsatisfactory, demanding further improvement. Combination therapy is one of viable options, and grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) could be such an agent to be used with IFN because it has been shown to have anticancer activity. We thus investigated whether combination of IFN and GSP might enhance the overall antiproliferative effect on bladder cancer cells in vitro. Human bladder cancer T24 cells were employed and treated with the varying concentrations of recombinant IFN-α(2b) (0-100,000 IU/ml), GSP (0-100 μg/ml), or their combinations. IFN-α(2b) alone led to a ~50% growth reduction at 20,000 (20K) IU/ml, which further declined to ~67% at ≥50K IU/ml. Similarly, GSP alone induced a ~35% and ~100% growth reduction at 25 and ≥50 μg/ml, respectively. When IFN-α(2b) and GSP were then combined, combination of 50K IU/ml IFN-α(2b) and 25 μg/ml GSP resulted in a drastic >95% growth reduction. Cell cycle analysis indicated that such an enhanced growth inhibition was accompanied by a G(1) cell cycle arrest. This was further confirmed by Western blot analysis revealing that expressions of G(1)-specific cell cycle regulators (CDK2, CDK4, cyclin E and p27/Kip1) were distinctly modulated with such IFN-α(2b)/GSP treatment. Therefore, these findings support the notion that combination of IFN-α(2b) and GSP is capable of additively enhancing antiproliferative effect on T24 cells with a G(1) cell cycle arrest, implying an adjuvant therapeutic modality for superficial bladder cancer.

  6. Astaxanthin Inhibits Proliferation of Human Gastric Cancer Cell Lines by Interrupting Cell Cycle Progression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ha; Park, Jong-Jae; Lee, Beom Jae; Joo, Moon Kyung; Chun, Hoon Jai; Lee, Sang Woo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2016-05-23

    Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment that has antioxidant, antitumoral, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this in vitro study, we investigated the mechanism of anticancer effects of astaxanthin in gastric carcinoma cell lines. The human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines AGS, KATO-III, MKN-45, and SNU-1 were treated with various concentrations of astaxanthin. A cell viability test, cell cycle analysis, and immunoblotting were performed. The viability of each cancer cell line was suppressed by astaxanthin in a dose-dependent manner with significantly decreased proliferation in KATO-III and SNU-1 cells. Astaxanthin increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase but reduced the proportion of S phase KATO-III and SNU-1 cells. Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was decreased in an inverse dose-dependent correlation with astaxanthin concentration, and the expression of p27(kip-1) increased the KATO-III and SNU-1 cell lines in an astaxanthin dose-dependent manner. Astaxanthin inhibits proliferation by interrupting cell cycle progression in KATO-III and SNU-1 gastric cancer cells. This may be caused by the inhibition of the phosphorylation of ERK and the enhanced expression of p27(kip-1).

  7. Latex of Euphorbia antiquorum-induced S-phase arrest via active ATM kinase and MAPK pathways in human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Lin, Hui-Yi; Chen, Jou-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Chung; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wood, W Gibson; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-09-01

    Latex of Euphorbia antiquorum (EA) has demonstrated great chemotherapeutic potential for cancer. However, the mechanisms of anti-proliferation of EA on cancer cell remain to be further investigated. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of EA in human cervical cancer cells. Here, the cell cycle distribution by flow cytometry was examined and the protein expression by the western blotting methods was analyzed. From the cytometric results it was shown that EA-induced S-phase arrest in a concentration manner both in human cervical cancer HeLa and CaSki cells. According the western blot results it was illustrated that EA could downregulate early cyclin E1-Cdk2; and cyclin A-Cdc2 provides a significant additional quantity of S-phase promotion, that in turn promoted the expression of p21(waf1/cip1) and p27(kip1) which were the inhibitors in the complex of cyclin A and Cdc2 that led to cell cycle arrest. Moreover, EA promoted the activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and check-point kinase-2 (Chk2); however, it negatively regulated the expression of Topoisomerases I and II, Cdc25A, and Cdc25C signaling. Caffeine, an ATM/ATR inhibitor significantly reversed EA downregulation in the levels of Cdc25A. Furthermore, JNK inhibitor SP600125 and p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 both could reverse the EA upregulation of the protein of Chk2 level, significantly. This study, therefore, revealed that EA could downregulate topoisomerase, and activate ATM kinase, which then induce parallel Chk 1/2 and MAPK signaling pathways to promote the degradation of Cdc25A to induced S-phase arrest in human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

  8. Changing molecular profile of brain metastases compared with matched breast primary cancers and impact on clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, A H; McGrane, J; Mathew, J; Palmer, J; Hilton, D A; Purvis, G; Jenkins, R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer commonly metastasises to the brain, but little is known about changes in the molecular profile of the brain secondaries and impact on clinical outcomes. Methods: Patients with samples from brain metastases and matched breast cancers were included. Immunohistochemical analysis for oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p27kip1, cyclin D1, epidermal growth factor receptor, insulin like growth factor 1, insulin like growth factor 1 receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor A, transforming growth factor-β and HER2 receptor was performed. Borderline HER2 results were analysed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation. Levels of expression were compared, with review of effect on clinical outcomes. Results: A total of 41 patients were included. Of the patients, 20% had a change in oestrogen receptor or HER2 in their brain metastasis that could affect therapeutic decisions. There were statistically significant rises in brain metastases for p27kip1 (P=0.023) and cyclin D1 (P=0.030) and a fall in vascular endothelial growth factor A (P=0.012). Overall survival from the time of metastasis increased significantly with oestrogen receptor-positive (P=0.005) and progesterone receptor-positive (P=0.013) brain lesions and with a longer duration from diagnosis of the breast primary (P<0.001). Conclusions: In this cohort there were phenotypic differences in metastatic brain tumours compared with matched primary breast tumours. These could be relevant for aetiology, and have an impact on prognostication, current and future therapies. PMID:26908328

  9. Ovarian cancer has frequent loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 12p12.3-13.1 (region of TEL and Kip1 loci) and chromosome 12q23-ter: evidence for two new tumour-suppressor genes.

    PubMed Central

    Hatta, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Yokota, J.; Koeffler, H. P.

    1997-01-01

    Identification of the key genetic alterations leading to ovarian cancer is in its infancy. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is a powerful method for detecting regions of altered tumour-suppressor genes. Focusing on chromosome 12, we examined 23 ovarian cancer samples for LOH using 31 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and found the chromosomal localization of two putative tumour-suppressor genes. Two commonly deleted regions were 12p12.3-13.1 in 6/23 (26%) and 12q23-ter in 7/23 (30%) samples. LOH on chromosome 12 was more common in late-stage ovarian carcinomas. The region of LOH at 12p12.3-13.1 includes the genes that code for the ETS-family transcriptional factor, known as TEL, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, known as p27Kip1. Mutational analysis of both TEL and p27Kip1 using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) showed no abnormalities, suggesting that the altered gene in this region is neither of these genes. Taken together, our data suggest that new tumour-suppressor genes in the region of chromosomes 12p12.3-13.1 and 12q23-ter may be involved in the development of ovarian cancer. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:9155043

  10. Mifepristone Inhibits Ovarian Cancer Cancer Cell Growth In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Goyeneche, Alicia A.; Carón, Rubén W.; Telleria, Carlos M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose These studies were designed to determine whether the synthetic steroid mifepristone inhibits ovarian cancer growth in vitro and in vivo and the molecular mechanisms involved. Experimental Design The effect of mifepristone on ovarian cancer cell growth in vitro was studied in ovarian cancer cell lines of different genetic backgrounds (SK-OV-3, Caov-3, OV2008, and IGROV-1). In addition, the growth inhibition capacity of mifepristone on ovarian carcinoma xenografts was tested in nude mice. Results Mifepristone inhibited ovarian cancer cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The cytostatic effect of mifepristone was confirmed in a clonogenic survival assay and was not linked to loss of viability. Mifepristone blocked DNA synthesis, arrested the cell cycle at the G1-to-S transition, up-regulated cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors p21cip1 and p27kip1, down-regulated transcription factor E2F1, decreased expression of the E2F1 regulated genes, cdk1 (cdc2) and cyclin A, and modestly decreased cdk2 and cyclin E levels. The abrupt arrest in cell growth induced by mifepristone correlated with reduced cdk2 activity, increased association of cdk2 with p21cip1 and p27kip1, increased nuclear localization of the cdk inhibitors, and reduced nuclear abundance of cdk2 and cyclin E. In vivo, mifepristone significantly delayed the growth of ovarian carcinoma xenografts in a dose-dependent manner and without apparent toxic effects for the animals. Conclusions These preclinical studies demonstrate that mifepristone is effective as a single agent in vitro and in vivo, inhibiting the growth of human epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Mifepristone markedly reduces cdk2 activity likely due to increased association of cdk2 with the cdk inhibitors p21cip1 and p27kip1 and reduced nuclear cdk2/cyclin E complex availability. Acting as a cytostatic agent mifepristone promises to be of translational significance in ovarian cancer therapeutics. PMID:17545545

  11. Innovative drug delivery nanosystems improve the anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo of anti-estrogens in human breast cancer and multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Sébastien; Ameller, Thibault; Gauduchon, Juliette; Gougelet, Angélique; Gouilleux, Fabrice; Legrand, Philippe; Marsaud, Véronique; Fattal, Elias; Sola, Brigitte; Renoir, Jack-Michel

    2005-02-01

    Anticancer drug efficiency is governed by its bioavailability. In order to increase this parameter, we synthesized several injectable and biodegradable systems based on incorporation of anti-estrogens (AEs) in nanoparticles (NPs) and liposomes were synthesized. Both nanospheres (NS) and nanocapsules (NCs, polymers with an oily core in which AEs were solubilized) incorporated high amounts of 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (4-HT) or RU 58668 (RU). Physico-chemical and biological parameters of these delivery systems, and coupling of polyethylene-glycol chains on the NP surface revealed to enhance the anti-tumoral activity of trapped AEs in a breast cancer MCF-7 cell xenograft model and to induce apoptosis. These features correlated with an augmentation of p21(Waf-1/Cip1) and of p27(Kip1) and a concomitant decrease of cyclin D1 and E in tumor extracts. Liposomes containing various ratios of lipids enhanced the apoptotic activity of RU in several multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines tested by flow cytometry. MM cell lines expressed both estrogen receptor alpha and beta subtypes except Karpas 620. Karpas 620 cells which did not respond to AEs became responsive following ER cDNA transfection. A new MM xenograft model was generated after s.c. injection of RPMI 8226 cells in nude mice. RU-loaded liposomes, administered i.v. in this model, at a dose of 12mgRU/kg/week, induced the arrest of tumor growth contrary to free RU or to empty liposomes. Thus, the drug delivery of anti-estrogens enhances their ability to arrest the growth of tumors which express estrogen receptors and are of particular interest for estrogen-dependent breast cancer treatment. In addition it represents a new potent therapeutic approach for multiple myeloma.

  12. Combined inhibition of EZH2 and histone deacetylases as a potential epigenetic therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Takashina, Taichi; Kinoshita, Ichiro; Kikuchi, Junko; Shimizu, Yasushi; Sakakibara-Konishi, Jun; Oizumi, Satoshi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi

    2016-07-01

    Recent discoveries have revealed that human cancer involves aberrant epigenetic alterations. We and others have previously shown that the histone methyltransferase EZH2, the catalytic subunit of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), is frequently overexpressed in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and that an EZH2 inhibitor, 3-deazaneplanocin A, inhibits the proliferation of NSCLC cells. Transcriptional silencing by EZH2 was recently shown to be required for the activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs) that interact with another PRC2 protein, EED. To develop a more effective epigenetic therapy for NSCLC, we determined the effects of co-treatment with 3-deazaneplanocin A and the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat (SAHA) in NSCLC cells. The co-treatment synergistically suppressed the proliferation of all tested NSCLC cell lines, regardless of their epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status. The synergistic effect was associated with slightly decreased histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation, modestly increased histone acetylation, and the depletion of EZH2 and other PRC2 proteins. The co-treatment resulted in an accumulation of p27Kip1, decrease in cyclin A, and increased apoptotic fraction in an additive/synergistic manner. Interestingly, the co-treatment strongly suppressed EGFR signaling, not only in EGFR-wild-type NSCLC cells, but also in EGFR-mutant cells, mainly through dephosphorylation of EGFR. Furthermore, the co-treatment suppressed the in vivo tumor growth of EGFR-mutant, EGFR-tyrosine kinase-resistant H1975 cells more effectively than did each agent alone, without visible toxicity. These results suggest that the combined pharmacological targeting of EZH2 and HDACs may provide more effective epigenetic therapeutics for NSCLC.

  13. The tumor suppressor ING1b is a novel corepressor for the androgen receptor and induces cellular senescence in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Mohsen; Jennek, Susanne; Ludwig, Susann; Klitzsch, Alexandra; Kraft, Florian; Melle, Christian; Baniahmad, Aria

    2016-06-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) signaling is critical for prostate cancer (PCa) progression to the castration-resistant stage with poor clinical outcome. Altered function of AR-interacting factors may contribute to castration-resistant PCa (CRPCa). Inhibitor of growth 1 (ING1) is a tumor suppressor that regulates various cellular processes including cell proliferation. Interestingly, ING1 expression is upregulated in senescent primary human prostate cells; however, its role in AR signaling in PCa was unknown. Using a proteomic approach by surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (SELDI-MS) combined with immunological techniques, we provide here evidence that ING1b interacts in vivo with the AR. The interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation, in vitro GST-pull-down, and quantitative intracellular colocalization analyses. Functionally, ING1b inhibits AR-responsive promoters and endogenous key AR target genes in the human PCa LNCaP cells. Conversely, ING1b knockout (KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibit enhanced AR activity, suggesting that the interaction with ING1b represses the AR-mediated transcription. Also, data suggest that ING1b expression is downregulated in CRPCa cells compared with androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. Interestingly, its ectopic expression induces cellular senescence and reduces cell migration in both androgen-dependent and CRPCa cells. Intriguingly, ING1b can also inhibit androgen-induced growth in LNCaP cells in a similar manner as AR antagonists. Moreover, ING1b upregulates different cell cycle inhibitors including p27(KIP1), which is a novel target for ING1b. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel corepressor function of ING1b on various AR functions, thereby inhibiting PCa cell growth. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Bcl-2 Retards Cell Cycle Entry through p27Kip1, pRB Relative p130, and Altered E2F Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Vairo, Gino; Soos, Timothy J.; Upton, Todd M.; Zalvide, Juan; DeCaprio, James A.; Ewen, Mark E.; Koff, Andrew; Adams, Jerry M.

    2000-01-01

    Independent of its antiapoptotic function, Bcl-2 can, through an undetermined mechanism, retard entry into the cell cycle. Cell cycle progression requires the phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) of retinoblastoma protein (pRB) family members to free E2F transcription factors. We have explored whether retarded cycle entry is mediated by the Cdk inhibitor p27 or the pRB family. In quiescent fibroblasts, enforced Bcl-2 expression elevated levels of both p27 and the pRB relative p130. Bcl-2 still slowed G1 progression in cells deficient in pRB but not in those lacking p27 or p130. Hence, pRB is not required, but both p27 and p130 are essential mediators. The ability of p130 to form repressive complexes with E2F4 is implicated, because the retardation by Bcl-2 was accentuated by coexpressed E2F4. A plausible relevant target of p130/E2F4 is the E2F1 gene, because Bcl-2 expression delayed E2F1 accumulation during G1 progression and overexpression of E2F1 overrode the Bcl-2 inhibition. Hence, Bcl-2 appears to retard cell cycle entry by increasing p27 and p130 levels and maintaining repressive complexes of p130 with E2F4, perhaps to delay E2F1 expression. PMID:10848600

  15. The Cell Cycle Inhibitor p27KIP1: A Key Mediator of G1 Arrest by Androgen Ablation an dby Vitamin D3 Analog

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-01

    Thomas Director, Research Administration Sunnybrook Health Science Centre Reichmann Research Building, S-130 2075 Bayview Avenue Toronto, Ontario M4N...Administration or subcontracting of a PHS-supported activity by this institution. Room S-133, S-Wimg Reichmann Res Bldg. II. Institutional Policy Tel: (416) 480...Research Administration Address: Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, Reichmann Research Building, S-130 2075 Bayew Av u Toronto. ON 4N 3M5 Phone: 416-480-5720

  16. Expression of p21(Cip1/Waf1/Sdi1) and p27(Kip1) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors during human hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, T; Endo, H; Chikatsu, N; Uchimaru, K; Asano, S; Fujita, T; Nakahata, T; Motokura, T

    1999-06-15

    Expression of p21 and p27 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors is associated with induced differentiation and cell-cycle arrest in some hematopoietic cell lines. However, it is not clear how these inhibitors are expressed during normal hematopoiesis. We examined various human hematopoietic colonies derived from cord blood CD34(+) cells, bone marrow, and peripheral blood cells using a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay, immunochemistry, and/or Western blot analysis. p21 mRNA was expressed increasingly over time in all of the colonies examined (granulocytes, macrophages, megakaryocytes, and erythroblasts), whereas p27 mRNA levels remained low, except for erythroid bursts. Erythroid bursts expressed both p21 and p27 mRNAs with differentiation but expressed neither protein, whereas both proteins were expressed in megakaryocytes and peripheral blood monocytes. In bone marrow, p21 was immunostained almost exclusively in a subset of megakaryocytes and p27 protein was present in megakaryocytes, plasma cells, and endothelial cells. In megakaryocytes, reciprocal expression of p27 to Ki-67 was evident and an inverse relationship between p21 and Ki-67 positivities was also present, albeit less obvious. These observations suggest that a complex lineage-specific regulation is involved in p21 and p27 expression and that these inhibitors are involved in cell-cycle exit in megakaryocytes.

  17. A preliminary study: the anti-proliferation effect of salidroside on different human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaolan; Lin, Shuxin; Yu, Daihua; Qiu, Shuifeng; Zhang, Xianqi; Mei, Ruhuan

    2010-12-01

    Salidroside (p-hydroxyphenethyl-beta-d-glucoside), which is present in all species of the genus Rhodiola, has been reported to have a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties. The present study, for the first time, focused on evaluating the effects of the purified salidroside on the proliferation of various human cancer cell lines derived from different tissues, and further investigating its possible molecular mechanisms. Cell viability assay and [(3)H] thymidine incorporation were used to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of salidroside on cancer cell lines, and flow cytometry analyzed the change of cell cycle distribution induced by salidroside. Western immunoblotting further studied the expression changes of cyclins (cyclin D1 and cyclin B1), cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and Cdc2), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1)). The results showed that salidroside inhibited the growth of various human cancer cell lines in concentration- and time-dependent manners, and the sensitivity to salidroside was different in those cancer cell lines. Salidroside could cause G1-phase or G2-phase arrest in different cancer cell lines, meanwhile, salidroside resulted in a decrease of CDK4, cyclin D1, cyclin B1 and Cdc2, and upregulated the levels of p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1). Taken together, salidroside could inhibit the growth of cancer cells by modulating CDK4-cyclin D1 pathway for G1-phase arrest and/or modulating the Cdc2-cyclin B1 pathway for G2-phase arrest.

  18. Distinct effects of methylseleninic acid versus selenite on apoptosis, cell cycle, and protein kinase pathways in DU145 human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cheng; Wang, Zaisen; Ganther, Howard; Lü, Junxuan

    2002-10-01

    Selenium has been implicated as a promising chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer. Whereas the anticancer mechanisms have not been clearly defined, one hypothesis relates to selenium metabolites, especially the monomethyl selenium pool, generated under supranutritional selenium supplementation. To explore potential molecular targets for mediating the chemopreventive activity, we contrasted the effects of methylseleninic acid (MSeA), a novel precursor of methylselenol, versus sodium selenite, a representative of the hydrogen selenide metabolite pool, on apoptosis execution, cell cycle distribution, and selected protein kinases in DU145 human prostate cancer cells. Exposure of DU145 cells to 3 microM MSeA led to a profound G1 arrest at 24 h, and exposure to greater concentrations led to not only G1 arrest, but also to DNA fragmentation and caspase-mediated cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), two biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis. Immunobiot analyses indicated that G1 arrest induced by the subapoptogenic doses of MSeA was associated with increased expression of p27kip1 and p21cip1, but apoptosis was accompanied by dose-dependent decreases of phosphorylation of protein kinase AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) in the absence of any phosphorylation change in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK1/2). In contrast, selenite exposure caused S-phase arrest and caspase-independent apoptotic DNA fragmentation, which were associated with decreased expression of p27kip1 and p21cip1 and increased phosphorylation of AKT, JNK1/2, and p38MAPK. Although apoptosis induction by MSeA exposure was not sensitive to superoxide dismutase added into the cell culture medium, cell detachment and DNA nucleosomal fragmentation induced by selenite exposure were greatly attenuated by this enzyme, supporting a chemical mediator role of superoxide for these processes. Despite a temporal relationship of AKT and ERK1

  19. Induction of p21(Waf1/Cip1) by garcinol via downregulation of p38-MAPK signaling in p53-independent H1299 lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sheng-Yung; Liao, Chiung-Ho; Chien, Ming-Hsien; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Lin, Jen-Kun; Weng, Meng-Shih

    2014-03-05

    Garcinol, a polyisoprenylated benzophenone, from Garcinia indica fruit rind has possessed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferation, and anticancer activities. However, the anticancer mechanisms of garcinol in lung cancer were still unclear. Therefore, we examine the effects of garcinol on antiproliferation in human lung cancer cells. Treatments with garcinol for 24 h exhibited morphological changes and inhibited the proliferation of H460 (p53-wild type) and H1299 (p53-null) cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, a significant G1 cell cycle arrest was observed in a dose-dependent treatment after H1299 cells were exposed in garcinol, whereas garcinol induced apoptosis rather than cell cycle arrest in H460 cells. Moreover, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), cyclin D1, and cyclin D3 were decreased, although cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) were increased in garcinol-treated H1299 cells. Meanwhile, the protein levels of CDK inhibitors p21(Waf1/Cip1) and p27(KIP1) also exhibited upregulation after garcinol treatments. The enhanced protein-associated level between p21(Waf1/Cip1) and CDK4/2 rather than p27(KIP1) and CDK4/2 was demonstrated in garcinol-treated cells. Additionally, knock-down p21(Waf1/Cip1) by specific siRNA competently prevented garcinol-induced G1 arrest. Besides, garcinol also inhibited ERK and p38-MAPK activations in time-dependent mode. The pretreatment with p38-MAPK inhibitor but not ERK inhibitor raised garcinol-induced G1 population cells. Co-treatment with p38-MAPK inhibitor and garcinol synergistically elevated cyclin E, p21(Waf1/Cip1), and p27(Kip1) expressions. Meanwhile, overexpression dominant negative p38-MAPK also enhanced garcinol-induced p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression in H1299 cells. Accordingly, our data suggested that garcinol induced G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in lung cancer cells under different p53 statuses. The p53-independent G1 cell cycle arrest induced by

  20. Immunohistochemical Markers as Predictors of Histopathologic Response and Prognosis in Rectal Cancer Treated with Preoperative Adjuvant Therapy: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We explain the state of the art of the immunohistochemical markers of response in rectal cancers treated with neoadjuvant medical therapies and its implication with prognosis. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is widely used to improve the outcome of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, and the evaluation of the effects of medical therapy is to date based on histomorphological examination by applying four grading systems of response to therapy (tumor regression grade (TRG)). The need to identify immunohistochemical markers that could ensure a better assessment of response and possibly provide additional prognostic information has emerged. We identified p53, p27kip1, Ki67, matrix metalloprotease-9, survivin, Ki67 proliferative index, CD133, COX2, CD44v6, thymidylate synthase, thymidine phosphorylase, and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase as the most common markers studied in literature to date, and we explained their prognostic potential and their implications in the evaluation of the response to preoperative therapies in rectal cancers. PMID:28326100

  1. Male breast cancer is not congruent with the female disease.

    PubMed

    Fentiman, Ian S

    2016-05-01

    It has become customary to extrapolate from the results of treatment trials for female breastcancer and apply them to males with the disease. In the absence of results from national and international randomised trials for male breast cancer (MBC) this appears superficially to be an appropriate response. Closer examination of available data reveals that aspects of the aetiology and treatment of MBC do not fit the simplistic model that men usually have endocrine sensitive tumours which behave like those in postmenopausal women. Most females and males with breast cancer have none of the recognised risk factors, indicating the gaps in our knowledge of the epidemiology of this disease. Several studies have compared epidemiological risk factors for MBC and female breast cancer (FBC) but many have been blighted by small numbers. In comparison with FBC there is a larger proportion of BRCA2 tumours, (occurring in 10% of MBC), and underrepresentation of BRCA1 tumours (found in only 1%), suggesting significant differences in the genetic aetiology of MBC and FBC. Genome-wide association studies in FBC reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 12 novel independent loci were consistently associated with disease but for MBC 2 SNPs had a significantly increased risk. Molecular profiles of matched cancers in males and females showed a gender-associated modulation of major processes including energy metabolism, regulation of translation, matrix remodelling and immune recruitment. Immunohistochemistry for kinase inhibitor proteins (KIPs) p27Kip1 and p21Waf1 indicate a significant difference in the immunostaining of tumours from male patients compared with females. MBC is almost always estrogen receptor positive (ER+ve) and so systemic treatment is usually endocrine. With evidence in FBC that aromatase inhibitors are more effective than tamoxifen in the postmenopausal it was seemingly logical that the same would be true for MBC. Results however suggest less efficacy with AIs

  2. Ablation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) induces cellular senescence in gastric cancer through a galectin-3 dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    La, Sun-Hyuk; Kim, Seok-Jun; Kang, Hyeok-Gu; Lee, Han-Woong; Chun, Kyung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    The human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) gene encodes a rate-limiting catalytic subunit of telomerase that maintains genomic integrity. Suppression of hTERT expression could induce cellular senescence and is considered a potent approach for gastric cancer therapy. However, control of hTERT expression and function remains poorly understood in gastric cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that high expression levels of hTERT in malignant tissues are correlated with poor survival probability in gastric cancer patients. Knockdown of hTERT expression retarded cell proliferation and cellular senescence, which was confirmed by increased protein expression levels of p21cip1 and p27kip1, and decreased phosphorylation of Rb. In contrast, overexpression of hTERT increased cell proliferation and decreased cellular senescence. Remarkably, the down-regulation of hTERT expression was detected in lgals3−/− mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). Knockdown of galectin-3 decreased the expression of hTERT in gastric cancer cells. Galectin-3 ablation-induced cellular senescence was rescued by concomitant overexpression of hTERT. hTERT ablation-induced cellular senescence and p21cip1 and p27kip1 expression was rescued by concomitant overexpression of galectin-3. The size of tumor burdens was increased in hTERT-overexpressed gastric cancer cells xenografted mice, whereas it was repressed by concomitant depletion of galectin-3. Additionally, we determined that the N-terminal domain of galectin-3 directly interacted with hTERT. The telomeric activity of hTERT was also decreased by galectin-3 ablation. Taken together, ablation of hTERT induces cellular senescence and inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells, suggesting that it could be a potent target in gastric cancer therapy. We also propose that galectin-3 is an important regulator of hTERT expression and telomeric activity in gastric tumorigenesis. PMID:27494887

  3. Mel-18 negatively regulates INK4a/ARF-independent cell cycle progression via Akt inactivation in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Yeon; Jang, Ki-Seok; Shin, Dong-Hui; Oh, Mi-Yun; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Yongseok; Kong, Gu

    2008-06-01

    Mel-18, a polycomb group (PcG) protein, has been suggested as a tumor suppressor in human breast cancer. Previously, we reported that Mel-18 has antiproliferative activity in breast cancer cells. However, its functional mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of Mel-18 in human breast cancer. We saw an inverse correlation between Mel-18 and phospho-Akt, which were expressed at low and high levels, respectively, in primary breast tumor tissues from 40 breast cancer patients. The effect of Mel-18 on cell growth was examined in two breast cancer cell lines, SK-BR-3 and T-47D, which express relatively low and high levels of endogenous Mel-18, respectively. On Mel-18 overexpression in SK-BR-3 cells, cell growth was attenuated and G(1) arrest was observed. Likewise, suppression of Mel-18 by antisense expression in T-47D cells led to enhanced cell growth and accelerated G(1)-S phase transition. In these cells, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-4 and Cdk2 activities were affected by Mel-18, which were mediated by changes in cyclin D1 expression and p27(Kip1) phosphorylation at Thr(157), but not by INK4a/ARF genes. The changes were both dependent on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473) was reduced by Mel-18 overexpression in SK-BR-3 cells and enhanced by Mel-18 suppression in T-47D cells. Akt-mediated cytoplasmic localization of p27(Kip1) was inhibited by Mel-18 in SK-BR-3 cells. Moreover, Mel-18 overexpression showed reduced glycogen synthase kinase-3beta phosphorylation, beta-catenin nuclear localization, T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor promoter activity, and cyclin D1 mRNA level. Taken together, we established a linear relationship between Mel-18-->Akt-->G(1) phase regulators.

  4. microRNA-200b and microRNA-200c promote colorectal cancer cell proliferation via targeting the reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Liang, Hongwei; Chen, Weixu; Zhang, Hongjie; Wang, Nan; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Suyang; Liu, Yanqing; Zhao, Chihao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Gu, Hongwei; Zen, Ke; Chen, Xi

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-200b and microRNA-200c (miR-200b/c) are 2 of the most frequently upregulated oncomiRs in colorectal cancer cells. The role of miR-200b/c during colorectal tumorigenesis, however, remains unclear. In the present study, we report that miR-200b/c can promote colorectal cancer cell proliferation via targeting the reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK). Firstly, bioinformatics analysis predicted RECK as a conserved target of miR-200b/c. By overexpressing or knocking down miR-200b/c in colorectal cancer cells, we experimentally validated that miR-200b/c are direct regulators of RECK. Secondly, an inverse correlation between the levels of miR-200b/c and RECK protein was found in human colorectal cancer tissues and cell lines. Thirdly, we demonstrated that repression of RECK by miR-200b/c consequently triggered SKP2 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2) elevation and p27(Kip1) (also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B) degradation in colorectal cancer cells, which eventually promotes cancer cell proliferation. Finally, promoting tumor cell growth by miR-200b/c-targeting RECK was also observed in the xenograft mouse model. Taken together, our results demonstrate that miR-200b/c play a critical role in promoting colorectal tumorigenesis through inhibiting RECK expression and subsequently triggering SKP2 elevation and p27(Kip1) degradation.

  5. Sensitization of lung cancer cells to cisplatin by β-elemene is mediated through blockade of cell cycle progression: antitumor efficacies of β-elemene and its synthetic analogs.

    PubMed

    Li, Q Quentin; Wang, Gangduo; Huang, Furong; Li, Jueli M; Cuff, Christopher F; Reed, Eddie

    2013-03-01

    The development of effective agents for overcoming platinum chemoresistance in lung carcinoma continues to have high priority. We have demonstrated recently that β-elemene, a novel antitumor compound, enhances cisplatin activity by triggering lung cancer cell death via apoptosis. Here, we investigated whether β-elemene acts synergistically with cisplatin to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell proliferation by blocking cell cycle progression. β-Elemene substantially increased the suppressive effect of cisplatin on cell growth and proliferation in the NSCLC cell lines H460 and A549. Furthermore, β-elemene augmented cisplatin in the cell cycle arrest of NSCLC cells at G(2)/M. This was associated with upregulated checkpoint kinase (CHK2) expression and reduced CDC2 activity (i.e., increased phosphorylation of CDC2 on Tyr-15 and decreased phosphorylation of CDC2 on Thr-161). Moreover, β-elemene and cisplatin in combination clearly decreased the protein levels of cyclin B1 and CDC25C and increased the levels of p21(Cip1/Waf1), p27(Kip1), and GADD45 in these cells, compared with the effects of either agent alone at the same concentration. These results suggest that the β-elemene-enhanced inhibitory effect of cisplatin on lung carcinoma cell proliferation is regulated by a CHK2-mediated CDC25C/CDC2/cyclin B1 signaling pathway and leads to the blockade of cell cycle progression at G(2)/M. A comparison of the cytotoxic efficacies of β-elemene and three synthetic analogs (β-elemenol, β-elemenal, and β-elemene fluoride) in the two lung cancer cell lines revealed that β-elemenol and β-elemene fluoride had the same antitumor efficacy as β-elemene, whereas β-elemenal was appreciably more potent than β-elemene. Thus, although all three synthetic analogs of β-elemene considerably suppressed NSCLC cell growth and proliferation, β-elemenal may have greater potential as an anticancer alternative to β-elemene in treating lung cancer and other tumors.

  6. A functional link between Wnt signaling and SKP2-independent p27 turnover in mammary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Carboni, Gustavo A.; Krum, Susan A.; Yee, Kathleen; Nava, Miguel; Deng, Qiming E.; Pervin, Shehla; Collado-Hidalgo, Alicia; Galić, Zoran; Zack, Jerome A.; Nakayama, Keiko; Nakayama, Keiichi I.; Lane, Timothy F.

    2008-01-01

    Loss of the CDK inhibitor p27KIP1 is widely linked with poor prognosis in human cancer. In Wnt10b-expressing mammary tumors, levels of p27KIP1 were extremely low; conversely, Wnt10b-null mammary cells expressed high levels of this protein, suggesting Wnt-dependent regulation of p27KIP1. Interestingly we found that Wnt-induced turnover of p27KIP1 was independent from classical SCFSKP2-mediated degradation in both mouse and human cells. Instead, turnover required Cullin 4A and Cullin 4B, components of an alternative E3 ubiquitin ligase induced in response to active Wnt signaling. We found that CUL4A was a novel Wnt target gene in both mouse and human cells and that CUL4A physically interacted with p27KIP1 in Wnt-responding cells. We further demonstrated that both Cul4A and Cul4B were required for Wnt-induced p27KIP1 degradation and S-phase progression. CUL4A and CUL4B are therefore components of a conserved Wnt-induced proteasome targeting (WIPT) complex that regulates p27KIP1 levels and cell cycle progression in mammalian cells. PMID:19056892

  7. Expression of the the cyclin-kinase inhibitors p21(WAF1) and p27(Kip1) and the p53 tumor suppressor genes in adult-onset laryngeal papillomas.

    PubMed

    Erdamar, Burak; Keles, Nesil; Kaur, Ahmet; Suoglu, Yusufhan; Kiyak, Erkan

    2002-11-01

    Different types of human papilloma virus are known to be closely associated with laryngeal papillomas. On the other hand, the proliferation of epithelial cells is associated with various abnormalities in the mechanisms of cellular regulation. In this study, we detected the expressions of p53, p21 and p27 proteins in adult-onset laryngeal papillomas by immunohistochemical techniques. The objective of this study is to evaluate the expression of these factors in adult-onset laryngeal papillomas and to determine whether such expression is correlated with the existence of dysplastic epithelium covering the papillomas. Eighteen patients with adult-onset papillomas who were surgically treated at the Department of Otolaryngology at the University of Istanbul between January 1994 and December 1999 were included in this study. Anti-p21, -p27 and -p53 antibodies were used to perform immunostaining. Positive nuclear staining for p21 was detected in 14 of the 18 (78%) cases, especially in the parabasal layer. Also, in 78% of the cases, weak to strong immunoreactivity was observed for p27. In all cases, negative immunoreactivity was observed for p53 throughout the epithelium except for the basal and parabasal cells. A negative correlation was observed between the existence of dysplastic epithelium and p21 expression (P=0.02). In conclusion, variable p21 and p27 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in our series of 18 cases of adult-onset laryngeal papillomatosis, and a statistically significant inverse correlation was detected between p21 expression and the existence of dysplastic epithelium covering the papillomas. Further prospective studies are warranted to determine the prognostic values of these variables and to evaluate their role in the pathogenesis of adult-onset laryngeal papillomas.

  8. Susceptibility of p27 kip1 knockout mice to urinary bladder carcinogenesis induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine may not simply be due to enhanced proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, Atsuya; Ogawa, Kumiko; Sugiura, Satoshi; Asamoto, Makoto; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Sato, Shin-Ya; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kohri, Kenjiro; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2008-03-15

    Deregulated proliferation is one of the fundamental characteristics of carcinogenesis. p27 is one of the most well characterized negative cell cycle regulator. In our previous study, expression of p27 protein was found to be dramatically suppressed on stimulation of cell proliferation by calculi in the rodent urinary bladder, withdrawal of the insult resulting in re-expression of p27 and regression of urothelial hyperplastic lesions. In the present study, to evaluate how loss of function impacts on urinary bladder carcinogenesis, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN), a bladder carcinogen was given to p27 knockout mice. Males and females with either null, hetero or wild-type p27 alleles were divided into 2 groups, one given drinking water containing 0.05% BBN for 10 weeks and the other receiving distilled water, then, killed at week 20. The experiment was repeated for confirmation of the outcome. In the second experiment, performed with a larger number of animals, the incidence of urinary bladder carcinomas was significantly higher in female p27-null mice than in their wild-type counterparts. p27 deficiency also resulted in their increase of relative weights of urinary bladders and section areas of carcinomas in BBN-treated mice. Interestingly, while BrdU labeling indices generally increased with progression of mucosal proliferative lesions, from normal epithelium, through hyperplasia to carcinoma, there was no significant variation with the p27 genotype, in tumors as well as normal urothelium. These findings suggest that p27 deficient mice have elevated susceptibility to BBN-induction of urinary bladder carcinogenesis through a mechanism which might be independent of acceleration of cell cycling.

  9. Functional characterization of a rare germline mutation in the gene encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 (CDKN1B) in a Spanish patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Donatella; De Gisi, Silvia; Riccardi, Miriam; Scrima, Marianna; De Marco, Carmela; Robledo, Mercedes; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of germline mutations in the CDKN1B gene that encodes the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27 in multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN1)-like Spanish index patients. The CDKN1B gene has recently been identified as a tumor susceptibility gene for MEN4, with six germline mutations reported so far in patients with a MEN-like phenotype but negative for MEN1 mutations. Fifteen Spanish index cases with MEN-like symptoms were screened for mutations in the CDKN1B gene and the mutant variant was studied functionally by transcription/translation assays in vitro and in transiently transfected HeLa cells. We report the identification of a heterozygous GAGA deletion in the 5'-UTR of CDKN1B, NM_004064.3:c.-32_-29del, in a patient affected by gastric carcinoid tumor and hyperparathyroidism. This deletion falls inside the region that is responsible for CDKN1B transcription and is predicted to destroy a secondary stem and loop structure that includes the GAGAGA element responsible for ribosome recruitment. Accordingly, in vitro studies of coupled transcription/translation assays and transient transfection in HeLa cells showed that the GAGA deletion in the CDKN1B 5'-UTR significantly impairs the transcription of downstream reporter luciferase (of ∼40-60%) and, possibly, the translation of the corresponding mRNA. This mutation was associated with a significant reduction in the amount of CDKN1B mRNA in peripheral blood leukocytes from the patient, as demonstrated by quantitative real-time PCR. Our results confirm that germline CDKN1B mutations may predispose to a human MEN4 condition and add novel evidence that alteration in the transcription/translation rate of CDKN1B mRNA might be the mechanism implicated in tumor susceptibility.

  10. The Amelioration of Renal Damage in Skp2-Deficient Mice Canceled by p27 Kip1 Deficiency in Skp2−/− p27−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Sayuri; Fukasawa, Hirotaka; Misaki, Taro; Togawa, Akashi; Ohashi, Naro; Kitagawa, Kyoko; Kotake, Yojiro; Liu, Ning; Niida, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Keiko; Nakayama, Keiichi I.; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Kitagawa, Masatoshi

    2012-01-01

    SCF-Skp2 E3 ubiquitin ligase (Skp2 hereafter) targets several cell cycle regulatory proteins for degradation via the ubiquitin-dependent pathway. However, the target-specific physiological functions of Skp2 have not been fully elucidated in kidney diseases. We previously reported an increase in Skp2 in progressive nephropathy and amelioration of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) renal injury associated with renal accumulation of p27 in Skp2−/− mice. However, it remains unclear whether the amelioration of renal injury in Skp2−/− mice is solely caused by p27 accumulation, since Skp2 targets several other proteins. Using Skp2−/−p27−/− mice, we investigated whether Skp2 specifically targets p27 in the progressive nephropathy mediated by UUO. In contrast to the marked suppression of UUO renal injury in Skp2−/− mice, progression of tubular dilatation associated with tubular epithelial cell proliferation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis with increased expression of collagen and α-smooth muscle actin were observed in the obstructed kidneys in Skp2−/−p27−/− mice. No significant increases in other Skp2 target proteins including p57, p130, TOB1, cyclin A and cyclin D1 were noted in the UUO kidney in Skp2−/− mice, while p21, c-Myc, b-Myb and cyclin E were slightly increased. Contrary to the ameliorated UUO renal injure by Skp2-deficiency, the amelioration was canceled by the additional p27-deficiency in Skp2−/−p27−/− mice. These findings suggest a pathogenic role of the reduction in p27 targeted by Skp2 in the progression of nephropathy in UUO mice. PMID:22558406

  11. The alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist terazosin induces prostate cancer cell death through a p53 and Rb independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kexin; Wang, Xianghong; Ling, Patrick M T; Tsao, S W; Wong, Y C

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Treatment failure in prostate cancer is usually due to the development of androgen independence and resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs at an advanced stage. Recently, it was reported that the alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist terazosin was able to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth and indicated that it may have an implication in the treatment of prostate cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in terazosin-induced prostate cancer cell death using two androgen-independent cell lines, PC-3 and DU145. Our results showed that terazosin inhibited not only prostate cancer cell growth but also colony forming ability, which is the main target of chemotherapy. We also found that the sensitivity of these cells to terazosin was not affected by the presence of either functional p53 or Rb, suggesting that the terazosin-induced cell death was independent of p53 and Rb. However, the terazosin-induced cell death was associated with G1 phase cell cycle arrest and up-regulation of p27KIP1. In addition, up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 was also observed indicating that these two apoptotic regulators may play important roles in terazosin-mediated cell death pathway. Our results provide evidence for the first time that terazosin may have a therapeutic potential in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

  12. CBP loss cooperates with PTEN haploinsufficiency to drive prostate cancer: implications for epigenetic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Liya; Chen, Shuai; Liu, Ping; Pan, Yunqian; Zhong, Jian; Regan, Kevin M.; Wang, Liguo; Yu, Chunrong; Rizzardi, Tony; Cheng, Liang; Zhang, Jun; Schmechel, Stephen C.; Cheville, John C.; van Deursen, Jan; Tindall, Donald J.; Huang, Haojie

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high incidence and mortality of prostate cancer, the etiology of this disease is not fully understood. In this study, we develop functional evidence for CBP and PTEN interaction in prostate cancer based on findings of their correlate expression in the human disease. Cbppc−/−;Ptenpc+/− mice exhibited higher cell proliferation in the prostate and an early onset of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Levels of EZH2 methyltransferase were increased along with its Thr350 phosphorylation in both mouse Cbp−/−;Pten+/− and human prostate cancer cells. CBP loss and PTEN deficiency cooperated to trigger a switch from K27-acetylated histone H3 to K27-trimethylated bulk histones, in a manner associated with decreased expression of the growth inhibitory EZH2 target genes DAB2IP, p27KIP1 and p21CIP1. Conversely, treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat reversed this switch, in a manner associated with tumor suppression in Cbppc−/−;Ptenpc+/− mice. Our findings show how CBP and PTEN interact to mediate tumor suppression in the prostate, establishing a central role for histone modification in the etiology of prostate cancer and providing a rationale for clinical evaluation of epigenetic targeted therapy in prostate cancer patients. PMID:24491799

  13. Apigenin inhibits prostate cancer progression in TRAMP mice via targeting PI3K/Akt/FoxO pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors play an important role as tumor suppressor in several human malignancies. Disruption of FoxO activity due to loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog and activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt are frequently observed in prostate cancer. Apigenin, a naturally occurring plant flavone, exhibits antiproliferative and anticarcinogenic activities through mechanisms, which are not fully defined. In the present study, we show that apigenin suppressed prostate tumorigenesis in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice through the PI3K/Akt/FoxO-signaling pathway. Apigenin-treated TRAMP mice (20 and 50 μg/mouse/day, 6 days/week for 20 weeks) exhibited significant decrease in tumor volumes of the prostate as well as completely abolished distant organ metastasis. Apigenin treatment resulted in significant decrease in the weight of genitourinary apparatus (P < 0.0001), dorsolateral (P < 0.0001) and ventral prostate (P < 0.028), compared with the control group. Apigenin-treated mice showed reduced phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) and FoxO3a (Ser253), which correlated with its increased nuclear retention and decreased binding of FoxO3a with 14-3-3. These events lead to reduced proliferation as assessed by Ki-67 and cyclin D1, along with upregulation of FoxO-responsive proteins BIM and p27/Kip1. Complementing in vivo results, similar observations were noted in human prostate cancer LNCaP and PC-3 cells after apigenin treatment. Furthermore, binding of FoxO3a with p27/Kip1 was markedly increased after 10 and 20 μM apigenin treatment resulting in G0/G1-phase cell cycle arrest, which was consistent with the effects elicited by PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002. These results provide convincing evidence that apigenin effectively suppressed prostate cancer progression, at least in part, by targeting the PI3K/Akt/FoxO-signaling pathway. PMID:24067903

  14. Phellinus linteus suppresses growth, angiogenesis and invasive behaviour of breast cancer cells through the inhibition of AKT signalling

    PubMed Central

    Sliva, D; Jedinak, A; Kawasaki, J; Harvey, K; Slivova, V

    2008-01-01

    The antitumour activity of a medicinal mushroom Phellinus linteus (PL), through the stimulation of immune system or the induction of apoptosis, has been recently described. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of invasive behaviour of cancer cells remain to be addressed. In the present study, we demonstrate that PL inhibits proliferation (anchorage-dependent growth) as well as colony formation (anchorage-independent growth) of highly invasive human breast cancer cells. The growth inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cells is mediated by the cell cycle arrest at S phase through the upregulation of p27Kip1 expression. Phellinus linteus also suppressed invasive behaviour of MDA-MB-231 cells by the inhibition of cell adhesion, cell migration and cell invasion through the suppression of secretion of urokinase-plasminogen activator from breast cancer cells. In addition, PL markedly inhibited the early event in angiogenesis, capillary morphogenesis of the human aortic endothelial cells, through the downregulation of secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor from MDA-MB-231 cells. These effects are mediated by the inhibition of serine-threonine kinase AKT signalling, because PL suppressed phosphorylation of AKT at Thr308 and Ser473 in breast cancer cells. Taken together, our study suggests potential therapeutic effect of PL against invasive breast cancer. PMID:18362935

  15. Phellinus linteus suppresses growth, angiogenesis and invasive behaviour of breast cancer cells through the inhibition of AKT signalling.

    PubMed

    Sliva, D; Jedinak, A; Kawasaki, J; Harvey, K; Slivova, V

    2008-04-22

    The antitumour activity of a medicinal mushroom Phellinus linteus (PL), through the stimulation of immune system or the induction of apoptosis, has been recently described. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of invasive behaviour of cancer cells remain to be addressed. In the present study, we demonstrate that PL inhibits proliferation (anchorage-dependent growth) as well as colony formation (anchorage-independent growth) of highly invasive human breast cancer cells. The growth inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cells is mediated by the cell cycle arrest at S phase through the upregulation of p27(Kip1) expression. Phellinus linteus also suppressed invasive behaviour of MDA-MB-231 cells by the inhibition of cell adhesion, cell migration and cell invasion through the suppression of secretion of urokinase-plasminogen activator from breast cancer cells. In addition, PL markedly inhibited the early event in angiogenesis, capillary morphogenesis of the human aortic endothelial cells, through the downregulation of secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor from MDA-MB-231 cells. These effects are mediated by the inhibition of serine-threonine kinase AKT signalling, because PL suppressed phosphorylation of AKT at Thr(308) and Ser(473) in breast cancer cells. Taken together, our study suggests potential therapeutic effect of PL against invasive breast cancer.

  16. Id-1 stimulates serum independent prostate cancer cell proliferation through inactivation of p16(INK4a)/pRB pathway.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xue Song; Wang, Xianghong; Ling, Ming-Tat; Wong, Hing Lok; Tsao, Sai Wah; Wong, Y C

    2002-05-01

    It has been suggested that the helix-loop-helix protein Id-1 plays an important role in tumourigenesis in certain types of human cancer. Previously, we reported that Id-1 was up-regulated during sex hormone-induced prostate carcinogenesis in a Noble rat model (Ouyang et al. (2001) Carcinogenesis, 22, 965-973). In the present study, we investigated the direct effect of Id-1 expression on human prostate cancer cell proliferation by transfecting an Id-1 expression vector into a prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Ten stable transfectant clones were isolated and the ectopic Id-1 expression resulted in both increased DNA synthesis rate and the percentage of S phase cells. To study the possible mechanisms involved in the Id-1 induced prostate cancer cell growth, we examined the expression of several factors responsible for G(1) to S phase progression. We found that Id-1 expression induced phosphorylation of RB and down-regulation of p16(INK4a) but not p21(Waf1)or p27(Kip1). Our results indicate that the Id-1 induced inactivation of p16(INK4a)/pRB pathway may be responsible for the increased cell proliferation in prostate cancer cells. Given the fact that both Id-1 over-expression and inactivation of p16(INK4a)/pRB are common events in prostate cancer, our results provide a possible mechanism on the molecular basis of prostate carcinogenesis.

  17. ALKBH3, a human AlkB homologue, contributes to cell survival in human non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tasaki, M; Shimada, K; Kimura, H; Tsujikawa, K; Konishi, N

    2011-01-01

    Background: We have demonstrated for the first time that a novel human AlkB homologue, ALKBH3, contributes to prostate cancer development, but its clinical and biological roles in lung cancer remain unclear. Methods: Expression of both mRNA and protein of PCA-1 was examined by RT–PCR and western blotting. We also assessed association with senescence and in vivo ALKBH3 treatment on orthotopic tumour cell inoculation, and analysed it clinicopathologically. Results: We have since found novel biological roles for ALKBH3 in human lung cancers, particularly in adenocarcinoma. Our immunohistochemical analysis of human adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the lung not only showed overexpression of ALKBH3 in these tumours but the percentage of cells positive for ALKBH3 also correlated statistically to recurrence-free survival in adenocarcinoma. Knockdown of ALKBH3 by siRNA transfection induced expression of p21WAF1/Cip1 and p27Kip1 in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549, resulting in cell cycle arrest, senescence and strong suppression of cell growth in vitro. In vivo, peritoneal tumour growth and dissemination was inhibited in nude mice, previously inoculated with the A549 cell line, by intraperitoneal injection of ALKBH3 siRNA + atelocollagen, as demonstrated by the reduction in both number and diameter of tumours developing in the peritoneum. Conclusion: We suggest that ALKBH3 contributes significantly to cancer cell survival and may be a therapeutic target for human adenocarcinoma of the lung. PMID:21285982

  18. Androgen Suppresses the Proliferation of Androgen Receptor-Positive Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells via Inhibition of Cdk2, CyclinA, and Skp2

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shih Sheng; Lin, Ching-Yu; Fukuchi, Junichi; Hiipakka, Richard A.; Chung, Chi-Jung; Chan, Tzu-Min; Liao, Shutsung; Chang, Chung-Ho; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2014-01-01

    The majority of prostate cancer (PCa) patient receiving androgen ablation therapy eventually develop castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We previously reported that androgen treatment suppresses Skp2 and c-Myc through androgen receptor (AR) and induced G1 cell cycle arrest in androgen-independent LNCaP 104-R2 cells, a late stage CRPC cell line model. However, the mechanism of androgenic regulation of Skp2 in CRPC cells was not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the androgenic regulation of Skp2 in two AR-positive CRPC cell line models, the LNCaP 104-R1 and PC-3AR Cells. The former one is an early stage androgen-independent LNCaP cells, while the later one is PC-3 cells re-expressing either wild type AR or mutant LNCaP AR. Proliferation of LNCaP 104-R1 and PC-3AR cells is not dependent on but is suppressed by androgen. We observed in this study that androgen treatment reduced protein expression of Cdk2, Cdk7, Cyclin A, cyclin H, Skp2, c-Myc, and E2F-1; lessened phosphorylation of Thr14, Tyr15, and Thr160 on Cdk2; decreased activity of Cdk2; induced protein level of p27Kip1; and caused G1 cell cycle arrest in LNCaP 104-R1 cells and PC-3AR cells. Overexpression of Skp2 protein in LNCaP 104-R1 or PC-3AR cells partially blocked accumulation of p27Kip1 and increased Cdk2 activity under androgen treatment, which partially blocked the androgenic suppressive effects on proliferation and cell cycle. Analyzing on-line gene array data of 214 normal and PCa samples indicated that gene expression of Skp2, Cdk2, and cyclin A positively correlates to each other, while Cdk7 negatively correlates to these genes. These observations suggested that androgen suppresses the proliferation of CRPC cells partially through inhibition of Cyclin A, Cdk2, and Skp2. PMID:25271736

  19. Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Cancer Activity of Hydrazide Derivatives Incorporating a Quinoline Moiety.

    PubMed

    Bingul, Murat; Tan, Owen; Gardner, Christopher R; Sutton, Selina K; Arndt, Greg M; Marshall, Glenn M; Cheung, Belamy B; Kumar, Naresh; Black, David StC

    2016-07-14

    Identification of the novel (E)-N'-((2-chloro-7-methoxyquinolin-3-yl)methylene)-3-(phenylthio)propanehydrazide scaffold 18 has led to the development of a new series of biologically active hydrazide compounds. The parent compound 18 and new quinoline derivatives 19-26 were prepared from the corresponding quinoline hydrazones and substituted carboxylic acids using EDC-mediated peptide coupling reactions. Further modification of the parent compound 18 was achieved by replacement of the quinoline moiety with other aromatic systems. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-cancer activity against the SH-SY5Y and Kelly neuroblastoma cell lines, as well as the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. Analogues 19 and 22 significantly reduced the cell viability of neuroblastoma cancer cells with micromolar potency and significant selectivity over normal cells. The quinoline hydrazide 22 also induced G₁ cell cycle arrest, as well as upregulation of the p27(kip1) cell cycle regulating protein.

  20. Induction of cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer cells by the dietary compound isoliquiritigenin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeo Myeong; Lim, Do Young; Choi, Hyun Ju; Jung, Jae In; Chung, Won-Yoon; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2009-02-01

    Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid chalcone that is present in licorice, shallot, and bean sprouts, is known to have antitumorigenic activities. The present study examined whether ISL alters prostate cancer cell cycle progression. DU145 human and MatLyLu (MLL) rat prostate cancer cells were cultured with various concentrations of ISL. In both DU145 and MLL cells treated with ISL, the percentage of cells in the G1 phase increased, and the incorporation of [(3)H]thymidine decreased. ISL decreased the protein levels of cyclin D1, cyclin E, and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4, whereas cyclin A and CDK2 expressions were unaltered in cells treated with ISL. The expression of the CDK inhibitor p27(KIP1) was increased in cells treated with 20 micromol/L ISL. In addition, treatment of cells with 20 micromol/L ISL for 24 hours led to G2/M cell cycle arrest. Cell division control (CDC) 2 protein levels remained unchanged. The protein levels of phospho-CDC2 (Tyr15) and cyclin B1 were increased, and the CDC25C level was decreased by ISL dose-dependently. We demonstrate that ISL promotes cell cycle arrest in DU145 and MLL cells, thereby providing insights into the mechanisms underlying its antitumorigenic activities.

  1. The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a potential therapeutic target, is regulated by miR-101 in renal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Toshihiko; Bilim, Vladimir N.; Ugolkov, Andrey V.; Yuuki, Kaori; Tsukigi, Masaaki; Motoyama, Teiichi; Tomita, Yoshihiko

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EZH2 is overexpressed in the nuclei of renal cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear EZH2 is associated with advanced stage and worse survival of RCC patients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EZH2 is negatively regulated by miR-101 in renal cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depletion of EZH2 leads to re-expression of p27Kip1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reintroduction of miR-101 results in suppression of cell proliferation. -- Abstract: We investigated a prognostic significance and the mechanism of aberrant nuclear expression of EZH2, a histone methyltransferase, in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We found nuclear EZH2 in 48 of 100 RCCs and it was significantly correlated with worse survival in RCC patients. We detected a decreased expression of miR-101 in 15 of 54 RCCs. We found that re-expression of miR-101 resulted in EZH2 depletion and decreased renal cancer cell proliferation. Our results show nuclear EZH2 as a prognostic marker of worse survival in human RCC, and identify miR-101 as a negative regulator of EZH2 expression and renal cancer cell proliferation.

  2. Lycopene and Beta-Carotene Induce Growth Inhibition and Proapoptotic Effects on ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leite de Oliveira, Felipe; Soares, Nathália; de Mattos, Rômulo Medina; Hecht, Fábio; Dezonne, Rômulo Sperduto; Vairo, Leandro; Goldenberg, Regina Coeli dos Santos; Gomes, Flávia Carvalho Alcântara; de Carvalho, Denise Pires; Gadelha, Mônica R.; Nasciutti, Luiz Eurico; Miranda-Alves, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10–15% of intracranial tumors and result in morbidity associated with altered hormonal patterns, therapy and compression of adjacent sella turcica structures. The use of functional foods containing carotenoids contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the influence of different concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis, hormone secretion, intercellular communication and expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27kip1 in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells, the AtT20 cells, incubated for 48 and 96 h with these carotenoids. We observed a decrease in cell viability caused by the lycopene and beta-carotene treatments; in these conditions, the clonogenic ability of the cells was also significantly decreased. Cell cycle analysis revealed that beta-carotene induced an increase of the cells in S and G2/M phases; furthermore, lycopene increased the proportion of these cells in G0/G1 while decreasing the S and G2/M phases. Also, carotenoids induced apoptosis after 96 h. Lycopene and beta-carotene decreased the secretion of ACTH in AtT20 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Carotenoids blocked the gap junction intercellular communication. In addition, the treatments increased the expression of phosphorylated connexin43. Finally, we also demonstrate decreased expression of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) and increased expression of p27kip1 in carotenoid-treated cells. These results show that lycopene and beta-carotene were able to negatively modulate events related to the malignant phenotype of AtT-20 cells, through a mechanism that could involve changes in the expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27kip1; and suggest that these compounds might provide a novel pharmacological approach to the treatment of Cushing’s disease. PMID:23667519

  3. Increased insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) expression in small cell lung cancer and the effect of inhibition of IGF1R expression by RNAi on growth of human small cell lung cancer NCI-H446 cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhigang; Lu, Pingfang; Liang, Zhu; Zhang, Zhanfei; Shi, Weicheng; Cai, Xiaobi; Chen, Chunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is a tyrosine kinase receptor implicated in tumourigenesis that may be an attractive target for anti-cancer treatment. In this study, the expression and clinical significance of IGF1R were investigated in serum and lung cancer tissues from small cell lung cancinoma (SCLC). We also compared the effect of IGF1R up-regulation and IGF1R inhibition on viability and apoptosis of NCI-H446 cells. We found the concentration of IGF1R in blood serum was significantly increased and positive IGF1R protein in cancer tissue was more prevalent in SCLC. A statistically significant correlation among IGF1R-positve tumors, lymph node metastasis and local invasion was discussed. Furthermore, IGF1R overexpression lead to an increase of cell survival and suppressed cell apoptosis, IGF1R silencing mediated by RNAi abrogate this response of NCI-H446 cells. Our results further demonstrated that the effects of these treatments may be assigned to the effective inhibition of lung cancer cells from Akt/P27(Kip1) pathway in IGF-1R signaling. These features may have important implications for future anti-IGF1R therapeutic approaches.

  4. UCH-L1 induces podocyte hypertrophy in membranous nephropathy by protein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Frithjof; Sachs, Marlies; Meyer, Tobias N; Sievert, Henning; Lindenmeyer, Maja T; Wiech, Thorsten; Cohen, Clemens D; Balabanov, Stefan; Stahl, R A K; Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    Podocytes are terminally differentiated cells of the glomerular filtration barrier that react with hypertrophy in the course of injury such as in membranous nephropathy (MGN). The neuronal deubiquitinase ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is expressed and activated in podocytes of human and rodent MGN. UCH-L1 regulates the mono-ubiquitin pool and induces accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins in affected podocytes. Here, we investigated the role of UCH-L1 in podocyte hypertrophy and in the homeostasis of the hypertrophy associated "model protein" p27(Kip1). A better understanding of the basic mechanisms leading to podocyte hypertrophy is crucial for the development of specific therapies in MGN. In human and rat MGN, hypertrophic podocytes exhibited a simultaneous up-regulation of UCH-L1 and of cytoplasmic p27(Kip1) content. Functionally, inhibition of UCH-L1 activity and knockdown or inhibition of UCH-L1 attenuated podocyte hypertrophy by decreasing the total protein content in isolated glomeruli and in cultured podocytes. In contrast, UCH-L1 levels and activity increased podocyte hypertrophy and total protein content in culture, specifically of cytoplasmic p27(Kip1). UCH-L1 enhanced cytoplasmic p27(Kip1) levels by nuclear export and decreased poly-ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of p27(Kip1). In parallel, UCH-L1 increased podocyte turnover, migration and cytoskeletal rearrangement, which are associated with known oncogenic functions of cytoplasmic p27(Kip1) in cancer. We propose that UCH-L1 induces podocyte hypertrophy in MGN by increasing the total protein content through altered degradation and accumulation of proteins such as p27(Kip1) in the cytoplasm of podocytes. Modification of both UCH-L1 activity and levels could be a new therapeutic avenue to podocyte hypertrophy in MGN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Revealing global regulatory perturbations across human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Hani; Elemento, Olivier; Tavazoie, Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Summary The discovery of pathways and regulatory networks whose perturbation contributes to neoplastic transformation remains a fundamental challenge for cancer biology. We show that such pathway perturbations, and the cis-regulatory elements through which they operate, can be efficiently extracted from global gene-expression profiles. Our approach utilizes information-theoretic analysis of expression levels, pathways, and genomic sequences. Analysis across a diverse set of human cancers reveals the majority of previously known cancer pathways. Through de novo motif discovery we associate these pathways with transcription-factor binding sites and miRNA targets, including those of E2F, NF-Y, p53, and let-7. Follow-up experiments confirmed that these predictions correspond to functional in vivo regulatory interactions. Strikingly, the majority of the perturbations, associated with putative cis-regulatory elements, fall outside of known cancer pathways. Our study provides a systems-level dissection of regulatory perturbations in cancer—an essential component of a rational strategy for therapeutic intervention and drug-target discovery. PMID:20005852

  6. Anti-proliferation effect on human breast cancer cells via inhibition of pRb phosphorylation by taiwanin E isolated from Eleutherococcus trifoliatus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Chun; Tseng, Yen-Hsueh; Wu, Hui-Rong; Chu, Fang-Hua; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2014-09-01

    Eleutherococcus trifoliatus has been used as a folk medicine since ancient times, especially as refreshing qi medicines. In our current study, taiwanin E, which possesses strong cytotoxicity, was isolated from the branches of E. trifoliatus by using a bioactivity guided fractionation procedure. Taiwanin E presented a potent anti-proliferation activity on the growth of a human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7), with an IC50 value for cytotoxicity of 1.47 μM. Cell cycle analysis revealed that the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase increased in a dose-dependent manner (from 79.4% to 90.2%) after 48 h exposure to taiwanin E at a dosage range from 0.5 to 4μM. After treatment with taiwanin E, phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in MCF-7 cells was inhibited, accompanied by a decrease in the levels of cyclin D1, cyclin D3 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4) and cdk6; in addition, there was an increase in the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(WAF-1/Cip) and p27(Kip1). The results suggest that taiwanin E inhibits cell cycle progression of MCF-7 at the G0/G1 transition.

  7. Overexpressed CISD2 has prognostic value in human gastric cancer and promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis via AKT signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Ouyang, Fei; Liu, Xiaobo; Wu, Shu; Wu, Hong-mei; Xu, Yuandong; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Jinrong; Xu, Xuehu; Zhang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    CDGSH iron sulfur domain 2 (CISD2) is localized in the outer mitochondrial membrane and mediates mitochondrial integrity and lifespan in mammals, but its role in cancer is unknown. In the current study, we reported that CISD2 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly upregulated in gastric cancer cells compared to normal gastric epithelial cells (P < 0.001). Immunohistochemical analysis of 261 paraffin-embedded archived gastric cancer tissues showed that high CISD2 expression was significantly associated with clinical stage, TNM classifications, venous invasion and lymphatic invasion. Univariate and multivariate analysis indicated that high CISD2 expression was an independent prognostic factor for poorer overall survival in the entire cohort. Overexpressing CISD2 promoted, while silencing CISD2 inhibited, the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, we found that silencing endogenous CISD2 also significantly inhibited the proliferation and tumorigenicity of MGC-803 and SGC-7901 cells not only in vitro but also in vivo in NOD/SCID mice (P < 0.05). Furthermore, we found that CISD2 affected cell proliferation and tumorigenicity of gastric cancer cells through mediating the G1-to-S phase transition. Moreover, we demonstrated that the pro-proliferative effect of CISD2 on gastric cancer cells was associated with downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Cip1 and p27Kip1, and activation of AKT signaling. The findings of this study indicate that CISD2 may promote proliferation and tumorigenicity, potentially representing a novel prognostic marker for overall survival in gastric cancer. PMID:26565812

  8. Mevalonate metabolism regulates Basal breast cancer stem cells and is a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Ginestier, Christophe; Monville, Florence; Wicinski, Julien; Cabaud, Olivier; Cervera, Nathalie; Josselin, Emmanuelle; Finetti, Pascal; Guille, Arnaud; Larderet, Gaelle; Viens, Patrice; Sebti, Said; Bertucci, François; Birnbaum, Daniel; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle

    2012-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that breast tumors are organized in a hierarchy, with a subpopulation of tumorigenic cancer cells, the cancer stem cells (CSCs), which sustain tumor growth. The characterization of protein networks that govern CSC behavior is paramount to design new therapeutic strategies targeting this subpopulation of cells. We have sought to identify specific molecular pathways of CSCs isolated from 13 different breast cancer cell lines of luminal or basal/mesenchymal subtypes. We compared the gene expression profiling of cancer cells grown in adherent conditions to those of matched tumorsphere cultures. No specific pathway was identified to be commonly regulated in luminal tumorspheres, resulting from a minor CSC enrichment in tumorsphere passages from luminal cell lines. However, in basal/mesenchymal tumorspheres, the enzymes of the mevalonate metabolic pathway were overexpressed compared to those in cognate adherent cells. Inhibition of this pathway with hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase blockers resulted in a reduction of breast CSC independent of inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis and of protein farnesylation. Further modulation of this metabolic pathway demonstrated that protein geranylgeranylation (GG) is critical to breast CSC maintenance. A small molecule inhibitor of the geranylgeranyl transferase I (GGTI) enzyme reduced the breast CSC subpopulation both in vitro and in primary breast cancer xenografts. We found that the GGTI effect on the CSC subpopulation is mediated by inactivation of Ras homolog family member A (RHOA) and increased accumulation of P27(kip1) in the nucleus. The identification of protein GG as a major contributor to CSC maintenance opens promising perspectives for CSC targeted therapy in basal breast cancer.

  9. SOX2 promotes dedifferentiation and imparts stem cell-like features to pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Herreros-Villanueva, M; Zhang, J-S; Koenig, A; Abel, E V; Smyrk, T C; Bamlet, W R; de Narvajas, A A-M; Gomez, T S; Simeone, D M; Bujanda, L; Billadeau, D D

    2013-01-01

    SOX2 (Sex-determining region Y (SRY)-Box2) has important functions during embryonic development and is involved in cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance, in which it impairs cell growth and tumorigenicity. However, the function of SOX2 in pancreatic cancer cells is unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze SOX2 expression in human pancreatic tumors and determine the role of SOX2 in pancreatic cancer cells regulating CSC properties. In this report, we show that SOX2 is not expressed in normal pancreatic acinar or ductal cells. However, ectopic expression of SOX2 is observed in 19.3% of human pancreatic tumors. SOX2 knockdown in pancreatic cancer cells results in cell growth inhibition via cell cycle arrest associated with p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 induction, whereas SOX2 overexpression promotes S-phase entry and cell proliferation associated with cyclin D3 induction. SOX2 expression is associated with increased levels of the pancreatic CSC markers ALDH1, ESA and CD44. Importantly, we show that SOX2 is enriched in the ESA+/CD44+ CSC population from two different patient samples. Moreover, we show that SOX2 directly binds to the Snail, Slug and Twist promoters, leading to a loss of E-Cadherin and ZO-1 expression. Taken together, our findings show that SOX2 is aberrantly expressed in pancreatic cancer and contributes to cell proliferation and stemness/dedifferentiation through the regulation of a set of genes controlling G1/S transition and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype, suggesting that targeting SOX2-positive cancer cells could be a promising therapeutic strategy. PMID:23917223

  10. Translation initiation factor eIF3b expression in human cancer and its role in tumor growth and lung colonization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Ru, Yuanbin; Sanchez-Carbayo, Marta; Wang, Xuejiao; Kieft, Jeffrey S; Theodorescu, Dan

    2013-06-01

    Discovery transcriptomic analyses suggest eukaryotic initiation factor 3b (eIF3b) is elevated in human bladder and prostate cancer, yet its role as a prognostic factor or its requirement in the maintenance or progression of human cancer is not established. Here, we determine the therapeutic potential of eIF3b by examining the clinical relevance of its expression in human cancer tissues and its role in experimental tumor models. We examined mRNA expression of eIF3b in bladder (N = 317) and prostate (N = 566) tissue samples and protein expression by immunohistochemistry in 143 bladder tumor samples as a function of clinicopathologic features. The impact of eIF3b depletion by siRNA in human cancer lines was evaluated in regard to in vitro cell growth, cell cycle, migration, in vivo subcutaneous tumor growth, and lung colonization. eIF3b mRNA expression correlated to tumor grade, stage, and survival in human bladder and prostate cancer. eIF3b protein expression stratified survival in human bladder cancer. eIF3b depletion reduced in vitro cancer cell growth; inhibited G1-S cell-cycle transition by changing protein but not RNA expression of cyclin A, E, Rb, and p27Kip1; inhibited migration; and disrupted actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions. These changes were associated with decreased protein expression of integrin α5. Integrin α5 depletion phenocopied effects observed with eIF3b. eIF3b-depleted bladder cancer cells formed fewer subcutaneous tumors that grew more slowly and had reduced lung colonization. eIF3b expression relates to human bladder and prostate cancer prognosis, is required for tumor growth, and thus a candidate therapeutic target. ©2013 AACR

  11. Emerging links among Chromosome Instability (CIN), cancer, and aging.

    PubMed

    Rao, Chinthalapally V; Asch, Adam S; Yamada, Hiroshi Y

    2017-03-01

    Aneuploidy was predicted to cause cancer. To test the prediction, various Chromosome Instability (CIN) mice models that carry transgenic mutations in mitotic regulators have been created. The availability of these mice has aided researchers in discovering connections between CIN, cancer, and aging. This review will focus on recent interdisciplinary findings regarding how CIN and aneuploidy affect carcinogenesis, immune dysfunction, and aging. High CIN can be generated in vivo by various intrinsic alterations (e.g., gene mutation, epigenetic modification) and extrinsic/environmental challenges (e.g., biological, chemical, biophysical), while immune surveillance, cell death, and natural turnover can remove cells with CIN. CIN itself is mutagenic and may cause further cellular mutations, which can be carcinogenic. Mitotically damaged cells can activate senescence-related tumor suppressors (e.g., p21(WAF1) , p27(KIP1) , p16(INK4A) ), which may lead to tissue-level senescence/aging through inflammatory paracrine mechanisms called Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP) and Senescence Inflammatory Response (SIR). Organs with high CIN show altered gene expressions in both organ-specific and non-specific manners. Organ-specific gene expression signatures include activation of oncogenic pathways. Non-organ-specific gene expression signatures include metabolic changes and downregulations in immune functions. Immune surveillance normally targets senescent cells and tetraploid cells, a form of aneuploidy, for elimination. However, with partial immune dysfunction, immune surveillance is weakened with systemic CIN. In this case, more senescent cells and aneuploid cells survive, which further leads to an inflammatory, pro-tumorigenic, and senescent/aging microenvironment. We also discuss how we may intervene in this sequence of events to prevent CIN- or age-related carcinogenesis and/or some aspects of tissue aging. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. KLF4α Upregulation Promotes Cell Cycle Progression and Reduces Survival Time of Patients with Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    WEI, DAOYAN; WANG, LIWEI; KANAI, MASASHI; JIA, ZHILIANG; LE, XIANGDONG; LI, QIANG; WANG, HUAMIN; XIE, KEPING

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Krüppel-like factor (KLF)4 is a transcription factor associated with tumor suppression and oncogenesis. KLF4 suppresses pancreatic tumorigenesis by unknown mechanisms; we investigated alterations that might affect KLF4 function and lead to tumor formation. Methods We identified different isoforms of KLF4 in pancreatic cancer cells by reverse transcriptase-PCR, cloning, and DNA sequence analyses. We constructed vectors to express the isoform KLF4α and characterize its function. Using real-time PCR, immunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemical analyses, we assessed expression of KLF4α in pancreatic cancer cell lines and tumor tissue samples; xenograft models were used to determine the effect of KLF4α on pancreatic tumorigenesis. Results We identified 4 KLF4 isoforms in human pancreatic cancer cells, designated KLF4α, KLF4β, KLF4γ, and KLF4δ. KLF4α localized primarily to the cytoplasm; its protein and mRNA were upregulated in pancreatic cancer cell lines with high metastatic potential and human pancreatic tumors, compared with normal pancreatic tissue. Transgenic expression of KLF4α reduced expression of p27Kip1 and p21CIP1, promoting cell cycle progression and in vivo tumor formation by pancreatic cancer cells. Increased expression of KLF4α in pancreatic tumor tissue was inversely correlated with overall time of survival in patients with stage II pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Conclusions We identified a splice variant of KLF4 (KLF4α) that is upregulated in aggressive pancreatic cancer cells and human pancreatic tumor tissues. Increased expression promotes growth of pancreatic tumors in mice is associated with reduced survival times of patients. PMID:20727893

  13. Fatty acid synthase regulates estrogen receptor-α signaling in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Menendez, J A; Lupu, R

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN), the key enzyme for endogenous synthesis of fatty acids, is overexpressed and hyperactivated in a biologically aggressive subset of sex steroid-related tumors, including breast carcinomas. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we assessed the molecular relationship between FASN signaling and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signaling in breast cancer. The small compound C75, a synthetic slow-binding inhibitor of FASN activity, induced a dramatic augmentation of estradiol (E2)-stimulated, ERα-driven transcription. FASN and ERα were both necessary for the synergistic activation of ERα transcriptional activity that occurred following co-exposure to C75 and E2: first, knockdown of FASN expression using RNAi (RNA interference) drastically lowered (>100 fold) the amount of E2 required for optimal activation of ERα-mediated transcriptional activity; second, FASN blockade synergistically increased E2-stimulated ERα-mediated transcriptional activity in ERα-negative breast cancer cells stably transfected with ERα, but not in ERα-negative parental cells. Non-genomic, E2-regulated cross-talk between the ERα and MAPK pathways participated in these phenomena. Thus, treatment with the pure antiestrogen ICI 182 780 or the potent and specific inhibitor of MEK/ERK, U0126, was sufficient to abolish the synergistic nature of the interaction between FASN blockade and E2-stimulated ERα transactivation. FASN inhibition suppressed E2-stimulated breast cancer cell proliferation and anchorage-independent colony formation while promoting the reduction of ERα protein. FASN blockade resulted in the increased expression and nuclear accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27Kip1, two critical mediators of the therapeutic effects of antiestrogen in breast cancer, while inactivating AKT, a key mediator of E2-promoted anchorage-independent growth. The ability of FASN to regulate E2/ERα signaling may represent a

  14. The pentacyclic triterpenoid, plectranthoic acid, a novel activator of AMPK induces apoptotic death in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Nosheen; Syed, Deeba N; Khan, Mohammad Imran; Adhami, Vaqar M; Mirza, Bushra; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-01-26

    Epidemiologic studies indicated that diabetics treated with metformin had a lower incidence of cancer than those taking other anti-diabetes drugs. This led to a surge in the efforts for identification of safer and more effective metformin mimetic compounds. The plant Ficus microcarpa is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in traditional medicine in South Asia. We obtained extracts from this plant and identified a small molecule, plectranthoic acid (PA), with potent 5'AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activating properties far superior than metformin. AMPK is the central hub of metabolic regulation and a well-studied therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes and cancer. We observed that treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) cells with PA inhibited proliferation and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest that was associated with up-regulation of cyclin kinase inhibitors p21/CIP1 and p27/KIP1. PA treatment suppressed mTOR/S6K signaling and induced apoptosis in PCa cells in an AMPK-dependent manner. Interestingly, PA-induced autophagy in PCa cells was found to be independent of AMPK activation. Combination studies of PA and metformin demonstrated that metformin had an inhibitory effect on PA-induced AMPK activation and suppressed PA-mediated apoptosis. Given the anti-proliferative role of PA in cancer and its potent anti-hyperglycemic activity, we suggest that PA should be explored further as a novel activator of AMPK for its ultimate use for the prevention of cancers and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  15. The pentacyclic triterpenoid, plectranthoic acid, a novel activator of AMPK induces apoptotic death in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Nosheen; Syed, Deeba N.; Khan, Mohammad Imran; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mirza, Bushra; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicated that diabetics treated with metformin had a lower incidence of cancer than those taking other anti-diabetes drugs. This led to a surge in the efforts for identification of safer and more effective metformin mimetic compounds. The plant Ficus microcarpa is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in traditional medicine in South Asia. We obtained extracts from this plant and identified a small molecule, plectranthoic acid (PA), with potent 5′AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activating properties far superior than metformin. AMPK is the central hub of metabolic regulation and a well-studied therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes and cancer. We observed that treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) cells with PA inhibited proliferation and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest that was associated with up-regulation of cyclin kinase inhibitors p21/CIP1 and p27/KIP1. PA treatment suppressed mTOR/S6K signaling and induced apoptosis in PCa cells in an AMPK-dependent manner. Interestingly, PA-induced autophagy in PCa cells was found to be independent of AMPK activation. Combination studies of PA and metformin demonstrated that metformin had an inhibitory effect on PA-induced AMPK activation and suppressed PA-mediated apoptosis. Given the anti-proliferative role of PA in cancer and its potent anti-hyperglycemic activity, we suggest that PA should be explored further as a novel activator of AMPK for its ultimate use for the prevention of cancers and treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26683363

  16. Casticin induced apoptotic cell death and altered associated gene expression in human colon cancer colo 205 cells.

    PubMed

    Shang, Hung-Sheng; Liu, Jia-You; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chiang, Han-Sun; Lin, Chia-Hain; Chen, Ann; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2016-11-14

    Casticin, a polymethoxyflavone, derived from natural plant Fructus Viticis exhibits biological activities including anti-cancer characteristics. The anti-cancer and alter gene expression of casticin on human colon cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Flow cytometric assay was used to measure viable cell, cell cycle and sub-G1 phase, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) productions, level of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm ) and caspase activity. Western blotting assay was used to detect expression of protein level associated with cell death. Casticin induced cell morphological changes, decreased cell viability and induced G2/M phase arrest in colo 205 cells. Casticin increased ROS production but decreased the levels of ΔΨm , and Ca(2+) , increased caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities. The cDNA microarray indicated that some of the cell cycle associated genes were down-regulated such as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) (p21, Cip1) and p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 3 (PAK3). TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1), CREB1 (cAMP responsive element binding protein 1) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B) (p27, Kip1) genes were increased but matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP-2), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), PRKAR2B (protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, bet), and CaMK4 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV) genes were inhibited. Results suggest that casticin induced cell apoptosis via the activation of the caspase- and/or mitochondria-dependent signaling cascade, the accumulation of ROS and altered associated gene expressions in colo 205 human colon cancer cells.

  17. Direct current electrical fields induce apoptosis in oral mucosa cancer cells by NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, Maria; Wirtz, Nina; Grob, Alexander; Niedermeier, Wilhelm; Hescheler, Jürgen; Peters, Saskia C; Sauer, Heinrich

    2008-01-01

    The presence of more than one dental alloy in the oral cavity often causes pathological galvanic currents and voltage resulting in superficial erosions of the oral mucosa and eventually in the emergence of oral cancer. In the present study the mechanisms of apoptosis of oral mucosa cancer cells in response to electromagnetic fields was investigated. Direct current (DC) electrical fields with field strengths between 2 and 16 V/m, applied for 24 h to UM-SCC-14-C oral mucosa cancer cells, dose-dependently resulted in decreased cell proliferation as evaluated by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21(cip1/waf1) and p27(kip1), which are associated with cell cycle arrest. Electrical field treatment (4 V/m, 24 h) increased apoptosis as evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of cleaved caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Furthermore, robust reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased expression of NADPH oxidase subunits as well as Hsp70 was observed. Electrical field treatment (4 V/m, 24 h) resulted in increased expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and decreased intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), whereas the expression of catalase remained unchanged. Pre-treatment with the free radical scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and the superoxide dismutase mimetic EUK-8 abolished caspase-3 and PARP-1 induction, suggesting that apoptosis in oral mucosa cancer cells is initated by ROS generation in response to DC electrical field treatment. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Differential network entropy reveals cancer system hallmarks

    PubMed Central

    West, James; Bianconi, Ginestra; Severini, Simone; Teschendorff, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    The cellular phenotype is described by a complex network of molecular interactions. Elucidating network properties that distinguish disease from the healthy cellular state is therefore of critical importance for gaining systems-level insights into disease mechanisms and ultimately for developing improved therapies. By integrating gene expression data with a protein interaction network we here demonstrate that cancer cells are characterised by an increase in network entropy. In addition, we formally demonstrate that gene expression differences between normal and cancer tissue are anticorrelated with local network entropy changes, thus providing a systemic link between gene expression changes at the nodes and their local correlation patterns. In particular, we find that genes which drive cell-proliferation in cancer cells and which often encode oncogenes are associated with reductions in network entropy. These findings may have potential implications for identifying novel drug targets. PMID:23150773

  19. A new indole-3-carbinol tetrameric derivative inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase 6 expression, and induces G1 cell cycle arrest in both estrogen-dependent and estrogen-independent breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Brandi, Giorgio; Paiardini, Mirko; Cervasi, Barbara; Fiorucci, Chiara; Filippone, Paolino; De Marco, Cinzia; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Magnani, Mauro

    2003-07-15

    Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), autolysis product of glucosinolates present in cruciferous vegetables, has been indicated as a promising agent in preventing the development and progression of breast cancer. I3C has been shown to inhibit the growth of human cancer cells in vitro and possesses anticarcinogenic activity in vivo. Because I3C is unstable and may be converted into many polymeric products in the digestive tract, it is not yet clear whether the biological activity observed can be attributed to I3C or some of its polymeric products. In this study we synthesized a stable I3C cyclic tetrameric derivative and investigated its effects on a panel of human breast cancer cell lines. The I3C tetramer suppressed the growth of both estrogen receptor (ER) -positive (MCF-7, 734B, and BT474) and ER-negative (BT20, MDA-MB-231, and BT539) human breast cancer cell lines, and it was found to induce G(1) cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner without evidence of apoptosis, suggesting a growth arrest via a cytostatic mechanism. At the molecular level, the tetramer inhibited cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 6 expression and activity, induced an increase in the level of p27(kip1), and reduced the level of retinoblastoma protein expression. Contrarily to CDK6, the level of CDK4, the other kinase involved in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle, remains unchanged. Interestingly, the tetramer resulted about five times more active than I3C in suppressing the growth of human breast cancer cells. On the whole, our data suggest that the I3C tetrameric derivative is a novel lead inhibitor of breast cancer cell growth that may be a considered a new, promising therapeutic agent for both ER+ and ER- breast cancer.

  20. Human interleukin 24 (MDA-7/IL-24) protein kills breast cancer cells via the IL-20 receptor and is antagonized by IL-10.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Mingzhong; Bocangel, Dora; Doneske, Blair; Mhashilkar, Abner; Ramesh, Rajagopal; Hunt, Kelly K; Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Sutton, R Bryan; Poindexter, Nancy; Grimm, Elizabeth A; Chada, Sunil

    2007-02-01

    The melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7 (mda-7/IL-24) is a unique member of the interleukin 10 (IL-10) family of cytokines, with ubiquitous tumor cell pro-apoptotic activity. Recent data have shown that IL-24 is secreted as a glycosylated protein and functions as a pro-Th1 cytokine and as a potent anti-angiogenic molecule. In this study, we analyzed the activity of Ad-mda7 and its protein product, secreted IL-24, against human breast cancer cells. We show that Ad-mda7 transduction of human breast cancer cells results in G(2)/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death, which correlates with secretion of IL-24 protein. Neutralizing antibody against IL-24 significantly inhibited Ad-mda7 cytotoxicity. IL-24 and IL-10 both engage their cognate receptors on breast cancer cells resulting in phosphorylation and activation of STAT3, however, IL-10 receptor binding failed to induce cell killing, indicating that tumor cell killing by IL-24 is independent of STAT3 phosphorylation. Treatment with exogenous IL-24 induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells and this effect was abolished by addition of anti-IL-24 antibody or anti-IL-20R1, indicating that bystander cell killing is mediated via IL-24 binding to the IL-20R1/IL-20R2 heterodimeric receptor complex. Co-administration of the related cytokine IL-10 inhibited killing mediated by IL-24 and concomitantly inhibited IL-24 mediated up-regulation of the tumor suppressor proteins, p53 and p27(Kip1). In summary, we have defined a tumor-selective cytotoxic bystander role for secreted IL-24 protein and identified a novel receptor-mediated death pathway in breast cancer cells, wherein the related cytokines IL-24 and IL-10 exhibit antagonistic activity.

  1. Soy Isoflavones Exert Differential Effects on Androgen Responsive Genes in LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Lori; Handayani, Renita; Cui, Yuehua; Medrano, Theresa; Samedi, Von; Baker, Henry; Szabo, Nancy J.; Rosser, Charles J.; Goodison, Steve; Shiverick, Kathleen T.

    2007-01-01

    The high consumption of soy isoflavones in Asian diets has been correlated to a lower incidence of clinically important cases of prostate cancer. This study characterized the effects of a soy-derived isoflavone concentrate (ISF) on growth and gene expression profiles in the LNCaP, an androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cell line. ISF caused a dose-dependent decrease in viability (P<0.05) and DNA synthesis (P<0.01), as well as an accumulation of cells in G2/M, and G0/G1 phases of the cell cycle compared with controls. Using Affymetrix oligonucleotide DNA microarrays (U133A), we determined that ISF upregulated 80 genes and downregulated 33 genes (P<0.05) involving androgen-regulated genes and pathways controlling cell cycle, metabolism, and intracellular trafficking. Changes in the expression of the genes of interest, identified by microarrays, were validated by Western immunoblot, Northern blot, and luciferase reporter assays. Prostate-specific antigen, homeobox protein NKX3, and cyclin B mRNA were significantly reduced, whereas mRNA was significantly upregulated for p21CIP1, a major cell cycle inhibitory protein, and fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis pathway genes. ISF also significantly increased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27KIP1 and FOXO3A/FKHRL1, a forkhead transcription factor. A differential pattern of androgen-regulated genes was apparent with genes involved in prostate cancer progression being downregulated by ISF, whereas metabolism genes were upregulated. In summary, we found that ISF inhibits the growth of LNCaP cells through the modulation of cell cycle progression and the differential expression of androgen-regulated genes. Thus, ISF treatment serves to identify new therapeutic targets designed to prevent proliferation of malignant prostate cells. PMID:17374662

  2. GLIPR1 tumor suppressor gene expressed by adenoviral vector as neoadjuvant intraprostatic injection for localized intermediate or high-risk prostate cancer preceding radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Sonpavde, Guru; Thompson, Timothy C; Jain, Rajul K; Ayala, Gustavo E; Kurosaka, Shinji; Edamura, Kohei; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Ren, Chengzhen; Goltsov, Alexei A; Mims, Martha P; Hayes, Teresa G; Ittmann, Michael M; Wheeler, Thomas M; Gee, Adrian; Miles, Brian J; Kadmon, Dov

    2011-11-15

    GLIPR1 is upregulated by p53 in prostate cancer cells and has preclinical antitumor activity. A phase I clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and activity of the neoadjuvant intraprostatic injection of GLIPR1 expressing adenovirus for intermediate or high-risk localized prostate cancer before radical prostatectomy (RP). Eligible men had localized prostate cancer (T1-T2c) with Gleason score greater than or equal to 7 or prostate-specific antigen 10 ng/mL or more and were candidates for RP. Patients received the adenoviral vector expressing the GLIPR1 gene by a single injection into the prostate followed four weeks later by RP. Six viral particle (vp) dose levels were evaluated: 10(10), 5 × 10(10), 10(11), 5 × 10(11), 10(12), and 5 × 10(12) vp. Nineteen patients with a median age of 64 years were recruited. Nine men had T1c, 4 had T2a, and 3 had T2b and T2c clinical stage. Toxicities included urinary tract infection (n = 3), flu-like syndrome (n = 3), fever (n = 1), dysuria (n = 1), and photophobia (n = 1). Laboratory toxicities were grade 1 elevated AST/ALT (n = 1) and elevations of PTT (n = 3, with 1 proven to be lupus anticoagulant). No pathologic complete remission was seen. Morphologic cytotoxic activity, induction of apoptosis, and nuclear p27(Kip1) upregulation were observed. Peripheral blood CD8(+), CD4(+), and CD3(+) T-lymphocytes were increased, with upregulation of their HLA-DR expression and elevations of serum IL-12. The intraprostatic administration of GLIPR1 tumor suppressor gene expressed by an adenoviral vector was safe in men, with localized intermediate or high-risk prostate cancer preceding RP. Preliminary evidence of biologic antitumor activity and systemic immune response was documented.

  3. Ingestion of an isothiocyanate metabolite from cruciferous vegetables inhibits growth of human prostate cancer cell xenografts by apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Jen Wei; Wu, Hongyan; Ramaswamy, Gita; Conaway, C Clifford; Chung, Fung-Lung; Wang, Longgui; Liu, Delong

    2004-08-01

    Epidemiological surveys indicate that intake of cruciferous vegetables is inversely related to prostate cancer incidence, although the responsible dietary factors have not been identified. Our studies demonstrated that exposure of human prostate cancer cells in culture to the N-acetylcysteine (NAC) conjugate of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC-NAC), the major metabolite of PEITC that is abundant in watercress, inhibited proliferation and tumorigenesis. The PEITC-NAC is known to mediate cytoprotection at initiation of carcinogenesis. The relevance of PEITC-NAC in diets on the growth of prostate tumor cells has been evaluated in immunodeficient mice with xenografted tumors of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The daily PEITC-NAC (8 micromol/g) supplemented diet group showed a significant reduction in tumor size in 100% of the mice during the 9-week treatment period. Tumor weight at autopsy was reduced by 50% compared with mice on the diet without PEITC-NAC (P = 0.05). Mitosis and in vivo 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeled proliferating cells were reduced in these tumors. The PEITC-NAC diet up-regulated the inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases p21WAF-1/Cip-1 and p27Kip1, and reduced the expression of cyclins D and E, indicating they were potential molecular targets. As a result, phosphorylated Rb was significantly decreased and the G1- to S-phase transition retarded. The treated tumors also showed a significant increase in apoptosis as determined by in situ end-labeling, and by poly ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage. This study demonstrates the first in vivo evidence of dietary PEITC-NAC inhibiting tumorigenesis of prostate cancer cells. PEITC-NAC may prevent initiation of carcinogenesis and modulate the post-initiation phase by targeting cell cycle regulators and apoptosis induction.

  4. IMPORTANCE OF APOPTOSIS MARKERS (MDM2, BCL-2 AND Bax) IN BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA AND PROSTATE CANCER.

    PubMed

    Saker, Z; Tsintsadze, O; Jiqia, I; Managadze, L; Chkhotua, A

    2015-12-01

    MDM2, Bcl-2 and Bax are well recognized markers of apoptosis. The goal of the current study was evaluation of the activity of these markers in different cells of BPH, PCa and hormonally treated prostate cancer (CRPCa) tissues. Activity of the markers has been evaluated in: 39 BPH, 28 prostate cancer (PCa) and 10 castration resistant PCa (CRPCa) tissues. Possible association of intensity of the expression with the disease clinical parameters has been assessed. Activity of MDM2 was higher in PCa and CRPCa as compared with BPH. This difference has been detected in epithelial and vascular prostatic cells. Epithelial activity of Bcl-2 was significantly lower in BPH as compared with PCa and CRPCa. Conversely, intensity of pro-apoptotic protein Bax was significantly higher in PBH than in PCa and CRPCa. The Bax activity in acinar and ductal cells of BPH was positively correlated with age. Intensity of Bcl-2 was significantly increasing, while activity of Bax was decreasing with increasing prostate volume. Significant correlation has been detected with the markers' activity and residual urine. In particular, MDM2 activity was increasing while epithelial activity of Bax was decreasing with increasing residual urine. Serum PSA level was positively correlated with MDM2 and negatively correlated with Bax activity. p27(Kip1) cell cycle inhibitor was positively correlated with Bax but negatively correlated with Bcl-2 activities. Proliferation marker Ki67 was positively correlated with MDM2 and Bcl-2. With increasing Ki67, Bax activity was significantly decreasing. Cyclin D3 was positively correlated with Bax. This pilot study has shown importance of apoptosis markers in BPH and PCa. It is the first study showing complex interrelation between apoptosis and cell cycle regulating proteins in BPH and PCa.

  5. Microsatellite genotyping reveals a signature in breast cancer exomes.

    PubMed

    McIver, L J; Fonville, N C; Karunasena, E; Garner, H R

    2014-06-01

    Genomic instability at microsatellite loci is a hallmark of many cancers, including breast cancer. However, much of the genomic variation and many of the hereditary components responsible for breast cancer remain undetected. We hypothesized that variation at microsatellites could provide additional genomic markers for breast cancer risk assessment. A total of 1,345 germline and tumor DNA samples from individuals diagnosed with breast cancer, exome sequenced as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas, were analyzed for microsatellite variation. The comparison group for our analysis, representing healthy individuals, consisted of 249 females which were exome sequenced as part of the 1,000 Genomes Project. We applied our microsatellite-based genotyping pipeline to identify 55 microsatellite loci that can distinguish between the germline of individuals diagnosed with breast cancer and healthy individuals with a sensitivity of 88.4 % and a specificity of 77.1 %. Further, we identified additional microsatellite loci that are potentially useful for distinguishing between breast cancer subtypes, revealing a possible fifth subtype. These findings are of clinical interest as possible risk diagnostics and reveal genes that may be of potential therapeutic value, including genes previously not associated with breast cancer.

  6. ANGPTL3 is a novel biomarker as it activates ERK/MAPK pathway in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tomoyoshi; Ogawara, Katsunori; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Okamoto, Atsushi; Kasama, Hiroki; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Shimada, Ken; Yokoe, Hidetaka; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2015-05-01

    Angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3), which is involved in new blood vessel growth and stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), is expressed aberrantly in several types of human cancers. However, little is known about the relevance of ANGPTL3 in the behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this study, we evaluated ANGPTL3 mRNA and protein in OSCC-derived cell lines (n = 8) and primary OSCCs (n = 109) and assessed the effect of ANGPTL3 on the biology and function of OSCCs in vitro and in vivo. Significant (P < 0.05) ANGPTL3 upregulation was detected in the cell lines and most primary OSCCs (60%) compared with the normal counterparts. The ANGPTL3 expression level was correlated closely (P < 0.05) with tumoral size. In patients with T3/T4 tumors, the overall survival rate with an ANGPTL3-positive tumor was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of ANGPTL3-negative cases. In vitro, cellular growth in ANGPTL3 knockdown cells significantly (P < 0.05) decreased with inactivated extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) and cell-cycle arrest at the G1 phase resulting from upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, including p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) . We also observed a marked (P < 0.05) reduction in the growth in ANGPTL3 knockdown-cell xenografts with decreased levels of phosphorylated ERK relative to control-cell xenografts. The current data indicated that ANGPTL3 may play a role in OSCCs via MAPK signaling cascades, making it a potentially useful diagnostic/therapeutic target for use in patients with OSCC.

  7. A key role for early growth response-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB in mediating and maintaining GRO/CXCR2 proliferative signaling in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Khachigian, Levon M; Esau, Luke; Birrer, Michael J; Zhao, Xiaohang; Parker, M Iqbal; Hendricks, Denver T

    2009-05-01

    Although early growth response-1 (EGR-1) has been shown as a key transcription factor in controlling cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis, its role in the development of esophageal cancer is poorly understood despite the high frequency of this disease in many parts of the world. Here, immunohistochemistry showed that EGR-1 is overexpressed in 80% of esophageal tumor tissues examined. Furthermore, EGR-1 is constitutively expressed in all esophageal cancer cell lines analyzed. Esophageal squamous carcinoma WHCO1 cells stably transfected with EGR-1 short hairpin RNA displayed a 55% reduction in EGR-1 protein levels, 50% reduction in cell proliferation, a 50% reduction in cyclin-dependent kinase 4 levels, and a 2-fold induction in p27(Kip1) levels associated with a G(2)-M cell cycle arrest. EGR-1 knockdown also caused a marked induction in IkappaBalpha expression, an effect also observed in GRObeta RNA interference-expressing WHCO1 cells, because EGR-1 lies downstream of GRO/CXCR2 signaling. Furthermore, p65 mRNA levels were also reduced in cells treated with either short hairpin RNA EGR-1 or small interfering RNA EGR-1. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that p65 is elevated in 78% (n = 61) of esophageal tumor sections analyzed. Moreover, nuclear factor-kappaB inhibition with either sodium salicylate or p65 RNA interference led to a significant reduction in GROalpha and GRObeta expression. These results indicate that EGR-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB mediate GRO/CXCR2 proliferative signaling in esophageal cancer and may represent potential target molecules for therapeutic intervention.

  8. Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol prolongs survival in the LSL-KrasG12D/+;LSL-Trp53R172H/+;Pdx-1-Cre (KPC) transgenic mouse model of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Husain, Kazim; Centeno, Barbara A; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Hingorani, Sunil R; Sebti, Said M; Malafa, Mokenge P

    2013-10-01

    Previous work has shown that vitamin E δ-tocotrienol (VEDT) prolongs survival and delays progression of pancreatic cancer in the LSL-Kras(G12D)(/+);Pdx-1-Cre mouse model of pancreatic cancer. However, the effect of VEDT alone or in combination with gemcitabine in the more aggressive LSL-Kras(G12D)(/+);LSL-Trp53(R172H)(/+);Pdx-1-Cre (KPC) mouse model is unknown. Here, we studied the effects of VEDT and the combination of VEDT and gemcitabine in the KPC mice. KPC mice were randomized into four groups: (i) vehicle [olive oil, 1.0 mL/kg per os twice a day and PBS 1.0 mL/kg intrapertoneally (i.p.) twice a week], (ii) gemcitabine (100 mg/kg i.p. twice a week), (iii) VEDT (200 mg/kg per os twice a day), and (iv) gemcitabine + VEDT. Mice received treatment until they displayed symptoms of impending death from pancreatic cancer, at which point animals were euthanized. At 16 weeks, survival was 10% in the vehicle group, 30% in the gemcitabine group, 70% in the VEDT group (P < 0.01), and 90% in the VEDT combined with gemcitabine group (P < 0.05). VEDT alone and combined with gemcitabine resulted in reversal of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in tumors. Biomarkers of apoptosis (plasma CK18), PARP1 cleavage, and Bax expression were more greatly induced in tumors subjected to combined treatment versus individual treatment. Combined treatment induced cell-cycle inhibitors (p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1)) and inhibited VEGF, vascularity (CD31), and oncogenic signaling (pAKT, pMEK, and pERK) greater than individual drugs. No significant differences in body weight gain between drug treatment and control mice were observed. These results strongly support further investigation of VEDT alone and in combination with gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment.

  9. Acute damage by naphthalene triggers expression of the neuroendocrine marker PGP9.5 in airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Thomas T.; Naizhen, Xu; Poulsen, Hans S.; Linnoila, R. Ilona

    2008-01-01

    Protein Gene Product 9.5 (PGP9.5) is highly expressed in nervous tissue. Recently PGP9.5 expression has been found to be upregulated in the pulmonary epithelium of smokers and in non-small cell lung cancer, suggesting that it also plays a role in carcinogen-inflicted lung epithelial injury and carcinogenesis. We investigated the expression of PGP9.5 in mice in response to two prominent carcinogens found in tobacco smoke: Naphthalene and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). By immunostaining, we found that PGP9.5 protein was highly expressed throughout the airway epithelium in the days immediately following a single injection of naphthalene. In contrast, PGP9.5 was exclusively confined to neurons and neuroendocrine cells in the control and NNK-exposed lungs. Furthermore, we investigated the expression of PGP9.5 mRNA in the lungs by quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR). PGP9.5 mRNA expression was highly upregulated in the days immediately following naphthalene injection and gradually returning to that of control mice 5 days after naphthalene injection. In contrast, exposure to NNK did not result in a significant increase in PGP9.5 mRNA 10 weeks after exposure. No increased expression of two other neuroendocrine markers was found in the non-neuroendocrine epithelial cells after naphthalene exposure. In contrast, immunostaining for the cell cycle regulator p27Kip1, which has previously been associated with PGP9.5 in lung cancer cells, revealed transient downregulation of p27Kip1 in naphthalene exposed airways compared to controls, indicating that the rise in PGP9.5 in the airway epithelium is related to downregulation of p27Kip1. This study is the first to specifically identify the carcinogen naphthalene as an inducer of PGP9.5 expression in non-neuroendocrine epithelium after acute lung injury and further strengthens the accumulating evidence of PGP9.5 as a central player in lung epithelial damage and early carcinogenesis. PMID:18687389

  10. Chloroquine potentiates the anti-cancer effect of 5-fluorouracil on colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chloroquine (CQ), the worldwide used anti-malarial drug, has recently being focused as a potential anti-cancer agent as well as a chemosensitizer when used in combination with anti-cancer drugs. It has been shown to inhibit cell growth and/or to induce cell death in various types of cancer. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the chemotherapeutic agent of first choice in colorectal cancer, but in most cases, resistance to 5-FU develops through various mechanisms. Here, we focused on the combination of CQ as a mechanism to potentiate the inhibitory effect of 5-FU on human colon cancer cells. Methods HT-29 cells were treated with CQ and/or 5-FU, and their proliferative ability, apoptosis and autophagy induction effects, and the affection of the cell cycle were evaluated. The proliferative ability of HT-29 was analyzed by the MTS assay. Apoptosis was quantified by flow-cytometry after double-staining of the cells with AnnexinV/PI. The cell cycle was evaluated by flow-cytometry after staining of cells with PI. Autophagy was quantified by flow-cytometry and Western blot analysis. Finally, to evaluate the fate of the cells treated with CQ and/or 5-FU, the colony formation assay was performed. Results 5-FU inhibited the proliferative activity of HT-29 cells, which was mostly dependent on the arrest of the cells to the G0/G1-phase but also partially on apoptosis induction, and the effect was potentiated by CQ pre-treatment. The potentiation of the inhibitory effect of 5-FU by CQ was dependent on the increase of p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 and the decrease of CDK2. Since CQ is reported to inhibit autophagy, the catabolic process necessary for cell survival under conditions of cell starvation or stress, which is induced by cancer cells as a protective mechanism against chemotherapeutic agents, we also analyzed the induction of autophagy in HT-29. HT-29 induced autophagy in response to 5-FU, and CQ inhibited this induction, a possible mechanism of the potentiation of the anti-cancer

  11. Galbanic acid decreases androgen receptor abundance and signaling and induces G1 arrest in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Kim, Kwan-Hyun; Zhang, Wei; Guo, Yinglu; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lü, Junxuan

    2011-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is crucial for the genesis and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). We compared the growth responses of AR(+) LNCaP and LNCaP C4-2 vs. AR(−) DU145 and PC-3 PCa cell lines to galbanic acid (GBA) isolated from the resin of medicinal herb Ferula assafoetida and assessed their connection to AR signaling and cell cycle regulatory pathways. Our results showed that GBA preferentially suppressed AR(+) PCa cell growth than AR(−) PCa cells. GBA induced a caspase-mediated apoptosis that was attenuated by a general caspase inhibitor. Subapoptotic GBA down-regulated AR protein in LNCaP cells primarily through promoting its proteasomal degradation, and inhibited AR-dependent transcription without affecting AR nuclear translocation. Whereas docking simulations predicted binding of GBA to the AR ligand binding domain with similarities and differences with the AR antagonist drug bicalutamide, LNCaP cell culture assays did not detect agonist activity of GBA. GBA and bicalutamide exerted greater than additive inhibitory effect on cell growth when used together. Subapoptotic GBA induced G1 arrest associated with an inhibition of cyclin/CDK4/6 pathway, especially cyclin D1 without the causal involvement of CDK inhibitory proteins P21Cip1 and P27Kip1. In summary, the novelty of GBA as an anti-AR compound resides in the distinction between GBA and bicalutamide with respect to AR protein turnover and a lack of agonist effect. Our observations of anti-AR and cell cycle arrest actions plus the anti-angiogenesis effect reported elsewhere suggest GBA as a multi-targeting drug candidate for the prevention and therapy of PCa. PMID:21328348

  12. p27(kipl) protein expression: an independent prognostic factor in rectal carcinoma stages I-III.

    PubMed

    Pucciarelli; Esposito; Fassina; Alaggio; Masin; Toppan; Chieco-Bianchi; Lise

    1999-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of some molecular markers on lymph node metastases, overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in rectal cancer. We investigated p27(kip1) , p53, nm23, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in 109 primary rectal cancer specimens (stage I, n=38; stage II, n=24; stage III, n=20; and stage IV, n=27) from patients operated on between 1990 and 1995 at Clinica Chirurgica II. Tumour differentiation (P=0.0469), depth of rectal wall invasion (T status) (P=0.0000), distant metastases (P=0.0000), vascular invasion (P=0.0000), and p27(kip1) expression (P=0.0022) were associated with lymph node metastases (N status). During follow up (median duration 47 months), 48 patients died, and 25 patients (stages I-III) had recurrences. At multivariate analysis, T and N status, and intratumoural necrosis were independent risk factors for OS. The relative risk (RR) of death for patients with lymph node metastases, advanced T status and intratumoural necrosis was 3.3 (P=0.0002), 2.03 (P=0.0127), and 1.47 (P=0.1935), respectively. When analysis included only stage I-III patients, N status and p27(kip1) protein expression were found to be independent risk factors for OS. The RR of death for patients with lymph node metastases and those without p27(kip1) expression was 2.98 (P=0.0251), and 3.57 (P=0.0231), respectively. At multivariate analysis, N status, p27(kip1) expression, and intratumoural necrosis were independent risk factors for DFS. The RR of recurrence for patients with lymph node metastases, intratumoural necrosis and absence of p27(kip1) expression was 6.29 (P=0.0001), 3.04 (P=0.0168), and 3.25 (P=0.0387), respectively. Absence of p27(kip1) expression is a useful marker of tumour aggressiveness in rectal carcinoma stages I-III, and an independent predictor for OS and DFS.

  13. Sodium phenylacetate inhibits the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway to induce reduction of the c-Raf-1 protein in human and canine breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Manabu; Miyajima, Nozomi; Igarashi, Maki; Endo, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Natsuko; Sugano, Sumio

    2009-11-01

    An aromatic fatty acid, phenylacetate (PA), has been shown to have cytostatic, antitumor and cell differentiation-inducing effects on various kinds of tumors. Previously, we have demonstrated cell growth inhibition, malignant phenotype reduction and cell differentiation effects of sodium phenylacetate (NaPA) treatment in a canine mammary tumor cell line. To clarify the molecular mechanism of these effects, we examined the expression of Ras/MAPK signaling pathway-related molecules in human and canine breast cancer cell lines, and found that the level of c-Raf-1 protein was reduced by 5, 10 and 20 mM of NaPA treatments, though Ras activation was maintained. Dephosphorylation of c-Raf-1 at Serine (Ser) 259, Ser 338, and Ser 621 were also seen in NaPA-treated cells. Downstream factors in the pathway, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)1/2 and ERK1/2, showed decreased activity, and accordingly, expressions of cyclinD1, c-myc, and inactivation of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), which are MAPK targets, were reduced. We also observed the reduction of cell-cycle-promoted molecules, such as cdc1/cdk2, cdk4, PCNA cyclin A, and cyclin B, and the increased expression of p27kip1. Furthermore, expression of an epithelial marker, E-cadherin, was increased by NaPA treatment. These results suggest that one of the molecular targets of NaPA treatment was the reduction of c-Raf-1 protein, and that its reduction results in the decrease of malignant characteristics of tumor cells through blockage of the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway.

  14. Dermatomyositis revealing breast cancer: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Lamquami, Safae; Errarhay, Sanae; Mamouni, Nisrine; Bouchikhi, Chahrazad; Banani, Abdelaziz

    2015-01-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) is a rare connective corresponding to an inflammatory disease of skeletal muscles. Paraneoplastic origin must always be sought, primarily gynecological tumor in women, but the investigations are often made difficult by the fact that a primary tumor is often not detectable at the time of the cutaneous manifestations. This approach includes in addition to the monitoring report at regular intervals of 6 to 12 months for two years after diagnosis. We report a case of Dermatomyositis revealing breast cancer.

  15. Cathepsin B promotes colorectal tumorigenesis, cell invasion, and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Benjamin; Mongrain, Sébastien; Cagnol, Sébastien; Langlois, Marie‐Josée; Boulanger, Jim; Bernatchez, Gérald; Carrier, Julie C.; Boudreau, François

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin B is a cysteine proteinase that primarily functions as an endopeptidase within endolysosomal compartments in normal cells. However, during tumoral expansion, the regulation of cathepsin B can be altered at multiple levels, thereby resulting in its overexpression and export outside of the cell. This may suggest a possible role of cathepsin B in alterations leading to cancer progression. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of intracellular and extracellular cathepsin B in growth, tumorigenesis, and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Results show that mRNA and activated levels of cathepsin B were both increased in human adenomas and in CRCs of all stages. Treatment of CRC cells with the highly selective and non‐permeant cathepsin B inhibitor Ca074 revealed that extracellular cathepsin B actively contributed to the invasiveness of human CRC cells while not essential for their growth in soft agar. Cathepsin B silencing by RNAi in human CRC cells inhibited their growth in soft agar, as well as their invasion capacity, tumoral expansion, and metastatic spread in immunodeficient mice. Higher levels of the cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1 were observed in cathepsin B‐deficient tumors as well as an increase in cyclin B1. Finally, cathepsin B colocalized with p27Kip1 within the lysosomes and efficiently degraded the inhibitor. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that cathepsin B is a significant factor in colorectal tumor development, invasion, and metastatic spreading and may, therefore, represent a potential pharmacological target for colorectal tumor therapy. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis, published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25808857

  16. Sparse expression bases in cancer reveal tumor drivers

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, Benjamin A.; Gentles, Andrew J.; Miller, Chris P.; Blau, C. Anthony; Becker, Pamela S.; Lee, Su-In

    2015-01-01

    We define a new category of candidate tumor drivers in cancer genome evolution: ‘selected expression regulators’ (SERs)—genes driving dysregulated transcriptional programs in cancer evolution. The SERs are identified from genome-wide tumor expression data with a novel method, namely SPARROW (SPARse selected expRessiOn regulators identified With penalized regression). SPARROW uncovers a previously unknown connection between cancer expression variation and driver events, by using a novel sparse regression technique. Our results indicate that SPARROW is a powerful complementary approach to identify candidate genes containing driver events that are hard to detect from sequence data, due to a large number of passenger mutations and lack of comprehensive sequence information from a sufficiently large number of samples. SERs identified by SPARROW reveal known driver mutations in multiple human cancers, along with known cancer-associated processes and survival-associated genes, better than popular methods for inferring gene expression networks. We demonstrate that when applied to acute myeloid leukemia expression data, SPARROW identifies an apoptotic biomarker (PYCARD) for an investigational drug obatoclax. The PYCARD and obatoclax association is validated in 30 AML patient samples. PMID:25583238

  17. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid as a potential therapeutic agent for human breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, L.; Pardee, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a prototype of the newly developed, second-generation, hybrid polar compounds. It is a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor with high potency for inducing cell differentiation of cultured murine erythroleukemia cells. Studies with SAHA have primarily been performed with hematopoietic tumor cells. Here we extent these studies with SAHA to human breast cancer cell lines in an attempt to find better therapeutic agents for breast cancer treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human breast cancer cell lines, MCF7, MDA-MB-231, and MDA-MB-435, as well as normal cells, including the normal breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A, and fibroblasts, were treated with SAHA. Cells assayed for cell survival by using trypan blue exclusion assay, colony formation assay, and cell cycle and apoptosis analysis. The effects of SAHA on cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory proteins were examined by Western blots analysis. The identification of additional target genes was carried out by differential display (DD) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: SAHA inhibited clonogenic growth of MCF7, MDA-MB-231, and MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells. These cells were more sensitive to SAHA-mediated cytotoxic effects than normal breast epithelial cells and fibroblasts. The cytotoxic effects of SAHA on breast cancer cells were manifested by G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrest and eventual apoptosis. The pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD.fmk, blocked SAHA-induced cell death, DNA laddering, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, indicating the involvement of caspases in SAHA-mediated apoptosis. In addition, SAHA modulated cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory proteins. For example, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21WAF1/Cip1 and p27Kip1 were induced, and retinoblastoma protein pRb was hypophosphorylated. Moreover, SAHA induced several genes associated with differentiation and/ or growth inhibition. These genes encode gelsolin

  18. A novel meta-analysis approach of cancer transcriptomes reveals prevailing transcriptional networks in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Niida, Atsushi; Imoto, Seiya; Nagasaki, Masao; Yamaguchi, Rui; Miyano, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    Although microarray technology has revealed transcriptomic diversities underlining various cancer phenotypes, transcriptional programs controlling them have not been well elucidated. To decode transcriptional programs governing cancer transcriptomes, we have recently developed a computational method termed EEM, which searches for expression modules from prescribed gene sets defined by prior biological knowledge like TF binding motifs. In this paper, we extend our EEM approach to predict cancer transcriptional networks. Starting from functional TF binding motifs and expression modules identified by EEM, we predict cancer transcriptional networks containing regulatory TFs, associated GO terms, and interactions between TF binding motifs. To systematically analyze transcriptional programs in broad types of cancer, we applied our EEM-based network prediction method to 122 microarray datasets collected from public databases. The data sets contain about 15000 experiments for tumor samples of various tissue origins including breast, colon, lung etc. This EEM based meta-analysis successfully revealed a prevailing cancer transcriptional network which functions in a large fraction of cancer transcriptomes; they include cell-cycle and immune related sub-networks. This study demonstrates broad applicability of EEM, and opens a way to comprehensive understanding of transcriptional networks in cancer cells.

  19. Most small bowel cancers are revealed by a complication

    PubMed Central

    Negoi, Ionut; Paun, Sorin; Hostiuc, Sorin; Stoica, Bodgan; Tanase, Ioan; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Beuran, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To characterize the pattern of primary small bowel cancers in a tertiary East-European hospital. Methods A retrospective study of patients with small bowel cancers admitted to a tertiary emergency center, over the past 15 years. Results There were 57 patients with small bowel cancer, representing 0.039% of admissions and 0.059% of laparotomies. There were 37 (64.9%) men, mean age of 58 years; and 72 years for females. Out of 57 patients, 48 (84.2%) were admitted due to an emergency situation: obstruction in 21 (38.9%), perforation in 17 (31.5%), upper gastrointestinal bleeding in 8 (14.8%), and lower gastrointestinal bleeding in 2 (3.7%). There were 10 (17.5%) duodenal tumors, 21 (36.8%) jejunal tumors and 26 (45.6%) ileal tumors. The most frequent neoplasms were gastrointestinal stromal tumor in 24 patients (42.1%), adenocarcinoma in 19 (33.3%), lymphoma in 8 (14%), and carcinoids in 2 (3.5%). The prevalence of duodenal adenocarcinoma was 14.55 times greater than that of the small bowel, and the prevalence of duodenal stromal tumors was 1.818 time greater than that of the small bowel. Obstruction was the complication in adenocarcinoma in 57.9% of cases, and perforation was the major local complication (47.8%) in stromal tumors. Conclusion Primary small bowel cancers are usually diagnosed at advanced stages, and revealed by a local complication of the tumor. Their surgical management in emergency setting is associated to significant morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:26676271

  20. The prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitor SUAM-14746 attenuates the proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kanayo; Sakaguchi, Minoru

    2017-09-01

    Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP, EC 3.4.1.26) is a serine peptidase that hydrolyzes post-proline peptide bonds in peptides that are <30 amino acids in length. We previously reported that POP inhibition suppressed the growth of NB-1 human neuroblastomas cells and KATO III human gastric cancer cells. POP activity is commonly elevated in many cancers, which includes breast cancer. However, the effect of POP inhibition as a candidate breast cancer therapy is unknown. The effects of POP inhibition and knockdown on the proliferation of cultured human estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) MCF7 and T47D, and ER-negative (ER-) MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines and the MCF12A non-tumorigenic epithelial cell line were tested by analyzing their influence on cell proliferation (WST-1 assay), cell viability (trypan blue exclusion assay), and cell cycle arrest (cell cycle analysis, cell cycle regulator proteins expression). POP-specific inhibitors 3-({4-[2-(E)-styrylphenoxy]butanoyl}-L-4-hydroxyprolyl)-thiazolidine (SUAM-14746) and benzyloxycarbonyl-thiopropyl-thioprolinal and RNAi-mediated POP knockdown inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells without inducing cell death. SUAM-14746-induced growth inhibition was also observed in T47D and MDA-MB-231 cells, but not in MCF12A cells. This growth inhibition was associated with G1 phase arrest; reduced cyclin D1 and D3, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), E2F1, and retinoblastoma protein (pRb) expression; and increased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27(kip1)) expression. Moreover, the SUAM-14746-mediated cell cycle arrest of MCF7 cells was associated with increased pRb2/p130 protein expression and an increase in the number of cells in the quiescent G0 state, as defined by low RNA levels. SUAM-14746 inhibited breast cancer cell growth in a cytostatic manner without inducing lethality, and POP-specific inhibitors may be an effective treatment against ER+ and ER- breast cancer.

  1. Resistance to cisplatin and paclitaxel does not affect the sensitivity of human ovarian cancer cells to antiprogestin-induced cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiprogestin compounds have been shown to be effective in blocking the growth of ovarian cancer cells of different genetic backgrounds. Herein we studied the anti-ovarian cancer effect of a series of antiprogestins sharing the chemical backbone of the most characterized antiprogestin, mifepristone, but with unique modifications in position C-17 of the steroid ring. We assessed the effect of mifepristone-like antiprogestins on the growth of ovarian cancer cells sensitive to the standard combination therapy cisplatin-paclitaxel or made double-resistant upon six cycles of pulse-selection with the drugs used at clinically relevant concentrations and exposure times. Methods IGROV-1 and SKOV-3 cells were pulsed with 20 μM cisplatin for 1 h followed by 100 nM paclitaxel for 3 h once a week for six weeks. The cells that did not die and repopulate the culture after the chemotherapies were termed Platinum-Taxane-EScape cells (PTES). Parental cells were compared against their PTES derivatives in their responses to further platinum-taxane treatments. Moreover, both ovarian cancer cells and their PTES siblings were exposed to escalating doses of the various antiprogestin derivatives. We assessed cell growth, viability and sub-G1 DNA content using microcapillary cytometry. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21cip1 and p27kip1 and cleavage of downstream caspase-3 substrate PARP were used to assess whether cell fate, as a consequence of treatment, was limited to cytostasis or progressed to lethality. Results Cells subjected to six pulse-selection cycles of cisplatin-paclitaxel gave rise to sibling derivatives that displayed ~2-7 fold reduction in their sensitivities to further chemotherapy. However, regardless of the sensitivity the cells developed to the combination cisplatin-paclitaxel, they displayed similar sensitivity to the antiprogestins, which blocked their growth in a dose-related manner, with lower concentrations causing cytostasis, and higher

  2. miR-3646 promotes cell proliferation, migration, and invasion via regulating G2/M transition in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Shuang; Liu, Yao-Bang; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Lian, Bin; Li, Hong; Li, Jin-Ping; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are often located in genomic breakpoint regions and play a critical role in regulating a variety of the cellular processes in human cancer. miR-3646 has been reported to take part in tumorigenic progression in breast and bladder cancer, but its potential functions and exact mechanistic roles in breast cancer are still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of miR-3646 in breast cancer growth and metastasis using both bioinformatic and experimental approaches. Before starting the bench work, we conducted a bioinformatic study to predict the target genes regulated by miR-3646 using a panel of different algorithms. The results showed that miR-3646 might regulate a large number of genes that are related to cell growth, proliferation, metabolis, transport, and apoptosis and some were cancer-related genes. We found that the expression level of miR-3646 was significantly upregulated in breast cancer cells and tissues compared with normal breast cells and no tumor tissues. Subsequently, the MTT and colony formation assay results showed that up-regulation of miR-3646 promoted the cell viability and proliferation. Our results also showed that down-regulation of miR-3646 arrested the cells in G2/M phase in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells which was accompanied by the down-regulation of CDK1/CDC2 and cyclin B1 and upregulation of p21Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53, suggesting that down-regulation of miR-3646 induces G2/M arrest through activation of the p53/p21/CDC2/cyclin B1 pathway. In addition, overexpression of miR-3646 promoted migration and invasion of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, miR-3646 is a potential oncogene in breast cancer and it may represent a new niomarker in the diagnosis and prediction of prognosis and therapeutic response. PMID:27186291

  3. RNA Microarray Analysis in Prenatal Mouse Cochlea Reveals Novel IGF-I Target Genes: Implication of MEF2 and FOXM1 Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Calderon, Hortensia; Rodriguez-de la Rosa, Lourdes; Milo, Marta; Pichel, Jose G.; Holley, Matthew; Varela-Nieto, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    decrease in the nuclear cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1. Conclusions/Significance We have defined the spatiotemporal expression of elements involved in IGF signalling during inner ear development and reveal novel regulatory mechanisms that are modulated by IGF-I in promoting sensory cell and neural survival and differentiation. These data will help us to understand the molecular bases of human sensorineural deafness associated to deficits in IGF-I. PMID:20111592

  4. The goya mouse mutant reveals distinct newly identified roles for MAP3K1 in the development and survival of cochlear sensory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew; Cross, Sally H; Jackson, Ian J; Hardisty-Hughes, Rachel; Morse, Susan; Nicholson, George; Coghill, Emma; Bowl, Michael R; Brown, Steve D M

    2015-12-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase, MAP3K1, plays an important role in a number of cellular processes, including epithelial migration during eye organogenesis. In addition, studies in keratinocytes indicate that MAP3K1 signalling through JNK is important for actin stress fibre formation and cell migration. However, MAP3K1 can also act independently of JNK in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. We have identified a mouse mutant, goya, which exhibits the eyes-open-at-birth and microphthalmia phenotypes. In addition, these mice also have hearing loss. The goya mice carry a splice site mutation in the Map3k1 gene. We show that goya and kinase-deficient Map3k1 homozygotes initially develop supernumerary cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) that subsequently degenerate, and a progressive profound hearing loss is observed by 9 weeks of age. Heterozygote mice also develop supernumerary OHCs, but no cellular degeneration or hearing loss is observed. MAP3K1 is expressed in a number of inner-ear cell types, including outer and inner hair cells, stria vascularis and spiral ganglion. Investigation of targets downstream of MAP3K1 identified an increase in p38 phosphorylation (Thr180/Tyr182) in multiple cochlear tissues. We also show that the extra OHCs do not arise from aberrant control of proliferation via p27KIP1. The identification of the goya mutant reveals a signalling molecule involved with hair-cell development and survival. Mammalian hair cells do not have the ability to regenerate after damage, which can lead to irreversible sensorineural hearing loss. Given the observed goya phenotype, and the many diverse cellular processes that MAP3K1 is known to act upon, further investigation of this model might help to elaborate upon the mechanisms underlying sensory hair cell specification, and pathways important for their survival. In addition, MAP3K1 is revealed as a new candidate gene for human sensorineural hearing loss. © 2015. Published by The Company of

  5. The anti-erbB3 antibody MM-121/SAR256212 in combination with trastuzumab exerts potent antitumor activity against trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated expression of erbB3 receptor has been reported to induce resistance to therapeutic agents, including trastuzumab in erbB2-overexpressing breast cancer. Our recent studies indicate that erbB3 interacts with both erbB2 and IGF-1 receptor to form a heterotrimeric complex in trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cells. Herein, we investigate the antitumor activity of MM-121/SAR256212, a fully human anti-erbB3 antibody (Ab), against two erbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines resistant to trastuzumab. Methods MTS-based proliferation assays were used to determine cell viability upon treatment of trastuzumab and/or MM-121/SAR256212. Cell cycle progression was examined by flow cytometric analysis. Western blot analyses were performed to determine the expression and activation of proteins. Tumor xenografts were established by inoculation of the trastuzumab-resistant BT474-HR20 cells into nude mice. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with trastuzumab and/or MM-121/SAR256212 via i.p injection to determine the Abs’ antitumor activity. Immunohistochemical analyses were carried out to study the Abs’ inhibitory effects on tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in vivo. Results MM-121 significantly enhanced trastuzumab-induced growth inhibition in two sensitive and two resistant breast cancer cell lines. MM-121 in combination with trastuzumab resulted in a dramatic reduction of phosphorylated erbB3 (P-erbB3) and Akt (P-Akt) in the in vitro studies. MM-121 combined with trastuzumab did not induce apoptosis in the trastuzumab-resistant cell lines under our cell culture condition, rather induced cell cycle G1 arrest mainly associated with the upregulation of p27kip1. Interestingly, in the tumor xenograft model established from the trastuzumab-resistant cells, MM-121 in combination with trastuzumab as compared to either agent alone dramatically inhibited tumor growth correlated with a significant reduction of Ki67 staining and increase of

  6. TUMOR AND HOST FACTORS THAT MAY LIMIT EFFICACY OF CHEMOTHERAPY IN NON-SMALL CELL AND SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, David J.

    2010-01-01

    expression of GST-pi, RB or p27kip1 may possibly confer resistance. While limited clinical data suggest that p53 mutations are associated with resistance to platinum-based therapies in NSCLC, data on p53 IHC positivity are equivocal. To date, resistance-modulating strategies have generally not proven clinically useful in lung cancer, although small randomized trials suggest a modest benefit of verapamil and related agents in NSCLC. PMID:20047843

  7. Analysis of cancer genomes reveals basic features of human aging and its role in cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Podolskiy, Dmitriy I.; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Kryukov, Gregory V.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutations have long been implicated in aging and disease, but their impact on fitness and function is difficult to assess. Here by analysing human cancer genomes we identify mutational patterns associated with aging. Our analyses suggest that age-associated mutation load and burden double approximately every 8 years, similar to the all-cause mortality doubling time. This analysis further reveals variance in the rate of aging among different human tissues, for example, slightly accelerated aging of the reproductive system. Age-adjusted mutation load and burden correlate with the corresponding cancer incidence and precede it on average by 15 years, pointing to pre-clinical cancer development times. Behaviour of mutation load also exhibits gender differences and late-life reversals, explaining some gender-specific and late-life patterns in cancer incidence rates. Overall, this study characterizes some features of human aging and offers a mechanism for age being a risk factor for the onset of cancer. PMID:27515585

  8. Proteome profiling of breast cancer biopsies reveals a wound healing signature of cancer-associated fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Groessl, Michael; Slany, Astrid; Bileck, Andrea; Gloessmann, Kerstin; Kreutz, Dominique; Jaeger, Walter; Pfeiler, Georg; Gerner, Christopher

    2014-11-07

    Breast cancer is still the most common type of cancer in women; an important role in carcinogenesis is actually attributed to cancer-associated fibroblasts. In this study, we investigated whether it is possible to assess the functional state of cancer-associated fibroblasts through tumor tissue proteome profiling. Tissue proteomics was performed on tumor-central, tumor-near, and tumor-distant biopsy sections from breast adenocarcinoma patients, which allowed us to identify 2074 proteins. Data were interpreted referring to reference proteome profiles generated from primary human mammary fibroblasts comprising 4095 proteins. These cells were analyzed in quiescent cell state as well as after in vitro treatment with TGFβ or IL-1β, stimulating wound healing or inflammatory processes, respectively. Representative for cancer cells, we investigated the mammary carcinoma cell line ZR-75-1, identifying 5212 proteins. All mass analysis data have been made fully accessible via ProteomeXchange, DOI PXD001311 and PXD001323-8. Comparison of tissue proteomics data with all of those reference profiles revealed predominance of cancer cell-derived proteins within the tumor and fibroblast-derived proteins in the tumor-distant tissue sections. Remarkably, proteins characteristic for acute inflammation were hardly identified in the tissue samples. In contrast, several proteins found by us to be induced by TGFβ in mammary fibroblasts, including fibulin-5, SLC2A1, and MUC18, were positively identified in all tissue samples, with relatively higher abundance in tumor neighboring tissue sections. These findings indicate a predominance of cancer-associated fibroblasts with wound healing activities localized around tumors.

  9. Alisertib induces cell cycle arrest and autophagy and suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition involving PI3K/Akt/mTOR and sirtuin 1-mediated signaling pathways in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Li, Hai; Yan, Xiao-Gang; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yi, Zhi-Gang; He, Zhi-Xu; Pan, Shu-Ting; Yang, Yin-Xue; Wang, Zuo-Zheng; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxing; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most aggressive cancer worldwide with poor response to current therapeutics. Alisertib (ALS), a potent and selective Aurora kinase A inhibitor, exhibits potent anticancer effects in preclinical and clinical studies; however, the effect and underlying mechanism of ALS in the pancreatic cancer treatment remain elusive. This study aimed to examine the effects of ALS on cell growth, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and to delineate the possible molecular mechanisms in human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. The results showed that ALS exerted potent cell growth inhibitory, pro-autophagic, and EMT-suppressing effects in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. ALS remarkably arrested PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells in G2/M phase via regulating the expression of cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. ALS concentration-dependently induced autophagy in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells, which may be attributed to the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) but activation of 5'-AMP-dependent kinase signaling pathways. ALS significantly inhibited EMT in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells with an increase in the expression of E-cadherin and a decrease in N-cadherin. In addition, ALS suppressed the expression of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor/visfatin in both cell lines with a rise in the level of acetylated p53. These findings show that ALS induces cell cycle arrest and promotes autophagic cell death but inhibits EMT in pancreatic cancer cells with the involvement of PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 MAPK, Erk1/2, and Sirt1-mediated signaling pathways. Taken together, ALS may represent a promising anticancer drug for pancreatic cancer treatment. More studies are warranted to investigate other molecular targets and

  10. Alisertib induces cell cycle arrest and autophagy and suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition involving PI3K/Akt/mTOR and sirtuin 1-mediated signaling pathways in human pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Li, Hai; Yan, Xiao-Gang; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yi, Zhi-Gang; He, Zhi-Xu; Pan, Shu-Ting; Yang, Yin-Xue; Wang, Zuo-Zheng; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxing; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most aggressive cancer worldwide with poor response to current therapeutics. Alisertib (ALS), a potent and selective Aurora kinase A inhibitor, exhibits potent anticancer effects in preclinical and clinical studies; however, the effect and underlying mechanism of ALS in the pancreatic cancer treatment remain elusive. This study aimed to examine the effects of ALS on cell growth, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and to delineate the possible molecular mechanisms in human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. The results showed that ALS exerted potent cell growth inhibitory, pro-autophagic, and EMT-suppressing effects in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. ALS remarkably arrested PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells in G2/M phase via regulating the expression of cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. ALS concentration-dependently induced autophagy in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells, which may be attributed to the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) but activation of 5′-AMP-dependent kinase signaling pathways. ALS significantly inhibited EMT in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells with an increase in the expression of E-cadherin and a decrease in N-cadherin. In addition, ALS suppressed the expression of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor/visfatin in both cell lines with a rise in the level of acetylated p53. These findings show that ALS induces cell cycle arrest and promotes autophagic cell death but inhibits EMT in pancreatic cancer cells with the involvement of PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 MAPK, Erk1/2, and Sirt1-mediated signaling pathways. Taken together, ALS may represent a promising anticancer drug for pancreatic cancer treatment. More studies are warranted to investigate other molecular targets and

  11. Evolution of cancer suppression as revealed by mammalian comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Tollis, Marc; Schiffman, Joshua D; Boddy, Amy M

    2017-02-02

    Cancer suppression is an important feature in the evolution of large and long-lived animals. While some tumor suppression pathways are conserved among all multicellular organisms, others mechanisms of cancer resistance are uniquely lineage specific. Comparative genomics has become a powerful tool to discover these unique and shared molecular adaptations in respect to cancer suppression. These findings may one day be translated to human patients through evolutionary medicine. Here, we will review theory and methods of comparative cancer genomics and highlight major findings of cancer suppression across mammals. Our current knowledge of cancer genomics suggests that more efficient DNA repair and higher sensitivity to DNA damage may be the key to tumor suppression in large or long-lived mammals.

  12. Subclonal diversification of primary breast cancer revealed by multiregion sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Lucy R; Gerstung, Moritz; Knappskog, Stian; Desmedt, Christine; Gundem, Gunes; Loo, Peter Van; Aas, Turid; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Larsimont, Denis; Davies, Helen; Li, Yilong; Ju, Young Seok; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Haugland, Hans Kristian; Lilleng, Peer Kaare; Nik-Zainal, Serena; McLaren, Stuart; Butler, Adam; Martin, Sancha; Glodzik, Dominic; Menzies, Andrew; Raine, Keiran; Hinton, Jonathan; Jones, David; Mudie, Laura J; Jiang, Bing; Vincent, Delphine; Greene-Colozzi, April; Adnet, Pierre-Yves; Fatima, Aquila; Maetens, Marion; Ignatiadis, Michail; Stratton, Michael R; Sotiriou, Christos; Richardson, Andrea L; Lønning, Per Eystein; Wedge, David C; Campbell, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing cancer genomes may enable tailoring of therapeutics to the underlying biological abnormalities driving a particular patient’s tumor. However, sequencing-based strategies rely heavily on representative sampling of tumors. To understand the subclonal structure of primary breast cancer, we applied whole genome and targeted sequencing to multiple samples from each of 50 patients’ tumors (total 303). The extent of subclonal diversification varied among cases and followed spatial patterns. No strict temporal order was evident, with point mutations and rearrangements affecting the most common breast cancer genes, including PIK3CA, TP53, PTEN, BRCA2 and MYC, occurring early in some tumors and late in others. In 13/50 cancers, potentially targetable mutations were subclonal. Landmarks of disease progression, such as resisting chemotherapy and acquiring invasive or metastatic potential, arose within detectable subclones of antecedent lesions. These findings highlight the importance of including analyses of subclonal structure and tumor evolution in clinical trials of primary breast cancer. PMID:26099045

  13. Cyclin D3 expression in primary Ta/T1 bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Beltran, A; Requena, M J; Luque, R J; Alvarez-Kindelan, J; Quintero, A; Blanca, A M; Rodriguez, M E; Siendones, E; Montironi, R

    2006-05-01

    Cyclin D3 deregulation has recently been reported in bladder cancer but its prognostic significance remains uncertain. A cohort of 159 patients with stage Ta or T1 primary bladder tumours was investigated to determine the significance of cyclin D3 expression in association with other G1-S phase regulators of the cell cycle (p53, p21Waf1, p27kip1, cyclin D1), including tumour proliferation (ki67-MIB1); its association with conventional clinicopathological parameters; and the relationship between cyclin D3 and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the 9p21 (p16INK4a locus) chromosome region. The end point of the study was progression-free survival. Cyclin D3, other G1-S phase regulators, and tumour proliferation were investigated by immunohistochemistry and measured by the grid-counting method. To validate the immunohistochemical expression, cyclin D3 was additionally assessed by western blotting in selected cases. LOH at the 9p21 chromosome region (marker D9S171) was assessed in 125 cases using an AB Prism 310 genetic analyser and a set of microsatellite fluorescence-labelled primers. Cyclin D3 overexpression was related to larger tumour size (>5 cm; p < 0.0001) and high tumour proliferation (>10%; p = 0.025). Mean cyclin D3 expression increased with 2004 WHO grading categories in stage Ta (p = 0.035, ANOVA) and stage T1 (p = 0.047, t test) tumours. Cyclin D3 was not related to other clinicopathological parameters, G1-S phase modulators, or 9p21 LOH. Cox's multivariate analysis selected cyclin D3 as an independent predictor of progression-free survival (p = 0.0012, relative risk (RR) = 5.2366) together with tumour size (p = 0.0115, RR = 4.4442) and cyclin D1 (p = 0.0065, RR = 3.3023). Cyclin D3 expression had the highest risk ratio. Our results suggest that expression of cyclin D3 is relevant to the progression-free survival of patients with Ta/T1 bladder carcinomas. Copyright 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Fenofibrate induces apoptosis of triple-negative breast cancer cells via activation of NF-κB pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    -regulation of p21, p27/Kip1. In vivo, fenofibrate slowed down tumor growth and induced apoptosis with a good safety profile in the MDA-MB-231 xengograft mouse model. Conclusions It is concluded that fenofibrate induces apoptosis of TNBC via activation of NF-κB pathway in a PPAR-α independent way, and may serve as a novel therapeutic drug for TNBC therapy. PMID:24529079

  15. Expression profile of malignant and non-malignant diseases of the thyroid gland reveals altered expression of a common set of genes in goiter and papillary carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Stolf, Beatriz S; Abreu, Cintia M; Mahler-Araújo, Maria B; Dellamano, Márcia; Martins, Waleska K; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Curado, Maria P; Díaz, Juan P; Fabri, Artur; Brentani, Helena; Carvalho, Alex F; Soares, Fernando A; Kowalski, Luiz P; Hirata, Roberto; Reis, Luiz F L

    2005-09-08

    Using cDNA microarrays with 3800 cDNA fragments, we determined the expression profile of normal thyroid tissue, goiter, adenoma and papillary carcinoma (10 samples from each class). After background correction and statistical analysis, we identified a set of 160 genes as being differentially expressed in all pair-wise comparisons. Here we demonstrate that, at least on the basis of these differentially expressed genes, a positive correlation between goiter and papillary carcinomas could be observed. We identified a common set of genes whose expression is diminished in both goiter and papillary carcinomas as compared to normal thyroid tissue. Moreover, no genes with inverse correlation in samples from goiter and papillary carcinomas could be detected. Using Real-Time PCR and/or tissue microarrays, we confirmed the altered expression of some of the identified genes. Of notice, we demonstrate that the reduced mRNA levels of p27(kip1) observed in papillary carcinomas as compared to either goiter or normal thyroid tissues (P<0.001) is accompanied by an altered protein distribution within the cell. In papillary carcinomas, P27(KIP1) is preferentially cytoplasmic as opposed to goiter or normal thyroid tissue, where P27(KIP1) is preferentially located in the nucleus. The exploitation of the data presented here could contribute to the understanding of the molecular events related to thyroid diseases and gives support to the notion that common molecular events might be related to the frequent observation of areas of papillary carcinomas in the gland of patients with goiter.

  16. TCGA bladder cancer study reveals potential drug targets

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with TCGA have identified new potential therapeutic targets for a major form of bladder cancer, including important genes and pathways that are disrupted in the disease. They also discovered that, at the molecular level, some subtypes of bla

  17. TCGA Bladder Cancer Study Reveals Potential Drug Targets - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with the TCGA Research Network have identified new potential therapeutic targets for a major form of bladder cancer, including important genes and pathways that are disrupted in the disease.

  18. A Serous Peritoneal Cancer Revealing Itself With Double Breast Cancer Metastases in 2 Different Periods.

    PubMed

    Beksac, Kemal; Irkkan, Cigdem; Argun, Guldeniz; Cetin, Bahadir

    2016-12-09

    A 72-year-old woman presented with a mass on the right axilla. This was thought to be an occult breast cancer case, and the patient was treated with modified radical mastectomy, followed by hormonotherapy. Two years later she presented with incarcerated umbilical hernia. Pathology revealed Sister Mary Joseph's nodule inside the hernia sac. Further evaluation revealed that the primary tumor was papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneal surface. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy. Two years later the metastatic tumor was located on the other breast. The disease progressed gradually, and the patient eventually died from disseminated disease. This case is extraordinary in that it first presented with axillary metastasis without abdominal involvement and then later metastasized to the other breast after a long disease-free period.

  19. Revealing the Complexity of Breast Cancer by Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Verigos, John; Magklara, Angeliki

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years the increasing usage of “-omic” platforms, supported by next-generation sequencing, in the analysis of breast cancer samples has tremendously advanced our understanding of the disease. New driver and passenger mutations, rare chromosomal rearrangements and other genomic aberrations identified by whole genome and exome sequencing are providing missing pieces of the genomic architecture of breast cancer. High resolution maps of breast cancer methylomes and sequencing of the miRNA microworld are beginning to paint the epigenomic landscape of the disease. Transcriptomic profiling is giving us a glimpse into the gene regulatory networks that govern the fate of the breast cancer cell. At the same time, integrative analysis of sequencing data confirms an extensive intertumor and intratumor heterogeneity and plasticity in breast cancer arguing for a new approach to the problem. In this review, we report on the latest findings on the molecular characterization of breast cancer using NGS technologies, and we discuss their potential implications for the improvement of existing therapies. PMID:26561834

  20. Nucleome Analysis Reveals Structure-Function Relationships for Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Laura; Chen, Haiming; Brown, Markus; Wangsa, Darawalee; Patterson, Geoff; Camps, Jordi; Omenn, Gilbert S; Ried, Thomas; Rajapakse, Indika

    2017-07-01

    Chromosomal translocations and aneuploidy are hallmarks of cancer genomes; however, the impact of these aberrations on the nucleome (i.e., nuclear structure and gene expression) is not yet understood. Here, the nucleome of the colorectal cancer cell line HT-29 was analyzed using chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) to study genome structure, complemented by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to determine the consequent changes in genome function. Importantly, translocations and copy number changes were identified at high resolution from Hi-C data and the structure-function relationships present in normal cells were maintained in cancer. In addition, a new copy number-based normalization method for Hi-C data was developed to analyze the effect of chromosomal aberrations on local chromatin structure. The data demonstrate that at the site of translocations, the correlation between chromatin organization and gene expression increases; thus, chromatin accessibility more directly reflects transcription. In addition, the homogeneously staining region of chromosome band 8q24 of HT-29, which includes the MYC oncogene, interacts with various loci throughout the genome and is composed of open chromatin. The methods, described herein, can be applied to the assessment of the nucleome in other cell types with chromosomal aberrations.Implications: Findings show that chromosome conformation capture identifies chromosomal abnormalities at high resolution in cancer cells and that these abnormalities alter the relationship between structure and function. Mol Cancer Res; 15(7); 821-30. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. An integrative and comparative study of pan-cancer transcriptomes reveals distinct cancer common and specific signatures

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhen; Zhang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the commonalities and specificities across tumor lineages, we perform a systematic pan-cancer transcriptomic study across 6744 specimens. We find six pan-cancer subnetwork signatures which relate to cell cycle, immune response, Sp1 regulation, collagen, muscle system and angiogenesis. Moreover, four pan-cancer subnetwork signatures demonstrate strong prognostic potential. We also characterize 16 cancer type-specific subnetwork signatures which show diverse implications to somatic mutations, somatic copy number aberrations, DNA methylation alterations and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, some of them are strongly correlated with histological or molecular subtypes, indicating their implications with tumor heterogeneity. In summary, we systematically explore the pan-cancer common and cancer type-specific gene subnetwork signatures across multiple cancers, and reveal distinct commonalities and specificities among cancers at transcriptomic level. PMID:27633916

  2. Subclonal diversification of primary breast cancer revealed by multiregion sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, Lucy R.; Gerstung, Moritz; Knappskog, Stian; Desmedt, Christine; Gundem, Gunes; Van Loo, Peter; Aas, Turid; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Larsimont, Denis; Davies, Helen; Li, Yilong; Ju, Young Seok; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Haugland, Hans Kristian; Lilleng, Peer Kaare; Nik-Zainal, Serena; McLaren, Stuart; Butler, Adam; Martin, Sancha; Glodzik, Dominic; Menzies, Andrew; Raine, Keiran; Hinton, Jonathan; Jones, David; Mudie, Laura J.; Jiang, Bing; Vincent, Delphine; Greene-Colozzi, April; Adnet, Pierre -Yves; Fatima, Aquila; Maetens, Marion; Ignatiadis, Michail; Stratton, Michael R.; Sotiriou, Christos; Richardson, Andrea L.; Lønning, Per Eystein; Wedge, David C.; Campbell, Peter J.

    2015-06-22

    Sequencing cancer genomes may enable tailoring of therapeutics to the underlying biological abnormalities driving a particular patient's tumor. However, sequencing-based strategies rely heavily on representative sampling of tumors. To understand the subclonal structure of primary breast cancer, we applied whole-genome and targeted sequencing to multiple samples from each of 50 patients' tumors (303 samples in total). The extent of subclonal diversification varied among cases and followed spatial patterns. No strict temporal order was evident, with point mutations and rearrangements affecting the most common breast cancer genes, including PIK3CA, TP53, PTEN, BRCA2 and MYC, occurring early in some tumors and late in others. In 13 out of 50 cancers, potentially targetable mutations were subclonal. Landmarks of disease progression, such as resistance to chemotherapy and the acquisition of invasive or metastatic potential, arose within detectable subclones of antecedent lesions. These findings highlight the importance of including analyses of subclonal structure and tumor evolution in clinical trials of primary breast cancer.

  3. Subclonal diversification of primary breast cancer revealed by multiregion sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yates, Lucy R; Gerstung, Moritz; Knappskog, Stian; Desmedt, Christine; Gundem, Gunes; Van Loo, Peter; Aas, Turid; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Larsimont, Denis; Davies, Helen; Li, Yilong; Ju, Young Seok; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Haugland, Hans Kristian; Lilleng, Peer Kaare; Nik-Zainal, Serena; McLaren, Stuart; Butler, Adam; Martin, Sancha; Glodzik, Dominic; Menzies, Andrew; Raine, Keiran; Hinton, Jonathan; Jones, David; Mudie, Laura J; Jiang, Bing; Vincent, Delphine; Greene-Colozzi, April; Adnet, Pierre-Yves; Fatima, Aquila; Maetens, Marion; Ignatiadis, Michail; Stratton, Michael R; Sotiriou, Christos; Richardson, Andrea L; Lønning, Per Eystein; Wedge, David C; Campbell, Peter J

    2015-07-01

    The sequencing of cancer genomes may enable tailoring of therapeutics to the underlying biological abnormalities driving a particular patient's tumor. However, sequencing-based strategies rely heavily on representative sampling of tumors. To understand the subclonal structure of primary breast cancer, we applied whole-genome and targeted sequencing to multiple samples from each of 50 patients' tumors (303 samples in total). The extent of subclonal diversification varied among cases and followed spatial patterns. No strict temporal order was evident, with point mutations and rearrangements affecting the most common breast cancer genes, including PIK3CA, TP53, PTEN, BRCA2 and MYC, occurring early in some tumors and late in others. In 13 out of 50 cancers, potentially targetable mutations were subclonal. Landmarks of disease progression, such as resistance to chemotherapy and the acquisition of invasive or metastatic potential, arose within detectable subclones of antecedent lesions. These findings highlight the importance of including analyses of subclonal structure and tumor evolution in clinical trials of primary breast cancer.

  4. Subclonal diversification of primary breast cancer revealed by multiregion sequencing

    DOE PAGES

    Yates, Lucy R.; Gerstung, Moritz; Knappskog, Stian; ...

    2015-06-22

    Sequencing cancer genomes may enable tailoring of therapeutics to the underlying biological abnormalities driving a particular patient's tumor. However, sequencing-based strategies rely heavily on representative sampling of tumors. To understand the subclonal structure of primary breast cancer, we applied whole-genome and targeted sequencing to multiple samples from each of 50 patients' tumors (303 samples in total). The extent of subclonal diversification varied among cases and followed spatial patterns. No strict temporal order was evident, with point mutations and rearrangements affecting the most common breast cancer genes, including PIK3CA, TP53, PTEN, BRCA2 and MYC, occurring early in some tumors and latemore » in others. In 13 out of 50 cancers, potentially targetable mutations were subclonal. Landmarks of disease progression, such as resistance to chemotherapy and the acquisition of invasive or metastatic potential, arose within detectable subclones of antecedent lesions. These findings highlight the importance of including analyses of subclonal structure and tumor evolution in clinical trials of primary breast cancer.« less

  5. The investigational Aurora kinase A inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237) induces cell cycle G2/M arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy via p38 MAPK and Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Ping; Yang, Yin-Xue; Liu, Qi-Lun; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Wang, Dong; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Alisertib (ALS) is an investigational potent Aurora A kinase inhibitor currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of hematological and non-hematological malignancies. However, its antitumor activity has not been tested in human breast cancer. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ALS on the growth, apoptosis, and autophagy, and the underlying mechanisms in human breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In the current study, we identified that ALS had potent growth-inhibitory, pro-apoptotic, and pro-autophagic effects in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. ALS arrested the cells in G2/M phase in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells which was accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)1/cell division cycle (CDC) 2, CDK2, and cyclin B1 and upregulation of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53, suggesting that ALS induces G2/M arrest through modulation of p53/p21/CDC2/cyclin B1 pathways. ALS induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells; ALS significantly decreased the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), but increased the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein (Bax) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and increased the expression of cleaved caspases 3 and 9. ALS significantly increased the expression level of membrane-bound microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and beclin 1 and induced inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells as indicated by their altered phosphorylation, contributing to the pro-autophagic activities of ALS. Furthermore, treatment with wortmannin markedly downregulated ALS-induced p38 MAPK activation and LC3 conversion. In addition, knockdown of the p38 MAPK gene by ribonucleic acid interference upregulated Akt activation and resulted in LC3-II accumulation. These findings indicate that ALS promotes cellular

  6. The investigational Aurora kinase A inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237) induces cell cycle G2/M arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy via p38 MAPK and Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Ping; Yang, Yin-Xue; Liu, Qi-Lun; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Wang, Dong; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Alisertib (ALS) is an investigational potent Aurora A kinase inhibitor currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of hematological and non-hematological malignancies. However, its antitumor activity has not been tested in human breast cancer. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ALS on the growth, apoptosis, and autophagy, and the underlying mechanisms in human breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In the current study, we identified that ALS had potent growth-inhibitory, pro-apoptotic, and pro-autophagic effects in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. ALS arrested the cells in G2/M phase in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells which was accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)1/cell division cycle (CDC) 2, CDK2, and cyclin B1 and upregulation of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53, suggesting that ALS induces G2/M arrest through modulation of p53/p21/CDC2/cyclin B1 pathways. ALS induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells; ALS significantly decreased the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), but increased the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein (Bax) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and increased the expression of cleaved caspases 3 and 9. ALS significantly increased the expression level of membrane-bound microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and beclin 1 and induced inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells as indicated by their altered phosphorylation, contributing to the pro-autophagic activities of ALS. Furthermore, treatment with wortmannin markedly downregulated ALS-induced p38 MAPK activation and LC3 conversion. In addition, knockdown of the p38 MAPK gene by ribonucleic acid interference upregulated Akt activation and resulted in LC3-II accumulation. These findings indicate that ALS promotes cellular

  7. Salinomycin induces cell death via inactivation of Stat3 and downregulation of Skp2.

    PubMed

    Koo, K H; Kim, H; Bae, Y-K; Kim, K; Park, B-K; Lee, C-H; Kim, Y-N

    2013-06-27

    Salinomycin has been shown to control breast cancer stem cells, although the mechanisms underlying its anticancer effects are not clear. Deregulation of cell cycle regulators play critical roles in tumorigenesis, and they have been considered as anticancer targets. In this study, we investigated salinomycin effect on cell cycle progression using OVCAR-8 ovarian cancer cell line and multidrug-resistant NCI/ADR-RES and DXR cell lines that are derived from OVCAR-8. Parental OVCAR-8 cells are sensitive to several anticancer drugs, but NCI/ADR-RES and DXR cells are resistant to several anticancer drugs. However, salinomycin caused cell growth inhibition and apoptosis via cell cycle arrest at G1 in all three cell lines. Salinomycin inhibited signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activity and thus decreased expression of Stat3-target genes, including cyclin D1, Skp2, and survivin. Salinomycin induced degradation of Skp2 and thus accumulated p27Kip1. Knockdown of Skp2 further increased salinomycin-induced G1 arrest, but knockdown of p27Kip1 attenuated salinomycin effect on G1 arrest. Cdh1, an E3 ligase for Skp2, was shifted to nuclear fractions upon salinomycin treatment. Cdh1 knockdown by siRNA reversed salinomycin-induced Skp2 downregulation and p27Kip1 upregulation, indicating that salinomycin activates the APC(Cdh1)-Skp2-p27Kip1 pathway. Concomitantly, si-Cdh1 inhibited salinomycin-induced G1 arrest. Taken together, our data indicate that salinomycin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via downregulation or inactivation of cell cycle-associated oncogenes, such as Stat3, cyclin D1, and Skp2, regardless of multidrug resistance.

  8. miR-181a and miR-630 regulate cisplatin-induced cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Morselli, Eugenia; Vitale, Ilio; Kepp, Oliver; Senovilla, Laura; Criollo, Alfredo; Servant, Nicolas; Paccard, Caroline; Hupé, Philippe; Robert, Thomas; Ripoche, Hugues; Lazar, Vladimir; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Dessen, Philippe; Barillot, Emmanuel; Kroemer, Guido

    2010-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are noncoding RNAs that regulate multiple cellular processes, including proliferation and apoptosis. We used microarray technology to identify miRNAs that were upregulated by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells in response to cisplatin (CDDP). The corresponding synthetic miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs) per se were not lethal when transfected into A549 cells yet affected cell death induction by CDDP, C2-ceramide, cadmium, etoposide, and mitoxantrone in an inducer-specific fashion. Whereas synthetic miRNA inhibitors (anti-miRNAs) targeting miR-181a and miR-630 failed to modulate the response of A549 to CDDP, pre-miR-181a and pre-miR-630 enhanced and reduced CDDP-triggered cell death, respectively. Pre-miR-181a and pre-miR-630 consistently modulated mitochondrial/postmitochondrial steps of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, including Bax oligomerization, mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation, and the proteolytic maturation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. In addition, pre-miR-630 blocked early manifestations of the DNA damage response, including the phosphorylation of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase and of two ATM substrates, histone H2AX and p53. Pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of p53 corroborated the hypothesis that pre-miR-630 (but not pre-miR-181a) blocks the upstream signaling pathways that are ignited by DNA damage and converge on p53 activation. Pre-miR-630 arrested A549 cells in the G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle, correlating with increased levels of the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1) as well as with reduced proliferation rates and resulting in greatly diminished sensitivity of A549 cells to the late S-G2-M cell cycle arrest mediated by CDDP. Altogether, these results identify miR-181a and miR-630 as novel modulators of the CDDP response in NSCLC.

  9. Molecular Subtyping of Serous Ovarian Tumors Reveals Multiple Connections to Intrinsic Breast Cancer Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Johansson, Ida; Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Kimbung, Siker; Jönsson, Mats; Bonde, Jesper Hansen; Kannisto, Päivi; Måsbäck, Anna; Malander, Susanne; Nilbert, Mef; Hedenfalk, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Objective Transcriptional profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer has revealed molecular subtypes correlating to biological and clinical features. We aimed to determine gene expression differences between malignant, benign and borderline serous ovarian tumors, and investigate similarities with the well-established intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Methods Global gene expression profiling using Illumina's HT12 Bead Arrays was applied to 59 fresh-frozen serous ovarian malignant, benign and borderline tumors. Nearest centroid classification was performed applying previously published gene profiles for the ovarian and breast cancer subtypes. Correlations to gene expression modules representing key biological breast cancer features were also sought. Validation was performed using an independent, publicly available dataset. Results 5,944 genes were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant serous ovarian tumors, with cell cycle processes enriched in the malignant subgroup. Borderline tumors were split between the two clusters. Significant correlations between the malignant serous tumors and the highly aggressive ovarian cancer signatures, and the basal-like breast cancer subtype were found. The benign and borderline serous tumors together were significantly correlated to the normal-like breast cancer subtype and the ovarian cancer signature derived from borderline tumors. The borderline tumors in the study dataset, in addition, also correlated significantly to the luminal A breast cancer subtype. These findings remained when analyzed in an independent dataset, supporting links between the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer and breast cancer beyond those recently acknowledged. Conclusions These data link the transcriptional profiles of serous ovarian cancer to the intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer, in line with the shared clinical and molecular features between high-grade serous ovarian cancer and basal-like breast

  10. Molecular subtyping of serous ovarian tumors reveals multiple connections to intrinsic breast cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Johansson, Ida; Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Kimbung, Siker; Jönsson, Mats; Bonde, Jesper Hansen; Kannisto, Päivi; Måsbäck, Anna; Malander, Susanne; Nilbert, Mef; Hedenfalk, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer has revealed molecular subtypes correlating to biological and clinical features. We aimed to determine gene expression differences between malignant, benign and borderline serous ovarian tumors, and investigate similarities with the well-established intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Global gene expression profiling using Illumina's HT12 Bead Arrays was applied to 59 fresh-frozen serous ovarian malignant, benign and borderline tumors. Nearest centroid classification was performed applying previously published gene profiles for the ovarian and breast cancer subtypes. Correlations to gene expression modules representing key biological breast cancer features were also sought. Validation was performed using an independent, publicly available dataset. 5,944 genes were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant serous ovarian tumors, with cell cycle processes enriched in the malignant subgroup. Borderline tumors were split between the two clusters. Significant correlations between the malignant serous tumors and the highly aggressive ovarian cancer signatures, and the basal-like breast cancer subtype were found. The benign and borderline serous tumors together were significantly correlated to the normal-like breast cancer subtype and the ovarian cancer signature derived from borderline tumors. The borderline tumors in the study dataset, in addition, also correlated significantly to the luminal A breast cancer subtype. These findings remained when analyzed in an independent dataset, supporting links between the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer and breast cancer beyond those recently acknowledged. These data link the transcriptional profiles of serous ovarian cancer to the intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer, in line with the shared clinical and molecular features between high-grade serous ovarian cancer and basal-like breast cancer, and suggest that biomarkers and

  11. Cancer field effects in normal tissues revealed by Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lieber, Chad A.; Nethercott, Hubert E.; Kabeer, Mustafa H.

    2010-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the presence of cancer results in detectable changes to uninvolved tissues, collectively termed cancer field effects (CFE). In this study, we directly assessed the ability of Raman microspectroscopy to detect CFE via in-vitro study of organotypic tissue rafts approximating human skin. Raman spectra were measured from both epidermis and dermis after transfer of the rafts to dishes containing adherent cultures of either normal human fibroblasts or fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells. Principal components analyses allowed discrimination between the groups with 86% classification accuracy in the epidermis and 94% in the dermis. These results encourage further study to evaluate the Raman capacity for detecting CFE as a possible tool for noninvasive screening for tumor presence. PMID:21258523

  12. Genome sequencing of Ewing sarcoma patients reveals genetic predisposition | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The largest and most comprehensive genomic analysis of individuals with Ewing sarcoma performed to date reveals that some patients are genetically predisposed to developing the cancer.  Learn more...

  13. CXCR4-Independent Rescue of the Myeloproliferative Defect of the Gata1low Myelofibrosis Mouse Model by Aplidin®

    PubMed Central

    Verrucci, Maria; Pancrazzi, Alessandro; Aracil, Miguel; Martelli, Fabrizio; Guglielmelli, Paola; Zingariello, Maria; Ghinassi, Barbara; D’amore, Emanuela; José, Jimeno; Vannucchi, Alessandro M.; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of JAK2 mutations in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms has prompted investigators to evaluate mutation-targeted treatments to restore hematopoietic cell functions in these diseases. However, the results of the first clinical trials with JAK2 inhibitors are not as promising as expected, prompting a search for additional drugable targets to treat these disorders. In this paper, we used the hypomorphic Gata1low mouse model of primary myelofibrosis (PMF), the most severe of these neoplasms, to test the hypothesis that defective marrow hemopoiesis and development of extramedullary hematopoiesis in myelofibrosis is due to insufficient p27Kip 1 activity and is treatable by Aplidin®, a cyclic depsipeptide that activates p27 kip 1 in several cancer cells. Aplidin® restored expression of Gata1 and p27Kip 1 in Gata1 low hematopoietic cells, proliferation of marrow progenitor cells in vitro and maturation of megakaryocytes in vivo (reducing TGF-β/VEGF levels released in the microenvironment by immature Gata1 low megakaryocytes). Microvessel density, fibrosis, bone growth, and marrow cellularity were normal in Aplidin®-treated mice and extramedullary hematopoiesis did not develop in liver although CXCR4 expression in Gata1low progenitor cells remained low. These results indicate that Aplidin® effectively alters the natural history of myelofibrosis in Gata1low mice and suggest this drug as candidate for clinical evaluation in PMF. PMID:20458749

  14. CXCR4-independent rescue of the myeloproliferative defect of the Gata1low myelofibrosis mouse model by Aplidin.

    PubMed

    Verrucci, Maria; Pancrazzi, Alessandro; Aracil, Miguel; Martelli, Fabrizio; Guglielmelli, Paola; Zingariello, Maria; Ghinassi, Barbara; D'Amore, Emanuela; Jimeno, José; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2010-11-01

    The discovery of JAK2 mutations in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms has prompted investigators to evaluate mutation-targeted treatments to restore hematopoietic cell functions in these diseases. However, the results of the first clinical trials with JAK2 inhibitors are not as promising as expected, prompting a search for additional drugable targets to treat these disorders. In this paper, we used the hypomorphic Gata1(low) mouse model of primary myelofibrosis (PMF), the most severe of these neoplasms, to test the hypothesis that defective marrow hemopoiesis and development of extramedullary hematopoiesis in myelofibrosis is due to insufficient p27(Kip1) activity and is treatable by Aplidin, a cyclic depsipeptide that activates p27(Kip1) in several cancer cells. Aplidin restored expression of Gata1 and p27(Kip1) in Gata1(low) hematopoietic cells, proliferation of marrow progenitor cells in vitro and maturation of megakaryocytes in vivo (reducing TGF-beta/VEGF levels released in the microenvironment by immature Gata1(low) megakaryocytes). Microvessel density, fibrosis, bone growth, and marrow cellularity were normal in Aplidin-treated mice and extramedullary hematopoiesis did not develop in liver although CXCR4 expression in Gata1(low) progenitor cells remained low. These results indicate that Aplidin effectively alters the natural history of myelofibrosis in Gata1(low) mice and suggest this drug as candidate for clinical evaluation in PMF. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Disassembly of the lens fiber cell nucleus to create a clear lens: The p27 descent.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Sheldon; Chang, Min-Lee; Reznikov, Natalie; Taylor, Allen

    2017-03-01

    The eye lens is unique among tissues: it is transparent, does not form tumors, and the majority of its cells degrade their organelles, including their cell nuclei. A mystery for over a century, there has been considerable recent progress in elucidating mechanisms of lens fiber cell denucleation (LFCD). In contrast to the disassembly and reassembly of the cell nucleus during mitosis, LFCD is a unidirectional process that culminates in destruction of the fiber cell nucleus. Whereas p27(Kip1), the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, is upregulated during formation of LFC in the outermost cortex, in the inner cortex, in the nascent organelle free zone, p27(Kip1) is degraded, markedly activating cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1). This process results in phosphorylation of nuclear Lamins, dissociation of the nuclear membrane, and entry of lysosomes that liberate DNaseIIβ (DLAD) to cleave chromatin. Multiple cellular pathways, including the ubiquitin proteasome system and the unfolded protein response, converge on post-translational regulation of p27(Kip1). Mutations that impair these pathways are associated with congenital cataracts and loss of LFCD. These findings highlight new regulatory nodes in the lens and suggest that we are close to understanding this fascinating terminal differentiation process. Such knowledge may offer a new means to confront proliferative diseases including cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Melatonin as a negative mitogenic hormonal regulator of human prostate epithelial cell growth: potential mechanisms and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Tam, Chun W; Chan, Kwok W; Liu, Vincent W S; Pang, Bo; Yao, Kwok-Ming; Shiu, Stephen Y W

    2008-11-01

    Circannual variation in the human serum levels of prostate-specific antigen, a growth marker of the prostate gland, has been reported recently. The present study was conducted to investigate the role of the photoperiodic hormone melatonin (MLT) and its membrane receptors in the modulation of human prostate growth. Expression of MT(1) and MT(2) receptors was detected in benign human prostatic epithelial tissues and RWPE-1 cells. MLT and 2-iodomelatonin inhibited RWPE-1 cell proliferation and up-regulated p27(Kip1) gene and protein expression in the cells. The effects of MLT were blocked by the nonselective MT(1)/MT(2) receptor antagonist luzindole, but were not affected by the selective MT(2) receptor antagonist 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetraline. Of note, the antiproliferative action of MLT on benign prostate epithelial RWPE-1 cells was effected via increased p27(Kip1) gene transcription through MT(1) receptor-mediated activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) in parallel, a signaling process which has previously been demonstrated in 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. Taken together, the demonstration of the MT(1)/PKA+PKC/p27(Kip1) antiproliferative pathway in benign and malignant prostate epithelial cell lines indicated the potential importance of this MLT receptor-mediated signaling mechanism in growth regulation of the human prostate gland in health and disease. Collectively, our data support the hypothesis that MLT may function as a negative mitogenic hormonal regulator of human prostate epithelial cell growth.

  17. Danusertib, a potent pan-Aurora kinase and ABL kinase inhibitor, induces cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death and inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition involving the PI3K/Akt/mTOR-mediated signaling pathway in human gastric cancer AGS and NCI-N78 cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chun-Xiu; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Yin-Xue; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Wang, Dong; Yang, Tianxing; Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with a poor response to current chemotherapy. Danusertib is a pan-inhibitor of the Aurora kinases and a third-generation Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potent anticancer effects, but its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of human gastric cancer are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of danusertib on cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition and the molecular mechanisms involved in human gastric cancer AGS and NCI-N78 cells. The results showed that danusertib had potent growth-inhibitory, apoptosis-inducing, and autophagy-inducing effects on AGS and NCI-N78 cells. Danusertib arrested AGS and NCI-N78 cells in G2/M phase, with downregulation of expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and upregulation of expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. Danusertib induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, with an increase in expression of proapoptotic protein and a decrease in antiapoptotic proteins in both cell lines. Danusertib induced release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol and triggered activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. Further, danusertib induced autophagy, with an increase in expression of beclin 1 and conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-I) to LC3-II in both cell lines. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways as well as activation of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase contributed to the proautophagic effect of danusertib in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. SB202191 and wortmannin enhanced the autophagy-inducing effect of danusertib in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. In addition, danusertib inhibited epithelial to mesenchymal transition with an increase in expression of E-cadherin and a decrease in expression of

  18. Danusertib, a potent pan-Aurora kinase and ABL kinase inhibitor, induces cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death and inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition involving the PI3K/Akt/mTOR-mediated signaling pathway in human gastric cancer AGS and NCI-N78 cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chun-Xiu; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Yin-Xue; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Wang, Dong; Yang, Tianxing; Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with a poor response to current chemotherapy. Danusertib is a pan-inhibitor of the Aurora kinases and a third-generation Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potent anticancer effects, but its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of human gastric cancer are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of danusertib on cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition and the molecular mechanisms involved in human gastric cancer AGS and NCI-N78 cells. The results showed that danusertib had potent growth-inhibitory, apoptosis-inducing, and autophagy-inducing effects on AGS and NCI-N78 cells. Danusertib arrested AGS and NCI-N78 cells in G2/M phase, with downregulation of expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and upregulation of expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. Danusertib induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, with an increase in expression of proapoptotic protein and a decrease in antiapoptotic proteins in both cell lines. Danusertib induced release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol and triggered activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. Further, danusertib induced autophagy, with an increase in expression of beclin 1 and conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-I) to LC3-II in both cell lines. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways as well as activation of 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase contributed to the proautophagic effect of danusertib in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. SB202191 and wortmannin enhanced the autophagy-inducing effect of danusertib in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. In addition, danusertib inhibited epithelial to mesenchymal transition with an increase in expression of E-cadherin and a decrease in expression

  19. Proteogenomic integration reveals therapeutic targets in breast cancer xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kuan-lin; Li, Shunqiang; Mertins, Philipp; Cao, Song; Gunawardena, Harsha P.; Ruggles, Kelly V.; Mani, D. R.; Clauser, Karl R.; Tanioka, Maki; Usary, Jerry; Kavuri, Shyam M.; Xie, Ling; Yoon, Christopher; Qiao, Jana W; Wrobel, John; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Snider, Jacqueline E.; Hoog, Jeremy; Singh, Purba; Niu, Beifung; Guo, Zhanfang; Sun, Sam Qiancheng; Sanati, Souzan; Kawaler, Emily; Wang, Xuya; Scott, Adam; Ye, Kai; McLellan, Michael D.; Wendl, Michael C.; Malovannaya, Anna; Held, Jason M.; Gillette, Michael A.; Fenyö, David; Kinsinger, Christopher R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Davies, Sherri R.; Perou, Charles M.; Ma, Cynthia; Reid Townsend, R.; Chen, Xian; Carr, Steven A.; Ellis, Matthew J.; Ding, Li

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have enabled extensive analysis of cancer proteomes. Here, we employed quantitative proteomics to profile protein expression across 24 breast cancer patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. Integrated proteogenomic analysis shows positive correlation between expression measurements from transcriptomic and proteomic analyses; further, gene expression-based intrinsic subtypes are largely re-capitulated using non-stromal protein markers. Proteogenomic analysis also validates a number of predicted genomic targets in multiple receptor tyrosine kinases. However, several protein/phosphoprotein events such as overexpression of AKT proteins and ARAF, BRAF, HSP90AB1 phosphosites are not readily explainable by genomic analysis, suggesting that druggable translational and/or post-translational regulatory events may be uniquely diagnosed by MS. Drug treatment experiments targeting HER2 and components of the PI3K pathway supported proteogenomic response predictions in seven xenograft models. Our study demonstrates that MS-based proteomics can identify therapeutic targets and highlights the potential of PDX drug response evaluation to annotate MS-based pathway activities. PMID:28348404

  20. Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes.

    PubMed

    Biankin, Andrew V; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B; Johns, Amber L; Miller, David K; Wilson, Peter J; Patch, Ann-Marie; Wu, Jianmin; Chang, David K; Cowley, Mark J; Gardiner, Brooke B; Song, Sarah; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Wani, Shivangi; Gongora, Milena; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J; Gill, Anthony J; Pinho, Andreia V; Rooman, Ilse; Anderson, Matthew; Holmes, Oliver; Leonard, Conrad; Taylor, Darrin; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Nones, Katia; Fink, J Lynn; Christ, Angelika; Bruxner, Tim; Cloonan, Nicole; Kolle, Gabriel; Newell, Felicity; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R Scott; Humphris, Jeremy L; Kaplan, Warren; Jones, Marc D; Colvin, Emily K; Nagrial, Adnan M; Humphrey, Emily S; Chou, Angela; Chin, Venessa T; Chantrill, Lorraine A; Mawson, Amanda; Samra, Jaswinder S; Kench, James G; Lovell, Jessica A; Daly, Roger J; Merrett, Neil D; Toon, Christopher; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Kakkar, Nipun; Zhao, Fengmei; Wu, Yuan Qing; Wang, Min; Muzny, Donna M; Fisher, William E; Brunicardi, F Charles; Hodges, Sally E; Reid, Jeffrey G; Drummond, Jennifer; Chang, Kyle; Han, Yi; Lewis, Lora R; Dinh, Huyen; Buhay, Christian J; Beck, Timothy; Timms, Lee; Sam, Michelle; Begley, Kimberly; Brown, Andrew; Pai, Deepa; Panchal, Ami; Buchner, Nicholas; De Borja, Richard; Denroche, Robert E; Yung, Christina K; Serra, Stefano; Onetto, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A; Petersen, Gloria M; Gallinger, Steven; Hruban, Ralph H; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Schulick, Richard D; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Morgan, Richard A; Lawlor, Rita T; Capelli, Paola; Corbo, Vincenzo; Scardoni, Maria; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A; Mann, Karen M; Jenkins, Nancy A; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A; Adams, David J; Largaespada, David A; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Rust, Alistair G; Stein, Lincoln D; Tuveson, David A; Copeland, Neal G; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Scarpa, Aldo; Eshleman, James R; Hudson, Thomas J; Sutherland, Robert L; Wheeler, David A; Pearson, John V; McPherson, John D; Gibbs, Richard A; Grimmond, Sean M

    2012-11-15

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

  1. Sleeping Beauty screen reveals Pparg activation in metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Imran; Mui, Ernest; Galbraith, Laura; Patel, Rachana; Tan, Ee Hong; Salji, Mark; Rust, Alistair G; Repiscak, Peter; Hedley, Ann; Markert, Elke; Loveridge, Carolyn; van der Weyden, Louise; Edwards, Joanne; Sansom, Owen J; Adams, David J; Leung, Hing Y

    2016-07-19

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common adult male cancer in the developed world. The paucity of biomarkers to predict prostate tumor biology makes it important to identify key pathways that confer poor prognosis and guide potential targeted therapy. Using a murine forward mutagenesis screen in a Pten-null background, we identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), encoding a ligand-activated transcription factor, as a promoter of metastatic CaP through activation of lipid signaling pathways, including up-regulation of lipid synthesis enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)]. Importantly, inhibition of PPARG suppressed tumor growth in vivo, with down-regulation of the lipid synthesis program. We show that elevated levels of PPARG strongly correlate with elevation of FASN in human CaP and that high levels of PPARG/FASN and PI3K/pAKT pathway activation confer a poor prognosis. These data suggest that CaP patients could be stratified in terms of PPARG/FASN and PTEN levels to identify patients with aggressive CaP who may respond favorably to PPARG/FASN inhibition.

  2. Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes

    PubMed Central

    Biankin, Andrew V.; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S.; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B.; Johns, Amber L.; Miller, David K.; Wilson, Peter J.; Patch, Ann-Marie; Wu, Jianmin; Chang, David K.; Cowley, Mark J.; Gardiner, Brooke B.; Song, Sarah; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Wani, Shivangi; Gongora, Milena; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Gill, Anthony J.; Pinho, Andreia V.; Rooman, Ilse; Anderson, Matthew; Holmes, Oliver; Leonard, Conrad; Taylor, Darrin; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Nones, Katia; Fink, J. Lynn; Christ, Angelika; Bruxner, Tim; Cloonan, Nicole; Kolle, Gabriel; Newell, Felicity; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R. Scott; Humphris, Jeremy L.; Kaplan, Warren; Jones, Marc D.; Colvin, Emily K.; Nagrial, Adnan M.; Humphrey, Emily S.; Chou, Angela; Chin, Venessa T.; Chantrill, Lorraine A.; Mawson, Amanda; Samra, Jaswinder S.; Kench, James G.; Lovell, Jessica A.; Daly, Roger J.; Merrett, Neil D.; Toon, Christopher; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q.; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Kakkar, Nipun; Zhao, Fengmei; Wu, Yuan Qing; Wang, Min; Muzny, Donna M.; Fisher, William E.; Brunicardi, F. Charles; Hodges, Sally E.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Drummond, Jennifer; Chang, Kyle; Han, Yi; Lewis, Lora R.; Dinh, Huyen; Buhay, Christian J.; Beck, Timothy; Timms, Lee; Sam, Michelle; Begley, Kimberly; Brown, Andrew; Pai, Deepa; Panchal, Ami; Buchner, Nicholas; De Borja, Richard; Denroche, Robert E.; Yung, Christina K.; Serra, Stefano; Onetto, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Gallinger, Steven; Hruban, Ralph H.; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Schulick, Richard D.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Morgan, Richard A.; Lawlor, Rita T.; Capelli, Paola; Corbo, Vincenzo; Scardoni, Maria; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A.; Mann, Karen M.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A.; Adams, David J.; Largaespada, David A.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Rust, Alistair G.; Stein, Lincoln D.; Tuveson, David A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Musgrove, Elizabeth A.; Scarpa, Aldo; Eshleman, James R.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Wheeler, David A.; Pearson, John V.; McPherson, John D.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Grimmond, Sean M.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis. PMID:23103869

  3. Sleeping Beauty screen reveals Pparg activation in metastatic prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Imran; Mui, Ernest; Galbraith, Laura; Patel, Rachana; Tan, Ee Hong; Salji, Mark; Rust, Alistair G.; Repiscak, Peter; Hedley, Ann; Markert, Elke; Loveridge, Carolyn; van der Weyden, Louise; Edwards, Joanne; Sansom, Owen J.; Adams, David J.; Leung, Hing Y.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common adult male cancer in the developed world. The paucity of biomarkers to predict prostate tumor biology makes it important to identify key pathways that confer poor prognosis and guide potential targeted therapy. Using a murine forward mutagenesis screen in a Pten-null background, we identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), encoding a ligand-activated transcription factor, as a promoter of metastatic CaP through activation of lipid signaling pathways, including up-regulation of lipid synthesis enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)]. Importantly, inhibition of PPARG suppressed tumor growth in vivo, with down-regulation of the lipid synthesis program. We show that elevated levels of PPARG strongly correlate with elevation of FASN in human CaP and that high levels of PPARG/FASN and PI3K/pAKT pathway activation confer a poor prognosis. These data suggest that CaP patients could be stratified in terms of PPARG/FASN and PTEN levels to identify patients with aggressive CaP who may respond favorably to PPARG/FASN inhibition. PMID:27357679

  4. Neurotropic and neuroprotective activities of the earthworm peptide Lumbricusin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Hwang, Jae Sam; Seok, Heon; Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun; Kim, Jae Il; Kim, Ho

    2014-06-06

    We recently isolated a polypeptide from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris that is structurally similar to defensin, a well-known antibacterial peptide. An 11-mer antibacterial peptide (NH2-RNRRWCIDQQA), designated Lumbricusin, was synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the isolated polypeptide. Since we previously reported that CopA3, a dung beetle peptide, enhanced neuronal cell proliferation, we here examined whether Lumbricusin exerted neurotropic and/or neuroprotective effects. Lumbricusin treatment induced a time-dependent increase (∼51%) in the proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lumbricusin also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and decreased viability induced by treatment with 6-hydroxy dopamine, a Parkinson's disease-mimicking agent. Immunoblot analyses revealed that Lumbricusin treatment increased ubiquitination of p27(Kip1) protein, a negative regulator of cell-cycle progression, in SH-SY5Y cells, and markedly promoted its degradation. Notably, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of p27(Kip1) significantly blocked the antiapoptotic effect of Lumbricusin in 6-hydroxy dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that promotion of p27(Kip1) degradation may be the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective and neurotropic effects of Lumbricusin.

  5. Intravital imaging reveals new ancillary mechanisms co-opted by cancer cells to drive tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Morghan C.; Timpson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Intravital imaging is providing new insights into the dynamics of tumor progression in native tissues and has started to reveal the layers of complexity found in cancer. Recent advances in intravital imaging have allowed us to look deeper into cancer behavior and to dissect the interactions between tumor cells and the ancillary host niche that promote cancer development. In this review, we provide an insight into the latest advances in cancer biology achieved by intravital imaging, focusing on recently discovered mechanisms by which tumor cells manipulate normal tissue to facilitate disease progression. PMID:27239290

  6. A comparison of cancer burden and research spending reveals discrepancies in the distribution of research funding

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ideally, the distribution of research funding for different types of cancer should be equitable with respect to the societal burden each type of cancer imposes. These burdens can be estimated in a variety of ways; “Years of Life Lost” (YLL) measures the severity of death in regard to the age it occurs, "Disability-Adjusted Life-Years" (DALY) estimates the effects of non-lethal disabilities incurred by disease and economic metrics focus on the losses to tax revenue, productivity or direct medical expenses. We compared research funding from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to a variety of burden metrics for the most common types of cancer to identify mismatches between spending and societal burden. Methods Research funding levels were obtained from the NCI website and information for societal health and economic burdens were collected from government databases and published reports. We calculated the funding levels per unit burden for a wide range of different cancers and burden metrics and compared these values to identify discrepancies. Results Our analysis reveals a considerable mismatch between funding levels and burden. Some cancers are funded at levels far higher than their relative burden suggests (breast cancer, prostate cancer, and leukemia) while other cancers appear underfunded (bladder, esophageal, liver, oral, pancreatic, stomach, and uterine cancers). Conclusions These discrepancies indicate that an improved method of health care research funding allocation should be investigated to better match funding levels to societal burden. PMID:22800364

  7. Potential microRNA-mediated oncogenic intercellular communication revealed by pan-cancer analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Zhaolei

    2014-11-01

    Carcinogenesis consists of oncogenesis and metastasis, and intriguingly microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in both processes. Although aberrant miRNA activities are prevalent in diverse tumor types, the exact mechanisms for how they regulate cancerous processes are not always clear. To this end, we performed a large-scale pan-cancer analysis via a novel probabilistic approach to infer recurrent miRNA-target interactions implicated in 12 cancer types using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We discovered ~20,000 recurrent miRNA regulations, which are enriched for cancer-related miRNAs/genes. Notably, miRNA 200 family (miR-200/141/429) is among the most prominent miRNA regulators, which is known to be involved in metastasis. Importantly, the recurrent miRNA regulatory network is not only enriched for cancer pathways but also for extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and ECM-receptor interactions. The results suggest an intriguing cancer mechanism involving miRNA-mediated cell-to-cell communication, which possibly involves delivery of tumorigenic miRNA messengers to adjacent cells via exosomes. Finally, survival analysis revealed 414 recurrent-prognostic associations, where both gene and miRNA involved in each interaction conferred significant prognostic power in one or more cancer types. Together, our comprehensive pan-cancer analysis provided not only biological insights into metastasis but also brought to bear the clinical relevance of the proposed recurrent miRNA-gene associations.

  8. Potential microRNA-mediated oncogenic intercellular communication revealed by pan-cancer analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Zhaolei

    2014-11-18

    Carcinogenesis consists of oncogenesis and metastasis, and intriguingly microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in both processes. Although aberrant miRNA activities are prevalent in diverse tumor types, the exact mechanisms for how they regulate cancerous processes are not always clear. To this end, we performed a large-scale pan-cancer analysis via a novel probabilistic approach to infer recurrent miRNA-target interactions implicated in 12 cancer types using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We discovered ~20,000 recurrent miRNA regulations, which are enriched for cancer-related miRNAs/genes. Notably, miRNA 200 family (miR-200/141/429) is among the most prominent miRNA regulators, which is known to be involved in metastasis. Importantly, the recurrent miRNA regulatory network is not only enriched for cancer pathways but also for extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and ECM-receptor interactions. The results suggest an intriguing cancer mechanism involving miRNA-mediated cell-to-cell communication, which possibly involves delivery of tumorigenic miRNA messengers to adjacent cells via exosomes. Finally, survival analysis revealed 414 recurrent-prognostic associations, where both gene and miRNA involved in each interaction conferred significant prognostic power in one or more cancer types. Together, our comprehensive pan-cancer analysis provided not only biological insights into metastasis but also brought to bear the clinical relevance of the proposed recurrent miRNA-gene associations.

  9. An international survey of physician attitudes and practice in regard to revealing the diagnosis of cancer.

    PubMed

    Holland, J C; Geary, N; Marchini, A; Tross, S

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, questionnaires were sent to members of the International Psycho-Oncology Society concerning the practice in their country with regard to revealing the diagnosis of cancer to patients, their opinion about the effect of their policy, and their impression of local trends and attitudes toward cancer. Data from 90 respondents from 20 countries revealed that use of the word "cancer" was often avoided in discussions with the patient. Words commonly substituted for cancer were those that implied a "swelling" (e.g., tumor, growth, lump), and "inflammation," or a pathophysiologic change (blood disease, precancerous, unclean tissue). Oncologists estimated that a low percentage (less than 40%) of their colleagues revealed the word cancer in Africa, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Panama, Portugal, and Spain. Oncologists from Austria, Denmark Finland, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland, estimated the percentage to be high (greater than 80%). However, in all countries, the majority of physicians tell the family the diagnosis. The majority (90%) reported a trend toward increased telling of the diagnosis, due to greater patient information and expectations, and increased physician openess in using the word cancer. Most (68%) felt that the overall effect of revealing the diagnosis was positive. While emotional distress was transiently greater when patients were told, there were positive effects concerning coping, compliance, tolerance of treatment, planning for future, communication with physicians and others, and improved prognosis. The transient negative effects were depression, anxiety, and anger. It is important to recognize that efforts to find the "correct" position about revealing or concealing cancer diagnosis must recognize that the language between doctor and patient is constrained by cultural norms. Communication is likely to be far less dependent upon the specific words used then upon the meaning that is conveyed by the doctor.

  10. Breast Cancer in Three Dimensions: Revealing Telomere Dysfunction in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    family with multiple cancers. Genetique humaine au Quebec: Qui fait quoi? Réseau de médecine génétique appliqués du FRSQ. Abstract # 46. 12. Evans...Tonin PN, Rosenblatt DS and Foulkes WD: Ascertainment of familial cancers in McGill Hereditary Cancer Clinics. Les Journees Genetiques ’ 98: Réseau de...Founder BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in French-Canadian breast and ovarian cancer families. Les Journees Genetiques ’ 98: Réseau de médecine génétique

  11. Genome-wide transcript profiling reveals novel breast cancer-associated intronic sense RNAs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Woo; Fishilevich, Elane; Arango-Argoty, Gustavo; Lin, Yuefeng; Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhihua; Monaghan, A Paula; Nichols, Mark; John, Bino

    2015-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play major roles in development and cancer progression. To identify novel ncRNAs that may identify key pathways in breast cancer development, we performed high-throughput transcript profiling of tumor and normal matched-pair tissue samples. Initial transcriptome profiling using high-density genome-wide tiling arrays revealed changes in over 200 novel candidate genomic regions that map to intronic regions. Sixteen genomic loci were identified that map to the long introns of five key protein-coding genes, CRIM1, EPAS1, ZEB2, RBMS1, and RFX2. Consistent with the known role of the tumor suppressor ZEB2 in the cancer-associated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), in situ hybridization reveals that the intronic regions deriving from ZEB2 as well as those from RFX2 and EPAS1 are down-regulated in cells of epithelial morphology, suggesting that these regions may be important for maintaining normal epithelial cell morphology. Paired-end deep sequencing analysis reveals a large number of distinct genomic clusters with no coding potential within the introns of these genes. These novel transcripts are only transcribed from the coding strand. A comprehensive search for breast cancer associated genes reveals enrichment for transcribed intronic regions from these loci, pointing to an underappreciated role of introns or mechanisms relating to their biology in EMT and breast cancer.

  12. Genome-Wide Transcript Profiling Reveals Novel Breast Cancer-Associated Intronic Sense RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuefeng; Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhihua; Monaghan, A. Paula; Nichols, Mark; John, Bino

    2015-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play major roles in development and cancer progression. To identify novel ncRNAs that may identify key pathways in breast cancer development, we performed high-throughput transcript profiling of tumor and normal matched-pair tissue samples. Initial transcriptome profiling using high-density genome-wide tiling arrays revealed changes in over 200 novel candidate genomic regions that map to intronic regions. Sixteen genomic loci were identified that map to the long introns of five key protein-coding genes, CRIM1, EPAS1, ZEB2, RBMS1, and RFX2. Consistent with the known role of the tumor suppressor ZEB2 in the cancer-associated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), in situ hybridization reveals that the intronic regions deriving from ZEB2 as well as those from RFX2 and EPAS1 are down-regulated in cells of epithelial morphology, suggesting that these regions may be important for maintaining normal epithelial cell morphology. Paired-end deep sequencing analysis reveals a large number of distinct genomic clusters with no coding potential within the introns of these genes. These novel transcripts are only transcribed from the coding strand. A comprehensive search for breast cancer associated genes reveals enrichment for transcribed intronic regions from these loci, pointing to an underappreciated role of introns or mechanisms relating to their biology in EMT and breast cancer. PMID:25798919

  13. A Balanced Tissue Composition Reveals New Metabolic and Gene Expression Markers in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tessem, May-Britt; Bertilsson, Helena; Angelsen, Anders; Bathen, Tone F.; Drabløs, Finn; Rye, Morten Beck

    2016-01-01

    Molecular analysis of patient tissue samples is essential to characterize the in vivo variability in human cancers which are not accessible in cell-lines or animal models. This applies particularly to studies of tumor metabolism. The challenge is, however, the complex mixture of various tissue types within each sample, such as benign epithelium, stroma and cancer tissue, which can introduce systematic biases when cancers are compared to normal samples. In this study we apply a simple strategy to remove such biases using sample selections where the average content of stroma tissue is balanced between the sample groups. The strategy is applied to a prostate cancer patient cohort where data from MR spectroscopy and gene expression have been collected from and integrated on the exact same tissue samples. We reveal in vivo changes in cancer-relevant metabolic pathways which are otherwise hidden in the data due to tissue confounding. In particular, lowered levels of putrescine are connected to increased expression of SRM, reduced levels of citrate are attributed to upregulation of genes promoting fatty acid synthesis, and increased succinate levels coincide with reduced expression of SUCLA2 and SDHD. In addition, the strategy also highlights important metabolic differences between the stroma, epithelium and prostate cancer. These results show that important in vivo metabolic features of cancer can be revealed from patient data only if the heterogeneous tissue composition is properly accounted for in the analysis. PMID:27100877

  14. Large-scale analysis of chromosomal aberrations in cancer karyotypes reveals two distinct paths to aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chromosomal aneuploidy, that is to say the gain or loss of chromosomes, is the most common abnormality in cancer. While certain aberrations, most commonly translocations, are known to be strongly associated with specific cancers and contribute to their formation, most aberrations appear to be non-specific and arbitrary, and do not have a clear effect. The understanding of chromosomal aneuploidy and its role in tumorigenesis is a fundamental open problem in cancer biology. Results We report on a systematic study of the characteristics of chromosomal aberrations in cancers, using over 15,000 karyotypes and 62 cancer classes in the Mitelman Database. Remarkably, we discovered a very high co-occurrence rate of chromosome gains with other chromosome gains, and of losses with losses. Gains and losses rarely show significant co-occurrence. This finding was consistent across cancer classes and was confirmed on an independent comparative genomic hybridization dataset of cancer samples. The results of our analysis are available for further investigation via an accompanying website. Conclusions The broad generality and the intricate characteristics of the dichotomy of aneuploidy, ranging across numerous tumor classes, are revealed here rigorously for the first time using statistical analyses of large-scale datasets. Our finding suggests that aneuploid cancer cells may use extra chromosome gain or loss events to restore a balance in their altered protein ratios, needed for maintaining their cellular fitness. PMID:21714908

  15. Metabolomic profiling reveals potential markers and bioprocesses altered in bladder cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Putluri, Nagireddy; Shojaie, Ali; Vasu, Vihas T; Vareed, Shaiju K; Nalluri, Srilatha; Putluri, Vasanta; Thangjam, Gagan Singh; Panzitt, Katrin; Tallman, Christopher T; Butler, Charles; Sana, Theodore R; Fischer, Steven M; Sica, Gabriel; Brat, Daniel J; Shi, Huidong; Palapattu, Ganesh S; Lotan, Yair; Weizer, Alon Z; Terris, Martha K; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Michailidis, George; Sreekumar, Arun

    2011-12-15

    Although alterations in xenobiotic metabolism are considered causal in the development of bladder cancer, the precise mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In this study, we used high-throughput mass spectrometry to measure over 2,000 compounds in 58 clinical specimens, identifying 35 metabolites which exhibited significant changes in bladder cancer. This metabolic signature distinguished both normal and benign bladder from bladder cancer. Exploratory analyses of this metabolomic signature in urine showed promise in distinguishing bladder cancer from controls and also nonmuscle from muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Subsequent enrichment-based bioprocess mapping revealed alterations in phase I/II metabolism and suggested a possible role for DNA methylation in perturbing xenobiotic metabolism in bladder cancer. In particular, we validated tumor-associated hypermethylation in the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) promoters of bladder cancer tissues by bisulfite sequence analysis and methylation-specific PCR and also by in vitro treatment of T-24 bladder cancer cell line with the DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Furthermore, we showed that expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 was reduced significantly in an independent cohort of bladder cancer specimens compared with matched benign adjacent tissues. In summary, our findings identified candidate diagnostic and prognostic markers and highlighted mechanisms associated with the silencing of xenobiotic metabolism. The metabolomic signature we describe offers potential as a urinary biomarker for early detection and staging of bladder cancer, highlighting the utility of evaluating metabolomic profiles of cancer to gain insights into bioprocesses perturbed during tumor development and progression.

  16. Oncogenic signals of HER-2/neu in regulating the stability of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27.

    PubMed

    Yang, H Y; Zhou, B P; Hung, M C; Lee, M H

    2000-08-11

    Overexpression and activation of HER-2/neu, a proto-oncogene, play a pivotal role in cancer formation. Strong expression of HER-2/neu in cancers has been associated with poor prognosis. Reduced expression of p27(Kip1), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, correlates with poor clinical outcome in many types of carcinomas. Because many cancers with the overexpression of HER-2/neu overlap with those affected by reduced p27 expression, we studied the link between HER-2/neu oncogenic signals and p27 regulation. We found that down-regulation of p27 correlates with HER-2/neu overexpression. To address the molecular mechanism of this inverse correlation, we found that reduction of p27 is caused by enhanced ubiquitin-mediated degradation, and the HER-2/Grb2/MAPK pathway is involved in the decrease of p27 stability. Also, HER-2/neu activity causes mislocation of p27 and Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1), an exporter of p27, into the cytoplasm, thereby facilitating p27 degradation. These results reveal that HER-2/neu signals reduce p27 stability and thus present potential points for therapeutic intervention in HER-2/neu-associated cancers.

  17. Multipronged quantitative proteomics reveals serum proteome alterations in breast cancer intrinsic subtypes.

    PubMed

    Gajbhiye, Akshada; Dabhi, Raju; Taunk, Khushman; Jagadeeshaprasad, Mashanipalya G; RoyChoudhury, Sourav; Mane, Anupama; Bayatigeri, Santhakumari; Chaudhury, Koel; Santra, Manas K; Rapole, Srikanth

    2017-06-23

    Being molecularly heterogeneous, breast cancer tends to be a complicated oncological disease with high incidence rates throughout the world. The primary aim of this study was to identify the set of serum proteins with discriminatory capabilities towards the four major subtypes of breast cancer. We employed multipronged quantitative proteomic approaches like 2D-DIGE, iTRAQ and SWATH-MS and identified 307 differentially regulated proteins. Luminal A subtype consisted of 24, Luminal B subtype 38, HER2 Enriched subtype 17 and Triple negative breast cancer subtype 10 differentially regulated subtype specific proteins. These specific proteins were further subjected to bioinformatic tools which revealed the involvement in platelet degranulation, fibrinolysis, lipid metabolism, immune response, complement activation, blood coagulation, glycolysis and cancer signaling pathways in the subtypes of the breast cancer. The significant discrimination efficiency of the models generated through multivariate statistical analysis was decent to distinguish each of the four subtypes from controls. Further, some of the statistically significant differentially regulated proteins were verified and validated by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry based selected reaction monitoring (SRM) approach. Our Multipronged proteomics approaches revealed panel of serum proteins specifically altered for individual subtypes of breast cancer. The mass spectrometry data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006441. Worldwide, breast cancer continues to be one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths in women and it encompasses four major molecular subtypes. As breast cancer treatment majorly depends on identification of specific subtype, it is important to diagnosis the disease at subtype level. Our results using multipronged quantitative proteomics identified 307 differentially regulated proteins in which 24 were specific for Luminal A, 38 for Luminal B, 17 for HER2 enriched and 10

  18. Novel personalized pathway-based metabolomics models reveal key metabolic pathways for breast cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sijia; Chong, Nicole; Lewis, Nathan E; Jia, Wei; Xie, Guoxiang; Garmire, Lana X

    2016-03-31

    More accurate diagnostic methods are pressingly needed to diagnose breast cancer, the most common malignant cancer in women worldwide. Blood-based metabolomics is a promising diagnostic method for breast cancer. However, many metabolic biomarkers are difficult to replicate among studies. We propose that higher-order functional representation of metabolomics data, such as pathway-based metabolomic features, can be used as robust biomarkers for breast cancer. Towards this, we have developed a new computational method that uses personalized pathway dysregulation scores for disease diagnosis. We applied this method to predict breast cancer occurrence, in combination with correlation feature selection (CFS) and classification methods. The resulting all-stage and early-stage diagnosis models are highly accurate in two sets of testing blood samples, with average AUCs (Area Under the Curve, a receiver operating characteristic curve) of 0.968 and 0.934, sensitivities of 0.946 and 0.954, and specificities of 0.934 and 0.918. These two metabolomics-based pathway models are further validated by RNA-Seq-based TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) breast cancer data, with AUCs of 0.995 and 0.993. Moreover, important metabolic pathways, such as taurine and hypotaurine metabolism and the alanine, aspartate, and glutamate pathway, are revealed as critical biological pathways for early diagnosis of breast cancer. We have successfully developed a new type of pathway-based model to study metabolomics data for disease diagnosis. Applying this method to blood-based breast cancer metabolomics data, we have discovered crucial metabolic pathway signatures for breast cancer diagnosis, especially early diagnosis. Further, this modeling approach may be generalized to other omics data types for disease diagnosis.

  19. Microarray analysis of colorectal cancer stromal tissue reveals upregulation of two oncogenic miRNA clusters.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Naohiro; Nagahara, Makoto; Sato, Tetsuya; Mimori, Koshi; Sudo, Tomoya; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Shibata, Kohei; Ishii, Hideshi; Sugihara, Kenichi; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2012-06-01

    Cancer stroma plays an important role in the progression of cancer. Although alterations in miRNA expression have been explored in various kinds of cancers, the expression of miRNAs in cancer stroma has not been explored in detail. Using a laser microdissection technique, we collected RNA samples specific for epithelium or stroma from 13 colorectal cancer tissues and four normal tissues, and miRNA microarray and gene expression microarray were carried out. The expression status of miRNAs was confirmed by reverse transcriptase PCR. Furthermore, we investigated whether miRNA expression status in stromal tissue could influence the clinicopathologic factors. Oncogenic miRNAs, including two miRNA clusters, miR-17-92a and miR-106b-25 cluster, were upregulated in cancer stromal tissues compared with normal stroma. Gene expression profiles from cDNA microarray analyses of the same stromal tissue samples revealed that putative targets of these miRNA clusters, predicted by Target Scan, such as TGFBR2, SMAD2, and BMP family genes, were significantly downregulated in cancer stromal tissue. Downregulated putative targets were also found to be involved in cytokine interaction and cellular adhesion. Importantly, expression of miR-25 and miR-92a in stromal tissues was associated with a variety of clinicopathologic factors. Oncogenic miRNAs were highly expressed in cancer stroma. Although further validation is required, the finding that stromal miRNA expression levels were associated with clinicopathologic factors suggests the possibility that miRNAs in cancer stroma are crucially involved in cancer progression.

  20. RNASeq analysis reveals biological processes governing the clinical behaviour of endometrioid and serous endometrial cancers.

    PubMed

    Lemetre, Christophe; Vieites, Begoña; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Schultheis, Anne M; Marchiò, Caterina; Murali, Rajmohan; Lopez-García, Maria A; Palacios, Jose C; Jungbluth, Achim A; Terracciano, Luigi M; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Weigelt, Britta

    2016-09-01

    Endometrial carcinoma comprises a group of tumours with distinct histologic and molecular features and clinical behaviour. Here, we sought to define the biological processes that govern the clinical behaviour of endometrial cancers. Sixteen prototype genes representative of different biological processes that would likely play a role in endometrial and other hormone-driven cancers were defined. RNA-sequencing gene expression data from 323 endometrial cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used to determine the transcription module of each prototype gene. The expression of prototype genes and modules and their association with outcome was assessed in univariate and multivariate survival analyses. The association of MSH6 expression with outcome was validated in an independent cohort of 243 primary endometrial cancers using immunohistochemistry. We observed that the clinical behaviour of endometrial cancers as a group was associated with hormone receptor signalling, PI3K pathway signalling and DNA mismatch repair processes. When analysed separately, in endometrioid carcinomas, hormone receptor, PI3K and DNA mismatch repair modules were significantly associated with outcome in univariate analysis, whereas the clinical behaviour of serous cancers was likely governed by apoptosis and Wnt signalling. Multivariate survival analysis revealed that MSH6 gene expression was associated with outcome of endometrial cancer patients independently from traditional prognostic clinicopathologic parameters, which was confirmed in an independent cohort at the protein level. Endometrioid and serous endometrial cancers are underpinned by distinct molecular pathways. MSH6 expression levels may be associated with outcome in endometrial cancers as a group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mutational strand asymmetries in cancer genomes reveal mechanisms of DNA damage and repair

    PubMed Central

    Haradhvala, Nicholas J.; Polak, Paz; Stojanov, Petar; Covington, Kyle R.; Shinbrot, Eve; Hess, Julian; Rheinbay, Esther; Kim, Jaegil; Maruvka, Yosef; Braunstein, Lior Z.; Kamburov, Atanas; Hanawalt, Philip C.; Wheeler, David A.; Koren, Amnon; Lawrence, Michael S.; Getz, Gad

    2016-01-01

    Mutational processes constantly shape the somatic genome, leading to immunity, aging, and other diseases. When cancer is the outcome, we are afforded a glimpse into these processes by the clonal expansion of the malignant cell. Here, we characterize a less explored layer of the mutational landscape of cancer: mutational asymmetries between the two DNA strands. Analyzing whole genome sequences of 590 tumors from 14 different cancer types, we reveal widespread asymmetries across mutagenic processes, with transcriptional (“T-class”) asymmetry dominating UV-, smoking-, and liver-cancer-associated mutations, and replicative (“R-class”) asymmetry dominating POLE-, APOBEC-, and MSI-associated mutations. We report a striking phenomenon of Transcription-Coupled Damage (TCD) on the non-transcribed DNA strand, and provide evidence that APOBEC mutagenesis occurs on the lagging-strand template during DNA replication. As more genomes are sequenced, studying and classifying their asymmetries will illuminate the underlying biological mechanisms of DNA damage and repair. PMID:26806129

  2. Variation in Carbohydrates between Cancer and Normal Cell Membranes Revealed by Super‐Resolution Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junling; Liu, Tianzhou; Gao, Jing; Gao, Lan; Zhou, Lulu; Cai, Mingjun; Shi, Yan; Xiong, Wenyong; Jiang, Junguang

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate alterations on cell membranes are associated with various cancer processes, including tumorigenesis, malignant transformation, and tumor dissemination. However, variations in the distributions of cancer‐associated carbohydrates are unclear at the molecular level. Herein, direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy is used to reveal that seven major types of carbohydrates tended to form obvious clusters on cancer cell membranes compared with normal cell membranes (both cultured and primary cells), and most types of carbohydrates present a similar distributed characteristic on various cancer cells (e.g., HeLa and Os‐Rc‐2 cells). Significantly, sialic acid is found to distribute in larger‐sized clusters with a higher cluster coverage percentage on various cancer cells than normal cells. These findings on the aberrant distributions of cancer‐associated carbohydrates can potentially serve as novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets, as well as making a contribution to clarify how abnormal glycosylations of membrane glycoconjugates participate in tumorigenesis and metastasis. PMID:27981014

  3. Quantitative proteomics reveals middle infrared radiation-interfered networks in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Li, Ming-Hua; Huang, Tsui-Chin; Hsu, Chia-Lang; Tsai, Shang-Ru; Lee, Si-Chen; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2015-02-06

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancer-related causes of death worldwide. Treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is complex and challenging, especially when metastasis has developed. In this study, we applied infrared radiation as an alternative approach for the treatment of TNBC. We used middle infrared (MIR) with a wavelength range of 3-5 μm to irradiate breast cancer cells. MIR significantly inhibited cell proliferation in several breast cancer cells but did not affect the growth of normal breast epithelial cells. We performed iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS analysis to investigate the MIR-triggered molecular mechanisms in breast cancer cells. A total of 1749 proteins were identified, quantified, and subjected to functional enrichment analysis. From the constructed functionally enriched network, we confirmed that MIR caused G2/M cell cycle arrest, remodeled the microtubule network to an astral pole arrangement, altered the actin filament formation and focal adhesion molecule localization, and reduced cell migration activity and invasion ability. Our results reveal the coordinative effects of MIR-regulated physiological responses in concentrated networks, demonstrating the potential implementation of infrared radiation in breast cancer therapy.

  4. Exome analysis reveals differentially mutated gene signatures of stage, grade and subtype in breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Li, You; Wang, Xiaosheng; Vural, Suleyman; Mishra, Nitish K; Cowan, Kenneth H; Guda, Chittibabu

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancers exhibit highly heterogeneous molecular profiles. Although gene expression profiles have been used to predict the risks and prognostic outcomes of breast cancers, the high variability of gene expression limits its clinical application. In contrast, genetic mutation profiles would be more advantageous than gene expression profiles because genetic mutations can be stably detected and the mutational heterogeneity widely exists in breast cancer genomes. We analyzed 98 breast cancer whole exome samples that were sorted into three subtypes, two grades and two stages. The sum deleterious effect of all mutations in each gene was scored to identify differentially mutated genes (DMGs) for this case-control study. DMGs were corroborated using extensive published knowledge. Functional consequences of deleterious SNVs on protein structure and function were also investigated. Genes such as ERBB2, ESP8, PPP2R4, KIAA0922, SP4, CENPJ, PRCP and SELP that have been experimentally or clinically verified to be tightly associated with breast cancer prognosis are among the DMGs identified in this study. We also identified some genes such as ARL6IP5, RAET1E, and ANO7 that could be crucial for breast cancer development and prognosis. Further, SNVs such as rs1058808, rs2480452, rs61751507, rs79167802, rs11540666, and rs2229437 that potentially influence protein functions are observed at significantly different frequencies in different comparison groups. Protein structure modeling revealed that many non-synonymous SNVs have a deleterious effect on protein stability, structure and function. Mutational profiling at gene- and SNV-level revealed differential patterns within each breast cancer comparison group, and the gene signatures correlate with expected prognostic characteristics of breast cancer classes. Some of the genes and SNVs identified in this study show high promise and are worthy of further investigation by experimental studies.

  5. Exome Analysis Reveals Differentially Mutated Gene Signatures of Stage, Grade and Subtype in Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Li, You; Wang, Xiaosheng; Vural, Suleyman; Mishra, Nitish K.; Cowan, Kenneth H.; Guda, Chittibabu

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancers exhibit highly heterogeneous molecular profiles. Although gene expression profiles have been used to predict the risks and prognostic outcomes of breast cancers, the high variability of gene expression limits its clinical application. In contrast, genetic mutation profiles would be more advantageous than gene expression profiles because genetic mutations can be stably detected and the mutational heterogeneity widely exists in breast cancer genomes. We analyzed 98 breast cancer whole exome samples that were sorted into three subtypes, two grades and two stages. The sum deleterious effect of all mutations in each gene was scored to identify differentially mutated genes (DMGs) for this case-control study. DMGs were corroborated using extensive published knowledge. Functional consequences of deleterious SNVs on protein structure and function were also investigated. Genes such as ERBB2, ESP8, PPP2R4, KIAA0922, SP4, CENPJ, PRCP and SELP that have been experimentally or clinically verified to be tightly associated with breast cancer prognosis are among the DMGs identified in this study. We also identified some genes such as ARL6IP5, RAET1E, and ANO7 that could be crucial for breast cancer development and prognosis. Further, SNVs such as rs1058808, rs2480452, rs61751507, rs79167802, rs11540666, and rs2229437 that potentially influence protein functions are observed at significantly different frequencies in different comparison groups. Protein structure modeling revealed that many non-synonymous SNVs have a deleterious effect on protein stability, structure and function. Mutational profiling at gene- and SNV-level revealed differential patterns within each breast cancer comparison group, and the gene signatures correlate with expected prognostic characteristics of breast cancer classes. Some of the genes and SNVs identified in this study show high promise and are worthy of further investigation by experimental studies. PMID:25803781

  6. Single cell sequencing reveals heterogeneity within ovarian cancer epithelium and cancer associated stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Winterhoff, Boris J; Maile, Makayla; Mitra, Amit Kumar; Sebe, Attila; Bazzaro, Martina; Geller, Melissa A; Abrahante, Juan E; Klein, Molly; Hellweg, Raffaele; Mullany, Sally A; Beckman, Kenneth; Daniel, Jerry; Starr, Timothy K

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of heterogeneity in high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) by analyzing RNA expression in single epithelial and cancer associated stromal cells. In addition, we explored the possibility of identifying subgroups based on pathway activation and pre-defined signatures from cancer stem cells and chemo-resistant cells. A fresh, HGSOC tumor specimen derived from ovary was enzymatically digested and depleted of immune infiltrating cells. RNA sequencing was performed on 92 single cells and 66 of these single cell datasets passed quality control checks. Sequences were analyzed using multiple bioinformatics tools, including clustering, principle components analysis, and geneset enrichment analysis to identify subgroups and activated pathways. Immunohistochemistry for ovarian cancer, stem cell and stromal markers was performed on adjacent tumor sections. Analysis of the gene expression patterns identified two major subsets of cells characterized by epithelial and stromal gene expression patterns. The epithelial group was characterized by proliferative genes including genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation and MYC activity, while the stromal group was characterized by increased expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes and genes associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Neither group expressed a signature correlating with published chemo-resistant gene signatures, but many cells, predominantly in the stromal subgroup, expressed markers associated with cancer stem cells. Single cell sequencing provides a means of identifying subpopulations of cancer cells within a single patient. Single cell sequence analysis may prove to be critical for understanding the etiology, progression and drug resistance in ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Base changes in tumour DNA have the power to reveal the causes and evolution of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hollstein, M.; Alexandrov, L. B.; Wild, C. P.; Ardin, M.; Zavadil, J.

    2016-06-06

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has demonstrated that the cancer genomes are peppered with mutations. Although most somatic tumour mutations are unlikely to have any role in the cancer process per se, the spectra of DNA sequence changes in tumour mutation catalogues have the potential to identify the mutagens, and to reveal the mutagenic processes responsible for human cancer. Very recently, a novel approach for data mining of the vast compilations of tumour NGS data succeeded in separating and precisely defining at least 30 distinct patterns of sequence change hidden in mutation databases. At least half of these mutational signatures can be readily assigned to known human carcinogenic exposures or endogenous mechanisms of mutagenesis. A quantum leap in our knowledge of mutagenesis in human cancers has resulted, stimulating a flurry of research activity. We trace here the major findings leading first to the hypothesis that carcinogenic insults leave characteristic imprints on the DNA sequence of tumours, and culminating in empirical evidence from NGS data that well-defined carcinogen mutational signatures are indeed present in tumour genomic DNA from a variety of cancer types. The notion that tumour DNAs can divulge environmental sources of mutation is now a well-accepted fact. This approach to cancer aetiology has also incriminated various endogenous, enzyme-driven processes that increase the somatic mutation load in sporadic cancers. The tasks now confronting the field of molecular epidemiology are to assign mutagenic processes to orphan and newly discovered tumour mutation patterns, and to determine whether avoidable cancer risk factors influence signatures produced by endogenous enzymatic mechanisms. As a result, innovative research with experimental models and exploitation of the geographical heterogeneity in cancer incidence can address these challenges.

  8. Base changes in tumour DNA have the power to reveal the causes and evolution of cancer

    DOE PAGES

    Hollstein, M.; Alexandrov, L. B.; Wild, C. P.; ...

    2016-06-06

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has demonstrated that the cancer genomes are peppered with mutations. Although most somatic tumour mutations are unlikely to have any role in the cancer process per se, the spectra of DNA sequence changes in tumour mutation catalogues have the potential to identify the mutagens, and to reveal the mutagenic processes responsible for human cancer. Very recently, a novel approach for data mining of the vast compilations of tumour NGS data succeeded in separating and precisely defining at least 30 distinct patterns of sequence change hidden in mutation databases. At least half of these mutational signatures canmore » be readily assigned to known human carcinogenic exposures or endogenous mechanisms of mutagenesis. A quantum leap in our knowledge of mutagenesis in human cancers has resulted, stimulating a flurry of research activity. We trace here the major findings leading first to the hypothesis that carcinogenic insults leave characteristic imprints on the DNA sequence of tumours, and culminating in empirical evidence from NGS data that well-defined carcinogen mutational signatures are indeed present in tumour genomic DNA from a variety of cancer types. The notion that tumour DNAs can divulge environmental sources of mutation is now a well-accepted fact. This approach to cancer aetiology has also incriminated various endogenous, enzyme-driven processes that increase the somatic mutation load in sporadic cancers. The tasks now confronting the field of molecular epidemiology are to assign mutagenic processes to orphan and newly discovered tumour mutation patterns, and to determine whether avoidable cancer risk factors influence signatures produced by endogenous enzymatic mechanisms. As a result, innovative research with experimental models and exploitation of the geographical heterogeneity in cancer incidence can address these challenges.« less

  9. Base changes in tumour DNA have the power to reveal the causes and evolution of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hollstein, M; Alexandrov, L B; Wild, C P; Ardin, M; Zavadil, J

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has demonstrated that the cancer genomes are peppered with mutations. Although most somatic tumour mutations are unlikely to have any role in the cancer process per se, the spectra of DNA sequence changes in tumour mutation catalogues have the potential to identify the mutagens, and to reveal the mutagenic processes responsible for human cancer. Very recently, a novel approach for data mining of the vast compilations of tumour NGS data succeeded in separating and precisely defining at least 30 distinct patterns of sequence change hidden in mutation databases. At least half of these mutational signatures can be readily assigned to known human carcinogenic exposures or endogenous mechanisms of mutagenesis. A quantum leap in our knowledge of mutagenesis in human cancers has resulted, stimulating a flurry of research activity. We trace here the major findings leading first to the hypothesis that carcinogenic insults leave characteristic imprints on the DNA sequence of tumours, and culminating in empirical evidence from NGS data that well-defined carcinogen mutational signatures are indeed present in tumour genomic DNA from a variety of cancer types. The notion that tumour DNAs can divulge environmental sources of mutation is now a well-accepted fact. This approach to cancer aetiology has also incriminated various endogenous, enzyme-driven processes that increase the somatic mutation load in sporadic cancers. The tasks now confronting the field of molecular epidemiology are to assign mutagenic processes to orphan and newly discovered tumour mutation patterns, and to determine whether avoidable cancer risk factors influence signatures produced by endogenous enzymatic mechanisms. Innovative research with experimental models and exploitation of the geographical heterogeneity in cancer incidence can address these challenges. PMID:27270430

  10. Generation and molecular characterization of pancreatic cancer patient-derived xenografts reveals their heterologous nature

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Hyang Sook; Choi, Yeon Sook; Kim, Eunji; Lee, Eun Ji; Rhee, Je-Keun; Singh, Shree Ram; Jun, Eun Sung; Han, Buhm; Hong, Seung Mo; Kim, Song Cheol; Chang, Suhwan

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most challenging type of cancer to treat, with a 5-year survival rate of <10%. Furthermore, because of the large portion of the inoperable cases, it is difficult to obtain specimens to study the biology of the tumors. Therefore, a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model is an attractive option for preserving and expanding these tumors for translational research. Here we report the generation and characterization of 20 PDX models of PDAC. The success rate of the initial graft was 74% and most tumors were re-transplantable. Histological analysis of the PDXs and primary tumors revealed a conserved expression pattern of p53 and SMAD4; an exome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and Comprehensive Cancer Panel showed that PDXs retained over 94% of cancer-associated variants. In addition, Polyphen2 and the Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT) prediction identified 623 variants among the functional SNPs, highlighting the heterologous nature of pancreatic PDXs; an analysis of 409 tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in Comprehensive Cancer Panel revealed heterologous cancer gene mutation profiles for each PDX-primary tumor pair. Altogether, we expect these PDX models are a promising platform for screening novel therapeutic agents and diagnostic markers for the detection and eradication of PDAC. PMID:27613834

  11. Genomics of Ovarian Cancer Progression Reveals Diverse Metastatic Trajectories Including Intraepithelial Metastasis to the Fallopian Tube.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Mark A; Pan, Shawn; Hernandez, Kyle M; Loth, Rachel M; Andrade, Jorge; Volchenboum, Samuel L; Faber, Pieter; Montag, Anthony; Lastra, Ricardo; Peter, Marcus E; Yamada, S Diane; Lengyel, Ernst

    2016-12-01

    Accumulating evidence has supported the fallopian tube rather than the ovary as the origin for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). To understand the relationship between putative precursor lesions and metastatic tumors, we performed whole-exome sequencing on specimens from eight HGSOC patient progression series consisting of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC), invasive fallopian tube lesions, invasive ovarian lesions, and omental metastases. Integration of copy number and somatic mutations revealed patient-specific patterns with similar mutational signatures and copy-number variation profiles across all anatomic sites, suggesting that genomic instability is an early event in HGSOC. Phylogenetic analyses supported STIC as precursor lesions in half of our patient cohort, but also identified STIC as metastases in 2 patients. Ex vivo assays revealed that HGSOC spheroids can implant in the fallopian tube epithelium and mimic STIC lesions. That STIC may represent metastases calls into question the assumption that STIC are always indicative of primary fallopian tube cancers. We find that the putative precursor lesions for HGSOC, STIC, possess most of the genomic aberrations present in advanced cancers. In addition, a proportion of STIC represent intraepithelial metastases to the fallopian tube rather than the origin of HGSOC. Cancer Discov; 6(12); 1342-51. ©2016 AACR.See related commentary by Swisher et al., p. 1309This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1293. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Integrated exome and transcriptome sequencing reveals ZAK isoform usage in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinfeng; McCleland, Mark; Stawiski, Eric W.; Gnad, Florian; Mayba, Oleg; Haverty, Peter M.; Durinck, Steffen; Chen, Ying-Jiun; Klijn, Christiaan; Jhunjhunwala, Suchit; Lawrence, Michael; Liu, Hanbin; Wan, Yinan; Chopra, Vivek; Yaylaoglu, Murat B.; Yuan, Wenlin; Ha, Connie; Gilbert, Houston N.; Reeder, Jens; Pau, Gregoire; Stinson, Jeremy; Stern, Howard M.; Manning, Gerard; Wu, Thomas D.; Neve, Richard M.; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Modrusan, Zora; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Firestein, Ron; Zhang, Zemin

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of worldwide cancer mortality, yet the underlying genomic alterations remain poorly understood. Here we perform exome and transcriptome sequencing and SNP array assays to characterize 51 primary gastric tumours and 32 cell lines. Meta-analysis of exome data and previously published data sets reveals 24 significantly mutated genes in microsatellite stable (MSS) tumours and 16 in microsatellite instable (MSI) tumours. Over half the patients in our collection could potentially benefit from targeted therapies. We identify 55 splice site mutations accompanied by aberrant splicing products, in addition to mutation-independent differential isoform usage in tumours. ZAK kinase isoform TV1 is preferentially upregulated in gastric tumours and cell lines relative to normal samples. This pattern is also observed in colorectal, bladder and breast cancers. Overexpression of this particular isoform activates multiple cancer-related transcription factor reporters, while depletion of ZAK in gastric cell lines inhibits proliferation. These results reveal the spectrum of genomic and transcriptomic alterations in gastric cancer, and identify isoform-specific oncogenic properties of ZAK. PMID:24807215

  13. Molecular systems biology of Sic1 in yeast cell cycle regulation through multiscale modeling.

    PubMed

    Barberis, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Cell cycle control is highly regulated to guarantee the precise timing of events essential for cell growth, i.e., DNA replication onset and cell division. Failure of this control plays a role in cancer and molecules called cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors (Ckis) exploit a critical function in cell cycle timing. Here we present a multiscale modeling where experimental and computational studies have been employed to investigate structure, function and temporal dynamics of the Cki Sic1 that regulates cell cycle progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Structural analyses reveal molecular details of the interaction between Sic1 and Cdk/cyclin complexes, and biochemical investigation reveals Sic1 function in analogy to its human counterpart p27(Kip1), whose deregulation leads to failure in timing of kinase activation and, therefore, to cancer. Following these findings, a bottom-up systems biology approach has been developed to characterize modular networks addressing Sic1 regulatory function. Through complementary experimentation and modeling, we suggest a mechanism that underlies Sic1 function in controlling temporal waves of cyclins to ensure correct timing of the phase-specific Cdk activities.

  14. Suicide Gene-Engineered Stromal Cells Reveal a Dynamic Regulation of Cancer Metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Keyue; Luk, Samantha; Elman, Jessica; Murray, Ryan; Mukundan, Shilpaa; Parekkadan, Biju

    2016-02-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major cancer-promoting component in the tumor microenvironment (TME). The dynamic role of human CAFs in cancer progression has been ill-defined because human CAFs lack a unique marker needed for a cell-specific, promoter-driven knockout model. Here, we developed an engineered human CAF cell line with an inducible suicide gene to enable selective in vivo elimination of human CAFs at different stages of xenograft tumor development, effectively circumventing the challenge of targeting a cell-specific marker. Suicide-engineered CAFs were highly sensitive to apoptosis induction in vitro and in vivo by the addition of a simple small molecule inducer. Selection of timepoints for targeted CAF apoptosis in vivo during the progression of a human breast cancer xenograft model was guided by a bi-phasic host cytokine response that peaked at early timepoints after tumor implantation. Remarkably, we observed that the selective apoptosis of CAFs at these early timepoints did not affect primary tumor growth, but instead increased the presence of tumor-associated macrophages and the metastatic spread of breast cancer cells to the lung and bone. The study revealed a dynamic relationship between CAFs and cancer metastasis that has counter-intuitive ramifications for CAF-targeted therapy.

  15. Suicide Gene-Engineered Stromal Cells Reveal a Dynamic Regulation of Cancer Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Keyue; Luk, Samantha; Elman, Jessica; Murray, Ryan; Mukundan, Shilpaa; Parekkadan, Biju

    2016-02-19

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major cancer-promoting component in the tumor microenvironment (TME). The dynamic role of human CAFs in cancer progression has been ill-defined because human CAFs lack a unique marker needed for a cell-specific, promoter-driven knockout model. Here, we developed an engineered human CAF cell line with an inducible suicide gene to enable selective in vivo elimination of human CAFs at different stages of xenograft tumor development, effectively circumventing the challenge of targeting a cell-specific marker. Suicide-engineered CAFs were highly sensitive to apoptosis induction in vitro and in vivo by the addition of a simple small molecule inducer. Selection of timepoints for targeted CAF apoptosis in vivo during the progression of a human breast cancer xenograft model was guided by a bi-phasic host cytokine response that peaked at early timepoints after tumor implantation. Remarkably, we observed that the selective apoptosis of CAFs at these early timepoints did not affect primary tumor growth, but instead increased the presence of tumor-associated macrophages and the metastatic spread of breast cancer cells to the lung and bone. The study revealed a dynamic relationship between CAFs and cancer metastasis that has counter-intuitive ramifications for CAF-targeted therapy.

  16. Comparative Tissue Proteomics of Microdissected Specimens Reveals Novel Candidate Biomarkers of Bladder Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Lun; Chung, Ting; Wu, Chih-Ching; Ng, Kwai-Fong; Yu, Jau-Song; Tsai, Cheng-Han; Chang, Yu-Sun; Liang, Ying; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chen, Yi-Ting

    2015-01-01

    More than 380,000 new cases of bladder cancer are diagnosed worldwide, accounting for ∼150,200 deaths each year. To discover potential biomarkers of bladder cancer, we employed a strategy combining laser microdissection, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling, and liquid chromatography-tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) analysis to profile proteomic changes in fresh-frozen bladder tumor specimens. Cellular proteins from four pairs of surgically resected primary bladder cancer tumor and adjacent nontumorous tissue were extracted for use in two batches of isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation experiments, which identified a total of 3220 proteins. A DAVID (database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery) analysis of dysregulated proteins revealed that the three top-ranking biological processes were extracellular matrix organization, extracellular structure organization, and oxidation-reduction. Biological processes including response to organic substances, response to metal ions, and response to inorganic substances were highlighted by up-expressed proteins in bladder cancer. Seven differentially expressed proteins were selected as potential bladder cancer biomarkers for further verification. Immunohistochemical analyses showed significantly elevated levels of three proteins—SLC3A2, STMN1, and TAGLN2—in tumor cells compared with noncancerous bladder epithelial cells, and suggested that TAGLN2 could be a useful tumor tissue marker for diagnosis (AUC = 0.999) and evaluating lymph node metastasis in bladder cancer patients. ELISA results revealed significantly increased urinary levels of both STMN1 and TAGLN2 in bladder cancer subgroups compared with control groups. In comparisons with age-matched hernia urine specimens, urinary TAGLN2 in bladder cancer samples showed the largest fold change (7.13-fold), with an area-under-the-curve value of 0.70 (p < 0.001, n = 205). Overall, TAGLN2 showed the most significant

  17. Cancer Stem Cell-Based Models of Colorectal Cancer Reveal Molecular Determinants of Therapy Resistance

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Maria Laura; Zeuner, Ann; Policicchio, Eleonora; Russo, Giorgio; Bruselles, Alessandro; Signore, Michele; Vitale, Sara; De Luca, Gabriele; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Boe, Alessandra; Stassi, Giorgio; Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; Amoreo, Carla Azzurra; Pagliuca, Alfredo; Francescangeli, Federica; Tartaglia, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy mainly relies on the use of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs combined, in a subset of patients, with epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]-targeting agents. Although CRC is considered a prototype of a cancer stem cell (CSC)-driven tumor, the effects of both conventional and targeted therapies on the CSC compartment are largely unknown. We have optimized a protocol for colorectal CSC isolation that allowed us to obtain CSC-enriched cultures from primary tumor specimens, with high efficiency. CSC isolation was followed by in vitro and in vivo validation, genetic characterization, and drug sensitivity analysis, thus generating panels of CSC lines with defined patterns of genetic mutations and therapy sensitivity. Colorectal CSC lines were polyclonal and maintained intratumor heterogeneity in terms of somatically acquired mutations and differentiation state. Such CSC-enriched cultures were used to investigate the effects of both conventional and targeted therapies on the CSC compartment in vivo and to generate a proteomic picture of signaling pathways implicated in sensitivity/resistance to anti-EGFR agents. We propose CSC lines as a sound preclinical framework to test the effects of therapies in vitro and in vivo and to identify novel determinants of therapy resistance. Significance Colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been shown to be responsible for tumor propagation, metastatic dissemination, and relapse. However, molecular pathways present in CSCs, as well as mechanisms of therapy resistance, are mostly unknown. Taking advantage of genetically characterized CSC lines derived from colorectal tumors, this study provides an extensive analysis of CSC response to EGFR-targeted therapy in vivo and an overview of factors implicated in therapy response or resistance. Furthermore, the implementation of a biobank of molecularly annotated CSC lines provides an innovative resource for future investigations in colorectal cancer. PMID

  18. Structure–function insights reveal the human ribosome as a cancer target for antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Myasnikov, Alexander G.; Kundhavai Natchiar, S.; Nebout, Marielle; Hazemann, Isabelle; Imbert, Véronique; Khatter, Heena; Peyron, Jean-François; Klaholz, Bruno P.

    2016-01-01

    Many antibiotics in clinical use target the bacterial ribosome by interfering with the protein synthesis machinery. However, targeting the human ribosome in the case of protein synthesis deregulations such as in highly proliferating cancer cells has not been investigated at the molecular level up to now. Here we report the structure of the human 80S ribosome with a eukaryote-specific antibiotic and show its anti-proliferative effect on several cancer cell lines. The structure provides insights into the detailed interactions in a ligand-binding pocket of the human ribosome that are required for structure-assisted drug design. Furthermore, anti-proliferative dose response in leukaemic cells and interference with synthesis of c-myc and mcl-1 short-lived protein markers reveals specificity of a series of eukaryote-specific antibiotics towards cytosolic rather than mitochondrial ribosomes, uncovering the human ribosome as a promising cancer target. PMID:27665925

  19. Integrative analysis of breast cancer reveals prognostic haematopoietic activity and patient-specific immune response profiles

    PubMed Central

    Varn, Frederick S.; Andrews, Erik H.; Mullins, David W.; Cheng, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional programmes active in haematopoietic cells enable a variety of functions including dedifferentiation, innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Understanding how these programmes function in the context of cancer can provide valuable insights into host immune response, cancer severity and potential therapy response. Here we present a method that uses the transcriptomes of over 200 murine haematopoietic cells, to infer the lineage-specific haematopoietic activity present in human breast tumours. Correlating this activity with patient survival and tumour purity reveals that the transcriptional programmes of many cell types influence patient prognosis and are found in environments of high lymphocytic infiltration. Collectively, these results allow for a detailed and personalized assessment of the patient immune response to a tumour. When combined with routinely collected patient biopsy genomic data, this method can enable a richer understanding of the complex interplay between the host immune system and cancer. PMID:26725977

  20. Identification of lncRNA-associated competing triplets reveals global patterns and prognostic markers for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Ning, Shangwei; Zhang, Yunpeng; Li, Ronghong; Ye, Jingrun; Zhao, Zuxianglan; Zhi, Hui; Wang, Tingting; Guo, Zheng; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can interact with microRNAs (miRNAs) and indirectly regulate miRNA targets though competing interactions. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions are still largely unknown. In this study, these lncRNA–miRNA–gene interactions were defined as lncRNA-associated competing triplets (LncACTs), and an integrated pipeline was developed to identify lncACTs that are active in cancer. Competing lncRNAs had sponge features distinct from non-competing lncRNAs. In the lncACT cross-talk network, disease-associated lncRNAs, miRNAs and coding-genes showed specific topological patterns indicative of their competence and control of communication within the network. The construction of global competing activity profiles revealed that lncACTs had high activity specific to cancers. Analyses of clustered lncACTs revealed that they were enriched in various cancer-related biological processes. Based on the global cross-talk network and cluster analyses, nine cancer-specific sub-networks were constructed. H19- and BRCA1/2-associated lncACTs were able to discriminate between two groups of patients with different clinical outcomes. Disease-associated lncACTs also showed variable competing patterns across normal and cancer patient samples. In summary, this study uncovered and systematically characterized global properties of human lncACTs that may have prognostic value for predicting clinical outcome in cancer patients. PMID:25800746

  1. Proteome–Metabolome Profiling of Ovarian Cancer Ascites Reveals Novel Components Involved in Intercellular Communication*

    PubMed Central

    Shender, Victoria O.; Pavlyukov, Marat S.; Ziganshin, Rustam H.; Arapidi, Georgij P.; Kovalchuk, Sergey I.; Anikanov, Nikolay A.; Altukhov, Ilya A.; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Butenko, Ivan O.; Shavarda, Alexey L.; Khomyakova, Elena B.; Evtushenko, Evgeniy; Ashrafyan, Lev A.; Antonova, Irina B.; Kuznetcov, Igor N.; Gorbachev, Alexey Yu.; Shakhparonov, Mikhail I.; Govorun, Vadim M.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer ascites is a native medium for cancer cells that allows investigation of their secretome in a natural environment. This medium is of interest as a promising source of potential biomarkers, and also as a medium for cell–cell communication. The aim of this study was to elucidate specific features of the malignant ascites metabolome and proteome. In order to omit components of the systemic response to ascites formation, we compared malignant ascites with cirrhosis ascites. Metabolome analysis revealed 41 components that differed significantly between malignant and cirrhosis ascites. Most of the identified cancer-specific metabolites are known to be important signaling molecules. Proteomic analysis identified 2096 and 1855 proteins in the ovarian cancer and cirrhosis ascites, respectively; 424 proteins were specific for the malignant ascites. Functional analysis of the proteome demonstrated that the major differences between cirrhosis and malignant ascites were observed for the cluster of spliceosomal proteins. Additionally, we demonstrate that several splicing RNAs were exclusively detected in malignant ascites, where they probably existed within protein complexes. This result was confirmed in vitro using an ovarian cancer cell line. Identification of spliceosomal proteins and RNAs in an extracellular medium is of particular interest; the finding suggests that they might play a role in the communication between cancer cells. In addition, malignant ascites contains a high number of exosomes that are known to play an important role in signal transduction. Thus our study reveals the specific features of malignant ascites that are associated with its function as a medium of intercellular communication. PMID:25271300

  2. Chrysin suppresses the achaete-scute complex-like1 and alters the neuroendocrine phenotype of carcinoids

    PubMed Central

    Somnay, Yash R.; Dull, Barbara Zarebczan; Eide, Jacob; Jaskula-Sztul, Renata; Chen, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoids are neuroendocrine neoplasms that cause significant morbidity and mortality, and for which few effective therapies are available. Given the recent identification of the anti-cancer flavonoid chrysin, we sought to investigate its therapeutic potential in carcinoids. Here, we report chrysin’s ability to modulate the achaete-scute complex-like1 (ASCL1), a neuroendocrine-specific transcription factor highly implicated in the malignant phenotype of carcinoids and other neuroendocrine cancers. Moreover, we elucidate the role of ASCL1 in carcinoid growth and bioactivity. Treatment of two carcinoid cell lines (BON and H727) with varying chrysin concentrations suppressed cell proliferation, while reducing expression of ASCL1 and the neuroendocrine biomarker chromogranin A (CgA), demonstrated by Western blotting. Propidium iodide and PE AnnexinV/7-AAD staining and sorting following chrysin treatment revealed S/G2 phase arrest and apoptosis, respectively. This was corroborated by chrysin-induced cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP and activation of p21Waf1/Cip1. Furthermore, direct ASCL1 knockdown with an ASCL1-specific small interfering RNA inhibited CgA and synaptophysin expression as well as carcinoid proliferation, while also reducing cyclin B1 and D1, and increasing p21Waf1/Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, suggesting an arrest of the cell-cycle. Collectively, these findings warrant the deliberation of targeted ASCL1 suppression by chrysin or other agents as a therapeutic approach for carcinoid management. PMID:26403073

  3. Proteomics Analysis of Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines and Tissues Reveals Drug Resistance-associated Proteins

    PubMed Central

    CRUZ*, ISA N.; COLEY*, HELEN M.; KRAMER, HOLGER B.; MADHURI, THUMULURU KAVITAH; SAFUWAN, NUR A.M.; ANGELINO, ANA RITA; YANG, MIN

    2016-01-01

    Background: Carboplatin and paclitaxel form the cornerstone of chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer, however, drug resistance to these agents continues to present challenges. Despite extensive research, the mechanisms underlying this resistance remain unclear. Materials and Methods: A 2D-gel proteomics method was used to analyze protein expression levels of three human ovarian cancer cell lines and five biopsy samples. Representative proteins identified were validated via western immunoblotting. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed metabolomic pathway changes. Results: A total of 189 proteins were identified with restricted criteria. Combined treatment targeting the proteasome-ubiquitin pathway resulted in re-sensitisation of drug-resistant cells. In addition, examination of five surgical biopsies of ovarian tissues revealed α-enolase (ENOA), elongation factor Tu, mitochondrial (EFTU), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3P), stress-70 protein, mitochondrial (GRP75), apolipoprotein A-1 (APOA1), peroxiredoxin (PRDX2) and annexin A (ANXA) as candidate biomarkers of drug-resistant disease. Conclusion: Proteomics combined with pathway analysis provided information for an effective combined treatment approach overcoming drug resistance. Analysis of cell lines and tissues revealed potential prognostic biomarkers for ovarian cancer. *These Authors contributed equally to this study. PMID:28031236

  4. Solutions to Peto's paradox revealed by mathematical modelling and cross-species cancer gene analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Caulin, Aleah F.; Graham, Trevor A.; Wang, Li-San; Maley, Carlo C.

    2015-06-08

    Whales have 1000-fold more cells than humans and mice have 1000-fold fewer; however, cancer risk across species does not increase with the number of somatic cells and the lifespan of the organism. This observation is known as Peto's paradox. How much would evolution have to change the parameters of somatic evolution in order to equalize the cancer risk between species that differ by orders of magnitude in size? Analysis of previously published models of colorectal cancer suggests that a two- to three-fold decrease in the mutation rate or stem cell division rate is enough to reduce a whale's cancer risk to that of a human. Similarly, the addition of one to two required tumour-suppressor gene mutations would also be sufficient. Also, we surveyed mammalian genomes and did not find a positive correlation of tumour-suppressor genes with increasing body mass and longevity. However, we found evidence of the amplification of TP53 in elephants, MAL in horses and FBXO31 in microbats, which might explain Peto's paradox in those species. Lastly, exploring parameters that evolution may have fine-tuned in large, long-lived organisms will help guide future experiments to reveal the underlying biology responsible for Peto's paradox and guide cancer prevention in humans.

  5. Solutions to Peto's paradox revealed by mathematical modelling and cross-species cancer gene analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Caulin, Aleah F.; Graham, Trevor A.; Wang, Li-San; ...

    2015-06-08

    Whales have 1000-fold more cells than humans and mice have 1000-fold fewer; however, cancer risk across species does not increase with the number of somatic cells and the lifespan of the organism. This observation is known as Peto's paradox. How much would evolution have to change the parameters of somatic evolution in order to equalize the cancer risk between species that differ by orders of magnitude in size? Analysis of previously published models of colorectal cancer suggests that a two- to three-fold decrease in the mutation rate or stem cell division rate is enough to reduce a whale's cancer riskmore » to that of a human. Similarly, the addition of one to two required tumour-suppressor gene mutations would also be sufficient. Also, we surveyed mammalian genomes and did not find a positive correlation of tumour-suppressor genes with increasing body mass and longevity. However, we found evidence of the amplification of TP53 in elephants, MAL in horses and FBXO31 in microbats, which might explain Peto's paradox in those species. Lastly, exploring parameters that evolution may have fine-tuned in large, long-lived organisms will help guide future experiments to reveal the underlying biology responsible for Peto's paradox and guide cancer prevention in humans.« less

  6. Multiplatform analysis of 12 cancer types reveals molecular classification within and across tissues of origin.

    PubMed

    Hoadley, Katherine A; Yau, Christina; Wolf, Denise M; Cherniack, Andrew D; Tamborero, David; Ng, Sam; Leiserson, Max D M; Niu, Beifang; McLellan, Michael D; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Zhang, Jiashan; Kandoth, Cyriac; Akbani, Rehan; Shen, Hui; Omberg, Larsson; Chu, Andy; Margolin, Adam A; Van't Veer, Laura J; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Laird, Peter W; Raphael, Benjamin J; Ding, Li; Robertson, A Gordon; Byers, Lauren A; Mills, Gordon B; Weinstein, John N; Van Waes, Carter; Chen, Zhong; Collisson, Eric A; Benz, Christopher C; Perou, Charles M; Stuart, Joshua M

    2014-08-14

    Recent genomic analyses of pathologically defined tumor types identify "within-a-tissue" disease subtypes. However, the extent to which genomic signatures are shared across tissues is still unclear. We performed an integrative analysis using five genome-wide platforms and one proteomic platform on 3,527 specimens from 12 cancer types, revealing a unified classification into 11 major subtypes. Five subtypes were nearly identical to their tissue-of-origin counterparts, but several distinct cancer types were found to converge into common subtypes. Lung squamous, head and neck, and a subset of bladder cancers coalesced into one subtype typified by TP53 alterations, TP63 amplifications, and high expression of immune and proliferation pathway genes. Of note, bladder cancers split into three pan-cancer subtypes. The multiplatform classification, while correlated with tissue-of-origin, provides independent information for predicting clinical outcomes. All data sets are available for data-mining from a unified resource to support further biological discoveries and insights into novel therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Solutions to Peto's paradox revealed by mathematical modelling and cross-species cancer gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Caulin, Aleah F; Graham, Trevor A; Wang, Li-San; Maley, Carlo C

    2015-07-19

    Whales have 1000-fold more cells than humans and mice have 1000-fold fewer; however, cancer risk across species does not increase with the number of somatic cells and the lifespan of the organism. This observation is known as Peto's paradox. How much would evolution have to change the parameters of somatic evolution in order to equalize the cancer risk between species that differ by orders of magnitude in size? Analysis of previously published models of colorectal cancer suggests that a two- to three-fold decrease in the mutation rate or stem cell division rate is enough to reduce a whale's cancer risk to that of a human. Similarly, the addition of one to two required tumour-suppressor gene mutations would also be sufficient. We surveyed mammalian genomes and did not find a positive correlation of tumour-suppressor genes with increasing body mass and longevity. However, we found evidence of the amplification of TP53 in elephants, MAL in horses and FBXO31 in microbats, which might explain Peto's paradox in those species. Exploring parameters that evolution may have fine-tuned in large, long-lived organisms will help guide future experiments to reveal the underlying biology responsible for Peto's paradox and guide cancer prevention in humans.

  8. Methylome sequencing in triple-negative breast cancer reveals distinct methylation clusters with prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Stirzaker, Clare; Zotenko, Elena; Song, Jenny Z; Qu, Wenjia; Nair, Shalima S; Locke, Warwick J; Stone, Andrew; Armstong, Nicola J; Robinson, Mark D; Dobrovic, Alexander; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A; Peters, Kate M; French, Juliet D; Stein, Sandra; Korbie, Darren J; Trau, Matt; Forbes, John F; Scott, Rodney J; Brown, Melissa A; Francis, Glenn D; Clark, Susan J

    2015-02-02

    Epigenetic alterations in the cancer methylome are common in breast cancer and provide novel options for tumour stratification. Here, we perform whole-genome methylation capture sequencing on small amounts of DNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and matched normal samples. We identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) enriched with promoters associated with transcription factor binding sites and DNA hypersensitive sites. Importantly, we stratify TNBCs into three distinct methylation clusters associated with better or worse prognosis and identify 17 DMRs that show a strong association with overall survival, including DMRs located in the Wilms tumour 1 (WT1) gene, bi-directional-promoter and antisense WT1-AS. Our data reveal that coordinated hypermethylation can occur in oestrogen receptor-negative disease, and that characterizing the epigenetic framework provides a potential signature to stratify TNBCs. Together, our findings demonstrate the feasibility of profiling the cancer methylome with limited archival tissue to identify regulatory regions associated with cancer.

  9. Solutions to Peto's paradox revealed by mathematical modelling and cross-species cancer gene analysis

    PubMed Central

    Caulin, Aleah F.; Graham, Trevor A.; Wang, Li-San; Maley, Carlo C.

    2015-01-01

    Whales have 1000-fold more cells than humans and mice have 1000-fold fewer; however, cancer risk across species does not increase with the number of somatic cells and the lifespan of the organism. This observation is known as Peto's paradox. How much would evolution have to change the parameters of somatic evolution in order to equalize the cancer risk between species that differ by orders of magnitude in size? Analysis of previously published models of colorectal cancer suggests that a two- to three-fold decrease in the mutation rate or stem cell division rate is enough to reduce a whale's cancer risk to that of a human. Similarly, the addition of one to two required tumour-suppressor gene mutations would also be sufficient. We surveyed mammalian genomes and did not find a positive correlation of tumour-suppressor genes with increasing body mass and longevity. However, we found evidence of the amplification of TP53 in elephants, MAL in horses and FBXO31 in microbats, which might explain Peto's paradox in those species. Exploring parameters that evolution may have fine-tuned in large, long-lived organisms will help guide future experiments to reveal the underlying biology responsible for Peto's paradox and guide cancer prevention in humans. PMID:26056366

  10. Analysis of the interplay between methylation and expression reveals its potential role in cancer aetiology.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Bugra; Sezerman, Ugur

    2017-01-01

    With ongoing developments in technology, changes in DNA methylation levels have become prevalent to study cancer biology. Previous studies report that DNA methylation affects gene expression in a direct manner, most probably by blocking gene regulatory regions. In this study, we have studied the interplay between methylation and expression to improve our knowledge of cancer aetiology. For this purpose, we have investigated which genomic regions are of higher importance; hence, first exon, 5'UTR and 200 bp near the transcription start sites are proposed as being more crucial compared to other genomic regions. Furthermore, we have searched for a valid methylation level change threshold, and as a result, 25 % methylation change in previously determined genomic regions showed the highest inverse correlation with expression data. As a final step, we have examined the commonly affected genes and pathways by integrating methylation and expression information. Remarkably, the GPR115 gene and ErbB signalling pathway were found to be significantly altered for all cancer types in our analysis. Overall, combining methylation and expression information and identifying commonly affected genes and pathways in a variety of cancer types revealed new insights of cancer disease mechanisms. Moreover, compared to previous methylation-based studies, we have identified more important genomic regions and have defined a methylation change threshold level in order to obtain more reliable results. In addition to the novel analysis framework that involves the analysis of four different cancer types, our study exposes essential information regarding the contribution of methylation changes and its impact on cancer disease biology, which may facilitate the identification of new drug targets.

  11. Functional proteomic analysis reveals the involvement of KIAA1199 in breast cancer growth, motility and invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background KIAA1199 is a recently identified novel gene that is up-regulated in human cancer with poor survival. Our proteomic study on signaling polarity in chemotactic cells revealed KIAA1199 as a novel protein target that may be involved in cellular chemotaxis and motility. In the present study, we examined the functional significance of KIAA1199 expression in breast cancer growth, motility and invasiveness. Methods We validated the previous microarray observation by tissue microarray immunohistochemistry using a TMA slide containing 12 breast tumor tissue cores and 12 corresponding normal tissues. We performed the shRNA-mediated knockdown of KIAA1199 in MDA-MB-231 and HS578T cells to study the role of this protein in cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis in vitro. We studied the effects of KIAA1199 knockdown in vivo in two groups of mice (n = 5). We carried out the SILAC LC-MS/MS based proteomic studies on the involvement of KIAA1199 in breast cancer. Results KIAA1199 mRNA and protein was significantly overexpressed in breast tumor specimens and cell lines as compared with non-neoplastic breast tissues from large-scale microarray and studies of breast cancer cell lines and tumors. To gain deeper insights into the novel role of KIAA1199 in breast cancer, we modulated KIAA1199 expression using shRNA-mediated knockdown in two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and HS578T), expressing higher levels of KIAA1199. The KIAA1199 knockdown cells showed reduced motility and cell proliferation in vitro. Moreover, when the knockdown cells were injected into the mammary fat pads of female athymic nude mice, there was a significant decrease in tumor incidence and growth. In addition, quantitative proteomic analysis revealed that knockdown of KIAA1199 in breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells affected a broad range of cellular functions including apoptosis, metabolism and cell motility. Conclusions Our findings indicate that KIAA1199 may play an important role in breast

  12. Kinome sequencing reveals RET G691S polymorphism in human neuroendocrine lung cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sosonkina, Nadiya; Hong, Seung-Keun; Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine (NE) lung tumors comprise 20–25% of all invasive lung malignancies. Currently, no effective treatments are available to cure these tumors, and it is necessary to identify a molecular alteration(s) that characterizes NE lung tumor cells. We aimed to identify a kinase mutation(s) associated with NE lung tumor by screening 517 kinase-encoding genes in human lung cancer cell lines. Our next-generation sequencing analysis of six NE lung tumor cell lines (four small cell lung cancer lines and two non-small cell lung cancer lines) and three non-NE lung tumor lines revealed various kinase mutations, including a nonsynonymous mutation in the proto-oncogene RET (c.2071G>A; p.G691S). Further evaluation of the RET polymorphism in total 15 lung cancer cell lines by capillary sequencing suggested that the frequency of the minor allele (A-allele) in NE lung tumor lines was significantly higher than its frequency in a reference population (p = 0.0001). However, no significant difference between non-NE lung tumor lines and a reference group was detected (p = 1.0). Nevertheless, neither RET expression levels were correlated with the levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a key NE marker, nor vandetanib and cabozantinib, small molecule compounds that inhibit RET, affected NSE levels in lung cancer cells. Our data suggest a potential association of G691S RET polymorphism with NE lung tumor, proposing the necessity of more thorough evaluation of this possibility. The dataset of kinase mutation profiles in this report may help choosing cell line models for study of lung cancer. PMID:25530832

  13. Quantitative measures to reveal coordinated cytoskeleton-nucleus reorganization during in vitro invasion of cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvir, Liron; Nissim, Ronen; Alvarez-Elizondo, Martha B.; Weihs, Daphne

    2015-04-01

    Metastasis formation is a major cause of mortality in cancer patients and includes tumor cell relocation to distant organs. A metastatic cell invades through other cells and extracellular matrix by biochemical attachment and mechanical force application. Force is used to move on or through a 2- or 3-dimensional (3D) environment, respectively, or to penetrate a 2D substrate. We have previously shown that even when a gel substrate is impenetrable, metastatic breast cancer cells can still indent it by applying force. Cells typically apply force through the acto-myosin network, which is mechanically connected to the nucleus. We develop a 3D image-analysis to reveal relative locations of the cell elements, and show that as cells apply force to the gel, a coordinated process occurs that involves cytoskeletal remodeling and repositioning of the nucleus. Our approach shows that the actin and microtubules reorganize in the cell, bringing the actin to the leading edge of the cell. In parallel, the nucleus is transported behind the actin, likely by the cytoskeleton, into the indentation dimple formed in the gel. The nucleus volume below the gel surface correlates with indentation depth, when metastatic breast cancer cells indent gels deeply. However, the nucleus always remains above the gel in benign cells, even when small indentations are observed. Determining mechanical processes during metastatic cell invasion can reveal how cells disseminate in the body and can uncover targets for diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Detection of recurrent alternative splicing switches in tumor samples reveals novel signatures of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sebestyén, Endre; Zawisza, Michał; Eyras, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The determination of the alternative splicing isoforms expressed in cancer is fundamental for the development of tumor-specific molecular targets for prognosis and therapy, but it is hindered by the heterogeneity of tumors and the variability across patients. We developed a new computational method, robust to biological and technical variability, which identifies significant transcript isoform changes across multiple samples. We applied this method to more than 4000 samples from the The Cancer Genome Atlas project to obtain novel splicing signatures that are predictive for nine different cancer types, and find a specific signature for basal-like breast tumors involving the tumor-driver CTNND1. Additionally, our method identifies 244 isoform switches, for which the change occurs in the most abundant transcript. Some of these switches occur in known tumor drivers, including PPARG, CCND3, RALGDS, MITF, PRDM1, ABI1 and MYH11, for which the switch implies a change in the protein product. Moreover, some of the switches cannot be described with simple splicing events. Surprisingly, isoform switches are independent of somatic mutations, except for the tumor-suppressor FBLN2 and the oncogene MYH11. Our method reveals novel signatures of cancer in terms of transcript isoforms specifically expressed in tumors, providing novel potential molecular targets for prognosis and therapy. Data and software are available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1061917 and https://bitbucket.org/regulatorygenomicsupf/iso-ktsp. PMID:25578962

  15. Detection of recurrent alternative splicing switches in tumor samples reveals novel signatures of cancer.

    PubMed

    Sebestyén, Endre; Zawisza, Michał; Eyras, Eduardo

    2015-02-18

    The determination of the alternative splicing isoforms expressed in cancer is fundamental for the development of tumor-specific molecular targets for prognosis and therapy, but it is hindered by the heterogeneity of tumors and the variability across patients. We developed a new computational method, robust to biological and technical variability, which identifies significant transcript isoform changes across multiple samples. We applied this method to more than 4000 samples from the The Cancer Genome Atlas project to obtain novel splicing signatures that are predictive for nine different cancer types, and find a specific signature for basal-like breast tumors involving the tumor-driver CTNND1. Additionally, our method identifies 244 isoform switches, for which the change occurs in the most abundant transcript. Some of these switches occur in known tumor drivers, including PPARG, CCND3, RALGDS, MITF, PRDM1, ABI1 and MYH11, for which the switch implies a change in the protein product. Moreover, some of the switches cannot be described with simple splicing events. Surprisingly, isoform switches are independent of somatic mutations, except for the tumor-suppressor FBLN2 and the oncogene MYH11. Our method reveals novel signatures of cancer in terms of transcript isoforms specifically expressed in tumors, providing novel potential molecular targets for prognosis and therapy. Data and software are available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1061917 and https://bitbucket.org/regulatorygenomicsupf/iso-ktsp.

  16. Structure-Based Analysis Reveals Cancer Missense Mutations Target Protein Interaction Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Engin, H. Billur; Kreisberg, Jason F.; Carter, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that cancer mutations selectively target protein-protein interactions. We hypothesized that mutations affecting distinct protein interactions involving established cancer genes could contribute to tumor heterogeneity, and that novel mechanistic insights might be gained into tumorigenesis by investigating protein interactions under positive selection in cancer. To identify protein interactions under positive selection in cancer, we mapped over 1.2 million nonsynonymous somatic cancer mutations onto 4,896 experimentally determined protein structures and analyzed their spatial distribution. In total, 20% of mutations on the surface of known cancer genes perturbed protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and this enrichment for PPI interfaces was observed for both tumor suppressors (Odds Ratio 1.28, P-value < 10−4) and oncogenes (Odds Ratio 1.17, P-value < 10−3). To study this further, we constructed a bipartite network representing structurally resolved PPIs from all available human complexes in the Protein Data Bank (2,864 proteins, 3,072 PPIs). Analysis of frequently mutated cancer genes within this network revealed that tumor-suppressors, but not oncogenes, are significantly enriched with functional mutations in homo-oligomerization regions (Odds Ratio 3.68, P-Value < 10−8). We present two important examples, TP53 and beta-2-microglobulin, for which the patterns of somatic mutations at interfaces provide insights into specifically perturbed biological circuits. In patients with TP53 mutations, patient survival correlated with the specific interactions that were perturbed. Moreover, we investigated mutations at the interface of protein-nucleotide interactions and observed an unexpected number of missense mutations but not silent mutations occurring within DNA and RNA binding sites. Finally, we provide a resource of 3,072 PPI interfaces ranked according to their mutation rates. Analysis of this list highlights 282 novel candidate cancer

  17. Structure-Based Analysis Reveals Cancer Missense Mutations Target Protein Interaction Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Engin, H Billur; Kreisberg, Jason F; Carter, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that cancer mutations selectively target protein-protein interactions. We hypothesized that mutations affecting distinct protein interactions involving established cancer genes could contribute to tumor heterogeneity, and that novel mechanistic insights might be gained into tumorigenesis by investigating protein interactions under positive selection in cancer. To identify protein interactions under positive selection in cancer, we mapped over 1.2 million nonsynonymous somatic cancer mutations onto 4,896 experimentally determined protein structures and analyzed their spatial distribution. In total, 20% of mutations on the surface of known cancer genes perturbed protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and this enrichment for PPI interfaces was observed for both tumor suppressors (Odds Ratio 1.28, P-value < 10(-4)) and oncogenes (Odds Ratio 1.17, P-value < 10(-3)). To study this further, we constructed a bipartite network representing structurally resolved PPIs from all available human complexes in the Protein Data Bank (2,864 proteins, 3,072 PPIs). Analysis of frequently mutated cancer genes within this network revealed that tumor-suppressors, but not oncogenes, are significantly enriched with functional mutations in homo-oligomerization regions (Odds Ratio 3.68, P-Value < 10(-8)). We present two important examples, TP53 and beta-2-microglobulin, for which the patterns of somatic mutations at interfaces provide insights into specifically perturbed biological circuits. In patients with TP53 mutations, patient survival correlated with the specific interactions that were perturbed. Moreover, we investigated mutations at the interface of protein-nucleotide interactions and observed an unexpected number of missense mutations but not silent mutations occurring within DNA and RNA binding sites. Finally, we provide a resource of 3,072 PPI interfaces ranked according to their mutation rates. Analysis of this list highlights 282 novel candidate cancer

  18. Genome-wide analysis of HPV integration in human cancers reveals recurrent, focal genomic instability

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, Keiko; Li, Jingfeng; Broutian, Tatevik R.; Padilla-Nash, Hesed; Xiao, Weihong; Jiang, Bo; Rocco, James W.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Kumar, Bhavna; Wangsa, Danny; He, Dandan; Ried, Thomas; Symer, David E.; Gillison, Maura L.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of human cancers, including the 5% caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Here we report a striking association between HPV integration and adjacent host genomic structural variation in human cancer cell lines and primary tumors. Whole-genome sequencing revealed HPV integrants flanking and bridging extensive host genomic amplifications and rearrangements, including deletions, inversions, and chromosomal translocations. We present a model of “looping” by which HPV integrant-mediated DNA replication and recombination may result in viral–host DNA concatemers, frequently disrupting genes involved in oncogenesis and amplifying HPV oncogenes E6 and E7. Our high-resolution results shed new light on a catastrophic process, distinct from chromothripsis and other mutational processes, by which HPV directly promotes genomic instability. PMID:24201445

  19. α-Amino Acid Rich Photophytonic Nanoparticles of Algal Origin Serendipitously Reveal Antimigratory Property against Cancer.

    PubMed

    Misra, Santosh K; Schwartz-Duval, Aaron S; Ostadhossein, Fatemeh; Daza, Enrique A; Saldivar, Zachary M; Sharma, Brajendra K; Pan, Dipanjan

    2017-06-28

    Spheroidal nanoparticles of algal ("phytonic") origin were synthesized and composed of carbonaceous architectures and surface-rich oxygenated functional groups. Nanoparticles were negatively charged and efficiently luminescent after ultraviolet-range excitation and called as "photophytonic" nanoparticles. A multitude of analytical techniques confirmed the rich profusion of hydroxyl, carboxylate, and amines at the nanoscale, while spectroscopic investigation indicated the presence of α-amines, a signature functionality present in amino acids. Confirmed via a series of biological assays, i.e., growth regression, antimigration, and protein-regression studies, photophytonic nanoparticles serendipitously revealed remarkable anticancer activity against various stages of breast cancer cells, barring the need for an encapsulated drug. We report that nanoparticles derived from algal biomass exhibit intrinsic antimigratory properties against cancer, likely due to the rich abundance of α-amino acids.

  20. Genome evolution predicts genetic interactions in protein complexes and reveals cancer drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaowen; Kensche, Philip R.; Huynen, Martijn A.; Notebaart, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic interactions reveal insights into cellular function and can be used to identify drug targets. Here we construct a new model to predict negative genetic interactions in protein complexes by exploiting the evolutionary history of genes in parallel converging pathways in metabolism. We evaluate our model with protein complexes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and show that the predicted protein pairs more frequently have a negative genetic interaction than random proteins from the same complex. Furthermore, we apply our model to human protein complexes to predict novel cancer drug targets, and identify 20 candidate targets with empirical support and 10 novel targets amenable to further experimental validation. Our study illustrates that negative genetic interactions can be predicted by systematically exploring genome evolution, and that this is useful to identify novel anti-cancer drug targets. PMID:23851603

  1. Revealing selection in cancer using the predicted functional impact of cancer mutations. Application to nomination of cancer drivers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Every malignant tumor has a unique spectrum of genomic alterations including numerous protein mutations. There are also hundreds of personal germline variants to be taken into account. The combinatorial diversity of potential cancer-driving events limits the applicability of statistical methods to determine tumor-specific "driver" alterations among an overwhelming majority of "passengers". An alternative approach to determining driver mutations is to assess the functional impact of mutations in a given tumor and predict drivers based on a numerical value of the mutation impact in a particular context of genomic alterations. Recently, we introduced a functional impact score, which assesses the mutation impact by the value of entropic disordering of the evolutionary conservation patterns in proteins. The functional impact score separates disease-associated variants from benign polymorphisms with an accuracy of ~80%. Can the score be used to identify functionally important non-recurrent cancer-driver mutations? Assuming that cancer-drivers are positively selected in tumor evolution, we investigated how the functional impact score correlates with key features of natural selection in cancer, such as the non-uniformity of distribution of mutations, the frequency of affected tumor suppressors and oncogenes, the frequency of concurrent alterations in regions of heterozygous deletions and copy gain; as a control, we used presumably non-selected silent mutations. Using mutations of six cancers studied in TCGA projects, we found that predicted high-scoring functional mutations as well as truncating mutations tend to be evolutionarily selected as compared to low-scoring and silent mutations. This result justifies prediction of mutations-drivers using a shorter list of predicted high-scoring functional mutations, rather than the "long tail" of all mutations. PMID:23819556

  2. Network modelling reveals the mechanism underlying colitis-associated colon cancer and identifies novel combinatorial anti-cancer targets.

    PubMed

    Lu, Junyan; Zeng, Hanlin; Liang, Zhongjie; Chen, Limin; Zhang, Liyi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Bairong; Huang, Ming; Geng, Meiyu; Spiegel, Sarah; Luo, Cheng

    2015-10-08

    The connection between inflammation and tumourigenesis has been well established. However, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying inflammation-associated tumourigenesis remains unknown because this process involves a complex interplay between immune microenvironments and epithelial cells. To obtain a more systematic understanding of inflammation-associated tumourigenesis as well as to identify novel therapeutic approaches, we constructed a knowledge-based network describing the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) by integrating the extracellular microenvironment and intracellular signalling pathways. Dynamic simulations of the CAC network revealed a core network module, including P53, MDM2, and AKT, that may govern the malignant transformation of colon epithelial cells in a pro-tumor inflammatory microenvironment. Furthermore, in silico mutation studies and experimental validations led to a novel finding that concurrently targeting ceramide and PI3K/AKT pathway by chemical probes or marketed drugs achieves synergistic anti-cancer effects. Overall, our network model can guide further mechanistic studies on CAC and provide new insights into the design of combinatorial cancer therapies in a rational manner.

  3. Network modelling reveals the mechanism underlying colitis-associated colon cancer and identifies novel combinatorial anti-cancer targets

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Junyan; Zeng, Hanlin; Liang, Zhongjie; Chen, Limin; Zhang, Liyi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Bairong; Huang, Ming; Geng, Meiyu; Spiegel, Sarah; Luo, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The connection between inflammation and tumourigenesis has been well established. However, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying inflammation-associated tumourigenesis remains unknown because this process involves a complex interplay between immune microenvironments and epithelial cells. To obtain a more systematic understanding of inflammation-associated tumourigenesis as well as to identify novel therapeutic approaches, we constructed a knowledge-based network describing the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) by integrating the extracellular microenvironment and intracellular signalling pathways. Dynamic simulations of the CAC network revealed a core network module, including P53, MDM2, and AKT, that may govern the malignant transformation of colon epithelial cells in a pro-tumor inflammatory microenvironment. Furthermore, in silico mutation studies and experimental validations led to a novel finding that concurrently targeting ceramide and PI3K/AKT pathway by chemical probes or marketed drugs achieves synergistic anti-cancer effects. Overall, our network model can guide further mechanistic studies on CAC and provide new insights into the design of combinatorial cancer therapies in a rational manner. PMID:26446703

  4. Differentially expressed genes and interacting pathways in bladder cancer revealed by bioinformatic analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yinzhou; Wang, Xuelei; Jin, Yongchao; Lu, Jiasun; Qiu, Guangming; Wen, Xiaofei

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to identify cancer-associated differentially expressed genes (DEGs), analyze their biological functions and investigate the mechanism(s) of cancer occurrence and development, which may provide a theoretical foundation for bladder cancer (BCa) therapy. We downloaded the mRNA expression profiling dataset GSE13507 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database; the dataset includes 165 BCa and 68 control samples. T‑tests were used to identify DEGs. To further study the biological functions of the identified DEGs, we performed a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. Next, we built a network of potentially interacting pathways to study the synergistic relationships among DEGs. A total of 12,105 genes were identified as DEGs, of which 5,239 were upregulated and 6,866 were downregulated in BCa. The DEGs encoding activator protein 1 (AP-1), nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) proteins, nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and interleukin (IL)-10 were revealed to participate in the significantly enriched immune pathways that were downregulated in BCa. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed 7 significantly upregulated and 47 significantly downregulated pathways enriched among the DEGs. We found a crosstalk interaction among a total of 44 pathways in the network of BCa-affected pathways. In conclusion, our results show that BCa involves dysfunctions in multiple systems. Our study is expected to pave ways for immune and inflammatory research and provide molecular insights for cancer therapy.

  5. The pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases danusertib induces apoptosis and autophagy and suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Ping; Yang, Yin-Xue; Liu, Qi-Lun; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Pan, Si-Yuan; Duan, Wei; He, Shu-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Danusertib (Danu) is a pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases and a third-generation breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (Bcr-Abl) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of human breast cancer remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Danu on the growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the molecular mechanisms in human breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The results demonstrated that Danu remarkably inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and autophagy, and suppressed EMT in both breast cancer cell lines. Danu arrested MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in G2/M phase, accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and cyclin B1 and upregulation of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. Danu significantly decreased the expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra-large (Bcl-xl) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), but increased the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and promoted the cleavage of caspases 3 and 9. Furthermore, Danu significantly increased the expression levels of the membrane-bound microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II) and beclin 1 in breast cancer cells, two markers for autophagy. Danu induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) and inhibited the activation of protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Treatment with wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor) markedly inhibited Danu-induced activation of p38 MAPK and conversion of cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. Pharmacological inhibition and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of p38 MAPK suppressed Akt activation, resulting in LC3-II accumulation and enhanced autophagy. Pharmacological inhibition

  6. The pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases danusertib induces apoptosis and autophagy and suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Ping; Yang, Yin-Xue; Liu, Qi-Lun; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Pan, Si-Yuan; Duan, Wei; He, Shu-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Danusertib (Danu) is a pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases and a third-generation breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (Bcr-Abl) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of human breast cancer remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Danu on the growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the molecular mechanisms in human breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The results demonstrated that Danu remarkably inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and autophagy, and suppressed EMT in both breast cancer cell lines. Danu arrested MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in G2/M phase, accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and cyclin B1 and upregulation of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. Danu significantly decreased the expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra-large (Bcl-xl) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), but increased the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and promoted the cleavage of caspases 3 and 9. Furthermore, Danu significantly increased the expression levels of the membrane-bound microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II) and beclin 1 in breast cancer cells, two markers for autophagy. Danu induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) and inhibited the activation of protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Treatment with wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor) markedly inhibited Danu-induced activation of p38 MAPK and conversion of cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. Pharmacological inhibition and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of p38 MAPK suppressed Akt activation, resulting in LC3-II accumulation and enhanced autophagy. Pharmacological inhibition

  7. HPV DNA testing with cytology triage in cervical cancer screening: Influence of revealing HPV infection status.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Lyndsay Ann; El-Zein, Mariam; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Ratnam, Samuel; Sangwa-Lugoma, Ghislain; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Cardoso, Marly Augusto; Coutlée, Francois; Franco, Eduardo L

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) status might influence a cytotechnician's assessment of cellular abnormalities. The authors compared original cytotechnicians' Papanicolaou (Pap) readings for which HPV status was concealed with Pap rereads for which HPV status was revealed separately for 3 screening populations. Previously collected cervical Pap smears and clinical data were obtained from the Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial (study A), the Democratic Republic of Congo Community-Based Screening Study (study B), and the Brazilian Investigation into Nutrition and Cervical Cancer Prevention (study C). Smears were reread with knowledge of HPV status for all HPV-positive women as well as a sample of HPV-negative women. Diagnostic performance of Pap cytology was compared between original readings and rereads. A total of 1767 Pap tests were reread. Among 915 rereads for HPV-positive women, the contrast between "revealed" and "concealed" Pap readings demonstrated revisions from negative to positive results for 109 women (cutoff was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse) and 124 women (cutoff was low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [LSIL] or worse). For a disease threshold of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse, specificity significantly declined at the atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cutoff for studies A (86.6% to 75.3%) and C (42.5% to 15.5%), and at the LSIL cutoff for study C (61.9% to 37.6%). Sensitivity remained nearly unchanged between readings, except in study C, in which reread performance was superior (91.3% vs 71.9% for the LSIL cutoff). A reduction in the diagnostic accuracy of Pap cytology was observed when revealing patients' cervical HPV status, possibly due to a heightened awareness of potential abnormalities, which led to more false-positive results. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  8. Mitochondrial haplogroups and polymorphisms reveal no association with sporadic prostate cancer in a southern European population.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Cubero, María Jesús; Saiz Guinaldo, María; Martínez-González, Luís Javier; Álvarez Merino, Juan Carlos; Cózar Olmo, José Manuel; Acosta, José Antonio Lorente

    2012-01-01

    It is known that mitochondria play an important role in certain cancers (prostate, renal, breast, or colorectal) and coronary disease. These organelles play an essential role in apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species; in addition, mtDNA also reveals the history of populations and ancient human migration. All these events and variations in the mitochondrial genome are thought to cause some cancers, including prostate cancer, and also help us to group individuals into common origin groups. The aim of the present study is to analyze the different haplogroups and variations in the sequence in the mitochondrial genome of a southern European population consisting of subjects affected (n = 239) and non-affected (n = 150) by sporadic prostate cancer. Using primer extension analysis and DNA sequencing, we identified the nine major European haplogroups and CR polymorphisms. The frequencies of the haplogroups did not differ between patients and control cohorts, whereas the CR polymorphism T16356C was significantly higher in patients with PC compared to the controls (p = 0.029). PSA, staging, and Gleason score were associated with none of the nine major European haplogroups. The CR polymorphisms G16129A (p = 0.007) and T16224C (p = 0.022) were significantly associated with Gleason score, whereas T16311C (p = 0.046) was linked with T-stage. Our results do not suggest that mtDNA haplogroups could be involved in sporadic prostate cancer etiology and pathogenesis as previous studies performed in middle Europe population. Although some significant associations have been obtained in studying CR polymorphisms, further studies should be performed to validate these results.

  9. Mitochondrial Haplogroups and Polymorphisms Reveal No Association with Sporadic Prostate Cancer in a Southern European Population

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Cubero, María Jesús; Saiz Guinaldo, María; Martínez-González, Luís Javier; Álvarez Merino, Juan Carlos; Cózar Olmo, José Manuel; Acosta, José Antonio Lorente

    2012-01-01

    Background It is known that mitochondria play an important role in certain cancers (prostate, renal, breast, or colorectal) and coronary disease. These organelles play an essential role in apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species; in addition, mtDNA also reveals the history of populations and ancient human migration. All these events and variations in the mitochondrial genome are thought to cause some cancers, including prostate cancer, and also help us to group individuals into common origin groups. The aim of the present study is to analyze the different haplogroups and variations in the sequence in the mitochondrial genome of a southern European population consisting of subjects affected (n = 239) and non-affected (n = 150) by sporadic prostate cancer. Methodology and Principal Findings Using primer extension analysis and DNA sequencing, we identified the nine major European haplogroups and CR polymorphisms. The frequencies of the haplogroups did not differ between patients and control cohorts, whereas the CR polymorphism T16356C was significantly higher in patients with PC compared to the controls (p = 0.029). PSA, staging, and Gleason score were associated with none of the nine major European haplogroups. The CR polymorphisms G16129A (p = 0.007) and T16224C (p = 0.022) were significantly associated with Gleason score, whereas T16311C (p = 0.046) was linked with T-stage. Conclusions and Significance Our results do not suggest that mtDNA haplogroups could be involved in sporadic prostate cancer etiology and pathogenesis as previous studies performed in middle Europe population. Although some significant associations have been obtained in studying CR polymorphisms, further studies should be performed to validate these results. PMID:22815971

  10. Heterogeneity of pancreatic cancer metastases in a single patient revealed by quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Sik; Zhong, Yi; Yachida, Shinichi; Rajeshkumar, N V; Abel, Melissa L; Marimuthu, Arivusudar; Mudgal, Keshav; Hruban, Ralph H; Poling, Justin S; Tyner, Jeffrey W; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2014-11-01

    Many patients with pancreatic cancer have metastases to distant organs at the time of initial presentation. Recent studies examining the evolution of pancreatic cancer at the genetic level have shown that clonal complexity of metastatic pancreatic cancer is already initiated within primary tumors, and organ-specific metastases are derived from different subclones. However, we do not yet understand to what extent the evolution of pancreatic cancer contributes to proteomic and signaling alterations. We hypothesized that genetic heterogeneity of metastatic pancreatic cancer results in heterogeneity at the proteome level. To address this, we employed a model system in which cells isolated from three sites of metastasis (liver, lung, and peritoneum) from a single patient were compared. We used a SILAC-based accurate quantitative proteomic strategy combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry to analyze the total proteome and tyrosine phosphoproteome of each of the distal metastases. Our data revealed distinct patterns of both overall proteome expression and tyrosine kinase activities across the three different metastatic lesions. This heterogeneity was significant because it led to differential sensitivity of the neoplastic cells to small molecule inhibitors targeting various kinases and other pathways. For example, R428, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets Axl receptor tyrosine kinase, was able to inhibit cells derived from lung and liver metastases much more effectively than cells from the peritoneal metastasis. Finally, we confirmed that administration of R428 in mice bearing xenografts of cells derived from the three different metastatic sites significantly diminished tumors formed from liver- and lung-metastasis-derived cell lines as compared with tumors derived from the peritoneal metastasis cell line. Overall, our data provide proof-of-principle support that personalized therapy of multiple organ metastases in a single patient should involve the

  11. Diffuse Muscular Pain, Skin Tightening, and Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia Revealing Paraneoplastic Amyopathic Dermatomyositis due to Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Norrenberg, Sarah; Gangji, Valérie; Del Marmol, Véronique; Soyfoo, Muhammad S

    2012-01-01

    Paraneoplastic dermatomyositis (DM) associated with testicular cancer is extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with skin tightening, polymyalgia, hypereosinophilia, and nodular regenerative hyperplasia revealing seminoma and associated paraneoplastic DM.

  12. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals That Enzymes of the Ketogenic Pathway Are Associated with Prostate Cancer Progression*

    PubMed Central

    Saraon, Punit; Cretu, Daniela; Musrap, Natasha; Karagiannis, George S.; Batruch, Ihor; Drabovich, Andrei P.; van der Kwast, Theodorus; Mizokami, Atsushi; Morrissey, Colm; Jarvi, Keith; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men. One common treatment is androgen-deprivation therapy, which reduces symptoms in most patients. However, over time, patients develop tumors that are androgen-independent and ultimately fatal. The mechanisms that cause this transition remain largely unknown, and as a result, there are no effective treatments against androgen-independent prostate cancer. As a model platform, we used the LNCaP cell line and its androgen-independent derivative, LNCaP-SF. Utilizing stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture coupled to mass spectrometry, we assessed the differential global protein expression of the two cell lines. Our proteomic analysis resulted in the quantification of 3355 proteins. Bioinformatic prioritization resulted in 42 up-regulated and 46 down-regulated proteins in LNCaP-SF cells relative to LNCaP cells. Our top candidate, HMGCS2, an enzyme involved in ketogenesis, was found to be 9-fold elevated in LNCaP-SF cells, based on peptide ratios. After analyzing the remaining enzymes of this pathway (ACAT1, BDH1, HMGCL, and OXCT1), we observed increased expression of these proteins in the LNCaP-SF cells, which was further verified using Western blotting. To determine whether these enzymes were up-regulated in clinical samples, we performed quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry on human prostate cancer tissues, from which we observed significantly increased transcript and protein levels in high-grade cancer (Gleason grade ≥ 8). In addition, we observed significant elevation of these enzymes in the LuCaP 96AI castration-resistant xenograft. Further assessment of ACAT1 on human castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer tissues revealed substantially elevated expression of ACAT1 in these specimens. Taken together, our results indicate that enzymes of the ketogenic pathway are up-regulated in high-grade prostate cancer and could serve as

  13. Distinct outcomes of CRL–Nedd8 pathway inhibition reveal cancer cell plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Rulina, Anastasia V; Mittler, Frédérique; Obeid, Patricia; Gerbaud, Sophie; Guyon, Laurent; Sulpice, Eric; Kermarrec, Frédérique; Assard, Nicole; Dolega, Monika E; Gidrol, Xavier; Balakirev, Maxim Y

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of protein degradation by blocking Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) is a new approach in cancer therapy though of unknown risk because CRL inhibition may stabilize both oncoproteins and tumor suppressors. Probing CRLs in prostate cancer cells revealed a remarkable plasticity of cells with TMPRSS2-ERG translocation. CRL suppression by chemical inhibition or knockdown of RING component RBX1 led to reversible G0/G1 cell cycle arrest that prevented cell apoptosis. Conversely, complete blocking of CRLs at a higher inhibitor dose-induced cytotoxicity that was amplified by knockdown of CRL regulator Cand1. We analyzed cell signaling to understand how varying degrees of CRL inhibition translated to distinct cell fates. Both tumor suppressor and oncogenic cell signaling pathways and transcriptional activities were affected, with pro-metastatic Wnt/β-catenin as the most upregulated. Suppression of the NF-κB pathway contributed to anti-apoptotic effect, and androgen receptor (AR) and ERG played decisive, though opposite, roles: AR was involved in protective quiescence, whereas ERG promoted apoptosis. These data define AR–ERG interaction as a key plasticity and survival determinant in prostate cancer and suggest supplementary treatments that may overcome drug resistance mechanisms regulated by AR–ERG interaction. PMID:27906189

  14. Deep Sequencing Reveals New Aspects of Progesterone Receptor Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kougioumtzi, Anastasia; Tsaparas, Panayiotis; Magklara, Angeliki

    2014-01-01

    Despite the pleiotropic effects of the progesterone receptor in breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms in play remain largely unknown. To gain a global view of the PR-orchestrated networks, we used next-generation sequencing to determine the progestin-regulated transcriptome in T47D breast cancer cells. We identify a large number of PR target genes involved in critical cellular programs, such as regulation of transcription, apoptosis, cell motion and angiogenesis. Integration of the transcriptomic data with the PR-binding profiling of hormonally treated cells identifies numerous components of the small-GTPases signaling pathways as direct PR targets. Progestin-induced deregulation of the small GTPases may contribute to the PR's role in mammary tumorigenesis. Transcript expression analysis reveals significant expression changes of specific transcript variants in response to the extracellular hormonal stimulus. Using the NET1 gene as an example, we show that the PR can dictate alternative promoter usage leading to the upregulation of an isoform that may play a role in metastatic breast cancer. Future studies should aim to characterize these selectively regulated variants and evaluate their clinical utility in prognosis and targeted therapy of hormonally responsive breast tumors. PMID:24897521

  15. Endogenous molecular network reveals two mechanisms of heterogeneity within gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Site; Zhu, Xiaomei; Liu, Bingya; Wang, Gaowei; Ao, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity is a common phenomenon and impedes cancer therapy and research. Gastric cancer (GC) cells have generally been classified into two heterogeneous cellular phenotypes, the gastric and intestinal types, yet the mechanisms of maintaining two phenotypes and controlling phenotypic transition are largely unknown. A qualitative systematic framework, the endogenous molecular network hypothesis, has recently been proposed to understand cancer genesis and progression. Here, a minimal network corresponding to such framework was found for GC and was quantified via a stochastic nonlinear dynamical system. We then further extended the framework to address the important question of intratumor heterogeneity quantitatively. The working network characterized main known features of normal gastric epithelial and GC cell phenotypes. Our results demonstrated that four positive feedback loops in the network are critical for GC cell phenotypes. Moreover, two mechanisms that contribute to GC cell heterogeneity were identified: particular positive feedback loops are responsible for the maintenance of intestinal and gastric phenotypes; GC cell progression routes that were revealed by the dynamical behaviors of individual key components are heterogeneous. In this work, we constructed an endogenous molecular network of GC that can be expanded in the future and would broaden the known mechanisms of intratumor heterogeneity. PMID:25962957

  16. Singularity analysis of the AKT signaling pathway reveals connections between cancer and metabolic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanyu

    2010-12-01

    Connections between cancer and metabolic diseases may consist in the complex network of interactions among a common set of biomolecules. By applying singularity and bifurcation analysis, the phenotypes constrained by the AKT signaling pathway are identified and mapped onto the parameter space, which include cancer and certain metabolic diseases. By considering physiologic properties (sensitivity, robustness and adaptivity) the AKT pathway must possess in order to efficiently sense growth factors and nutrients, the region of normal responses is located. To optimize these properties, the intracellular concentration of the AKT protein must be sufficiently high to saturate its enzymes; the strength of the positive feedback must be stronger than that of the negative feedback. The analysis illuminates the parameter space and reveals system-level mechanisms in regulating biological functions (cell growth, survival, proliferation and metabolism) and how their deregulation may lead to the development of diseases. The analytical expressions summarize the synergistic interactions among many molecules, which provides valuable insights into therapeutic interventions. In particular, a strategy for overcoming the limitations of mTOR inhibition is proposed for cancer therapy.

  17. A systems approach reveals distinct metabolic strategies among the NCI-60 cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Aurich, Maike K.; Fleming, Ronan M. T.; Thiele, Ines

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic phenotype of cancer cells is reflected by the metabolites they consume and by the byproducts they release. Here, we use quantitative, extracellular metabolomic data of the NCI-60 panel and a novel computational method to generate 120 condition-specific cancer cell line metabolic models. These condition-specific cancer models used distinct metabolic strategies to generate energy and cofactors. The analysis of the models’ capability to deal with environmental perturbations revealed three oxotypes, differing in the range of allowable oxygen uptake rates. Interestingly, models based on metabolomic profiles of melanoma cells were distinguished from other models through their low oxygen uptake rates, which were associated with a glycolytic phenotype. A subset of the melanoma cell models required reductive carboxylation. The analysis of protein and RNA expression levels from the Human Protein Atlas showed that IDH2, which was an essential gene in the melanoma models, but not IDH1 protein, was detected in normal skin cell types and melanoma. Moreover, the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL) protein, whose loss is associated with non-hypoxic HIF-stabilization, reductive carboxylation, and promotion of glycolysis, was uniformly absent in melanoma. Thus, the experimental data supported the predicted role of IDH2 and the absence of VHL protein supported the glycolytic and low oxygen phenotype predicted for melanoma. Taken together, our approach of integrating extracellular metabolomic data with metabolic modeling and the combination of different network interrogation methods allowed insights into the metabolism of cells. PMID:28806730

  18. Integrated analysis reveals tubal and ovarian originated serous ovarian cancer and predicts differential therapeutic responses.

    PubMed

    Hao, Dapeng; Li, Jingjing; Jia, Shanshan; Meng, Yuan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Chao; Di, Li-Jun

    2017-09-22

    The relative importance of fallopian tube (FT) compared to ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) in the genesis of serous type of ovarian cancer (SOC) is still unsettled. Here, we followed an integrated approach to study the tissue origin of SOC, as well as its association with clinical outcome and response to therapeutic drugs. A collection of transcriptome data of 80 FTs, 89 OSEs and 2,668 SOCs was systematically analyzed to determine the characteristic of FT-like and OSE-like tumors. A molecular signature was developed for identifying tissue origin of SOC and then was used to re-evaluate the prognostic genes and therapeutic biomarkers of SOC of different tissue origins. IHC staining of tissue array and functional experiments on a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines were used to further validate the key findings. The expression patterns of tissue specific genes, prognostic genes and molecular markers all support a dualistic tissue origin of SOC, from either FT or OSE. A molecular signature was established to identify the tissue identity of SOCs. Surprisingly, the signature showed a strong association with overall survival [OSE-like versus FT-like, HR = 4.16, 95%CI, 2.67-6.48, p<10-9]. The phamacogenomic approach revealed AXL to be a therapeutic target of the aggressive OSE-derived SOC. SOC has two subtypes originated from either FT or OSE, which show different clinical and pathological features. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Microbial genomic analysis reveals the essential role of inflammation in bacteria-induced colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Janelle C.; Gharaibeh, Raad Z.; Mühlbauer, Marcus; Perez-Chanona, Ernesto; Uronis, Joshua M.; McCafferty, Jonathan; Fodor, Anthony A.; Jobin, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Enterobacteria, especially Escherichia coli, are abundant in patients with inflammatory bowel disease or colorectal cancer (CRC). However, it is unclear whether cancer is promoted by inflammation-induced expansion of E. coli and/or changes in expression of specific microbial genes. Here we use longitudinal (2, 12 and 20 weeks) 16S rRNA sequencing of luminal microbiota from ex-germ free mice to show that inflamed Il10−/− mice maintain a higher abundance of Enterobacteriaceae than healthy wild-type mice. Experiments with mono-colonized Il10−/− mice reveal that host inflammation is necessary for E. coli cancer-promoting activity. RNA-sequence analysis indicates significant changes in E. coli gene catalogue in Il10−/− mice, with changes mostly driven by adaptation to the intestinal environment. Expression of specific genes present in the tumor-promoting E. coli pks island are modulated by inflammation/CRC development. Thus, progression of inflammation in Il10−/− mice supports Enterobacteriaceae and alters a small subset of microbial genes important for tumor development. PMID:25182170

  20. Extracellular Matrix-dependent Pathways in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines Reveal Potential Targets for Anticancer Therapies.

    PubMed

    Stankevicius, Vaidotas; Vasauskas, Gintautas; Noreikiene, Rimante; Kuodyte, Karolina; Valius, Mindaugas; Suziedelis, Kestutis

    2016-09-01

    Cancer cells grown in a 3D culture are more resistant to anticancer therapy treatment compared to those in a monolayer 2D culture. Emerging evidence has suggested that the key reasons for increased cell survival could be gene expression changes in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction-dependent manner. Global gene-expression changes were obtained in human colorectal carcinoma HT29 and DLD1 cell lines between 2D and laminin-rich (lr) ECM 3D growth conditions by gene-expression microarray analysis. The most significantly altered functional categories were revealed by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. The microarray data revealed that 841 and 1190 genes were differentially expressed in colorectal carcinoma DLD1 and HT29 cells. KEGG analysis indicated that the most significantly altered categories were cell adhesion, mitogen-activated protein kinase and immune response. Our results indicate altered pathways related to cancer development and progression and suggest potential ECM-regulated targets for the development of anticancer therapies. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. Breast cancer revealed by a paraneoplastic cerebellar syndrome: about one case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Adama, Dembélé; Moussa, Bambara; Emmanuel, Macoumi; Dennis, Ullmann

    2015-01-01

    To describe a case of breast cancer manifested by cerebellar syndrome and to establish a relationship between breast cancer and Paraneoplastic syndromes through the presence of anti- yo antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of a patient. Our patient was 52 years old, Multipara with 5 children alive. She had been 3 years post-menopausal under Hormonal Replacement Therapy. Weight: 46.7 Kg; Height: 1.60 m; Body Surface Area: 1.59 m(2). Nil history of alcohol or tobacco smoking. Nil history suggestive of malignancies or autoimmune diseases. Her Blood group was oRh positive, nil presence of irregular agglutinins. She was admitted to the neurology service for vertigo and it was determined an isolated cerebellar syndrome. All tests were negative including tumor markers and radiological imaging. The clinical gynecological examination was perfectly normal. The diagnosis hypothesis was "meningo-encephalocerebellitis of viral origin" but with persistence and aggravation of the cerebellar syndrome, despite treatment. We decided to search, antibodies, anti-Hu, anti-Yo, anti-Ri, and anti Ta. Anti Yo was positive + + + in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum of the patient. The search for a gynecological cancer included a mammography which revealed micro calcifications in the left breast + + +. A lumpectomy of the left breast accompanied with x-ray identification of the micro calcifications was done and the histology showed a High Grade Intraductal carcinoma of the left breast with two homes of 3mm and 1 mm, corresponding to an infiltrating carcinoma of the left breast, grade II tumor of Scarff and Bloom (SBRII, 21 N + / 26, RH +, low Ki 67) and Estrogen and progesterone receptor positive +: multifocal cancer. Following the lumpectomy, mastectomy with ganglion clearing was done with adjuvant chemotherapy (FEC 6 Cycles): histology still showed Infiltrating Intraductal Carcinoma of the left breast, grade II tumor of Scarff and Bloom. Radiotherapy was followed and he patient was

  2. Hysterectomy-corrected cervical cancer mortality rates reveal a larger racial disparity in the United States.

    PubMed

    Beavis, Anna L; Gravitt, Patti E; Rositch, Anne F

    2017-05-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the age-standardized and age-specific annual US cervical cancer mortality rates after correction for the prevalence of hysterectomy and to evaluate disparities by age and race. Estimates for deaths due to cervical cancer stratified by age, state, year, and race were derived from the National Center for Health Statistics county mortality data (2000-2012). Equivalently stratified data on the prevalence of hysterectomy for women 20 years old or older from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey were used to remove women who were not at risk from the denominator. Age-specific and age-standardized mortality rates were computed, and trends in mortality rates were analyzed with Joinpoint regression. Age-standardized rates were higher for both races after correction. For black women, the corrected mortality rate was 10.1 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.6-10.6), whereas the uncorrected rate was 5.7 per 100,000 (95% CI, 5.5-6.0). The corrected rate for white women was 4.7 per 100,000 (95% CI, 4.6-4.8), whereas the uncorrected rate was 3.2 per 100,000 (95% CI, 3.1-3.2). Without the correction, the disparity in mortality between races was underestimated by 44%. Black women who were 85 years old or older had the highest corrected rate: 37.2 deaths per 100,000. A trend analysis of corrected rates demonstrated that white women's rates decreased at 0.8% per year, whereas the annual decrease for black women was 3.6% (P < .05). A correction for hysterectomy has revealed that cervical cancer mortality rates are underestimated, particularly in black women. The highest rates are seen in the oldest black women, and public health efforts should focus on appropriate screening and adequate treatment in this population. Cancer 2017;123:1044-50. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  3. Identification of colonic fibroblast secretomes reveals secretory factors regulating colon cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sun-Xia; Xu, Xiao-En; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Cui, Shu-Jian; Xu, Lei-Lei; Jiang, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Hai