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Sample records for p2o5 modificados con

  1. The significance of Cl/P2O5 ratios from lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Hunter, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    The Cl(r)/P2O5 ratios of lunar samples are reported to occur in three groups (Jovanovic and Reed, 1975; etc.). These data have been modeled as representative of three discrete volumes of differentiating magma and correlated with large convection cells and moon-wide heterogeneities. The assumptions inherent to their model are not valid. That the Cl(r)/P2O5 ratio of apatite or a rock is indicative of a magma system is unrealistic. A range of ratios can be generated during the fractionation of a magma. Apatite is not the major Cl- and P-bearing phase in most of the samples analyzed; rust, FeO(OH, Cl) and schreibersite, (FeNi)3P, occur in over 2/3 rds of the Apollo 16 rocks where they constitute 0.1-0.6 modal %, enough to account for most of the Cl(r) and P2O5 analyzed. Due to the complexities and presence of these minerals in soils and breccias, Cl(r)/P2O5 ratios have no real significance in non-igneous samples. However, basaltic rocks alone do not define any statistically significant Cl(r)P2O5 groupings.

  2. Luminescence of phosphorus containing oxide materials: Crystalline SiO2-P and 3P2O5ṡ7SiO2; CaOṡP2O5; SrOṡP2O5 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trukhin, A. N.; Smits, K.; Jansons, J.; Berzins, D.; Chikvaidze, G.; Griscom, D. L.

    2014-10-01

    Luminescence of phosphate glasses such as CaOṡP2O5 and SrOṡP2O5 is compared with that of phosphorus doped crystalline α-quartz and phosphosilicate glass with content 3P2O5ṡ7SiO2. Water & OH groups are found by IR spectra in these materials. The spectrum of luminescence contains many bands in the range 1.5 - 5.5 eV. The luminescence bands in UV range at 4.5-5 eV are similar in those materials. Decay duration in exponential approximation manifests a time constant about 37 ns. Also a component in μs range was detected. PL band of μs component is shifted to low energy with respect to that of ˜37 ns component. This shift is about 0.6 eV. It is explained as singlet-triplet splitting of excited state. Below 14 K increase of luminescence kinetics duration in μs range was observed and it was ascribed to zero magnetic field splitting of triplet excited state of the center. Yellow-red luminescence was induced by irradiation in phosphorus doped crystalline α-quartz, phosphosilicate glasses. The yellowl uminescence contains two bands at 600 and 740 nm. Their decay is similar under 193 nm laser and may be fitted with the first order fractal kinetics or stretched exponent. Thermally stimulated luminescence contains only band at 600 nm. The 248 nm laser excites luminescence at 740 nm according to intra center process with decay time constant about 4 ms at 9 K. Both type of luminescence UV and yellow were ascribed to different defects containing phosphorus. P-doped α-quartz sample heated to 550 co become opalescent. Ir spectra related to water & OH groups are changed. Photoluminescence intensity of all three bands, UV (250 nm), yellow (600 nm) and red (740 nm) strongly diminished and disappeared after heating to 660 C°. Radiation induced red luminescence of non-bridging oxygen luminescence center (NBO) appeared in crystal after heat treatment. We had observed a crystalline version of this center (l. Skuja et al, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B

  3. Optimization of the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of P2O5-containing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudon, Pierre; Jung, In-Ho

    2014-05-01

    P2O5 is an important oxide component in the late stage products of numerous igneous rocks such as granites and pegmatites. Typically, P2O5 combines with CaO and crystallizes in the form of apatite, while in volatile-free conditions, Ca-whitlockite is formed. In spite of their interest, the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of P2O5-containg systems are not well known yet. In the case of the pure P2O5 for example, no experimental thermodynamic data are available for the liquid and the O and O' solid phases. As a result, we re-evaluated all the thermodynamic and phase diagram data of the P2O5 unary system [1]. Optimization of the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of the binary P2O5 systems was then performed including the Li2O-, Na2O-, MgO-, CaO-, BaO-, MnO-, FeO-, Fe2O3-, ZnO-, Al2O3-, and SiO2-P2O5 [2] systems. All available thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data were simultaneously reproduced in order to obtain a set of model equations for the Gibbs energies of all phases as functions of temperature and composition. In particular, the Gibbs energy of the liquid solution was described using the Modified Quasichemical Model [3-5] implemented in the FactSage software [6]. Thermodynamic modeling of the Li2O-Na2O-K2O-MgO-CaO-FeO-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 system, which include many granite-forming minerals such as nepheline, leucite, pyroxene, melilite, feldspar and spinel is currently in progress. [1] Jung, I.-H., Hudon, P. (2012) Thermodynamic assessment of P2O5. J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 95 (11), 3665-3672. [2] Rahman, M., Hudon, P. and Jung, I.-H. (2013) A coupled experimental study and thermodynamic modeling of the SiO2-P2O5 system. Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 44 (4), 837-852. [3] Pelton, A.D. and Blander, M. (1984) Computer-assisted analysis of the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of slags. Proc. AIME Symp. Metall. Slags Fluxes, TMS-AIME, 281-294. [4] Pelton, A.D. and Blander, M. (1986) Thermodynamic analysis of ordered liquid solutions by a modified

  4. Gamma-ray irradiation induced bulk photochromism in WO3-P2O5 glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wei; Baccaro, Stefania; Cemmi, Alessia; Xu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Guorong

    2015-11-01

    In the present work, photochromism of WO3-P2O5 glass under gamma-ray irradiation was reported. As-prepared glass samples with different WO3 content are all optically transparent in the visible wavelength range thanks to the addition of a small amount of oxidizing couple Sb2O3-NaNO3. The photochromic properties are identified by transmission spectra of the glasses before and after irradiation. The results show that the irradiation induced darkening results from the reduction of W6+ to W5+ or W4+. The existence of WO6 clusters in glasses of high WO3 content is proved by XPS, which is the main reason for the obvious photochromic effects. The WO3-P2O5 glass is a promising candidate in gamma-ray sensitive detector.

  5. Vapor-phase synthesis of mesoporous SiO2-P2O5 thin films.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Norikazu; Kaihara, Junji; Nishiyama, Yuko; Egashira, Yasuyuki; Ueyama, Korekazu

    2007-04-24

    Mesoporous SiO2-P2O5 films were synthesized from the vapor phase onto a silicon substrate. First, a precursor solution of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16TAB), H3PO4, ethanol, and water was deposited on a silicon substrate by a spin-coating method. Then, the C16TAB-H3PO4 composite film was treated with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) vapor at 90-180 degrees C for 2.5 h. The H3PO4-C16TAB composite formed a hexagonal structure on the silicon substrate before vapor treatment. The TEOS molecules penetrated into the film without a phase transition. The periodic mesostructure of the SiO2-P2O5 films was retained after calcination. The calcined films showed a high proton conductivity of about 0.55 S/cm at room temperature. The molar ratio of P/Si in the SiO2-P2O5 film was as high as 0.43, a level that was not attained by a premixing sol-gel method. The high phosphate group content and the ordered periodic mesostructure contributed to the high proton conductivity.

  6. Electrical resistivity surface for FeO-Fe2O3-P2O5 glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, J. G.; Kinser, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    The dc electrical properties and microstructure of x(FeO-Fe2O3)-(100-x)P2O5 glasses were investigated up to a maximum of x = 75 mol %. Results indicate that, in general, the minimum resistivity of the glass does not occur at equal Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) concentrations, although for the special case where x = 55 mol % the minimum does occur at Fe(2+)/Fe total = 0.5, as reported by other investigators. Evidence presented shows that the position of the minimum resistivity is a function of total iron content. The minimum shifts to glasses richer in Fe(2+) at higher total iron concentrations.

  7. P2O5-doping in waste glasses: evolution of viscosity and crystallization processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrago, Mariona; Espuñes, Alex; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Martinez, Salvador

    2015-04-01

    Current concern for environmental preservation is the main motive for the study of new, more sustainable materials. Increasing amounts of sewage sludge are produced in wastewater treatment plants over the world every day. This fact represents a major problem for the municipalities and industries due to the volume of waste and also to the contaminant elements it may bear, which require expensive conditions for disposal in landfills. Vitrification is an established technique in the inertization of different types of toxic wastes (such as nuclear wastes and contaminated soils) that has been used successfully for sewage sludge. Glasses of basaltic composition (43.48SiO2-14.00Al2O3-12.86Fe2O3-10.00CaO-9.94MgO-3.27Na2O-1.96K2O-0.17MnO-0.55P2O5-2.48TiO2) are used as a laboratory analogous of wastes such as sewage sludge and galvanic sludge to study the properties of the inertization matrix. This basaltic matrix is doped by adding 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 20% of P5O5 in order to cover the compositional range of phosphate in sewage sludge encountered in the literature. In this study, the focus has been placed in the effect of the concentration of phosphate (P2O5) in glass stability, thermal properties and evolution of viscosity with temperature. The dependence of viscosity on temperature and the thermal behaviour of these glasses are critical parameters in the design of their production process. Regarding the compositional limits of the mixture, it has been observed that melt reactivity is much increased when P2O5 content is over 4%, hindering the glass conformation process. Moreover, stanfieldite (calcium and magnesium phosphate) crystallized during glass making when phosphate concentration approached 20%, hence establishing the upper limit for glass stability. Viscosity is also dramatically increased in this range, hence requiring production amends. Differential thermal analysis has provided nucleation and crystallization temperatures of the glasses around 915°C and 1050

  8. P2O5 assisted green synthesis of multicolor fluorescent water soluble carbon dots.

    PubMed

    Babar, Dipak Gorakh; Sonkar, Sumit Kumar; Tripathi, Kumud Malika; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2014-03-01

    A low cost synthesis of multicolor fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) from edible sugars is described here. Common sugars like dextrose, lactose or maltose in aqueous medium gets dehydrated using phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5). The reaction is facile and completed within few minutes to form insoluble carbon (C-dots) mostly having the graphitic (G-band, Raman) sp2 hybridized carbon atoms (C-atoms). This insoluble carbon on oxidative treatment with nitric acid produced disordered sp3 (D-band retaining G-band, Raman) hybridized C-atoms, originated from the graphitic pool with sp2 hybridized C-atoms. This high density assimilation of self passivated "surfacial defects" become emissive during electronic transitions. Surfacial defects due to high degree of electrophilic carboxylation create the water soluble version of multicolor fluorescent C-dots as "water soluble fluorescent carbon dots" (wsFCDs). wsFCDs being itself self-passivated imposes the tunable multicolor emission throughout the visible spectrum without having any external coating and surface passivation and could be used as multicolor fluorescent probe especially in the emerging field of optical bio-imaging.

  9. Effects of CaO/P2O5 ratio on the structure and elastic properties of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 bioglasses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Cherng; Chen, Shih-Fan; Leung, Kak Si; Shen, Pouyan

    2012-02-01

    The evolution of elastic properties and structure upon the change of CaO/P(2)O(5) ratio in SiO(2)-CaO-Na(2)O-P(2)O(5) glasses (45S5-derived and 55S4-derived) at ambient conditions has been studied by using both Brillouin and Raman spectroscopy coupled with X-ray diffraction. Under the same SiO(2)/Na(2)O ratio, it is found that a decrease in CaO/P(2)O(5) molar ratio has caused a more-polymerized silicate network via a net consumption of Q(0), Q(1), and Q(2) species yet enriching in Q(3) and Q(4) species. Brillouin experiments revealed that all the bulk, shear and Young's moduli of the glasses studied increases with the increase of CaO/P(2)O(5) molar ratio. The unexpected variation trend in shear modulus can be correlated to the contribution from cohesion, the less-polymerized phosphate Q species, and density. Compared to the 45S5-derived, the more-polymerized 55S4-deived glass has a lower bulk but slightly higher shear modulus at the given CaO/P(2)O(5) ratio.

  10. Effect of P2O5 and FetO on the Viscosity and Slag Structure in Steelmaking Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. J.; Shu, Q. F.; Sridhar, S.; Zhang, M.; Guo, M.; Zhang, Z. T.

    2015-04-01

    The present paper investigates the influence of P2O5 and FetO on the viscosity and structure of steelmaking slags. An understanding of the viscous behavior and structure of FetO-bearing smelting slags is essential to control the dephosphorization in steelmaking process and to efficiently recycle the phosphorus from steelmaking slags. It is found that the viscosity of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-FetO-P2O5 slags slightly increases with increasing P2O5 content, while the viscosity decreases with increasing FetO content. The degree of the polymerization of quenched slags, determined from Raman spectra, is found to increase with increasing P2O5 content and decrease with increasing FetO content. It is also noted that the peaks of Raman spectra between 800 and 1200 cm-1 were nearly absent at the FetO content of 22.46 wt pct; whereas according to 29Si MAS-NMR and FTIR analysis, it is clearly seen that the [SiO4]-tetrahedra-related peaks existed even for the same slag. This may confirm that small quantities of extra-framework iron species can absorb the Raman scattering and damp the Raman signal intensity and the presence of FetO in the slag does not necessarily eliminate [SiO4]-tetrahedra.

  11. Structural Investigation of Phosphorus in CaO-SiO2-P2O5 Ternary Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanjun; Cai, Shengjia; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min; Zhang, Zuotai

    2017-02-01

    The system of CaO-SiO2-P2O5 ternary glass is not only among the major constituents of steelmaking slags in iron and steel industry, but also play a significant role in other industrial process, such as chemical engineering and glass industry. In the present study, the structure of CaO-SiO2-P2O5 ternary glass with varying P2O5 content from 0 to 15 wt pct at a fixed CaO/SiO2 = 1.4 was investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectra techniques. The results indicated that P5+ ions have a higher affinity to Ca2+ ions which are then stripped away from the silicate network with the addition of P2O5, resulting in the formation of Ca-O-P and Si-O-Si linkages. In addition, almost all P5+ ions displayed as Q_{P}0 ( Q_{P}n , n is the number of bridging oxygen in one [PO4]-tetrahedra units) and a small fraction of P5+ ions behave as Q_{P}1 (P-O-P) and P-O-Si. The enhanced degree of polymerization can be detected from the increase of X_{Si}3 and X_{P}1 /X_{P}0 (mole fraction of {Q}_{Si}i or {Q}_{P}i ). Furthermore, the ratio of Raman scattering coefficients for Q_{Si}i /Q_{Si}1 and Q_{P}i /Q_{P}1 were determined by combining MD simulated result with Raman spectra, which were considered to be suitable to the present study.

  12. Structural Investigation of Phosphorus in CaO-SiO2-P2O5 Ternary Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanjun; Cai, Shengjia; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min; Zhang, Zuotai

    2017-04-01

    The system of CaO-SiO2-P2O5 ternary glass is not only among the major constituents of steelmaking slags in iron and steel industry, but also play a significant role in other industrial process, such as chemical engineering and glass industry. In the present study, the structure of CaO-SiO2-P2O5 ternary glass with varying P2O5 content from 0 to 15 wt pct at a fixed CaO/SiO2 = 1.4 was investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectra techniques. The results indicated that P5+ ions have a higher affinity to Ca2+ ions which are then stripped away from the silicate network with the addition of P2O5, resulting in the formation of Ca-O-P and Si-O-Si linkages. In addition, almost all P5+ ions displayed as {{Q}}_{{P}}0 ( {{Q}}_{{P}}n , n is the number of bridging oxygen in one [PO4]-tetrahedra units) and a small fraction of P5+ ions behave as {{Q}}_{{P}}1 (P-O-P) and P-O-Si. The enhanced degree of polymerization can be detected from the increase of {{X}}_{{Si}}3 and X_{{P}}1 /X_{{P}}0 (mole fraction of {{Q}}_{{Si}}i or {{Q}}_{{P}}i ). Furthermore, the ratio of Raman scattering coefficients for Q_{{Si}}i /Q_{{Si}}1 and Q_{{P}}i /Q_{{P}}1 were determined by combining MD simulated result with Raman spectra, which were considered to be suitable to the present study.

  13. CaO--P2O5--Na2O-based sintering additives for hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kalita, S J; Bose, S; Hosick, H L; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2004-05-01

    We have assessed the effect of CaO--P2O5--Na2O-based sintering additives on mechanical and biological properties of hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics. Five different compositions of sintering additives were selected and prepared by mixing of CaO, P2O5, and Na2CO3 powders. 2.5 wt% of each additive was combined with commercial HAp powder, separately, followed by ball milling, and sintering at 1250 degrees C and 1300 degrees C in a muffle furnace. Green and sintered densities of the compacts were analyzed for the influence of additives on densification of HAp. Phase analyses were carried out using an X-ray diffractometer. Vickers microhardness testing was used to evaluate hardness of sintered compacts of different compositions. A maximum microhardness of 4.6 (+/- 0.28) GPa was attained for a composition with 2.5 wt% addition of CaO:P2O5:Na2O in the ratio of 3:3:4. Results from mechanical property evaluation showed that some of these sintering additives improved failure strength of HAp under compressive loading. Maximum compressive strength was observed for samples with 2.5 wt% addition of CaO. Average failure strength for this set of samples was calculated to be 220 (+/- 50) MPa. Cytotoxicity, and cell attachment studies were carried out using a modified human osteoblast cell line called OPC-1. In vitro results showed that these compositions were non-toxic. Some sintering aids enhanced cell attachment and proliferation, which was revealed from SEM examination of the scaffolds seeded with OPC-1 cells.

  14. FT-IR, Raman and thermoluminescence investigation of P 2O 5-BaO-Li 2O glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivascu, C.; Timar Gabor, A.; Cozar, O.; Daraban, L.; Ardelean, I.

    2011-05-01

    The 0.5P 2O 5· xBaO·(0.5- x) Li 2O glass system (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.5 mol%) is investigated by FT-IR, Raman and thermoluminescence as a possible dosimetic material. FT-IR and Raman spectra show structural network modifications with the composition variations of the studied glasses. The predominant absorption band from IR spectra is attributed to the symmetric stretching vibrations of P = O double bonds. Raman spectra of the studied glasses contain also typical phosphate glasses bands. Thus the band at ˜700 cm -1 is assigned to symmetric stretching vibrations of P-O-P groups and that from ˜1158 cm -1 is attributed to symmetric stretching motions of the non-bridging oxygen (NBO) atoms bonded to phosphorous atoms (PO 2) in phosphate tetrahedron. Finally FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies revealed a local network structure mainly based on Q 2 and Q 3 tetrahedrons connected by P-O-P linkages. Luminescence investigations show that by adding modifier oxides to phosphate glass dose dependent TL signals result upon irradiation. Thus P 2O 5-BaO-Li 2O glass system is a possible candidate material for dosimetry in the high dose range (>10 Gy).

  15. Effect of P2O5 and MnO2 on crystallization of magnetic glass ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hameed, Salwa A.M.; Marzouk, Mohamed A.; Farag, Mohamed M.

    2013-01-01

    This work pointed out the effect of adding P2O5 and/or MnO2 on the crystallization behavior of magnetic glass ceramic in the system Fe2O3·ZnO·CaO·SiO2·B2O3. The differential thermal analysis of the quenched samples revealed decrease in the thermal effects by adding P2O5 and/or MnO2 to the base sample. The X-ray diffraction patterns show the development of nanometric magnetite crystals in a glassy matrix. Heat treatment at 800 °C for 2 h, under reducing atmosphere, caused an increase in the amount of the crystallized magnetite with the appearance of minor hematite and Ca2SiO4. The transmission electron microscope revealed a crystallite size in the range 10–30 nm. Magnetic hysteresis cycles were analyzed with a maximum applied field of 25 kOe at room temperature. The prepared magnetic glass ceramics are expected to be useful for localized treatment of cancer. PMID:25685522

  16. White light generation from Dy3+-doped ZnO-B2O3-P2O5 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasimhadri, M.; Jang, Kiwan; Lee, Ho Sueb; Chen, Baojiu; Yi, Soung-Soo; Jeong, Jung-Hyun

    2009-07-01

    Dysprosium doped ZnO-B2O3-P2O5 (ZBP) glasses were prepared by a conventional melt quenching technique in order to study the luminescent properties and their utility for white light emitting diodes (LEDs). X-ray diffraction spectra revealed the amorphous nature of the glass sample. The present glasses were characterized by infrared and Raman spectra to evaluate the vibrational features of the samples. The emission and excitation spectra were reported for the ZBP glasses. Strong blue (484 nm) and yellow (574 nm) emission bands were observed upon various excitations. These two emissions correspond to the F49/2→H615/2 and F49/2→H613/2 transitions of Dy3+ ions, respectively. Combination of these blue and yellow bands gives white light to the naked eye. First time, it was found that ZnO-B2O3-P2O5 glasses efficiently emit white light under 400 and 454 nm excitations, which are nearly match with the emissions of commercial GaN blue LEDs and InGaN LED, respectively. CIE chromaticity coordinates also calculated for Dy3+: ZBP glasses to evaluate the white light emission.

  17. FT-IR and thermoluminescence investigation of P2O5-BaO-K2O glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivascu, C.; Timar-Gabor, A.; Cozar, O.

    2013-11-01

    The 0.5P2O5ṡxBaOṡ(0.5-x)K2O glass system (0≤x≤0.5mol%) is investigated by FT-IR and thermoluminescence as a possible dosimetic material. FT-IR spectra show structural network modifications with the composition variations of the studied glasses. The predominant absorption bands are characterized by two broad peaks near 500 cm-1, two weak peaks around 740 cm-1 and three peaks in the 900-1270 cm-1 region. The shift in the position of the band assigned to asymmetric stretching of PO2- group, υas(PO2-) modes from ˜1100 cm-1 to 1085 cm-1 and the decrease in its relative intensity with the increasing of K2O content shows a network modifier role of this oxide.. Luminescence investigations show that by adding modifier oxides in the phosphate glass a dose dependent TL signals result upon irradiation. Thus P2O5-BaO-K2O glass system is a possible candidate material for dosimetry in the dose 0 - 50 Gy range.

  18. MAGNETIC BEHAVIOR OF IRON IONS IN THE P2O5·CaO GLASS MATRIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ARDELEAN, I.; ANDRONACHE, C.; PǍŞCUŢǍ, P.

    The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of xFe2O3·(100-x)-[P2O5·CaO] glasses with 0P2O5·CaO glass matrix, the Fe2+ ion content is higher than that of the Fe3+ ions for glasses with x≥10 mol%. For the glasses with x>35 mol%, the evaluated values of the μeff indicate either the presence of Fe+ ions or the coordination influence on the magnetic moment of iron ions, but the presence of small quantities of the antiferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic interactions between iron ions in studied temperature range cannot be excluded. The high temperature susceptibility results indicate that the iron ions are isolated or participate in dipole-dipole interactions for glasses with x≤35 mol% and are antiferromagnetically coupled for higher contents of Fe2O3.

  19. Effect of PbO on the elastic behavior of ZnO-P2O5 glass systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidek, H. A. A.; El-Mallawany, R.; Matori, K. A.; Halimah, M. K.

    A series of ternary phosphate glasses in the form of 40(P2O5)-(60 - x)ZnO-xPbO and 50(P2O5)-(50 - x)ZnO-xPbO where x = 0-60 mol%, have been successfully prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. Both longitudinal and shear ultrasonic velocities were measured in different compositions of PbO using the MBS8000 ultrasonic data acquisition system at 10 MHz frequency and at room temperature. The ultrasonic velocity data, the density and the calculated elastic moduli are found to be composition dependent and discussed in terms of PbO modifiers. The correlation of elastic moduli with the atomic packing density of these glasses was discussed. To predict the compositional dependence of elastic moduli of this glass system, the interpretation of the variation in the experimental elastic behavior observed has been studied based on various of the bond compression and the Makishima-Mackenzie models.

  20. Structural investigation of BaOsbnd B2O3sbnd P2O5 glasses by NMR and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudelka, Ladislav; Kalenda, Petr; Mošner, Petr; Černošek, Zdeněk; Montagne, Lionel; Revel, Bertrand

    2016-09-01

    Glasses of the ternary system BaOsbnd B2O3sbnd P2O5 were prepared and studied in broad concentration limits covering the whole vitrification domain: 20-50 mol% BaO, 0-40 mol% B2O3 and 20-60 mol% P2O5. Their structure was studied with combinations of Raman spectroscopy, 31P MAS NMR spectroscopy and 11B MAS NMR spectroscopy. The obtained results are discussed in several compositional lines A: (100-x)Ba(PO3)2sbnd xB2O3, B: 40BaOsbnd yB2O3sbnd (60-y)P2O5, C: (50-z)BaOsbnd zB2O3sbnd 50P2O5, D: (60-w)BaOsbnd wB2O3sbnd 40P2O5 and E: uBaOsbnd 40B2O3sbnd (60-u)P2O5. Boron oxide incorporates into the phosphate network in the form of BO4 and BO3 groups and increases their glass transition temperature. Nevertheless, the increase in Tg is only steep within the region of 0-20 mol% B2O3 reaching a maximum at the glasses with ∼30 mol% B2O3. In the lines A, B and E a decrease in the P2O5 and an increase of B2O3 content results in the shortening of phosphate chains with decreasing P2O5 content; these changes are most pronounced in line B with a constant BaO content. In lines C and D with a constant P2O5 content a decrease in the BaO content results, in contrast, in the reverse transformation of phosphate structural units in the direction Q1 → Q2 → Q3 as detected from Raman spectra and 31P MAS NMR spectra. 11B MAS NMR spectra revealed that only BO4 units are present in the glasses with 0-20 mol% B2O3. In the glasses of the E series the fraction of BO3 units increases with a decreasing P2O5 content. By the decomposition of the 11B MAS NMR spectra it is possible to estimate the fractions of basic structural units formed by boron - B(OP)3O, B(OP)2O2 and BO3 in all the glasses of the glass forming region.

  1. Characterization and electrical properties of V 2O 5-CuO-P 2O 5 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Assiri, M. S.

    2008-08-01

    Characterization and electrical properties of vanadium-copper-phosphate glasses of compositions xV 2O 5-(40- x)CuO-60P 2O 5 have been reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the amorphous nature of these glasses. It was observed that, the density ( d) decreases gradually while the molar volume ( Vm) increases with the increase of the vanadium oxide content in such glasses. This may be due to the effect of the polarizing power strength, PPS, which is a measure of ratio of the cation valance to its diameter. The dc conductivity increases while the activation energy decreases with the increase of the V 2O 5 content. The dc conductivity in the present glasses is electronic and depends strongly upon the average distance, R, between the vanadium ions. Analysis of the electrical properties has been made in the light of small polaron hopping model. The parameters obtained from the fits of the experimental data to this model are reasonable and consistent with glass composition. The conduction is attributed to non-adiabatic hopping of small polaron.

  2. Cl, P2O5, U and Br associated with mineral separates from a low and a high Ti mare basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Low Ti basalt 12040 and high Ti basalt 75055 have approximately the same Cl/P2O5 ratio; the Cl is that remaining after a hot water leach. Pyroxene, plagioclase and ilmenite minerals separated from the basalts also tend to have this same Cl/P2O5 ratio. This is evidence that these major minerals do not control the ratio since Cl and P would not be expected to partition to the same extent into each mineral. Olivine appears to be a special case. It is proposed that the grains measured contained inclusions with leachable and P2O5-related Cl. Dilute acid leaches of whole rock and separated minerals have the same or nearly the same Cl/P2O5 ratios as the residual samples. Apatite and whitlockite were probably the phases leached. They must be constituents of the mesostasis and are present as microminerals or coatings on major mineral grains. The acid leach results imply little or no partition of Cl and P2O5 into major minerals.

  3. Thermoluminescence investigations on xY2O3 (60-x)P2O5·40SiO2 vitroceramics.

    PubMed

    Biró, Barna; Pascu, Andrada; Timar-Gabor, Alida; Simon, Viorica

    2015-04-01

    Thermoluminescence properties of xY2O3·(60-x)P2O5·40SiO2 vitroceramic compounds doped with xY2O3 at various concentrations (0≤x≤30mol%) were studied. Compounds with reduced Y2O3 concentration showed unsatisfactory dosimetric properties, while the vitroceramics composed of 20Y2O3·40P2O5·40SiO2 and 30Y2O3·30P2O5·40SiO2 exhibited bright signals, linear dose response and minimum detectable doses of 16mGy and 4mGy, respectively. Moreover, 30mol% Y2O3 doped vitroceramic exhibited good repeatability, acceptable batch homogeneity and poor fading signal, features that are recommending this material for dosimetry purposes.

  4. Low temperature biosynthesis of Li2O-MgO-P2O5-TiO2 nanocrystalline glass with mesoporous structure exhibiting fast lithium ion conduction.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyong; He, Wen; Zhang, Xudong; Ma, Jinyun; Wang, Chonghai; Li, Chuanshan; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate a biomimetic synthesis methodology that allows us to create Li2O-MgO-P2O5-TiO2 nanocrystalline glass with mesoporous structure at lower temperature. We design a 'nanocrystal-glass' configuration to build a nanoarchitecture by means of yeast cell templates self-assembly followed by the controlled in-situ biomineralization of materials on the cell wall. Electrochemically active nanocrystals are used as the lamellar building blocks of mesopores, and the semiconductive glass phase can act both as the 'glue' between nanocrystals and functionalized component. The Li2O-MgO-P2O5-TiO2 nanocrystalline glass exhibits outstanding thermal stability, high conductivity and wide potential window. This approach could be applied to many other multicomponent glass-ceramics to fabricate mesoporous conducting materials for solid-state lithium batteries.

  5. Characteristics of CuO-MoO3-P2O5 catalyst and its catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) of dye wastewater under extremely mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongzhu; Zhuo, Qiongfang; Wang, Bo

    2007-11-01

    In order to develop a catalyst with high activity for catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) processing at lower temperatures (35 degrees C) and atmospheric pressure, a new CuO-MoO3-P2O5 catalystwas synthesized by a solid-state reaction method and was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), selected area electronic diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) for elemental mapping. Methylene blue (MB) was adopted to investigate the catalytic activity of CuO-MoO3-P2O5 in CWO processing. The results show that this new catalyst has a high catalytic activity to decolorize MB under mild condition. The color removal of MB (the initial concentration was 0.3 g L(-1) and initial pH was 5) can reach to 99.26% within 10 min at 35 degrees C and atmospheric pressure. Catalyst lifespan and selectivity were also tested, and the results show that after the catalyst was used three times, catalyst activity still remains. Selectivity testing shows that CuO-MoO3-P2O5 has high catalytic activity on degradation of MB, whereas this catalyst has less impact on methyl orange (the color removal was 99.65% for MB and 55% for methyl orange under the same conditions). According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of MB was proposed.

  6. Effect of chemical composition on hydrophobicity and zeta potential of plasma sprayed HA/CaO-P2O5 glass coatings.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, M P; Monteiro, F J; Serro, A P; Saramago, B; Gibson, I R; Santos, J D

    2001-12-01

    Multilayered plasma sprayed coatings on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloys have been prepared, which were composed of an underlayer of HA and a surface layer of a CaO-P2O5 glass-HA composite, with 2 or 4wt% of glass. Contact angle and surface tension variation with time, for both water and a protein solution, were determined by the sessile and pendent drop methods respectively using the ADSA-P software. Wettability studies showed that hydrophobicity of the coatings increase with the glass addition. The work of adhesion of albumin was also altered in a controlled manner by the addition of the CaO-P2O5 glass, being lower on the composite coatings than on HA. Zeta potential (ZP) results showed that composite coatings presented a higher net negative charge than HA coatings and that ZP values were also influenced by the content of the glass. This study demonstrated that the surface properties of those coatings may be modified by the addition of CaO-P2O5 glass.

  7. Thermodynamic Properties of Phosphorus Oxide in the 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 Solid Solution Saturated with MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ming; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka

    2016-06-01

    Molten iron was equilibrated with various compositions of the 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 solid solution saturated with MgO with the oxygen partial pressure of 5.22 × 10-12 atm at 1823 K (1550 °C) and 1.41 × 10-11 atm at 1873 K (1600 °C). From the concentration of P in molten iron at equilibrium, the activity of P2O5 relative to the hypothetical pure liquid P2O5 was determined. The saturating MgO phase at equilibrium was detected by X-ray diffraction for each sample, and thus, the activity of 3MgO·P2O5 was also estimated. The activity of P2O5 and 3MgO·P2O5 increased with the increase of 3CaO·P2O5 content in the solid solution. In addition, the activity of P2O5 in the 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 solid solution saturated with MgO was larger than that saturated with CaO.

  8. Fabrication of noble-metal nanoparticle-doped SiO2-B2O3-P2O5 waveguide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hunhyeong; Kang, Minkyung; Nichols, William T.; Shin, Dongwook

    2012-05-01

    In this article, we report the fabrication and the characterization of Pt/SiO2-B2O3-P2O5 and Au/SiO2-B2O3-P2O5 composite thin films suitable for planar lightwave circuits (PLCs). The host material was prepared by using flame hydrolysis deposition (FHD). Platinum was doped from colloidal solutions with concentrations of 500, 1000, and 2000 ppm. Gold was doped by sputtering with various deposition times. The samples displayed absorption peaks originating from the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the dopant metal particles. With increasing dopant particle size, the absorption peak shifted toward longer wavelength, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the absorption band broadened. The Maxwell-Garnett theory was used to explain the size dependence of the plasmon peaks. The dopant metal particles were found to order as a monolayer within the silica matrix, opening the possibility for surface-plasmon-resonance-based waveguiding in optical devices.

  9. Crystallization Behavior and Microstructure of Silica-Free 5K2O-45CaO-50P2O5 Bioglass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Moo-Chin; Lai, You-Cheng; Shih, Wei-Jen; Shih, Ping-Yu; Chen, Guo-Ju; Li, Wang-Long

    2010-02-01

    The crystallization behavior and microstructure of silica-free 5K2O-45CaO-50P2O5 (KCP) bioglass have been studied using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning election microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The activation energy for the KCP bioglass crystallization is found to be 337.4 kJ/mol using a nonisothermal method. The crystalline phases of the glass surface determined by XRD are KCa(PO3)3, 4CaO·3P2O5, and β-Ca(PO3)2 when the KCP bioglass is crystallized at 903 K for 4 hours. The crystalline phase of the powder samples determined by XRD is β-Ca(PO3)2 when silica-free KCP glasses crystallized at 873 to 1073 K for 8 hours. Crystallization starts at the surface of the KCP bioglass and then proceeds toward the interior of the glass matrix. The morphology of β-Ca(PO3)2 is a fibrillar shape 20 to 180 nm in length and 17 to 20 nm in diameter, with an aspect ratio ranging from 1.0 to 10.6.

  10. Sol-gel-derived bioactive glass containing SiO2-MgO-CaO-P2O5 as an antibacterial scaffold.

    PubMed

    Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani; Hosseini, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh; Hafezi, Forough; Hosseinnejad, Fatemeh; Nourani, Mohammad Reza

    2013-06-01

    Bioactive glass (BG) composites with a base of SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 are biocompatible biomaterials. The assessment of their abilities for medical applications has interested researchers. We produced a BG-containing SiO2-MgO-CaO-P2O5 by the sol-gel method. To determine the antibacterial effects, we analyzed the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) properties of this product on three microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, known causative agents for biofilm formation on implant surfaces. In addition, we performed the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay to study the cytotoxic effects of our composite on animal cells. Our results demonstrated that our BG product inhibited the growth of bacteria in a concentration-dependent manner without any cytotoxic effects. Therefore, our BG product can be utilized as an appropriate implant for treating bone and tooth defects.

  11. In-vitro study of copper doped SiO2-CaO-P2O5 system for bioactivity and antimicrobial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Kulwinder; Singh, K. J.; Anand, Vikas; Kaur, Harpreet; Arora, Daljit Singh

    2015-08-01

    Samples of the xCuO-(45-x)CaO-10P2O5-45SiO2 system (x varies from 0 to 4 mole%) have been synthesized for application as biomaterials to slow or inhibit the growth of living organisms (fungi and other pathogenic microorganisms) by the combination of sol-gel and co-precipitation processes. Prepared samples have been characterized by X-Ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infra-Red and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques before and after immersion in simulated body fluid. Antimicrobial activity of samples has been investigated against Staphylococcus aureus. Releasing of Cu2+and other ions in the simulated body fluid has been determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy to ensure the use of prepared material as biomaterial with good antibacterial properties.

  12. Effect of magnesia on the degradability and bioactivity of sol-gel derived SiO2-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system glasses.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Chen, C Z; Wang, D G; Jiao, Y; Shi, J Z

    2010-11-01

    Mesoporous 58SiO(2)-(38-x)CaO-xMgO-4P(2)O(5) glasses (where x=0, 5, 10 and 20 mol%) have been prepared by the sol-gel synthesis route. The effects of the substitution of MgO for CaO on glass degradation and bioactivity were studied in tris-(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane and hydrochloric acid buffer solution (Tris-HCl) and simulated body fluid (SBF), respectively. It is observed that the synthesized glasses with various MgO contents possess the similar textural properties. The studies of in vitro degradability and bioactivity show that the rate of glass degradation gradually decreases with the increase of MgO and the formation of apatite layer on glass surface is retarded. The influences of the composition upon glass properties are explained in terms of their internal structures.

  13. Dielectric properties of PbO-P 2O 5-As 2O 3 glass system with Ga 2O 3 as additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahaya Baskaran, G.; Ramana Reddy, M. V.; Krishna Rao, D.; Veeraiah, N.

    2008-02-01

    PbO-P 2O 5-As 2O 3 glasses containing different concentrations of Ga 2O 3 (ranging from 0 to 5 mol%) were prepared. Dielectric properties (constant ɛ', loss tan δ, ac conductivity σ over a range of frequency and temperature) of these glasses have been investigated. The analysis of the results of these studies together with the data on spectroscopic studies (optical absorption, infrared and Raman spectra) indicated that there is a gradual transformation of gallium ions from octahedral positions to tetrahedral positions, as the concentration of Ga 2O 3 is increased up to 4.0 mol%. Beyond this concentration, the tetrahedral occupancy of gallium ions however, seemed to be low.

  14. Local structure characterization and thermal properties of P2O5sbnd MgOsbnd Na2Osbnd Li2O glasses doped with SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fengnian; Li, Sheng; Chang, Ziyuan; Liu, Hongting; Huang, Sanxi; Yue, Yunlong

    2016-08-01

    Pure and SiO2 doped P2O5sbnd MgOsbnd Na2Osbnd Li2O glass has been prepared by the traditional melt quenching and heat treatment techniques. Via X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, all the samples are proved to be amorphous. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and macroscopic observation show that all the samples are homogeneous glasses and no phase splitting phenomenon. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum shows that the amount of non-bridging oxygen decreases and the polymerization degree of the glass network structure increases after introducing SiO2 into glasses. Meanwhile, density and molar volume gradually decline with the increasing of SiO2. The glass transition (Tg) and the first crystallization temperature (Tc) indicates thermal stability increases in SiO2 added glasses.

  15. In vitro bioactivity evaluation, mechanical properties and microstructural characterization of Na2O-CaO-B2O3-P2O5 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo-Naf, Sherief M.; Khalil, El-Sayed M.; El-Sayed, El-Sayed M.; Zayed, Hamdia A.; Youness, Rasha A.

    2015-06-01

    Na2O-CaO-B2O3-P2O5 glasses have been prepared by the melt-quenching method. B2O3 content was systematically increased from 5 to 30 mol%, at the expense of P2O5, in the chemical composition of these glasses. Density, Vickers microhardness and fracture toughness of the prepared glasses were measured. In vitro bioactivity of the glasses was assessed by soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 ± 0.5 °C for 3, 7, 14 and 30 days. The glasses were tested in the form of glass grains as well as bulk slabs. The structure and composition of the solid reaction products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The kinetics of degradation of the glass particles were monitored by measuring the weight loss of the particles and the ionic concentration of Ca, P and B in the SBF solution using inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The obtained results revealed the formation of a bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) layer, composed of nano-crystallites, on the surface of glass grains after the in vitro assays. The results have been used to understand the formation of HA as a function of glass composition and soaking time in the SBF. It can be pointed out that increasing B2O3 content in glass composition enhances the bioactivity of glasses. The nanometric particle size of the formed HA and in vitro bioactivity of the studied glasses make them possible candidates for tissue engineering application.

  16. Influence of the P2O5/Al2O3 co-doping on the local environment of erbium ions and on the 1.5 μm quantum efficiency of Er3+-borosilicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourhis, Kevin; Boetti, Nadia G.; Koponen, Joona; Milanese, Daniel; Petit, Laetica

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the absorption properties of Er3+-doped borosilicate glasses with various P2O5 and Al2O3 content are measured for different silica concentrations. The Judd-Ofelt parameters (Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6) have been calculated in order to investigate the local environment of the rare-earth cations. The compositional changes of Ω2 and Ω6 are attributed to changes in the bonding between Er3+ and surrounding ligand groups due to structural modifications occurring with the introduction of P2O5 and Al2O3. The luminescence quantum efficiency of the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition slightly increases with the addition of P2O5 whereas it decreases with the progressive replacement of P2O5 by Al2O3. We noticed that it also increases when the silica content is higher.

  17. Improving green emission of Tb(3)(+) ions in BaO-B2 O3 -P2 O5 glasses by means of Al(3)(+) ions.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, T; Gandhi, Y; Sudarsan, V; Piasecki, M; Ravi Kumar, V; Veeraiah, N

    2016-11-01

    BaO-B2 O3 -P2 O5 glasses doped with a fixed concentration of Tb(3)(+) ions and varying concentrations of Al2 O3 were synthesized, and the influence of the Al(3)(+) ion concentration on the luminescence efficiency of the green emission of Tb(3)(+) ions was investigated. The optical absorption, excitation, luminescence spectra and fluorescence decay curves of these glasses were recorded at ambient temperature. The emission spectra of terbium ions when excited at 393 nm exhibited two main groups of bands, corresponding to (5) D3  → (7) Fj (blue region) and (5) D4  → 7Fj (green region). From these spectra, the radiative parameters, viz., spontaneous emission probability A, total emission probability AT , radiative lifetime τ and fluorescent branching ratio β, of different transitions originating from the (5) D4 level of Tb(3)(+) ions were evaluated based on the Judd-Ofelt theory. A clear increase in the quantum efficiency and luminescence of the green emission of Tb(3)(+) ions corresponding to (5) D4  → (7) F5 transition is observed with increases in the concentration of Al2 O3 up to 3.0 mol%. The improvement in emission is attributed to the de-clustering of terbium ions by Al(3)(+) ions and also to the possible admixing of wave functions of opposite parities. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Heat capacity, Raman, and Brillouin scattering studies of M2O-MgO-WO3-P2O5 glasses (M=K,Rb).

    PubMed

    Maczka, M; Hanuza, J; Baran, J; Hushur, A; Kojima, S

    2006-12-28

    The authors report the results of temperature-dependent Brillouin scattering from both transverse and longitudinal acoustic waves, heat capacity studies as well as room temperature Raman scattering studies on M2O-MgO-WO3-P2O5 glasses (M=K,Rb). These results were used to obtain information about structure and various properties of the studied glasses such as fragility, elastic moduli, ratio of photoelastic constants, and elastic anharmonicity. They have found that both glasses have similar properties but replacement of K+ ions by Rb+ ions in the glass network leads to decrease of elastic parameters and P44 photoelastic constant due to increase of fragility. Based on Brillouin spectroscopy they show that a linear correlation between longitudinal and shear elastic moduli holds over a large temperature range. This result supports the literature data that the Cauchy-type relation represents a general rule for amorphous solids. An analysis of the Boson peak revealed that the form of the frequency distribution of the excess density of states is in agreement with the Euclidean random matrix theory. The reason of the observed shift of the maximum frequency of the Boson peak when K+ ions are substituted for Rb+ ions is also briefly discussed.

  19. In vivo evaluation of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics coating on Steinman pins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Hong, Kug Sun; Baek, Hae-Ri; Seo, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung Mee; Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Lee, Hyun-Kyung

    2013-07-01

    Surface coating using ceramics improves the bone bonding strength of an implant. We questioned whether a new type of glass-ceramics (BGS-7) coating (CaO-SiO2 -P2 O5 -B2 O3 ) would improve the osseointegration of Steinman pins (S-pins) both biomechanically and histomorphometrically. An in vivo study was performed using rabbits by inserting three S-pins into each iliac bone. The pins were 2.2-mm S-pins with a coating of 30-μm-thick BGS-7 and 550-nm-thick hydroxyapatite (HA), as opposed to an S-pin without coating. A tensile strength test and histomorphometrical evaluation was performed. In the 2-week group, the BGS-7 implant showed a significantly higher tensile strength than the S-pin. In the 4- and 8-week groups, the BGS-7 implants had significantly higher tensile strengths than the S-pins and HA implants. The histomorphometrical study revealed that the BGS-7 implant had a significantly higher contact ratio than the S-pin and HA implants in the 4-week group. The biomechanical and histomorphometrical tests showed that the BGS-7 coating had superior bone bonding properties than the groups without the coating from the initial stage of insertion. The BGS-7 coating of an S-pin will enhance the bone bonding strength, and there might also be an advantage in human bone bonding.

  20. Dielectric and spectroscopic properties of PbO-Nb2O5-P2O5:V2O5 glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Mohan, N.; Sahaya Baskaran, G.; Veeraiah, N.

    2006-06-01

    PbO-Nb2O5-P2O5 glasses containing different concentrations of V2O5 ranging from 0 to 1.0 mol% were prepared. A number of studies, viz. differential thermal analysis, infrared, optical absorption, Raman and ESR spectra and dielectric properties (dielectric constant , loss tan δ, a.c. conductivity ac over a range of frequency and temperature), of these glasses have been carried out. The results have been analysed in the light of different oxidation states of vanadium ions. The analysis indicates that when the concentration of V2O5 is increased gradually, vanadium ions are observed to exist mostly in the V4+ state, occupy network-modifying positions and decrease the rigidity of the glass network. A transformation of NbO4 to NbO6 structural units and a decrease in the concentration of PO4 structural units have also been observed with an increase in the concentration of V2O5 in the glass network.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of phosphates in molten systems Cs 2O-P 2O 5-CaO- MIII2O 3 ( MIII—Al, Fe, Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatovsky, Igor V.; Strutynska, Nataliya Yu.; Baumer, Vyacheslav N.; Slobodyanik, Nikolay S.; Ogorodnyk, Ivan V.; Shishkin, Oleg V.

    2011-03-01

    The crystallization of complex phosphates from the melts of Cs 2O-P 2O 5-CaO- MIII2O 3 ( MIII—Al, Fe, Cr) systems have been investigated at fixed value Cs/P molar ratios equal to 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 and Са/Р=0.2 and Ca/ МIII=1. The fields of crystallization of CsCaP 3O 9, β-Ca 2P 2O 7, Cs 2CaP 2O 7, Cs 3CaFe(P 2O 7) 2, Ca 9MIII(PO 4) 7 ( MIII—Fe, Cr), Cs 0.63Ca 9.63Fe 0.37(PO 4) 7 and CsCa 10(PO 4) 7 were determined. Obtained phosphates were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Novel whitlockite-related phases CsCa 10(PO 4) 7 and Cs 0.63Ca 9.63Fe 0.37(PO 4) 7 have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction: space group R3c, a=10.5536(5) and 10.5221(4) Å, с=37.2283(19) and 37.2405(17) Å, respectively.

  2. Neutron scattering study on cathode LiMn2O4 and solid electrolyte 5(Li2O)(P2O5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartini, E.; Putra, Teguh P.; Jahya, A. K.; Insani, A.; Adams, S.

    2014-09-01

    Neutron scattering is very important technique in order to investigate the energy storage materials such as lithium-ion battery. The unique advantages, neutron can see the light atoms such as Hydrogen, Lithium, and Oxygen, where those elements are negligible by other corresponding X-ray method. On the other hand, the energy storage materials, such as lithium ion battery is very important for the application in the electric vehicles, electronic devices or home appliances. The battery contains electrodes (anode and cathode), and the electrolyte materials. There are many challenging to improve the existing lithium ion battery materials, in order to increase their life time, cyclic ability and also its stability. One of the most scientific challenging is to investigate the crystal structure of both electrode and electrolyte, such as cathodes LiCoO2, LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4, and solid electrolyte Li3PO4. Since all those battery materials contain Lithium ions and Oxygen, the used of neutron scattering techniques to study their structure and related properties are very important and indispensable. This article will review some works of investigating electrodes and electrolytes, LiMn2O4 and 5(Li2O)(P2O5), by using a high resolution powder diffraction (HRPD) at the multipurpose research reactor, RSG-Sywabessy of the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Indonesia.

  3. Fabrication and biocompatibility of a porous bioglass ceramic in a Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system.

    PubMed

    Lin, F H; Huang, Y Y; Hon, M H; Wu, S C

    1991-07-01

    A porous bioglass ceramic was prepared from a finely pulverized bioglass powder mixed with particles of two sizes (5 and 500 microns) of 30% by weight with the foaming agent polyethylene glycol 4000 (HO (C2H4O) nH). The batch composition of the bioglass was Na2O 12%, CaO 28%, SiO2 50% and P2O5 10% by weight. The specimens, formed by pressing, were sintered in a high temperature furnace. In this study we are concerned with the preparation and microstructure of the material and its performance in biological tests. The microstructure and crystalline phases of the material were investigated by differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In a biomedical examination, it was shown that the porous material was compatible with animal tissues. The microstructure of the implant indicated that newly grown bone interlocked well with the glass ceramic and that macropores and micropores were distributed uniformly in the material, which provided channels for bone ingrowth and improved the microscopic bioresorption.

  4. Ionic-to-electronic conductivity of glasses in the P2O5-V2O5-ZnO-Li2O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langar, A.; Sdiri, N.; Elhouichet, H.; Ferid, M.

    2016-12-01

    Glasses having a composition 15V2O5-5ZnO-(80- x P2O5- xLi2O ( x = 5 , 10, 15 mol%) were prepared by the conventional melt quenching. Conduction and relaxation mechanisms in these glasses were studied using impedance spectroscopy in a frequency range from 10 Hz to 10 MHz and in a temperature range from 513 K to 566 K. The structure of the amorphous synthetic product was corroborated by X-ray diffraction (disappearance of nacrite peaks). The DC conductivity follows the Arrhenius law and the activation energy determined by regression analysis varies with the content of Li2O. Frequency-dependent AC conductivity was analyzed by Jonscher's universal power law, which is varying as ωn, and the temperature-dependent power parameter supported by the Correlated Barrier Hopping (CBH) model. For x = 15 mol%, the values of n ≤ 0.5 confirm the dominance of ionic conductivity. The analysis of the modulus formalism with a distribution of relaxation times was carried out using the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) stretched exponential function. The stretching exponent, β, is dependent on temperature. The analysis of the temperature variation of the M" peak indicates that the relaxation process is thermally activated. Modulus study reveals the temperature-dependent non-Debye-type relaxation phenomenon.

  5. Structural study of Al2O3-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 bioactive glasses as a function of aluminium content.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; King, S P; Barney, E R; Hanna, J V; Newport, R J; Pickup, D M

    2013-01-21

    Calcium phosphate based biomaterials are extensively used in the context of tissue engineering: small changes in composition can lead to significant changes in properties allowing their use in a wide range of applications. Samples of composition (Al(2)O(3))(x)(Na(2)O)(0.11-x)(CaO)(0.445)(P(2)O(5))(0.445), where x = 0, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08, were prepared by melt quenching. The atomic-scale structure has been studied using neutron diffraction and solid state (27)Al MAS NMR, and these data have been rationalised with the determined density of the final glass product. With increasing aluminium concentration the density increases initially, but beyond about 3 mol. % Al(2)O(3) the density starts to decrease. Neutron diffraction data show a concomitant change in the aluminium speciation, which is confirmed by (27)Al MAS NMR studies. The NMR data reveal that aluminium is present in 4, 5, and 6-fold coordination and that the relative concentrations of these environments change with increasing aluminium concentration. Materials containing aluminium in 6-fold coordination tend to have higher densities than analogous materials with the aluminium found in 4-fold coordination. Thus, the density changes may readily be explained in terms of an increase in the relative concentration of 4-coordinated aluminium at the expense of 6-fold aluminium as the Al(2)O(3) content is increased beyond 3 mol. %.

  6. Preparation, structure and bioactivity of xAu 2O 3·(100 - x)[P 2O 5·CaO] glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regos, Adriana N.; Ardelean, I.

    2011-12-01

    Gold doped calcium phosphate glasses were prepared by the melting method. The structure of Au 2O 3-P 2O 5-CaO glasses is investigated using X-ray diffraction, infrared absorption and Raman scattering. The depth characterization of their structures is essential for the understanding of the properties of biocompatible materials. Thermal analysis DTA and TGA were also made to study behavior under different temperature regions and to see chemical changes versus time and temperature of these glasses. Bioactivity of the glasses was investigated in vitro by examining apatite formation on the surface of glasses treated in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentrations nearly equal to those in human blood plasma. Formation of bioactive apatite layer on the samples treated in SBF for 28 days at 37 °C was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of SBF soaking induces structural changes on the surface, reflected by the appearance of nano-crystalline particles agglomerated into micro-aggregates.

  7. Influence of fluoride additions on biological and mechanical properties of Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Hu, J H; Chen, C Z

    2014-02-01

    Two series of Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass-ceramics doped with NH4HF2 (G-NH4HF2) or CaF2 (G-CaF2) have been prepared by sol-gel method. The glass-ceramic phase composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The mechanical properties and thermal expansion coefficient were measured by a microhardness tester, an electronic tensile machine and a thermal expansion coefficient tester. The structure difference between these two glass-ceramics was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the in vitro bioactivity of the glass-ceramics was determined by in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion test. The hemolysis test, in vitro cytotoxicity test, systemic toxicity test and the implanted experiment in animals were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of the glass-ceramics. The mechanical properties of sample G-NH4HF2 are lower than that of sample G-CaF2, and the bioactivity of sample G-NH4HF2 is better than that of sample G-CaF2. The thermal expansion coefficients of these two glass-ceramics are all closer to that of Ti6Al4V. After 7 days of SBF immersion, apatites were induced on glass-ceramic surface, indicating that the glass-ceramics have bioactivity. The hemolysis test, in vitro cytotoxicity test and systemic toxicity test demonstrate that the glass-ceramics do not cause hemolysis reaction, and have no toxicity to cell and living animal. The implanted experiment in animals shows that bone tissue can form a good osseointegration with the implant after implantation for two months, indicating that the glass-ceramics are safe to serve as implants.

  8. Physicochemical degradation studies of calcium phosphate glass ceramic in the CaO-P2O5-MgO-TiO2 system.

    PubMed

    Dias, A G; Gibson, I R; Santos, J D; Lopes, M A

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro degradation behaviour of a 45CaO-37P(2)O(5)-5MgO-13TiO(2) (mol.%) glass ceramic, under two different simulated physiological conditions: normal physiological pH 7.4, and pH 3.0, which was designed to simulate the acidic conditions produced by osteoclast cells. The in vitro testing was carried out at 37 degrees C for up to 42 days for the pH 7.4 solution and for up to 1 day for the pH 3.0 solution. The incorporation of TiO(2) into the glass structure leads to the precipitation of specific crystalline phases in the glass matrix, namely alpha- and beta-Ca(2)P(2)O(7), TiP(2)O(7) and CaTi(4)(PO(4))(6). The degradation testing at pH 3.0 showed a higher weight loss compared with degradation testing at pH 7.4; the weight loss under the acidic condition after 1 day (24 h) was about 10 times higher than the weight loss after 42 days of immersion at pH 7.4. The ionic release profile of Ca(2+), PO(4)(3-), Mg(2+) and Ti(4+) showed a continuous increase in concentration over all immersion times for both testing solutions. After 1 day of immersion at pH 3.0, the concentration levels of Mg(2+), Ca(2+), PO(4)(3-) were about six times higher than the levels achieved after 42 days of immersion at pH 7.4. The glass ceramic showed similar degradation to hydroxyapatite, and therefore has potential to be used in certain clinical applications where relatively slow resorption of the implant and replacement by bone is required, e.g. cranioplasty.

  9. MAS-NMR investigations of the crystallization behaviour of lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glasses containing P 2O 5 and TiO 2 nucleants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthanarayanan, A.; Kothiyal, G. P.; Montagne, L.; Revel, B.

    2010-06-01

    Lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glass of composition (mol%) 20.4Li 2O-4.0Al 2O 3-68.6SiO 2-3.0K 2O-2.6B 2O 3-0.5P 2O 5-0.9TiO 2 was prepared by melt quenching. The glass was then nucleated and crystallized based on differential thermal analysis (DTA) data and was characterized by 29Si, 31P, 11B and 27Al MAS-NMR. XRD and 29Si NMR showed that lithium metasilicate (Li 2SiO 3) is the first phase to c form followed by cristobalite (SiO 2) and lithium disilicate (Li 2Si 2O 5). 29Si MAS-NMR revealed a change in the network structure already for the glasses nucleated at 550 °C. Since crystalline Li 3PO 4, as observed by 31P MAS-NMR, forms concurrently with the silicate phases, we conclude that crystalline Li 3PO 4 does not act as a nucleating agent for lithium silicate phases. Moreover, 31P NMR indicates the formation of M-PO 4 ( M=B, Al or Ti) complexes. The presence of BO 3 and BO 4 structural units in all the glass/glass-ceramic samples is revealed through 11B MAS-NMR. B remains in the residual glass and the crystallization of silicate phases causes a reduction in the number of alkali ions available for charge compensation. As a result, the number of trigonally coordinated B (BO 3) increases at the expense of tetrahedrally coordinated B (BO 4). The 27Al MAS-NMR spectra indicate the presence of tetrahedrally coordinated Al species, which are only slightly perturbed by the crystallization.

  10. Structural and thermal characterization of CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kansal, Ishu; Goel, Ashutosh; Tulyaganov, Dilshat U.; Rajagopal, Raghu R.; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2012-08-01

    The paper presents the influence of varying CaO/MgO ratio on the structure and thermal properties of CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glasses. A series of eight glass compositions in the glass forming region of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) - fluorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3F] - wollastonite (CaSiO3) ternary system have been designed and synthesized by varying diopside/wollastonite ratio in glasses. The as prepared melt-quenched glasses have been characterized for their structure by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and magic angle spinning (MAS)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Silicon is predominantly present as Q2 (Si) species, while phosphorus tends to coordinate in orthophosphate environment in all the investigated glasses. The change in CaO/MgO ratio had an insignificant affect on the structure of glasses. The thermal sintering and crystallization parameters for the studied glasses have been obtained from differential thermal analysis (DTA) while crystalline phase fractions in the sintered glass-ceramics have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction adjoined with Rietveld refinement. Diopside, fluorapatite, wollastonite and pseudowollastonite have crystallized as the main crystalline phases in all the glass-ceramics with their content varying with respect to variation in CaO/MgO ratio in glasses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been used to shed light on the microstructure of glass-ceramics. The possible implications of structure and sintering behaviour of glasses on their bioactivity have been discussed.

  11. A new and economic approach to synthesize and fabricate bioactive diopside ceramics using a modified domestic microwave oven. Part 2: effect of P2O5 additions on diopside bioactivity and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Zouai, Souheila; Harabi, Abdelhamid; Karboua, Noureddine; Harabi, Esma; Chehlatt, Sihem; Barama, Salah-Edine; Zaiou, Soumia; Bouzerara, Ferhat; Guerfa, Fatiha

    2016-04-01

    In this work, diopside based ceramics was obtained by solid state reaction using conventional sintering (CS) and microwave sintering (MS). Moreover, different amounts of P2O5 (0.5-5.0 wt.%) have been added. It has been found that a relative density up to 95% theoretical was obtained for diopside containing 2.0 and 5.0 wt.% P2O5, sintered at 1250 °C for 2h and at 1075 °C only for 15 min using CS and MS. Excellent values of micro hardness (7.4 ± 0.1 GPa) and 3 point flexural strength (about 270 MPa) for samples containing 5 wt.% P2O5, sintered at 1075 °C for 15 min using MS were measured. Besides this, a relatively low weight loss ratio has been measured (0.01%) for diopside samples containing 5 wt.% P2O5, sintered under the same conditions, after soaking in physiological salt solution for 2 days. Additionally, the bioactivity of diopside by the possibility of formation of apatite on the surface of pure diopside and diopside containing 2 wt.% of P2O5 immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) was also confirmed. Finally, particular nano-sized of Carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) crystals (rice shaped) were formed and covered the surface of these samples, soaked in SBF solution for 14 days.

  12. Luminescence properties of Sm(3+)-doped P(2)O(5)-PbO-Nb(2)O(5) glass under high pressure.

    PubMed

    Praveena, R; Venkatramu, V; Babu, P; Jayasankar, C K; Tröster, Th; Sievers, W; Wortmann, G

    2009-01-21

    Samarium doped lead phosphate glass modified with niobium having a composition (in mol%) of 55P(2)O(5)+39.5PbO+5Nb(2)O(5)+0.5Sm(2)O(3) has been prepared by the conventional melt quenching technique. The emission spectra and the decay curves for the (4)G(5/2) level of Sm(3+) ions have been measured as a function of pressure up to 23.6 GPa at room temperature. A discontinuity in the observed shifts and crystal-field splittings as a function of pressure around 9-10 GPa suggests that a phase transition is taking place in the glass matrix. The [Formula: see text], (6)H(7/2) and (6)H(9/2) transitions are shifted towards the lower energy side with magnitudes of -7.1, -7.6 and -5.5 cm(-1) GPa(-1) up to 8.9 GPa (phase 1) and -5.6, -4.9 and -4.4 cm(-1) GPa(-1) beyond 10.3 GPa (phase 2), respectively. A much stronger increase in the splitting of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] Stark levels with pressure is observed in phase 1 than in phase 2. The lifetime of the (4)G(5/2) level decreases from 2.29 ms (0 GPa) to 0.64 ms (23.6 GPa) with pressure. The decay curves of the (4)G(5/2) level exhibit non-exponential behavior for all the pressures and were fitted by the generalized Yokota-Tanimoto model to probe the nature of the energy transfer process. The best fits with S = 6 indicate that the energy transfer between donor and acceptor is of dipole-dipole type. The crystal-field splitting experienced by the Sm(3+) ions in the title glass are found to be larger than those found in borate, K-Ba-Al phosphate and tellurite glasses.

  13. Bioactivity of gel-glass powders in the CaO-SiO2 system: a comparison with ternary (CaO-P2O5-SiO2) and quaternary glasses (SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Na2O).

    PubMed

    Saravanapavan, Priya; Jones, Julian R; Pryce, Russell S; Hench, Larry L

    2003-07-01

    Bioactive glasses react chemically with body fluids in a manner that is compatible with the repair processes of the tissues. This results in the formation of an interfacial bond between the glasses and living tissue. Bioactive glasses also stimulate bone-cell proliferation. This behavior is dependent on the chemical composition as well as the surface texture of the glasses. It has been recently reported that gel-derived monolith specimens in the binary SiO2 - CaO are bioactive over a similar molar range of SiO2 content as the previously studied ternary CaO-P2O5-SiO2 system. In this report, the preparation and bioactivity of the binary gel-glass powder with 70 mol % SiO2 is discussed and its bioactivity is compared with the melt-derived 45S5 (quaternary) Bioglass and sol-gel-derived 58S (ternary) bioactive gel-glass compositions. Dissolution kinetic parameters K(1) and K(2) were also computed based on the silicon release for all glass powders. It was shown that the simple two-component SiO2-CaO gel-glass powder is bioactive with comparable dissolution rates as the clinically used melt-derived 45S5 Bioglass powder and extensively studied sol-gel-derived 58S gel-glass powder.

  14. SiO2-P2O5-HfO2-Al2O3-Na2O glasses activated by Er3+ ions: From bulk sample to planar waveguide fabricated by rf-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiasera, A.; Vasilchenko, I.; Dorosz, D.; Cotti, M.; Varas, S.; Iacob, E.; Speranza, G.; Vaccari, A.; Valligatla, S.; Zur, L.; Lukowiak, A.; Righini, G. C.; Ferrari, M.

    2017-01-01

    0.4 Er3+-doped 90.7 SiO2 - 4.4 P2O5 - 2.3 HfO2 - 1.7 Al2O3 - 0.7 Na2O planar waveguide was fabricated by multi-target rf-sputtering technique starting by massive Er3+-activated P2O5-SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O glass. The optical parameters were measured by m-line apparatus operating at 632.8, 1319 and 1542 nm. The waveguide compositions were investigated by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and its morphology analyzed by Atomic Force Microscopy. The waveguide exhibits a single propagation mode at 1319 and 1542 nm with an attenuation coefficient of 0.2 dB/cm in the infrared. The emission of 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition of Er3+ ion, with a 28.5 nm bandwidth was observed upon TE0 mode excitation at 514.5 nm. The optical and spectroscopic features of the Er3+-activated parent P2O5-SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O glass were also investigated.

  15. Effect of boron oxide addition on fibre drawing, mechanical properties and dissolution behaviour of phosphate-based glass fibres with fixed 40, 45 and 50 mol% P2O5

    PubMed Central

    Sharmin, Nusrat; Parsons, Andrew J; Rudd, Chris D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies investigating manufacture of phosphate-based glass fibres from glasses fixed with P2O5 content less than 50 mol% showed that continuous manufacture without breakage was very difficult. In this study, nine phosphate-based glass formulations from the system P2O5-CaO-Na2O-MgO-B2O3 were prepared with P2O5 contents fixed at 40, 45 and 50 mol%, where Na2O was replaced by 5 and 10 mol% B2O3 and MgO and CaO were fixed to 24 and 16 mol%, respectively. The effect of B2O3 addition on the fibre drawing, fibre mechanical properties and dissolution behaviour was investigated. It was found that addition of 5 and 10 mol% B2O3 enabled successful drawing of continuous fibres from glasses with phosphate (P2O5) contents fixed at 40, 45 and 50 mol%. The mechanical properties of the fibres were found to significantly increase with increasing B2O3 content. The highest tensile strength (1200 ± 130 MPa) was recorded for 45P2O5-16CaO-5Na2O-24MgO-10B2O3 glass fibres. The fibres were annealed, and a comparison of the mechanical properties and mode of degradation of annealed and non-annealed fibres were investigated. A decrease in tensile strength and an increase in tensile modulus were observed for the annealed fibres. An assessment of the change in mechanical properties of both the annealed and non-annealed fibres was performed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37℃ for 28 and 60 days, respectively. Initial loss of mechanical properties due to annealing was found to be recovered with degradation. The B2O3-containing glass fibres were found to degrade at a much slower rate as compared to the non-B2O3-containing fibres. Both annealed and non-annealed fibres exhibited a peeling effect of the fibre's outer layer during degradation. PMID:24939962

  16. Effect of boron oxide addition on fibre drawing, mechanical properties and dissolution behaviour of phosphate-based glass fibres with fixed 40, 45 and 50 mol% P2O5.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Nusrat; Parsons, Andrew J; Rudd, Chris D; Ahmed, Ifty

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies investigating manufacture of phosphate-based glass fibres from glasses fixed with P2O5 content less than 50 mol% showed that continuous manufacture without breakage was very difficult. In this study, nine phosphate-based glass formulations from the system P2O5-CaO-Na2O-MgO-B2O3 were prepared with P2O5 contents fixed at 40, 45 and 50 mol%, where Na2O was replaced by 5 and 10 mol% B2O3 and MgO and CaO were fixed to 24 and 16 mol%, respectively. The effect of B2O3 addition on the fibre drawing, fibre mechanical properties and dissolution behaviour was investigated. It was found that addition of 5 and 10 mol% B2O3 enabled successful drawing of continuous fibres from glasses with phosphate (P2O5) contents fixed at 40, 45 and 50 mol%. The mechanical properties of the fibres were found to significantly increase with increasing B2O3 content. The highest tensile strength (1200 ± 130 MPa) was recorded for 45P2O5-16CaO-5Na2O-24MgO-10B2O3 glass fibres. The fibres were annealed, and a comparison of the mechanical properties and mode of degradation of annealed and non-annealed fibres were investigated. A decrease in tensile strength and an increase in tensile modulus were observed for the annealed fibres. An assessment of the change in mechanical properties of both the annealed and non-annealed fibres was performed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37℃ for 28 and 60 days, respectively. Initial loss of mechanical properties due to annealing was found to be recovered with degradation. The B2O3-containing glass fibres were found to degrade at a much slower rate as compared to the non-B2O3-containing fibres. Both annealed and non-annealed fibres exhibited a peeling effect of the fibre's outer layer during degradation.

  17. Phase equilibria in the system Nd2O3- P2O5- H2O and growth of NdP5O14 single crystals under hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Masahiro; Fujii, Kazutaka; Sōmiya, Shigeyuki

    1985-04-01

    Phase equilibria in the system Nd2O3- P2O5- H2O were determined under hydrothermal conditions at 500 and 350°C under 100 MPa by quenching techniques. There exist three types of neodymium phosphates: NdPO 4, NdP 3O 9 and NdP 5O 14, and a liquid phase of highly condensed phosphoric acid at both temperatures. The composition of the liquid phase with which NdP 5O 14 and NdP 3O 9 or NdP 3O 9 and NdPO 4 could coexist at 500°C was 3% Nd2O3-80% P2O5-17% H2O or 4% Nd2O3-74% P2O5 -22% H2O respectively, while that at 350°C changed to 2% Nd2O3-78% P2O5-20% H2O or 2% Nd2O3-75% P2O5-23% H2O respectively. These results indicate that the solubility curve of NdP 5O 14 had a positive slope against temperature, which allowed us to apply a temperature gradient method for the crystal growth of NdP 5O 14. Polyhedral crystals of 0.5 mm in maximum size were grown at the upper part of a gold capsule ( T⋍400°C) through the transportation due to Δ T=100°C after 10 days. These crystals had flat and smooth surfaces and contained less bubble-shaped inclusions than crystals synthesized under isothermal conditions. Crystals obtained at the lower part of the gold capsule ( T=500°C) were polyhedral 1 mm in maximum size. Growth experiments with Δ T=50°C yielded no crystals at the upper part in the capsule ( T⋍450°C), probably due to an insufficient transportation.

  18. Effect of partial crystallization on the mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of bioactive glass from the 3CaO.P(2)O(5)-SiO(2)-MgO system.

    PubMed

    Daguano, J K M F; Strecker, K; Ziemath, E C; Rogero, S O; Fernandes, M H V; Santos, C

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study is to report on the development and characterization of bioactive glass and glass-ceramics from the 3CaO.P(2)O(5)-SiO(2)-MgO-system, using different degrees of cristallinity for applications as an implant material. A methodology was proposed to induce crystallization of phases. Bioglass samples of the nominal composition (wt %) 57.75 CaO.P(2)O(5)-30 SiO(2)-17.25MgO were heat treated at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1100°C for 4h. The findings from the research illustrate how partial crystallization and phase transformations modified the microstructure of the based glassy material, resulting in improved mechanical properties. The maximum gain was measured for samples treated at 975°C, having a hardness of 6.2GPa, an indentation fracture toughness of 1.7MPam(1/2) and a bending strength of 120MPa, representing an increase of 30, 55 and 70%, respectively, when compared to the nucleated glass. The highest elastic modulus of about 130GPa was determined for samples treated at 1100°C. As a preliminary biological evaluation, "in vitro" cytotoxicity tests were realized to determine the cytotoxic level of the materials, using the neutral red uptake method with NCTC clones L929 from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) bank. On the other hand, no significant influence of the partial crystallization on cytotoxicity was observed. The results provide support for implant materials based on the 3CaO.P(2)O(5)-SiO(2)-MgO-system.

  19. Comparative behavior of sol gel derived 45S5 and copper doped CaO-P2O5-SiO2 system for the growth of hydroxyl apatite layer from XRD and Raman studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Pardeep; Singh, K. J.

    2015-08-01

    Bioactive samples of 45S5 and copper doped CaO-P2O5- SiO2 compositions have been prepared in the laboratory. XRD and Raman techniques have been employed to infer the structural information of the samples before and after in vitro test. In vitro tests have been undertaken by soaking the samples in simulated body fluid. Formation of hydroxyl apatite layer on the surface of samples indicates that all the prepared samples are bioactive in nature. Reported investigations are important to improve the antibacterial properties of the future bioactive implant materials.

  20. Formation of hydroxyapatite onto glasses of the CaO-MgO-SiO2 system with B2O3, Na2O, CaF2 and P2O5 additives.

    PubMed

    Agathopoulos, S; Tulyaganov, D U; Ventura, J M G; Kannan, S; Karakassides, M A; Ferreira, J M F

    2006-03-01

    New bioactive glasses with compositions based on the CaO-MgO-SiO(2) system and additives of B(2)O(3), P(2)O(5), Na(2)O, and CaF(2) were prepared. The in vitro mineralization behaviour was tested by immersion of powders or bulk glasses in simulated body fluid (SBF). Monitoring of ionic concentrations in SBF and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations at the surface of the glasses were conducted over immersion time. Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy shed light on the structural evolution occurring at the surface of the glasses that leads to formation of hydroxyapatite.

  1. Effects of Substitution of K2O for Na2O on the Bioactivity of CaO-Na2O-SiO2-P2O5 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taehee; Hwang, Chawon; Gwoo, Donggun; Park, Hoyyul; Ryu, Bong-Ki

    2012-10-01

    The compositional dependences of bioactivity, thermal properties, atomic structure, and surface morphology have been investigated in the CaO-Na2O-SiO2-P2O5 system; this system is known as a bioglass. 45S5 Bioglass® is known to be a general and highly bioactive material. However, the bioactivity of this glassy material is expected to be improved by modifying the alkali-metal composition. Thermal properties, density, and molar volume were measured to investigate the structural packing. FT-IR spectra and X-ray diffraction were used to confirm the structures of these glasses. The morphology was examined using field emission electron microscopy, and the formation of a Ca-P layer was studied using an energy-dispersive system. This study shows that the tendency to form a calcium phosphate layer is increased with the substitution of K2O for Na2O.

  2. The influence of phosphorus precursors on the synthesis and bioactivity of SiO2-CaO-P 2O 5 sol-gel glasses and glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Renato Luiz; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

    2013-02-01

    Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics of the SiO(2)-CaO-P(2)O(5) system were synthesised by means of a sol-gel method using different phosphorus precursors according to their respective rates of hydrolysis-triethylphosphate (OP(OC(2)H(5))(3)), phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) and a solution prepared by dissolving phosphorus oxide (P(2)O(5)) in ethanol. The resulting materials were characterised by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and by in vitro bioactivity tests in acellular simulated body fluid. The different precursors significantly affected the main steps of the synthesis, beginning with the time required for gel formation. The most striking influence of these precursors was observed during the thermal treatments at 700-1,200 °C that were used to convert the gels into glasses and glass-ceramics. The samples exhibited very different mineralisation behaviours; especially those prepared using the phosphoric acid, which had a reduced onset temperature of crystallisation and an increased resistance to devitrification. However, all resulting materials were bioactive. The in vitro bioactivity of these materials was strongly affected by the heat treatment temperature. In general, their bioactivity decreased with increasing treatment temperature. For crystallised samples obtained above 900 °C, the bioactivity was favoured by the presence of two crystalline phases: wollastonite (CaSiO(3)) and tricalcium phosphate (α-Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)).

  3. Behavior and effects of phosphorus in the system Na2O-K2O-Al2O3-SiO2-P2O5-H2O at 200 MPa(H2O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    London, David; Morgan, George B.; Babb, Harold A.; Loomis, Jennifer L.

    1993-12-01

    The addition of phosphorus to H2O-saturated and initially subaluminous haplogranitic (Qz-Ab-Or) compositions at 200 MPa(H2O) promotes expansion of the liquidus field of quartz, a marked decrease of the solidus temperature, increased solubility limits of H2O in melt at low phosphorus concentrations, and fractionation of melt out of the haplogranite plane (projected along an Or28 isopleth) toward a peralkaline, silica-poor but quartz-saturated minimum composition. The partition coefficient for P2O5 between aqueous vapor and melt with an ASI (aluminum saturation index, mol Al/[mol Na+K])=1 is negligible (0.06), and consequently so are the effects of phosphorus on other melt-vapor relations involving major components. Phosphorus becomes more soluble in vapor, however, as the concentration of a NaPO3 component increases via the fractionation of melt by crystallization of quartz and feldspar. The experimental results here corroborate existing concepts regarding the interaction of phosphorus with alkali aluminosilicate melt: phosphorus has an affinity for alkalis and Al, but not Si. Phosphorus is incorporated into alkali feldspars by the exchange component AlPSi-2. For subaluminous compositions (ASI=1), the distribution coefficient of phosphorus between alkali feldspar and melt, D[P]Af/m, is 0.3. This value increases to D[P]Af/m=1.0 at a melt ASI value of 1.3. The increase in D[P]Af/m with ASI is expected from the fact that excess Al promotes the AlPSi-2 exchange. With this experimental data, the P2O5 content of feldspars and whole rocks can reveal important facets of crystallization and phosphorus geochemistry in subaluminous to peraluminous granitic systems.

  4. Bone bonding behavior of MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass (mother glass of A.W-glass-ceramics).

    PubMed

    Kitsugi, T; Yamamuro, T; Nakamura, T; Kokubo, T

    1989-06-01

    In this study, it was found that a Ca-P layer and a Si layer were formed on the interface of the mother glass of apatite-wollastonite containing glass-ceramics (designated AW) and bone tissue. The dissolution of Si, Ca, and P from glass (MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2) is necessary to form a chemical film (a Si layer and a Ca-P layer). The three kinds of glasses used were 1) a mirror surface of the mother glass (MgO 4.6, CaO 44.9, SiO2 34.2, P2O5 16.3, CaF 0.5 weight ratio) of AW (designated G-AW (mirror], 2) an abraded surface of G-AW (designated G-AW (#2000)), 3) a mirror surface SiO2 glass (designated G-Si, 100% SiO2). The glass plates (15 mm x 10 mm x 2 mm) were implanted into the metaphysis of tibia of mature male rabbits for 10 and 25 weeks. The failure load, when an implant detached from the bone or when the bone itself broke, was measured by a detaching test and the interface of glass/bone was observed by SEM-EPMA. Failure loads in G-Si, G-AW (mirror), and G-AW (#2000) 10 weeks after implantation were 0.18 +/- 0.24, 3.06 +/- 1.29, and 2.94 +/- 1.77 kg, respectively. Those in G-Si, G-AW (mirror), and G-AW (#2000) 25 weeks after implantation were 1.30 +/- 1.18, 3.88 +/- 1.06, and 3.55 +/- 1.51, respectively. The failure loads in G-Si vs. G-AW (mirror) and those in G-Si vs. G-AW (#2000) differed significantly (P less than 0.01). There were no significant differences in the failure load according to the surface roughness of G-AW. As shown by SEM-EPMA observation, a Si layer next to G was adjacent to a Ca-P layer next to the bone. The chemical film showed no increase in thickness as time passed. A Ca-P layer did not form on the interface of Si-G and bone.

  5. In vitro mineralization of a glass-ceramic of the MgO-3CaO x P2O5-SiO2 system: wettability studies.

    PubMed

    Serro, A P; Fernandes, A C; Saramago, B; Fernandes, M H V

    2002-07-01

    The calcium phosphate deposition on the surface of a bioactive glass-ceramic of the MgO-3CaO. P(2)O(5)-SiO(2) system during a 1-week immersion in biological model fluids, was investigated through wettability studies. Two model fluids with chemical composition similar to the human blood plasma were tested: Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) and a simulated body fluid (SBF) with a higher calcium content. The effect of the presence of albumin, both in solution or previously adsorbed to the surface, was assessed. The behavior observed using two SBF solutions prepared with and without TRIS buffer was compared. The surface free energy of the glass-ceramic samples was determined, before and after immersion, and dynamic contact angle analysis was performed using the biological model fluids as scanning liquids. Scanning electron microscope observations and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis were performed to complement the wettability studies. The experimental results led to the conclusion that the precipitation of a calcium phosphate film in HBSS occurred mainly when the immersion solution was renewed daily or in the presence of adsorbed albumin. In SBF, the addition of TRIS buffer seemed to inhibit the formation of the calcium phosphate film.

  6. Effects of sodium and potassium ions on a novel SeO2-B2O3-SiO2-P2O5-CaO bioactive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trandafir, D. L.; Ponta, O.; Ciceo-Lucacel, R.; Simon, V.

    2015-01-01

    The study is focused on Na2O and/or K2O influence on a new sol-gel derived SeO2-B2O3-SiO2-P2O5-CaO bioactive system. The structural changes induced by Na2O and/or K2O addition were correlated with the samples behavior in simulated biological media. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and the type of the chemical bonds. The morphology of the samples was characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results pointed out a prevalent vitreous structure with an incipient hydroxyapatite (HA) crystalline phase. FTIR results revealed a complex network consisting of silicate, phosphate and borate units, as well as the development of both A- and B-type of carbonate-substituted HA. The bioactivity of the samples was tested in vitro following the evolution of the apatite layers self-assembled on the samples surface in simulated body fluid. Their biocompatibility was investigated after samples surface functionalization with protein. The results indicate that sodium and potassium addition improves the biocompatibility by enhancement of protein adherence on samples surface and without to prevent the samples bioactivity.

  7. Investigation of luminescence and laser transition of Dy3+ ion in P2O5sbnd PbOsbnd Bi2O3sbnd R2O3 (R = Al, Ga, In) glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, G. Chinna; Narendrudu, T.; Suresh, S.; Kumar, A. Suneel; Rao, M. V. Sambasiva; Kumar, V. Ravi; Rao, D. Krishna

    2017-04-01

    P2O5sbnd PbOsbnd Bi2O3sbnd R2O3 (R = Al, Ga, In) glasses doped with Dy2O3 were prepared by melt quenching technique. The prepared glasses were characterized by XRD, optical absorption, FTIR, luminescence studies. Judd-Ofelt parameters have been evaluated for three glass systems from optical absorption spectra and in turn radiative parameters for excited luminescent levels of Dy3+ ion are also calculated. Emission cross section and branching ratio values are observed to high for 6H13/2 level for Dy3+ ion. The yellow to blue intensity ratios and CIE chromaticity coordinates were calculated. Decay curves exhibit non exponential behavior. Quantum efficiency of prepared glasses was measured by using radiative and calculated life times. IR studies, J-O parameters and Y/B ratio values indicate that more asymmetry around Dy3+ ions in Ga2O3 mixed glass was observed. Chromaticity coordinates lie near ideal white light region. These coordinates and CCT values have revealed that all the prepared glasses emit quality white light especially the glasses mixed with Ga2O3 are suitable for development of white LEDs.

  8. Synthesis, cytotoxicity, and hydroxyapatite formation in 27-Tris-SBF for sol-gel based CaO-P2O5-SiO2-B2O3-ZnO bioactive glasses

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, G.; Kimsawatde, G.; Homa, D.; Allbee, H. A.; Sriranganathan, N.

    2014-01-01

    CaO-P2O5-SiO2-B2O3-ZnO bioactive glasses were prepared via an optimized sol–gel method. The current investigation was focused on producing novel zinc based calcium phosphoborosilicate glasses and to evaluate their mechanical, rheological, and biocompatible properties. The morphology and composition of these glasses were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size, mechanical and flexural strength was also determined. Furthermore, the zeta potential of all the glasses were determined to estimate their flocculation tendency. The thermal analysis and weight loss measurements were carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) respectively. For assessing the in-vitro bioactive character of synthesized glasses, the ability for apatite formation on their surface upon their immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) was checked using SEM and pH measurements. MTS assay cytotoxicity assay and live-dead cell viability test were conducted on J774A.1 cells murine macrophage cells for different glass concentrations. PMID:24637634

  9. Influence of heat treatments upon the mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity of ZrO2-toughened MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan-Cai; Wang, Dian-Gang; Meng, Xiang-Guo; Chen, Chuan-Zhong

    2014-09-01

    Zirconia-toughened MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass-ceramics are prepared using sintering techniques, and a series of heat treatment procedures are designed to obtain a glass-ceramic with improved properties. The crystallization behavior, phase composition, and morphology of the glass-ceramics are characterized. The bending strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, and microhardness of the glass-ceramics are investigated, and the effect mechanism of heat treatments upon the mechanical properties is discussed. The bioactivity of glass-ceramics is then evaluated using the in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking test, and the mechanism whereby apatite forms on the glass-ceramic surfaces in the SBF solution is discussed. The results indicate that the main crystal phase of the G-24 sample undergoing two heat treatment procedures is Ca5(PO4)3F (fluorapatite), and those of the G-2444 sample undergoing four heat treatment procedures are Ca5(PO4)3F and β-CaSiO3 (β-wollastonite). The heat treatment procedures are found to greatly influence the mechanical properties of the glass-ceramic, and an apatite layer is induced on the glass-ceramic surface after soaking in the SBF solution.

  10. Crystallization of MgFe2O4 from a glass in the system K2O/B2O3/MgO/P2O5/Fe2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Shabrawy, Samha; Bocker, Christian; Rüssel, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Spherical magnetic Mg-Fe-O nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the crystallization of glass in the system K2O/B2O3/MgO/P2O5/Fe2O3. The magnetic glass ceramics were prepared by melting the raw materials using the conventional melt quenching technique followed by a thermal treatment at temperatures in the range 560-700 °C for a time ranging from 2 to 8 h. The studies of the X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and FTIR spectra confirmed the precipitation of finely dispersed spherical (Mg, Fe) based spinel nanoparticles with a minor quantity of hematite (α-Fe2O3) in the glass matrix. The average size of the magnetic nano crystals increases slightly with temperature and time from 9 to 15 nm as determined by the line broadening from the XRD patterns. XRD studies show that annealing the glass samples for long periods of time at temperature ≥604 °C results in an increase of the precipitated hematite concentration, dissolution of the spinel phase and the formation of magnesium di-borate phase (Mg2B2O5). For electron microscopy, the particles were extracted by two methods; (i) replica extraction technique and (ii) dissolution of the glass matrix by diluted acetic acid. An agglomeration of the nano crystals to larger particles (25-35 nm) was observed.

  11. Structure and properties of (1- x)LiPO3- x SiO2 and 50Li2O-(50- x)P2O5- x SiO2 glass-forming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pershina, S. V.; Raskovalov, A. A.; Antonov, B. D.; Reznitskikh, O. G.; Vovkotrub, E. G.; Batalov, N. N.; Kadyrova, N. I.

    2016-11-01

    The dependence of the structure and properties of two series of glasses (100- x)LiPO3- x SiO2, x = 0-20 (series I) and 50Li2O-(50- x)P2O5- x SiO2, x = 0-10 (series II) were studied. The amorphous state of the composites was confirmed by XRD. In series II, a mixed glass-forming effect was revealed with a nonmonotonic increase of the glass transition temperature and electric conductivity. The structural features of the glasses were studied by Raman and IR spectroscopy. In the Raman spectra, vibrations of SiO4 groups with three and four oxygen bridging atoms were found; in the IR spectra, the intensities of the bands of the metaphosphate units decreased, while those of the P-O-Si bonds and pyrophosphate groups increased; in system II, the ion conductivity increased with x at room temperature by more than an order of magnitude and reached its maximum of 3.6 × 10-8 S/cm at x = 5.

  12. Understanding the magnetic behavior of heat treated CaO-P2O5-Na2O-Fe2O3-SiO2 bioactive glass using electron paramagnetic resonance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankhwar, Nisha; Kothiyal, G. P.; Srinivasan, A.

    2014-09-01

    Bioactive glass of composition 41CaO-44SiO2-4P2O5-8Fe2O3-3Na2O has been heat treated in the temperature (TA) range of 750-1150 °C for time periods (tA) ranging from 1 h to 3 h to yield magnetic bioactive glass ceramics (MBCs). X-ray diffraction studies indicate the presence of bone mineral (hydroxyapatite and wollastonite) and magnetic (magnetite and α-hematite) phases in nanocrystalline form in the MBCs. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study was carried out to understand the variation in saturation magnetization and coercivity of the MBCs with TA and tA. These studies reveal the nature and amount of iron ions present in the MBCs and their interaction in the glassy oxide matrix as a function of annealing parameters. The deterioration in the magnetic properties of the glass heat treated above 1050 °C is attributed to the crystallization of the non-magnetic α-hematite phase. These results are expected to be useful in the application of these MBCs as thermoseeds in hyperthermia treatment of cancer.

  13. Structural and magnetic properties of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 containing BaO-Fe2O3 glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenakul, W.; Kantha, P.; Pisitpipathsin, N.; Rujijanagul, G.; Eitssayeam, S.; Pengpat, K.

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation method was employed to produce bioactive glass-ceramics from the BaFe12O19-SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 glass system. The ferrimagnetic BaFe12O19 was first prepared using a simple mixed oxide method, where the oxide precursors of 45S5 bioglass were initially mixed and then melted to form glass. The devitrification of Na3Ca6(PO4)5 and Fe3O4 was observed in all of the quenched glass samples. The glass samples were then subjected to a heat treatment schedule for further crystallization. It was found that the small traces of BaFe12O19 phases started to crystallize in high BF content samples of 20 and 40 wt%. These samples also exhibited good magnetic properties comparable to that of other magnetic glass-ceramics. The bioactivity of the BF glass-ceramics improved with increasing BF content as was evident by the formation of bone-like apatite layers on the surface of all of the glass-ceramics after soaking in SBF for 14 days. The results support the use of these bioactive glass-ceramics for hyperthermia treatment within the human body.

  14. Effect of pH values on surface modification and solubility of phosphate bioglass-ceramics in the CaO-P 2O 5-Na 2O-SrO-ZnO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xudong; Cai, Shu; Zhang, Wenjuang; Xu, Guohua; Zhou, Wei

    2009-08-01

    The bioactive glass-ceramics in the CaO-P 2O 5-Na 2O-SrO-ZnO system were synthesized by the sol-gel technique, and then chemically treated at different pH values to study the solubility and surface modification. Samples sintered at 650 °C for 4 h consisted of the crystalline phase β-Ca 2P 2O 7 and the glass matrix. After soaking in the solution at pH 1.0, the residual glass matrix on the surface appeared entirely dissolved and no new phase could be detected. Whereas at pH 3.0, web-like layer exhibiting peaks corresponding to CaP 2O 6 was formed and covered the entire surface of the sample. When conducted at pH 10.0, only part of the glass matrix was dissolved and a new phase Ca 4P 6O 19 was precipitated, forming the petaline layer. The chemical treatment can easily change the surface morphologies and phase composition of this bioactive glass-ceramics. The higher level of surface roughness resulting from the new-formed layer would improve the interface bonding and benefit for cell adhesion.

  15. UV spectroscopy, refractive indices and elastic properties of the (76 - x) TeO2·9P2O5·15ZnO·xLiNbO3 glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, El Sayed; Al-Qaisi, Badriah

    2013-05-01

    Tellurite glass with composition (76 - x) TeO2·9P2O5·15ZnO·xLiNbO3 (where x = 12.5, 25, 30 and 35 in mol%) have been prepared by melt-quenching method. The optical properties of the glass were estimated by measuring UV-VIS spectroscopy and refractive indices at different wavelength. From the absorption edge studies, the optical energy gap (Eopt) and Urbach energy (ΔE) has been evaluated. Moreover mechanical properties with structural properties of the glasses were investigated by measuring both longitudinal and shear velocities by using the pulse-echo overlap technique at 5 MHz. The elastic moduli such as: longitudinal (λ), shear (μ), bulk (B) and Young's (Y) increase with the increase in LiNbO3 content in the prepared glasses matrix. The different physical parameters such as density, molar volume, oxygen molar volume, oxygen packing density, molar polarizability, Debye temperature, microhardness, Poisson's ratio, kinetic fragility and fractal bond connectivity have been computed and were found to depend on the glass composition.

  16. Effect of ZrO(2) additions on the crystallization, mechanical and biological properties of MgO-CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) bioactive glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Meng, X G; Chen, C Z

    2014-06-01

    A series of ZrO(2) doped MgO-CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) bioactive glass-ceramics were obtained by sintering method. The crystallization behavior, phase composition, morphology and structure of glass-ceramics were characterized. The bending strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, micro-hardness and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of glass-ceramics were investigated. The in vitro bioactivity and cytotoxicity tests were used to evaluate the bioactivity and biocompatibility of glass-ceramics. The sedimentation mechanism and growth process of apatites on sample surface were discussed. The results showed that the mainly crystalline phases of glass-ceramics were Ca(5)(PO4)3F (fluorapatite) and β-CaSiO(3). (β-wollastonite). m-ZrO(2) (monoclinic zirconia) declined the crystallization temperatures of glasses. t-ZrO(2) (tetragonal zirconia) increased the crystallization temperature of Ca(5)(PO4)(3)F and declined the crystallization temperature of β-CaSiO(3). t-ZrO(2) greatly increased the fracture toughness, bending strength and micro-hardness of glass-ceramics. The nanometer apatites were induced on the surface of glass-ceramic after soaking 28 days in SBF (simulated body fluid), indicating the glass-ceramic has good bioactivity. The in vitro cytotoxicity test demonstrated the glass-ceramic has no toxicity to cell.

  17. Single color upconversion emission in Ho 3+/Yb 3+ and Tm 3+/Yb 3+ doped P 2O 5-MgO 2-Sb 2O 3-MnO 2-AgO glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Chengguo; Song, Feng; Hou, Jing; Yu, Yin; Zhang, Gong; Yu, Hua; Sun, Tongqing; Tian, Jianguo

    2011-06-01

    The Ho 3+/Yb 3+ and Tm 3+/Yb 3+ doped P 2O 5-MgO 2-Sb 2O 3-MnO 2-AgO glasses were prepared by high temperature melting method. Under a 975 nm laser diode (LD) excitation, the single red and single blue upconversion (UC) emissions were observed in Ho 3+/Yb 3+ and Tm 3+/Yb 3+ doped samples, respectively. By studying the spontaneous radiative and multiphonon relaxation probabilities, we find that the multiphonon relaxation probability of 5I 6 (Ho 3+) state is very large (1.39 × 10 6 s - 1 ), which is helpful to the population of 5I 7 state. The multiphonon relaxation probability of 3H 5 and 3F 2,3 (Tm 3+) is also very large, which results in lots of population in 3F 4 and 3H 4 states. The results are that the red UC emission of Ho 3+ and the blue UC emission of Tm 3+ are stronger.

  18. Role of nickel ion coordination on spectroscopic properties of multi-component CaF2-Bi2O3-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, S.; Narendrudu, T.; Kumar, A. Suneel; Rao, M. V. Sambasiva; Ram, G. Chinna; Rao, D. Krishna

    2016-10-01

    Multi-component CaF2-Bi2O3-P2O5-B2O3 glasses doped with different concentrations of NiO were crystallized through heat treatment. The prepared glass ceramic samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), differential thermal analysis (DTA) as well as conventional spectroscopic studies viz., optical absorption, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman. The XRD and SEM studies have indicated that the samples contain well defined and randomly distributed grains of different crystalline phases. The optical absorption studies together with FTIR and Raman measurements indicated the gradual transformation of nickel ions from tetrahedral sites to octahedral sites (lasing sites) as the concentration of NiO is increased beyond 1.5 mol%. All these investigations have indicated that the growing degree of disorder in the glass ceramic network at higher concentrations of NiO. Glass ceramics doped with NiO beyond 1.5 mol% appear to be suitable for getting laser emission due to 3T2(F) → 3A2(F) transition in NIR region. These glass-ceramics can be expected as an amplification medium for tunable lasers and broadband optical amplifiers for wavelength division multiplexing transmission system.

  19. Effect of tin ions on enhancing the intensity of narrow luminescence line at 311 nm of Gd3+ ions in Li2Osbnd PbOsbnd P2O5 glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Y.; Rajanikanth, P.; Sundara Rao, M.; Ravi Kumar, V.; Veeraiah, N.; Piasecki, M.

    2016-07-01

    This study is mainly focused on enriching the UVB 311 narrow emission band of Gd3+ ions in Li2Osbnd PbOsbnd P2O5 glasses doped with 1.0 mol% of Gd2O3 and mixed with different concentrations of SnO2 (0-7.0 mol%). The emission spectra SnO2 free glasses exhibited intense narrow UVB band at 311 nm due to 6P7/2 → 8S7/2 transition of Gd3+ ions when excited at 273 nm. The intensity of this band is found to be enhanced nearly four times when the glasses are mixed with 3.0 mol% of SnO2. The reasons for this enhancement have been explored in the light of energy transfer from Sn4+ to Gd3+ ions with the help of rate equations. The declustering of Gd3+ ions (that reduce cross relaxation losses) by tin ions is also found to the other reason for such enrichment. The 311 nm radiation is an efficient in the treatment of various skin diseases and currently it is one of the most desirable and commonly utilised UVB in the construction of phototherapy devices.

  20. In vitro evaluation of bioactivity of SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Na2O-CaF2-ZnO glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, Madeeha; Zia, Rehana; Saleemi, Farhat; Bashir, Farooq; Hossain, Tousif; Kayani, Zohra

    2014-09-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element that stimulates bone formation but it is also known as an inhibitor of apatite crystal growth. In this work addition of ZnO to SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Na2O-CaF2 glass-ceramic system was made by conventional melt-quenching technique. DSC curves showed that the addition of ZnO moved the endothermic and exothermic peaks to lower temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis did not reveal any additional phase caused by ZnO addition and showed the presence of wollastonite and hydroxyapatite crystalline phases only in all the glass-ceramic samples. As bio-implant apatite forming ability is an essential condition, the surface reactivity of the prepared glass-ceramic specimens was studied in vitro in Kokubo's simulated body fluid (SBF) [1] with ion concentration nearly equal to human blood plasma for 30 days at 37 °C under static condition. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used to study the changes in element concentrations in soaking solutions and XRD, FT-IR and SEM were used to elucidate surface properties of prepared glass-ceramics, which confirmed the formation of HCAp on the surface of all glass-ceramics. It was found that the addition of ZnO had a positive effect on bioactivity of glass-ceramics and made it a potential candidate for restoration of damaged bones.

  1. Mössbauer study and magnetic properties of MgFe2O4 crystallized from the glass system B2O3/K2O/P2O5/MgO/Fe2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabrawy, S. El; Bocker, C.; Miglierini, M.; Schaaf, P.; Tzankov, D.; Georgieva, M.; Harizanova, R.; Rüssel, C.

    2017-01-01

    An iron containing magnesium borate glass with the mol% composition 51.7 B2O3/9.3 K2O /1 P2O5/27.6MgO/10.4Fe2O3was prepared by the conventional melts quenching method followed by a thermal treatment process at temperatures in the range from 530 to 604 °C.The thermally treated samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that superparamagnetic MgFe2O4 nanoparticles were formed during thermal treatment. The size of the spinel type crystals was in the range from 6 to 15 nm. Mössbauer spectra of the powdered glass ceramic samples and the extracted nanoparticles after dissolving the glass matrix in diluted acid were recorded at room temperature. The deconvolution of the spectra revealed the crystallization of two spinel phases MgFe2O4 (as a dominant phase) and superparamagnetic maghemite, γ-Fe2O3 (as a secondary phase). Room temperature magnetic measurements showed that, increasing the crystallization temperature changed the superparamagnetic behavior of the samples to ferrimagnetic behavior. The Curie temperatures of the samples were measured and showed a higher value than that of the pure bulk MgFe2O4.

  2. Influence of strontium on structure, sintering and biodegradation behaviour of CaO-MgO-SrO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) glasses.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ashutosh; Rajagopal, Raghu Raman; Ferreira, José M F

    2011-11-01

    The present study investigates the influence of SrO on structure, apatite-forming ability, physico-chemical degradation and sintering behaviour of melt-quenched bioactive glasses with the composition (mol.%): (36.07 - x) CaO-xSrO-19.24MgO-5.61P(2)O(5)-38.49SiO(2)-0.59CaF(2), where x varies between 0 and 10. The detailed structural analysis of the glasses is made by infrared spectroscopy and magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Silicon is predominantly present as Q(2) (Si) species, while phosphorus is found as orthophosphate in all the investigated glasses. The apatite-forming ability of glasses is investigated by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid for time durations varying between 1 h and 7 days. While increasing the Sr(2+)/Ca(2+) ratio in the glasses does not affect their structure significantly, their apatite-forming ability is decreased considerably. Further, physico-chemical degradation of glasses is studied in accordance with ISO 10993-14 "Biological evaluation of medical devices - Part 14: Identification and quantification of degradation products from ceramics" in Tris-HCl and citric acid buffer, and the possible implications of the ion release profiles from the glasses in different solutions are discussed. The addition of strontium to the glasses leads to a sevenfold decrease in chemical degradation of glasses in Tris-HCl. The sintering of glass powders renders glass ceramics (GCs) with varying degrees of crystallinity and good flexural strength (98-131 MPa), where the mechanical properties depend on the nature and amount of crystalline phases present in the GCs.

  3. Sol-gel Synthesis and Electrospraying of Biodegradable (P2O5)55-(CaO)30-(Na2O)15 Glass Nanospheres as a Transient Contrast Agent for Ultrasound Stem Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Vermesh, Ophir; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is a powerful tool in medicine because of the millisecond temporal resolution and sub-millimeter spatial resolution of acoustic imaging. However, the current generation of acoustic contrast agents is primarily limited to vascular targets due to their large size. Nano-size particles have the potential to be used as a contrast agent for ultrasound molecular imaging. Silica-based nanoparticles have shown promise here, however their slow degradation rate may limit their applications as a contrast agent. Phosphate-based glasses are an attractive alternative with controllable degradation rate and easily metabolized degradation components in the body. In this study, biodegradable P2O5-CaO-Na2O phosphate-based glass nanospheres (PGNs) were synthesized and characterized as contrast agents for ultrasound imaging. The structure of the PGNs was characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P MAS-NMR), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The SEM images indicated a spherical shape with a diameter size range of 200-500 nm. The XRD, 31P NMR and FTIR results revealed the amorphous and glassy nature of PGNs that consisted of mainly Q1 and Q2 phosphate units. We used this contrast to label mesenchymal stem cells and determined in vitro and in vivo detection limits of 5 and 9 μg/mL, respectively. Cell counts down to 4000 could be measured with ultrasound imaging with no cytoxicity at doses needed for imaging. Importantly, ion release studies confirmed these PGNs biodegrade into aqueous media with degradation products that can be easily metabolized in the body. PMID:25625373

  4. Influence of strontium on structure, sintering and biodegradation behaviour of CaO-MgO-SrO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, Ashutosh; Rajagopal, Raghu R.; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2011-11-01

    The present study investigates the influence of SrO on structure, apatite forming ability, physico-chemical degradation and sintering behaviour of melt-quenched bioactive glasses with composition: mol.% (36.07 – x) CaO – x SrO - 19.24 MgO – 5.61 P2O5 – 38.49 SiO2 – 0.59 CaF2, where x varies between 0 – 10. The detailed structural analysis of glasses has been made by infra red spectroscopy (FTIR) and magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS-NMR). Silicon was predominantly present as Q2 (Si) species while phosphorus was found in orthophosphate type environment in all the investigated glasses. The apatite forming ability of glasses was investigated by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) for time durations varying between 1 h – 7 days. While increasing Sr2+/Ca2+ ratio in glasses did not affect the structure of glasses significantly, their apatite forming ability was decreased considerably. Further, physico-chemical degradation of glasses has been studied in accordance with ISO 10993-14 “Biological evaluation of medical devices – Part 14: Identification and quantification of degradation products from ceramics” in Tris HCl and citric acid buffer and the possible implications of ion release profile from glasses in different solutions has been discussed. The addition of strontium in glasses led to a 7-fold decrease in chemical degradation of glasses in Tris-HCl. The sintering of glass powders rendered glass-ceramics (GCs) with varying degree of crystallinity and good flexural strength (98-131 MPa) where the mechanical properties depend on the nature and amount of crystalline phases present in GCs.

  5. Sol-gel synthesis and electrospraying of biodegradable (P2O5)55-(CaO)30-(Na2O)15 glass nanospheres as a transient contrast agent for ultrasound stem cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Foroutan, Farzad; Jokerst, Jesse V; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Vermesh, Ophir; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2015-02-24

    Ultrasound imaging is a powerful tool in medicine because of the millisecond temporal resolution and submillimeter spatial resolution of acoustic imaging. However, the current generation of acoustic contrast agents is primarily limited to vascular targets due to their large size. Nanosize particles have the potential to be used as a contrast agent for ultrasound molecular imaging. Silica-based nanoparticles have shown promise here; however, their slow degradation rate may limit their applications as a contrast agent. Phosphate-based glasses are an attractive alternative with controllable degradation rate and easily metabolized degradation components in the body. In this study, biodegradable P2O5-CaO-Na2O phosphate-based glass nanospheres (PGNs) were synthesized and characterized as contrast agents for ultrasound imaging. The structure of the PGNs was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), (31)P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P MAS NMR), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The SEM images indicated a spherical shape with a diameter size range of 200-500 nm. The XRD, (31)P NMR, and FTIR results revealed the amorphous and glassy nature of PGNs that consisted of mainly Q(1) and Q(2) phosphate units. We used this contrast to label mesenchymal stem cells and determined in vitro and in vivo detection limits of 5 and 9 μg/mL, respectively. Cell counts down to 4000 could be measured with ultrasound imaging with no cytoxicity at doses needed for imaging. Importantly, ion-release studies confirmed these PGNs biodegrade into aqueous media with degradation products that can be easily metabolized in the body.

  6. Bioactivity and cell proliferation in radiopaque gel-derived CaO-P2O5-SiO2-ZrO2 glass and glass-ceramic powders.

    PubMed

    Montazerian, Maziar; Yekta, Bijan Eftekhari; Marghussian, Vahak Kaspari; Bellani, Caroline Faria; Siqueira, Renato Luiz; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

    2015-10-01

    In this study, 10 mol% ZrO2 was added to a 27CaO-5P2O5-68SiO2 (mol%) base composition synthesized via a simple sol-gel method. This composition is similar to that of a frequently investigated bioactive gel-glass. The effects of ZrO2 on the in vitro bioactivity and MG-63 cell proliferation of the glass and its derivative polycrystalline (glass-ceramic) powder were investigated. The samples were characterized using thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Release of Si, Ca, P and Zr into simulated body fluid (SBF) was determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Upon heat treatment at 1000 °C, the glass powder crystallized into an apatite-wollastonite-zirconia glass-ceramic powder. Hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) formation on the surface of the glass and glass-ceramic particles containing ZrO2 was confirmed by FTIR and SEM. Addition of ZrO2 to the base glass composition decreased the rate of HCA formation in vitro from one day to three days, and hence, ZrO2 could be employed to control the rate of apatite formation. However, the rate of HCA formation on the glass-ceramic powder containing ZrO2 crystal was equal to that in the base glassy powder. Tests with a cultured human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells revealed that the glass and glass-ceramic materials stimulated cell proliferation, indicating that they are biocompatible and are not cytotoxic in vitro. Moreover, zirconia clearly increased osteoblast proliferation over that of the Zr-free samples. This increase is likely associated with the lower solubility of these samples and, consequently, a smaller variation in the media pH. Despite the low solubility of these materials, bioactivity was maintained, indicating that these glassy and polycrystalline powders are potential candidates for bone graft substitutes and bone cements with

  7. Fabrication and evaluation of osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on novel CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Seo, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung Mee; Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Baek, Hae-Ri

    2013-07-01

    Apatite-wollastonite glass-ceramics have high mechanical strength, and CaO-SiO2 -B2 O3 glass-ceramics showed excellent bioactivity and high biodegradability. A new type of CaO-SiO2 -P2 O5 -B2 O3 system of bioactive glass-ceramics (BGS-7) was fabricated, and the effect and usefulness was evaluated via bioactivity using simulated body fluid and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The purpose of this study was to compare BGS-7 and hydroxyapatite (HA) using hMSCs in order to evaluate the bioactivity of BGS-7 and its possibility as a bone graft extender. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP activity, cell proliferation 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay, Alizarin Red-S (AR-S) staining, calcium levels, the mRNA expression of ALP, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (runx-2) using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the protein expression of osteocalcin and runx-2 using Western blot were measured by transplanting hMSC onto a tissue culture plate, HA, and BGS-7. The ALP staining and AR-S staining of BGS-7 was greater than that of HA and control. The ALP value of BGS-7 was significantly higher than that of HA and control. The MTS results showed that BGS-7 had a higher value than the groups transplanted onto HA and control on day 15. The calcium level was higher than the control in both HA and BGS-7, and was especially high in BGS-7. There were more mineral products on BGS-7 than on the HA when analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The mRNA expression of ALP, osteopontin, osteocalcin, and runx-2 were higher on BGS-7 than on HA and the control when analyzed by RT-PCR. The relative gene expression of osteopontin and runx-2 were found to be higher on BGS-7 than on HA and the control by Western blot. Accordingly, it is predicted that BGS-7 would have high biocompatibility and good osteoconductivity, and presents a possibility as a new

  8. Role of acid attack in the in vitro bioactivity of a glass-ceramic of the 3CaO.P2O5-CaO.SiO2-CaO.MgO.2SiO2 system.

    PubMed

    Roman, J; Salinas, A J; Vallet-Regi, M; Oliveira, J M; Correia, R N; Fernandes, M H

    2001-07-01

    A non-bioactive glass-ceramic (GC13) that contains hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH), diopside (CaMg(SiO3)2) and althausite (Mg2 PO4OH) as crystalline phases has been obtained by thermal treatment of a parent bioactive glass (G13) of nominal composition (wt%) 40.0 CaO-34.5 SiO2-16.5 P2O5-8.5 MgO-0.5CaF2. To induce bioactivity, GC13 was chemically treated with 1 M HCl for different periods of time. After chemical etching the in vitro studies showed formation of an apatite-like surface layer. In this article the influence of etching time both on the surface composition of the glass-ceramic and on the growth rate of the apatite layer is studied. It is concluded that the presence of hydroxyapatite in the glass-ceramic, associated to microstructural fluctuations, can favour apatite deposition in vitro.

  9. Effect of temperature of Li2O-Al2O3-TiO2-P2O5 solid-state electrolyte coating process on the performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Shi-Xi; Xu, Ya-Hui; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2015-11-01

    Electrochemical performance of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) at elevated temperature is improved by solid-state electrolyte Li2O-Al2O3-TiO2-P2O5 (LATP) coating. Crystallinity and thickness of coatings are controlled by adjusting the coating process at two different temperatures (550 and 650 °C). 2.0 wt.% LATP-modified LNMO cathode materials obtained at 650 °C exhibits remarkably promoted electrochemical performance compared to that of the pristine one in terms of cycling and rate ability at 55 °C. The enhanced performance of the surface-modified samples can be accounted for the suppressed side reactions between the cathode materials and electrolyte solution. What is more important is that LATP cannot only protect the active materials from electrolyte solution but also improve Li+ mobility. The higher crystallinity of glass-ceramic LATP coating layer with thinner thickness implies more unobstructed, stable and shorter diffusion path of Li+ transport. It is found that the coating process is in favor of the disordered to ordered phase transition, implying that the heating process of coating plays a role of anneal as well.

  10. Biocompatibility property of 100% strontium-substituted SiO2 -Al2 O3 -P2 O5 -CaO-CaF2 glass ceramics over 26 weeks implantation in rabbit model: Histology and micro-Computed Tomography analysis.

    PubMed

    Basu, Bikramjit; Sabareeswaran, A; Shenoy, S J

    2015-08-01

    One of the desired properties for any new biomaterial composition is its long-term stability in a suitable animal model and such property cannot be appropriately assessed by performing short-term implantation studies. While hydroxyapatite (HA) or bioglass coated metallic biomaterials are being investigated for in vivo biocompatibility properties, such study is not extensively being pursued for bulk glass ceramics. In view of their inherent brittle nature, the implant stability as well as impact of long-term release of metallic ions on bone regeneration have been a major concern. In this perspective, the present article reports the results of the in vivo implantation experiments carried out using 100% strontium (Sr)-substituted glass ceramics with the nominal composition of 4.5 SiO2 -3Al2 O3 -1.5P2 O5 -3SrO-2SrF2 for 26 weeks in cylindrical bone defects in rabbit model. The combination of histological and micro-computed tomography analysis provided a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the bone regeneration around the glass ceramic implants in comparison to the highly bioactive HA bioglass implants (control). The sequential polychrome labeling of bone during in vivo osseointegration using three fluorochromes followed by fluorescence microscopy observation confirmed homogeneous bone formation around the test implants. The results of the present study unequivocally confirm the long-term implant stability as well as osteoconductive property of 100% Sr-substituted glass ceramics, which is comparable to that of a known bioactive implant, that is, HA-based bioglass.

  11. Transport properties of PbO-P2O5-ZnO-Li2O glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmikantha, R.; Rajaramakrishna, R.; Ayachit, N. H.; Anavekar, R. V.

    2012-06-01

    The electrical conductivity of Li+ ion conducting lead zinc phosphate glasses have been carried out both as a function of temperature and frequency in the temperature range 458-510K and over frequencies 40 Hz to 10 MHz. The dc conductivities show Arrhenius behavior and show compositional dependence. The σ decreases with increase in Li2O content. The ac conductivity behavior has been analyzed using Almond-West power law using a single exponent. The exponent 's' obtained from the power law fits is found to have values ranging from 0.74 - 0.80 in these glasses and shows moderate temperature dependence, which is attributed to high degree of modification in the glass network.

  12. Reflexión bioética sobre el uso de organismos genéticamente modificados

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  13. Simulaciones numéricas hidrodinámicas con formación estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, M. G.; Merchan, M.; García Lambas, D.

    Se realizan simulaciones numéricas cosmológicas utilizando el código HYDRA modificado para incluir formación estelar. A partir de éstas, se estiman diferentes parámetros observacionales como la relación Tully- Fisher, función de luminosidad y la tasa de formación estelar en función del redshift. Estos resultados son comparados con datos observacionales de diferentes autores.

  14. Phase equilibria in the P(2)O(5)-CaO-CaF(2)-NaF-H(2)O quinary system and the formation of apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Roger Isaac

    Phase equilibria among calcium phosphates in the Hsb3POsb4-Ca(OH)sb2-Hsb2O ternary system were determined as a basis for research in the formation of hydroxyapatite, a biomaterial. The acidic portion of the ternary diagram was established. Ca(Hsb2POsb4)sb2 was not stable for temperatures below 100sp°C. The experimental and theoretical dissolution paths of Ca(Hsb2POsb4)sb2{*}Hsb2O were compared. It is possible for the initial dissolution of Ca(Hsb2POsb4)sb2{*}Hsb2O to supersaturate the system with respect to hydroxyapatite because Ca(Hsb2POsb4)sb2{*}Hsb2O is "twice" incongruently soluble. Hydroxyapatite composition is variable with a Ca/P ratio ranging from 1.5 to 1.67. Hydroxyapatite formation from acid-base reactions of CaHPOsb4 and Casb4(POsb4)sb2O was investigated for composition at the terminal limits. The total heats-of-reaction (Delta Hsb{r}) were determined to be 261.3 and 320 kJ/mol for the formation of calcium deficient and stoichiometric hydroxyapatite, respectively. Activation energies of 84.7 and 87.4 kJ/mol were calculated for the formation of calcium deficient and stoichiometric hydroxyapatite, respectively. Heats-of-formation (Delta Hsb{f}) for Casb4(POsb4)sb2O and Casb9HPOsb4(POsb4)sb5OH were calculated to be -4764.1 and -1207.7 kJ/mol, respectively. The effects of magnesium on hydroxyapatite formation in vitro from CaHPOsb4 and Casb4(POsb4)sb2O at 37.4sp°C were investigated. Magnesium is a biological agent with 0.78 mM concentrations in blood. Magnesium inhibited nucleation for 1 mM concentrations and above for a 5 liquid-to-solids ratio. However, a 5 mM concentration of MgClsb2 slightly accelerated the growth rate. The activity of magnesium is approximately 6% of its concentration. Therefore the inorganic chemical activity of magnesium may not significantly inhibit the formation of bioapatites. Phase equilibria in the Psb2Osb5-CaO-CaFsb2-Hsb2O system at 37.4sp°C was determined and dental fluorosis explained. Fluoroapatite dissolves incongruently with respect to CaFsb2. Therefore, treatment of dentin and tooth enamel with fluoride leads to the formation of fluorosis because the solution first becomes supersaturated with CaFsb2. Based on thermodynamics, the conversion of hydroxyapatite to fluoroapatite cannot be a single exchange of fluoride for hydroxl. CaHPOsb4 hydrolysis and equilibrium in sodium fluoride solutions at 37.4sp°C reveal the added effect of sodium on the system. Sodium phosphate species form and overcome CaHPOsb4 incongruency. At initial NaF concentrations greater than 150 mM, NaF species rise and may overcome fluoroapatite incongruency.

  15. Partitioning of Nb, Mo, Ba, Ce, Pb, Th and U between immiscible carbonate and silicate liquids: Evaluating the effects of P2O5,F, and carbonate composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.; Walker, D.

    1993-01-01

    Previously we have reported carbonate liq./silicate liq. partition coefficients (D) for a standard suite of trace elements (Nb, Mo, Ba, Ce, Pb, Th, and U) and Ra and Pa as well. In brief, we have found that immiscible liquid partitioning is a strong function of temperature. As the critical temperature of the carbonate-silicate solvus is approached, all partition coefficients approach unity. Additionally, for the overwhelming majority of the partitioning elements, InD is a linear function of 'ionic field strength,' z/r, where z is the charge of the partitioned cation and r is its ionic radius.

  16. Nonlinear optical properties of TeO2-P2 O5- ZnO-LiNbO3 glass doped with Er3+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miedzinski, R.; Fuks-Janczarek, I.; El Sayed Said, Y.

    2016-10-01

    A series of lithium niobate LiNbO3 (LN) single crystals doped with Er3+ were grown under the same conditions by melt-quenching method. The distribution coefficients of rare-earth (RE) elements in the "crystal-melt" system of LN were determined at the beginning of the crystal growth. Their dependence on the dopant concentration in melt for 0.4 and 0.8 wt % was investigated. The procedure is applied to RE-doped lithium niobate (LiNbO3), a material of great interest for optoelectronic applications. We have obtained the real χR(3) and imaginary parts χI(3) of the third-order, nonlinear optical susceptibility to the nonlinear refractive index n2 and the nonlinear absorption coefficient β that are valid for absorbing systems. We show that nonlinear refractive or absorptive effects are the consequence of the interplay between the real and imaginary parts of the third-order susceptibilities of the materials. The method for measuring non-linear absorption coefficients and nonlinear refractive index based on well-known Z-scan is presented.

  17. Fertilization ratios of N-P2O5-K2O for Tifton 85 bermudagrass on two coastal plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] cultivar Tifton 85 is widely grown throughout the southeastern United States and many other countries for forage production. Because Tifton 85 is actually a hybrid between C. dactylon and C. nlemfuensis, it may not respond to fertilization in the same way ...

  18. DESAFÍOS ÉTICOS DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN CON ANIMALES, MANIPULACIÓN GENÉTICA

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    En la investigación con animales existen cuestionamientos éticos tanto en el uso como modelos de enfermedades humanas y requisito previo para ensayos en humanos como en la introducción de modificaciones genéticas. Algunos de estos cuestionamientos son: no representar exactamente la condición humana como modelos, realizar pruebas de toxicidad con grave daño para los animales, alterar su naturaleza mediante modificaciones genéticas, riesgos de la introducción de organismos genéticamente modificados. El uso de animales en investigación para beneficio humano, impone al ser humano la responsabilidad moral de respetarlo, no haciéndoles sufrir innecesariamente, al estar trabajando con seres vivientes y sentientes. PMID:23338641

  19. The recycling of incinerated sewage sludge ash as a raw material for CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-P2O5 glass-ceramic production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Yulei; Liang, Xuanye; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the recycling of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) into glass-ceramic materials by a two-stage sintering cycle of nucleation stage and crystallization stage without any pressure and binder is presented. The parent glasses were subjected to the following nucleation/crystallization temperature and time level: (A) 790°C, 1.0 h/870°C, 1.0-3.0 h; (B) 790°C, 1.0 h/945°C, 1.0-3.0 h and (C) 790°C, 1.0 h/1065°C, 1.0-3.0 h. X-ray power diffraction analysis results revealed that multiple crystalline phases coexisted in the glass-ceramic materials and the crystalline phase compositions were more affected by crystallization temperature than crystallization time. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed an interlocking microstructure of glass phases and crystals with different sizes and spatial distribution. The glass-ceramics crystallized at 945°C for 2.0 h exhibited optimal properties of density of 2.88±0.08 g/cm3, compression strength of 247±12 MPa, bending strength of 118±14 MPa and water absorption of 0.42±0.04. The leaching concentrations of heavy metals were far lower than the limits required by the regulatory standard of EPA. This paper provides a feasible, low-cost and promising method to produce ISSA-based glass-ceramics and highlights the principal characteristics that must be taken into account to use ISSA correctly in glass-ceramics.

  20. Diopside (CaO-MgO-2SiO2)-fluorapatite (9CaO-3P2O5-CaF2) glass-ceramics: Potential materials for bone tissue engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Kansal, Ishu; Goel, Ashutosh; Tulyaganov, Dilshat U.; Pascual, Maria J.; Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Hae-Won; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2011-08-18

    Glass-ceramics in the diopside (CaMgSi2O6) - fluorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3F] system are potential candidates for restorative dental and bone implant materials. In the present study, a series of glasses along diopside - fluorapatite binary system have been prepared with varying diopside/fluorapatite ratios for their potential applications in bone tissue engineering. The glasses were obtained from compositions with fluorapatite contents varying between 0-40 wt.%. The sintering ability and crystallization kinetics of as obtained amorphous glasses have been studied through hot-stage microscopy (HSM) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), respectively while crystalline phase evolution in sintered GCs has been followed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) adjoined with Rietveld-R.I.R. technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Further, biodegradation and apatite forming ability of glass-ceramics were investigated by immersion of glass-ceramic discs in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution while chemical degradation and weight loss of glass-ceramics were studied by immersion in Tris-HCl in accordance with standard ISO 10993-14. The addition of fluorapatite (10-25 wt.%) in diopside glass system significantly enhanced the sintering ability of glass-ceramics and improved their apatite forming ability along with their biodegradation behaviour. Moreover, the in vitro cellular responses to glass-ceramics showed good cell viability and significant stimulation of osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting the possible use of the glass-ceramics for bone regeneration.

  1. Structural analysis of xSrO-(50 - x)CaO-50P2O5 glasses with x=0, 5, or 10 mol% for potential use in a local delivery system for osteomyelitis treatment.

    PubMed

    Comeau, P A; Filiaggi, M J

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of ions into a local delivery matrix is one method of managing degradation and subsequent release of the incorporated therapeutic agents. Of interest in this study was whether we could modify the structural nature of calcium polyphosphate (CPP) glass and the subsequent therapeutic potential of this local delivery matrix with inclusion of strontium (Sr). We found that adding 10 mol% Sr significantly increased the density and chain length of the glass. There was no significant impact of Sr doping on the subsequent loading of vancomycin into the matrix, or the matrix porosity. The noted differences in structural stability, ion release, and vancomycin release between the un-doped CPP matrices and 10 mol% Sr-doped CPP matrices in vitro are likely a result of a decrease in glass disorder upon Sr addition to the glass and preferential retention of Sr over Ca during matrix degradation. This study has provided further evidence that Sr incorporation may serve to both manipulate antibiotic release from the amorphous CPP matrix and provide a potential source of therapeutic ions for enhanced bone regeneration.

  2. Activation properties of Ag+-ion conduction in bulk amorphous AgI: estimation from extrapolation of the AgI composition dependence in AgI Ag2O P2O5 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanaya, M.; Hatate, A.; Oguni, M.

    2003-06-01

    AgI-based fast-ion conducting glasses with very high AgI compositions from the (AgI)x(AgPO3)1-x, (AgI)x(Ag2PO3.5)1-x, and (AgI)x(Ag3PO4)1-x systems were prepared successfully by using a rapid-press quenching and a twin-roller quenching method. The ac dielectric measurements showed common relaxation properties of Ag+-ion conduction in the glasses independently of the species of the glass network formers of AgPO3, Ag2PO3.5, and Ag3PO4, and the activation energies, Δɛa, for Ag+-ion conduction were observed to converge upon the same magnitude of ~26 kJ mol-1 at the AgI composition limit of x = 1. This indicates the formation of amorphous AgI regions in the glasses, and the value of Δɛa = 26 +/- 1 kJ mol-1 estimated at x = 1 was concluded to correspond to that for bulk amorphous AgI which has never been obtained experimentally.

  3. ConSCRIPT

    PubMed Central

    Mottarella, Scott E.; Rosa, Mario; Bangura, Abdul; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Craig, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Structural Biology Extensible Visualization Scripting Language (SBEVSL) project is to allow users who are experts in one scripting language to use that language in a second molecular visualization environment without requiring the user to learn a new scripting language. ConSCRIPT, the first SBEVSL release, is a plug-in for PyMOL that accepts RasMol scripting commands either as premade scripts or as line-by-line entries from PyMOL's own command line. The plug-in is available for download at http://sourceforge.net/projects/sbevsl/files in the ConSCRIPT folder. PMID:21567873

  4. The Con Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the format of the Con Test, an Australian television game show which followed the same general rules and game play as the UK show PokerFace. At the end of each round a contestant needs to decide whether or not he or she should fold. A contestant needs to know how likely it is that he or she is in last place.…

  5. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  6. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation.

  7. Galaxias australes con núcleo doble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.

    Se estudia una muestra de galaxias australes con núcleo doble a partir de una búsqueda extensiva en la literatura. Se analizan las características morfológicas, fotométricas y espectroscópicas de la muestra. Para algunas galaxias se han realizado observaciones con el espectrógrafo multifunción (EMF) de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre a partir de las cuales se determinaron parámetros cinemáticos.

  8. InterCon Travel Health: Case B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truman, Gregory E.; Pachamanova, Dessislava A.; Goldstein, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    InterCon provides services to health insurers of foreign tourists who travel to the United States and Canada. Management wants to implement a new information system that will deal with several operational problems, but it is having difficulty securing the capital resources to fund the system's development. After an initial failure, the chief…

  9. Ependimoma myxopapilar sacro gigante con osteolisis

    PubMed Central

    Ajler, Pablo; Landriel, Federico; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Campero, Álvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: la presentación de un caso de una paciente con un ependimoma sacro con extensa infiltración y destrucción ósea local. Descripción del caso: una mujer de 53 años acudió a la consulta por dolor lumbosacro y alteraciones sensitivas perineales y esfinterianas. La imágenes por Resonancia Magnética (IRM) y la Tomografía Axial Computada (TAC) mostraron una lesión expansiva gigante a nivel S2-S4 con extensa osteólisis e invasión de tejidos adyacentes. Se realizó una exéresis tumoral completa con mejoría del estatus funcional. La anatomía patológica informó ependimoma mixopapilar. Discusión: la extensión de la resección quirúrgica es el mejor predictor de buen pronóstico. El tratamiento radiante se reserva como opción adyuvante para las resecciones incompletas y recidiva tumoral. La quimioterapia sólo debería utilizarse en casos en que la cirugía y la radioterapia estén contraindicadas. Conclusión: Los ependimomas mixopapilares sacros con destrucción ósea y presentación intra y extradural son muy infrecuentes y deben ser tenidos en cuenta entre los diagnósticos diferenciales preoperatorios. Su resección total, siempre que sea posible, es la mejor alternativa terapéutica. PMID:25165615

  10. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Huseyin; Liu, Jun; Tat, Pollyanna; Heffernan, Corey; Jones, Karen L; Verma, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Even though the technique of mammalian SCNT is just over a decade old it has already resulted in numerous significant advances. Despite the recent advances in the reprogramming field, SCNT remains the bench-mark for the generation of both genetically unmodified autologous pluripotent stem cells for transplantation and for the production of cloned animals. In this review we will discuss the pros and cons of SCNT, drawing comparisons with other reprogramming methods.

  11. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  12. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  13. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  14. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  15. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  16. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  17. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  18. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  19. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  20. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  1. Finemet versus ferrite -- Pros and cons

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng and Z.B. Qian

    1999-05-19

    There is a new magnetic alloy called Finemet which has very constant {mu}'{sub p}Qf up to {approximately} 2 kG and is very stable at high magnet flux density and temperature. It may be a good can-didate for high-gradient rf cavities. However, it has a rather low quality factor and is therefore very lossy. We compare the pros and cons of Finemet versus the common ferrite, when used in low-energy accelerating cavities, insertion for space-charge compensation, and barrier cavities.

  2. Energy Star program benefits Con Edison

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Impressed with savings in energy costs achieved after upgrading the lighting and air conditioning systems at its Manhattan headquarters, Home Box Office (HBO) wanted to do more, James Flock, vice president for computer and office systems, contacted Con Edison Co. of New York in March 1991 to determine what the company could do to save money by reducing energy consumed by personal computers. Arthur Kressner, Con Edison Research and Development manager contacted industry organizations and manufacturers for advice, but was told only to shut off computers at night and on weekends. Kressner arranged a series of meetings with IBM and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to discuss the issue, then approached the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which was designing a program to promote the introduction and use of energy-efficient office equipment. In 1992, the EPA announced the Energy Star program for PCs, enabling manufacturers to display the Energy Star logo on machines meeting program criteria, including the ability to enter a sleep mode in which neither the computer nor monitor consume more than 30 W or electricity. Industry experts estimate national energy consumption by office equipment could double by the year 2000, but Energy Star equipment is expected to improve efficiency and help maintain electric loads.

  3. Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P. Justin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. Methods: This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and cons of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Results: Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Conclusion: Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing. PMID:22905327

  4. Pros and cons of the proteomics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashish; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    The number of proteins produced by the 30,000-40,000 genes of the human genome is estimated to be three or four orders of magnitude higher. Proteomics is a rapidly developing science. In principle, two main areas in the field of proteomics have been developed, each of them having its pros and cons. These fields are profiling and functional proteomics. The aim of the proteomic profiling is to describe and index the whole set of proteins of a biological sample, which could be an organism, an organ, or a cell, or parts there of like individual's tissue or organelles. In our understanding, both types of proteomics (profiling and functional) are valuable tools complementing other biological methodologies.

  5. Pros and cons of phage therapy

    PubMed Central

    Loc-Carrillo, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Many publications list advantages and disadvantages associated with phage therapy, which is the use of bacterial viruses to combat populations of nuisance or pathogenic bacteria. The goal of this commentary is to discuss many of those issues in a single location. In terms of “Pros,” for example, phages can be bactericidal, can increase in number over the course of treatment, tend to only minimally disrupt normal flora, are equally effective against antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, often are easily discovered, seem to be capable of disrupting bacterial biofilms, and can have low inherent toxicities. In addition to these assets, we consider aspects of phage therapy that can contribute to its safety, economics, or convenience, but in ways that are perhaps less essential to the phage potential to combat bacteria. For example, autonomous phage transfer between animals during veterinary application could provide convenience or economic advantages by decreasing the need for repeated phage application, but is not necessarily crucial to therapeutic success. We also consider possible disadvantages to phage use as antibacterial agents. These “Cons,” however, tend to be relatively minor. PMID:22334867

  6. Pro/con a precessional geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyo, J.

    2003-04-01

    The modest amount of research that exists on the ability, or lack of ability, of mantle precession to power a geodynamo developed mostly during the last half of the 1900s. Papers by Roberts and Stewartson (1965) and by Busse (1968) studied precession generally without a pro/con conclusion. Malkus in the late 1960s attempted to advance a positive role for precession through experiments and analysis. His experiments have survived criticism, but his analyses were discounted, especially by Rochester, Jacobs, Smylie, and Chong (1975) and by Loper (1975). Rochester, et al. critiqued existing analyses of precession, including those of Malkus, but did not reach a strong position either pro or con a precessional geodynamo. Loper argued emphatically that precession was not capable of powering the geodynamo. Explicit analyses that either critique or support Loper’s arguments have yet to appear in the literature. During the 1970s, Vanyo and associates studied energy dissipation during precession of satellite liquid fuels and its effect on satellite attitude stability. Engineers and scientists in every country that has launched satellites completed similar research. Some is published in the aerospace literature, more is available in company and government reports. Beginning in 1981, Vanyo and associates applied this knowledge to the very similar problem of energy dissipation and flow patterns in precessing mechanical models scaled geometrically and dynamically to the Earth’s liquid core. Energy experiments indicate massive amounts of mechanical energy are dissipated at the CMB, and flow experiments show complex motions within the boundary layer and axial flows with helicity throughout the interior. Analysis of Earth core precession also advanced, especially in several papers by Kerswell and by Tilgner in the late 1990s. Detail numerical models have yet to appear. Although progress in understanding the role of precession in Earth core motions has advanced, there remains a

  7. Trazando la materia oscura con cúmulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describe la estrategia adoptada para mapear la distribución de materia oscura y bariónica en galaxias elípticas cuyos cúmulos globulares están siendo observados con los telescopios VLT y Gemini. Se ejemplifican los resultados con los datos obtenidos en el cúmulo de Fornax.

  8. Games Con Men Play: The Semiosis of Deceptive Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankiss, Agnes

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes some of the most frequent deceptive interactions as rendered through case histories of male con artists and their victims taken from police records. Discusses the recurrent elements in both the con-games strategies and victims' way of interpreting those strategies. (JMF)

  9. Breath Analysis Science at PittCon 2012, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breath analysis science was featured in three organized sessions at this year’s Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or ‘PittCon 2012’ (http://www.pittcon.org/). As described in previous meeting reports, PittCon is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chem...

  10. RoboCon: A general purpose telerobotic control center

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Noakes, M.W.; Schempf, H.; Blair, L.M.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes human factors issues involved in the design of RoboCon, a multi-purpose control center for use in US Department of Energy remote handling applications. RoboCon is intended to be a flexible, modular control center capable of supporting a wide variety of robotic devices.

  11. [Cement augmentation of pedicle screws : Pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Schnake, K J; Blattert, T R; Liljenqvist, U

    2016-09-01

    Cement augmentation of pedicle screws biomechanically increases screw purchase in the bone. However, clinical complications may occur. The pros and cons of the technique are discussed from different clinical perspectives.

  12. Planificación Neuroquirúrgica con Software Osirix

    PubMed Central

    Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución con una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

  13. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia.

  14. Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire rope wrapped around the base of the tower, which may have been used in an attempt to pull the submarine offshore. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Utilice en forma segura los productos con cebo para roedores

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Si se usan de manera inadecuada, los productos con veneno para ratas y ratones podrían hacerle daño a usted, a sus hijos o a sus mascotas. Siempre que use pesticidas lea la etiqueta del producto y siga todas las indicaciones.

  16. Canceling Some d-CON Mouse and Rat Control Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has reached agreement with the manufacturer, to cancel 12 d-CON products that do not meet our testing protocols that better protect children, pets and non-target wildlife from accidental exposure to the pesticide. These products will be phased out.

  17. Three dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and rudders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleyzes, C.

    1988-01-01

    Solutions for the definition of grids adapted to the calculation of three-dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and on submarine rudders and fins are described. The particular geometry of such bodies (oblique shaped hull, curved fins) required special adaptations. The grids were verified on examples from a test basin.

  18. Providers debate pros and cons of pneumonia vaccination at discharge.

    PubMed

    2001-02-01

    When to vaccinate against pneumonia? Does it makes sense when patients are in the hospital? Or should patients wait for the first post-op visit with the PCP? Office-based and hospital-based physicians weigh the pros and cons of each.

  19. International Field Reversible Thermal Connector (RevCon) Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    of Figures Figure Page Figure 1: Comparison Temperature History of T3 from each Thermal Connector........................ 6...OHP Thermal Connector Delivered by MissStateU .................................................. 54 Figure 49: Comparison Temperature History of T1...88 Figure A2: Schematic of Temperature Monitoring and Vibration Detection Setup for RevCon IV

  20. Teaching after Retirement: The Pros and the Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Having enjoyed teaching during my active career, I continued to teach summer school following retirement. Self-observed sensory and cognitive impairments, although not mentioned by students in their evaluations, induced me to consider the pros and cons of continuing to teach. My hope is that this list of benefits and problems will be of assistance…

  1. Inclusion: The Pros and Cons--A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savich, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review, analyze, and critique the pros and cons, the advantages and disadvantages, of inclusion. The methodology consisted in analyzing and comparing research findings on the benefits and costs of inclusion. Federal legislation and regulations on inclusion were examined, analyzed, and discussed. The results showed…

  2. LunGradCon: The Lunar Graduate Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, A.; Poppe, A.; Neish, C.; Fagan, A.; Fuqua, H.; Kramer, G. Y.; Horanyi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Members of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) initiated the Lunar Graduate Conference (LunGradCon), modeled after the highly successful Astrobiology Graduate Conference (AbGradCon). The purpose of this conference is to enhance the professional development of graduate students and early postdoctoral researchers by providing an opportunity to present and discuss scientific research in an environment of their peers. For the first two years, LunGradCon has been held as a one-day conference in conjunction with the NASA Lunar Science Institue's (NLSI) Lunar Science Forum at the NASA Ames Research Center. Activities include an invited overview talk on each of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's three main research areas (OF the Moon, ON the Moon, and FROM the Moon), submitted oral presentations from graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, and networking opportunities with established member of the lunar science community and the NLSI. In each of the first two years of LunGradCon, there have been 20-25 attendees, with about 15 of those presenting submitted talks. Each speaker received feedback forms from the other participants in order to improve on their presentation techniques. Participants also provided feedback on the conference as a whole in order to evaluate the content and provide suggestions for improvement in following years. Overall, the feedback has been extremely positive. This talk will summarize the achievements of past LunGradCons and plans for expansion of the conference to ensure a long-term positive impact on the early careers of future lunar, planetary and space science researchers.

  3. A complex photoreceptor system mediates the regulation by light of the conidiation genes con-10 and con-6 in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, María; Ruger-Herreros, Carmen; Luque, Eva M; Corrochano, Luis M

    2010-04-01

    Genes con-10 and con-6 in Neurospora crassa are activated during conidiation or after illumination of vegetative mycelia. Light activation requires the white-collar complex (WCC), a transcription factor complex composed of the photoreceptor WC-1 and its partner WC-2. We have characterized the photoactivation of con-10 and con-6, and we have identified 300bp required for photoactivation in the con-10 promoter. A complex stimulus-response relationship for con-10 and con-6 photoactivation suggested the activity of a complex photoreceptor system. The WCC is the key element for con-10 activation by light, but we suggest that other photoreceptors, the cryptochrome CRY-1, the rhodopsin NOP-1, and the phytochrome PHY-2, modify the activity of the WCC for con-10 photoactivation, presumably through a repressor. In addition we show that the regulatory protein VE-1 is required for full photocarotenogenesis. We propose that these proteins may modulate the WCC in a gene-specific way.

  4. Apoyo a Estudios Geodinamicos con GPS en Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    El Instituto Geografico Nacional de Guatemala implemento 17 estaciones GNSS en el año 2009, como un proyecto de credito mixto de donacion de equipamiento del Gobierno de Suiza, el cual, este equipamiento de estaciones CORS GNSS es un sistema de recepción y transmisión de datos crudos GPS RInex que utiliza la tecnologia Spider Web de Leica, asi mismo este sistema esta sirviendo para el espablecimiento de un marco geodesico nacional de coordenadas geodesicas oficiales, el cual se calculan u obtienen las velocidades en tiempos temporales programados de las 17 Estaciones CORS. La infraestructura del marco geodesico de Guatemala esta sirviendo de base para las aplicaciones de estudios geodinamicos como el monitoreo de del desplazamiento de las placas tectonicas por medio de un estudio que se inicio en el año de 1999, llamado medicion con GPS el sistema de Fallas de los rios Polochic Motagua de Guatemala, tambien para un estudio que se implemento para deformación de corteza terrestre local en un Volcan Activo de Guatemala llamado Pacaya. Para el estudio de medicion con GPS en el sistema de falla de los Rios del polochic Motagua se implementaron 16 puntos para medir con GPS de dos frecuencias en el año de 1999, el cual, tres puntos son estaciones geodesicas CORS IGS llamados GUAT, ELEN y HUEH, despues en el año de 2003 se hizo otra medicion en un total de 20 puntos, que permitió calcular las velocidades de desplazamieinto de los puntos en mención, usando como referencia el modelo NUVEL 1A de DeMets de la placa de Norteamerica. Este estudio fue en cooperación internacional por la universidad de Nice de Francia y el IGNde Francia. Para el estudio del monitoreo con GPS del volcan activo de Guatemala, se implementaron cuatro puntos al rededor del volcan, el cual, se realizan cuatro mediciones al año, que permiten determinar axialmente la distancias entre los puntos, y rebisar estadisticamente cual es el comportamiento de las distancias en funcion del tiempo, si

  5. Caffe con Troll: Shallow Ideas to Speed Up Deep Learning.

    PubMed

    Hadjis, Stefan; Abuzaid, Firas; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We present Caffe con Troll (CcT), a fully compatible end-to-end version of the popular framework Caffe with rebuilt internals. We built CcT to examine the performance characteristics of training and deploying general-purpose convolutional neural networks across different hardware architectures. We find that, by employing standard batching optimizations for CPU training, we achieve a 4.5× throughput improvement over Caffe on popular networks like CaffeNet. Moreover, with these improvements, the end-to-end training time for CNNs is directly proportional to the FLOPS delivered by the CPU, which enables us to efficiently train hybrid CPU-GPU systems for CNNs.

  6. Molecular diagnostics: Molecular Med Tri-Con 2013.

    PubMed

    Klein, Roger D

    2013-07-01

    The 20th annual Molecular Med Tri-Con conference, sponsored by Cambridge Health Institute (MA, USA), consisted of over 250 presentations within five parallel 'channels': 'Diagnostics, Therapeutics, Clinical, Informatics and Cancer', along with five preliminary symposia, 15 short courses, a plenary keynote session entitled 'Personalized Oncology - Fulfilling the Promise for Today's Patients' and a keynote panel entitled, 'Emerging Technologies and Industry Perspectives'. Over 3000 individuals from academia, clinical laboratories and industry were in attendance. This article will focus on the Keynote Session of 'Molecular Diagnostics' track within the Diagnostics Channel.

  7. Cannabinoids and cancer: pros and cons of an antitumour strategy

    PubMed Central

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Laezza, Chiara; Pisanti, Simona; Gazzerro, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades, research has dramatically increased the knowledge of cannabinoids biology and pharmacology. In mammals, compounds with properties similar to active components of Cannabis sativa, the so called ‘endocannabinoids', have been shown to modulate key cell-signalling pathways involved in cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis. To date, cannabinoids have been licensed for clinical use as palliative treatment of chemotherapy, but increased evidences showed direct antiproliferative actions of cannabinoid agonists on several tumour cells in vitro and in animal models. In this article, we will review the principal molecular pathways modulated by cannabinoids on cancer and summarize pros and cons evidence on the possible future use of endocannabinoid-based drugs in cancer therapy. PMID:16501583

  8. Endoscopic scoring systems for inflammatory bowel disease: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Bisschops, Raf; Neumann, Helmut

    2014-07-01

    Endoscopy plays a pivotal role for diagnosis and assessment of disease activity and extent in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. International guidelines recommend the use of endoscopic scoring systems for evaluation of the prognosis and efficacy of medical treatments. Ideal scoring systems are easy to use, reproducible, reliable, responsive to changes, and validated in different clinical settings in order to guide therapeutic strategies. However, currently available endoscopic scoring systems often appear as complex for routine endoscopy and suffer from insufficient interobserver agreement and lack of formal validation which often limit their use in clinical trials. Here, we describe the role of endoscopic scoring systems in inflammatory bowel diseases focusing on pros and cons in the era of advanced endoscopic imaging and mucosal healing.

  9. Caffe con Troll: Shallow Ideas to Speed Up Deep Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hadjis, Stefan; Abuzaid, Firas; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We present Caffe con Troll (CcT), a fully compatible end-to-end version of the popular framework Caffe with rebuilt internals. We built CcT to examine the performance characteristics of training and deploying general-purpose convolutional neural networks across different hardware architectures. We find that, by employing standard batching optimizations for CPU training, we achieve a 4.5× throughput improvement over Caffe on popular networks like CaffeNet. Moreover, with these improvements, the end-to-end training time for CNNs is directly proportional to the FLOPS delivered by the CPU, which enables us to efficiently train hybrid CPU-GPU systems for CNNs. PMID:27314106

  10. Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols - GOAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assémat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank

    Quantum optimal control becomes a necessary step in a number of studies in the quantum realm. Recent experimental advances showed that superconducting qubits can be controlled with an impressive accuracy. However, most of the standard optimal control algorithms are not designed to manage such high accuracy. To tackle this issue, a novel quantum optimal control algorithm have been introduced: the Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols (GOAT). It avoids the piecewise constant approximation of the control pulse used by standard algorithms. This allows an efficient implementation of very high accuracy optimization. It also includes a novel method to compute the gradient that provides many advantages, e.g. the absence of backpropagation or the natural route to optimize the robustness of the control pulses. This talk will present the GOAT algorithm and a few applications to transmons systems.

  11. Balancing Ethical Pros and Cons of Stem Cell Derived Gametes.

    PubMed

    Segers, Seppe; Mertes, Heidi; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo; Pennings, Guido

    2017-01-13

    In this review we aim to provide an overview of the most important ethical pros and cons of stem cell derived gametes (SCD-gametes), as a contribution to the debate about reproductive tissue engineering. Derivation of gametes from stem cells holds promising applications both for research and for clinical use in assisted reproduction. We explore the ethical issues connected to gametes derived from embryonic stem cells (both patient specific and non-patient specific) as well as those related to gametes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. The technology of SCD-gametes raises moral concerns of how reproductive autonomy relates to issues of embryo destruction, safety, access, and applications beyond clinical infertility.

  12. Cannabinoids and cancer: pros and cons of an antitumour strategy.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Laezza, Chiara; Pisanti, Simona; Gazzerro, Patrizia

    2006-05-01

    In the last two decades, research has dramatically increased the knowledge of cannabinoids biology and pharmacology. In mammals, compounds with properties similar to active components of Cannabis sativa, the so called 'endocannabinoids', have been shown to modulate key cell-signalling pathways involved in cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis. To date, cannabinoids have been licensed for clinical use as palliative treatment of chemotherapy, but increased evidences showed direct antiproliferative actions of cannabinoid agonists on several tumour cells in vitro and in animal models. In this article, we will review the principal molecular pathways modulated by cannabinoids on cancer and summarize pros and cons evidence on the possible future use of endocannabinoid-based drugs in cancer therapy.

  13. [Modern tribology in total hip arthroplasty: pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Gómez-García, F

    2014-01-01

    The wear products and adverse reactions that occur on bearing surfaces represent one of the greatest challenges in prosthetic replacements, as the latter experience increasing demands due to the large number of young and older adult patients that have a long life expectancy and remarkable activity. The purpose of this review is to analyze the pros and cons of the new advances in the bearing components of the articular surfaces of current total hip arthroplasties. We also discuss the strategies used historically, their problems, results and the surgeon's role in prescribing the tribologic couple that best fits each patient's needs. We conclude with practical recommendations for the prescription and management of the latest articular couples for total hip arthroplasty.

  14. Pros and Cons of the Acceleration Scheme (NF-IDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacz, Alex; Bogacz, Slawomir

    2008-07-01

    The overall goal of the acceleration systems: large acceptance acceleration to 25 GeV and beam shaping can be accomplished by various fixed field accelerators at different stages. They involve three superconducting linacs: a single pass linear Pre-accelerator followed by a pair of multi-pass Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA) and finally a nonâ scaling FFAG ring. The present baseline acceleration scenario has been optimized to take maximum advantage of appropriate acceleration scheme at a given stage. Pros and cons of various stages are discussed here in detail. The solenoid based Pre-accelerator offers very large acceptance and facilitates correction of energy gain across the bunch and significant longitudinal compression trough induced synchrotron motion. However, far off-crest acceleration reduces the effective acceleration gradient and adds complexity through the requirement of individual RF phase control for each cavity. Close proximity of strong solenoids and superc

  15. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J.; Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.

  16. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J. ); Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S. )

    1996-01-01

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.

  17. Modulation of ConA-induced inflammatory ascites by histamine - short communication.

    PubMed

    Baintner, Károly

    2015-03-01

    The early phase of the ConA-induced inflammatory ascites was studied, with special reference to histamine. Concanavalin A (ConA), a cell-surface binding lectin was injected i.p. (25 mg/kg bw) to mice. After 1 h the animals were killed, the ascitic fluid collected and measured. Other agents were injected s.c., 10 min before the ConA-challenge. Exogenous histamine markedly inhibited the ConA-induced ascites. Release of endogenous vasoactive agents from the mast cells by Compound 48/80 had a similar, but slight effect. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizing agent, and chloropyramine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist was ineffective. Although histamine increases endothelial permeability, it did not enhance the formation of ascitic fluid, on the contrary, it inhibited the ConA-induced ascites, presumably due to its known hypotonic effect. It is concluded that ConA-induced ascites is not mediated by mast cell histamine.

  18. Laparoscopy for inflammatory bowel disease: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, T C; Wexner, S D

    1998-04-01

    The role of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of colorectal malignancies is still under investigation, although it can offer significant benefits to many patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to assess the pros and cons of the laparoscopic management of IBD. Data were obtained from a review of the literature published since 1992, when the first report of laparoscopic surgery for IBD appeared in print. From 1992 to 1997 several series of laparoscopic colorectal surgery for the management of IBD have been reported. A close evaluation of these studies revealed that laparoscopy in patients with terminal ileal Crohn's disease or anal Crohn's disease in need of fecal diversion offers significant advantages compared to laparotomy, including decreased pain, length of hospitalization, and disability. An additional bonus is improved cosmesis and a reduction in symptomatic postoperative adhesions. These many benefits can be achieved without any increase in morbidity or expense. Conversely, the use of this technology for restorative proctocolectomy in patients with mucosal ulcerative colitis is associated with a longer operative time and an increased incidence of both intra- and postoperative complications compared to laparotomy. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery can thus be advantageous for treatment of terminal ileal Crohn's disease but cannot be routinely justified for the treatment of mucosal ulcerative colitis.

  19. Pros and cons of circumcision: an evidence-based overview.

    PubMed

    Friedman, B; Khoury, J; Petersiel, N; Yahalomi, T; Paul, M; Neuberger, A

    2016-09-01

    Based on three large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in Africa, it can clearly be stated that circumcision lowers the risk of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and some sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among males in settings of high HIV and STI endemicity. Similar effects on STI risk may exist for females, although this may result from an indirect effect of decreasing risk of infection among male partners. It is unknown whether circumcision prevents HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men (MSM), although there might be a protective effect for men who engage mainly in insertive anal intercourse. When the effects of adult circumcision on sexual function and satisfaction of men are examined, high-quality evidence strongly supports lack of harm. Whether circumcision alters sexual satisfaction of female partners is not known as fewer and smaller studies reported conflicting results. Circumcision rarely causes serious complications if practiced by trained practitioners, in a sterile setting, and with a proper follow-up. These conclusions are limited by the lack of high-quality data from areas outside of Africa. RCTs have not been conducted to assess the effects of circumcising infants or MSM. Circumcision has well-proven benefits for people residing in areas with high prevalence of STIs, including HIV, and is not unethical for those who choose to be circumcised or have their children circumcised on religious, social, or cultural grounds. For many others, a definite pro or con recommendation, based on a risk-benefit ratio, cannot be made.

  20. Pros, Cons, and Alternatives to Weight Based Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyner, Claude R.; Lauriem, Jonathan R.; Levack, Daniel H.; Zapata, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Many cost estimating tools use weight as a major parameter in projecting the cost. This is often combined with modifying factors such as complexity, technical maturity of design, environment of operation, etc. to increase the fidelity of the estimate. For a set of conceptual designs, all meeting the same requirements, increased weight can be a major driver in increased cost. However, once a design is fixed, increased weight generally decreases cost, while decreased weight generally increases cost - and the relationship is not linear. Alternative approaches to estimating cost without using weight (except perhaps for materials costs) have been attempted to try to produce a tool usable throughout the design process - from concept studies through development. This paper will address the pros and cons of using weight based models for cost estimating, using liquid rocket engines as the example. It will then examine approaches that minimize the impct of weight based cost estimating. The Rocket Engine- Cost Model (RECM) is an attribute based model developed internally by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for NASA. RECM will be presented primarily to show a successful method to use design and programmatic parameters instead of weight to estimate both design and development costs and production costs. An operations model developed by KSC, the Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations model (LLEGO), will also be discussed.

  1. Meeting Report: Breath Biomarkers Networking Sessions at PittCon 2010, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or "PittCon" (www.pittcon.org/), is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chemistry and instrumentation typically attracting about 25,000 attendees and 1,000 commercial exhibitors. PittCon began in 1950 as a small sp...

  2. Synergistic hemolysins of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS).

    PubMed

    Różalska, Małgorzata; Derczyńska, Anna; Maszewska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    A total of 104 coagulase negative staphylococci, belonging to S. capitis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus and S. warneri, originating from the collection of the Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology (ZMF), Medical University of Lodz, Poland, were tested for their synergistic hemolytic activity. 83% of strains produced δ-hemolysin, however, the percentage of positive strains of S. haemolyticus, S. warneri, S. capitis and S. hominis was different - 98%, 78%, 75% and 68%, respectively. Highly pure hemolysins were obtained from culture supernatants by protein precipitation with ammonium sulphate (0-70% of saturation) and extraction by using a mixture of organic solvents. The purity and molecular mass of hemolysins was determined by TRIS/Tricine PAGE. All CoNS hemolysins were small peptides with a molar mass of about 3.5 kDa; they possessed cytotoxic activity against the line of human foreskin fibroblasts ATCC Hs27 and lysed red cells from different mammalian species, however, the highest activity was observed when guinea pig, dog and human red blood cells were used. The cytotoxic effect on fibroblasts occurred within 30 minutes. The S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus strain was used as a control. The antimicrobial activity was examined using hemolysins of S. capitis, S. hominis, S. cohnii ssp. cohnii and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus. Hemolysins of the two S. cohnii subspecies did not demonstrate antimicrobial activity. Cytolysins of S. capitis and S. hominis had a very narrow spectrum of action; out of 37 examined strains, the growth of only Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Pasteurella multocida was inhibited.

  3. Surgical animal models of neuropathic pain: Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Challa, Siva Reddy

    2015-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges for discovering more efficacious drugs for the control of neuropathic pain has been the diversity of chronic pain states in humans. It is now acceptable that different mechanisms contribute to normal physiologic pain, pain arising from tissue damage and pain arising from injury to the nervous system. To study pain transmission, spot novel pain targets and characterize the potential analgesic profile of new chemical entities, numerous experimental animal pain models have been developed that attempt to simulate the many human pain conditions. Among the neuropathic pain models, surgical models have paramount importance in the induction of pain states. Many surgical animal models exist, like the chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve, partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL), spinal nerve ligation (SNL), spared nerve injury (SNI), brachial plexus avulsion (BPA), sciatic nerve transaction (SNT) and sciatic nerve trisection. Most of these models induce responses similar to those found in causalgia, a syndrome of sustained burning pain often seen in the distal extremity after partial peripheral nerve injury in humans. Researchers most commonly use these surgical models in both rats and mice during drug discovery to screen new chemical entities for efficacy in the area of neuropathic pain. However, there is scant literature that provides a comparative discussion of all these surgical models. Each surgical model has its own benefits and limitations. It is very difficult for a researcher to choose a suitable surgical animal model to suit their experimental set-up. Therefore, particular attention has been given in this review to comparatively provide the pros and cons of each model of surgically induced neuropathic pain.

  4. Self-Exfoliated Guanidinium-Based Ionic Covalent Organic Nanosheets (iCONs).

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shouvik; Kandambeth, Sharath; Biswal, Bishnu P; Khayum M, Abdul; Choudhury, Chandan K; Mehta, Mihir; Kaur, Gagandeep; Banerjee, Subhrashis; Prabhune, Asmita; Verma, Sandeep; Roy, Sudip; Kharul, Ulhas K; Banerjee, Rahul

    2016-03-02

    Covalent organic nanosheets (CONs) have emerged as functional two-dimensional materials for versatile applications. Although π-π stacking between layers, hydrolytic instability, possible restacking prevents their exfoliation on to few thin layered CONs from crystalline porous polymers. We anticipated rational designing of a structure by intrinsic ionic linker could be the solution to produce self-exfoliated CONs without external stimuli. In an attempt to address this issue, we have synthesized three self-exfoliated guanidinium halide based ionic covalent organic nanosheets (iCONs) with antimicrobial property. Self-exfoliation phenomenon has been supported by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation as well. Intrinsic ionic guanidinium unit plays the pivotal role for both self-exfoliation and antibacterial property against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using such iCONs, we have devised a mixed matrix membrane which could be useful for antimicrobial coatings with plausible medical benefits.

  5. Antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS): emergence of teicoplanin-non-susceptible CoNS strains with inducible resistance to vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao Xue; Wang, En Hua; Liu, Yong; Luo, En Jie

    2011-11-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) have become increasingly recognized as important agents of nosocomial infection. One of the characteristics of CoNS is their resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents commonly used for the treatment of staphylococcal infections. CoNS strains (n = 745) isolated from a university teaching hospital in China between 2004 and 2009 were tested for antibiotic resistance. The antibiotics were placed into three categories based on resistance levels of the CoNS strains to these antibiotics: high resistance (resistance rate >70 %), including penicillin G, oxacillin and erythromycin; medium resistance (resistance rate between 30 and 70 %), including tetracycline, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol; and low resistance (resistance rate <30 %), including rifampicin, ceftizoxime and gentamicin. We also found that the prevalence of strains non-susceptible to teicoplanin increased from 4.5 to 6.7 % between 2008 and 2009. A one-step vancomycin agar selection experiment and subsequent population analysis revealed potentially vancomycin-resistant subpopulations that have been selected from the teicoplanin-non-susceptible strains. Vigilant surveillance of nosocomial isolates of CoNS is needed to determine their resistance to glycopeptides.

  6. Analyses of muscular dystrophy and Con A deficiency traits in testcross progeny of chickens.

    PubMed

    Kline, K; Sanders, B G

    1984-01-01

    Hereditary muscular dystrophic chickens of the Storrs strain possess two genetic disorders, muscular dystrophy (MD) and a deficient concanavalin A (Con A), a T-cell mitogen, mediated splenic lymphocyte blastogenic response. A possible amelioration of the MD phenotype in MD chickens expressing normal Con A was postulated on the basis of progeny segregating for these two traits in F2 genetic analyses. To test this possibility, testcross progeny were examined for segregation of MD and Con A deficiency traits, and for the degree of muscle destruction and Con A deficiency. The data show both traits to be inherited independently as autosomal recessive traits, and do not support any phenotypic modifications occurring in chickens expressing MD with normal Con A. In the testcross progeny, the Con A deficiency disorder is equally deficient in normal and MD progeny, and the degree of muscle destruction as measured by serum creatine phosphokinase levels is equally great in MD chickens with or without the Con A deficiency trait. The reduced numbers of MD chickens in the testcross progeny can be accounted for by chance and probably reflect losses during in ovo development.

  7. Targeted Drug Delivery in Covalent Organic Nanosheets (CONs) via Sequential Postsynthetic Modification.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shouvik; Sasmal, Himadri Sekhar; Kundu, Tanay; Kandambeth, Sharath; Illath, Kavya; Díaz Díaz, David; Banerjee, Rahul

    2017-03-29

    Covalent organic nanosheets (CONs) have emerged as a new class of functional two-dimensional (2D) porous organic polymeric materials with a high accessible surface, diverse functionality, and chemical stability. They could become versatile candidates for targeted drug delivery. Despite their many advantages, there are limitations to their use for target specific drug delivery. We anticipated that these drawbacks could be overturned by judicious postsynthetic modification steps to use CONs for targeted drug delivery. The postsynthetic modification would not only produce the desired functionality, it would also help to exfoliate to CONs as well. In order to meet this requirement, we have developed a facile, salt-mediated synthesis of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA). The COFs were subjected to sequential postsynthetic modifications to yield functionalized targeted CONs for targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil to breast cancer cells. This postsynthetic modification resulted in simultaneous chemical delamination and functionalization to targeted CONs. Targeted CONs showed sustained release of the drug to the cancer cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, which led to cancer cell death via apoptosis. Considering the easy and facile COF synthesis, functionality based postsynthetic modifications, and chemical delamination to CONs for potential advantageous targeted drug delivery, this process can have a significant impact in biomedical applications.

  8. Abundancias químicas de estrellas de Mercurio-Manganeso obtenidas con espectros EBASIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintado, O. I.; Adelman, S. J.

    Se determinan las abundancias químicas de estrellas de HgMn usando espectros obtenidos con EBASIM en CASLEO en un rango de longitud de onda comprendido entre los 400 y 890 nm. Los valores iniciales de temperatura efectiva y gravedad superficial se calculan con la fotometría uvbyβ. Las abundancias se calculan usando WIDTH9 y SYNTHE. Los resultados se comparan análisis realizados por los autores usando espectros obtenidos con el espectrógrado REOSC del CASLEO, el espectrógrafo echelle del Telescopio Anglo-Australiano y el espectrógrafo Coudé del Dominion Astrophysical Observatory.

  9. The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM)

    Cancer.gov

    The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM) was formed to promote international, multidisciplinary collaborations to advance our understanding of the etiology and outcomes of kidney cancer.

  10. Characterization of the effector cells in Con A-induced cytotoxicity against HEp 2 tumour targets.

    PubMed

    Pócsik, E; González-Cabello, R; Benedek, K; Perl, A; Láng, I; Gergely, P

    1983-01-01

    Con A-induced cytotoxic activity of human lymphocyte subpopulations obtained by cell fractionation procedures was studied in a test system using human epipharynx carcinoma cells (HEp 2) as targets. Only T lymphocytes were cytotoxic, non-T cells exerted no cytotoxic activity, but enhanced the adherence of the tumour cells. Tnon-G lymphocytes (Fc-receptor negative T cells) were more active than TG cells (Fc-receptor-positive T cells) in mediating the Con A-induced cytotoxic reaction.

  11. SLUDGE PARTICLE SEPAPATION EFFICIENCIES DURING SETTLER TANK RETRIEVAL INTO SCS-CON-230

    SciTech Connect

    DEARING JI; EPSTEIN M; PLYS MG

    2009-07-16

    The purpose of this document is to release, into the Hanford Document Control System, FA1/0991, Sludge Particle Separation Efficiencies for the Rectangular SCS-CON-230 Container, by M. Epstein and M. G. Plys, Fauske & Associates, LLC, June 2009. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) will retrieve sludge from the 105-K West Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Settler Tanks and transfer it to container SCS-CON-230 using the Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS). The sludge will enter the container through two distributors. The container will have a filtration system that is designed to minimize the overflow of sludge fines from the container to the basin. FAI/09-91 was performed to quantify the effect of the STRS on sludge distribution inside of and overflow out of SCS-CON-230. Selected results of the analysis and a system description are discussed. The principal result of the analysis is that the STRS filtration system reduces the overflow of sludge from SCS-CON-230 to the basin by roughly a factor of 10. Some turbidity can be expected in the center bay where the container is located. The exact amount of overflow and subsequent turbidity is dependent on the density of the sludge (which will vary with location in the Settler Tanks) and the thermal gradient between the SCS-CON-230 and the basin. Attachment A presents the full analytical results. These results are applicable specifically to SCS-CON-230 and the STRS filtration system's expected operating duty cycles.

  12. Pros and cons: prospective predictors of marijuana use on a college campus.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jennifer C; Carey, Kate B

    2013-03-01

    Marijuana use on college campuses is prevalent and associated with high rates of abuse and dependence. The Marijuana Decisional Balance (MDB) scales measure perceived pros and cons toward marijuana use. Evidence supports reliability and concurrent validity of these scales, but the predictive validity has not yet been assessed. The current study evaluated the prospective predictive validity of pros and cons scales for marijuana use, as well as explored predictive validity for marijuana problem indicators. Secondary analyses included test-retest reliability and internal consistency, to provide additional evidence of psychometric properties. A total of 149 college students (57% recent marijuana users, 77% lifetime users) participated in a baseline survey, then completed a second survey one month later. All provided data on marijuana pros and cons, as well as use status in the past month. Users at each time point reported on use frequency, problems, and disorder symptoms. In the month between assessments, 55% of the students used marijuana. Both pros and cons subscales prospectively predicted use status in the subsequent month, but not use frequency. Pros prospectively predicted marijuana problems and dependence symptoms at follow-up, and remained a significant predictor of later dependence symptoms even after controlling for baseline dependence symptoms. In contrast, pros only marginally predicted abuse. Cons did not predict problems, abuse, or dependence symptoms. Pros and cons showed strong test-retest reliability (rs = 0.80-0.85) and internal consistency (alphas = 0.92-0.95). In a college sample, pros and cons of marijuana use demonstrated stability over one month, and prospectively predicted use. Pros may also have utility in predicting problems and dependence potential on college campuses.

  13. ConA-based glucose sensing using the long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium fluorophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Brian; Simpson, Jonathan; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Laursen, Bo W.; Graham, Duncan; Birch, David; Coté, Gerard

    2014-02-01

    Fluorescent glucose sensing technologies have been identified as possible alternatives to current continuous glucose monitoring approaches. We have recently introduced a new, smart fluorescent ligand to overcome the traditional problems of ConA-based glucose sensors. For this assay to be translated into a continuous glucose monitoring device where both components are free in solution, the molecular weight of the smart fluorescent ligand must be increased. We have identified ovalbumin as a naturally-occurring glycoprotein that could serve as the core-component of a 2nd generation smart fluorescent ligand. It has a single asparagine residue that is capable of displaying an N-linked glycan and a similar isoelectric point to ConA. Thus, binding between ConA and ovalbumin can potentially be monovalent and sugar specific. This work is the preliminary implementation of fluorescently-labeled ovalbumin in the ConA-based assay. We conjugate the red-emitting, long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA+) dye to ovalbumin, as ADOTA have many advantageous properties to track the equilibrium binding of the assay. The ADOTA-labeled ovalbumin is paired with Alexa Fluor 647-labeled ConA to create a Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assay that is glucose dependent. The assay responds across the physiologically relevant glucose range (0-500 mg/dL) with increasing intensity from the ADOTA-ovalbumin, showing that the strategy may allow for the translation of the smart fluorescent ligand concept into a continuous glucose monitoring device.

  14. ConTour: Data-Driven Exploration of Multi-Relational Datasets for Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Partl, Christian; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Strobelt, Hendrik; Wassermann, Anne-Mai; Pfister, Hanspeter; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-12-01

    Large scale data analysis is nowadays a crucial part of drug discovery. Biologists and chemists need to quickly explore and evaluate potentially effective yet safe compounds based on many datasets that are in relationship with each other. However, there is a lack of tools that support them in these processes. To remedy this, we developed ConTour, an interactive visual analytics technique that enables the exploration of these complex, multi-relational datasets. At its core ConTour lists all items of each dataset in a column. Relationships between the columns are revealed through interaction: selecting one or multiple items in one column highlights and re-sorts the items in other columns. Filters based on relationships enable drilling down into the large data space. To identify interesting items in the first place, ConTour employs advanced sorting strategies, including strategies based on connectivity strength and uniqueness, as well as sorting based on item attributes. ConTour also introduces interactive nesting of columns, a powerful method to show the related items of a child column for each item in the parent column. Within the columns, ConTour shows rich attribute data about the items as well as information about the connection strengths to other datasets. Finally, ConTour provides a number of detail views, which can show items from multiple datasets and their associated data at the same time. We demonstrate the utility of our system in case studies conducted with a team of chemical biologists, who investigate the effects of chemical compounds on cells and need to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  15. Soluciones analiticas AL problema de jets con velocidad de eyeccion variable EN EL tiempo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canto, J.; Raga, A. C.; D'Alessio, P.

    1998-11-01

    Se presenta un nuevo metodo que permite resolver de manera exacta y analitica las ecuaciones que describen un jet hipersonico con velocidad de eyeccion variable en el tiempo. El metodo se basa en consideraciones sencillas de conservacion de momento para las superficies de trabajo que se forman en el interior del jet. Como ejemplo, se presentan soluciones para jets con variacion sinusoidal en la velocidad de eyeccion, y tambien para el caso de un incremento lineal en el tiempo. Estas soluciones analiticas tienen una clara aplicacion en la interpretacion de las observaciones de jets asociados a objetos Herbig-Haro.

  16. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  17. Non Invasive Biomedical Analysis - Breath Networking Session at PittCon 2011, Atlanta, Georgia

    EPA Science Inventory

    This was the second year that our breath colleagues organized a networking session at the Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition or ''PittCon'' (http://www.pincon.org/).This time it was called "Non-invasive Biomedical Analysis" to broaden the scope a bit, but the primary focus rema...

  18. "Con todo mi corazón": Mentoring Latinas in Educational Leadership Doctoral Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Mariela A.

    2016-01-01

    Personal narrative essays were used to analyze the experiences of four Latina doctoral students who completed their first year in an educational leadership doctoral program in a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) in the southwestern U.S. Four themes emerged from their "testimonios" 1) "Con todo el corazón"; 2) "Somos como…

  19. End-User Use of Data Base Query Language: Pros and Cons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholes, Walter

    1988-01-01

    Man-machine interface, the concept of a computer "query," a review of database technology, and a description of the use of query languages at Brigham Young University are discussed. The pros and cons of end-user use of database query languages are explored. (Author/MLW)

  20. Impact of the ConRed program on different cyberbulling roles.

    PubMed

    Del Rey, Rosario; Casas, José A; Ortega, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results from an evaluation of the ConRed cyberbullying intervention program. The program's impacts were separately determined for the different roles within cyberbullying that students can take, i.e., cyber-victims, cyber-bullies, cyber-bully/victims, and bystanders. The ConRed program is a theory-driven program designed to prevent cyberbullying and improve cyberbullying coping skills. It involves students, teachers, and families. During a 3-month period, external experts conducted eight training sessions with students, two with teachers and one with families. ConRed was evaluated through a quasi-experimental design, in which students from three secondary schools were separated into experimental and control groups. The sample comprised 875 students, aged between 11 and 19 years. More students (n = 586) were allocated to the experimental groups at the specific insistence of the management of all schools; the remainder (n = 289) formed the control. Repeated measures MANOVA showed that cyber victims, cyber aggressors and cyberbully/victims reduced their involvement in cyberbullying. Moreover, cyber-victims and bystanders adjusted their perceptions about their control of personal information on the Internet, and cyber aggressors and bystanders reduced their Internet dependence. The ConRed program had stronger effects on male participants, especially in heightening their affective empathy.

  1. Are You Ready to Go Digital?: The Pros and Cons of Electronic Portfolio Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing need for educators to have professional portfolios, which are considered to be authentic tools for evaluating the knowledge, skill, beliefs and attitudes of prospective educators. Electronic portfolios are gaining in popularity and their relative pros and cons are examined.

  2. Mandated Mental Health Insurance: A Complex Case of Pros and Cons. Human Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrea

    1986-01-01

    The pros and cons of state laws mandating mental health insurance are discussed in this report. The history of a 1985 Supreme Court case which held that states could mandate mental health benefits introduces the report. In an overview of the issue, the long-standing argument between the insurance industry and the mental health establishment is…

  3. ConMap: Investigating New Computer-Based Approaches to Assessing Conceptual Knowledge Structure in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Ian D.

    There is a growing consensus among educational researchers that traditional problem-based assessments are not effective tools for diagnosing a student's knowledge state and for guiding pedagogical intervention, and that new tools grounded in the results of cognitive science research are needed. The ConMap ("Conceptual Mapping") project, described…

  4. The Con Edison Emergency Child Care Plan for Management Employees: Summary Plan Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consolidated Edison Co., Brooklyn, NY.

    This summary plan description offers guidelines for participation in a pilot program that provides short-term emergency care for children of Con Edison managers who are under 13 years old. The plan offers professional, in-home child care that can be used when usual arrangements have collapsed. The summary plan description addresses the following…

  5. A National Look at Postmodernism's Pros and Cons in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsell, Rhodena

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to take a look at the pros and cons of postmodernism. It is imperative for administrators to closely examine educational theories and practices prior to instituting changes. The ability to read and digest challenging material keeps one informed and prepared to lead effectively. This paper will list the pros and cons…

  6. Optimizing Electrospray Interfaces Using Slowly Diverging Conical Duct (ConDuct) Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that the efficiency of ion transmission from atmosphere to vacuum through stainless steel electrodes that contain slowly divergent conical duct (ConDuct) channels can be close to 100%. Here, we explore the properties of 2.5-cm-long electrodes with angles of divergence of 0°, 1°, 2°, 3°, 5°, 8°, 13°, and 21°, respectively. The ion transmission efficiency was observed to jump from 10-20% for the 0° (straight) channels to 90-95% for channels with an angle of divergence as small as 1°. Furthermore, the 2-3° ConDuct electrodes produced extraordinarily low divergence ion beams that propagated in a laser-like fashion over long distances in vacuum. To take advantage of these newly discovered properties, we constructed a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion interface utilizing a 2° ConDuct as an inlet electrode and compared its ion transmission efficiency with that of the interface used in the commercial (Thermo Fisher Scientific, San Jose, CA, USA) Velos Orbitrap and Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We observed that the ConDuct interface transmitted up to 17 times more ions than the commercial reference interface and also yielded improved signal-to-noise mass spectra of peptides. We infer from these results that the performance of many current atmosphere-to-vacuum interfaces utilizing metal capillaries can be substantially improved by replacing them with 1° or 2° metal ConDuct electrodes, which should preserve the convenience of supplying ion desolvation energy by heating the electrode while greatly increasing the efficiency of ion transmission into the mass spectrometer.

  7. Optimizing Electrospray Interfaces Using Slowly Diverging Conical Duct (ConDuct) Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the efficiency of ion transmission from atmosphere to vacuum through stainless steel electrodes that contain slowly divergent conical duct (ConDuct) channels can be close to 100%. Here, we explore the properties of 2.5 cm long electrodes with angles of divergence of 0°, 1°, 2°, 3°, 5°, 8°, 13°, and 21°, respectively. The ion transmission efficiency was observed to jump from 10–20% for the 0° (straight) channels to 90–95% for channels with an angle of divergence as small as 1°. Furthermore, the 2–3° ConDuct electrodes produced extraordinarily low divergence ion beams that propagated in a laser-like fashion over long distances in vacuum. To take advantage of these newly discovered properties, we constructed a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion interface utilizing a 2° ConDuct as an inlet electrode and compared its ion transmission efficiency with that of the interface used in the commercial (Thermo) Velos Orbitrap and Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We observed that the ConDuct interface transmitted up to 17 times more ions than the commercial reference interface and also yielded improved signal-to-noise mass spectra of peptides. We infer from these results that the performance of many current atmosphere-tovacuum interfaces utilizing metal capillaries can be substantially improved by replacing them with 1° or 2° metal ConDuct electrodes, which should preserve the convenience of supplying ion desolvation energy by heating the electrode while greatly increasing the efficiency of ion transmission into the mass spectrometer. PMID:25667060

  8. ConMap - a new spatial data mining framework for terrain based digital soil mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, T.; Schmidt, K.; Scholten, T.

    2009-04-01

    In this talk, we present a new digital terrain analysis framework for digital soil mapping based on spatial data mining, referred to as the contextual elevation mapping (ConMap). Aiming at integrating different scales, which can be important at landscape scale level due to interrelations of topo- and climofunctions, it comprises local surface function approximations in terms of standard local terrain attributes as well as the incorporation of geomorphic arrangements within larger neighborhoods. In contrast to common digital terrain analysis of deriving multiple terrain attributes, ConMap is based on elevation differences from the center pixel to each pixel in a local neighborhood. These differences are then used as predictors in machine learning approaches such as Random Forests. Thus, it is not necessary to choose a specific set of terrain attributes. Additionally, possibly unknown surface functions can be taken into account, as well as larger geomorphic settings. We applied and validated the framework by predicting topsoil silt content for an area of 1150 km2 in Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse, Germany, based on 342 samples, a 20 m resolution DEM, and neighborhood sizes up to 12 km. Cross-validation R2 values increase from 0.15 for standard digital terrain analysis to 0.61 using ConMap. This effect is due to a spatial trend in the data. As ConMap is able to map this trend and as it is based on the pedological concept of integrating scales it can be seen as a new entry to spatial prediction approaches such as Kriging or Geographically Weighted Regression. We conclude that ConMap shows a great potential for future digital soil mapping studies.

  9. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Thomas; Callantine, Todd; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The operational goal of the ATD-1 ConOps is to enable aircraft, using their onboard FMS capabilities, to fly Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from cruise to the runway threshold at a high-density airport, at a high throughput rate, using primarily speed control to maintain in-trail separation and the arrival schedule. The three technologies in the ATD-1 ConOps achieve this by calculating a precise arrival schedule, using controller decision support tools to provide terminal controllers with speeds for aircraft to fly to meet times at a particular meter points, and onboard software providing flight crews with speeds for the aircraft to fly to achieve a particular spacing behind preceding aircraft.

  10. BeadCons: detection of nucleic acid sequences by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Horejsh, Douglas; Martini, Federico; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2005-11-01

    Molecular beacons are single-stranded nucleic acid structures with a terminal fluorophore and a distal, terminal quencher. These molecules are typically used in real-time PCR assays, but have also been conjugated with solid matrices. This unit describes protocols related to molecular beacon-conjugated beads (BeadCons), whose specific hybridization with complementary target sequences can be resolved by cytometry. Assay sensitivity is achieved through the concentration of fluorescence signal on discrete particles. By using molecular beacons with different fluorophores and microspheres of different sizes, it is possible to construct a fluid array system with each bead corresponding to a specific target nucleic acid. Methods are presented for the design, construction, and use of BeadCons for the specific, multiplexed detection of unlabeled nucleic acids in solution. The use of bead-based detection methods will likely lead to the design of new multiplex molecular diagnostic tools.

  11. NASA KSC/AFRL Reusable Booster System (RBS) Concept of Operations (ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeno, Dnany; Mosteller, Ted; McCleskey, Carey; Jhnson, Robert; Hopkins, Jason; Miller, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study and findings of the study on the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for Reusable Booster System (RBS) centering on rapid turnaround and launch of a two-stage partially reusable payload delivery system (i.e., 8 hours between launches). The study was to develop rapid ground processing (aircraft like concepts) and identify areas for follow-on study, technology needs, and proof-of-concept demonstrations.

  12. The pros and cons of endovascular and open surgical treatments for patients with acute limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Branco, B C; Montero-Baker, M F; Mills, J L

    2015-06-01

    The present review addresses the pros and cons of the current, wide variety of therapeutic options available for the treatment of acute limb ischemia (ALI). Despite five prospective randomized controlled trials comparing catheter directed thrombolysis and open surgical revascularization, no single treatment strategy can yet be considered optimal for patients with ALI. This report includes 20 years of published data to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of thrombolytic agents and adjunctive endovascular techniques when compared to open surgical revascularization.

  13. Precisión de las velocidades radiales obtenidas con el REOSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Complementando una línea de trabajo iniciada con anterioridad discutimos la estabilidad del espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO en DC para la medición de velocidades radiales en base al análisis de observaciones realizadas en enero y abril de 1997. En esas oportunidades obtuvimos 26 espectros de estrellas patrones y 27 espectros de 3 estrellas usadas como estrellas de referencia en nuestro programa de cúmulos abiertos. Además tomamos 26 espectros de crepúsculo con el telescopio en posiciones cubriendo el rango H=-4,+4 y δ =-90,+30. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas derivamos la velocidad de 19 órdenes en cada uno de estos espectros. En base a un análisis estadístico de los datos obtenidos discutimos la contribución de los distintos factores que afectan a la dispersión de lectura observada. En particular, la flexión del instrumento no introduciría errores significativos cuando se observa con masas de aire menores que 2.0. La dispersión de los valores de velocidad medidos para espectros de alta relación S/N de una misma estrella resultó del orden de 0.5 km/s. La comparación con los valores de velocidad publicados por distintos autores para las estrellas patrones no permite distinguir ninguna diferencia sistemática apreciable de las velocidades de CASLEO, siendo la media cuadrática de los residuos del orden de 1.0 km/s.

  14. Extreme lateral lumbar interbody fusion: Do the cons outweigh the pros?

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Major factors prompted the development of minimally invasive (MIS) extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF; NuVasive Inc., San Diego, CA, USE) for the thoracic/lumbar spine. These include providing interbody stabilization and indirect neural decompression while avoiding major visceral/vessel injury as seen with anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), and to avert trauma to paraspinal muscles/facet joints found with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), and posterior-lateral fusion techniques (PLF). Although anticipated pros of MIS XLIF included reduced blood loss, operative time, and length of stay (LOS), they also included, higher fusion, and lower infection rates. Unanticipated cons, however, included increased morbidity/mortality rates. Methods: We assessed the pros and cons (e.g., risks, complications, comparable value/superiority/inferiority, morbidity/mortality) of MIS XLIF vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. Results: Pros of XLIF included various biomechanical and technical surgical advantages, along with multiple cons vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. For example, XLIF correlated with a considerably higher frequency of major neurological deficits vs. other constructs; plexus injuries 13.28%, sensory deficits 0–75% (permanent in 62.5%), motor deficits 0.7–33.6%, and anterior thigh pain 12.5–25%. XLIF also disproportionately contributed to other major morbidity/mortality; sympathectomy, major vascular injuries (some life-ending others life-threatening), bowel perforations, and seromas. Furthermore, multiple studies documented no superiority, and the potential inferiority of XLIF vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. Conclusion: Reviewing the pros of XLIF (e.g. radiographic, technical, biomechanical) vs. the cons (inferiority, increased morbidity/mortality) vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF, we question whether XLIF should remain part of the lumbar spinal surgical armamentarium. PMID:27843688

  15. Mound-ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} feasibility study. Phase 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    A portion of the abandoned Miami-Erie Canal paralleling the Greater Miami River receives the runoff and storm-water discharge from Mound Laboratory. In 1969, a low-level plutonium leak contaminated sediment as far away as 1.5 mi from the Mound site along the old canal system. An estimated one million cubic feet of sediment requires remediation. The technology being evaluated for the remediation of the low-level plutonium-238 contamination of the sediment involves two processes: washing the sediments with ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solution to dissolve the contaminant, followed by extraction of the solution and processing with the MAG*SEP{sup SM} process to concentrate the contaminant and allow reuse of the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solution. The processes are being optimized for pilot-scale and field demonstration. Phase 2 of the project primarily involved identification at the laboratory scale of the optimal ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} formulation, identification of the ion-exchanger and MAG*SEP{sup SM} particles, verification of the plutonium mobility in the treated soil, and evaluation of other process parameters according to a series of tasks.

  16. ConA and UEA-I lectin histochemistry of parotid gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Ana Paula V; Rego, Moacyr J B M; Cavalacanti, Carmelita L B; Carvalho, Luiz B; Beltrão, Eduardo I C

    2010-03-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) corresponds to 5-12% of all salivary gland tumours, and is classified as low, intermediate or high grade. Traditionally, immunohistochemistry was considered as the complementary tool for diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasia. Lectin histochemistry has also been increasingly used in recent years. In this work, lectins were used as histochemical markers for normal and transformed parotid glands. Biopsy specimens of 15 cases diagnosed as MEC (low, intermediate and high grade) of the parotid gland were trypsin- and methanol-H(2)O(2)-treated and incubated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated lectins, Concanavalin A (Con A-HRP) and Ulex europeus I (UEA-I-HRP). Con A stained the neoplasic cells of MEC (all grades). In high and intermediate cases, ductal cells were weakly stained by Con A. UEA-I weakly stained normal cells of the excretory duct and neoplasic cells in high grade. Neoplasic cells in intermediate grade were moderately stained and in low grade, the cell membrane was intensely stained with UEA-I. Stroma presented a direct relation between malignancy and staining intensity for UEA-I. The results indicated that lectin histochemistry distinguished the cell biology among histological grades of MEC.

  17. ConSurf 2016: an improved methodology to estimate and visualize evolutionary conservation in macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Abadi, Shiran; Martz, Eric; Chay, Ofer; Mayrose, Itay; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2016-07-08

    The degree of evolutionary conservation of an amino acid in a protein or a nucleic acid in DNA/RNA reflects a balance between its natural tendency to mutate and the overall need to retain the structural integrity and function of the macromolecule. The ConSurf web server (http://consurf.tau.ac.il), established over 15 years ago, analyses the evolutionary pattern of the amino/nucleic acids of the macromolecule to reveal regions that are important for structure and/or function. Starting from a query sequence or structure, the server automatically collects homologues, infers their multiple sequence alignment and reconstructs a phylogenetic tree that reflects their evolutionary relations. These data are then used, within a probabilistic framework, to estimate the evolutionary rates of each sequence position. Here we introduce several new features into ConSurf, including automatic selection of the best evolutionary model used to infer the rates, the ability to homology-model query proteins, prediction of the secondary structure of query RNA molecules from sequence, the ability to view the biological assembly of a query (in addition to the single chain), mapping of the conservation grades onto 2D RNA models and an advanced view of the phylogenetic tree that enables interactively rerunning ConSurf with the taxa of a sub-tree.

  18. What are the pros and cons of electronically monitoring inhaler use in asthma? A multistakeholder perspective

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Sam; Lang, Alexandra; Sharples, Sarah; Shaw, Dominick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Electronic monitoring devices (EMDs) are the optimal method for collecting objective data on inhaler use in asthma. Recent research has investigated the attitudes of patients with asthma towards these devices. However, no research to date has formally considered the opinions of stakeholders and decision-makers in asthma care. These individuals have important clinical requirements that need to be taken into account if EMDs are to be successfully provisioned, making collecting their opinions on the key barriers facing these devices a valuable process. Methods Three rounds of surveys in a Delphi format were used to assess the most important pros and cons of EMDs for asthma care in a sample of 31 stakeholders which included healthcare professionals and members of clinical commissioning groups. Results The respondents identified 29 pros and 32 cons. Pros that were rated as most important included new visual evidence to aid clinical discussions with a patient and an increase in patient involvement and motivation. The cons that were rated as most important included a need for more clinical evidence of the effectiveness of EMDs, as well as better clarity over who has responsibilities in managing, interpreting and discussing data with a patient. Conclusions The research provides a guide for EMD developers by highlighting where these devices may provide the most benefit as well as prioritising the key issues that need addressing if they are to be used effectively in everyday asthma care. PMID:27933181

  19. Nuevas observaciones de 3C10 con el VLA*: estudio de la expansión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynoso, E. M.; Moffett, D. A.:; Dubner, G. M.; Giacani, E. B.; Reynolds, S. P.; Goss, W. M.; Dickel, J.

    Se presentan nuevos resultados sobre la expansión del remanente de la supernova de Tycho a lo largo de un intervalo de 10.9 años, comparando nuevas observaciones tomadas con el VLA a 1375 y 1635 MHz durante 1994 y 1995, con observaciones previas realizadas entre 1983 y 1984 (Dickel y col. ~1991 AJ 101, 2151), usando las mismas configuraciones, anchos de banda, calibradores y tiempos de integración. El coeficiente de expansión se calcula para sectores radiales de 4o de ancho cada uno, ajustando la correlación cruzada de las derivadas de los perfiles promedio para cada época. A partir de la expansión medida, se estima el índice (parámetro de expansión) de la ley potencial R∝ tm como m≡ d ln R/d ln t . Este valor se compara con coeficientes teóricos para diferentes fases evolutivas de remanentes de supernova.

  20. Salud mental en desastres naturales: estrategias interventivas con adultos mayores en sectores rurales de Chile.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Parraguez, Paulina; Espinoza, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    En el presente artículo se da a conocer una estrategia de intervención llevada a cabo con adultos mayores en la comuna de Paredones, sexta región de Chile, con posterioridad al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de febrero 2010 en Chile, en el contexto de una investigación sobre fortalezas y vulnerabilidades desplegadas por este grupo etario, con posterioridad a un desastre natural. Se presenta una descripción del desarrollo metodológico de la intervención y de los sustentos teóricos y conceptuales en los que se basa. Como resultado de este proceso, se propone una estrategia que trabaje a través de la identificación de las propias experiencias y fortalezas de los sujetos. De tal forma se minimizan los efectos negativos de los determinantes sociales de la salud (como la edad y el lugar de residencia) en contexto de crisis; permitiendo a los adultos mayores fortalecer sus recursos individuales y colectivos, en pro de su bienestar psicosocial.

  1. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.; Todd, S.P.; Simon, P. Peel, F.J. )

    1996-01-01

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motions have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.

  2. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.; Todd, S.P.; Simon, P. Peel, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motions have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.

  3. The Transcription Factor Con7-1 Is a Master Regulator of Morphogenesis and Virulence in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen; Pareja-Jaime, Yolanda; González-Reyes, José Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the essential role of morphogenetic regulation in Fusarium oxysporum pathogenesis, including processes such as cell-wall biogenesis, cell division, and differentiation of infection-like structures. We identified three F. oxysporum genes encoding predicted transcription factors showing significant identities to Magnaporthe oryzae Con7p, Con7-1, plus two identical copies of Con7-2. Targeted deletion of con7-1 produced nonpathogenic mutants with altered morphogenesis, including defects in cell wall structure, polar growth, hyphal branching, and conidiation. By contrast, simultaneous inactivation of both con7-2 copies caused no detectable defects in the resulting mutants. Comparative microarray-based gene expression analysis indicated that Con7-1 modulates the expression of a large number of genes involved in different biological functions, including host-pathogen interactions, morphogenesis and development, signal perception and transduction, transcriptional regulation, and primary and secondary metabolism. Taken together, our results point to Con7-1 as general regulator of morphogenesis and virulence in F. oxysporum.

  4. Wildland Fire Induced Heating of Dome 375 Perma-Con®

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, Eugene Michael

    2016-08-09

    AET-1 was tasked by ADEM with determining the temperature rise in the drum contents of drums stored in the Dome 375 Perma-Con® at TA-54 given a wildland fire. The wildland fire causes radiative and convective heating on the Perma-Con® exterior. The wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heating environment were provided to AET-1 by EES-16. If the calculated temperature rise results in a drum content temperature over 40 °C, then ADEM desires a design solution to ensure the peak temperature remains below 40 °C. An axi-symmetric FE simulation was completed to determine the peak temperature of the contents of a drum stored in the Dome 375 Perma-Con® during a wildland fire event. Three wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heat transfer were provided by EES-16 and were inputs for the FE simulation. The maximum drum content temperature reached was found to be 110 °C while using inputs from the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx time history input and not including the SWB in the model. Including the SWB in the results in a peak drum content temperature of 61 °C for the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx inputs. EES-16 decided that by using fuel mitigation efforts, such as mowing the grass and shrubs near the Perma-Con® they could reduce the shrub/grass fuel loading near the Perma-Con® from 1.46 kg/m2 to 0.146 kg/m2 and by using a less conservative fuel loading for the debris field inside the Dome 375 perimeter, reducing it from 0.58 kg/m2 to 0.058 kg/m2 in their model. They also greatly increased the resolution of their radiation model and increased the accuracy of their model’s required convergence value. Using this refined input the maximum drum content temperature was found to be 28 °C with no SWB present in the model. Additionally, this refined input model was modified to include worst case emissivity values for the concrete, drum and Perma-Con® interior, along with adding a

  5. Con_A-carbone nanotube conjugate with short wave near-infrared laser ablation for tumor therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huan-Yao; Peng, Ching-An; Tang, Ming-Jer; Reindhart, Kit; Szu, Harold H.

    2009-04-01

    Using the characteristics of T cell mitogen called lectin protein from the jack-beam Canavalia ensiformis Concanavalin A (Con_A) with dual activities, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation, we have shown it has a therapeutic effect on hepatoma. Injection of Con_A can eradicate the established malign tumor, because Con_A can induce tumor cell autophagic, cell-programmed death, as well as activate the effector T cells. Combined, in this paper, with the absorption exceeding the Carbon NanoTube (CNT) band-gap (ɛbg=~1/CNT diameter) with an active short wave near-infrared (SWIR) (1.2~1.5 micron wavelengths), which happened to be translucent to the irradiation upon animal skin, similar to that used in hospital fingertip-clamped Pulse Oxymetry. Once the Con_ACNT is guided to hepatoma cells, it is bonded and internalized into the mitochondria (MC) compartment, the cellular energy factory. Con_A has the higher specificity for tumor cells useful for targeting because of the abnormal glycosylation on tumor cells. When CNT hitch hike with Con_A, they can t together like a laser-denotable chemical missile surgically targeting at the tumor cells precisely by Con_A-guidance. We switch on SWIR laser, when the Con_A-CNT conjugated complex has been bonded and internalized to MC of malign cells and already commenced cellular programmed death. Thus, it might appear to casual readers that we have initiated an overkill, chemical drugged autophage followed with physical laser ablation, but what if we can eradicate hepatoma totally if no blue print is left behind inadvertently in case of a partial failure. We conclude that using Con_A-CNT conjugated complex targeting specifically at malign tumor cells is a novel targeted-laser-radiation therapy for tumors in mice.

  6. Lectin-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in an invertebrate model: Con A does not act as a bridge.

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, C A; Bayne, C J

    1986-01-01

    The plant lectin concanavalin A (Con A) has been used in an invertebrate model of lectin-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (LDCC). Macrophage-like cells from the susceptible host snail Biomphalaria glabrata become cytotoxic effectors when they encounter sporocysts of the parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni that have been treated with Con A. The sugar alpha-methyl mannoside and rabbit anti-Con A antibodies fail to block this LDCC. Con A is effective only when the target, not the effector cell, has been exposed to it. These results constitute evidence against the molecular bridging hypothesis and support the notion that surface modulation of the target may be the stimulus that provokes cytotoxicity. Results from this invertebrate model are discussed in the context of murine T lymphocyte LDCC. PMID:3949370

  7. Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur con Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, W. T.; Podestá, R. C.; Alonso, E.; Actis, E. V.; Pacheco, A. M.; Bustos, G.; Lizhi, L.; Zezhi, W.; Fanmiao, Z.; Hongqi, W.; Perdomo, R.

    Recordamos que entre el Observatorio Astronómico ``Félix Aguilar'', el Observatorio Astronómico de Beijing y el Observatorio Astronómico de La Plata, se ha convenido en desarrollar un Proyecto de Investigación conjunto, para la observación sistemática de estrellas en el Hemisferio Sur, con el objeto de la elaboración de un Catálogo Estelar Global utilizando un Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII del Observatorio de Beijing, que ha sido usado con éxito en la República de China. En este trabajo se presenta el Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur, derivado de las observaciones realizadas con el PAII instalado en el OAFA, durante el períiodo Febrero de 1992 a Marzo de 1997. En este lapso se han observado mas de 400000 pasajes estelares, obteniéndose las correcciones Δ α y Δ δ de 5241 estrellas del FK4, FK5, FK5 Ext., SRS, CAMC y GC. Las precisiones medias son del orden de ± 3,2 ms en ascensión recta y ±0."057 en declinación. Rango de magnitudes : 2,0 a 11,5 Rango de declinaciones : -3o a -60o Epoca Media : 1994.9 Se analizan los residuos en función de la magnitud y tipo espectral, correcciones de grupo y frecuencia de distribución Δ α y Δ δ.

  8. A phase 2 trial of long-acting TransCon growth hormone in adult GH deficiency.

    PubMed

    Höybye, Charlotte; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Ferone, Diego; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Gilfoyle, David; Christoffersen, Eva Dam; Mortensen, Eva; Leff, Jonathan A; Beckert, Michael

    2017-04-01

    TransCon growth hormone is a sustained-release human growth hormone prodrug under development in which unmodified growth hormone is transiently linked to a carrier molecule. It is intended as an alternative to daily growth hormone in the treatment of growth hormone deficiency. This was a multi-center, randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial designed to compare the safety (including tolerability and immunogenicity), pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of three doses of weekly TransCon GH to daily growth hormone (Omnitrope). Thirty-seven adult males and females diagnosed with adult growth hormone deficiency and stable on growth hormone replacement therapy for at least 3 months were, following a wash-out period, randomized (regardless of their pre-study dose) to one of three TransCon GH doses (0.02, 0.04 and 0.08 mg GH/kg/week) or Omnitrope 0.04 mg GH/kg/week (divided into 7 equal daily doses) for 4 weeks. Main outcomes evaluated were adverse events, immunogenicity and growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels. TransCon GH was well tolerated; fatigue and headache were the most frequent drug-related adverse events and reported in all groups. No lipoatrophy or nodule formation was reported. No anti-growth hormone-binding antibodies were detected. TransCon GH demonstrated a linear, dose-dependent increase in growth hormone exposure without accumulation. Growth hormone maximum serum concentration and insulin-like growth factor 1 exposure were similar after TransCon GH or Omnitrope administered at comparable doses. The results suggest that long-acting TransCon GH has a profile similar to daily growth hormone but with a more convenient dosing regimen. These findings support further TransCon GH development.

  9. The pros and cons about the digital recording of Intangible Cultural Heritage and some strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.

    2015-08-01

    Intangible Cultural Heritage (referred to as ICH), whose fundamental nature different from the tangible cultural heritage is "Intangible", and the related physical presence of the heritage is not the core content. Digital means have irreplaceable advantages in recording intangible and dynamic ICH resources, while it also needs flexible and rigorous recording means as a support, thus striving to maximize resources recording and protection. This article will focus on the pros and cons about the digital recording of ICH, and preliminarily discuss some strategies used in the process of recording.

  10. La interacción de estrellas WN con el medio circundante

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.; Cappa, C.; Rizzo, J. R.; Cichovolski, S.

    Se presentan resultados preliminares de un estudio de la distribución del hidrógeno neutro en los alrededores de estrellas WR de la serie del nitrógeno. Los datos observacionales de la línea de 21 cm provienen de un relevamineto de baja resolución angular (36'), así como de observaciones de resolución angular intermedia (9') tomadas con el radiotelescopio de Effelsberg. Este análisis ha permitido detectar cavidades y envolturas de H I en expansión vinculadas a las estrellas que componen la muestra.

  11. On application of optimal control to SEIR normalized models: Pros and cons.

    PubMed

    de Pinho, Maria do Rosario; Nogueira, Filipa Nunes

    2017-02-01

    In this work we normalize a SEIR model that incorporates exponential natural birth and death, as well as disease-caused death. We use optimal control to control by vaccination the spread of a generic infectious disease described by a normalized model with L1 cost. We discuss the pros and cons of SEIR normalized models when compared with classical models when optimal control with L1 costs are considered. Our discussion highlights the role of the cost. Additionally, we partially validate our numerical solutions for our optimal control problem with normalized models using the Maximum Principle.

  12. Soy-Based Therapeutic Baby Formulas: Testable Hypotheses Regarding the Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Westmark, Cara J

    2016-01-01

    Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and cons of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition.

  13. Nano anti-cancer drugs: pros and cons and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran

    2011-02-01

    For last one decade, scientists are working for developing nano anti-cancer drugs with claim of ideal ones due to their targeted chemotherapic nature. These drugs have many beneficial properties such as targeted drug delivery and gene therapy modalities with minimum side effects. This article describes pros and cons and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. Efforts have been made to address importance, special features, toxicities (general, blood identities, immune system and environmental) and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. It was concluded that nano anti-cancer drugs may be magic bullet drugs for cancer treatment leading to bright future of the whole world.

  14. Highlights from day three of the EuroSciCon 2015 Sports Science Summit

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Amit; McGregor, Alison

    2015-01-01

    This EuroSciCon Sports Science Summit represented a significant gathering of leading professionals in the field of sports science. The conference was held on 13–15 January 2015 at the O2 arena, London, UK. The chairman on the third day was Mr Greg Robertson, a specialist trainee Orthopedic surgeon from Edinburgh. The conference attracted over 80 attendants from all over the world, with 32 presentations from invited speakers and peer-reviewed submissions. This meeting report provides a summary of the best abstracts from the conference. PMID:28031889

  15. Confrontando teorías físicas con la Cosmología

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetich, H.

    Hay numerosas teorías físicas que no pueden contrastarse con el experimento en laboratorio y eso las hace poco interesantes como descripción de la naturaleza. Sin embargo, algunas de estas teorías tienen consecuencias cosmológicas observables y se abre la posibilidad de contrastación a través de la observación. Se discuten las observaciones capaces de poner a prueba tales teorías y se examinan ejemplos de teorías limitadas por la observación.

  16. Soy-Based Therapeutic Baby Formulas: Testable Hypotheses Regarding the Pros and Cons

    PubMed Central

    Westmark, Cara J.

    2017-01-01

    Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and cons of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition. PMID:28149839

  17. The pros and cons of risk communication: A project manager`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, S.D.

    1995-12-31

    Communicating risk is in itself a risky, yet essential, part of any successful hazardous waste project`s community relations strategy. Essential, because no project requiring public involvement can achieve success without effective communication of technical data and associated risks. Risky, because the stakes are high, the public and media are often contentious, and their science and engineering are difficult to relate to non-technical audiences. Given that communicating project risks cannot be avoided, or are avoided at one`s own peril, project managers lacking mastery of communication skills can build winning strategies by heeding the following ``pros`` and ``cons`` of risk communication.

  18. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  19. RETOS EN LA INTERVENCIÓN CON ADOLESCENTES PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS QUE MANIFIESTAN COMPORTAMIENTO SUICIDA*

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy

    2015-01-01

    Presentamos un estudio de caso de una adolescente puertorriqueña con comportamiento suicida. Esta comenzó una Terapia Socio Cognitivo-Conductual para el Comportamiento Suicida (TSCC-CS) de tipo ambulatorio luego de una hospitalización por intento suicida. La TSCC-CS incorpora una perspectiva ecológica y de desarrollo a la terapia cognitivo-conductual. Inicialmente mostró baja autoestima y severos síntomas depresivos y de ansiedad. Al finalizar el tratamiento, manifestó un cambio significativo en su sintomatología clínica y evidenció una mejoría en sus destrezas de manejo. No presentó ideas suicidas durante meses previos, ni durante el seguimiento. El análisis de este caso permitió realizar cambios en el protocolo de tratamiento, particularmente en las sesiones de familia y de comunicación con el fin de aumentar la viabilidad del tratamiento. PMID:26702337

  20. Targeting of proConA to the plant vacuole depends on its nine amino-acid C-terminal propeptide.

    PubMed

    Saint-Jore-Dupas, Claude; Claude, Saint-Jore-Dupas; Gilbert, Marie-Agnès; Marie-Agnès, Gilbert; Ramis, Catalina; Catalina, Ramis; Paris, Nadine; Nadine, Paris; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie-Christine; Marie-Christine, Kiefer-Meyer; Neuhaus, Jean-Marc; Jean-Marc, Neuhaus; Faye, Loïc; Loïc, Faye; Gomord, Véronique; Véronique, Gomord

    2005-10-01

    Concanavalin A (ConA) is a well characterized and extensively used lectin accumulated in the protein bodies of jack bean cotyledons. ConA is synthesized as an inactive precursor proConA. The maturation of inactive proConA into biologically active ConA is a complex process including the removal of an internal glycopeptide and a C-terminal propeptide (CTPP), followed by a head-to-tail ligation of the two largest polypeptides. The cDNA encoding proConA was cloned and expressed in tobacco BY-2 cells. ProConA was slowly transported to the vacuole where its maturation into ConA was similar to that in jack bean cotyledons, apart from an incomplete final ligation. To investigate the role of the nine amino acid CTPP, a truncated form lacking the propeptide (proConADelta9) was expressed in BY-2 cells. In contrast to proConA, proConADelta9 was rapidly chased out of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and secreted into the culture medium. The CTPP was then fused to the C-terminal end of a secreted form of green fluorescent protein (secGFP). When expressed in tobacco BY-2 cells and leaf protoplasts, the chimaeric protein was located in the vacuole whereas secGFP was located in the culture medium and in the vacuole. Altogether, our results show we have isolated a new C-terminal vacuolar sorting determinant.

  1. Overcoming the aggregation problem: A new type of fluorescent ligand for ConA-based glucose sensing

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Brian M.; Li, Mingchien; Locke, Andrea K.; Birch, David J.S.; Vigh, Gyula; Coté, Gerard L.

    2016-01-01

    Competitive binding assays based on the lectin Concanavalin A (ConA) have displayed significant potential to serve in continuous glucose monitoring applications. However, to date, this type of fluorescent, affinity-based assay has yet to show the stable, glucose predictive capabilities that are required for such an application. This instability has been associated with the extensive crosslinking between traditionally-used fluorescent ligands (presenting multiple low-affinity moieties) and ConA (presenting multiple binding sites) in free solution. The work herein introduces the design and synthesis of a new type of fluorescent ligand that can avoid this aggregation and allow the assay to be sensitive across the physiologically relevant glucose concentration range. This fluorescent ligand (APTS–MT) presents a single high-affinity trimannose moiety that is recognized by ConA’s full binding site and a fluorophore that can effectively track the ligand’s equilibrium binding via fluorescent anisotropy. This is confirmed by comparing its measured fluorescent lifetime to experimentally-determined rotational correlation lifetimes of the free and bound populations. Using an assay comprised of 200 nM APTS–MT and 1 μM ConA, the fluorescence anisotropy capably tracks the concentration of monosaccharides that are known to bind to ConA’s primary binding site, and the assay displays a MARD of 6.5% across physiologically relevant glucose concentrations. Ultimately, this rationally-designed fluorescent ligand can facilitate the realization of the full potential of ConA-based glucose sensing assays and provide the basis for a new set of competing ligands to be paired with ConA. PMID:25058939

  2. Overcoming the aggregation problem: a new type of fluorescent ligand for ConA-based glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Brian M; Li, Mingchien; Locke, Andrea K; Birch, David J S; Vigh, Gyula; Coté, Gerard L

    2015-01-15

    Competitive binding assays based on the lectin Concanavalin A (ConA) have displayed significant potential to serve in continuous glucose monitoring applications. However, to date, this type of fluorescent, affinity-based assay has yet to show the stable, glucose predictive capabilities that are required for such an application. This instability has been associated with the extensive crosslinking between traditionally-used fluorescent ligands (presenting multiple low-affinity moieties) and ConA (presenting multiple binding sites) in free solution. The work herein introduces the design and synthesis of a new type of fluorescent ligand that can avoid this aggregation and allow the assay to be sensitive across the physiologically relevant glucose concentration range. This fluorescent ligand (APTS-MT) presents a single high-affinity trimannose moiety that is recognized by ConA's full binding site and a fluorophore that can effectively track the ligand's equilibrium binding via fluorescent anisotropy. This is confirmed by comparing its measured fluorescent lifetime to experimentally-determined rotational correlation lifetimes of the free and bound populations. Using an assay comprised of 200 nM APTS-MT and 1 µM ConA, the fluorescence anisotropy capably tracks the concentration of monosaccharides that are known to bind to ConA's primary binding site, and the assay displays a MARD of 6.5% across physiologically relevant glucose concentrations. Ultimately, this rationally-designed fluorescent ligand can facilitate the realization of the full potential of ConA-based glucose sensing assays and provide the basis for a new set of competing ligands to be paired with ConA.

  3. Contribution of the Kallikrein/Kinin System to the Mediation of ConA-Induced Inflammatory Ascites.

    PubMed

    Baintner, Károly

    2016-03-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of concanavalin A (ConA, 25 mg/kg b.w.), a cell-binding plant lectin was used for inducing inflammatory ascites, and potential inhibitors were tested in 1 h and 2.5 h experiments, i.e. still before the major influx of leucocytes. At the end of the experiment the peritoneal fluid was collected and measured. The ConA-induced ascites was significantly (p<0.01) and dose-dependently inhibited by icatibant (HOE-140), a synthetic polypeptide antagonist of bradykinin receptors. Aprotinin, a kallikrein inhibitor protein also had significant (p<0.01), but less marked inhibitory effect. L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthesis, and atropine methylnitrate, an anticholinergic compound, were ineffective. It is concluded, that the kallikrein/kinin system contributes to the mediation of the ConA-induced ascites by increasing subperitoneal vascular permeability, independent of the eventual vasodilation produced by NO. It is known, that membrane glycoproteins are aggregated by the tetravalent ConA and the resulting distortion of membrane structure may explain the activation of the labile prekallikrein. Complete inhibition of the ConA-induced ascites could not be achieved by aprotinin or icatibant, which indicates the involvement of additional mediators.

  4. Comparison of phenotypic methods in predicting methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) from animals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifan; Wang, Xiaogang; LeJeune, Jeffrey T; Zervos, Marcus; Bhargava, Kanika

    2011-02-01

    Phenotypic detection of methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) of animal origin has been challenging due to the heterogeneous expression of mecA. To compare different phenotypic methods in predicting the mecA presence in CoNS, a total of 87 CoNS isolates from agricultural animals were analyzed in this study by agar dilution, disk diffusion, and broth microdilution. mecA was present in 81 CoNS isolates. Broth microdilution demonstrated the highest sensitivity of 100% in predicting the mecA presence, followed by 72.8% by agar dilution and 70.4% by disk diffusion. The results indicate that broth microdilution may be more suitable for predicting the presence of mecA in CoNS from animals than the other two methods, although staphylococcal species may also be a factor affecting the sensitivities of the methods as the top three staphylococcal species in this study were Staphylococcus lentus, Staphylococcus sciuri, and Staphylococcus xylosus (a total of 75 of 87).

  5. Multipotent (adult) and pluripotent stem cells for heart regeneration: what are the pros and cons?

    PubMed

    Liao, Song-Yan; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2013-12-24

    Heart failure after myocardial infarction is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Existing medical and interventional therapies can only reduce the loss of cardiomyocytes during myocardial infarction but are unable to replenish the permanent loss of cardiomyocytes after the insult, which contributes to progressive pathological left ventricular remodeling and progressive heart failure. As a result, cell-based therapies using multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells) have been explored as potential therapeutic approaches to restore cardiac function in heart failure. Nevertheless, the optimal cell type with the best therapeutic efficacy and safety for heart regeneration is still unknown. In this review, the potential pros and cons of different types of multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells that have been investigated in preclinical and clinical studies are reviewed, and the future perspective of stem cell-based therapy for heart regeneration is discussed.

  6. From in vitro Experiments to in vivo and Clinical Studies; Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Manayi, Azadeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical investigators use different methods including experimental animals, tissue, and cell cultures as well as computational simulations and clinical studies finding the ways to treat human diseases and disorders. All the mentioned procedures have their own advantages and disadvantages. For instance although animal models provide some drawbacks like difference in biokinetics parameters or extrapolation of results to human, they are more reliable than in vitro tests. The disadvantage of the in vitro procedures is that they are mostly performed on cancerous cell lines that have a substantially abnormal function. Furthermore, although in vitro models are fruitfully used in biological fields, finding an end point, the initial aim of chemical attack, and extrapolation of the effects to the human are some real weaknesses. Absence of biokinetics in in vitro methods may lead to a misinterpretation of the data. The present review has criticized the pros and cons of both methods, especially in the fields of pharmacology, toxicology, and medical sciences.

  7. What to consider when regulating electronic cigarettes: Pros, cons and unintended consequences.

    PubMed

    Caponnetto, Pasquale; Saitta, Daniela; Sweanor, David; Polosa, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    Many public health experts, medical research societies, large health organizations and policy makers have expressed concerns about the increased popularity of electronic cigarettes and have pushed for more restrictive measures ranging from complete bans to tight regulations of these products either as medicines or as tobacco products. But these concerns have never been adequately qualified nor quantified. Without judicious assessment and thorough evaluation, regulations may have unintended consequences that can do more damage than good in public health terms. In this article, we will appraise the existing prominent regulatory frameworks for e-cigarettes, namely, general consumer product, medicinal product and tobacco product regulation, to highlight their pros and cons. Moreover, we provide concrete examples of the unintended consequences which may arise from inappropriate regulatory action.

  8. Pros and cons of healthcare information technology implementation: the pros win.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Roxana

    2006-01-01

    Countless studies and investigations have been performed siding either for or against the implementation of technology in the healthcare setting. This article presents both sides of this debate, with an obvious conclusion that the pros of this debate win. The practice of information technology in the medical domain lags behind its knowledge and discovery by at least 7 years. The key to closing this gap is to show, through various studies, how information technology systems provide decision support to users at the point in time when decisions are needed. What the reader will obtain from this article is that the pros for information technology implementation in healthcare settings weigh much more and have a greater effect than the cons.

  9. The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: pros and cons for pediatric and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tami L

    2008-01-01

    The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a research breakthrough for pediatric/adolescent health to prevent cervical cancer and related morbidity. The annual heath care cost for the treatment of cervical cancer and genital warts is estimated to be more than three billion dollars a year. The new HPV vaccine has incredible potential to improve reproductive health promotion, reduce health care costs, and close health care disparity gaps. However, issues both for and against the new HPV vaccine, including mandating vaccination, high cost of the vaccine, the short duration of protection offered, and the perceived promotion of sexual activity, cause confusion. Pediatric nurses, including those in advanced practice, benefit by understanding the pros and cons of these issues in advocating for their patients.

  10. [Funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali nel disturbo dello spettro dell'autismo e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività: risultati preliminari].

    PubMed

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele; Catania, Valentina; Genitori D'Arrigo, Valentina; Di Giorgio, Rosa; Zingale, Marinella; Trubia, Grazia; Torrisi, Anna; Elia, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. I deficit delle funzioni esecutive (FE) sono frequentemente osservati nei disturbi dello spettro dell'autismo (ASD) e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività (ADHD). Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare e confrontare le funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali di bambini con ASD e ADHD, sia fra di loro che con un gruppo di controllo. Metodi. Il campione è costituito da un totale di 58 soggetti, di cui 17 con ASD senza disabilità intellettiva, 18 con ADHD-manifestazione combinata e 23 con sviluppo tipico, abbinati per genere, età cronologica e livello intellettivo. Le valutazioni hanno riguardato alcune aree del funzionamento esecutivo, nello specifico pianificazione, flessibilità mentale, generatività e inibizione della risposta, che rappresentano sia le funzioni esecutive metacognitive sia quelle emozionali/motivazionali. Risultati. I risultati hanno rilevato un'ampia sovrapposizione delle disfunzioni esecutive nei due gruppi clinici con ASD e ADHD, e non sono stati indicativi della presenza di due profili realmente distinti del funzionamento esecutivo. Tuttavia, nell'ADHD è stato trovato un deficit più severo nell'inibizione della risposta prepotente (funzione emozionale/motivazionale). Conclusioni. I risultati del nostro studio sono parzialmente in accordo con quelli della letteratura. Ulteriori ricerche con gruppi più numerosi potranno chiarire più approfonditamente quali punti di forza e debolezza, nell'ampio spettro delle funzioni esecutive, differenzino fra loro le prestazioni di persone con ASD e ADHD.

  11. Formación estelar en NGC 6357: viendo a través del polvo con Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, G.; Morrell, N.; Barbá, R.

    Presentamos aquí los primeros resultados de fotometría JHKs obtenidos con Flamingos I en el telescopio Gemini Sur. El mosaico comprendido por tres posiciones adyacentes tomadas a lo largo de varios semestres nos permite caracterizar la población estelar en la zona que presenta una interacción más importante entre las estrellas masivas y la nube molecular que les dió origen. Los diagramas color-magnitud nos permiten identificar numerosas fuentes con exceso infrarrojo, la mayoría de ellas imposible de detectarse en el rango óptico debido a la fuerte absorción del polvo presente en la región. Es altamente probable que la mayoría de estas fuentes con exceso sean protoestrellas, aunque es necesario realizar espectroscopía infrarroja de las mismas para confirmar su naturaleza.

  12. La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en España: estudio europeo POMONA-II

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencía Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramón; Martorell, Almudena; González-Gordón, Rodrigo G.; Mérida-Gutiérrez, M. Reyes; Ángel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodríguez, Alicia; García-Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Pérez-Vicente, Amado; García-Ibáñez, José; Aguilera-Inés, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Introducción Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrón diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atención sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y población general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de población general. Pacientes y métodos Se utilizó el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon según el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la población general. Resultados La muestra con DI presentó 25 veces más casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% presentó dolor bucal, y existió una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologías como la diabetes, la hipertensión, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. También presentaron una menor participación en programas de prevención y promoción de la salud, un mayor número de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrón de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la población general, y éstas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoción de salud y de formación profesional específicamente diseñados para la atención de personas con DI, así como la implementación de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta población. PMID:21948011

  13. Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys (EE-Con)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, Florian; Brantl, Dirk; Meyer, Lukas; Steininger, Karl; Sass, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The Alps and their population are particularly vulnerable to geomorphological and hydrological hazards and this problem might be amplified by ongoing climate change. Natural disasters cause severe monetary damage which often leads to the difficult question whether it socially pays to protect settlements at high costs or whether alternatively settlement areas should better be abandoned. By investigations in the Johnsbachtal and the Kleinsölktal (Styria), the interdisciplinary project "Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys" (EE-Con), funded by the Austrian Academy of Sciences, seeks to answer the following questions: (1) Are natural hazards and associated damages in fact increasing, and is this due to meteorological triggers, to anthropogenic factors or to internal process dynamics? (2) What is the perception and knowledge of local people, how is risk and risk prevention communicated? (3) What is the respective cost ratio between protection infrastructure, soft measures of adaptation and other options (e.g. reduction of settlement area)? (4) What legitimate claims to compensation do people have, how far does societal responsibility go and where does individual responsibility start if parts of the settlement area had to be abandoned? These questions will be tackled in an interdisciplinary cooperation between geography, economics and normative theory (philosophy). EE-Con will follow broadly the path of risk analysis and risk assessment, focusing on the temporal dimension (past - present - future) with the aim to unravel the history of natural hazards in the areas and to analyse the economic values involved. In the following, natural hazard scenarios for the future (2050 and 2100) will be developed considering the economic consequences. Besides this, the project deals with local knowledge, risk perception and risk communication, which will be investigated via group interviews and stakeholder workshops and be integrated into a human

  14. Future of clip-on weapon sights: pros and cons from an applications perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, C. Reed; Greenslade, Ken; Francisco, Glen

    2015-05-01

    US Domestic, International, allied Foreign National Warfighters and Para-Military First Responders (Police, SWAT, Special Operations, Law Enforcement, Government, Security and more) are put in harm's way all the time. To successfully complete their missions and return home safely are the primary goals of these professionals. Tactical product improvements that affect mission effectiveness and solider survivability are pivotal to understanding the past, present and future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights. Clip-On Weapon Sight (WS) technology was deemed an interim solution by the US Government for use until integrated and fused (day/night multi-sensor) Weapon Sights (WSs) were developed/fielded. Clip-On has now become the solution of choice by Users, Warriors, Soldiers and the US Government. SWaP-C (size, weight and power -cost) has been improved through progressive advances in Clip-On Image Intensified (I2), passive thermal, LL-CMOS and fused technology. Clip-On Weapon Sights are now no longer mounting position sensitive. Now they maintain aim point boresight, so they can be used for longer ranges with increased capabilities while utilizing the existing zeroed weapon and daysight optic. Active illuminated low-light level (both analog I2 and digital LL-CMOS) imaging is rightfully a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime and low-light level identification confidence. Passive thermal imaging is also a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime, nighttime and all-weather (including dirty battlefield) target detection confidence. Image processing detection algorithms with intelligent analytics provide documented promise to improve confidence by reducing Users, Warriors and Soldiers' work-loads and improving overall system engagement solution outcomes. In order to understand the future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights, addressing pros and cons, this paper starts with an overview of historical weapon sight applications, technologies and stakeholder decisions

  15. Self-efficacy, pros, and cons as variables associated with adjacent stages of change for regular exercise in Japanese college students.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Fallon, Elizabeth A; Sakano, Yuji

    2016-01-18

    This study examined self-efficacy (confidence to exercise), pros (exercise's advantages), and cons (exercise's disadvantages) as variables associated across the transtheoretical model's six stages of change in 403 Japanese college students. A series of logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results showed that higher pros and lower cons were associated with being in contemplation compared to precontemplation. Lower cons were associated with being in preparation compared to contemplation. Higher self-efficacy was associated with being in action compared to preparation as well as being in maintenance compared to action. Lower cons were associated with being in termination compared to maintenance.

  16. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Scardina, John; Shay, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the goals, benefits, technologies, and procedures of the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1), and provides an update to the previous versions of the document [ref 1 and ref 2].

  17. iPathCons and iPathDB: an improved insect pathway construction tool and the database

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zan; Yin, Chuanlin; Liu, Ying; Jie, Wencai; Lei, Wenjie; Li, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Insects are one of the most successful animal groups on earth. Some insects, such as the silkworm and honeybee, are beneficial to humans, whereas others are notorious pests of crops. At present, the genomes of 38 insects have been sequenced and made publically available. In addition, the transcriptomes of dozens of insects have been sequenced. As gene data rapidly accumulate, constructing the pathway of molecular interactions becomes increasingly important for entomological research. Here, we developed an improved tool, iPathCons, for knowledge-based construction of pathways from the transcriptomes or the official gene sets of genomes. Considering the high evolution diversity in insects, iPathCons uses a voting system for Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology assignment. Both stand-alone software and a web server of iPathCons are provided. Using iPathCons, we constructed the pathways of molecular interactions of 52 insects, including 37 genome-sequenced and 15 transcriptome-sequenced ones. These pathways are available in the iPathDB, which provides searches, web server, data downloads, etc. This database will be highly useful for the insect research community. Database URL: http://ento.njau.edu.cn/ipath/ PMID:25388589

  18. Treatment of plutonium contaminated soil/sediment from the Mound site using the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} process

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, M.C.; Swift, N.A.; North, J.P.

    1996-10-01

    The removal and/or treatment of contaminated soil is a major problem facing the US DOE. The EG&G Mound Applied Technologies site in Miamisburg, Ohio, has an estimated 1.5 million cubic feet of soils from past disposal and waste burial practices awaiting remediation from plutonium contamination. This amount includes sediment from the Miami-Erie Canal that was contaminated in 1969 following a pipe- rupture accident. Conventional soil washing techniques that use particle separation would generate too large a waste volume to be economically feasible. Therefore, innovative technologies are needed for the cleanup. The ACT*DE*CON process was developed by SELENTEC for washing soils to selectively dissolve and remove heavy metals and radionuclides. ACT*DE*CON chemically dissolves and removes heavy metals and radionuclides from soils and sediments into an aqueous medium. The ACT*DE*CON process uses oxidative carbonate/chelant chemistry to dissolve the contaminant from the sediment and hold the contaminant in solution. The objective of recent work was to document the proves conditions necessary to achieve the Mound-site and regulatory-cleanup goals using the ACT*DE*CON technology.

  19. Pro/Con debate: Is occupational asthma induced by isocyanates an immunoglobulin E-mediated disease?

    PubMed

    Wisnewski, A V; Jones, M

    2010-08-01

    Isocyanates, low-molecular weight chemicals essential to polyurethane production, are one of the most common causes of occupational asthma, yet the mechanisms by which exposure leads to disease remain unclear. While isocyanate asthma closely mirrors other Type I Immune Hypersensitivity (Allergic) disorders, one important characteristic of hypersensitivity ('allergen'-specific IgE) is reportedly absent in a large portion of affected individuals. This variation from common environmental asthma (which typically is induced by high-molecular weight allergens) is important for two reasons. (1) Allergen-specific IgE is an important mediator of many of the symptoms of bronchial hyper-reactivity in 'allergic asthma'. Lack of allergen-specific IgE in isocyanate hypersensitive individuals suggests differences in pathogenic mechanisms, with potentially unique targets for prevention and therapy. (2) Allergen-specific IgE forms the basis of the most commonly used diagnostic tests for hypersensitivity (skin prick and RAST). Without allergen-specific IgE, isocyanates may go unrecognized as the cause of asthma. In hypersensitive individuals, chronic exposure can lead to bronchial hyperreactivity that persists years after exposure ceases. Thus, the question of whether or not isocyanate asthma is an IgE-mediated disease, has important implications for disease screening/surveillance, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. The present Pro/Con Debate, addresses contemporary, controversial issues regarding IgE in isocyanate asthma.

  20. Structural and magnetic properties of N doped Fe_mCon superlattices: First principles calculations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Miyoung; Freeman, A. J.

    2001-03-01

    Magnetic alloys and multilayers have been widely investigated because of their potential for magnetic device applications. In this, materials exhibiting high magnetization as well as good soft magnetic properties are desirable. We investigated the magnetic and structural properties of Fe_mCon superlattices with various compositions via first principles local density full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method^(1) calculations. For the 25% Co composition which showed the maximum magnetic moments, we inserted N atoms to make (Fe_3Co)_4N_2, in order to examine the possible magnetic enhancement by N, which has drawn much attention since the first report (in 1972) of a giant magnetic moment for the quasi-stable α-Fe_16N_2. The structural optimization was fully accomplished by total energy and atomic force calculations. Despite the lattice expansion due to the N insertion, the magnetic moment of (Fe_3Co)_4N2 was found to be reduced from the value of the Fe_3Co superlattice by the strong hybridization of N with Fe and Co. (1) E. Wimmer, H. Krakauer, M. Weinert and A. J. Freeman, Phys. Rev. B 24, 864 (1981).

  1. A new millimeter-wave observation of the weakly bound CO-N2 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surin, L. A.; Potapov, A.; Müller, H. S. P.; Schlemmer, S.

    2015-01-01

    New millimeter-wave transitions of the CO-N2 van der Waals complex have been observed using the intracavity OROTRON jet spectrometer in the frequency range of 103-159 GHz. For the less abundant form, CO-paraN2, a total of 37 rotational transitions were assigned to three K = 0-0, 0-1, 2-1 subbands connecting the (jCO, jN2) = (1, 1) and (jCO, jN2) = (0, 1) internal rotor states. The upper K = 0 and K = 2 "stacks" of rotational levels were probed for the first time here by millimeter-wave spectroscopy following a recent infrared study by Rezaei et al. (2013). The observation of new subbands fixes with higher precision not only these upper K = 0 and K = 2 but also lower K = 1(f) levels, not linked with other stacks in earlier rotational studies. For the more abundant form, CO-orthoN2, five new P-branch rotational transitions of the K = 0-0 "CO bending" subband are reported, thus extending previous measurements. Nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure due to the presence of two equivalent 14N nuclei was partly resolved and analyzed to give additional information about the angular orientation of the N2 molecule in the complex.

  2. Assessing ComSciCon 2013: A science communication workshop for STEM graduate students (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, S.; Ranjan, S.; Sanders, N.; Morey, S.

    2013-12-01

    We report on the efficacy of Communicating Science 2013, a science communication workshop for graduate students. Effective science communication is imperative for the sharing of scientific ideas, continued funding and support from policy makers, and education of the public. Science graduate students are a prime group to target for communication training, as they will be our future scientists, educators, and EPO professionals. To this end, Communicating Science 2013 (ComSciCon), a workshop organized by and for STEM graduate students, was held in June of this year. This workshop taught graduate students from around the nation to effectively communicate science to both their peers and the public. To learn about grad students' attitudes toward science communication and establish the workshop's efficacy, we surveyed the participants both before and after the workshop. This assessment probed topics such as communication preparation the participants have already received, how science communication is perceived in their home department, and what participants gained from the workshop. We report the results here.

  3. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Pros and Cons of Histologic Systems of Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-13

    The diagnostic phenotype of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)--in particular, the most significant form in terms of prognosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)--continues to rely on liver tissue evaluation, in spite of remarkable advances in non-invasive algorithms developed from serum-based tests and imaging-based or sonographically-based tests for fibrosis or liver stiffness. The most common tissue evaluation remains percutaneous liver biopsy; considerations given to the needle size and the location of the biopsy have the potential to yield the most representative tissue for evaluation. The pathologist's efforts are directed to not only global diagnosis, but also assessment of severity of injury. Just as in other forms of chronic liver disease, these assessments can be divided into necroinflammatory activity, and fibrosis with parenchymal remodeling, in order to separately analyze potentially reversible (grade) and non-reversible (stage) lesions. These concepts formed the bases for current methods of evaluating the lesions that collectively comprise the phenotypic spectra of NAFLD. Four extant methods have specific applications; there are pros and cons to each, and this forms the basis of the review.

  4. Pros and cons in endocrine practice: pre-surgical treatment with somatostatin analogues in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Losa, Marco; Bollerslev, Jens

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this commentary is to balance the pros and cons for pre-surgical SSA treatment in a modern perspective ending up with a pragmatic recommendation for treatment based on the current evidence and expertise of the authors. Even though prospective and randomized studies in this particular area are hampered by obvious limitations, the interpretation of the four published trials has in general been in favor of pre-treatment with SSA, showing a better outcome following surgery. However, major drawbacks of these studies, such as non-optimal diagnostic criteria for cure, potential selection bias, and timing of the postoperative evaluation in SSA pre-treated patients, limit their overall interpretation. Three matched-controlled studies showed remarkably similar results with no apparent beneficial effect of SSA pre-treatment on surgical outcome. Both prospective, randomized studies and retrospective studies did not find any significant difference in the rate of endocrine and non-endocrine complications related to surgery, despite the beneficial clinical effects of SSA treatment in most acromegalic patients. The newly diagnosed patient with acromegaly should be carefully evaluated in the trans-disciplinary neuroendocrine team and treatment individualized accordingly. The issue of SSA pre-treatment to improve surgical outcome is yet to be settled and further methodologically sound studies are probably necessary to clarify this point.

  5. Synthesis of colloidal metal nanocrystals in droplet reactors: the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yi; Tong, Limin; Xia, Younan

    2014-07-09

    Droplet reactors have received considerable attention in recent years as an alternative route to the synthesis and potentially high-volume production of colloidal metal nanocrystals. Interfacial adsorption will immediately become an important issue to address when one seeks to translate a nanocrystal synthesis from batch reactors to droplet reactors due to the involvement of higher surface-to-volume ratios for the droplets and the fact that nanocrystals tend to be concentrated at the water-oil interface. Here we report a systematic study to compare the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption of metal nanocrystals during their synthesis in droplet reactors. On the one hand, interfacial adsorption can be used to generate nanocrystals with asymmetric shapes or structures, including one-sixth-truncated Ag octahedra and Au-Ag nanocups. On the other hand, interfacial adsorption has to be mitigated to obtain nanocrystals with uniform sizes and controlled shapes. We confirmed that Triton X-100, a nonionic surfactant, could effectively alleviate interfacial adsorption while imposing no impact on the capping agent typically needed for a shape-controlled synthesis. With the introduction of a proper surfactant, droplet reactors offer an attractive platform for the continuous production of colloidal metal nanocrystals.

  6. Ground and lowest-lying electronic states of CoN. A multiconfigurational study.

    PubMed

    Gobbo, João Paulo; Borin, Antonio Carlos

    2006-12-28

    The lowest-lying X1Sigma+, a3Phi, b3II, c5Delta, A1Phi, and B1II electronic states of CoN have been investigated at the ab initio MRCI and MS-CASPT2 levels, with extended atomic basis sets and inclusion of scalar relativistic effects. Among the singlet states, the A1Phi and B1II states have been described for the first time. Potential energy curves, excitation energies, spectroscopic constants, and bonding character for all states are reported. Comparison with other early transition-metal nitrides (ScN, TiN, VN, and CrN), isoelectronic (NiC) and isovalent (RhN and IrN) species has been made, besides analyzing the B1II <=> X1+ electronic transition in terms of Franck-Condon factors, Einstein coefficients, and radiative lifetimes. At both levels of theory, the following energetic order has been obtained: X1Sigma+, a3Phi, b3II, c5Delta, A1Phi, and B1II, with good agreement with experimental results. In contrast, previous DFT and MRCI calculations predicted the ground state to be the 5Delta state.

  7. Pros and cons of condom use among gay and bisexual men as explored via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Gullette, Donna L; Turner, Joan G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey utilizing Internet technology related to gay and bisexual men's condom use behavior as an expression of safer sexual practices. A total of 241 self-identified gay and bisexual men responded to the questionnaire in a 3-month period of time. Confidentiality was assured by utilizing an electronic system whereby the respondents e-mail address was eliminated. The study was conceptually guided by the use of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavioral Change (TMC) and the pros and cons of condom of use were explored. Fifty-six percent of the participants reported that one advantage (pro) of using condoms with casual partners was that it would make them safer from disease. About half of the respondents (n = 119, 49%) reported a history of one or more sexually transmitted diseases. There were 14 variables found to be significantly associated with using a condom with primary and casual partners among gay and bisexual men. Essentially, findings from this study corresponded to results obtained by more traditional data collection methods. Therefore, the authors conclude that electronic data collection may well be an alternative means for collecting sensitive data such as those collected in this study.

  8. Pros and cons of the liposome platform in cancer drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Gabizon, Alberto A; Shmeeda, Hilary; Zalipsky, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Coating of liposomes with polyethylene-glycol (PEG) by incorporation in the liposome bilayer of PEG-derivatized lipids results in inhibition of liposome uptake by the reticulo-endothelial system and significant prolongation of liposome residence time in the blood stream. Parallel developments in drug loading technology have improved the efficiency and stability of drug entrapment in liposomes, particularly with regard to cationic amphiphiles such as anthracyclines. An example of this new generation of liposomes is a formulation of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin known as Doxil or Caelyx, whose clinical pharmacokinetic profile is characterized by slow plasma clearance and small volume of distribution. A hallmark of these long-circulating liposomal drug carriers is their enhanced accumulation in tumors. The mechanism underlying this passive targeting effect is the phenomenon known as enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) which has been described in a broad variety of experimental tumor types. Further to the passive targeting effect, the liposome drug delivery platform offers the possibility of grafting tumor-specific ligands on the liposome membrane for active targeting to tumor cells, and potentially intracellular drug delivery. The pros and cons of the liposome platform in cancer targeting are discussed vis-à-vis nontargeted drugs, using as an example a liposome drug delivery system targeted to the folate receptor.

  9. Thromboprophylaxis in carriers of antiphospholipid antibodies (APL) without previous thrombosis: "Pros" and "Cons".

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Chighizola, Cecilia; Finazzi, Guido; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Valesini, Guido

    2012-06-01

    The presence of anti-phospholipid (aPL) is necessary but not sufficient to induce a thrombotic event. The "second hit" hypothesis suggested that an additional trigger may be needed to develop a vascular event in aPL carriers. In this article, pro and con of primary thromboprophylaxis in aPL carriers is deeply discussed, concluding that univocal data are not available, due to conflicting results of available clinical trials. However, in clinical practice the primary thromboprophylaxis is not indicated in all unselected asymptomatic aPL carriers, and the best strategy begin with the assessment of the peculiar risk profile of the subject. Thus, it is mandatory to eliminate modifiable prothrombotic risk factors (i.e. smoking, oral contraceptive), to treat the irreversible risk factors (i.e. hypertension, diabetes) and to introduce an aggressive prophylaxis with subcutaneous LMWH in high-risk situations (i.e. surgical procedures with prolonged immobilization). A different evaluation should be addressed to aPL carriers with a concomitant autoimmune disease that are considered as an additional pro-thrombotic risk factor. Similarly, concomitant positivity for more than one anti-phospholipid test confer a stronger risk of developing the thrombotic manifestations. Specific trials with larger cohorts of patients are needed to better clarify this issue.

  10. Pros and cons of BCG vaccination in countries with low incidence of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tala, E O; Tala-Heikkilä, M M

    1994-07-01

    Preventive bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, together with case finding and effective chemotherapy, has formed an integral part of the tuberculosis (TB) control program in most countries. In some low-incidence countries the balance of prevention has been more on the side of chemoprophylaxis than of BCG vaccination. The time clearly has come when the strategy of mass BCG vaccination no longer is indicated medically, nor is it cost-effective. The pros and cons of the programs need to be critically evaluated against the present epidemiological background, taking into account the facts that TB, the killer disease, is recovering strength, human immunodeficiency virus infection is on the increase, and multidrug-resistant TB has changed the outcome of this previously fully curable disease. Although no longer appropriate for mass programs, BCG vaccination still should be considered for the protection of selected risk groups in low-incidence countries. The overall efficacy may be of the order 50% to 80%, but the variation is great. Therefore, further research urgently is needed on the effectiveness of BCG as an intervention in local TB programs.

  11. Pros and cons of liver transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients.

    PubMed

    Baccarani, Umberto; Righi, Elda; Adani, Gian Luigi; Lorenzin, Dario; Pasqualucci, Alberto; Bassetti, Matteo; Risaliti, Andrea

    2014-05-14

    Before the introduction of combined highly active antiretroviral therapy, a positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serological status represented an absolute contraindication for solid organ transplant (SOT). The advent of highly effective combined antiretroviral therapy in 1996 largely contributed to the increased demand for SOT in HIV-positive individuals due to increased patients' life expectancy associated with the increasing prevalence of end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Nowadays, liver failure represents a frequent cause of mortality in the HIV-infected population mainly due to coinfection with hepatitis viruses sharing the same way of transmission. Thus, liver transplantation (LT) represents a reasonable approach in HIV patients with stable infection and ESLD. Available data presently supports with good evidence the practice of LT in the HIV-positive population. Thus, the issue is no longer "whether it is correct to transplant HIV-infected patients", but "who are the patients who can be safely transplanted" and "when is the best time to perform LT". Indeed, the benefits of LT in HIV-infected patients, especially in terms of mid- and long-term patient and graft survivals, are strictly related to the patients' selection and to the correct timing for transplantation, especially when hepatitis C virus coinfection is present. Aim of this article is to review the pros and cons of LT in the cohort of HIV infected recipients.

  12. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  13. 40 CFR 180.1213 - Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1213 Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M... tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Coniothyrium minitans strain...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1213 - Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1213 Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M... tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Coniothyrium minitans strain...

  15. (Con)text-specific effects of visual dysfunction on reading in posterior cortical atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Keir X.X.; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Cash, Dave; Henley, Susie M.D.; Warren, Jason D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2014-01-01

    Reading deficits are a common early feature of the degenerative syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) but are poorly understood even at the single word level. The current study evaluated the reading accuracy and speed of 26 PCA patients, 17 typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients and 14 healthy controls on a corpus of 192 single words in which the following perceptual properties were manipulated systematically: inter-letter spacing, font size, length, font type, case and confusability. PCA reading was significantly less accurate and slower than tAD patients and controls, with performance significantly adversely affected by increased letter spacing, size, length and font (cursive < non-cursive), and characterised by visual errors (69% of all error responses). By contrast, tAD and control accuracy rates were at or near ceiling, letter spacing was the only perceptual factor to influence reading speed in the same direction as controls, and, in contrast to PCA patients, control reading was faster for larger font sizes. The inverse size effect in PCA (less accurate reading of large than small font size print) was associated with lower grey matter volume in the right superior parietal lobule. Reading accuracy was associated with impairments of early visual (especially crowding), visuoperceptual and visuospatial processes. However, these deficits were not causally related to a universal impairment of reading as some patients showed preserved reading for small, unspaced words despite grave visual deficits. Rather, the impact of specific types of visual dysfunction on reading was found to be (con)text specific, being particularly evident for large, spaced, lengthy words. These findings improve the characterisation of dyslexia in PCA, shed light on the causative and associative factors, and provide clear direction for the development of reading aids and strategies to maximise and sustain reading ability in the early stages of disease. PMID:24841985

  16. 40Ar/39Ar laserprobe study of the Day Nui Con Voi Metamorphic Complex, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Lo, C.; Yeh, M.; Chung, S.; Lee, T.

    2009-12-01

    The garnet bearing gneiss within the Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) Metamorphic Complex along the Red River Shear Zone (RRSZ) in North Vietnam, recorded a long tectonothermal history since the Indosinian orogeny. In-situ 40Ar/39Ar laserprobe study of biotite inclusions within garnet porphyroblasts and matrix biotites, combining with microstructural and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, deciphered the timing and duration of thermal events. Biotites from two matrix fabrics from different deformation events show approximately similar 40Ar/39Ar age ranges in 19-24Ma, depending grain size. These matrix biotite ages are best interpreted to record a rapid cooling event associating with the left-lateral shearing event of the RRSZ. Whereas, all biotite inclusions exhibit age zoning patterns with 40Ar/39Ar ages gradually increase from 17 Ma to more than 28 Ma according to their diffusion pathways. These age variations may have resultant from a combination effect of argon retention by garnet shielding, which provides a best recorder to the metamorphic event, and argon diffusion loss along the deformed cracks during the shearing event of the RRSZ. Diffusion modeling of these age zoning indicated that the total duration of argon diffusion loss may have lasted for nearly 9 Myr and argon diffusion may have occurred sometime around 24.5Ma. These results are generally in good agreement with previous interpretation, but provide better resolution of 40Ar/39Ar age data for deciphering the history of thermal event in the DNCV Metamorphic Complex and the left-lateral shearing event of the RRSZ in Vietnam, as well.

  17. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  18. Perfiles de luminosidad en galaxias con núcleo tipo Seyfert 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N.; Rodriguez-Ardilla, A. A.; Pastoriza, M. G.

    Presentamos imágenes CCD en los filtros BVI y Hα de una muestra de 10 galaxias Seyfert 1 y Narrow Line Seyfert 1. Recientes observaciones muestran que hay una diferencia significante en el índice espectral óptico entre NLS1s y Sy1 normales, siendo para las primeras del orden de 2. Otra característica importante es que la mayor parte de las NLS1s muestran tasas de FeII/Hβ mayores que las observadas en otras Sy1s. Desde el punto de vista fotométrico, estas galaxias no tienenningún tipo de estudio previo. Presentamos magnitudes totales, perfiles de luminosidad y mapas de color junto con un detallado análisis de la formación estelar en estos objetos. Encontramos que la descomposición en bulbo + disco representa adecuadamente los perfiles de luminosidad de las galaxias de la muestra. Sin embargo, en todos los casos es necesario que el disco tenga un agujero en su centro. El radio de este agujero va desde los 3 a los 9 kpc. Si bien no tenemos aún una explicación para este hecho, los agujeros parecen estar asociados a anillos circumnucleares de alto oscurecimiento E(B-V) ~1. Los perfiles presentan también un fuerte gradiente de color, siendo notablemente más azules hacia la región nuclear. Los objetos de la muestra cubren todo el rango de tipos morfológicos, no obstante, no encontramos regiones de formación estelar en las regiones exteriores de las galaxias. La formación estelar está confinada a la región nuclear y se data en alrededor de 5 x 107 años.

  19. (Con)text-specific effects of visual dysfunction on reading in posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Yong, Keir X X; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Cash, Dave; Henley, Susie M D; Warren, Jason D; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2014-08-01

    Reading deficits are a common early feature of the degenerative syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) but are poorly understood even at the single word level. The current study evaluated the reading accuracy and speed of 26 PCA patients, 17 typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients and 14 healthy controls on a corpus of 192 single words in which the following perceptual properties were manipulated systematically: inter-letter spacing, font size, length, font type, case and confusability. PCA reading was significantly less accurate and slower than tAD patients and controls, with performance significantly adversely affected by increased letter spacing, size, length and font (cursive < non-cursive), and characterised by visual errors (69% of all error responses). By contrast, tAD and control accuracy rates were at or near ceiling, letter spacing was the only perceptual factor to influence reading speed in the same direction as controls, and, in contrast to PCA patients, control reading was faster for larger font sizes. The inverse size effect in PCA (less accurate reading of large than small font size print) was associated with lower grey matter volume in the right superior parietal lobule. Reading accuracy was associated with impairments of early visual (especially crowding), visuoperceptual and visuospatial processes. However, these deficits were not causally related to a universal impairment of reading as some patients showed preserved reading for small, unspaced words despite grave visual deficits. Rather, the impact of specific types of visual dysfunction on reading was found to be (con)text specific, being particularly evident for large, spaced, lengthy words. These findings improve the characterisation of dyslexia in PCA, shed light on the causative and associative factors, and provide clear direction for the development of reading aids and strategies to maximise and sustain reading ability in the early stages of disease.

  20. "Pros and cons" of total hip arthroplasty with metaphyseal Proxima endoprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Wraźen, Waldemar; Golec, Edward B; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Golec, Piotr; Jaworowski, Michał de Lubicz; Dudkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The authors present their own experience concerning total hip arthroplasty with the metaphyseal prosthesis Proxima. Proxima, a metaphyseal prosthesis, provides an innovative supplement to total hip arthroplasty. In this study, the authors present their own experience using Proxima in patients with hip osteoarthritis. This study was performed between 2008 to 2013 and comprised of 62 patients, of which 38 were male (61.3%) and 24 female (38.7%). All patients were operated on due to hip osteoarthritis using total hip arthroplasty with the metaphyseal prosthesis Proxima. The age of patients included into the study ranged from 23 years to 62 years with the mean age of 46 years. The authors paid close attention to the "pros and cons" of surgical techniques and assessed clinical and radiological results in both the short and long-term observation periods. The clinical evaluation was based on the Harris Hip Score and radiological assessment of fixation of the acetabular cup of the endoprosthesis was based on Pradhan's criteria. The endoprosthesis Proxima stem was positioned using the manufacturer's recommended method, evaluating the direction, scope and duration of the displacement in the marrow cavity of the proximal stump of the femur. According to the authors' analysis, the surgery gives good functional and radiological results both in the short- and long-term observation periods. The effectiveness depends on precise qualification for surgery, proper surgical techniques and specific anatomical conditions of the proximal femur stump. The most common reasons for primary and secondary dislocations of the metaphyseal endoprosthesis Proxima stem occur during the first three months post surgery. This is due to incorrect surgical techniques, which disregard the importance of specific anatomical conditions of the proximal femoral stump, which affects Proxima implantation, and cause deviations towards a varus or valgus orientation.

  1. Outreach Opportunities for Early Career Scientists at the Phoenix ComiCon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Walker, S. I.; Forrester, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Phoenix ComiCon (PCC) is a rapidly growing annual four-day pop culture event, featuring guests, costuming, exhibits, and discussion panels for popular sci-fi, fantasy, horror, and anime franchises. In 2013, PCC began experimenting with science discussion panels. The popularity of the science programming resulted in an expansion of the track for 2014, which Horodyskyj was responsible for coordinating. Thirty hours of programming were scheduled, including 25 discussion panels, NASA's FameLab, and a Mars room. Panelists included industry specialists, established scientists, STEM outreach enthusiasts, and early career scientists. The majority of the panelists were early career scientists recruited from planetary sciences and biology departments at ASU and UA. Panel topics included cosmology, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, space exploration, astrobiology, and the cross-linkages of each with pop culture. Formats consisted of Q&A, presentations, and interactive game shows. Although most panels were aimed at the general audience, some panels were more specialized. PCC 2014 attracted 77,818 attendees. The science programming received rave reviews from the audience, the PCC management, and the panelists themselves. Many panel rooms were filled to capacity and required crowd control to limit attendance. We observed the formation of science "groupies" who sought out the science panels exclusively and requested more information on other science public events in the Phoenix area. We distributed surveys to several select sessions to evaluate audience reasons for attending the science panels and their opinion of the scientists they observed. We will present the results of these surveys. As the PCC continues to grow at an exponential rate, the science programming will continue to expand. We will discuss ideas for continued expansion of the PCC science programming both to serve the public and as a unique public outreach opportunity for early career scientists.

  2. Estereotipos Sexuales y su Relación con Conductas Sexuales Riesgosas1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E.

    2012-01-01

    Resumen Los estereotipos sexuales son creencias generalmente aceptadas y poco cuestionadas que podrían contribuir a cómo los hombres y las mujeres debemos expresar nuestra sexualidad. Los objetivos de este estudio eran identificar cuántos hombres y mujeres heterosexuales en Puerto Rico endosaban ciertos estereotipos acerca de la sexualidad masculina y femenina y explorar la relación entre el endoso de estos estereotipos sexuales y las actitudes hacia el condón masculino y su uso en relaciones sexuales vaginales Llevamos a cabo un estudio descriptivo-correlacional mediante el cual le administramos dos escalas, una sobre sexualidad masculina y otra sobre sexualidad femenina a un grupo de 429 personas heterosexuales. Encontramos que los hombres endosaron estereotipos sexuales masculinos y femeninos más que las mujeres y que estos tienden a tener una visión más conservadora respecto a la sexualidad femenina que la que tienen sobre su propia sexualidad. Las mujeres, por otra parte, tienden a ver su propia sexualidad y la sexualidad masculina en términos menos estereotipados y más equitativos. También encontramos que a mayor endoso de creencias tradicionales sobre la sexualidad masculina y femenina, peor la actitud hacia el uso del condón masculino. Sin embargo, el endosar estereotipos sexuales masculinos y/o femeninos no se relacionó con el uso del condón. Estos hallazgos contradicen la literatura que sugiere que estos estereotipos sexuales y de género resultan en conductas sexuales de alto riesgo, lo cual tiene implicaciones importantes para el desarrollo e implementación de programas de prevención. PMID:24575164

  3. Strain Rate into South American Plate by SIRGAS-CON Geodetic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marotta, G. S.; Franca, G. S.; Monico, J. G.; Fuck, R. A.

    2013-05-01

    In this study were investigated the surface strain rates computed from the direction variations and velocity values estimated from the coordinates of the continuous monitoring geodetic network called SIRGAS-CON. That investigation was done using points located in the South American plate. The determination of the strain rate was based on the Finite Element method using points defined by Delaunay triangulation (sub-networks). Each one of sub-networks was considered as an homogeneous solid body. Using these methods was possible to separate the strain from the plate movement. The results showed that there are differences of strain rate along the South American plate. From the results were suggest that near to the west board of the plate, the strain is more significant, as expected, because this region is near to one area where Nazca Plate subduct South American Plate. It was detected that the contraction region founded in this area coincides whit the region where occurs most of earthquakes of greater magnitude. Far from the board, there are some areas with anomalies of significant strain of extension and contraction that can be originated by differences of stress aligned with different geological composites. By the results, It may be concluded that large surface movements occur in regions with more heterogeneous geological structures and multiple event of rupture, that large earthquakes arising from large tectonic activity into South American Plate are concentrated in areas with contraction strain rates predominantly oriented towards northeast-southwest, that significant amounts of elastic strain can be accumulated over geological structures away from fault plate boundary and that the behavior of contractions and extensions are similar to that found by different researches involving geophysical studies. Dilation and principal components of strain rate

  4. Iliac crest autograft versus alternative constructs for anterior cervical spine surgery: Pros, cons, and costs

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Grafting choices available for performing anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF) procedures have become a major concern for spinal surgeons, and their institutions. The “gold standard”, iliac crest autograft, may still be the best and least expensive grafting option; it deserves to be reassessed along with the pros, cons, and costs for alternative grafts/spacers. Methods: Although single or multilevel ACDF have utilized iliac crest autograft for decades, the implant industry now offers multiple alternative grafting and spacer devices; (allografts, cages, polyether-etherketone (PEEK) amongst others). While most studies have focused on fusion rates and clinical outcomes following ACDF, few have analyzed the “value-added” of these various constructs (e.g. safety/efficacy, risks/complications, costs). Results: The majority of studies document 95%-100% fusion rates when iliac crest autograft is utilized to perform single level ACDF (X-ray or CT confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months). Although many allograft studies similarly quote 90%-100% fusion rates (X-ray alone confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months), a recent “post hoc analysis of data from a prospective multicenter trial” (Riew KD et. al., CSRS Abstract Dec. 2011; unpublished) revealed a much higher delayed fusion rate using allografts at one year 55.7%, 2 years 87%, and four years 92%. Conclusion: Iliac crest autograft utilized for single or multilevel ACDF is associated with the highest fusion, lowest complication rates, and significantly lower costs compared with allograft, cages, PEEK, or other grafts. As spinal surgeons and institutions become more cost conscious, we will have to account for the “value added” of these increasingly expensive graft constructs. PMID:22905321

  5. Pros and cons of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeimet, Alain G; Reimer, Daniel; Radl, Alice C; Reinthaller, Alexander; Schauer, Christian; Petru, Edgar; Concin, Nicole; Braun, Stephan; Marth, Christian

    2009-07-01

    Development of the pros and cons of intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer based on the most prominent data published on the evolution of IP chemotherapy and on experience with this therapeutic strategy in clinical routine. The literature published on IP chemotherapy in ovarian cancer between 1970 and 2008 was identified systematically by computer-based searches in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library. Furthermore, a preliminary analysis of data recorded during an observational nationwide multicenter study of the Austrian AGO on IP-IV chemotherapy using the GOG-172 treatment regimen was performed. The literature review unequivocally revealed a significantly greater toxicity for IP than for intravenous (IV) cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, according to a Cochrane meta-analysis, IP-IV administration of chemotherapy is associated with a 21.6% decrease in the risk for death. In agreement with earlier reports, the most frequently mentioned side-effects in the Austria-wide observational study were long-lasting neurotoxicity, abdominal pain, fatigue, gastrointestinal and metabolic toxicities, and catheter-related complications. Most of these toxicities were identified as mirroring the toxicity profile of high-dose IV cisplatin (>or=100 mg/m(2)). In some patients, the classic IP-IV regimen with cisplatin/paclitaxel was changed to an alternative schedule comprising carboplatin AUC 5 (d1) and weekly paclitaxel 60 mg/m(2) (d1, 8, 15) completely administered via the IP route. This treatment was better tolerated and quality of life was significantly less compromised. However, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were the limiting side-effects of this IP regimen. In cases where optimal cytoreduction with residual disease

  6. Single step purification of concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production from jack bean using glucosylated magnetic nano matrix.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Cho, Eun Jin; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jack bean (JB, Canavalia ensiformis) is the source of bio-based products, such as proteins and bio-sugars that contribute to modern molecular biology and biomedical research. In this study, the use of jack bean was evaluated as a source for concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production. A novel method for purifying Con A from JBs was successfully developed using a glucosylated magnetic nano matrix (GMNM) as a physical support, which facilitated easy separation and purification of Con A. In addition, the enzymatic conversion rate of 2% (w/v) Con A extracted residue to bio-sugar was 98.4%. Therefore, this new approach for the production of Con A and bio-sugar is potentially useful for obtaining bio-based products from jack bean.

  7. The ConNECT Framework: a model for advancing behavioral medicine science and practice to foster health equity.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Sly, Jamilia; Ashing, Kimlin; Fleisher, Linda; Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Ford, Sabrina; Yi, Jean C; Lu, Qian; Meade, Cathy D; Menon, Usha; Gwede, Clement K

    2017-02-01

    Health disparities persist despite ongoing efforts. Given the United States' rapidly changing demography and socio-cultural diversity, a paradigm shift in behavioral medicine is needed to advance research and interventions focused on health equity. This paper introduces the ConNECT Framework as a model to link the sciences of behavioral medicine and health equity with the goal of achieving equitable health and outcomes in the twenty-first century. We first evaluate the state of health equity efforts in behavioral medicine science and identify key opportunities to advance the field. We then discuss and present actionable recommendations related to ConNECT's five broad and synergistic principles: (1) Integrating Context; (2) Fostering a Norm of Inclusion; (3) Ensuring Equitable Diffusion of Innovations; (4) Harnessing Communication Technology; and (5) Prioritizing Specialized Training. The framework holds significant promise for furthering health equity and ushering in a new and refreshing era of behavioral medicine science and practice.

  8. UniCon3D: de novo protein structure prediction using united-residue conformational search via stepwise, probabilistic sampling

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Debswapna; Cao, Renzhi; Cheng, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Recent experimental studies have suggested that proteins fold via stepwise assembly of structural units named ‘foldons’ through the process of sequential stabilization. Alongside, latest developments on computational side based on probabilistic modeling have shown promising direction to perform de novo protein conformational sampling from continuous space. However, existing computational approaches for de novo protein structure prediction often randomly sample protein conformational space as opposed to experimentally suggested stepwise sampling. Results: Here, we develop a novel generative, probabilistic model that simultaneously captures local structural preferences of backbone and side chain conformational space of polypeptide chains in a united-residue representation and performs experimentally motivated conditional conformational sampling via stepwise synthesis and assembly of foldon units that minimizes a composite physics and knowledge-based energy function for de novo protein structure prediction. The proposed method, UniCon3D, has been found to (i) sample lower energy conformations with higher accuracy than traditional random sampling in a small benchmark of 6 proteins; (ii) perform comparably with the top five automated methods on 30 difficult target domains from the 11th Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) experiment and on 15 difficult target domains from the 10th CASP experiment; and (iii) outperform two state-of-the-art approaches and a baseline counterpart of UniCon3D that performs traditional random sampling for protein modeling aided by predicted residue-residue contacts on 45 targets from the 10th edition of CASP. Availability and Implementation: Source code, executable versions, manuals and example data of UniCon3D for Linux and OSX are freely available to non-commercial users at http://sysbio.rnet.missouri.edu/UniCon3D/. Contact: chengji@missouri.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are

  9. Induction of Antibodies Directed Against Branched Core O-Mannosyl Glycopeptides-Selectivity Complimentary to the ConA Lectin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin; Grant, Oliver C; Pett, Christian; Stahl, Sabine; Woods, Robert J; Westerlind, Ulrika

    2017-03-08

    Mammalian protein O-mannosylation, initiated by attachment of α-mannopyranose to Ser or Thr residues, comprise a group of post-translational modifications (PTMs) involved in muscle and brain development. Recent advances in glycoproteomics methodology and the "SimpleCell" strategy have enabled rapid identification of glycoproteins and specific glycosylation sites. Despite the enormous progress made, the biological impact of the mammalian O-mannosyl glycoproteome remains largely unknown to date. Tools are still needed to investigate the structure, role, and abundance of O-mannosyl glycans. Although O-mannosyl branching has been shown to be of relevance in integrin-dependent cell migration, and also plays a role in demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, a broader understanding of the biological roles of branched O-mannosyl glycans is lacking in part due to the paucity of detection tools. In this work, a glycopeptide vaccine construct was synthesized and used to generate antibodies against branched O-mannosyl glycans. Glycopeptide microarray screening revealed high selectivity of the induced antibodies for branched glycan core structures presented on different peptide backbones, with no cross-reactivity observed with related linear glycans. For comparison, microarray screening of the mannose-binding lectin concanavalin A (ConA), which is commonly used in glycoproteomics workflows to enrich tryptic O-mannosyl peptides, showed that the ConA lectin did not recognize branched O-mannosyl glycans. The binding preference of ConA for short linear O-mannosyl glycans was rationalized in terms of molecular structure using crystallographic data augmented by molecular modeling. The contrast between the ConA binding specificity and that of the new antibodies indicates a novel role for the antibodies in studies of protein O-mannosylation.

  10. Violación del Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, S. J.; Sisterna, P. D.; Vucetich, H.

    Se estudian las violaciones al Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas. En estos modelos, algunas de las constantes fundamentales dependen del espacio y del tiempo. Se muestra que los experimentos de caída libre no tienen aún precisión como para poner límites a los parámetros de la teoría.

  11. Con_A-CNT (Carbon Nanotube) Conjugate with Short Wave Near-Infrared (SWIR) Laser Ablation for Tumor Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-11

    originate from hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow during childhood development for “adaptive immune system” in Thymus organ with a variety of “T...cells,” short for Thymus cells,: so-called helper, cytotoxic, memory, regulator, natural killer (NK), alpha-beta-gamma-delta receptor called T cells...cells [17-19]. We have reported Concanavalin A (Con A), a plant lectin isolated from Canavalia ensiformis (Jack bean) seeds, can agglutinate cells with

  12. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  13. Nqrs Data for C10H12CoN2NaO8 (Subst. No. 1263)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C10H12CoN2NaO8 (Subst. No. 1263)

  14. Exploring the use of Generalized Indirect Covariance to reconstruct pure shift NMR spectra: Current Pros and Cons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Martin, Gary E.; Parella, Teodor

    2016-05-01

    The current Pros and Cons of a processing protocol to generate pure chemical shift NMR spectra using Generalized Indirect Covariance are presented and discussed. The transformation of any standard 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear spectrum to its pure shift counterpart by using a reference DIAG spectrum is described. Reconstructed pure shift NMR spectra of NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HSQMBC experiments are reported for the target molecule strychnine.

  15. Exploring the use of Generalized Indirect Covariance to reconstruct pure shift NMR spectra: Current Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Martin, Gary E; Parella, Teodor

    2016-05-01

    The current Pros and Cons of a processing protocol to generate pure chemical shift NMR spectra using Generalized Indirect Covariance are presented and discussed. The transformation of any standard 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear spectrum to its pure shift counterpart by using a reference DIAG spectrum is described. Reconstructed pure shift NMR spectra of NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HSQMBC experiments are reported for the target molecule strychnine.

  16. [Malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami con coinvolgimento della corteccia frontale e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici resistenti: un caso clinico].

    PubMed

    Gramaglia, Carla; Feggi, Alessandro; Vecchi, Camilla; Di Marco, Sarah; Venesia, Alessandra; Delicato, Claudia; Chieppa, Nunzia; De Marchi, Fabiola; Cantello, Roberto; Zeppegno, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Descrivere il management di un paziente con malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami (MBD) associata a lesioni frontali corticali, senza sintomi specifici al primo accesso in Pronto Soccorso, e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici atipici. Metodi. Descriviamo il caso di un paziente di 44 anni con storia di abuso cronico di alcol, a cui è stata diagnosticata la MBD. Risultati. La risonanza magnetica ha evidenziato lesioni nello splenio e corpo del corpo calloso e lesioni bilaterali della corteccia frontale. Il paziente ha sviluppato sintomi psichiatrici atipici a insorgenza tardiva, che sono risultati essere resistenti alle terapie farmacologiche impostate. Discussione. Il caso che descriviamo sembra supportare le attuali, ma ancora scarse evidenze che descrivono il coinvolgimento corticale nella MBD, suggerendone l'associazione con una prognosi peggiore. I sintomi psichiatrici possono risultare difficili da trattare a causa della resistenza alle terapie. Conclusione. Il coinvolgimento di psichiatri, radiologi e neurologi secondo un approccio di consultazione-liaison si è dimostrato di fondamentale importanza per la diagnosi e l'impostazione della terapia adeguata al paziente.

  17. ConBind: motif-aware cross-species alignment for the identification of functional transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Lelieveld, Stefan H.; Schütte, Judith; Dijkstra, Maurits J.J.; Bawono, Punto; Kinston, Sarah J.; Göttgens, Berthold; Heringa, Jaap; Bonzanni, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors (TFs) binding to promoter as well as distal enhancers. TFs recognize short, but specific binding sites (TFBSs) that are located within the promoter and enhancer regions. Functionally relevant TFBSs are often highly conserved during evolution leaving a strong phylogenetic signal. While multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a potent tool to detect the phylogenetic signal, the current MSA implementations are optimized to align the maximum number of identical nucleotides. This approach might result in the omission of conserved motifs that contain interchangeable nucleotides such as the ETS motif (IUPAC code: GGAW). Here, we introduce ConBind, a novel method to enhance alignment of short motifs, even if their mutual sequence similarity is only partial. ConBind improves the identification of conserved TFBSs by improving the alignment accuracy of TFBS families within orthologous DNA sequences. Functional validation of the Gfi1b + 13 enhancer reveals that ConBind identifies additional functionally important ETS binding sites that were missed by all other tested alignment tools. In addition to the analysis of known regulatory regions, our web tool is useful for the analysis of TFBSs on so far unknown DNA regions identified through ChIP-sequencing. PMID:26721389

  18. Pros and cons of prostate cancer screening: associations with screening knowledge and attitudes among urban African American men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Stacy N; Diefenbach, Michael A; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Chen, Tianle; Hall, Simon J; Thompson, Hayley S

    2010-03-01

    Discussion of the pros and cons of prostate cancer screening tests, rather than routine screening, is recommended to support informed screening decisions, particularly among African American men. This study explored physician explanation of pros and cons of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal exam (DRE) and its association with knowledge and screening attitudes. Two hundred-one African American men were asked if a physician had ever provided a comprehensive explanation of pros and cons of the PSA test and DRE. All men completed a 10-item prostate cancer knowledge scale and a subset completed a 26-item attitudes measure. Only 13% of the sample reported receiving a comprehensive explanation. Also, prostate cancer knowledge in the sample was low (mean = 43% correct). Multivariate analyses revealed that total prostate cancer knowledge was associated with men receiving a comprehensive explanation (p = .05), as well as past prostate cancer screening (p = .02) and younger age (p = .009). Although comprehensive explanation of prostate cancer screening was related to total prostate cancer knowledge, it was unrelated to a subset of items that may be central to fully informed screening decisions. Furthermore, comprehensive explanation of prostate cancer screening (p = .02), along with DRE recommendation (p = .009) and older age (p = .02), were related to fewer negative screening attitudes. Findings suggest that continued focus on patient education and physician communication is warranted.

  19. Cálculos ab initio con correlación electrónica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchán Bonete, M.

    Estamos entrando en una era donde la ortogonalidad entre las investigaciones de carácter experimental y de naturaleza teórica se irá difuminando progresivamente y la problemática a resolver quedará en escena como el único actor principal de la obra. Como premisa para una cooperación teórico-experimental de igual a igual, la metodología químico-cuántica utilizada debe ser capaz de ofrecer resultados de carácter predictivo. Sin duda, esta madurez en la metodología químico-cuántica ya la hemos alcanzado hace algunos años, tal y como muestra entre otras muchas, la labor que nuestro grupo ha realizado en el transcurso de la última década, dentro del campo de la Espectroscopía Teórica. Los estudios realizados comprenden una amplia gama de sistemas, variando tanto en tamaño como en complejidad, abordando problemáticas espectroscópicas consideradas tradicionalmente como especialmente controvertidas. Nuestra contribución científica más relevante reside en el carácter cuantitativo de las asignaciones espectroscópicas que hemos propuesto en base a resultados ab initio. Recordemos que en los años noventa los resultados ab initio solían presentar para las energías de excitación de sistemas de tamaño molecular moderado, como el benceno, errores de más de 1 eV. En comparación con el éxito relativo de los métodos semiempíricos, la frustración de la metodología ab initio quedaba todavía más patente. Los estudios que hemos presentado representan una comprensión profunda de los espectros electrónicos en sistemas orgánicos claves, mostrando el camino a seguir para obtener asignaciones espectroscópicas precisas (entre 0.1-0.2 eV). La naturaleza del método CASPT2 junto al diseño de estrategias computacionales nos ha permitido alcanzar el carácter cuantitativo con el que se caracterizan nuestras contribuciones[1,2]. Por todo ello, algunos de los trabajos publicados se consideran clásicos dentro del campo, pues en cierto modo definen el

  20. Stellate Cell Activation and Imbalanced Expression of TGF-β1/TGF-β3 in Acute Autoimmune Liver Lesions Induced by ConA in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Lei; Zhang, Jinping; Qian, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To study the pathogenic feature of liver injury, activation of hepatic stellate cells, and dynamic expression of TGF-β1/TGF-β3 to reveal their role in liver injury induced by ConA. Methods. Mice were randomly divided into control group and ConA treatment group. ConA (20 mg/kg) was injected through vena caudalis in ConA treatment group; the controls received the same volume of saline injection. After injection for 2 h, 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h, animals were terminated. Blood, liver, and spleen were harvested. Liver function and histopathology were studied. α-SMA, vimentin, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3 were detected. Results. After ConA injection, liver damage started to increase. Expression of α-SMA, vimentin, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3 was significantly enhanced; all above indicators reached peak at 8 h; but from 24 h after ConA injection, TGF-β3 expression began to decline, while the TGF-β1/TGF-β3 ratio at 48 h was significantly lower than control. Conclusion. (1) Autoimmune liver injury induced by ConA showed time-based features, in which the most serious liver lesions happened at 8 h after ConA injection. (2) Early activation of HSC and imbalance expression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 existed in ConA-induced acute autoimmune liver injury, which may be associated with liver dysfunction and the mechanisms of progression to fibrosis. PMID:28246592

  1. 40 CFR 60.244 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../hr/Mg (lb/hr/ton) of equivalent P2O5 stored. Csi=concentration of total fluorides from emission point... (dscf/hr). N=number of emission points in the affected facility. P=equivalent P2O5 stored, metric tons... and 0.85 dscm (30 dscf). (3) The equivalent P2O5 feed rate (P) shall be computed for each run...

  2. 40 CFR 60.244 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../hr/Mg (lb/hr/ton) of equivalent P2O5 stored. Csi=concentration of total fluorides from emission point... (dscf/hr). N=number of emission points in the affected facility. P=equivalent P2O5 stored, metric tons... and 0.85 dscm (30 dscf). (3) The equivalent P2O5 feed rate (P) shall be computed for each run...

  3. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    fabricacion del molde, tienen una gran influencia sobre su comportamiento en servicio a lo largo de la vida util del molde. En la primera parte del presente estudio, a partir de ensayos punzon sobre disco, se ha determinado la relacion entre la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de aceros para moldes obtenidos a partir de bloques de gran espesor, estudiando los principales mecanismos de desgaste que tienen lugar. A continuacion, con el fin de determinar el dano superficial que sufren los aceros para moldes en condiciones reales de inyeccion, se han estudiado distintos tipos de aceros utilizados comercialmente en moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos, seleccionando las condiciones de operacion para determinar la variacion de la rugosidad superficial del acero en funcion del material inyectado, del numero de operaciones sucesivas de inyeccion y de la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion, mediante tecnicas de perfilometria optica y microscopia electronica de barrido. Ademas del dano superficial sufrido por el acero con el numero de piezas inyectadas, tambien se ha determinado la evolucion de la rugosidad superficial de los materiales inyectados, polibutilentereftalato (PBT) puro y materiales compuestos derivados de PBT por adicion de un 20 o un 50% en peso de fibra de vidrio. En el caso de las piezas inyectadas, se ha caracterizado su microestructura en funcion del flujo de inyeccion y de la densidad de fibra, se han determinado sus propiedades termicas y dinamico-mecanicas, asi como la variacion de la rugosidad superficial de las piezas inyectadas con el numero de operaciones de inyeccion y con la geometria de las distintas secciones de las piezas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado la resistencia a la abrasion de PBT reforzado con un 50% de fibra, en funcion del numero de piezas inyectadas y de la direccion de rayado con respecto a la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion.

  4. Nanoparticulas basadas en complejos de Fe(II) con transicion de espin: sintesis, caracterizacion y aplicaciones en electronica molecular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monrabal Capilla, Maria

    Esta tesis doctoral esta organizada en 5 capitulos y esta destinada al estudio de sistemas de Fe (II) que presentan el fenomeno de la transicion de espin a escala nanometrica. El capitulo 1 contiene una introduccion general sobre materiales moleculares multifuncionales, destacando aquellos ejemplos mas importantes. Por otro lado, se explicara el fenomeno de la transicion de espin, tratando aspectos conceptuales, los antecedentes mas importantes y la situacion actual. En el capitulo 2 se describen los diferentes procesos existentes para la obtencion de diferentes tipos de nanoparticulas. Ademas, se presenta la sintesis y caracterizacion de nanoparticulas del polimero de coordinacion unidimensional [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4, obtenidas mediante el metodo de micelas inversas. Estas nanoparticulas, con una estrecha distribucion de tamanos centrada alrededor de los 11 nm, presentan una transicion de espin muy abrupta, con un ancho ciclo de histeresis termica de unos 40K. En el capitulo 3 se describe el proceso de modificacion del tamano de las nanoparticulas descritas en el capitulo anterior, llevado a cabo variando la proporcion de surfactante/H2O en el medio. Ademas, con el objetivo de modificar las propiedades magneticas de las nanoparticulas obtenidas en el capitulo 2, se lleva a cabo la sintesis de nanoparticulas de polimeros de la misma familia del [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4. En concreto se sintetizaron 3 nuevos tipos de nanoparticulas basadas en el polimero [Fe(Htrz)1-x(NH2trz)x](ClO4)2, siendo x = 0.05, 0.15 y 0.3, en cada caso. Estas nanoparticulas siguen presentando una estrecha distribucion de tamanos y una transicion de espin muy abrupta y con un ancho ciclo de histeresis. Ademas, se observa que este ciclo se desplaza a temperaturas mas proximas a la temperatura ambiente a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de 4-amino-1, 2, 4- triazol en la muestra. Pero al mismo tiempo se produce una disminucion de la anchura de este ciclo. Por ultimo, en este capitulo se presenta la

  5. Análisis del espectro infrarrojo del polvo interestelar asociado con cúmulos globulares y de su evolución temporal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizza, L. J.; Forte, J. C.; Carpintero, D.

    El trabajo que se presenta investiga la dinámica de las partículas de polvo interestelar eyectadas por estrellas gigantes rojas en un cúmulo globular utilizando simulaciones numéricas de su interacción con el campo gravitatorio y con la radiación electromagnética de las estrellas. Se pretende con ello determinar la distribución espacial de ese material como una función del tiempo en un sistema similar a NGC 104 (47 Tuc). A partir de la distribución espacial resultante se obtuvo el espectro infrarrojo integrado el cual sugiere que el máximo contraste con la radiación estelar ocurre en longitudes de onda cercanas a 300 μm y que decrece rápidamente hacia longitudes de onda menores, en las que suelen realizarse las observaciones.

  6. Assessment of Response to Lithium Maintenance Treatment in Bipolar Disorder: A Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) Report

    PubMed Central

    Manchia, Mirko; Adli, Mazda; Akula, Nirmala; Ardau, Raffaella; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Backlund, Lena; Banzato, Claudio EM.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Bellivier, Frank; Bengesser, Susanne; Biernacka, Joanna M.; Brichant-Petitjean, Clara; Bui, Elise; Calkin, Cynthia V.; Cheng, Andrew Tai Ann; Chillotti, Caterina; Cichon, Sven; Clark, Scott; Czerski, Piotr M.; Dantas, Clarissa; Zompo, Maria Del; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Etain, Bruno; Falkai, Peter; Frisén, Louise; Frye, Mark A.; Fullerton, Jan; Gard, Sébastien; Garnham, Julie; Goes, Fernando S.; Grof, Paul; Gruber, Oliver; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Joanna; Heilbronner, Urs; Hoban, Rebecca; Hou, Liping; Jamain, Stéphane; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Kassem, Layla; Kato, Tadafumi; Kelsoe, John R.; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Kliwicki, Sebastian; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Kusumi, Ichiro; Laje, Gonzalo; Lavebratt, Catharina; Leboyer, Marion; Leckband, Susan G.; López Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Maj, Mario; Malafosse, Alain; Martinsson, Lina; Masui, Takuya; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mondimore, Frank; Monteleone, Palmiero; Nallet, Audrey; Neuner, Maria; Novák, Tomás; O’Donovan, Claire; Ösby, Urban; Ozaki, Norio; Perlis, Roy H.; Pfennig, Andrea; Potash, James B.; Reich-Erkelenz, Daniela; Reif, Andreas; Reininghaus, Eva; Richardson, Sara; Rouleau, Guy A.; Rybakowski, Janusz K.; Schalling, Martin; Schofield, Peter R.; Schubert, Oliver K.; Schweizer, Barbara; Seemüller, Florian; Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria; Severino, Giovanni; Seymour, Lisa R.; Slaney, Claire; Smoller, Jordan W.; Squassina, Alessio; Stamm, Thomas; Steele, Jo; Stopkova, Pavla; Tighe, Sarah K.; Tortorella, Alfonso; Turecki, Gustavo; Wray, Naomi R.; Wright, Adam; Zandi, Peter P.; Zilles, David; Bauer, Michael; Rietschel, Marcella; McMahon, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The assessment of response to lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder (BD) is complicated by variable length of treatment, unpredictable clinical course, and often inconsistent compliance. Prospective and retrospective methods of assessment of lithium response have been proposed in the literature. In this study we report the key phenotypic measures of the “Retrospective Criteria of Long-Term Treatment Response in Research Subjects with Bipolar Disorder” scale currently used in the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) study. Materials and Methods Twenty-nine ConLiGen sites took part in a two-stage case-vignette rating procedure to examine inter-rater agreement [Kappa (κ)] and reliability [intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)] of lithium response. Annotated first-round vignettes and rating guidelines were circulated to expert research clinicians for training purposes between the two stages. Further, we analyzed the distributional properties of the treatment response scores available for 1,308 patients using mixture modeling. Results Substantial and moderate agreement was shown across sites in the first and second sets of vignettes (κ = 0.66 and κ = 0.54, respectively), without significant improvement from training. However, definition of response using the A score as a quantitative trait and selecting cases with B criteria of 4 or less showed an improvement between the two stages (ICC1 = 0.71 and ICC2 = 0.75, respectively). Mixture modeling of score distribution indicated three subpopulations (full responders, partial responders, non responders). Conclusions We identified two definitions of lithium response, one dichotomous and the other continuous, with moderate to substantial inter-rater agreement and reliability. Accurate phenotypic measurement of lithium response is crucial for the ongoing ConLiGen pharmacogenomic study. PMID:23840348

  7. Sophocarpine Protects Mice from ConA-Induced Hepatitis via Inhibition of the IFN-Gamma/STAT1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Xiu-Xiu; Wang, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Cong-En; Liu, Shi-Jing; Shen, Hong-Hui; Guo, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Ya-Ming; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jia-Bo; Bai, Zhao-Fang; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2017-01-01

    Sophocarpine is the major pharmacologically active compound of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Radix Sophorae Subprostratae which has been used in treating hepatitis for years in China. It has been demonstrated that Sophocarpine exerts an activity in immune modulation and significantly decreases the production of inflammatory cytokines. However, the protective effects of Sophocarpine in T cell-dependent immune hepatitis remained unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects and pharmacological mechanisms of Sophocarpine on Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis, an experimental model of T cell-mediated liver injury. BALB/C mice were pretreated with Sophocarpine or Bicyclol for five consecutive days. Thirty minutes after the final administration, the mice were injected with 15 mg⋅kg-1 of ConA intravenously. The results indicated that pretreatment with Sophocarpine significantly ameliorated liver inflammation and injury as evidenced by both biochemical and histopathological observations. Moreover, in Sophocarpine-pretreated mice, liver messenger RNA expression levels of chemokines and adhesion molecules, such as macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, CXC chemokine ligand 10, and Intercellular adhesion molecule-1, were markedly reduced. Further studies revealed that Sophocarpine significantly downregulated the expression of T-bet via inhibition of signal transducers and activators of transcription1 (STAT1) activation and overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signaling1, inhibiting the activation of Th1 cells and the expression of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Altogether, these results suggest new opportunities to use Sophocarpine in the treatment of T cell-mediated liver disease. In summary, Sophocarpine could attenuate ConA-induced liver injury, and the protective effect of Sophocarpine was associated with its inhibition effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and the IFN-γ/STAT1 signaling pathway. PMID:28377718

  8. The InterCon network: a program for education partnerships at the University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Bouldin, P A; Farver, D W; Maugans, L A; Sanders, L C; Booker, J

    1999-04-01

    The University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center (UT-Houston) has created programs and activities to address the state's pressing needs in minority education. Through InterCon, a network of universities and K-12 schools, UT-Houston works with its partners to identify competitive candidates in the current pool of minority graduates with bachelor's degrees and to help them--along with their non-minority counterparts--progress in their education. Another objective is to expand the pool of minorities underrepresented in medicine who complete high school and go to college. In 1994 UT-Houston and Prairie View A&M University created a collaborative venture to provide new educational opportunities at UT-Houston for Prairie View's predominantly African American students. A three-track summer internship program--a result of that collaboration--has since been expanded to partnerships with other minority and majority universities throughout Texas. In 1998, for example, 108 undergraduate students from these universities (and 40 other universities nationwide) participated in research, professional, and administrative summer internships at UT-Houston. The InterCon network also has partnerships with K-12 schools. UT-Houston works with inner-city, suburban, and rural school districts to develop education models that can be transferred throughout the state. The partnerships deal with helping to teach basic academic skills and computer literacy, improve science-related instruction, meet demands for health promotion materials and information for school-initiated health and wellness programs, and develop distance-learning paradigms. UT-Houston views InterCon as a program helping Texas institutions to engage and adapt to the socioeconomic factors, demographic changes, and technology explosion that currently challenge public education.

  9. Influence of parameter values and variances and algorithm architecture in ConsExpo model on modeled exposures.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Susan F; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of parameter values and variances and model architecture on modeled exposures, and identified important data gaps that influence lack-of-knowledge-related uncertainty, using Consexpo 4.1 as an illustrative case study. Understanding the influential determinants in exposure estimates enables more informed and appropriate use of this model and the resulting exposure estimates. In exploring the influence of parameter placement in an algorithm and of the values and variances chosen to characterize the parameters within ConsExpo, "sensitive" and "important" parameters were identified: product amount, weight fraction, exposure duration, exposure time, and ventilation rate were deemed "important," or "always sensitive." With this awareness, exposure assessors can strategically focus on acquiring the most robust estimates for these parameters. ConsExpo relies predominantly on three algorithms to assess the default scenarios: inhalation vapors evaporation equation using the Langmuir mass transfer, the dermal instant application with diffusion through the skin, and the oral ingestion by direct uptake algorithm. These algorithms, which do not necessarily render health conservative estimates, account for 87, 89 and 59% of the inhalation, dermal and oral default scenario assessments,respectively, according them greater influence relative to the less frequently used algorithms. Default data provided in ConsExpo may be useful to initiate assessments, but are insufficient for determining exposure acceptability or setting policy, as parameters defined by highly uncertain values produce biased estimates that may not be health conservative. Furthermore, this lack-of-knowledge uncertainty makes the magnitude of this bias uncertain. Significant data gaps persist for product amount, exposure time, and exposure duration. These "important" parameters exert influence in requiring broad values and variances to account for their uncertainty. Prioritizing

  10. Antidepressant-like effect of Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr) lectin in mice: evidence for the involvement of the glutamatergic system.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Débora K; Costa, Ana Paula; Budni, Josiane; Moretti, Morgana; Barbosa, Sabrina Giovana Rocha; Nascimento, Kyria S; Teixeira, Edson H; Cavada, Benildo S; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Leal, Rodrigo B

    2014-07-01

    Lectins recognize and reversibly bind to carbohydrates attached to proteins and lipids modulating a variety of signaling pathways. We previously showed that ConBr, a lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds, produced an antidepressant-like effect in mice by modulating the monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems. Moreover, ConBr blocked hippocampal neurotoxicity induced by quinolinic acid in vivo and by glutamate in vitro, suggesting a neuroprotective activity of ConBr via glutamatergic system modulation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the involvement of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the antidepressant-like action displayed by ConBr in the forced swimming test (FST). With the aim of verifying the involvement of NMDA receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of ConBr (10 μg/site, i.c.v.), an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) pretreatment with either NMDA (0.1 pmol/site) or D-serine (30 μg/site) was carried out. The results show that both treatments blocked the effect of ConBr. Furthermore, the coadministration of subeffective doses of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.001 mg/kg, i.p.) or ketamine (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.; NMDA receptor antagonist) and ConBr (0.1 μg/site, i.c.v.) caused a synergistic reduction in immobility time. In order to verify the dependence of the L-arginine-NO-cGMP pathway, on the effect of ConBr in the FST, a pretreatment with the NO precursor, L-arginine (750 mg/kg, i.p.), or the PDE5 inhibitor, sildenafil (5 mg/kg, i.p.), was performed. Both drugs abolished the antidepressant-like action of ConBr. Finally, the administration of subeffective doses of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 30 pmol/site, i.c.v.) and ConBr (0.1 μg/site, i.c.v.) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the FST. Taken together, the results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of ConBr in the FST involves NMDA

  11. Hacia el consumo informado de tabaco en México: efecto de las advertencias con pictogramas en población fumadora

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti

    2015-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Evaluar el efecto de las advertencias sanitarias (AS) con pictogramas en las cajetillas de tabaco en adultos fumadores. Material y métodos Cohorte de fumadores con representatividad poblacional de siete ciudades mexi canas, antes (2010) y después (2011) de la implementación de AS con pictogramas (ASP). Para determinar el cambio en las variables sobre el impacto cognitivo y conductual de las advertencias, se estimaron modelos bivariados y ajustados de ecuaciones de estimación generalizada. En el Segundo levantamiento (2011), se estimaron modelos para determiner los factores que se asocian con el reporte de recordar cada advertencia que había entrado al mercado, además de los factores asociados con el autorreporte del impacto de cada advertencia vigente. Resultados Se observaron incrementos importantes de 2010 a 2011 en los conocimientos sobre los riesgos de fumar, los componentes tóxicos del tabaco y el número telefónico para recibir consejos sobre dejar de fumar. La recordación e impacto de las primeras advertencias con pictogramas parecen ser amplios y equitativos a través de la población fumadora. En comparación con 2010, un mayor nivel de ex fumadores entrevistados en 2011 reportaron que las advertencias habían influido mucho en dejar de fumar (RM=2.44, 95% IC 1.27–4.72). Conclusiones Las AS con pictogramas han logrado un impacto importante en el conocimiento y conducta, información relevante para la población y en tomadores de decisiones. PMID:22689162

  12. Pros and Cons of Using Arrays of Small Antennas Versus Large Single Dish Antennas for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagri, Durgadas S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly describes pros and cons of using arrays of small antennas instead of large single dish antennas for spacecraft telemetry, command, and tracking (TT and C) - communications and navigation (C and N) - and science support that the Deep Space Network (DSN) normally provides. It considers functionality and performance aspects, mainly for TT and C, though it also considers science. It only briefly comments on the cost aspects that seem to favor arrays of small antennas over large single antennas, at least for receiving (downlinks).

  13. Cámara CCD Directa con el Telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO: algunos diagnósticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellone, S. A.

    Se efectuaron algunas pruebas con la cámara CCD (+ Reductor Focal) instalada en el foco Cassegrain del Telescopio de 2.15 m del Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO). Las conclusiones más significativas son: Los tiempos de exposición efectivos difieren de los nominales en una fracción apreciable de segundo. En exposiciones de menos de 3 segundos, la iluminación no es pareja en todo el detector. En consecuencia, se recomiendan los pasos a seguir por los astrónomos tanto durante la observación como en la reducción de sus datos.

  14. A signal-on electrochemiluminescence biosensor for detecting Con A using phenoxy dextran-graphite-like carbon nitride as signal probe.

    PubMed

    Ou, Xin; Tan, Xingrong; Liu, Xiaofang; Lu, Qiyi; Chen, Shihong; Wei, Shaping

    2015-08-15

    A novel signal-on electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for detecting concanavalin A (Con A) was fabricated with phenoxy dextran-graphite-like carbon nitride (DexP-g-C3N4) as signal probe. In this construction strategy, the nanocomposites of three-dimensional graphene and gold nanoparticles (3D-GR-AuNPs) were used as matrix for high loading of glucose oxidase (GOx), which served as recognition element for bounding Con A. Con A further interacted with DexP-g-C3N4 through a specific carbohydrate-Con A interaction to achieve a sandwiched scheme. With the increase of Con A incubated onto the electrode, the ECL signal resulted from DexP-g-C3N4 would enhance, thus achieving a signal-on ECL biosensor for Con A detection. Due to the integration of the virtues of 3D-GR-AuNPs and the excellent ECL performance of DexP-g-C3N4, the prepared biosensor exhibits a wide linear response range from 0.05 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL and a low detection limit of 17 pg/mL (S/N=3).

  15. A Recovery-Oriented Care Approach: Weighing the Pros and Cons of a Newly Built Mental Health Facility.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Catherine Clark; Bieling, Peter; McKinnon, Margaret C; McNeely, Heather E; Langstaff, Karen

    2016-02-01

    The current study adopted a recovery-oriented care approach by emphasizing patients' perspectives and experiences regarding changes to a newly built mental health facility. The inpatient entrance, or "portal," intended to balance the aims of recovery-oriented care with minimizing risk. A mixed-methods study of the portal's pros and cons was conducted, according to four themes: (a) autonomy versus inconvenience; (b) safety and security versus stigma; (c) unit door versus portal operating costs; and (d) privacy versus community integration. Focus groups engaging with patients (N = 39) indicated that the design effectively supported recovery-oriented care. Patients did not find the portal to be stigmatizing or triggering and valued the safety and privacy it created, and visitors also generally had a positive experience. Survey responses (N = 101) from portal users were also positive about the new design. The study findings suggest that the pros outweighed the cons of the new design. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(2), 39-48.].

  16. Actitudes Éticas de los estudiantes y egresados en carrera de medicina con metodologías activas

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Stepke, Fernando Lolas; Silveira, Carla Cristina Costa; Komatsu, Ricardo Shoiti; Trindade, Eliane Mendonça Vilar; Guiotti, Murilo Galvão

    2010-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene por objeto desarrollar un diagnostico de la inserción integrada de la ética en la carrera de medicina brasileña con una metodología de aprendizaje basada en problemas y describir las percepciones de actitudes éticas de los estudiantes y egresados. El diseño metodológico es un estudio de caso, descriptivo y documental, con abordaje cualitativo y cuantitativo. La muestra de esta investigación ha sido constituida por 120 estudiantes y 40 egresados de dos promociones del Curso de Medicina de la ESCS. Este proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación - SES/DF. Los estudiantes y egresados de la ESCS demostraron un buen manejo en el abordaje de los conflictos éticos y respeto a los pacientes. Sin embargo, el análisis de sensibilidad ética mostró una fragilidad en las percepciones y aptitudes inapropiadas de los estudiantes de la carrera de medicina, identificada básicamente en los años iniciales, que necesitan más discusiones sistematizadas sobre los aspectos éticos y bioéticos integrados a las actividades prácticas para estimular y fortalecer la reflexión ética de los estudiantes. PMID:20981242

  17. Development of a novel DNA SynCon tetravalent dengue vaccine that elicits immune responses against four serotypes.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Mathura P; Kuo, Yuan-Chia; Selling, Bernard H; Li, Qianjun; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Kim, J Joseph; Weiner, David B

    2009-10-30

    The increased transmission and geographic spread of dengue fever (DF) and its most severe presentations, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), make it one of the most important mosquito-borne viral disease of humans. Four distinct serotypes of dengue viruses are transmitted to humans through the bites of the mosquitoes. Currently there is no vaccine or antiviral drug against DV infections. Cross-protection between dengue virus serotypes is limited and antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) contributes significantly to the severity of the disease. The major challenge is to induce a broad durable immune response against all four serotypes of dengue virus simultaneously while avoiding the possible exacerbation of risk of developing the severe forms of disease through incomplete or modified responses. In order to address this worldwide concern, we present a synthetic consensus (SynCon) human codon optimized DNA vaccine that elicits immunity against all four dengue serotypes. We cloned consensus DIII domain of E protein from all serotypes and expressed them as a single open reading frame in a mammalian expression vector, called pDV-U-DIII (dengue-vaccine universal). In mice, this dengue-universal construct elicits significant level of anti-DIII antibody that neutralizes all four dengue subtypes and prevents cell death induced by dengue infection. This is the first SynCon DNA vaccine that provides tetravalent immunity against all four serotypes of dengue virus.

  18. Modelo de accesibilidad de conceptos matematicos aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales en la UPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidro Villamizar, Gloria Maria

    Este estudio utiliza metodologia de investigacion cualitativa, con el proposito de describir, analizar y evaluar los procesos de diseno y desarrollo de un modelo de accesibilidad que consiste en estrategias de ensenanza de las matematicas para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales matriculados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva en la UPR. Se utilizaron las siguientes estrategias para recopilar la informacion, 1) reflexiones de la investigadora en el proceso de diseno y desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas, que se registraron en un diario reflexivo. 2) entrevista semiestructurada luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas con los participantes. 3) observaciones y notas de la investigadora del trabajo de los participantes. Para obtener la informacion de los participantes se obtuvo los permisos institucionales necesarios; se seleccionaron los participantes y se validaron los instrumentos; se realizo el desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas con los participantes; y finalmente, se analizo la informacion obtenida. El diseno de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas se hizo siguiendo las recomendaciones curriculares de los temas de matematicas aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva realizado por la investigadora durante su semestre de internado. El testimonio de las voces de los participantes se obtuvo del proceso de desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas de temas seleccionados de conceptos matematicos requeridos en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva y de la entrevista semiestructurada con los participantes, luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje. Para el desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje, se utilizaron materiales tactiles adaptados, materiales tactiles disenados y materiales disponibles comercialmente. Los textos de las lecciones se imprimieron en tinta y en Braille. Se exhorta a disenar y desarrollar estrategias de ensenanza accesibles, considerando como recursos para evaluar su efectividad a

  19. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  20. Presentación del estudio “Links” de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos (“teteras”), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  1. Presentación del estudio "Links" de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M; Balán, Iván C; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos ("teteras"), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA.

  2. Hepatic NK cell-mediated hypersensitivity to ConA-induced liver injury in mouse liver expressing hepatitis C virus polyprotein.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiuxia; Yan, Shaoduo; Wang, Licui; Duan, Xiangguo; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yue; Wu, Tao; Wang, Xiaohui; An, Jie; Zhang, Yulong; Zhou, Qianqian; Zhan, Linsheng

    2016-08-04

    The role of hepatic NK cells in the pathogenesis of HCV-associated hepatic failure is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of HCV on ConA-induced immunological hepatic injury and the influence of HCV on hepatic NK cell activation in the liver after ConA administration. An immunocompetent HCV mouse model that encodes the entire viral polyprotein in a liver-specific manner based on hydrodynamic injection and φC31o integrase was used to study the role of hepatic NK cells. Interestingly, the frequency of hepatic NK cells was reduced in HCV mice, whereas the levels of other intrahepatic lymphocytes remained unaltered. Next, we investigated whether the reduction in NK cells within HCV mouse livers might elicit an effect on immune-mediated liver injury. HCV mice were subjected to acute liver injury models upon ConA administration. We observed that HCV mice developed more severe ConA-induced immune-mediated hepatitis, which was dependent on the accumulated intrahepatic NK cells. Our results indicated that after the administration of ConA, NK cells not only mediated liver injury through the production of immunoregulatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α and perforin) with direct antiviral activity, but they also killed target cells directly through the TRAIL/DR5 and NKG2D/NKG2D ligand signaling pathway in HCV mice. Our findings suggest a critical role for NK cells in oversensitive liver injury during chronic HCV infection.

  3. A New Method for Re-Analyzing Evaluation Bias: Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Reveals an Asymmetry in the Evaluation of Pro and Con Arguments.

    PubMed

    Jirschitzka, Jens; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    In four studies we tested a new methodological approach to the investigation of evaluation bias. The usage of piecewise growth curve modeling allowed for investigation into the impact of people's attitudes on their persuasiveness ratings of pro- and con-arguments, measured over the whole range of the arguments' polarity from an extreme con to an extreme pro position. Moreover, this method provided the opportunity to test specific hypotheses about the course of the evaluation bias within certain polarity ranges. We conducted two field studies with users of an existing online information portal (Studies 1a and 2a) as participants, and two Internet laboratory studies with mostly student participants (Studies 1b and 2b). In each of these studies we presented pro- and con-arguments, either for the topic of MOOCs (massive open online courses, Studies 1a and 1b) or for the topic of M-learning (mobile learning, Studies 2a and 2b). Our results indicate that using piecewise growth curve models is more appropriate than simpler approaches. An important finding of our studies was an asymmetry of the evaluation bias toward pro- or con-arguments: the evaluation bias appeared over the whole polarity range of pro-arguments and increased with more and more extreme polarity. This clear-cut result pattern appeared only on the pro-argument side. For the con-arguments, in contrast, the evaluation bias did not feature such a systematic picture.

  4. Quercetin Protects Mice from ConA-Induced Hepatitis by Inhibiting HMGB1-TLR Expression and Down-Regulating the Nuclear Factor Kappa B Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Liu, Hong-chun; Yao, Qun-yan; Xu, Bei-li; Zhang, Shun-cai; Tu, Chuan-tao

    2016-02-01

    The dietary flavonoid quercetin has hepatoprotective effects. We analyzed the effects of quercetin on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis in mice and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action. Mice were administered quercetin (50 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) or vehicle 30 min before intravenous administration of ConA. Quercetin pretreatment significantly reduced the ConA-induced elevations in plasma aminotransferase concentrations and liver necrosis, as well as reducing serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-4. Quercetin pretreatment also reduced expression of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in liver tissues. Quercetin pretreatment significantly inhibited degradation of inhibitory kappa B alpha and modulated ConA-induced nuclear translocation in the liver of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65. These results demonstrate that quercetin protects against ConA-mediated hepatitis in mice by attenuating the HMGB1-TLRs-NF-κB signaling pathway.

  5. A New Method for Re-Analyzing Evaluation Bias: Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Reveals an Asymmetry in the Evaluation of Pro and Con Arguments

    PubMed Central

    Jirschitzka, Jens; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    In four studies we tested a new methodological approach to the investigation of evaluation bias. The usage of piecewise growth curve modeling allowed for investigation into the impact of people’s attitudes on their persuasiveness ratings of pro- and con-arguments, measured over the whole range of the arguments’ polarity from an extreme con to an extreme pro position. Moreover, this method provided the opportunity to test specific hypotheses about the course of the evaluation bias within certain polarity ranges. We conducted two field studies with users of an existing online information portal (Studies 1a and 2a) as participants, and two Internet laboratory studies with mostly student participants (Studies 1b and 2b). In each of these studies we presented pro- and con-arguments, either for the topic of MOOCs (massive open online courses, Studies 1a and 1b) or for the topic of M-learning (mobile learning, Studies 2a and 2b). Our results indicate that using piecewise growth curve models is more appropriate than simpler approaches. An important finding of our studies was an asymmetry of the evaluation bias toward pro- or con-arguments: the evaluation bias appeared over the whole polarity range of pro-arguments and increased with more and more extreme polarity. This clear-cut result pattern appeared only on the pro-argument side. For the con-arguments, in contrast, the evaluation bias did not feature such a systematic picture. PMID:26840219

  6. Probabilidad de colisión de cometas periódicos con partículas interplanetarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil Hutton, R.

    Se presentan resultados sobre la probabilidad de colisión de cometas de corto período con la población de partículas interplanetarias presentes en la región del cinturón de asteroides. Se encuentra que este proceso colisional afecta la evolución física de los cometas de manera no despreciable y puede ser el responsable de variaciones de brillo de tipo ``outburst". Se presentan resultados para algunos cometas en particular y se obtiene un límite inferior para el tamaño de los núcleos en función de la distribución de radios del cinturón de asteroides.

  7. In vitro evolution of chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers: Pros and cons, and comprehensive selection strategies.

    PubMed

    Lipi, Farhana; Chen, Suxiang; Chakravarthy, Madhuri; Rakesh, Shilpa; Veedu, Rakesh N

    2016-12-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotide sequences that bind to a specific target molecule with high affinity and specificity through their ability to adopt 3-dimensional structure in solution. Aptamers have huge potential as targeted therapeutics, diagnostics, delivery agents and as biosensors. However, aptamers composed of natural nucleotide monomers are quickly degraded in vivo and show poor pharmacodynamic properties. To overcome this, chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers are developed by incorporating modified nucleotides after or during the selection process by Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX). This review will discuss the development of chemically-modified aptamers and provide the pros and cons, and new insights on in vitro aptamer selection strategies by using chemically-modified nucleic acid libraries.

  8. In vitro evolution of chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers: Pros and cons, and comprehensive selection strategies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Suxiang; Chakravarthy, Madhuri; Rakesh, Shilpa; Veedu, Rakesh N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nucleic acid aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotide sequences that bind to a specific target molecule with high affinity and specificity through their ability to adopt 3-dimensional structure in solution. Aptamers have huge potential as targeted therapeutics, diagnostics, delivery agents and as biosensors. However, aptamers composed of natural nucleotide monomers are quickly degraded in vivo and show poor pharmacodynamic properties. To overcome this, chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers are developed by incorporating modified nucleotides after or during the selection process by Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX). This review will discuss the development of chemically-modified aptamers and provide the pros and cons, and new insights on in vitro aptamer selection strategies by using chemically-modified nucleic acid libraries. PMID:27715478

  9. ON EFFECT OF HAZARD MAP ON CONS CIOUSNESS OF FLOOD DISASTER PREVENSION OF RESIDENTS WHO EXPERIENCED FLOOD RECENTLY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Koji; Koga, Syota; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki

    In this paper, the effect of the flood hazard map distributed to the residents who experienced flood disasters recently and an effective method for improving consciousness of flood di saster prevention are discussed. The questionnaire surveys were conducted on the residents living in the middle basin of the Nishiki River, Iwakuni city, Yamaguchi Prefecture, before and after the distribution of the hazard map. It is found from this investigation that "knowledge", "att achment", and "crisis", are the main factors in the psychological process related to the flood prevention behavior. The effect of the distribution of the hazard map is judged from the probability of the flood prevention behavior. In addition, it is also found that "knowledge", "flood experiment of T0514", "crisis", "eff ectiveness", "load", and "easy reading of the hazard map", are keys to improve the cons ciousness of flood di saster prevention.

  10. Nitrogen oxides and carbon chain oxides formed after ion irradiation of CO:N2 ice mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia, D.; Ioppolo, S.; Vindigni, T.; Baratta, G. A.; Palumbo, M. E.

    2012-07-01

    Context. High CO depletion as well as depletion of N-bearing species is observed in dense pre-stellar cores. It is generally accepted that depleted species freeze out onto dust grains to form icy mantles and that these ices suffer energetic processing due to cosmic ion irradiation and ion-induced UV photons. Aims: The aim of this work is to study the chemical and structural effects induced by ion irradiation on different CO:N2 mixtures at low temperature (16 K) to simulate the effects of cosmic ion irradiation of icy mantles. Methods: Different CO:N2 mixtures and pure CO and pure N2 were irradiated with 200 keV H+ at 16 K. Infrared transmittance spectra of the samples were obtained in situ before and after irradiation. The samples were warmed up and spectra were taken at different temperatures. The residues left over on the substrate at room temperature were analysed ex situ by micro Raman spectroscopy. Results: Several new absorption features are present in the infrared spectra after irradiation, indicating that new species are formed. The most abundant are nitrogen oxides (such as NO, NO2 and N2O), carbon chain oxides (such as C2O, C3O and C3O2), carbon chains (such as C3 and C6), O3 and N3. A refractory residue is also formed after ion irradiation and is clearly detected by Raman spectroscopy. Conclusions: We suggest that carbon chains and nitrogen oxides observed in the gas phase towards star-forming regions are formed in the solid phase after cosmic ion irradiation of icy grain mantles and are released into the gas phase after desorption of grain mantles. We expect that the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), thanks to its high sensitivity and resolution, will increase the number of nitrogen oxides and carbon chain oxides detected towards star-forming regions.

  11. Binding of NIR-conPK and NIR-6T to Astrocytomas and Microglial Cells: Evidence for a Protein Related to TSPO

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Michelle; Woodruff, Grace; Cudaback, Eiron; Kreitzer, Faith R.; Xu, Cong; Lin, Yi Hsing; Möller, Thomas; Bai, Mingfeng; Manning, H. Charles; Bornhop, Darryl; Stella, Nephi

    2009-01-01

    PK 11195 and DAA1106 bind with high-affinity to the translocator protein (TSPO, formerly known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor). TSPO expression in glial cells increases in response to cytokines and pathological stimuli. Accordingly, [11C]-PK 11195 and [11C]-DAA1106 are recognized molecular imaging (MI) agents capable of monitoring changes in TSPO expression occurring in vivo and in response to various neuropathologies. Here we tested the pharmacological characteristics and TSPO-monitoring potential of two novel MI agents: NIR-conPK and NIR-6T. NIR-conPK is an analogue of PK 11195 conjugated to the near-infrared (NIR) emitting fluorophore: IRDye 800CW. NIR-6T is a DAA1106 analogue also conjugated to IRDye 800CW. We found that NIR-6T competed for [3H]-PK 11195 binding in astrocytoma cell homogenates with nanomolar affinity, but did not exhibit specific binding in intact astrocytoma cells in culture, indicating that NIR-6T is unlikely to constitute a useful MI agent for monitoring TSPO expression in intact cells. Conversely, we found that NIR-conPK did not compete for [3H]-PK 11195 binding in astrocytoma cell homogenate, but exhibited specific binding in intact astrocytoma cells in culture with nanomolar affinity, suggesting that NIR-conPK binds to a protein distinct, but related to, TSPO. Accordingly, treating intact astrocytoma cells and microglia in culture with cytokines led to significant changes in the amount of NIR-conPK specific binding without corresponding change in TSPO expression. Remarkably, the cytokine-induced changes in the protein targeted by NIR-conPK in intact microglia were selective, since IFN-γ (but not TNFα and TGFβ) increased the amount of NIR-conPK specific binding in these cells. Together these results suggest that NIR-conPK binds to a protein that is related to TSPO, and expressed by astrocytomas and microglia. Our results also suggest that the expression of this protein is increased by specific cytokines, and thus allows for

  12. Estudio de la influencia de la refrigeracion con aire de forma natural e inducida en el comportamiento de instalaciones fotovoltaicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazon Hernandez, Rocio

    panels are analysed to compare and select the best configuration. The presented research provides a deep knowledge of how they work as well as information and results for an improvement in future designs of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Este estudio se centra en analizar la influencia negativa de la temperatura en la produccion electrica de paneles fotovoltaicos al estar emplazados sobre cubierta de acero, como sucede en naves industriales y sobre un invernadero. Se estudian diferentes configuraciones que permitan refrigerar los paneles, reduciendo su temperatura y mejorar su rendimiento. Para abordar este problema, se han construido dos instalaciones experimentales, fieles a plantas solares en funcionamiento. Una instalacion engloba dos paneles fotovoltaicos sobre estructura fija al suelo. Uno de los paneles esta integrado sobre una superficie paralela y metalica. Entre ambas superficies existe un espacio que posibilita circular aire, permitiendo refrigerar el panel por conveccion natural, o conveccion forzada impulsando el aire con un ventilador. El otro panel, libre por su cara posterior y se ha considerado de referencia. Se ha estudiado el comportamiento del panel integrado sobre cubierta para diferentes secciones de aire y velocidades inducidas, comparandolo con el panel de referencia. Se ha desarrollado un modelo experimental que nos permite determinar la temperatura del panel en funcion de las variables que influyen en su refrigeracion. Adicionalmente, se han analizado los datos de una planta solar en funcionamiento, con paneles de igual caracteristicas, obteniendo correlaciones entre la temperatura del panel y las variables electricas y comparandolos con las obtenidas en la instalacion experimental. La segunda instalacion experimental reproduce parte de una instalacion solar sobre un invernadero, formada por cuatro paneles fotovoltaicos colocados sobre el plastico del invernadero, existiendo un canal divergente entre ambas superficies. Se estudia la

  13. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  14. Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) bacteremia in a general hospital at São Paulo city, Brasil.

    PubMed

    d'Azevedo, P A; Secchi, C; Antunes, A L S; Sales, T; Silva, F M; Tranchesi, R; Pignatari, A C C

    2008-10-01

    In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among CoNS have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5), S. haemolyticus (3), S. hominis (1), S. warneri (1) and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1). A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the CoNS isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant.

  15. Accurate macromolecular crystallographic refinement: incorporation of the linear scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics program DivCon into the PHENIX refinement package.

    PubMed

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y; Plumley, Joshua A; Martin, Roger I; Merz, Kenneth M; Westerhoff, Lance M

    2014-05-01

    Macromolecular crystallographic refinement relies on sometimes dubious stereochemical restraints and rudimentary energy functionals to ensure the correct geometry of the model of the macromolecule and any covalently bound ligand(s). The ligand stereochemical restraint file (CIF) requires a priori understanding of the ligand geometry within the active site, and creation of the CIF is often an error-prone process owing to the great variety of potential ligand chemistry and structure. Stereochemical restraints have been replaced with more robust functionals through the integration of the linear-scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics (SE-QM) program DivCon with the PHENIX X-ray refinement engine. The PHENIX/DivCon package has been thoroughly validated on a population of 50 protein-ligand Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures with a range of resolutions and chemistry. The PDB structures used for the validation were originally refined utilizing various refinement packages and were published within the past five years. PHENIX/DivCon does not utilize CIF(s), link restraints and other parameters for refinement and hence it does not make as many a priori assumptions about the model. Across the entire population, the method results in reasonable ligand geometries and low ligand strains, even when the original refinement exhibited difficulties, indicating that PHENIX/DivCon is applicable to both single-structure and high-throughput crystallography.

  16. Studies on prevalence of biofilm associated genes and primary observation on sasX gene in clinical isolates of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS).

    PubMed

    Soumya, Kandammuriyil Radhakrishnan; Mathew, Shiji; Sugathan, Sheela; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, Edayileveettil Krishnankutty

    2016-04-01

    Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are nosocomial pathogens that cause indwelling medical device associated infections due to its biofilm forming potential and multiple antibiotic resistance. The current study focused on species identification, antibiotic resistance profile and molecular basis of biofilm formation and attachment of CoNS isolated from clinical samples. Along with this, molecular screening for mecA and newly identified surface colonization protein encoded by sasX gene was also conducted. S. epidermidis (n = 19, 47%) was identified as the most prevalent CoNS species and very interestingly two biofilm forming, mecA positive S. epidermidis isolates were found to carry all the biofilm associated genes screened in this study, which indicates its potential to form the strong biofilm. Another novel observation of the study is the detection of sasX gene in one biofilm positive S. epidermidis isolate. The study also identified one doxycycline resistant mecA positive, multidrug resistant S. haemolyticus isolate. In conclusion, the study signifies the existence of multiple biofilm related genes, multidrug resistance and the presence of sasX gene among clinical isolates of CoNS.

  17. Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS): A potential NLO material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinakaran, Paul M.; Kalainathan, S.

    2013-07-01

    4-Chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS) a new organic nonlinear optical material has been synthesized. Employing slow evaporation method, good optical quality single crystals (dimensions up to 6 × 2 × 3 mm3) have been grown using ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) as a solvent. The grown crystals have been subjected to various characterizations such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton NMR, solid UV absorption, SHG studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal system belongs to monoclinic with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum has been recorded and found that the cut off wavelength is 380 nm. Functional groups and the structure of the title compound have been confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic analyses respectively. Molecular mass of the CONS confirmed by the high resolution mass spectral analysis .The thermal behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by TG/DTA analysis and it shows the melting point is at 188.66 °C. Dislocations and growth pattern present in the grown crystal revealed by the etching study. The mechanical strength of the CONS crystal has been studied by Vicker's hardness measurement. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal has been determined by Kurtz and Perry powder test which revealed that the CONS crystal (327 mV) has 15 times greater efficiency than that of KDP (21.7 mV).

  18. Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS): a potential NLO material.

    PubMed

    Dinakaran, Paul M; Kalainathan, S

    2013-07-01

    4-Chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS) a new organic nonlinear optical material has been synthesized. Employing slow evaporation method, good optical quality single crystals (dimensions up to 6×2×3 mm(3)) have been grown using ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) as a solvent. The grown crystals have been subjected to various characterizations such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton NMR, solid UV absorption, SHG studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal system belongs to monoclinic with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum has been recorded and found that the cut off wavelength is 380 nm. Functional groups and the structure of the title compound have been confirmed by FTIR and (1)H NMR spectroscopic analyses respectively. Molecular mass of the CONS confirmed by the high resolution mass spectral analysis .The thermal behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by TG/DTA analysis and it shows the melting point is at 188.66 °C. Dislocations and growth pattern present in the grown crystal revealed by the etching study. The mechanical strength of the CONS crystal has been studied by Vicker's hardness measurement. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal has been determined by Kurtz and Perry powder test which revealed that the CONS crystal (327 mV) has 15 times greater efficiency than that of KDP (21.7 mV).

  19. Accurate macromolecular crystallographic refinement: incorporation of the linear scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics program DivCon into the PHENIX refinement package

    PubMed Central

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Plumley, Joshua A.; Martin, Roger I.; Merz, Kenneth M.; Westerhoff, Lance M.

    2014-01-01

    Macromolecular crystallographic refinement relies on sometimes dubious stereochemical restraints and rudimentary energy functionals to ensure the correct geometry of the model of the macromolecule and any covalently bound ligand(s). The ligand stereochemical restraint file (CIF) requires a priori understanding of the ligand geometry within the active site, and creation of the CIF is often an error-prone process owing to the great variety of potential ligand chemistry and structure. Stereochemical restraints have been replaced with more robust functionals through the integration of the linear-scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics (SE-QM) program DivCon with the PHENIX X-ray refinement engine. The PHENIX/DivCon package has been thoroughly validated on a population of 50 protein–ligand Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures with a range of resolutions and chemistry. The PDB structures used for the validation were originally refined utilizing various refinement packages and were published within the past five years. PHENIX/DivCon does not utilize CIF(s), link restraints and other parameters for refinement and hence it does not make as many a priori assumptions about the model. Across the entire population, the method results in reasonable ligand geometries and low ligand strains, even when the original refinement exhibited difficulties, indicating that PHENIX/DivCon is applicable to both single-structure and high-throughput crystallography. PMID:24816093

  20. Fragilidad y su asociación con mortalidad, hospitalizaciones y dependencia funcional en mexicanos de 60 años o más

    PubMed Central

    de León González, Enrique Díaz; Pérez, Héctor Eloy Tamez; Hermosillo, Hugo Gutiérrez; Rodríguez, Javier Armando Cedillo; Torres, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Fundamento y objetivo Determinar la asociación entre fragilidad y mortalidad, dependencia funcional, caídas y hospitalizaciones en el Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México (ENASEM). Sujetos y métodos Estudio prospectivo poblacional en México en el que se seleccionaron sujetos de 60 años o más, que fueron evaluados en las variables de fragilidad durante la primera vuelta del estudio en el año 2001 y que incluyó: dificultad para levantarse de una silla después de haber estado sentado(a) durante largo tiempo, pérdida de peso de 5 kilogramos o más en los últimos dos años y falta de energía. Los sujetos fueron catalogados como robustos, prefrágiles y frágiles cuando tenían cero, una o dos de las características anteriores, respectivamente. La mortalidad, hospitalizaciones, caídas y dependencia funcional fueron evaluadas en la segunda vuelta del estudio en el año 2003. Se calculó el riesgo relativo para cada una de las complicaciones, así como análisis multivariado con regresión de Cox para el caso de mortalidad y regresión logística para el resto. Resultados Los estados de prefragilidad y fragilidad se asociaron independientemente con mortalidad, con índices de riesgo ajustados de 1,61 (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC 95%] 1,01-2,55) y 1,94 (IC 95% 1,20-3,13), respectivamente. Sólo el estado de fragilidad se asoció independientemente con hospitalización y dependencia funcional, con una razón de momios ajustada de 1,53 (IC 95% 1,13-2,07) y 3,07 (IC 95% 1,76-5,34), respectivamente. No hubo asociación entre los estados de prefragilidad y fragilidad con caídas. Conclusión El estado de fragilidad se asocia independientemente con mortalidad, hospitalizaciones y disfuncionalidad en actividades básicas de la vida diaria en los siguientes dos años en población mexicana. PMID:21612803

  1. Aspergilosis cervical con diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse con cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección con pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con AI con invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfática aguda en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis por metotrexate por lo que inicia tratamiento con corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985

  2. Steelmaking Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-yan; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min; Yang, Xue-Min

    2014-10-01

    The phosphate-enrichment behavior has experimentally been investigated in CaO-SiO2-FeO-Fe2O3-P2O5 steelmaking slags. The reaction ability of structural units in the slags has been represented the mass action concentration from the developed ion and molecule coexistence theory (IMCT)- model based on the IMCT. The defined enrichment possibility and enrichment degree of solid solutions containing P2O5 from the developed IMCT- model have been verified from the experimental results. The effects of binary basicity, the mass percentage ratio , and mass percentage of P2O5 in the initial slags on phosphate-enrichment behavior in the slags has also been discussed. The results show that the P2O5 component can easily be bonded by CaO to form tricalcium phosphate 3 CaO·P2O5, and the formed 3CaO·P2O5 can react with the produced dicalcium silicate 2CaO·SiO2 to generate solid-solution 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 under fixed cooling conditions. The maximum value of the defined enrichment degree of solid-solution 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 is obtained as 0.844 under conditions of binary basicity as 2.5 and the mass percentage ratio as 0.955 at fixed cooling conditions.

  3. 40 CFR 63.626 - Performance tests and compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...—Spectrophotometric Method. (E) Section XI, Methods of Analysis For Phosphoric Acid, Superphosphate, Triple... Phosphorus-P2O5, Method C—Spectrophotometric Method. (4) To comply with § 63.625(f)(1) or (2), the owner or...—Spectrophotometric Method, or, (vi) The P2O5 content (Rp) of the product stored shall be determined using...

  4. Should a Preschool Child with Acute Episodic Wheeze be Treated with Oral Corticosteroids? A Pro/Con Debate.

    PubMed

    Beigelman, Avraham; Durrani, Sandy; Guilbert, Theresa W

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, preschool-aged children with an acute wheezing episode have been treated with oral corticosteroids (OCSs) based on the efficacy of OCSs in older children and adolescents. However, this practice has been recently challenged based on the results of recent studies. The argument supporting the use of OCSs underscores the observation that many children with recurrent preschool wheezing develop atopic disease in early life which predicts both an increased risk to develop asthma in later life and response to OCS therapy. Further, review of the literature demonstrates heterogeneity of study designs, OCS dosage, interventions, study medication adherence, and settings and overall lack of predefined preschool wheezing phenotypes. The heterogeneity of these studies does not allow a definitive recommendation discouraging OCS use. Advocates against the use of OCSs in this population argue that most of studies investigating the efficacy of OCSs in acute episodic wheeze in preschool-aged children have not demonstrated beneficial effects. Moreover, repeated OCS bursts may be associated with adverse effects. Finally, both sides can agree that there is a significant need to conduct efficacy trials evaluating OCS treatment in preschool-aged children with recurrent wheezing targeted at phenotypes that would be expected to respond to OCSs. This article presents a summary of recent literature regarding the use of OCSs for acute episodic wheezing in preschool-aged children and a "pro" and "con" debate for such use.

  5. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry N.; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Tom; Callantine, Todd J.; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This document is an update to the operations and procedures envisioned for NASA s Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1). The ATD-1 Concept of Operations (ConOps) integrates three NASA technologies to achieve high throughput, fuel-efficient arrival operations into busy terminal airspace. They are Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM) for precise time-based schedules to the runway and points within the terminal area, Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) decision support tools for terminal controllers to better manage aircraft delay using speed control, and Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics and flight crew procedures to conduct airborne spacing operations. The ATD-1 concept provides de-conflicted and efficient operations of multiple arrival streams of aircraft, passing through multiple merge points, from top-of-descent (TOD) to the Final Approach Fix. These arrival streams are Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from en route altitude to the runway, using primarily speed control to maintain separation and schedule. The ATD-1 project is currently addressing the challenges of integrating the three technologies, and their implantation into an operational environment. The ATD-1 goals include increasing the throughput of high-density airports, reducing controller workload, increasing efficiency of arrival operations and the frequency of trajectory-based operations, and promoting aircraft ADS-B equipage.

  6. Con-forming bodies: the interplay of machines and bodies and the implications of agency in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lisa A

    2016-06-01

    Attending to the material discursive constructions of the patient body within cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in radiotherapy treatments, in this paper I describe how bodies and machines co-create images. Using an analytical framework inspired by Science and Technology Studies and Feminist Technoscience, I describe the interplay between machines and bodies and the implications of materialities and agency. I argue that patients' bodies play a part in producing scans within acceptable limits of machines as set out through organisational arrangements. In doing so I argue that bodies are fabricated into the order of work prescribed and embedded within and around the CBCT system, becoming, not only the subject of resulting images, but part of that image. The scan is not therefore a representation of a passive subject (a body) but co-produced by the work of practitioners and patients who actively control (and contort) and discipline their body according to protocols and instructions and the CBCT system. In this way I suggest they are 'con-forming' the CBCT image. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/qysCcBGuNSM.

  7. Evaluation of GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIM and GOCO01S Geopotential Models in Venezuela and Caribbean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orihuela, N. D.; Garcia, A. D.; Tabare, T.; Scientific Team Of Venezuelan; Caribbean Crustal Study From Satellital Data

    2010-12-01

    This paper shows two maps of the magnitude of the surface gravity vector (MSGV) of Venezuela and Caribbean region at 1:500.000 scale in the geographic window between the 0-20 north latitude and 74-58 western longitude (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2), that were generated from GOCE gravity gradients data provided by the European Space Agency (ESA). The maps that are showed come from the combined global gravity field model GOCO01s [GOCO Consortium., 2010] and from the satellite-only global gravity field model GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIM [Pail et al., 2010], both of 224 degree. The DEMs used for the evaluation of the MSGV are: Etopo2v2 [NGDC., 2006] and Etopo1 [Amante and Eakins, 2009] respectively. The data processing was done using: Shm2func [ICGEM., 2007]; Goce User Toolbox [ESA., 2009]; Gravsoft package [Tscherning et al., 1992] and Oasis Montaj (Geosoft). This research shows a review of observed gravity in the main geological provinces of the Venezuela and Caribbean region geography, revealing gravitational features important of the geological structures that are in Venezuelan and Caribbean subsurface.

  8. Laboratory simulation of Kuiper belt object volatile ices under ionizing radiation: CO-N2 ices as a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y S; Zhang, F; Kaiser, R I

    2011-09-21

    The exposure of icy Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) by ionizing radiation was simulated in this case of exposing carbon monoxide-nitrogen (CO-N(2)) ices by energetic electrons. The radiation-induced chemical processing was monitored on-line and in situ via FTIR spectroscopy and quadrupole mass spectrometry. Besides the array of carbon oxides being reproduced as in neat irradiated carbon monoxide (CO) ices studied previously, the radiation exposure at 10 K resulted in the formation of nitrogen-bearing species of isocyanato radical (OCN), linear (l-NCN), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), plus diazirinone (N(2)CO). The infrared assignments of these species were further confirmed by isotopic shifts. The temporal evolution of individual species was found to fit in first-order reaction schemes, prepping up the underlying non-equilibrium chemistry on the formation of OCN, l-NCN, and NO radicals in particular. Also unique to the binary KBO model ices and viable for the future remote detection is diazirinone (N(2)CO) at 1860 cm(-1) (2ν(5)) formed at lower radiation exposure.

  9. Document-level classification of CT pulmonary angiography reports based on an extension of the ConText algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Brian E; Lee, Sean; Kang, Hyunseok Peter; Chapman, Wendy W

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we describe an application called peFinder for document-level classification of CT pulmonary angiography reports. peFinder is based on a generalized version of the ConText algorithm, a simple text processing algorithm for identifying features in clinical report documents. peFinder was used to answer questions about the disease state (pulmonary emboli present or absent), the certainty state of the diagnosis (uncertainty present or absent), the temporal state of an identified pulmonary embolus (acute or chronic), and the technical quality state of the exam (diagnostic or not diagnostic). Gold standard answers for each question were determined from the consensus classifications of three human annotators. peFinder results were compared to naive Bayes' classifiers using unigrams and bigrams. The sensitivities (and positive predictive values) for peFinder were 0.98(0.83), 0.86(0.96), 0.94(0.93), and 0.60(0.90) for disease state, quality state, certainty state, and temporal state respectively, compared to 0.68(0.77), 0.67(0.87), 0.62(0.82), and 0.04(0.25) for the naive Bayes' classifier using unigrams, and 0.75(0.79), 0.52(0.69), 0.59(0.84), and 0.04(0.25) for the naive Bayes' classifier using bigrams.

  10. Circulating microRNA Biomarkers as Liquid Biopsy for Cancer Patients: Pros and Cons of Current Assays.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shigeshi; Lam, Stella; Nagahara, Makoto; Hoon, Dave S B

    2015-10-23

    An increasing number of studies have focused on circulating microRNAs (cmiRNA) in cancer patients' blood for their potential as minimally-invasive biomarkers. Studies have reported the utility of assessing specific miRNAs in blood as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers; however, the methodologies are not validated or standardized across laboratories. Unfortunately, there is often minimum limited overlap in techniques between results reported even in similar type studies on the same cancer. This hampers interpretation and reliability of cmiRNA as potential cancer biomarkers. Blood collection and processing, cmiRNA extractions, quality and quantity control of assays, defined patient population assessment, reproducibility, and reference standards all affect the cmiRNA assay results. To date, there is no reported definitive method to assess cmiRNAs. Therefore, appropriate and reliable methodologies are highly necessary in order for cmiRNAs to be used in regulated clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this review, we summarize the developments made over the past decade towards cmiRNA detection and discuss the pros and cons of the assays.

  11. Status and Progress of a Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable to BE Installed in the con EDISON Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, J.; Folts, D.; Yuan, J.; Henderson, N.; Lindsay, D.; Knoll, D.; Rey, C.; Duckworth, R.; Gouge, M.; Wolff, Z.; Kurtz, S.

    2010-04-01

    In the last decade, significant advances in the performance of second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire have made it suitable for commercially viable applications such as electric power cables and fault current limiters. Currently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security is co-funding the design, development and demonstration of an inherently fault current limiting HTS cable under the Hydra project with American Superconductor and Consolidated Edison. The cable will be approximately 300 m long and is being designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The underground cable will be installed and energized in New York City. The project is led by American Superconductor teamed with Con Edison, Ultera (Southwire and nkt cables joint venture), and Air Liquide. This paper describes the general goals, design criteria, status and progress of the project. Fault current limiting has already been demonstrated in 3 m prototype cables, and test results on a 25 m three-phase cable will be presented. An overview of the concept of a fault current limiting cable and the system advantages of this unique type of cable will be described.

  12. Monitoring chemical reactions by low-field benchtop NMR at 45 MHz: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Silva Elipe, Maria Victoria; Milburn, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring chemical reactions is the key to controlling chemical processes where NMR can provide support. High-field NMR gives detailed structural information on chemical compounds and reactions; however, it is expensive and complex to operate. Conversely, low-field NMR instruments are simple and relatively inexpensive alternatives. While low-field NMR does not provide the detailed information as the high-field instruments as a result of their smaller chemical shift dispersion and the complex secondary coupling, it remains of practical value as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool and is complimentary to other established methods, such as ReactIR and Raman spectroscopy. We have tested a picoSpin-45 (currently under ThermoFisher Scientific) benchtop NMR instrument to monitor three types of reactions by 1D (1) H NMR: a Fischer esterification, a Suzuki cross-coupling, and the formation of an oxime. The Fischer esterification is a relatively simple reaction run at high concentration and served as proof of concept. The Suzuki coupling is an example of a more complex, commonly used reaction involving overlapping signals. Finally, the oxime formation involved a reaction in two phases that cannot be monitored by other PAT tools. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of monitoring these reactions at a low-field of 45 MHz by 1D (1) H NMR. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The Use of Laser Microdissection in Forensic Sexual Assault Casework: Pros and Cons Compared to Standard Methods.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sergio; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Porto, Maria J; Cainé, Laura

    2017-01-30

    Sexual assault samples are among the most frequently analyzed in a forensic laboratory. These account for almost half of all samples processed routinely, and a large portion of these cases remain unsolved. These samples often pose problems to traditional analytic methods of identification because they consist most frequently of cell mixtures from at least two contributors: the victim (usually female) and the perpetrator (usually male). In this study, we propose the use of current preliminary testing for sperm detection in order to determine the chances of success when faced with samples which can be good candidates to undergo analysis with the laser microdissection technology. Also, we used laser microdissection technology to capture fluorescently stained cells of interest differentiated by gender. Collected materials were then used for DNA genotyping with commercially available amplification kits such as Minifiler, Identifiler Plus, NGM, and Y-Filer. Both the methodology and the quality of the results were evaluated to assess the pros and cons of laser microdissection compared with standard methods. Overall, the combination of fluorescent staining combined with the Minifiler amplification kit provided the best results for autosomal markers, whereas the Y-Filer kit returned the expected results regardless of the used method.

  14. Special funding schemes for innovative medical devices in French hospitals: the pros and cons of two different approaches.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Nicolas; van den Brink, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    Financing innovative medical devices is an important challenge for national health policy makers, and a crucial issue for hospitals. However, when innovative medical devices are launched on the European market there is generally little clinical evidence regarding both efficacy and safety, both because of the flaws in the European system for regulating such devices, and because they are at an early stage of development. To manage the uncertainty surrounding the reimbursement of innovation, several European countries have set up temporary funding schemes to generate evidence about the effectiveness of devices. This article explores two different French approaches to funding innovative in-hospital devices and collecting supplementary data: the coverage with evidence development (CED) scheme introduced under Article L. 165-1-1 of the French Social Security Code; and national programs for hospital-based research. We discuss pros and cons of both approaches in the light of CED policies in Germany and the UK. The CED policies for devices share common limitations. Thus, transparency of CED processes should be enhanced and decisions need to be made in a timely way. Finally, we think that closer collaboration between manufacturers, health authorities and hospitals is essential to make CED policies more operational.

  15. Virgin Caenorhabditis remanei females are attracted to a coital pheromone released by con-specific copulating males

    PubMed Central

    Markert, Mathew; García, Luis René

    2013-01-01

    The gonochoristic soil nematode Caenorhabditis remanei strictly requires copulation for species propagation. Males of this species are sexually promiscuous with females of other species; therefore, we asked in this study whether virgin C. remanei females display evidence of mate choice. We digitally recorded and measured the locomotor behaviors of one or more virgin females in the presence of a single male on a 5 mm diameter mating lawn. We observed that initially only the male modifies his locomotor trajectory to another animal on the mating lawn; the virgin females showed no locomotor bias toward the mate-searching male. However, once a male started to copulate, females in the vicinity altered their movement trajectories toward the copulating couple. Newly inseminated females are refractive to the coital signal, but partially regain their attraction to copulating males after 24 h. We found only copulating males with an intact gonad can attract females, and that the coital signal can be broadcasted at least 1.5 mm through the air. Unlike males, which are also attracted to hetero-specific females, virgin C. remanei females will only crawl toward a copulating con-specific male. We suggest that Caenorhabditis females use the coital signal as a pheromone to identify a vigorous male of their own species. PMID:24058874

  16. Balancing the pros and cons of GMOs: socio-scientific argumentation in pre-service teacher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinici, Ayhan

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the role of the discursive process in the act of scientific knowledge building. Specifically, it links scientific knowledge building to risk perception of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). To this end, this study designed and implemented a three-stage argumentation programme giving pre-service teachers (PSTs) the opportunity to consider, discuss and construct shared decisions about GMOs. The study involved 101 third-year PSTs from two different classes, randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The study utilised both quantitative and qualitative methods. During the quantitative phase, researchers administered a pre- and post-intervention scale to measure both groups' risk perception of GMOs. During the qualitative phase, data were collected from the experimental group alone through individual and group reports and an open-ended questionnaire. T-test results showed a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups' risk perception of GMOs. Qualitative analysis also revealed differences, for example, in PSTs' weighing of the pros and cons of scientific research demonstrating positive results of GMOs. In addition, PSTs' acceptance of GMOs increased. Consequently, this study suggests that developing familiarity with scientific enterprise may play an effective role in adopting a scientific perspective as well as a more balanced risk perception of GMOs.

  17. Circulating microRNA Biomarkers as Liquid Biopsy for Cancer Patients: Pros and Cons of Current Assays

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Shigeshi; Lam, Stella; Nagahara, Makoto; Hoon, Dave S. B.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have focused on circulating microRNAs (cmiRNA) in cancer patients’ blood for their potential as minimally-invasive biomarkers. Studies have reported the utility of assessing specific miRNAs in blood as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers; however, the methodologies are not validated or standardized across laboratories. Unfortunately, there is often minimum limited overlap in techniques between results reported even in similar type studies on the same cancer. This hampers interpretation and reliability of cmiRNA as potential cancer biomarkers. Blood collection and processing, cmiRNA extractions, quality and quantity control of assays, defined patient population assessment, reproducibility, and reference standards all affect the cmiRNA assay results. To date, there is no reported definitive method to assess cmiRNAs. Therefore, appropriate and reliable methodologies are highly necessary in order for cmiRNAs to be used in regulated clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this review, we summarize the developments made over the past decade towards cmiRNA detection and discuss the pros and cons of the assays. PMID:26512704

  18. Conózcanos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Principal de la EPA: información sobre el Administrador o la Administradora, los altos directivos; ubicaciones y direcciones de las oficinas; presupuesto, la planificación y los resultados de rendimiento

  19. The Classics, Con Brio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James

    1978-01-01

    Sponsored by a consortium of 30 American universities, Rome's Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies offers a year of study to American undergraduate classics majors. Instructors are also American and normally stay only a year; teaching assistants are always ex-students of the center. Extensive field trips are an important part of the…

  20. Neo-Conned University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Andee

    2014-01-01

    Censorship, says Australian political theorist John Keane (1991), can "echo within us, take up residence within ourselves, spying on us, a private amanuensis who reminds us never to go too far... It makes us zip our lips, tremble and think twice" (p. 39). It can also make us sick. The author states that this is her argument here: that,…

  1. Fotodensitometro realizzato con microscopio.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giovanni, G.

    1989-02-01

    This work describes the chracteristics and use of a microphotometer suitable for the measure of photographic density of photos of stars. The optics is a normal microscope which projects the small photographic image of a star on the plate of a photodiode. This high sensitivity instrument is easy to build up.

  2. [Weighing pros and cons].

    PubMed

    de Wit, W

    1992-03-15

    An adequate, high-quality animal health service is indispensable to animal production in the Netherlands. Modern intensive animal husbandry, with its high density of animals, needs a considerable input of knowledge, vaccines and drugs. The consumer expects healthy and especially safe products. These two goals are in seeming contradiction. Moreover, veterinary help, the necessary use of drugs, the supervision and control of AID (Agricultural Inspection Services) and RVV (Inspection Service for Meat and Meat Products) add to the already substantial costs of modern animal husbandry. From the point of view of integral quality control, the question is what changes are necessary to achieve a more effective health service. Goals for the future include: reducing the structural dependence on drugs and additives; substantially reducing the number of active substances used; increasing consumer confidence in animal products.

  3. Concepciones Alternativas de "Fotosintesis" en estudiantes Universitarios del curso basico de Biologia y posibles correcciones con el Modelo Educativo MODEF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jesus Roman, Sandra

    Concepciones Alternativas de Fotosíntesis en estudiantes Universitariosdel curso básico de Biología y posibles correcciones con el Modelo Educativo MODEF El modelo educativo para la enseñanza de Fotosíntesis (MODEF) se implantó para trabajar el problema de las concepciones alternativas (CA) en un curso de Biología General. Se evaluaron los resultados en cuanto al logro del aprendizaje significativo. La pregunta central de la investigación fue: ¿Cómo aporta el modelo educativo en la didáctica y comprensión del tema de fotosíntesis? Se efectuó una investigación acción con una fase cuantitativa y una cualitativa. Para la fase cuantitativa se elaboró una prueba para determinar las concepciones alternativas, se validó y se sometió a los estudiantes que participaron en el estudio antes y después de ofrecer la unidad de metabolismo celular. Los participantes eran estudiantes de primer año de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en Bayamón (UPRB). Se llevó a cabo un análisis de consistencia interna de la prueba mediante el método Alfa de Cronbach. Se analizaron las contestaciones a cada pregunta mediante la prueba de Ji cuadrado de contingencia, se efectuó la prueba de t y el coeficiente r de Pearson. La fase cualitativa incluyó la observación participativa de la investigadora- profesora, las reflexiones de los estudiantes y la información de las entrevistas semi-estructuradas que se realizaron a tres estudiantes del curso. El análisis se llevó a cabo mediante el Modelo de Wolcott. Se trabajaron diez CA de las cuales siete fueron corregidas mediante el Modelo MODEF. Las actividades más importantes para el proceso de aprendizaje incluyeron el trabajo de investigación o búsqueda de información para hacer una presentación digital, la elaboración de tablas, los mapas de conceptos, el uso de visuales o videos y las analogías para explicar conceptos o procesos. En conclusión: se recomienda el uso del Modelo MODEF para la discusión del tema de

  4. Pros and Cons of Using the Informed Basis Set to Account for Hemodynamic Response Variability with Developmental Data.

    PubMed

    Cignetti, Fabien; Salvia, Emilie; Anton, Jean-Luc; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Assaiante, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conventional analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using the general linear model (GLM) employs a neural model convolved with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF) peaking 5 s after stimulation. Incorporation of a further basis function, namely the canonical HRF temporal derivative, accounts for delays in the hemodynamic response to neural activity. A population that may benefit from this flexible approach is children whose hemodynamic response is not yet mature. Here, we examined the effects of using the set based on the canonical HRF plus its temporal derivative on both first- and second-level GLM analyses, through simulations and using developmental data (an fMRI dataset on proprioceptive mapping in children and adults). Simulations of delayed fMRI first-level data emphasized the benefit of carrying forward to the second-level a derivative boost that combines derivative and nonderivative beta estimates. In the experimental data, second-level analysis using a paired t-test showed increased mean amplitude estimate (i.e., increased group contrast mean) in several brain regions related to proprioceptive processing when using the derivative boost compared to using only the nonderivative term. This was true especially in children. However, carrying forward to the second-level the individual derivative boosts had adverse consequences on random-effects analysis that implemented one-sample t-test, yielding increased between-subject variance, thus affecting group-level statistic. Boosted data also presented a lower level of smoothness that had implication for the detection of group average activation. Imposing soft constraints on the derivative boost by limiting the time-to-peak range of the modeled response within a specified range (i.e., 4-6 s) mitigated these issues. These findings support the notion that there are pros and cons to using the informed basis set with developmental data.

  5. Pros and Cons of Using the Informed Basis Set to Account for Hemodynamic Response Variability with Developmental Data

    PubMed Central

    Cignetti, Fabien; Salvia, Emilie; Anton, Jean-Luc; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Assaiante, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conventional analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using the general linear model (GLM) employs a neural model convolved with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF) peaking 5 s after stimulation. Incorporation of a further basis function, namely the canonical HRF temporal derivative, accounts for delays in the hemodynamic response to neural activity. A population that may benefit from this flexible approach is children whose hemodynamic response is not yet mature. Here, we examined the effects of using the set based on the canonical HRF plus its temporal derivative on both first- and second-level GLM analyses, through simulations and using developmental data (an fMRI dataset on proprioceptive mapping in children and adults). Simulations of delayed fMRI first-level data emphasized the benefit of carrying forward to the second-level a derivative boost that combines derivative and nonderivative beta estimates. In the experimental data, second-level analysis using a paired t-test showed increased mean amplitude estimate (i.e., increased group contrast mean) in several brain regions related to proprioceptive processing when using the derivative boost compared to using only the nonderivative term. This was true especially in children. However, carrying forward to the second-level the individual derivative boosts had adverse consequences on random-effects analysis that implemented one-sample t-test, yielding increased between-subject variance, thus affecting group-level statistic. Boosted data also presented a lower level of smoothness that had implication for the detection of group average activation. Imposing soft constraints on the derivative boost by limiting the time-to-peak range of the modeled response within a specified range (i.e., 4–6 s) mitigated these issues. These findings support the notion that there are pros and cons to using the informed basis set with developmental data. PMID:27471441

  6. Obtención de velocidades radiales de precisión con el espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Con el fin de ser empleados como espectros de referencia, han sido obtenidos recientemente 80 espectrogramas de estrellas candidatas a patrones de velocidad radial de todos los tipos espectrales desde B0 a M5, con una dispersión aproximada de 7 Å/mm. Se estudia la influencia de distintos factores (flexión, refracción atmosférica, etc.) en la determinación de velocidades radiales. Se analizan diferentes técnicas de reducción y medición de velocidades, su aplicación a estrellas de diferentes tipos espectrales y velocidades de rotación y se discute la precisión obtenible en cada caso.

  7. Pretreatment with Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protected against ConA-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Inhibiting Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute liver injury in mice. Pretreatment with fucoidan protected liver function indicated by ALT, AST and histopathological changes by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In addition, intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by Bax, Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 were inhibited by fucoidan and the action was associated with the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 signal pathways. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus alleviated ConA-induced acute liver injury via the inhibition of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 pathways which were activated by TNF-α and IFN-γ. These findings could provide a potential powerful therapy for T cell-related hepatitis.

  8. Feasibility of aseptic processing of a low-acid multiphase food product (salsa con queso) using a continuous flow microwave system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Coronel, P; Simunovic, J; Sandeep, K P

    2007-04-01

    Aseptic processing of a low-acid multiphase food product using a continuous flow microwave heating system can combine the advantages of an aseptic process along with those of microwave heating. Dielectric properties of 2 different brands of 1 such product (salsa con queso) were measured under continuous flow conditions at a temperature range of 20 to 130 degrees C. At 915 MHz, the dielectric constant ranged from 58.7 at 20 degrees C to 41.3 at 130 degrees C with dielectric loss factor ranging from 41.0 at 20 degrees C to 145.5 at 130 degrees C. The loss tangent at 915 MHz ranged from 0.61 at 20 degrees C to 3.52 at 130 degrees C. The temperature profiles at the outlet during processing of salsa con queso in a 5-kW microwave unit showed a narrow temperature distribution between the center and the wall of the tube. The study showed the feasibility of aseptic processing of salsa con queso using a continuous flow microwave system.

  9. Distribución espacial de cúmulos y asociaciones estelares con diferentes edades en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bica, E.; Clariá, J. J.; Dottori, H.; Santos, J. F. C.; Piatti, A. E.

    Sobre la base de observaciones realizadas en Cerro Tololo y el Casleo, se presenta un catálogo con fotometría UBV integrada de 504 cúmulos y 120 asociaciones estelares en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes. Se determinan edades en términos de los tipos SWB y se identifican 38 cúmulos tipo VII, muchos de los cuales pueden ser cúmulos globulares clásicos. El tamaño de las distribuciones espaciales crece uniformemente con la edad (tipo SWB), en tanto que existe una diferencia en el cociente axial entre los grupos más jóvenes y más viejos que 30 millones de años, lo que implica una orientación aproximadamente de frente para los primeros y una posición inclinada ~ 45o para el segundo grupo. Las asimetrías en las distribuciones espaciales, juntamente con la falta de coincidencia de los centroides de los diferentes grupos de edad, sugiere que el disco de la Nube Mayor de Magallanes fue severamente perturbado en el pasado.

  10. Guided ion beam studies of the reactions of Con+ (n=1-18) with N2: Cobalt cluster mononitride and dinitride bond energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fuyi; Li, Ming; Tan, Lin; Armentrout, P. B.

    2008-05-01

    The reactions of Con+ (n=1-18) with N2 are measured as a function of kinetic energy over a range of 0-15eV in a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. A variety of Com+, ComN+, and ComN2+ (m⩽n) product ions are observed, all in endothermic processes, with collision-induced dissociation dominating the products for all clusters. Bond dissociation energies for both cobalt cluster nitrides and dinitrides are derived from threshold analysis of the energy dependence of the endothermic reactions using several different approaches. These values show only a mild dependence on cluster size over the range studied, although the Co13+-N bond energy is relatively weak. The bond energies of Con+-N for larger clusters suggest that a reasonable value for the desorption energy of atomic nitrogen from bulk phase cobalt is 6.3±0.2eV, which is somewhat lower than the only available value in the literature, an estimate based on the enthalpy of formation of bulk cobalt nitride. The trends in the cobalt nitride thermochemistry are also compared to previously determined metal-metal bond energies, D0(Con+-Co), and to D0(Fen+-N). Implications for catalytic ammonia production using cobalt versus iron are discussed.

  11. Conséquences des nouvelles formes de commande sur les matériaux de l'isolation statorique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellomo, J. P.; Lebey, Th.; Peltier, Fr.; Oraison, J. M.

    1997-05-01

    Use of inverter drive for rotating machines speed control leads to the application of new stress on stator insulation materials. The integrity of these materials under such stresses has therefore to be studied. Thanks to specially equipped motor, the different voltage shapes have been identified. Very short rise time fronts, large overvoltages and high oscillation frequencies are obtained. These voltages are then reproduced on laboratory samples (Polyethylene Terephtalate). The main result is the existence of trapped surface charges related both to the rise front value and to the existence of polar mechanisms in the material bulk. The consequences of this surface charge existence on the reliability of a real system are then discussed. L'utilisation de nouvelles formes de commande pour les machines à courant alternatif se traduit par l'apparition d'un nouveau type de contraintes sur les matériaux de l'isolation statorique. L'étude de leur comportement sous l'action de ce type de contraintes revêt un intérêt tout particulier pour la validation et la stabilité de ces systèmes dans le temps. Nous présentons, tout d'abord, ces différentes formes de tension identifiées à l'aide d'un moteur spécialement instrumenté. L'existence de fronts de tension très élevés, de surtensions importantes (jusqu'à 500V) et d'oscillations hautes fréquences (2MHz), est mise en évidence. La reproduction de ces contraintes en laboratoire sur des échantillons de polyesters (PolyÉthylène Térephthalate) permet alors de déterminer l'influence des formes de tension carrées sur les propriétés intrinsèques du matériau. Elle se traduit par l'existence d'une charge piégée en surface du diélectrique. Cette charge superficielle est associée, d'une part à l'existence de phénomènes de relaxation dans les matériaux étudiés et d'autre part à la valeur des fronts de tension appliqués. Pour finir, les conséquences possibles de l'existence de ces charges superficielles

  12. A methodological approach to comparing pros and cons of delocalizing villages: socio-economic and technical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagno, Eleonora; Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Petrucci, Olga; Forciniti, Pinuccia R.

    2014-05-01

    Cavallerizzo have been analysed within the frame of a PhD thesis by one of the authors. The present study focuses on the Cavallerizzo case study to discuss a methodological approach useful to comparing pros and cons of delocalizing villages, aiming at properly considering socio-economic effects in addition to technical issues.

  13. Emerging and Legacy Contaminants in The Foodweb in The Lower Columbia River: USGS ConHab Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, E. B.; Alvarez, D.; Counihan, T.; Elias, E.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hardiman, J.; Jenkins, J.; Mesa, M.; Morace, J.; Patino, R.; Torres, L.; Waite, I.; Zaugg, S.

    2012-12-01

    An interdisciplinary study, USGS Columbia River Contaminants and Habitat Characterization (ConHab) project, investigates transport pathways, chemical fate, and effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic media and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were co-deployed at each of 10 sites in 2008 to provide a measure of the dissolved concentrations of select PBDEs, chlorinated pesticides, and other EDCs. PBDE-47 was the most prevalent of the PBDEs detected. Numerous organochlorine pesticides, both banned and current-use, including hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradates, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and the endosulfan degradation products, were measured at each site. EDCs commonly detected included a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fragrances (galaxolide), pesticides (chlorpyrifos and atrazine), plasticizers (phthalates), and flame retardants (phosphates). The downstream sites tended to have the highest concentrations of contaminants in the lower Columbia River. In 2009 and 2010 passive samplers were deployed and resident largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and surface bed sediments were collected at three of the original sites representing a gradient of exposure based on 2008 results. Brain, fillet, liver, stomach, and gonad tissues were analyzed. Chemical concentrations were highest in livers, followed by brain, stomach, gonad, and, lastly, fillet. Concentrations of halogenated compounds in tissue samples ranged from <1 to 400 ng g-1 wet tissue. PBDEs, organochlorine pesticides, DDT and its degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected at all sites in nearly all organs tested. PBDE congeners most frequently detected and at the highest concentrations were PBDE-47 > PBDE-100 > PBDE-154

  14. The pros and cons of ecological risk assessment based on data from different levels of biological organization.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Jason R; Salice, Christopher J; Nisbet, Roger M

    2016-10-01

    Ecological risk assessment (ERA) is the process used to evaluate the safety of manufactured chemicals to the environment. Here we review the pros and cons of ERA across levels of biological organization, including suborganismal (e.g., biomarkers), individual, population, community, ecosystem and landscapes levels. Our review revealed that level of biological organization is often related negatively with ease at assessing cause-effect relationships, ease of high-throughput screening of large numbers of chemicals (it is especially easier for suborganismal endpoints), and uncertainty of the ERA because low levels of biological organization tend to have a large distance between their measurement (what is quantified) and assessment endpoints (what is to be protected). In contrast, level of biological organization is often related positively with sensitivity to important negative and positive feedbacks and context dependencies within biological systems, and ease at capturing recovery from adverse contaminant effects. Some endpoints did not show obvious trends across levels of biological organization, such as the use of vertebrate animals in chemical testing and ease at screening large numbers of species, and other factors lacked sufficient data across levels of biological organization, such as repeatability, variability, cost per study and cost per species of effects assessment, the latter of which might be a more defensible way to compare costs of ERAs than cost per study. To compensate for weaknesses of ERA at any particular level of biological organization, we also review mathematical modeling approaches commonly used to extrapolate effects across levels of organization. Finally, we provide recommendations for next generation ERA, submitting that if there is an ideal level of biological organization to conduct ERA, it will only emerge if ERA is approached simultaneously from the bottom of biological organization up as well as from the top down, all while employing

  15. Relación Entre el Tamaño Condilar y la Asimetría Facial Transversal en Individuos con Hiperplasia Condilar

    PubMed Central

    Olate, Sergio; Cantín, Mario; Alister, Juan Pablo; Uribe, Francisca; Navarro, Pablo; Olate, Gabriela; de Moraes, Márcio

    2016-01-01

    La asimetría facial es una patología de compromiso funcional y estético que puede estar generado por hiperplasia condilar; el objetivo de esta investigación es determinar la influencia del tamaño condilar en la asimetría facial. Doce sujetos fueron estudiados mediante el análisis de tomografía computadorizada cone beam; todos los pacientes presentaron cintigrama óseo que determino la presencia de hiperplasia condilar activa; el análisis se realizo en un software del sistema de captura modelo Pax Zenith, marca Vatech (Korea 2011), utilizando 90 kV y 120 mA; se obtuvo mediciones de la distancia antero-posterior, superior-inferior y medio-lateral de la cabeza del cóndilo, relacionándose con la posición del cóndilo con la línea mediana facial y la posición de puntos faciales entre incisivos centrales superior e inferior así como con el mentón. Los resultados mostraron un promedio de desvío de mentón de 6,5 mm considerando un cóndilo hiperplásico con un tamaño de 2,7 mm mas que los cóndilos normales. El desvío de incisivo central inferior determinó que por cada 1 mm de desvío dentario existe 2,2 mm de desvío de mentón. El cóndilo hiperplásico fue de mayor tamaño y se posiciono casi 2 mm mas hacia lateral que los cóndilos no hiperplásicos. Es posible concluir que el cóndilo hiperplásico presenta clara influencia en la asimetría facial transversa y es posible estimar una relación de tamaño condilar con grado de asimetría facial. PMID:28066127

  16. Flight Deck Surface Trajectory-based Operations (STBO): Results of Piloted Simulations and Implications for Concepts of Operation (ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foyle, David C.; Hooey, Becky L.; Bakowski, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    The results offour piloted medium-fidelity simulations investigating flight deck surface trajectory-based operations (STBO) will be reviewed. In these flight deck STBO simulations, commercial transport pilots were given taxi clearances with time and/or speed components and required to taxi to the departing runway or an intermediate traffic intersection. Under a variety of concept of operations (ConOps) and flight deck information conditions, pilots' ability to taxi in compliance with the required time of arrival (RTA) at the designated airport location was measured. ConOps and flight deck information conditions explored included: Availability of taxi clearance speed and elapsed time information; Intermediate RTAs at intermediate time constraint points (e.g., intersection traffic flow points); STBO taxi clearances via ATC voice speed commands or datal ink; and, Availability of flight deck display algorithms to reduce STBO RTA error. Flight Deck Implications. Pilot RTA conformance for STBO clearances, in the form of ATC taxi clearances with associated speed requirements, was found to be relatively poor, unless the pilot is required to follow a precise speed and acceleration/deceleration profile. However, following such a precise speed profile results in inordinate head-down tracking of current ground speed, leading to potentially unsafe operations. Mitigating these results, and providing good taxi RTA performance without the associated safety issues, is a flight deck avionics or electronic flight bag (EFB) solution. Such a solution enables pilots to meet the taxi route RTA without moment-by-moment tracking of ground speed. An avionics or EFB "error-nulling" algorithm allows the pilot to view the STBO information when the pilot determines it is necessary and when workload alloys, thus enabling the pilot to spread his/her attention appropriately and strategically on aircraft separation airport navigation, and the many other flight deck tasks concurrently required

  17. Estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de dos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes del disco con apariencia globular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

    Se presentan y discuten resultados obtenidos en el CASLEO y en el Observatorio de Las Campanas de dos cúmulos abiertos compactos con apariencia globular: Westerlund1 (BH197), ubicado en dirección hacia el centro galáctico, y Westerlund2. A partir de espectroscopía CCD integrada de ambos e imágenes CCD en las bandas VI obtenidas para el primero de ellos, se derivan sus parámetros fundamentales y se examinan sus apariencias estructurales. Se encuentra que Westerlund1 es un cúmulo joven (7 ± 3 millones de años), ubicado sobre el plano galáctico a 1.0 ± 0.4 kpc del sol, en una región caracterizada por una absorción excepcionalmente elevada (Av~=13.0 mag), en tanto que Westerlund2 es también un cúmulo joven (4-6 millones de años) ubicado sobre el plano, en una región afectada por una absorción menor (Av~=5.7 mag). Desde el punto de vista estructural, Westerlund 1 se presenta como uno de los pocos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes de la Galaxia con apariencia tipicamente globular, en contraste con los cúmulos azules de las Nubes de Magallanes en los cuales la apariencia globular constituye un fenómeno común. Westerlund2, aunque menos rico en estrellas, puede también ser incluído dentro de esta interesante clase de objetos.

  18. ConBr, A Lectin Purified from the Seeds of Canavalia brasiliensis, Protects Against Ischemia in Organotypic Culture of Rat Hippocampus: Potential Implication of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels.

    PubMed

    Rieger, D K; Navarro, E; Buendia, I; Parada, E; González-Lafuente, L; Leon, R; Costa, A P; Heinrich, I A; Nascimento, K S; Cavada, B S; Lopez, M G; Egea, J; Leal, R B

    2017-02-01

    Lectins are proteins that bind cellular glycans and can modulate various neuronal functions. We have evaluated the neuroprotective effect of ConBr, a lectin purified from the seeds of Canavalia brasiliensis in a model of rat organotypic hippocampal cultures (OHCs) exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). OGD for 15 min followed by 24 h re-oxygenation significantly increased cell death, caused mitochondrial depolarization and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CA1 region of OHCs. ConBr (0.1 μg/mL) added during the re-oxygenation period counteracted cell death, mitochondrial depolarization and overproduction of ROS induced by OGD. Moreover, ConBr restored the levels of Akt and ERK1 phosphorylation that were reduced by OGD. Modulation of intracellular Ca(2+) by ConBr was evaluated in isolated hippocampal neurons loaded with the fluorescent calcium dye Fluo-4/AM. ConBr (0.1 and 1 µg/mL) reduced by 25-30 % the Ca(2+) increment induced by 70 mM K(+). A sub effective concentration of ConBr (0.01 µg/mL) together with a sub effective concentration of the L-type calcium channel antagonist nifedipine (0.3 µM) conferred a synergic neuroprotective effect in OHCs subjected to OGD. In conclusion, ConBr provides OHCs neuroprotection against OGD. The mechanism was not fully addressed but it may involve modulation of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels by ConBr.

  19. Engaging Community With Promotores de Salud to Support Infant Nutrition and Breastfeeding Among Latinas Residing in Los Angeles County: Salud con Hyland's.

    PubMed

    Rios-Ellis, Britt; Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena T; Espinoza, Lilia; Galvez, Gino; Garcia-Vega, Melawhy

    2015-01-01

    The Salud con Hyland's Project: Comienzo Saludable, Familia Sana [Health With Hyland's Project: Healthy Start, Healthy Family],was developed to provide education and support to Latina mothers regarding healthy infant feeding practices and maternal health. The promotora-delivered intervention was comprised of two charlas (educational sessions) and a supplemental, culturally and linguistically relevant infant feeding and care rolling calendar. Results indicate that the intervention increased intention to breastfeed exclusively, as well as to delay infant initiation of solids by 5 to 6 months. Qualitative feedback identified barriers to maternal and child health education as well as highlighted several benefits of the intervention.

  20. [Modello di Management (Mo.Ma) del paziente affetto da schizofrenia: controllo della crisi, mantenimento, prevenzione delle ricadute e recovery con gli antipsicotici LAI].

    PubMed

    Brugnoli, Roberto; Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Marcellusi, Andrea; Mennini, Francesco S; De Filippis, Sergio; Carrus, Dario; Ballerini, Andrea; Francomano, Antonio; Ducci, Giuseppe; Del Casale, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. La schizofrenia colpisce circa l'1% della popolazione e rappresenta un grave disturbo mentale con un notevole impatto anche sul funzionamento sociale, lavorativo e sulle attività della vita quotidiana. Le persone con schizofrenia hanno un tasso di mortalità superiore di 2-2,5 rispetto a quello della popolazione generale. La non aderenza ai farmaci antipsicotici è uno dei più importanti fattori di rischio per le ricadute e le ospedalizzazioni, sia nei pazienti con disturbo cronico sia al primo episodio, e conseguentemente contribuisce all'aumento dei costi sanitari. Gli antipsicotici atipici LAI possono migliorare l'aderenza al trattamento contribuendo a diminuire i tassi di ricaduta nei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia fin dall'esordio. Gli obiettivi primari nella gestione dei pazienti schizofrenici sono diretti, non solo alla riduzione dei sintomi nel breve termine, ma anche al mantenimento fisico e della funzionalità mentale, migliorando la qualità della vita e promuovendo il recupero del paziente. Scopo. Proporre un modello integrato, basato sulle evidenze, che fornisca un algoritmo efficace per il recupero del paziente schizofrenico e indagare l'efficacia e la sicurezza degli antipsicotici LAI nel trattamento, nel mantenimento, nella prevenzione delle ricadute e nella recovery dei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia. Metodi. Dopo un'accurata analisi di letteratura abbiamo identificato, raccolto e analizzato gli elementi qualificanti per un'ottimale gestione del paziente schizofrenico, definendo un modello di gestione e selezione delle alternative terapeutiche. Conclusioni. Il modello di gestione della schizofrenia proposto potrebbe consentire un migliore recupero funzionale del paziente grazie alla scelta di iniziare il percorso terapeutico, fin dalle prime fasi del disturbo soprattutto se in giovane età e al primo episodio, con un farmaco atipico LAI. All'interno dei farmaci antipsicotici atipici la formulazione LAI rappresenta una scelta

  1. FACTORES SOCIO-ESTRUCTURALES Y EL ESTIGMA HACIA EL VIH/SIDA: EXPERIENCIAS DE PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS CON VIH/SIDA AL ACCEDER SERVICIOS DE SALUD

    PubMed Central

    RIVERA-DIAZ, MARINILDA; VARAS-DIAZ, NELSON; REYES-ESTRADA, MARCOS; SURO, BEATRIZ; CORIANO, DORALIS

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN El estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA continúa afectando la prestación de servicios de salud y el bienestar físico y mental de las personas con VIH/SIDA (PVS). Recientemente la literatura científica ha señalado la importancia de comprender las manifestaciones de estigma más allá de las interacciones individuales. Por tal razón, investigaciones recientes en y fuera de Puerto Rico enfatizan la importancia de entender cómo factores socio-estructurales (FSE) influyen en los procesos de estigmatización social. Con el propósito de examinar los FSE que influyen en las manifestaciones de estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA, realizamos y analizamos nueve grupos focales compuestos por hombres y mujeres en tratamiento para el VIH/SIDA que habían tenido experiencias estigmatizantes. Los participantes identificaron FSE relacionados a las manifestaciones de estigma, tales como el uso de viviendas especializadas, descentralización de los servicios de salud y el desarrollo de protocolos administrativos excluyentes en los servicios de salud. Los resultados demuestran la importancia de considerar los FSE en el desarrollo e implementación de intervenciones dirigidas a la población. PMID:24639599

  2. Potential pros and cons of external healthcare performance evaluation systems: real-life perspectives on Iranian hospital evaluation and accreditation program

    PubMed Central

    Jaafaripooyan, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Performance evaluation is essential to quality improvement in healthcare. The current study has identified the potential pros and cons of external healthcare evaluation programs, utilizing them subsequently to look into the merits of a similar case in a developing country. Methods: A mixed method study employing both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis techniques was adopted to achieve the study end. Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) and professionals were approached for two-stage process of data collection. Results: Potential advantages included greater attractiveness of high accreditation rank healthcare organizations to their customers/purchasers and boosted morale of their personnel. Downsides, as such, comprised the programs’ over-reliance on value judgment of surveyors, routinization and incurring undue cost on the organizations. In addition, the improved, standardized care processes as well as the judgmental nature of program survey were associated, as pros and cons, to the program investigated by the professionals. Conclusion: Besides rendering a tentative assessment of Iranian hospital evaluation program, the study provides those running external performance evaluations with a lens to scrutinize the virtues of their own evaluation systems through identifying the potential advantages and drawbacks of such programs. Moreover, the approach followed could be utilized for performance assessment of similar evaluation programs. PMID:25279381

  3. Pretreatment with Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protected against ConA-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Inhibiting Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute liver injury in mice. Pretreatment with fucoidan protected liver function indicated by ALT, AST and histopathological changes by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In addition, intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by Bax, Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 were inhibited by fucoidan and the action was associated with the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 signal pathways. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus alleviated ConA-induced acute liver injury via the inhibition of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 pathways which were activated by TNF-α and IFN-γ. These findings could provide a potential powerful therapy for T cell-related hepatitis. PMID:27035150

  4. On the role of localized surface plasmon resonance in UV-Vis light irradiated Au/TiO₂ photocatalysis systems: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhongjin; Wang, Xiaohong; Liu, Jun; Tian, Zunyi; Dai, Loucheng; He, Beibei; Han, Chao; Wu, Yigui; Zeng, Zhigang; Hu, Zhiyu

    2015-03-07

    The role of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in UV-Vis light irradiated Au/TiO2 photocatalysis systems has been investigated, and it is demonstrated experimentally for the first time that both pros and cons of LSPR exist simultaneously for this photocatalytic reaction. We have proved that when operating under mixed UV and green light irradiation, the LSPR injected hot electrons (from the Au nanoparticles to TiO2 under green light irradiation) may surmount the Schottky barrier (SB) formed between the Au nanoparticles and TiO2, and flow back into the TiO2. As a result, these electrons may compensate for and even surpass those transferred from TiO2 to the Au nanoparticles, thus accelerating the recombination of UV excited electron-hole pairs in TiO2. This is the negative effect of LSPR. On the other hand, more hot electrons existing on the surface of the Au nanoparticles due to LSPR would favor the photocatalytic reaction, which accompanied by the negative effect dominates the overall photocatalytic performance. The presented results reveal the multi-faceted essence of LSPR in Au/TiO2 structures, and is instructive for the application of metal-semiconductor composites in photocatalysis. Moreover, it is confirmed that the extent to which the above pros and cons of LSPR dominate the overall photocatalytic reaction depends on the intensity ratio of visible to UV light.

  5. The International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen): An Initiative by the NIMH and IGSLI to Study the Genetic Basis of Response to Lithium Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Thomas G.; Alda, Martin; Adli, Mazda; Akula, Nirmala; Ardau, Raffaella; Bui, Elise T.; Chillotti, Caterina; Cichon, Sven; Czerski, Piotr; Del Zompo, Maria; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Grof, Paul; Gruber, Oliver; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Joanna; Hoban, Rebecca; Iwata, Nakao; Kassem, Layla; Kato, Tadafumi; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Kliwicki, Sebastian; Kelsoe, John R.; Kusumi, Ichiro; Laje, Gonzalo; Leckband, Susan G.; Manchia, Mirko; MacQueen, Glenda; Masui, Takuya; Ozaki, Norio; Perlis, Roy H.; Pfennig, Andrea; Piccardi, Paola; Richardson, Sara; Rouleau, Guy; Reif, Andreas; Rybakowski, Janusz K.; Sasse, Johanna; Schumacher, Johannes; Severino, Giovanni; Smoller, Jordan W.; Squassina, Alessio; Turecki, Gustavo; Young, L. Trevor; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Bauer, Michael; McMahon, Francis J.

    2010-01-01

    For more than half a decade, lithium has been successfully used to treat bipolar disorder. Worldwide, it is considered the first-line mood stabilizer. Apart from its proven antimanic and prophylactic effects, considerable evidence also suggests an antisuicidal effect in affective disorders. Lithium is also effectively used to augment antidepressant drugs in the treatment of refractory major depressive episodes and prevent relapses in recurrent unipolar depression. In contrast to many psychiatric drugs, lithium has outlasted various pharmacotherapeutic ‘fashions’, and remains an indispensable element in contemporary psychopharmacology. Nevertheless, data from pharmacogenetic studies of lithium are comparatively sparse, and these studies are generally characterized by small sample sizes and varying definitions of response. Here, we present an international effort to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of lithium response in bipolar disorder. Following an initiative by the International Group for the Study of Lithium-Treated Patients (www.IGSLI.org) and the Unit on the Genetic Basis of Mood and Anxiety Disorders at the National Institute of Mental Health, lithium researchers from around the world have formed the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (www.ConLiGen.org) to establish the largest sample to date for genome-wide studies of lithium response in bipolar disorder, currently comprising more than 1,200 patients characterized for response to lithium treatment. A stringent phenotype definition of response is one of the hallmarks of this collaboration. ConLiGen invites all lithium researchers to join its efforts. PMID:20453537

  6. Medición de placas astrométricas obtenidas con el telescopio Astrográfico de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R. P.; Orellana, R.

    El Observatorio de La Plata cuenta con un gran número de placas de asteroides y cometas obtenidas con el telescopio astrográfico, que cubren gran parte del cielo del hemisferio sur. En 1996 se recopilaron y clasificaron 2187 placas (Beca para estudiantes de la AAA 1996) de las cuales 2031 corresponden a asteroides. Los datos de cada placa se volcaron en una base de datos creada para facilitar su manejo y preservar la información. A partir de este trabajo se revisaron los MPC electrónicos y se identificaron aquellas placas de asteroides pertenecientes a nuestra base de datos cuyos resultados no fueron publicados en los mismos. De un total de 400 placas que no aparecían publicadas sobresalía un paquete constituído por 40 placas obtenidas en 1977. Estas últimas fueron reducidas utilizando las posiciones y movimientos propios de las estrellas de referencia obtenidas del catálogo SAO 2000 dadas para el sistema FK5. Las posiciones calculadas fueron enviadas y publicadas en los Minor Planet Circulars (MPC).

  7. Con A-binding protein Zn-α2-glycoprotein on human sperm membrane is related to acrosome reaction and sperm fertility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Qu, F; Cao, X; Chen, G; Guo, Q; Ying, X; Guo, W; Lu, L; Ding, Z

    2012-04-01

    Fertilization, the recognition and fusion between spermatozoa and oocyte, involves various molecules on the spermatozoa and oocyte membranes. Concanavalin A (ConA)-binding proteins may be one of the molecules involved in mammal spermatozoa fertilization; however, their structure and function remain largely unknown. Here, we initially identified a ConA-binding protein, Zn-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), involved in regulating the acrosome reaction (AR) of human spermatozoa. ZAG is localized on the pre-equatorial region covering the acrosome, neck and tail (some parts of middle piece and principal piece respectively) regions of the acrosome intact human spermatozoa, and disappears in the acrosomal region of the acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. Polyclonal antibodies against human recombinant ZAG significantly reduced the AR and sperm capability binding to human zona pellucida or penetration into zona-free hamster oocytes. Furthermore, assessment of the signaling pathways regulated by ZAG revealed that ZAG affects sperm AR through both the cAMP/PKA and PKC pathways. These results indicate that ZAG, which is present on the human sperm membrane, plays a critical role in the AR and subsequently, may be involved in sperm fertility.

  8. Food for thought: a pilot study of the pros and cons of changing eating patterns within cognitive-behavioural therapy for the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Waller, Glenn; Evans, Jane; Pugh, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Evidence-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders has an early focus on behavioural changes around food intake. However, patients' anxiety around such change might account for why they often seem unmotivated in treatment. In order to determine the impact of changing intake, this pilot study of patients with bulimic disorders (N = 19) or anorexia nervosa (N = 9) used a mixed quantitative and qualitative design to retrospectively examine their perspectives of the short- and long-term pros and cons of such change. As expected, change was seen negatively in the short-term (with particularly high numbers reporting anxiety), but there were few reports of long-term negative outcomes. In contrast, there were both short- and long-term benefits of changing eating. The patients described what was helpful in making changes and what they had learned as a result. In both cases, their descriptions mapped closely onto the content and process of evidence-based CBT for the eating disorders. Although there is a need for more extensive research, these findings suggest that patients (and therapists) might benefit from being aware of the contrast between the short- and the long-term pros and cons of changing eating within CBT for the eating disorders.

  9. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  10. [Effect of weight in scales to determine the quality of life in postmenopause].

    PubMed

    Carranza-Lira, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: existen diversas escalas para medir el grado de afectación de la calidad de vida en la mujer climatérica (la escala Cervantes [EC], el índice de Kupperman [IK] y la escala SUMEVA). El objetivo es determinar el grado de correlación entre el IK modificado, la EC de calidad de vida y la escala SUMEVA, así como su comportamiento según el peso corporal. Métodos: se estudiaron 29 pacientes posmenopáusicas. Se les aplicó el IK modificado, la EC de calidad de vida y la escala SUMEVA. Se compararon las distintas escalas con la prueba de correlación de Pearson. Luego el grupo se dividió en dos según el índice de masa corporal (IMC): grupo 1: IMC = 27 y grupo 2: IMC > 27. Para comparar los grupos se utilizó t de Student para muestras independientes. Se hizo análisis de correlación de Pearson en el grupo completo y en cada grupo por separado. Resultados: se estudiaron 29 pacientes cuya edad fue 49.9 ± 6.2 años. La puntuación de las distintas escalas fue: IK modificado no ponderado: 24.5 ± 11.7, SUMEVA: 65.0 ± 48.4 y EC de calidad de vida: 67.2 ± 30.6. Hubo correlación entre el IK modificado y la EC 0.681 (p < 0.001), entre el IK y el SUMEVA 0.860, (p < 0.001) y entre el SUMEVA y la escala Cervantes 0.770 (p < 0.001). Conclusión: la escala SUMEVA es un instrumento confiable para evaluar calidad de vida en la mujer posmenopáusica.

  11. Errores sistemáticos del Catálogo Fundamental FK5, deducidos de las observaciones con Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII, en el Hemisferio Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, W. T.; Podestá, R. C.; Alonso, E.; Actis, E. V.; Pacheco, A. M.; Bustos, G.; Lizhi, L.; Zezhi, W.; Fanmiao, Z.; Hongqi, W.; Perdomo, R.; González, A.; Gómez, G.

    Se dan los resultados obtenidos de los Errores Sistemáticos del Catálogo Fundamental FK5, Δ α δ, Δ α α, Δ δ α y Δ δ δ, derivados de las observaciones estelares con el Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII del Observatorio de Beijing instalado en el Observatorio Astronómico ``Félix Aguilar'' de San Juan, de acuerdo al Proyecto de Colaboración entre los observatorios de San Juan, Beijing y La Plata. Se han usado los residuos seleccionados de 11000 estrellas aproximadamente, derivados de más de 400000 pasajes estelares en 1550 días, desde Febrero de 1992 a Marzo de 1997. La precisión media de los residuos es de 0,"043.

  12. Dinámica y frecuencias características de una protuberancia solar observada con los instrumentos SUMER y CDS/SOHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovira, M.; Costa, A.; Bocchialini, K.

    La estructura de la protuberancia estudiada puede dividirse en cuatro regiones. A partir del análisis de las imágenes del CDS y los espectros del SUMER utilizando técnicas de multiresolución con Wavelets se obtuvieron las frecuencias y velocidades relativas de cada una de las regiones. Se observan frecuencias características del orden de los 5 min y otras de largo período. Se obtuvo una fuerte anticorrelación entre las intensidades y las velocidades Doppler. La presencia de las oscilaciones de 5 min en todas las regiones sugieren el acoplamiento entre la estructura cromosférica y la protuberancia.

  13. Experience in managing a large-scale rescreening of Papanicolaou smears and the pros and cons of measuring proficiency with visual and written examinations.

    PubMed

    Rube, I F

    1989-01-01

    Experiences in a large-scale interlaboratory rescreening of Papanicolaou smears are detailed, and the pros and cons of measuring proficiency in cytology are discussed. Despite the additional work of the rescreening project and some psychological and technical problems, it proved to be a useful measure of the laboratory's performance as a whole. One problem to be avoided in future similar studies is the creation of too many diagnostic categories. Individual testing and certification have been shown to be accurate predictors of proficiency. For cytology, such tests require a strong visual component to test interpretation and judgment skills, such as by the use of glass slides or photomicrographs. The potential of interactive videodisc technology for facilitating cytopathologic teaching and assessment is discussed.

  14. Broadening, shifting, and line asymmetries in the 2<--0 band of CO and CO-N2: Experimental results and theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Bouanich, J. P.; Benner, D. Chris; May, A. D.; Drummond, J. R.

    2000-07-01

    We have measured the room temperature, widths, pressure shifts, and line asymmetry coefficients for many transitions of the first overtone band of CO and CO perturbed by N2. The broadening coefficients were obtained with an accuracy of about 1%. The pure CO profiles have been fitted by a Voigt profile while the CO-N2 spectral profiles have been fitted with a Lorentz and an empirical line shape model (HCv) that blends together a hard collision model and a speed-dependent Lorentz profile. In addition to the Voigt, Lorentz, and HCv models, we have added a dispersion profile to account for weak line mixing. The line broadening and shift coefficients are compared to semiclassical calculations employing a variety of intermolecular interactions. The line asymmetry results are compared to line mixing calculations based on the energy corrected sudden (ECS) model. The results indicate that effects other than line mixing also contribute to the measured line asymmetry.

  15. Pros and Cons of Physical/Empirical SAR Altimetry Retracking in Seasonally Ice-Covered Waters in Preparation for Sentinel-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Maulik; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars

    2015-12-01

    An investigation is performed into the retrieval of sea surface heights in the Arctic Ocean to evaluate the determination of seasonal sea level in the Arctic Ocean from satellite altimetry. Physical retrackers assume a uniform probability density function for the wave height within the footprint which is frequently compromised in the Arctic Ocean due to the presence of seasonal sea ice and the period of initial freezing of the ocean. Preliminary investigations highlight the pros of the empirical retrackers for seasonal sea ice covered regions as it does not assume anything about physical properties and the pros of a physical retracker for either permanent near fully ice covered or open ocean. Comparison with tide gauge data is performed in this study to highlight the pros and cons of physical and empirical retracking in the Arctic Ocean.

  16. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    The present article is the analysis of a conversation between the author and Lara, a four-yearold- girl, enrolled in nursery school, while she makes a drawing of the Earth. It took place outside school environment and without any other person around to avoid interference during the interview. According to Ferreira & Silva (2004), a researcher can only comprehend a child's drawing, or form, by listening to him/her while he/she is creating it. Lara presented the traditional flat drawing, picturing the sky parallel to the ground, as reported by Nardi & Carvalho (1996). However, when asked to draw the World - term used by Butterworth et al. (2002), in order to avoid unnecessary confusion - she represented it by a circle, with herself on the surface. Her drawings led to the conclusion that such girl does not know yet the World in which she lives is the Earth, and probably because of that, within her age and consequent maturity, she accurately differentiates the concepts of land and Earth. El presente artículo analiza una entrevista libre, mientras una niña de 4 años y 4 meses, matriculada en el pregrado, dibuja la Tierra. Esta entrevista se realizó fuera del ambiente escolar y sin otra persona alrededor que pudiera interferir. De acuerdo con Ferreira Silva (2004), para quien investiga es posible conocer realmente lo que un niño o una niña pone en el papel a través de grafismos y/o dibujos si se lo escucha durante el proceso de creación de la escritura con imágenes. La niña, en este caso, representa la Tierra con el tradicional dibujo plano y el "cielo" paralelo al suelo, conforme analizaron Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Pero, cuando se Le solicita dibujar el "Mundo" - palabra empleada en un trabajo de Butterworth et al. (2002), con intención de no provocar "confusiones" innecesarias a sus sujetos de investigación- lo representa de forma circular, poniéndose sobre su superficie. Sus dibujos llevan a concluir que esta niña aún no tiene conocimiento que el mundo

  17. 21 CFR 74.2053 - D&C Black No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... may be avoided by current good manufacturing practices: (1) Calcium hydroxyapatite (CaO and P2O5), not... face powder. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive shall conform to the requirements of §...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2053 - D&C Black No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... may be avoided by current good manufacturing practices: (1) Calcium hydroxyapatite (CaO and P2O5), not... face powder. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive shall conform to the requirements of §...

  19. 40 CFR 60.233 - Monitoring of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate a flow monitoring device which can be used to determine the mass flow of phosphorus... record of equivalent P2O5 feed by first determining the total mass rate in Mg/hr of...

  20. 40 CFR 60.233 - Monitoring of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate a flow monitoring device which can be used to determine the mass flow of phosphorus... record of equivalent P2O5 feed by first determining the total mass rate in Mg/hr of...

  1. 40 CFR 60.213 - Monitoring of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate a flow monitoring device which can be used to determine the mass flow of phosphorus... daily record of equivalent P2O5 feed by first determining the total mass rate in Mg/hr of...

  2. 40 CFR 60.213 - Monitoring of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate a flow monitoring device which can be used to determine the mass flow of phosphorus... daily record of equivalent P2O5 feed by first determining the total mass rate in Mg/hr of...

  3. 40 CFR 60.233 - Monitoring of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate a flow monitoring device which can be used to determine the mass flow of phosphorus... record of equivalent P2O5 feed by first determining the total mass rate in Mg/hr of...

  4. 40 CFR 60.213 - Monitoring of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate a flow monitoring device which can be used to determine the mass flow of phosphorus... daily record of equivalent P2O5 feed by first determining the total mass rate in Mg/hr of...

  5. 40 CFR 63.621 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... phosphorus, expressed as phosphorous pentoxide, fed to the process. Equivalent P 2O5 stored means the quantity of phosphorus, expressed as phosphorus pentoxide, being cured or stored in the affected...

  6. 40 CFR 60.233 - Monitoring of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate a flow monitoring device which can be used to determine the mass flow of phosphorus... record of equivalent P2O5 feed by first determining the total mass rate in Mg/hr of...

  7. 40 CFR 60.233 - Monitoring of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate a flow monitoring device which can be used to determine the mass flow of phosphorus... record of equivalent P2O5 feed by first determining the total mass rate in Mg/hr of...

  8. 40 CFR 60.213 - Monitoring of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate a flow monitoring device which can be used to determine the mass flow of phosphorus... daily record of equivalent P2O5 feed by first determining the total mass rate in Mg/hr of...

  9. 40 CFR 60.213 - Monitoring of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate a flow monitoring device which can be used to determine the mass flow of phosphorus... daily record of equivalent P2O5 feed by first determining the total mass rate in Mg/hr of...

  10. 40 CFR 60.241 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Granular triple superphosphate storage facility means any facility curing or storing fresh granular triple... methods specified in § 60.244, or equivalent or alternative methods. (c) Equivalent P 2O5 stored means...

  11. Linking innovative measurement technologies (ConMon and Dataflow© systems) for high-resolution temporal and spatial dissolved oxygen criteria assessment.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, C A; Perry, E; Bayard, A; Wainger, L; Boynton, W R

    2015-10-01

    One consequence of nutrient-induced eutrophication in shallow estuarine waters is the occurrence of hypoxia and anoxia that has serious impacts on biota, habitats, and biogeochemical cycles of important elements. Because of the important role of dissolved oxygen (DO) on these ecosystem features, a variety of DO criteria have been established as indicators of system condition. However, DO dynamics are complex and vary on time scales ranging from diel to decadal and spatial scales from meters to multiple kilometers. Because of these complexities, determining DO criteria attainment or failure remains difficult. We propose a method for linking two common measurement technologies for shallow water DO criteria assessment using a Chesapeake Bay tributary as a test case. Dataflow© is a spatially intensive (30-60-m collection intervals) system used to map surface water conditions at the whole estuary scale, and ConMon is a high-frequency (15-min collection intervals) fixed station approach. The former technology is effective with spatial descriptions but poor regarding temporal resolution, while the latter provides excellent temporal but very limited spatial resolution. Our methodology for combining the strengths of these measurement technologies involved a sequence of steps. First, a statistical model of surface water DO dynamics, based on temporally intense ConMon data, was developed. The results of this model were used to calculate daily DO minimum concentrations. Second, this model was then inserted into Dataflow©-generated spatial maps of DO conditions and used to adjust measured DO concentrations to daily minimum concentrations. This information was used to assess DO criteria compliance at the full tributary scale. Model results indicated that it is vital to consider the short-term time scale DO criteria across both space and time concurrently. Large fluctuations in DO occurred within a 24-h time period, and DO dynamics varied across the length and width of the

  12. Detailed magnetic studies on Co(N3)2(4-acetylpyridine)2: a weak-ferromagnet with a very big canting angle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Yi; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Gao, Song

    2008-07-07

    The magnetic properties of Co(N 3) 2(4acpy) 2 have been thoroughly reexamined on both powder and well-oriented single crystal samples. This azido-bridged cobalt compound of (4, 4) layer shows a weak-ferromagnetic state below T C = 11.2 K. The magnetic axes were determined to be along the crystallographic a*, b, and c axes for the monoclinic space group P2 1/c. The easy axis lies along the b-axis, the canting is along the a*-axis, and the hard axis is along the c-axis. Strong anisotropy due to the oriented moments in the ordered state and/or the single-ion anisotropy of Co (2+) exists in the whole temperature range from 2 to 300 K. Below T C, very big spontaneous magnetization was observed and was attributed to the very big canting angle (15 degrees at 2 K). A possible spin configuration was then proposed to explain the experimental results. The origin of the big spin canting was discussed, and a weak-ferromagnetic approach toward molecular magnets with big spontaneous magnetization was proposed accordingly.

  13. A novel mammalian myosin I from rat with an SH3 domain localizes to Con A-inducible, F-actin-rich structures at cell-cell contacts

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    In an effort to determine diversity and function of mammalian myosin I molecules, we report here the cloning and characterization of myr 3 (third unconventional myosin from rat), a novel mammalian myosin I from rat tissues that is related to myosin I molecules from protozoa. Like the protozoan myosin I molecules, myr 3 consists of a myosin head domain, a single light chain binding motif, and a tail region that includes a COOH-terminal SH3 domain. However, myr 3 lacks the regulatory phosphorylation site present in the head domain of protozoan myosin I molecules. Evidence was obtained that the COOH terminus of the tail domain is involved in regulating F-actin binding activity of the NH2-terminal head domain. The light chain of myr 3 was identified as the Ca(2+)-binding protein calmodulin. Northern blot and immunoblot analyses revealed that myr 3 is expressed in many tissues and cell lines. Immunofluorescence studies with anti-myr 3 antibodies in NRK cells demonstrated that myr 3 is localized in the cytoplasm and in elongated structures at regions of cell-cell contact. These elongated structures contained F-actin and alpha-actinin but were devoid of vinculin. Incubation of NRK cells with Con A stimulated the formation of myr 3-containing structures along cell-cell contacts. These results suggest for myr 3 a function mediated by cell-cell contact. PMID:7730414

  14. Surface and volume non-invasive methods for the structural monitoring of the bass-relief 'Madonna con Bambino' (Gorizia, Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Alberghina, Maria Francesca; Macchia, Andrea; Capizzi, Patrizia; Schiavone, Salvatore; Ruffolo, Silvestro Antonio; Comite, Valeria; Barberio, Marianna; La Russa, Mauro Francesco

    2016-11-23

    Structural analysis of marble statues, carried out by non-invasive and in situ methods, is crucial to define the state of conservation of the artworks and to identify the deterioration phenomena that can affect them. In this work, we combined in situ non-destructive techniques, ultrasonic tomography (US), ultraviolet-induced visible fluorescence (UV-IF) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to study the bass-relief 'Madonna con Bambino' (Gorizia, Italy). The US revealed the presence of some metallic pivots, associated with areas of high sound velocity; moreover, a more degraded area has been identified in the lower part of the bass-relief. The acquired UV-IF image confirmed the presence of surface degradation, allowing a preliminary evaluation of the extension of a fracture, from surface to bulk. In addition, the different materials (both original and/or integrations) that compose the studied surface have been identified. The XRF has contributed to define the nature of the inorganic materials applied during undocumented previous restoration works on the surface as filler for lacunae.

  15. Obtención de perfiles teóricos de elementos metálicos con velocidades macroscópicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirigliano, D.; Costa, A.; Rovira, M.

    El propósito de este trabajo es poder establecer -a partir de la modelización de perfiles de distintas especies- patrones de comparación observacional que permitan caracterizar los fenómenos físicos que están presentes en las estructuras que se observan. Para ello se resuelven las ecuaciones de equilibrio de ionización para un determinado átomo y una atmósfera de parámetros determinados. A partir de ello se definen las poblaciones para los distintos grados de ionización. Considerando distintas configuraciones e intensidades de flujos de masa se deducen la función fuente, el espesor óptico y se calculan los perfiles de las distintas líneas. Se obtuvieron perfiles teóricos de líneas del CII, CIV y del OIV para flujos entrante, saliente y pasante. La forma del perfil, las intensidades relativas entre los distintos flujos y el corrimiento Doppler da cuenta de una caracterización teórica a partir de la cual se comparará con observaciones.

  16. Distribución espacial de órbitas con diferentes grados de caoticidad en modelos autoconsistentes de satélites galácticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, J. C.; Mosquera, M.

    En trabajos anteriores (Carpintero et al., Cel. Mech. Dynam. Astron. 85, 247, 2003), mostramos que las órbitas caóticas son muy importantes en los satélites galácticos. Sin embargo, los únicos modelos autoconsistentes de los que se disponía para ellos eran los de Heggie-Ramamani, cuya función de distribución depende sólo de la energía por lo que no mostraban diferencias entre las distribuciones de sus órbitas regulares y caóticas. Ahora, mediante una aproximación cuadrupolar, hemos logrado construir modelos autoconsistentes de satélites galácticos con distribuciones de velocidades anisotrópicas (lo que indica que sus funciones de distribución no dependen sólo de la energía) y hemos logrado revelar las diferencias entre las estructuras espaciales de las órbitas de distinta caoticidad.

  17. Pros, cons, and current indications of open craniotomy versus gamma knife in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and the role of endovascular embolization.

    PubMed

    Surdell, Daniel L; Bhattacharjee, Sumon; Loftus, Christopher M

    2002-06-01

    The successful treatment of an intracranial arteriovenous malformation poses both technical and conceptual problems to the neurosurgeon. Treatment decisions are made in light of current understanding of the natural history of these lesions. It is important to understand the pros, cons and current indication of open craniotomy vs. gamma knife in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and the role of endovascular embolization. Surgical removal of an arteriovenous malformation is indicated when the operative risk is less than the morbidity and mortality associated with its natural history. The treatment goal of complete angiographic obliteration of arteriovenous malformations is achieved most effectively by microneurosurgery in low-grade lesions. Large lesions frequently require a combination of embolization and microsurgery. Although recent advances in technology and medical management have allowed previously inoperable arteriovenous malformations to be surgically excised, there is still a small group of arteriovenous malformations that cannot be excised safely due to their size and location. Stereotactic radiosurgery is clearly an important adjunct in the multimodality treatment approach for large arteriovenous malformations. Endovascular embolization can potentially increase safety and efficacy in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations when applied to selective cases with well-defined treatment goals.

  18. Separation and quantitation of hepatoma-associated gamma-glutamyltransferase by affinity chromatography with Affi-Gel blue and Con A-Sepharose.

    PubMed

    Izumi, M; Taketa, K

    1983-01-01

    Isozymes of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other liver diseases were separated into two groups by double-affinity column chromatography with Affi-Gel blue and Con A-Sepharose, one recovered in the unbound fraction and the other in the bound fraction. Upon electrophoresis with polyacrylamide gradient gel slabs, the unbound fraction gave a GGTI1 band and a faint II1 band and the bound fraction gave a GGT I band and faint bands of GGT I", II' and X, when the original serum contained hepatoma-associated GGT (I1, I" and II') and high-molecular-weight lipid-protein complex, GGT(X). GGT I was present in all cases as a common isozyme. Other lipoprotein-associated GGT isozymes, III-IX, were removed by passing through Affi-Gel blue. GGT activities of unbound fraction in patients with HCC were generally higher than those in patients with non-HCC liver diseases, although the difference was not significant. When the percent of GGT activity of unbound (unbound + bound) was taken, 54% of patients with HCC had a ratio greater than 22%, whereas none of the healthy subjects or patients with other liver diseases gave values greater than this. The present technique may prove to be a useful clinical test for the diagnosis of HCC.

  19. 40 CFR 60.242 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 0.25 g/hr/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5 stored (5.0 × 10 −4 lb/hr/ton of equivalent P2O5 stored). (b) No owner or... Industry: Granular Triple Superphosphate Storage Facilities § 60.242 Standard for fluorides. (a) On...

  20. 40 CFR 60.214 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../Mg (lb/ton) of equivalent P2O5 feed. Csi=concentration of total fluorides from emission point “i,” mg...=number of emission points associated with the affected facility. P=equivalent P2O5 feed rate, Mg/hr (ton/hr). K=conversion factor, 1000 mg/g (7,000 gr/lb). (2) Method 13A or 13B shall be used to...

  1. 40 CFR 60.224 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../Mg (lb/ton) of equivalent P2O5 feed. Csi=concentration of total fluorides from emission point “i,” mg...=number of emission points associated with the affected facility. P=equivalent P2O5 feed rate, Mg/hr (ton/hr). K=conversion factor, 1000 mg/g (7,000 gr/lb). (2) Method 13A or 13B shall be used to...

  2. 40 CFR 60.234 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../Mg (lb/ton) of equivalent P2O5 feed. Csi=concentration of total fluorides from emission point “i,” mg...=number of emission points in the affected facility. P=equivalent P2O5 feed rate, Mg/hr (ton/hr). K=conversion factor, 1000 mg/g (7,000 gr/lb). (2) Method 13A or 13b shall be used to determine the...

  3. FloCon 2006 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    SNORT: KICKASS_PORN DRAGON: PORN HARDCORE SOURCEDEST SOURCE SOURCE SOURCE DEST DEST DEST DEST Stepping stone 51.251.22.183 Username password Sept...While packet counts do only show a minor increase in distance before and af- ter the Blaster outbreak, the other three metrics indicate a more drastic...consists of approximately 40 user assigned hosts, although the actual number of hosts is subject to minor fluctuations over time. Approximately an

  4. FloCon 2011 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    0. 08 0. 10 Nonzero Mobility Score P ro ba bi lit y 1e−09 1e−07 1e−05 0.001 0.1 10 1000 1e+05 Graph |I | |H| %a` RN RE G 667033 172283 1.00 3.87 4.56...COT 10127Q010 12:36 COT 100 80 -:::. 60 ~ -40 .c (’Ill .c 0 20 ... Q. 0 m. t echnologies High quality anomalies can be found without...l , , Tvoes ’ :0 ~ ~ , : : : , , , Date co cor m. t echnologies Customer Example 3: Malware Outbreak • R•pon R•suln m ~· AIIdr

  5. Crossing the Rubric-Con

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This essay engages the prospect and peril of employing rubrics in America. It discusses how institutional independence affects the enterprise, and addresses whether rubrics will be received as salvation or subservience by educational agents. It asks how rubrics can benefit stakeholders while examining their unintended consequences. It concludes by…

  6. FloCon 2004 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    dataset gives us a large enough record of traffic to test hypotheses in network security. Ø Given this, we select and evaluate various security...they detect a spoof Further Work Ø Exploiting our DoS attack traffic records further • We know how the network ...DoS and Internet worms, syslog/SSH • DNS performance and anomalies • Visualization • P2P traffic detection and modelling 2 University California

  7. FloCon 2005 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    c, e5 = b which we will write as e1:5 = aabcb for convenience. Possible state sequences that match this sequence of ob- served events could be AABCB...applicability. The application programmer sim- ply connects the input event streams and then focuses on writing process models. Models can be...Pharming • Writing to media • paper • drives • etc Increased outbound data Normal activity Scanning Infection Data Access Low Likelihood of Malicious

  8. [Utility of recruitment maneuvers (con)].

    PubMed

    Ochagavia, A; Blanch, L; Lopez-Aguilar, J

    2009-04-01

    A reduction in both total lung volume and in lung parenchyma useful for gas exchange has been observed in ARDS patients. Applying an appropriate ventilatory pattern that includes PEEP can open up collapsed areas of the lung to aeration, thus ensuring a more homogeneous distribution of air in the lung. However, the heterogeneous patterns observed in patients with ARDS vary widely in their response to ventilation with PEEP. Recruitment maneuvers (RM) have been proposed as an adjuvant treatment to mechanical ventilation to re-expand collapsed lung tissue in ARDS. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether RM are useful when patients are ventilated with high PEEP or when they have fibrosis, stiff chest wall, or hypovolemia, among other conditions. Likewise, decisions about RM must take into account not only their short- and long-term efficacy and reversibility, but also possible adverse effects derived from the high pressures reached during RM, including barotrauma, hemodynamic alterations, reduced systolic volume and aortic flow, and difficulties in venous return, as well as the possibility of bacterial translocation to the bloodstream or other organs. This article review the effects of RM as adjuvant treatment to mechanical ventilation in ARDS patients and discuss its efficacy and potential benefits as well as the different interactions that RM can have with the diverse conditions that can be associated to ARDS.

  9. Videoimaging: the pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sarver, D M

    1993-01-01

    I have tried to make some thoughtful points based on a fair amount of experience in the use of videoimaging, both in research and clinical application. The technical development of computerized videoimaging has progressed greatly in the past several years, in response to the profession's interest in it. While many orthodontists have become interested in this technology because of its potential in communication and marketing, I feel its greatest potential lies in the area of diagnosis and treatment planning. The use of integrated and facial images has allowed me to visualize the face (primarily in profile, although the frontal view can be useful when evaluated and manipulated properly) and recognize particular aspects and patterns of treatment options I had not recognized before (Figures 4-6). Obviously, a great deal of research must be done in the future before we can completely integrate this technology into our treatment of patients. These studies are just beginning. I feel confident that computerized videoimaging will help expand our vision as we strive to deliver the best care possible; nevertheless, we must evaluate this technology rationally and define its strengths and weaknesses just as clearly as we have for our cephalometric tools.

  10. Cabergoline treatment in acromegaly: cons.

    PubMed

    Kasuki, Leandro; Vieira Neto, Leonardo; Gadelha, Mônica R

    2014-06-01

    Many options are available for the treatment of acromegaly, including surgery, radiotherapy, and medical treatment. Cabergoline (CAB), a dopamine agonist with high affinity for dopamine receptor type 2, has been used both in monotherapy and in conjunction with somatostatin analogs (SSAs). Although it is administered orally and has a relatively lower-cost in comparison with SSAs, few studies have demonstrated its usefulness, there is a lack of randomized-controlled trials and other drugs (SSAs and pegvisomant) with more data in the literature are available; these issues are the main drawbacks of adopting CAB for the treatment of acromegaly.

  11. FloCon 2008 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    anomalous traffic of the node ÷ total anomalous traffic – Make parent nodes by merging child node information. prefix/length coverage/collateral...A T A U P L O A D F L O W S E N S O R 5. DATA DOWNLOAD FLOW SENSOR 1. RECON SNORT: KICKASS_PORN DRAGON: PORN HARDCORE SOURCEDEST SOURCE SOURCE...traffic • Make parent nodes by merging child node information. prefix/length coverage/collateral 0.0.0.0/0 100/100 depth=0 non divided 0.0.0.0/1 50/30

  12. Entrenamiento con el traje espacial

    NASA Video Gallery

    Después de 10 paseos espaciales, el astronauta de la NASA Michael López- Alegría sabe bastante de trajes espaciales. En este video, López Alegría comparte su experiencia acerca del uso y el entrena...

  13. Mechanical mixtures of metal oxides and phosphorus pentoxide as novel precursors for the synthesis of transition-metal phosphides.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lijuan; Zhao, Yu; Yao, Zhiwei

    2016-01-21

    This study presents a new type of precursor, mechanical mixtures of metal oxides (MOs) and phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) are used to synthesize Ni2P, Co2P and MoP phosphides by the H2 reduction method. In addition, this is first report of common solid-state P2O5 being used as a P source for the synthesis of metal phosphides. The traditional precursors are usually prepared via a complicated preparation procedure involving dissolution, drying and calcination steps. However, these novel MOs/P2O5 precursors can be obtained only by simple mechanical mixing of the starting materials. Furthermore, unlike the direct transformation from amorphous phases to phosphides, various specific intermediates were involved in the transformation from MOs/P2O5 to phosphides. It is worthy to note that the dispersions of Ni2P, Co2P and MoP obtained from MOs/P2O5 precursors were superior to those of the corresponding phosphides prepared from the abovementioned traditional precursors. It is suggested that the morphology of the as-prepared metal phosphides might be inherited from the corresponding MOs. Based on the results of XRD, XPS, SEM and TEM, the formation pathway of phosphides can be defined as MOs/P2O5 precursors → complex intermediates (metals, metal phosphates and metal oxide-phosphates) → metal phosphides.

  14. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from ready-to-eat food of animal origin--phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Łaniewska-Trokenheim, Łucja

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from 146 ready-to-eat food of animal origin (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes). 58 strains were isolated, they were classified as Staphylococcus xylosus (n = 29), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 16); Staphylococcus lentus (n = 7); Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n = 4); Staphylococcus hyicus (n = 1) and Staphylococcus simulans (n = 1) by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Isolates were tested for resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, linezolid, trimetoprim, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin by the disk diffusion method. PCR was used for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes encoding: methicillin resistance--mecA; macrolide resistance--erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mrs(A/B); efflux proteins tet(K) and tet(L) and ribosomal protection proteins tet(M). For all the tet(M)-positive isolates the presence of conjugative transposons of the Tn916-Tn1545 family was determined. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (41.3%) followed by clindamycin (36.2%), tigecycline (24.1%), rifampicin (17.2%) and erythromycin (13.8%). 32.2% staphylococcal isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). All methicillin resistant staphylococci harboured mecA gene. Isolates, phenotypic resistant to tetracycline, harboured at least one tetracycline resistance determinant on which tet(M) was most frequent. All of the isolates positive for tet(M) genes were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545 -like integrase family gene. In the erythromycin-resistant isolates, the macrolide resistance genes erm(C) or msr(A/B) were present. Although coagulase-negative staphylococci are not classical food poisoning bacteria, its presence in food could be of public health significance due to the possible spread of

  15. Application of the New Propulsion Theory to the Design of Propellers. Comparison with the Lifting Line Theory (Aplicacion de la Nueva Teoria de la Impulsion al Diseno de Propulsores. Comparacion con la Teoria de las Lineas Sustentadoras),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-07

    Results and Improvement Thereon," Ingenieria Naval, May 1978. 11. Perez Gomez, G., "Fundamentos teoricos de los modernos procedimientos de proyecto de...TRANSLATED BY: 9198 SOJRCE: INGENIERIA NAVAL, JULY 1983, PP. 267-278; SPANISH DTICSELECTE DEC 9 I983 ~D MWS TRANSLATION No 72D DATE 7 NOVEMBER 1903 [-M...Impulsion al Diseno de Propulsores. Comparacion con la Teoria de las Lineas Sustentadoras.; Ingenieria Naval, July 1983; pp. 267-278] *Department of Ship

  16. HPLC-ESI-MS and MS/MS structural characterization of multifucosylated N-glycoforms of the basic proline-rich protein IB-8a CON1+ in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Cabras, Tiziana; Boi, Roberto; Pisano, Elisabetta; Iavarone, Federica; Fanali, Chiara; Nemolato, Sonia; Faa, Gavino; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2012-05-01

    This study describes the characterization of the glycan moieties and the peptide backbone of six glycoforms of IB-8a CON1(+), a basic proline-rich protein present in human saliva. MS analyses on the intact glycoproteins before and after N-deglycosylation with PNGase F and high-resolution MS/MS sequencing by LTQ Orbitrap XL of peptides and glycopeptides from tryptic digests allowed the structural characterization of the glycan moieties and the polypeptide backbone, as well as to establish the glycosylation site at the asparagine residue at 98th position. Five of the glycoforms carry a biantennary N-linked glycan fucosylated in the innermost N-acetylglucosamine of the core and showing from zero to four additional fucoses in the antennal region. The sixth glycoform carries a monoantennary monofucosylated oligosaccharide. The glycoform cluster was detected on 28 of 71 adult saliva specimens. Level of fucosylation showed interindividual variability with the major relative abundance for the trifucosylated glycoform. Nonglycosylated IB-8a CON1(+) and the variant IB-8a CON1(-), lacking of the glycosylation site, have been also detected in human saliva.

  17. Structural evolution of the Day Nui Con Voi metamorphic complex: Implications on the development of the Red River Shear Zone, Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Meng-Wan; Lee, Tung-Yi; Lo, Ching-Hua; Chung, Sun-Lin; Lan, Ching-Ying; Anh, Tran Tuan

    2008-12-01

    The Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) metamorphic complex in North Vietnam is the southernmost high-grade metamorphic zone along the NW-SE trending Red River Shear Zone (RRSZ) in Indochina. The RRSZ was considered as a classical large-scale continental strike-slip fault that had played a significant role in the continental extrusion of Southeast Asia since the collision of India and Eurasia. Earlier ideas determined the RRSZ as a steep shear zone that penetrated the entire lithosphere. Both metamorphism and structures within rocks along the DNCV metamorphic complex have been previously thought to be formed syn-tectonically by left-lateral shearing of the RRSZ during the Oligocene-Miocene continental escape tectonics. However, our meso- and microstructural re-examination of this region shows that these metamorphic rocks were formed during earlier tectonic episodes unrelated to strike-slip shearing. High angle to near orthogonal overprinting fabrics indicated that this region recorded three episodes of ductile deformation followed by brittle faulting events with different intensity spanning from the Triassic to the Tertiary. D 1 is preserved as NW-SE striking upright folds under garnet grade regional metamorphism during the Triassic Indosinian orogeny as South China block amalgamated with the Indochina block. The large-scale horizontal D 2 folds with a dominant top to N-NW bottom to S-SW sense of shear, and sub-horizontal fold axial planes suggest that the DNCV metamorphic complex remained at midcrustal depths since the Indosinian orogeny. The youngest ductile deformation event, D 3, refolded D 2 recumbent folds into a dome, and uplifted the DNCV as lower-temperature fabrics, S 3, indicated. Steep mylonite zones with left-lateral kinematic indicators and brittle faulting were developed on both limbs of the dome along the steep Song Hong and Song Chay faults during left-lateral movement of the RRSZ. Our new spatial, temporal and kinematic correlations of metamorphic fabrics

  18. Total and subtypes of dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) study.

    PubMed

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Martín-Calvo, Nerea; Portoles, Olga; Fitó, Montserrat; Hu, Frank B; Forga, Lluís; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2017-03-01

    Background: The associations between dietary fat and cardiovascular disease have been evaluated in several studies, but less is known about their influence on the risk of diabetes.Objective: We examined the associations between total fat, subtypes of dietary fat, and food sources rich in saturated fatty acids and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D).Design: A prospective cohort analysis of 3349 individuals who were free of diabetes at baseline but were at high cardiovascular risk from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study was conducted. Detailed dietary information was assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate T2D HRs and 95% CIs according to baseline and yearly updated fat intake.Results: We documented 266 incident cases during 4.3 y of follow-up. Baseline saturated and animal fat intake was not associated with the risk of T2D. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of updated intake of saturated and animal fat had a higher risk of diabetes than the lowest quartile (HR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.73; and P-trend = 0.01 compared with HR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.29, 3.09; and P-trend < 0.01, respectively). In both the Mediterranean diet and control groups, participants in the highest quartile of updated animal fat intake had an ∼2-fold higher risk of T2D than their counterparts in the lowest quartile. The consumption of 1 serving of butter and cheese was associated with a higher risk of diabetes, whereas whole-fat yogurt intake was associated with a lower risk.Conclusions: In a Mediterranean trial focused on dietary fat interventions, baseline intake of saturated and animal fat was not associated with T2D incidence, but the yearly updated intake of saturated and animal fat was associated with a higher risk of T2D. Cheese and butter intake was associated with a higher risk of T2D, whereas whole-fat yogurt intake

  19. Study on the Strategies for the Soil and Water Resource Con-servation of Slopeland in Taiwan in Response to the Extreme Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Global climate change results in extreme weather, especially ex-treme precipitation in Taiwan. Though the total amount of precipi-tation remains unchanged, the frequency of rainfall return period increases which affects slopeland and causes sediment disaster. In Taiwan, slopeland occupies about 73% of national territory. Under harsh environmental stress, soil and water conservation of slope-land becomes more important. In response to the trends of global-ization impacts of climate change, long term strategic planning be-comes more necessary. This study reviewed international practices and decision making process about soil and water conservation of slopeland; and conducted the compilation and analysis of water and soil conservation related research projects in Taiwan within the past five years. It is necessary for Taiwan to design timely adaptive strategies about conducting the all-inclusive conservation of na-tional territory, management and business operation of watershed based on the existing regulation with the effects of extreme weather induced by climate change and the changes of social-economic en-vironments. In order to realize the policy vision of "Under the premise of multiple uses, operating the sustainable business and management of the water and soil resources in the watershed through territorial planning in response to the climate and so-cial-economic environment change". This study concluded the future tasks for soil and water con-servation: 1.Design and timely amend strategies for soil and wand water conservation in response to extreme weather. 2. Strengthen the planning and operating of the land management and integrated conservation of the water and soil resources of key watershed. 3. Manage and operate the prevention of debris flow disaster and large-scale landslide. 4. Formulate polices, related regulations and assessment indicators of soil and water conservation. 5. Maintain the biodiversity of the slopeland and reduce the ecological footprint

  20. Increases in Plasma Tryptophan Are Inversely Associated with Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Edward; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Zheng, Yan; Toledo, Estefania; Clish, Clary B; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Liang, Liming; Wang, Dong D; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montse; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Cofán, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Romaguera, Dora; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Sorlí, Jose V; Hu, Frank B; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2017-03-01

    Background: During development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), interferon-γ-mediated inflammation accelerates degradation of tryptophan into downstream metabolites. A Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consisting of a high intake of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), nuts, fruits, vegetables, and cereals has been demonstrated to lower the risk of CVD. The longitudinal relation between tryptophan and its downstream metabolites and CVD in the context of a MedDiet is unstudied.Objective: We sought to investigate the relation between metabolites in the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway and CVD in the context of a MedDiet pattern.Methods: We used a case-cohort design nested in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea randomized controlled trial. There were 231 CVD cases (stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death) among 985 participants over a median of 4.7 y of follow-up [mean ± SD age: 67.6 ± 6.1 y; 53.7% women; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 29.7 ± 3.7]. We assessed plasma tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and quinolinic acid concentrations at baseline and after 1 y of intervention with a MedDiet. We combined these metabolites in a kynurenine risk score (KRS) by weighting each metabolite by the adjusted coefficient of its associations with CVD. Cox models were used in the primary analysis.Results: Increases in tryptophan after 1 y were associated with a lower risk of composite CVD (HR per SD: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.98). The baseline kynurenic acid concentration was associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease death but not stroke. A higher KRS was more strongly associated with CVD in the control group than in the 2 intervention groups (P-interaction = 0.003). Adjustment for changes in plasma tryptophan attenuated the inverse association between MedDiet+EVOO and CVD.Conclusions: An increase in the plasma tryptophan concentration was significantly associated with a decreased risk of CVD. A

  1. Glass transition temperature and conductivity in Li2O and Na2O doped borophosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwajeet, J. S.; Sankarappa, T.; Ramanna, R.; Sujatha, T.; Awasthi, A. M.

    2015-08-01

    Two alkali doped Borophosphate glasses in the composition, (B2O3)0.2. (P2O5)0.3. (Na2O)(0.5-x). (Li2O)x, where x = 0.05 to 0.50 were prepared by standard melt quenching method at 1200K. Non-crystalline nature was confirmed by XRD studies. Room temperature density was measured by Archimedes principle. DC conductivity in the temperature range from 300K to 575K has been measured. Samples were DSC studied in the temperature range from 423K to 673K and glass transition temperature was determined. Glass transition temperature passed through minima for Li2O con.2centration between 0.25 and 0.30 mole fractions. Activation energy of conduction has been determined by analyzing temperature variation of conductivity determining Arrhenius law. Conductivity passed through minimum and activation passed through maximum for Li2O content from 0.25 to 0.30 mole fractions. Glass transition temperature passed through minimum for the same range of Li2O content. These results revealed mixed alkali effect taking place in these glasses. It is for the first time borophosphate glasses doped with Li2O and Na2O have been studied for density and dc conductivity and, the mixed alkali effect (MAE) has been observed.

  2. Investigation on the thermal properties, density and degradation of quaternary iron and titanium phosphate based glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaharuddin, SIS; Ahmed, I.; Furniss, D.; Parsons, AJ; Rudd, CD

    2016-02-01

    The possibility of producing phosphate based glasses (PBG) with tailored degradation profile allows for unique utilisation in biomedical application. Various compositions in the phosphate based glass (PBG) system of (50-x)P2O5-40Ca-(5+x)Na-5TiO2 and (50-x)P2O5-40Ca- (5+x)Na-5Fe2O3, where x= 5 and 10 were prepared and characterised. Method as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to characterise the thermal properties of these phosphate based glasses. It was observed that both glass transition temperature (Tg) and onset of crystalisatisation temperature (Tx) increased with increasing phosphate content. In addition, Tg values were found to be higher for the P2O5-CaO-Na2O-TiO2 glass system compared to P2O5- CaO-Na2O-Fe2O3 glass system. The density result showed that increasing the P2O5 content at the expense Na2O led to a decrease in density for both glass systems. The dissolution study of these glasses was conducted in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). It was observed that the dissolution rate of P2O5-CaO-Na2O-Fe2O3 glass system was higher than the P2O5-CaO-Na2O-TiO2 glass system. The dissolution rate for both glass systems was in the order of 10-6 g cm-2 hr-1.

  3. Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas por análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior por las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y se discuten algunas discrepancias.

  4. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2011-03-01

    El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin.

  5. Sequential bonding of CO molecules to a titanium dimer: A photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopic and theoretical study of Ti2(CO)n- (n = 1-9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jinghan; Xie, Hua; Dai, Dongxu; Tang, Zichao; Jiang, Ling

    2016-11-01

    Binuclear titanium carbonyl cluster anions, Ti2(CO)n- (n = 4-6), are produced via a laser vaporization supersonic cluster source and characterized by mass-selected photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy. Quantum chemical calculations are carried out for Ti2(CO)n- (n = 1-9) to explore the trend of sequential bonding of CO molecules to a titanium dimer. It has been found that the CO molecules bind to Ti2 in a side-on fashion and form a stable Ti2[η2(μ2-C, O)]3 structure at n = 3, the motif of which retains up to n = 5. Starting at n = 6, a new building block of two CO groups side-on-bonded to Ti2 is favored, the structure of which persists up to n = 9. In the larger clusters (n = 6-9), the side-on-bonded CO molecule can be stabilized via the removal of two electrons from an anionic titanium carbonyl, which is different from the effect of charge on CO binding in rhodium carbonyls where bridge-bonded CO molecules are selectively destabilized by the removal of an electron from a neutral rhodium carbonyl. The present study provides a stepwise picture for molecular-level understanding of CO bonding on transition-metal clusters, which is directly relevant to the elementary processes of CO at metal catalysts.

  6. Sequential bonding of CO molecules to a titanium dimer: A photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopic and theoretical study of Ti2(CO)n(-) (n = 1-9).

    PubMed

    Zou, Jinghan; Xie, Hua; Dai, Dongxu; Tang, Zichao; Jiang, Ling

    2016-11-14

    Binuclear titanium carbonyl cluster anions, Ti2(CO)n(-) (n = 4-6), are produced via a laser vaporization supersonic cluster source and characterized by mass-selected photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy. Quantum chemical calculations are carried out for Ti2(CO)n(-) (n = 1-9) to explore the trend of sequential bonding of CO molecules to a titanium dimer. It has been found that the CO molecules bind to Ti2 in a side-on fashion and form a stable Ti2[η(2)(μ2-C, O)]3 structure at n = 3, the motif of which retains up to n = 5. Starting at n = 6, a new building block of two CO groups side-on-bonded to Ti2 is favored, the structure of which persists up to n = 9. In the larger clusters (n = 6-9), the side-on-bonded CO molecule can be stabilized via the removal of two electrons from an anionic titanium carbonyl, which is different from the effect of charge on CO binding in rhodium carbonyls where bridge-bonded CO molecules are selectively destabilized by the removal of an electron from a neutral rhodium carbonyl. The present study provides a stepwise picture for molecular-level understanding of CO bonding on transition-metal clusters, which is directly relevant to the elementary processes of CO at metal catalysts.

  7. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  8. Defect/Edge-Selective Functionalization of Carbon Materials by "Direct" Friedel-Crafts Acylation Reaction.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Min; Tan, Loon-Seng; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2017-02-21

    Popularly utilized oxidation media, via nitric acid/sulfuric acid mixtures, are too corrosive and oxidizing to preserve structural integrity of highly ordered graphitic materials (carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene). Here, for the most commonly used oxidation method, the important advantages of defect/edge-selective functionalization of carbon materials (CNTs/graphene/graphite) in a polyphosphoric acid (PPA)/phosphorous pentoxide (P2 O5 ) medium are elucidated. The optimized PPA/P2 O5 medium is a mild acid that is not only less corrosive than popularly utilized oxidation media, but also has a strong capability to drive Friedel-Crafts acylation by covalently modifying carbon materials. With a broader spectrum of functional groups accessible, the PPA/P2 O5 -driven Friedel-Crafts acylation offers more options for tailoring the properties and processing of carbon materials.

  9. El rol de Ia colaboracion y el Modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) mediante el lente de la Teoria de Actividad (CHAT): un estudio de caso con estudiantes de 9no grado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Isabel C.

    Los modelos de eensenanza y aprendizaje constructivistas conceptualizan el aprendizaje como un proceso activo. El modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) se distingue por una serie de componentes, entre los cuales se destaca el aspecto colaborativo y cooperativo como un reto al momento de su implantacion. Son pocas las investigaciones que se concentran en este aspecto del modelo. En este estudio, se analizaron las diversas interacciones que surgen durante la implantacion de una unidad curricular sobre el tema de Geologia de Puerto Rico, la cual se diseno con el modelo ABPr cuyo enfoque es orientacion a proyectos. Particularmente, se examinaron las interacciones sociales que surgen entre los pares y entre pares y docente durante el proceso de planificacion y desarrollo de los productos finales, al igual que las interacciones entre los estudiantes y el material didactico en estas etapas del modelo. La investigacion es de tipo cualitativo e incorpora como diseno el estudio de caso. Las diversas interacciones constituyen la unidad de analisis. En el estudio participaron 19 estudiantes de 9no grado, a quienes se organizaron en 5 grupos colaborativos por temas de interes (Pangea, Placas tectonicas, Volcanes, Tsunamis y Terremotos). Las tecnicas que se utilizaron para recopilar los datos fueron: observaciones participativas, grupos focales y analisis de documentos (cuadernos reflexivos y respuestas de los estudiantes a la pregunta central del proyecto). Para el analisis de los datos se aplico la teoria de actividad (CHAT) que concentra la unidad de analisis en la actividad humana en un contexto particular. Los resultados del estudio senalan que las interacciones entre pares, entre pares y docente, asi como entre estudiantes y material didactico son fundamentales en el proceso de aprendizaje. Una mayor interaccion entre pares durante las etapas de planificar y desarrollar los productos finales de la unidad, promueve una mejor comprension de los conceptos de la

  10. Revision curricular a partir de un analisis comparativo de las discrepancias en los curriculos de una escuela de optometria en Puerto Rico con las competencias requeridas para las agencias de revalida y acreditacion 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Pacheco, Andres

    El proposito de esta investigacion, un estudio cualitativo de caso, fue comparar y contrastar el curriculo vigente de la Escuela de Optometria de la UIAPR con las competencias y estandares requeridos por las agencias de acreditacion y de revalida. Con este proposito, decidimos realizar una revision y un analisis de documentos: el prontuario de cada uno de los cursos de los curriculos implantados en el 1993 y en el 2001; las competencias y estandares establecidos por las agencias de revalida y de acreditacion; y las estadisticas en las que se analiza el porcentaje de estudiantes que aprueban cada una de las partes de los examenes de revalida entre el 1998 al 2003. Se realizaron entrevistas dirigidas para dar apoyo y complementar la revision y el analisis de estos documentos. Los participantes de las entrevistas fueron tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2004 (ultima clase del curriculo del 1993); tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2005 (primera clase graduanda del curriculo vigente) y tres profesores y/o directores de los Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas, Ciencias Clinicas y Cuidado al Paciente. Esta investigacion se enmarco en el modelo de evaluacion curricular de discrepancia de Malcolm Provus y en el modelo de desarrollo basado en competencias. Uno de los hallazgos mas importantes del estudio es que los cambios que se implantaron al curriculo del 2001 no han logrado que los estudiantes mejoren su ejecucion en los examenes de revalida. Por otro lado, se encontro que el curriculo vigente atiende completamente los estandares de la practica de Optometria, pero no las competencias. Esta informacion fue validada mediante el uso de una tabla de cotejo para el analisis de los cursos y de la informacion obtenida de las entrevistas. El estudio determina y concluye que existen discrepancias entre los prontuarios de los cursos del curriculo y las competencias requeridas por la agencia de revalida. Segundo, que el Departamento de Ciencias Basicas es el

  11. Has allogeneic stem cell cryopreservation been given the 'cold shoulder'? An analysis of the pros and cons of using frozen versus fresh stem cell products in allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Frey, N V; Lazarus, H M; Goldstein, S C

    2006-09-01

    Donor stem cells for allogeneic transplant traditionally are collected and transfused 'fresh' into the recipient on the day of transplant; alternatively such cells can be collected in advance and cryopreserved until needed. Most centers favor the former approach based on theoretical concerns that cryopreservation and thawing may worsen clinical outcomes. Limited published data from single institution retrospective studies show no significant impairment of engraftment or reduced day 100 survival for cryopreserved bone marrow recipients. There are no reported outcomes for recipients of cryopreserved peripheral blood allografts. Use of cryopreserved stem cells is associated with a higher incidence of adverse events (transfusion reactions, bacterial graft contamination and collection of grafts which are not utilized). Conversely, use of cryopreserved grafts introduces a greater flexibility into a stressed healthcare system and results in a more streamlined experience for the donor. Some data suggest that transplantation with a cryopreserved product may lower the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease. We compare the pros and cons of using 'fresh' versus cryopreserved stem cell products for allogeneic transplantation and suggest that the current standard of using 'fresh' products may not be warranted. We also suggest future areas of exploration to better elucidate this issue.

  12. Multi-analytical approach applied to the provenance study of marbles used as covering slabs in the archaeological submerged site of Baia (Naples, Italy): The case of the "Villa con ingresso a protiro"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricca, Michela; Belfiore, Cristina Maria; Ruffolo, Silvestro Antonio; Barca, Donatella; De Buergo, Monica Alvarez; Crisci, Gino Mirocle; La Russa, Mauro Francesco

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on archaeometric investigations of white marbles taken from the submerged archaeological site of Baia (Naples). The marine area includes the ruins of this ancient Roman city, whose structures range from luxurious maritime villas and imperial buildings with private thermae and tabernae, to more simple and modest houses. Analyses were carried out on fifty marble fragments of covering slabs, belonging to several pavements of the monumental villa, called the Villa con ingresso a protiro, in order to ascertain their provenance. The most distinctive properties of marbles are their variety of textural property especially regarding grain size (MGS), associated with the Mn content and the variation of stable isotopes. These features, supported by the contribution of other variables and studies, establish the basis for the correct identification of the marbles. For this purpose, minero-petrographic and geochemical techniques were used. Results were compared with literature data of white marbles commonly used in antiquity, especially in the Mediterranean basin and showed that a variety of precious marbles from Carrara, Docimium (Afyon), Thasos-D, Aphrodisias, Proconnesos (Marmara), Paros and Pentelicon were used in the ancient roman city of Baia, confirming the importance of the submerged archaeological site and also allowing researchers to broaden the existing database.

  13. Implantation des sites de soins communautaires en République Démocratique du Congo: consécration d'un double standard dans l'accès aux soins

    PubMed Central

    Dunia, Gisèle Mawazo Binti

    2013-01-01

    Depuis 2005, la République Démocratique du Congo a amorcé l'implantation des sites de soins communautaires. Cette stratégie a pour objectif de rapprocher les services de santé des populations éloignées. Bien que cela parte d'une bonne intention, elle résulte, à notre sens, en une consécration d'un système de santé à deux vitesses. En effet, les populations vivant en ville ont accès à des soins prestés par des agents de santé formés alors que celles vivant en milieu rural reculé ont pour prestataires de soins des relais communautaires. Cette situation marginalise encore plus des populations dont la situation géographique est déjà préoccupante. Pourtant, la population est prête à parcourir des kilomètres en échange d'un service qu'elle estime de qualité. PMID:23785563

  14. Nanocomposites Derived from Carbon Nanofibers and a Hyperbranched Poly(Ether-Ketone): In Situ Polymerization, Chain-End Modification, and Properties (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    an A2B monomer, was easily polymerized via a Friedel - Crafts acylation in poly(phosphoric acid)/phosphorus pentoxide (PPA/P2O5; 1:4 w/w) medium to...Poly(ether- ketone):: In-situ Polymerization, Chain-end Modification & Properties Friedel - Crafts polymerization of 5- phenoxyisophthalic acid (AB2...easily polymerized via a Friedel - Crafts acylation in poly(phosphoric acid)/phosphorus pentoxide (PPA/P2O5; 1:4 w/w) medium to form a CO2H-terminated

  15. Vacuum assist: angel or demon CON.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Timothy W

    2013-06-01

    Vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) to enhance venous return during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was described as early as 1958 but was not widely used until the late 1990s. VAVD was initially used to facilitate the use of smaller cannulas with ministernotomy but was increasingly used to allow reduction in CPB circuit size while maintaining CPB flow rates. This innovation was made without planned consideration to CPB circuit design, most critically that of the venous reservoir. Clinical reports of prime reduction facilitated by VAVD in both adult and pediatric CPB were associated with reduced nadir hematocrit and rates of transfusion that encouraged the proliferation of VAVD in CPB. Concomitantly, investigators have reported both in vitro and in vivo significantly increased arterial emboli associated with the use of VAVD, mostly related to accelerated venous air entrainment. In vitro studies continue to confirm this association and likely underestimate the resulting embolic load as a result of flawed study design. While the evidence for VAVD is equivocal, our understanding of the clinical impact of gaseous microemboli in CPB is similarly limited, most likely confined to blood-brain barrier disruption. It is only after two decades that CPB component design is receiving serious attention in terms of air handling. The ethics of innovation in the field of CPB warrant careful consideration. The application of VAVD is not without consequence.

  16. Deep discharge reconditioning: Pros and cons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Deep-discharge reconditioning (DDR) can be of great benefit to battery performance, especially in geosynchronous orbit, if performed properly and regularly, and can be essential to operation of batteries at the high depths of discharge (DOD) required to minimize weight. The procedure should be tailored to fit the nature of the degradation occuring during regular cycling. DDR is not without its drawbacks, however, and these differ depending on the normal DOD to be sustained and/or whether the discharge is done at the battery or the cell level. Battery-level discharge carries the minimum weight penalty but raises questions of the effects of low-rate cell reversal that as yet have no firm answers. Cell level discharge avoids cell reversal but carries significant penalties of weight and complexity. Thus no universal procedure or method of implementation of deep-discharge reconditioning is now available and thus the various approaches must be evaluated for each application.

  17. The pros and cons of code validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobbitt, Percy J.

    1988-01-01

    Computational and wind tunnel error sources are examined and quantified using specific calculations of experimental data, and a substantial comparison of theoretical and experimental results, or a code validation, is discussed. Wind tunnel error sources considered include wall interference, sting effects, Reynolds number effects, flow quality and transition, and instrumentation such as strain gage balances, electronically scanned pressure systems, hot film gages, hot wire anemometers, and laser velocimeters. Computational error sources include math model equation sets, the solution algorithm, artificial viscosity/dissipation, boundary conditions, the uniqueness of solutions, grid resolution, turbulence modeling, and Reynolds number effects. It is concluded that, although improvements in theory are being made more quickly than in experiments, wind tunnel research has the advantage of the more realistic transition process of a right turbulence model in a free-transition test.

  18. Con: Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate binders are prescribed to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients based on associations of serum phosphate concentrations with mortality and calcification, experimental evidence for direct calcifying effects of phosphate on vascular smooth muscle tissue and the central importance of phosphate retention in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Current knowledge regarding phosphate metabolism in CKD provides important insight into disease mechanisms and supports future clinical trials of phosphate binders in CKD patients to determine the impact of these medications on clinically relevant outcomes. The risks and benefits of phosphate binders cannot be inferred from association studies of serum phosphate concentrations, which are inconsistent and subject to confounding, animal-experimental data, which are based on conditions that differ from human disease, or physiological arguments, which are limited to known regulatory factors. Many interventions that targeted biochemical pathways suggested by association studies and suspected biological importance have yielded null or harmful results. Clinical trials of phosphate binders are of high clinical and scientific importance to nephrology. Demonstration of reduced rates of clinical disease in such trials could lead to important health benefits for CKD patients, whereas negative results would refocus efforts to understand and treat CKD-MBD. Clinical trials that employ highly practical or ‘pragmatic’ designs represent an optimal approach for determining the safety and effectiveness of phosphate binders in real-world settings. Absent clinical trial data, observational studies of phosphate binders in large CKD populations could provide important information regarding the benefits, risks and/or unintended side effects of these medications. PMID:26681747

  19. Pros and cons of immunological methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International regulatory agencies Codex Alimentarius, European Commission Regulation and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration have set 20 mg/kg (ppm) as the maximum limit of gluten allowed in foods labeled as “gluten-free”. Immunological approaches appear to be, so far, the most suitable method...

  20. Vacuum Assist: Angel or Demon CON

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) to enhance venous return during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was described as early as 1958 but was not widely used until the late 1990s. VAVD was initially used to facilitate the use of smaller cannulas with ministernotomy but was increasingly used to allow reduction in CPB circuit size while maintaining CPB flow rates. This innovation was made without planned consideration to CPB circuit design, most critically that of the venous reservoir. Clinical reports of prime reduction facilitated by VAVD in both adult and pediatric CPB were associated with reduced nadir hematocrit and rates of transfusion that encouraged the proliferation of VAVD in CPB. Concomitantly, investigators have reported both in vitro and in vivo significantly increased arterial emboli associated with the use of VAVD, mostly related to accelerated venous air entrainment. In vitro studies continue to confirm this association and likely underestimate the resulting embolic load as a result of flawed study design. While the evidence for VAVD is equivocal, our understanding of the clinical impact of gaseous microemboli in CPB is similarly limited, most likely confined to blood–brain barrier disruption. It is only after two decades that CPB component design is receiving serious attention in terms of air handling. The ethics of innovation in the field of CPB warrant careful consideration. The application of VAVD is not without consequence. PMID:23930383

  1. The Pros and Cons of Petroleum Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Charles J.

    1980-01-01

    A mineral agreements expert discusses the options open to tribes, from the most standard lease form to arrangements as yet untried by Indian Nations. Discussion covers 18 basic provisions for inclusion in agreements, tax considerations, and basic forms of petroleum agreements (leases, joint ventures, production sharing, and service contracts).…

  2. Cost–effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cost–effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost–effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost–effectiveness thresholds allow cost–effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization’s Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost–effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country’s per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this – in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost–effectiveness ratios – can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost–effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations – e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations – in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost–effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair. PMID:27994285

  3. Preventive therapies: weighing the pros and cons.

    PubMed Central

    Laupacis, A

    1996-01-01

    The author comments on three issues raised by Dr. Kenneth G. Marshall in his series on the benefits and harms of preventive therapies, which begins in this issue on page 1493. First, because the method by which the results of clinical trials are presented markedly affects the perception of those results some measure of absolute benefit and harm must be used when the results of clinical trials are presented. Second, there is increasing interest in decision aids as a means of helping patients to understand evidence and make therapeutic choices. It is important that these aids undergo rigorous testing before they are adopted for common use. Third, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are a welcome resource for busy clinicians. However, physicians and patients should bear in mind that interpretations of the available evidence can vary, leading to different conclusions about the appropriateness of preventive therapies. PMID:8625001

  4. Distance Education: Pros, Cons, and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hongmei

    This paper reviews recent publications on distance education and explores its promise and potential from the student's perspective, the faculty's perspective and the administrator's perspective. Findings indicate that only the self-motivated and self-disciplined students are most likely to succeed in distance education. Although the majority of…

  5. [Pros and cons of cancer screenings].

    PubMed

    Malila, Nea

    2014-01-01

    Cancer screenings aim to detect latent or oligosymptomatic cancers in the early stage when treatment of the disease can be curative and cancer death may in many cases be prevented. Improved quality of life is a characteristic feature of good screening. Screenings may also lessen human suffering, for instance. For the society, early-stage cancer treatment saves money. Drawbacks of screenings are both false positive and false negative screening results leading to unnecessary further investigations. A latent cancer may also remain undetected due to a false test result.

  6. Experimentar con un cohete de plasma

    NASA Video Gallery

    El Dr. Franklin Chang-Díaz, el primer astronauta hispano de la NASA, es actualmente el presidente y CEO de Ad Astra Rocket Company, la empresa que desarrolla el nuevo cohete de plasma VASIMR. Apren...

  7. Women in Combat Pros and Cons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    secondary to domestic duties. Combat is directly oppossed to a women’s nuturing role and is wrong because of both values and perceived deficient...opportunities should be equal, including the right and duty to defend your country. Discrimination for employment should be based upon objective and...bonding excludes sexual relationships of either a heterosexual or homosexual nature . Some believe that. this bonding would degenerate into sexual

  8. Open Admissions: The Pros and Cons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barzun, Jacques; And Others

    The Council for Basic Education sponsored an all-day symposium on open admissions in 1971. This booklet contains the full text of the addresses given on that occasion, as well as the major part of the discussion among the panelists and answers to questions from the audience. The aim of the symposium was not only to provide information about…

  9. The Big Con: China's Historical Sabotage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrence Cheng

    2009-01-01

    On June 4, 1989, the Chinese military, under orders from the highest levels of government, violently crushed peaceful civilian demonstrations in Beijing, most symbolically in and around Tiananmen Square. In the end, the Chinese government claimed that the death toll was approximately 200, but the Chinese Red Cross reported 2,000 to 3,000 deaths.…

  10. Technical pro & cons of the laparoscopic lymphadenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Riccardo; Giannone Codiglione, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopy has been introduced in treatment of gastric cancer to reduce surgical trauma and to improve post-operative functional recovery. Most of international guidelines allow the use of this minimally invasive approach in general surgical practice only in clinical stage I. One of the most important concerns in fact is the feasibility of D2 lymphadenectomy through laparoscopy. Reduced numbers of harvested lymph nodes have been reported, particularly in stations with a more difficult access. Nevertheless subsequent papers reported adequate numbers of total number of nodes retrieved, even with D2 dissection and even in complex stations but results from randomized controlled trials still lack. Laparoscopic approach has been proven safe and effective also in extremely complex maneuvers as spleen-preserving retropancreatic lymphadenectomy. The minimally invasive approach in D2 lymphadenectomy seems to be associated to comparable incidence of specific complications as compared to open surgery. The use of laparoscopy has extended the operating time but has reduced the blood loss. Because of high complexity of this kind surgery, laparoscopic gastric surgery for cancer should be done only in referral centers. PMID:28138658

  11. Roofing with Urethane: Pro and Con.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Michael; Scott, Gerald P.E.

    1981-01-01

    Gerald Scott's favorable evaluation of the foamed polyurethane roofing system is based on experiences with 55 buildings at Texas A & M. Michael Kinzer, an architect at Colorado State University, disagrees and claims that the system is difficult to install and maintain, and the cost prohibitive. (MLF)

  12. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L

    2006-03-01

    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors.

  13. The pros and cons of phytoestrogens

    PubMed Central

    Patisaul, Heather B.; Jefferson, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant derived compounds found in a wide variety of foods, most notably soy. A litany of health benefits including a lowered risk of osteoporosis, heart disease, breast cancer, and menopausal symptoms, are frequently attributed to phytoestrogens but many are also considered endocrine disruptors, indicating that they have the potential to cause adverse health effects as well. Consequently, the question of whether or not phytoestrogens are beneficial or harmful to human health remains unresolved. The answer is likely complex and may depend on age, health status, and even the presence or absence of specific gut microflora. Clarity on this issue is needed because global consumption is rapidly increasing. Phytoestrogens are present in numerous dietary supplements and widely marketed as a natural alternative to estrogen replacement therapy. Soy infant formula now constitutes up to a third of the US market, and soy protein is now added to many processed foods. As weak estrogen agonists/antagonists with molecular and cellular properties similar to synthetic endocrine disruptors such as Bisphenol A (BPA), the phytoestrogens provide a useful model to comprehensively investigate the biological impact of endocrine disruptors in general. This review weighs the evidence for and against the purported health benefits and adverse effects of phytoestrogens. PMID:20347861

  14. Pros and cons of hydraulic drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using hydraulic drilling are discussed. The low maintenance, energy efficiency, drilling speeds, and operating costs are the main advantages of the hydraulic drills. The economics and maintenance of air drills are also compared.

  15. Cost-effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Melanie Y; Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost-effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost-effectiveness thresholds allow cost-effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost-effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country's per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this - in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost-effectiveness ratios - can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost-effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations - e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations - in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost-effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair.

  16. Communicating genetic risk: pros, cons, and counsel.

    PubMed

    Penson, R T; Seiden, M V; Shannon, K M; Lubratovich, M L; Roche, M; Chabner, B A; Lynch, T J

    2000-01-01

    Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient, support to caregivers, and encourages the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. This case is of a woman with a personal, and a strong family history of breast cancer, who considered genetic testing for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The details of the case have been altered to protect the patient's anonymity. The patient was very anxious and there was disagreement between her healthcare providers about the potential benefits of genetic testing. The discussion of the case focused on several controversial issues, particularly the ownership of genetic information, and who is responsible for disseminating information to the family members at risk. The difficulties in communicating risk, providing emotional support and coping with the continuing uncertainties about screening and intervention are reviewed with an overview of the molecular biology, inheritance, and epidemiology of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes.

  17. Home Birth: Know the Pros and Cons

    MedlinePlus

    ... America. British Medical Journal. 2005;330:1. Boucher D, et al. Staying home to give birth: Why women in the United States choose home birth. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2009;54:119. Davis-Floyd R. Home birth emergencies in the U.S. and Mexico: ...

  18. Con: Licensure unnecessary in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Garon, Jack E

    2006-01-31

    Those who argue in favor of licensure for clinical laboratory scientists have their priorities in order, but fail to recognize the realities that would ensue were national licensure to be instituted. Higher health-care costs, elimination of rural facilities, and licensure board fraud are all unintended, yet dangerous, consequences that could occur. In his argument against national licensure, laboratory director Jack Garon summarizes some of the most salient research done regarding licensure and presents his case why it is unnecessary in the clinical laboratory.

  19. Weighing the Pros and Cons of TAP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieczura, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Headlines offer a plethora of opinions and arguments both for and against proposed and newly implemented teacher evaluation systems all over the United States. Hardly anyone balks at the idea of evaluating teachers, but many question whether these new evaluation systems really improve teaching and learning. The author's experience with the new…

  20. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Atypical Pros and Cons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurologic diseases that affect several mammalian species including human beings. Four animal TSE agents have been reported: scrapie of sheep and goats; chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk, and moose; transmissible mink encephalopath...

  1. Vencemos Con Libros Y La Lengua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Daniel Flores, Comp.

    The city of Richmond, California has many residents who read and speak only Spanish, and many other Chicanos and Latin Americans who are interested in their heritage. The Service Center Branch of the public library has a collection of books, magazines, and records in Spanish and in English on the problems, history and culture of these people. This…

  2. Technical pro & cons of the laparoscopic lymphadenectomy.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Riccardo; Parise, Paolo; Giannone Codiglione, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopy has been introduced in treatment of gastric cancer to reduce surgical trauma and to improve post-operative functional recovery. Most of international guidelines allow the use of this minimally invasive approach in general surgical practice only in clinical stage I. One of the most important concerns in fact is the feasibility of D2 lymphadenectomy through laparoscopy. Reduced numbers of harvested lymph nodes have been reported, particularly in stations with a more difficult access. Nevertheless subsequent papers reported adequate numbers of total number of nodes retrieved, even with D2 dissection and even in complex stations but results from randomized controlled trials still lack. Laparoscopic approach has been proven safe and effective also in extremely complex maneuvers as spleen-preserving retropancreatic lymphadenectomy. The minimally invasive approach in D2 lymphadenectomy seems to be associated to comparable incidence of specific complications as compared to open surgery. The use of laparoscopy has extended the operating time but has reduced the blood loss. Because of high complexity of this kind surgery, laparoscopic gastric surgery for cancer should be done only in referral centers.

  3. Standardisation of Study Protocols - Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    D'Haens, Geert

    2016-09-01

    Designing clinical trials in inflammatory bowel diseases is challenging. Composite scores that have been used for drug approval until recently such as the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) and the Mayo score for ulcerative colitis have been criticized by regulatory bodies for its lack of validation, poor correlation with objective mucosal disease and absence of 'patient reported outcomes'.Most drug development programs use the 'classic 'separation' between an induction and a maintenance phase. Challenging issues are the 'ideal timing' of the primary endpoint for induction and maintenance studies, strategies to reduce placebo response rates and rules for corticosteroids withdrawal. Discussion about which patients to re-randomize after induction into the maintenance phase of the study is critical.Presently, new instruments for disease assessment in IBD are being developed and validated. Central (independent) review of endoscopic recordings at screening and at the end of the intervention will probably become standard. Finally, the most optimal trial design for every individual intervention is likely to depend on the mechanism of action of the medication under study.

  4. Pro v Con Reviews: Is Food Addictive?

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Baler, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Drug addiction and obesity appear to share several properties. Both can be defined as disorders in which the saliency of a specific type of reward (food or drug) becomes exaggerated relative to, and at the expense of others rewards. Both drugs and food have powerful reinforcing effects, which are in part mediated by abrupt dopamine increases in the brain reward centres. The abrupt dopamine increases, in vulnerable individuals, can override the brain’s homeostatic control mechanisms. These parallels have generated interest in understanding the shared vulnerabilities between addiction and obesity. Predictably, they also engendered a heated debate. Specifically, brain imaging studies are beginning to uncover common features between these two conditions and delineate some of the overlapping brain circuits whose dysfunctions may underlie the observed deficits. The combined results suggest that both obese and drug-addicted individuals suffer from impairments in dopaminergic pathways that regulate neuronal systems associated not only with reward sensitivity and incentive motivation, but also with conditioning, self-control, stress reactivity and interoceptive awareness. In parallel, studies are also delineating differences between them that centre on the key role that peripheral signals involved with homeostatic control exert on food intake. Here, we focus on the shared neurobiological substrates of obesity and addiction. PMID:23016694

  5. Eduquemos con Musica (Let's Educate with Music).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiva, Raquel Ojeda

    This elementary and preschool music textbook is designed to reflect Latin America and Caribbean Island cultures and to be useful in both school classrooms and in teacher training courses. Short, easy to learn songs, illustrated pages, and 10 musical games are combined to teach musical forms, rhythm, auditory discrimination, language usage, motor…

  6. Pros and cons of marketing technology.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R S

    1988-10-01

    For years, high technologies have provided hospitals with marketing advantages. Hospitals used them to recruit and keep physicians and to lure patients and purchasers. Having the latest technology in a given field provided hospitals with status and prestige and enabled smaller facilities to compete with major medical centers. From a marketing point of view, technologies can produce four distinct effects that benefit the hospital: halo, monopoly, opportunity, and momentum effects. The best technology, from a competitive marketing viewpoint, meets the following criteria: The hospital can operate it at acceptable and, hopefully, competitive quality levels. The hospital can offer it at acceptable and, hopefully, competitive cost. It is sufficiently accessible to patients who need it. It gives the hospital a distinct competence in its market that can be preserved for a long time. But technology can become a risky business if: The hospital cannot attract the volume of patients needed to maintain quality. The low-volume hospital prices itself out of the competitive market. The new technology has undisclosed or undiscovered side effects. The technology is recruited by a competitor. Hospitals place more value on it than do their customers.

  7. Nanoparticles: health effects--pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Gwinn, Maureen R; Vallyathan, Val

    2006-12-01

    With the advent of nanotechnology, the prospects for using engineered nanomaterials with diameters of < 100 nm in industrial applications, medical imaging, disease diagnoses, drug delivery, cancer treatment, gene therapy, and other areas have progressed rapidly. The potential for nanoparticles (NPs) in these areas is infinite, with novel new applications constantly being explored. The possible toxic health effects of these NPs associated with human exposure are unknown. Many fine particles generally considered "nuisance dusts" are likely to acquire unique surface properties when engineered to nanosize and may exhibit toxic biological effects. Consequently, the nuisance dust may be transported to distant sites and could induce adverse health effects. In addition the beneficial uses of NPs in drug delivery, cancer treatment, and gene therapy may cause unintentional human exposure. Because of our lack of knowledge about the health effects associated with NP exposure, we have an ethical duty to take precautionary measures regarding their use. In this review we highlight the possible toxic human health effects that can result from exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) generated by anthropogenic activities and their cardiopulmonary outcomes. The comparability of engineered NPs to UFPs suggests that the human health effects are likely to be similar. Therefore, it is prudent to elucidate their toxicologic effect to minimize occupational and environmental exposure. Highlighting the human health outcomes caused by UFPs is not intended to give a lesser importance to either the unprecedented technologic and industrial rewards of the nanotechnology or their beneficial human uses.

  8. Licensing: pros and cons for biotech.

    PubMed

    Villiger, Ralph; Bogdan, Boris

    2009-03-01

    This article guides the reader through strategic considerations when facing the option to license a drug development project. It is crucial to understand these licensing events in their full complexity in order to achieve maximum value for the company and the shareholders, while minimizing risk. First, the nature of various license agreements and the needs of licensor and licensee are discussed. Second, the main strategic issues for the licensor are explained and a guideline, how to come to a decision whether to license and to what terms, is given. Third, the authors explain how to overcome different assumptions when negotiating a license contract.

  9. Bacteriophages in dairy products: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Mc Grath, Stephen; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2007-04-01

    Since the time bacteriophages were first identified as a major cause of fermentation failure in the dairy industry, researchers have been struggling to develop strategies to exclude them from the dairy environment. Over 70 years of research has led to huge improvements in the consistency and quality of fermented dairy products, while also facilitating an appreciation of the beneficial properties of bacteriophages with respect to dairy product development. With specific reference to Lactococcus lactis and cheese production, this review outlines some recently reported novel methods aimed at limiting the bacteriophage infection as well as highlighting some beneficial aspects of bacteriophage activity.

  10. McLuhan: Pro and Con.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Raymond, Ed.

    Twenty-one critical essays on the ideas and works of Marshall McLuhan are offered in this review. In the course of the essays, McLuhan is characterized alternately as a genius, an extrapolator, and an oracle; a defender of the choice of choicelessness; a generalizer who rearranges, misinterprets, and misreads the facts to support his theses; an…

  11. [Pros and cons of legalizing marijuana].

    PubMed

    Mönckeberg B, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    There are already several countries that have accepted marijuana as a soft drug, separating it from more dangerous ones. Yarious therapeutic properties have even been attributed to its use. Others, however, think that its use should be prohibited due to the mental interference and behavioral changes produced either by its occasional use as well as the permanent mental damage linked to chronic marijuana use. In order to clarify this divergence of opinions, the scientific literature is reviewed. It is concluded that there is a serious risk, especially for teenagers, associated to chronic marijuana use due to the presence of more frequent psychotic and schizophrenic episodes, which can be permanent, while consumption during pregnancy results in brain damage to the fetus, similar to fetal alcohol syndrome. Scientific research also indicated that smoking marijuana produces an even more severe bronchial damage than tobacco, with risk of lung cancer. In conclusion, the notion that marijuana is a risk-free soft drug is a serious mistake, based on the available conclusive scientific research that shows the opposite.

  12. Con: Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Phosphate binders are prescribed to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients based on associations of serum phosphate concentrations with mortality and calcification, experimental evidence for direct calcifying effects of phosphate on vascular smooth muscle tissue and the central importance of phosphate retention in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Current knowledge regarding phosphate metabolism in CKD provides important insight into disease mechanisms and supports future clinical trials of phosphate binders in CKD patients to determine the impact of these medications on clinically relevant outcomes. The risks and benefits of phosphate binders cannot be inferred from association studies of serum phosphate concentrations, which are inconsistent and subject to confounding, animal-experimental data, which are based on conditions that differ from human disease, or physiological arguments, which are limited to known regulatory factors. Many interventions that targeted biochemical pathways suggested by association studies and suspected biological importance have yielded null or harmful results. Clinical trials of phosphate binders are of high clinical and scientific importance to nephrology. Demonstration of reduced rates of clinical disease in such trials could lead to important health benefits for CKD patients, whereas negative results would refocus efforts to understand and treat CKD-MBD. Clinical trials that employ highly practical or 'pragmatic' designs represent an optimal approach for determining the safety and effectiveness of phosphate binders in real-world settings. Absent clinical trial data, observational studies of phosphate binders in large CKD populations could provide important information regarding the benefits, risks and/or unintended side effects of these medications.

  13. The Pros and Cons of Army Automation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-13

    for the Army was changing the identification card to a smart card . Early in 1999, the Secretary of Defense signed a memo about smart card adoption...and implementation. Today that smart card technology is called the Common Access Card (CAC) and it replaced the DA Form 2, identification card. The...www.historyofwar.org 6. Common Access Card – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved October 24, 2007 from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_Access_Card 7. DOD Smart

  14. ConTACT Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Pascrell, Bill, Jr. [D-NJ-8

    2009-03-05

    11/15/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. The Foreign Language Teacher as "Con Artist."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jean S.

    A teacher's experiences in acquiring realia (mostly food-related) for her junior high school French classes are described. The collection of realistic props proved to be both a small adventure in itself and the source of a rewarding change in classroom instruction. The use of a simulated store, in which students bought and sold the imitation food,…

  16. Mandatory Arbitration: Weighing the Pros and Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settenbrino, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    When big businesses enter into mandatory arbitration agreements with consumers, the large companies typically tout the fairness while the individual is left feeling cheated. Now that mandatory arbitration clauses are finding their way into more and more contracts signed by school systems, school boards and district administrators are realizing…

  17. Pros and cons of solid state metering

    SciTech Connect

    Via, R.B.

    1995-10-01

    This paper addresses the problems and benefits of microprocessor based metering systems for electric power. The topics of the paper include historical aspects of power metering, mechanical meters, operating environments of power meters, reliability, cost, industry and customer acceptance, service life, and ease of adaptability to new rate structures.

  18. [Clinical utility and psychometric properties of Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory (PSI) in acquired brain injury and degenerative dementias].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sánchez de León, José M; Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; Gálvez, S; Fernández-Méndez, Laura M; Lozoya-Delgado, Paz

    2015-11-01

    Introduccion. Las alteraciones cognitivas, emocionales y comportamentales secundarias al daño cerebral adquirido y las demencias degenerativas pueden valorarse cuantitativa y cualitativamente mediante la administracion de autoinformes que interroguen –a pacientes e informadores fiables– sobre las dificultades de los pacientes en la vida cotidiana. Sujetos y metodos. Se administro el inventario de sintomas prefrontales (ISP) y el cuestionario de fallos de memoria en la vida cotidiana modificado (MFE-30) a 174 participantes emparejados: 87 pacientes con daño cerebral o demencias degenerativas y sus 87 informadores fiables. Se exploro, junto con la bondad psicometrica de las pruebas, la utilidad clinica de la aplicacion de estos cuestionarios a pacientes e informadores para obtener un indice de discrepancia de las puntuaciones como medida de la anosognosia. Resultados. Los resultados muestran como aplicar el ISP-20 (20 items) o el ISP (46 items), sean o no administrados conjuntamente con el MFE-30 (30 items), resulta un procedimiento muy util para la valoracion de la sintomatologia en los individuos con daño cerebral adquirido o demencias degenerativas, al proporcionar una gran cantidad de informacion sobre las dificultades de los pacientes en la vida cotidiana. Conclusiones. Se recomienda, junto con la obligada evaluacion neuropsicologica, la cumplimentacion de cuestionarios o inventarios de sintomas como los propuestos, dado que presentan ventajas desde el punto de vista clinico, ademas de resultar eficaces, efectivos y eficientes en terminos economicos.

  19. Dietary inflammatory index and anthropometric measures of obesity in a population sample at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) trial.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Canela, M; Zazpe, I; Shivappa, N; Hébert, J R; Sánchez-Tainta, A; Corella, D; Salas-Salvadó, J; Fitó, M; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; Rekondo, J; Fernández-Crehuet, J; Fiol, M; Santos-Lozano, J M; Serra-Majem, L; Pinto, X; Martínez, J A; Ros, E; Estruch, R; Martínez-González, M A

    2015-03-28

    The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a new tool to assess the inflammatory potential of the diet. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between the DII and BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio (WHtR). We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7236 participants recruited into the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea trial. Information from a validated 137-item FFQ was used to calculate energy, food and nutrient intakes. A fourteen-item dietary screener was used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet). Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate differences (and 95 % CI) in BMI, waist circumference and WHtR across the quintiles of the DII. All nutrient intakes, healthy foods and adherence to the MeDiet were higher in the quintile with the lowest DII score (more anti-inflammatory values) except for intakes of animal protein, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat. Although an inverse association between the DII and total energy was apparent, the DII was associated with higher average BMI, waist circumference and WHtR after adjusting for known risk factors. The adjusted difference in the WHtR for women and men between the highest and lowest quintiles of the DII was 1·60 % (95 % CI 0·87, 2·33) and 1·04 % (95 % CI 0·35, 1·74), respectively. Pro-inflammatory scores remained associated with obesity after controlling for the effect that adherence to a MeDiet had on inflammation. In conclusion, the present study shows a direct association between the DII and indices of obesity, and supports the hypothesis that diet may have a role in the development of obesity through inflammatory modulation mechanisms.

  20. Association between dietary fibre intake and fruit, vegetable or whole-grain consumption and the risk of CVD: results from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial.

    PubMed

    Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Toledo, Estefania; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Zazpe, Itziar; Farràs, Marta; Basterra-Gortari, Francisco Javier; Diez-Espino, Javier; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Ros, Emilio; Marti, Amelia; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Arós, Fernando; Moñino, Manuel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Babio, Nancy; Gonzalez, Jose I; Fitó, Montserrat; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2016-08-01

    Prospective studies assessing the association between fibre intake or fibre-rich food consumption and the risk of CVD have often been limited by baseline assessment of diet. Thus far, no study has used yearly repeated measurements of dietary changes during follow-up. Moreover, previous studies included healthy and selected participants who did not represent subjects at high cardiovascular risk. We used yearly repeated measurements of diet to investigate the association between fibre intake and CVD in a Mediterranean cohort of elderly adults at high cardiovascular risk. We followed-up 7216 men (55-80 years) and women (60-80 years) initially free of CVD for up to 7 years in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study (registered as ISRCTN35739639). A 137-item validated FFQ was repeated yearly to assess diet. The primary end point, confirmed by a blinded ad hoc Event Adjudication Committee, was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. Time-dependent Cox's regression models were used to estimate the risk of CVD according to baseline dietary exposures and to their yearly updated changes. We found a significant inverse association for fibre (P for trend=0·020) and fruits (P for trend=0·024) in age-sex adjusted models, but the statistical significance was lost in fully adjusted models. However, we found a significant inverse association with CVD incidence for the sum of fruit and vegetable consumption. Participants who consumed in total nine or more servings/d of fruits plus vegetables had a hazard ratio 0·60 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·96) of CVD in comparison with those consuming <5 servings/d.

  1. Dietary inflammatory index and anthropometric measures of obesity in a population sample at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Canela, M.; Zazpe, I.; Shivappa, N.; Hébert, J. R.; Sánchez-Tainta, A.; Corella, D.; Salas-Salvadó, J.; Fitó, M.; Lamuela-Raventós, R. M.; Rekondo, J.; Fernández-Crehuet, J.; Fiol, M.; Santos-Lozano, J. M.; Serra-Majem, L.; Pinto, X.; Martínez, J. A.; Ros, E.; Estruch, R.; Martínez-González, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a new tool to assess the inflammatory potential of the diet. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between the DII and BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio (WHtR). We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7236 participants recruited into the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea trial. Information from a validated 137-item FFQ was used to calculate energy, food and nutrient intakes. A fourteen-item dietary screener was used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet). Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate differences (and 95% CI) in BMI, waist circumference and WHtR across the quintiles of the DII. All nutrient intakes, healthy foods and adherence to the MeDiet were higher in the quintile with the lowest DII score (more anti-inflammatory values) except for intakes of animal protein, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat. Although an inverse association between the DII and total energy was apparent, the DII was associated with higher average BMI, waist circumference and WHtR after adjusting for known risk factors. The adjusted difference in the WHtR for women and men between the highest and lowest quintiles of the DII was 1.60% (95% CI 0.87, 2.33) and 1.04% (95% CI 0.35, 1.74), respectively. Pro-inflammatory scores remained associated with obesity after controlling for the effect that adherence to a MeDiet had on inflammation. In conclusion, the present study shows a direct association between the DII and indices of obesity, and supports the hypothesis that diet may have a role in the development of obesity through inflammatory modulation mechanisms. PMID:25720588

  2. Investigaccion-accion en la sala de clases sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios y su relacion reciproca con el aprendizaje de las ciencias biologicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova-Santiago, Lizzette Astrid

    La investigacion---accion que se llevo a cabo en la sala de clases tenia como punto de partida las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios para luego examinar sus implicaciones en el proceso de aprendizaje de las Ciencias Biologicas. ¿Que se supone que hagan las creencias en relacion con el aprendizaje? ¿En que consiste incorporar este aspecto a la practica educativa universitaria? Utilizando el modelo de Kemmis y McTaggart (1987) la investigacion-accion se planteo como un proceso dinamico en cuatro momentos en espiral constituidos por la planificacion, la accion, la observacion y la reflexion. Cada una de las fases tuvo una intencion retrospectiva y prospectiva formando una espiral de autorreflexion del conocimiento y la accion. Se llevaron a cabo audio grabaciones en clases y analisis de documentos. Ademas, la profesora-investigadora hizo un portafolio para reflexionar sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tienen los estudiantes y las creencias del aprendizaje que tiene la profesora y sobre como la comprension de estos elementos ayudo a mejorar su practica educativa a traves del tiempo. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tiene el grupo de estudiantes son diversas. Ellos si creen que la ciencia tiene una cultura la cual describieron como: complicada y desconocida que evoluciona constantemente, que es un conjunto de metodos, que es altamente tecnologica, que resuelve problemas de salud, ayuda a interpretar la realidad del mundo que los rodea y su origen y que existen unas intersecciones entre la ciencia y el poder. Sobre las creencias del proceso de aprendizaje de la profesora-investigadora, estas senalan que el modelaje de actores, la vision de la academia que tiene ella asi como la participacion y negociacion entre todos los involucrados en el proceso educativo, son factores que inciden en el proceso de aprendizaje.

  3. Assistance circulatoire extracorporelle percutanée dans les défaillances hémodynamiques aiguës graves : Expérience monocentrique chez 100 patients consécutifs

    PubMed Central

    Vanzetto, Gerald; Akret, Chrystelle; Bach, Vincent; Barone, Gilles; Durand, Michel; Chavanon, Olivier; Hacini, Rachid; Bouvaist, Hélène; Machecourt, Jacques; Blin, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXTE : L’ECLS (extracorporeal life support) est une assistance circulatoire de plus en plus fréquemment employée chez l’adulte dans le cadre des arrêts cardiorespiratoires (ACR) et des défaillances hémodynamiques ne répondant pas aux traitements classiques. OBJECTIFS : Le but était d’évaluer la faisabilité et les résultats de 100 procédures consécutives d’ECLS artérioveineuses percutanées au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble (France) entre janvier 2002 et septembre 2007. MÉTHODES : Registre monocentrique descriptif avec suivi prospectif à 1 an. RÉSULTATS : L’ECLS a été posée avec succès chez 93 % des patients. Son indication était un choc cardiogénique dans 50 % des cas, un ACR dans 38 % des cas et un échec de sevrage de circulation extracorporelle (CEC) en fin d’intervention de chirurgie cardiothoracique dans 12 % des cas. Des complications directement liées à l’ECLS ont été notées chez 56 % des patients, les plus fréquentes étant une hémorragie au niveau des points de ponctions avec transfusion de culots globulaires (26 %) et une ischémie des membres inférieurs (19 %). Le sevrage de l’assistance a pu être effectué chez 33 patients (44 % des chocs cardiogéniques, 13 % des ACR, 50 % des échecs de sevrage de CEC) et 20 patients sont sortis de l’hôpital (26 % des chocs cardiogéniques, 10,5 % des ACR et 25 % des échecs de sevrage de CEC). Tous sont vivants à distance sans séquelles graves (suivi moyen : 16,8 mois). CONCLUSION : L’emploi de l’ECLS chez les patients en ACR et surtout en choc cardiogénique est faisable, avec un taux de survie satisfaisant vu la gravité initiale extrême de leur état. PMID:19536387

  4. [Aetiology and treatment of epilepsy in a series of 1,557 patients].

    PubMed

    Torres-Ferrús, Marta; Toledo, Manuel; González-Cuevas, Montserrat; Seró-Ballesteros, Laia; Santamarina, Esteban; Raspall-Chaure, Miquel; Sueiras-Gil, María; Cambrodí-Masip, Roser; Sarria, Silvana; Álvarez-Sabín, José; Salas-Puig, Javier

    2013-10-01

    Introduccion. La etiologia de la epilepsia es un determinante importante del tratamiento y el pronostico. Los avances diagnosticos y terapeuticos hacen pensar que la distribucion causal, el tratamiento y el pronostico de la poblacion con epilepsia se hayan podido ver modificados. Objetivo. Describir la distribucion sindromica, etiologica y el tratamiento farmacologico en los pacientes con epilepsia. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal de pacientes con epilepsia atendidos de manera consecutiva en la consulta de nuestra unidad de epilepsia. Se recogieron datos demograficos, de sindrome, etiologia y tratamiento farmacologico en el momento de la inclusion. Se analizaron los datos de modo conjunto y por grupos de edad. Resultados. Se incluyeron 1.557 pacientes, el 54% varones. El 73% de la muestra tenia una epilepsia focal, que era secundaria a una lesion estructural en el 56%. Las epilepsias generalizadas representaron el 20%. El 5% fue inclasificable. Por edad, la etiologia vascular predominaba en practicamente todos los grupos y su prevalencia aumentaba en relacion con la edad. Los farmacos antiepilepticos mas utilizados fueron acido valproico (29%), levetiracetam (27%) y carbamacepina (20%). El 70% de las epilepsias generalizadas y el 57% de las focales seguian tratamiento en monoterapia. Conclusiones. La prevalencia por grupos de edad fue similar a la descrita en paises desarrollados aunque se observo una menor prevalencia de epilepsias criptogenicas. Mas del 60% de los pacientes seguia monoterapia y el acido valproico fue el mas utilizado.

  5. 40 CFR 60.232 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.232 Section... Industry: Triple Superphosphate Plants § 60.232 Standard for fluorides. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 100 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5 feed (0.20...

  6. 40 CFR 60.212 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.212 Section... Industry: Superphosphoric Acid Plants § 60.212 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on which... facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 5.0 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5...

  7. 40 CFR 60.232 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.232 Section... Industry: Triple Superphosphate Plants § 60.232 Standard for fluorides. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 100 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5 feed (0.20...

  8. 40 CFR 60.212 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.212 Section... Industry: Superphosphoric Acid Plants § 60.212 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on which... facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 5.0 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5...

  9. 40 CFR 422.50 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphoric acid subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphoric acid subcategory. 422.50 Section 422.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... processing acids such as vacuum and air stripping. The acid is concentrated up to 70-73% P2 O5 in...

  10. 40 CFR 60.211 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... weight for eventual consumption as a fertilizer. (b) Total fluorides means elemental fluorine and all fluoride compounds as measured by reference methods specified in § 60.214, or equivalent or alternative methods. (c) Equivalent P 2 O 5 feed means the quantity of phosphorus, expressed as phosphorus...

  11. 40 CFR 60.211 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Superphosphoric Acid Plants § 60.211 Definitions. As used in this subpart, all terms not defined herein shall have the meaning given them in the Act and in subpart A of this part. (a) Superphosphoric acid plant means any facility which concentrates wet-process phosphoric acid to 66 percent or greater P2O5 content...

  12. DEPOSITS ON FLAME IONIZATION DETECTORS WITH SILICONE GUM RUBBER COLUMNS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    During the preparative gas chromatography of some organophosphorus esters using a silicone gum rubber column, a copious white deposit was formed on...detector deposits were mainly silicon phosphate (2SiO2.P2O5), and the injection port samples were alpha cristobalite (SiO2).

  13. Development of N- and P- Types of Semiconducting Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-05

    type, oligomeric donor monomers with fused thienobenzothiophene structures. These monomers are copolymerized with fluorinated thieno[3,4- b]thiophene...reaction, which is an intramolecular electrophilic substitution by using trifluoroactetic acid (TFA) and P2O5 as the reagent, followed by elimination...favoring the electrophilic addition, but also prevented the active alpha position of thiophene unit from intermolecular side reactions. Interestingly

  14. Characterization in vitro studies and antibacterial properties on a sol-gel derived silver incorporated bioglass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhazma, S.; Chajri, S.; Khaldi, M.; Sadiki, M.; Barkai, H.; Elabed, S.; Ibnsouda Koraichi, S.; El Bali, B.; Lachkar, M.

    2017-03-01

    The SiO2-CaO, SiO2-CaO-P2O5 and SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Ag2O glass systems were synthesized by the sol-gel technique and characterized with different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). In vitro bioactivity tests were performed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). The antibacterial action of 65S5Ag (65%SiO2 + 24%CaO + 6%P2O5 + 5% Ag2O) is attributed exclusively to the leaching of Ag+ ions from the glass matrix. The activity of SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Ag2O was compared with that of its binary and ternary counterpart glass system. The concentrations of Ag-bioglass, in the range of 0.05 mg/mL of culture medium, were found to inhibit the growth of these bacteria.

  15. 40 CFR 63.626 - Performance tests and compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... process line, granular triple superphosphate process line, or granular triple superphosphate storage... line, or granular triple superphosphate storage building. The owner or operator shall conduct the... Where: E = emission rate of total fluorides, g/metric ton (lb/ton) of equivalent P2O5 feed....

  16. 40 CFR 63.626 - Performance tests and compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... process line, granular triple superphosphate process line, or granular triple superphosphate storage... line, or granular triple superphosphate storage building. The owner or operator shall conduct the... Where: E = emission rate of total fluorides, g/metric ton (lb/ton) of equivalent P2O5 feed....

  17. 40 CFR 63.625 - Monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determine and permanently record the mass flow of phosphorus-bearing feed material to the process. The... P2O5 feed by first determining the total mass rate in metric ton/hour of phosphorus bearing feed using..., or granular triple superphosphate storage building using a wet scrubbing emission control...

  18. 40 CFR 63.625 - Monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determine and permanently record the mass flow of phosphorus-bearing feed material to the process. The... P2O5 feed by first determining the total mass rate in metric ton/hour of phosphorus bearing feed using..., or granular triple superphosphate storage building using a wet scrubbing emission control...

  19. 40 CFR 63.625 - Monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determine and permanently record the mass flow of phosphorus-bearing feed material to the process. The... P2O5 feed by first determining the total mass rate in metric ton/hour of phosphorus bearing feed using..., or granular triple superphosphate storage building using a wet scrubbing emission control...

  20. 40 CFR 63.625 - Monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determine and permanently record the mass flow of phosphorus-bearing feed material to the process. The... P2O5 feed by first determining the total mass rate in metric ton/hour of phosphorus bearing feed using..., or granular triple superphosphate storage building using a wet scrubbing emission control...