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Sample records for p5 p-type atpases

  1. Rethinking the P-type ATPase problem.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, Gene A

    2003-11-01

    There are very good reasons to stop thinking about the molecular mechanism of the P-type ion-translocating ATPases in terms of the traditional E1E2 model and to start thinking about it in more progressive ways. This makes it possible to see the ion-transport cycle as a rational series of discrete steps with well defined driving forces, including the crucial energy transduction step, where the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis is exchanged for the osmotic energy of an ion gradient. Importantly, although major enzyme conformational changes accompany each of these steps, none of them drive the energy coupling reaction. Thus, neither the E1E2 model nor conformational energy coupling, the cornerstones of traditional thinking about the P-type ATPases, are reliable paradigms for future efforts to understand how these transporters work. Alternatives must be seriously considered.

  2. Genomic Comparison of P-Type ATPase Ion Pumps in Arabidopsis and Rice1

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Ivan; Tchieu, Jason; Sussman, Michael R.; Boutry, Marc; Palmgren, Michael G.; Gribskov, Michael; Harper, Jeffrey F.; Axelsen, Kristian B.

    2003-01-01

    Members of the P-type ATPase ion pump superfamily are found in all three branches of life. Forty-six P-type ATPase genes were identified in Arabidopsis, the largest number yet identified in any organism. The recent completion of two draft sequences of the rice (Oryza sativa) genome allows for comparison of the full complement of P-type ATPases in two different plant species. Here, we identify a similar number (43) in rice, despite the rice genome being more than three times the size of Arabidopsis. The similarly large families suggest that both dicots and monocots have evolved with a large preexisting repertoire of P-type ATPases. Both Arabidopsis and rice have representative members in all five major subfamilies of P-type ATPases: heavy-metal ATPases (P1B), Ca2+-ATPases (endoplasmic reticulum-type Ca2+-ATPase and autoinhibited Ca2+-ATPase, P2A and P2B), H+-ATPases (autoinhibited H+-ATPase, P3A), putative aminophospholipid ATPases (ALA, P4), and a branch with unknown specificity (P5). The close pairing of similar isoforms in rice and Arabidopsis suggests potential orthologous relationships for all 43 rice P-type ATPases. A phylogenetic comparison of protein sequences and intron positions indicates that the common angiosperm ancestor had at least 23 P-type ATPases. Although little is known about unique and common features of related pumps, clear differences between some members of the calcium pumps indicate that evolutionarily conserved clusters may distinguish pumps with either different subcellular locations or biochemical functions. PMID:12805592

  3. Membrane Targeting of P-type ATPases in Plant Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey F. Harper, Ph.D.

    2004-06-30

    How membrane proteins are targeted to specific subcellular locations is a very complex and poorly understood area of research. Our long-term goal is to use P-type ATPases (ion pumps), in a model plant system Arabidopsis, as a paradigm to understand how members of a family of closely related membrane proteins can be targeted to different subcellular locations. The research is divided into two specific aims. The first aim is focused on determining the targeting destination of all 10 ACA-type calcium pumps (Arabidopsis Calcium ATPase) in Arabidopsis. ACAs represent a plant specific-subfamily of plasma membrane-type calcium pumps. In contrast to animals, the plant homologs have been found in multiple membrane systems, including the ER (ACA2), tonoplast (ACA4) and plasma membrane (ACA8). Their high degree of similarity provides a unique opportunity to use a comparative approach to delineate the membrane specific targeting information for each pump. One hypothesis to be tested is that an endomembrane located ACA can be re-directed to the plasma membrane by including targeting information from a plasma membrane isoform, ACA8. Our approach is to engineer domain swaps between pumps and monitor the targeting of chimeric proteins in plant cells using a Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) as a tag. The second aim is to test the hypothesis that heterologous transporters can be engineered into plants and targeted to the plasma membrane by fusing them to a plasma membrane proton pump. As a test case we are evaluating the targeting properties of fusions made between a yeast sodium/proton exchanger (Sod2) and a proton pump (AHA2). This fusion may potentially lead to a new strategy for engineering salt resistant plants. Together these aims are designed to provide fundamental insights into the biogenesis and function of plant cell membrane systems.

  4. Origin and evolution of metal P-type ATPases in Plantae (Archaeplastida)

    PubMed Central

    Hanikenne, Marc; Baurain, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Metal ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases involved in the transport of metal cations across biological membranes. They all share an architecture featuring eight transmembrane domains in pairs of two and are found in prokaryotes as well as in a variety of Eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, eight metal P-type ATPases have been described, four being specific to copper transport and four displaying a broader metal specificity, including zinc, cadmium, and possibly copper and calcium. So far, few efforts have been devoted to elucidating the origin and evolution of these proteins in Eukaryotes. In this work, we use large-scale phylogenetics to show that metal P-type ATPases form a homogenous group among P-type ATPases and that their specialization into either monovalent (Cu) or divalent (Zn, Cd…) metal transport stems from a gene duplication that took place early in the evolution of Life. Then, we demonstrate that the four subgroups of plant metal ATPases all have a different evolutionary origin and a specific taxonomic distribution, only one tracing back to the cyanobacterial progenitor of the chloroplast. Finally, we examine the subsequent evolution of these proteins in green plants and conclude that the genes thoroughly characterized in model organisms are often the result of lineage-specific gene duplications, which calls for caution when attempting to infer function from sequence similarity alone in non-model organisms. PMID:24575101

  5. Demethoxycurcumin Is A Potent Inhibitor of P-Type ATPases from Diverse Kingdoms of Life

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Sehgal, Pankaj; Tung, Truong Thanh; Møller, Jesper Vuust; Nielsen, John; Palmgren, Michael; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases catalyze the active transport of cations and phospholipids across biological membranes. Members of this large family are involved in a range of fundamental cellular processes. To date, a substantial number of P-type ATPase inhibitors have been characterized, some of which are used as drugs. In this work a library of natural compounds was screened and we first identified curcuminoids as plasma membrane H+-ATPases inhibitors in plant and fungal cells. We also found that some of the commercial curcumins contain several curcuminoids. Three of these were purified and, among the curcuminoids, demethoxycurcumin was the most potent inhibitor of all tested P-type ATPases from fungal (Pma1p; H+-ATPase), plant (AHA2; H+-ATPase) and animal (SERCA; Ca2+-ATPase) cells. All three curcuminoids acted as non-competitive antagonist to ATP and hence may bind to a highly conserved allosteric site of these pumps. Future research on biological effects of commercial preparations of curcumin should consider the heterogeneity of the material. PMID:27644036

  6. Characterization of a P-type ATPase of the archaebacterium Methanococcus voltae.

    PubMed

    Dharmavaram, R M; Konisky, J

    1989-08-25

    The vanadate-sensitive ATPase of Methanococcus voltae has been purified by a procedure which includes, purification of the cytoplasmic membrane by sucrose gradient centrifugation, solubilization with Triton X-100, and DEAE-Sephadex and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. While the DEAE-Sephadex step provided a preparation consisting of two polypeptides (74 and 52 kDa), the Sephacryl S-300 step yields a product with a subunit of 74 kDa. Incubation of either membranes or purified ATPase with [gamma-32P]ATP followed by acidic (pH 2.4) lithium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated the vanadate-sensitive labeling of a 74-kDa acyl phosphate intermediate. These results indicate that the M. voltae ATPase is of the P-type.

  7. The yeast p5 type ATPase, spf1, regulates manganese transport into the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yifat; Megyeri, Márton; Chen, Oscar C W; Condomitti, Giuseppe; Riezman, Isabelle; Loizides-Mangold, Ursula; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Rimon, Nitzan; Riezman, Howard; Platt, Frances M; Futerman, Anthony H; Schuldiner, Maya

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, multifunctional and essential organelle. Despite intense research, the function of more than a third of ER proteins remains unknown even in the well-studied model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One such protein is Spf1, which is a highly conserved, ER localized, putative P-type ATPase. Deletion of SPF1 causes a wide variety of phenotypes including severe ER stress suggesting that this protein is essential for the normal function of the ER. The closest homologue of Spf1 is the vacuolar P-type ATPase Ypk9 that influences Mn(2+) homeostasis. However in vitro reconstitution assays with Spf1 have not yielded insight into its transport specificity. Here we took an in vivo approach to detect the direct and indirect effects of deleting SPF1. We found a specific reduction in the luminal concentration of Mn(2+) in ∆spf1 cells and an increase following it's overexpression. In agreement with the observed loss of luminal Mn(2+) we could observe concurrent reduction in many Mn(2+)-related process in the ER lumen. Conversely, cytosolic Mn(2+)-dependent processes were increased. Together, these data support a role for Spf1p in Mn(2+) transport in the cell. We also demonstrate that the human sequence homologue, ATP13A1, is a functionally conserved orthologue. Since ATP13A1 is highly expressed in developing neuronal tissues and in the brain, this should help in the study of Mn(2+)-dependent neurological disorders.

  8. The Yeast P5 Type ATPase, Spf1, Regulates Manganese Transport into the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yifat; Megyeri, Márton; Chen, Oscar C. W.; Condomitti, Giuseppe; Riezman, Isabelle; Loizides-Mangold, Ursula; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Rimon, Nitzan; Riezman, Howard; Platt, Frances M.; Futerman, Anthony H.; Schuldiner, Maya

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, multifunctional and essential organelle. Despite intense research, the function of more than a third of ER proteins remains unknown even in the well-studied model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One such protein is Spf1, which is a highly conserved, ER localized, putative P-type ATPase. Deletion of SPF1 causes a wide variety of phenotypes including severe ER stress suggesting that this protein is essential for the normal function of the ER. The closest homologue of Spf1 is the vacuolar P-type ATPase Ypk9 that influences Mn2+ homeostasis. However in vitro reconstitution assays with Spf1 have not yielded insight into its transport specificity. Here we took an in vivo approach to detect the direct and indirect effects of deleting SPF1. We found a specific reduction in the luminal concentration of Mn2+ in ∆spf1 cells and an increase following it’s overexpression. In agreement with the observed loss of luminal Mn2+ we could observe concurrent reduction in many Mn2+-related process in the ER lumen. Conversely, cytosolic Mn2+-dependent processes were increased. Together, these data support a role for Spf1p in Mn2+ transport in the cell. We also demonstrate that the human sequence homologue, ATP13A1, is a functionally conserved orthologue. Since ATP13A1 is highly expressed in developing neuronal tissues and in the brain, this should help in the study of Mn2+-dependent neurological disorders. PMID:24392018

  9. In silico approaches and chemical space of anti-P-type ATPase compounds for discovering new antituberculous drugs.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paola; López-Vallejo, Fabian; Soto, Carlos-Y

    2017-01-22

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important public health problems around the world. The emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains has driven the finding of alternative anti-TB targets. In this context, P-type ATPases are interesting therapeutic targets due to their key role in ion homeostasis across the plasma membrane and the mycobacterial survival inside macrophages. In this review, in silico and experimental strategies used for the rational design of new anti-TB drugs are presented; in addition, the chemical space distribution based on the structure and molecular properties of compounds with anti-TB and anti-P-type ATPase activity is discussed. The chemical space distribution compared to public compound libraries demonstrates that natural product libraries are a source of novel chemical scaffolds with potential anti-P-type ATPase activity. Furthermore, compounds that experimentally display anti-P-type ATPase activity belong to a chemical space of molecular properties comparable to that occupied by those approved for oral use, suggesting that these kinds of molecules have a good pharmacokinetic profile (drug-like) for evaluation as potential anti-TB drugs.

  10. Comparative chemical genomics reveal that the spiroindolone antimalarial KAE609 (Cipargamin) is a P-type ATPase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Goldgof, Gregory M.; Durrant, Jacob D.; Ottilie, Sabine; Vigil, Edgar; Allen, Kenneth E.; Gunawan, Felicia; Kostylev, Maxim; Henderson, Kiersten A.; Yang, Jennifer; Schenken, Jake; LaMonte, Gregory M.; Manary, Micah J.; Murao, Ayako; Nachon, Marie; Stanhope, Rebecca; Prescott, Maximo; McNamara, Case W.; Slayman, Carolyn W.; Amaro, Rommie E.; Suzuki, Yo; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    The spiroindolones, a new class of antimalarial medicines discovered in a cellular screen, are rendered less active by mutations in a parasite P-type ATPase, PfATP4. We show here that S. cerevisiae also acquires mutations in a gene encoding a P-type ATPase (ScPMA1) after exposure to spiroindolones and that these mutations are sufficient for resistance. KAE609 resistance mutations in ScPMA1 do not confer resistance to unrelated antimicrobials, but do confer cross sensitivity to the alkyl-lysophospholipid edelfosine, which is known to displace ScPma1p from the plasma membrane. Using an in vitro cell-free assay, we demonstrate that KAE609 directly inhibits ScPma1p ATPase activity. KAE609 also increases cytoplasmic hydrogen ion concentrations in yeast cells. Computer docking into a ScPma1p homology model identifies a binding mode that supports genetic resistance determinants and in vitro experimental structure-activity relationships in both P. falciparum and S. cerevisiae. This model also suggests a shared binding site with the dihydroisoquinolones antimalarials. Our data support a model in which KAE609 exerts its antimalarial activity by directly interfering with P-type ATPase activity. PMID:27291296

  11. Presence of Na+-stimulated P-type ATPase in the membrane of a facultatively anaerobic alkaliphile, Exiguobacterium aurantiacum.

    PubMed

    Koyama, N

    1999-07-01

    It was found that a facultatively anaerobic alkaliphile, Exiguobacterium aurantiacum, possesses a membrane-bound ATPase, which was activated specifically by Na+. The Na+-stimulated ATPase activity reached a maximum value at 200 mM NaCl. In the presence of 200 mM NaCl, the activity was drastically reduced by vanadate, a potent inhibitor of P-type ATPase, with a half-maximal inhibition at 1 microM. Incubation of the membranes with [gamma-32P]ATP followed by acidic lithium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated the existence of two phosphorylated intermediates with apparent molecular masses of 60 and 100 kDa. Only phosphorylation of the 100-kDa polypeptide was inhibited by vanadate. The membrane extract containing Na+-stimulated ATPase, when reconstituted into soybean phospholipid vesicles, exhibited 22Na+ transport by the addition of ATP, which was inhibited by vanadate and gramicidin. It is likely that the Na+-stimulated ATPase belongs to P-type and is involved in Na+ transport.

  12. PAA1, a P-Type ATPase of Arabidopsis, Functions in Copper Transport in Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Shikanai, Toshiharu; Müller-Moulé, Patricia; Munekage, Yuri; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Pilon, Marinus

    2003-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element with important roles as a cofactor in many plant functions, including photosynthesis. However, free Cu ions can cause toxicity, necessitating precise Cu delivery systems. Relatively little is known about Cu transport in plant cells, and no components of the Cu transport machinery in chloroplasts have been identified previously. Cu transport into chloroplasts provides the cofactor for the stromal enzyme copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) and for the thylakoid lumen protein plastocyanin, which functions in photosynthetic electron transport from the cytochrome b6f complex to photosystem I. Here, we characterized six Arabidopsis mutants that are defective in the PAA1 gene, which encodes a member of the metal-transporting P-type ATPase family with a functional N-terminal chloroplast transit peptide. paa1 mutants exhibited a high-chlorophyll-fluorescence phenotype as a result of an impairment of photosynthetic electron transport that could be ascribed to decreased levels of holoplastocyanin. The paa1-1 mutant had a lower chloroplast Cu content, despite having wild-type levels in leaves. The electron transport defect of paa1 mutants was evident on medium containing <1 μM Cu, but it was suppressed by the addition of 10 μM Cu. Chloroplastic Cu/ZnSOD activity also was reduced in paa1 mutants, suggesting that PAA1 mediates Cu transfer across the plastid envelope. Thus, PAA1 is a critical component of a Cu transport system in chloroplasts responsible for cofactor delivery to plastocyanin and Cu/ZnSOD. PMID:12782727

  13. The Parkinson-associated human P5B-ATPase ATP13A2 protects against the iron-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Débora E; Corradi, Gerardo R; Cuesta, Lucía Martínez; Adamo, Hugo P; de Tezanos Pinto, Felicitas

    2015-08-01

    P-type ion pumps are membrane transporters that have been classified into five subfamilies termed P1-P5. The ion transported by the P5-ATPases is not known. Five genes named ATP13A1-ATP13A5 that belong to the P5-ATPase group are present in humans. Loss-of-function mutations in the ATP13A2 gene (PARK9, OMIM 610513) underlay a form of Parkinson's disease (PD) known as the Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS), which belongs to the group of syndromes of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). Here we report that the cytotoxicity induced by iron exposure was two-fold reduced in CHO cells stably expressing the ATP13A2 recombinant protein (ATP13A2). Moreover, the iron content in ATP13A2 cells was lower than control cells stably expressing an inactive mutant of ATP13A2. ATP13A2 expression caused an enlargement of lysosomes and late endosomes. ATP13A2 cells exhibited a reduced iron-induced lysosome membrane permeabilization (LMP). These results suggest that ATP13A2 overexpression improves the lysosome membrane integrity and protects against the iron-induced cell damage.

  14. Mammalian copper-transporting P-Type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B: Emerging roles

    PubMed Central

    La Fontaine, Sharon; Ackland, M. Leigh; Mercer, Julian F.B.

    2010-01-01

    Copper (Cu) has a role in a diverse and increasing number of pathways, physiological and disease processes. These roles are testament to the fundamental importance of Cu in biology and the need to understand the mechanisms that regulate Cu homeostasis. The mammalian Cu-transporting P-type ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B are two key proteins that regulate the Cu status of the body. They transport Cu across cellular membranes for biosynthetic and protective functions, enabling Cu to fulfill its role as a structural cofactor for many essential enzymes, and to prevent a toxic build-up of Cu inside cells. A variety of regulatory mechanisms operate at transcriptional and post-translational levels to ensure adequate Cu supplies for both physiological and pathophysiological processes. This review summarizes the recent literature that is revealing the emerging roles of the Cu-ATPases in health and disease. PMID:19922814

  15. Ionic leakage underlies a gain-of-function effect of dominant disease mutations affecting diverse P-type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Maki; Desai, Bela S; Cook, Boaz

    2014-02-01

    Type II P-type ATPases (PAIIs) constitute a family of conserved proteins that actively generate ionic gradients across membranes. Mutations in genes encoding PAIIs can cause heritable dominant diseases, with suggested etiology of haploinsufficiency. Using a Drosophila melanogaster genetic screen, we identified a dominant mutation altering the PAII member sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA). This mutation conferred temperature-sensitive uncoordination in a gain-of-function manner. We established that this gain-of-function phenotype is linked to dominant disease-causing mutations affecting various human PAIIs. We further found that heterologous expression of mutant PAIIs elicited ion leakage that was exacerbated at elevated temperatures. Therefore, these dominant mutations result in ionic leakage and render PAIIs susceptible to deleterious effects from elevated temperatures. Accordingly, it was recently reported that missense mutations affecting the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase can elicit ionic leakage. We propose that ionic leakage is a pervasive gain-of-function mechanism that can underlie a variety of dominant PAII-related diseases.

  16. Characterization of a heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene from an environmental heavy metal resistance Enterobacter sp. isolate.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chih-Ching; Huang, Chia-Hsuan; Lin, Yi-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metals are common contaminants found in polluted areas. We have identified a heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene (hmtp) via fosmid library and in vitro transposon mutagenesis from an Enterobacter sp. isolate. This gene is believed to participate in the bacterium's heavy metal resistance traits. The complete gene was identified, cloned, and expressed in a suitable Escherichia coli host cell. E. coli W3110, RW3110 (zntA::Km), GG48 (ΔzitB::Cm zntA::Km), and GG51 (ΔzitB::Cm) were used to study the possible effects of this gene for heavy metal (cadmium and zinc in particular) resistance. Among the E. coli strains tested, RW3110 and GG48 showed more sensitivity to cadmium and zinc compared to the wild-type E. coli W3110 and strain GG51. Therefore, strains RW3110 and GG48 were chosen for the reference hosts for further evaluation of the gene's effect. The results showed that expression of this heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene could increase the ability for zinc and cadmium resistance in the tested microorganisms.

  17. Assessment of the number and expression of P-type H(+)-ATPase genes in tomato.

    PubMed

    Ewing, N N; Bennett, A B

    1994-10-01

    Seven genomic fragments encoding isoforms of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase were cloned and characterized. Genomic DNA gel-blot analysis indicated that probes corresponding to LHA1 through LHA7 hybridized to a common set of seven to nine restriction fragments at moderate stringency and to single, distinct fragments at high stringency. RNA gel-blot and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based RNA analyses indicated that LHA1, LHA2, and LHA4 transcripts were present in all organs examined (roots, hypocotyls, stems, immature leaves, mature leaves, green fruit, and red ripe fruit). LHA1 mRNA was present at similar abundance in all organs, LHA2 mRNA was most abundant in hypocotyls and leaves, and LHA4 mRNA was most abundant in roots and hypocotyls. RNA gel-blot and RNA-based PCR assays indicated that LHA3, LHA5, LHA6, and LHA7 mRNA was present at very low or nondetectable levels in all organs, suggesting that these genes are either expressed at very low levels or in organs not examined or that they are regulated by hormonal or environmental cues that were not tested. Indoleacetic acid (IAA) treatment of tomato hypocotyl segments resulted in modest changes in abundance of LHA1, LHA2, and LHA4 transcripts, but these changes were not correlated with the time course of IAA-induced growth. In addition, constitutively silent LHA genes were not activated by IAA. These results indicate that at least seven genomic sequences are present in tomato that may encode plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases, at least three of which are expressed relatively abundantly at the mRNA level.

  18. Differential expression of P-type ATPases in intestinal epithelial cells: Identification of putative new atp1a1 splice-variant

    SciTech Connect

    Rocafull, Miguel A.; Thomas, Luz E.; Barrera, Girolamo J.; Castillo, Jesus R. del

    2010-01-01

    P-type ATPases are membrane proteins that couple ATP hydrolysis with cation transport across the membrane. Ten different subtypes have been described. In mammalia, 15 genes of P-type ATPases from subtypes II-A, II-B and II-C, that transport low-atomic-weight cations (Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and H{sup +}), have been reported. They include reticulum and plasma-membrane Ca{sup 2+}-ATPases, Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase and H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPases. Enterocytes and colonocytes show functional differences, which seem to be partially due to the differential expression of P-type ATPases. These enzymes have 9 structural motifs, being the phosphorylation (E) and the Mg{sup 2+}ATP-binding (H) motifs the most preserved. These structural characteristics permitted developing a Multiplex-Nested-PCR (MN-PCR) for the simultaneous identification of different P-type ATPases. Thus, using MN-PCR, seven different cDNAs were cloned from enterocytes and colonocytes, including SERCA3, SERCA2, Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase {alpha}1-isoform, H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase {alpha}2-isoform, PMCA1, PMCA4 and a cDNA-fragment that seems to be a new cassette-type splice-variant of the atp1a1 gen. PMCA4 in enterocytes and H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase {alpha}2-isoform in colonocytes were differentially expressed. This cell-specific expression pattern is related with the distinctive enterocyte and colonocyte functions.

  19. Cellular function and pathological role of ATP13A2 and related P-type transport ATPases in Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    van Veen, Sarah; Sørensen, Danny M; Holemans, Tine; Holen, Henrik W; Palmgren, Michael G; Vangheluwe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in ATP13A2 lead to Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, a parkinsonism with dementia. ATP13A2 belongs to the P-type transport ATPases, a large family of primary active transporters that exert vital cellular functions. However, the cellular function and transported substrate of ATP13A2 remain unknown. To discuss the role of ATP13A2 in neurodegeneration, we first provide a short description of the architecture and transport mechanism of P-type transport ATPases. Then, we briefly highlight key P-type ATPases involved in neuronal disorders such as the copper transporters ATP7A (Menkes disease), ATP7B (Wilson disease), the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases ATP1A2 (familial hemiplegic migraine) and ATP1A3 (rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism). Finally, we review the recent literature of ATP13A2 and discuss ATP13A2's putative cellular function in the light of what is known concerning the functions of other, better-studied P-type ATPases. We critically review the available data concerning the role of ATP13A2 in heavy metal transport and propose a possible alternative hypothesis that ATP13A2 might be a flippase. As a flippase, ATP13A2 may transport an organic molecule, such as a lipid or a peptide, from one membrane leaflet to the other. A flippase might control local lipid dynamics during vesicle formation and membrane fusion events.

  20. Cellular function and pathological role of ATP13A2 and related P-type transport ATPases in Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    van Veen, Sarah; Sørensen, Danny M.; Holemans, Tine; Holen, Henrik W.; Palmgren, Michael G.; Vangheluwe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in ATP13A2 lead to Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, a parkinsonism with dementia. ATP13A2 belongs to the P-type transport ATPases, a large family of primary active transporters that exert vital cellular functions. However, the cellular function and transported substrate of ATP13A2 remain unknown. To discuss the role of ATP13A2 in neurodegeneration, we first provide a short description of the architecture and transport mechanism of P-type transport ATPases. Then, we briefly highlight key P-type ATPases involved in neuronal disorders such as the copper transporters ATP7A (Menkes disease), ATP7B (Wilson disease), the Na+/K+-ATPases ATP1A2 (familial hemiplegic migraine) and ATP1A3 (rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism). Finally, we review the recent literature of ATP13A2 and discuss ATP13A2's putative cellular function in the light of what is known concerning the functions of other, better-studied P-type ATPases. We critically review the available data concerning the role of ATP13A2 in heavy metal transport and propose a possible alternative hypothesis that ATP13A2 might be a flippase. As a flippase, ATP13A2 may transport an organic molecule, such as a lipid or a peptide, from one membrane leaflet to the other. A flippase might control local lipid dynamics during vesicle formation and membrane fusion events. PMID:24904274

  1. Role of the P-Type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B in brain copper homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Telianidis, Jonathon; Hung, Ya Hui; Materia, Stephanie; Fontaine, Sharon La

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades there have been significant advances in our understanding of copper homeostasis and the pathological consequences of copper dysregulation. Cumulative evidence is revealing a complex regulatory network of proteins and pathways that maintain copper homeostasis. The recognition of copper dysregulation as a key pathological feature in prominent neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and prion diseases has led to increased research focus on the mechanisms controlling copper homeostasis in the brain. The copper-transporting P-type ATPases (copper-ATPases), ATP7A and ATP7B, are critical components of the copper regulatory network. Our understanding of the biochemistry and cell biology of these complex proteins has grown significantly since their discovery in 1993. They are large polytopic transmembrane proteins with six copper-binding motifs within the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain, eight transmembrane domains, and highly conserved catalytic domains. These proteins catalyze ATP-dependent copper transport across cell membranes for the metallation of many essential cuproenzymes, as well as for the removal of excess cellular copper to prevent copper toxicity. A key functional aspect of these copper transporters is their copper-responsive trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the cell periphery. ATP7A- and ATP7B-deficiency, due to genetic mutation, underlie the inherited copper transport disorders, Menkes and Wilson diseases, respectively. Their importance in maintaining brain copper homeostasis is underscored by the severe neuropathological deficits in these disorders. Herein we will review and update our current knowledge of these copper transporters in the brain and the central nervous system, their distribution and regulation, their role in normal brain copper homeostasis, and how their absence or dysfunction contributes to disturbances in copper homeostasis and neurodegeneration.

  2. Role of the P-Type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B in brain copper homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Telianidis, Jonathon; Hung, Ya Hui; Materia, Stephanie; Fontaine, Sharon La

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades there have been significant advances in our understanding of copper homeostasis and the pathological consequences of copper dysregulation. Cumulative evidence is revealing a complex regulatory network of proteins and pathways that maintain copper homeostasis. The recognition of copper dysregulation as a key pathological feature in prominent neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and prion diseases has led to increased research focus on the mechanisms controlling copper homeostasis in the brain. The copper-transporting P-type ATPases (copper-ATPases), ATP7A and ATP7B, are critical components of the copper regulatory network. Our understanding of the biochemistry and cell biology of these complex proteins has grown significantly since their discovery in 1993. They are large polytopic transmembrane proteins with six copper-binding motifs within the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain, eight transmembrane domains, and highly conserved catalytic domains. These proteins catalyze ATP-dependent copper transport across cell membranes for the metallation of many essential cuproenzymes, as well as for the removal of excess cellular copper to prevent copper toxicity. A key functional aspect of these copper transporters is their copper-responsive trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the cell periphery. ATP7A- and ATP7B-deficiency, due to genetic mutation, underlie the inherited copper transport disorders, Menkes and Wilson diseases, respectively. Their importance in maintaining brain copper homeostasis is underscored by the severe neuropathological deficits in these disorders. Herein we will review and update our current knowledge of these copper transporters in the brain and the central nervous system, their distribution and regulation, their role in normal brain copper homeostasis, and how their absence or dysfunction contributes to disturbances in copper homeostasis and neurodegeneration. PMID:23986700

  3. Microbial excavation of solid carbonates powered by P-type ATPase-mediated transcellular Ca2+ transport

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Ramírez-Reinat, Edgardo; Gao, Qunjie

    2010-01-01

    Some microbes, among them a few species of cyanobacteria, are able to excavate carbonate minerals, from limestone to biogenic carbonates, including coral reefs, in a bioerosive activity that directly links biological and geological parts of the global carbon cycle. The physiological mechanisms that enable such endolithic cyanobacteria to bore, however, remain unknown. In fact, their boring constitutes a geochemical paradox, in that photoautotrophic metabolism will tend to precipitate carbonates, not dissolve them. We developed a stable microbe/mineral boring system based on a cyanobacterial isolate, strain BC008, with which to study the process of microbial excavation directly in the laboratory. Measurements of boring into calcite under different light regimes, and an analysis of photopigment content and photosynthetic rates along boring filaments, helped us reject mechanisms based on the spatial or temporal separation of alkali versus Acid-generating metabolism (i.e., photosynthesis and respiration). Instead, extracellular Ca2+ imaging of boring cultures in vivo showed that BC008 was able to take up Ca2+ at the excavation front, decreasing the local extracellular ion activity product of calcium carbonate enough to promote spontaneous dissolution there. Intracellular Ca2+ was then transported away along the multicellular cyanobacterial trichomes and excreted at the distal borehole opening into the external medium. Inhibition assays and gene expression analyses indicate that the uptake and transport was driven by P-type Ca2+-ATPases. We believe such a chemically simple and biologically sophisticated mechanism for boring to be unparalleled among bacteria. PMID:21115827

  4. Why we must move on from the E1E2 model for the reaction cycle of the P-type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, Gene A

    2003-06-01

    Recent progress regarding the structure of the Ca(2+)-translocating ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum in several conformational states, and a substantial accumulation of biochemical information about this and other P-type ATPases, have put everything in place for the final convergence of biochemistry and structure that will lead to a complete understanding of the molecular mechanism of these membrane transport enzymes. But the common paradigm used to describe the reaction cycle of the P-type ATPases, the E1E2 model, is seriously flawed, and this is hindering our progress toward this goal. In this paper, it is first shown why the E1E2 model must be discarded. This is followed by a description of the P-type ATPase catalytic cycle that is much more consistent with the structural and biochemical information now available for these enzymes, and also brings to light the origin of the forces that drive the key reaction in the active transport cycle where high-affinity ion-binding sites are converted to low-affinity binding sites capable of releasing the transported ions against a considerable concentration gradient. This new model will therefore serve us better as we seek to unravel the final details of the molecular mechanism of active ion transport catalyzed by these enzymes. It is thus time to move on from the traditional E1E2 model.

  5. Final Report for DE-FG02-04ER15626: P-type ATPases in Plants – Role of Lipid Flippases in Membrane Biogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Jeffrey F.

    2015-02-24

    The long-range goal of the research is to understand the structure and biological functions of different P-type ATPases (ion pumps) in plant cells, and to use that knowledge to enhance the production of bioenergy from plants, or plant-research inspired technologies. Ptype ATPases include ion pumps that specifically transport H+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, K+, or Na+, as well as at least one unusual subfamily that appears to function as lipid flippases, flipping specific lipids from one side of a membrane bilayer to the other. As a group, P-type ATPases are thought to consume more than 1/3 of the cellular ATP in typical eukaryotic cells. Recent research in the Harper lab focused on understanding the biochemical and biological functions of P-type ATPases that flip lipids. These flippases belong to the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases. The activity of lipid flippases is thought to induce membrane curvature and/or create an asymmetry in which certain lipid head groups are preferential exposed to one surface or the other. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are 12 members of this family referred to as Aminophospholipid ATPase (ALA) 1 to ALA12. Using genetic knockouts, the Harper lab has established that this unusual subfamily of P-type ATPases are critical for plants to cope with even modest changes in temperature (e.g., down to 15°C, or up to 30°C). In addition, members of one subclade are critical for cell expansion, and loss of function mutants result in severe dwarfism. Other members of this same sub-clade are critical for pollen tube growth, and loss of function mutants are sterile under conditions of hot days and cold nights. While the cellular processes that depend on lipid flippases are still unclear, the genetic analysis of loss of function mutants clearly show they are of fundamental importance to plant growth and response to the environment.

  6. Global calcium transducer P-type Ca²⁺-ATPases open new avenues for agriculture by regulating stress signalling.

    PubMed

    Huda, Kazi Md Kamrul; Banu, Mst Sufara Akhter; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-08-01

    Food security is in danger under the continuous growing threat of various stresses including climate change and global warming, which ultimately leads to a reduction in crop yields. Calcium plays a very important role in many signal transduction pathways including stress signalling. Different extracellular stimuli trigger increases in cytosolic calcium, which is detrimental to plants. To cope with such stresses, plants need to develop efficient efflux mechanisms to maintain ionic homeostasis. The Ca(2+)-ATPases are members of the P-type ATPase superfamily, which perform many fundamental processes in organisms by actively transporting ions across cellular membranes. In recent years, many studies have revealed that, as well as efflux mechanisms, Ca(2+)-ATPases also play critical roles in sensing calcium fluctuations and relaying downstream signals by activating definitive targets, thus modulating corresponding metabolic pathways. As calcium-activated calmodulin (CaM) is reported to play vital roles in stress tolerance, the presence of a unique CaM-binding site in type IIB Ca(2+)-ATPases indicates their potential role in biotic as well as abiotic stress tolerance. The key roles of Ca(2+)-ATPases in transport systems and stress signalling in cellular homeostasis are addressed in this review. A complete understanding of plant defence mechanisms under stress will allow bioengineering of improved crop plants, which will be crucial for food security currently observed worldwide in the context of global climate changes. Overall, this article covers classification, evolution, structural aspects of Ca(2+)-ATPases, and their emerging roles in plant stress signalling.

  7. Specific Activation of the Plant P-type Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase by Lysophospholipids Depends on the Autoinhibitory N- and C-terminal Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Wielandt, Alex Green; Pedersen, Jesper Torbøl; Falhof, Janus; Kemmer, Gerdi Christine; Lund, Anette; Ekberg, Kira; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Pomorski, Thomas Günther; Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe; Palmgren, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic P-type plasma membrane H+-ATPases are primary active transport systems that are regulated at the post-translation level by cis-acting autoinhibitory domains, which can be relieved by protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation or binding of specific lipid species. Here we show that lysophospholipids specifically activate a plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase (Arabidopsis thaliana AHA2) by a mechanism that involves both cytoplasmic terminal domains of AHA2, whereas they have no effect on the fungal counterpart (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pma1p). The activation was dependent on the glycerol backbone of the lysophospholipid and increased with acyl chain length, whereas the headgroup had little effect on activation. Activation of the plant pump by lysophospholipids did not involve the penultimate residue, Thr-947, which is known to be phosphorylated as part of a binding site for activating 14-3-3 protein, but was critically dependent on a single autoinhibitory residue (Leu-919) upstream of the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain in AHA2. A corresponding residue is absent in the fungal counterpart. These data indicate that plant plasma membrane H+-ATPases evolved as specific receptors for lysophospholipids and support the hypothesis that lysophospholipids are important plant signaling molecules. PMID:25971968

  8. Human Type IV P-type ATPases That Work as Plasma Membrane Phospholipid Flippases and Their Regulation by Caspase and Calcium*

    PubMed Central

    Segawa, Katsumori; Kurata, Sachiko; Nagata, Shigekazu

    2016-01-01

    In plasma membranes, flippases translocate aminophospholipids such as phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine from the extracellular to the cytoplasmic leaflet. Mammalian ATP11C, a type IV P-type ATPase, acts as a flippase at the plasma membrane. Here, by expressing 12 human type IV P-type ATPases in ATP11C-deficient cells, we determined that ATP8A2 and ATP11A can also act as plasma membrane flippases. As with ATP11C, ATP8A2 and ATP11A localized to the plasma membrane in a CDC50A-dependent manner. ATP11A was cleaved by caspases during apoptosis, and a caspase-resistant ATP11A blocked apoptotic PtdSer exposure. In contrast, ATP8A2 was not cleaved by caspase, and cells expressing ATP8A2 did not expose PtdSer during apoptosis. Similarly, high Ca2+ concentrations inhibited the ATP11A and ATP11C PtdSer flippase activity, but ATP8A2 flippase activity was relatively resistant to Ca2+. ATP11A and ATP11C were ubiquitously expressed in human and mouse adult tissues. In contrast, ATP8A2 was expressed in specific tissues, such as the brain and testis. Thus, ATP8A2 may play a specific role in translocating PtdSer in these tissues. PMID:26567335

  9. P-type ATPase TAT-2 negatively regulates monomethyl branched-chain fatty acid mediated function in post-embryonic growth and development in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Seamen, Emylie; Blanchette, Jennifer M; Han, Min

    2009-08-01

    Monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) are essential for Caenorhabditis elegans growth and development. To identify factors acting downstream of mmBCFAs for their function in growth regulation, we conducted a genetic screen for suppressors of the L1 arrest that occurs in animals depleted of the 17-carbon mmBCFA C17ISO. Three of the suppressor mutations defined an unexpected player, the P-type ATPase TAT-2, which belongs to the flippase family of proteins that are implicated in mediating phospholipid bilayer asymmetry. We provide evidence that TAT-2, but not other TAT genes, has a specific role in antagonizing the regulatory activity of mmBCFAs in intestinal cells. Interestingly, we found that mutations in tat-2 also suppress the lethality caused by inhibition of the first step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. We further showed that the fatty acid side-chains of glycosylceramides contain 20%-30% mmBCFAs and that this fraction is greatly diminished in the absence of mmBCFA biosynthesis. These results suggest a model in which a C17ISO-containing sphingolipid may mediate the regulatory functions of mmBCFAs and is negatively regulated by TAT-2 in intestinal cells. This work indicates a novel connection between a P-type ATPase and the critical regulatory function of a specific fatty acid.

  10. Ligand-regulated transport of the Menkes copper P-type ATPase efflux pump from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane: a novel mechanism of regulated trafficking.

    PubMed

    Petris, M J; Mercer, J F; Culvenor, J G; Lockhart, P; Gleeson, P A; Camakaris, J

    1996-11-15

    The Menkes P-type ATPase (MNK), encoded by the Menkes gene (MNK; ATP7A), is a transmembrane copper-translocating pump which is defective in the human disorder of copper metabolism, Menkes disease. Recent evidence that the MNK P-type ATPase has a role in copper efflux has come from studies using copper-resistant variants of cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. These variants have MNK gene amplification and consequently overexpress MNK, the extents of which correlate with the degree of elevated copper efflux. Here, we report on the localization of MNK in these copper-resistant CHO cells when cultured in different levels of copper. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that MNK is predominantly localized to the Golgi apparatus of cells in basal medium. In elevated copper conditions there was a rapid trafficking of MNK from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. This shift in steady-state distribution of MNK was reversible and not dependent on new protein synthesis. In media containing basal copper, MNK accumulated in cytoplasmic vesicles after treatment of cells with a variety of agents that inhibit endosomal recycling. We suggest that MNK continuously recycles between the Golgi and the plasma membrane and elevated copper shifts the steady-state distribution from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. These data reveal a novel system of regulated protein trafficking which ultimately leads to the efflux of an essential yet potentially toxic ligand, where the ligand itself appears directly and specifically to stimulate the trafficking of its own transporter.

  11. Cd(2+) extrusion by P-type Cd(2+)-ATPase of Staphylococcus aureus 17810R via energy-dependent Cd(2+)/H(+) exchange mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tynecka, Zofia; Malm, Anna; Goś-Szcześniak, Zofia

    2016-08-01

    Cd(2+) is highly toxic to Staphylococcus aureus since it blocks dithiols in cytoplasmic 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC) participating in energy conservation process. However, S. aureus 17810R is Cd(2+)-resistant due to possession of cadA-coded Cd(2+) efflux system, recognized here as P-type Cd(2+)-ATPase. This Cd(2+) pump utilizing cellular energy-ATP, ∆μ H (+) (electrochemical proton potential) and respiratory protons, extrudes Cd(2+) from cytoplasm to protect dithiols in ODHC, but the mechanism of Cd(2+) extrusion remains unknown. Here we propose that two Cd(2+) taken up by strain 17810R via Mn(2+) uniporter down membrane potential (∆ψ) generated during glutamate oxidation in 100 mM phosphate buffer (high PiB) are trapped probably by high affinity sites in cytoplasmic domain of Cd(2+)-ATPase, forming SCdS. This stops Cd(2+) transport towards dithiols in ODHC, allowing undisturbed NADH production, its oxidation and energy conservation, while ATP could change orientation of SCdS towards facing transmembrane channel. Now, increased number of Pi-dependent protons pumped electrogenically via respiratory chain and countertransported through the channel down ∆ψ, extrude two trapped cytoplasmic Cd(2+), which move to low affinity sites, being then extruded into extracellular space via ∆ψ-dependent Cd(2+)/H(+) exchange. In 1 mM phosphate buffer (low PiB), external Cd(2+) competing with decreased number of Pi-dependent protons, binds to ψs of Cd(2+)-ATPase channel, enters cytoplasm through the channel down ∆ψ via Cd(2+)/Cd(2+) exchange and blocks dithiols in ODHC. However, Mg(2+) pretreatment preventing external Cd(2+) countertransport through the channel down ∆ψ, allowed undisturbed NADH production, its oxidation and extrusion of two cytoplasmic Cd(2+) via Cd(2+)/H(+) exchange, despite low PiB.

  12. Caenorhabditis elegans P5B-type ATPase CATP-5 operates in polyamine transport and is crucial for norspermidine-mediated suppression of RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Heinick, Alexander; Urban, Katja; Roth, Stefan; Spies, Danica; Nunes, Frank; Phanstiel, Otto; Liebau, Eva; Lüersen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Physiological polyamines are required in various biological processes. In the current study, we used norspermidine, a structural analog of the natural polyamine spermidine, to investigate polyamine uptake in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Norspermidine was found to have two remarkable effects: it is toxic for the nematode, without affecting its food, Escherichia coli; and it hampers RNA interference. By characterizing a norspermidine-resistant C. elegans mutant strain that has been isolated in a genetic screen, we demonstrate that both effects, as well as the uptake of a fluorescent polyamine-conjugate, depend on the transporter protein CATP-5, a novel P(5B)-type ATPase. To our knowledge, CATP-5 represents the first P(5)-type ATPase that is associated with the plasma membrane, being expressed in the apical membrane of intestinal cells and the excretory cell. Moreover, genetic interaction studies using C. elegans polyamine synthesis mutants indicate that CATP-5 has a function redundant to polyamine synthesis and link reduced polyamine levels to retarded postembryonic development, reduced brood size, shortened life span, and small body size. We suggest that CATP-5 represents a crucial component of the pharmacologically important polyamine transport system, the molecular nature of which has not been identified so far in metazoa.

  13. Does the KdpA subunit from the high affinity K(+)-translocating P-type KDP-ATPase have a structure similar to that of K(+) channels?

    PubMed Central

    Durell, S R; Bakker, E P; Guy, H R

    2000-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the transmembrane KdpA subunit of the high affinity K(+)-translocating P-type Kdp-ATPase is evolutionarily derived from the superfamily of 2TM-type K(+) channels in bacteria. This extends a previous study relating the K(+) channels to the KtrAB, Trk, Trk1,2, and HKT1 K(+) symporter superfamily of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although the channels are formed by four single-MPM motif subunits, the transmembrane KdpA subunit and the transmembrane subunit of the symporter proteins are postulated to have four corresponding MPM motifs within a single sequence. Analysis of 17 KdpA sequences reveals a pattern of residue conservation similar to that of the symporters and channels, and consistent with the crystal structure of the KcsA K(+) channel. In addition, the most highly conserved residues between the families, specifically the central glycines of the P2 segments, are those previously identified as crucial for the property of K(+)-selectivity that is common to each protein. This hypothesis is consistent with an experimental study of mutations that alter K(+) binding affinity of the Kdp transporter. Although most of the results of a previous study of the transmembrane topology of KdpA are consistent with the 4-MPM model, the one deviation can be explained by a plausible change in the structure due to the experimental method. PMID:10620285

  14. pH Response Transcription Factor PacC Controls Salt Stress Tolerance and Expression of the P-Type Na+-ATPase Ena1 in Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Caracuel, Zaira; Casanova, Carlos; Roncero, M. Isabel G.; Di Pietro, Antonio; Ramos, José

    2003-01-01

    Fungi possess efficient mechanisms of pH and ion homeostasis, allowing them to grow over a wide range of environmental conditions. In this study, we addressed the role of the pH response transcription factor PacC in salt tolerance of the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Loss-of-function pacC+/− mutants showed increased sensitivity to Li+ and Na+ and accumulated higher levels of these cations than the wild type. In contrast, strains expressing a dominant activating pacCc allele were more salt tolerant and had lower intracellular Li+ and Na+ concentrations. Although the kinetics of Li+ influx were not altered by mutations in pacC, we found that Li+ efflux at an alkaline, but not at an acidic, ambient pH was significantly reduced in pacC+/− loss-of-function mutants. To explore the presence of a PacC-dependent efflux mechanism in F. oxysporum, we cloned ena1 encoding an orthologue of the yeast P-type Na+-ATPase ENA1. Northern analysis revealed that efficient transcriptional activation of ena1 in F. oxysporum required the presence of high Na+ concentrations and alkaline ambient pH and was dependent on PacC function. We propose a model in which PacC controls ion homeostasis in F. oxysporum at a high pH by activating expression of ena1 coordinately with a second Na+-responsive signaling pathway. PMID:14665459

  15. An Essential Subfamily of Drs2p-related P-Type ATPases Is Required for Protein Trafficking between Golgi Complex and Endosomal/Vacuolar System

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Zhaolin; Fatheddin, Parvin; Graham, Todd R.

    2002-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome contains five genes encoding P-type ATPases that are potential aminophospholipid translocases (APTs): DRS2, NEO1, and three uncharacterized open reading frames that we have named DNF1, DNF2, and DNF3 for DRS2/NEO1 family. NEO1 is the only essential gene in APT family and seems to be functionally distinct from the DRS2/DNF genes. The drs2Δ dnf1Δ dnf2Δ dnf3Δ quadruple mutant is inviable, although any one member of this group can maintain viability, indicating that there is a substantial functional overlap between the encoded proteins. We have previously implicated Drs2p in clathrin function at the trans-Golgi network. In this study, we constructed strains carrying all possible viable combinations of null alleles from this group and analyzed them for defects in protein transport. The drs2Δ dnf1Δ mutant grows slowly, massively accumulates intracellular membranes, and exhibits a substantial defect in the transport of alkaline phosphatase to the vacuole. Transport of carboxypeptidase Y to the vacuole is also perturbed, but to a lesser extent. In addition, the dnf1Δ dnf2Δ dnf3Δ mutant exhibits a defect in recycling of GFP-Snc1p in the early endocytic-late secretory pathways. Drs2p and Dnf3p colocalize with the trans-Golgi network marker Kex2p, whereas Dnf1p and Dnf2p seem to localize to the plasma membrane and late exocytic or early endocytic membranes. We propose that eukaryotes express multiple APT subfamily members to facilitate protein transport in multiple pathways. PMID:12221123

  16. Drs2p-related P-type ATPases Dnf1p and Dnf2p Are Required for Phospholipid Translocation across the Yeast Plasma Membrane and Serve a Role in Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Pomorski, Thomas; Lombardi, Ruben; Riezman, Howard; Devaux, Philippe F.; van Meer, Gerrit; Holthuis, Joost C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma membranes in eukaryotic cells display asymmetric lipid distributions with aminophospholipids concentrated in the inner and sphingolipids in the outer leaflet. This asymmetry is maintained by ATP-driven lipid transporters whose identities are unknown. The yeast plasma membrane contains two P-type ATPases, Dnf1p and Dnf2p, with structural similarity to ATPase II, a candidate aminophospholipid translocase from bovine chromaffin granules. Loss of Dnf1p and Dnf2p virtually abolished ATP-dependent transport of NBD-labeled phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylcholine from the outer to the inner plasma membrane leaflet, leaving transport of sphingolipid analogs unaffected. Labeling with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid revealed that the amount of phosphatidylethanolamine exposed on the surface of Δdnf1Δdnf2 cells increased twofold relative to wild-type cells. Phosphatidylethanolamine exposure by Δdnf1Δdnf2 cells further increased upon removal of Drs2p, an ATPase II homolog in the yeast Golgi. These changes in lipid topology were accompanied by a cold-sensitive defect in the uptake of markers for bulk-phase and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Our findings demonstrate a requirement for Dnf1p and Dnf2p in lipid translocation across the yeast plasma membrane. Moreover, it appears that Dnf1p, Dnf2p and Drs2p each help regulate the transbilayer lipid arrangement in the plasma membrane, and that this regulation is critical for budding endocytic vesicles. PMID:12631737

  17. OsACA6, a P-type IIB Ca²⁺ ATPase promotes salinity and drought stress tolerance in tobacco by ROS scavenging and enhancing the expression of stress-responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Huda, Kazi M K; Banu, M Sufara Akhter; Garg, Bharti; Tula, Suresh; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-12-01

    Calcium (Ca²⁺) regulates several signalling pathways involved in growth, development and stress tolerance. Cellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis is achieved by the combined action of channels, pumps and antiporters, but direct evidence for a role of Ca²⁺ATPase pumps in stress tolerance is lacking. Here we report the characterization of a Ca²⁺ ATPase gene (OsACA6) from Oryza sativa, and elucidate its functions in stress tolerance. OsACA6 transcript levels are enhanced in response to salt, drought, abscisic acid and heat. In vivo localization identified plasma membranes as an integration site for the OsACA6-GFP fusion protein. Using transgenic tobacco lines, we demonstrate that over-expression of OsACA6 is triggered during salinity and drought stresses. The enhanced tolerance to these stresses was confirmed by changes in several physiological indices, including water loss rate, photosynthetic efficiency, cell membrane stability, germination, survival rate, malondialdehyde content, electrolyte leakage and increased proline accumulation. Furthermore, over-expressing lines also showed higher leaf chlorophyll and reduced accumulation of H₂O₂ and Na⁺ ions compared to the wild-type. Reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in transgenic lines. The increased proline accumulation and ROS scavenging enzyme activities in transgenic plants over-expressing OsACA6 efficiently modulate the ROS machinery and proline biosynthesis through an integrative mechanism. Transcriptional profiling of these plants revealed altered expression of genes encoding many transcription factors, stress- and disease-related proteins, as well as signalling components. These results suggest that Ca²⁺ ATPases have diverse roles as regulators of many stress signalling pathways, leading to plant growth, development and stress tolerance.

  18. P-type gallium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

    1997-08-12

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

  19. P-type gallium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan; Fu, Tracy; Ross, Jennifer; Chan, James

    1997-01-01

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5.times.10.sup.11 /cm.sup.3 and hole mobilities of about 500 cm.sup.2 /V-sec, measured at 250.degree. K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al.

  20. p-Type Transparent Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-25

    semiconductor surface heavily doped ...successfully doped both n-type and p-type. 2.1.3 CuInO2 CuInO2 is a particularly interesting transparent conductor because it has been successfully doped ...integra- tion. CuInO2 is doped n-type by the replacement of In 3+ with Sn4+, and p-type by the replacement of In3+ with Ca2+. Neither n-CuInO2 nor p-CuInO2

  1. Two ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alan E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on research on two ATPases. The first is F1F0-ATPase, also known as ATP synthase. It is the terminal enzyme in oxidative phosphorylation and famous as a nanomotor. Early work on mitochondrial enzyme involved purification in large amount, followed by deduction of subunit composition and stoichiometry and determination of molecular sizes of holoenzyme and individual subunits. Later work on Escherichia coli enzyme utilized mutagenesis and optical probes to reveal the molecular mechanism of ATP hydrolysis and detailed facets of catalysis. The second ATPase is P-glycoprotein, which confers multidrug resistance, notably to anticancer drugs, in mammalian cells. Purification of the protein in large quantity allowed detailed characterization of catalysis, formulation of an alternating sites mechanism, and recently, advances in structural characterization. PMID:22822068

  2. Influence of decavanadate on rat synaptic plasma membrane ATPases activity.

    PubMed

    Krstić, Danijela; Colović, Mirjana; Bosnjaković-Pavlović, Nada; Spasojević-De Bire, Anne; Vasić, Vesna

    2009-09-01

    The in vitro influence of decameric vanadate species on Na+/K+-ATPase, plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA)-calcium pump and ecto-ATPase activity, using rat synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) as model system was investigated, whereas the commercial porcine cerebral cortex Na+/K+-ATPase served as a reference. The thermal behaviour of the synthesized decavanadate (V10) has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, while the type of polyvanadate anion was identified using the IR spectroscopy. The concentration-dependent responses to V10 of all enzymes were obtained. The half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the enzyme activity was achieved at (4.74 +/- 1.15) x 10(-7) mol/l for SPM Na+/K+-ATPase, (1.30 +/- 0.10) x 10(-6) mol/l for commercial Na+/K+-ATPase and (3.13 +/- 1.70) x 10(-8) mol/l for Ca2+-ATPase, while ecto-ATPase is significantly less sensitive toward V10 (IC50 = (1.05 +/- 0.10) x 10(-4) mol/l) than investigated P-type ATPases. Kinetic analysis showed that V10 inhibited Na+/K+-ATPase by reducing the maximum enzymatic velocity and apparent affinity for ATP (increasing K(m) value), implying a mixed mode of interaction between V10 and P-type ATPases.

  3. Rotary ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alastair G.; Sobti, Meghna; Harvey, Richard P.; Stock, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Rotary ATPases are molecular rotary motors involved in biological energy conversion. They either synthesize or hydrolyze the universal biological energy carrier adenosine triphosphate. Recent work has elucidated the general architecture and subunit compositions of all three sub-types of rotary ATPases. Composite models of the intact F-, V- and A-type ATPases have been constructed by fitting high-resolution X-ray structures of individual subunits or sub-complexes into low-resolution electron densities of the intact enzymes derived from electron cryo-microscopy. Electron cryo-tomography has provided new insights into the supra-molecular arrangement of eukaryotic ATP synthases within mitochondria and mass-spectrometry has started to identify specifically bound lipids presumed to be essential for function. Taken together these molecular snapshots show that nano-scale rotary engines have much in common with basic design principles of man made machines from the function of individual “machine elements” to the requirement of the right “fuel” and “oil” for different types of motors. PMID:23369889

  4. Structural similarities of Na,K-ATPase and SERCA, the Ca(2+)-ATPase of the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Sweadner, K J; Donnet, C

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structure of SERCA1a (skeletal-muscle sarcoplasmic-reticulum/endoplasmic-reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase) has recently been determined at 2.6 A (note 1 A = 0.1 nm) resolution [Toyoshima, Nakasako, Nomura and Ogawa (2000) Nature (London) 405, 647-655]. Other P-type ATPases are thought to share key features of the ATP hydrolysis site and a central core of transmembrane helices. Outside of these most-conserved segments, structural similarities are less certain, and predicted transmembrane topology differs between subclasses. In the present review the homologous regions of several representative P-type ATPases are aligned with the SERCA sequence and mapped on to the SERCA structure for comparison. Homology between SERCA and the Na,K-ATPase is more extensive than with any other ATPase, even PMCA, the Ca(2+)-ATPase of plasma membrane. Structural features of the Na,K-ATPase are projected on to the Ca(2+)-ATPase crystal structure to assess the likelihood that they share the same fold. Homology extends through all ten transmembrane spans, and most insertions and deletions are predicted to be at the surface. The locations of specific residues are examined, such as proteolytic cleavage sites, intramolecular cross-linking sites, and the binding sites of certain other proteins. On the whole, the similarity supports a shared fold, with some particular exceptions. PMID:11389677

  5. P2C-Type ATPases and Their Regulation.

    PubMed

    Retamales-Ortega, Rocío; Vio, Carlos P; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-03-01

    P2C-type ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases comprising Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is ubiquitously expressed and has been implicated in several neurological diseases, whereas H(+)/K(+)-ATPase is found principally in the colon, stomach, and kidney. Both ATPases have two subunits, α and β, but Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase also has a regulatory subunit called FXYD, which has an important role in cancer. The most important functions of these ATPases are homeostasis, potassium regulation, and maintaining a gradient in different cell types, like epithelial cells. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has become a center of attention ever since it was proposed that it might play a crucial role in neurological disorders such as bipolar disorder, mania, depression, familial hemiplegic migraine, rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, chronic stress, epileptogenesis, and Alzheimer's disease. On the other hand, it has been reported that lithium could have a neuroprotective effect against ouabain, which is the best known Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, but and high concentrations of lithium could affect negatively H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, that has a key role in regulating acidosis and potassium deficiencies. Finally, potassium homeostasis regulation is composed of two main mechanisms, extrarenal and renal. Extrarenal mechanism controls plasma levels, shifting potassium from the extracellular to the intracellular, whereas renal mechanism concerns with body balance and is influenced by potassium intake and its urinary excretion. In this article, we discuss the functions, isoforms, and localization of P2C-type ATPases, describe some of their modulators, and discuss their implications in some diseases.

  6. Proton Pumping of the Yeast Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-16

    function of the yeast plasma membrane H+- ATPase. This ATPase is a P-type cation transporter composed of a single protein of 100,000 Da molecular...August 16, 1993 ] Final 25 Sep 89 - 14 May 94 / 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S UDN UBR Proton Pumping of the Yeast Plasma Membrane HW-AT~ase G. AUTOR(S)DAALO3...Maximum 200 words) This proposal was to study the structure and function of the yeast plasma membrane H+-ATPase. We I proposed to study I )the

  7. Structure of Na+,K+-ATPase at 11-A resolution: comparison with Ca2+-ATPase in E1 and E2 states.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, W J; Young, H S; Martin, D W; Sachs, J R; Stokes, D L

    2001-01-01

    Na+,K+-ATPase is a heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits and a member of the P-type ATPase family of ion pumps. Here we present an 11-A structure of the heterodimer determined from electron micrographs of unstained frozen-hydrated tubular crystals. For this reconstruction, the enzyme was isolated from supraorbital glands of salt-adapted ducks and was crystallized within the native membranes. Crystallization conditions fixed Na+,K+-ATPase in the vanadate-inhibited E2 conformation, and the crystals had p1 symmetry. A large number of helical symmetries were observed, so a three-dimensional structure was calculated by averaging both Fourier-Bessel coefficients and real-space structures of data from the different symmetries. The resulting structure clearly reveals cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and extracellular regions of the molecule with densities separately attributable to alpha and beta subunits. The overall shape bears a remarkable resemblance to the E2 structure of rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. After aligning these two structures, atomic coordinates for Ca2+-ATPase were fit to Na+,K+-ATPase, and several flexible surface loops, which fit the map poorly, were associated with sequences that differ in the two pumps. Nevertheless, cytoplasmic domains were very similarly arranged, suggesting that the E2-to-E1 conformational change postulated for Ca2+-ATPase probably applies to Na+,K+-ATPase as well as other P-type ATPases. PMID:11325721

  8. Mutations in a P-Type ATPase Gene Cause Axonal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Wilhelmine N.; Smith, Richard S.; Wright, Dana L.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Seburn, Kevin L.; John, Simon W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal loss and axonal degeneration are important pathological features of many neurodegenerative diseases. The molecular mechanisms underlying the majority of axonal degeneration conditions remain unknown. To better understand axonal degeneration, we studied a mouse mutant wabbler-lethal (wl). Wabbler-lethal (wl) mutant mice develop progressive ataxia with pronounced neurodegeneration in the central and peripheral nervous system. Previous studies have led to a debate as to whether myelinopathy or axonopathy is the primary cause of neurodegeneration observed in wl mice. Here we provide clear evidence that wabbler-lethal mutants develop an axonopathy, and that this axonopathy is modulated by Wlds and Bax mutations. In addition, we have identified the gene harboring the disease-causing mutations as Atp8a2. We studied three wl alleles and found that all result from mutations in the Atp8a2 gene. Our analysis shows that ATP8A2 possesses phosphatidylserine translocase activity and is involved in localization of phosphatidylserine to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Atp8a2 is widely expressed in the brain, spinal cord, and retina. We assessed two of the mutant alleles of Atp8a2 and found they are both nonfunctional for the phosphatidylserine translocase activity. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that mutation of a mammalian phosphatidylserine translocase causes axon degeneration and neurodegenerative disease. PMID:22912588

  9. P-type silicon drift detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.T.; Krieger, B.; Krofcheck, D.; O`Donnell, R.; Odyniec, G.; Partlan, M.D.; Wang, N.W.

    1995-06-01

    Preliminary results on 16 CM{sup 2}, position-sensitive silicon drift detectors, fabricated for the first time on p-type silicon substrates, are presented. The detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested recently at LBL and show interesting properties which make them attractive for use in future physics experiments. A pulse count rate of approximately 8 {times} l0{sup 6} s{sup {minus}1} is demonstrated by the p-type silicon drift detectors. This count rate estimate is derived by measuring simultaneous tracks produced by a laser and photolithographic mask collimator that generates double tracks separated by 50 {mu}m to 1200 {mu}m. A new method of using ion-implanted polysilicon to produce precise valued bias resistors on the silicon drift detectors is also discussed.

  10. The plant Ca2+ -ATPase repertoire: biochemical features and physiological functions.

    PubMed

    Bonza, M C; De Michelis, M I

    2011-05-01

    Ca(2+)-ATPases are P-type ATPases that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump Ca(2+) from the cytoplasm into intracellular compartments or into the apoplast. Plant cells possess two types of Ca(2+) -pumping ATPase, named ECAs (for ER-type Ca(2+)-ATPase) and ACAs (for auto-inhibited Ca(2+)-ATPase). Each type comprises different isoforms, localised on different membranes. Here, we summarise available knowledge of the biochemical characteristics and the physiological role of plant Ca(2+)-ATPases, greatly improved after gene identification, which allows both biochemical analysis of single isoforms through heterologous expression in yeast and expression profiling and phenotypic analysis of single isoform knock-out mutants.

  11. Lack of conventional ATPase properties in CFTR chloride channel gating.

    PubMed

    Schultz, B D; Bridges, R J; Frizzell, R A

    1996-05-01

    CFTR shares structural homology with the ABC transporter superfamily of proteins which hydrolyze ATP to effect the transport of compounds across cell membranes. Some superfamily members are characterized as P-type ATPases because ATP-dependent transport is sensitive to the presence of vanadate. It has been widely postulated that CFTR hydrolyzes ATP to gate its chloride channel. However, direct evidence of CFTR hydrolytic activity in channel gating is lacking and existing circumstantial evidence is contradictory. Therefore, we evaluated CFTR chloride channel activity under conditions known to inhibit the activity of ATPases; i.e., in the absence of divalent cations and in the presence of a variety of ATPase inhibitors. Removal of the cytosolic cofactor, Mg2+, reduced both the opening and closing rates of CFTR suggesting that Mg2+ plays a modulatory role in channel gating. However, channels continued to both open and close showing that Mg2+ is not an absolute requirement for channel activity. The nonselective P-type ATPase inhibitor, vanadate, did not alter the gating of CFTR when used at concentrations which completely inhibit the activity of other ABC transporters (1 mM). Higher concentrations of vanadate (10 mM) blocked the closing of CFTR, but did not affect the opening of the channel. As expected, more selective P-type (Sch28080, ouabain), V-type (bafilomycin A1, SCN-) and F-type (oligomycin) ATPase inhibitors did not affect either the opening or closing of CFTR. Thus, CFTR does not share a pharmacological inhibition profile with other ATPases and channel gating occurs in the apparent absence of hydrolysis, although with altered kinetics. Vanadate inhibition of channel closure might suggest that a hydrolytic step is involved although the requirement for a high concentration raises the possibility of previously uncharacterized effects of this compound. Most conservatively, the requirement for high concentrations of vanadate demonstrates that the binding site for

  12. P-type transparent conducting oxides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kelvin H L; Xi, Kai; Blamire, Mark G; Egdell, Russell G

    2016-09-28

    Transparent conducting oxides constitute a unique class of materials combining properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. They are needed for a wide range of applications including solar cells, flat panel displays, touch screens, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Most of the commercially available TCOs are n-type, such as Sn doped In2O3, Al doped ZnO, and F doped SnO2. However, the development of efficient p-type TCOs remains an outstanding challenge. This challenge is thought to be due to the localized nature of the O 2p derived valence band which leads to difficulty in introducing shallow acceptors and large hole effective masses. In 1997 Hosono and co-workers (1997 Nature 389 939) proposed the concept of 'chemical modulation of the valence band' to mitigate this problem using hybridization of O 2p orbitals with close-shell Cu 3d (10) orbitals. This work has sparked tremendous interest in designing p-TCO materials together with deep understanding the underlying materials physics. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive review on traditional and recently emergent p-TCOs, including Cu(+)-based delafossites, layered oxychalcogenides, nd (6) spinel oxides, Cr(3+)-based oxides (3d (3)) and post-transition metal oxides with lone pair state (ns (2)). We will focus our discussions on the basic materials physics of these materials in terms of electronic structures, doping and defect properties for p-type conductivity and optical properties. Device applications based on p-TCOs for transparent p-n junctions will also be briefly discussed.

  13. P-type transparent conducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kelvin H. L.; Xi, Kai; Blamire, Mark G.; Egdell, Russell G.

    2016-09-01

    Transparent conducting oxides constitute a unique class of materials combining properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. They are needed for a wide range of applications including solar cells, flat panel displays, touch screens, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Most of the commercially available TCOs are n-type, such as Sn doped In2O3, Al doped ZnO, and F doped SnO2. However, the development of efficient p-type TCOs remains an outstanding challenge. This challenge is thought to be due to the localized nature of the O 2p derived valence band which leads to difficulty in introducing shallow acceptors and large hole effective masses. In 1997 Hosono and co-workers (1997 Nature 389 939) proposed the concept of ‘chemical modulation of the valence band’ to mitigate this problem using hybridization of O 2p orbitals with close-shell Cu 3d 10 orbitals. This work has sparked tremendous interest in designing p-TCO materials together with deep understanding the underlying materials physics. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive review on traditional and recently emergent p-TCOs, including Cu+-based delafossites, layered oxychalcogenides, nd 6 spinel oxides, Cr3+-based oxides (3d 3) and post-transition metal oxides with lone pair state (ns 2). We will focus our discussions on the basic materials physics of these materials in terms of electronic structures, doping and defect properties for p-type conductivity and optical properties. Device applications based on p-TCOs for transparent p-n junctions will also be briefly discussed.

  14. Transport mechanism of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase pump.

    PubMed

    Møller, Jesper V; Nissen, Poul; Sørensen, Thomas L-M; le Maire, Marc

    2005-08-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1a) belongs to the group of P-type ATPases, which actively transport inorganic cations across membranes at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Three-dimensional structures of several transport intermediates of SERCA1a, stabilized by structural analogues of ATP and phosphoryl groups, are now available at atomic resolution. This has enabled the transport cycle of the protein to be described, including the coupling of Ca(2+) occlusion and phosphorylation by ATP, and of proton counter-transport and dephosphorylation. From these structures, Ca(2+)-ATPase gradually emerges as a molecular mechanical device in which some of the transmembrane segments perform Ca(2+) transport by piston-like movements and by the transmission of reciprocating movements that affect the chemical reactivity of the cytosolic globular domains.

  15. P4-ATPases as Phospholipid Flippases—Structure, Function, and Enigmas

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jens P.; Vestergaard, Anna L.; Mikkelsen, Stine A.; Mogensen, Louise S.; Chalat, Madhavan; Molday, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    P4-ATPases comprise a family of P-type ATPases that actively transport or flip phospholipids across cell membranes. This generates and maintains membrane lipid asymmetry, a property essential for a wide variety of cellular processes such as vesicle budding and trafficking, cell signaling, blood coagulation, apoptosis, bile and cholesterol homeostasis, and neuronal cell survival. Some P4-ATPases transport phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine across the plasma membrane or intracellular membranes whereas other P4-ATPases are specific for phosphatidylcholine. The importance of P4-ATPases is highlighted by the finding that genetic defects in two P4-ATPases ATP8A2 and ATP8B1 are associated with severe human disorders. Recent studies have provided insight into how P4-ATPases translocate phospholipids across membranes. P4-ATPases form a phosphorylated intermediate at the aspartate of the P-type ATPase signature sequence, and dephosphorylation is activated by the lipid substrate being flipped from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflet similar to the activation of dephosphorylation of Na+/K+-ATPase by exoplasmic K+. How the phospholipid is translocated can be understood in terms of a peripheral hydrophobic gate pathway between transmembrane helices M1, M3, M4, and M6. This pathway, which partially overlaps with the suggested pathway for migration of Ca2+ in the opposite direction in the Ca2+-ATPase, is wider than the latter, thereby accommodating the phospholipid head group. The head group is propelled along against its concentration gradient with the hydrocarbon chains projecting out into the lipid phase by movement of an isoleucine located at the position corresponding to an ion binding glutamate in the Ca2+- and Na+/K+-ATPases. Hence, the P4-ATPase mechanism is quite similar to the mechanism of these ion pumps, where the glutamate translocates the ions by moving like a pump rod. The accessory subunit CDC50 may be located in close association with the

  16. Mechanism of proton pumping by plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase: role of residues in transmembrane segments 5 and 6.

    PubMed

    Palmgren, M G; Buch-Pedersen, M J; Møller, A L

    2003-04-01

    The mechanism of proton pumping by P-type plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases is not well clarified. Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggest that Asp684, situated in transmembrane segment M6, is involved in coordination of proton(s) in plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. This hypothesis is supported by atomic models of H(+)-ATPases built on the basis of the crystal structure of the related SERCA1a Ca(2+)-ATPase. However, more biochemical, genetic, and structural studies are required before we will be able to understand the nature of the proton binding site(s) in P-type H(+)-ATPases and the mechanism of action of these pumps.

  17. Ion permeation through the Na+,K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Nicolás; Gadsby, David C

    2006-09-28

    P-type ATPase pumps generate concentration gradients of cations across membranes in nearly all cells. They provide a polar transmembrane pathway, to which access is strictly controlled by coupled gates that are constrained to open alternately, thereby enabling thermodynamically uphill ion transport (for example, see ref. 1). Here we examine the ion pathway through the Na+,K+-ATPase, a representative P-type pump, after uncoupling its extra- and intracellular gates with the marine toxin palytoxin. We use small hydrophilic thiol-specific reagents as extracellular probes and we monitor their reactions, and the consequences, with cysteine residues introduced along the anticipated cation pathway through the pump. The distinct effects of differently charged reagents indicate that a wide outer vestibule penetrates deep into the Na+,K+-ATPase, where the pathway narrows and leads to a charge-selectivity filter. Acidic residues in this region, which are conserved to coordinate pumped ions, allow the approach of cations but exclude anions. Reversing the charge at just one of those positions converts the pathway from cation selective to anion selective. Close structural homology among the catalytic subunits of Ca2+-, Na+,K+- and H+,K+-ATPases argues that their extracytosolic cation exchange pathways all share these physical characteristics.

  18. A functional calcium-transporting ATPase encoded by chlorella viruses

    PubMed Central

    Bonza, Maria Cristina; Martin, Holger; Kang, Ming; Lewis, Gentry; Greiner, Timo; Giacometti, Sonia; Van Etten, James L.; De Michelis, Maria Ida; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Calcium-transporting ATPases (Ca2+ pumps) are major players in maintaining calcium homeostasis in the cell and have been detected in all cellular organisms. Here, we report the identification of two putative Ca2+ pumps, M535L and C785L, encoded by chlorella viruses MT325 and AR158, respectively, and the functional characterization of M535L. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses place the viral proteins in group IIB of P-type ATPases even though they lack a typical feature of this class, a calmodulin-binding domain. A Ca2+ pump gene is present in 45 of 47 viruses tested and is transcribed during virus infection. Complementation analysis of the triple yeast mutant K616 confirmed that M535L transports calcium ions and, unusually for group IIB pumps, also manganese ions. In vitro assays show basal ATPase activity. This activity is inhibited by vanadate, but, unlike that of other Ca2+ pumps, is not significantly stimulated by either calcium or manganese. The enzyme forms a 32P-phosphorylated intermediate, which is inhibited by vanadate and not stimulated by the transported substrate Ca2+, thus confirming the peculiar properties of this viral pump. To our knowledge this is the first report of a functional P-type Ca2+-transporting ATPase encoded by a virus. PMID:20573858

  19. A functional calcium-transporting ATPase encoded by chlorella viruses.

    PubMed

    Bonza, Maria Cristina; Martin, Holger; Kang, Ming; Lewis, Gentry; Greiner, Timo; Giacometti, Sonia; Van Etten, James L; De Michelis, Maria Ida; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Calcium-transporting ATPases (Ca(2+) pumps) are major players in maintaining calcium homeostasis in the cell and have been detected in all cellular organisms. Here, we report the identification of two putative Ca(2+) pumps, M535L and C785L, encoded by chlorella viruses MT325 and AR158, respectively, and the functional characterization of M535L. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses place the viral proteins in group IIB of P-type ATPases even though they lack a typical feature of this class, a calmodulin-binding domain. A Ca(2+) pump gene is present in 45 of 47 viruses tested and is transcribed during virus infection. Complementation analysis of the triple yeast mutant K616 confirmed that M535L transports calcium ions and, unusually for group IIB pumps, also manganese ions. In vitro assays show basal ATPase activity. This activity is inhibited by vanadate, but, unlike that of other Ca(2+) pumps, is not significantly stimulated by either calcium or manganese. The enzyme forms a (32)P-phosphorylated intermediate, which is inhibited by vanadate and not stimulated by the transported substrate Ca(2+), thus confirming the peculiar properties of this viral pump. To our knowledge this is the first report of a functional P-type Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase encoded by a virus.

  20. A conserved asparagine in a P-type proton pump is required for efficient gating of protons.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Kira; Wielandt, Alex G; Buch-Pedersen, Morten J; Palmgren, Michael G

    2013-04-05

    The minimal proton pumping machinery of the Arabidopsis thaliana P-type plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase isoform 2 (AHA2) consists of an aspartate residue serving as key proton donor/acceptor (Asp-684) and an arginine residue controlling the pKa of the aspartate. However, other important aspects of the proton transport mechanism such as gating, and the ability to occlude protons, are still unclear. An asparagine residue (Asn-106) in transmembrane segment 2 of AHA2 is conserved in all P-type plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases. In the crystal structure of the plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, this residue is located in the putative ligand entrance pathway, in close proximity to the central proton donor/acceptor Asp-684. Substitution of Asn-106 resulted in mutant enzymes with significantly reduced ability to transport protons against a membrane potential. Sensitivity toward orthovanadate was increased when Asn-106 was substituted with an aspartate residue, but decreased in mutants with alanine, lysine, glutamine, or threonine replacement of Asn-106. The apparent proton affinity was decreased for all mutants, most likely due to a perturbation of the local environment of Asp-684. Altogether, our results demonstrate that Asn-106 is important for closure of the proton entrance pathway prior to proton translocation across the membrane.

  1. The Na/K-ATPase-mediated signal transduction as a target for new drug development.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zijian; Xie, Joe

    2005-09-01

    The Na/K-ATPase, or Na+ pump, is a member of the P-type ATPase superfamily. In addition to pumping ions, the Na/K-ATPase is a receptor that not only regulates the function of protein kinases, but also acts as a scaffold, capable of tethering different proteins into a signalplex. The signaling Na/K-ATPase resides in caveolae and forms a "binary receptor" with the tyrosine kinase Src. Endogenous cardiotonic steroids and digitalis drugs such as ouabain act as agonists and provoke this binary receptor, resulting in tyrosine phosphorylation of the proteins that are either associated with, or in close proximity to, the signaling Na/K-ATPase. Subsequently, this initiates protein kinase cascades including ERKs and PKC isozymes. It also increases mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and regulates intracellular calcium concentration. Like other receptors, activation of the Na/K-ATPase/Src by ouabain induces the endocytosis of the plasma membrane Na/K-ATPase. Significantly, this newly appreciated signaling function of the Na/K-ATPase appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases, therefore serving as an important target for development of novel therapeutic agents.

  2. Intracellular Targeting Signals and Lipid Specificity Determinants of the ALA/ALIS P4-ATPase Complex Reside in the Catalytic ALA α-Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Lisbeth R.; Hanisch, Susanne; Meffert, Katharina; Buch-Pedersen, Morten J.; Jakobsen, Mia K.; Pomorski, Thomas Günther; Palmgren, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are believed to catalyze flipping of phospholipids across cellular membranes, in this way contributing to vesicle biogenesis in the secretory and endocytic pathways. P4-ATPases form heteromeric complexes with Cdc50-like proteins, and it has been suggested that these act as β-subunits in the P4-ATPase transport machinery. In this work, we investigated the role of Cdc50-like β-subunits of P4-ATPases for targeting and function of P4-ATPase catalytic α-subunits. We show that the Arabidopsis P4-ATPases ALA2 and ALA3 gain functionality when coexpressed with any of three different ALIS Cdc50-like β-subunits. However, the final cellular destination of P4-ATPases as well as their lipid substrate specificity are independent of the nature of the ALIS β-subunit they were allowed to interact with. PMID:20053675

  3. P(1B)-ATPases--an ancient family of transition metal pumps with diverse functions in plants.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lorraine E; Mills, Rebecca F

    2005-10-01

    P(1B)-ATPases form a distinct evolutionary sub-family of P-type ATPases, transporting transition metals such as Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Co across membranes in a wide range of organisms, including plants. Structurally they are distinct from other P-types, possessing eight transmembrane helices, a CPx/SPC motif in transmembrane domain six, and putative transition metal-binding domains at the N- and/or C-termini. Arabidopsis has eight P(1B)-ATPases (AtHMA1-AtHMA8), which differ in their structure, function and regulation. They perform a variety of important physiological tasks relating to transition metal transport and homeostasis. The crucial roles of plant P(1B)-ATPases in micronutrient nutrition, delivery of essential metals to target proteins, and toxic metal detoxification are discussed.

  4. Crystal Structure of the Vanadate-Inhibited Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Johannes D; Bublitz, Maike; Arnou, Bertrand; Olesen, Claus; Andersen, Jens Peter; Møller, Jesper Vuust; Nissen, Poul

    2016-04-05

    Vanadate is the hallmark inhibitor of the P-type ATPase family; however, structural details of its inhibitory mechanism have remained unresolved. We have determined the crystal structure of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase with bound vanadate in the absence of Ca(2+). Vanadate is bound at the catalytic site as a planar VO3(-) in complex with water and Mg(2+) in a dephosphorylation transition-state-like conformation. Validating bound VO3(-) by anomalous difference Fourier maps using long-wavelength data we also identify a hitherto undescribed Cl(-) site near the dephosphorylation site. Crystallization was facilitated by trinitrophenyl (TNP)-derivatized nucleotides that bind with the TNP moiety occupying the binding pocket that normally accommodates the adenine of ATP, rationalizing their remarkably high affinity for E2P-like conformations of the Ca(2+)-ATPase. A comparison of the configurations of bound nucleotide analogs in the E2·VO3(-) structure with that in E2·BeF3(-) (E2P ground state analog) reveals multiple binding modes to the Ca(2+)-ATPase.

  5. Insights into the mechanism of Na+,K+-ATPase inhibition by 2-methoxy-3,8,9-trihydroxy coumestan.

    PubMed

    Pôças, Elisa S C; Touza, Natália A; Pimenta, Paulo H C; Leitão, Fernanda B; Neto, Chaquip D; da Silva, Alcides J M; Costa, Paulo R R; Noël, François

    2008-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in Na+,K+-ATPase inhibition by 2-methoxy-3,8,9-trihydroxy coumestan were investigated. We show that this compound decreases the free sulfydryl groups present in the enzyme and that its inhibitory effect is prevented by dithiothreitol and other two sulfydryl containing reagents. We propose a redox cycle culminating with the irreversible oxidation of sulfydryl groups essential for the catalytic activity of this enzyme and of two other related P-type ATPases.

  6. Directed evolution of a sphingomyelin flippase reveals mechanism of substrate backbone discrimination by a P4-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Todd R.

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipid flippases in the type IV P-type ATPase (P4-ATPases) family establish membrane asymmetry and play critical roles in vesicular transport, cell polarity, signal transduction, and neurologic development. All characterized P4-ATPases flip glycerophospholipids across the bilayer to the cytosolic leaflet of the membrane, but how these enzymes distinguish glycerophospholipids from sphingolipids is not known. We used a directed evolution approach to examine the molecular mechanisms through which P4-ATPases discriminate substrate backbone. A mutagenesis screen in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has identified several gain-of-function mutations in the P4-ATPase Dnf1 that facilitate the transport of a novel lipid substrate, sphingomyelin. We found that a highly conserved asparagine (N220) in the first transmembrane segment is a key enforcer of glycerophospholipid selection, and specific substitutions at this site allow transport of sphingomyelin. PMID:27432949

  7. ATP dependent charge movement in ATP7B Cu+-ATPase is demonstrated by pre-steady state electrical measurements.

    PubMed

    Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco; Bartolommei, Gianluca; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Pilankatta, Rajendra; Lewis, David; Inesi, Giuseppe

    2010-11-19

    ATP7B is a copper dependent P-type ATPase, required for copper homeostasis. Taking advantage of high yield heterologous expression of recombinant protein, we investigated charge transfer in ATP7B. We detected charge displacement within a single catalytic cycle upon ATP addition and formation of phosphoenzyme intermediate. We attribute this charge displacement to movement of bound copper within ATP7B. Based on specific mutations, we demonstrate that enzyme activation by copper requires occupancy of a site in the N-terminus extension which is not present in other transport ATPases, as well as of a transmembrane site corresponding to the cation binding site of other ATPases.

  8. Structural studies of P-type ATPase–ligand complexes using an X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE PAGES

    Bublitz, Maike; Nass, Karol; Drachmann, Nikolaj D.; ...

    2015-06-11

    Membrane proteins are key players in biological systems, mediating signalling events and the specific transport ofe.g.ions and metabolites. Consequently, membrane proteins are targeted by a large number of currently approved drugs. Understanding their functions and molecular mechanisms is greatly dependent on structural information, not least on complexes with functionally or medically important ligands. Structure determination, however, is hampered by the difficulty of obtaining well diffracting, macroscopic crystals. Here, the feasibility of X-ray free-electron-laser-based serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) for the structure determination of membrane protein–ligand complexes using microcrystals of various native-source and recombinant P-type ATPase complexes is demonstrated. The data revealmore » the binding sites of a variety of ligands, including lipids and inhibitors such as the hallmark P-type ATPase inhibitor orthovanadate. By analyzing the resolution dependence of ligand densities and overall model qualities, SFX data quality metrics as well as suitable refinement procedures are discussed. Even at relatively low resolution and multiplicity, the identification of ligands can be demonstrated. This makes SFX a useful tool for ligand screening and thus for unravelling the molecular mechanisms of biologically active proteins.« less

  9. Structural studies of P-type ATPase–ligand complexes using an X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bublitz, Maike; Nass, Karol; Drachmann, Nikolaj D.; Markvardsen, Anders J.; Gutmann, Matthias J.; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Mattle, Daniel; Shoeman, Robert L.; Doak, R. Bruce; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, Marvin M.; Williams, Garth J.; Foucar, Lutz; Reinhard, Linda; Sitsel, Oleg; Gregersen, Jonas L.; Clausen, Johannes D.; Boesen, Thomas; Gotfryd, Kamil; Wang, Kai -Tuo; Olesen, Claus; Møller, Jesper V.; Nissen, Poul; Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-06-11

    Membrane proteins are key players in biological systems, mediating signalling events and the specific transport ofe.g.ions and metabolites. Consequently, membrane proteins are targeted by a large number of currently approved drugs. Understanding their functions and molecular mechanisms is greatly dependent on structural information, not least on complexes with functionally or medically important ligands. Structure determination, however, is hampered by the difficulty of obtaining well diffracting, macroscopic crystals. Here, the feasibility of X-ray free-electron-laser-based serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) for the structure determination of membrane protein–ligand complexes using microcrystals of various native-source and recombinant P-type ATPase complexes is demonstrated. The data reveal the binding sites of a variety of ligands, including lipids and inhibitors such as the hallmark P-type ATPase inhibitor orthovanadate. By analyzing the resolution dependence of ligand densities and overall model qualities, SFX data quality metrics as well as suitable refinement procedures are discussed. Even at relatively low resolution and multiplicity, the identification of ligands can be demonstrated. This makes SFX a useful tool for ligand screening and thus for unravelling the molecular mechanisms of biologically active proteins.

  10. Structural studies of P-type ATPase–ligand complexes using an X-ray free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Bublitz, Maike; Nass, Karol; Drachmann, Nikolaj D.; Markvardsen, Anders J.; Gutmann, Matthias J.; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Mattle, Daniel; Shoeman, Robert L.; Doak, R. Bruce; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, Marvin M.; Williams, Garth J.; Foucar, Lutz; Reinhard, Linda; Sitsel, Oleg; Gregersen, Jonas L.; Clausen, Johannes D.; Boesen, Thomas; Gotfryd, Kamil; Wang, Kai-Tuo; Olesen, Claus; Møller, Jesper V.; Nissen, Poul; Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins are key players in biological systems, mediating signalling events and the specific transport of e.g. ions and metabolites. Consequently, membrane proteins are targeted by a large number of currently approved drugs. Understanding their functions and molecular mechanisms is greatly dependent on structural information, not least on complexes with functionally or medically important ligands. Structure determination, however, is hampered by the difficulty of obtaining well diffracting, macroscopic crystals. Here, the feasibility of X-ray free-electron-laser-based serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) for the structure determination of membrane protein–ligand complexes using microcrystals of various native-source and recombinant P-type ATPase complexes is demonstrated. The data reveal the binding sites of a variety of ligands, including lipids and inhibitors such as the hallmark P-type ATPase inhibitor orthovanadate. By analyzing the resolution dependence of ligand densities and overall model qualities, SFX data quality metrics as well as suitable refinement procedures are discussed. Even at relatively low resolution and multiplicity, the identification of ligands can be demonstrated. This makes SFX a useful tool for ligand screening and thus for unravelling the molecular mechanisms of biologically active proteins. PMID:26175901

  11. Cdc50p plays a vital role in the ATPase reaction cycle of the putative aminophospholipid transporter Drs2p.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Guillaume; Williamson, Patrick; Puts, Catheleyne F; Holthuis, Joost C M

    2009-07-03

    Members of the P(4) subfamily of P-type ATPases are believed to catalyze transport of phospholipids across cellular bilayers. However, most P-type ATPases pump small cations or metal ions, and atomic structures revealed a transport mechanism that is conserved throughout the family. Hence, a challenging problem is to understand how this mechanism is adapted in P(4)-ATPases to flip phospholipids. P(4)-ATPases form heteromeric complexes with Cdc50 proteins. The primary role of these additional polypeptides is unknown. Here, we show that the affinity of yeast P(4)-ATPase Drs2p for its Cdc50-binding partner fluctuates during the transport cycle, with the strongest interaction occurring at a point where the enzyme is loaded with phospholipid ligand. We also find that specific interactions with Cdc50p are required to render the ATPase competent for phosphorylation at the catalytically important aspartate residue. Our data indicate that Cdc50 proteins are integral components of the P(4)-ATPase transport machinery. Thus, acquisition of these subunits may have been a crucial step in the evolution of flippases from a family of cation pumps.

  12. A heavy metal P-type ATPase OsHMA4 prevents copper accumulation in rice grain

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin-Yuan; Deng, Fenglin; Yamaji, Naoki; Pinson, Shannon R.M.; Fujii-Kashino, Miho; Danku, John; Douglas, Alex; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Salt, David E.; Ma, Jian Feng

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a major source of calories and mineral nutrients for over half the world's human population. However, little is known in rice about the genetic basis of variation in accumulation of copper (Cu), an essential but potentially toxic nutrient. Here we identify OsHMA4 as the likely causal gene of a quantitative trait locus controlling Cu accumulation in rice grain. We provide evidence that OsHMA4 functions to sequester Cu into root vacuoles, limiting Cu accumulation in the grain. The difference in grain Cu accumulation is most likely attributed to a single amino acid substitution that leads to different OsHMA4 transport activity. The allele associated with low grain Cu was found in 67 of the 1,367 rice accessions investigated. Identification of natural allelic variation in OsHMA4 may facilitate the development of rice varieties with grain Cu concentrations tuned to both the concentration of Cu in the soil and dietary needs. PMID:27387148

  13. Manganese Redistribution by Calcium-stimulated Vesicle Trafficking Bypasses the Need for P-type ATPase Function*

    PubMed Central

    García-Rodríguez, Néstor; Manzano-López, Javier; Muñoz-Bravo, Miguel; Fernández-García, Elisabet; Muñiz, Manuel; Wellinger, Ralf Erik

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of intracellular ion homeostasis is essential for eukaryotic cell physiology. An example is provided by loss of ATP2C1 function, which leads to skin ulceration, improper keratinocyte adhesion, and cancer formation in Hailey-Hailey patients. The yeast ATP2C1 orthologue PMR1 codes for a Mn2+/Ca2+ transporter that is crucial for cis-Golgi manganese supply. Here, we present evidence that calcium overcomes the lack of Pmr1 through vesicle trafficking-stimulated manganese delivery and requires the endoplasmic reticulum Mn2+ transporter Spf1 and the late endosome/trans-Golgi Nramp metal transporter Smf2. Smf2 co-localizes with the putative Mn2+ transporter Atx2, and ATX2 overexpression counteracts the beneficial impact of calcium treatment. Our findings suggest that vesicle trafficking promotes organelle-specific ion interchange and cytoplasmic metal detoxification independent of calcineurin signaling or metal transporter re-localization. Our study identifies an alternative mode for cis-Golgi manganese supply in yeast and provides new perspectives for Hailey-Hailey disease treatment. PMID:25713143

  14. A heavy metal P-type ATPase OsHMA4 prevents copper accumulation in rice grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As one of the most important staple crops, rice not only provides more than one fifth of daily calories for half of the world’s human population but is also a major source of mineral nutrients. However, little is known about the genetic basis of mineral nutrient accumulation in rice grain such as co...

  15. High carrier concentration p-type transparent conducting oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Yan, Yanfa; Zhang, Shengbai

    2005-06-21

    A p-type transparent conducting oxide film is provided which is consisting essentially of, the transparent conducting oxide and a molecular doping source, the oxide and doping source grown under conditions sufficient to deliver the doping source intact onto the oxide.

  16. Development of improved p-type silicon-germanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclane, George; Wood, Charles; Vandersande, Jan; Raag, Valvo; Heshmatpour, Ben

    1987-01-01

    Annealing experiments in the temperature range 1100-1275 C have been performed on p-type Si(0.8)Ge(0.2) samples with BP, B(6.5)P, and GaSb material additives. Both electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient generally decrease for these samples as annealing temperature is increased, with thermoelectric power factor sometimes being improved by annealing.

  17. Stabilisation of Na,K-ATPase structure by the cardiotonic steroid ouabain

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Andrew J.; Fedosova, Natalya U.; Hoffmann, Søren V.; Wallace, B.A.; Esmann, Mikael

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •Ouabain binding to pig and shark Na,K-ATPase enhances thermal stability. •Ouabain stabilises both membrane-bound and solubilised Na,K-ATPase. •Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism is used for structure determination. •Secondary structure in general is not affected by ouabain binding. •Stabilisation is due to re-arrangement of tertiary structure. -- Abstract: Cardiotonic steroids such as ouabain bind with high affinity to the membrane-bound cation-transporting P-type Na,K-ATPase, leading to complete inhibition of the enzyme. Using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy we show that the enzyme-ouabain complex is less susceptible to thermal denaturation (unfolding) than the ouabain-free enzyme, and this protection is observed with Na,K-ATPase purified from pig kidney as well as from shark rectal glands. It is also shown that detergent-solubilised preparations of Na,K-ATPase are stabilised by ouabain, which could account for the successful crystallisation of Na,K-ATPase in the ouabain-bound form. The secondary structure is not significantly affected by the binding of ouabain. Ouabain appears however, to induce a reorganization of the tertiary structure towards a more compact protein structure which is less prone to unfolding; recent crystal structures of the two enzymes are consistent with this interpretation. These circular dichroism spectroscopic studies in solution therefore provide complementary information to that provided by crystallography.

  18. p-type silicon detector for brachytherapy dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Piermattei, A; Azario, L; Monaco, G; Soriani, A; Arcovito, G

    1995-06-01

    The sensitivity of a cylindrical p-type silicon detector was studied by means of air and water measurements using different photon beams. A lead filter cap around the diode was used to minimize the dependence of the detector response as a function of the brachytherapy photon energy. The radial dose distribution of a high-activity 192Ir source in a brachytherapy phantom was measured by means of the shielded diode and the agreement of these data with theoretical evaluations confirms the method used to compensate diode response in the intermediate energy range. The diode sensitivity was constant over a wide range of dose rates of clinical interest; this allowed one to have a small detector calibrated in terms of absorbed dose in a medium. Theoretical evaluations showed that a single shielding filter around the p-type diode is sufficient to obtain accurate dosimetry for 192Ir, 137Cs, and 60Co brachytherapy sources.

  19. Methodologies in Search of p-type Transparent Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Kanber

    P-type transparent conductors are rare in nature but could lead to a lot technological innovations. A systematic search for p-type transparent conductors can be divided into two types: to search for (I) experimentally unknown compounds and (II) experimentally known ones. The difference between the two types of search lies in the fact that we always start with the experimental crystal structure in type II search while such information is lacking in the type I search. To make the type I research possible, a reasonably efficient method in predicting the ground state crystal structure is required. And the evolutionary algorithm with the real-space cut-and-splice method is a promising candidate for the task. For both type I and type II searches, we have to accurately predict the fundamental band gap and the hole conductivity. Corrections to density functional theory band gap, such as screened exchange LDA (sxLDA) or G0W0 , are required. The hole conductivity is linearly dependent on the hole concentration and inversely proportional to the hole effective mass. And we focused on the study of host material properties, the fundamental band gaps and hole effective masses, in the oxide sulfide family and eight promising candidates as p-type transparent conducting hosts were found. The hole population in the known transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) is mostly orig- inating from intrinsic point defects. However, a material La5Cu6O4S7 , whose hole conduc- tivity is an order of magnitude higher than the known TCOs, has its holes originating from a line structure, namely the breaking of dimers on the sulfur chain. The sulfur chain is optically inactive and serves purely to generate holes traveling in the Cu6S6 layers at finite temperature. This interesting hole-generating mechanism could open up new possibilities to achieve high hole conductivity in p-type TCs.

  20. Binding interactions of porphyrin derivatives with Ca2+ ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA1a)

    PubMed Central

    Hai, Abdul; Kizilbash, Nadeem A; Zaidi, Syeda Huma H; Alruwaili, Jamal

    2013-01-01

    The use of Porphyrin derivatives as photosensitizers in Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) was investigated by means of a molecular docking study. These molecules can bind to intracellular targets such as P-type CaCa2+ ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA1a). CAChe software was successfully employed for conducting the docking of Tetraphenylporphinesulfonate(TPPS), 5,10,15,20- Tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrinato Iron(III) Chloride (FeTPPS) and 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrinato Iron(III) nitrosyl Chloride (FeNOTPPS) with CaCa2+ ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum of rabbit. The results show that FeNOTPPS forms the most stable complex with CaCa2+ ATPase. PMID:23750090

  1. 75 FR 23574 - Airworthiness Directives; CFM International, S.A. CFM56-5B1/P, -5B2/P, -5B3/P, -5B3/P1, -5B4/P...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., S.A. CFM56-5B1/P, - 5B2/P, -5B3/P, -5B3/P1, -5B4/P, -5B5/P, -5B6/P, -5B7/P, -5B8/P, -5B9/P, -5B1/2P...: The FAA is superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for CFM International, S.A. CFM56-5B... 80296, December 31, 2008), with a proposed AD. The proposed AD applies to CFM International, S.A....

  2. Hypothesis--origin of parietal cells: transfer of the H+K+-ATPase gene from parasitic microorganisms to Cnidaria?

    PubMed

    Okabe, S

    1999-09-30

    Parietal cells present in the stomach and terminal ileum secrete a highly-concentrated hydrochloric acid into the lumen. The cells are characterized by the enzyme P-type H+K+-ATPase, which has an alpha-subunit with a high homology (>85%) for the amino acid sequences of frog, mouse and pig stomachs. Gastric H+K+-ATPase also exhibits a high homology to H+-ATPase in yeast and Na+K+-ATPase in many tissues, suggesting origination from a common ancestral ATPase. It is known that parietal cells first appeared in fish and were later expressed in evolutionarily-higher organisms. Primitive organisms, such as Cnidaria and Ctenophora, that possessed digestive organs, but not parietal cells, were abundant in the ocean more than 600 million years ago (Pre-Cambrian period). The author thus hypothesized that the genes of either H+-ATPase or H+K+-ATPase that were present in parasitic microorganisms, such as yeast, were transferred to the interstitial cells of host organisms, such as Cnidaria, eventually leading to the evolution of parietal cells. It appears that although parietal cells in the stomach developed by chance, such cells have greatly contributed to the evolution of advanced organisms, including humans, by affording safe ingestion of a large volume of various foods.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizae improve low temperature tolerance in cucumber via alterations in H2O2 accumulation and ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Airong; Chen, Shuangchen; Chang, Rui; Liu, Dilin; Chen, Haoran; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Lin, Xiaomin; He, Chaoxing

    2014-11-01

    The combined effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and low temperature (LT) on cucumber plants were investigated with respect to biomass production, H2O2 accumulation, NADPH oxidase, ATPase activity and related gene expression. Mycorrhizal colonization ratio was gradually increased after AMF-inoculation. However, LT significantly decreased mycorrhizal colonization ability and mycorrhizal dependency. Regardless of temperature, the total fresh and dry mass, and root activity of AMF-inoculated plants were significantly higher than that of the non-AMF control. The H2O2 accumulation in AMF-inoculated roots was decreased by 42.44% compared with the control under LT. H2O2 predominantly accumulated on the cell walls of apoplast but was hardly detectable in the cytosol or organelles of roots. Again, NADPH oxidase activity involved in H2O2 production was significantly reduced by AMF inoculation under LT. AMF-inoculation remarkably increased the activities of P-type H(+)-ATPase, P-Ca(2+)-ATPase, V-type H(+)-ATPase, total ATPase activity, ATP concentration and plasma membrane protein content in the roots under LT. Additionally, ATP concentration and expression of plasma membrane ATPase genes were increased by AMF-inoculation. These results indicate that NADPH oxidase and ATPase might play an important role in AMF-mediated tolerance to chilling stress, thereby maintaining a lower H2O2 accumulation in the roots of cucumber.

  4. Novel regulation of cell [Na(+)] in macula densa cells: apical Na(+) recycling by H-K-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Peti-Peterdi, János; Bebok, Zsuzsa; Lapointe, Jean-Yves; Bell, P Darwin

    2002-02-01

    Na-K-ATPase is the nearly ubiquitous enzyme that maintains low-Na(+), high-K(+) concentrations in cells by actively extruding Na(+) in exchange for K(+). The prevailing paradigm in polarized absorbing epithelial cells, including renal nephron segments and intestine, has been that Na-K-ATPase is restricted to the basolateral membrane domain, where it plays a prominent role in Na(+) absorption. We have found, however, that macula densa (MD) cells lack functionally and immunologically detectable amounts of Na-K-ATPase protein. In fact, these cells appear to regulate their cytosolic [Na(+)] via another member of the P-type ATPase family, the colonic form of H-K-ATPase, which is located at the apical membrane in these cells. We now report that this constitutively expressed apical MD colonic H-K-ATPase can function as a Na(H)-K-ATPase and regulate cytosolic [Na(+)] in a novel manner. This apical Na(+)-recycling mechanism may be important as part of the sensor function of MD cells and represents a new paradigm in cell [Na(+)] regulation.

  5. Bi-Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath; Phok, Sovannary; Parilla, Philip Anthony

    2013-08-20

    A Bi--Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor, preferably used as an absorber material in a photovoltaic device. Preferably the semiconductor has at least 20 molar percent Cu. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor comprises at least 28 molar percent of Cu. In one embodiment, the semiconductor comprises a molar percentage of Cu and Bi whereby the molar percentage of Cu divided by the molar percentage of Bi is greater than 1.2. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor is manufactured as a thin film having a thickness less than 600 nm.

  6. P-type conductivity in annealed strontium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, Violet M.; Corolewski, Caleb D.; McCluskey, Matthew D.

    2015-12-15

    Hall-effect measurements indicate p-type conductivity in bulk, single-crystal strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}, or STO) samples that were annealed at 1200°C. Room-temperature mobilities above 100 cm{sup 2}/V s were measured, an order of magnitude higher than those for electrons (5-10 cm{sup 2}/V s). Average hole densities were in the 10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} range, consistent with a deep acceptor.

  7. New electron trap in p-type Czochralski silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, B.-Y.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    A new electron trap (acceptor level) was discovered in p-type Czochralski (CZ) silicon by current transient spectroscopy. The behavior of this trap was found to be similar to that of the oxygen thermal donors; thus, 450 C annealing increases the trap concentration while high-temperature annealing (1100-1200 C) leads to the virtual elimination of the trap. The new trap is not observed in either float-zone or n-type CZ silicon. Its energy level depends on the group III doping element in the sample. These findings suggest that the trap is related to oxygen, and probably to the acceptor impurity as well.

  8. Relationship of the membrane ATPase from Halobacterium saccharovorum to vacuolar ATPases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Bowman, Emma J.

    1991-01-01

    Polyclonal antiserum against subunit A (67 kDa) of the vacuolar ATPase from Neurospora crassa reacted with subunit I (87 kDa) from a membrane ATPase of the extremely halophilic archaebacterium Halobacterium saccharovorum. The halobacterial ATPase was inhibited by nitrate and N-ethylmaleimide; the extent of the latter inhibition was diminished in the presence of adenosine di- or triphosphates. 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan inhibited the halobacterial ATPase also in a nucleotide-protectable manner; the bulk of inhibitor was associated with subunit II (60 kDa). The data suggest that this halobacterial ATPase may have conserved structural features from both the vacuolar and the F-type ATPases.

  9. Relationship of the Membrane ATPase from Halobacterium saccharovorum to Vacuolar ATPases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Bowman, Emma J.; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1991-01-01

    Polyclonal antiserum against subunit A (67 kDa) of the vacuolar ATPase from Neurospora crassa reacted with subunit I (87 kDa) from a membrane ATPase of the extremely halophilic archaebacterium Halobacterium saccharovorum. The halobacterial ATPase was inhibited by nitrate and N-ethylmaleimide; the extent of the latter inhibition was diminished in the presence of adenosine di- or triphosphates. 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan in- hibited the hatobacterial ATPase also in a nucleotide- protectable manner; the bulk of inhibitor was associated with subunit II (60 kDa). The data suggested that this halobacterial ATPase may have conserved structural features from both the vacuotar and the F-type ATPases.

  10. The promiscuous phosphomonoestearase activity of Archaeoglobus fulgidus CopA, a thermophilic Cu+ transport ATPase.

    PubMed

    Bredeston, Luis M; González Flecha, F Luis

    2016-07-01

    Membrane transport P-type ATPases display two characteristic enzymatic activities: a principal ATPase activity provides the driving force for ion transport across biological membranes, whereas a promiscuous secondary activity catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters. This last activity is usually denoted as the phosphatase activity of P-ATPases. In the present study, we characterize the phosphatase activity of the Cu(+)-transport ATPase from Archaeglobus fulgidus (Af-CopA) and compare it with the principal ATPase activity. Our results show that the phosphatase turnover number was 20 times higher than that corresponding to the ATPase activity, but it is compensated by a high value of Km, producing a less efficient catalysis for pNPP. This secondary activity is enhanced by Mg(2+) (essential activator) and phospholipids (non-essential activator), and inhibited by salts and Cu(+). Transition state analysis of the catalyzed and noncatalyzed hydrolysis of pNPP indicates that Af-CopA enhances the reaction rates by a factor of 10(5) (ΔΔG(‡)=38 kJ/mol) mainly by reducing the enthalpy of activation (ΔΔH(‡)=30 kJ/mol), whereas the entropy of activation is less negative on the enzyme than in solution. For the ATPase activity, the decrease in the enthalpic component of the barrier is higher (ΔΔH(‡)=39 kJ/mol) and the entropic component is small on both the enzyme and in solution. These results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in the transference of the phosphoryl group of p-nitrophenyl phosphate and ATP.

  11. Characterization of Bovine Brain ATPase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    tiEFILE Copi am, opRffRiN i ~CRDEC-CR- - - CHARACTERIZATION OF BOVINE N BRAIN ATPASE by James J. Valdes, Ph.D. RESEARCH DIRECTORATE James P. Chambers...the Arw position unless so designated by other authorizing documents. Distribution Statement Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. I ...IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION of epplics") CRDEC ISMCCR-RS DAAK11-84-K-0003 I . ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS berdeen

  12. Oxychalcogenides as New Efficient p-TYPE Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreteau, Celine; Pan, Lin; Pei, Yan-Ling; Zhao, Li-Dong; Berardan, David; Dragoe, Nita

    2013-07-01

    During the past two years, we have underlined the great potential of p-type oxychalcogenides, with parent compound BiCuSeO, for thermoelectric applications in the medium temperature range (400-650°C). These materials, which do not contain lead and are less expensive than Te containing materials, exhibit large thermoelectric figure of merit, exceeding 1 in a wide temperature range, mainly due to an intrinsically very low thermal conductivity. This paper summarizes the main chemical and crystallographic features of this system, as well as the thermoelectric properties. It also gives new directions to improve these properties, and discuss the potential of these materials for wide scale applications in thermoelectric conversion system in the medium temperature range.

  13. Experiments with semiconducting p-type misfit compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, H.; Tervo, J.

    2012-06-01

    Ca3Co4O9 is a p-type semiconductor and a promising thermoelectric material with misfit layer structure. Cobalt-based layered structure materials have been studied as thermoelectric material candidates because of their nontoxicity, light weight, high thermal and chemical stability and oxidation resistance at high temperature. The operating area of Ca3Co4O9 in thermoelectric applications is roughly from 800K to 1000K. Ca3Co4O9 powders were synthetized by a sol-gel method which enables fabrication of high purity and homogeneous particles. Calcium and cobalt nitrate hydrates were used as feedstock and citric acid as complexing agent in the sol-gel procedure. Powders were calcinated at 1123K and further processing by ball milling. Pure Ca3Co4O9 powders were sintered by SPS and conventional method.

  14. What are the P-type Asteroids Made Of?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiroi, T.; Pieters, C. M.; Rutherford, M. J.; Zolensky, M. E.; Sasaki, S.; Ueda, Y.; Miyamoto, M.

    2004-01-01

    The P-type asteroids, together with the D asteroids, had been believed to be one of the most primitive asteroid classes having surface materials rich in carbon and/or organics. Upon a fall of a new type of meteorite, Tagish Lake in 2000, we came to have a possible sample of the D (and/or T) asteroids. In both spectrally and distance from the sun, the P asteroids are located in between the C/G/B/F asteroids and the D asteroids. Because it is believed that the former group are similar to (thermally metamorphosed) CI/CM chondrites and the latter the Tagish Lake meteorite, the surface material of the P asteroids may be understood in combination of those two meteorite groups. Taking that direction, this paper presents possibly the first quantitative characterization of the P asteroids in terms of carbonaceous chondrites and their experimental derivatives.

  15. P/2013 P5 PANSTARRS --- a rubbing binary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainaut, O.; Snodgrass, C.

    2014-07-01

    P/2013 P5 PANSTARRS (hereafter P5) was discovered [1] on a Main Belt orbit, with a cometary appearance, thereby joining the small but growing collection of objects with such characteristics, loosely called the Main Belt Comets. The dust-lifting process at play on these bodies is not known, although several hypotheses are considered. Furthermore, it is likely that different objects are associated with different processes. For instance, 133P [2,3] and 238P [4] were active for extended periods of time on consecutive passage through perihelion; traditional cometary activity, i.e. caused by the sublimation of volatile ice, is the most likely candidate. In other cases, e.g. (596) Scheila [5,6], P/2012 F5 [7,8] or P/2010 A2 [9-11], the morphology of the dust cloud was compatible with a short, impulsive dust release; they are interpreted as the result of an impact with a smaller body. Finally, in some cases, rotational disruption was proposed as the process causing the activity: a gentle centrifugal lift (proposed by Agarwal et al. [12] for A2) or a complete disruption for P/2013 R3 [13]. Other additional processes were proposed by Jewitt [14], but they do not apply in the case of P5. P5 displayed a dust pattern [15-17] that had not been observed before in other objects. The dust cloud appeared as a series of radial fans and streaks, including some extremely narrow ones. The straight streaks matched synchrones, i.e. loci of dust particles emitted at a given time, and spread radially by the radiation pressure acting differently over a broad range of particle sizes. The narrowness of these lines, especially as observed with HST [15], indicated that the emission episodes were very short. Through a Finson-Probstein [18] analysis, it was shown that the dust release started at least 8 months before the observations, and had a series of very short episodes of dust releases. Because of the location of P5 in the inner Main Belt, sublimation-driven activity is unlikely. Rotational

  16. Substrate trajectory through phospholipid-transporting P4-ATPases.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    A difference in the lipid composition between the two leaflets of the same membrane is a relatively simple instance of lipid compositional heterogeneity. The large activation energy barrier for transbilayer movement for some (but not all) membrane lipids creates a regime governed by active transport processes. An early step in eukaryote evolution was the development of a capacity for generating transbilayer compositional heterogeneity far from equilibrium by directly tapping energy from the ATP pool. The mechanism of the P-type ATPases that create lipid asymmetry is well understood in terms of ATP hydrolysis, but the trajectory taken by the phospholipid substrate through the enzyme is a matter of current active research. There are currently three different models for this trajectory, all with support by mutation/activity measurements and analogies with known atomic structures.

  17. Challenges in p-type Doping of CdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Jedidiah; Swain, Santosh; Lynn, Kelvin

    We have made progress in defect identification of arsenic and phosphorous doped CdTe to understand the self-compensation mechanism which will help improve minority bulk carrier lifetime and net acceptor density. Combining previous measurements of un-doped CdTe, we performed a systematic comparison of defects between different types of crystals and confirmed the defects impacting the doping efficiency. CdTe bulk crystals have been grown via vertical Bridgman based melt growth technique with varying arsenic and phosphorous dopant schemes to attain p-type material. Furnace temperature profiles were varied to influence dopant solubility. Large carrier densities have been reproducibly obtained from these boules indicating successful incorporation of dopants into the lattice. However, these values are orders of magnitude lower than theoretical solubility values. Infrared Microscopy has revealed a plethora of geometrically abnormal second phase defects and X-ray Fluorescence has been used to identify the elemental composition of these defects. We believe that dopants become incorporated into these second phase defects as Cd compounds which act to inhibit dopant solubility in the lattice.

  18. Magnetic Incommensurability in p-TYPE Cuprate Perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, A.

    2012-07-01

    For the superconducting phase with a d-wave order parameter and zero temperature, the magnetic susceptibility of the t-J model is calculated using the Mori projection operator technique. Conditions for the appearance of an incommensurate magnetic response below the resonance frequency are identified. A fast decay of the tails of the hole coherent peaks and a weak intensity of the hole incoherent continuum near the Fermi level are enough to produce an incommensurate response using different hole dispersions established for p-type cuprates, in which such response was observed. In this case, the nesting of the itinerant-electron theory or the charge modulation of the stripe theory is unnecessary for the incommensurability. The theory reproduces the hourglass dispersion of the susceptibility maxima with their location in the momentum space similar to that observed experimentally. The upper branch of the dispersion stems from the excitations of localized spins, while the lower one is due to the incommensurate maxima of their damping. The narrow and intensive resonance peak arises if the frequency of these excitations at the antiferromagnetic momentum lies below the edge of the two-fermion continuum; otherwise the maximum is broad and less intensive.

  19. Electronic processes in uniaxially stressed p-type germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Dubon, Jr., Oscar Danilo

    1996-02-01

    Effect of uniaxial stress on acceptor-related electronic processes in Ge single crystals doped with Ga, Be, and Cu were studied by Hall and photo-Hall effect measurements in conjunction with infrared spectroscopy. Stress dependence of hole lifetime in p-type Ge single crystals is used as a test for competing models of non-radiative capture of holes by acceptors. Photo-Hall effect shows that hole lifetime in Ga- and Be-doped Ge increases by over one order of magnitude with uniaxial stress at liq. He temps. Photo-Hall of Ge:Be shows a stress-induced change in the temperature dependence of hole lifetime. This is consistent with observed increase of responsivity of Ge:Ga detectors with uniaxial stress. Electronic properties of Ge:Cu are shown to change dramatically with uniaxial stress; the results provide a first explanation for the performance of uniaxially stressed, Cu-diffused Ge:Ga detectors which display a high conductivity in absence of photon signal and therefore have poor sensitivity.

  20. P type porous silicon resistivity and carrier transport

    SciTech Connect

    Ménard, S.; Fèvre, A.; Billoué, J.; Gautier, G.

    2015-09-14

    The resistivity of p type porous silicon (PS) is reported on a wide range of PS physical properties. Al/PS/Si/Al structures were used and a rigorous experimental protocol was followed. The PS porosity (P{sub %}) was found to be the major contributor to the PS resistivity (ρ{sub PS}). ρ{sub PS} increases exponentially with P{sub %}. Values of ρ{sub PS} as high as 1 × 10{sup 9} Ω cm at room temperature were obtained once P{sub %} exceeds 60%. ρ{sub PS} was found to be thermally activated, in particular, when the temperature increases from 30 to 200 °C, a decrease of three decades is observed on ρ{sub PS}. Based on these results, it was also possible to deduce the carrier transport mechanisms in PS. For P{sub %} lower than 45%, the conduction occurs through band tails and deep levels in the tissue surrounding the crystallites. When P{sub %} overpasses 45%, electrons at energy levels close to the Fermi level allow a hopping conduction from crystallite to crystallite to appear. This study confirms the potential of PS as an insulating material for applications such as power electronic devices.

  1. P-type Ca2+ current in crayfish peptidergic neurones.

    PubMed

    GarcÍA-Colunga; Valdiosera; GarcÍA

    1999-01-21

    Inward Ca2+ current through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels was recorded from freshly dissociated crayfish X-organ (XO) neurones using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. Changing the holding potential from -50 to -90 mV had little effect on the characteristics of the current-voltage relationship: neither the time course nor the amplitude of the Ca2+ current was affected. Inactivation of the Ca2+ current was observed over a small voltage range, between -35 and -10 mV, with half-inactivation at -20 mV. The activation of the Ca2+ current was modelled using Hodgkin-Huxley kinetics. The time constant of activation, &tgr; m, was 568+/-66 micros at -20 mV and decreased gradually to 171+/-23 micros at 40 mV (means +/- s.e.m., N=5). The steady-state activation, m(infinity), was fitted with a Boltzmann function, with a half-activation voltage of -7.45 mV and an apparent threshold at -40 mV. The instantaneous current-voltage relationship was adjusted using the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz constant-field equation, giving a permeation of 4.95x10(-5 )cm s-1. The inactivation of the Ca2+ current in XO neurones was dependent on previous entry of Ca2+. Using a double-pulse protocol, the inactivation was fitted to a U-shaped curve with a maximal inactivation of 35 % at 30 mV. The time course of the recovery from inactivation was fitted with an exponential function. The time constants were 17+/-2.6 ms for a prepulse of 10 ms and 31+/-3.2 ms for a prepulse of 20 ms. The permeability sequence of the Ca2+ channels was as follows: Ba2+>Sr2+~Ca2+>Mg2+. Other divalent cations blocked the Ca2+ current, and their effects were voltage-dependent; the potency of blockage was Cd2+~Zn2+>Co2+~Ni2+. The peptide &ohgr; -agatoxin-IVA, a selective toxin for P-type Ca2+ channels, blocked 85 % of the Ca2+ current in XO neurones at 200 nmol l-1, but the current was insensitive to dihydropyridines, phenylalkylamines, &ohgr; -conotoxin-GVIA and &ohgr; -conotoxin-MVIIC, which are blockers of L-, N- and Q-type Ca2

  2. Irradiation and annealing of p-type silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Alexander A.; Bogdanova, Elena V.; Grigor'eva, Maria V.; Lebedev, Sergey P.; Kozlovski, Vitaly V.

    2014-02-21

    The development of the technology of semiconductor devices based on silicon carbide and the beginning of their industrial manufacture have made increasingly topical studies of the radiation hardness of this material on the one hand and of the proton irradiation to form high-receptivity regions on the other hand. This paper reports on a study of the carrier removal rate (V{sub d}) in p-6H-SiC under irradiation with 8 MeV protons and of the conductivity restoration in radiation- compensated epitaxial layers of various p-type silicon carbide polytypes. V{sub d} was determined by analysis of capacitance-voltage characteristics and from results of Hall effect measurements. It was found that the complete compensation of samples with the initial value of Na - Nd ≈ 1.5 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} occurs at an irradiation dose of ∼1.1 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}. It is shown that specific features of the sublimation layer SiC (compared to CVD layers) are clearly manifested upon the gamma and electron irradiation and are hardly noticeable under the proton and neutron irradiation. It was also found that the radiation-induced compensation of SiC is retained after its annealing at ≤1000°C. The conductivity is almost completely restored at T ≥ 1200°C. This character of annealing of the radiation compensation is independent of a silicon carbide polytype and the starting doping level of the epitaxial layer. The complete annealing temperatures considerably exceed the working temperatures of SiC-based devices. It is shown that the radiation compensation is a promising method in the technology of high-temperature devices based on SiC.

  3. A Single Gene May Encode Differentially Localized Ca2+-ATPases in Tomato.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrol, N; Bennett, AB

    1996-01-01

    Previously, a partial-length cDNA and a complete genomic clone encoding a putative sarcoplasmic reticulum-type Ca2+-ATPase (LCA, Lycopersicon Ca2+-ATPase) were isolated from tomato. To determine the subcellular localization of this Ca2+-ATPase, specific polyclonal antibodies raised against a fusion protein encoding a portion of the LCA polypeptide were generated. Based on hybridization of the LCA cDNA and of the nucleotide sequence encoding the fusion protein to genomic DNA, it appears that LCA and the fusion protein domain are encoded by a single gene in tomato. Antibodies raised against the LCA domain fusion protein reacted specifically with two polypeptides of 116 and 120 kD that are localized in the vacuolar and plasma membranes, respectively. The distribution of vanadate-sensitive ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport activities in sucrose gradients coincided with the distribution of the immunodetected proteins. The ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport activities associated with tonoplast and plasma membrane fractions shared similar properties, because both fractions were inhibited by vanadate but insensitive to carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, nitrate, and calmodulin. Moreover, antibodies raised against the LCA domain fusion protein inhibited ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake activity associated with both the tonoplast and plasma membrane fractions. These data suggest that a single gene (LCA) may encode two P-type Ca2+-ATPase isoforms that are differentially localized in the tonoplast and plasma membrane of tomato roots. PMID:12239413

  4. Palytoxin acts on Na+,K+-ATPase but not non-gastric H+,K+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Guennoun-Lehmann, Saida; Fonseca, James E.; Horisberger, Jean-Daniel; Rakowski, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    Palytoxin (PTX) opens a pathway for ions to pass through Na,K-ATPase. We investigate here whether PTX also acts on non-gastric H,K-ATPases. The following combinations of cRNA were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes: Bufo marinus bladder H,K-ATPase α2- and Na,K-ATPase β2-subunits; Bufo Na,K-ATPase α1- and Na,K-ATPase β2-subunits; and Bufo Na,K-ATPase β2-subunit alone. The response to PTX was measured after blocking endogenous Xenopus Na,K-ATPase with 10 μM ouabain. Functional expression was confirmed by measuring 86Rb uptake. PTX (5 nM) produced a large increase of membrane conductance in oocytes expressing Bufo Na,K-ATPase, but no significant increase occurred in oocytes expressing Bufo H,K-ATPase or in those injected with Bufo β2-subunit alone. Expression of the following combinations of cDNA was investigated in HeLa cells: rat colonic H,K-ATPase α1-subunit and Na,K-ATPase β1-subunit; rat Na,K-ATPase α2-subunit and Na,K-ATPase β2-subunit; and rat Na,K-ATPase β1 or Na,K-ATPase β2 subunit alone. Measurement of increases in 86Rb uptake confirmed that both rat Na,K- and H,K-pumps were functional in HeLa cells expressing rat colonic HKα1/NKβ1 and NKα2/NKβ2. Whole-cell patch clamp measurements in HeLa cells expressing rat colonic HKα1/NKβ1 exposed to 100 nM PTX showed no significant increase of membrane current and there was no membrane conductance increase in HeLa cells transfected with rat NKβ1 or rat NKβ2 subunits alone. However, in HeLa Cells expressing rat NKα2 NKβ2, outward current was observed after pump activation by 20 mM K+ and a large membrane conductance increase occurred after 100 nM PTX. We conclude that non-gastric H,K-ATPases are not sensitive to palytoxin when expressed in these cells whereas palytoxin does act on Na,K-ATPase. PMID:17639367

  5. A Putative Plant Aminophospholipid Flippase, the Arabidopsis P4 ATPase ALA1, Localizes to the Plasma Membrane following Association with a β-Subunit

    PubMed Central

    López-Marqués, Rosa L.; Poulsen, Lisbeth R.; Palmgren, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma membranes in eukaryotic cells display asymmetric lipid distributions with aminophospholipids concentrated in the inner leaflet and sphingolipids in the outer leaflet. This unequal distribution of lipids between leaflets is, amongst several proposed functions, hypothesized to be a prerequisite for endocytosis. P4 ATPases, belonging to the P-type ATPase superfamily of pumps, are involved in establishing lipid asymmetry across plasma membranes, but P4 ATPases have not been identified in plant plasma membranes. Here we report that the plant P4 ATPase ALA1, which previously has been connected with cold tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana, is targeted to the plasma membrane and does so following association in the endoplasmic reticulum with an ALIS protein β-subunit. PMID:22514601

  6. Picosecond intersubband hole relaxation in p-type quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Fauchet, P.M.; Rella, C.W.; Schwettman, H.A.

    1995-12-31

    We report the first direct measurement of the relaxation time of holes in p-type quantum wells using tunable, subpicosecond mid-infrared laser pulses in a pump-probe arrangement. The QW layers consisted of 50 In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As/Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As periods. The In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As well was 4 nm wide and the Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As barrier was 8 nm wide. The dopant concentration was 10{sup 19} CM{sup -3} which corresponds to a sheet density of 1.2 x 10{sup 13} CM{sup -2}. The room temperature IR spectrum showed a 50 meV wide absorption peak at 5.25 {mu}m (220 meV). This energy agrees with the calculated n=1 heavy hole to n=1 light hole transition energy of 240 meV (150 meV for strain and 90 meV for confinement). The large absorption width results from hole-hole scattering and the difference in dispersion relations between the two subbands. The equal-wavelength pump-probe transmission measurements were performed using the Stanford free electron laser (FEL). The FEL pulses were tuned between 4 and 6 {mu} m and their duration was less than 1 ps. The measurements were performed as a function of temperature, pump wavelength and intensity (from 0.3 to 10 GW/cm{sup 2}). In all our experiments, we find an increase of transmission (decrease of absorption or bleaching) following photopumping, which recovers as a single exponential with a time constant (relaxation time) of the order of 1 picosecond. The maximum change in transmission is linear with pump 2 intensity below 1 GW/cm{sup 2} and saturates to {approximately}3% with a saturation intensity I{sub sat} of 3 GW/cm{sup 2}. As the saturation regime is entered, the relaxation time increases from 0.8 ps to 1.8 ps. This relaxation time depends on the temperature T: it increases from 0.8 ps to 1.3 ps as T decreases from 300 K to 77 K. Finally, when we tune the laser through the absorption band, the magnitude of the signal changes but its temporal behavior does not change, within the accuracy of the measurements.

  7. Primary sodium plasma membrane ATPases in salt-tolerant algae: facts and fictions.

    PubMed

    Gimmler, H

    2000-07-01

    For thermodynamic reasons algae growing in media of both high salinity and high alkalinity require active export of sodium. However, experimental evidence for an active Na+-dependent cycle was scarce until recently, in contrast to the situation in marine bacteria (including cyanobacteria), fungi and animals. However, a review of literature reveals that some progress has been made in this respect, recently: data demonstrate that at least in two marine algae, Tetraselmis (Platymonas) viridis and Heterosigma akashiwo (syn. Olisthodiscus luteus), active Na+-export is carried out by means of a plasma membrane localized Na+-pump (apparent molecular mass 100-140 kDa). Biochemical characteristics of this vanadate-sensitive, but ouabain-resistant primary P-type Na+-ATPase are described and compared with the corresponding properties of Na+-ATPase from prokaryotes and animals. Alternative mechanisms for Na+-pumping are discussed.

  8. Role of post-translational modifications at the β-subunit ectodomain in complex association with a promiscuous plant P4-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sara R.; Marek, Magdalena; Axelsen, Kristian B.; Theorin, Lisa; Pomorski, Thomas G.; López-Marqués, Rosa L.

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases of subfamily IV (P4-ATPases) constitute a major group of phospholipid flippases that form heteromeric complexes with members of the Cdc50 (cell division control 50) protein family. Some P4-ATPases interact specifically with only one β-subunit isoform, whereas others are promiscuous and can interact with several isoforms. In the present study, we used a site-directed mutagenesis approach to assess the role of post-translational modifications at the plant ALIS5 β-subunit ectodomain in the functionality of the promiscuous plant P4-ATPase ALA2. We identified two N-glycosylated residues, Asn181 and Asn231. Whereas mutation of Asn231 seems to have a small effect on P4-ATPase complex formation, mutation of evolutionarily conserved Asn181 disrupts interaction between the two subunits. Of the four cysteine residues located in the ALIS5 ectodomain, mutation of Cys86 and Cys107 compromises complex association, but the mutant β-subunits still promote complex trafficking and activity to some extent. In contrast, disruption of a conserved disulfide bond between Cys158 and Cys172 has no effect on the P4-ATPase complex. Our results demonstrate that post-translational modifications in the β-subunit have different functional roles in different organisms, which may be related to the promiscuity of the P4-ATPase. PMID:27048590

  9. Characterization of vacuolar-ATPase and selective inhibition of vacuolar-H(+)-ATPase in osteoclasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, GuanFeng; Feng, HaoTian; Cai, YanLing; Qi, WeiLi; Kong, KangMei . E-mail: kangmeikong@21cn.com

    2007-06-15

    V-ATPase plays important roles in controlling the extra- and intra-cellular pH in eukaryotic cell, which is most crucial for cellular processes. V-ATPases are composed of a peripheral V{sub 1} domain responsible for ATP hydrolysis and integral V{sub 0} domain responsible for proton translocation. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells responsible for bone resorption and relate to many common lytic bone disorders such as osteoporosis, bone aseptic loosening, and tumor-induced bone loss. This review summarizes the structure and function of V-ATPase and its subunit, the role of V-ATPase subunits in osteoclast function, V-ATPase inhibitors for osteoclast function, and highlights the importance of V-ATPase as a potential prime target for anti-resorptive agents.

  10. Sodium, potassium-atpases in algae and oomycetes.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Gil, Javier; Garciadeblás, Blanca; Benito, Begoña

    2005-08-01

    We have investigated the presence of K(+)-transporting ATPases that belong to the phylogenetic group of animal Na(+),K(+)-ATPases in the Pythium aphanidermatum Stramenopile oomycete, the Porphyra yezoensis red alga, and the Udotea petiolata green alga, by molecular cloning and expression in heterologous systems. PCR amplification and search in EST databases allowed one gene to be identified in each species that could encode ATPases of this type. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of these ATPases revealed that they cluster with ATPases of animal origin, and that the algal ATPases are closer to animal ATPases than the oomycete ATPase is. The P. yezoensis and P. aphanidermatum ATPases were functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli alkali cation transport mutants. The aforementioned cloning and complementary searches in silicio for H(+)- and Na(+),K(+)-ATPases revealed a great diversity of strategies for plasma membrane energization in eukaryotic cells different from typical animal, plant, and fungal cells.

  11. [ATPase and phosphatase activity of drone brood].

    PubMed

    Bodnarchuk, L I; Stakhman, O S

    2004-01-01

    Most researches on insect enzymes concern carbohydrate and nitrogenous exchange. Data on ATPase activity for larval material of drone brood are absent in the available literature. The drone brood is one of the least investigated apiproducts. Allowing for the important role of ATPase in the vital functions of the insect cells our work was aimed at the study of ATPase of the drone blood activity and that of alkaline and acid phosphatases. When studying liophylised preparations of the drone brood homogenate we have found out high activity of Mg2+, Na+, K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase and of alkaline and acid phosphatase, that is the possible explanation of the high-intensity power and plastic processes proceeding during growth and development of larvae.

  12. The coupling ATPase complex: an evolutionary view.

    PubMed

    Harris, D A

    1981-01-01

    Phospholipid micelles and vesicles, present in the primordial soup, formed both primitive (surface) catalyst and primitive replicative life forms. With the adoption of a common energy source, ATP, integrated biochemical systems within these vesicles became possible - cells. Fermentation within these primitive cells was favoured by the evolution, first of ion channels allowing protons to leak out, and then of an active ATP-driven pump. In the prokaryotic/mitochondria/chloroplast line, the proton channel was such as to be blocked by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and the adenosine 5' triphosphate phosphohydrolase (ATPase) by 4-chloro 7-nitrobenzofurazan (Nbf-C1). The ATPase was initially simple (4 subunits) but later, possibly concomitant with its evolution to an ATP synthetase, became more complex (8 subunits). One of the steps in evolution probably involved gene duplication and divergence of 2 subunits (alpha and beta) from the largest of the ATPase subunits. From this stage, the general form of the ATPase was fixed, although sensitivity to, for example, oligomycin involved later, after divergence of the mitochondrial and chloroplast lines. A regulatory protein, the ATPase inhibitor, is found associated with a wide spectrum of coupling ATPases.

  13. At-ACA8 Encodes a Plasma Membrane-Localized Calcium-ATPase of Arabidopsis with a Calmodulin-Binding Domain at the N Terminus1

    PubMed Central

    Bonza, Maria Cristina; Morandini, Piero; Luoni, Laura; Geisler, Markus; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; De Michelis, Maria Ida

    2000-01-01

    A Ca2+-ATPase was purified from plasma membranes (PM) isolated from Arabidopsis cultured cells by calmodulin (CaM)-affinity chromatography. Three tryptic fragments from the protein were microsequenced and the corresponding cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers designed from the microsequences of the tryptic fragments. At-ACA8 (Arabidopsis-autoinhibited Ca2+-ATPase, isoform 8, accession no. AJ249352) encodes a 1,074 amino acid protein with 10 putative transmembrane domains, which contains all of the characteristic motifs of Ca2+-transporting P-type Ca2+-ATPases. The identity of At-ACA8p as the PM Ca2+-ATPase was confirmed by immunodetection with an antiserum raised against a sequence (valine-17 through threonine-31) that is not found in other plant CaM-stimulated Ca2+-ATPases. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of protoplasts immunodecorated with the same antiserum confirmed the PM localization of At-ACA8. At-ACA8 is the first plant PM localized Ca2+-ATPase to be cloned and is clearly distinct from animal PM Ca2+-ATPases due to the localization of its CaM-binding domain. CaM overlay assays localized the CaM-binding domain of At-ACA8p to a region of the N terminus of the enzyme around tryptophan-47, in contrast to a C-terminal localization for its animal counterparts. Comparison between the sequence of At-ACA8p and those of endomembrane-localized type IIB Ca2+-ATPases of plants suggests that At-ACA8 is a representative of a new subfamily of plant type IIB Ca2+-ATPases. PMID:10938365

  14. Photovoltaic Cell Having A P-Type Polycrystalline Layer With Large Crystals

    DOEpatents

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes R.

    1996-03-26

    A photovoltaic cell has an n-type polycrystalline layer and a p-type polycrystalline layer adjoining the n-type polycrystalline layer to form a photovoltaic junction. The p-type polycrystalline layer comprises a substantially planar layer portion having relatively large crystals adjoining the n-type polycrystalline layer. The planar layer portion includes oxidized impurities which contribute to obtainment of p-type electrical properties in the planar layer portion.

  15. Is the Paracoccus halodenitrificans ATPase a chimeric enzyme?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.

    1996-01-01

    Membranes from Paracoccus halodenitrificans contain an ATPase that is most active in the absence of NaCl. The most unusual characteristic of the enzyme is its pattern of sensitivity to various inhibitors. Azide and rhodamine 6G, inhibitors of F1F0-ATPases, inhibit ATP hydrolysis as do bafilomycin A1, concanamycin A (folimycin), N-ethylmaleimide, and p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonate which are inhibitors of vacuolar ATPases. This indiscriminate sensitivity suggests that this ATPase may be a hybrid and that caution should be exercised when using inhibition as a diagnostic for distinguishing between F1F0-ATPases and vacuolar ATPases.

  16. An Inverted-Sandwich Diuranium μ-η5:η5-Cyclo-P5 Complex Supported by U-P5 δ-Bonding**

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Benedict M; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J L; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J; Liddle, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    Reaction of [U(TrenTIPS)] [1, TrenTIPS=N(CH2CH2NSiiPr3)3] with 0.25 equivalents of P4 reproducibly affords the unprecedented actinide inverted sandwich cyclo-P5 complex [{U(TrenTIPS)}2(μ-η5:η5-cyclo-P5)] (2). All prior examples of cyclo-P5 are stabilized by d-block metals, so 2 shows that cyclo-P5 does not require d-block ions to be prepared. Although cyclo-P5 is isolobal to cyclopentadienyl, which usually bonds to metals via σ- and π-interactions with minimal δ-bonding, theoretical calculations suggest the principal bonding in the U(P5)U unit is polarized δ-bonding. Surprisingly, the characterization data are overall consistent with charge transfer from uranium to the cyclo-P5 unit to give a cyclo-P5 charge state that approximates to a dianionic formulation. This is ascribed to the larger size and superior acceptor character of cyclo-P5 compared to cyclopentadienyl, the strongly reducing nature of uranium(III), and the availability of uranium δ-symmetry 5f orbitals. PMID:25914060

  17. An Inverted-Sandwich Diuranium μ-η(5):η(5)-Cyclo-P5 Complex Supported by U-P5 δ-Bonding.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benedict M; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J L; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J; Liddle, Stephen T

    2015-06-08

    Reaction of [U(Tren(TIPS))] [1, Tren(TIPS)=N(CH2CH2NSiiPr3)3] with 0.25 equivalents of P4 reproducibly affords the unprecedented actinide inverted sandwich cyclo-P5 complex [{U(Tren(TIPS))}2(μ-η(5):η(5)-cyclo-P5)] (2). All prior examples of cyclo-P5 are stabilized by d-block metals, so 2 shows that cyclo-P5 does not require d-block ions to be prepared. Although cyclo-P5 is isolobal to cyclopentadienyl, which usually bonds to metals via σ- and π-interactions with minimal δ-bonding, theoretical calculations suggest the principal bonding in the U(P5)U unit is polarized δ-bonding. Surprisingly, the characterization data are overall consistent with charge transfer from uranium to the cyclo-P5 unit to give a cyclo-P5 charge state that approximates to a dianionic formulation. This is ascribed to the larger size and superior acceptor character of cyclo-P5 compared to cyclopentadienyl, the strongly reducing nature of uranium(III), and the availability of uranium δ-symmetry 5f orbitals.

  18. An Inverted‐Sandwich Diuranium μ‐η5:η5‐Cyclo‐P5 Complex Supported by U‐P5 δ‐Bonding†

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Benedict M.; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J. L.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Reaction of [U(TrenTIPS)] [1, TrenTIPS=N(CH2CH2NSiiPr3)3] with 0.25 equivalents of P4 reproducibly affords the unprecedented actinide inverted sandwich cyclo‐P5 complex [{U(TrenTIPS)}2(μ‐η5:η5‐cyclo‐P5)] (2). All prior examples of cyclo‐P5 are stabilized by d‐block metals, so 2 shows that cyclo‐P5 does not require d‐block ions to be prepared. Although cyclo‐P5 is isolobal to cyclopentadienyl, which usually bonds to metals via σ‐ and π‐interactions with minimal δ‐bonding, theoretical calculations suggest the principal bonding in the U(P5)U unit is polarized δ‐bonding. Surprisingly, the characterization data are overall consistent with charge transfer from uranium to the cyclo‐P5 unit to give a cyclo‐P5 charge state that approximates to a dianionic formulation. This is ascribed to the larger size and superior acceptor character of cyclo‐P5 compared to cyclopentadienyl, the strongly reducing nature of uranium(III), and the availability of uranium δ‐symmetry 5f orbitals. PMID:27478265

  19. Hyperthyroidism increases the uncoupled ATPase activity and heat production by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Ana Paula; Da-Silva, Wagner S; Carvalho, Denise P; De Meis, Leopoldo

    2003-01-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase is able to modulate the distribution of energy released during ATP hydrolysis, so that a portion of energy is used for Ca2+ transport (coupled ATPase activity) and a portion is converted into heat (uncoupled ATPase activity). In this report it is shown that T4 administration to rabbits promotes an increase in the rates of both the uncoupled ATPase activity and heat production in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles, and that the degree of activation varies depending on the muscle type used. In white muscles hyperthyroidism promotes a 0.8-fold increase of the uncoupled ATPase activity and in red muscle a 4-fold increase. The yield of vesicles from hyperthyroid muscles is 3-4-fold larger than that obtained from normal muscles; thus the rate of heat production by the Ca2+-ATPase expressed in terms of g of muscle in hyperthyroidism is increased by a factor of 3.6 in white muscles and 12.0 in red muscles. The data presented suggest that the Ca2+-ATPase uncoupled activity may represent one of the heat sources that contributes to the enhanced thermogenesis noted in hyperthyroidism. PMID:12887329

  20. Ultra-thin ohmic contacts for p-type nitride light emitting devices

    DOEpatents

    Raffetto, Mark [Raleigh, NC; Bharathan, Jayesh [Cary, NC; Haberern, Kevin [Cary, NC; Bergmann, Michael [Chapel Hill, NC; Emerson, David [Chapel Hill, NC; Ibbetson, James [Santa Barbara, CA; Li, Ting [Ventura, CA

    2012-01-03

    A semiconductor based Light Emitting Device (LED) can include a p-type nitride layer and a metal ohmic contact, on the p-type nitride layer. The metal ohmic contact can have an average thickness of less than about 25 .ANG. and a specific contact resistivity less than about 10.sup.-3 ohm-cm.sup.2.

  1. Luminance behavior of lithium-doped ZnO nanowires with p-type conduction characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ko, Won Bae; Lee, Jun Seok; Lee, Sang Hyo; Cha, Seung Nam; Sohn, Jung Inn; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Young Jun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2013-09-01

    The present study describes the room-temperature cathodeluminescence (CL) and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) properties of p-type lithium (Li)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) grown by hydrothermal doping and post-annealing processes. A ZnO thin film was used as a seed layer in NW growth. The emission wavelengths and intensities of undoped ZnO NWs and p-type Li-doped ZnO NWs were analyzed for comparison. CL and PL observations of post-annealed p-type Li-doped ZnO NWs clearly exhibited a dominant sharp band-edge emission. Finally, a n-type ZnO thin film/p-type annealed Li-doped ZnO NW homojunction diode was prepared to confirm the p-type conduction of annealed Li-doped ZnO NWs as well as the structural properties measured by transmission electron microscopy.

  2. p-type Mesoscopic nickel oxide/organometallic perovskite heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuo-Chin; Jeng, Jun-Yuan; Shen, Po-Shen; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Tsai, Cheng-Hung; Chao, Tzu-Yang; Hsu, Hsu-Cheng; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Peter; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Wen, Ten-Chin

    2014-04-23

    In this article, we present a new paradigm for organometallic hybrid perovskite solar cell using NiO inorganic metal oxide nanocrystalline as p-type electrode material and realized the first mesoscopic NiO/perovskite/[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) heterojunction photovoltaic device. The photo-induced transient absorption spectroscopy results verified that the architecture is an effective p-type sensitized junction, which is the first inorganic p-type, metal oxide contact material for perovskite-based solar cell. Power conversion efficiency of 9.51% was achieved under AM 1.5 G illumination, which significantly surpassed the reported conventional p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. The replacement of the organic hole transport materials by a p-type metal oxide has the advantages to provide robust device architecture for further development of all-inorganic perovskite-based thin-film solar cells and tandem photovoltaics.

  3. Different Mutations in a P-type ATPase Transporter in Leishmania Parasites are Associated with Cross-resistance to Two Leading Drugs by Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Prada, Christopher; Vincent, Isabel M.; Brotherton, Marie-Christine; Roberts, Mathew; Roy, Gaétan; Rivas, Luis; Leprohon, Philippe; Smith, Terry K.; Ouellette, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is an etiological agent of the life-threatening visceral form of leishmaniasis. Liposomal amphotericin B (AmB) followed by a short administration of miltefosine (MF) is a drug combination effective for treating visceral leishmaniasis in endemic regions of India. Resistance to MF can be due to point mutations in the miltefosine transporter (MT). Here we show that mutations in MT are also observed in Leishmania AmB-resistant mutants. The MF-induced MT mutations, but not the AmB induced mutations in MT, alter the translocation/uptake of MF. Moreover, mutations in the MT selected by AmB or MF have a major impact on lipid species that is linked to cross-resistance between both drugs. These alterations include changes of specific phospholipids, some of which are enriched with cyclopropanated fatty acids, as well as an increase in inositolphosphoceramide species. Collectively these results provide evidence of the risk of cross-resistance emergence derived from current AmB-MF sequential or co-treatments for visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:27911896

  4. Comparative evaluation of p5+14 with SAP and peptide p5 by dual-energy SPECT imaging of mice with AA amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Emily B.; Williams, Angela; Richey, Tina; Stuckey, Alan; Heidel, R. Eric; Kennel, Stephen J.; Wall, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a protein-misfolding disorder characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid, a complex matrix composed of protein fibrils, hyper-sulphated glycosaminoglycans and serum amyloid P component (SAP). Accumulation of amyloid in visceral organs results in the destruction of tissue architecture leading to organ dysfunction and failure. Early differential diagnosis and disease monitoring are critical for improving patient outcomes; thus, whole body amyloid imaging would be beneficial in this regard. Non-invasive molecular imaging of systemic amyloid is performed in Europe by using iodine-123-labelled SAP; however, this tracer is not available in the US. Therefore, we evaluated synthetic, poly-basic peptides, designated p5 and p5+14, as alternative radiotracers for detecting systemic amyloidosis. Herein, we perform a comparative effectiveness evaluation of radiolabelled peptide p5+14 with p5 and SAP, in amyloid-laden mice, using dual-energy SPECT imaging and tissue biodistribution measurements. All three radiotracers selectively bound amyloid in vivo; however, p5+14 was significantly more effective as compared to p5 in certain organs. Moreover, SAP bound principally to hepatosplenic amyloid, whereas p5+14 was broadly distributed in numerous amyloid-laden anatomic sites, including the spleen, liver, pancreas, intestines and heart. These data support clinical validation of p5+14 as an amyloid radiotracer for patients in the US. PMID:26936002

  5. Reassessment of the recombination parameters of chromium in n- and p-type crystalline silicon and chromium-boron pairs in p-type crystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Chang Rougieux, Fiacre E.; Macdonald, Daniel

    2014-06-07

    Injection-dependent lifetime spectroscopy of both n- and p-type, Cr-doped silicon wafers with different doping levels is used to determine the defect parameters of Cr{sub i} and CrB pairs, by simultaneously fitting the measured lifetimes with the Shockley-Read-Hall model. A combined analysis of the two defects with the lifetime data measured on both n- and p-type samples enables a significant tightening of the uncertainty ranges of the parameters. The capture cross section ratios k = σ{sub n}/σ{sub p} of Cr{sub i} and CrB are determined as 3.2 (−0.6, +0) and 5.8 (−3.4, +0.6), respectively. Courtesy of a direct experimental comparison of the recombination activity of chromium in n- and p-type silicon, and as also suggested by modelling results, we conclude that chromium has a greater negative impact on carrier lifetimes in p-type silicon than n-type silicon with similar doping levels.

  6. The Kinetics of N-Ethylmaleimide Inhibition of a Vacuolar H+-ATPase and Determination of Nucleotide Dissociation Constants.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, I. E.; Sanders, D.

    1996-01-01

    All eukaryotic vacuolar (V-type) ATPases share the property of being inhibited by low concentrations (1-2 [mu]M) if N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). This distinguishes them from P-type ATPases, which are inhibited by higher concentrations of NEM (0.1-1 mM), and F-type ATPases, which are virtually resistant to inhibition by NEM. Using tonoplast vesicles from Beta vulgaris we have determined the kinetics of NEM inactivation of the V-type ATPase to be pseudo-first order. The concentration dependence of the reaction indicates interaction with a single class of inhibitory site with a rate constant of 4.1 x 104 M-1 min-1. Nucleotides protect against inactivation with an efficacy that agrees with their capacity to act as enzyme substrates. The dissociation constant for MgATP has been determined from protection experiments to be 0.44 mM, which is close to the observed Km for hydrolysis (0.39 mM). Likewise, the dissociation constant for protection by MgADP (127 [mu]M) is close to its inhibition constant as a competitive inhibitor (110 [mu]M). Taken together, these findings suggest that NEM inactivation is associated with nucleotide protectable exposure of a single cysteine residue on the catalytic subunit and confirm the utility of this residue for the determination of ligand dissociation constants through protection of maleimide inhibition. PMID:12226173

  7. Plant and animal type 2B Ca2+-ATPases: evidence for a common auto-inhibitory mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bonza, Maria Cristina; Luoni, Laura

    2010-12-01

    Plant auto-inhibited Ca(2+)-ATPase 8 (ACA8) and animal plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase 4b (PMCA4b) are representatives of plant and animal 2B P-type ATPases with a regulatory auto-inhibitory domain localized at the N- and C-terminus, respectively. To check whether the regulatory domain works independently of its terminal localization and if auto-inhibitory domains of different organisms are interchangeable, a mutant in which the N-terminus of ACA8 is repositioned at the C-terminus and chimeras in which PMCA4b C-terminus is fused to the N- or C-terminus of ACA8 were analysed in the yeast mutant K616 devoid of endogenous Ca(2+)-ATPases. Results show that the regulatory function of the terminal domain is independent from its position in ACA8 and that the regulatory domain belonging to PMCA4b is able to at least partially auto-inhibit ACA8.

  8. Sodium-stimulated ATPase in Streptococcus faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, N; Unemoto, T; Kobayashi, H

    1984-01-01

    We measured Na+-stimulated ATPase activity in a mutant of Streptococcus faecalis defective in the generation of proton motive force. The activity in membrane vesicles was 62.1 +/- 5.9 nmol of phosphate produced per min per mg of protein when cells were grown on medium containing 0.12 M Na+. Activity decreased as the concentration of Na+ in the growth medium decreased. The decrease in enzyme activity corresponded to the decrease in transport activity for Na+ in both whole cells and membrane vesicles. The effects of pH on both activities were identical. Thus, it is suggested that Na+ movement is mediated by this enzyme. Sodium extrusion and ATPase activity in the wild-type strain were markedly lower than those observed in the mutant strain. Elevated activities of both Na+ extrusion and Na+-stimulated ATPase could be detected in the wild-type strain when cells were grown in the absence of proton motive force. Thus, we propose that the level of ATPase is increased by dissipation of the proton motive force. PMID:6144668

  9. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive ATPase in Halobacterium saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, H.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1985-01-01

    Membranes from Halobacterium saccharovorum contained a cryptic ATPase which required Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) and was activated by Triton X-100. The optimal pH for ATP hydrolysis was 9-10. ATP or GTP were hydrolyzed at the same rate while ITP, CTP, and UTP were hydrolyzed at about half that rate. The products of ATP hydrolysis were ADP and phosphate. The ATPase required high concentrations (3.5 M) of NaCl for maximum activity. ADP was a competitive inhibitor of the activity, with an apparent Ki of 50 micro-M. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) inhibited ATP hydrolysis. The inhibition was marginal at the optimum pH of the enzyme. When the ATPase was preincubated with DCCD at varying pH values, but assayed at the optimal pH for activity, DCCD inhibition was observed to increase with increasing acidity of the preincubation medium. DCCD inhibition was also dependent on time of preincubation, and protein and DCCD concentrations. When preincubated at pH 6.0 for 4 h at a protein:DCCD ratio of 40 (w/w), ATPase activity was inhibited 90 percent.

  10. High performance p-type thermoelectric materials and methods of preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alexander (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in high performance p-type thermoelectric materials having enhanced thermoelectric properties and the methods of preparing such materials. In one aspect of the invention, p-type semiconductors of formula Zn4-xAxSb3-yBy wherein 0?x?4, A is a transition metal, B is a pnicogen, and 0?y?3 are formed for use in manufacturing thermoelectric devices with substantially enhanced operating characteristics and improved efficiency. Two methods of preparing p-type Zn4Sb3 and related alloys of the present invention include a crystal growth method and a powder metallurgy method.

  11. Opto-electrical properties of Sb-doped p-type ZnO nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Tzu-Hsuan; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Chiu, Chung-Hua; Huang, Chun-Wei; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2014-03-17

    P-type ZnO nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention in the past years due to the potential applications for optoelectronics and piezotronics. In this study, we have synthesized Sb-doped p-type ZnO NWs on Si (100) substrates by chemical vapor deposition with Aucatalyst. The Sb-doped ZnO NWs are single crystalline with high density, grown along [1-1-2] direction. The doping percentage of Sb is about 2.49%, which has been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ZnO NW field effect transistor demonstrated its p-type characteristics. A high responsivity to ultraviolet photodetection was also observed. In addition, compared to intrinsic ZnO NWs, the conductivity of the Sb-doped ZnO NWs exhibited ∼2 orders of magnitude higher. These properties make the p-type ZnO NWs a promising candidate for electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  12. Effect of p-type multi-walled carbon nanotubes for improving hydrogen storage behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seul-Yi; Yop Rhee, Kyong; Nahm, Seung-Hoon; Park, Soo-Jin

    2014-02-15

    In this study, the hydrogen storage behaviors of p-type multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were investigated through the surface modification of MWNTs by immersing them in sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) at various ratios. The presence of acceptor-functional groups on the p-type MWNT surfaces was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Measurement of the zeta-potential determined the surface charge transfer and dispersion of the p-type MWMTs, and the hydrogen storage capacity was evaluated at 77 K and 1 bar. From the results obtained, it was found that acceptor-functional groups were introduced onto the MWNT surfaces, and the dispersion of MWNTs could be improved depending on the acid-mixed treatment conditions. The hydrogen storage was increased by acid-mixed treatments of up to 0.36 wt% in the p-type MWNTs, compared with 0.18 wt% in the As-received MWNTs. Consequently, the hydrogen storage capacities were greatly influenced by the acceptor-functional groups of p-type MWNT surfaces, resulting in increased electron acceptor–donor interaction at the interfaces. - Graphical abstract: Hydrogen storage behaviors of the p-type MWNTs with the acid-mixed treatments are described. Display Omitted Display Omitted.

  13. Ca(2+) sequestering in the early-branching amitochondriate protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus: an important role of the Golgi complex and its Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Almeida, João C A; Benchimol, Marlene; de Souza, Wanderley; Okorokov, Lev A

    2003-09-02

    Total membrane vesicles isolated from Tritrichomonas foetus showed an ATP-dependent Ca(2+) uptake, which was not sensitive to 10 microM protonophore FCCP but was blocked by orthovanadate, the inhibitor of P-type ATPases (I(50)=130 microM), and by the Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger, A-23187. The Ca(2+) uptake was prevented also by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the SERCA Ca(2+)-ATPases. The sensitivity of the Ca(2+) uptake by the protozoan membrane vesicles to thapsigargin was similar to that of Ca(2+)-ATPase from rabbit muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. Fractionation of the total membrane vesicles in sucrose density gradient revealed a considerable peak of Ca(2+) transport activity that co-migrated with the Golgi marker guanosine diphosphatase (GDPase). Electron microscopy confirmed that membrane fractions of the peak were enriched with the Golgi membranes. The Golgi Ca(2+)-ATPase contributed to the Ca(2+) uptake by all membrane vesicles 80-85%. We conclude that: (i) the Golgi and/or Golgi-like vesicles form the main Ca(2+) store compartment in T. foetus; (ii) Ca(2+) ATPase is responsible for the Ca(2+) sequestering in this protozoan, while Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter is not involved in the process; (iii) the Golgi pump of this ancient eukaryotic microorganism appears to be similar to the enzymes of the SERCA family by its sensitivity to thapsigargin.

  14. Overproduction of PIB-Type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyu; Sitsel, Oleg; Wang, Kaituo; Gourdon, Pontus

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of the functions and mechanisms of fundamental processes in the cell requires structural information. Structural studies of membrane proteins typically necessitate large amounts of purified and preferably homogenous target protein. Here, we describe a rapid overproduction and purification strategy of a bacterial PIB-type ATPase for isolation of milligrams of target protein per liter Escherichia coli cell culture, with a final quality of the sample which is sufficient for generating high-resolution crystals.

  15. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-Limiting ADP Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackney, David D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S. A. Kuznetsov and V. I. Gelfand [(1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 8530-8534)] is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin (turnover rate per 120-kDa peptide increases from ≈ 0.009 sec-1 to 9 sec-1). The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that Pi release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (Ki < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by [14C]ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  16. Segmentation of the Outer Contact on P-Type Coaxial Germanium Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Ethan L.; Pehl, Richard H.; Lathrop, James R.; Martin, Gregory N.; Mashburn, R. B.; Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hossbach, Todd W.

    2006-09-21

    Germanium detector arrays are needed for low-level counting facilities. The practical applications of such user facilities include characterization of low-level radioactive samples. In addition, the same detector arrays can also perform important fundamental physics measurements including the search for rare events like neutrino-less double-beta decay. Coaxial germanium detectors having segmented outer contacts will provide the next level of sensitivity improvement in low background measurements. The segmented outer detector contact allows performance of advanced pulse shape analysis measurements that provide additional background reduction. Currently, n-type (reverse electrode) germanium coaxial detectors are used whenever a segmented coaxial detector is needed because the outer boron (electron barrier) contact is thin and can be segmented. Coaxial detectors fabricated from p-type germanium cost less, have better resolution, and are larger than n-type coaxial detectors. However, it is difficult to reliably segment p-type coaxial detectors because thick (~1 mm) lithium-diffused (hole barrier) contacts are the standard outside contact for p-type coaxial detectors. During this Phase 1 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) we have researched the possibility of using amorphous germanium contacts as a thin outer contact of p-type coaxial detectors that can be segmented. We have developed amorphous germanium contacts that provide a very high hole barrier on small planar detectors. These easily segmented amorphous germanium contacts have been demonstrated to withstand several thousand volts/cm electric fields with no measurable leakage current (<1 pA) from charge injection over the hole barrier. We have also demonstrated that the contact can be sputter deposited around and over the curved outside surface of a small p-type coaxial detector. The amorphous contact has shown good rectification properties on the outside of a small p-type coaxial detector. These encouraging

  17. Formation of p-type ZnO thin film through co-implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Yao-Teng; Liou, Jhe-Wei; Woon, Wei-Yen

    2017-01-01

    We present a study on the formation of p-type ZnO thin film through ion implantation. Group V dopants (N, P) with different ionic radii are implanted into chemical vapor deposition grown ZnO thin film on GaN/sapphire substrates prior to thermal activation. It is found that mono-doped ZnO by N+ implantation results in n-type conductivity under thermal activation. Dual-doped ZnO film with a N:P ion implantation dose ratio of 4:1 is found to be p-type under certain thermal activation conditions. Higher p-type activation levels (1019 cm-3) under a wider thermal activation range are found for the N/P dual-doped ZnO film co-implanted by additional oxygen ions. From high resolution x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy it is concluded that the observed p-type conductivities are a result of the promoted formation of PZn-4NO complex defects via the concurrent substitution of nitrogen at oxygen sites and phosphorus at zinc sites. The enhanced solubility and stability of acceptor defects in oxygen co-implanted dual-doped ZnO film are related to the reduction of oxygen vacancy defects at the surface. Our study demonstrates the prospect of the formation of stable p-type ZnO film through co-implantation.

  18. p-type Mesoscopic Nickel Oxide/Organometallic Perovskite Heterojunction Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kuo-Chin; Jeng, Jun-Yuan; Shen, Po-Shen; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Tsai, Cheng-Hung; Chao, Tzu-Yang; Hsu, Hsu-Cheng; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Peter; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Wen, Ten-Chin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a new paradigm for organometallic hybrid perovskite solar cell using NiO inorganic metal oxide nanocrystalline as p-type electrode material and realized the first mesoscopic NiO/perovskite/[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) heterojunction photovoltaic device. The photo-induced transient absorption spectroscopy results verified that the architecture is an effective p-type sensitized junction, which is the first inorganic p-type, metal oxide contact material for perovskite-based solar cell. Power conversion efficiency of 9.51% was achieved under AM 1.5 G illumination, which significantly surpassed the reported conventional p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. The replacement of the organic hole transport materials by a p-type metal oxide has the advantages to provide robust device architecture for further development of all-inorganic perovskite-based thin-film solar cells and tandem photovoltaics. PMID:24755642

  19. Chemical-free n-type and p-type multilayer-graphene transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissanayake, D. M. N. M.; Eisaman, M. D.

    2016-08-01

    A single-step doping method to fabricate n- and p-type multilayer graphene (MG) top-gate field effect transistors (GFETs) is demonstrated. The transistors are fabricated on soda-lime glass substrates, with the n-type doping of MG caused by the sodium in the substrate without the addition of external chemicals. Placing a hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) barrier layer between the MG and the substrate blocks the n-doping, resulting in p-type doping of the MG above regions patterned with HSQ. The HSQ is deposited in a single fabrication step using electron beam lithography, allowing the patterning of arbitrary sub-micron spatial patterns of n- and p-type doping. When a MG channel is deposited partially on the barrier and partially on the glass substrate, a p-type and n-type doping profile is created, which is used for fabricating complementary transistors pairs. Unlike chemically doped GFETs in which the external dopants are typically introduced from the top, these substrate doped GFETs allow for a top gate which gives a stronger electrostatic coupling to the channel, reducing the operating gate bias. Overall, this method enables scalable fabrication of n- and p-type complementary top-gated GFETs with high spatial resolution for graphene microelectronic applications.

  20. Native p-type transparent conductive CuI via intrinsic defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Jingbo; Li, Shu-Shen

    2011-09-01

    The ability of CuI to be doped p-type via the introduction of native defects has been investigated using first-principles pseudopotential calculations based on density functional theory. The Cu vacancy has a lower formation energy than any of the other native defects, which include I vacancy (VI), Cu interstitial (Cui), I interstitial (Ii), Cu antisite (CuI), and I antisite (ICu). Combined with its shallow acceptor level, it offers sufficient hole concentrations in CuI. The natural band alignments as compared to zinc-blende ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe have also been calculated in order to further identify the p-type dopability of CuI. It is found that CuI has a relatively high valence band maximum and conduction band minimum, which also makes it easy to dope CuI p-type in terms of the doping limit rule. In addition, the small effective mass of the light hole—about 0.303m0—can provide high mobility and p-type conductivity in CuI. All of these results make CuI an ideal candidate for native p-type materials

  1. Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase interactions with decaniobate, decavanadate, vanadate, tungstate and molybdate.

    PubMed

    Fraqueza, Gil; Ohlin, C André; Casey, William H; Aureliano, Manuel

    2012-02-01

    Over the last few decades there has been increasing interest in oxometalate and polyoxometalate applications to medicine and pharmacology. This interest arose, at least in part, due to the properties of these classes of compounds as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic agents, and also for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, among others. However, our understanding of the mechanism of action would be improved if biological models could be used to clarify potential toxicological effects in main cellular processes. Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles, containing a large amount of Ca(2+)-ATPase, an enzyme that accumulates calcium by active transport using ATP, have been suggested as a useful model to study the effects of oxometalates on calcium homeostasis. In the present article, it is shown that decavanadate, decaniobate, vanadate, tungstate and molybdate, all inhibited SR Ca(2+)-ATPase, with the following IC(50) values: 15, 35, 50, 400 μM and 45 mM, respectively. Decaniobate (Nb(10)), is the strongest P-type enzyme inhibitor, after decavanadate (V(10)). Atomic-absorption spectroscopy (AAS) analysis, indicates that decavanadate binds to the protein with a 1:1 decavanadate:Ca(2+)-ATPase stoichiometry. Furthermore, V(10) binds with similar extension to all the protein conformations, which occur during calcium translocation by active transport, namely E1, E1P, E2 and E2P, as analysed by AAS. In contrast, it was confirmed that the binding of monomeric vanadate (H(2)VO(4)(2-); V(1)) to the calcium pump is favoured only for the E2 and E2P conformations of the ATPase, whereas no significant amount of vanadate is bound to the E1 and E1P conformations. Scatchard plot analysis, confirmed a 1:1 ratio for decavanadate-Ca(2+)-ATPase, with a dissociation constant, k(d) of 1 μM(-1). The interaction of decavanadate V(10)O(28)(6-) (V(10)) with Ca(2+)-ATPase is prevented by the isostructural and isoelectronic decaniobate Nb(10)O(28)(6-) (Nb(10)), whereas no significant effects were

  2. Identification and design principles of low hole effective mass p-type transparent conducting oxides

    PubMed Central

    Hautier, Geoffroy; Miglio, Anna; Ceder, Gerbrand; Rignanese, Gian-Marco; Gonze, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The development of high-performance transparent conducting oxides is critical to many technologies from transparent electronics to solar cells. Whereas n-type transparent conducting oxides are present in many devices, their p-type counterparts are not largely commercialized, as they exhibit much lower carrier mobilities due to the large hole effective masses of most oxides. Here we conduct a high-throughput computational search on thousands of binary and ternary oxides and identify several highly promising compounds displaying exceptionally low hole effective masses (up to an order of magnitude lower than state-of-the-art p-type transparent conducting oxides), as well as wide band gaps. In addition to the discovery of specific compounds, the chemical rationalization of our findings opens new directions, beyond current Cu-based chemistries, for the design and development of future p-type transparent conducting oxides. PMID:23939205

  3. DyP-type peroxidases comprise a novel heme peroxidase family.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Y

    2009-04-01

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) is produced by a basidiomycete (Thanatephorus cucumeris Dec 1) and is a member of a novel heme peroxidase family (DyP-type peroxidase family) that appears to be distinct from general peroxidases. Thus far, 80 putative members of this family have been registered in the PeroxiBase database (http://peroxibase.isbsib.ch/) and more than 400 homologous proteins have been detected via PSI-BLAST search. Although few studies have characterized the function and structure of these proteins, they appear to be bifunctional enzymes with hydrolase or oxygenase, as well as typical peroxidase activities. DyP-type peroxidase family suggests an ancient root compared with other general peroxidases because of their widespread distribution in the living world. In this review, firstly, an outline of the characteristics of DyP from T. cucumeris is presented and then interesting characteristics of the DyP-type peroxidase family are discussed.

  4. High performance P-type thermoelectric materials and methods of preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alexander (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in high performance p-type thermoelectric materials having enhanced thermoelectric properties and the methods of preparing such materials. In one aspect of the invention, p-type semiconductors of formula Zn.sub.4-x A.sub.x Sb.sub.3-y B.sub.y wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.4, A is a transition metal, B is a pnicogen, and 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.3 are formed for use in manufacturing thermoelectric devices with substantially enhanced operating characteristics and improved efficiency. Two methods of preparing p-type Zn.sub.4 Sb.sub.3 and related alloys of the present invention include a crystal growth method and a powder metallurgy method.

  5. Defect Physics and Intrinsic p-TYPE Conductivity in Topological Insulator AuTlS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Min; Feng, Wangxiang; Yang, Pei; Shi, Lijie; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we systematically investigate the defect physics in topological insulator AuTlS2. An optimal growth condition is explicitly proposed to guide for the experimental synthesis. The stabilities of various native point defects under different growth conditions and different carrier environments are studied in detail. We show that the p-type conductivity is strongly preferred in AuTlS2, and the band gap can be engineered by the control of intrinsic defects. Our results demonstrate that AuTlS2 is an ideal p-type topological insulator which can be easily integrated with traditional semiconductor.

  6. Dual ohmic contact to N- and P-type silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous formation of electrical ohmic contacts to silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor having donor and acceptor impurities (n- and p-type doping, respectively) is disclosed. The innovation provides for ohmic contacts formed on SiC layers having n- and p-doping at one process step during the fabrication of the semiconductor device. Further, the innovation provides a non-discriminatory, universal ohmic contact to both n- and p-type SiC, enhancing reliability of the specific contact resistivity when operated at temperatures in excess of 600.degree. C.

  7. Carrier removal and defect behavior in p-type InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Drevinsky, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    A simple expression, obtained from the rate equation for defect production, was used to relate carrier removal to defect production and hole trapping rates in p-type InP after irradiation by 1-MeV electrons. Specific contributions to carrier removal from defect levels H3, H4, and H5 were determined from combined deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and measured carrier concentrations. An additional contribution was attributed to one or more defects not observed by the present DLTS measurements. The high trapping rate observed for H5 suggests that this defect, if present in relatively high concentration, could be dominant in p-type InP.

  8. Transcriptional regulators of Na,K-ATPase subunits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiqin; Langhans, Sigrid A.

    2015-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase classically serves as an ion pump creating an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane that is essential for transepithelial transport, nutrient uptake and membrane potential. In addition, Na,K-ATPase also functions as a receptor, a signal transducer and a cell adhesion molecule. With such diverse roles, it is understandable that the Na,K-ATPase subunits, the catalytic α-subunit, the β-subunit and the FXYD proteins, are controlled extensively during development and to accommodate physiological needs. The spatial and temporal expression of Na,K-ATPase is partially regulated at the transcriptional level. Numerous transcription factors, hormones, growth factors, lipids, and extracellular stimuli modulate the transcription of the Na,K-ATPase subunits. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression. With the ever growing knowledge about diseases associated with the malfunction of Na,K-ATPase, this review aims at summarizing the best-characterized transcription regulators that modulate Na,K-ATPase subunit levels. As abnormal expression of Na,K-ATPase subunits has been observed in many carcinoma, we will also discuss transcription factors that are associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a crucial step in the progression of many tumors to malignant disease. PMID:26579519

  9. Mycobacterial p(1)-type ATPases mediate resistance to zinc poisoning in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Botella, Hélène; Peyron, Pascale; Levillain, Florence; Poincloux, Renaud; Poquet, Yannick; Brandli, Irène; Wang, Chuan; Tailleux, Ludovic; Tilleul, Sylvain; Charrière, Guillaume M; Waddell, Simon J; Foti, Maria; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Gao, Qian; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Butcher, Philip D; Castagnoli, Paola Ricciardi; Gicquel, Brigitte; de Chastellier, Chantal; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2011-09-15

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis thrives within macrophages by residing in phagosomes and preventing them from maturing and fusing with lysosomes. A parallel transcriptional survey of intracellular mycobacteria and their host macrophages revealed signatures of heavy metal poisoning. In particular, mycobacterial genes encoding heavy metal efflux P-type ATPases CtpC, CtpG, and CtpV, and host cell metallothioneins and zinc exporter ZnT1, were induced during infection. Consistent with this pattern of gene modulation, we observed a burst of free zinc inside macrophages, and intraphagosomal zinc accumulation within a few hours postinfection. Zinc exposure led to rapid CtpC induction, and ctpC deficiency caused zinc retention within the mycobacterial cytoplasm, leading to impaired intracellular growth of the bacilli. Thus, the use of P(1)-type ATPases represents a M. tuberculosis strategy to neutralize the toxic effects of zinc in macrophages. We propose that heavy metal toxicity and its counteraction might represent yet another chapter in the host-microbe arms race.

  10. Process for forming pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P-type gallium arsenide materials

    DOEpatents

    Hogan, S.J.

    1983-03-13

    Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components a n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffuse layer and the substrate layer wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

  11. Pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P- type gallium arsenide materials

    DOEpatents

    Hogan, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components an n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffused layer and the substrate layer, wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

  12. A structural and functional perspective of DyP-type peroxidase family.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toru; Sugano, Yasushi

    2015-05-15

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidase from the basidiomycete Bjerkandera adusta Dec 1 (DyP) is a heme peroxidase. This name reflects its ability to degrade several anthraquinone dyes. The substrate specificity, the amino acid sequence, and the tertiary structure of DyP are different from those of the other heme peroxidase (super)families. Therefore, many proteins showing the similar amino acid sequences to that of DyP are called DyP-type peroxidase which is a new family of heme peroxidase identified in 2007. In fact, all structures of this family show a similar structure fold. However, this family includes many proteins whose amino acid sequence identity to DyP is lower than 15% and/or whose catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) is a few orders of magnitude less than that of DyP. A protein showing an activity different from peroxidase activity (dechelatase activity) has been also reported. In addition, the precise physiological roles of DyP-type peroxidases are unknown. These facts raise a question of whether calling this family DyP-type peroxidase is suitable. Here, we review the differences and similarities of structure and function among this family and propose the reasonable new classification of DyP-type peroxidase family, that is, class P, I and V. In this contribution, we discuss the adequacy of this family name.

  13. Semiconductor liquid junction photocell having a p-type photoactive electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, A.; Lewerenz, H.J.; Miller, B.

    1982-08-10

    A semiconductor liquid junction photocell has a photovoltaic junction between a p-type photoactive electrode comprising InP or Si and an electrolyte comprising a redox couple selected from the group consisting of V2+/V3+, Nb4+/Nb5+, and Ti3+/Ti4+ produces a stable photocurrent output.

  14. Topography of a vacuolar-type H+-translocating ATPase: chromaffin-granule membrane ATPase I.

    PubMed Central

    Apps, D K; Percy, J M; Perez-Castineira, J R

    1989-01-01

    Proteins exposed on the cytoplasmic face of isolated chromaffin granules were labelled by lactoperoxidase-catalysed radioiodination and by non-enzymic biotinylation. Granule membranes were then prepared, and the H+-translocating ATPase isolated by fractionation with Triton X-114. The labelling of individual ATPase subunits was assessed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, followed by autoradiography or by blotting and decoration with 125I-labelled streptavidin. Subunits of 72, 57 and kDa were strongly labelled, and could be removed from the membrane at pH 11: they are therefore extrinsic proteins. The 120 kDa subunit was also labelled, but it was not solubilized at pH 11. Photolabelling with a hydrophobic probe indicated that this subunit penetrates the bilayer, and enzymic degradation studies showed the presence of N-linked oligosaccharides; this subunit therefore spans the chromaffin-granule membrane. Labelling of the 17 kDa subunit occurred predominantly on the extracytoplasmic (matrix) face of the granule membrane. These results are consistent with this V-type ATPase having a structure that is generally similar to that of mitochondrial (F-type) ATPases, although the attachment of the 120 kDa subunit may be asymmetrical. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 5. PMID:2532503

  15. Purification and Properties of an ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1992-01-01

    A sulfite-activated ATPase isolated from Sulfolobus solfataricus had a relative molecular mass of 370,000. It was composed of three subunits whose relative molecular masses were 63,000, 48,000, and 24,000. The enzyme was inhibited by the vacuolar ATPase inhibitors nitrate and N-ethylmaleimide; 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-furazan (NBD-Cl) was also inhibitory. N-Ethylmaleimide was predominately bound to the largest subunit while NBD-CL was bound to both subunits. ATPase activity was inhibited by low concentrations of p-chloromercuri-phenyl sulfonate and the inhibition was reversed by cysteine which suggested that thiol groups were essential for activity. While the ATPase from S. solfataricus shared several properties with the ATPase from S. acidocaldarius there were significant differences. The latter enzyme was activated by sulfate and chloride and was unaffected by N-ethylmaleimide, whereas the S. solfataricus ATPase was inhibited by these anions as well as N-ethyimaleimide. These differences as well as differences that occur in other vacuolar-like ATPases isolated from the methanogenic and the extremely halophilic bacteria suggest the existence of several types of archaeal ATPases, none of which have been demonstrated to synthesize ATP.

  16. Anatomy of F1-ATPase powered rotation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, James L.; Ishmukhametov, Robert; Hornung, Tassilo; Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Frasch, Wayne D.

    2014-01-01

    F1-ATPase, the catalytic complex of the ATP synthase, is a molecular motor that can consume ATP to drive rotation of the γ-subunit inside the ring of three αβ-subunit heterodimers in 120° power strokes. To elucidate the mechanism of ATPase-powered rotation, we determined the angular velocity as a function of rotational position from single-molecule data collected at 200,000 frames per second with unprecedented signal-to-noise. Power stroke rotation is more complex than previously understood. This paper reports the unexpected discovery that a series of angular accelerations and decelerations occur during the power stroke. The decreases in angular velocity that occurred with the lower-affinity substrate ITP, which could not be explained by an increase in substrate-binding dwells, provides direct evidence that rotation depends on substrate binding affinity. The presence of elevated ADP concentrations not only increased dwells at 35° from the catalytic dwell consistent with competitive product inhibition but also decreased the angular velocity from 85° to 120°, indicating that ADP can remain bound to the catalytic site where product release occurs for the duration of the power stroke. The angular velocity profile also supports a model in which rotation is powered by Van der Waals repulsive forces during the final 85° of rotation, consistent with a transition from F1 structures 2HLD1 and 1H8E (Protein Data Bank). PMID:24567403

  17. Purification and properties of an ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports properties of a sulfite-activated ATPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus, purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, column chromatography on UltraGel and Sepharose 6B, and SDS-PAGE. The 92-fold purified enzyme had a relative molecular mass of 370,000. It could be dissociated into three subunits with respective molecular masses of 63,000, 48,000, and 24,000. The ATPase activity was found to be inhibitable by nitrate, N-ethylmaleimide (which bound predominantly to the largest subunit), and 4-chloro 7-nitrobenzofurazan, but not by azide, quercetin, or vanadate. While the ATPase from S. solfataricus shared a number of properties with the S. acidocaldarius ATPase, there were also significant differences suggesting the existence of several types of archaeal ATPases.

  18. The Form Effects of Magnetoresistivity in p-TYPE Diamond Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Chun-Yang; Xu, Jie; Cui, Yu-Ting; Wang, Wan; Qing, Guo-Ping; Lan, Mao-Ping; Ruan, Hai-Bo

    The geometric form effects of magnetoresistivity (MR) from chemical vapor deposited p-type diamond films were investigated. The MR patterns (width/length ratio = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) were produced on p-type diamond films by photolithography and ion etching in oxygen plasma. The experimental results showed that the MR in diamond films with the strip structure changed with width-length ratio at magnetic field intensity of 3 T. The changes of MR strongly depended on the geometric form of the samples. With the width-length ratio increasing from 1 to 6, the MR increases from 0.08 to 1.0. It was almost changing linearly with the increase of width-to-length ratio. The geometric form effect is closely related to the Hall effect. A calculation formula of form effect of MR was presented.

  19. Measurement of the dead layer thickness in a p-type point contact germanium detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hao; Yue, Qian; Li, Yu-Lan; Kang, Ke-Jun; Li, Yuan-Jing; Li, Jin; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, Shu-Kui; Ma, Hao; Ma, Jing-Lu; Su, Jian; Tsz-King Wong, Henry; Yang, Li-Tao; Zhao, Wei; Zeng, Zhi

    2016-09-01

    A 994 g mass p-type PCGe detector has been deployed during the first phase of the China Dark matter EXperiment, aiming at direct searches for light weakly interacting massive particles. Measuring the thickness of the dead layer of a p-type germanium detector is an issue of major importance since it determines the fiducial mass of the detector. This work reports a method using an uncollimated 133Ba source to determine the dead layer thickness. The experimental design, data analysis and Monte Carlo simulation processes, as well as the statistical and systematic uncertainties are described. A dead layer thickness of 1.02 mm was obtained based on a comparison between the experimental data and the simulated results. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (10935005, 10945002, 11275107, 11175099)

  20. Ultra-thin ohmic contacts for p-type nitride light emitting devices

    DOEpatents

    Raffetto, Mark; Bharathan, Jayesh; Haberern, Kevin; Bergmann, Michael; Emerson, David; Ibbetson, James; Li, Ting

    2014-06-24

    A flip-chip semiconductor based Light Emitting Device (LED) can include an n-type semiconductor substrate and an n-type GaN epi-layer on the substrate. A p-type GaN epi-layer can be on the n-type GaN epi-layer and a metal ohmic contact p-electrode can be on the p-type GaN epi-layer, where the metal ohmic contact p-electrode can have an average thickness less than about 25 .ANG.. A reflector can be on the metal ohmic contact p-electrode and a metal stack can be on the reflector. An n-electrode can be on the substrate opposite the n-type GaN epi-layer and a bonding pad can be on the n-electrode.

  1. Temperature driven p-n-p type conduction switching materials: current trends and future directions.

    PubMed

    Guin, Satya N; Biswas, Kanishka

    2015-04-28

    Modern technological inventions have been going through a "renaissance" period. Development of new materials and understanding of fundamental structure-property correlations are the important steps to move further for advanced technologies. In modern technologies, inorganic semiconductors are the leading materials which are extensively used for different applications. In the current perspective, we present discussion on an important class of materials that show fascinating p-n-p type conduction switching, which can have potential applications in diodes or transistor devices that operate reversibly upon temperature or voltage change. We highlight the key concepts, present the current fundamental understanding and show the latest developments in the field of p-n-p type conduction switching. Finally, we point out the major challenges and opportunities in this field.

  2. p-type ZnS:N nanowires: Low-temperature solvothermal doping and optoelectronic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ming-Zheng; Xie, Wei-Jie; Hu, Han; Yu, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Chun-Yan; Wang, Li; Luo, Lin-Bao

    2013-11-18

    Nitrogen doped p-type ZnS nanowires (NWs) were realized using thermal decomposition of triethylamine at a mild temperature. Field-effect transistors made from individual ZnS:N NWs revealed typical p-type conductivity behavior, with a hole mobility of 3.41 cm{sup 2}V{sup −1}s{sup −1} and a hole concentration of 1.67 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}, respectively. Further analysis found that the ZnS:N NW is sensitive to UV light irradiation with high responsivity, photoconductive gain, and good spectral selectivity. The totality of this study suggests that the solvothermal doping method is highly feasible to dope one dimensional semiconductor nanostructures for optoelectronic devices application.

  3. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Haghighipour, Nader; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.

  4. Perspectives of High-Temperature Thermoelectric Applications and p-type and n-type Aluminoborides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, T.

    2016-10-01

    A need exists to develop high-temperature thermoelectric materials which can utilize high-temperature unutilized/waste heat in thermal power plants, steelworks, factories, incinerators, etc., and also focused solar power. The thermal power plant topping application is of potential high impact since it can sizably increase the efficiency of power plants which are the major supply of electrical power for many countries. Higher borides are possible candidates for their particular high-temperature stability, generally large Seebeck coefficients, α, and intrinsic low thermal conductivity. Excellent (|α| > 200 μV/K) p-type or n-type behavior was recently achieved in the aluminoboride YAl x B14 by varying the occupancy of Al sites, x. Finding p-type and n-type counterparts has long been a difficulty of thermoelectric research not limited to borides. This paper reviews possible high-temperature thermoelectric applications, and recent developments and perspectives of thermoelectric aluminoborides.

  5. P-type conductive amorphous oxides of transition metals from solution processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinwang; Kaneda, Toshihiko; Tokumitsu, Eisuke; Koyano, Mikio; Mitani, Tadaoki; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2012-07-01

    We report a series of solution-processed p-type conductive amorphous Ln-M-O (a-Ln-M-O, where M = Ru, Ir, and Ln is a lanthanide element except Ce) having low resistivities (10-3 to 10-2 Ω cm). These oxides are thermally stable to a high degree, being amorphous up to 800 °C, and processable below 400 °C. Their film surfaces are smooth on the atomic scale, and the process allows patterning simply by direct imprinting without distortion of the pattern after annealing. These properties have high potential for use in printed electronics. The electron configurations of these oxides are apparently different from existing p-type oxides.

  6. Ferromagnetism in p-Type Manganese-Doped Zinc Oxide Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    May, Joseph W; McMorris, Ryan J; Li, Xiaosong

    2012-05-17

    The magnetic exchange interactions between paramagnetic Mn(2+) dopants in the presence of a N(2-) p-type defect in zinc oxide quantum dots are studied using density functional theory. Spin-dependent delocalization of the N(2-) 2p acceptor level among the nearest-neighbor Mn(2+) dopants is observed. The calculations show that parallel Mn(2+) spin alignment is favored upon the formation of a nitrogen-bridged Mn-Mn dimer. Although the effect is short-ranged, the observed magnitude of stabilization of the ferromagnetic alignment of nearest-neighbor Mn(2+) spins arises from p-d exchange and suggests p-type Mn(2+)-doped ZnO quantum dots as excellent candidates for exhibiting room-temperature ferromagnetism. Analytical expressions are derived and supported by density functional theory calculations that show that the N(2-) concentration has a stronger influence on the magnetic splitting compared with that of the Mn(2+) concentration.

  7. Possible efficient p-type doping of AlN using Be: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, R. Q.; Shen, L.; Yang, M.; Sha, Z. D.; Cai, Y. Q.; Feng, Y. P.; Huang, Z. G.; Wu, Q. Y.

    2007-10-01

    Spin density functional theory based ab initio study is carried out to investigate the feasibility of fabricating p-type AlN using Be as an efficient dopant. It is found that substitutional BeAl is an acceptor with an activation energy of 0.34eV. To overcome the low solubility of direct incorporation of Be into AlN and self-compensation from Be interstitials, we propose a hydrogen-assisted growth scheme which improves the solubility and suppresses interstitials. Oxygen is also found to be an effective codopant to activate Be in AlN. Our results suggest the possibility of improving p-type conductivity of AlN by Be doping.

  8. Effects of hole localization on limiting p-type conductivity in oxide and nitride semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J. L.; Janotti, A.; Van de Walle, C. G.

    2014-01-07

    We examine how hole localization limits the effectiveness of substitutional acceptors in oxide and nitride semiconductors and explain why p-type doping of these materials has proven so difficult. Using hybrid density functional calculations, we find that anion-site substitutional impurities in AlN, GaN, InN, and ZnO lead to atomic-like states that localize on the impurity atom itself. Substitution with cation-site impurities, on the other hand, triggers the formation of polarons that become trapped on nearest-neighbor anions, generally leading to large ionization energies for these acceptors. Unlike shallow effective-mass acceptors, these two types of deep acceptors couple strongly with the lattice, significantly affecting the optical properties and severely limiting prospects for achieving p-type conductivity in these wide-band-gap materials.

  9. Infrared absorption and visible transparency in heavily doped p-type BaSnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuwei; Sun, Jifeng; Singh, David J.

    2017-01-01

    The recent experimental work shows that perovskite BaSnO3 can be heavily doped by K to become a stable p-type semiconductor. Here, we find that p-type perovskite BaSnO3 retains transparency for visible light while absorbing strongly in the infrared below 1.5 eV. The origin of the remarkable optical transparency even with heavy doping is that the interband transitions that are enabled by empty states at the top of the valence band are concentrated mainly in the energy range from 0.5 to 1.5 eV, i.e., not extending past the near IR. In contrast to n-type, the Burstein-Moss shift is slightly negative, but very small reflecting the heavier valence bands relative to the conduction bands.

  10. An integrated driving circuit implemented with p-type LTPS TFTs for AMOLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li-Qing; Wu, Chun-Ya; Hao, Da-Shou; Yao, Ying; Meng, Zhi-Guo; Xiong, Shao-Zhen

    2009-03-01

    Based on the technology of low temperature poly silicon thin film transistors (poly-Si-TFTs), a novel p-type TFT AMOLED panel with self-scanned driving circuit is introduced in this paper. A shift register formed with novel p-type TFTs is proposed to realize the gate driver. A flip-latch cooperated with the shift register is designed to conduct the data writing. In order to verify the validity of the proposed design, the circuits are simulated with SILVACO TCAD tools, using the MODEL in which the parameters of LTPS TFTs were extracted from the LTPS TFTs made in our lab. The simulation results indicate that the circuit can fulfill the driving function.

  11. Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan; Yan, Yanfa; Coutts, Timothy J.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Dehart, Clay M.

    2009-04-14

    A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

  12. Investigation of negative photoconductivity in p-type Pb1-xSnxTe film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, M. A. B.; da Silva, M. J.; Peres, M. L.; de Castro, S.; Soares, D. A. W.; Okazaki, A. K.; Fornari, C. I.; Rappl, P. H. O.; Abramof, E.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the negative photoconductivity (NPC) effect that was observed in a p-type Pb1-xSnxTe film for temperatures varying from 300 K down to 85 K. We found that this effect is a consequence of defect states located in the bandgap which act as trapping levels, changing the relation between generation and recombination rates. Theoretical calculations predict contributions to the NPC from both conduction and valence bands, which are in accordance with the experimental observations.

  13. Low-temperature solution-processed p-type vanadium oxide for perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haocheng; Hou, Xiaomeng; Wei, Qiulong; Liu, Huawei; Yang, Kecheng; Wang, Wei; An, Qinyou; Rong, Yaoguang

    2016-06-21

    A low-temperature solution-processed inorganic p-type contact material of vanadium oxide (VOx) was developed to fabricate planar-heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Using a solvent-assisted process, high-quality uniform and compact perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) films were deposited on VOx coated substrates. Due to the high transmittance and quenching efficiency of VOx layers, a power conversion efficiency of over 14% was achieved.

  14. Praziquantel has no direct effect on (Na(+)+K+)-ATPases and (Ca2(+)-Mg2+)ATPases of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Cunha, V M; Noël, F

    1997-01-01

    Therapeutic concentrations of praziquantel produce a rapid and intense contraction of the human flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. As an action on ATPases responsible for calcium homeostasis arises as a possible explanation for the molecular mechanism of this effect, we tested here the effect of praziquantel on different preparations from male adult worms that were previously characterized for their content in (Na(+)+K+)-ATPase and (Ca2(+)-Mg2+)ATPase activities from different origins. Concentrations as high as 100 microM praziquantel did not inhibit (Na(+)+K+)-ATPase from tegument and carcass nor (Ca2(+)-Mg2+)ATPase from heterogeneous (P1) and microsomal (P4) fractions. As 100 microM praziquantel was also without effect on calcium permeability of microsomal vesicles actively loaded with 45Ca2+, the present results discard three hypotheses recently raised for the mechanism of praziquantel-induced contraction of S. mansoni.

  15. Guided Growth of Horizontal p-Type ZnTe Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge toward large-scale integration of nanowires is the control over their alignment and position. A possible solution to this challenge is the guided growth process, which enables the synthesis of well-aligned horizontal nanowires that grow according to specific epitaxial or graphoepitaxial relations with the substrate. However, the guided growth of horizontal nanowires was demonstrated for a limited number of materials, most of which exhibit unintentional n-type behavior. Here we demonstrate the vapor–liquid–solid growth of guided horizontal ZnTe nanowires and nanowalls displaying p-type behavior on four different planes of sapphire. The growth directions of the nanowires are determined by epitaxial relations between the nanowires and the substrate or by a graphoepitaxial effect that guides their growth along nanogrooves or nanosteps along the surface. We characterized the crystallographic orientations and elemental composition of the nanowires using transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence. The optoelectronic and electronic properties of the nanowires were studied by fabricating photodetectors and top-gate thin film transistors. These measurements showed that the guided ZnTe nanowires are p-type semiconductors and are photoconductive in the visible range. The guided growth of horizontal p-type nanowires opens up the possibility of parallel nanowire integration into functional systems with a variety of potential applications not available by other means. PMID:27885331

  16. Efficient synthesis of triarylamine-based dyes for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin; Griebel, Jan; Hajduk, Anna; Friedrich, Dirk; Stark, Annegret; Abel, Bernd; Siefermann, Katrin R.

    2016-05-01

    The class of triarylamine-based dyes has proven great potential as efficient light absorbers in inverse (p-type) dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, detailed investigation and further improvement of p-type DSSCs is strongly hindered by the fact that available synthesis routes of triarylamine-based dyes are inefficient and particularly demanding with regard to time and costs. Here, we report on an efficient synthesis strategy for triarylamine-based dyes for p-type DSSCs. A protocol for the synthesis of the dye-precursor (4-(bis(4-bromophenyl)amino)benzoic acid) is presented along with its X-ray crystal structure. The dye precursor is obtained from the commercially available 4(diphenylamino)benzaldehyde in a yield of 87% and serves as a starting point for the synthesis of various triarylamine-based dyes. Starting from the precursor we further describe a synthesis protocol for the dye 4-{bis[4‧-(2,2-dicyanovinyl)-[1,1‧-biphenyl]-4-yl]amino}benzoic acid (also known as dye P4) in a yield of 74%. All synthesis steps are characterized by high yields and high purities without the need for laborious purification steps and thus fulfill essential requirements for scale-up.

  17. Efficient synthesis of triarylamine-based dyes for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Martin; Griebel, Jan; Hajduk, Anna; Friedrich, Dirk; Stark, Annegret; Abel, Bernd; Siefermann, Katrin R.

    2016-01-01

    The class of triarylamine-based dyes has proven great potential as efficient light absorbers in inverse (p-type) dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, detailed investigation and further improvement of p-type DSSCs is strongly hindered by the fact that available synthesis routes of triarylamine-based dyes are inefficient and particularly demanding with regard to time and costs. Here, we report on an efficient synthesis strategy for triarylamine-based dyes for p-type DSSCs. A protocol for the synthesis of the dye-precursor (4-(bis(4-bromophenyl)amino)benzoic acid) is presented along with its X-ray crystal structure. The dye precursor is obtained from the commercially available 4(diphenylamino)benzaldehyde in a yield of 87% and serves as a starting point for the synthesis of various triarylamine-based dyes. Starting from the precursor we further describe a synthesis protocol for the dye 4-{bis[4′-(2,2-dicyanovinyl)-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl]amino}benzoic acid (also known as dye P4) in a yield of 74%. All synthesis steps are characterized by high yields and high purities without the need for laborious purification steps and thus fulfill essential requirements for scale-up. PMID:27196877

  18. Electronic inhomogeneity in n- and p-type PbTe detected by 125Te NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, E. M.; Heremans, J. P.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2013-09-01

    125Te nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and spin-lattice relaxation of n- and p-type PbTe, self-doping narrow band-gap semiconductors, have been studied and compared to those of p-type GeTe. Spin-lattice relaxation in GeTe can be fit by one component, while that in both PbTe samples must be fit by at least two components, showing electronically homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, respectively. For PbTe-based materials, the spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 increases linearly with carrier concentration. The data for GeTe fall on the same line and allow us to extend this plot to higher concentrations. Long and short T1 components in both PbTe samples reflect “low,” ˜1017 cm-3, and “high,” ˜1018 cm-3, carrier concentration components. Carrier concentrations in both n- and p-type PbTe samples obtained from the Hall and Seebeck effects generally match the “high” carrier concentration component, and to some extent, ignore the “low” one. This demonstrates that the Hall and Seebeck effects may have a limited ability for the determination of carrier concentration in complex thermoelectric PbTe-based and other multicomponent materials.

  19. Doping CoSb3 p-type with Al substitution for Sb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Michael J.; Nielsen, Michele D.; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2014-03-01

    Skutterudites such as CoSb3 are compounds composed of group IX-B atoms (Co, Rh, and Ir) forming a simple cubic structure, and group V-A3 pnictide atoms (primarily Sb and As) forming rings inside 6 of every 8 cubes. The remaining cubes remain empty. A common method for reducing thermal conductivity is to introduce impurity atoms such as rare-earths in the cubes that act as rattlers. P-type doping of CoSb3 has led to some advances in zT, but the p-type material remains less performing than the n-type material due to the fact that the valence band, dominated by Sb levels, has a low effective mass. A promising method for improving p-type properties is to introduce an effective resonant level into the energy levels occupied by the light hole band, thereby increasing the Seebeck coefficient without strongly effecting other transport properties. A first attempt using Sn substitution was not successful. Here we try various concentrations of Al substituted at Sb sites to generate a resonant level. Material properties are measured and compared with a calculated Pisarenko relation, where thermopower is plotted as a function of hole concentration. Financial support for this investigation was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC-CVC) under the award No. DE-PI0000012.

  20. Effect of N2 flow during deposition on p-type ZnO film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chiung-Wei; Liu, Bor-Chang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the influence of a nitrogen source on p-type conductive ZnO films was studied. Rapid thermal oxidation was conducted to oxidize ZnN films and convert them to ZnO films. When an as-deposited ZnN film was prepared at a high nitrogen gas flow rate, the converted ZnO film possessed many acceptors and showed stable p-type conduction. This p-type conduction was attributed to the nitrogen gas flow providing many “No” states, which act as acceptors within the processed ZnO film. It was found that the as-deposited ZnN film prepared at a high nitrogen gas flow rate is oxidized slightly so that only a few nitrogen atoms were replaced by oxygen. The carrier concentration and mobility of the optimized oxidized ZnN film were 9.76 × 1017 cm-3 and 62.78 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. A good rectified current-voltage characteristic with a turn-on voltage of 3.65 V was achieved for the optimized ZnO:N/ZnO junction.

  1. Biosynthesis of the Tonoplast H+-ATPase from Oats 1

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Stephen K.; Sze, Heven

    1989-01-01

    To determine whether the tonoplast-type H+-ATPase was differentially synthesized in various parts of the oat seedling, sections of 4-day-old oat (Avena sativa L. var Lang) seedlings were labeled in vivo with [35S]methionine and ATPase subunits were precipitated with polyclonal antisera. ATPase subunits were detected in all portions of the seedling with the exception of the seed. Lesser amounts of the 60 and 72 kilodalton polypeptides of the ATPase were found in apical regions (0-5 millimeter) than in maturing regions (10-15, or 20-25 millimeter from the tip) of the roots or shoots. To initiate a study of the biosynthesis of the ATPase, the intracellular site of synthesis for two peripheral ATPase subunits was investigated. Poly(A) RNA from either free or membrane-bound polysomes was isolated and translated in vitro. Message encoding the 72 kilodalton (catalytic) subunit was found predominantly in mRNA isolated from membrane-bound polysomes. In contrast, the message for the 60 kilodalton (putative regulatory) subunit was found predominantly on free polysomes. Polypeptides synthesized in vivo or obtained from RNA translated in vitro exhibited no apparent size differences (limit of resolution, approximately 1 kilodalton), suggesting the absence of cleaved precursors for the 72 or 60 kilodalton subunits. These data suggest a complex mechanism for the synthesis and assembly of the tonoplast ATPase. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16666699

  2. ATPase pumps in osteoclasts and osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Francis, Martin J O; Lees, Rita L; Trujillo, Elisa; Martín-Vasallo, Pablo; Heersche, Johan N M; Mobasheri, Ali

    2002-05-01

    Osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts are specialised cells of bone that play crucial roles in the formation, maintenance and resorption of bone matrix. Bone formation and resorption critically depend on optimal intracellular calcium and phosphate homeostasis and on the expression and activity of plasma membrane transport systems in all three cell types. Osteotropic agents, mechanical stimulation and intracellular pH are important parameters that determine the fate of bone matrix and influence the activity, expression, regulation and cell surface abundance of plasma membrane transport systems. In this paper the role of ATPase pumps is reviewed in the context of their expression in bone cells, their contribution to ion homeostasis and their relation to other transport systems regulating bone turnover.

  3. Der p 5 Crystal Structure Provides Insight into the Group 5 Dust Mite Allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, G.; Gosavi, R; Krahn, J; Edwards, L; Cuneo, M; Glesner, J; Pomes, A; Chapman, M; London, R; Pedersen, L

    2010-01-01

    Group 5 allergens from house dust mites elicit strong IgE antibody binding in mite-allergic patients. The structure of Der p 5 was determined by x-ray crystallography to better understand the IgE epitopes, to investigate the biologic function in mites, and to compare with the conflicting published Blo t 5 structures, designated 2JMH and 2JRK in the Protein Data Bank. Der p 5 is a three-helical bundle similar to Blo t 5, but the interactions of the helices are more similar to 2JMH than 2JRK. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains three dimers of Der p 5 that are not exactly alike. Solution scattering techniques were used to assess the multimeric state of Der p 5 in vitro and showed that the predominant state was monomeric, similar to Blo t 5, but larger multimeric species are also present. In the crystal, the formation of the Der p 5 dimer creates a large hydrophobic cavity of {approx}3000 {angstrom}{sup 3} that could be a ligand-binding site. Many allergens are known to bind hydrophobic ligands, which are thought to stimulate the innate immune system and have adjuvant-like effects on IgE-mediated inflammatory responses.

  4. The C terminus of the polerovirus p5 readthrough domain limits virus infection to the phloem.

    PubMed

    Peter, Kari A; Gildow, Frederick; Palukaitis, Peter; Gray, Stewart M

    2009-06-01

    Poleroviruses are restricted to vascular phloem tissues from which they are transmitted by their aphid vectors and are not transmissible mechanically. Phloem limitation has been attributed to the absence of virus proteins either facilitating movement or counteracting plant defense. The polerovirus capsid is composed of two forms of coat protein, the major P3 protein and the minor P3/P5 protein, a translational readthrough of P3. P3/P5 is required for insect transmission and acts in trans to facilitate long-distance virus movement in phloem tissue. Specific potato leafroll virus mutants lacking part or all of the P5 domain moved into and infected nonvascular mesophyll tissue when the source-sink relationship of the plant (Solanum sarrachoides) was altered by pruning, with the progeny virus now being transmissible mechanically. However, in a period of months, a phloem-specific distribution of the virus was reestablished in the absence of aphid transmission. Virus from the new phloem-limited infection showed compensatory mutations that would be expected to restore the production of full-length P3/P5 as well as the loss of mechanical transmissibility. The data support our hypothesis that phloem limitation in poleroviruses presumably does not result from a deficiency in the repertoire of virus genes but rather results from P3/P5 accumulation under selection in the infected plant, with the colateral effect of facilitating transmission by phloem-feeding aphid vectors.

  5. Calcium Modulation of Plant Plasma Membrane-Bound Atpase Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, C.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic properties of barley enzyme are discussed and compared with those of other plants. Possibilities for calcium transport in the plasma membrane by proton pump and ATPase-dependent calcium pumps are explored. Topics covered include the ph phase of the enzyme; high affinity of barley for calcium; temperature dependence, activation enthalpy, and the types of ATPase catalytic sites. Attention is given to lipids which are both screened and bound by calcium. Studies show that barley has a calmodulin activated ATPase that is found in the presence of magnesium and calcium.

  6. Determining the Nature and Origin of Mass Loss from Active Asteroid P/2013 P5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewitt, David

    2014-10-01

    We propose a program of WFC3 images of active asteroid P/2013 P5 in order to determine the nature and origin of mass loss from this object. P5 ejects dust episodically, creating a multi-tailed appearance unlike that of any other known asteroid or comet. The ejection is thought to result from surface rotational instabilities (a process called "mass-shedding" by modelers). We will test the role of rotation by measuring the lightcurve of the nucleus and we will study the evolution of continued mass loss through Cycle 22. Rotational breakup and rotational mass-shedding are suspected to be the main mechanisms of destruction for sub-kilometer asteroids. Neither has been observed before but, between P/2013 P5 and P/2013 R3 (subject of another proposal) we have the first, potentially ground-breaking opportunities to observe both.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis of Ni(12)P(5) hollow microspheres, characterization and photocatalytic degradation property.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Ni, Yonghong; Liao, Kaiming; Hong, Jianming

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we report the successful synthesis of Ni(12)P(5) hollow spheres via a facile hydrothermal route, employing white phosphorus (WP) and nickel nitrate as the reactants in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and polyethylene glycol 10000 (PEG-10000). The phase and morphology of the product were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). HMT and surfactant (PEG-10000) played important roles in the formation of Ni(12)P(5) hollow microspheres. Furthermore, research also showed that the as-prepared Ni(12)P(5) hollow spheres could photocatalytically degrade some organic dyes such as Safranine T and Pyronine B under irradiation of 365 nm UV light.

  8. C-peptide, Na+,K+-ATPase, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Coste, T. C.; Jannot, M. F.; Raccah, D.; Tsimaratos, M.

    2004-01-01

    Na+,K+-ATPase is an ubiquitous membrane enzyme that allows the extrusion of three sodium ions from the cell and two potassium ions from the extracellular fluid. Its activity is decreased in many tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals. This impairment could be at least partly responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Na+,K+-ATPase activity is decreased in the red blood cell membranes of type 1 diabetic individuals, irrespective of the degree of diabetic control. It is less impaired or even normal in those of type 2 diabetic patients. The authors have shown that in the red blood cells of type 2 diabetic patients, Na+,K+-ATPase activity was strongly related to blood C-peptide levels in non–insulin-treated patients (in whom C-peptide concentration reflects that of insulin) as well as in insulin-treated patients. Furthermore, a gene-environment relationship has been observed. The alpha-1 isoform of the enzyme predominant in red blood cells and nerve tissue is encoded by the ATP1A1 gene.Apolymorphism in the intron 1 of this gene is associated with lower enzyme activity in patients with C-peptide deficiency either with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but not in normal individuals. There are several lines of evidence for a low C-peptide level being responsible for low Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the red blood cells. Short-term C-peptide infusion to type 1 diabetic patients restores normal Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Islet transplantation, which restores endogenous C-peptide secretion, enhances Na+,K+-ATPase activity proportionally to the rise in C-peptide. This C-peptide effect is not indirect. In fact, incubation of diabetic red blood cells with C-peptide at physiological concentration leads to an increase of Na+,K+-ATPase activity. In isolated proximal tubules of rats or in the medullary thick ascending limb of the kidney, C-peptide stimulates in a dose-dependent manner Na+,K+-ATPase activity. This impairment in Na+,K+-ATPase activity, mainly

  9. Modulation and Functional Role of the Orientations of the N- and P-Domains of Cu+ -Transporting ATPase along the Ion Transport Cycle.

    PubMed

    Meng, Dan; Bruschweiler-Li, Lei; Zhang, Fengli; Brüschweiler, Rafael

    2015-08-18

    Ion transport of different P-type ATPases is regulated similarly through the interplay of multiple protein domains. In the presence of ATP, binding of a cation to the ion binding site in the transmembrane helices leads to the phosphorylation of the P-domain, allowing ion transfer across the membrane. The details of the mechanism, however, are not clear. Here, we report the modulation of the orientation between the N- and P-domains of Cu(+)-transporting ATPase along the ion transport cycle using high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in solution. On the basis of residual dipolar coupling measurements, it is found that the interdomain orientation (relative openness) of the N- and P-domains is distinctly modulated depending on the specific state of the N- and P-domains along the ion translocation cycle. The two domains' relative position in the apo state is semiopen, whereas it becomes closed upon binding of ATP to the N-domain. After phosphorylation of the P-domain and the release of ADP, the opening, however, becomes the widest among all the states. We reason such wide opening resulting from the departure of ADP prepares the N- and P-domains to accommodate the A-domain for interaction and, hence, promote ion transport and allow dephosphorylation of the P-domain. Such wide interdomain opening is abolished when an Asn to Asp mutation is introduced into the conserved DXXK motif located in the hinge region of the N- and P-domains of Cu(+)-ATPase, suggesting the indispensible role of the N- and P-interdomain orientation during ion transportation. Our results shed new light on the structural and mechanistic details of P-type ATPase function at large.

  10. Quasi-perpetual discharge behaviour in p-type Ge-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Ocon, Joey D; Kim, Jin Won; Abrenica, Graniel Harne A; Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2014-11-07

    Metal-air batteries continue to become attractive energy storage and conversion systems due to their high energy and power densities, safer chemistries, and economic viability. Semiconductor-air batteries - a term we first define here as metal-air batteries that use semiconductor anodes such as silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) - have been introduced in recent years as new high-energy battery chemistries. In this paper, we describe the excellent doping-dependent discharge kinetics of p-type Ge anodes in a semiconductor-air cell employing a gelled KOH electrolyte. Owing to its Fermi level, n-type Ge is expected to have lower redox potential and better electronic conductivity, which could potentially lead to a higher operating voltage and better discharge kinetics. Nonetheless, discharge measurements demonstrated that this prediction is only valid at the low current regime and breaks down at the high current density region. The p-type Ge behaves extremely better at elevated currents, evident from the higher voltage, more power available, and larger practical energy density from a very long discharge time, possibly arising from the high overpotential for surface passivation. A primary semiconductor-air battery, powered by a flat p-type Ge as a multi-electron anode, exhibited an unprecedented full discharge capacity of 1302.5 mA h gGe(-1) (88% anode utilization efficiency), the highest among semiconductor-air cells, notably better than new metal-air cells with three-dimensional and nanostructured anodes, and at least two folds higher than commercial Zn-air and Al-air cells. We therefore suggest that this study be extended to doped-Si anodes, in order to pave the way for a deeper understanding on the discharge phenomena in alkaline metal-air conversion cells with semiconductor anodes for specific niche applications in the future.

  11. Semiconducting p-type MgNiO:Li epitaxial films fabricated by cosputtering method

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Yong Hun; Chun, Sung Hyun; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2013-07-15

    Li-doped ternary Mg{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x}O thin films were deposited on (0001) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates by a radio frequency (RF) magnetron cosputtering method with MgO and NiO:Li targets. The Mg mole fraction and Li content were relatively controlled by changing RF power for the MgO target over a range of 0-300 W, while the NiO:Li target was kept at 150 W. As a result, all films were epitaxially grown on (0001) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates with the relationship of [110]{sub NiO}||[1110]{sub Al2O3}, [112]{sub NiO}||[2110]{sub Al2O3} (in-plane), and [111]{sub NiO}||[0001]{sub Al2O3} (out-of-plane), and showed p-type semiconducting properties. Furthermore, from x-ray diffraction patterns, the authors found that MgO was effectively mixed with NiO:Li without structural deformation due to low lattice mismatch (0.8%) between NiO and MgO. However, the excess Li contents degraded the crystallinity of the MgNiO films. The band-gap of films was continuously shifted from 3.66 eV (339 nm) to 4.15 eV (299 nm) by the RF power of the MgO target. A visible transmittance of more than 80% was exhibited at RF powers higher than 200 W. Ultimately, the electrical resistivity of p-type MgNiO films was improved from 7.5 to 673.5 {Omega}cm, indicating that the Li-doped MgNiO films are good candidates for transparent p-type semiconductors.

  12. Advances in targeting the vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) for anti-fungal therapy.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Summer R; Lee, Samuel A; Parra, Karlett J

    2014-01-01

    Vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) is a membrane-bound, multi-subunit enzyme that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump protons across membranes. V-ATPase activity is critical for pH homeostasis and organelle acidification as well as for generation of the membrane potential that drives secondary transporters and cellular metabolism. V-ATPase is highly conserved across species and is best characterized in the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, recent studies in mammals have identified significant alterations from fungi, particularly in the isoform composition of the 14 subunits and in the regulation of complex disassembly. These differences could be exploited for selectivity between fungi and humans and highlight the potential for V-ATPase as an anti-fungal drug target. Candida albicans is a major human fungal pathogen and causes fatality in 35% of systemic infections, even with anti-fungal treatment. The pathogenicity of C. albicans correlates with environmental, vacuolar, and cytoplasmic pH regulation, and V-ATPase appears to play a fundamental role in each of these processes. Genetic loss of V-ATPase in pathogenic fungi leads to defective virulence, and a comprehensive picture of the mechanisms involved is emerging. Recent studies have explored the practical utility of V-ATPase as an anti-fungal drug target in C. albicans, including pharmacological inhibition, azole therapy, and targeting of downstream pathways. This overview will discuss these studies as well as hypothetical ways to target V-ATPase and novel high-throughput methods for use in future drug discovery screens.

  13. Advances in targeting the vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) for anti-fungal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hayek, Summer R.; Lee, Samuel A.; Parra, Karlett J.

    2014-01-01

    Vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) is a membrane-bound, multi-subunit enzyme that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump protons across membranes. V-ATPase activity is critical for pH homeostasis and organelle acidification as well as for generation of the membrane potential that drives secondary transporters and cellular metabolism. V-ATPase is highly conserved across species and is best characterized in the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, recent studies in mammals have identified significant alterations from fungi, particularly in the isoform composition of the 14 subunits and in the regulation of complex disassembly. These differences could be exploited for selectivity between fungi and humans and highlight the potential for V-ATPase as an anti-fungal drug target. Candida albicans is a major human fungal pathogen and causes fatality in 35% of systemic infections, even with anti-fungal treatment. The pathogenicity of C. albicans correlates with environmental, vacuolar, and cytoplasmic pH regulation, and V-ATPase appears to play a fundamental role in each of these processes. Genetic loss of V-ATPase in pathogenic fungi leads to defective virulence, and a comprehensive picture of the mechanisms involved is emerging. Recent studies have explored the practical utility of V-ATPase as an anti-fungal drug target in C. albicans, including pharmacological inhibition, azole therapy, and targeting of downstream pathways. This overview will discuss these studies as well as hypothetical ways to target V-ATPase and novel high-throughput methods for use in future drug discovery screens. PMID:24478704

  14. Conserved V-ATPase c subunit plays a role in plant growth by influencing V-ATPase-dependent endosomal trafficking.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aimin; Bu, Yuanyuan; Takano, Tetsuo; Zhang, Xinxin; Liu, Shenkui

    2016-01-01

    In plant cells, the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPase) are localized in the tonoplast, Golgi, trans-Golgi network and endosome. However, little is known about how V-ATPase influences plant growth, particularly with regard to the V-ATPase c subunit (VHA-c). Here, we characterized the function of a VHA-c gene from Puccinellia tenuiflora (PutVHA-c) in plant growth. Compared to the wild-type, transgenic plants overexpressing PutVHA-c in Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit better growth phenotypes in root length, fresh weight, plant height and silique number under the normal and salt stress conditions due to noticeably higher V-ATPase activity. Consistently, the Arabidopsis atvha-c5 mutant shows reduced V-ATPase activity and retarded plant growth. Furthermore, confocal and immunogold electron microscopy assays demonstrate that PutVHA-c is mainly localized to endosomal compartments. The treatment of concanamycin A (ConcA), a specific inhibitor of V-ATPases, leads to obvious aggregation of the endosomal compartments labelled with PutVHA-c-GFP. Moreover, ConcA treatment results in the abnormal localization of two plasma membrane (PM) marker proteins Pinformed 1 (AtPIN1) and regulator of G protein signalling-1 (AtRGS1). These findings suggest that the decrease in V-ATPase activity blocks endosomal trafficking. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the PutVHA-c plays an important role in plant growth by influencing V-ATPase-dependent endosomal trafficking.

  15. Equine arteritis virus gP5 protein induces apoptosis in cultured insect cells.

    PubMed

    Metz, Germán Ernesto; Serena, María Soledad; Abeyá, María Mercedes; Dulbecco, Andrea Belén; Massone, Adriana; Díaz, Silvina; Echeverría, María Gabriela

    2014-04-01

    Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV) has been shown to induce apoptosis in vitro but the induction of this mechanism has not been previously associated with any viral gene product. In this work, we found a cytotoxicity effect of the EAV gP5 protein on baculovirus-insect cells and a low yield of protein recovery. Besides, different morphological features by electron transmission microscopy, DNA fragmentation in agarose gel, TUNEL analysis and caspase 3 activity were found. All these findings indicate that the EAV gP5 protein induces apoptosis in insect cells.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Transit of HAT-P-5 (Southworth+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, J.; Mancini, L.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Bruni, I.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Barbieri, M.; Ruocco, N.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    We observed one full transit of HAT-P-5 on the night of 2010 August 23, using the 2.2-m telescope and BUSCA imager at Calar Alto Astronomical Observatory. BUSCA uses dichroics to split the incoming light into four wavelength intervals, which traverse different arms of the instrument and are incident on to four CCDs. We observed two transits of HAT-P-5 in 2011 May and July, using BFOSC mounted on the 1.52-m G.D. Cassini Telescope at Loiano Observatory, Italy. (2 data files).

  17. Does p-type ohmic contact exist in WSe2-metal interfaces?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yangyang; Yang, Ruo Xi; Quhe, Ruge; Zhong, Hongxia; Cong, Linxiao; Ye, Meng; Ni, Zeyuan; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Jinbo; Shi, Junjie; Li, Ju; Lu, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Formation of low-resistance metal contacts is the biggest challenge that masks the intrinsic exceptional electronic properties of two dimensional WSe2 devices. We present the first comparative study of the interfacial properties between monolayer/bilayer (ML/BL) WSe2 and Sc, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt contacts by using ab initio energy band calculations with inclusion of the spin-orbital coupling (SOC) effects and quantum transport simulations. The interlayer coupling tends to reduce both the electron and hole Schottky barrier heights (SBHs) and alters the polarity for the WSe2-Au contact, while the SOC chiefly reduces the hole SBH. In the absence of the SOC, the Pd contact has the smallest hole SBH. Dramatically, the Pt contact surpasses the Pd contact and becomes the p-type ohmic or quasi-ohmic contact with inclusion of the SOC. Therefore, p-type ohmic or quasi-ohmic contact exists in WSe2-metal interfaces. Our study provides a theoretical foundation for the selection of favorable metal electrodes in ML/BL WSe2 devices.Formation of low-resistance metal contacts is the biggest challenge that masks the intrinsic exceptional electronic properties of two dimensional WSe2 devices. We present the first comparative study of the interfacial properties between monolayer/bilayer (ML/BL) WSe2 and Sc, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt contacts by using ab initio energy band calculations with inclusion of the spin-orbital coupling (SOC) effects and quantum transport simulations. The interlayer coupling tends to reduce both the electron and hole Schottky barrier heights (SBHs) and alters the polarity for the WSe2-Au contact, while the SOC chiefly reduces the hole SBH. In the absence of the SOC, the Pd contact has the smallest hole SBH. Dramatically, the Pt contact surpasses the Pd contact and becomes the p-type ohmic or quasi-ohmic contact with inclusion of the SOC. Therefore, p-type ohmic or quasi-ohmic contact exists in WSe2-metal interfaces. Our study provides a theoretical foundation for

  18. Direct Measurement of Electron Beam Induced Currents in p-type Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Han, M.G.; Zhu, Y.; Sasaki, K.; Kato, T.; Fisher, C.A.J.; Hirayama, T.

    2010-08-01

    A new method for measuring electron beam induced currents (EBICs) in p-type silicon using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) with a high-precision tungsten probe is presented. Current-voltage (I-V) curves obtained under various electron-beam illumination conditions are found to depend strongly on the current density of the incoming electron beam and the relative distance of the beam from the point of probe contact, consistent with a buildup of excess electrons around the contact. This setup provides a new experimental approach for studying minority carrier transport in semiconductors on the nanometer scale.

  19. Infrared analysis of hole properties of Mg-doped p-type InN films

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Masayuki; Ishitani, Yoshihiro; Wang Xinqiang; Che, Song-Bek; Yoshikawa, Akihiko

    2008-12-08

    Mg-doped InN films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were characterized by infrared reflectance. Signatures of p-type conductivity in the spectra were obtained in the same doping density range where the existence of net acceptors was found by electrolyte capacitance-voltage measurements. Numerical spectrum analysis, which takes into account the large broadening factor of the normal mode energies of longitudinal optical phonon-plasmon coupling yielded high hole densities in the range of (0.1-1.2)x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} and optical mobilities in the range of 25-70 cm{sup 2}/V s.

  20. Elastic constants determined by nanoindentation for p-type thermoelectric half-Heusler

    SciTech Connect

    Gahlawat, S.; Wheeler, L.; White, K. W. E-mail: kwwhite@uh.edu; He, R.; Chen, S.; Ren, Z. F. E-mail: kwwhite@uh.edu

    2014-08-28

    This paper presents a study of the elastic properties of the p-type thermoelectric half-Heusler material, Hf{sub 0.44}Zr{sub 0.44}Ti{sub 0.12}CoSb{sub 0.8}Sn{sub 0.2}, using nanoindentation. Large grain-sized polycrystalline specimens were fabricated for these measurements, providing sufficient indentation targets within single grains. Electron Backscatter Diffraction methods indexed the target grains for the correlation needed for our elastic analysis of individual single crystals for this cubic thermoelectric material. Elastic properties, including the Zener ratio and the Poisson ratio, obtained from the elasticity tensor are also reported.

  1. n/p-Type changeable semiconductor TiO2 prepared from NTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiuye; Wang, Xiaodong; Jin, Zhensheng; Yang, Dagang; Zhang, Shunli; Guo, Xinyong; Yang, Jianjun; Zhang, Zhijun

    2007-10-01

    A novel kind of nano-sized TiO2 (anatase) was obtained by high-temperature (400-700°C) dehydration of nanotube titanic acid (H2Ti2O4(OH)2, NTA). The high-temperature (400-700°C) dehydrated nanotube titanic acids (HD-NTAs) with a unique defect structure exhibited a p-type semiconductor behavior under visible-light irradiation (λ≥420 nm, E photon=2.95 eV), whereas exhibited an n-type semiconductor behavior irradiated with UV light (λ=365 nm, E photon=3.40 eV).

  2. Spin-pump-induced spin transport in p-type Si at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Shikoh, Eiji; Ando, Kazuya; Kubo, Kazuki; Saitoh, Eiji; Shinjo, Teruya; Shiraishi, Masashi

    2013-03-22

    A spin battery concept is applied for the dynamical generation of pure spin current and spin transport in p-type silicon (p-Si). Ferromagnetic resonance and effective s-d coupling in Ni(80)Fe(20) results in spin accumulation at the Ni(80)Fe(20)/p-Si interface, inducing spin injection and the generation of spin current in the p-Si. The pure spin current is converted to a charge current by the inverse spin Hall effect of Pd evaporated onto the p-Si. This approach demonstrates the generation and transport of pure spin current in p-Si at room temperature.

  3. Spin-Pump-Induced Spin Transport in p-Type Si at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikoh, Eiji; Ando, Kazuya; Kubo, Kazuki; Saitoh, Eiji; Shinjo, Teruya; Shiraishi, Masashi

    2013-03-01

    A spin battery concept is applied for the dynamical generation of pure spin current and spin transport in p-type silicon (p-Si). Ferromagnetic resonance and effective s-d coupling in Ni80Fe20 results in spin accumulation at the Ni80Fe20/p-Si interface, inducing spin injection and the generation of spin current in the p-Si. The pure spin current is converted to a charge current by the inverse spin Hall effect of Pd evaporated onto the p-Si. This approach demonstrates the generation and transport of pure spin current in p-Si at room temperature.

  4. Above bandgap luminescence of p-type GaAs epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapriel, J.; Chavignon, J.; Alexandre, F.; Azoulay, R.; Sermage, B.; Rao, K.; Voos, M.

    1991-08-01

    New photoluminescence bands are observed in p-type GaAs epitaxial layers at 300 and 80 K, above the bandgap. These bands are independent of the nature of the dopant (Zn, Be, C) and of the growth technique (MBE or MOCVD). Their intensities increase as a function of the p doping (1 × 10 17 < p < 2 × 10 20cm-3) and peak at energies which correspond to transitions between the Γ 6, L 6 and X 6 minima of the conduction band and the Γ 8 and Γ 7 maxima of the valence band.

  5. Method of mitigating titanium impurities effects in p-type silicon material for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, A. M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Microstructural evaluation tests performed on Cu-doped, Ti-doped and Cu/Ti doped p-type silicon single crystal wafers, before and after the solar cell fabrication, and evaluation of both dark forward and reverse I-V characteristic records for the solar cells produced from the corresponding silicon wafers, show that Cu mitigates the unfavorable effects of Ti, and thus provides for higher conversion efficiency, thereby providing an economical way to reduce the deleterious effects of titanium, one of the impurities present in metallurgical grade silicon material.

  6. Cohesin Releases DNA through Asymmetric ATPase-Driven Ring Opening

    PubMed Central

    Elbatsh, Ahmed M.O.; Haarhuis, Judith H.I.; Petela, Naomi; Chapard, Christophe; Fish, Alexander; Celie, Patrick H.; Stadnik, Magda; Ristic, Dejan; Wyman, Claire; Medema, René H.; Nasmyth, Kim; Rowland, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cohesin stably holds together the sister chromatids from S phase until mitosis. To do so, cohesin must be protected against its cellular antagonist Wapl. Eco1 acetylates cohesin’s Smc3 subunit, which locks together the sister DNAs. We used yeast genetics to dissect how Wapl drives cohesin from chromatin and identified mutants of cohesin that are impaired in ATPase activity but remarkably confer robust cohesion that bypasses the need for the cohesin protectors Eco1 in yeast and Sororin in human cells. We uncover a functional asymmetry within the heart of cohesin’s highly conserved ABC-like ATPase machinery and find that both ATPase sites contribute to DNA loading, whereas DNA release is controlled specifically by one site. We propose that Smc3 acetylation locks cohesin rings around the sister chromatids by counteracting an activity associated with one of cohesin’s two ATPase sites. PMID:26895426

  7. p-Type semiconducting nickel oxide as an efficiency-enhancing anodal interfacial layer in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Irwin, Michael D; Buchholz, Donald B; Marks, Tobin J; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2014-11-25

    The present invention, in one aspect, relates to a solar cell. In one embodiment, the solar cell includes an anode, a p-type semiconductor layer formed on the anode, and an active organic layer formed on the p-type semiconductor layer, where the active organic layer has an electron-donating organic material and an electron-accepting organic material.

  8. In search of synaptosomal Na+,K(+)-ATPase regulators.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz, G

    1992-01-01

    The arrival of the nerve impulse to the nerve endings leads to a series of events involving the entry of sodium and the exit of potassium. Restoration of ionic equilibria of sodium and potassium through the membrane is carried out by the sodium/potassium pump, that is the enzyme Na+,K(+)-ATPase. This is a particle-bound enzyme that concentrates in the nerve ending or synaptosomal membranes. The activity of Na+,K(+)-ATPase is essential for the maintenance of numerous reactions, as demonstrated in the isolated synaptosomes. This lends interest to the knowledge of the possible regulatory mechanisms of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in the synaptic region. The aim of this review is to summarize the results obtained in the author's laboratory, that refer to the effect of neurotransmitters and endogenous substances on Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. Mention is also made of results in the field obtained in other laboratories. Evidence showing that brain Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity may be modified by certain neurotransmitters and insulin have been presented. The type of change produced by noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin on synaptosomal membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase was found to depend on the presence or absence of a soluble brain fraction. The soluble brain fraction itself was able to stimulate or inhibit the enzyme, an effect that was dependent in turn on the time elapsed between preparation and use of the fraction. The filtration of soluble brain fraction through Sephadex G-50 allowed the separation of two active subfractions: peaks I and II. Peak I increased Na+,K(+)- and Mg(2+)-ATPases, and peak II inhibited Na+,K(+)-ATPase. Other membrane enzymes such as acetylcholinesterase and 5'-nucleotidase were unchanged by peaks I or II. In normotensive anesthetized rats, water and sodium excretion were not modified by peak I but were increased by peak II, thus resembling ouabain effects. 3H-ouabain binding was unchanged by peak I but decreased by peak II in some areas of the CNS assayed by

  9. p-Type Doping of GaN Nanowires Characterized by Photoelectrochemical Measurements.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Jumpei; Bogdanoff, Peter; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Corfdir, Pierre; Feix, Felix; Geelhaar, Lutz; Riechert, Henning

    2017-03-08

    GaN nanowires (NWs) doped with Mg as a p-type impurity were grown on Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. In a systematic series of experiments, the amount of Mg supplied during NW growth was varied. The incorporation of Mg into the NWs was confirmed by the observation of donor-acceptor pairs and acceptor-bound excitons in low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. Quantitative information about the Mg concentrations was deduced from Raman scattering by local vibrational modes related to Mg. In order to study the type and density of charge carriers present in the NWs, we employed two photoelectrochemical techniques, open-circuit potential and Mott-Schottky measurements. Both methods showed the expected transition from n-type to p-type conductivity with increasing Mg doping level, and the latter characterization technique allowed us to quantify the charge carrier concentration. Beyond the quantitative information obtained for Mg doping of GaN NWs, our systematic and comprehensive investigation demonstrates the benefit of photoelectrochemical methods for the analysis of doping in semiconductor NWs in general.

  10. Perovskite LaRhO3 as a p-type active layer in oxide photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masao; Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Fujioka, Jun; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2015-02-01

    Perovskite-type transition-metal oxides have a wide variety of physical properties and triggered intensive research on functional devices in the form of heteroepitaxial junctions. However, there is a missing component that is a p-type conventional band semiconductor. LaRhO3 (LRO) is one of very few promising candidates having its bandgap between filled t2g and empty eg of Rh in low-spin state, but there has been no report on the synthesis of large-size single crystals or thin films. Here, we report on the junction properties of single-crystalline thin films of LRO grown on (110) oriented Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrates. The external quantum efficiency of the photo-electron conversion exceeds 1% in the visible-light region due to the wide depletion layer and long diffusion length of minority carriers in LRO. Clear indication of p-type band semiconducting character in a perovskite oxide of LRO will pave a way to explore oxide electronics of perovskite heterostructures.

  11. Fullerene C{sub 70} as a p-type donor in organic photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Taojun; Wang, Xiao-Feng E-mail: zrhong@ucla.edu Sano, Takeshi; Kido, Junji E-mail: zrhong@ucla.edu; Hong, Ziruo E-mail: zrhong@ucla.edu; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang

    2014-09-01

    Fullerenes and their derivatives have been widely used as n-type materials in organic transistor and photovoltaic devices. Though it is believed that they shall be ambipolar in nature, there have been few direct experimental proofs for that. In this work, fullerene C{sub 70}, known as an efficient acceptor, has been employed as a p-type electron donor in conjunction with 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile as an electron acceptor in planar-heterojunction (PHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. High fill factors (FFs) of more than 0.70 were reliably achieved with the C{sub 70} layer even up to 100 nm thick in PHJ cells, suggesting the superior potential of fullerene C{sub 70} as the p-type donor in comparison to other conventional donor materials. The optimal efficiency of these unconventional PHJ cells was 2.83% with a short-circuit current of 5.33 mA/cm{sup 2}, an open circuit voltage of 0.72 V, and a FF of 0.74. The results in this work unveil the potential of fullerene materials as donors in OPV devices, and provide alternative approaches towards future OPV applications.

  12. Easily doped p-type, low hole effective mass, transparent oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmadian, Nasrin; Saniz, Rolando; Partoens, Bart; Lamoen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Fulfillment of the promise of transparent electronics has been hindered until now largely by the lack of semiconductors that can be doped p-type in a stable way, and that at the same time present high hole mobility and are highly transparent in the visible spectrum. Here, a high-throughput study based on first-principles methods reveals four oxides, namely X2SeO2, with X = La, Pr, Nd, and Gd, which are unique in that they exhibit excellent characteristics for transparent electronic device applications – i.e., a direct band gap larger than 3.1 eV, an average hole effective mass below the electron rest mass, and good p-type dopability. Furthermore, for La2SeO2 it is explicitly shown that Na impurities substituting La are shallow acceptors in moderate to strong anion-rich growth conditions, with low formation energy, and that they will not be compensated by anion vacancies VO or VSe.

  13. Reduced thermal conductivity due to scattering centers in p-type SiGe alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaty, John S.; Rolfe, Jonathon L.; Vandersande, Jan; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre

    1992-01-01

    Spark erosion was used to produce ultra-fine particles of SiGe thermoelectric material and boron nitride, an inert phonon-scattering material. A homogeneous powder was made by mixing the two powders. The mixture was hot pressed to produce a thermoelectric material with uniformity dispersed, ultra-fine, inert, phonon-scattering centers. It is shown that, in samples with inert boron nitride or silicon nitride, thermal conductivity of a SiGe alloy can be reduced by about 25 percent while maintaining the electrical properties of the samples. Annealing of all the samples at 1525 K caused grain growth to over a micron, eliminating the detrimental effect attributable to small grains. Only in the sample with boron nitride the thermal conductivity did remain well below that for standard p-type SiGe (about 25 percent), while the electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient were very close to the values for standard p-type 80/20 SiGe.

  14. Imperceptible and Ultraflexible p-Type Transistors and Macroelectronics Based on Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Chongwu

    2016-01-26

    Flexible thin-film transistors based on semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes are promising for flexible digital circuits, artificial skins, radio frequency devices, active-matrix-based displays, and sensors due to the outstanding electrical properties and intrinsic mechanical strength of carbon nanotubes. Nevertheless, previous research effort only led to nanotube thin-film transistors with the smallest bending radius down to 1 mm. In this paper, we have realized the full potential of carbon nanotubes by making ultraflexible and imperceptible p-type transistors and circuits with a bending radius down to 40 μm. In addition, the resulted transistors show mobility up to 12.04 cm(2) V(-1) S(-1), high on-off ratio (∼10(6)), ultralight weight (<3 g/m(2)), and good mechanical robustness (accommodating severe crumpling and 67% compressive strain). Furthermore, the nanotube circuits can operate properly with 33% compressive strain. On the basis of the aforementioned features, our ultraflexible p-type nanotube transistors and circuits have great potential to work as indispensable components for ultraflexible complementary electronics.

  15. EEG/MEG forward simulation through h- and p-type finite elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pursiainen, S.

    2008-07-01

    Electro/Magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG) is a non-invasive imaging modality, in which a primary current density generated by the neural activity in the brain is to be reconstructed from external electric potential/magnetic field measurements. This work focuses on effective and accurate simulation of the EEG/MEG forward model through the h- and p-versions of the finite element method (h- and p-FEM). The goal is to compare the effectiveness of these two versions in forward simulation. Both h- and p-type forward simulations are described and implemented, and the technical solutions found are discussed. These include, for example, suitable ways to generate a finite element mesh for a real head geometry through the use of different element types. Performances of the two implemented forward simulation types are compared by measuring directly the forward modeling error, as well as by computing reconstructions through a regularized FOCUSS (FOCal Underdetermined System Solver) algorithm. The results obtained suggest that the p-type performs better in terms of the forward modeling error. However, both types perform well in regularized FOCUSS reconstruction.

  16. Valence Band Structure of Highly Efficient p-type Thermoelectric PbTe-PbS Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworski, C. M.; Nielsen, Mechele; Wang, Hsin; Girard, Steven N.; Cai, Wei; Porter, Wallace D; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Heremans, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    New experimental evidence is given relevant to the temperature-dependence of valence band structure of PbTe and PbTe1-xSx alloys (0.04 x 0.12), and its effect on the thermoelectric figure of merit zT. The x = 0.08 sample has zT ~ 1.55 at 773K. The magnetic field dependence of the high-temperature Hall resistivity of heavily p-type (> 1019 cm-3) Na-doped PbTe1-xSx reveals the presence of high-mobility electrons. This put in question prior analyses of the Hall coefficient and the conclusion that PbTe would be an indirect gap semiconductor at temperatures where its zT is optimal. Possible origins for these electrons are discussed: they can be induced by photoconductivity, or by the topology of the Fermi surface when the L and -bands merge. Negative values for the low-temperature thermopower are also observed. Our data show that PbTe continues to be a direct gap semiconductor at temperatures where the zT and S2 of p-type PbTe are optimal e.g. 700-900K. The previously suggested temperature induced rapid rise in energy of the heavy hole LVB relative to the light hole UVB is not supported by the experimental data.

  17. Characterization of irradiated detectors fabricated on p-type silicon substrates for super-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñano, M.; Campabadal, F.; Escobar, C.; García, C.; González, S.; Lacasta, C.; Lozano, M.; Martí i García, S.; Pellegrini, G.; Rafí, J. M.; Ullán, M.

    2007-12-01

    An upgrade of the large hadron collider (LHC), the Super-LHC (SLHC), towards higher luminosities is currently being discussed as an extension of the LHC physics program. The goal of the SLHC is to operate at a luminosity of 10 35 cm -2 s -1 (10 times larger than that of the LHC one). Thus, the operation of the SLHC implies a need to upgrade the detectors of the LHC experiments. The current tracking system of ATLAS will not cope with that luminosity. New solutions must be investigated to improve the radiation tolerance of the semiconductor detector. p-Type bulk sensors are being considered for the ATLAS tracking system for the SLHC. Microstrip detectors fabricated by CNM-IMB on p-type high-resistivity float zone silicon have been irradiated with neutrons at the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana up to a fluence of 10 16 cm -2 (as expected in the innermost region of the ATLAS upgrade) and have been characterized at IFIC Laboratory. The collected charge, after irradiation, has been measured by infrared laser illumination. The leakage current of those sensors is also reported.

  18. Impurity Resonant States p-type Doping in Wide-Band-Gap Nitrides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Yi, Xiaoyan; Yu, Zhiguo; Yuan, Gongdong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin; Lu, Na; Ferguson, Ian; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new strategy for achieving efficient p-type doping in high bandgap nitride semiconductors to overcome the fundamental issue of high activation energy has been proposed and investigated theoretically, and demonstrated experimentally. Specifically, in an AlxGa1−xN/GaN superlattice structure, by modulation doping of Mg in the AlxGa1−xN barriers, high concentration of holes are generated throughout the material. A hole concentration as high as 1.1 × 1018 cm−3 has been achieved, which is about one order of magnitude higher than that typically achievable by direct doping GaN. Results from first-principle calculations indicate that the coupling and hybridization between Mg 2p impurity and the host N 2p orbitals are main reasons for the generation of resonant states in the GaN wells, which further results in the high hole concentration. We expect this approach to be equally applicable for other high bandgap materials where efficient p-type doing is difficult. Furthermore, a two-carrier-species Hall-effect model is proposed to delineate and discriminate the characteristics of the bulk and 2D hole, which usually coexist in superlattice-like doping systems. The model reported here can also be used to explain the abnormal freeze-in effect observed in many previous reports. PMID:26777294

  19. Lateral photovoltaic effect in p-type silicon induced by surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Mei, Chunlian; Gan, Zhikai; Zhou, Peiqi; Wang, Hui

    2017-03-01

    A colossal lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) was observed at the surface of p-type silicon, which differs from the conventional thought that a large LPE is only observed in Schottky junctions and PN junctions consisting of several layers with different conductivities. It shows a high sensitivity of 499.24 mV/mm and an ultra-broadband spectral responsivity (from 405 nm to 980 nm) at room temperature, which makes it an attractive candidate for near-infrared detection. We propose that this phenomenon can be understood by considering the surface band bending near the surface of p-Si induced by charged surface states. The energy band diagrams of the samples are shown based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggesting the correlation between the LPE and surface band bending. The conjectures are validated by changing the surface states of p-type silicon using Ni nano-films. These findings reveal a generation mechanism of the LPE and may lead to p-Si based, broadband-responsivity, low-cost, and high-precision optical and optoelectronic applications.

  20. Computer modelling reveals new conformers of the ATP binding loop of Na+/K+-ATPase involved in the transphosphorylation process of the sodium pump

    PubMed Central

    Tejral, Gracian; Sopko, Bruno; Necas, Alois; Schoner, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    Hydrolysis of ATP by Na+/K+-ATPase, a P-Type ATPase, catalyzing active Na+ and K+ transport through cellular membranes leads transiently to a phosphorylation of its catalytical α-subunit. Surprisingly, three-dimensional molecular structure analysis of P-type ATPases reveals that binding of ATP to the N-domain connected by a hinge to the P-domain is much too far away from the Asp369 to allow the transfer of ATP’s terminal phosphate to its aspartyl-phosphorylation site. In order to get information for how the transfer of the γ-phosphate group of ATP to the Asp369 is achieved, analogous molecular modeling of the M4–M5 loop of ATPase was performed using the crystal data of Na+/K+-ATPase of different species. Analogous molecular modeling of the cytoplasmic loop between Thr338 and Ile760 of the α2-subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase and the analysis of distances between the ATP binding site and phosphorylation site revealed the existence of two ATP binding sites in the open conformation; the first one close to Phe475 in the N-domain, the other one close to Asp369 in the P-domain. However, binding of Mg2+•ATP to any of these sites in the “open conformation” may not lead to phosphorylation of Asp369. Additional conformations of the cytoplasmic loop were found wobbling between “open conformation” <==> “semi-open conformation <==> “closed conformation” in the absence of 2Mg2+•ATP. The cytoplasmic loop’s conformational change to the “semi-open conformation”—characterized by a hydrogen bond between Arg543 and Asp611—triggers by binding of 2Mg2+•ATP to a single ATP site and conversion to the “closed conformation” the phosphorylation of Asp369 in the P-domain, and hence the start of Na+/K+-activated ATP hydrolysis. PMID:28316890

  1. Inverse Design of p-Type Transparent Conducting Oxides for Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraja, Arpun Ramaiah

    The Inverse Design approach to materials discovery was applied to developing materials that exhibit simultaneous p-type conductivity and optical transparency. Theoretical calculations predicted that Rh2ZnO4 and Cr2MnO4, well-known compounds with the spinel crystal structure, had the potential to be p-type transparent conducting oxides (p-TCOs). Bulk samples of these materials were synthesized, and their structural, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. Theory predicted that Rh2ZnO4 was largely a line compound, with slight deviations toward Zn-excess at higher temperatures. This off-stoichiometry was predicted to be the source of excess holes and thus p-type conductivity in Rh2ZnO4. Additionally, new methods in density functional theory predicted that hole conduction in Rh 2ZnO4 occurred via band transport, instead of small polaron hopping. In this work, experimental X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed that Rh2ZnO4 exhibits small off-stoichiometry toward Zn-rich compositions at 975°C. High temperature electrical measurements confirmed p-type conductivity, and room temperature Hall effect measurements yielded a hole mobility of 0.18 cm2/Vs for a bulk polycrystalline sample. In order to distinguish between band and polaron conduction, a revised analysis for high temperature electrical data was developed. This new analysis combines conductivity and thermopower data with theoretical calculations of the effective density of states in order to determine the behavior of the mobility with temperature. This method can be applied in the absence of a direct measurement of the temperature-dependence of the mobility. The results of this new method indicate that the behavior of Rh2ZnO4 is consistent with band conduction. Although intrinsic Cr2MnO4 is electrically insulating, lithium was predicted to be an effective p-type dopant, occupying the tetrahedral (Mn) site. Combined neutron/X-ray measurements of a doped specimen confirmed the predicted site

  2. An ion-transporting ATPase encodes multiple apical localization signals

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Epithelial cells accumulate distinct populations of membrane proteins at their two plasmalemmal domains. We have examined the molecular signals which specify the differential subcellular distributions of two closely related ion pumps. The Na,K-ATPase is normally restricted to the basolateral membranes of numerous epithelial cell types, whereas the H,K-ATPase is a component of the apical surfaces of the parietal cells of the gastric epithelium. We have expressed full length and chimeric H,K-ATPase/Na,K-ATPase cDNAs in polarized renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (LLC-PK1). We find that both the alpha and beta subunits of the H,K-ATPase encode independent signals that specify apical localization. Furthermore, the H,K-ATPase beta-subunit possesses a sequence which mediates its participation in the endocytic pathway. The interrelationship between epithelial sorting and endocytosis signals suggested by these studies supports the redefinition of apical and basolateral as functional, rather than simply topographic domains. PMID:8385670

  3. Effect of alcoholic intoxication on water content and activity of Na,K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Zamai, T N; Titova, N M; Zamai, A S; Usol'tseva, O S; Yulenkova, O V; Shumkova, D A

    2002-12-01

    We studied the effect of 2-week alcohol intoxication on water exchange and activity of Na,K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase in rat brain. Alcohol intoxication increased water content in the brain due to cell hyperhydration. It is assumed that hyperhydration results from increased Na+ content in cells due to inhibition Na,K-ATPase activity, which in turn is caused by activation of lipid peroxidation under the effect of ethanol. A possible mechanism of Na,K-ATPase inhibition.

  4. Tandem phosphorylation of Ser-911 and Thr-912 at the C terminus of yeast plasma membrane H+-ATPase leads to glucose-dependent activation.

    PubMed

    Lecchi, Silvia; Nelson, Clark J; Allen, Kenneth E; Swaney, Danielle L; Thompson, Katie L; Coon, Joshua J; Sussman, Michael R; Slayman, Carolyn W

    2007-12-07

    In recent years there has been growing interest in the post-translational regulation of P-type ATPases by protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation. Pma1 H(+)-ATPase, which is responsible for H(+)-dependent nutrient uptake in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), is one such example, displaying a rapid 5-10-fold increase in activity when carbon-starved cells are exposed to glucose. Activation has been linked to Ser/Thr phosphorylation in the C-terminal tail of the ATPase, but the specific phosphorylation sites have not previously been mapped. The present study has used nanoflow high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry to identify Ser-911 and Thr-912 as two major phosphorylation sites that are clearly related to glucose activation. In carbon-starved cells with low Pma1 activity, peptide 896-918, which was derived from the C terminus upon Lys-C proteolysis, was found to be singly phosphorylated at Thr-912, whereas in glucose-metabolizing cells with high ATPase activity, the same peptide was doubly phosphorylated at Ser-911 and Thr-912. Reciprocal (14)N/(15)N metabolic labeling of cells was used to measure the relative phosphorylation levels at the two sites. The addition of glucose to carbon-starved cells led to a 3-fold reduction in the singly phosphorylated form and an 11-fold increase in the doubly phosphorylated form. These results point to a mechanism in which the stepwise phosphorylation of two tandemly positioned residues near the C terminus mediates glucose-dependent activation of the H(+)-ATPase.

  5. An autoinhibitory peptide from the erythrocyte Ca-ATPase aggregates and inhibits both muscle Ca-ATPase isoforms.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, L G; Shi, Y; Kutchai, H; Filoteo, A G; Penniston, J T; Thomas, D D

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the effects of C28R2, a basic peptide derived from the autoinhibitory domain of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase, on enzyme activity, oligomeric state, and E1-E2 conformational equilibrium of the Ca-ATPase from skeletal and cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy (TPA) was used to determine changes in the distribution of Ca-ATPase among its different oligomeric species in SR. C28R2, at a concentration of 1-10 microM, inhibits the Ca-ATPase activity of both skeletal and cardiac SR (CSR). In skeletal SR, this inhibition by C28R2 is much greater at low (0.15 microM) than at high (10 microM) Ca2+, whereas in CSR the inhibition is the same at low and high Ca2+. The effects of the peptide on the rotational mobility of the Ca-ATPase correlated well with function, indicating that C28R2-induced protein aggregation and Ca-ATPase inhibition are much more Ca-dependent in skeletal than in CSR. In CSR at low Ca2+, phospholamban (PLB) antibody (functionally equivalent to PLB phosphorylation) increased the inhibitory effect of C28R2 slightly. Fluorescence of fluorescein 5-isothiocyanate-labeled SR suggests that C28R2 stabilizes the E1 conformation of the Ca-ATPase in skeletal SR, whereas in CSR it stabilizes E2. After the addition of PLB antibody, C28R2 still stabilizes the E2 conformational state of CSR. Therefore, we conclude that C28R2 affects Ca-ATPase activity, conformation, and self-association differently in cardiac and skeletal SR and that PLB is probably not responsible for the differences. PMID:10354431

  6. NbFeSb based p-type half-Heusler for power generation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Giri; He, Ran; Engber, Michael; Samsonidze, Georgy; Pantha, Tej; Dahal, Ekraj; Dahal, Keshab; Yang, Jian; Lan, Yucheng; Kozinsky, Boris; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-03-01

    We report a peak dimensionless figure-of-merit (ZT) of ~1 at 700 oC in nanostructured p-type Nb0.6Ti0.4FeSb0.95Sn0.05composition. Even though the power factor of the Nb0.6Ti0.4FeSb0.95Sn0.05 composition is improved by 25% in comparison to the previously reported p-type Hf0.44Zr0.44Ti0.12CoSb0.8Sn0.2, the ZT value is not increased due to a higher thermal conductivity. However, the higher power factor of the Nb0.6Ti0.4FeSb0.95Sn0.05 composition led to a 15% increase in power output of a thermoelectric device in comparison to a device made from the previous best material Hf0.44Zr0.44Ti0.12CoSb0.8Sn0.2. The n-type material used to make the unicouple device is the best reported nanostructured Hf0.25Zr0.75NiSn0.99Sb0.01 composition with the lowest hafnium (Hf) content. Both the p- and n-type nanostructured samples are prepared by ball milling the arc melted ingot and hot pressing the finely ground powders. Moreover, the raw material cost of the Nb0.6Ti0.4FeSb0.95Sn0.05 composition is more than six times lower compared to the cost of the previous best p-type Hf0.44Zr0.44Ti0.12CoSb0.8Sn0.2. This cost reduction is crucial for these materials to be used in large-scale quantities for vehicle and industrial waste heat recovery applications. DOE:DE-EE0004840.

  7. The plasma membrane calcium ATPase and disease.

    PubMed

    Tempel, B L; Shilling, D J

    2007-01-01

    The plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) uses energy to pump calcium (Ca2+) ions out of the cytosol into the extracellular milieu, usually against a strong chemical gradient. This energy expenditure is necessary to maintain a relatively low intracellular net Ca2+ load. Mammals have four genes (ATP2B1-ATP2B4), encoding the proteins PMCA1 through PMCA4. Transcripts from each of these genes are alternatively spliced to generate several variant proteins that are in turn post-translationally modified in a variety of ways. Expressed ubiquitously and with some level of functional redundancy in most vital tissues, only one of the four genes--Atp2b2--has been causally linked through naturally occuring mutations to disease in mammals: specifically to deafness and ataxia in spontaneous mouse mutants. In humans, a missense amino acid substitution in PMCA2 modifies the severity of hearing loss. Targeted null mutations of the Atp2b1 and Atp2b4 genes in mouse are embryonic lethal and cause a sperm motility defect, respectively. These phenotypes point to complex human diseases like hearing loss, cardiac function and infertility. Changes in PMCA expression are associated with other diseases including cataract formation, carciniogenesis, diabetes, and cardiac hypertension and hypertrophy. Severity of these diseases may be affected by subtle changes in expression of the PMCA isoforms expressed in those tissues.

  8. Active Asteroids P/2013 P5 and P/2013 R3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewitt, David; Agarwal, Jessica; Weaver, Harold; Mutchler, Max; Li, Jing; Larson, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    Active asteroids (a.k.a. main-belt comets) possess the dynamical character of asteroids but exhibit evidence for mass loss, giving them a comet-like appearance. About 16 members of this newly-recognized group are currently known. Scientific interest lies in understanding the mechanisms responsible for the mass loss. Examples of impact, sublimation and thermal disintegration have been identified, and it seems clear that still other mechanisms exist. We are investigating these objects using high resolution observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, supplemented by observations from the Keck and other ground-based telescopes.Two exciting new objects show properties consistent with mass loss caused by rotational instability. P/2013 P5 shows a unique multiple dust tail system (dust mass of order 10^5 kg), produced by irregular ejection over 8 months. This is inconsistent with an impact origin and unlike activity seen in any ice-driven comet. The inner belt orbit (a = 2.189 AU) and S-type optical colors additionally suggest a metamorphosed composition incompatible with the survival of water ice. We suggest that P5 is shedding mass through local avalanche instabilities caused by a presumed rapid spin. The small size (radius < 240 m) renders P5 potentially susceptible to spin-up by radiation torques. P/2013 R3 is a dust-shrouded, multiple object in the outer asteroid belt (a = 3.033 AU) that is disintegrating in real-time. Ten distinct components have been detected, the largest four having radii up to 200 m. The velocity dispersion amongst fragments is 0.2 to 0.5 m/s, comparable to the gravitational escape speeds of the largest components. The dust mass is of order 10^8 kg, about 1000 times larger than in P5. Keck spectra set a limit to gas production near 1 kg/s. We suggest that R3 has experienced a rotational breakup, more severe than that of P5, in which the nucleus has disintegrated into component pieces. We are tracking the components to determine their dynamics

  9. V-type ATPase proton pump expression during enamel formation.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Juni; Wen, Xin; Simanian, Emil J; Paine, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Several diseases such as proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis and osteoporosis are related to intracellular pH dysregulation resulting from mutations in genes coding for ion channels, including proteins comprising the proton-pumping V-type ATPase. V-type ATPase is a multi-subunit protein complex expressed in enamel forming cells. V-type ATPase plays a key role in enamel development, specifically lysosomal acidification, yet our understanding of the relationship between the endocytotic activities and dental health and disease is limited. The objective of this study is to better understand the ameloblast-associated pH regulatory networks essential for amelogenesis. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed on tissues from secretory-stage and maturation-stage enamel organs to determine which of the V-type ATPase subunits are most highly upregulated during maturation-stage amelogenesis: a time when ameloblast endocytotic activity is highest. Western blot analyses, using specific antibodies to four of the V-type ATPase subunits (Atp6v0d2, Atp6v1b2, Atp6v1c1 and Atp6v1e1), were then applied to validate much of the qPCR data. Immunohistochemistry using these same four antibodies was also performed to identify the spatiotemporal expression profiles of individual V-type ATPase subunits. Our data show that cytoplasmic V-type ATPase is significantly upregulated in enamel organ cells during maturation-stage when compared to secretory-stage. These data likely relate to the higher endocytotic activities, and the greater need for lysosomal acidification, during maturation-stage amelogenesis. It is also apparent from our immunolocalization data, using antibodies against two of the V-type ATPase subunits (Atp6v1c1 and Atp6v1e1), that significant expression is seen at the apical membrane of maturation-stage ameloblasts. Others have also identified this V-type ATPase expression profile at the apical membrane of maturation ameloblasts. Collectively, these data better define the

  10. Secondary structure propensity and chirality of the amyloidophilic peptide p5 and its analogues impacts ligand binding - In vitro characterization

    DOE PAGES

    Wall, Jonathan S.; Williams, Angela; Wooliver, Craig; ...

    2016-08-11

    Here, polybasic helical peptides, such as peptide p5, bind human amyloid extracts and synthetic amyloid fibrils. When radio labeled, peptide p5 has been shown to specifically bind amyloid in vivo thereby allowing imaging of the disease. Structural requirements for heparin and amyloid binding have been studied using analogues of p5 that modify helicity and chirality.

  11. Hole transport through proton-irradiated p-type silicon wafers during electrochemical anodization

    SciTech Connect

    Breese, M. B. H.; Champeaux, F. J. T.; Bettiol, A. A.; Teo, E. J.; Blackwood, D. J.

    2006-01-15

    The hole current density flowing through and around proton-irradiated areas of p-type silicon during electrochemical anodization is simulated and studied experimentally using scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence imaging. It is shown that for certain irradiation geometries the current flow may be either reduced or enhanced in areas adjacent to irradiated lines, resulting in enhanced or reduced rates of porous silicon formation and corresponding changes in photoluminescence intensity and feature height. The current flow to the surface is unaffected by both the beam straggle and the high defect density at the end of ion range, enabling feature dimensions of {approx}200 nm to be attained. This study has enabled fabrication of micromachined and patterned porous silicon structures in anodized wafers with accurate control of feature dimensions, layer thickness, and photoluminescence emission wavelength and intensity.

  12. Monte Carlo Simulation of Giant Piezoresistance Effect in p-TYPE Silicon Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiêm, T. T. Trang; Aubry-Fortuna, V.; Chassat, C.; Bosseboeuf, A.; Dollfus, P.

    We present a study of the giant piezoresistance effect in p-type silicon using full-band Monte Carlo simulation based on 30-band k.p calculation. This effect has been demonstrated experimentally in Si nanowires by He and Yang. By including the well-known strain effect on the band structure, and by introducing a law of variation of the surface potential according to the applied mechanical stress, we can reproduce this effect. This variation of surface potential modulates the depletion depth and then the conductivity of the structure. This modulation induces a strong variation of the total amount of carriers available for the conduction, which increases drastically this piezoresistive effect. This is probably the main origin of this effect, which may be used to achieve high performance MEMS sensors.

  13. P-type calcium channels are blocked by the alkaloid daurisoline.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y M; Fröstl, W; Dreessen, J; Knöpfel, T

    1994-07-21

    IN looking for a structurally defined non-peptide P-channel blocker we have tested the alkaloid daurisoline which has been isolated from traditional Chinese medicinal herb (Menispermum dauricum) used for the treatment of epilepsy, hypertension and asthma. We have found that daurisoline is an inhibitor of omega-Aga-IVA sensitive barium currents in cerebellar Purkinje cells and of excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked in Purkinje cells by stimulating parallel fibres in acutely prepared cerebellar slices. Daurisoline did not significantly affect omega-Aga-IVA-insensitive barium currents recorded from granule cells freshly isolated from rat cerebellum. Daurisoline passes the blood-brain barrier and will, therefore, facilitate the functional characterization of brain calcium channels as well as the exploration of P-type calcium channels as possible drug targets.

  14. Photostable p-type dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells for water reduction.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhiqiang; He, Mingfu; Huang, Zhongjie; Ozkan, Umit; Wu, Yiying

    2013-08-14

    A photostable p-type NiO photocathode based on a bifunctional cyclometalated ruthenium sensitizer and a cobaloxime catalyst has been created for visible-light-driven water reduction to produce H2. The sensitizer is anchored firmly on the surface of NiO, and the binding is resistant to the hydrolytic cleavage. The bifunctional sensitizer can also immobilize the water reduction catalyst. The resultant photoelectrode exhibits superior stability in aqueous solutions. Stable photocurrents have been observed over a period of hours. This finding is useful for addressing the degradation issue in dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells caused by desorption of dyes and catalysts. The high stability of our photocathodes should be important for the practical application of these devices for solar fuel production.

  15. Electron Traps Detected in p-type GaAsN Using Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S.; Kurtz, S.; Friedman, D.; Ptak, A.; Ahrenkiel, R.; Crandall, R.

    2005-01-01

    The GaAsN alloy can have a band gap as small as 1.0 eV when the nitrogen composition is about 2%. Indium can also be added to the alloy to increase lattice matching to GaAs and Ge. These properties are advantageous for developing a highly-efficient, multi-junction solar cell. However, poor GaAsN cell properties, such as low open-circuit voltage, have led to inadequate performance. Deep-level transient spectroscopy of p-type GaAsN has identified an electron trap having an activation energy near 0.2 eV and a trap density of at least 1016 cm-3. This trap level appears with the addition of small amounts of nitrogen to GaAs, which also corresponds to an increased drop in open-circuit voltage.

  16. Chemical Composition of Nanoporous Layer Formed by Electrochemical Etching of p-Type GaAs.

    PubMed

    Bioud, Youcef A; Boucherif, Abderraouf; Belarouci, Ali; Paradis, Etienne; Drouin, Dominique; Arès, Richard

    2016-12-01

    We have performed a detailed characterization study of electrochemically etched p-type GaAs in a hydrofluoric acid-based electrolyte. The samples were investigated and characterized through cathodoluminescence (CL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that after electrochemical etching, the porous layer showed a major decrease in the CL intensity and a change in chemical composition and in the crystalline phase. Contrary to previous reports on p-GaAs porosification, which stated that the formed layer is composed of porous GaAs, we report evidence that the porous layer is in fact mainly constituted of porous As2O3. Finally, a qualitative model is proposed to explain the porous As2O3 layer formation on p-GaAs substrate.

  17. Quantitative copper measurement in oxidized p-type silicon wafers using microwave photoconductivity decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väinölä, H.; Saarnilehto, E.; Yli-Koski, M.; Haarahiltunen, A.; Sinkkonen, J.; Berenyi, G.; Pavelka, T.

    2005-07-01

    We propose a method to measure trace copper contamination in p-type silicon using the microwave photoconductivity decay (μ-PCD) technique. The method is based on the precipitation of interstitial copper, activated by high-intensity light, which results in enhanced minority carrier recombination activity. We show that there is a quantitative correlation between the enhanced recombination rate and the Cu concentration by comparing μ-PCD measurements with transient ion drift and total reflection x-ray fluorescence measurements. The results indicate that the method is capable of measuring Cu concentrations down to 1010cm-3. There are no limitations to wafer storage time if corona charge is used on the oxidized wafer surfaces as the charge prevents copper outdiffusion. We briefly discuss the role of oxide precipitates both in the copper precipitation and in the charge carrier recombination processes.

  18. Light Activated Copper Defects in P-Type Silicon Studied by PCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yli-Koski, M.; Väinölä, H.; Haarahiltunen, A.; Storgårds, J.; Saarnilehto, E.; Sinkkonen, J.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied copper defects in p-type silicon by measuring its precipitation kinetics by means of the microwave photoconductive decay (µPCD) technique. Copper atoms precipitated during high intensity light treatment at room temperature. We used the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and the transient ion drift (TID) techniques to determine the bulk concentration of copper. We estimated the density and the radius of the copper precipitates as well as the average capture cross-section for precipitated copper atoms from the measured copper precipitation time constant, bulk concentration of copper, and the change in the recombination rate. We also studied how the density of oxygen defect affects the copper precipitation. Our results show that copper precipitates at two different kinds of defects.

  19. Studies of minority carrier diffusion length increase in p-type ZnO:Sb

    SciTech Connect

    Lopatiuk-Tirpak, O.; Chernyak, L.; Xiu, F. X.; Liu, J. L.; Jang, S.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Gartsman, K.; Feldman, Y.; Osinsky, A.; Chow, P.

    2006-10-15

    Minority electron diffusion length was measured in p-type, Sb-doped ZnO as a function of temperature using the electron beam induced current technique. A thermally induced increase of electron diffusion length was determined to have an activation energy of 184{+-}10 meV. Irradiation with a low energy (5 kV) electron beam also resulted in an increase of diffusion length with a similar activation energy (219{+-}8 meV). Both phenomena are suggested to involve a Sb{sub Zn}-2V{sub Zn} acceptor complex. Saturation and relaxation dynamics of minority carrier diffusion length are explored. Details of a possible mechanism for diffusion length increase are presented.

  20. Arsenic doped p-type zinc oxide films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, J. C.; Zhu, C. Y.; Fung, S.; To, C. K.; Yang, B.; Beling, C. D.; Ling, C. C.; Zhong, Y. C.; Wong, K. S.; Xie, Z.; Brauer, G.; Skorupa, W.; Anwand, W.

    2009-10-01

    As-doped ZnO films were grown by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering method. As the substrate temperature during growth was raised above approx400 deg. C, the films changed from n type to p type. Hole concentration and mobility of approx6x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and approx6 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} were achieved. The ZnO films were studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low temperature photoluminescence (PL), and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The results were consistent with the As{sub Zn}-2V{sub Zn} shallow acceptor model proposed by Limpijumnong et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 155504 (2004)]. The results of the XPS, PL, PAS, and thermal studies lead us to suggest a comprehensive picture of the As-related shallow acceptor formation.

  1. DLTS study of defects in hydrogen plasma treated p-type silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, L.; Leitch, A. W. R.

    2001-12-01

    A deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) study of defects found in float-zone p-type silicon exposed to a DC hydrogen plasma is reported. DLTS measurements of these samples revealed three deep levels. Two of the levels are broad, with ET- EV in the range 0.34-0.39 eV (H2) and 0.40-0.44 eV (H3); these appear as bands in the Arrhenius plot. The third level has an activation energy of 0.09 eV (H1). The variations in the capture cross-sections of H2 and H3 are believed to be strain-related. The concentration of H3 exceeds the other two levels and decreases rapidly into the samples with ∼10 15 cm -3 at a depth of 0.20 μm. H3 is tentatively ascribed to an extended defect.

  2. DLTS of p-type Czochralski Si wafers containing processing-induced macropores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoen, E.; Depauw, V.; Gordon, I.; Poortmans, J.

    2012-01-01

    The deep levels present in p-type Czochralski silicon with processing-induced macropores in the depletion region have been studied by the deep-level transient (DLT) spectroscopy technique. It is shown that a broad band is present for a bias pulse close to the interface with the Al Schottky contact, which exhibits anomalously slow hole capture and is ascribed to the internal interface states of the macropores. For depths beyond the pore region, other deep levels, associated with point defects—possibly metal contamination during the high-temperature annealing step under H2 ambient--have been observed. The impact of the observed defects on the lifetime of thin-film solar cells, fabricated using macropore-based layer transfer is discussed. Finally, it is shown that the presence of pores in the depletion region, which also affects the DLT-spectrum, alters the capacitance-voltage characteristics.

  3. Microhardness of carbon-doped (111) p-type Czochralski silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danyluk, S.; Lim, D. S.; Kalejs, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of carbon on (111) p-type Czochralski silicon is examined. The preparation of the silicon and microhardness test procedures are described, and the equation used to determine microhardness from indentations in the silicon wafers is presented. The results indicate that as the carbon concentration in the silicon increases the microhardness increases. The linear increase in microhardness is the result of carbon hindering dislocation motion, and the effect of temperature on silicon deformation and dislocation mobility is explained. The measured microhardness was compared with an analysis which is based on dislocation pinning by carbon; a good correlation was observed. The Labusch model for the effect of pinning sites on dislocation motion is given.

  4. Highly conductive p-type amorphous oxides from low-temperature solution processing

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jinwang; Tokumitsu, Eisuke; Koyano, Mikio; Mitani, Tadaoki; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2012-09-24

    We report solution-processed, highly conductive (resistivity 1.3-3.8 m{Omega} cm), p-type amorphous A-B-O (A = Bi, Pb; B = Ru, Ir), processable at temperatures (down to 240 Degree-Sign C) that are compatible with plastic substrates. The film surfaces are smooth on the atomic scale. Bi-Ru-O was analyzed in detail. A small optical bandgap (0.2 eV) with a valence band maximum (VBM) below but very close to the Fermi level (binding energy E{sub VBM} = 0.04 eV) explains the high conductivity and suggests that they are degenerated semiconductors. The conductivity changes from three-dimensional to two-dimensional with decreasing temperature across 25 K.

  5. Empirical model predicting the layer thickness and porosity of p-type mesoporous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, Sascha J.; Geisler, Dennis; Hensen, Jan; Köntges, Marc; Kajari-Schröder, Sarah; Bahnemann, Detlef W.; Brendel, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    Porous silicon is a promising material for a wide range of applications because of its versatile layer properties and the convenient preparation by electrochemical etching. Nevertheless, the quantitative dependency of the layer thickness and porosity on the etching process parameters is yet unknown. We have developed an empirical model to predict the porosity and layer thickness of p-type mesoporous silicon prepared by electrochemical etching. The impact of the process parameters such as current density, etching time and concentration of hydrogen fluoride is evaluated by ellipsometry. The main influences on the porosity of the porous silicon are the current density, the etching time and their product while the etch rate is dominated by the current density, the concentration of hydrogen fluoride and their product. The developed model predicts the resulting layer properties of a certain porosification process and can, for example be used to enhance the utilization of the employed chemicals.

  6. Ultrafast hole carrier relaxation dynamics in p-type CuO nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ultrafast hole carrier relaxation dynamics in CuO nanowires have been investigated using transient absorption spectroscopy. Following femtosecond pulse excitation in a non-collinear pump-probe configuration, a combination of non-degenerate transmission and reflection measurements reveal initial ultrafast state filling dynamics independent of the probing photon energy. This behavior is attributed to the occupation of states by photo-generated carriers in the intrinsic hole region of the p-type CuO nanowires located near the top of the valence band. Intensity measurements indicate an upper fluence threshold of 40 μJ/cm2 where carrier relaxation is mainly governed by the hole dynamics. The fast relaxation of the photo-generated carriers was determined to follow a double exponential decay with time constants of 0.4 ps and 2.1 ps. Furthermore, time-correlated single photon counting measurements provide evidence of three exponential relaxation channels on the nanosecond timescale. PMID:22151927

  7. p-Type zinc oxide films grown by infrared-light-assisted pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraide, Toshihiro; Kurumi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kaoru

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, ZnO films were grown on sapphire (0001) substrates by infrared-light-assisted pulsed-laser deposition (IRA-PLD). In addition, a nitrogen-plasma-assisted (PA-N) system was utilized for effectively doping the acceptor by radio frequency induction coupled plasma (RF-ICP). The effect of IRA-PLD and PA-N systems was investigated by studying the difference in substrate temperature with and without plasma assistance. We found that ZnO films exhibit no exciton emission with PA-N at a high temperature and that an increase in the substrate temperature yields ZnO films with a (002) and c-axis preferred orientation in a nitrogen (N2) gas atmosphere. ZnO films are changed from n-type to p-type at a substrate temperature of 673 K by IRA-PLD with an N2 background atmosphere.

  8. Inkjet printed circuits based on ambipolar and p-type carbon nanotube thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bongjun; Geier, Michael L; Hersam, Mark C; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2017-02-01

    Ambipolar and p-type single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are reliably integrated into various complementary-like circuits on the same substrate by inkjet printing. We describe the fabrication and characteristics of inverters, ring oscillators, and NAND gates based on complementary-like circuits fabricated with such TFTs as building blocks. We also show that complementary-like circuits have potential use as chemical sensors in ambient conditions since changes to the TFT characteristics of the p-channel TFTs in the circuit alter the overall operating characteristics of the circuit. The use of circuits rather than individual devices as sensors integrates sensing and signal processing functions, thereby simplifying overall system design.

  9. Origin of resistivity anomaly in p-type leads chalcogenide multiphase compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Aminorroaya Yamini, Sima E-mail: jsnyder@caltech.edu; Dou, Shi Xue; Mitchell, David R. G.; Wang, Heng; Gibbs, Zachary M.; Pei, Yanzhong; Snyder, G. Jeffrey E-mail: jsnyder@caltech.edu

    2015-05-15

    The electrical resistivity curves for binary phase compounds of p-type lead chalcogenide (PbTe){sub (0.9−x)}(PbSe){sub 0.1}(PbS){sub x,} (x = 0.15, 0.2, 0.25), which contain PbS-rich secondary phases, show different behaviour on heating and cooling between 500-700 K. This is contrast to single phase compounds which exhibit similar behaviour on heating and cooling. We correlate these anomalies in the electrical resistivities of multiphase compounds to the variation in phase composition at high temperatures. The inhomogeneous distribution of dopants between the matrix and secondary phase is found to be crucial in the electronic transport properties of the multiphase compounds. These results can lead to further advances in designing composite Pb-chalcogenides with high thermoelectric performance.

  10. Microhardness studies on thin carbon films grown on P-type, (100) silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    A program to grow thin carbon films and investigate their physical and electrical properties is described. Characteristics of films grown by rf sputtering and vacuum arc deposition on p type, (100) silicon wafers are presented. Microhardness data were obtained from both the films and the silicon via the Vickers diamond indentation technique. These data show that the films are always harder than the silicon, even when the films are thin (of the order of 1000 A). Vacuum arc films were found to contain black carbon inclusions of the order of a few microns in size, and clusters of inclusions of the order of tens of microns. Transmission electron diffraction showed that the films being studied were amorphous in structure.

  11. Inkjet printed circuits based on ambipolar and p-type carbon nanotube thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bongjun; Geier, Michael L.; Hersam, Mark C.; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2017-01-01

    Ambipolar and p-type single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are reliably integrated into various complementary-like circuits on the same substrate by inkjet printing. We describe the fabrication and characteristics of inverters, ring oscillators, and NAND gates based on complementary-like circuits fabricated with such TFTs as building blocks. We also show that complementary-like circuits have potential use as chemical sensors in ambient conditions since changes to the TFT characteristics of the p-channel TFTs in the circuit alter the overall operating characteristics of the circuit. The use of circuits rather than individual devices as sensors integrates sensing and signal processing functions, thereby simplifying overall system design. PMID:28145438

  12. Phonon bottleneck in p-type Ge/Si quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Yakimov, A. I.; Kirienko, V. V.; Armbrister, V. A.; Bloshkin, A. A.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.

    2015-11-23

    We study the effect of quantum dot size on the mid-infrared photo- and dark current, photoconductive gain, and hole capture probability in ten-period p-type Ge/Si quantum dot heterostructures. The dot dimensions are varied by changing the Ge coverage and the growth temperature during molecular beam epitaxy of Ge/Si(001) system in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. In all samples, we observed the general tendency: with decreasing the size of the dots, the dark current and hole capture probability are reduced, while the photoconductive gain and photoresponse are enhanced. Suppression of the hole capture probability in small-sized quantum dots is attributed to a quenched electron-phonon scattering due to phonon bottleneck.

  13. Inkjet printed circuits based on ambipolar and p-type carbon nanotube thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bongjun; Geier, Michael L.; Hersam, Mark C.; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2017-02-01

    Ambipolar and p-type single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are reliably integrated into various complementary-like circuits on the same substrate by inkjet printing. We describe the fabrication and characteristics of inverters, ring oscillators, and NAND gates based on complementary-like circuits fabricated with such TFTs as building blocks. We also show that complementary-like circuits have potential use as chemical sensors in ambient conditions since changes to the TFT characteristics of the p-channel TFTs in the circuit alter the overall operating characteristics of the circuit. The use of circuits rather than individual devices as sensors integrates sensing and signal processing functions, thereby simplifying overall system design.

  14. Electronic characteristics of p-type transparent SnO monolayer with high carrier mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Juan; Xia, Congxin; Liu, Yaming; Li, Xueping; Peng, Yuting; Wei, Shuyi

    2017-04-01

    More recently, two-dimensional (2D) SnO nanosheets are attaching great attention due to its excellent carrier mobility and transparent characteristics. Here, the stability, electronic structures and carrier mobility of SnO monolayer are investigated by using first-principles calculations. The calculations of the phonon dispersion spectra indicate that SnO monolayer is dynamically stable. Moreover, the band gap values are decreased from 3.93 eV to 2.75 eV when the tensile strain is applied from 0% to 12%. Interestingly, SnO monolayer is a p-type transparent semiconducting oxide with hole mobility of 641 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is much higher than that of MoS2 monolayer. These findings make SnO monolayer becomes a promising 2D material for applications in nanoelectronic devices.

  15. Arsenic doped p-type zinc oxide films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. C.; Zhu, C. Y.; Fung, S.; Zhong, Y. C.; Wong, K. S.; Xie, Z.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.; To, C. K.; Yang, B.; Beling, C. D.; Ling, C. C.

    2009-10-01

    As-doped ZnO films were grown by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering method. As the substrate temperature during growth was raised above ˜400 °C, the films changed from n type to p type. Hole concentration and mobility of ˜6×1017 cm-3 and ˜6 cm2 V-1 s-1 were achieved. The ZnO films were studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low temperature photoluminescence (PL), and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The results were consistent with the AsZn-2VZn shallow acceptor model proposed by Limpijumnong et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 155504 (2004)]. The results of the XPS, PL, PAS, and thermal studies lead us to suggest a comprehensive picture of the As-related shallow acceptor formation.

  16. Conduction type control from n to p type for organic pigment films purified by reactive sublimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramoto, Masahiro; Ihara, Kiyoaki; Fukusumi, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Masaaki

    1995-12-01

    The effects of purification by reactive sublimation technique and bromine doping on the Fermi level and the photovoltaic properties of n-type perylene pigment films were investigated. Photovoltage arisen from the Schottky junction between n-type perylene pigment film and Au increased significantly by repeating the train sublimation under methylamine gas atmosphere. This phenomenon was revealed to be due to the negative shift of the Fermi level resulting from the effective removal of unknown but specific impurity acting as an acceptor by reactive sublimation. On the other hand, by bromine doping, Fermi level of the pigment film shifted largely to a positive direction and reached the nearby valence band, while the direction of photocurrent flow arising from the Schottky junction with Au was reversed. This result is a clear demonstration of alternating the type of conduction from n type to p type. This means that the pn control of organic semiconductors is possible.

  17. Polymer photovoltaic cell embedded with p-type single walled carbon nanotubes fabricated by spray process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dal-Ho; Park, Jea-Gun

    2012-08-17

    In the current study, we fabricated polymer (poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C(61) butyric-acid methyl-ester (PCBM) blend) photovoltaic (PV) cells embedded with p-type single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with tangled hair morphology. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) rapidly increased with SWCNT concentration of up to 6.83% coverage, and then decreased and saturated with increasing SWCNT concentration; i.e., the PCE peaks at 5.379%. This tendency is mainly associated with hole transport efficiency toward the transparent electrode (indium-tin-oxide (ITO)) via SWCNTs, directly determining the series resistance and shunt resistance of the polymer PV cells embedded with SWCNTs: the PV cell is increasing shunt resistance and decreasing series resistance.

  18. Enhancement of p-type conductivity in nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xin; Pithan, Christian; Ohly, Christian; Jia, Chun-Lin; Dornseiffer, Jügen; Haegel, Franz-Hubert; Waser, Rainer

    2005-02-01

    Undoped BaTiO3 ceramic samples with an average grain size of ˜35nm were prepared and the electrical properties investigated. The defect structure is dominated by acceptor impurities; therefore, the conductivity of nanocrystalline BaTiO3 is of p-type. Comparing with microcrystalline BaTiO3, the conductivity of nanocrystalline BaTiO3 is about 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher and the activation energy remarkably lower, which is ascribed to a greatly reduced oxidation enthalpy in nanocrystalline BaTiO3 (˜0.3 versus ˜0.92eV for microcrystalline BaTiO3).

  19. Formation and annealing of radiation defects in tin-doped p-type germanium crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinov, V. V. Petukh, A. N.; Pokotilo, Ju. M.; Markevich, V. P.; Lastovskii, S. B.

    2012-05-15

    The effect of tin on the formation and annealing of radiation defects in p-type germanium crystals irradiated with 6-MeV electrons at a temperature of 80 K is studied. It is shown that acceptor complexes SnV with a hole ionization enthalpy of 0.16 eV are dominant in irradiated Ge:(Sn, Ga) crystals after their heating to a temperature of 300 K. These complexes disappeared as a result of the annealing of irradiated crystals in the temperature range 30-75 Degree-Sign C. Annealing of irradiated crystals at temperatures in the range 110-150 Degree-Sign C brings about the formation of deep-level centers with a donor level at E{sub v} + 0.29 eV; this center is presumably related to a complex consisting of a tin atom and an interstitial gallium atom.

  20. Chemical synthesis of p-type nanocrystalline copper selenide thin films for heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambade, Swapnil B.; Mane, R. S.; Kale, S. S.; Sonawane, S. H.; Shaikh, Arif V.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2006-12-01

    Nanocrystalline thin films of copper selenide have been grown on glass and tin doped-indium oxide substrates using chemical method. At ambient temperature, golden films have been synthesized and annealed at 200 °C for 1 h and were examined for their structural, surface morphological and optical properties by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry techniques, respectively. Cu 2- xSe phase was confirmed by XRD pattern and spherical grains of 30 ± 4 - 40 ± 4 nm in size aggregated over about 130 ± 10 nm islands were seen by SEM images. Effect of annealing on crystallinity improvement, band edge shift and photoelectrochemical performance (under 80 mW/cm 2 light intensity and in lithium iodide electrolyte) has been studied and reported. Observed p-type electrical conductivity in copper selenide thin films make it a suitable candidate for heterojunction solar cells.

  1. Improved performance of P-type DSCs with a compact blocking layer coated by different thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Phuong; Bao, Le Quoc; Cheruku, Rajesh; Kim, Jae Hong

    2016-09-01

    The introduction of different thicknesses of a compact NiO blocking layer coating with different spin speeds on FTO and followed by a coating of photoactive NiO electrode for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells ( p-DSCs). This study examined the fabrication of a compact NiO blocking layer by decomposing an ethanolic precursor solution of nickel acetate tetrahydrate. The DCBZ dye used as the photosensitizer for the NiO electrode in the p-DSCs device and their performances have been analyzed. The enhancement of photovoltaic performance and resulted from an increase in the power conversion efficiency ( η). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement demonstrated that charge recombination was suppressed when a compact NiO blocking layer was applied. The results showed that the best p-DSC was achieved by employing 3000 rpm spin-coated process for different times of blocking layer.

  2. Rat submaxillary gland contains predominantly P-type tachykinin binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, S.H.; Burcher, E.

    1985-11-01

    The specific binding of the /sup 125/I-Bolton-Hunter labeled tachykinins substance K (BHSK), eledoisin (BHE), and substance P (BHSP) was examined in crude membrane suspensions and by autoradiography in rat submaxillary gland. All three ligands at 0.1 nM concentrations exhibited binding that was inhibited by tachykinins in a potency rank order of substance P greater than physalaemin greater than substance K greater than eledoisin greater than kassinin greater than neuromedin K with slope factors essentially equal to unity. All tachykinins were 5 to 10 times more potent in inhibiting BHSK and BHE binding compared to BHSP binding. Autoradiographic visualization of BHSK and BHSP binding sites in the gland revealed extensive labeling of mucous and serous acini. The intensity of labeling was much less for BHSK than for BHSP. The results indicate that the rat submaxillary gland contains predominantly P-type tachykinin binding sites.

  3. Bafilomycins: a class of inhibitors of membrane ATPases from microorganisms, animal cells, and plant cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, E J; Siebers, A; Altendorf, K

    1988-01-01

    Various membrane ATPases have been tested for their sensitivity to bafilomycin A1, a macrolide antibiotic. F1F0 ATPases from bacteria and mitochondria are not affected by this antibiotic. In contrast, E1E2 ATPases--e.g., the K+-dependent (Kdp) ATPase from Escherichia coli, the Na+,K+-ATPase from ox brain, and the Ca2+-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum--are moderately sensitive to this inhibitor. Finally, membrane ATPases from Neurospora vacuoles, chromaffin granules, and plant vacuoles are extremely sensitive. From this we conclude that bafilomycin A1 is a valuable tool for distinguishing among the three different types of ATPases and represents the first relatively specific potent inhibitor of vacuolar ATPases. PMID:2973058

  4. THE EXTRAORDINARY MULTI-TAILED MAIN-BELT COMET P/2013 P5

    SciTech Connect

    Jewitt, David; Agarwal, Jessica; Weaver, Harold; Mutchler, Max; Larson, Stephen

    2013-11-20

    Hubble Space Telescope observations of main-belt comet P/2013 P5 reveal an extraordinary system of six dust tails that distinguish this object from any other. Observations two weeks apart show dramatic morphological change in the tails while providing no evidence for secular fading of the object as a whole. Each tail is associated with a unique ejection date, revealing continued, episodic mass loss from the 0.24 ± 0.04 km radius nucleus over the last five months. As an inner-belt asteroid and probable Flora family member, the object is likely to be highly metamorphosed and unlikely to contain ice. The protracted period of dust release appears inconsistent with an impact origin, but may be compatible with a body that is losing mass through a rotational instability. We suggest that P/2013 P5 has been accelerated to breakup speed by radiation torques.

  5. Cutting edge: identification of novel T cell epitopes in Lol p5a by computational prediction.

    PubMed

    de Lalla, C; Sturniolo, T; Abbruzzese, L; Hammer, J; Sidoli, A; Sinigaglia, F; Panina-Bordignon, P

    1999-08-15

    Although atopic allergy affects p5a allergen from rye grass. In vitro binding studies confirmed the promiscuous binding characteristics of these peptides. Moreover, most of the predicted ligands were novel T cell epitopes that were able to stimulate T cells from atopic patients. We generated a panel of Lol p5a-specific T cell clones, the majority of which recognized the peptides in a cross-reactive fashion. The computational prediction of DR ligands might thus allow the design of T cell epitopes with potential useful application in novel immunotherapy strategies.

  6. Glucose-assisted reduction achieved transparent p-type cuprous oxide thin film by a solution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Sha; Sun, Jian; Gong, Hao; Chen, Zequn; Huang, Yifei; Xu, Jianmei; Zhao, Ling; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Qing

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of p-type cuprous oxide thin film via a cheap and simple chemical method has been known as challenging. We first find that glucose can assist reduce Cu to a lower valence state in the preparation of cuprous oxide films by the sol-gel method. By first adding glucose in the sol as reducing agent, oxidation from the oxygen in the environment is limited and transparent p-type cuprous oxide films are eventually achieved under optimized experimental conditions. We have developed a p-type cuprous oxide thin film with an optimal Hall mobility of ∼8 cm2/Vs and an optical transmittance of 78%.

  7. First-principles study of Be doped CuAlS2 for p-type transparent conductive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dan; Zhao, Yu-Jun; Tian, Ren-Yu; Chen, Di-Hu; Nie, Jian-Jun; Cai, Xin-Hua; Yao, Chun-Mei

    2011-06-01

    CuAlS2 has attracted much attention recently as a p-type transparent conductive material. In this paper, we investigate the site preference of substitutional Be in CuAlS2 and the transition level of BeAl using the first-principles calculation. We find that Be would be doped effectively at Al sites in CuAlS2 as a good p-type dopant. In addition, we speculate that Be-Mg or Be-Zn codoped CuAlS2 could have a mobility enhancement and thus a good p-type conductivity due to low lattice distortion.

  8. Revised bond valence parameters for the P+5/S-2 ion pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidey, V.; Shteyfan, A.

    2017-04-01

    The physically reasonable bond valence parameters, r0=2.125 Å and b=0.37 Å, have been derived for the P+5/S-2 ion pair from a representative set of accurately determined low-symmetry thiophosphate structures. These parameters can be recommended for bond valence analysis of thiophosphates as a replacement for the (r0; b) sets previously reported for the same ions.

  9. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate by the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum P5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jinling; Wei, Ying; Zhao, Yupeng; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

    2012-07-01

    The effects of different NaCl concentrations, nitrogen sources, carbon sources, and carbon to nitrogen molar ratios on biomass accumulation and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production were studied in batch cultures of the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum P5 under aerobic-dark conditions. The results show that the accumulation of PHB in strain P5 is a growth-associated process. Strain P5 had maximum biomass and PHB accumulation at 2%-3% NaCl, suggesting that the bacterium can maintain growth and potentially produce PHB at natural seawater salinity. In the nitrogen source test, the maximum biomass accumulation (8.10±0.09 g/L) and PHB production (1.11±0.13 g/L and 14.62%±2.2 of the cell dry weight) were observed when peptone and ammonium chloride were used as the sole nitrogen source. NH{4/+}-N was better for PHB production than other nitrogen sources. In the carbon source test, the maximum biomass concentration (7.65±0.05 g/L) was obtained with malic acid as the sole carbon source, whereas the maximum yield of PHB (5.03±0.18 g/L and 66.93%±1.69% of the cell dry weight) was obtained with sodium pyruvate as the sole carbon source. In the carbon to nitrogen ratios test, sodium pyruvate and ammonium chloride were selected as the carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The best carbon to nitrogen molar ratio for biomass accumulation (8.77±0.58 g/L) and PHB production (6.07±0.25 g/L and 69.25%±2.05% of the cell dry weight) was 25. The results provide valuable data on the production of PHB by R. sulfidophilum P5 and further studies are on-going for best cell growth and PHB yield.

  10. The multiple tails of the active asteroid P/2013 P5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, J.; Jewitt, D.; Weaver, H.; Mutchler, M.; Larson, S.

    2014-07-01

    The active asteroid P/2013 P5 is an inner main-belt asteroid with a diameter of < 480~m. It was discovered in August 2013 by the Pan-STARRS sky survey, following a brightening episode that produced a comet-like appearance. We obtained high-resolution images of P5 with the Hubble Space Telescope that revealed an intricate system of six dust tails emerging from the nucleus (see figure). We have modeled the dynamics of the ejected dust under the influence of solar gravity and radiation pressure, and found that each tail contained dust ejected at a specific date in the spring or summer of 2013. The activity of P5 continued over many months and took place in bursts of short duration, with no apparent pattern of periodicity. In view of the episodic nature of the activity, we exclude an impact or collision as its cause. Also, sublimation of subsurface ices is unlikely in this object, because temperatures in the inner part of the main asteroid belt are too high for asteroids to harbour ices over the age of the solar system. We therefore think that the most likely cause of activity is rotation-driven break-up, where YORP or other torques have increased the spin rate of the asteroid to the point where surface material breaks loose and escapes the gravity field of the nucleus. We present the details of our modeling, and discuss the implications of our results for the cause of activity.

  11. The photophysics of all-trans polyenes from ttbP5, a nonphotolabile pentaene.

    PubMed

    Catalán, Javier; Pérez, Pilar; Hopf, Henning; Klein, Dagmar

    2008-07-07

    The all-trans pentaene, 3,12-di(tert-butyl)-2,2,13,13-tetramethyl-3,5,7,9,11-tetradecapentaene (ttbP5) fluoresces in two different regions of the visible spectrum. It produces an extremely weak emission in the gas phase that can also be detected in the condensed phase; such an emission exhibits a negligible Stokes shift with respect to the 1Ag-->1Bu absorption transition and can in principle be assigned to the 1Bu-->1Ag emission of the compound. ttbP5 also exhibits a second fluorescence emission at approximately 520 nm in both the gas phase and the condensed phase. The emission in the condensed phase increases in strength and structure, with no change in spectral position, as the solvent viscosity increases by effect of the solution temperature being lowered. The spectral behavior of this pentaene (ttbP5) is different enough from that reported [J. Catalan et al., J. Chem. Phys. 128, 104504 (2008)] for its tetraene counterpart (ttbP4) to warrant a separate analysis in order to facilitate a better understanding of the way the photophysics of these polyenes changes as their chain is lengthened.

  12. The photophysics of all-trans polyenes from ttbP5, a nonphotolabile pentaene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Javier; Pérez, Pilar; Hopf, Henning; Klein, Dagmar

    2008-07-01

    The all-trans pentaene, 3,12-di(tert-butyl)-2,2,13,13-tetramethyl-3,5,7,9,11-tetradecapentaene (ttbP5) fluoresces in two different regions of the visible spectrum. It produces an extremely weak emission in the gas phase that can also be detected in the condensed phase; such an emission exhibits a negligible Stokes shift with respect to the 1Ag→1Bu absorption transition and can in principle be assigned to the 1Bu→1Ag emission of the compound. ttbP5 also exhibits a second fluorescence emission at approximately 520nm in both the gas phase and the condensed phase. The emission in the condensed phase increases in strength and structure, with no change in spectral position, as the solvent viscosity increases by effect of the solution temperature being lowered. The spectral behavior of this pentaene (ttbP5) is different enough from that reported [J. Catalán et al., J. Chem. Phys. 128, 104504 (2008)] for its tetraene counterpart (ttbP4) to warrant a separate analysis in order to facilitate a better understanding of the way the photophysics of these polyenes changes as their chain is lengthened.

  13. Automatic Generation of High Quality DSM Based on IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 Stereo Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Angelo, Pablo; Uttenthaler, Andreas; Carl, Sebastian; Barner, Frithjof; Reinartz, Peter

    2010-12-01

    IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 high resolution stereo satellite imagery is well suited for the creation of digital surface models (DSM). A system for highly automated and operational DSM and orthoimage generation based on IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 imagery is presented, with an emphasis on automated processing and product quality. The proposed system processes IRS-P5 level-1 stereo scenes using the rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) universal sensor model. The described method uses an RPC correction based on DSM alignment instead of using reference images with a lower lateral accuracy, this results in improved geolocation of the DSMs and orthoimages. Following RPC correction, highly detailed DSMs with 5 m grid spacing are derived using Semiglobal Matching. The proposed method is part of an operational Cartosat-1 processor for the generation of a high resolution DSM. Evaluation of 18 scenes against independent ground truth measurements indicates a mean lateral error (CE90) of 6.7 meters and a mean vertical accuracy (LE90) of 5.1 meters.

  14. Revealing of the transition from n- to p-type conduction of InN:Mg by photoconductivity effect measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, L.; Wang, X. Q.; Zheng, X. T.; Yang, X. L.; Xu, F. J.; Tang, N.; Lu, L. W.; Ge, W. K.; Shen, B.; Dmowski, L. H.; Suski, T.

    2014-03-01

    We report evidence of the transition from n- to p-type conduction of InN with increasing Mg dopant concentration by using photoconductivity (PC) measurement at room temperature. This transition is depicted as a conversion from negative to positive PC under above-bandgap optical excitation. The n- to p-type transition in InN:Mg is further confirmed by thermopower measurements. PC detection method is a bulk effect since the optical absorption of the surface electron accumulation is negligibly low due to its rather small thickness, and thus shows advantage to detect p-type conduction. This technique is certainly helpful to study p-type doping of InN, which is still a subject of discussions.

  15. Revealing of the transition from n- to p-type conduction of InN:Mg by photoconductivity effect measurement.

    PubMed

    Guo, L; Wang, X Q; Zheng, X T; Yang, X L; Xu, F J; Tang, N; Lu, L W; Ge, W K; Shen, B; Dmowski, L H; Suski, T

    2014-03-13

    We report evidence of the transition from n- to p-type conduction of InN with increasing Mg dopant concentration by using photoconductivity (PC) measurement at room temperature. This transition is depicted as a conversion from negative to positive PC under above-bandgap optical excitation. The n- to p-type transition in InN:Mg is further confirmed by thermopower measurements. PC detection method is a bulk effect since the optical absorption of the surface electron accumulation is negligibly low due to its rather small thickness, and thus shows advantage to detect p-type conduction. This technique is certainly helpful to study p-type doping of InN, which is still a subject of discussions.

  16. Revealing of the transition from n- to p-type conduction of InN:Mg by photoconductivity effect measurement

    PubMed Central

    Guo, L.; Wang, X. Q.; Zheng, X. T.; Yang, X. L.; Xu, F. J.; Tang, N.; Lu, L. W.; Ge, W. K.; Shen, B.; Dmowski, L. H.; Suski, T.

    2014-01-01

    We report evidence of the transition from n- to p-type conduction of InN with increasing Mg dopant concentration by using photoconductivity (PC) measurement at room temperature. This transition is depicted as a conversion from negative to positive PC under above-bandgap optical excitation. The n- to p-type transition in InN:Mg is further confirmed by thermopower measurements. PC detection method is a bulk effect since the optical absorption of the surface electron accumulation is negligibly low due to its rather small thickness, and thus shows advantage to detect p-type conduction. This technique is certainly helpful to study p-type doping of InN, which is still a subject of discussions. PMID:24621830

  17. Mechanisms for p -type behavior of ZnO, Zn1 -xMgxO , and related oxide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Daniel F.; Körner, Wolfgang; Elsässer, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The possibilities of turning intrinsically n -type oxide semiconductors like ZnO and Zn1 -xMgxO into p -type materials are investigated. Motivated by recent experiments on Zn1 -xMgxO doped with nitrogen, we analyze the electronic defect levels of point defects NO,vZn, and NO-vZn pairs in ZnO and Zn1 -xMgxO by means of self-interaction-corrected density functional theory calculations. We show how the interplay of defects can lead to shallow acceptor defect levels, although the levels of individual point defects NO are too deep in the band gap to be responsible for p -type conduction. We relate our results to p -type conduction paths at grain boundaries seen in polycrystalline ZnO and develop an understanding of a p -type mechanism which is common to ZnO, Zn1 -xMgxO , and related materials.

  18. Sputtering deposition of P-type SnO films with SnO₂ target in hydrogen-containing atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Po-Ching; Hsu, Chao-Jui; Chang, Ching-Hsiang; Tsai, Shiao-Po; Chen, Wei-Chung; Hsieh, Hsing-Hung; Wu, Chung-Chih

    2014-08-27

    In this work, we had investigated sputtering deposition of p-type SnO using the widely used and robust SnO2 target in a hydrogen-containing reducing atmosphere. The effects of the hydrogen-containing sputtering gas on structures, compositions, optical, and electrical properties of deposited SnOx films were studied. Results show that polycrystalline and SnO-dominant films could be readily obtained by carefully controlling the hydrogen gas ratio in the sputtering gas and the extent of reduction reaction. P-type conductivity was unambiguously observed for SnO-dominant films with traceable Sn components, exhibiting a p-type Hall mobility of up to ∼3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). P-type SnO thin-film transistors using such SnO-dominant films were also demonstrated.

  19. Growth and Characterization of the p-type Semiconductors Tin Sulfide and Bismuth Copper Oxy Selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Jason

    BiCuOSe and SnS are layered, moderate band gap (epsilon G ≈ 1 eV) semiconductors that exhibit intrinsic p type conductivity. Doping of BiCuOSe with Ca results in a slight expansion of the lattice and an increase of the hole concentration from 10 18 cm--3 to greater than 1020 cm --3. The large carrier density in undoped films is the result of copper vacancies. Mobility is unaffected by doping, remaining constant at 1.5 cm2V--1s--1 in both undoped and doped films, because the Bi-O layers serve as the source of carriers, while transport occurs within the Cu-Se layers. Bi possesses a 6s2 lone pair that was expected to hybridize with the oxygen p states at the top of the valence band, resulting in high hole mobility as compared to similar materials such as LaCuOSe, which lack this lone pair. However, both LaCuOSe and BiCuOSe have similar hole mobility. X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy, combined with density functional theory calculations, reveal that the Bi 6 s states contribute deep within the valence band, forming bonding and anti-bonding states with O 2p at 11 eV and 3 eV below the valence band maximum, respectively. Hence, the Bi lone pair does not contribute at the top of the valence band and does not enhance the hole mobility. The Bi 6p states contribute at the bottom of the conduction band, resulting in a smaller band gap for BiCuOSe than LaCuOSe (1 eV vs. 3 eV). SnS is a potential photovoltaic absorber composed of weakly coupled layers stacked along the long axis. This weak coupling results in the formation of strongly oriented films on amorphous substrates. The optical band gap is 1.2 eV, in agreement with GW calculations. Absorption reaches 105 cm--1 within 0.5 eV of the band gap. The p type conduction arises from energetically favorable tin vacancies. Variation of growth conditions yields carrier densities of 1014 -- 1016 cm--3 and hole mobility of 7 -- 15 cm2V--1s--1. SnS was alloyed with rocksalt CaS, which was predicted to form a rocksalt

  20. Cardiac actomyosin ATPase activity after chronic doxorubicin treatment.

    PubMed

    Bergson, A; Inchiosa, M A

    1985-04-01

    Doxorubicin (Adriamycin), a potent antineoplastic drug, produces progressive cardiotoxicity which may lead to ultimate cardiac failure. The effects of chronic doxorubicin treatment on cardiac actomyosin ATPase were the principal focus of the present studies. This approach was based on the established correlation between cardiac contractility and contractile protein ATPase activity. Rabbits were injected intravenously with doxorubicin (4 mg/kg) at weekly intervals for 1-7 weeks. Body weight increase was attenuated in the treated animals; heart weight/body weight ratio was unchanged. Actomyosin and water contents of ventricular muscle were not different in doxorubicin-treated as compared with vehicle control animals. Cellular damage was detected histologically after one dose of doxorubicin (equivalent to a single clinical dose), and was extensive after 4-5 weeks of treatment. Animals which received 1-2 injections of doxorubicin demonstrated a 29% average increase in actomyosin ATPase activity as compared to vehicle controls; this difference was highly significant (p less than 0.001). Further treatment with doxorubicin tended to progressively decrease ATPase activity. It is suggested that the increased actomyosin ATPase activity seen with low total doses of doxorubicin may represent a compensatory mechanism for maintenance of contractility; this interpretation is supported by the clinical observation that the morphologic evidence of progressive doxorubicin toxicity is not associated with a parallel decrease in contractility, until severe cumulative toxicity has been induced.

  1. Hormonal regulation of Na -K -ATPase in cultured epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.P.; Jones, D.; Wiesmann, W.P.

    1986-08-01

    Aldosterone and insulin stimulate Na transport through mechanisms involving protein synthesis. Na -K -ATPase has been implicated in the action of both hormones. The authors examined the effect of aldosterone and insulin on Na -K -ATPase in epithelial cells in culture derived from toad urinary bladder (TB6C) and toad kidney (A6). Aldosterone, but not insulin, increases short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) in TB6C cells. Aldosterone increases Na -K -(TSP)ATPase activity after 18 h of incubation, but no effect can be seen at 3 and 6 h. Amiloride, which inhibits aldosterone-induced increases in I/sub sc/, has no effect on either basal or aldosterone stimulated enzyme activity. Both aldosterone and insulin increase I/sub sc/ in A6 cells and when added together are synergistic. Aldosterone stimulates enzyme activity in A6 cells, but insulin alone has no effect. However, aldosterone and insulin together stimulate enzyme activity more than aldosterone alone. It appears that stimulation of Na -K -ATPase activity is involved in aldosterone action in both cell lines but does not appear to be due to increased Na entry, since enhanced enzyme activity is not inhibited by amiloride. In contrast, insulin alone has no direct effect on Na -K -ATPase, although the increased enzyme activity following both agents in combination may explain their synergism on I/sub sc/.

  2. Plasma Membrane Ca-ATPase of Radish Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Rasi-Caldogno, Franca; Carnelli, Antonella; De Michelis, Maria I.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of calmodulin on the activity of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase was investigated on plasma membranes purified from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings. Calmodulin stimulated the hydrolytic activity and the transport activity of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase to comparable extents in a manner dependent on the free Ca2+ concentration. Stimulation was marked at low, nonsaturating Ca2+ concentrations and decreased increasing Ca2+, so that the effect of calmodulin resulted in an increase of the apparent affinity of the enzyme for free Ca2+. The pattern of calmodulin stimulation of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase activity was substantially the same at pH 6.9 and 7.5, in the presence of ATP or ITP, and when calmodulin from radish seeds was used rather than that from bovine brain. At pH 6.9 in the presence of 5 micromolar free Ca2+, stimulation of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase was saturated by 30 to 50 micrograms per milliliter bovine brain calmodulin. The calmodulin antagonist calmidazolium inhibited both basal and calmodulin-stimulated plasma membrane Ca-ATPase activity to comparable extents. PMID:16668747

  3. Functional coupling of V-ATPase and CLC-5.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Masashi; Nakamura, Motonobu; Suzuki, Atsushi; Horita, Shoko; Seki, George; Moriya, Kyoji

    2017-01-06

    Dent's disease is an X-linked renal tubulopathy characterized by low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria and progressive renal failure. Disease aetiology is associated with mutations in the CLCN5 gene coding for the electrogenic 2Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter chloride channel 5 (CLC-5), which is expressed in the apical endosomes of renal proximal tubules with the vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). Initially identified as a member of the CLC family of Cl(-) channels, CLC-5 was presumed to provide Cl(-) shunt into the endosomal lumen to dissipate H(+) accumulation by V-ATPase, thereby facilitating efficient endosomal acidification. However, recent findings showing that CLC-5 is in fact not a Cl(-) channel but a 2Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter challenged this classical shunt model, leading to a renewed and intense debate on its physiological roles. Cl(-) accumulation via CLC-5 is predicted to play a critical role in endocytosis, as illustrated in mice carrying an artificial Cl(-) channel mutation E211A that developed defective endocytosis but normal endosomal acidification. Conversely, a recent functional analysis of a newly identified disease-causing Cl(-) channel mutation E211Q in a patient with typical Dent's disease confirmed the functional coupling between V-ATPase and CLC-5 in endosomal acidification, lending support to the classical shunt model. In this editorial, we will address the current recognition of the physiological role of CLC-5 with a specific focus on the functional coupling of V-ATPase and CLC-5.

  4. Defect studies in copper-based p-type transparent conducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameena, Fnu

    Among other intrinsic open-volume defects, copper vacancy (VCu) has been theoretically identified as the major acceptor in p-type Cu-based semiconducting transparent oxides, which has potential as low-cost photovoltaic absorbers in semi-transparent solar cells. A series of positron annihilation experiments with pure Cu, Cu2O, and CuO presented strong presence of VCu and its complexes in the copper oxides. The lifetime data also showed that the density of VCu was becoming higher as the oxidation state of Cu increased which was consistent with the decrease in the formation energy of VCu. Doppler broadening measurements further indicated that electrons with low momentum made more contribution to the contributed as pure Cu oxidizes to copper oxides. The metastable defects are known to be generated in Cu2O upon illumination and it has been known to affect the performance of Cu2O-based hetero-junctions used in solar cells. The metastable effect was studied using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and its data showed the change in the defect population upon light exposure and the minimal effect of light-induced electron density increase in the bulk of materials to the average lifetime of the positrons. The change in the defect population is concluded to be related to the dissociation and association of VCu -- V Cu complexes. For example, the shorter lifetime under light was ascribed to the annihilation with smaller size vacancies, which explains the dissociation of the complexes with light illumination. Doppler broadening of the annihilation was independent of light illumination, which suggested that the chemical nature of the defects remained without change upon their dissociation and association -- only the size distribution of copper vacancies varied. The delafossite metal oxides, CuMIIIO2 are emerging wide-bandgap p-type semiconductors. In this research, the formation energies of structural vacancies are calculated using Van Vechten cavity model as an attempt

  5. Few-Layer MoS₂ p-Type Devices Enabled by Selective Doping Using Low Energy Phosphorus Implantation.

    PubMed

    Nipane, Ankur; Karmakar, Debjani; Kaushik, Naveen; Karande, Shruti; Lodha, Saurabh

    2016-02-23

    P-type doping of MoS2 has proved to be a significant bottleneck in the realization of fundamental devices such as p-n junction diodes and p-type transistors due to its intrinsic n-type behavior. We report a CMOS compatible, controllable and area selective phosphorus plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process for p-type doping of MoS2. Physical characterization using SIMS, AFM, XRD and Raman techniques was used to identify process conditions with reduced lattice defects as well as low surface damage and etching, 4X lower than previous plasma based doping reports for MoS2. A wide range of nondegenerate to degenerate p-type doping is demonstrated in MoS2 field effect transistors exhibiting dominant hole transport. Nearly ideal and air stable, lateral homogeneous p-n junction diodes with a gate-tunable rectification ratio as high as 2 × 10(4) are demonstrated using area selective doping. Comparison of XPS data from unimplanted and implanted MoS2 layers shows a shift of 0.67 eV toward lower binding energies for Mo and S peaks indicating p-type doping. First-principles calculations using density functional theory techniques confirm p-type doping due to charge transfer originating from substitutional as well as physisorbed phosphorus in top few layers of MoS2. Pre-existing sulfur vacancies are shown to enhance the doping level significantly.

  6. Autoinhibition of a calmodulin-dependent calcium pump involves a structure in the stalk that connects the transmembrane domain to the ATPase catalytic domain.

    PubMed

    Curran, A C; Hwang, I; Corbin, J; Martinez, S; Rayle, D; Sze, H; Harper, J F

    2000-09-29

    The regulation of Ca(2+)-pumps is important for controlling [Ca(2+)] in the cytosol and organelles of all eukaryotes. Here, we report a genetic strategy to identify residues that function in autoinhibition of a novel calmodulin-activated Ca(2+)-pump with an N-terminal regulatory domain (isoform ACA2 from Arabidopsis). Mutant pumps with constitutive activity were identified by complementation of a yeast (K616) deficient in two Ca(2+)-pumps. Fifteen mutations were found that disrupted a segment of the N-terminal autoinhibitor located between Lys(23) and Arg(54). Three mutations (E167K, D219N, and E341K) were found associated with the stalk that connects the ATPase catalytic domain (head) and with the transmembrane domain. Enzyme assays indicated that the stalk mutations resulted in calmodulin-independent activity, with V(max), K(mATP), and K(mCa(2+)) similar to that of a pump in which the N-terminal autoinhibitor had been deleted. A highly conservative substitution at Asp(219) (D219E) still produced a deregulated pump, indicating that the autoinhibitory structure in the stalk is highly sensitive to perturbation. In plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases from yeast and plants, similarly positioned mutations resulted in hyperactive pumps. Together, these results suggest that a structural feature of the stalk is of general importance in regulating diverse P-type ATPases.

  7. Autoinhibition of a calmodulin-dependent calcium pump involves a structure in the stalk that connects the transmembrane domain to the ATPase catalytic domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, A. C.; Hwang, I.; Corbin, J.; Martinez, S.; Rayle, D.; Sze, H.; Harper, J. F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of Ca(2+)-pumps is important for controlling [Ca(2+)] in the cytosol and organelles of all eukaryotes. Here, we report a genetic strategy to identify residues that function in autoinhibition of a novel calmodulin-activated Ca(2+)-pump with an N-terminal regulatory domain (isoform ACA2 from Arabidopsis). Mutant pumps with constitutive activity were identified by complementation of a yeast (K616) deficient in two Ca(2+)-pumps. Fifteen mutations were found that disrupted a segment of the N-terminal autoinhibitor located between Lys(23) and Arg(54). Three mutations (E167K, D219N, and E341K) were found associated with the stalk that connects the ATPase catalytic domain (head) and with the transmembrane domain. Enzyme assays indicated that the stalk mutations resulted in calmodulin-independent activity, with V(max), K(mATP), and K(mCa(2+)) similar to that of a pump in which the N-terminal autoinhibitor had been deleted. A highly conservative substitution at Asp(219) (D219E) still produced a deregulated pump, indicating that the autoinhibitory structure in the stalk is highly sensitive to perturbation. In plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases from yeast and plants, similarly positioned mutations resulted in hyperactive pumps. Together, these results suggest that a structural feature of the stalk is of general importance in regulating diverse P-type ATPases.

  8. Cloning the PvP5CS gene from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and its expression patterns under abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Bao; Wang, Shu-Min; Jing, Rui-Lian; Mao, Xin-Guo

    2009-01-01

    A full-length cDNA denominated PvP5CS for Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of proline, was cloned from common bean using a candidate gene approach. PvP5CS contains an open reading frame encoding a 716 amino acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that PvP5CS shares 95.1% homology in nucleotide sequence and 93.2% identity in amino acid sequence with the mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia) P5CS. The expression patterns of PvP5CS in common bean treated with drought, cold (4 degrees C), and salt (200 mM NaCl) stresses were examined using real-time quantitative PCR. These abiotic stresses caused significant up-regulation of the expression of PvP5CS in leaves. The PvP5CS mRNA transcript increased to 2.5 times the control level after 4d drought stress. A rapid up-regulation of PvP5CS, to about 16.3 times the control at 2h post-treatment was observed under salt stress. A significant increase in PvP5CS expression (11.7-fold) was detected after 2h of cold stress. The peaks of proline accumulation appeared at 8d for drought, 24h for cold and 9h for salt stress, somewhat later than the peaks of PvP5CS expression. These results suggest that PvP5CS was a stress-inducible gene regulating the accumulation of proline in plants subjected to stress. Finally, subcellular localization assays showed that the PvP5CS protein was present in the nucleus and at the plasmalemma.

  9. p-TYPE Nitrogen-Doped ZnO Microrods Preparation by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, F.; Dariani, R. S.; Rozati, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Nitrogen doped ZnO films with different N/Zn atomic ratio have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrate at 500°C. N/Zn atomic ratio has been selected 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3. The effect of N/Zn ratio on structural, optical and electrical properties has been investigated. Hall effect measurement studies show that the conductivity type of the films is affected by N/Zn ratio. The conductivity type of films changes from n for N/Zn = 0 and 0.5 to p for N/Zn = 1 and 2. Further increasing in N/Zn to 3 again led to n-type conductivity. p-type ZnO:N microrods film prepared with N/Zn = 1 has highest carrier concentration (1.36 × 1016 cm-3) and lowest resistivity (628 Ω.cm). All films are polycrystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure. (002) plane is preferential orientation for all films. Surface morphology changes from rods to grains by increasing in N/Zn ratio. Optical transmission of the films increases with increasing in N/Zn ratio. Photoluminescence spectra at room temperature show the ultraviolet emission and two visible emissions at 440 nm and 520 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirms the incorporation of nitrogen in ZnO:N film with N/Zn = 1.

  10. High-throughput search of ternary chalcogenides for p-type transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jingming; Cerqueira, Tiago F T; Cui, Wenwen; Nogueira, Fernando; Botti, Silvana; Marques, Miguel A L

    2017-03-07

    Delafossite crystals are fascinating ternary oxides that have demonstrated transparent conductivity and ambipolar doping. Here we use a high-throughput approach based on density functional theory to find delafossite and related layered phases of composition ABX2, where A and B are elements of the periodic table, and X is a chalcogen (O, S, Se, and Te). From the 15 624 compounds studied in the trigonal delafossite prototype structure, 285 are within 50 meV/atom from the convex hull of stability. These compounds are further investigated using global structural prediction methods to obtain their lowest-energy crystal structure. We find 79 systems not present in the materials project database that are thermodynamically stable and crystallize in the delafossite or in closely related structures. These novel phases are then characterized by calculating their band gaps and hole effective masses. This characterization unveils a large diversity of properties, ranging from normal metals, magnetic metals, and some candidate compounds for p-type transparent electrodes.

  11. Interstitial oxygen as a source of p-type conductivity in hexagonal manganites

    PubMed Central

    Skjærvø, Sandra H.; Wefring, Espen T.; Nesdal, Silje K.; Gaukås, Nikolai H.; Olsen, Gerhard H.; Glaum, Julia; Tybell, Thomas; Selbach, Sverre M.

    2016-01-01

    Hexagonal manganites, h-RMnO3 (R=Sc, Y, Ho–Lu), have been intensively studied for their multiferroic properties, magnetoelectric coupling, topological defects and electrically conducting domain walls. Although point defects strongly affect the conductivity of transition metal oxides, the defect chemistry of h-RMnO3 has received little attention. We use a combination of experiments and first principles electronic structure calculations to elucidate the effect of interstitial oxygen anions, Oi, on the electrical and structural properties of h-YMnO3. Enthalpy stabilized interstitial oxygen anions are shown to be the main source of p-type electronic conductivity, without reducing the spontaneous ferroelectric polarization. A low energy barrier interstitialcy mechanism is inferred from Density Functional Theory calculations to be the microscopic migration path of Oi. Since the Oi content governs the concentration of charge carrier holes, controlling the thermal and atmospheric history provides a simple and fully reversible way of tuning the electrical properties of h-RMnO3. PMID:27924812

  12. High performance p-type NiOx thin-film transistor by Sn doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tengda; Li, Xiuling; Jang, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Major obstacles towards power efficient complementary electronics employing oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) lie in the lack of equivalent well performing p-channel devices. Here, we report a significant performance enhancement of solution-processed p-type nickel oxide (NiOx) TFTs by introducing Sn dopant. The Sn-doped NiOx (Sn-NiOx) TFTs annealed at 280 °C demonstrate substantially improved electrical performances with the increase in the on/off current ratio (Ion/Ioff) by ˜100 times, field-effect mobility (μlin) by ˜3 times, and the decrease in subthreshold swing by half, comparing with those of pristine NiOx TFTs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results confirm that Sn atoms tend to substitute Ni sites and induce more amorphous phase. A decrease in density of states in the gap of NiOx by Sn doping and the shift of Fermi level (EF) into the midgap lead to the improvements of TFT performances. As a result, Sn-NiOx can be a promising material for the next-generation, oxide-based electronics.

  13. Alteration of P-type calcium channel gating by the spider toxin omega-Aga-IVA.

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, S I; Mintz, I M; Bean, B P

    1997-01-01

    We studied the mechanism of inhibition of P-type calcium channels in rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons by the peptide toxin omega-Aga-IVA. Saturating concentrations of omega-Aga-IVA (> 50 nM) inhibited inward current carried by 2-5 mM Ba almost completely. However, outward current at depolarizations of > +60 mV, carried by internal Cs, was inhibited much less, as was the tail current after such depolarizations. omega-Aga-IVA shifted the midpoint of the tail current activation curve by about +50 mV and made the curve less steep. The inactivation curve was also shifted in the depolarized direction and was made less steep. With omega-Aga-IVA, channels activated more slowly and deactivated more quickly than in control. Trains of repeated large depolarizations relieved the inhibition of current (as tested with moderate depolarizations), probably reflecting the unbinding of toxin. The relief of inhibition was faster with increasing depolarization, but did not require internal permeant ions. We conclude that omega-Aga-IVA alters voltage-dependent gating by stabilizing closed states of the channel and that omega-Aga-IVA dissociates much more rapidly from open channels than from closed. PMID:9129813

  14. High-throughput search of ternary chalcogenides for p-type transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jingming; Cerqueira, Tiago F. T.; Cui, Wenwen; Nogueira, Fernando; Botti, Silvana; Marques, Miguel A. L.

    2017-03-01

    Delafossite crystals are fascinating ternary oxides that have demonstrated transparent conductivity and ambipolar doping. Here we use a high-throughput approach based on density functional theory to find delafossite and related layered phases of composition ABX2, where A and B are elements of the periodic table, and X is a chalcogen (O, S, Se, and Te). From the 15 624 compounds studied in the trigonal delafossite prototype structure, 285 are within 50 meV/atom from the convex hull of stability. These compounds are further investigated using global structural prediction methods to obtain their lowest-energy crystal structure. We find 79 systems not present in the materials project database that are thermodynamically stable and crystallize in the delafossite or in closely related structures. These novel phases are then characterized by calculating their band gaps and hole effective masses. This characterization unveils a large diversity of properties, ranging from normal metals, magnetic metals, and some candidate compounds for p-type transparent electrodes.

  15. Quasiparticle band structures and thermoelectric transport properties of p-type SnSe

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Guangsha; Kioupakis, Emmanouil

    2015-02-14

    We used density functional and many-body perturbation theory to calculate the quasiparticle band structures and electronic transport parameters of p-type SnSe both for the low-temperature Pnma and high-temperature Cmcm phases. The Pnma phase has an indirect band gap of 0.829 eV, while the Cmcm has a direct band gap of 0.464 eV. Both phases exhibit multiple local band extrema within an energy range comparable to the thermal energy of carriers from the global extrema. We calculated the electronic transport coefficients as a function of doping concentration and temperature for single-crystal and polycrystalline materials to understand the previous experimental measurements. The electronic transport coefficients are highly anisotropic and are strongly affected by bipolar transport effects at high temperature. Our results indicate that SnSe exhibits optimal thermoelectric performance at high temperature when doped in the 10{sup 19}–10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3} range.

  16. Growth of p-type ZnOS films by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kenkichiro; Ohtsuki, Tohru; Tomita, Yasumasa; Kohno, Yosiumi; Maeda, Yasuhisa; Matsushima, Shigenori

    2017-01-01

    ZnO1-xSx films were deposited on quartz substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of ZnO1-xSx targets. The ZnO1-xSx films with S-contents of 0.03-0.17 were grown from the ZnO1-xSx targets sulfured at temperatures of 200 and 500 °C. The resistivity of the ZnO1-xSx films is slightly increased with the S-content. An increase of the O2-partial pressure in an atmosphere reduces the S-content in the films and drastically enhances the resistivity of the films. However, the carrier type of the films is still n-type. In order to incorporate excess S atoms into films, evaporation of Sulfur was performed during the PLD process. As a temperature of the S-evaporation is raised, the resistivity of the films is significantly enhanced and hole-conductivity appears in the films grown by the S-evaporation at 80 and 90 °C. By X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements, the presence of SOx species is confirmed for the p-type ZnO1-xSx film. Both interstitial SO3 or SO4 clusters and complexes of Zn-vacancy with H are considered to be appropriate acceptors responsible for the hole-conductivity at room temperature.

  17. Evidence for an iron-hydrogen complex in p-type silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, S. Markevich, V. P.; Peaker, A. R.; Hamilton, B.; Murphy, J. D.

    2015-07-20

    Interactions of hydrogen with iron have been studied in Fe contaminated p-type Czochralski silicon using capacitance-voltage profiling and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Hydrogen has been introduced into the samples from a silicon nitride layer grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. After annealing of the Schottky diodes on Si:Fe + H samples under reverse bias in the temperature range of 90–120 °C, a trap has been observed in the DLTS spectra which we have assigned to a Fe-H complex. The trap is only observed when a high concentration of hydrogen is present in the near surface region. The trap concentration is higher in samples with a higher concentration of single interstitial Fe atoms. The defect has a deep donor level at E{sub v} + 0.31 eV. Direct measurements of capture cross section of holes have shown that the capture cross section is not temperature dependent and its value is 5.2 × 10{sup −17} cm{sup 2}. It is found from an isochronal annealing study that the Fe-H complex is not very stable and can be eliminated completely by annealing for 30 min at 125 °C.

  18. High-throughput search of ternary chalcogenides for p-type transparent electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jingming; Cerqueira, Tiago F. T.; Cui, Wenwen; Nogueira, Fernando; Botti, Silvana; Marques, Miguel A. L.

    2017-01-01

    Delafossite crystals are fascinating ternary oxides that have demonstrated transparent conductivity and ambipolar doping. Here we use a high-throughput approach based on density functional theory to find delafossite and related layered phases of composition ABX2, where A and B are elements of the periodic table, and X is a chalcogen (O, S, Se, and Te). From the 15 624 compounds studied in the trigonal delafossite prototype structure, 285 are within 50 meV/atom from the convex hull of stability. These compounds are further investigated using global structural prediction methods to obtain their lowest-energy crystal structure. We find 79 systems not present in the materials project database that are thermodynamically stable and crystallize in the delafossite or in closely related structures. These novel phases are then characterized by calculating their band gaps and hole effective masses. This characterization unveils a large diversity of properties, ranging from normal metals, magnetic metals, and some candidate compounds for p-type transparent electrodes. PMID:28266587

  19. P-type InGaAsP coolers for integrated optic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashaee, Daryoosh; LaBounty, Christopher J.; Fang, Xiaofeng; Zeng, Gehong; Abraham, Patrick; Bowers, John E.; Shakouri, Ali

    2001-05-01

    Single stage thin film coolers based on thermoelectric and thermionic cooling in p-type InGaAsP superlattice structures have been fabricated. Devices with different sizes and at various ambient temperatures have been characterized. Experimental results showed 0.5 degree centigrade cooling below the ambient temperature at 25C. This cooling over 1 4mu2m thick superlattice barrier corresponds to cooling power densities on the order of 200 W/cm2. The device cools by a factor of two better at higher temperatures (70C). This is due to the reduction of the superlattice thermal conductivity and the broadening of the electronic distribution function at higher temperatures. 150x150 micrometers 2 devices provide largest cooling at room temperature while the optimum device size shrinks as the temperature increases. Simulations results that take into account finite thermal resistance of the InP substrate, the effect of the contact resistance, heat generation in the wire-bonds and metallic pads on top of the device predict accurately the optimum cooling of these micro refrigerators. By eliminating the major parasitic sources of heating (Joule heating in the substrate, heat conduction through the side contact and reducing the contact resistance to 5x7-7 ohm-cm2) simulations show that, ultimately, one can achieve 15 degree(s)C cooling (10's of kW/cm2 cooling power) with single stage p-InGaAsP thin film coolers.

  20. Raman Spectroscopy Determination of Hole Concentration in p-Type GaSb

    SciTech Connect

    Maslar JE, Hurst WS, Wang CA

    2007-04-05

    Room temperature p-type GaSb bulk coupled mode spectra were measured as a function of hole concentration. These spectra were obtained using an optical system based on 752.55 nm excitation in order to obtain more sensitivity to bulk GaSb coupled mode scattering than possible with visible wavelength excitation-based systems. A relatively simple spectral model for the electronic contribution to the dielectric function was evaluated for determination of hole concentration from the bulk coupled mode spectra. Optically-derived values for hole concentration were determined by minimizing the sum of the residuals squared between an experimental and simulated spectrum as a function of total hole concentration and a plasmon damping parameter. Hole concentrations obtained from the Raman spectroscopic measurements deviated from the values determined from single field Hall effect measurements that were corrected to account for two band conduction by {approx}20% to {approx}65%. These deviations were attributed to the limitations of the spectral model employed and uncertainties in GaSb materials properties.

  1. ZnTe Alloying Effect on Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type PbTe.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kyunghan; Shin, Hocheol; Im, Jino; Park, Sang Hyun; Chung, In

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the effect of ZnTe incorporation on PbTe to enhance thermoelectric performance. We report structural, microscopic, and spectroscopic characterizations, ab initio theoretical calculations, and thermoelectric transport properties of Pb0.985Na0.015Te-x% ZnTe (x = 0, 1, 2, 4). We find that the solid solubility limit of ZnTe in PbTe is less than 1 mol %. The introduction of 2% ZnTe in p-type Pb0.985Na0.015Te reduces the lattice thermal conductivity through the ZnTe precipitates at the microscale. Consequently, a maximum thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 1.73 at 700 K is achieved for the spark plasma-sintered Pb0.985Na0.015Te-2% ZnTe, which arises from a decreased lattice thermal conductivity of ∼0.69 W m(-1) K(-1) at ∼700 K in comparison with Pb0.985Na0.015Te.

  2. Heavy hole effect on the thermoelectric properties of highly doped p-type lead telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babenko, N. I.; Dmitriev, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    We study theoretically the thermoelectric properties of heavily doped p-type PbTe in the temperature interval of 300 to 900 K. In our calculations, we use the three-band model of PbTe electron energy spectrum that takes into account the heavy-hole Σ-band. On the base of the Boltzmann kinetic equation, the full set of the relevant kinetic characteristics is calculated including the electrical and thermal conductivities, the Seebeck coefficient, and the thermoelectric figure-of-merit. The thermoelectric characteristics appear to be very sensitive to parameters of the heavy hole band. The best fit with experiment was obtained at mh h=5 m0 and Eg Σ=0.5 eV. All calculated thermoelectric quantities then agree very well with the available experimental data. In particular, we were able to reproduce the significant increase of the figure-of-merit up to Z T ≈1.2 that was experimentally observed recently in heavily p-doped PbTe. Our results show that ZT maximum corresponds to the temperature wherein the light hole and heavy hole band edges coincide so that a prominent density-of-states singularity is formed in the valence band.

  3. Photoluminescence studies of compensated p-type ZnSe:N(P) under hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuskovsky, Igor; Neumark, G. F.; Tischler, J.; Iota, V.; Weinstein, B. A.

    2000-03-01

    It is well known that to this day p-type ZnSe, even with the best acceptor dopant, nitrogen, can not be doped higher than 10^18 cm-3, even with a 100% acceptor activation ratio. The knowledge of the defect structure of highly doped and compensated ZnSe:N can help to understand this limitation. We report here the results of PL studies done under hydrostatic pressure. We have found the presence of a resonant donor defect in heavily doped and compensated ZnSe:N; this donor has a level of ~20-140 meV above the conduction band edge at ambient pressure. The red-shifted donor-acceptor-pair photoluminescence observed in these samples is quenched by the resonant defect for pressures higher than ~25 kbar. A split N-N interstitial on a Se site is discussed as a reasonable candidate for such a defect. Auger recombination is proposed as a quenching mechanism. These findings are compared with earlier results on intermediately doped ZnSe:N, and with data on compensated ZnSe:P. We suggest that, for high doping, the similar PL quenching seen above ~30kbar in ZnSe:P could be due to an analogous donor defect. Two of the authors (IK & GFN) acknowledge support from DOE grant DE-FG02-98ER45694

  4. Thermal model for breakdown in p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon films with coplanar electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, A.; Asomoza, R.

    2000-09-01

    p-Type glow discharge hydrogenated amorphous silicon films with nearly placed (˜5 μm) coplanar metallic electrodes were led to breakdown under the effect of voltage bias. Non-ohmicity in the I- V plot was analyzed in order to look for the transport mechanism helping to produce breakdown in the films. A thermal model is shown to fit reasonably the electrical behavior of samples prior to breakdown. Two parts are developed in this approximation: the first one assumes that during the initial homogeneous heating of the semiconductor due to Joule effect, stationary states are reached. The heat is assumed to dissipate from the metallic contacts through a Newton's convection mechanism. From the experimental data and the model proposed, the I- V plot is fitted, the heat transfer area and constant are calculated and the temperature-voltage plot is determined. In the second part, the heat conduction equation along the distance between the contacts is numerically solved in one dimension with this information. The result provides an estimate of the time required by the sample to reach a certain steady-state limiting temperature above which much faster heating produces breakdown. This time correlates well to the delay time reported in the literature.

  5. High-Performance p-Type Black Phosphorus Transistor with Scandium Contact.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Engel, Michael; Farmer, Damon B; Han, Shu-Jen; Wong, H-S Philip

    2016-04-26

    A record high current density of 580 μA/μm is achieved for long-channel, few-layer black phosphorus transistors with scandium contacts after 400 K vacuum annealing. The annealing effectively improves the on-state current and Ion/Ioff ratio by 1 order of magnitude and the subthreshold swing by ∼2.5×, whereas Al2O3 capping significantly degrades transistor performances, resulting in 5× lower on-state current and 3× lower Ion/Ioff ratio. The influences of moisture on black phosphorus metal contacts are elucidated by analyzing the hysteresis of 3-20 nm thick black phosphorus transistors with scandium and gold contacts under different conditions: as-fabricated, after vacuum annealing, and after Al2O3 capping. The optimal black phosphorus film thickness for transistors with scandium contacts is found to be ∼10 nm. Moreover, p-type performance is shown in all transistors with scandium contacts, suggesting that the Fermi level is pinned closer to the valence band regardless of the flake thickness.

  6. Observations of exciton and carrier spin relaxation in Be doped p-type GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Asaka, Naohiro; Harasawa, Ryo; Tackeuchi, Atsushi; Lu, Shulong; Dai, Pan

    2014-03-17

    We have investigated the exciton and carrier spin relaxation in Be-doped p-type GaAs. Time-resolved spin-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed spin relaxation behaviors between 10 and 100 K. Two PL peaks were observed at 1.511 eV (peak 1) and 1.497 eV (peak 2) at 10 K, and are attributed to the recombination of excitons bound to neutral Be acceptors (peak 1) and the band-to-acceptor transition (peak 2). The spin relaxation times of both PL peaks were measured to be 1.3–3.1 ns at 10–100 K, and found to originate from common electron spin relaxation. The observed existence of a carrier density dependence of the spin relaxation time at 10–77 K indicates that the Bir-Aronov-Pikus process is the dominant spin relaxation mechanism.

  7. Ferromagnetic ordering of Cr and Fe doped p-type diamond: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Benecha, E. M.; Lombardi, E. B.

    2014-02-21

    Ferromagnetic ordering of transition metal dopants in semiconductors holds the prospect of combining the capabilities of semiconductors and magnetic systems in single hybrid devices for spintronic applications. Various semiconductors have so far been considered for spintronic applications, but low Curie temperatures have hindered room temperature applications. We report ab initio DFT calculations on the stability and magnetic properties of Fe and Cr impurities in diamond, and show that their ground state magnetic ordering and stabilization energies depend strongly on the charge state and type of co-doping. We predict that divacancy Cr{sup +2} and substitutional Fe{sup +1} order ferromagnetically in p-type diamond, with magnetic stabilization energies (and magnetic moment per impurity ion) of 16.9 meV (2.5 μ{sub B}) and 33.3 meV (1.0 μ{sub B}), respectively. These magnetic stabilization energies are much larger than what has been achieved in other semiconductors at comparable impurity concentrations, including the archetypal dilute magnetic semiconductor GaAs:Mn. In addition, substitutional Fe{sup +1} exhibits a strong half-metallic character, with the Fermi level crossing bands in only the spin down channel. These results, combined with diamond’s extreme properties, demonstrate that Cr or Fe dopedp-type diamond may successfully be considered in the search for room temperature spintronic materials.

  8. Ultrathin polytyramine films by electropolymerisation on highly doped p-type silicon electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losic, Dusan; Cole, Martin; Thissen, Helmut; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, silicon-based materials have been used extensively in device fabrication for sensors, microfluidic and biomaterial applications. In order to enhance the performance of the material, a number of surface functionalisations are employed. However, until now, silicon has not been used as an electrode material for electrodeposition of functional polymers. Here, highly doped p-type silicon was used as an electrode facilitating the electropolymerisation of ultrathin polytyramine (PT) films by cyclic voltammetry. The influence of resistivity, pre-treatment of the silicon surface and electrochemical conditions on the electropolymerisation process was studied. The results show that ultrathin PT films with a controlled thickness from 2 to 15 nm exhibit good electrochemical stability in buffer solution (pH 6.8) over a large potential window (-1.5 V to 1.5 V) and passivating properties towards a redox probe. In terms of the film morphology, a pinhole-free smooth surface with a roughness below 0.5 nm and with dominantly globular features of 40-60 nm diameter was observed by AFM. XPS characterisation showed that PT films display amine functional groups at the coating surface. UV induced silicon oxidation was used to prepare patterned PT films.

  9. Towards P-Type Conductivity in SnO2 Nanocrystals through Li Doping

    SciTech Connect

    Chaparadza, Allen; Rananavare, Shankar B

    2010-01-22

    This paper examines electrical transport properties and Li doping in SnO2 synthesized by the sol–gel method. Solid-state 7Li-NMR lineshapes reveal that Li ions occupy two distinct sites with differing dynamic mobilities. The chemical exchange rate between the two sites is, however, too slow for detection on the NMR timescale. Compressed nanoparticulate films of this doped semiconductor exhibit a positive Seebeck coefficient implying a p-type conductivity. A variable-temperature direct current conductivity, over a 25–350 °C temperature range, follows an Efros–Shklovskii variable range hopping (ES-VRH) conduction mechanism (ln(ρ) versus T -1/2) at temperatures below 100 °C with a crossover to 2D Mott variable range hopping (M-VRH) (ln(ρ) versus T -1/3) conduction at temperatures above 250 °C. In a transition region between these two limiting behaviors, the dc resistivity exhibits an anomalous temperature-independent plateau. We suggest that its origin may lie in a carrier inversion phenomenon wherein the majority carriers switch from holes to electrons due to Li ion expulsion from the crystalline core and creation of oxygen vacancies generated by loss of oxygen at elevated temperatures.

  10. P-type Planet–Planet Scattering: Kepler Close Binary Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yan-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    A hydrodynamical simulation shows that a circumbinary planet will migrate inward to the edge of the disk cavity. If multiple planets form in a circumbinary disk, successive migration will lead to planet–planet scattering (PPS). PPS of Kepler-like circumbinary planets is discussed in this paper. The aim of this paper is to answer how PPS affects the formation of these planets. We find that a close binary has a significant influence on the scattering process. If PPS occurs near the unstable boundary of a binary, about 10% of the systems can be completely destroyed after PPS. In more than 90% of the systems, there is only one planet left. Unlike the eccentricity distribution produced by PPS in a single star system, the surviving planets generally have low eccentricities if PPS take place near the location of the currently found circumbinary planets. In addition, the ejected planets are generally the innermost of two initial planets. The above results depend on the initial positions of the two planets. If the initial positions of the planets are moved away from the binary, the evolution tends toward statistics similar to those around single stars. In this process, the competition between the planet–planet force and the planet-binary force makes the eccentricity distribution of surviving planets diverse. These new features of P-type PPS will deepen our understanding of the formation of these circumbinary planets.

  11. Enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit of p-type half-Heuslers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao; Joshi, Giri; Liu, Weishu; Lan, Yucheng; Wang, Hui; Lee, Sangyeop; Simonson, J W; Poon, S J; Tritt, T M; Chen, Gang; Ren, Z F

    2011-02-09

    Half-Heuslers would be important thermoelectric materials due to their high temperature stability and abundance if their dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) could be made high enough. The highest peak ZT of a p-type half-Heusler has been so far reported about 0.5 due to the high thermal conductivity. Through a nanocomposite approach using ball milling and hot pressing, we have achieved a peak ZT of 0.8 at 700 °C, which is about 60% higher than the best reported 0.5 and might be good enough for consideration for waste heat recovery in car exhaust systems. The improvement comes from a simultaneous increase in Seebeck coefficient and a significant decrease in thermal conductivity due to nanostructures. The samples were made by first forming alloyed ingots using arc melting and then creating nanopowders by ball milling the ingots and finally obtaining dense bulk by hot pressing. Further improvement in ZT is expected when average grain sizes are made smaller than 100 nm.

  12. Ferromagnetic ordering of Cr and Fe doped p-type diamond: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benecha, E. M.; Lombardi, E. B.

    2014-02-01

    Ferromagnetic ordering of transition metal dopants in semiconductors holds the prospect of combining the capabilities of semiconductors and magnetic systems in single hybrid devices for spintronic applications. Various semiconductors have so far been considered for spintronic applications, but low Curie temperatures have hindered room temperature applications. We report ab initio DFT calculations on the stability and magnetic properties of Fe and Cr impurities in diamond, and show that their ground state magnetic ordering and stabilization energies depend strongly on the charge state and type of co-doping. We predict that divacancy Cr+2 and substitutional Fe+1 order ferromagnetically in p-type diamond, with magnetic stabilization energies (and magnetic moment per impurity ion) of 16.9 meV (2.5 μB) and 33.3 meV (1.0 μB), respectively. These magnetic stabilization energies are much larger than what has been achieved in other semiconductors at comparable impurity concentrations, including the archetypal dilute magnetic semiconductor GaAs:Mn. In addition, substitutional Fe+1 exhibits a strong half-metallic character, with the Fermi level crossing bands in only the spin down channel. These results, combined with diamond's extreme properties, demonstrate that Cr or Fe dopedp-type diamond may successfully be considered in the search for room temperature spintronic materials.

  13. Near Field Enhanced Photocurrent Generation in P-type Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaobao; Cui, Jin; Han, Junbo; Zhang, Junpei; Zhang, Yibo; Luan, Lin; Alemu, Getachew; Wang, Zhong; Shen, Yan; Xiong, Dehua; Chen, Wei; Wei, Zhanhua; Yang, Shihe; Hu, Bin; Cheng, Yibing; Wang, Mingkui

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the field of p-type dye-sensitized solar cell (p-DSSC) devices has undergone tremendous advances, in which Cu-based delafossite nanocrystal is of prime interest. This paper presents an augment of about 87% improvement in photocurrent observed in a particular configuration of organic dye P1 sensitized CuCrO2 delafossite nanocrystal electrode coupled with organic redox shuttle, 1-methy-1H- tetrazole-5-thiolate and its disulfide dimer when Au nanoparticles (NPs, with diameter of about 20 nm) is added into the photocathode, achieving a power convert efficiency of 0.31% (measured under standard AM 1.5 G test conditions). Detailed investigation shows that the local electrical-magnetic field effect, induced by Au NPs among the mesoporous CuCrO2 film, can improve the charge injection efficiency at dye/semiconductor interface, which is responsible for the bulk of the gain in photocurrent. PMID:24492539

  14. Accelerated light-induced degradation for detecting copper contamination in p-type silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Inglese, Alessandro Savin, Hele; Lindroos, Jeanette

    2015-08-03

    Copper is a harmful metal impurity that significantly impacts the performance of silicon-based devices if present in active regions. In this contribution, we propose a fast method consisting of simultaneous illumination and annealing for the detection of copper contamination in p-type silicon. Our results show that, within minutes, such method is capable of producing a significant reduction of the minority carrier lifetime. A spatial distribution map of copper contamination can then be obtained through the lifetime values measured before and after degradation. In order to separate the effect of the light-activated copper defects from the other metastable complexes in low resistivity Cz-silicon, we carried out a dark anneal at 200 °C, which is known to fully recover the boron-oxygen defect. Similar to the boron-oxygen behavior, we show that the dark anneal also recovers the copper defects. However, the recovery is only partial and it can be used to identify the possible presence of copper contamination.

  15. Plasmodium P-Type Cyclin CYC3 Modulates Endomitotic Growth during Oocyst Development in Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Roques, Magali; Wall, Richard J; Douglass, Alexander P; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Ferguson, David J P; Kaindama, Mbinda L; Brusini, Lorenzo; Joshi, Nimitray; Rchiad, Zineb; Brady, Declan; Guttery, David S; Wheatley, Sally P; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Holder, Anthony A; Pain, Arnab; Wickstead, Bill; Tewari, Rita

    2015-11-01

    Cell-cycle progression and cell division in eukaryotes are governed in part by the cyclin family and their regulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Cyclins are very well characterised in model systems such as yeast and human cells, but surprisingly little is known about their number and role in Plasmodium, the unicellular protozoan parasite that causes malaria. Malaria parasite cell division and proliferation differs from that of many eukaryotes. During its life cycle it undergoes two types of mitosis: endomitosis in asexual stages and an extremely rapid mitotic process during male gametogenesis. Both schizogony (producing merozoites) in host liver and red blood cells, and sporogony (producing sporozoites) in the mosquito vector, are endomitotic with repeated nuclear replication, without chromosome condensation, before cell division. The role of specific cyclins during Plasmodium cell proliferation was unknown. We show here that the Plasmodium genome contains only three cyclin genes, representing an unusual repertoire of cyclin classes. Expression and reverse genetic analyses of the single Plant (P)-type cyclin, CYC3, in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear location of the GFP-tagged protein throughout the lifecycle. Deletion of cyc3 resulted in defects in size, number and growth of oocysts, with abnormalities in budding and sporozoite formation. Furthermore, global transcript analysis of the cyc3-deleted and wild type parasites at gametocyte and ookinete stages identified differentially expressed genes required for signalling, invasion and oocyst development. Collectively these data suggest that cyc3 modulates oocyst endomitotic development in Plasmodium berghei.

  16. Interstitial oxygen as a source of p-type conductivity in hexagonal manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjærvø, Sandra H.; Wefring, Espen T.; Nesdal, Silje K.; Gaukås, Nikolai H.; Olsen, Gerhard H.; Glaum, Julia; Tybell, Thomas; Selbach, Sverre M.

    2016-12-01

    Hexagonal manganites, h-RMnO3 (R=Sc, Y, Ho-Lu), have been intensively studied for their multiferroic properties, magnetoelectric coupling, topological defects and electrically conducting domain walls. Although point defects strongly affect the conductivity of transition metal oxides, the defect chemistry of h-RMnO3 has received little attention. We use a combination of experiments and first principles electronic structure calculations to elucidate the effect of interstitial oxygen anions, Oi, on the electrical and structural properties of h-YMnO3. Enthalpy stabilized interstitial oxygen anions are shown to be the main source of p-type electronic conductivity, without reducing the spontaneous ferroelectric polarization. A low energy barrier interstitialcy mechanism is inferred from Density Functional Theory calculations to be the microscopic migration path of Oi. Since the Oi content governs the concentration of charge carrier holes, controlling the thermal and atmospheric history provides a simple and fully reversible way of tuning the electrical properties of h-RMnO3.

  17. SIM Lite Detection of Habitable Planets in P-Type Binary-Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Xiaopei; Shao, Michael; Shaklan, Stuart; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    Close binary stars like spectroscopic binaries create a completely different environment than single stars for the evolution of a protoplanetary disk. Dynamical interactions between one star and protoplanets in such systems provide more challenges for theorists to model giant planet migration and formation of multiple planets. For habitable planets the majority of host stars are in binary star systems. So far only a small amount of Jupiter-size planets have been discovered in binary stars, whose minimum separations are 20 AU and the median value is about 1000 AU (because of difficulties in radial velocity measurements). The SIM Lite mission, a space-based astrometric observatory, has a unique capability to detect habitable planets in binary star systems. This work analyzed responses of the optical system to the field stop for companion stars and demonstrated that SIM Lite can observe exoplanets in visual binaries with small angular separations. In particular we investigated the issues for the search for terrestrial planets in P-type binary-planetary systems, where the planets move around both stars in a relatively distant orbit.

  18. Evidence for an iron-hydrogen complex in p-type silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, S.; Markevich, V. P.; Peaker, A. R.; Hamilton, B.; Murphy, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    Interactions of hydrogen with iron have been studied in Fe contaminated p-type Czochralski silicon using capacitance-voltage profiling and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Hydrogen has been introduced into the samples from a silicon nitride layer grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. After annealing of the Schottky diodes on Si:Fe + H samples under reverse bias in the temperature range of 90-120 °C, a trap has been observed in the DLTS spectra which we have assigned to a Fe-H complex. The trap is only observed when a high concentration of hydrogen is present in the near surface region. The trap concentration is higher in samples with a higher concentration of single interstitial Fe atoms. The defect has a deep donor level at Ev + 0.31 eV. Direct measurements of capture cross section of holes have shown that the capture cross section is not temperature dependent and its value is 5.2 × 10-17 cm2. It is found from an isochronal annealing study that the Fe-H complex is not very stable and can be eliminated completely by annealing for 30 min at 125 °C.

  19. Growth of antimony doped P-type zinc oxide nanowires for optoelectronics

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Pradel, Ken

    2016-09-27

    In a method of growing p-type nanowires, a nanowire growth solution of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO.sub.3).sub.2), hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and polyethylenemine (800 M.sub.w PEI) is prepared. A dopant solution to the growth solution, the dopant solution including an equal molar ration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), glycolic acid (C.sub.2H.sub.4O.sub.3) and antimony acetate (Sb(CH.sub.3COO).sub.3) in water is prepared. The dopant solution and the growth solution combine to generate a resulting solution that includes antimony to zinc in a ratio of between 0.2% molar to 2.0% molar, the resulting solution having a top surface. An ammonia solution is added to the resulting solution. A ZnO seed layer is applied to a substrate and the substrate is placed into the top surface of the resulting solution with the ZnO seed layer facing downwardly for a predetermined time until Sb-doped ZnO nanowires having a length of at least 5 .mu.m have grown from the ZnO seed layer.

  20. Improved source design for p-type tunnel field-effect transistors: Towards truly complementary logic

    SciTech Connect

    Verreck, Devin Groeseneken, Guido; Verhulst, Anne S.; Collaert, Nadine; Mocuta, Anda; Thean, Aaron; Sorée, Bart

    2014-12-15

    Complementary logic based on tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) would drastically reduce power consumption thanks to the TFET's potential to obtain a sub-60 mV/dec subthreshold swing (SS). However, p-type TFETs typically do not meet the performance of n-TFETs for direct bandgap III-V configurations. The p-TFET SS stays well above 60 mV/dec, due to the low density of states in the conduction band. We therefore propose a source configuration in which a highly doped region is maintained only near the tunnel junction. In the remaining part of the source, the hot carriers in the exponential tail of the Fermi-Dirac distribution are blocked by reducing the doping degeneracy, either with a source section with a lower doping concentration or with a heterostructure. We apply this concept to n-p-i-p configurations consisting of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and an InP-InAs heterostructure. 15-band quantum mechanical simulations predict that the configurations with our source design can obtain sub-60 mV/dec SS, with an on-current comparable to the conventional source design.

  1. Metallicity of Ca2Cu6P5 with single and double copper-pnictide layers

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Li; Parker, David; Chi, Miaofang; ...

    2016-02-16

    We report thermodynamic and transport properties, and also theoretical calculations, for Cu-based compound Ca2Cu6P5 and compare with CaCu2-δP2. Both materials have layers of edge-sharing copper pnictide tetrahedral CuP4, similar to Fe–As and Fe–Se layers (with FeAs4, FeSe4) in the iron-based superconductors. Despite the presence of this similar transition-metal pnictide layer, we find that both Ca2Cu6P5 and CaCu2-δP2 have temperature-independent magnetic susceptibility and show metallic behavior with no evidence of either magnetic ordering or superconductivity down to 1.8 K CaCu2-δP2 is slightly off-stoichiometric, with δ = 0.14. Theoretical calculations suggest that unlike Fe 3d-based magnetic materials with a large density ofmore » states (DOS) at the Fermi surface, Cu have comparatively low DOS, with the majority of the 3d spectral weight located well below Fermi level. The room-temperature resistivity value of Ca2Cu6P5 is only 9 μΩ-cm, due to a substantial plasma frequency and an inferred electron-phonon coupling λ of 0.073 (significantly smaller than that of metallic Cu). Also, microscopy result shows that Cu–Cu distance along the c-axis within the double layers can be very short (2.5 Å), even shorter than metallic elemental copper bond (2.56 Å). The value of dρ/dT for CaCu2-δP2 at 300 K is approximately three times larger than in Ca2Cu6P5, which suggests the likelihood of stronger electron-phonon coupling. Lastly, this study shows that the details of Cu–P layers and bonding are important for their transport characteristics. In addition, it emphasizes the remarkable character of the DOS of ‘122’ iron-based materials, despite much structural similarities.« less

  2. Roles and activities of chromatin remodeling ATPases in plants.

    PubMed

    Han, Soon-Ki; Wu, Miin-Feng; Cui, Sujuan; Wagner, Doris

    2015-07-01

    Chromatin remodeling ATPases and their associated complexes can alter the accessibility of the genome in the context of chromatin by using energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP to change the positioning, occupancy and composition of nucleosomes. In animals and plants, these remodelers have been implicated in diverse processes ranging from stem cell maintenance and differentiation to developmental phase transitions and stress responses. Detailed investigation of their roles in individual processes has suggested a higher level of selectivity of chromatin remodeling ATPase activity than previously anticipated, and diverse mechanisms have been uncovered that can contribute to the selectivity. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the roles and activities of chromatin remodeling ATPases in plants.

  3. Solubilization of active (H+ + K+)-ATPase from gastric membrane.

    PubMed

    Soumarmon, A; Grelac, F; Lewin, M J

    1983-08-10

    (H+ + K+)-ATPase-enriched membranes were prepared from hog gastric mucosa by sucrose gradient centrifugation. These membranes contained Mg2+-ATPase and p-nitrophenylphosphatase activities (68 +/- 9 mumol Pi and 2.9 +/- 0.6 mumol p-nitrophenol/mg protein per h) which were insensitive to ouabain and markedly stimulated by 20 mM KCl (respectively, 2.2- and 14.8-fold). Furthermore, the membranes autophosphorylated in the absence of K+ (up to 0.69 +/- 0.09 nmol Pi incorporated/mg protein) and dephosphorylated by 85% in the presence of this ion. Membrane proteins were extracted by 1-2% (w/v) n-octylglucoside into a soluble form, i.e., which did not sediment in a 100 000 X g X 1 h centrifugation. This soluble form precipitated upon further dilution in detergent-free buffer. Extracted ATPase represented 32% (soluble form) and 68% (precipitated) of native enzyme and it displayed the same characteristic properties in terms of K+-stimulated ATPase and p-nitrophenylphosphatase activities and K+-sensitive phosphorylation: Mg2+-ATPase (mumol Pi/mg protein per h) 32 +/- 9 (basal) and 86 +/- 20 (K+-stimulated); Mg2+-p-nitrophenylphosphatase (mumol p-nitrophenol/mg protein per h) 2.6 +/- 0.5 (basal) and 22.2 +/- 3.2 (K+-stimulated); Mg2+-phosphorylation (nmol Pi/mg protein) 0.214 +/- 0.041 (basal) and 0.057 +/- 0.004 (in the presence of K+). In glycerol gradient centrifugation, extracted enzyme equilibrated as a single peak corresponding to an apparent 390 000 molecular weight. These findings provide the first evidence for the solubilization of (H+ + K+)-ATPase in a still active structure.

  4. [The distribution of ATPase in developmental anther of rice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Ying; Lü, Dan; Wei, Dong-Mei; Lin, Wen-Xiong; Tian, Hui-Qiao

    2006-02-01

    The distribution of ATPase was studied using lead precipitation technique during anther development in rice. The ATPase reactive precipitates (ppts) were located mostly in the nucleus of microspore mother cells (MMC) and only a few in the cytoplasm (Plate I-1). Anther wall had differentiated into four layers of cells and a few precipitates were located in the cells except the nucleus of tapetal cells where there were many ATPase reactive precipitates (Plate I-2). After meiosis of MMC, tapetal cells formed many endoplasmic reticula in its cytoplasm but still contained a few ppts. In the cells of epidermis, endothelium and middle layer, the ppts increased evidently in plasma membrane and near cytoplasm than before (Plate I-5). There were a large number of ppts located in the pollen wall during pollen development (Plate I-6), suggesting that ATPase is necessary for the construction of pollen wall. The exine of pollen wall of rice was constructed during microspore development and consisted of sporopollenin which came from tapetal cells. The ppts in exine also came from tapetal cell (Plate II-7). The intine of pollen wall was constructed during the stage of 2-cellular pollen and consisted of cellulose material coming from vegetative cell of pollen. The ATPase and ppts in intine came from vegetative cell of pollen (Plate III-7). Vegetative cell contained more ppts than generative cell during the development of 2-cellular pollen (Plate II-4, 5). The amount of ppts between two sperm cells in a pollen grain was also different (Plate IV-3,4). The physiological functions of ATPase located in different cells and different parts in the cells during anther development of rice were analyzed.

  5. Attitude extraction of shallow stratum based on P5 stereo images and Geoeye-1 image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huaguo; Li, Feng; Ran, Yongkang; Li, An; Xu, Liangxin

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, P5 stereo images and GeoEye-1 image are firstly processed and analysed in order to extract Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and divide stratum. The perpendicular Root Mean Square error of extracted DEM is within 5m in residual elevation report using methods of check point and visual inspection. According to the stratum division, measure points which are located at boundary or inner stratum are chosen at regions with better triangular facet of rock and st1able attitude, and then the attitude of stratum is extracted using three-dimensional data of the measure points through programming in MATLAB environment based on three-point method or multiple-point fitting method. Based on field survey, the measurement residual of dip angles is within 6 degrees, 85% less than 4 degrees. and those intermediate less than 3 degree. At the same time, seasons of residual generation are concluded, including geological structure, topography, accuracy of DEM, matching degree of DEM and images, the location of chosen point and so on. It is suggested that the method of attitude extraction using P5 stereo images and GeoEye-1 image is less restricted by worse natural conditions. Not only can the method restricts the profile of shallow tectonics, but also can cover the shortage of attitude of stratum, and have great significance for reducing uncertainty of Kalpin thrust tectonic deformation research. It provides a new way for quantitative research of Structural Geology, and also provides references for similar regions.

  6. Realization of Cu-Doped p-Type ZnO Thin Films by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Suja, Mohammad; Bashar, Sunayna B; Morshed, Muhammad M; Liu, Jianlin

    2015-04-29

    Cu-doped p-type ZnO films are grown on c-sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments reveal a shallow acceptor state at 0.15 eV above the valence band edge. Hall effect results indicate that a growth condition window is found for the formation of p-type ZnO thin films, and the best conductivity is achieved with a high hole concentration of 1.54 × 10(18) cm(-3), a low resistivity of 0.6 Ω cm, and a moderate mobility of 6.65 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature. Metal oxide semiconductor capacitor devices have been fabricated on the Cu-doped ZnO films, and the characteristics of capacitance-voltage measurements demonstrate that the Cu-doped ZnO thin films under proper growth conditions are p-type. Seebeck measurements on these Cu-doped ZnO samples lead to positive Seebeck coefficients and further confirm the p-type conductivity. Other measurements such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, Raman, and absorption spectroscopies are also performed to elucidate the structural and optical characteristics of the Cu-doped p-type ZnO films. The p-type conductivity is explained to originate from Cu substitution of Zn with a valency of +1 state. However, all p-type samples are converted to n-type over time, which is mostly due to the carrier compensation from extrinsic defects of ZnO.

  7. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase-mediated proton transport in the rat parietal cell.

    PubMed

    Kopic, Sascha; Wagner, Maximilian E H; Griessenauer, Christoph; Socrates, Thenral; Ritter, Markus; Geibel, John P

    2012-03-01

    The vacuolar-type H-ATPase (V-ATPase) plays an important role in the active acidification of intracellular organelles. In certain specialized cells, such as the renal intercalated cell, apical V-ATPase can also function as a proton secretion pathway. In the parietal cells of the stomach, it has been thought that acid secretion is controlled solely via the H,K-ATPase. However, recent observations suggest that functional V-ATPase is necessary for acid secretion to take place. This study aimed to investigate and characterize the role of V-ATPase in parietal cell proton transport. Individual rat gastric glands were incubated with the pH-sensitive dye (BCECF) to monitor changes in intracellular pH in real time. Parietal cell V-ATPase activity was measured by quantifying the rate of intracellular alkalinization (ΔpH/minute) following an acid load, while excluding the contribution of non-V-ATPase proton transport mechanisms through pharmacological inhibition or ion substitution. Expression of V-ATPase was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. We observed concanamycin A-sensitive V-ATPase activity in rat parietal cells following intracellular acidification and H,K-ATPase inhibition. Furthermore, V-ATPase-mediated proton transport could be abolished by inhibiting trafficking mechanisms with paclitaxel and by stimulating H,K-ATPase with acid secretagogues. Our results propose that parietal cells contain a functional V-ATPase that can be mobilized using a microtubule network. V-ATPase may function as an auxiliary acid secretion or proton-buffering pathway in parietal cells, which is inactive during H,K-ATPase activity. Our findings may have important implications for patients experiencing acid breakthrough under proton pump inhibitor therapy.

  8. Structure determination using poorly diffracting membrane-protein crystals: the H+-ATPase and Na+,K+-ATPase case history.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Bjørn P; Morth, J Preben; Nissen, Poul

    2010-03-01

    An approach is presented for the structure determination of membrane proteins on the basis of poorly diffracting crystals which exploits molecular replacement for heavy-atom site identification at 6-9 A maximum resolution and improvement of the heavy-atom-derived phases by multi-crystal averaging using quasi-isomorphous data sets. The multi-crystal averaging procedure allows real-space density averaging followed by phase combination between non-isomorphous native data sets to exploit crystal-to-crystal nonisomorphism despite the crystals belonging to the same space group. This approach has been used in the structure determination of H(+)-ATPase and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase using Ca(2+)-ATPase models and its successful application to the Mhp1 symporter using LeuT as a search model is demonstrated.

  9. Discovering a Defect that Imposes a Limit to Mg Doping in p-TypeGaN

    SciTech Connect

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Tomaszewicz, T.; Zakharov, D.; O'Keefe, M.A.

    2006-07-20

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is the III-V semiconductor used to produce blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and blue and ultraviolet solid-state lasers. To be useful in electronic devices, GaN must be doped with elements that function either as electron donors or as acceptors to turn it into either an n-type semiconductor or a p-type semiconductor. It has been found that GaN can easily be grown with n-conductivity, even up to large concentrations of donors--in the few 10{sup 19}cm{sup -3} range. However, p-doping, the doping of the structure with atoms that provide electron sinks or holes, is not well understood and remains extremely difficult. The only efficient p-type dopant is Mg, but it is found that the free hole concentration is limited to 2 x 10{sup 18}cm{sup -3}, even when Mg concentrations are pushed into the low 10{sup 19}cm{sup -3} range. This saturation effect could place a limit on further development of GaN based devices. Further increase of the Mg concentration, up to 1 x 10{sup 20}cm{sup -3} leads to a decrease of the free hole concentration and an increase in defects. While low- to medium-brightness GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are remarkably tolerant of crystal defects, blue and UV GaN lasers are much less so. We used electron microscopy to investigate Mg doping in GaN. Our transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed the formation of different types of Mg-rich defects [1,2]. In particular, high-resolution TEM allowed us to characterize a completely new type of defect in Mg-rich GaN. We found that the type of defect depended strongly on crystal growth polarity. For crystals grown with N-polarity, planar defects are distributed at equal distances (20 unit cells of GaN); these defects can be described as inversion domains [1]. For growth with Ga-polarity, we found a different type of defect [2]. These defects turn out to be three-dimensional Mg-rich hexagonal pyramids (or trapezoids) with their base on the (0001) plane and their six walls

  10. Inkjet Printing NiO-Based p-Type Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Brisse, R; Faddoul, R; Bourgeteau, T; Tondelier, D; Leroy, J; Campidelli, S; Berthelot, T; Geffroy, B; Jousselme, B

    2017-01-25

    Fabrication at low cost of transparent p-type semiconductors with suitable electronic properties is essential toward the scalability of many electronic devices, especially for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications. In this context, the synthesis of mesoporous NiO films through inkjet printing of a sol-gel ink was investigated for the first time. Nickel chloride and Pluronic F-127, used as nickel oxide precursor and pore-forming agent, respectively, were formulated in a water/ethanol mixture to prepare a jettable ink for Dimatix printer. Multilayer NiO films were formed, and different morphologies could be obtained by playing on the interlayer thermal treatment. At low temperature (30 °C), a porous nanoparticulate-nanofiber dual-pore structure was observed. On the other hand, with a high temperature treatment (450 °C), nanoparticulate denser films without any dual structure were obtained. The mechanism for NiO formation during the final sintering step, investigated by means of X-ray photolectron spectroscopy, shows that a Ni(OH)2 species is an intermediate between NiCl2 and NiO. The different morphologies and thicknesses of the NiO films were correlated to their performance in a p-DSSC configuration, using a new push-pull dye (so-called "RBG-174") and an iodine-based electrolyte. Moreover, the positive impact of a nanometric NiOx layer deposited by spin-coating and introduced between FTO and the NiO mesoporous network is highlighted in the present work. The best results were obtained with NiOx/four layer-NiO mesoporous photocathodes of 860 nm, with a current density at the short circuit of 3.42 mA cm(-2) (irradiance of 100 mW cm(-2) spectroscopically distributed following AM 1.5).

  11. Understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in crossbred bulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Alex, Rani; Raja, T. V.; Alyethodi, Rafeeque R.; Kumar, Sushil; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sharma, Sheetal; Singh, Rani; Prakash, B.

    2015-12-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein composed of a large catalytic subunit (alpha), a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta), and gamma subunit. The beta subunit is essential for ion recognition as well as maintenance of the membrane integrity. Present study was aimed to analyze the expression pattern of ATPase beta subunit genes (ATPase B1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3) among the crossbred bulls under different ambient temperatures (20-44 °C). The present study was also aimed to look into the relationship of HSP70 with the ATPase beta family genes. Our results demonstrated that among beta family genes, transcript abundance of ATPase B1 and ATPase B2 is significantly ( P < 0.05) higher during the thermal stress. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the expression of ATPase Β1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3 is highly correlated ( P < 0.01) with HSP70, representing that the change in the expression pattern of these genes is positive and synergistic. These may provide a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in cattle.

  12. Growth and conduction mechanism of As-doped p-type ZnO thin films deposited by MOCVD

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Y.; Gao, Q.; Wu, G.G.; Li, W.C.; Gao, F.B.; Yin, J.Z.; Zhang, B.L.; Du, G.T.

    2013-03-15

    Highlight: ► P-type As-doped ZnO thin films was fabricated by MOCVD after post-growth annealing. ► The formation mechanism of p-ZnO with high hole concentration above 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} was elucidated. ► Besides As{sub Zn}–2V{sub Zn} complex, C impurities also played an important role in realizing p-ZnO. ► The formations of As{sub O} and O-C-O complex were partially contributed to the p-type ZnO: As films. - Abstract: As-doped p-type ZnO thin films were fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) after in situ annealing in a vacuum. The p-type conduction mechanism was suggested by the analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. It was found that most of the As dopants in p-ZnO thin films formed As{sub Zn}–2V{sub Zn} shallow acceptor complex, simultaneously, carbon impurities also played an important role in realizing p-type conductivity in ZnO. Substitutional carbon on oxygen site created passivated defect bands by combining with Ga atoms due to the donor-acceptor pair Coulomb binding, which shifted the valence-band maximum upwards for ZnO and thus increased the hole concentration.

  13. Photoluminescence study of p-type vs. n-type Ag-doped ZnO films

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, M. A.; Jian, J.; Khranovskyy, V.; Lee, J. H.; Wang, Han; Wang, Haiyan E-mail: hwang00@tamu.edu

    2015-08-14

    Silver doped ZnO films have been grown on sapphire (0001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Hall measurements indicate that p-type conductivity is realized for the films deposited at 500 °C and 750 °C. Transmission electron microscopy images show more obvious and higher density of stacking faults (SFs) present in the p-type ZnO films as compared to the n-type films. Top view and cross sectional photoluminescence of the n- and p-type samples revealed free excitonic emission from both films. A peak at 3.314 eV, attributed to SF emission, has been observed only for the n-type sample, while a weak neutral acceptor peak observed at 3.359 eV in the p-type film. The SF emission in the n-type sample suggests localization of acceptor impurities nearby the SFs, while lack of SF emission for the p-type sample indicates the activation of the Ag acceptors in ZnO.

  14. Precipitation of Cu and Ni in n- and p-type Czochralski-grown silicon characterized by photoluminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chang; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Rougieux, Fiacre E.; Macdonald, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) images and micro-PL maps were taken on Cu- or Ni-doped monocrystalline silicon wafers, to investigate the distribution of the metal precipitates. Several n-type and p-type wafers were used in which Cu or Ni were introduced in the starting melt of the ingots and precipitated during the ingot cooling (as opposed to surface contamination). The micro-PL mapping allowed investigation of the metal precipitates with a higher spatial resolution. Markedly different precipitation patterns were observed in n- and p-type samples: in both Cu- and Ni-doped n-type samples, circular central regions and edge regions were observed. In these regions, particles were distributed randomly and homogeneously. In the p-type Cu-doped and Ni-doped samples, by contrast, the precipitates occurred in lines along <110> orientations. The difference in the precipitation behaviour in n- and p-type samples is conjectured to be caused by different concentrations of self-interstitials and vacancies remaining in the crystal during the ingot cooling: there are more vacancies in the n-type ingots but more interstitials in the p-type ingots. The dopant effects on the intrinsic point defect concentrations in silicon crystals and possible precipitation mechanisms are discussed based on the findings in this work and the literature.

  15. Low pH-induced changes of antioxidant enzyme and ATPase activities in the roots of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Kai; Zhu, De-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Hui-Zhe; Xiang, Jing; Lin, Xian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification is the main problem in the current rice production. Here, the effects of low pH on the root growth, reactive oxygen species metabolism, plasma membrane functions, and the transcript levels of the related genes were investigated in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) in a hydroponic system at pH 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. There were two hybrid rice cultivars in this trial, including Yongyou 12 (YY12, a japonica hybrid) and Zhongzheyou 1 (ZZY1, an indica hybrid). Higher H+ activity markedly decreased root length, the proportion of fine roots, and dry matter production, but induced a significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and led to serious lipid peroxidation in the roots of the two varieties. The transcript levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (Cu/Zn SOD1), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 2 (Cu/Zn SOD2), catalase A (CATA) and catalase B (CATB) genes in YY12 and ZZY1 roots were significantly down-regulated after low pH exposure for two weeks. Meanwhile, a significant decrease was observed in the expression of the P-type Ca2+-ATPases in roots at pH 3.5. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT) and plasma membrane (PM) Ca2+-ATPase in the two varieties were dramatically inhibited by strong rhizosphere acidification. However, the expression levels of ascorbate peroxidase 1 (APX1) and PM H+-ATPase isoform 7 were up-regulated under H+ stress compared with the control. Significantly higher activities of APX and PM H+-ATPase could contribute to the adaptation of rice roots to low pH.

  16. Effect of R119G Mutation on Human P5CR1 Dynamic Property and Enzymatic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linhua; Ye, Yujia; Sang, Peng; Yin, Yirui; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chao; Li, Deyun; Wan, Wen; Li, Rui; Li, Longjun; Ma, Linling; Xie, Yuehui

    2017-01-01

    Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR1) is a universal housekeeping enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) to proline with concomitant oxidation of NAD(P)H to NAD(P)+. The enzymatic cycle between P5C and proline is important for function in amino acid metabolism, apoptosis, and intracellular redox potential balance in mitochondria. Autosomal recessive cutis laxa (ARCL) results from a mutation in P5CR1 encoded by PYCR1. Specifically, the R119G mutation is reported to be linked to ARCL although it has not yet been characterized. We synthesized R119G P5CR1 and compared it to WT P5CR1. Foldx prediction of WT and R119G mutant P5CR1 protein stability suggests that the R119G mutation could significantly reduce protein stability. We also performed enzymatic activity assays to determine how the mutation impacts P5CR1 enzymatic function. The results of these experiments show that mutagenesis of R119 to G decreases P5CR1 catalytic efficiency for 3,4-dehydro-L-proline relative to WT. Mutagenesis and kinetic studies reveal that the activity of the mutant decreases as temperature increases from 5°C to 37°C, with almost no activity at 37°C, indicating that this mutation impairs P5CR1 function in vivo. Conversely, WT P5CR1 retains its activity after incubation at 37°C and has essentially no remaining activity at 75°C. Taken together, our experimental results indicate the R119G mutation could be an involving pathomechanism for ARCL. PMID:28194412

  17. Effect of R119G Mutation on Human P5CR1 Dynamic Property and Enzymatic Activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Linhua; Ye, Yujia; Sang, Peng; Yin, Yirui; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chao; Li, Deyun; Wan, Wen; Li, Rui; Li, Longjun; Ma, Linling; Xie, Yuehui; Meng, Zhaohui

    2017-01-01

    Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR1) is a universal housekeeping enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) to proline with concomitant oxidation of NAD(P)H to NAD(P)(+). The enzymatic cycle between P5C and proline is important for function in amino acid metabolism, apoptosis, and intracellular redox potential balance in mitochondria. Autosomal recessive cutis laxa (ARCL) results from a mutation in P5CR1 encoded by PYCR1. Specifically, the R119G mutation is reported to be linked to ARCL although it has not yet been characterized. We synthesized R119G P5CR1 and compared it to WT P5CR1. Foldx prediction of WT and R119G mutant P5CR1 protein stability suggests that the R119G mutation could significantly reduce protein stability. We also performed enzymatic activity assays to determine how the mutation impacts P5CR1 enzymatic function. The results of these experiments show that mutagenesis of R119 to G decreases P5CR1 catalytic efficiency for 3,4-dehydro-L-proline relative to WT. Mutagenesis and kinetic studies reveal that the activity of the mutant decreases as temperature increases from 5°C to 37°C, with almost no activity at 37°C, indicating that this mutation impairs P5CR1 function in vivo. Conversely, WT P5CR1 retains its activity after incubation at 37°C and has essentially no remaining activity at 75°C. Taken together, our experimental results indicate the R119G mutation could be an involving pathomechanism for ARCL.

  18. Stable triple helices formed by oligonucleotide N3'-->P5' phosphoramidates inhibit transcription elongation.

    PubMed Central

    Escudé, C; Giovannangeli, C; Sun, J S; Lloyd, D H; Chen, J K; Gryaznov, S M; Garestier, T; Hélène, C

    1996-01-01

    Oligonucleotide analogs with N3'-->P5' phosphoramidate linkages bind to the major groove of double-helical DNA at specific oligopurine.oligopyrimidine sequences. These triple-helical complexes are much more stable than those formed by oligonucleotides with natural phosphodiester linkages. Oligonucleotide phosphoramidates containing thymine and cytosine or thymine, cytosine, and guanine bind strongly to the polypurine tract of human immunodeficiency virus proviral DNA under physiological conditions. Site-specific cleavage by the Dra I restriction enzyme at the 5' end of the polypurine sequence was inhibited by triplex formation. A eukaryotic transcription assay was used to investigate the effect of oligophosphoramidate binding to the polypurine tract sequence on transcription of the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus nef gene under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter. An efficient arrest of RNA polymerase II was observed at the specific triplex site at submicromolar concentrations. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8633072

  19. GTRF Calculations Using Hydra-TH (L3 Milestone THM.CFD.P5.05)

    SciTech Connect

    Bakosi, Jozsef; Christon, Mark A.; Francois, Marianne M.; Lowrie, Robert B.; Nourgaliev, Robert

    2012-09-05

    This report describes the work carried out for completion of the Thermal Hydraulics Methods (THM) Level 3 Milestone THM.CFD.P5.05 for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). A series of body-fitted computational meshes have been generated by Numeca's Hexpress/Hybrid, a.k.a. 'Spider', meshing technology for the V5H 3 x 3 and 5 x 5 rod bundle geometries and subsequently used to compute the fluid dynamics of grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF). Spider is easy to use, fast, and automatically generates high-quality meshes for extremely complex geometries, required for the GTRF problem. Hydra-TH has been used to carry out large-eddy simulations on both 3 x 3 and 5 x 5 geometries, using different mesh resolutions. The results analyzed show good agreement with Star-CCM+ simulations and experimental data.

  20. GTRF Calculations Using Hydra-TH (THM.CFD.P5.05)

    SciTech Connect

    Bakosi, Jozsef; Christon, Mark A.; Francois, Marianne M.; Lowrie, Robert B.; Nourgaliev, Robert

    2012-09-05

    This report describes the work carried out for completion of the Thermal Hydraulics Methods (THM) Level 3 Milestone THM.CFD.P5.05 for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). A series body-fitted computational meshes have been generated by Numeca's Hexpress/Hybrid, a.k.a. 'Spider', meshing technology for the V5H 3x3 and 5x5 rod bundle geometry used to compute the fluid dynamics of grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF). Spider is easy to use, fast, and automatically generates high-quality meshes for extremely complex geometries, required for the GTRF problem. Hydra-TH has been used to carry out large-eddy simulations on both 3x3 and 5x5 geometries, using different mesh resolutions. The results analyzed show good agreement with Star-CCM+ simulations and experimental data.

  1. Photochromic polyoxotungstoeuropate K 12[EuP 5W 30O 110]/polyvinylpyrrolidone nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tie Rui; Lu, Ran; Liu, Xin Li; Zhao, Ying Ying; Li, Tie Jin; Yao, Jian Nian

    2003-05-01

    A novel photochromic nanocomposite film containing polyoxotungstoeuropate K 12[EuP 5W 30O 110] entrapped in polyvinylpyrrolidone has been prepared through a spin-on coating technique. Thus-obtained amorphous nanocomposite film was characterized by IR spectra, UV-vis absorption spectra, XRD, SEM, TG-DTA, and ESR. Results show that polyoxotungstoeuropate interacts with polyvinylpyrrolidone strongly and disperses homogeneously in the matrix. The composite film exhibits good photochromic properties. When irradiated with UV light, the transparent film changes from colorless to blue. Then, bleaching occurs when the film is in contact with ambient air or O 2 in the dark. The photochromism of the composite film is due to charge transfer by reduction of polyoxotungstoeuropate and oxidation of polyvinylpyrrolidone.

  2. Structural Insights on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteasomal ATPase Mpa

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.; Li, H; Lin, G; Tang, C; Li, D; Nathan, C; Heran Darwin, K

    2009-01-01

    Proteasome-mediated protein turnover in all domains of life is an energy-dependent process that requires ATPase activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) was recently shown to possess a ubiquitin-like proteasome pathway that plays an essential role in Mtb resistance to killing by products of host macrophages. Here we report our structural and biochemical investigation of Mpa, the presumptive Mtb proteasomal ATPase. We demonstrate that Mpa binds to the Mtb proteasome in the presence of ATPS, providing the physical evidence that Mpa is the proteasomal ATPase. X-ray crystallographic determination of the conserved interdomain showed a five stranded double {beta} barrel structure containing a Greek key motif. Structure and mutational analysis indicate a major role of the interdomain for Mpa hexamerization. Our mutational and functional studies further suggest that the central channel in the Mpa hexamer is involved in protein substrate translocation and degradation. These studies provide insights into how a bacterial proteasomal ATPase interacts with and facilitates protein degradation by the proteasome.

  3. A sulfur-based transport pathway in Cu+-ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Mattle, Daniel; Zhang, Limei; Sitsel, Oleg; Pedersen, Lotte Thue; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco; Gourdon, Pontus; Rees, Douglas C; Nissen, Poul; Meloni, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Cells regulate copper levels tightly to balance the biogenesis and integrity of copper centers in vital enzymes against toxic levels of copper. PIB-type Cu+-ATPases play a central role in copper homeostasis by catalyzing the selective translocation of Cu+ across cellular membranes. Crystal structures of a copper-free Cu+-ATPase are available, but the mechanism of Cu+ recognition, binding, and translocation remains elusive. Through X-ray absorption spectroscopy, ATPase activity assays, and charge transfer measurements on solid-supported membranes using wild-type and mutant forms of the Legionella pneumophila Cu+-ATPase (LpCopA), we identify a sulfur-lined metal transport pathway. Structural analysis indicates that Cu+ is bound at a high-affinity transmembrane-binding site in a trigonal-planar coordination with the Cys residues of the conserved CPC motif of transmembrane segment 4 (C382 and C384) and the conserved Met residue of transmembrane segment 6 (M717 of the MXXXS motif). These residues are also essential for transport. Additionally, the studies indicate essential roles of other conserved intramembranous polar residues in facilitating copper binding to the high-affinity site and subsequent release through the exit pathway. PMID:25956886

  4. The insensitivity to uncouplers of testis mitochondrial ATPase.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Memije, M E; Izquierdo-Reyes, V; Delhumeau-Ongay, G

    1988-01-01

    Albumin-free testis mitochondrial ATPase activity failed to be stimulated by either 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) or carbonyl cyanide rho-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP). DNP scarcely enhanced the state 4 respiration and mitochondria proved to be poorly coupled. When 1% bovine serum albumin was added to the isolation medium, DNP or FCCP stimulated ATPase nearly twofold and the dose-response curves for the uncouplers on the QO2 reached a plateau at five- to sixfold. The DNP coupling index (q) also showed a 30-40% improvement. A dose-response curve for oligomycin on the rate of [gamma-32P]ATP synthesis showed a stimulation of ATP synthase activity by 10-100 ng inhibitor/mg protein, suggesting a possible blockade of "open" F0 channels. In the albumin preparation oligomycin inhibited ATP synthesis in the range 10-100 ng/mg protein. Since testis ATPase is known to be loosely bound to the membrane, an effect of albumin, improving tightness in the interaction of the F1 and the F0 sectors of the ATPase, is suggested.

  5. A structural pathway for activation of the kinesin motor ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Mikyung; Zhang, Xiaohua; Park, Cheon-Gil; Park, Hee-Won; Endow, Sharyn A.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular motors move along actin or microtubules by rapidly hydrolyzing ATP and undergoing changes in filament-binding affinity with steps of the nucleotide hydrolysis cycle. It is generally accepted that motor binding to its filament greatly increases the rate of ATP hydrolysis, but the structural changes in the motor associated with ATPase activation are not known. To identify the conformational changes underlying motor movement on its filament, we solved the crystal structures of three kinesin mutants that decouple nucleotide and microtubule binding by the motor, and block microtubule-activated, but not basal, ATPase activity. Conformational changes in the structures include a disordered loop and helices in the switch I region and a visible switch II loop, which is disordered in wild-type structures. Switch I moved closer to the bound nucleotide in two mutant structures, perturbing water-mediated interactions with the Mg2+. This could weaken Mg2+ binding and accelerate ADP release to activate the motor ATPase. The structural changes we observe define a signaling pathway within the motor for ATPase activation that is likely to be essential for motor movement on microtubules. PMID:11387196

  6. The ATPase Motor Turns for Type IV Pilus Assembly.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Lin; Tainer, John A

    2016-11-01

    In this issue of Structure, Mancl et al. (2016) elucidate the crystal structure of the PilB ATPase domain in complex with ATPγS and unveil how ATP binding and hydrolysis coordinates conformational change. Their results reveal a distinct symmetric rotary mechanism for ATP hydrolysis to power bacterial pilus assembly.

  7. Fabrication of p-type ZnO nanofibers by electrospinning for field-effect and rectifying devices

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shuai; Liu, Shu-Liang; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Liu, Yi-Chen; Long, Yun-Ze; Zhang, Hong-Di; Zhang, Jun-Cheng; Han, Wen-Peng

    2014-01-27

    Ce-doped p-type ZnO nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning and followed calcinations. The surface morphology, elementary composition, and crystal structure of the nanofibers were investigated. The field effect curve confirms that the resultant Ce-doped ZnO nanofibers are p-type semiconductor. A p-n heterojunction device consisting of Ce-doped p-type ZnO nanofibers and n-type indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film was fabricated on a piece of quartz substrate. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of the p-n heterojunction device shows typical rectifying diode behavior. The turn-on voltage appears at about 7 V under the forward bias and the reverse current is impassable.

  8. Modeling of normal incidence absorption in p-type GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gail J.; Szmulowicz, Frank

    1995-04-01

    The absorption of infrared radiation at normal incidence in p-type GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells, unlike in n-type, is fundamentally allowed. We have measured and theoretically modeled the bound-to-continuum absorption in these p-type materials. The infrared absorption coefficient was calculated are based on the electronic structure, wave functions and optical matrix elements obtained from an 8 X 8 envelope-function approximation (EFA) calculation. The 8 X 8 EFA Hamiltonian incorporates the coupling between the heavy, light, spin-orbit, and conduction bands. In calculating the continuum states for bound-to- continuum intersubband absorption, we do not enclose the well in an artificial box with infinite walls. A comparison of the theoretical absorption and measured photoresponse results verified the accuracy of our model and provided a basis for optimizing the design of p-type quantum wells for infrared detection.

  9. Contact printing of horizontally-aligned p-type Zn₃P₂ nanowire arrays for rigid and flexible photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gang; Liang, Bo; Huang, Hongtao; Chen, Gui; Liu, Zhe; Chen, Di; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-03-08

    Zn(3)P(2) is an important p-type semiconductor with the ability to detect almost all visible and ultraviolet light. By using the simple and efficient contact printing process, we reported the assembly of horizontally-aligned p-type Zn(3)P(2) nanowire arrays to be used as building blocks for high performance photodetectors. Horizontally-aligned Zn(3)P(2) nanowire arrays were first printed on silicon substrate to make thin-film transistors, exhibiting typical p-type transistor behavior with a high on/off ratio of 10(3). Besides, the Zn(3)P(2) nanowire array based devices showed a substantial response to illuminated lights with a wide range of wavelengths and densities. Flexible photodetectors were also fabricated by contact printing of horizontally-aligned Zn(3)P(2) nanowire arrays on flexible PET substrate, showing a comparable performance to the device on rigid silicon substrate.

  10. Optical and electronic transport properties of p-type CuCoO2 transparent conductive oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruttanapun, Chesta; Sa-nguan-cheep, Minraya; Kahatta, Sagulthai; Buranasiri, Prathan; Jindajitawat, Phumin

    2013-06-01

    The CuCoO2 sample has been synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction method to investigate electronic transport and optical properties for p-type transparent conducting oxide materials. The crystal structure was characterized by XRD. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity were measured in the high temperature. The UV-VIS-NIR and FTIR spectra were analyzed at room temperature. The XRD peaks confirm the samples forming the delafossite structure phase. The Seebeck coefficient sign confirms the samples displays the p-type conducting. The electronic transport energy for activating free carrier production and conduction contain 0.276 eV and 0.131 eV, respectively. The optical direct gap is 3.65 eV which is a visible-transparent oxide material. These results support that the CuCoO2 oxide compound is p-type transparent conducting oxide materials.

  11. Computational prediction of high thermoelectric performance in p-type half-Heusler compounds with low band effective mass.

    PubMed

    Fang, Teng; Zheng, Shuqi; Zhou, Tian; Yan, Lei; Zhang, Peng

    2017-02-08

    Half-Heusler (HH) compounds are important high temperature thermoelectric (TE) materials and have gained ever-increasing popularity. In recent years, p-type FeNbSb-based heavy-band HH compounds have attracted considerable attention with the record-high zT value of 1.5. Here, we use first-principles based methods to predict a very high zT value of 1.54 at 1200 K in p-type RuTaSb alloys. The high band degeneracy and low band effective mass contribute to a high power factor. Although the electrical thermal conductivity is high due to the high carrier mobility and hence electrical conductivity, the total thermal conductivity is moderate because of the low lattice thermal conductivity. The predicted high zT demonstrates that the p-type RuTaSb HH alloys are promising as TE materials for high temperature power generation.

  12. Boric acid solution concentration influencing p-type emitter formation in n-type crystalline Si solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, Bandana; Singh Solanki, Chetan

    2016-09-01

    Boric acid (BA) is a spin on dopant (BSoD) source which is used to form p+ emitters in n-type c-Si solar cells. High purity boric acid powder (99.99% pure) when mixed with deionized (DI) water can result in high quality p-type emitter with less amount of surface defects. In this work, we have used different concentrations of boric acid solution concentrations to fabricate p-type emitters with sheet resistance values < 90 Ω/□. The corresponding junction depths for the same are less than 500 nm as measured by SIMS analysis. Boron rich layer (BRL), which is considered as detrimental in emitter performance is found to be minimal for BA solution concentration less than 2% and hence useful for p-type emitter formation.

  13. Weak-Localization in n- and p-TYPE Films of Pb1-xEuxTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, M. L.; Chitta, V. A.; Gusev, G. M.; Oliveira, Nei F.; Rappl, P. H. O.; Ueta, A. Y.; Abramof, E.

    We investigated the magnetotransport properties of n- and p-type films of Pb1-xEuxTe grown by molecular beam epitaxy, with Eu concentrations close to the Metal-Insulator transition. The n-type sample shows a negative magnetoresistance which magnitude increases continually as the temperature is lowered. On the other hand, for the p-type sample, a negative magnetoresistance can be observed only for temperatures below 7 K. Comparing the magnetoresistance of both samples we show that the scattering mechanism should have a different origin.

  14. Trypsin digestion for determining orientation of ATPase in Halobacterium saccharovorum membrane vesicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, H.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1986-01-01

    Membranes prepared by low pressure disruption of cells exhibited no ATPase activity in the absence of Triton X-100, although 43% of the total menadione reductase activity was detected. Trypsin digestion reduced menadione reductase activity by 45% whereas ATPase activity was not affected. Disruption of the membrane fraction at higher pressure solubilized about 45% of the ATPase activity. The soluble activity was still enhanced by Triton X-100, suggesting that the detergent, besides disrupting membrane vesicles, also activated the ATPase. The discrepancy in localization of menadione reductase and ATPase activities raised questions regarding the reliability of using a single marker enzyme as an indicator of vesicle orientation.

  15. F-subunit reinforces torque generation in V-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Kishikawa, Jun-ichi; Seino, Akihiko; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Tirtom, Naciye Esma; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Ken; Hayashi, Kumiko

    2014-09-01

    Vacuolar-type H(+)-pumping ATPases (V-ATPases) perform remarkably diverse functions in eukaryotic organisms. They are present in the membranes of many organelles and regulate the pH of several intracellular compartments. A family of V-ATPases is also present in the plasma membranes of some bacteria. Such V-ATPases function as ATP-synthases. Each V-ATPase is composed of a water-soluble domain (V1) and a membrane-embedded domain (Vo). The ATP-driven rotary unit, V[Formula: see text], is composed of A, B, D, and F subunits. The rotary shaft (the DF subcomplex) rotates in the central cavity of the A3B3-ring (the catalytic hexamer ring). The D-subunit, which has a coiled-coil domain, penetrates into the ring, while the F-subunit is a globular-shaped domain protruding from the ring. The minimal ATP-driven rotary unit of V[Formula: see text] is comprised of the A3B3D subunits, and we therefore investigated how the absence of the globular-shaped F-subunit affects the rotary torque generation of V[Formula: see text]. Using a single-molecule technique, we observed the motion of the rotary motors. To obtain the torque values, we then analyzed the measured motion trajectories based on the fluctuation theorem, which states that the law of entropy production in non-equilibrium conditions and has been suggested as a novel and effective method for measuring torque. The measured torque of A3B3D was half that of the wild-type V1, and full torque was recovered in the mutant V1, in which the F-subunit was genetically fused with the D-subunit, indicating that the globular-shaped F-subunit reinforces torque generation in V1.

  16. Regulation of the thermoalkaliphilic F1-ATPase from Caldalkalibacillus thermarum

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Scott A.; Cook, Gregory M.; Montgomery, Martin G.; Leslie, Andrew G. W.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure has been determined of the F1-catalytic domain of the F-ATPase from Caldalkalibacillus thermarum, which hydrolyzes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) poorly. It is very similar to those of active mitochondrial and bacterial F1-ATPases. In the F-ATPase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, conformational changes in the ε-subunit are influenced by intracellular ATP concentration and membrane potential. When ATP is plentiful, the ε-subunit assumes a “down” state, with an ATP molecule bound to its two C-terminal α-helices; when ATP is scarce, the α-helices are proposed to inhibit ATP hydrolysis by assuming an “up” state, where the α-helices, devoid of ATP, enter the α3β3-catalytic region. However, in the Escherichia coli enzyme, there is no evidence that such ATP binding to the ε-subunit is mechanistically important for modulating the enzyme’s hydrolytic activity. In the structure of the F1-ATPase from C. thermarum, ATP and a magnesium ion are bound to the α-helices in the down state. In a form with a mutated ε-subunit unable to bind ATP, the enzyme remains inactive and the ε-subunit is down. Therefore, neither the γ-subunit nor the regulatory ATP bound to the ε-subunit is involved in the inhibitory mechanism of this particular enzyme. The structure of the α3β3-catalytic domain is likewise closely similar to those of active F1-ATPases. However, although the βE-catalytic site is in the usual “open” conformation, it is occupied by the unique combination of an ADP molecule with no magnesium ion and a phosphate ion. These bound hydrolytic products are likely to be the basis of inhibition of ATP hydrolysis. PMID:27621435

  17. Decreased ATPase activity in adriamycin nephrosis is independent of proteinuria

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, W.W.; Kalicharan, D.; Donga, J.; Hulstaert, C.E.; Hardonk, M.J.

    1987-03-01

    In previous studies from this laboratory it has been shown that ATP-ase activity in situ in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is clearly reduced in rats rendered nephrotic after treatment with adriamycin (ADR). The question was raised whether this reduction of ATP-ase activity in the GBM is due to toxic activity of ADR or rather a result of the nephrotic condition per se. Therefore, we studied ATP-ase activity using the cerium-based method in kidneys from ADR-treated rats without proteinuria (48 hr after ADR injection), or with proteinuria (approximately 150 mg/24 hr) several weeks after ADR injection. Also kidneys from rats rendered nephrotic by surgical ablation and from non-nephrotic rats treated with local X-irradiation (2000 rads) as well as from normal control rats were studied. The results show that in the GBM of ADR-treated or irradiated rats, clear reduction of ATP-ase activity is observed irrespective of their proteinuria, whereas in the GBM of rats rendered nephrotic by renal ablation (approximately 156 mg/24 hr mean protein excretion) no reduction of enzyme activity is found. It is concluded that decreased ATP-ase activity of the glomerular filtration barrier in ADR-treated rats is due to an early toxic activity of this drug and not a result of the nephrotic state per se. In view of the identical results in X-irradiated rats, it is likely that ADR may act through production of toxic radicals leading to damage of this membrane-associated enzyme system.

  18. Functional coupling of V-ATPase and CLC-5

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Masashi; Nakamura, Motonobu; Suzuki, Atsushi; Horita, Shoko; Seki, George; Moriya, Kyoji

    2017-01-01

    Dent’s disease is an X-linked renal tubulopathy characterized by low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria and progressive renal failure. Disease aetiology is associated with mutations in the CLCN5 gene coding for the electrogenic 2Cl-/H+ antiporter chloride channel 5 (CLC-5), which is expressed in the apical endosomes of renal proximal tubules with the vacuolar type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase). Initially identified as a member of the CLC family of Cl- channels, CLC-5 was presumed to provide Cl- shunt into the endosomal lumen to dissipate H+ accumulation by V-ATPase, thereby facilitating efficient endosomal acidification. However, recent findings showing that CLC-5 is in fact not a Cl- channel but a 2Cl-/H+ antiporter challenged this classical shunt model, leading to a renewed and intense debate on its physiological roles. Cl- accumulation via CLC-5 is predicted to play a critical role in endocytosis, as illustrated in mice carrying an artificial Cl- channel mutation E211A that developed defective endocytosis but normal endosomal acidification. Conversely, a recent functional analysis of a newly identified disease-causing Cl- channel mutation E211Q in a patient with typical Dent’s disease confirmed the functional coupling between V-ATPase and CLC-5 in endosomal acidification, lending support to the classical shunt model. In this editorial, we will address the current recognition of the physiological role of CLC-5 with a specific focus on the functional coupling of V-ATPase and CLC-5. PMID:28101447

  19. Vacuolar ATPases, like F1,F0-ATPases, show a strong dependence of the reaction velocity on the binding of more than one ATP per enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Kasho, V N; Boyer, P D

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies with vacuolar ATPases have shown that multiple copies catalytic subunits are present and that these have definite sequence homology with catalytic subunits of the F1,F0-ATPases. Experiments are reported that assess whether the vacuolar ATPases may have the unusual catalytic cooperativity with sequential catalytic site participation as in the binding change mechanism for the F1,F0-ATPases. The extent of reversal of bound ATP hydrolysis to bound ADP and Pi as medium ATP concentration was lowered was determined by 18O-exchange measurements for yeast and neurospora vacuolar ATPases. The results show a pronounced increase in the extent of water oxygen incorporation into the Pi formed as ATP concentration is decreased to the micromolar range. The F1,F0-ATPase from neurospora mitochondria showed an even more pronounced modulation, similar to that of other F1-type ATPases. The vacuolar ATPases thus appear to have a catalytic mechanism quite analogous to that of the F1,F0-ATPases. PMID:2530585

  20. Models for the a subunits of the Thermus thermophilus V/A-ATPase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae V-ATPase enzymes by cryo-EM and evolutionary covariance

    PubMed Central

    Schep, Daniel G.; Rubinstein, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Rotary ATPases couple ATP synthesis or hydrolysis to proton translocation across a membrane. However, understanding proton translocation has been hampered by a lack of structural information for the membrane-embedded a subunit. The V/A-ATPase from the eubacterium Thermus thermophilus is similar in structure to the eukaryotic V-ATPase but has a simpler subunit composition and functions in vivo to synthesize ATP rather than pump protons. We determined the T. thermophilus V/A-ATPase structure by cryo-EM at 6.4 Å resolution. Evolutionary covariance analysis allowed tracing of the a subunit sequence within the map, providing a complete model of the rotary ATPase. Comparing the membrane-embedded regions of the T. thermophilus V/A-ATPase and eukaryotic V-ATPase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae allowed identification of the α-helices that belong to the a subunit and revealed the existence of previously unknown subunits in the eukaryotic enzyme. Subsequent evolutionary covariance analysis enabled construction of a model of the a subunit in the S. cerevisae V-ATPase that explains numerous biochemical studies of that enzyme. Comparing the two a subunit structures determined here with a structure of the distantly related a subunit from the bovine F-type ATP synthase revealed a conserved pattern of residues, suggesting a common mechanism for proton transport in all rotary ATPases. PMID:26951669

  1. Models for the a subunits of the Thermus thermophilus V/A-ATPase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae V-ATPase enzymes by cryo-EM and evolutionary covariance.

    PubMed

    Schep, Daniel G; Zhao, Jianhua; Rubinstein, John L

    2016-03-22

    Rotary ATPases couple ATP synthesis or hydrolysis to proton translocation across a membrane. However, understanding proton translocation has been hampered by a lack of structural information for the membrane-embedded a subunit. The V/A-ATPase from the eubacterium Thermus thermophilus is similar in structure to the eukaryotic V-ATPase but has a simpler subunit composition and functions in vivo to synthesize ATP rather than pump protons. We determined the T. thermophilus V/A-ATPase structure by cryo-EM at 6.4 Å resolution. Evolutionary covariance analysis allowed tracing of the a subunit sequence within the map, providing a complete model of the rotary ATPase. Comparing the membrane-embedded regions of the T. thermophilus V/A-ATPase and eukaryotic V-ATPase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae allowed identification of the α-helices that belong to the a subunit and revealed the existence of previously unknown subunits in the eukaryotic enzyme. Subsequent evolutionary covariance analysis enabled construction of a model of the a subunit in the S. cerevisae V-ATPase that explains numerous biochemical studies of that enzyme. Comparing the two a subunit structures determined here with a structure of the distantly related a subunit from the bovine F-type ATP synthase revealed a conserved pattern of residues, suggesting a common mechanism for proton transport in all rotary ATPases.

  2. Tributyltin inhibits the oligomycin-sensitive Mg-ATPase activity in Mytilus galloprovincialis digestive gland mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, Vittoria; Nesci, Salvatore; Trombetti, Fabiana; Bandiera, Patrizia; Pirini, Maurizio; Borgatti, Anna Rosa; Pagliarani, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), widely employed in the past in antifouling paints, is one of the most toxic organic pollutants. Although recently banned, it still threatens coastal water ecosystems and accumulates in filter-feeding molluscs. TBT is known to act as a membrane-active toxicant; however data on mussels are scanty and exposure effects on mitochondrial ATPase activities remain hitherto unexplored. TBT effects on the mitochondrial Mg-ATPase activities in the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis were investigated both in vitro and in TBT-exposed mussels. Both an oligomycin-sensitive Mg-ATPase (OS Mg-ATPase) (70% of total Mg-ATPase activity) and an oligomycin-insensitive ATPase (OI Mg-ATPase) (30%) were found. The OS-Mg-ATPase was as much as 70% in vitro inhibited by 0.7 μM (203 μg/L) TBT, while higher concentrations promoted a partial inhibition release up to 5.0 μM TBT; higher than 10.0 μM TBT concentrations yielded nearly complete enzyme inhibition. Concentrations higher than 1 μM TBT enhanced the OI Mg-ATPase. Mussels exposed to 0.5 and 1.0 μg/L TBT in aquaria showed a 30% depressed OS Mg-ATPase activity, irrespective of TBT dose and exposure time (24 and 120 h). The OI Mg-ATPase activity was apparently refractory to TBT exposure and halved both in control and TBT-exposed mussels after 120 h exposure.

  3. Cancer with low cathepsin D levels is susceptible to V-ATPase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Satoru; Nakagawa, Hideyuki; Funata, Masaaki; Nishimura, Kazuho; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Hara, Takahito

    2017-03-19

    Vacuolar (H(+) )-ATPases (V-ATPases) have important roles in the supply of nutrients to tumors by mediating autophagy and the endocytic uptake of extracellular fluids. Accordingly, V-ATPases are attractive therapeutic targets for cancer. However, the clinical use of V-ATPase inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs has not been realized, possibly owing to their high toxicity in humans. V-ATPase inhibition may be an appropriate strategy in highly susceptible cancers. In this study, we explored markers of V-ATPase inhibitor sensitivity. V-ATPase inhibitors led to pH impairment in acidic intracellular compartments, suppression of macropinocytosis, and decreased intracellular amino acid levels. The sensitivity of cells to V-ATPase inhibitors was correlated with low cathepsin D expression, and cancer cells exhibited increased sensitivity to V-ATPase inhibitors after pretreatment with a cathepsin D inhibitor and siRNA targeting the cathepsin D gene (CTSD). In addition, V-ATPase inhibitor treatment led to the induction of the amino acid starvation response, upregulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, and suppression of mTOR signaling in cells expressing low levels of cathepsin D. Some colorectal cancer patients exhibited the downregulation of cathepsin D in tumor tissues compared with matched normal tissues. These findings indicate that V-ATPase inhibitors are promising therapeutic options for cancers with downregulated cathepsin D. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure of the vacuolar H+-ATPase rotary motor reveals new mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Shaun; Phillips, Clair; Huss, Markus; Tiburcy, Felix; Wieczorek, Helmut; Trinick, John; Harrison, Michael A; Muench, Stephen P

    2015-03-03

    Vacuolar H(+)-ATPases are multisubunit complexes that operate with rotary mechanics and are essential for membrane proton transport throughout eukaryotes. Here we report a ∼ 1 nm resolution reconstruction of a V-ATPase in a different conformational state from that previously reported for a lower-resolution yeast model. The stator network of the V-ATPase (and by implication that of other rotary ATPases) does not change conformation in different catalytic states, and hence must be relatively rigid. We also demonstrate that a conserved bearing in the catalytic domain is electrostatic, contributing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of rotary ATPases. Analysis of the rotor axle/membrane pump interface suggests how rotary ATPases accommodate different c ring stoichiometries while maintaining high efficiency. The model provides evidence for a half channel in the proton pump, supporting theoretical models of ion translocation. Our refined model therefore provides new insights into the structure and mechanics of the V-ATPases.

  5. Multiple Roles of the Plasma Membrane H(+)-ATPase and Its Regulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Shimazaki, Ken-Ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is the pump that provides the driving force for transport of numerous solutes in plant cells, and plays an essential role for the growth and maintenance of cell homeostasis. Recent investigations using guard cells with respect to blue-light-induced stomatal opening uncovered the regulatory mechanisms of the H(+)-ATPase, and revealed that the phosphorylation status of penultimate threonine in the C-terminus of H(+)-ATPase is key step for the activity regulation. The same regulatory mechanisms for the H(+)-ATPase were evidenced in hypocotyl elongation in response to ABA and auxin, suggesting that the phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine is a common regulatory mechanism for the H(+)-ATPase. We also present the data that the activity of the H(+)-ATPase limits the plant growth. Typical structure of the H(+)-ATPase in the C-terminus was acquired in the transition of plants from water to the terrestrial land.

  6. Do Src Kinase and Caveolin Interact Directly with Na,K-ATPase?

    PubMed

    Yosef, Eliyahu; Katz, Adriana; Peleg, Yoav; Mehlman, Tevie; Karlish, Steven J D

    2016-05-27

    Much evidence points to a role of Na,K-ATPase in ouabain-dependent signal transduction. Based on experiments with different cell lines and native tissue membranes, a current hypothesis postulates direct interactions between the Na,K-ATPase and Src kinase (non-receptor tyrosine kinase). Na,K-ATPase is proposed to bind Src kinase and inhibit its activity, whereas ouabain, the specific Na,K-ATPase inhibitor, binds and stabilizes the E2 conformation, thus exposing the Src kinase domain and its active site Tyr-418 for activation. Ouabain-dependent signaling is thought to be mediated within caveolae by a complex consisting of Na,K-ATPase, caveolin, and Src kinase. In the current work, we have looked for direct interactions utilizing purified recombinant Na,K-ATPase (human α1β1FXYD1 or porcine α1D369Nβ1FXYD1) and purified human Src kinase and human caveolin 1 or interactions between these proteins in native membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit kidney. By several independent criteria and techniques, no stable interactions were detected between Na,K-ATPase and purified Src kinase. Na,K-ATPase was found to be a substrate for Src kinase phosphorylation at Tyr-144. Clear evidence for a direct interaction between purified human Na,K-ATPase and human caveolin was obtained, albeit with a low molar stoichiometry (1:15-30 caveolin 1/Na,K-ATPase). In native renal membranes, a specific caveolin 14-5 oligomer (95 kDa) was found to be in direct interaction with Na,K-ATPase. We inferred that a small fraction of the renal Na,K-ATPase molecules is in a ∼1:1 complex with a caveolin 14-5 oligomer. Thus, overall, whereas a direct caveolin 1/Na,K-ATPase interaction is confirmed, the lack of direct Src kinase/Na,K-ATPase binding requires reassessment of the mechanism of ouabain-dependent signaling.

  7. Patterned growth of p-type MoS2 atomic layers using sol-gel as precursor

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Wei; Lin, Junhao; Feng, Wei; ...

    2016-07-19

    2D layered MoS2 has drawn intense attention for its applications in flexible electronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic devices. Most of the MoS2 atomic layers grown by conventional chemical vapor deposition techniques are n-type due to the abundant sulfur vacancies. Facile production of MoS2 atomic layers with p-type behavior, however, remains challenging. Here, a novel one-step growth has been developed to attain p-type MoS2 layers in large scale by using Mo-containing sol–gel, including 1% tungsten (W). Atomic-resolution electron microscopy characterization reveals that small tungsten oxide clusters are commonly present on the as-grown MoS2 film due to the incomplete reduction of W precursormore » at the reaction temperature. These omnipresent small tungsten oxide clusters contribute to the p-type behavior, as verified by density functional theory calculations, while preserving the crystallinity of the MoS2 atomic layers. The Mo containing sol–gel precursor is compatible with the soft-lithography techniques, which enables patterned growth of p-type MoS2 atomic layers into regular arrays with different shapes, holding great promise for highly integrated device applications. Lastly, an atomically thin p–n junction is fabricated by the as-prepared MoS2, which shows strong rectifying behavior.« less

  8. Study of p-type ZnO and MgZnO Thin Films for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jianlin

    2015-07-31

    This project on study of p-type ZnO and MgZnO thin films for solid state lighting was carried out by research group of Prof. Jianlin Liu of UCR during the four-year period between August 2011 and July 2015. Tremendous progress has been made on the proposed research. This final report summarizes the important findings.

  9. Identification and molecular characterization of a novel DyP-type peroxidase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PKE117.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Liu, Chen; Li, Baozhen; Yuan, Hongli; Yang, Jinshui; Zheng, Beiwen

    2012-02-01

    A new DyP-type peroxidase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PKE117 was identified and characterized. The dypPa was first identified via sequence analysis and then cloned in Escherichia coli. Subsequently, the recombinant protein DyPPa was expressed and purified. Its DNA sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 897 bp, encoding a protein monomer of 299 amino acid residues with isoelectric point 4.62. According to SDS-PAGE analysis and FPLC result, DyPPa mainly existed as homodimer (64 kDa). DyPPa displayed typical heme absorbance of Soret band, with an Rz value of 1.18. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic absorption spectrum data also indicated DyPPa contained iron. Multiple amino acid sequence alignment of DyPPa with other members of the DyP-type peroxidases family showed the presence of conserved D139, H210, and R227 amino acids and GXXDG motifs, which were commonly shared by the DyP-type peroxidase family. Although the primary structure homology between DyPPa and other family members was very low, their secondary and tertiary structure displayed high homology, which explained the high decolorizing activity of DyPPa. Specifically, DyPPa displayed a good thermal stability and maximal activity on Reactive blue 5 under pH 3.5. Therefore, it was proposed that DyPPa, with a wide range of substrate specificity, was a novel member of the DyP-type peroxidases family.

  10. Native defect properties and p -type doping efficiency in group-IIA doped wurtzite AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wen; Niu, Hanben

    2008-01-01

    Using the first-principles full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FPLAPW) method based on density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated the native defect properties and p -type doping efficiency in AlN doped with group-IIA elements such as Be, Mg, and Ca. It is shown that nitrogen vacancies (VN) have low formation energies and introduce deep donor levels in wurtzite AlN, while in zinc blende AlN and GaN, these levels are reported to be shallow. The calculated acceptor levels γ(0/-) for substitutional Be (BeAl) , Mg (MgAl) , and Ca (CaAl) are 0.48, 0.58, and 0.95eV , respectively. In p -type AlN, Be interstitials (Bei) , which act as donors, have low formation energies, making them a likely compensating center in the case of acceptor doping. Whereas, when N-rich growth conditions are applied, Bei are energetically not favorable. It is found that p -type doping efficiency of substitutional Be, Mg, and Ca impurities in w-AlN is affected by atomic size and electronegativity of dopants. Among the three dopants, Be may be the best candidate for p -type w-AlN . N-rich growth conditions help us to increase the concentration of BeAl , MgAl , and CaAl .

  11. Patterned growth of p-type MoS2 atomic layers using sol-gel as precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Wei; Lin, Junhao; Feng, Wei; Xiao, Kai; Qiu, Yunfeng; Chen, XiaoShuang; Liu, Guangbo; Cao, Wenwu; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Zhou, Wu; Hu, PingAn

    2016-07-19

    2D layered MoS2 has drawn intense attention for its applications in flexible electronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic devices. Most of the MoS2 atomic layers grown by conventional chemical vapor deposition techniques are n-type due to the abundant sulfur vacancies. Facile production of MoS2 atomic layers with p-type behavior, however, remains challenging. Here, a novel one-step growth has been developed to attain p-type MoS2 layers in large scale by using Mo-containing sol–gel, including 1% tungsten (W). Atomic-resolution electron microscopy characterization reveals that small tungsten oxide clusters are commonly present on the as-grown MoS2 film due to the incomplete reduction of W precursor at the reaction temperature. These omnipresent small tungsten oxide clusters contribute to the p-type behavior, as verified by density functional theory calculations, while preserving the crystallinity of the MoS2 atomic layers. The Mo containing sol–gel precursor is compatible with the soft-lithography techniques, which enables patterned growth of p-type MoS2 atomic layers into regular arrays with different shapes, holding great promise for highly integrated device applications. Lastly, an atomically thin p–n junction is fabricated by the as-prepared MoS2, which shows strong rectifying behavior.

  12. Optical and electronic properties of delafossite CuBO{sub 2}p-type transparent conducting oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ruttanapun, Chesta E-mail: krchesta@kmitl.ac.th

    2013-09-21

    CuBO{sub 2} delafossite was prepared by solid state reaction and calcined/sintered at 1005 °C. The optical properties of this p-type transparent conducting oxide were investigated. Its crystal structure, morphology, composition, oxygen decomposition, and optical and electronic properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-VIS-NIR) and fluorescence spectroscopies, Seebeck coefficient, and electrical conductivity measurements. CuBO{sub 2} delafossite possesses a hexagonal space group R3{sup ¯}m. TGA indicated a weight loss of 10%, which was attributed to excess oxygen. The positive Seebeck coefficient confirmed p-type behavior. Emission at 355 nm indicated a direct band type transition, and the UV-VIS-NIR spectrum indicated an optical direct gap of 3.6 eV. Activation energies for carrier production and electrical conduction were 0.147 and 0.58 eV, respectively, indicating the thermal activation of carriers. CuBO{sub 2} delafossite is a p-type transparent conducting oxide with a wide band gap and may have potential in industrial p-type electrodes.

  13. Translocation of SenP5 from the nucleoli to the mitochondria modulates DRP1-dependent fission during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Zunino, Rodolfo; Braschi, Emélie; Xu, Liqun; McBride, Heidi M

    2009-06-26

    The mechanisms that ensure an equal inheritance of cellular organelles during mitosis are an important area of study in cell biology. For the mitochondria fragment during mitosis, however, the cellular links that signal these changes are largely unknown. We recently identified a SUMO protease, SenP5, that deSUMOylates a number of mitochondrial targets, including the dynamin-related fission GTPase, DRP1. In interphase, SenP5 resides primarily within the nucleoli, in addition to a cytosolic pool. Here we report the relocalization of SenP5 from the nucleoli to the mitochondrial surface at G2/M transition prior to nuclear envelope breakdown. The recruitment of SenP5 results in a significant loss in mitochondrial SUMOylation, and a concomitant increase in the labile pool of DRP1 that drives mitochondrial fragmentation. Importantly, silencing of SenP5 leads to an arrest in the cell cycle precisely at the time when the protease is translocated to the mitochondria. These data indicate that transition of SenP5 to the mitochondria plays an important role in mitochondrial fragmentation during mitosis. The altered intracellular localization of SenP5 represents the first example of the mitochondrial recruitment of a SUMO protease and provides new insights into the mechanisms of interorganellar communication during the cell cycle.

  14. Intermittent dust mass loss from activated asteroid P/2013 P5 (PANSTARRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, F.; Pozuelos, F.

    2014-02-01

    We present observations and models of the dust environment of activated asteroid P/2013 P5 (PANSTARRS). The object displayed a complex morphology during the observations, with the presence of multiple tails. We combined our own observations, all made with instrumentation attached to the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias on La Palma, with previously published Hubble Space Telescope images to build a model aimed at fitting all the observations. Altogether, the data cover a full three month period of observations which can be explained by intermittent dust loss. The most plausible scenario is that of an asteroid rotating with the spinning axis oriented perpendicular to the orbit plane and losing mass from the equatorial region, consistent with rotational break-up. Assuming that the ejection velocity of the particles (v ∼ 0.02-0.05 m s{sup –1}) corresponds to the escape velocity, the object diameter is constrained to ∼30-130 m for bulk densities 3000-1000 kg m{sup –3}.

  15. Differential uptake and processing of a Haemophilus influenzae P5-derived immunogen by chinchilla dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Laura A; Partida-Sánchez, Santiago; Munson, Robert S; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2008-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells involved in the initiation and modulation of immune responses after immunization via their ability to process and present antigen to naive T cells. We wanted to examine the role of DCs in the development of protective immunity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI)-induced experimental otitis media (OM) after intranasal immunization of chinchillas with an NTHI P5-derived synthetic peptide immunogen called LB1. As chinchilla DCs have not been described, we adapted well-established protocols to induce the differentiation of chinchilla bone marrow precursor cells into DCs, which resulted in cells that were morphologically and phenotypically similar to DCs of other species. In vitro, chinchilla DCs readily internalized LB1, upregulated expression of the maturation markers CD80 and major histocompatibility complex class II, and presented processed LB1 to primed CD3+ T cells, which resulted in antigen-specific T-cell proliferation. In vivo, LB1-activated DCs trafficked from the chinchilla nasal cavity primarily to the nasal-associated lymphoid tissues and were detected in close proximity to CD3+ T cells within this lymphoid aggregate. These data are the first to characterize chinchilla DCs and their functional properties. Furthermore, they suggest an important role for chinchilla DCs in the development of protective immunity against experimental NTHI-induced OM after intranasal immunization.

  16. S-type and P-type Habitability in Stellar Binary Systems: A Comprehensive Approach. I. Method and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive approach is provided for the study of both S-type and P-type habitability in stellar binary systems, which in principle can also be expanded to systems of higher order. P-type orbits occur when the planet orbits both binary components, whereas in the case of S-type orbits, the planet orbits only one of the binary components with the second component considered a perturbator. The selected approach encapsulates a variety of different aspects, which include: (1) the consideration of a joint constraint, including orbital stability and a habitable region for a putative system planet through the stellar radiative energy fluxes ("radiative habitable zone"; RHZ), needs to be met; (2) the treatment of conservative, general, and extended zones of habitability for the various systems as defined for the solar system and beyond; (3) the provision of a combined formalism for the assessment of both S-type and P-type habitability; in particular, mathematical criteria are presented for the kind of system in which S-type and P-type habitability is realized; (4) applications of the attained theoretical approach to standard (theoretical) main-sequence stars. In principle, five different cases of habitability are identified, which are S-type and P-type habitability provided by the full extent of the RHZs; habitability, where the RHZs are truncated by the additional constraint of planetary orbital stability (referred to as ST- and PT-type, respectively); and cases of no habitability at all. Regarding the treatment of planetary orbital stability, we utilize the formulae of Holman & Wiegert as also used in previous studies. In this work, we focus on binary systems in circular orbits. Future applications will also consider binary systems in elliptical orbits and provide thorough comparisons to other methods and results given in the literature.

  17. S-type and P-type habitability in stellar binary systems: A comprehensive approach. I. Method and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cuntz, M.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive approach is provided for the study of both S-type and P-type habitability in stellar binary systems, which in principle can also be expanded to systems of higher order. P-type orbits occur when the planet orbits both binary components, whereas in the case of S-type orbits, the planet orbits only one of the binary components with the second component considered a perturbator. The selected approach encapsulates a variety of different aspects, which include: (1) the consideration of a joint constraint, including orbital stability and a habitable region for a putative system planet through the stellar radiative energy fluxes ({sup r}adiative habitable zone{sup ;} RHZ), needs to be met; (2) the treatment of conservative, general, and extended zones of habitability for the various systems as defined for the solar system and beyond; (3) the provision of a combined formalism for the assessment of both S-type and P-type habitability; in particular, mathematical criteria are presented for the kind of system in which S-type and P-type habitability is realized; (4) applications of the attained theoretical approach to standard (theoretical) main-sequence stars. In principle, five different cases of habitability are identified, which are S-type and P-type habitability provided by the full extent of the RHZs; habitability, where the RHZs are truncated by the additional constraint of planetary orbital stability (referred to as ST- and PT-type, respectively); and cases of no habitability at all. Regarding the treatment of planetary orbital stability, we utilize the formulae of Holman and Wiegert as also used in previous studies. In this work, we focus on binary systems in circular orbits. Future applications will also consider binary systems in elliptical orbits and provide thorough comparisons to other methods and results given in the literature.

  18. Comprehensive pharmacokinetic studies and oral bioavailability of two Mn porphyrin-based SOD mimics, MnTE-2-PyP5+ and MnTnHex-2-PyP5+

    PubMed Central

    Weitner, Tin; Kos, Ivan; Sheng, Huaxin; Tovmasyan, Artak; Reboucas, Julio S.; Fan, Ping; Warner, David S.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Spasojevic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The cationic, ortho Mn(III) N-alkylpyridylporphyrins (alkyl=ethyl, E, and n-hexyl, nHex) MnTE-2-PyP5+ (AEOL10113, FBC-007) and MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ have proven efficacious in numerous in vivo animal models of diseases having oxidative stress in common. The remarkable therapeutic efficacy observed is due to their: (1) ability to catalytically remove O2•− and ONOO− and other reactive species; (2) ability to modulate redox-based signaling pathways; (3) accumulation within critical cellular compartments, i.e., mitochondria; and (4) ability to cross the blood–brain barrier. The similar redox activities of both compounds are related to the similar electronic and electrostatic environments around the metal active sites, whereas their different bioavailabilities are presumably influenced by the differences in lipophilicity, bulkiness, and shape. Both porphyrins are water soluble, but MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ is approximately 4 orders of magnitude more lipophilic than MnTE-2-PyP5+, which should positively affect its ability to pass through biological membranes, making it more efficacious in vivo at lower doses. To gain insight into the in vivo tissue distribution of Mn porphyrins and its impact upon their therapeutic efficacy and mechanistic aspects of action, as well as to provide data that would ensure proper dosing regimens, we conducted comprehensive pharmacokinetic (PK) studies for 24 h after single-dose drug administration. The porphyrins were administered intravenously (iv), intraperitoneally (ip), and via oral gavage at the following doses: 10 mg/kg MnTE-2-PyP5+ and 0.5 or 2 mg/kg MnTnHex-2-PyP5+. Drug levels in plasma and various organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lung, brain) were determined and PK parameters calculated (Cmax, C24 h, tmax, and AUC). Regardless of high water solubility and pentacationic charge of these Mn porphyrins, they are orally available. The oral availability (based on plasma AUCoral/AUCiv) is 23% for MnTE-2-PyP5+ and 21% for MnTnHex-2-PyP5

  19. Activation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase with DRm217 attenuates oxidative stress-induced myocardial cell injury via closing Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase/Src/Ros amplifier.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaofei; Xun, Meng; Dou, Xiaojuan; Wu, Litao; Zhang, Fujun; Zheng, Jin

    2017-04-01

    Reduced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity has close relationship with cardiomyocyte death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) also plays an important role in cardiac cell damage. It has been proved that Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and ROS form a feed-forward amplifier. The aim of this study was to explore whether DRm217, a proved Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase's DR-region specific monoclonal antibody and direct activator, could disrupt Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase/ROS amplifier and protect cardiac cells from ROS-induced injury. We found that DRm217 protected myocardial cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cardiac cell injury and mitochondrial dysfunction. DRm217 also alleviated the effect of H2O2 on inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase cell surface expression, and Src phosphorylation. H2O2-treatment increased intracellular ROS, mitochondrial ROS and induced intracellular Ca(2+), mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload. DRm217 closed Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase/ROS amplifier, alleviated Ca(2+) accumulation and finally inhibited ROS and mitochondrial ROS generation. These novel results may help us to understand the important role of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in oxidative stress and oxidative stress-related disease.

  20. Changes in Na+, K+-ATPase activity and alpha 3 subunit expression in CNS after administration of Na+, K+-ATPase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bersier, María Geraldina; Peña, Clara; Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez de Lores

    2011-02-01

    The expression of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase α3 subunit and synaptosomal membrane Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity were analyzed after administration of ouabain and endobain E, respectively commercial and endogenous Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibitors. Wistar rats received intracerebroventricularly ouabain or endobain E dissolved in saline solution or Tris-HCl, respectively or the vehicles (controls). Two days later, animals were decapitated, cerebral cortex and hippocampus removed and crude and synaptosomal membrane fractions were isolated. Western blot analysis showed that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase α3 subunit expression increased roughly 40% after administration of 10 or 100 nmoles ouabain in cerebral cortex but remained unaltered in hippocampus. After administration of 10 μl endobain E (1 μl = 28 mg tissue) Na(+), K(+)-ATPase α3 subunit enhanced 130% in cerebral cortex and 103% in hippocampus. The activity of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in cortical synaptosomal membranes diminished or increased after administration of ouabain or endobain E, respectively. It is concluded that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibitors modify differentially the expression of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase α3 subunit and enzyme activity, most likely involving compensatory mechanisms.

  1. Vacuolar H(+)-ATPase and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase contribute to the tolerance against high-pressure carbon dioxide treatment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Taisuke; Furukawa, Soichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Takatsuki, Akira; Hirata, Ryogo; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Yamasaki, Makari

    2005-11-25

    As a non-thermal sterilization process, high-pressure carbon dioxide treatment (HPCT) is considered to be promising. The main sterilizing effect of HPCT is thought to be acidification in cytoplasm of microorganisms. We investigated the tolerance mechanism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to HPCT with special reference to vacuolar and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases. HPCT was imposed at 35 degrees C, 4 to 10 MPa, for 10 min. slp1 mutant defective in vacuole morphogenesis was more sensitive to HPCT than its isogenic parent. Concanamycin A, a specific inhibitor of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase), at 10 microM rendered the parent more HPCT-sensitive to the level of slp1. To confirm further the contribution of V-ATPase to the tolerance against HPCT in S. cerevisiae, we compared vma1 mutant of V-ATPase with its isogenic parent for their HPCT sensitivity. vma1 mutant was more sensitive to HPCT than its parent. Addition of 10 microM vanadate, an inhibitor of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (P-ATPase), to the wild type strains also increased the inactivation ratio. These results clearly show that V- and P-ATPases contribute to the tolerance against HPCT in S. cerevisiae by accumulating excess H(+) from cytoplasm to vacuole and excluding H(+) outside of the cell, respectively.

  2. Regulation of Cardiac Remodeling by Cardiac Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijun; Wu, Jian; Kennedy, David J

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac remodeling occurs after cardiac pressure/volume overload or myocardial injury during the development of heart failure and is a determinant of heart failure. Preventing or reversing remodeling is a goal of heart failure therapy. Human cardiomyocyte Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has multiple α isoforms (1-3). The expression of the α subunit of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is often altered in hypertrophic and failing hearts. The mechanisms are unclear. There are limited data from human cardiomyocytes. Abundant evidences from rodents show that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase regulates cardiac contractility, cell signaling, hypertrophy and fibrosis. The α1 isoform of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is the ubiquitous isoform and possesses both pumping and signaling functions. The α2 isoform of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase regulates intracellular Ca(2+) signaling, contractility and pathological hypertrophy. The α3 isoform of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase may also be a target for cardiac hypertrophy. Restoration of cardiac Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase expression may be an effective approach for prevention of cardiac remodeling. In this article, we will overview: (1) the distribution and function of isoform specific Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the cardiomyocytes. (2) the role of cardiac Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the regulation of cell signaling, contractility, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Selective targeting of cardiac Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase isoform may offer a new target for the prevention of cardiac remodeling.

  3. Anesthetics alter the physical and functional properties of the Ca-ATPase in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Karon, B S; Geddis, L M; Kutchai, H; Thomas, D D

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the local anesthetic lidocaine, and the general anesthetic halothane, on the function and oligomeric state of the CA-ATPase in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Oligomeric changes were detected by time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy (TPA). Lidocaine inhibited and aggregated the Ca-ATPase in cardiac SR. Micromolar calcium or 0.5 M lithium chloride protected against lidocaine-induced inhibition, indicating that electrostatic interactions are essential to lidocaine inhibition of the Ca-ATPase. The phospholamban (PLB) antibody 2D12, which mimics PLB phosphorylation, had no effect on lidocaine inhibition of the Ca-ATPase in cardiac SR. Inhibition and aggregation of the Ca-ATPase in cardiac SR occurred at lower concentrations of lidocaine than necessary to inhibit and aggregate the Ca-ATPase in skeletal SR, suggesting that the cardiac isoform of the enzyme has a higher affinity for lidocaine. Halothane inhibited and aggregated the Ca-ATPase in cardiac SR. Both inhibition and aggregation of the Ca-ATPase by halothane were much greater in the presence of PLB antibody or when PLB was phosphorylated, indicating a protective effect of PLB on halothane-induced inhibition and aggregation. The effects of halothane on cardiac SR are opposite from the effects of halothane observed in skeletal SR, where halothane activates and dissociates the Ca-ATPase. These results underscore the crucial role of protein-protein interactions on Ca-ATPase regulation and anesthetic perturbation of cardiac SR. PMID:7756557

  4. Regulation of Cardiac Remodeling by Cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lijun; Wu, Jian; Kennedy, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac remodeling occurs after cardiac pressure/volume overload or myocardial injury during the development of heart failure and is a determinant of heart failure. Preventing or reversing remodeling is a goal of heart failure therapy. Human cardiomyocyte Na+/K+-ATPase has multiple α isoforms (1–3). The expression of the α subunit of the Na+/K+-ATPase is often altered in hypertrophic and failing hearts. The mechanisms are unclear. There are limited data from human cardiomyocytes. Abundant evidences from rodents show that Na+/K+-ATPase regulates cardiac contractility, cell signaling, hypertrophy and fibrosis. The α1 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase is the ubiquitous isoform and possesses both pumping and signaling functions. The α2 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase regulates intracellular Ca2+ signaling, contractility and pathological hypertrophy. The α3 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase may also be a target for cardiac hypertrophy. Restoration of cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase expression may be an effective approach for prevention of cardiac remodeling. In this article, we will overview: (1) the distribution and function of isoform specific Na+/K+-ATPase in the cardiomyocytes. (2) the role of cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase in the regulation of cell signaling, contractility, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Selective targeting of cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase isoform may offer a new target for the prevention of cardiac remodeling. PMID:27667975

  5. A novel multigene cloning method for the production of a motile ATPase.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min Su; Song, Woo Chul; Shin, Seung Won; Park, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Dong-Ik; Kim, Byung Woo; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-08-10

    With the advent of nanotechnology, new functional modules (e.g., nanomotors, nanoprobes) have become essential in several medical fields. Generally, mechanical modulators systems are the principal components of most cutting-edge technologies in modern biomedical applications. However, the in vivo use of motile probes has raised many concerns due to their low sensitivity and non-biocompatibility. As an alternative, biological enzymatic engines have received increased attention. In particular, ATPases, which belong to a class of motile enzymes that catalyze chemical metabolic reactions, have emerged as a promising motor due to their improved biocompatibility and performance. However, ATPases usually suffer from lower functional activity and are difficult to express recombinantly in bacteria relative to their conventional and synthetic competitors. Here, we report a novel functional modified ATPase with both a simple purification protocol and enhanced motile activity. For this mutant ATPase, a new bacterial subcloning method was established. The ATPase-encoding sequence was redesigned so that the mutant ATPase could be easily produced in an Escherichia coli system. The modified thermophilic F1-ATPase (mTF1-ATPase) demonstrated 17.8unit/mg ATPase activity. We propose that derivatives of our ATPase may enable the development of novel in vitro and in vivo synthetic medical diagnostics, as well as therapeutics.

  6. Role of ENA ATPase in Na(+) efflux at high pH in bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Fraile-Escanciano, Ana; Garciadeblás, Blanca; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alonso; Benito, Begoña

    2009-12-01

    Potassium or Na(+) efflux ATPases, ENA ATPases, are present in all fungi and play a central role in Na(+) efflux and Na(+) tolerance. Flowering plants lack ENA ATPases but two ENA ATPases have been identified in the moss Physcomitrella patens, PpENA1 and PpENA2. PpENA1 mediates Na(+) efflux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To propose a general function of ENA ATPases in bryophytes it was necessary to demonstrate that these ATPases mediate Na(+) efflux in planta and that they exist in more bryophytes than P. patens. For these demonstrations (1) we cloned a third ATPase from P. patens, PpENA3, and studied the expression pattern of the three PpENA genes; (2) we constructed and studied the single and double Deltappena1 and Deltappena2 mutants; and (3) we cloned two ENA ATPases from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, MpENA1 and MpENA2, and expressed them in S. cerevisiae. The results from the first two approaches revealed that the expression of ENA ATPases was greatly enhanced at high pH and that Na(+) efflux at high pH depended on PpENA1. The ENA1 ATPase of M. polymorpha suppressed the defective growth of a S. cerevisiae mutant at high K(+) or Na(+) concentrations, especially at high K(+).

  7. Coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase activity in ABC transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Hundeep; Lakatos-Karoly, Andrea; Vogel, Ramona; Nöll, Anne; Tampé, Robert; Glaubitz, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a superfamily of integral membrane proteins, catalyse the translocation of substrates across the cellular membrane by ATP hydrolysis. Here we demonstrate by nucleotide turnover and binding studies based on 31P solid-state NMR spectroscopy that the ABC exporter and lipid A flippase MsbA can couple ATP hydrolysis to an adenylate kinase activity, where ADP is converted into AMP and ATP. Single-point mutations reveal that both ATPase and adenylate kinase mechanisms are associated with the same conserved motifs of the nucleotide-binding domain. Based on these results, we propose a model for the coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase mechanism, involving the canonical and an additional nucleotide-binding site. We extend these findings to other prokaryotic ABC exporters, namely LmrA and TmrAB, suggesting that the coupled activities are a general feature of ABC exporters. PMID:28004795

  8. MORC Family ATPases Required for Heterochromatin Condensation and Gene Silencing#

    PubMed Central

    Moissiard, Guillaume; Cokus, Shawn J.; Cary, Joshua; Feng, Suhua; Billi, Allison C.; Stroud, Hume; Husmann, Dylan; Zhan, Ye; Lajoie, Bryan R.; McCord, Rachel Patton; Hale, Christopher J.; Feng, Wei; Michaels, Scott D.; Frand, Alison R.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Dekker, Job; Kim, John K.; Jacobsen, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) and DNA repeats are commonly targeted by DNA and histone methylation to achieve epigenetic gene silencing. We isolated mutations in two Arabidopsis genes, AtMORC1 and AtMORC6, which cause de-repression of DNA-methylated genes and TEs, but no losses of DNA or histone methylation. AtMORC1 and AtMORC6 are members of the conserved Microrchidia (MORC) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) family, predicted to catalyze alterations in chromosome superstructure. The atmorc1 and atmorc6 mutants show decondensation of pericentromeric heterochromatin, increased interaction of pericentromeric regions with the rest of the genome, and transcriptional defects that are largely restricted to loci residing in pericentromeric regions. Knockdown of the single MORC homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans also impairs transgene silencing. We propose that the MORC ATPases are conserved regulators of gene silencing in eukaryotes. PMID:22555433

  9. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency.

  10. Rotating proton pumping ATPases: subunit/subunit interactions and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi; Sekiya, Mizuki; Futai, Masamitsu

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we discuss single molecule observation of rotational catalysis by E. coli ATP synthase (F-ATPase) using small gold beads. Studies involving a low viscous drag probe showed the stochastic properties of the enzyme in alternating catalytically active and inhibited states. The importance of subunit interaction between the rotor and the stator, and thermodynamics of the catalysis are also discussed. "Single Molecule Enzymology" is a new trend for understanding enzyme mechanisms in biochemistry and physiology.

  11. Cm-p5: an antifungal hydrophilic peptide derived from the coastal mollusk Cenchritis muricatus (Gastropoda: Littorinidae).

    PubMed

    López-Abarrategui, Carlos; McBeth, Christine; Mandal, Santi M; Sun, Zhenyu J; Heffron, Gregory; Alba-Menéndez, Annia; Migliolo, Ludovico; Reyes-Acosta, Osvaldo; García-Villarino, Mónica; Nolasco, Diego O; Falcão, Rosana; Cherobim, Mariana D; Dias, Simoni C; Brandt, Wolfgang; Wessjohann, Ludger; Starnbach, Michael; Franco, Octavio L; Otero-González, Anselmo J

    2015-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides form part of the first line of defense against pathogens for many organisms. Current treatments for fungal infections are limited by drug toxicity and pathogen resistance. Cm-p5 (SRSELIVHQRLF), a peptide derived from the marine mollusk Cenchritis muricatus peptide Cm-p1, has a significantly increased fungistatic activity against pathogenic Candida albicans (minimal inhibitory concentration, 10 µg/ml; EC50, 1.146 µg/ml) while exhibiting low toxic effects against a cultured mammalian cell line. Cm-p5 as characterized by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance revealed an α-helical structure in membrane-mimetic conditions and a tendency to random coil folding in aqueous solutions. Additional studies modeling Cm-p5 binding to a phosphatidylserine bilayer in silico and isothermal titration calorimetry using lipid monophases demonstrated that Cm-p5 has a high affinity for the phospholipids of fungal membranes (phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine), only moderate interactions with a mammalian membrane phospholipid, low interaction with ergosterol, and no interaction with chitin. Adhesion of Cm-p5 to living C. albicans cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy with FITC-labeled peptide. In a systemic candidiasis model in mice, intraperitoneal administration of Cm-p5 was unable to control the fungal kidney burden, although its low amphiphaticity could be modified to generate new derivatives with improved fungicidal activity and stability.

  12. Protein import into chloroplasts requires a chloroplast ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Pain, D.; Blobel, G.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have transcribed mRNA from a cDNA clone coding for pea ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, translated the mRNA in a wheat germ cell-free system, and studied the energy requirement for posttranslational import of the (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled protein into the stroma of pea chloroplasts. They found that import depends on ATP hydrolysis within the stroma. Import is not inhibited when H/sup +/, K/sup +/, Na/sup +/, or divalent cation gradients across the chloroplast membranes are dissipated by ionophores, as long as exogenously added ATP is also present during the import reaction. The data suggest that protein import into the chloroplast stroma requires a chloroplast ATPase that does not function to generate a membrane potential for driving the import reaction but that exerts its effect in another, yet-to-be-determined, mode. They have carried out a preliminary characterization of this ATPase regarding its nucleotide specificity and the effects of various ATPase inhibitors.

  13. The Mechanism of Hsp90 ATPase Stimulation by Aha1

    PubMed Central

    Wolmarans, Annemarie; Lee, Brian; Spyracopoulos, Leo; LaPointe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Hsp90 is a dimeric molecular chaperone responsible for the folding, maturation, and activation of hundreds of substrate proteins called ‘clients’. Numerous co-chaperone proteins regulate progression through the ATP-dependent client activation cycle. The most potent stimulator of the Hsp90 ATPase activity is the co-chaperone Aha1p. Only one molecule of Aha1p is required to fully stimulate the Hsp90 dimer despite the existence of two, presumably identical, binding sites for this regulator. Using ATPase assays with Hsp90 heterodimers, we find that Aha1p stimulates ATPase activity by a three-step mechanism via the catalytic loop in the middle domain of Hsp90. Binding of the Aha1p N domain to the Hsp90 middle domain exerts a small stimulatory effect but also drives a separate conformational rearrangement in the Hsp90 N domains. This second event drives a rearrangement in the N domain of the opposite subunit and is required for the stimulatory action of the Aha1p C domain. Furthermore, the second event can be blocked by a mutation in one subunit of the Hsp90 dimer but not the other. This work provides a foundation for understanding how post-translational modifications regulate co-chaperone engagement with the Hsp90 dimer. PMID:27615124

  14. Formation of oriented membrane multilayers of Na/K-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Pachence, J.M.; Knott, R.; Edelman, I.S.; Schoenborn, B.P.; Wallace, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The isolated membrane-bound enzyme retains its ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis activity, and produces ATP-dependent Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ fluxes when incorporated into phospholipid vesicles. The ultimate goal of this work is to determine its low resolution structure using both X-ray and neutron diffraction. A number of methods were used to impart lamellar stacking order to highly purified pig Na/K-ATPase membranes. Upon partial dehydration, x-ray diffraction from Na/K-ATPase membrane multilayers at 98% relative humidity yielded discrete reflections of 118 A periodicity, diffracting to 1/14.8 A/sup -1/, additionally, continuous diffraction to 1/10 A/sup -1/ was obtained. Subjecting the membrane multilayers to high magnetic fields improved the quality of the lamellar diffraction dramatically. Neutron diffraction studies of the partially dehydrated Na/K-ATPase membrane multilayers detected a mosaic spread of 2/sup 0/ when the samples were subjected to a magnetic field of 5 Tesla perpendicular to the membrane surface; the reflections were narrower than the camera line width; hence, the lattice disorder has also decreased significantly, although only four orders were measured.

  15. Plasma Membrane Ca-ATPase of Radish Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Carnelli, Antonella; De Michelis, Maria I.; Rasi-Caldogno, Franca

    1992-01-01

    In this work, we exploited the capability of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase to utilize ITP as a substrate to study its characteristics in plasma membrane vesicles purified from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings. The majority of the ITPase activity of plasma membrane was Ca2+-dependent. The Ca2+-dependent ITPase activity was Mg2+-dependent and was stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187. It was inhibited by erythrosin B (concentration giving 50% inhibition, 50 nanomolar) and by vanadate (concentration giving 50% inhibition, 3 micromolar) and displayed a broad pH optimum around pH 7.2 to 7.5. Both the hydrolytic and the transport activity of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase were half-saturated by Ca2+ in the micromolar concentration range. No major effect of EGTA on the saturation kinetics of the enzyme was observed. The affinity of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase for Ca2+ was about fourfold higher at pH 7.5 than at pH 6.9. The Ca2+-dependent ITPase activity was stimulated about twofold by polyoxyethylene 20 cetyl ether, although it was inhibited by Triton X-100 and by lysolecithin. PMID:16668746

  16. Ion pathways in the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Bublitz, Maike; Musgaard, Maria; Poulsen, Hanne; Thøgersen, Lea; Olesen, Claus; Schiøtt, Birgit; Morth, J Preben; Møller, Jesper Vuust; Nissen, Poul

    2013-04-12

    The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) is a transmembrane ion transporter belonging to the P(II)-type ATPase family. It performs the vital task of re-sequestering cytoplasmic Ca(2+) to the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum store, thereby also terminating Ca(2+)-induced signaling such as in muscle contraction. This minireview focuses on the transport pathways of Ca(2+) and H(+) ions across the lipid bilayer through SERCA. The ion-binding sites of SERCA are accessible from either the cytoplasm or the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum lumen, and the Ca(2+) entry and exit channels are both formed mainly by rearrangements of four N-terminal transmembrane α-helices. Recent improvements in the resolution of the crystal structures of rabbit SERCA1a have revealed a hydrated pathway in the C-terminal transmembrane region leading from the ion-binding sites to the cytosol. A comparison of different SERCA conformations reveals that this C-terminal pathway is exclusive to Ca(2+)-free E2 states, suggesting that it may play a functional role in proton release from the ion-binding sites. This is in agreement with molecular dynamics simulations and mutational studies and is in striking analogy to a similar pathway recently described for the related sodium pump. We therefore suggest a model for the ion exchange mechanism in P(II)-ATPases including not one, but two cytoplasmic pathways working in concert.

  17. Radiation inactivation analysis of chloroplast CF0-CF1 ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Y.; Chien, L.F.; Pan, R.L.

    1988-06-25

    Radiation inactivation technique was employed to measure the functional size of adenosine triphosphatase of spinach chloroplasts. The functional size for acid-base-induced ATP synthesis was 450 +/- 24 kilodaltons; for phenazine methosulfate-mediated ATP synthesis, 613 +/- 33 kilodaltons; and for methanol-activated ATP hydrolysis, 280 +/- 14 kilodaltons. The difference (170 +/- 57 kilodaltons) between 450 +/- 24 and 280 +/- 14 kilodaltons is explained to be the molecular mass of proton channel (coupling factor 0) across the thylakoid membrane. Our data suggest that the stoichiometry of subunits I, II, and III of coupling factor 0 is 1:2:15. Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase activated by methanol, heat, and trypsin digestion have a similar functional size. However, anions such as SO/sub 3/(2-) and CO/sub 3/(2-) increased the molecular mass for both ATPase's (except trypsin-activated Mg2+-ATPase) by 12-30%. Soluble coupling factor 1 has a larger target size than that of membrane-bound. This is interpreted as the cold effect during irradiation.

  18. The oligomeric state of the active Vps4 AAA ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Nicole; Han, Han; Gonciarz, Malgorzata D.; Eckert, Debra M.; Karren, Mary Anne; Whitby, Frank G.; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Hill, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    The cellular ESCRT pathway drives membrane constriction toward the cytosol and effects membrane fission during cytokinesis, endosomal sorting, and the release of many enveloped viruses, including HIV. A component of this pathway, the AAA ATPase Vps4, provides energy for pathway progression. Although it is established that Vps4 functions as an oligomer, subunit stoichiometry and other fundamental features of the functional enzyme are unclear. Higher-order oligomers have thus far only been characterized for a Walker B mutant of Vps4 in the presence of ATP. Here, we report that although some mutant Vps4 proteins form dodecameric assemblies, active wild-type S. cerevisiae and S. solfataricus Vps4 enzymes can form hexamers in the presence of ATP and ADP, as assayed by size exclusion chromatography and equilibrium analytical ultracentifugation. The Vta1p activator binds hexameric yeast Vps4p without changing the oligomeric state of Vps4p, implying that the active Vta1p:Vps4p complex also contains a single hexameric ring. Additionally, we report crystal structures of two different archaeal Vps4 homologs, whose structures and lattice interactions suggest a conserved mode of oligomerization. Disruption of the proposed hexamerization interface by mutagenesis abolished the ATPase activity of archaeal Vps4 proteins and blocked Vps4p function in S. cerevisiae. These data challenge the prevailing model that active Vps4 is a double ring dodecamer, and argue that, like other type I AAA ATPases, Vps4 functions as a single ring with six subunits. PMID:24161953

  19. V-ATPase as an effective therapeutic target for sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Perut, Francesca; Avnet, Sofia; Fotia, Caterina; Baglìo, Serena Rubina; Salerno, Manuela; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Baldini, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Malignant tumors show intense glycolysis and, as a consequence, high lactate production and proton efflux activity. We investigated proton dynamics in osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma, and evaluated the effects of esomeprazole as a therapeutic agent interfering with tumor acidic microenvironment. All sarcomas were able to survive in an acidic microenvironment (up to 5.9–6.0 pH) and abundant acidic lysosomes were found in all sarcoma subtypes. V-ATPase, a proton pump that acidifies intracellular compartments and transports protons across the plasma membrane, was detected in all cell types with a histotype-specific expression pattern. Esomeprazole administration interfered with proton compartmentalization in acidic organelles and induced a significant dose-dependent toxicity. Among the different histotypes, rhabdomyosarcoma, expressing the highest levels of V-ATPase and whose lysosomes are most acidic, was mostly susceptible to ESOM treatment. - Highlights: • Osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma survive in acidic microenvironment. • At acidic extracellular pH, sarcoma survival is dependent on V-ATPase expression. • Esomeprazole administration induce a significant dose-dependent toxicity.

  20. Arginine substitution of a cysteine in transmembrane helix M8 converts Na+,K+-ATPase to an electroneutral pump similar to H+,K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Holm, Rikke; Khandelwal, Jaanki; Einholm, Anja P; Andersen, Jens P; Artigas, Pablo; Vilsen, Bente

    2017-01-10

    Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and H(+),K(+)-ATPase are electrogenic and nonelectrogenic ion pumps, respectively. The underlying structural basis for this difference has not been established, and it has not been revealed how the H(+),K(+)-ATPase avoids binding of Na(+) at the site corresponding to the Na(+)-specific site of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (site III). In this study, we addressed these questions by using site-directed mutagenesis in combination with enzymatic, transport, and electrophysiological functional measurements. Replacement of the cysteine C932 in transmembrane helix M8 of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase with arginine, present in the H(+),K(+)-ATPase at the corresponding position, converted the normal 3Na(+):2K(+):1ATP stoichiometry of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase to electroneutral 2Na(+):2K(+):1ATP stoichiometry similar to the electroneutral transport mode of the H(+),K(+)-ATPase. The electroneutral C932R mutant of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase retained a wild-type-like enzyme turnover rate for ATP hydrolysis and rate of cellular K(+) uptake. Only a relatively minor reduction of apparent Na(+) affinity for activation of phosphorylation from ATP was observed for C932R, whereas replacement of C932 with leucine or phenylalanine, the latter of a size comparable to arginine, led to spectacular reductions of apparent Na(+) affinity without changing the electrogenicity. From these results, in combination with structural considerations, it appears that the guanidine(+) group of the M8 arginine replaces Na(+) at the third site, thus preventing Na(+) binding there, although allowing Na(+) to bind at the two other sites and become transported. Hence, in the H(+),K(+)-ATPase, the ability of the M8 arginine to donate an internal cation binding at the third site is decisive for the electroneutral transport mode of this pump.

  1. Increased Photoconductivity Lifetime in GaAs Nanowires by Controlled n-Type and p-Type Doping.

    PubMed

    Boland, Jessica L; Casadei, Alberto; Tütüncüoglu, Gözde; Matteini, Federico; Davies, Christopher L; Jabeen, Fauzia; Joyce, Hannah J; Herz, Laura M; Fontcuberta I Morral, Anna; Johnston, Michael B

    2016-04-26

    Controlled doping of GaAs nanowires is crucial for the development of nanowire-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, we present a noncontact method based on time-resolved terahertz photoconductivity for assessing n- and p-type doping efficiency in nanowires. Using this technique, we measure extrinsic electron and hole concentrations in excess of 10(18) cm(-3) for GaAs nanowires with n-type and p-type doped shells. Furthermore, we show that controlled doping can significantly increase the photoconductivity lifetime of GaAs nanowires by over an order of magnitude: from 0.13 ns in undoped nanowires to 3.8 and 2.5 ns in n-doped and p-doped nanowires, respectively. Thus, controlled doping can be used to reduce the effects of parasitic surface recombination in optoelectronic nanowire devices, which is promising for nanowire devices, such as solar cells and nanowire lasers.

  2. P-Type Zno:. as Obtained by Ion Implantation of AS+ with Post-Implantation Annealing in Oxygen Radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgobiani, A. N.; Demin, V. I.; Kotlyarevsky, M. B.; Rogozin, I. V.; Marakhovsky, A. V.

    2004-07-01

    Zinc oxide is the promising material for creation of the new generation of detectors for particle physics and radiation dosimetry. It has been shown that ion implantation of arsenic into zinc oxide film (arsenic is an acceptor impurity in ZnO) can result in formation of the p-type conductivity only in case of annealing in the flux of atomic oxygen. The ion implantation and the following annealing had influenced not only electrical properties of ZnO:As+ layers, but also their photoluminescence spectra. The ultraviolet luminescence band with the maximum at 3.33. eV corresponding to the AsO acceptor center had been clearly observed in the spectra of ZnO films implanted by As+ ions. The optimal temperature range of annealing in the atomic oxygen flux, required for obtaining of p-type conductivity in ZnO films, had been determined.

  3. Optical properties of antimony-doped p-type ZnO films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, X. H.; Guo, W.; Pan, X. Q.; Ye, Z. Z.; He, H. P.; Liu, B.; Che, Y.

    2009-06-01

    We investigated optical properties of Sb-doped p-type ZnO films grown on n-Si (100) substrates by oxygen plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition. Two acceptor states, with the acceptor levels of 161 and 336 meV, are identified by well-resolved photoluminescence spectra. Under oxygen-rich conditions, the deep acceptor in Sb-doped ZnO film is Zn vacancy. The shallow acceptor is Sb{sub Zn}-2V{sub Zn} complex induced by Sb doping. The origin of p-type behavior in Sb-doped ZnO has been ascribed to the formation of Sb{sub Zn}-2V{sub Zn} complex.

  4. Pore size modulation in electrochemically etched macroporous p-type silicon monitored by FFT impedance spectroscopy and Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Quiroga-González, Enrique; Carstensen, Jürgen; Glynn, Colm; O'Dwyer, Colm; Föll, Helmut

    2014-01-07

    The understanding of the mechanisms of macropore formation in p-type Si with respect to modulation of the pore diameter is still in its infancy. In the present work, macropores with significantly modulated diameters have been produced electrochemically in p-type Si. The effect of the current density and the amount of surfactant in the etching solution are shown to influence the modulation in pore diameter and morphology. Data obtained during the etching process by in situ FFT impedance spectroscopy correlate the pore diameter variation with certain time constants found in the kinetics of the dissolution process. Raman scattering and electron microscopy confirm the mesoscopic structure and roughening of the pore walls. Spectroscopic and microscopic methods confirm that the pore wall morphology is correlated with the conditions of pore modulation.

  5. Search for Pauli exclusion principle violating atomic transitions and electron decay with a p-type point contact germanium detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y. -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P. -H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Finnerty, P. S.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O’Shaughnessy, C.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2016-11-11

    A search for Pauli-exclusion-principle-violating K electron transitions was performed using 89.5 kg-d of data collected with a p-type point contact high-purity germanium detector operated at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility. A lower limit on the transition lifetime of s at 90% C.L. was set by looking for a peak at 10.6 keV resulting from the X-ray and Auger electrons present following the transition. A similar analysis was done to look for the decay of atomic K-shell electrons into neutrinos, resulting in a lower limit of s at 90% C.L. It is estimated that the Majorana Demonstrator, a 44 kg array of p-type point contact detectors that will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of Ge, could improve upon these exclusion limits by an order of magnitude after three years of operation.

  6. Gas sensing properties and p-type response of ALD TiO2 coated carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Marichy, Catherine; Donato, Nicola; Latino, Mariangela; Willinger, Marc Georg; Tessonnier, Jean-Philippe; Neri, Giovanni; Pinna, Nicola

    2015-01-16

    Amorphous titanium dioxide-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and investigated as sensing layers for resistive NO2 and O2 gas sensors. By varying ALD process conditions and CNT structure, heterostructures with different metal oxide grain size, morphology and coating thickness were synthesized. Higher responses were observed with homogeneous and continuous 5.5 nm thick films onto CNTs at an operating temperature of 150 °C, while CNTs decorated with either discontinuous film or TiO2 nanoparticles showed a weak response close to the one of device made of bare CNTs. An unexpected p-type behavior in presence of the target gas was also noticed, independently of the metal oxide morphology and thickness. Based on previous works, hypotheses were made in order to explain the p-type behavior of TiO2/CNT sensors.

  7. Heavy p-type doping of ZnSe thin films using Cu2Se in pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Man Yu, Kin; Kronawitter, Coleman X.; Ma, Zhixun; Yu, Peter Y.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2012-07-01

    Undoped, Cu-doped, Se-enriched, and Cu2Se-doped ZnSe films have been grown on fused quartz substrates by pulsed laser deposition. While the other films are highly resistive, Cu2Se-doped ZnSe films are p-type conducting with hole concentrations of ˜1.1 × 1019 cm-3 and resistivities of ˜0.098 Ω cm (compared with previous reports of ˜1×1018 cm-3 and ˜0.75 Ω cm). The exceptional heavy p-type doping of ZnSe films can be attributed to substitution of Zn atoms with Cu while limiting selenium-vacancy-associated compensating defects with additional selenium. This work is of importance to solve doping difficulties and contact problems of wide-bandgap semiconductors.

  8. Odd-Integer Quantum Hall States and Giant Spin Susceptibility in p -Type Few-Layer WSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuigang; Shen, Junying; Long, Gen; Wu, Zefei; Bao, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Cheng-Cheng; Xiao, Xiao; Han, Tianyi; Lin, Jiangxiazi; Wu, Yingying; Lu, Huanhuan; Hou, Jianqiang; An, Liheng; Wang, Yuanwei; Cai, Yuan; Ho, K. M.; He, Yuheng; Lortz, Rolf; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Ning

    2017-02-01

    We fabricate high-mobility p -type few-layer WSe2 field-effect transistors and surprisingly observe a series of quantum Hall (QH) states following an unconventional sequence predominated by odd-integer states under a moderate strength magnetic field. By tilting the magnetic field, we discover Landau level crossing effects at ultralow coincident angles, revealing that the Zeeman energy is about 3 times as large as the cyclotron energy near the valence band top at the Γ valley. This result implies the significant roles played by the exchange interactions in p -type few-layer WSe2 , in which itinerant or QH ferromagnetism likely occurs. Evidently, the Γ valley of few-layer WSe2 offers a unique platform with unusually heavy hole carriers and a substantially enhanced g factor for exploring strongly correlated phenomena.

  9. Effects of abnormal cell-to-cell interference on p-type floating gate and control gate NAND flash memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Jun; Kang, Jun Geun; Lee, Byungin; Cho, Gyu-Seog; Park, Sung-Kye; Choi, Woo Young

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal cell-to-cell interference occurring in NAND flash memory has been investigated. In the case of extremely downscaled NAND flash memory, cell-to-cell interference increases abnormally. The abnormal cell-to-cell interference has been observed in a p-type floating gate (FG)/control gate (CG) cells for the first time. It has been found that the depletion region variation leads to the abnormal cell-to-cell interference. The depletion region variation of FG and CG is determined by state of neighbor cells. The depletion region variation affects CG-to-FG coupling capacitance and threshold voltage variation (ΔVT). Finally, it is observed that there is a symmetrical relationship between n- and p-type FG/CG NAND flash memory in terms of cell-to-cell interference.

  10. Microstructural properties of phosphorus-doped p-type ZnO grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Min-Suk; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Choi, Yong-Seok; Kang, Jang-Won; Park, Seong-Ju; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Cho, Kyoung Ik

    2008-09-15

    Phosphorus (P)-doped ZnO thin films were grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering to study the microstructural properties of p-type ZnO. As-grown P-doped ZnO, a semi-insulator, was converted to p-type ZnO after being annealed at 800 deg. C in an N{sub 2} ambient. X-ray diffraction, secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, and Hall effect measurements indicated that P{sub 2}O{sub 5} phases in as-grown P-doped ZnO disappeared after thermal annealing to form a substitutional P at an O lattice site, which acts as an acceptor in P-doped ZnO. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the formation of stacking faults was facilitated to release the strain in P-doped ZnO during post-thermal annealing.

  11. Perovskite Sr-doped LaCrO3 as a new p-type transparent conducting oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongliang; Du, Yingge; Papadogianni, Alexandra; Bierwagen, Oliver; Sallis, Shawn; Piper, Louis F. J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Shutthanandan, V.; Sushko, Petr; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-09-16

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) constitute a unique class of materials which combine the seemingly mutually exclusive properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. TCOs are useful for a wide range of applications including solar cells, displays, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Simple post-transition metal oxides such as ZnO, In2O3 and SnO2 are wide gap insulators in which the ionic character generates an oxygen 2p-derived valence band (VB) and a metal s-derived conduction band (CB), resulting in large optical band gaps (>3.0 eV) and excellent n-type conductivity when donor doped. In contrast, the development of efficient p-type TCOs remains a global materials challenge. Converting n-type oxides to p-type analogs by acceptor doping is extremely difficult and these materials display poor conductivity.

  12. GaN-based light emitting diodes using p-type trench structure for improving internal quantum efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Garam; Sun, Min-Chul; Kim, Jang Hyun; Park, Euyhwan; Park, Byung-Gook

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve the internal quantum efficiency of GaN-based LEDs, a LED structure featuring a p-type trench in the multi-quantum well (MQW) is proposed. This structure has effects on spreading holes into the MQW and reducing the quantum-confined stark effect (QCSE). In addition, two simple fabrication methods using electron-beam (e-beam) lithography or selective wet etching for manufacturing the p-type structure are also proposed. From the measurement results of the manufactured GaN-based LEDs, it is confirmed that the proposed structure using e-beam lithography or selective wet etching shows improved light output power compared to the conventional structure because of more uniform hole distribution. It is also confirmed that the proposed structure formed by e-beam lithography has a significant effect on strain relaxation and reduction in the QCSE from the electro-luminescence measurement.

  13. Analysis of Photoluminescence Thermal Quenching: Guidance for the Design of Highly Effective p-type Doping of Nitrides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Huang, Yang; Yi, Xiaoyan; Fu, Binglei; Yuan, Guodong; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    A contact-free diagnostic technique for examining position of the impurity energy level of p-type dopants in nitride semiconductors was proposed based on photoluminescence thermal quenching. The Mg ionization energy was extracted by the phenomenological rate-equation model we developed. The diagnostic technique and analysis model reported here are priorities for the design of highly effective p-doping of nitrides and could also be used to explain the abnormal and seldom analyzed low characteristic temperature T0 (about 100 K) of thermal quenching in p-type nitrides systems. An In-Mg co-doped GaN system is given as an example to prove the validity of our methods. Furthermore, a hole concentration as high as 1.94 × 1018 cm−3 was achieved through In-Mg co-doping, which is nearly one order of magnitude higher than typically obtained in our lab. PMID:27550805

  14. p-type Li, Cu-codoped NiOx hole-transporting layer for efficient planar perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Hua; Zhou, Zheng-Ji; Zhang, Pan-Pan; Tian, Qing-Wen; Zhou, Wen-Hui; Kou, Dong-Xing; Wu, Si-Xin

    2016-10-31

    p-type inorganic hole transport materials of Li, Cu-codoped NiOx films were deposited using a simple solution-based process. The as-prepared films were used as hole selective contacts for lead halide perovskite solar cell. An enhanced power conversion efficiency of 14.53% has been achieved due to the improved electrical conductivity and optical transmittance of the Li, Cu-codoped NiOx electrode interlayer.

  15. Stable ohmic contacts to thin films of p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, L.F.; Biter, W.J.

    1988-04-05

    A photovolatic device is described comprising: a light transmissive substrate; an electrically conductive, transparent layer disposed on the substrate as a first electrode; a layer of a first semiconductor disposed on the first electrode; a p-type thin film of a tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor disposed on the first semiconductor to form a photoresponsive junction with it; and a second electrode contacting the thin film.

  16. S-TYPE AND P-TYPE HABITABILITY IN STELLAR BINARY SYSTEMS: A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH. II. ELLIPTICAL ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Cuntz, M.

    2015-01-10

    In the first paper of this series, a comprehensive approach has been provided for the study of S-type and P-type habitable regions in stellar binary systems, which was, however, restricted to circular orbits of the stellar components. Fortunately, a modest modification of the method also allows for the consideration of elliptical orbits, which of course entails a much broader range of applicability. This augmented method is presented here, and numerous applications are conveyed. In alignment with Paper I, the selected approach considers a variety of aspects, which comprise the consideration of a joint constraint including orbital stability and a habitable region for a possible system planet through the stellar radiative energy fluxes ({sup r}adiative habitable zone{sup ;} RHZ). The devised method is based on a combined formalism for the assessment of both S-type and P-type habitability; in particular, mathematical criteria are deduced for which kinds of systems S-type and P-type habitable zones are realized. If the RHZs are truncated by the additional constraint of orbital stability, the notation of ST-type and PT-type habitability applies. In comparison to the circular case, it is found that in systems of higher eccentricity, the range of the RHZs is significantly reduced. Moreover, for a considerable number of models, the orbital stability constraint also reduces the range of S-type and P-type habitability. Nonetheless, S-, P-, ST-, and PT-type habitability is identified for a considerable set of system parameters. The method as presented is utilized for BinHab, an online code available at The University of Texas at Arlington.

  17. Brain Na+, K+-ATPase Activity In Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez; Ordieres, María Graciela López

    2014-01-01

    Na+/K+ pump or sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine 5’-triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase), its enzymatic version, is a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. It is an ion transporter, which in addition to exchange cations, is the ligand for cardenolides. This enzyme regulates the entry of K+ with the exit of Na+ from cells, being the responsible for Na+/K+ equilibrium maintenance through neuronal membranes. This transport system couples the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP to exchange three sodium ions for two potassium ions, thus maintaining the normal gradient of these cations in animal cells. Oxidative metabolism is very active in brain, where large amounts of chemical energy as ATP molecules are consumed, mostly required for the maintenance of the ionic gradients that underlie resting and action potentials which are involved in nerve impulse propagation, neurotransmitter release and cation homeostasis. Protein phosphorylation is a key process in biological regulation. At nervous system level, protein phosphorylation is the major molecular mechanism through which the function of neural proteins is modulted in response to extracellular signals, including the response to neurotransmitter stimuli. It is the major mechanism of neural plasticity, including memory processing. The phosphorylation of Na+, K+-ATPase catalytic subunit inhibits enzyme activity whereas the inhibition of protein kinase C restores the enzyme activity. The dephosphorylation of neuronal Na+, K+-ATPase is mediated by calcineurin, a serine / threonine phosphatase. The latter enzyme is involved in a wide range of cellular responses to Ca2+ mobilizing signals, in the regulation of neuronal excitability by controlling the activity of ion channels, in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as in synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. In the present article evidence showing Na+, K+-ATPase involvement in signaling pathways

  18. Theory of the Carrier Fermi Energy and Density of States of n- and p-TYPE SnTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, R. K.; Mohapatro, S.

    In the present work we theoretically develop a kṡπ model to calculate the carrier electronic structure for both n- and p-type SnTe. Here π is the momentum operator in the presence of the spin-orbit interaction. The work is an extension of the theory developed for n- and p-PbTe earlier by one of the authors to evaluate the Fermi energy and the density of states (DOS). We consider a six-level energy basis for SnTe, as proposed by Bernick and Kleinman. One set of calculations was done by diagonalizing the kṡπ Hamiltonian matrix for the band-edge states and treating the far bands using perturbation theory. In the second set we have rediagonalized the kṡπ Hamiltonian matrix for the band edge states, treating the first diagonalization as the basis. The far bands are, as usual, included through perturbation. We have compared the results of both the sets. Results obtained for n- and p-type SnTe are also compared with that of n- and p-type PbTe. The similarities and contrasts are discussed. An indirect comparison with the DOS of the metallic tin suggests that the calculations are fairly reasonable. The results are also compared with some recent results for SnTe.

  19. Ultrasensitive Room-Temperature Operable Gas Sensors Using p-Type Na:ZnO Nanoflowers for Diabetes Detection.

    PubMed

    Jaisutti, Rawat; Lee, Minkyung; Kim, Jaeyoung; Choi, Seungbeom; Ha, Tae-Jun; Kim, Jaekyun; Kim, Hyoungsub; Park, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2017-03-15

    Ultrasensitive room-temperature operable gas sensors utilizing the photocatalytic activity of Na-doped p-type ZnO (Na:ZnO) nanoflowers (NFs) are demonstrated as a promising candidate for diabetes detection. The flowerlike Na:ZnO nanoparticles possessing ultrathin hierarchical nanosheets were synthesized by a facile solution route at a low processing temperature of 40 °C. It was found that the Na element acting as a p-type dopant was successfully incorporated in the ZnO lattice. On the basis of the synthesized p-type Na:ZnO NFs, room-temperature operable chemiresistive-type gas sensors were realized, activated by ultraviolet (UV) illumination. The Na:ZnO NF gas sensors exhibited high gas response (S of 3.35) and fast response time (∼18 s) and recovery time (∼63 s) to acetone gas (100 ppm, UV intensity of 5 mW cm(-2)), and furthermore, subppm level (0.2 ppm) detection was achieved at room temperature, which enables the diagnosis of various diseases including diabetes from exhaled breath.

  20. ESR study of p-type natural 2H-polytype MoS2 crystals: The As acceptor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stesmans, A.; Iacovo, S.; Afanas'ev, V. V.

    2016-10-01

    Low-temperature (T = 1.7-77 K) multi frequency electron spin resonance (ESR) study on p-type 2H-polytype geological MoS2 crystals reveals p-type doping predominantly originating from As atoms substituting for S sites in densities of (2.4 ± 0.2) × 1017 cm-3. Observation of a "half field"(g ˜ 3.88) signal firmly correlating with the central Zeeman As accepter signal indicates the presence of spin S > ½ As agglomerates, which together with the distinct multicomponent makeup of the Zeeman signal points to manifest non-uniform As doping; only ˜13% of the total As response originates from individual decoupled As dopants. From ESR monitoring the latter vs. T, an activation energy Ea = (0.7 ± 0.2) meV is obtained. This unveils As as a noticeable shallow acceptor dopant, appropriate for realization of effective p-type doping in targeted 2D MoS2-based switching devices.

  1. Piezoresistive effect in p-type 3C-SiC at high temperatures characterized using Joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Dinh, Toan; Kozeki, Takahiro; Qamar, Afzaal; Namazu, Takahiro; Dimitrijev, Sima; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Dao, Dzung Viet

    2016-06-01

    Cubic silicon carbide is a promising material for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) applications in harsh environ-ments and bioapplications thanks to its large band gap, chemical inertness, excellent corrosion tolerance and capability of growth on a Si substrate. This paper reports the piezoresistive effect of p-type single crystalline 3C-SiC characterized at high temperatures, using an in situ measurement method. The experimental results show that the highly doped p-type 3C-SiC possesses a relatively stable gauge factor of approximately 25 to 28 at temperatures varying from 300 K to 573 K. The in situ method proposed in this study also demonstrated that, the combination of the piezoresistive and thermoresistive effects can increase the gauge factor of p-type 3C-SiC to approximately 20% at 573 K. The increase in gauge factor based on the combination of these phenomena could enhance the sensitivity of SiC based MEMS mechanical sensors.

  2. Characterization of Al-As codoped p-type ZnO films by magnetron cosputtering deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Eui-Jung; Park, Hyeong-Sik; Lee, Kyu H.; Nam, Hyoung G.; Jung, Myunghee

    2008-04-01

    We report the preparation of Al-As codoped p-type ZnO films by rf magnetron cosputtering deposition. The p-type conductivity of the films was revealed by Hall measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence measurements after being annealed in O{sub 2}. It was observed by XPS that Al content increased with increasing AlAs target power from 80 to 160 W and reached a maximum value at an AlAs target power of 160 W. Hole concentration decreased with increasing Al content. With increasing AlAs target power greater than 160 W, the samples exhibit increases in As and O contents and decreases in Al and Zn contents, which contribute to the increase in hole concentration. A high hole concentration of 2.354x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}, a low resistivity of 2.122x10{sup -2} {omega} cm, and a Hall mobility of 0.13 cm{sup 2}/V s for the films with high As content of 16.59% were obtained. XPS has also been used to address the unresolved issues related to the p-type formation mechanism of As-doped ZnO, supporting that the acceptor is As{sub Zn}-2V{sub Zn}.

  3. Piezoresistive effect in p-type 3C-SiC at high temperatures characterized using Joule heating

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Dinh, Toan; Kozeki, Takahiro; Qamar, Afzaal; Namazu, Takahiro; Dimitrijev, Sima; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Dao, Dzung Viet

    2016-01-01

    Cubic silicon carbide is a promising material for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) applications in harsh environ-ments and bioapplications thanks to its large band gap, chemical inertness, excellent corrosion tolerance and capability of growth on a Si substrate. This paper reports the piezoresistive effect of p-type single crystalline 3C-SiC characterized at high temperatures, using an in situ measurement method. The experimental results show that the highly doped p-type 3C-SiC possesses a relatively stable gauge factor of approximately 25 to 28 at temperatures varying from 300 K to 573 K. The in situ method proposed in this study also demonstrated that, the combination of the piezoresistive and thermoresistive effects can increase the gauge factor of p-type 3C-SiC to approximately 20% at 573 K. The increase in gauge factor based on the combination of these phenomena could enhance the sensitivity of SiC based MEMS mechanical sensors. PMID:27349378

  4. Thermoelectric properties of p-type PbTe/Ag{sub 2}Te bulk composites by extrinsic phase mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min Ho; Rhyee, Jong-Soo

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the thermoelectric properties of PbTe/Ag{sub 2}Te bulk composites, synthesized by hand milling, mixing, and hot press sintering. From x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements, we observed Ag{sub 2}Te phase separation in the PbTe matrix without Ag atom diffusion. In comparison with previously reported pseudo-binary (PbTe){sub 1−x}(Ag{sub 2}Te){sub x} composites, synthesized by high temperature phase separation, the PbTe/Ag{sub 2}Te bulk composites fabricated with a low temperature phase mixing process give rise to p-type conduction of carriers with significantly decreased electrical conductivity. This indicates that Ag atom diffusion in the PbTe matrix changes the sign of the Seebeck coefficient to n-type and also increases the carrier concentration. Effective p-type doping with low temperature phase separation by mixing and hot press sintering can enhance the thermoelectric performance of PbTe/Ag{sub 2}Te bulk composites, which can be used as a p-type counterpart of n-type (PbTe){sub 1−x}(Ag{sub 2}Te){sub x} bulk composites.

  5. MoS₂ P-type transistors and diodes enabled by high work function MoOx contacts.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Steven; Battaglia, Corsin; Azcatl, Angelica; McDonnell, Stephen; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Yin, Xingtian; Tosun, Mahmut; Kapadia, Rehan; Fang, Hui; Wallace, Robert M; Javey, Ali

    2014-03-12

    The development of low-resistance source/drain contacts to transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) is crucial for the realization of high-performance logic components. In particular, efficient hole contacts are required for the fabrication of p-type transistors with MoS2, a model TMDC. Previous studies have shown that the Fermi level of elemental metals is pinned close to the conduction band of MoS2, thus resulting in large Schottky barrier heights for holes with limited hole injection from the contacts. Here, we show that substoichiometric molybdenum trioxide (MoOx, x < 3), a high work function material, acts as an efficient hole injection layer to MoS2 and WSe2. In particular, we demonstrate MoS2 p-type field-effect transistors and diodes by using MoOx contacts. We also show drastic on-current improvement for p-type WSe2 FETs with MoOx contacts over devices made with Pd contacts, which is the prototypical metal used for hole injection. The work presents an important advance in contact engineering of TMDCs and will enable future exploration of their performance limits and intrinsic transport properties.

  6. Piezoresistive effect in p-type 3C-SiC at high temperatures characterized using Joule heating.

    PubMed

    Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Dinh, Toan; Kozeki, Takahiro; Qamar, Afzaal; Namazu, Takahiro; Dimitrijev, Sima; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Dao, Dzung Viet

    2016-06-28

    Cubic silicon carbide is a promising material for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) applications in harsh environ-ments and bioapplications thanks to its large band gap, chemical inertness, excellent corrosion tolerance and capability of growth on a Si substrate. This paper reports the piezoresistive effect of p-type single crystalline 3C-SiC characterized at high temperatures, using an in situ measurement method. The experimental results show that the highly doped p-type 3C-SiC possesses a relatively stable gauge factor of approximately 25 to 28 at temperatures varying from 300 K to 573 K. The in situ method proposed in this study also demonstrated that, the combination of the piezoresistive and thermoresistive effects can increase the gauge factor of p-type 3C-SiC to approximately 20% at 573 K. The increase in gauge factor based on the combination of these phenomena could enhance the sensitivity of SiC based MEMS mechanical sensors.

  7. Influence of activating hormones on human platelet membrane Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Resink, T.J.; Dimitrov, D.; Stucki, S.; Buehler, F.R.

    1986-07-16

    Intact platelets were pretreated with hormones and thereafter membranes were prepared and Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity determined. Thrombin decreased the V/sub max/ of Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase after pretreatment of intact platelets. Platelet activating factor, vasopressin and ADP also decreased Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or A23187 or ionomycin alone had no effect, while the simultaneous pretreatment with TPA and Ca/sup 2 +/-ionophore decreased Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity. cAMP elevating agents prostaglandin E/sub 1/ (PGE/sub 1/) and forskolin had no influence per se on Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase, but antagonized the inhibitory effect of thrombin. The data suggest a close connection between phosphoinositide metabolism and the Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase system.

  8. [Structure and function of heavy metal transporter P(1B)-ATPase in plant: a review].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxiu; Zhang, Yuanya; Sun, Tao; Chai, Tuanyao

    2010-06-01

    The regulation of the heavy-metal accumulation in vivo for plant survival is very complex. The metal cation transporter plays key roles in the metabolic process. P(1B)-ATPases are the only subgroup of P-ATPases that contribute to heavy metal homeostasis presented in most organisms. Arabidopsis thaliana contains eight genes encoding P(1B)-ATPases. The current reports show that the functions of P(1B)-ATPases are involved in maintaining metal homeostasis, transporting and detoxification in plants. P(1B)-ATPases not only mediated metal ion mobilization and uptake in roots, but also contribute to the metal transport, storage and tolerance in shoots, especially in heavy metal hyperaccumulators. In this paper, we reviewed and discussed the evolution, classification, structure and function of P(1B)-ATPases in plants. HMAs-transgenic manipulation could be a feasible approach for phytoremediation and mineral nutrition fortification.

  9. The Chromodomains of the Chd1 Chromatin Remodeler Regulate DNA Access to the ATPase Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Hauk, G.; McKnight, J; Nodelman, I; Bowman, G

    2010-01-01

    Chromatin remodelers are ATP-driven machines that assemble, slide, and remove nucleosomes from DNA, but how the ATPase motors of remodelers are regulated is poorly understood. Here we show that the double chromodomain unit of the Chd1 remodeler blocks DNA binding and activation of the ATPase motor in the absence of nucleosome substrates. The Chd1 crystal structure reveals that an acidic helix joining the chromodomains can pack against a DNA-binding surface of the ATPase motor. Disruption of the chromodomain-ATPase interface prevents discrimination between nucleosomes and naked DNA and reduces the reliance on the histone H4 tail for nucleosome sliding. We propose that the chromodomains allow Chd1 to distinguish between nucleosomes and naked DNA by physically gating access to the ATPase motor, and we hypothesize that related ATPase motors may employ a similar strategy to discriminate among DNA-containing substrates.

  10. Cm-p5: an antifungal hydrophilic peptide derived from the coastal mollusk Cenchritis muricatus (Gastropoda: Littorinidae)

    PubMed Central

    López-Abarrategui, Carlos; McBeth, Christine; Mandal, Santi M.; Sun, Zhenyu J.; Heffron, Gregory; Alba-Menéndez, Annia; Migliolo, Ludovico; Reyes-Acosta, Osvaldo; García-Villarino, Mónica; Nolasco, Diego O.; Falcão, Rosana; Cherobim, Mariana D.; Dias, Simoni C.; Brandt, Wolfgang; Wessjohann, Ludger; Starnbach, Michael; Franco, Octavio L.; Otero-González, Anselmo J.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides form part of the first line of defense against pathogens for many organisms. Current treatments for fungal infections are limited by drug toxicity and pathogen resistance. Cm-p5 (SRSELIVHQRLF), a peptide derived from the marine mollusk Cenchritis muricatus peptide Cm-p1, has a significantly increased fungistatic activity against pathogenic Candida albicans (minimal inhibitory concentration, 10 µg/ml; EC50, 1.146 µg/ml) while exhibiting low toxic effects against a cultured mammalian cell line. Cm-p5 as characterized by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance revealed an α-helical structure in membrane-mimetic conditions and a tendency to random coil folding in aqueous solutions. Additional studies modeling Cm-p5 binding to a phosphatidylserine bilayer in silico and isothermal titration calorimetry using lipid monophases demonstrated that Cm-p5 has a high affinity for the phospholipids of fungal membranes (phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine), only moderate interactions with a mammalian membrane phospholipid, low interaction with ergosterol, and no interaction with chitin. Adhesion of Cm-p5 to living C. albicans cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy with FITC-labeled peptide. In a systemic candidiasis model in mice, intraperitoneal administration of Cm-p5 was unable to control the fungal kidney burden, although its low amphiphaticity could be modified to generate new derivatives with improved fungicidal activity and stability.—López-Abarrategui, C., McBeth, C., Mandal, S. M., Sun, Z. J., Heffron, G., Alba-Menéndez, A., Migliolo, L., Reyes-Acosta, O., García-Villarino, M., Nolasco, D. O., Falcão, R., Cherobim, M. D., Dias, S. C., Brandt, W., Wessjohann, L., Starnbach, M., Franco, O. L., Otero-González, A. J. Cm-p5: an antifungal hydrophilic peptide derived from the coastal mollusk Cenchritis muricatus (Gastropoda: Littorinidae). PMID:25921828

  11. Atopic donor status does not influence the uptake of the major grass pollen allergen, Phl p 5, by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ashjaei, Kazem; Palmberger, Dieter; Bublin, Merima; Bajna, Erika; Breiteneder, Heimo; Grabherr, Reingard; Ellinger, Isabella; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin

    2015-09-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are sentinels of the immune system for antigen recognition and uptake, as well as presentation to naïve T cells for stimulation or priming. Internalization and endocytic degradation of allergens by DCs are important steps required for T cell priming. In the current study we investigated binding and internalization of purified recombinant non-glycosylated grass pollen allergen, Phl p 5, and natural non-specific lipid transfer protein from sunflower, SF-nsLTP to human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). Colocalization of Phl p 5 with low affinity (CD23) or high affinity receptor (FcεRI) was investigated by immunofluorescence staining. Likewise, localization of the allergens in early (EE) and late endosomes (LE) was detected by co-staining for early endosome antigen (EEA1) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1). In our experimental setting we could demonstrate that Phl p 5 as well as SF-nsLTP bound to MoDCs from both, grass pollen allergic and non-allergic individuals. Competitive allergen uptake experiments demonstrated non-preferential and simultaneous uptake of Phl p 5 and SF-nsLTP by MoDCs. No overlap of signals from Phl p 5 and CD23 or FcεRI was detectable, excluding IgE-mediated uptake for this allergen. Both allergens, Phl p 5 and SF-nsLTP, were localized in early and late endosomes. The present study applied a set of methods to assess the allergen uptake by MoDCs in an in vitro model. No qualitative and quantitative differences in the allergen uptake of both, Phl p 5 and SF-nsLTP were detected in single and competitive assays.

  12. A Ca2+-stimulated, Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity in subcellular fractions from Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Cunha, V M; de Souza, W; Noël, F

    1988-12-05

    A Ca2+-stimulated, Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity was found in subcellular fractions from Schistosoma mansoni. Its specific and relative activities were higher in the heterogeneous cuticle fraction and in the microsomal fraction. The K0.5 for ATPase activation by free Ca2+ was 0.2-0.5 microM. This is the first description of an ATPase activity stimulated by Ca2+ in the micromolar range in S. mansoni.

  13. Biochemical characterization of a V-ATPase of tracheal smooth muscle plasma membrane fraction.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, G; Lippo de Bécemberg, I; Gonzalez de Alfonzo, R; Alfonzo, M J

    1996-07-25

    A biochemical characterization of a Mg(2+)-ATPase activity associated with a plasma membrane fraction isolated from airway (tracheal) smooth muscle was performed. This enzyme is an integral part of the membrane remaining tightly bound after 0.6 M KCl extraction. This enzyme activity showed a cold inactivation in the presence of ATP and Mg2+. Also, this Mg(2+)-ATPase was stimulated by monovalent anions being Cl-, the best anion for such stimulation, even though Br- and I- were good substitutes and F- was ineffective. This Cl--stimulated activity showed a powerful nucleosidetriphosphatase activity having the following divalent cation specificity: Mg2+ > Mn2+ > Ca2+, where Zn2+ and Fe2+ were ineffective. This ATPase activity was not inhibited by ouabain oligomycin C and vanadate indicating that neither P- or F-ATPases were associated with this enzyme activity. However, the existence of a V-ATPase was shown by the significant inhibition causes by bafilomycin A1. Additionally, this V-ATPase seems to be coupled to Cl- conductor because duramycin inhibited this ATPase activity. The presence of a H+ pump associated to this V-ATPase was shown indirectly, through the stimulatory effect produced by uncouplers such as FCCP and 1799, which were able to produce significant stimulation of this V-ATPase indicating the existence of a H(+)-ATPase. Finally, the immunodetection of a 72 kDa polypeptide using a specific antibody against the A subunit (72 kDa) of V-ATPase from chromaffin granule demonstrated the presence of a V-ATPase in this plasma membrane fraction.

  14. ATPase activity of erythrocyte membrane in patients with trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome).

    PubMed

    Xue, Q M; Shen, D G; Dong, W

    1984-11-01

    ATPase activity of crythroyte membranes was determined in 25 cases of Down's syndrome verified by cytological and psychological examinations. The age range of the patients was 8-25 years; 16 males and 9 females. Thirty health male volunteers were selected as the control group. There was a marked reduction of total ATPase, Na+, K+-ATPase, Mg++ATPase activities and rate of ouabain inhibition in the patients with Down's syndrome. The authors suggest that there might exist transport defects in the red cell membranes in such patients.

  15. Discovery of protein disulfide isomerase P5 inhibitors that reduce the secretion of MICA from cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Horibe, Tomohisa; Torisawa, Aya; Okuno, Yukiko; Kawakami, Koji

    2014-07-21

    In order to regulate the activity of P5, which is a member of the protein disulfide isomerase family, we screened a chemical compound library for P5-specific inhibitors, and identified two candidate compounds (anacardic acid and NSC74859). Interestingly, anacardic acid inhibited the reductase activity of P5, but did not inhibit the activity of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase ERp57, or thioredoxin. NSC74859 inhibited all these enzymes. When we examined the effects of these compounds on the secretion of soluble major histocompatibility complex class-I-related gene A (MICA) from cancer cells, anacardic acid was found to decrease secretion. In addition, anacardic acid was found to reduce the concentration of glutathione up-regulated by the anticancer drug 17-demethoxygeldanamycin in cancer cells. These results suggest that anacardic acid can both inhibit P5 reductase activity and decrease the secretion of soluble MICA from cancer cells. It might be a novel and potent anticancer treatment by targeting P5 on the surface of cancer cells.

  16. PI4P5-kinase Ialpha is required for efficient HIV-1 entry and infection of T cells.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Villar, Marta; Barroso-González, Jonathan; Cabrero, J R; Gordón-Alonso, Mónica; Alvarez-Losada, Susana; Muñoz-Fernández, M A; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Valenzuela-Fernández, Agustín

    2008-11-15

    HIV-1 envelope (Env) triggers membrane fusion between the virus and the target cell. The cellular mechanism underlying this process is not well known. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) is known to be important for the late steps of the HIV-1 infection cycle by promoting Gag localization to the plasma membrane during viral assembly, but it has not been implicated in early stages of HIV-1 membrane-related events. In this study, we show that binding of the initial HIV-1 Env-gp120 protein induces PIP(2) production in permissive lymphocytes through the activation of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PI4P5-K) Ialpha. Overexpression of wild-type PI4P5-K Ialpha increased HIV-1 Env-mediated PIP(2) production and enhanced viral replication in primary lymphocytes and CEM T cells, whereas PIP(2) production and HIV-1 infection were both severely reduced in cells overexpressing the kinase-dead mutant D227A (D/A)-PI4P5-K Ialpha. Similar results were obtained with replicative and single-cycle HIV-1 particles. HIV-1 infection was also inhibited by knockdown of endogenous expression of PI4P5-K Ialpha. These data indicate that PI4P5-K Ialpha-mediated PIP(2) production is crucial for HIV-1 entry and the early steps of infection in permissive lymphocytes.

  17. Edg8/S1P5: an oligodendroglial receptor with dual function on process retraction and cell survival.

    PubMed

    Jaillard, C; Harrison, S; Stankoff, B; Aigrot, M S; Calver, A R; Duddy, G; Walsh, F S; Pangalos, M N; Arimura, N; Kaibuchi, K; Zalc, B; Lubetzki, C

    2005-02-09

    Endothelial differentiation gene (Edg) proteins are G-protein-coupled receptors activated by lysophospholipid mediators: sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) or lysophosphatidic acid. We show that in the CNS, expression of Edg8/S1P5, a high-affinity S1P receptor, is restricted to oligodendrocytes and expressed throughout development from the immature stages to the mature myelin-forming cell. S1P activation of Edg8/S1P5 on O4-positive pre-oligodendrocytes induced process retraction via a Rho kinase/collapsin response-mediated protein signaling pathway, whereas no retraction was elicited by S1P on these cells derived from Edg8/S1P5-deficient mice. Edg8/S1P5-mediated process retraction was restricted to immature cells and was no longer observed at later developmental stages. In contrast, S1P activation promoted the survival of mature oligodendrocytes but not of pre-oligodendrocytes. The S1P-induced survival of mature oligodendrocytes was mediated through a pertussis toxin-sensitive, Akt-dependent pathway. Our data demonstrate that Edg8/S1P5 activation on oligodendroglial cells modulates two distinct functional pathways mediating either process retraction or cell survival and that these effects depend on the developmental stage of the cell.

  18. Suppression of Propionibacterium acnes Infection and the Associated Inflammatory Response by the Antimicrobial Peptide P5 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Sunhyo; Han, Hyo Mi; Song, Peter I.

    2015-01-01

    The cutaneous inflammation associated with acne vulgaris is caused by the anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes through activation of the innate immune system in the skin. Current standard treatments for acne have limitations that include adverse effects and poor efficacy in many patients, making development of a more effective therapy highly desirable. In the present study, we demonstrate the protective effects of a novel customized α-helical cationic peptide, P5, against P. acnes-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Application of P5 significantly reduced expression of two inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-α in P. acnes-treated primary human keratinocytes, where P5 appeared to act in part by binding to bacterial lipoteichoic acid, thereby suppressing TLR2-to-NF-κB signaling. In addition, in a mouse model of acne vulgaris, P5 exerted both anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects against P. acnes, but exerted no cytotoxic effects against skin cells. These results demonstrate that P5, and perhaps other cationic antimicrobial peptides, offer the unique ability to reduce numbers P. acnes cells in the skin and to inhibit the inflammation they trigger. This suggests these peptides could potentially be used to effectively treat acne without adversely affecting the skin. PMID:26197393

  19. Regulation of branchial V-H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and NHE2 in response to acid and base infusions in the Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin; Katoh, Fumi; Fenton, Heather; Jasinska, Edyta; Goss, Greg G

    2005-01-01

    To study the mechanisms of branchial acid-base regulation, Pacific spiny dogfish were infused intravenously for 24 h with either HCl (495+/- 79 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)) or NaHCO(3) (981+/-235 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)). Infusion of HCl produced a transient reduction in blood pH. Despite continued infusion of acid, pH returned to normal by 12 h. Infusion of NaHCO(3) resulted in a new steady-state acid-base status at approximately 0.3 pH units higher than the controls. Immunostained serial sections of gill revealed the presence of separate vacuolar proton ATPase (V-H(+)-ATPase)-rich or sodium-potassium ATPase (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase)-rich cells in all fish examined. A minority of the cells also labeled positive for both transporters. Gill cell membranes prepared from NaHCO(3)-infused fish showed significant increases in both V-H(+)-ATPase abundance (300+/-81%) and activity. In addition, we found that V-H(+)-ATPase subcellular localization was mainly cytoplasmic in control and HCl-infused fish, while NaHCO(3)-infused fish demonstrated a distinctly basolateral staining pattern. Western analysis in gill membranes from HCl-infused fish also revealed increased abundance of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 2 (213+/-5%) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (315+/-88%) compared to the control.

  20. Recovery from blood alkalosis in the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii): involvement of gill V-H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin; Parks, Scott K; Goss, Greg G

    2007-09-01

    To investigate the base secretory mechanisms in the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii), we injected animals with NaHCO3 into the subcutaneous sinus. In the first series of experiments, hagfish were injected with 6000 micromol kg(-1) NaHCO3 (base-infused hagfish, BIH) or NaCl (controls). Blood pH increased significantly 1 h after injection in BIH (8.05+/-0.05 vs. 7.82+/-0.03 pH units), but returned to control values by t=6 h. Plasma total CO2 (TCO2) followed the same pattern. Immunolabeled sections revealed that Na+/K+-ATPase and V-H+-ATPase were usually located in the same cells. Western blotting revealed that the abundance of both proteins remained unchanged in whole gill homogenates and in a fraction enriched in cell membranes 6 h after the injections. The second experimental series was to induce long-term alkalosis by serially injecting 6000 micromol kg(-1) NaHCO3 every 6 h for 24 h. Blood pH completely recovered from the base loads within 6 h after each injection. Moreover, plasma TCO2 was not elevated 3 h after the second infusion, suggesting that HCO3(-) secreting mechanisms had been upregulated by that time. Na+/K+-ATPase and V-H+-ATPase cellular localizations did not change in the 24 h base infusion protocol. Na+/K+-ATPase abundance was similar in gill homogenates from fish from both treatments. However, Na+/K+-ATPase abundance in the membrane fraction was significantly lower in BIH, while V-H+-ATPase was greater both in whole gill and membrane fractions. Our results suggest that differential insertion of V-H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase into the basolateral membrane is involved in recovering from alkalotic stress in hagfish.

  1. HvHMA2, a P(1B)-ATPase from barley, is highly conserved among cereals and functions in Zn and Cd transport.

    PubMed

    Mills, Rebecca F; Peaston, Kerry A; Runions, John; Williams, Lorraine E

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation of crops to improve their nutritional value (biofortification) and optimisation of plants for removal of toxic metals from contaminated soils (phytoremediation) are major goals. Identification of membrane transporters with roles in zinc and cadmium transport would be useful for both aspects. The P(1B)-ATPases play important roles in heavy metal allocation and detoxification in Arabidopsis and it is now important to elucidate their roles in monocots. We identified nine P(1B)-ATPases in barley and this study focuses on the functional characterization of HvHMA2, providing evidence for its role in heavy metal transport. HvHMA2 was cloned using information from EST analysis and 5' RACE. It possesses the conserved aspartate that is phosphorylated during the reaction cycle of P-type pumps and has motifs and key residues characteristic of P(1B)-ATPases, falling into the P(1B-2) subclass. Homologous sequences occur in three major sub-families of the Poaceae (Gramineae). Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae demonstrates that HvHMA2 functions as a Zn and Cd pump. Mutagenesis studies show that proposed cation coordination sites of the P(1B-2) pumps are crucial for the metal responses conferred by HvHMA2 in yeast. HvHMA2 expression suppresses the Zn-deficient phenotype of the Arabidopsis hma2hma4 mutant indicating that HvHMA2 functions as a Zn pump in planta and could play a role in root to shoot Zn transport. When expressed in Arabidopsis, HvHMA2 localises predominantly to the plasma membrane.

  2. Robust rat pulmonary radioprotection by a lipophilic Mn N-alkylpyridylporphyrin, MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+).

    PubMed

    Gauter-Fleckenstein, Benjamin; Reboucas, Julio S; Fleckenstein, Katharina; Tovmasyan, Artak; Owzar, Kouros; Jiang, Chen; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    With the goal to enhance the distribution of cationic Mn porphyrins within mitochondria, the lipophilic Mn(III)meso-tetrakis(N-n-hexylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin, MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+) has been synthesized and tested in several different model of diseases, where it shows remarkable efficacy at as low as 50 µg/kg single or multiple doses. Yet, in a rat lung radioprotection study, at higher 0.6-1 mg/kg doses, due to its high accumulation and micellar character, it became toxic. To avoid the toxicity, herein the pulmonary radioprotection of MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+) was assessed at 50 µg/kg. Fischer rats were irradiated to their right hemithorax (28 Gy) and treated with 0.05 mg/kg/day of MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+) for 2 weeks by subcutaneously-implanted osmotic pumps, starting at 2 h post-radiation. The body weights and breathing frequencies were followed for 10 weeks post-radiation, when the histopathology and immunohistochemistry were assessed. Impact of MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+) on macrophage recruitment (ED-1), DNA oxidative damage (8-OHdG), TGF-β1, VEGF(A) and HIF-1α were measured. MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+) significantly decreased radiation-induced lung histopathological (H&E staining) and functional damage (breathing frequencies), suppressed oxidative stress directly (8-OHdG), or indirectly, affecting TGF-β1, VEGF (A) and HIF-1α pathways. The magnitude of the therapeutic effects is similar to the effects demonstrated under same experimental conditions with 120-fold higher dose of ~5000-fold less lipophilic Mn(III)meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin, MnTE-2-PyP(5+).

  3. Salt stress increases the expression of p5cs gene and induces proline accumulation in cactus pear.

    PubMed

    Silva-Ortega, Claudia O; Ochoa-Alfaro, Ana E; Reyes-Agüero, Juan A; Aguado-Santacruz, Gerardo A; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F

    2008-01-01

    Proline (Pro) is one of the most accumulated osmolytes in salinity and water deficit conditions in plants. In the present study, we measured the Pro content, the activity and the expression level of delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS: gamma-glutamyl kinase, EC 2.7.2.11 and glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, EC 1.2.1.41), a key regulatory enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of Pro, in cactus pear (Opuntia streptacantha) subjected to 6, 9 and 11 days of salt stress. Treatment with NaCl of O. streptacantha young plants resulted in a decrease in the cladode thickness and root length, and in a significant and gradual accumulation of Pro in young cladodes, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. P5CS activity, studied as gamma-glutamyl kinase, was reduced at all times as a consequence of salt treatment, except at the sixth day at 75 and 150mM of NaCl, where a slight increase was observed. We isolated an open reading frame (ORF) fragment of p5cs gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of the P5CS protein exhibited 90.4% of identity with the P5CS protein from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the Osp5cs gene of O. streptacantha was induced by salt stress at 9 and 11 days of treatment. Furthermore, ABA-induced Osp5cs gene expression was observed in cladodes of cactus pear young plants. We observed an evident correlation between the transcript up-regulation and the Pro accumulation under salt stress; however, these results do not parallel with the changes in P5CS enzymatic activity. This Pro accumulation might function as an osmolyte for the intracellular osmotic adjustment and might be playing a critical role in protecting photosynthetic activity in O. streptacantha plants under salt stress.

  4. Molecular basis of IgE-recognition of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Suphioglu, C; Blaher, B; Rolland, J M; McCluskey, J; Schäppi, G; Kenrick, J; Singh, M B; Knox, R B

    1998-04-01

    Grass pollen, especially of rye-grass (Lolium perenne). represents an important cause of type I allergy. Identification of IgE-binding (allergenic) epitopes of major grass pollen allergens is essential for understanding the molecular basis of interaction between allergens and human IgE antibodies and therefore facilitates the devising of safer and more effective diagnostic and immunotherapy reagents. The aim of this study was to identify the allergenic epitopes of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen, immunodissect these epitopes further so that the amino acid residues critical for antibody binding can be determined and investigate the conservation and nature of these epitopes within the context of the natural grass pollen allergens. Peptides, 12-13 amino acid residues long and overlapping each other by 4 amino acid residues, based on the entire deduced amino acid sequence of the coding region of Lol p 5, were synthesised and assayed for IgE-binding. Two strong IgE-binding epitopes (Lol p 5 (49-60) and (265-276), referred to as peptides 7 and 34, respectively) were identified. These epitopes were further resolved by truncated peptides and amino acid replacement studies and the amino acid residues critical for IgE-binding determined (Lol p 5 (49-60) residue Lys57 and (265-276) residue Lys275). Sequences of these epitopes were conserved in related allergens and may form the conserved allergenic domains responsible for the cross-reactivity observed between pollen allergens of taxonomically related grasses. Furthermore, due to its strong IgE-reactivity, synthetic peptide Lol p 5 (265-276) was used to affinity-purify specific IgE antibodies which recognised proteins of other clinically important grass pollens. further indicating presence of allergenic cross-reactivity at the level of allergenic epitope. Moreover, Lol p 5 (265 276) demonstrated a strong capacity to inhibit IgE-binding to natural rye-grass pollen proteins highlighting the antibody accessibility

  5. Does a calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-regulated Mg2+-dependent ATPase contribute to hepatic microsomal calcium uptake?

    PubMed Central

    Schütze, S; Söling, H D

    1987-01-01

    Solubilization of microsomal proteins followed by calmodulin affinity chromatography resulted in the separation of two distinct Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPases (Ca2+-regulated Mg2+-dependent ATPases), one being insensitive to calmodulin (ATPase-1), the other being stimulated about 5-fold by calmodulin (ATPase-2). ATPase-2 accounts for only 8% of total microsomal Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase-activity. ATPase-1 and -2 can also be distinguished by different pH optima, different sensitivity towards inhibition by vanadate and LaCl3, and different apparent Mr values of the phosphoenzyme intermediates (115,000 and 150,000 for ATPase-1 and ATPase-2 respectively). ATPase-1 from liver co-migrated with Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase from rat skeletal-muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum, whereas ATPase-2 from liver co-migrated with calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase derived from rat skeletal-muscle sarcolemma. After separation of parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cells, a calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase of Mr 150,000 was found only in the non-parenchymal cells. The kinetic parameters of ATPase-2 and the similarity of the apparent Mr of its phosphoenzyme intermediate to that of skeletal-muscle sarcolemma Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase makes it likely that the calmodulin-sensitive Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase found in rat liver microsomal fractions reflects a contamination with plasma membranes (possibly from non-parenchymal cells) rather than a true location in the endoplasmic reticulum of parenchymal liver cells. Images Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2959269

  6. Torsional elasticity and energetics of F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Czub, Jacek; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2011-05-03

    F(o)F(1)-ATPase is a rotary motor protein synthesizing ATP from ADP driven by a cross-membrane proton gradient. The proton flow through the membrane-embedded F(o) generates the rotary torque that drives the rotation of the asymmetric shaft of F(1). Mechanical energy of the rotating shaft is used by the F(1) catalytic subunit to synthesize ATP. It was suggested that elastic power transmission with transient storage of energy in some compliant part of the shaft is required for the observed high turnover rate. We used atomistic simulations to study the spatial distribution and structural determinants of the F(1) torsional elasticity at the molecular level and to comprehensively characterize the elastic properties of F(1)-ATPase. Our fluctuation analysis revealed an unexpected heterogeneity of the F(1) shaft elasticity. Further, we found that the measured overall torsional moduli of the shaft arise from two distinct contributions, the intrinsic elasticity and the effective potential imposed on the shaft by the catalytic subunit. Separation of these two contributions provided a quantitative description of the coupling between the rotor and the catalytic subunit. This description enabled us to propose a minimal quantitative model of the F(1) energetics along the rotary degrees of freedom near the resting state observed in the crystal structures. As opposed to the usually employed models where the motor mechanical progression is described by a single angular variable, our multidimensional treatment incorporates the spatially inhomogeneous nature of the shaft and its interactions with the stator and offers new insight into the mechanoenzymatics of F(1)-ATPase.

  7. Stiffness of γ subunit of F(1)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Daichi; Iino, Ryota; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2010-11-01

    F(1)-ATPase is a molecular motor in which the γ subunit rotates inside the α(3)β(3) ring upon adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. Recent works on single-molecule manipulation of F(1)-ATPase have shown that kinetic parameters such as the on-rate of ATP and the off-rate of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) strongly depend on the rotary angle of the γ subunit (Hirono-Hara et al. 2005; Iko et al. 2009). These findings provide important insight into how individual reaction steps release energy to power F(1) and also have implications regarding ATP synthesis and how reaction steps are reversed upon reverse rotation. An important issue regarding the angular dependence of kinetic parameters is that the angular position of a magnetic bead rotation probe could be larger than the actual position of the γ subunit due to the torsional elasticity of the system. In the present study, we assessed the stiffness of two different portions of F(1) from thermophilic Bacillus PS3: the internal part of the γ subunit embedded in the α(3)β(3) ring, and the complex of the external part of the γ subunit and the α(3)β(3) ring (and streptavidin and magnetic bead), by comparing rotational fluctuations before and after crosslinkage between the rotor and stator. The torsional stiffnesses of the internal and remaining parts were determined to be around 223 and 73 pNnm/radian, respectively. Based on these values, it was estimated that the actual angular position of the internal part of the γ subunit is one-fourth of the magnetic bead position upon stalling using an external magnetic field. The estimated elasticity also partially explains the accommodation of the intrinsic step size mismatch between F(o) and F(1)-ATPase.

  8. The ATPase cycle of the endoplasmic chaperone Grp94.

    PubMed

    Frey, Stephan; Leskovar, Adriane; Reinstein, Jochen; Buchner, Johannes

    2007-12-07

    Grp94, the Hsp90 paralog of the endoplasmic reticulum, plays a crucial role in protein secretion. Like cytoplasmic Hsp90, Grp94 is regulated by nucleotide binding to its N-terminal domain. However, the question of whether Grp94 hydrolyzes ATP was controversial. This sets Grp94 apart from other members of the Hsp90 family where a slow but specific turnover of ATP has been unambiguously established. In this study we aimed at analyzing the nucleotide binding properties and the potential ATPase activity of Grp94. We show here that Grp94 has an ATPase activity comparable with that of yeast Hsp90 with a k(cat) of 0.36 min(-1) at 25 degrees C. Kinetic and equilibrium constants of the partial reactions of the ATPase cycle were determined using transient kinetic methods. Nucleotide binding appears to be tighter compared with other Hsp90s investigated, with dissociation constants (K(D)) of approximately 4 microm for ADP, ATP, and AMP-PCP. Interestingly, all nucleotides and inhibitors (radicicol, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine) studied here bind with similar rate constants for association (0.2-0.3 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)). Furthermore, there is a marked difference from cytosolic Hsp90s in that after binding, the ATP molecule does not seem to become trapped by conformational changes in Grp94. Grp94 stays predominantly in the open state concerning the nucleotide-binding pocket as evidenced by kinetic analyses. Thus, Grp94 shows mechanistically important differences in the interaction with adenosine nucleotides, but the basic hydrolysis reaction seems to be conserved between cytosolic and endoplasmic members of the Hsp90 family.

  9. The role of nanoscale defect features in enhancing the thermoelectric performance of p-type nanostructured SiGe alloys.

    PubMed

    Bathula, Sivaiah; Jayasimhadri, M; Gahtori, Bhasker; Singh, Niraj Kumar; Tyagi, Kriti; Srivastava, A K; Dhar, Ajay

    2015-08-07

    Despite SiGe being one of the most widely studied thermoelectric materials owing to its application in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG), the thermoelectric figure-of merit (ZT) of p-type SiGe is still quite low, resulting in poor device efficiencies. In the present study, we report a substantial enhancement in ZT∼ 1.2 at 900 °C for p-type nanostructured Si80Ge20 alloys by creating several types of defect features within the Si80Ge20 nanostructured matrix in a spectrum of nano to meso-scale dimensions during its nanostructuring, by employing mechanical alloying followed by spark plasma sintering. This enhancement in ZT, which is ∼25% over the existing state-of-the-art value for a p-type nanostructured Si80Ge20 alloy, is primarily due to its ultralow thermal conductivity of ∼2.04 W m(-1) K(-1) at 900 °C, resulting from the scattering of low-to-high wavelength heat-carrying phonons by different types of defect features in a range of nano to meso-scale dimensions in the Si80Ge20 nanostructured matrix. These include point defects, dislocations, isolated amorphous regions, nano-scale grain boundaries and more importantly, the nano to meso-scale residual porosity distributed throughout the Si80Ge20 matrix. These nanoscale multi-dimensional defect features have been characterized by employing scanning and transmission electron microscopy and correlated with the electrical and thermal transport properties, based on which the enhancement of ZT has been discussed.

  10. Design of ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides with potential good p-type conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Mao -Hua; Singh, David J.; Zhang, Lijun; Li, Yuwei; Xu, Qiaoling; Ma, Yanming; Zheng, Weitao

    2016-04-19

    Oxides with good p-type conductivity have been long sought after to achieve high performance all-oxide optoelectronic devices. Divalent Sn(II) based oxides are promising candidates because of their rather dispersive upper valence bands caused by the Sn-5s/O-2p anti-bonding hybridization. There are so far few known Sn(II) oxides being p-type conductive suitable for device applications. Here, we present via first-principles global optimization structure searches a material design study for a hitherto unexplored Sn(II)-based system, ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides in the stoichiometry of MSn2O3 (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). We identify two stable compounds of SrSn2O3 and BaSn2O3, which can be stabilized by Sn-rich conditions in phase stability diagrams. Their structures follow the Zintl behaviour and consist of basic structural motifs of SnO3 tetrahedra. Unexpectedly they show distinct electronic properties with band gaps ranging from 1.90 (BaSn2O3) to 3.15 (SrSn2O3) eV, and hole effective masses ranging from 0.87 (BaSn2O3) to above 6.0 (SrSn2O3) m0. Further exploration of metastable phases indicates a wide tunability of electronic properties controlled by the details of the bonding between the basic structural motifs. Lastly, this suggests further exploration of alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides for potential applications requiring good p-type conductivity such as transparent conductors and photovoltaic absorbers.

  11. Design of ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides with potential good p-type conductivity

    DOE PAGES

    Du, Mao -Hua; Singh, David J.; Zhang, Lijun; ...

    2016-04-19

    Oxides with good p-type conductivity have been long sought after to achieve high performance all-oxide optoelectronic devices. Divalent Sn(II) based oxides are promising candidates because of their rather dispersive upper valence bands caused by the Sn-5s/O-2p anti-bonding hybridization. There are so far few known Sn(II) oxides being p-type conductive suitable for device applications. Here, we present via first-principles global optimization structure searches a material design study for a hitherto unexplored Sn(II)-based system, ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides in the stoichiometry of MSn2O3 (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). We identify two stable compounds of SrSn2O3 and BaSn2O3, which can bemore » stabilized by Sn-rich conditions in phase stability diagrams. Their structures follow the Zintl behaviour and consist of basic structural motifs of SnO3 tetrahedra. Unexpectedly they show distinct electronic properties with band gaps ranging from 1.90 (BaSn2O3) to 3.15 (SrSn2O3) eV, and hole effective masses ranging from 0.87 (BaSn2O3) to above 6.0 (SrSn2O3) m0. Further exploration of metastable phases indicates a wide tunability of electronic properties controlled by the details of the bonding between the basic structural motifs. Lastly, this suggests further exploration of alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides for potential applications requiring good p-type conductivity such as transparent conductors and photovoltaic absorbers.« less

  12. Surface Charge Transfer Doping via Transition Metal Oxides for Efficient p-Type Doping of II-VI Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Xia, Feifei; Shao, Zhibin; He, Yuanyuan; Wang, Rongbin; Wu, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Tianhao; Duhm, Steffen; Zhao, Jianwei; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Jie, Jiansheng

    2016-11-22

    Wide band gap II-VI nanostructures are important building blocks for new-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the difficulty of realizing p-type conductivity in these materials via conventional doping methods has severely handicapped the fabrication of p-n homojunctions and complementary circuits, which are the fundamental components for high-performance devices. Herein, by using first-principles density functional theory calculations, we demonstrated a simple yet efficient way to achieve controlled p-type doping on II-VI nanostructures via surface charge transfer doping (SCTD) using high work function transition metal oxides such as MoO3, WO3, CrO3, and V2O5 as dopants. Our calculations revealed that these oxides were capable of drawing electrons from II-VI nanostructures, leading to accumulation of positive charges (holes injection) in the II-VI nanostructures. As a result, Fermi levels of the II-VI nanostructures were shifted toward the valence band regions after surface modifications, along with the large enhancement of work functions. In situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations verified the significant interfacial charge transfer between II-VI nanostructures and surface dopants. Both theoretical calculations and electrical transfer measurements on the II-VI nanostructure-based field-effect transistors clearly showed the p-type conductivity of the nanostructures after surface modifications. Strikingly, II-VI nanowires could undergo semiconductor-to-metal transition by further increasing the SCTD level. SCTD offers the possibility to create a variety of electronic and optoelectronic devices from the II-VI nanostructures via realization of complementary doping.

  13. Proton accumulation and ATPase activity in Golgi apparatus-enriched vesicles from rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.I.; van Rossum, G.D. )

    1991-03-01

    We have studied the mechanism by which liver Golgi apparatus maintains the acidity of its contents, using a subcellular fraction from rat liver highly enriched in Golgi marker enzymes. Proton accumulation (measured by quenching of acridine-orange fluorescence) and anion-dependent ATPase were characterized and compared. Maximal ATPase and proton accumulation required ATP; GTP and other nucleotides gave 10% to 30% of maximal activity. Among anions, Cl- and Br- approximately doubled the activities; others were much less effective. Half-maximal increase of ATPase and H+ uptake required 55 mmol/L and 27 mmol/L Cl-, respectively. In predominantly chloride media, SCN- and NO3- markedly inhibited H+ uptake. Nitrate competitively inhibited both the chloride-dependent ATPase (apparent Ki 6 mmol/L) and proton uptake (apparent Ki 2 mmol/L). Nitrate and SCN- also inhibited uptake of 36Cl. Replacing K+ with Na+ had no effect on the initial rate of proton uptake but somewhat reduced the steady state attained. Replacement of K+ with NH4+ and choline reduced proton uptake without affecting ATPase. The ATPase and H+ uptake were supported equally well by Mg2+ or Mn2+. The ATPase was competitively inhibited by 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyano-stilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (apparent Ki 39 mumol/L). Other agents inhibiting both H+ uptake and ATPase were N-ethylmaleimide, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, chlorpromazine, diethylstilbestrol, Zn2+, Co2+ and Cu2+. In the Cl- medium, accumulated protons were released by ionophores at the relative rates, monensin = nigericin greater than valinomycin greater than carbonyl cyanide mchlorophenylhydrazone; the last of these also reduced ATPase activity. In the absence of Cl-, monensin and valinomycin both stimulated the ATPase. These results show a close association between ATPase activity and acidification of liver Golgi vesicles.

  14. Rapid activation of gill Na+,K+-ATPase in the euryhaline teleost Fundulus heteroclitus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancera, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    The rapid activation of gill Na+,K+-ATPase was analyzed in the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) transferred from low salinity (0.1 ppt) to high salinity (25-35 ppt). In parr and presmolt, Salmo salar gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity started to increase 3 days after transfer. Exposure of Fundulus heteroclitus to 35 ppt seawater (SW) induced a rise in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity 3 hr after transfer. After 12 hr, the values dropped to initial levels but showed a second significant increase 3 days after transfer. The absence of detergent in the enzyme assay resulted in lower values of gill Na+,K+-ATPase, and the rapid increase after transfer to SW was not observed. Na+,K+-ATPase activity of gill filaments in vitro for 3 hr increased proportionally to the osmolality of the culture medium (600 mosm/kg > 500 mosm/kg > 300 mosm/kg). Osmolality of 800 mosm/kg resulted in lower gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity relative to 600 mosm/kg. Increasing medium osmolality to 600 mosm/kg with mannitol also increased gill Na+,K+-ATPase. Cycloheximide inhibited the increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity observed in hyperosmotic medium in a dose-dependent manner (10-4 M > 10-5 M > 10-6 M). Actinomycin D or bumetanide in the culture (doses of 10-4 M, 10-5 M, and 10-6 M) did not affect gill Na+,K+-ATPase. Injection of fish with actinomycin D prior to gill organ culture, however, prevented the increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity in hyperosmotic media. The results show a very rapid and transitory increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the first hours after the transfer of Fundulus heteroclitus to SW that is dependent on translational and transcriptional processes. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Monomers of the Neurospora plasma membrane H+-ATPase catalyze efficient proton translocation.

    PubMed

    Goormaghtigh, E; Chadwick, C; Scarborough, G A

    1986-06-05

    Liposomes prepared by sonication of asolectin were fractionated by glycerol density gradient centrifugation, and the small liposomes contained in the upper region of the gradients were used for reconstitution of purified, radiolabeled Neurospora plasma membrane H+-ATPase molecules by our previously published procedures. The reconstituted liposomes were then subjected to two additional rounds of glycerol density gradient centrifugation, which separate the H+-ATPase-bearing proteoliposomes from ATPase-free liposomes by virtue of their greater density. The isolated H+-ATPase-bearing proteoliposomes in two such preparations exhibited a specific H+-ATPase activity of about 11 mumol of Pi liberated/mg of protein/min, which was approximately doubled in the presence of nigericin plus K+, indicating that a large percentage of the H+-ATPase molecules in both preparations were capable of generating a transmembrane protonic potential difference sufficient to impede further proton translocation. Importantly, quantitation of the number of 105,000-dalton ATPase monomers and liposomes in the same preparations by radioactivity determination and counting of negatively stained images in the electron microscope indicated ATPase monomer to liposome ratios of 0.97 and 1.06. Because every liposome in the preparations must have had at least one ATPase monomer, these ratios indicate that very few of the liposomes had more than one, and simple calculations show that the great majority of active ATPase molecules in the preparations must have been present as proton-translocating monomers. The results thus clearly demonstrate that 105,000-dalton monomers of the Neurospora plasma membrane H+-ATPase can catalyze efficient ATP hydrolysis-driven proton translocation.

  16. Function-related positioning of the type II secretion ATPase of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yih-Lin; Hu, Nien-Tai

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria use the type II secretion (T2S) system to secrete exoproteins for attacking animal or plant cells or to obtain nutrients from the environment. The system is unique in helping folded proteins traverse the outer membrane. The secretion machine comprises multiple proteins spanning the cell envelope and a cytoplasmic ATPase. Activity of the ATPase, when copurified with the cytoplasmic domain of an interactive ATPase partner, is stimulated by an acidic phospholipid, suggesting the membrane-associated ATPase is actively engaged in secretion. How the stimulated ATPase activity is terminated when secretion is complete is unclear. We fused the T2S ATPase of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the causal agent of black rot in the crucifers, with fluorescent protein and found that the ATPase in secretion-proficient cells was mainly diffused in cytoplasm. Focal spots at the cell periphery were detectable only in a few cells. The discrete foci were augmented in abundance and intensity when the secretion channel was depleted and the exoprotein overproduced. The foci abundance was inversely related to secretion efficiency of the secretion channel. Restored function of the secretion channel paralleled reduced ATPase foci abundance. The ATPase foci colocalized with the secretion channel. The ATPase may be transiently associated with the T2S machine by alternating between a cytoplasmic and a machine-associated state in a secretion-dependent manner. This provides a logical means for terminating the ATPase activity when secretion is completed. Function-related dynamic assembly may be the essence of the T2S machine.

  17. Growth and characterization of Czochralski-grown n and p-type GaAs for space solar cell substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in LEC (liquid encapsulated Czochralski) crystal growth techniques for producing high-quality, 3-inch-diameter, n- and p-type GaAs crystals suitable for solar cell applications is described. The LEC crystals with low dislocation densities and background impurities, high electrical mobilities, good dopant uniformity, and long diffusion lengths were reproducibly grown through control of the material synthesis, growth and doping conditions. The capability for producing these large-area, high-quality substrates should positively impact the manufacturability of highly efficiency, low cost, radiation-hard GaAs solar cells.

  18. Enhanced in-plane thermoelectric figure of merit in p-type SiGe thin films by nanograin boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianbiao; Guo, Ruiqiang; Dai, Weijing; Huang, Baoling

    2015-04-01

    P-Type polycrystalline silicon-germanium (SiGe) thin films are grown by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) and their thermoelectric properties are characterized from 120 K to 300 K for potential application in integrated microscale cooling. The naturally formed grain boundaries are found to play a crucial role in determining both the charge and thermal transport properties of the films. Particularly, the grain boundaries create energy barriers for charge transport which lead to different dependences of charge mobility on doping concentration and temperature from the bulk counterparts. Meanwhile, the unique columnar grain structures result in remarkable thermal conductivity anisotropy with the in-plane thermal conductivities of SiGe films about 50% lower than the cross-plane values. By optimizing the growth conditions and doping level, a high in-plane figure of merit (ZT) of 0.2 for SiGe films is achieved at 300 K, which is about 100% higher than the previous record for p-type SiGe alloys, mainly due to the significant reduction in the in-plane thermal conductivity caused by nanograin boundaries. The low cost and excellent scalability of LPCVD render these high-performance SiGe films ideal candidates for thin-film thermoelectric applications.P-Type polycrystalline silicon-germanium (SiGe) thin films are grown by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) and their thermoelectric properties are characterized from 120 K to 300 K for potential application in integrated microscale cooling. The naturally formed grain boundaries are found to play a crucial role in determining both the charge and thermal transport properties of the films. Particularly, the grain boundaries create energy barriers for charge transport which lead to different dependences of charge mobility on doping concentration and temperature from the bulk counterparts. Meanwhile, the unique columnar grain structures result in remarkable thermal conductivity anisotropy with the in

  19. Laser drilling induced electrical type inversion in vacancy-doped p-type HgCdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, F. X.; Zhou, S. M.; Ma, H. L.; Yin, F.; Zhang, B.; Li, T. X.; Shao, J.; Shen, X. C.

    2008-10-01

    Femtosecond laser was used to generate micrometer-sized holes in vacancy-doped p type mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe). Characterization by laser beam induced current (LBIC) microscope shows obvious electrical type inversion around each hole. Both the intensity of the LBIC signals and the spatial dimension of the type-inversed regions are well comparable with those of n-on-p HgCdTe photodiodes formed by the conventional ion milling technique. The observation demonstrates the potential of laser drilling to be a new tool in fabricating HgCdTe photodiode arrays.

  20. Nature of the acceptor responsible for p-type conduction in liquid encapsulated Czochralski-grown undoped gallium antimonide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, C. C.; Lui, M. K.; Ma, S. K.; Chen, X. D.; Fung, S.; Beling, C. D.

    2004-07-01

    Acceptors in liquid encapsulated Czochralski-grown undoped gallium antimonide (GaSb) were studied by temperature dependent Hall measurement and positron lifetime spectroscopy (PLS). Because of its high concentration and low ionization energy, a level at EV+34meV is found to be the important acceptor responsible for the p-type conduction of the samples. Two different kinds of VGa-related defects (lifetimes of 280ps and 315ps, respectively) having different microstructures were characterized by PLS. By comparing their annealing behaviors and charge state occupancies, the EV+34meV level could not be related to the two VGa-related defects.

  1. Value Proposition for High Lifetime (p-type) and Thin Silicon Materials in Solar PV Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, A.; Woodhouse, M.; Hacke, P.

    2012-06-01

    Most silicon PV road maps forecast a continued reduction in wafer thickness, despite rapid declines in the primary incentive for doing so -- polysilicon feedstock price. Another common feature of most silicon-technology forecasts is the quest for ever-higher device performance at the lowest possible costs. The authors present data from device-performance and manufacturing- and system-installation cost models to quantitatively establish the incentives for manufacturers to pursue advanced (thin) wafer and (high efficiency) cell technologies, in an age of reduced feedstock prices. This analysis exhaustively considers the value proposition for high lifetime (p-type) silicon materials across the entire c-Si PV supply chain.

  2. Two-dimensional ferromagnet/semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenide contacts: p-type Schottky barrier and spin-injection control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Li-Yong; Zhang, Qingyun; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2013-12-01

    We study the ferromagnet/semiconductor contacts formed by transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers, focusing on semiconducting MoS2 and WS2 and ferromagnetic VS2. We investigate the degree of p-type doping and demonstrate tuning of the Schottky barrier height by vertical compressive pressure. An analytical model is presented for the barrier heights that accurately describes the numerical findings and is expected to be of general validity for all transition metal dichalcogenide metal/semiconductor contacts. Furthermore, magnetic proximity effects induce a 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level in the semiconductor where the spin splitting increases up to 0.70 eV for increasing pressure.

  3. Development of p-type CCD for the NeXT: the next Japanese x-ray astronomical satellite mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Hideki; Tohiguchi, Masakuni; Matsuura, Daisuke; Miyata, Emi; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Takagi, Shin-ichiro; Inui, Tatsuya; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Kamata, Yukiko; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Miyaguchi, Kazuhisa; Muramatsu, Masaharu; Suzuki, Hisanori

    2006-06-01

    The next Japanese X-ray astronomical satellite mission, NeXT, was proposed to ISAS/JAXA following the Astro-E2 Suzaku satellite which was launched in July 2005. We develop an X-ray CCD camera system, SXI (Soft X-ray Imager), for NeXT. The Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) onboard NeXT provides imaging capability up to 80 keV, using the multilayer-coated X-ray mirror technology, called "Supermirror", newly developed in Japan. SXI is one of the focal plane detectors of HXT, which covers the soft energy band in the 0.5-12 keV in the baseline and 0.3-25 keV in the goal. We develop p-type CCDs for the baseline of SXI because p-type CCDs have been successfully used for previous X-ray astronomical satellites. We developed a prototype of a p-type CCD for SXI, called "CCD-NeXT1". CCD-NeXT1 is a frame-transfer CCD with two readout nodes. The image area of CCD-NeXT1 consists of 2Kx2K pixels with a pixel size of 12 μm x 12 μm. We evaluated performance of CCD-NeXT1 devices, KG-4 and KG-5. The energy resolution was 141.8+/-0.6 eV full width at half maximum at 5.9 keV, the readout noise was 4.7+/-0.2 e -, the horizontal CTI was < 5.1 x 10 -7, and the vertical CTI was < 2.4 x 10 -7 for KG-5. The performance of KG-4 was more or less the same as that of KG-5. The thickness of the depletion layer was 82+/-7 μm for KG-4 and 76+/-6 μm for KG-5. We conclude that our technology for p-type CCDs is sufficient to satisfy the CCD performance for the baseline of SXI.

  4. Close-geometry efficiency calibration of p-type HPGe detectors with a Cs-134 point source.

    PubMed

    DeFelice, P; Fazio, A; Vidmar, T; Korun, M

    2006-01-01

    When close-geometry detector calibration is required in gamma-ray spectrometry, single-line emitters are usually used in order to avoid true coincidence summing effects. We managed to overcome this limitation by developing a method for the determination of the efficiency of p-type HPGe detectors in close-geometry with a calibrated Cs-134 point source. No separate determination of coincidence summing correction factors is required and a single measurement furnishes the full-energy-peak efficiencies in the 475-1365 keV energy range.

  5. Origins of shallow level and hole mobility in codoped p-type ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, H. B.; Kong, J. F.; Shen, W. Z.; Zhao, J. L.; Li, X. M.

    2007-03-01

    A combination study of structural, optical, and electrical properties has been carried out on N-In codoped p-type ZnO thin films for the origins of shallow level and hole mobility. The observed small activation energy of ˜20meV for the hole concentration corresponds well to the results from photoluminescence and conductivity data, revealing the grain boundary trapping nature of the shallow level. The achieved hole mobility is mainly due to the lack of grain boundary barrier effect, and the codoping yielded weak ionized impurity scattering. The authors have also revealed the scattering and conduction mechanisms in these p-ZnO films.

  6. Thin-film transistors based on p-type Cu{sub 2}O thin films produced at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Fortunato, Elvira; Figueiredo, Vitor; Barquinha, Pedro; Elamurugu, Elangovan; Goncalves, Goncalo; Martins, Rodrigo; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2010-05-10

    Copper oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) thin films were used to produce bottom gate p-type transparent thin-film transistors (TFTs). Cu{sub 2}O was deposited by reactive rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature and the films exhibit a polycrystalline structure with a strongest orientation along (111) plane. The TFTs exhibit improved electrical performance such as a field-effect mobility of 3.9 cm{sup 2}/V s and an on/off ratio of 2x10{sup 2}.

  7. The Gastric H,K ATPase as a Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, George; Shin, Jai Moo; Vagin, Olga; Lambrecht, Nils; Yakubov, Iskandar; Munson, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The recent progress in therapy if acid disease has relied heavily on the performance of drugs targeted against the H,K ATPase of the stomach and the H2 receptor antagonists. It has become apparent in the last decade that the proton pump is the target that has the likelihood of being the most sustainable area of therapeutic application in the regulation of acid suppression. The process of activation of acid secretion requires a change in location of the ATPase from cytoplasmic tubules into the microvilli of the secretory canaliculus of the parietal cell. Stimulation of the resting parietal cell, with involvement of F-actin and ezrin does not use significant numbers of SNARE proteins, because their message is depleted in the pure parietal cell transcriptome. The cell morphology and gene expression suggest a tubule fusion-eversion event. As the active H,K ATPase requires efflux of KCl for activity we have, using the transcriptome derived from 99% pure parietal cells and immunocytochemistry, provided evidence that the KCl pathway is mediated by a KCQ1/KCNE2 complex for supplying K+ and CLIC6 for supplying the accompanying Cl−. The pump has been modeled on the basis of the structures of different conformations of the sr Ca ATPase related to the catalytic cycle. These models use the effects of site directed mutations and identification of the binding domain of the K competitive acid pump antagonists or the defined site of binding for the covalent class of proton pump inhibitors. The pump undergoes conformational changes associated with phosphorylation to allow the ion binding site to change exposure from cytoplasmic to luminal exposure. We have been able to postulate that the very low gastric pH is achieved by lysine 791 motion extruding the hydronium ion bound to carboxylates in the middle of the membrane domain. These models also allow description of the K+ entry to form the K+ liganded form of the enzyme and the reformation of the ion site inward conformation thus

  8. Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Lol p 5C, a novel allergen isoform of rye grass pollen demonstrating high IgE reactivity.

    PubMed

    Suphioglu, C; Mawdsley, D; Schäppi, G; Gruehn, S; de Leon, M; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    1999-12-03

    A novel isoform of a major rye grass pollen allergen Lol p 5 was isolated from a cDNA expression library. The new isoform, Lol p 5C, shares 95% amino acid sequence identity with Lol p 5A. Both isoforms demonstrated shared antigenic activity but different allergenic activities. Recombinant Lol p 5C demonstrated 100% IgE reactivity in 22 rye grass pollen sensitive patients. In comparison, recombinant Lol p 5A showed IgE reactivity in less than 64% of the patients. Therefore, Lol p 5C represents a novel and highly IgE-reactive isoform allergen of rye grass pollen.

  9. T-bet–dependent S1P5 expression in NK cells promotes egress from lymph nodes and bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Jenne, Craig N.; Enders, Anselm; Rivera, Richard; Watson, Susan R.; Bankovich, Alexander J.; Pereira, Joao P.; Xu, Ying; Roots, Carla M.; Beilke, Joshua N.; Banerjee, Arnob; Reiner, Steven L.; Miller, Sara A.; Weinmann, Amy S.; Goodnow, Chris C.

    2009-01-01

    During a screen for ethylnitrosourea-induced mutations in mice affecting blood natural killer (NK) cells, we identified a strain, designated Duane, in which NK cells were reduced in blood and spleen but increased in lymph nodes (LNs) and bone marrow (BM). The accumulation of NK cells in LNs reflected a decreased ability to exit into lymph. This strain carries a point mutation within Tbx21 (T-bet), which generates a defective protein. Duane NK cells have a 30-fold deficiency in sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 5 (S1P5) transcript levels, and S1P5-deficient mice exhibit an egress defect similar to Duane. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirms binding of T-bet to the S1pr5 locus. S1P-deficient mice exhibit a more severe NK cell egress block, and the FTY720-sensitive S1P1 also plays a role in NK cell egress from LNs. S1P5 is not inhibited by CD69, a property that may facilitate trafficking of activated NK cells to effector sites. Finally, the accumulation of NK cells within BM of S1P-deficient mice was associated with reduced numbers in BM sinusoids, suggesting a role for S1P in BM egress. In summary, these findings identify S1P5 as a T-bet–induced gene that is required for NK cell egress from LNs and BM. PMID:19808259

  10. Identification and Comparative Analysis of Genes Encoding Outer Membrane Proteins P2 and P5 in Haemophilus parsuis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemophilus parasuis is a serious swine pathogen but little is known about how it causes disease. A related human pathogen, Haemophilus influenzae, has been better studied and many of its virulence factors have been identified. Two of these, outer membrane proteins P2 and P5, have been shown to ha...

  11. Peptide p5 binds both heparinase-sensitive glycosaminoglycans and fibrils in patient-derived AL amyloid extracts.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emily B; Williams, Angela; Heidel, Eric; Macy, Sallie; Kennel, Stephen J; Wall, Jonathan S

    2013-06-21

    In previously published work, we have described heparin-binding synthetic peptides that preferentially recognize amyloid deposits in a mouse model of reactive systemic (AA) amyloidosis and can be imaged by using positron and single photon emission tomographic imaging. We wanted to extend these findings to the most common form of visceral amyloidosis, namely light chain (AL); however, there are no robust experimental animal models of AL amyloidosis. To further define the binding of the lead peptide, p5, to AL amyloid, we characterized the reactivity in vitro of p5 with in situ and patient-derived AL amyloid extracts which contain both hypersulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans as well as amyloid fibrils. Histochemical staining demonstrated that the peptide specifically localized with tissue-associated AL amyloid deposits. Although we anticipated that p5 would undergo electrostatic interactions with the amyloid-associated glycosaminoglycans expressing heparin-like side chains, no significant correlation between peptide binding and glycosaminoglycan content within amyloid extracts was observed. In contrast, following heparinase I treatment, although overall binding was reduced, a positive correlation between peptide binding and amyloid fibril content became evident. This interaction was further confirmed using synthetic light chain fibrils that contain no carbohydrates. These data suggest that p5 can bind to both the sulfated glycosaminoglycans and protein fibril components of AL amyloid. Understanding these complex electrostatic interactions will aid in the optimization of synthetic peptides for use as amyloid imaging agents and potentially as therapeutics for the treatment of amyloid diseases.

  12. Cation Transport Coupled to ATP Hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase: An Integrated, Animated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Francisco A.; Furriel, Rosa P. M.; McNamara, John C.; Horisberger, Jean D.; Borin, Ivana A.

    2010-01-01

    An Adobe[R] animation is presented for use in undergraduate Biochemistry courses, illustrating the mechanism of Na[superscript +] and K[superscript +] translocation coupled to ATP hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase, a P[subscript 2c]-type ATPase, or ATP-powered ion pump that actively translocates cations across plasma membranes. The enzyme is also…

  13. Functional Interaction Between Na/K-ATPase and NMDA Receptor in Cerebellar Neurons.

    PubMed

    Akkuratov, Evgeny E; Lopacheva, Olga M; Kruusmägi, Markus; Lopachev, Alexandr V; Shah, Zahoor A; Boldyrev, Alexander A; Liu, Lijun

    2015-12-01

    NMDA receptors play a crucial role in regulating synaptic plasticity and memory. Activation of NMDA receptors changes intracellular concentrations of Na(+) and K(+), which are subsequently restored by Na/K-ATPase. We used immunochemical and biochemical methods to elucidate the potential mechanisms of interaction between these two proteins. We observed that NMDA receptor and Na/K-ATPase interact with each other and this interaction was shown for both isoforms of α subunit (α1 and α3) of Na/K-ATPase expressed in neurons. Using Western blotting, we showed that long-term exposure of the primary culture of cerebellar neurons to nanomolar concentrations of ouabain (a cardiotonic steroid, a specific ligand of Na/K-ATPase) leads to a decrease in the levels of NMDA receptors which is likely mediated by the α3 subunit of Na/K-ATPase. We also observed a decrease in enzymatic activity of the α1 subunit of Na/K-ATPase caused by NMDA receptor activation. This effect is mediated by an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). Thus, Na/K-ATPase and NMDA receptor can interact functionally by forming a macromolecular complex which can be important for restoring ionic balance after neuronal excitation. Furthermore, this interaction suggests that NMDA receptor function can be regulated by endogenous cardiotonic steroids which recently have been found in cerebrospinal fluid or by pharmacological drugs affecting Na/K-ATPase function.

  14. Carbonylation Modification Regulates Na/K-ATPase Signaling and Salt Sensitivity: A Review and a Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Preeya T; Martin, Rebecca; Yan, Yanling; Shapiro, Joseph I; Liu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Na/K-ATPase signaling has been implicated in different physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress not only regulates the Na/K-ATPase enzymatic activity, but also regulates its signaling and other functions. While cardiotonic steroids (CTS)-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is an intermediate step in CTS-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling, increase in ROS alone also stimulates Na/K-ATPase signaling. Based on literature and our observations, we hypothesize that ROS have biphasic effects on Na/K-ATPase signaling, transcellular sodium transport, and urinary sodium excretion. Oxidative modulation, in particular site specific carbonylation of the Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit, is a critical step in proximal tubular Na/K-ATPase signaling and decreased transcellular sodium transport leading to increases in urinary sodium excretion. However, once this system is overstimulated, the signaling, and associated changes in sodium excretion are blunted. This review aims to evaluate ROS-mediated carbonylation of the Na/K-ATPase, and its potential role in the regulation of pump signaling and sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule (RPT).

  15. Membrane-Bound ATPase Contributes to Hop Resistance of Lactobacillus brevis

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Kanta; van Veen, H. W.; Saito, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Konings, Wil N.

    2002-01-01

    The activity of the membrane-bound H+-ATPase of the beer spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus brevis ABBC45 increased upon adaptation to bacteriostatic hop compounds. The ATPase activity was optimal around pH 5.6 and increased up to fourfold when L. brevis was exposed to 666 μM hop compounds. The extent of activation depended on the concentration of hop compounds and was maximal at the highest concentration tested. The ATPase activity was strongly inhibited by N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, a known inhibitor of FoF1-ATPase. Western blots of membrane proteins of L. brevis with antisera raised against the α- and β-subunits of FoF1-ATPase from Enterococcus hirae showed that there was increased expression of the ATPase after hop adaptation. The expression levels, as well as the ATPase activity, decreased to the initial nonadapted levels when the hop-adapted cells were cultured further without hop compounds. These observations strongly indicate that proton pumping by the membrane-bound ATPase contributes considerably to the resistance of L. brevis to hop compounds. PMID:12406727

  16. Membrane-bound ATPase contributes to hop resistance of Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kanta; Van Veen, H W; Saito, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Konings, Wil N

    2002-11-01

    The activity of the membrane-bound H+-ATPase of the beer spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus brevis ABBC45 increased upon adaptation to bacteriostatic hop compounds. The ATPase activity was optimal around pH 5.6 and increased up to fourfold when L. brevis was exposed to 666 microM hop compounds. The extent of activation depended on the concentration of hop compounds and was maximal at the highest concentration tested. The ATPase activity was strongly inhibited by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, a known inhibitor of FoF1-ATPase. Western blots of membrane proteins of L. brevis with antisera raised against the alpha- and beta-subunits of FoF1-ATPase from Enterococcus hirae showed that there was increased expression of the ATPase after hop adaptation. The expression levels, as well as the ATPase activity, decreased to the initial nonadapted levels when the hop-adapted cells were cultured further without hop compounds. These observations strongly indicate that proton pumping by the membrane-bound ATPase contributes considerably to the resistance of L. brevis to hop compounds.

  17. Properties of the V-type ATPase from the excretory system of the usherhopper, Poekilocerus bufonius.

    PubMed

    Al-Fifi, Z I A; Al-Robai, A; Khoja, S M

    2002-09-01

    The bafilomycin A(1) and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-sensitive (V-type) ATPase was partially purified from the apical membrane-rich fractions of excretory system (Malpighian tubules and hind gut) of P. bufonius. Enzymatic activity was inhibited by bafilomycin A(1) (IC(50) = 1.3 nM) and NEM (IC(50) = 10.1 microM). The V-type ATPase activity is confined to the apical membrane fraction, while the activity of Na(+)/K(+) -ATPase forms the major part of the basal membrane fraction. The optimal pH required for maximal activity of V-type ATPase was pH 7.5. The effect of 30 mM of various salts on ATPase activity was investigated. NaCl and KCl caused increases of 175% and 184%, respectively. Other chloride salts also caused an increase in activity in the following ascending order: RbCl, LiCI, choline Cl, NaCI, KCl and tris-HCl. The activity of V-type ATPase was stimulated by a variety of different anions and cations, and HCO(3)(-) was found to be the most potent cationic activator of ATPase activity. The present results show that the properties of V-type ATPase of P. bufonius are similar to those reported for other insect tissues.

  18. Fluorescence energy transfer as an indicator of Ca2+-ATPase interactions in sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Papp, S; Pikula, S; Martonosi, A

    1987-01-01

    Ca2+-ATPase molecules were labeled in intact sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles, sequentially with a donor fluorophore, fluorescein-5'-isothiocyanate (FITC), and with an acceptor fluorophore, eosin-5'-isothiocyanate (EITC), each at a mole ratio of 0.25-0.5 mol/mol of ATPase. The resonance energy transfer was determined from the effect of acceptor on the intensity and lifetime of donor fluorescence. Due to structural similarities, the two dyes compete for the same site(s) on the Ca2+-ATPase, and under optimal conditions each ATPase molecule is labeled either with donor or acceptor fluorophore, but not with both. There is only slight labeling of phospholipids and other proteins in SR, even at concentrations of FITC or EITC higher than those used in the reported experiments. Efficient energy transfer was observed from the covalently bound FITC to EITC that is assumed to reflect interaction between ATPase molecules. Protein denaturing agents (8 M urea and 4 M guanidine) or nonsolubilizing concentrations of detergents (C12E8 or lysolecithin) abolish the energy transfer. These results are consistent with earlier observations that a large portion of the Ca2+-ATPase is present in oligomeric form in the native membrane. The technique is suitable for kinetic analysis of the effect of various treatments on the monomer-oligomer equilibrium of Ca2+-ATPase. A drawback of the method is that the labeled ATPase, although it retains conformational responses, is enzymatically inactive. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:2950938

  19. Autocrine inhibition of Na+/K(+)-ATPase by nitric oxide in mouse proximal tubule epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, N J; Fang, M Z; Tang, S S; Ingelfinger, J R; Garg, L C

    1995-01-01

    An inducible nitric oxide synthase has recently been described in proximal tubule epithelium. To investigate the effects of proximal tubule NO on Na+/K(+)-ATPase, we induced NO production in mouse proximal tubule epithelial cells by treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) followed by determinations of ouabain-sensitive ATPase activity. Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity decreased after 4 h of LPS/IFN gamma treatment, reaching maximal inhibition after 24 h (34% reduction in activity). The inhibition of Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity by LPS/IFN gamma was prevented by simultaneous incubation with N omega-nitro L-arginine and markedly blunted by removal of L-arginine from the medium. The NO donors sodium nitroprusside and SIN-1 also inhibited Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity to a similar extent than LPS/IFN gamma. However, treatment with 8-pCPT-cGMP only modestly reduced Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity. Interestingly, superoxide dismutase prevented the inhibitory effects of NO on Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity, suggesting a role for peroxynitrite in this inhibition. We conclude that NO generated by mouse proximal tubule epithelial cell iNOS inhibits Na/K ATPase activity in an autocrine fashion and that this inhibition is accompanied by a reduction in Na-dependent solute transport. PMID:7537754

  20. Regulation of caveolin-1 membrane trafficking by the Na/K-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ting; Wang, Haojie; Chen, Yiliang; Liu, Lijun; Gunning, William T; Quintas, Luis Eduardo M.; Xie, Zi-Jian

    2008-01-01

    Here, we show that the Na/K-ATPase interacts with caveolin-1 (Cav1) and regulates Cav1 trafficking. Graded knockdown of Na/K-ATPase decreases the plasma membrane pool of Cav1, which results in a significant reduction in the number of caveolae on the cell surface. These effects are independent of the pumping function of Na/K-ATPase, and instead depend on interaction between Na/K-ATPase and Cav1 mediated by an N-terminal caveolin-binding motif within the ATPase α1 subunit. Moreover, knockdown of the Na/K-ATPase increases basal levels of active Src and stimulates endocytosis of Cav1 from the plasma membrane. Microtubule-dependent long-range directional trafficking in Na/K-ATPase–depleted cells results in perinuclear accumulation of Cav1-positive vesicles. Finally, Na/K-ATPase knockdown has no effect on processing or exit of Cav1 from the Golgi. Thus, the Na/K-ATPase regulates Cav1 endocytic trafficking and stabilizes the Cav1 plasma membrane pool. PMID:18794328

  1. Organochlorine insecticide, herbicide and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) inhibition of NaK-ATPase in rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Paul W.; Friedhoff, Jacqueline M.; Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1972-01-01

    The current widespread presence of chlorinated insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and herbicides in world waterways has elicited much interest in the mechanisms of their toxicity in fishes. Inhibition of Na+,K+-activated adenosinetriphosphatase (NaK-ATPase) and Mg++-dependent ATPase (Mg-ATPase) by DDT, endosulfan and dicofol has been demonstrated in gill, brain and kidney microsomes of rainbow trout (1,2). Intestinal and gill ATPases in marine teleosts were recently reported to be sensitive to organochlorines (3). CutkonTp et al (4) noted inhibition of NaK-ATPase and Mg-ATPase in bluegill brain, liver, muscle and kidney by DDT and related chlorinated hydrocarbons. Inhibition of ATPases by PCB's has been recently shown in bluegill kidney, brain and liver (5). In the present study, we have further examined the NaK-ATPase enzyme system in trout gill as a site for the possible toxicity of selected organopolychlors, i.e., chlorinated insecticides, herbicides and PCB's.

  2. Carbonylation Modification Regulates Na/K-ATPase Signaling and Salt Sensitivity: A Review and a Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Preeya T.; Martin, Rebecca; Yan, Yanling; Shapiro, Joseph I.; Liu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Na/K-ATPase signaling has been implicated in different physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress not only regulates the Na/K-ATPase enzymatic activity, but also regulates its signaling and other functions. While cardiotonic steroids (CTS)-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is an intermediate step in CTS-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling, increase in ROS alone also stimulates Na/K-ATPase signaling. Based on literature and our observations, we hypothesize that ROS have biphasic effects on Na/K-ATPase signaling, transcellular sodium transport, and urinary sodium excretion. Oxidative modulation, in particular site specific carbonylation of the Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit, is a critical step in proximal tubular Na/K-ATPase signaling and decreased transcellular sodium transport leading to increases in urinary sodium excretion. However, once this system is overstimulated, the signaling, and associated changes in sodium excretion are blunted. This review aims to evaluate ROS-mediated carbonylation of the Na/K-ATPase, and its potential role in the regulation of pump signaling and sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule (RPT). PMID:27445847

  3. Effect of tetrandrine on myocardial Na+, K(+)-ATPase in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, N H; Wang, Y L; Ding, J H

    1991-11-01

    In renovascular hypertensive rats (RVHR, two-kidney, one-clip model), the myocardial Na+, K(+)-ATPase showed a reduced activity. Though its sensitivities to K+ and ouabain (Oua) were not changed, the enzyme was less responsive to Na+ and ATP, and also much more susceptible to the inhibitory effect of Ca2+. Tetrandrine (Tet, ig 50 mg.kg-1, qd x 26 d) increased the myocardial Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity in RVHR. However, in vitro, Tet elevated moderately the enzyme activity in RVHR only at high concentrations (100-1,000 mumol.L-1), and failed to influence the enzyme activity in normotensive rats. In RVHR, treatment by Tet in vivo increased the degree of the Na+, K(+)-ATPase activation under suboptimal substrate (Na+, K+, or ATP) concentrations and antagonized the inhibitory effect of Ca2+ or Oua. Similar results were found when the enzyme preparation from RVHR was incubated with Tet 10 mumol.L-1 during ATPase analysis. On the contrary, the myocardial Mg(2+)-ATPase activity was higher in RVHR. Tet depressed this enzyme both in vivo and in vitro. These facts indicate that the increased myocardial Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity in RVHR is not only secondary to the calcium channel blocking or antihypertensive action of Tet but also due to its direct effects on the Na+, K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase.

  4. Magnetism in the p-type Monolayer II-VI semiconductors SrS and SrSe

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Heng-Fu; Lau, Woon-Ming; Zhao, Jijun

    2017-01-01

    Using density functional theory calculations, we study the electronic and magnetic properties of the p-type monolayer II-VI semiconductors SrX (X = S,Se). The pristine SrS and SrSe monolayers are large band gap semiconductor with a very flat band in the top valence band. Upon injecting hole uniformly, ferromagnetism emerges in those system in a large range of hole density. By varying hole density, the systems also show complicated phases transition among nonmagnetic semiconductor, half metal, magnetic semiconductor, and nonmagnetic metal. Furthermore, after introducing p-type dopants in SrS and SrSe via substitutionary inserting P (or As) dopants at the S (or Se) sites, local magnetic moments are formed around the substitutional sites. The local magnetic moments are stable with the ferromagnetic order with appreciable Curie temperature. The ferromagnetism originates from the instability of the electronic states in SrS and SrSe with the large density of states at the valence band edge, which demonstrates a useful strategy for realizing the ferromagnetism in the two dimensional semiconductors. PMID:28378761

  5. Inorganic Nano Light-Emitting Transistor: p-Type Porous Silicon Nanowire/n-Type ZnO Nanofilm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jong Woo; Lee, Tae Il; Myoung, Jae Min

    2016-08-01

    An inorganic nano light-emitting transistor (INLET) consisting of p-type porous Si nanowires (PoSiNWs) and an n-type ZnO nanofilm was integrated on a heavily doped p-type Si substrate with a thermally grown SiO2 layer. To verify that modulation of the Fermi level of the PoSiNWs is key for switchable light emitting, I-V and electroluminescent characteristics of the INLET are investigated as a function of gate bias (V g ). As the V g is changed from 0 V to -20 V, the current level and light-emission intensity in the orange-red range increase by three and two times, respectively, with a forward bias of 20 V in the p-n junction, compared to those at a V g of 0 V. On the other hand, as the V g approaches 10 V, the current level decreases and the emission intensity is reduced and then finally switched off. This result arises from the modulation of the Fermi level of the PoSiNWs and the built-in potential at the p-n junction by the applied gate electric field.

  6. Inhibition of acetylcholine release from mouse motor nerve by a P-type calcium channel blocker, omega-agatoxin IVA.

    PubMed Central

    Hong, S J; Chang, C C

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects were studied of the central neurone P-type Ca2+ channel blockers, omega-agatoxin IVA, omega-conotoxin MVIIC (polypeptide toxins) and synthetic funnel-web spider polyamine toxin on acetylcholine release from mouse motor nerve. 2. omega-Agatoxin IVA decreased the quantal content of endplate potentials and blocked synaptic transmission in the nanomolar range in a reversible manner, whereas the other toxins depressed transmission in the hundred micromolar range. 3. The polyamine toxin, but not the polypeptide toxins, decreased the amplitude of the miniature endplate potential. The increase in the frequency of miniature endplate potentials evoked by high [K+], but not that evoked by alpha-latrotoxin, was effectively antagonized by omega-agatoxin IVA. 4. In the presence of omega-agatoxin IVA, high frequency nerve stimulation produced facilitation of endplate currents and tetanic contractions. 5. The results suggest that, under physiological conditions, the Ca2+ necessary for nerve action potential-evoked acetylcholine release is translocated via a subtype of the P-type Ca2+ channel sensitive to omega-agatoxin IVA. PMID:7714822

  7. Field-Effect Modulation of Ambipolar Doping and Domain Wall Band Alignment in P-type Vanadium Dioxide Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yasen; Peng, Xingyue; Yang, Yiming; Yu, Dong

    The sub-picosecond metal-insulator phase transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2) has attracted extensive attention with potential applications in ultrafast Mott transistors. However, the development of VO2-based transistors lags behind, owing to the lack of an efficient and hysteresis-free electrostatic doping control. Here we report the first synthesis of p-type single crystalline VO2nanowires via catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition. The p-type doping was unambiguously confirmed by both solid and electrochemical gating methods, and further evidenced by the scanning photocurrent microscopic measurements. Interestingly, we observed that the photocurrent spot polarity at the metal-insulator domain walls was reversibly switched by electrochemical gating, which indicates a band bending flipping. Furthermore, we eliminated the common hysteresis in gate sweep and greatly shortened the transistor response time via a hybrid gating method, which combines the merits of liquid ionic and solid gating. The capability of efficient field effect modulation of ambipolar conduction and band alignment offers new opportunities on understanding the phase transition mechanism and enables novel electronic applications based on VO2.

  8. Improved p-type conductivity in Al-rich AlGaN using multidimensional Mg-doped superlattices

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, T. C.; Lin, W.; Liu, R.; Cai, D. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, S. P.; Kang, J. Y.

    2016-01-01

    A novel multidimensional Mg-doped superlattice (SL) is proposed to enhance vertical hole conductivity in conventional Mg-doped AlGaN SL which generally suffers from large potential barrier for holes. Electronic structure calculations within the first-principle theoretical framework indicate that the densities of states (DOS) of the valence band nearby the Fermi level are more delocalized along the c-axis than that in conventional SL, and the potential barrier significantly decreases. Hole concentration is greatly enhanced in the barrier of multidimensional SL. Detailed comparisons of partial charges and decomposed DOS reveal that the improvement of vertical conductance may be ascribed to the stronger pz hybridization between Mg and N. Based on the theoretical analysis, highly conductive p-type multidimensional Al0.63Ga0.37N/Al0.51Ga0.49N SLs are grown with identified steps via metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. The hole concentration reaches up to 3.5 × 1018 cm−3, while the corresponding resistivity reduces to 0.7 Ω cm at room temperature, which is tens times improvement in conductivity compared with that of conventional SLs. High hole concentration can be maintained even at 100 K. High p-type conductivity in Al-rich structural material is an important step for the future design of superior AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet devices. PMID:26906334

  9. The Synthesis and Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type Li1- x NbO2-Based Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Jamil Ur; Meang, Eun-Ji; Van Nguyen, Du; Seo, Won-Seon; Hussain, Ali; Kim, Myong Ho; Lee, Soonil

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the thermoelectric (TE) properties of a p-type oxide material (Li1- x NbO2, with x = 0-0.6). The composition was synthesized via a solid-state reaction method under a reducing atmosphere. The charge transport properties were determined through the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements. The electrical conductivity was non-monotonically varied with x value and showed metallic behavior with increased temperature and above 650 K temperature independent behavior dominated by extrinsic conduction. On the other hand, the Seebeck coefficient was increased with an increase in the temperature, and decreased gradually with an increase in the Li vacancy concentration by both synthesis and gradual phase transition to a Li-rich Li3NbO4 phase with temperature and appeared as an n-type TE at x = 0.6 under high temperatures, which was attributed to an Nb substitution into the Li site. The thermal conductivity was monotonically reduced with the increase in temperature due to the cation disorder defects and second phases. The Li vacancy induced Li1- x NbO2-based compounds under low oxygen partial pressure show promise as a candidate p-type material for thermoelectric applications, particularly for co-processing with n-type oxide thermoelectric materials fabricated under conditions of low oxygen partial pressure.

  10. New p-type absorber films formed by interfacial diffusion in chemically deposited metal chalcogenide multilayer films

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, P.K.; Nair, M.T.S.; Hu, H.; Huang, L.; Zingaro, R.A.; Meyers, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    The authors report on new p-type ternary metal chalcogenide absorber films for possible solar energy applications. The films are formed by interfacial diffusion in chemically deposited multilayer films: CuS films (0.15--0.6 {micro}m) deposited on ZnS, PbS or Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} films ({approx} 0.1 {micro}m). The diffusion takes place during annealing at temperatures above 150 C and is shown in the XPS depth profile spectra of the annealed samples: metal atoms (Zn, Pb or Bi) of the underlying substrate films are detected at the surface layers after the annealing. The peculiarity of the multilayer films is that they show almost constant sheet resistance upon further annealing until 350 C. The sheet resistances are in the range of 20--100 {Omega} suggesting conductivities (p-type) of up to 400 {Omega}{sup {minus}1}. In the case of CuS on Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} films, the formation of a compound, Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3}, is clearly detected. These have applications for solar cells.

  11. Search for Pauli exclusion principle violating atomic transitions and electron decay with a p-type point contact germanium detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y. -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, Pinghan -H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven Ray; Finnerty, P. S.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, Graham K.; Goett, John Jerome; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O’Shaughnessy, C.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith Robert; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2016-11-11

    Here, a search for Pauli-exclusion-principle-violating Kα electron transitions was performed using 89.5 kg-d of data collected with a p-type point contact high-purity germanium detector operated at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility. A lower limit on the transition lifetime of 5.8×1030 s at 90% C.L. was set by looking for a peak at 10.6 keV resulting from the X-ray and Auger electrons present following the transition. A similar analysis was done to look for the decay of atomic K-shell electrons into neutrinos, resulting in a lower limit of 6.8×1030 s at 90% C.L. Finally, it is estimated that the Majorana Demonstrator, a 44 kg array of p-type point contact detectors that will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge, could improve upon these exclusion limits by an order of magnitude after three years of operation.

  12. The synthesis and characterization of Ag-N dual-doped p-type ZnO: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Duan, Li; Wang, Pei; Yu, Xiaochen; Han, Xiao; Chen, Yongnan; Zhao, Peng; Li, Donglin; Yao, Ran

    2014-03-07

    Ag-N dual-doped ZnO films have been fabricated by a chemical bath deposition method. The p-type conductivity of the dual-doped ZnO:(Ag, N) is stable over a long period of time, and the hole concentration in the ZnO:(Ag, N) is much higher than that in mono-doped ZnO:Ag or ZnO:N. We found that this is because AgZn-NO complex acceptors can be formed in ZnO:(Ag, N). First-principles calculations show that the complex acceptors generate a fully occupied band above the valance band maximum, so the acceptor levels become shallower and the hole concentration is increased. Furthermore, the binding energy of the Ag-N complex in ZnO is negative, so ZnO:(Ag, N) can be stable. These results indicate that the Ag-N dual-doping may be expected to be a potential route to achieving high-quality p-type ZnO for use in a variety of devices.

  13. Binary Oxide p-n Heterojunction Piezoelectric Nanogenerators with an Electrochemically Deposited High p-Type Cu2O Layer.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung Ki; Kwak, Sung Soo; Kim, Joo Sung; Kim, Sang Woo; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2016-08-31

    The high performance of ZnO-based piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs) has been limited due to the potential screening from intrinsic electron carriers in ZnO. We have demonstrated a novel approach to greatly improve piezoelectric power generation by electrodepositing a high-quality p-type Cu2O layer between the piezoelectric semiconducting film and the metal electrode. The p-n heterojunction using only oxides suppresses the screening effect by forming an intrinsic depletion region, and thus sufficiently enhances the piezoelectric potential, compared to the pristine ZnO piezoelectric NG. Interestingly, a Sb-doped Cu2O layer has high mobility and low surface trap states. Thus, this doped layer is an attractive p-type material to significantly improve piezoelectric performance. Our results revealed that p-n junction NGs consisting of Au/ZnO/Cu2O/indium tin oxide with a Cu2O:Sb (cuprous oxide with a small amount of antimony) layer of sufficient thickness (3 μm) exhibit an extraordinarily high piezoelectric potential of 0.9 V and a maximum output current density of 3.1 μA/cm(2).

  14. Van der Pauw Hall Measurement on Intended Doped ZnO Films for p-Type Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yang; Liu, Yac-Ping; Li, Jun-Qiang; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Mei, Zeng-Xia; Du, Xiao-Long

    2010-06-01

    A Van der Pauw Hall measurement is performed on the intended doped ZnO films (Na doped ZnO) grown by using the molecular beam epitaxial method. All as-grown samples show n-type conductivity, whereas the annealed samples (annealing temperature 900° C) show ambiguous carrier conductivity type (n- and p-type) in the automatic Van der Pauw Hall measurement. A similar result has been observed in Li doped ZnO and in as-doped ZnO films by other groups before. However, by tracing the Hall voltage in the Van der Pauw Hall measurement, it is found that this alternative appearance of both n- and p-type conductivity is not intrinsic behavior of the intended doped ZnO films, but is due to the persistent photoconductivity effect in ZnO. The persistent photoconductivity effect would strongly affect the accurate determination of the carrier conductivity type of a highly resistive intended doped ZnO sample.

  15. The Synthesis and Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type Li1-x NbO2-Based Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Jamil Ur; Meang, Eun-Ji; Van Nguyen, Du; Seo, Won-Seon; Hussain, Ali; Kim, Myong Ho; Lee, Soonil

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the thermoelectric (TE) properties of a p-type oxide material (Li1-x NbO2, with x = 0-0.6). The composition was synthesized via a solid-state reaction method under a reducing atmosphere. The charge transport properties were determined through the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements. The electrical conductivity was non-monotonically varied with x value and showed metallic behavior with increased temperature and above 650 K temperature independent behavior dominated by extrinsic conduction. On the other hand, the Seebeck coefficient was increased with an increase in the temperature, and decreased gradually with an increase in the Li vacancy concentration by both synthesis and gradual phase transition to a Li-rich Li3NbO4 phase with temperature and appeared as an n-type TE at x = 0.6 under high temperatures, which was attributed to an Nb substitution into the Li site. The thermal conductivity was monotonically reduced with the increase in temperature due to the cation disorder defects and second phases. The Li vacancy induced Li1-x NbO2-based compounds under low oxygen partial pressure show promise as a candidate p-type material for thermoelectric applications, particularly for co-processing with n-type oxide thermoelectric materials fabricated under conditions of low oxygen partial pressure.

  16. Boron liquid solution deposited by spray method for p-type emitter formation in crystalline Si solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panek, Piotr; Swatowska, Barbara; Dawidowski, Wojciech; Juel, Mari; Zieba, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports the fabrication of n-type crystalline Si based solar cell using boron liquid solution (BLS) deposited by spray method for p-type emitter formation. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used for the analysis of surface composition and electronic states of elements at the glass layer of dopant (GLD) obtained from BLS. The investigation of the borosilicate glass layer (BSG) created on a base of GLD during diffusion process were carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The diffusion profiles were determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electrochemical capacitance-voltage (EC-V) techniques, whereas the solar cells were characterized by the light current-voltage (I-V) and spectral measurements. The influence of a doping process on a minority carrier lifetime of the Si wafers was detected by quasi-steady-state photoconductance technique. Application of the elaborated BSL allowed to obtain the p-type Si emitters from BSG layer which exhibits unproblematic etching behaviour after diffusion process and final fabrication of the solar cells with the fill factor of 74% and photoconversion efficiency of 13.04 %. The elaborated BLS is a source which offers an attractive practicable alternative to form emitters on the n-type Si substrate.

  17. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Formation of p-type CdS thin films by laser-stimulated copper diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhafarov, T. D.; Altunbas, M.; Kopya, A. I.; Novruzov, V.; Bacaksiz, E.

    1999-12-01

    A new fabrication technique of p-type CdS thin films by He-Ne laser illumination of bilayer Cu-nCdS structures at room temperature was investigated. The n-type CdS films were obtained by vacuum evaporation in a quasi-closed volume. X-ray diffraction was used to provide crystalline structure and composition data of CdS films and Cu-CdS structures. The band gap of CdS films was estimated from the optical transmission spectra. The hot probe and Hall effect studies were used for the determination of conductivity type and concentration of charge carriers in films. The formation of a p-n homojunction in CdS films or conversion of the film all over to the p-type, depending on the duration of laser illumination, was shown by I-V characteristics, the photovoltaic, the hot probe and Hall effect measurements. Analysis of concentration distributions of Cu in CdS films, arising as a result of laser-accelerated diffusion, by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy gave the effective diffusion coefficient of copper, D = 8 × 10-12 cm2 s-1 at T = 25 °C.

  18. Perovskite LaRhO{sub 3} as a p-type active layer in oxide photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Masao Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Fujioka, Jun; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2015-02-16

    Perovskite-type transition-metal oxides have a wide variety of physical properties and triggered intensive research on functional devices in the form of heteroepitaxial junctions. However, there is a missing component that is a p-type conventional band semiconductor. LaRhO{sub 3} (LRO) is one of very few promising candidates having its bandgap between filled t{sub 2g} and empty e{sub g} of Rh in low-spin state, but there has been no report on the synthesis of large-size single crystals or thin films. Here, we report on the junction properties of single-crystalline thin films of LRO grown on (110) oriented Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. The external quantum efficiency of the photo-electron conversion exceeds 1% in the visible-light region due to the wide depletion layer and long diffusion length of minority carriers in LRO. Clear indication of p-type band semiconducting character in a perovskite oxide of LRO will pave a way to explore oxide electronics of perovskite heterostructures.

  19. Fundamental piezo-Hall coefficients of single crystal p-type 3C-SiC for arbitrary crystallographic orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qamar, Afzaal; Dao, Dzung Viet; Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Dinh, Toan; Dimitrijev, Sima

    2016-08-01

    Piezo-Hall effect in a single crystal p-type 3C-SiC, grown by LPCVD process, has been characterized for various crystallographic orientations. The quantified values of the piezo-Hall effect in heavily doped p-type 3C-SiC(100) and 3C-SiC(111) for different crystallographic orientations were used to obtain the fundamental piezo-Hall coefficients, P 12 = ( 5.3 ± 0.4 ) × 10 - 11 Pa - 1 , P 11 = ( - 2.6 ± 0.6 ) × 10 - 11 Pa - 1 , and P 44 = ( 11.42 ± 0.6 ) × 10 - 11 Pa - 1 . Unlike the piezoresistive effect, the piezo-Hall effect for (100) and (111) planes is found to be independent of the angle of rotation of the device within the crystal plane. The values of fundamental piezo-Hall coefficients obtained in this study can be used to predict the piezo-Hall coefficients in any crystal orientation which is very important for designing of 3C-SiC Hall sensors to minimize the piezo-Hall effect for stable magnetic field sensitivity.

  20. Novel p-Type Conductive Semiconductor Nanocrystalline Film as the Back Electrode for High-Performance Thin Film Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Lin, Qinxian; Yang, Xiaoyang; Mei, Zongwei; Liang, Jun; Lin, Yuan; Pan, Feng

    2016-02-10

    Thin film solar cells, due to the low cost, high efficiency, long-term stability, and consumer applications, have been widely applied for harvesting green energy. All of these thin film solar cells generally adopt various metal thin films as the back electrode, like Mo, Au, Ni, Ag, Al, graphite, and so forth. When they contact with p-type layer, it always produces a Schottky contact with a high contact potential barrier, which greatly affects the cell performance. In this work, we report for the first time to find an appropriate p-type conductive semiconductor film, digenite Cu9S5 nanocrystalline film, as the back electrode for CdTe solar cells as the model device. Its low sheet resistance (16.6 Ω/sq) could compare to that of the commercial TCO films (6-30 Ω/sq), like FTO, ITO, and AZO. Different from the traditonal metal back electrode, it produces a successive gradient-doping region by the controllable Cu diffusion, which greatly reduces the contact potential barrier. Remarkably, it achieved a comparable power conversion efficiency (PCE, 11.3%) with the traditional metal back electrode (Cu/Au thin films, 11.4%) in CdTe cells and a higher PCE (13.8%) with the help of the Au assistant film. We believe it could also act as the back electrode for other thin film solar cells (α-Si, CuInS2, CIGSe, CZTS, etc.), for their performance improvement.