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Sample records for p63-related dysplasia syndromes

  1. Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chee, Siew-Yin; Wanga, Chung-Hsing; Lina, Wei-De; Tsaia, Fuu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndrome comprises a large, heterogeneous group of inherited disorders that are defined by primary defects in the development of 2 or more tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm. The tissues primarily involved are the skin and its appendages (including hair follicles, eccrine glands, sebaceous glands, nails) and teeth. The clinical features include sparse hair, abnormal or missing teeth, and an inability to sweat due to lack of sweat glands. One such case report of ectodermal dysplasia is presented here.

  2. Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia clefting syndrome (EEC syndrome).

    PubMed

    Koul, Monika; Dwivedi, Rahul; Upadhyay, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia- clefting syndrome (also k/a. split hand- split foot malformation /split hand-split foot ectodermal dysplasia- cleft syndrome/ectodermal dysplasia cleft lip/cleft palate syndrome) a rare form of ectodermal dysplasia, is an autosomal dominant disorder inherited as a genetic trait and characterized by a triad of (i) ectrodactyly, (ii) ectodermal dysplasia and, (iii) & facial clefts.

  3. Optic disc dysplasia in poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maxfield, Steven D; Strominger, Mitchell B

    2014-06-01

    To report optic disc dysplasia in a case of Poland syndrome. Non-interventional case report. A 2-year-old boy with Poland syndrome was referred for ophthalmic evaluation after abnormal optic discs were found on exam. Physical exam at birth revealed right-sided aplasia of the pectoralis major muscle, symbrachydactyly, hypoplastic scapula, and an abnormal third rib. On dilated examination the optic nerve heads were dysplastic. The findings included multiple cilioretinal vessels, situs inversus, inferotemporal excavation, and surrounding pigmentary disturbances. Only one case of optic disc anomaly has been reported in Poland syndrome and was described as morning glory syndrome. The optic discs in our patient do not fit well with other optic disc excavation syndromes but are most reminiscent of those in papillorenal syndrome. As both Poland syndrome and papillorenal syndrome share vascular dysfunction as a possible etiology, this case adds to the literature of vascular dysgenesis in Poland syndrome.

  4. [Nipple dysplasia and androgen syndrome].

    PubMed

    Radowicki, S; Koczorowski, R

    1997-11-01

    Among 1500 patients in the reproductive age of Clinical Department of Endocrinological Gynecology in State Hospital in Warszawa, Poland estimated the correlations between the onset of benign breast disease (BBD) and the incidence of androgenic syndrome. Symptoms of the androgenic syndrome stated in cases of 191 women; 51 of them had also benign lesions of the breasts. It makes 26.9 percent women with the symptoms of androgenicity. Clinical studies have correlated mean age patients with acne, hirsutism, menstrual cycle disturbances, gain of weight (androgenic syndrome) and mean age women who have suffered both androgenicity and BBD.

  5. Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip and palate syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Reema Sharma; Bora, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the triad of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia, and facial clefting along with some associated features. Presence of all the three major features in a single individual is extremely rare. We report a case of 4 year 11 months old child with EEC syndrome having ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip and cleft palate and ectrodactyly with some associated features. Clinical features, diagnosis and role of a dentist in the multidisciplinary treatment approach have been elaborated in this case report.

  6. Concomitant occurrence of cochleosaccular dysplasia and Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walby, A P; Schuknecht, H F

    1984-07-01

    Inherited cochleosaccular dysplasia occurred in a woman coincidentally with Down's syndrome. Study of the right temporal bone revealed abnormalities of the cochlea and saccule consistent with Scheibe 's original description. There was also a short cochlea and small lateral semicircular canal consistent with previous descriptions of Down's syndrome.

  7. Skin symptoms in four ectodermal dysplasia syndromes including two case reports of Rapp-Hodgkin-Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Knaudt, Björn; Volz, Thomas; Krug, Markus; Burgdorf, Walter; Röcken, Martin; Berneburg, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The skin, hair and nail changes in four distinct ectodermal dysplasia syndromes are compared and reviewed. These syndromes comprise Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome; ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip/palate syndrome; ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate syndrome and Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome. A comprehensive overview of the dermatological signs and symptoms in these syndromes was generated from the database of the Ectodermal Dysplasia Network Germany, the clinical findings in the patients seen in our department and an extensive review of the literature. The findings included abnormalities of skin, sweating, hair and nails. These clinical findings are discussed in relation to the underlying molecular defects known to play a role in these four ectodermal dysplasia syndromes.

  8. Müllerian agenesis with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Whaley, Katie; Winter, Jordan; Eyster, Kathleen M; Hansen, Keith A

    2012-04-01

    To describe the association of müllerian agenesis with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Case report. University medical center. A 17-year-old woman with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia referred for evaluation of primary amenorrhea. History, physical examination, and ultrasound. Physical findings of these two syndromes. Physical examination and ultrasound demonstrated müllerian agenesis with findings of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. This is the first description of the association of müllerian agenesis with ectodermal dysplasia. This rare case might provide further insight into the development of the uterus and the ectoderm as well as its derivatives. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Individualized Plastic Reconstruction Strategy for Patients With Ectodermal Dysplasia Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yikang; Jin, Yunbo; Lin, Xiaoxi; Chai, Gang; Zhang, Yan; Qi, Zuoliang

    2017-06-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia syndrome is a hereditary disease of ectodermal origin. Appearances of nail dystrophy, alopecia or hypotrichosis, saddle nose deformity, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis are usually associated with a lack of sweat glands as well as partial or complete absence of teeth. These manifestations are usually corrected only with oral rehabilitation by mounting dentures. In this study, plastic rehabilitation was developed to correct the special features of patients with ectodermal dysplasia. Four men and 1 woman with ectodermal dysplasia syndrome were treated. Four patients showed dysostosis of the midface, and rhinoplasty with costal bone was performed, whereas cosmetic operation aiming to repair soft tissue defects was adopted for the last patient. After plastic corrections, all 5 patients were satisfied with the results and had no social embarrassment.

  10. The Perlman syndrome: familial renal dysplasia with Wilms tumor, fetal gigantism and multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Neri, G; Martini-Neri, M E; Katz, B E; Opitz, J M

    1984-09-01

    We describe a familial syndrome of renal dysplasia, Wilms tumor, hyperplasia of the endocrine pancreas, fetal gigantism, multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation. This condition was previously described by Perlman et al [1973, 1975] and we propose to call it the "Perlman syndrome." It appears to be transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. The possible relationships between dysplasia, neoplasia and malformation are discussed.

  11. Acro-Dermato-Ungual-Lacrimal-Tooth Syndrome: An Uncommon Member of the Ectodermal Dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Adam; Stein, Sarah; Kenner-Bell, Brandi

    2016-09-01

    Acro-dermato-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome is a rare form of autosomal dominant ectodermal dysplasia due to mutations in the TP63 gene, a locus that has also been implicated in other syndromic forms of ectodermal dysplasia. It shares many phenotypic characteristics with other TP63 gene mutation syndromes, often making an accurate diagnosis difficult. Long-term management and follow-up of the various sequelae of ectodermal dysplasia require an accurate diagnosis. We report a familial case of ADULT syndrome in a daughter, mother, and son and provide a brief review of the clinical characteristics of this syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Respiratory problems in patients with ectodermal dysplasia syndromes.

    PubMed

    Fete, Timothy

    2014-10-01

    The ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a deficiency of ectoderm- and mesoderm-derived tissues and appendages, particularly hair, skin, teeth, and nails. Many of these disorders are associated with a greater risk of respiratory disease than found in the general population. There are no published papers that comprehensively describe these findings and the possible etiologies. Patients have been reported with dramatic decrease in mucous glands in the respiratory tract. Anatomic defects, including cleft palate, that predispose to respiratory infection, are associated with several of the ED syndromes. Atopy and immune deficiencies have been shown to have a higher prevalence in ED syndromes. Clinicians who care for patients affected by ED syndromes should be aware of the potential respiratory complications, and consider evaluation for structural anomalies, atopy and immunodeficiency in individuals with recurrent or chronic respiratory symptoms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Scanning Electron Microscopic Hair Shaft Analysis in Ectodermal Dysplasia Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hirano-Ali, Stefanie A; Reed, Ashley M; Rowan, Brandon J; Sorrells, Timothy; Williams, Judith V; Pariser, David M; Hood, Antoinette F; Salkey, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to catalog hair shaft abnormalities in individuals with ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and to compare the findings with those in unaffected controls. This is the second of a two-part study, the first of which used light microscopy as the modality and was previously published. Scanning electron microscopy was performed in a blinded manner on hair shafts from 65 subjects with seven types of ED syndromes and 41 unaffected control subjects. Assessment was performed along the length of the shaft and in cross section. Hair donations were collected at the 28th Annual National Family Conference held by the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasia. Control subjects were recruited from a private dermatology practice and an academic children's hospital outpatient dermatology clinic. SEM identified various pathologic hair shaft abnormalities in each type of ED and in control patients. When hairs with all types of ED were grouped together and compared with those of control patients, the difference in the presence of small diameter and shallow and deep grooves was statistically significant (p < 0.05). When the EDs were separated according to subtype, statistically significant findings were also seen. SEM is a possible adjuvant tool in the diagnosis of ED syndromes. There are significant differences, with high specificity, between the hairs of individuals with ED and those of control subjects and between subtypes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Bilateral renal dysplasia, nephroblastomatosis, and bronchial stenosis. A new syndrome?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Maria Matilde; Correa-Medina, Mayrin; Whittington, Elizabeth E

    2015-06-01

    Bilateral nephroblastomatosis (NB) is an uncommon renal anomaly characterized by multiple confluent nephrogenic rests scattered through both kidneys, with only a limited number of cases reported in the medical literature. Some of these children may have associated either Perlman or Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and others do not demonstrate syndromic features. We report a full-term boy with anteverted nose, bilateral bronchial stenosis due to lack of cartilage, bilateral obstructive renal dysplasia and NB with glomeruloid features. The infant had visceromegaly, but neither gigantism nor hemihypertrophy. Immunohistochemistry for PAX2 (Paired box gene-2) and WT-1 (Wilms Tumor 1) were strongly positive in the areas of NB. GLEPP-1 (Glomerular Epithelial Protein) did not stain the areas of NB with a glomeruloid appearance, but was positive in the renal glomeruli as expected. We found neither associated bronchial stenosis nor the histology of NB resembling giant glomeruli in any of the reported cases of NB.

  15. Pregnancy and mesenchimal dysplasias (Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia).

    PubMed

    Radetskaya, L S; Makatsariya, A D; Bitsadze, V O; Khizroeva, J K

    2018-07-01

    The objective of this article is to attract the attention of clinical physicians to the rare but extremely relevant clinical pathology of mesenchymal dysplasias (Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia) and especially specific characteristics of such diseases during pregnancy. Connective tissue pathology can cover different organs and systems, symptoms of the same disease can vary in different patients thus making diagnostics significantly difficult. Here clinical diagnostic criteria and methods of molecular diagnostics of diseases are described. The pathogenesis of mesenchymal dysplasias is not currently well understood. For the patients with mesenchymal dysplasias pregnancy is fraught with high risk of life-threatening complications. The preferred delivery method for such patients is caesarean section.

  16. Ectrodactyly, Ectodermal dysplasia, and Cleft Lip-Palate Syndrome; Its Association with Conductive Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Geoffrey C.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Conductive hearing loss associated with the ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip palate syndrome was reported in one sporadic case and in a pedigree with four cases in three generations. (GW)

  17. The Perlman syndrome: familial renal dysplasia with Wilms tumor, fetal gigantism and multiple congenital anomalies. 1984.

    PubMed

    Neri, Giovanni; Martini-Neri, Maria Enrica; Katz, Ben E; Opitz, John M

    2013-11-01

    The ensuing paper by Professor Giovanni Neri and colleagues was originally published in 1984, American Journal of Medical Genetics 19:195–207. The original article described a new family with a condition that the authors designated as the Perlman syndrome. This disorder, while uncommon, is an important multiple congenital anomaly and dysplasia syndrome; the causative gene was recently identified. This paper is a seminal work and is graciously republished by Wiley-Blackwell in the Special Festschrift issue honoring Professor Neri. We describe a familial syndrome of renal dysplasia, Wilms tumor, hyperplasia of the endocrine pancreas, fetal gigantism, multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation. This condition was previously described by Perlman et al. [1973, 1975] and we propose to call it the "Perlman syndrome." It appears to be transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. The possible relationships between dysplasia, neoplasia and malformation are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Chorioretinal dysplasia, hydranencephaly, and intracranial calcifications: pseudo-TORCH or a new syndrome?

    PubMed

    Watts, P; Kumar, N; Ganesh, A; Sastry, P; Pilz, D; Levin, A V; Chitayat, D

    2008-05-01

    To report the association of severe chorioretinal dysplasia, hydranencephaly, microcephaly, and intracranial calcification in children with no evidence of intrauterine infections. Two unrelated female infants with visually inattentive behaviour, hydranencephaly, and intracranial calcification were referred for an ophthalmological opinion. The fundus examination and computerised tomograms (CT scans) of head were similar in both children. There was bilateral extensive chorioretinal dysplasia, intracranial calcifications, and hydranencephaly. Serology was negative for acquired intrauterine congenital infections. We report two cases that may represent a new syndrome or the more severe end of the spectrum of the pseudo-TORCH (toxoplasma, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex) syndrome. The association of chorioretinal dysplasia with the pseudo-TORCH syndrome has not been reported previously.

  19. Dental and maxillofacial characteristics of six Japanese individuals with ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Erika; Suda, Naoto; Baba, Yoshiyuki; Fukuoka, Hiroki; Ogawa, Takuya; Ohkuma, Mizue; Ahiko, Nozomi; Yasue, Akihiro; Tengan, Toshimoto; Shiga, Momotoshi; Tsuji, Michiko; Moriyama, Keiji

    2013-03-01

    Objective : Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome is a congenital anomaly characterized by ectodermal dysplasia, ectrodactyly, cleft lip and palate, and lacrimal duct anomalies. Because this syndrome is frequently accompanied by a congenital lack of teeth, narrow palate, and malocclusion, comprehensive orthodontic intervention is required. Design : To highlight the specific dental and maxillofacial characteristics of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome, six Japanese individuals diagnosed with the syndrome are described here. Patients : The subjects consisted of two boys and four girls (age range, 6.0 to 13.9 years) diagnosed with ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome by medical and dental specialists. Their conditions included ectodermal dysplasia (hypodontia, microdontia, enamel hypoplasia, and abnormalities in hair and nails), cleft lip and/or palate, and ectrodactyly. Cephalograms, panoramic x-rays, and dental casts were taken; systemic complications were recorded at the first visit to our dental hospital. Results : All individuals had severe oligodontia with 9 to 18 missing teeth. The missing teeth were mainly maxillary and mandibular incisors and second bicuspids, arranged in a symmetrical manner. Cephalometric analysis showed retruded and short maxilla due to cleft lip and/or palate. It is interesting that all individuals showed a characteristically shaped mandibular symphysis with a retruded point B. It is likely that this unusual symphyseal morphology is due to the lack of mandibular incisors. Conclusions : This study demonstrates the presence of severe oligodontia in the incisal and premolar regions and describes a characteristic maxillary and mandibular structure in Japanese individuals with ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome.

  20. Moore-Federman syndrome and acromicric dysplasia: are they the same entity?

    PubMed Central

    Winter, R M; Patton, M A; Challener, J; Mueller, R F; Baraitser, M

    1989-01-01

    Four unrelated patients are reported with short stature, stiffness of the joints, short fingers, inability to make a fist, and thickened skin on the forearms. Investigations have failed to show a lysosomal storage disorder and radiographs show non-specific changes with a delayed carpal bone age. The clinical features in the four children are very similar to the recently described acromicric dysplasia. There are also similarities to Moore-Federman syndrome which has only been described in one family. The case is made that acromicric dysplasia and Moore-Federman syndrome are the same entity. Images PMID:2732993

  1. Unusual manifestations of ectodermal dysplasia-syndactyly syndrome type I in two Yemeni siblings.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Alshami

    2015-01-15

    Ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a group of genodermatoses characterized by malformations of tissues derived from the ectoderm, including the skin, its appendages (hair, nails, sweat glands), teeth, and the breasts. Ectodermal dysplasia syndactyly syndrome (EDSS) is a rare, newly described type of ED involving syndactyly. We report 2 Yemeni siblings with typical EDSS manifestations, including bilateral, partial cutaneous syndactyly of the fingers and toes; sparse, coarse, brittle scalp hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes; and conical, widely spaced teeth with enamel notches. In addition, the siblings presented with other features hitherto not described for this syndrome, such as adermatoglyphia, onychogryphosis, hypoplastic widely spaced nipples, hypoplastic thumbs, and red scalp hair.

  2. Gene p63: In ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia clefting, ankyloblepharon-ectodermal dysplasia, Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Straten, Cornelia; Butow, Kurt-W

    2013-01-01

    An analysis was made of three different syndromes associated with p63 gene mutations, known as ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome (EEC), ankyloblepharon-ectodermal dysplasia clefting syndrome (AEC or Hay-Wells) and Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome (RHS). The postoperative complications associated with their cleft reconstructions were also evaluated. Extensive demographic information, in particular of the clinical appearances, associated malformations, and the types and complications of the reconstructive surgical procedures, were recorded of these syndromic cases occurring in a database of 3621 facial cleft deformity patients. The data was analyzed using the Microsoft Excel program. A total of 10 (0.28%) cases of p63 associated syndromes were recorded: EEC (6), RHS (3), and AEC (1). The following clinical cleft appearances were noted - EEC = 6: CLA 1 -right side unilateral (female); CLAP 4 - right side (1) + left side (1) unilateral (male + female); bilateral (2) (males); hPsP 1 (female) (divided in 3 Black, 2 White, 1 Indian); RHS = 3: CLAP 2 (White males); hPsP 1 (White female); AEC = 1: CLAP bilateral (White male). Other features of the syndromes were: skin, hand, foot, tooth, hair and nail involvement, and light sensitivity. Postoperative complications included: (i) stenosis of nasal opening, especially after reconstruction of the bilateral cleft lip and the columella lengthening (2 cases), (ii) premaxilla-prolabium fusion (2 cases), (iii) repeated occurrence of oro-nasal fistula in the hard palate (4 cases), and (iv) dysgnathial development of midfacial structures (3 cases). Three different p63 associated syndromes (EEC, AEC, and RHS) were diagnosed (0.27% of the total facial cleft deformities database). The majority of the cases presented with a bilateral CLAP in males only. A number of females and males had unilateral CLA. The hPsP-cleft was recorded in females only. The associated ectodermal component most probably had a profoundly negative influence

  3. Interradicular dentin dysplasia associated with amelogenesis imperfecta with taurodontism or trichodentoosseous syndrome: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Veda; Srikanth, K

    2014-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a hereditary disorder with diverse clinical presentation, where enamel is the tissue that is primarily affected either quantitatively or qualitatively. Hypomaturation/hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta with taurodontism is a rare variant of amelogenesis imperfecta which is often confused with trichodentoosseous syndrome. We report a rare case of hereditary enamel defect with taurodontism associated with interradicular dentin dysplasia.

  4. Further delineation of the odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mégarbané, Hala; Haddad, May; Delague, Valérie; Renoux, Julien; Boehm, Nelly; Mégarbané, André

    2004-08-30

    We report on three boys, two brothers and their maternal cousin, presenting with dry hair, pilar keratosis, severe hypodontia, smooth tongue, onychodysplasia, and keratoderma and hyperhidrosis of palms and soles. Histology of the skin showed orthokeratotic, hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis, and mild acanthosis in the epidermis. Scanning electron microscopic examination of the hair showed longitudinal depressions in some hair. These features are close to a rare entity: the odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia but with some differing features. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. The Prevalence and Treatment of Hip Dysplasia in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS).

    PubMed

    Trizno, Anastasiya A; Jones, Alexander S; Carry, Patrick M; Georgopoulos, Gaia

    2018-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder with multisystem involvement. There are a number of associated orthopaedic manifestations, the most recognized of which is scoliosis. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of hip dysplasia and to investigate its treatment in patients with PWS. Following IRB approval, all patients seen at our institution's Prader-Willi multidisciplinary clinic were retrospectively reviewed. Only patients with an ultrasound, anteroposterior (AP) spine, AP abdomen, AP hip radiograph, and/or skeletal survey were included in the study. The presence of hip dysplasia was determined based on ultrasonographic and/or radiographic measurements performed by a single fellowship trained pediatric orthopaedic surgeon. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to test the association between patient demographics and the prevalence of hip dysplasia. Age at diagnosis, treatment type, and outcomes were recorded for patients that underwent treatment for hip dysplasia. Hip dysplasia was identified in 30% (27/90) of the patient population. Two of the 27 patients (7.4%) had normal films but had a history of resolved hip dysplasia. Prevalence was not associated with sex (P=0.7072), genetic subtype (P=0.5504), race (P=0.8537), ethnicity (P=0.2191), or duration of follow-up (P=0.4421). Eight of the 27 patients (30%) underwent hip treatment by Pavlik harness (2/8), Pavlik harness and closed reduction (1/8), closed reduction (3/8), open reduction (1/8), and unspecified hip surgery (1/8). The mean age at diagnosis was 2 months for the patients that were successfully treated for hip dysplasia (3/8) and 12 months for those who had residual dysplasia following the treatment (5/8). Our study demonstrates a higher prevalence of hip dysplasia in patients with PWS than previously documented. The age at which hip dysplasia develops remains unknown; therefore, we recommend an ultrasound screening for all infants with PWS at 6 weeks of age and

  6. Twin infant with lymphatic dysplasia diagnosed with Noonan syndrome by molecular genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Deepan; Somashekar, Santhosh; Navarrete, Cristina; Rodriguez, Maria M

    2014-08-01

    Noonan Syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by short stature, congenital heart defects, developmental delay, dysmorphic facial features and occasional lymphatic dysplasias. The features of Noonan Syndrome change with age and have variable expression. The diagnosis has historically been based on clinical grounds. We describe a child that was born with congenital refractory chylothorax and subcutaneous edema suspected to be secondary to pulmonary lymphangiectasis. The infant died of respiratory failure and anasarca at 80 days. The autopsy confirmed lymphatic dysplasia in lungs and mesentery. The baby had no dysmorphic facial features and was diagnosed postmortem with Noonan syndrome by genomic DNA sequence analysis as he had a heterozygous mutation for G503R in the PTPN11 gene.

  7. Oral health considerations in a patient with oligosymptomatic ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archna

    2017-01-01

    Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC) syndrome-a complex, pleiotropic disorder resulting in multiple congenital anomalies-has an unpredictable clinical expression and is typically manifested as an autosomal-dominant trait. This article presents a rare case of oligosymptomatic EEC syndrome in a 19-year-old man who exhibited atypical dental findings but no cleft lip or palate. This article is intended to create awareness about this rare syndrome and highlight the role of oral healthcare specialists in improving the quality of life for patients with EEC.

  8. Management of Severely Atrophic Maxilla in Ectrodactyly Ectodermal Dysplasia-cleft Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rachmiel, Adi; Turgeman, Shahar; Emodi, Omri; Aizenbud, Dror; Shilo, Dekel

    2018-02-01

    Ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome with an incidence of 1/90,000 live births, characterized by cleft lip and palate, severely hypoplastic maxilla, and hypodontia. Patients diagnosed with ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome suffer from a severely hypoplastic maxilla that is highly difficult to treat using traditional orthognathic methods. In this study, we propose using distraction osteogenesis to achieve a major advancement while maintaining good stability and minimal relapse. To our knowledge, this is the first description of patients with this syndrome treated using distraction osteogenesis. Five patients diagnosed with ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome were included in the study. All patients had been operated on according to the well-established protocol of cleft lip and palate reconstruction before maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Hard and soft-tissue changes were evaluated by cone beam computed tomography and lateral cephalograms before distraction osteogenesis (T1), at the postdistraction point (T2) and after 1 year of follow-up (T3). Examination revealed marked maxillary advancement in all our patients with a significant mean difference in hard tissue parameters (condylion to A point = 18 mm; nasion-sella line to A point = 15.2 degrees) and a notable improvement in facial convexity (20.9 degrees). One year follow-up measurements demonstrated mild relapse rates of 6% in the horizontal plane. We conclude that despite the challenging anatomic and physiological features of ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia-cleft patients, by enhancing current surgical techniques, there is promising potential for improved patient outcomes, achieving normognathic facial appearance with implant supported rehabilitation.

  9. Management of Severely Atrophic Maxilla in Ectrodactyly Ectodermal Dysplasia-cleft Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rachmiel, Adi; Emodi, Omri; Aizenbud, Dror; Shilo, Dekel

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome with an incidence of 1/90,000 live births, characterized by cleft lip and palate, severely hypoplastic maxilla, and hypodontia. Patients diagnosed with ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome suffer from a severely hypoplastic maxilla that is highly difficult to treat using traditional orthognathic methods. In this study, we propose using distraction osteogenesis to achieve a major advancement while maintaining good stability and minimal relapse. To our knowledge, this is the first description of patients with this syndrome treated using distraction osteogenesis. Methods: Five patients diagnosed with ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome were included in the study. All patients had been operated on according to the well-established protocol of cleft lip and palate reconstruction before maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Hard and soft-tissue changes were evaluated by cone beam computed tomography and lateral cephalograms before distraction osteogenesis (T1), at the postdistraction point (T2) and after 1 year of follow-up (T3). Results: Examination revealed marked maxillary advancement in all our patients with a significant mean difference in hard tissue parameters (condylion to A point = 18 mm; nasion-sella line to A point = 15.2 degrees) and a notable improvement in facial convexity (20.9 degrees). One year follow-up measurements demonstrated mild relapse rates of 6% in the horizontal plane. Conclusions: We conclude that despite the challenging anatomic and physiological features of ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia-cleft patients, by enhancing current surgical techniques, there is promising potential for improved patient outcomes, achieving normognathic facial appearance with implant supported rehabilitation. PMID:29616174

  10. Ophthalmic manifestations in patients with ectodermal dysplasia syndromes.

    PubMed

    Keklikci, Ugur; Yavuz, Izzet; Tunik, Selcuk; Ulku, Zelal Baskan; Akdeniz, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a disorder that results from abnormal formation of at least two of the four major ectodermal derivatives in the developing embryo. The ectoderm of the embryo forms the skin, teeth, hair and nails, sweat glands and part of the eyes. The aim of this article is to reveal ophthalmologic symptoms and signs as multidisciplinary, reliable criteria for ectodermal dysplasia. In this retrospective study, 24 patients with ED were analyzed from the recorded data. Ophthalmological examination of the patients, who had previously received the diagnosis of ED in the dental department, was done. During the examination, ocular symptoms related to tear film, corneal changes, lacrimal duct, periorbital hyperpigmentation, alteration lashes and eyebrows were evaluated. The age ranged between 3-45, and the mean and standard deviation (Mean ± SD) was 15.8 ± 7.4 years. The number of males was 13 (54.2%) and females, 11 (45.8%). Eighteen patients (75.0%) suffered from ocular complaints related to the ocular surface. In 11 of the patients with ED, there were dry eye symptoms. While the mean age of cases with eye involvement was 17.5, it was 23.1 in cases with dry eye symptoms. In the study, it was observed that, in patients with ED, ocular complaints, particularly dry eye symptoms, may increase as age advances.

  11. Familial renal-hepatic-pancreatic dysplasia and Dandy-Walker cyst: a distinct syndrome?

    PubMed

    Hunter, A G; Jimenez, C; Tawagi, F G

    1991-11-01

    Ivemark et al. first described sibs with renal-hepatic-pancreatic dysplasia (RHPD) (Ivemark BI, Oldfelt V, Zetterström R (1959): Acta Pediatr Scand 48: 1-11). Subsequent reports of affected individuals have described additional malformations and syndromes associated with RHPD. In this paper we describe 2 sibs with RHPD in association with Dandy-Walker cyst (DW). Through an examination of the pattern of associated malformations seen in RHPD we argue that RHPD-DW is a distinct monogenetic syndrome, and not an association.

  12. A novel homozygous missense variant in NECTIN4 (PVRL4) causing ectodermal dysplasia cutaneous syndactyly syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farooq; Nasir, Abdul; Thiele, Holger; Umair, Muhammad; Borck, Guntram; Ahmad, Wasim

    2018-02-12

    Ectodermal dysplasia syndactyly syndrome 1 (EDSS1) is a rare form of ectodermal dysplasia including anomalies of hair, nails, and teeth along with bilateral cutaneous syndactyly of hands and feet. In the present report, we performed a clinical and genetic characterization of a consanguineous Pakistani family with four individuals affected by EDSS1. We performed exome sequencing using DNA of one affected individual. Exome data analysis identified a novel homozygous missense variant (c.242T>C; p.(Leu81Pro)) in NECTIN4 (PVRL4). Sanger sequencing validated this variant and confirmed its cosegregation with the disease phenotype in the family members. Thus, our report adds a novel variant to the NECTIN4 mutation spectrum and contributes to the NECTIN4-related clinical characterization. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  13. Ocular surface involvements in ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David P; Chandler, John W; McCulley, James P

    2015-06-01

    To present the ocular manifestation of 2 cases of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome, a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome caused by a single point mutation of the p63 gene that controls epidermal development and homeostasis and to present treatment options. Patient 1 presented with mild signs and symptoms of dry eye and limbal stem cell deficiency with retention of 20/30 vision. Patient 2 presented with severe signs and symptoms of limbal stem cell deficiency with diffuse corneal scarring and counting fingers vision. This second patient's course was complicated by allergic conjunctivitis and advanced steroid-induced glaucoma. The cause of visual loss in ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome appears to be multifactorial and likely includes inflammation of the ocular surface, tear film abnormalities, eyelid abnormalities, and limbal stem cell deficiency. Treatment modalities including lubrication, contact lenses, and limbal stem cell transplantation are reviewed. The ophthalmic conditions seen in ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome frequently lead to vision loss. Early correct diagnosis and appropriate therapy are paramount because p63 gene mutations have a critical role in maintaining the integrity of the ocular surface in the setting of limbal stem cell deficiency, especially if there are other ocular surface insults such as lid disease, meibomian gland dysfunction and toxicity from topical medications. Patients should be monitored at regular, frequent intervals; and particular attention should be taken to avoid adverse secondary effects of these conditions and medications. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of atopic disorders and immunodeficiency in patients with ectodermal dysplasia syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Barry J.; Becker, Bradley A.; Halloran, Donna R.; Bree, Alanna F.; Sindwani, Raj; Fete, Mary D.; Motil, Kathleen J.; Srun, Sopheak W.; Fete, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes are a diverse group of disorders that affect multiple ectodermally derived tissues. Small studies and case reports suggest an increase in atopy and primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) among patients with ED syndromes. Objective To determine the prevalence of clinical symptoms suggestive of atopy or immunodeficiency among a large cohort of children with ED syndromes. Methods A 9-page questionnaire was mailed to families who were members of the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasias. The surveys were completed by parents of children younger than 18 years with a diagnosis of an ED syndrome or carrier state. Portions of the questionnaire were adapted from previously validated questionnaires developed by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Results We received 347 completed questionnaires (41%). When compared with the 13- to 14-year-old children surveyed by ISAAC, we found both all-aged and age-matched children with ED syndromes, respectively, had significantly higher rates of asthma (32.2% and 37.2% vs 16.4%), rhinitis symptoms (76.1% and 78.3% vs 38.9%), and eczema (58.9% and 48.9% vs 8.2%). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed food allergies (20.7%) and PIDs (6.1%) in these ED patients also exceeded known rates in the general pediatric population. Conclusion This large-scale, retrospective study demonstrates a greater reported prevalence of symptoms suggestive of atopic disorders and PIDs among children with ED syndromes than the general pediatric population. A combination of genetic and environmental factors in ED syndromes may contribute to breaches of skin and mucosal barriers, permitting enhanced transmission and sensitization to irritants, allergens, and pathogens. PMID:22626597

  15. Whole-exome sequencing links TMCO1 defect syndrome with cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, Davut; Karaca, Ender; Aydin, Hatip; Beck, Christine R; Gambin, Tomasz; Muzny, Donna M; Bilge Geckinli, B; Karaman, Ali; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Gibbs, Richard A; Lupski, James R

    2014-09-01

    Whole-exome sequencing (WES) is a type of disruptive technology that has tremendous influence on human and clinical genetics research. An efficient and cost-effective method, WES is now widely used as a diagnostic tool for identifying the molecular basis of genetic syndromes that are often challenging to diagnose. Here we report a patient with a clinical diagnosis of cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia (CFTD; MIM#213980) in whom we identified a homozygous splice-site mutation in the transmembrane and coiled-coil domains 1 (TMCO1) gene using WES. TMCO1 mutations cause craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies characterized by multiple malformations of the vertebrae and ribs, and intellectual disability (MIM#614132). A retrospective review revealed that clinical manifestations of both syndromes are very similar and overlap remarkably. We propose that mutations of TMCO1 are not only responsible for craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies and mental retardation syndrome but also for CFTD.

  16. Whole-exome sequencing links TMCO1 defect syndrome with cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pehlivan, Davut; Karaca, Ender; Aydin, Hatip; Beck, Christine R; Gambin, Tomasz; Muzny, Donna M; Bilge Geckinli, B; Karaman, Ali; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Gibbs, Richard A; Lupski, James R

    2014-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing (WES) is a type of disruptive technology that has tremendous influence on human and clinical genetics research. An efficient and cost-effective method, WES is now widely used as a diagnostic tool for identifying the molecular basis of genetic syndromes that are often challenging to diagnose. Here we report a patient with a clinical diagnosis of cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia (CFTD; MIM#213980) in whom we identified a homozygous splice-site mutation in the transmembrane and coiled-coil domains 1 (TMCO1) gene using WES. TMCO1 mutations cause craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies characterized by multiple malformations of the vertebrae and ribs, and intellectual disability (MIM#614132). A retrospective review revealed that clinical manifestations of both syndromes are very similar and overlap remarkably. We propose that mutations of TMCO1 are not only responsible for craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies and mental retardation syndrome but also for CFTD. PMID:24424126

  17. Autosomal dominant frontonasal dysplasia (atypical Greig syndrome): Lessons from the Xt mutant mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.L.; Nunes, M.E.

    1994-09-01

    Greig syndrome is the autosomal dominant association of mild hypertelorism, variable polysyndactyly, and normal intelligence. Several families have been found to have translocations or deletions of 7p13 interrupting the normal expression of GLI3 (a zinc finger, DNA binding, transcription repressor). Recently, a mutation in the mouse homologue of GLI3 was found in the extra-toes mutant mouse (Xt). The phenotypic features of this mouse model include mild hypertelorism, postaxial polydactyly of the forelimbs, preaxial polydactyly of the hindlimbs, and variable tibial hemimelia. The homozygous mutant Xt/Xt have severe frontonasal dysplasia (FND), polysyndactyly of fore-and hindlimbs and invariable tibial hemimelia. We havemore » recently evaluated a child with severe (type D) frontonasal dysplasia, fifth finger camptodactyly, preaxial polydactyly of one foot, and ispilateral tibial hemimelia. His father was born with a bifid nose, broad columnella, broad feet, and a two centimeter leg length discrepancy. The paternal grandmother of the proband is phenotypically normal; however, her fraternal twin died at birth with severe facial anomalies. The paternal great-grandmother of the proband is phenotypically normal however her niece was born with moderate ocular hypertelorism. This pedigree is suggestive of an autosomal dominant form of frontonasal dysplasia with variable expressivity. The phenotypic features of our case more closely resemble the Xt mouse than the previously defined features of Greig syndrome in humans. This suggests that a mutation in GLI3 may be responsible for FND in this family. We are currently using polymorphic dinucleotide repeat markers flanking GLI3 in a attempt to demonstrate linkage in this pedigree. Demonstration of a GLI3 mutation in this family would broaden our view of the spectrum of phenotypes possible in Greig syndrome and could provide insight into genotype/phenotype correlation in FND.« less

  18. Impaired epithelial differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells from ectodermal dysplasia-related patients is rescued by the small compound APR-246/PRIMA-1MET.

    PubMed

    Shalom-Feuerstein, Ruby; Serror, Laura; Aberdam, Edith; Müller, Franz-Josef; van Bokhoven, Hans; Wiman, Klas G; Zhou, Huiqing; Aberdam, Daniel; Petit, Isabelle

    2013-02-05

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a group of congenital syndromes affecting a variety of ectodermal derivatives. Among them, ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome is caused by single point mutations in the p63 gene, which controls epidermal development and homeostasis. Phenotypic defects of the EEC syndrome include skin defects and limbal stem-cell deficiency. In this study, we designed a unique cellular model that recapitulated major embryonic defects related to EEC. Fibroblasts from healthy donors and EEC patients carrying two different point mutations in the DNA binding domain of p63 were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines. EEC-iPSC from both patients showed early ectodermal commitment into K18(+) cells but failed to further differentiate into K14(+) cells (epidermis/limbus) or K3/K12(+) cells (corneal epithelium). APR-246 (PRIMA-1(MET)), a small compound that restores functionality of mutant p53 in human tumor cells, could revert corneal epithelial lineage commitment and reinstate a normal p63-related signaling pathway. This study illustrates the relevance of iPSC for p63 related disorders and paves the way for future therapy of EEC.

  19. [A phenotypic description of 26 patients with Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome (cranio-cerebello-cardiac dysplasia or 3C syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Pira-Paredes, S M; Montoya-Villada, J H; Franco-Restrepo, J L; Moncada-Velez, M; Cornejo, J W

    2017-06-01

    Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome (also known as cranio-cerebello-cardiac dysplasia or 3C syndrome) is a rare genetic syndrome that is mainly characterised by the association of cardiac and craniofacial anomalies together with others affecting the posterior fossa. We report on 26 patients with Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome at a hospital in Medellin, in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia. Males account for 69% of this cohort. The mean age of the cohort was 30 months, and 42% were under the age of one year at the time of diagnosis. All of them presented ocular disorders, and megalocornea was the most frequent ocular manifestation (69%), whereas low-set ears (80.7%) and septal heart defects (68.7%) were the most common facial and cardiac malformations, respectively. The most frequent malformations of the posterior fossa were megacisterna magna (31.8%) and Dandy-Walker malformation (27%). 84% of the cases had delayed neurodevelopment or intellectual disability. Skeletal manifestations were frequent: the group consisting of camptodactyly, single palmar crease, overlapping fingers, vertical talus and nail hypoplasia were found in hands and feet in 96% of the cases. Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome is a heterogeneous syndrome from the genetic and clinical point of view. These results suggest that the skeletal and ocular abnormalities that were observed can facilitate the phenotypic diagnosis. However, it is necessary to conduct further studies that allow us to gain a deeper knowledge of its prevalence and help identify other genes involved in this syndrome.

  20. GATA3 mutation in a family with hypoparathyroidism, deafness and renal dysplasia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zi-Yang; Zhou, Qiao-Li; Ni, Shi-Ning; Gu, Wei

    2014-08-01

    The hypoparathyroidism, deafness and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder primarily caused by GATA3 gene mutation. We report here a case that both of a Chinese boy and his father had HDR syndrome which caused by a novel mutation of GATA3. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing was performed to detect the exons of the GATA3 gene for mutation analysis. Sequence analysis of GATA3 revealed a heterozygous nonsense mutation in this family: a mutation of GATA3 at exon 2 (c.515C >A) that resulted in a premature stop at codon 172 (p.S172X) with a loss of two zinc finger domains. We identified a novel nonsense mutation which will expand the spectrum of HDR-associated GATA3 mutations.

  1. Anterior Mesencephalic Cap Dysplasia: Novel Brain Stem Malformative Features Associated with Joubert Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, F; Romaniello, R; Peruzzo, D; De Luca, A; Parazzini, C; Valente, E M; Borgatti, R; Triulzi, F

    2017-12-01

    In Joubert syndrome, the "molar tooth" sign can be associated with several additional supra- and infratentorial malformations. Here we report on 3 subjects (2 siblings, 8-14 years of age) with Joubert syndrome, showing an abnormal thick bulging of the anterior profile of the mesencephalon causing a complete obliteration of the interpeduncular fossa. DTI revealed that the abnormal tissue consisted of an ectopic white matter tract with a laterolateral transverse orientation. Tractographic reconstructions support the hypothesis of impaired axonal guidance mechanisms responsible for the malformation. The 2 siblings were compound heterozygous for 2 missense variants in the TMEM67 gene, while no mutations in a panel of 120 ciliary genes were detected in the third patient. The name "anterior mesencephalic cap dysplasia," referring to the peculiar aspect of the mesencephalon on sagittal MR imaging, is proposed for this new malformative feature. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  2. A survey of children affected by ectomermal dysplasia syndromes shows an increased prevalence of atopic disorders and immune deficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes are rare genetic disorders that affect the development of tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm. Studies and anecdotal experience have indicated that atopic disorders (AD) and immune deficiencies (ID) may be associated with ED in children. Some ED genotypes ...

  3. Kidney Dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Kidney Dysplasia What is kidney dysplasia? Kidney dysplasia is a condition in which ... Kidney dysplasia in one kidney What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  4. Dental Perspectives in Fibrous Dysplasia and McCune-Albright Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Akintoye, Sunday O.; Boyce, Alison M.; Collins, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by the triad of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (PFD), endocrine disorders and café-au-lait skin pigmentation. Ninety percent of MAS patients have FD lesions in the craniofacial area, resulting in significant orofacial deformity, dental disorders, bone pain and compromised oral health. Maxillo-mandibular FD is also associated with dental developmental disorders, malocclusion, and high caries index. There is limited data on the outcomes of dental treatments in maxillo-mandibular FD/MAS patients, because clinicians and researchers have limited access to patients, and there are concerns that dental surgery may activate quiescent jaw FD lesions to grow aggressively. This report highlights current perspectives on dental management issues associated with maxillo-mandibular FD within the context of MAS. PMID:23953425

  5. A de novo missense mutation of FGFR2 causes facial dysplasia syndrome in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Agerholm, Jørgen S; McEvoy, Fintan J; Heegaard, Steffen; Charlier, Carole; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Drögemüller, Cord

    2017-08-02

    Surveillance for bovine genetic diseases in Denmark identified a hitherto unreported congenital syndrome occurring among progeny of a Holstein sire used for artificial breeding. A genetic aetiology due to a dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance or a mosaic germline mutation was suspected as all recorded cases were progeny of the same sire. Detailed investigations were performed to characterize the syndrome and to reveal its cause. Seven malformed calves were submitted examination. All cases shared a common morphology with the most striking lesions being severe facial dysplasia and complete prolapse of the eyes. Consequently the syndrome was named facial dysplasia syndrome (FDS). Furthermore, extensive brain malformations, including microencephaly, hydrocephalus, lobation of the cerebral hemispheres and compression of the brain were present. Subsequent data analysis of progeny of the sire revealed that around 0.5% of his offspring suffered from FDS. High density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping data of the seven cases and their parents were used to map the defect in the bovine genome. Significant genetic linkage was obtained for three regions, including chromosome 26 where whole genome sequencing of a case-parent trio revealed two de novo variants perfectly associated with the disease: an intronic SNP in the DMBT1 gene and a single non-synonymous variant in the FGFR2 gene. This FGFR2 missense variant (c.927G>T) affects a gene encoding a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, where amino acid sequence is highly conserved between members and across species. It is predicted to change an evolutionary conserved tryptophan into a cysteine residue (p.Trp309Cys). Both variant alleles were proven to result from de novo mutation events in the germline of the sire. FDS is a novel genetic disorder of Holstein cattle. Mutations in the human FGFR2 gene are associated with various dominant inherited craniofacial dysostosis syndromes. Given

  6. Genitourinary malformations: an under-recognized feature of ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip/palate syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Zerin; Beale, Victoria; O'Connor, Ruth; Clayton-Smith, Jill

    2017-04-01

    The ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome describes the association of ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and orofacial clefting. As with many autosomal dominant disorders, there is variability in expression and not all of these three core features are present in every individual with the condition. Moreover, there may be additional associated features, which are under-recognized. One of these is the presence of genitourinary anomalies, some of which cause significant morbidity. This report details a further two patients with EEC syndrome and genitourinary involvement, including flaccid megacystis with detrusor muscle failure, bilateral hydronephrosis and megaureter, requiring significant renal and urological involvement during their childhood. We go on to review the literature on the diagnosis and management of genitourinary malformations in EEC syndrome.

  7. Non-invasive diagnosis of sweat gland dysplasia using optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy in a family with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome).

    PubMed

    Reinholz, M; Gauglitz, G G; Giehl, K; Braun-Falco, M; Schwaiger, H; Schauber, J; Ruzicka, T; Berneburg, M; von Braunmühl, T

    2016-04-01

    Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED) is an inherited syndrome, which originates mainly from genetic alteration of the ectodysplasin A (EDA) gene. It regularly affects the adnexa of the skin which results in a characteristic phenotype of the patients including hypo- or anhidrosis leading to severe disturbances in the regulation of body temperature. To prevent the development of the symptoms in early childhood promising therapeutic approaches are currently under clinical investigation. In this context, timely diagnosis of this genetic syndrome is crucial. The purpose of our study was the investigation of modern non-invasive imaging methods such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) in the immediate diagnosis of AED. We examined a 3-year-old boy with the suspicion for an AED syndrome and his family members with RCM and OCT to document presence and characteristic features of sweat glands in comparison to non-affected individuals. The patient and the affected brother showed significantly reduced sweat glands in the imaging compared to the controls. The genetic analysis revealed a mutation of the EDA gene for hemizygosity previously associated with AED and the mother was revealed as the conductor of the genetic alteration. With the help of non-invasive imaging, we were able to detect sweat gland dysplasia in the affected family members without performing a biopsy which led us to the diagnosis of an AED. The application of modern dermatological imaging techniques might serve as valuable supplementary tools in the immediate, non-invasive diagnosis of genetic syndromes especially in newborns when early therapeutic approaches are planned. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. Bilateral congenital lacrimal fistulas in an adult as part of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome: A rare anomaly.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debangshu; Saha, Somnath; Basu, Sumit Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia and clefting syndrome or "Lobster claw" deformity is a rare congenital anomaly that affects tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal origin. Nasolacrimal duct (NLD) obstruction with or without atresia of lacrimal passage is a common finding of such a syndrome. The authors report here even a rarer presentation of the syndrome which manifested as bilateral NLD obstruction and lacrimal fistula along with cleft lip and palate, syndactyly affecting all four limbs, mild mental retardation, otitis media, and sinusitis. Lacrimal duct obstruction and fistula were managed successfully with endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) which is a good alternative to lacrimal probing or open DCR in such a case.

  9. McCune Albright syndrome - association of fibrous dysplasia, café-au-lait skin spots and hyperthyroidism - case report.

    PubMed

    Raus, Iulian; Coroiu, Roxana Elena

    2016-01-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome is a rare sporadic disease characterized by bone fibrous dysplasia, café-au-lait skin spots and a variable association of hyperfunctional endocrine disorders. Fibrous dysplasia (FD), which can involve the craniofacial, axial, and appendicular skeleton, may range from an isolated, asymptomatic monostotic lesion to a severe disabling polyostotic disease involving the entire skeleton. A twenty-five-year old male patient presented to our clinic with recently developed heart palpitations. He had also been feeling pain in the right femur since he was younger, without any trauma history, leading to difficulties of ambulation and limping occasionally. His physical examination revealed café-au-lait spots with irregular borders and right testicular agenesis. Laboratory findings identified hyperthyroidism with hyperparathyroidism. Radiographs of the pelvis revealed multiple lytic lesions of the right femur and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characterized these lesions as specific to fibrous dysplasia of the bone, without any insufficiency fracture at this level. The association of café-au-lait skin spots with bone fibrous dysplasia, and hyperthyroidism in this patient suggested the diagnosis of McCune - Albright syndrome.

  10. WNT10A missense mutation associated with a complete Odonto-Onycho-Dermal Dysplasia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Sadia; Klar, Joakim; Wajid, Muhammad; Aslam, Muhammad; Tariq, Muhammad; Schuster, Jens; Baig, Shahid Mahmood; Dahl, Niklas

    2009-01-01

    Wnt signalling is one of a few pathways that are crucial for controlling genetic programs during embryonic development as well as in adult tissues. WNT10A is expressed in the skin and epidermis and it has shown to be critical for the development of ectodermal appendages. A nonsense mutation in WNT10A was recently identified in odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia (OODD; MIM 257980), a rare syndrome characterised by severe hypodontia, nail dystrophy, smooth tongue, dry skin, keratoderma and hyperhydrosis of palms and soles. We identified a large consanguineous Pakistani pedigree comprising six individuals affected by a complete OODD syndrome. Autozygosity mapping using SNP array analysis showed that the affected individuals are homozygous for the WNT10A gene region. Subsequent mutation screening showed a homozygous c.392C>T transition in exon 3 of WNT10A, which predicts a p.A131V substitution in a conserved α-helix domain. We report here on the first inherited missense mutation in WNT10A with associated ectodermal features. PMID:19471313

  11. WNT10A missense mutation associated with a complete odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Sadia; Klar, Joakim; Wajid, Muhammad; Aslam, Muhammad; Tariq, Muhammad; Schuster, Jens; Baig, Shahid Mahmood; Dahl, Niklas

    2009-12-01

    Wnt signalling is one of a few pathways that are crucial for controlling genetic programs during embryonic development as well as in adult tissues. WNT10A is expressed in the skin and epidermis and it has shown to be critical for the development of ectodermal appendages. A nonsense mutation in WNT10A was recently identified in odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia (OODD; MIM 257980), a rare syndrome characterised by severe hypodontia, nail dystrophy, smooth tongue, dry skin, keratoderma and hyperhydrosis of palms and soles. We identified a large consanguineous Pakistani pedigree comprising six individuals affected by a complete OODD syndrome. Autozygosity mapping using SNP array analysis showed that the affected individuals are homozygous for the WNT10A gene region. Subsequent mutation screening showed a homozygous c.392C>T transition in exon 3 of WNT10A, which predicts a p.A131V substitution in a conserved alpha-helix domain. We report here on the first inherited missense mutation in WNT10A with associated ectodermal features.

  12. McCune-Albright syndrome and the extraskeletal manifestations of fibrous dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is sometimes accompanied by extraskeletal manifestations that can include any combination of café-au-lait macules, hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies, such as gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, hyperthyroidism, growth hormone excess, FGF23-mediated renal phosphate wasting, and/or Cushing syndrome, as well as other less common features. The combination of any of these findings, with or without FD, is known as McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS). The broad spectrum of involved tissues and the unpredictable combination of findings owe to the fact that molecular defect is due to dominant activating mutations in the widely expressed signaling protein, Gsα, and the fact these mutations arises sporadically, often times early in development, prior to gastrulation, and can distribute across many or few tissues. The complexity can be mastered by a systematic screening of potentially involved tissues and cognizance that the pattern of involved tissues is established, to some degree, in utero. Thorough testing allows the clinician to establish, often times at presentation, the full extent of the disease, and importantly as well what tissues are unaffected. Treatment and follow-up can then be focused on affected systems and a meaningful prognosis can be offered to the patient and family. The authors outline screening and treatment strategies that allow for effective management of the extraskeletal manifestations of FD. PMID:22640971

  13. McCune-Albright syndrome and the extraskeletal manifestations of fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michael T; Singer, Frederick R; Eugster, Erica

    2012-05-24

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is sometimes accompanied by extraskeletal manifestations that can include any combination of café-au-lait macules, hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies, such as gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, hyperthyroidism, growth hormone excess, FGF23-mediated renal phosphate wasting, and/or Cushing syndrome, as well as other less common features. The combination of any of these findings, with or without FD, is known as McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS). The broad spectrum of involved tissues and the unpredictable combination of findings owe to the fact that molecular defect is due to dominant activating mutations in the widely expressed signaling protein, Gsα, and the fact these mutations arises sporadically, often times early in development, prior to gastrulation, and can distribute across many or few tissues.The complexity can be mastered by a systematic screening of potentially involved tissues and cognizance that the pattern of involved tissues is established, to some degree, in utero. Thorough testing allows the clinician to establish, often times at presentation, the full extent of the disease, and importantly as well what tissues are unaffected. Treatment and follow-up can then be focused on affected systems and a meaningful prognosis can be offered to the patient and family. The authors outline screening and treatment strategies that allow for effective management of the extraskeletal manifestations of FD.

  14. Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia with gigantism and huge pelvic tumor: a rare case of McCune-Albright syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakayama, Kenshi; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kidani, Teruki; Fujibuchi, Taketsugu; Kito, Katsumi; Tanji, Nozomu; Nakamura, Atsushi

    2011-06-01

    We report a rare case of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia on endocrine hyperfunction with elevated human growth hormone and normal serum level of prolactin. There were some differential points of gender, gigantism, endocrine function, and GNAS gene from McCune-Albright syndrome. Malignant transformation was suspected in the pelvic tumor from imaging because rapid growth of the tumor by imaging was observed; however, no malignant change occurred in this case.

  15. A case of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia associated with McCune-Albright syndrome lost to follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Robert Gareth Michael

    2015-01-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome is a rare fibro-osseous syndrome characterised by a classic triad of fibrous dysplasia (FD), café-au-lait macules and various underlying endocrinopathies. This case report describes how a patient was rediagnosed by a general dental practitioner following attendance for a routine dental examination. The patient had been previously diagnosed with the condition 28 years earlier but no follow-up or monitoring of her condition had taken place. As a result, she was found to have several undiagnosed and untreated complications of the disease including FD of the mandible, optic neuropathy and potential thyroid involvement. PMID:25721837

  16. Genetic Overlap in Kallmann Syndrome, Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency, and Septo-Optic Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Raivio, Taneli; Avbelj, Magdalena; McCabe, Mark J.; Romero, Christopher J.; Dwyer, Andrew A.; Tommiska, Johanna; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P.; Gregory, Louise C.; Diaczok, Daniel; Tziaferi, Vaitsa; Elting, Mariet W.; Padidela, Raja; Plummer, Lacey; Martin, Cecilia; Feng, Bihua; Zhang, Chengkang; Zhou, Qun-Yong; Chen, Huaibin; Mohammadi, Moosa; Quinton, Richard; Sidis, Yisrael; Radovick, Sally; Dattani, Mehul T.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Kallmann syndrome (KS), combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), and septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) all result from development defects of the anterior midline in the human forebrain. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether KS, CPHD, and SOD have shared genetic origins. Design and Participants: A total of 103 patients with either CPHD (n = 35) or SOD (n = 68) were investigated for mutations in genes implicated in the etiology of KS (FGFR1, FGF8, PROKR2, PROK2, and KAL1). Consequences of identified FGFR1, FGF8, and PROKR2 mutations were investigated in vitro. Results: Three patients with SOD had heterozygous mutations in FGFR1; these were either shown to alter receptor signaling (p.S450F, p.P483S) or predicted to affect splicing (c.336C>T, p.T112T). One patient had a synonymous change in FGF8 (c.216G>A, p.T72T) that was shown to affect splicing and ligand signaling activity. Four patients with CPHD/SOD were found to harbor heterozygous rare loss-of-function variants in PROKR2 (p.R85G, p.R85H, p.R268C). Conclusions: Mutations in FGFR1/FGF8/PROKR2 contributed to 7.8% of our patients with CPHD/SOD. These data suggest a significant genetic overlap between conditions affecting the development of anterior midline in the human forebrain. PMID:22319038

  17. Inner ear dysplasia is common in children with Down syndrome (trisomy 21).

    PubMed

    Blaser, Susan; Propst, Evan J; Martin, Daniel; Feigenbaum, Annette; James, Adrian L; Shannon, Patrick; Papsin, Blake C

    2006-12-01

    Middle and external ear anomalies are well recognized in Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21). Inner ear anomalies are much less frequently described. This study reviews inner ear morphology on imaging to determine the prevalence of cochlear and vestibular anomalies in children with DS. The authors conducted a retrospective review of imaging features of (DS) inner ear structures. Fifty-nine sequential patients with DS with imaging of the inner ear were identified by a radiology report text search program. Quantitative biometric assessment of the inner ear was performed on patients with high-resolution computed tomography or magnetic resonance images of the petrous bone. Petrous imaging was performed for evaluation of inflammatory disease or hearing loss. Spinal imaging, which included petrous views, was performed in most cases to exclude C1 to 2 dislocation, a potential complication of DS. Measurements were compared with normative data. Inner ear dysplasia is much more common in DS than previously reported. Inner ear structures are universally hypoplastic. Vestibular malformations are particularly common and a small bony island of the lateral semicircular canal (<3 mm in diameter) appears highly typical. Additional findings in some patients were persistent lateral semicircular anlage with fusion of the lateral semicircular canal and vestibule into a single cavity, vestibular aqueduct and endolymphatic sac fossa enlargement, cochlear nerve canal hypoplasia, and stenosis or duplication of the internal auditory canal. Stenosis of the external meatus, poor mastoid pneumatization, middle ear and mastoid opacification, and cholesteatoma were common, as expected.

  18. Improving patient outcomes in fibrous dysplasia/McCune-Albright syndrome: an international multidisciplinary workshop to inform an international partnership.

    PubMed

    Boyce, A M; Turner, A; Watts, L; Forestier-Zhang, L; Underhill, A; Pinedo-Villanueva, R; Monsell, F; Tessaris, D; Burren, C; Masi, L; Hamdy, N; Brandi, M L; Chapurlat, R; Collins, M T; Javaid, Muhammad Kassim

    2017-12-01

    To develop consensus on improving the management of patients, we convened an international workshop involving patients, clinicians, and researchers. Key findings included the diagnostic delay and variability in subsequent management with agreement to develop an international natural history study. We now invite other stakeholders to join the partnership. The aim of this study was develop a consensus on how to improve the management of patients with fibrous dysplasia and prioritize areas for research METHODS: An international workshop was held over 3 days involving patients, clinicians, and researchers. Each day had a combination of formal presentations and facilitated discussions that focused on clinical pathways and research. The patient workshop day highlighted the variability of patients' experience in getting a diagnosis, the knowledge of general clinical staff, and understanding long-term outcomes. The research workshop prioritized collaborations that improved understanding of the contemporary natural history of fibrous dysplasia/McCune-Albright syndrome (FD/MAS). The clinical workshop outlined the key issues around diagnostics, assessment of severity, treatment and monitoring of patients. In spite of advances in understanding the genetic and molecular underpinnings of fibrous dysplasia/McCune-Albright syndrome, clinical management remains a challenge. From the workshop, a consensus was reached to create an international, multi-stakeholder partnership to advance research and clinical care in FD/MAS. We invite other stakeholders to join the partnership.

  19. Novel variant in the TP63 gene associated to ankyloblepharon-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Francisco; Loidi, Lourdes; Abalo-Lojo, Jose M

    2017-01-01

    Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome is a disorder resulting from anomalous embryonic development of ectodermal tissues. There is evidence that AEC syndrome is caused by mutations in the TP63 gene, which encodes the p63 protein. This is an important regulatory protein involved in epidermal proliferation and differentiation. Genome sequencing was performed in DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes of a newborn with AEC syndrome and her parents. Variants were searched in all coding exons and intron-exon boundaries of the TP63 gene. A heterozygous missense variant (NM_003722.4:c.1063G>C (p.Asp355His) was found in the newborn patient. No variants were found in either of the parents. We identified a previously unreported variant in TP63 gene which seems to be involved in the somatic malformations found in the AEC syndrome. The absence of this variant in both parents suggests that the variant appeared de novo.

  20. Clinical and mutational spectrum of hypoparathyroidism, deafness and renal dysplasia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Belge, Hendrica; Dahan, Karin; Cambier, Jean-François; Benoit, Valérie; Morelle, Johann; Bloch, Julie; Vanhille, Philippe; Pirson, Yves; Demoulin, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    Hypoparathyroidism, deafness and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, secondary to mutations in the GATA-3 gene. Due to its wide range of penetrance and expressivity, the disease may not always be recognized. We herein describe clinical and genetic features of patients with HDR syndrome, highlighting diagnostic clues. Medical records of eight patients from five unrelated families exhibiting GATA-3 mutations were reviewed retrospectively, in conjunction with all previously reported cases. HDR syndrome was diagnosed in eight patients between the ages of 18 and 60 years. Sensorineural deafness was consistently diagnosed, ranging from clinical hearing loss since infancy in seven patients to deafness detected only by audiometry in adulthood in one single patient. Hypoparathyroidism was present in six patients (with hypocalcaemia and inaugural seizures in two out of six). Renal abnormalities observed in six patients were diverse and of dysplastic nature. Three patients displayed nephrotic-range proteinuria and reached end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between the ages of 19 and 61 years, whilst lesions of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis were histologically demonstrated in one of them. Interestingly, phenotype severity differed significantly between a mother and son within one family. Five new mutations of GATA-3 were identified, including three missense mutations affecting zinc finger motifs [NM_001002295.1: c.856A>G (p.N286D) and c.1017C>G (p.C339W)] or the conserved linker region [c.896G>A (p.R299G)], and two splicing mutations (c.924+4_924+19del and c.1051-2A>G). Review of 115 previously reported cases of GATA-3 mutations showed hypoparathyroidism and deafness in 95% of patients, and renal abnormalities in only 60%. Overall, 10% of patients had reached ESRD. We herein expand the clinical and mutational spectrum of HDR syndrome, illustrating considerable inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability. Diagnosis of HDR should be

  1. A novel GATA3 nonsense mutation in a newly diagnosed adult patient of hypoparathyroidism, deafness, and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nanba, Kazutaka; Usui, Takeshi; Nakamura, Michikazu; Toyota, Yuko; Hirota, Keisho; Tamanaha, Tamiko; Kawashima, Sachiko-Tsukamoto; Nakao, Kanako; Yuno, Akiko; Tagami, Tetsuya; Naruse, Mitsuhide; Shimatsu, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism, deafness, and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a GATA3 gene mutation. Here we report a novel mutation of GATA3 in a patient diagnosed with HDR syndrome at the age of 58 with extensive intracranial calcification. A 58-year-old Japanese man showed severe hypocalcemia and marked calcification in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, deep white matter, and gray-white junction on computed tomography (CT). The serum intact parathyroid hormone level was relatively low against low serum calcium concentration. The patient had been diagnosed with bilateral sensorineural deafness in childhood and had a family history of hearing disorders. Imaging studies revealed no renal anomalies. The patient was diagnosed with HDR syndrome, and genetic testing was performed. Genetic analysis of GATA3 showed a novel nonsense mutation at codon 198 (S198X) in exon 3. The S198X mutation leads to a loss of two zinc finger deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) binding domains and is considered to be responsible for HDR syndrome. We identified a novel nonsense mutation of GATA3 in an adult patient with HDR syndrome who showed extensive intracranial calcification.

  2. Cleidocranial dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Ramakant; Dixit, Kalpana; Paramez, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia is a rare autosomal dominant condition with generalized dysplasia of bone, characterized by delayed closer of cranial sutures, hypoplastic or aplastic clavicles, short stature, dental abnormalities and a variety of other skeletal abnormalities. We present a seven-year-old female child presenting with classical features of cleidocranial dysplasia. PMID:20931042

  3. McCune Albright syndrome - association of fibrous dysplasia, café-au-lait skin spots and hyperthyroidism – case report

    PubMed Central

    RAUS, IULIAN; COROIU, ROXANA ELENA

    2016-01-01

    McCune–Albright syndrome is a rare sporadic disease characterized by bone fibrous dysplasia, café-au-lait skin spots and a variable association of hyperfunctional endocrine disorders. Fibrous dysplasia (FD), which can involve the craniofacial, axial, and appendicular skeleton, may range from an isolated, asymptomatic monostotic lesion to a severe disabling polyostotic disease involving the entire skeleton. A twenty-five-year old male patient presented to our clinic with recently developed heart palpitations. He had also been feeling pain in the right femur since he was younger, without any trauma history, leading to difficulties of ambulation and limping occasionally. His physical examination revealed café-au-lait spots with irregular borders and right testicular agenesis. Laboratory findings identified hyperthyroidism with hyperparathyroidism. Radiographs of the pelvis revealed multiple lytic lesions of the right femur and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characterized these lesions as specific to fibrous dysplasia of the bone, without any insufficiency fracture at this level. The association of café-au-lait skin spots with bone fibrous dysplasia, and hyperthyroidism in this patient suggested the diagnosis of McCune – Albright syndrome. PMID:27857528

  4. Combined pituitary hormone deficiency with unique pituitary dysplasia and morning glory syndrome related to a heterozygous PROKR2 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Yumi; Muroya, Koji; Hanakawa, Junko; Sato, Takeshi; Aida, Noriko; Narumi, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Adachi, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent reports have indicated the role of the prokineticin receptor 2 gene (PROKR2) in the etiology of congenital hypopituitarism, including septo-optic dysplasia and Kallmann syndrome. In the present study, using next-generation targeted sequencing, we identified a novel heterozygous PROKR2 variant (c.742C>T; p.R248W) in a female patient who had combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), morning glory syndrome and a severely malformed pituitary gland. No other mutation was present in 27 genes related to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, pituitary hormone deficiency and optic nerve malformation. The substituted amino acid was located on the third intracellular loop of the PROKR2 protein, which is a G protein-coupled receptor. Computational analyses with two programs (SIFT and PolyPhen-2) showed that the substitution was deleterious to PROKR2 function. The p.R248W mutation was transmitted from the patient’s mother, who had a slightly delayed menarche. Collectively, we provide further genetic evidence linking heterozygous PROKR2 mutations and the development of CPHD. PMID:25678757

  5. Combined pituitary hormone deficiency with unique pituitary dysplasia and morning glory syndrome related to a heterozygous PROKR2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Yumi; Muroya, Koji; Hanakawa, Junko; Sato, Takeshi; Aida, Noriko; Narumi, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Adachi, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports have indicated the role of the prokineticin receptor 2 gene (PROKR2) in the etiology of congenital hypopituitarism, including septo-optic dysplasia and Kallmann syndrome. In the present study, using next-generation targeted sequencing, we identified a novel heterozygous PROKR2 variant (c.742C>T; p.R248W) in a female patient who had combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), morning glory syndrome and a severely malformed pituitary gland. No other mutation was present in 27 genes related to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, pituitary hormone deficiency and optic nerve malformation. The substituted amino acid was located on the third intracellular loop of the PROKR2 protein, which is a G protein-coupled receptor. Computational analyses with two programs (SIFT and PolyPhen-2) showed that the substitution was deleterious to PROKR2 function. The p.R248W mutation was transmitted from the patient's mother, who had a slightly delayed menarche. Collectively, we provide further genetic evidence linking heterozygous PROKR2 mutations and the development of CPHD.

  6. Clinical Variability in a Family with an Ectodermal Dysplasia Syndrome and a Nonsense Mutation in the TP63 Gene.

    PubMed

    Eisenkraft, Arik; Pode-Shakked, Ben; Goldstein, Nurit; Shpirer, Zvi; van Bokhoven, Hans; Anikster, Yair

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the TP63 gene have been associated with a variety of ectodermal dysplasia syndromes, among which the clinically overlapping Ankyloblepharon-Ectodermal defects-Cleft lip/palate (AEC) and the Rapp-Hodgkin syndromes. We report a multiplex nonconsanguineous family of Ashkenazi-Jewish descent, in which the index patient presented with a persistent scalp skin lesion, dystrophic nails and light thin hair. Further evaluation revealed over 10 affected individuals in the kindred, over four generations, exhibiting varying degrees of ectodermal involvement. Analysis of the TP63 gene from four of the patients and from two healthy individuals of the same family was performed. Gene sequencing of the patients revealed a nonsense mutation leading to a premature termination codon (PTC) (p.Gln16X). The same mutation was found in all tested affected individuals in the family, but gave rise to marked phenotypic variability with minor clinical manifestations in some individuals, underscoring the clinical heterogeneity associated with the recently described PTC-causing mutations.

  7. Mesomelic skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Kaitila, I; Leisti, J T; Rimoin, D L

    1976-01-01

    Mesomelic shortening of the extremities lends itself as a useful clinical and/or radiologic sign to characterize a group of hereditary bone dysplasias. Table 1 and Figure 4 are presented to facilitate the comparison between the many different types of mesomelic dwarfism. Differential diagnosis between these types is not difficult because of the specific bone changes and extraskeletal malformations present. As in many hereditary syndromes, however, there may be wide clinical variability within a single entity, and meticulous clinical and radiologic examination must be done to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Certain other forms of chondrodystrophies, such as achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, pseudoachondroplasia and distrophic dwarfism, can be easily differentiated from the mesomelic dysplasias by their clinical features and skeletal radiographs. Nothing is known about the pathogenesis of the various forms of mesomelic dysplasias. There is no available specific treatment, although corrective surgery has benefited selected patients. The correct diagnosis is, however, important both for prognostication and accurate genetic counseling.

  8. Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn Syndrome and Dermatopathia Pigmentosa Reticularis: Two Allelic Ectodermal Dysplasias Caused by Dominant Mutations in KRT14

    PubMed Central

    Lugassy, Jennie; Itin, Peter; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Holland, Kristen; Huson, Susan; Geiger, Dan; Hennies, Hans Christian; Indelman, Margarita; Bercovich, Dani; Uitto, Jouni; Bergman, Reuven; McGrath, John A.; Richard, Gabriele; Sprecher, Eli

    2006-01-01

    Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn syndrome (NFJS) and dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis (DPR) are two closely related autosomal dominant ectodermal dysplasia syndromes that clinically share complete absence of dermatoglyphics (fingerprint lines), a reticulate pattern of skin hyperpigmentation, thickening of the palms and soles (palmoplantar keratoderma), abnormal sweating, and other subtle developmental anomalies of the teeth, hair, and skin. To decipher the molecular basis of these disorders, we studied one family with DPR and four families with NFJS. We initially reassessed linkage of NFJS/DPR to a previously established locus on 17q11.2-q21. Combined multipoint analysis generated a maximal LOD score of 8.3 at marker D17S800 at a recombination fraction of 0. The disease interval was found to harbor 230 genes, including a large cluster of keratin genes. Heterozygous nonsense or frameshift mutations in KRT14 were found to segregate with the disease trait in all five families. In contrast with KRT14 mutations affecting the central α-helical rod domain of keratin 14, which are known to cause epidermolysis bullosa simplex, NFJS/DPR-associated mutations were found in a region of the gene encoding the nonhelical head (E1/V1) domain and are predicted to result in very early termination of translation. These data suggest that KRT14 plays an important role during ontogenesis of dermatoglyphics and sweat glands. Among other functions, the N-terminal part of keratin molecules has been shown to confer protection against proapoptotic signals. Ultrastructural examination of patient skin biopsy specimens provided evidence for increased apoptotic activity in the basal cell layer where KRT14 is expressed, suggesting that apoptosis is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of NFJS/DPR. PMID:16960809

  9. LAMM syndrome with middle ear dysplasia associated with compound heterozygosity for FGF3 mutations.

    PubMed

    Sensi, Alberto; Ceruti, Stefano; Trevisi, Patrizia; Gualandi, Francesca; Busi, Micol; Donati, Ilaria; Neri, Marcella; Ferlini, Alessandra; Martini, Alessandro

    2011-05-01

    We report on the first cases of FGF3 compound heterozygotes in two European families from non-consanguineous marriages, affected with labyrinthine aplasia, microtia, and microdontia (LAMM) Syndrome. Three not previously described mutations (p.W153VfsX51, p.Y106C, and p.Y49C) and a recurrent one (p.R104X) were found. Analysis of 50 unrelated control subjects (100 chromosomes) of the same European background did not show any of the two newly reported missense variations. We confirm the absence of otodental syndrome in heterozygous carriers, but report unilateral microtia in one of them. We also report on the involvement of the middle ear structures in LAMM Syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Polysplenia syndrome with duodenal and pancreatic dysplasia in a Holstein calf: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Daisuke; Kawano, Tomomi; Kikuchi, Tomoaki; Hatate, Kaoru; Watanabe, Kenichi; Sasaki, Motoki; Yamagishi, Norio; Inokuma, Hisashi; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2017-09-29

    Laterality disorders of the abdominal organs include situs inversus totalis that mirrors the arrangements of all internal organs and heterotaxy syndrome (situs ambiguus) in which the thoracic or abdominal organs are abnormally arranged. Heterotaxy is often accompanied by multiple congenital malformations, and it generally comprises asplenia and polysplenia syndromes. To our knowledge, polysplenia syndrome has been reported in only three cattle, and computerized tomographic (CT) images of these animals were not obtained. A six-month-old Holstein heifer had ruminal tympani and right abdominal distension. CT imaging showed that the rumen occupied the right side of the abdominal cavity, the omasum and abomasum occupied the left ventral side and the liver was positioned on the left. The colon and cecum were located at the left dorsum of the cavity, and the left kidney was located more cranially than the right. Postmortem findings revealed two spleens attached to the rumen. Significantly, the duodenum was too short to be divided into segments, except the cranial and descending parts, or flexures, except the cranial flexure, and the pancreas, which lacked a left lobe, was covered with mesojejunum. The liver comprised a relatively large right lobe and a small left lobe without quadrate and caudate lobes. The caudal vena cava that connected to the left azygous vein passed irregularly through the aortic hiatus of the diaphragm, and the common hepatic vein without the caudal vena cava passed through the caval foramen. Although the lungs and heart were morphologically normal, the right atrium received three major systemic veins. Polysplenia syndrome was diagnosed based on the CT and postmortem findings. We defined the positions of the abdominal organs and morphological abnormalities in various organs of a calf with polysplenia syndrome based on CT and postmortem findings. These findings will improve understanding of the malpositioning and malformations that can occur in the

  11. Novel NEK8 Mutations Cause Severe Syndromic Renal Cystic Dysplasia through YAP Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Grampa, Valentina; Odye, Gweltas; Thomas, Sophie; Elkhartoufi, Nadia; Filhol, Emilie; Niel, Olivier; Silbermann, Flora; Lebreton, Corinne; Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Rouvet, Isabelle; Alessandri, Jean-Luc; Devisme, Louise; Dieux-Coeslier, Anne; Cordier, Marie-Pierre; Capri, Yline; Khung-Savatovsky, Suonavy; Sigaudy, Sabine; Salomon, Rémi; Antignac, Corinne; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Benmerah, Alexandre; Terzi, Fabiola; Attié-Bitach, Tania; Jeanpierre, Cécile; Saunier, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Ciliopathies are a group of genetic multi-systemic disorders related to dysfunction of the primary cilium, a sensory organelle present at the cell surface that regulates key signaling pathways during development and tissue homeostasis. In order to identify novel genes whose mutations would cause severe developmental ciliopathies, >500 patients/fetuses were analyzed by a targeted high throughput sequencing approach allowing exome sequencing of >1200 ciliary genes. NEK8/NPHP9 mutations were identified in five cases with severe overlapping phenotypes including renal cystic dysplasia/hypodysplasia, situs inversus, cardiopathy with hypertrophic septum and bile duct paucity. These cases highlight a genotype-phenotype correlation, with missense and nonsense mutations associated with hypodysplasia and enlarged cystic organs, respectively. Functional analyses of NEK8 mutations in patient fibroblasts and mIMCD3 cells showed that these mutations differentially affect ciliogenesis, proliferation/apoptosis/DNA damage response, as well as epithelial morphogenesis. Notably, missense mutations exacerbated some of the defects due to NEK8 loss of function, highlighting their likely gain-of-function effect. We also showed that NEK8 missense and loss-of-function mutations differentially affect the regulation of the main Hippo signaling effector, YAP, as well as the expression of its target genes in patient fibroblasts and renal cells. YAP imbalance was also observed in enlarged spheroids of Nek8-invalidated renal epithelial cells grown in 3D culture, as well as in cystic kidneys of Jck mice. Moreover, co-injection of nek8 MO with WT or mutated NEK8-GFP RNA in zebrafish embryos led to shortened dorsally curved body axis, similar to embryos injected with human YAP RNA. Finally, treatment with Verteporfin, an inhibitor of YAP transcriptional activity, partially rescued the 3D spheroid defects of Nek8-invalidated cells and the abnormalities of NEK8-overexpressing zebrafish embryos

  12. Orbital fibrous dysplasia with soft tissue hamartoma--a variant of Mazabraud's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Santos, C T; Choo, C T; Loh, A H L

    2008-01-01

    Mazabraud's syndrome was first described, by Mazabraud et al. as a rare disease, associated with single or multiple intramuscular myxomas with monostotic or polyostotic forms of fibrous dyplasia, Reports of this syndrome is rare and usually associated with myoxomatas. The authors would want to report the occurrence of this rare case associated with a hamartoma as basis for record and future studies. An adult male came to the institution 4 years ago complaining of a right unilateral proptosis that he had since childhood. However, proptosis progressed in a month's time accompanied by right eye redness. Right eye was congested with a palpable firm mass on the right lower lid. Best corrected visual acuity was 6/15-2. Pupillary examination revealed the presence of RAPD on the right eye. Exophthalmometry revealed a 10 mm proptosis. EOMS were restricted on the right eye and diplopia was noted in all gazes. Ishihara test showed 14/15 for the right eye. CT SCAN and MRI confirmed a mild inflammatory extraconal or intramuscular mass in the right obito-retrobulbar region. Bony changes seen in the right zygoma, sphenoid bone and squamous part of the temporal bone with extensive bone mineralization. The patient underwent a right lateral orbitotomy with biopsy and debulking of the inferior orbital mass. Histopathology revealed a hamartomatous lesion. Due to the associated soft tissue lesion with multiple craniofacial bone changes, this case may be considered a variant of Mazabraud's Syndrome. The associated hamatomatous lesion may be a rare occurrence that should be noted.

  13. An activating G{sub s}{alpha} mutation is present in fibrous dysplasia of bone in the McCune-Albright syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Shenker, A.; Weinstein, L.S.; Spiegel, A.M.

    1994-09-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a sporadic disease characterized by polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, cafe-au-lait spots, and multiple endocrinopathies. The etiology of fibrous dysplasia is unknown. Activating mutations of codon 201 in the gene encoding the {alpha}-subunit of G{sub s}, the G-protein that stimulates adenylyl cyclase, have been found in all affected MAS tissues that have been studied. Initial attempts to amplify DNA from decalcified paraffin-embedded bone specimens from frozen surgical bone specimens from five MAS patients using polymerase chain reaction and allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization. Most of the cells in four specimens of dysplastic bone contained a heterozygous mutation encoding substitution ofmore » Arg{sup 201} of G{sub s}{alpha} with His, but the mutation was barely detectable in peripheral blood specimens from the patients. Only a small amount of mutant allele was detected in a specimen of normal cortical bone from the fifth patient, although this patients had a high proportion of mutation in other, affected tissues. The mosaic distribution of mutant alleles is consistent with an embryological somatic cell mutation of the G{sub s}{alpha} gene in MAS. The presence of an activating mutation of G{sub s}{alpha} in osteoblastic progenitor cells may cause them to exhibit increased proliferation and abnormal differentiation, thereby producing the lesions of fibrous dysplasia. 43 refs., 2 figs.« less

  14. Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Genetic Review

    PubMed Central

    Prashanth, S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare hereditary disorder with a characteristic physiognomy. It is a genetic disorder affecting the development or function of the teeth, hair, nails and sweat glands. Depending on the particular syndrome ectodermal dysplasia can also affect the skin, the lens or retina of the eye, parts of the inner ear, the development of fingers and toes, the nerves and other parts of the body. Each syndrome usually involves a different combination of symptoms, which can range from mild to severe. The history and lessons learned from hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) may serve as an example for unraveling of the cause and pathogenesis of other ectodermal dysplasia syndromes by demonstrating that phenotypically identical syndromes can be caused by mutations in different genes (EDA, EDAR, EDARADD), that mutations in the same gene can lead to different phenotypes and that mutations in the genes further downstream in the same signaling pathway (NEMO) may modify the phenotype quite profoundly. The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss the etiology, genetic review, clinical manifestations and treatment options of this hereditary disorder. How to cite this article: Deshmukh S, Prashanth S. Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Genetic Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012; 5(3):197-202. PMID:25206167

  15. Ectodermal dysplasia: a genetic review.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Seema; Prashanth, S

    2012-09-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare hereditary disorder with a characteristic physiognomy. It is a genetic disorder affecting the development or function of the teeth, hair, nails and sweat glands. Depending on the particular syndrome ectodermal dysplasia can also affect the skin, the lens or retina of the eye, parts of the inner ear, the development of fingers and toes, the nerves and other parts of the body. Each syndrome usually involves a different combination of symptoms, which can range from mild to severe. The history and lessons learned from hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) may serve as an example for unraveling of the cause and pathogenesis of other ectodermal dysplasia syndromes by demonstrating that phenotypically identical syndromes can be caused by mutations in different genes (EDA, EDAR, EDARADD), that mutations in the same gene can lead to different phenotypes and that mutations in the genes further downstream in the same signaling pathway (NEMO) may modify the phenotype quite profoundly. The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss the etiology, genetic review, clinical manifestations and treatment options of this hereditary disorder. How to cite this article: Deshmukh S, Prashanth S. Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Genetic Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012; 5(3):197-202.

  16. Gigantism treated by pure endoscopic endonasal approach in a case of McCune-Albright syndrome with sphenoid fibrous dysplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Guive; Jalessi, Maryam; Sarvghadi, Farzaneh; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is an uncommon polyostotic manifestation of fibrous dysplasia in association with at least one endocrinopathy that is mostly associated with precocious puberty and hyperpigmented skin macules named café-au-lait spots. We present an atypical manifestation of McCune-Albright syndrome in a 19-year-old man with the uncommon association of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and gigantism in the absence of café-au-lait spots and precocious puberty. He presented with a height increase to 202 cm in the previous 3 years, which had become more progressive in the few months prior. Physical examination revealed only a mild facial asymmetry; however, a computed tomography (CT) scan discovered vast areas of voluminous bones with ground-glass density and thickening involving the craniofacial bones and skull base. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) found a right stalk shift of the pituitary with a 20 mm pituitary adenoma. We describe the diagnostic and endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for excision of the tumor. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia (Pascual-Castroviejo syndrome): Identification of a novel mutation, use of facial recognition analysis, and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Tender, Jennifer A.F.; Ferreira, Carlos R.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia (CFTD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by facial dysmorphism, cognitive impairment and distinct skeletal anomalies and has been linked to the TMCO1 defect syndrome. OBJECTIVE: To describe two siblings with features consistent with CFTD with a novel homozygous p.Arg114* pathogenic variant in the TMCO1 gene. METHODS: We conducted a literature review and summarized the clinical features and laboratory results of two siblings with a novel pathogenic variant in the TMCO1 gene. Facial recognition analysis was utilized to assess the specificity of facial traits. CONCLUSION: The novel homozygous p.Arg114* pathogenic variant in the TMCO1 gene is responsible for the clinical features of CFTD in two siblings. Facial recognition analysis allows unambiguous distinction of this syndrome against controls. PMID:29682451

  18. Cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia (Pascual-Castroviejo syndrome): Identification of a novel mutation, use of facial recognition analysis, and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tender, Jennifer A F; Ferreira, Carlos R

    2018-04-13

    Cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia (CFTD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by facial dysmorphism, cognitive impairment and distinct skeletal anomalies and has been linked to the TMCO1 defect syndrome. To describe two siblings with features consistent with CFTD with a novel homozygous p.Arg114* pathogenic variant in the TMCO1 gene. We conducted a literature review and summarized the clinical features and laboratory results of two siblings with a novel pathogenic variant in the TMCO1 gene. Facial recognition analysis was utilized to assess the specificity of facial traits. The novel homozygous p.Arg114* pathogenic variant in the TMCO1 gene is responsible for the clinical features of CFTD in two siblings. Facial recognition analysis allows unambiguous distinction of this syndrome against controls.

  19. Growth hormone-Insulin-like growth factor 1 axis hyperactivity on bone fibrous dysplasia in McCune-Albright Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tessaris, Daniele; Boyce, Alison M; Zacharin, Margaret; Matarazzo, Patrizia; Lala, Roberto; De Sanctis, Luisa; Collins, Michael T

    2018-04-19

    In fibrous dysplasia (BFD), normal bone and bone marrow are replaced by fibro-osseous tissue, leading to fracture, deformity and pain. BFD may be isolated, or in association with cutaneous hyperpigmentation and/or hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies, termed McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS). GH hypersecretion has been described in 10%-20% of MAS-BFD patients. Aim of the study was to determine the impact of GH-insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) axis hyperactivity on MAS-BFD morbidities and the efficacy of GH excess therapy. A multicentric cross-sectional analysis was conducted on three different MAS cohorts. From 195 MAS patients, 37 subjects (19%) with GH excess were identified and compared with 34 MAS controls without GH hypersecretion. Mean head circumference SDS was significantly higher in GH excess: 4.025 SDS vs 0.683 SDS (P < .0001). The risk of optic neuropathy (Odds ratio 4.231; P = .039), hearing deficit (Odds ratio 2.961; P = .0481), facial asymmetry (Odds ratio 6.563; P = .0192), malignancies (Odds ratio 15.24; P = .0173) were higher in GH excess group. Overall, pharmacotherapy (octreotide alone 10-30 mg/mo or with pegvisomant 10-20 mg/d) was effective in IGF1 normalization (IGF1 Z-score between -2 and +2 SDS) in 21/29 patients (72.4%) with good compliance to the regimen. Late diagnosis and GH excess treatment after 16 years old of age was associated with an increased risk of optic neuropathy (Odds ratio 4.500; P = .0491) and growth of pituitary adenomas (Odds ratio 7.846; P = .050). GH-IGF1 hyperactivity increases risk of morbidities in MAS. Medical therapy is effective in normalizing IGF1 in most patients, and early treatment during paediatric age is associated with a decreased risk of optic neuropathy and GH-secreting adenomas growth. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia associated with hepatic ductal hypoplasia, agenesis of the corpus callosum and Dandy-Walker syndrome].

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, M; Hammou-Jeddi, A; Kammoun, A; Bennaceur, B; Gharbi, H A

    1990-01-01

    The authors report on a case of a newborn with asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia who died 36 h after birth. This chondrodysplasia was associated with hepatic ductular hypoplasia, agenesis of the corpus callosum and Dandy-Walker malformation. To our knowledge, such an association has not previously been reported in the literature.

  1. Cleidocranial dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Neeraj Kumar; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Sharma, Naresh Kumar; Jaiswara, Chandresh

    2014-01-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant disorder resulting in the skeletal and dental abnormalities due to the disturbance in ossification of the bones. Clavicle is the most commonly affected bone. The prevalence of CCD is one in millions of live births. In this report, we present a case of 10-years-old boy showing features of this condition. PMID:25937737

  2. Pamidronic acid and cabergoline as effective long-term therapy in a 12-year-old girl with extended facial polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, prolactinoma and acromegaly in McCune-Albright syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction McCune-Albright syndrome is a complex inborn disorder due to early embryonal postzygotic somatic activating mutations in the GNAS1 gene. The phenotype is very heterogeneous and includes polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, typically involving the facial skull, numerous café-au-lait spots and autonomous hyperfunctions of several endocrine systems, leading to hyperthyroidism, hypercortisolism, precocious puberty and acromegaly. Case presentation Here, we describe a 12-year-old Caucasian girl with severe facial involvement of fibrous dysplasia, along with massive acromegaly due to growth hormone excess and precocious puberty, with a prolactinoma. Our patient was treated with a bisphosphonate and the prolactin antagonist, cabergoline, resulting in the inhibition of fibrous dysplasia and involution of both the prolactinoma and growth hormone excess. During a follow-up of more than two years, no severe side effects were noted. Conclusion Treatment with bisphosphonates in combination with cabergoline is a suitable option in patients with McCune-Albright syndrome, especially in order to circumvent surgical interventions in patients suffering from polyostotic fibrous dysplasia involving the skull base. PMID:22273876

  3. Novel homozygous mutation, c.400C>T (p.Arg134*), in the PVRL1 gene underlies cleft lip/palate-ectodermal dysplasia syndrome in an Asian patient.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazue; Hayashi, Ryota; Fujita, Hideki; Kubota, Masaya; Kondo, Mai; Shimomura, Yutaka; Niizeki, Hironori

    2015-07-01

    Cleft lip/palate-ectodermal dysplasia syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by homozygous loss-of-function mutations of the poliovirus receptor-like 1 (PVRL1) gene encoding nectin-1. Nectin-1 is a cell-cell adhesion molecule that is important for the initial step in the formation of adherens junctions and tight junctions; it is expressed in keratinocytes, neurons, and the developing face and palate. Clinical manifestations comprise a unique facial appearance with cleft lip/palate, ectodermal dysplasia, cutaneous syndactyly of the fingers and/or toes, and in some cases, mental retardation. We present the first report, to our knowledge, of an Asian individual with cleft lip/palate-ectodermal dysplasia syndrome with a novel PVRL1 mutation. A 7-year-old Japanese boy, the first child of a consanguineous marriage, showed hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with sparse, brittle, fine, dry hair and hypodontia, the unique facial appearance with cleft lip/palate, cutaneous syndactyly of the fingers and mild mental retardation. Scanning electron microscopic examination of the hair demonstrated pili torti and pili trianguli et canaliculi. Mutation analysis of exon 2 of PVRL1 revealed a novel homozygous nonsense mutation, c.400C>T (p.Arg134*). His parents were heterozygous for the mutant alleles. All four PVRL1 mutations identified in cleft lip/palate-ectodermal dysplasia syndrome to date, including this study, resulted in truncated proteins that lack the transmembrane domain and intracellular domain of nectin-1, which is necessary to initiate the cell-cell adhesion process. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. Advances in Skeletal Dysplasia Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Geister, Krista A.; Camper, Sally A.

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias result from disruptions in normal skeletal growth and development and are a major contributor to severe short stature. They occur in approximately 1/5,000 births, and some are lethal. Since the most recent publication of the Nosology and Classification of Genetic Skeletal Disorders, genetic causes of 56 skeletal disorders have been uncovered. This remarkable rate of discovery is largely due to the expanded use of high-throughput genomic technologies. In this review, we discuss these recent discoveries and our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind these skeletal dysplasia phenotypes. We also cover potential therapies, unusual genetic mechanisms, and novel skeletal syndromes both with and without known genetic causes. The acceleration of skeletal dysplasia genetics is truly spectacular, and these advances hold great promise for diagnostics, risk prediction, and therapeutic design. PMID:25939055

  5. Cervical Dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exercise at Every AgeTics and Tourette SyndromeRead Article >>Tics and Tourette Syndrome Visit our interactive symptom checker ... age. There is a place for exercise at…Tics and Tourette SyndromeRead Article >>Exercise and FitnessTics and ...

  6. Personalized Stem Cell Therapy to Correct Corneal Defects Due to a Unique Homozygous-Heterozygous Mosaicism of Ectrodactyly-Ectodermal Dysplasia-Clefting Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barbaro, Vanessa; Nasti, Annamaria Assunta; Raffa, Paolo; Migliorati, Angelo; Nespeca, Patrizia; Ferrari, Stefano; Palumbo, Elisa; Bertolin, Marina; Breda, Claudia; Miceli, Francesco; Russo, Antonella; Caenazzo, Luciana; Ponzin, Diego; Palù, Giorgio; Parolin, Cristina; Di Iorio, Enzo

    2016-08-01

    : Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting (EEC) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the p63 gene. To date, approximately 40 different p63 mutations have been identified, all heterozygous. No definitive treatments are available to counteract and resolve the progressive corneal degeneration due to a premature aging of limbal epithelial stem cells. Here, we describe a unique case of a young female patient, aged 18 years, with EEC and corneal dysfunction, who was, surprisingly, homozygous for a novel and de novo R311K missense mutation in the p63 gene. A detailed analysis of the degree of somatic mosaicism in leukocytes from peripheral blood and oral mucosal epithelial stem cells (OMESCs) from biopsies of buccal mucosa showed that approximately 80% were homozygous mutant cells and 20% were heterozygous. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses excluded genomic alterations, thus suggesting a de novo mutation followed by an allelic gene conversion of the wild-type allele by de novo mutant allele as a possible mechanism to explain the homozygous condition. R311K-p63 OMESCs were expanded in vitro and heterozygous holoclones selected following clonal analysis. These R311K-p63 OMESCs were able to generate well-organized and stratified epithelia in vitro, resembling the features of healthy tissues. This study supports the rationale for the development of cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial stem cell sheets obtained by selected heterozygous R311K-p63 stem cells, as an effective and personalized therapy for reconstructing the ocular surface of this unique case of EEC syndrome, thus bypassing gene therapy approaches. This case demonstrates that in a somatic mosaicism context, a novel homozygous mutation in the p63 gene can arise as a consequence of an allelic gene conversion event, subsequent to a de novo mutation. The heterozygous mutant R311K-p63 stem cells can be isolated by means of clonal analysis and given their good regenerative

  7. Aarskog syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Aarskog disease; Aarskog-Scott syndrome; AAS; Faciodigitogenital syndrome; Gaciogenital dysplasia ... Aarskog syndrome is a genetic disorder that is linked to the X chromosome. It affects mainly males, but females ...

  8. Cervical Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, John A.

    1983-01-01

    Invasive squamous carcinoma of the cervix is preceded by a series of premalignant changes described as mild, moderate, or severe dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ. These premalignant states are identified by cervical cytology, diagnosed by colposcopy and if effectively treated, can prevent invasive squamous carcinoma of the cervix. Because of the apparent biological variation of the premalignant states, even the most aggressive cervical screening program cannot be expected to eliminate all invasive squamous cancer of the cervix. Optimal results of a cervical screening program will be achieved when all women under 35 years of age and sexually active have an annual cytological smear; the cytology is screened by a laboratory with high quality control; the patient's positive cytology is accurately assessed by an experienced colposcopist, and the premalignant lesion is effectively treated. PMID:21283455

  9. Ectodermal dysplasia: otolaryngologic evaluation of 23 cases.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Muzeyyen; Yorgancilar, Ediz; Gun, Ramazan; Topcu, Ismail

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to improve the quality of life of and reduce morbidity for patients with ectodermal dysplasia by assessing their actual and potential ENT pathologies, and offering methods of prevention and treatment. The study was conducted between 2006 and 2008 and included 23 patients diagnosed with ectodermal dysplasia. The major symptoms of ectodermal dysplasia were evaluated. Patient histories were obtained in all cases, and a complete head and neck examination was carried out. Of the 23 patients (11 males and 12 females, aged 5 to 45 years) diagnosed with ectodermal dysplasia, 22 had hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and 1 had ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome. In all patients diagnosed with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, the salivary glands were examined by ultrasonography and, when necessary, by scintigraphy. Hearing defects in patients with otologic problems were determined by audiometric examination: 39.1% of the patients had hearing loss, 43.5% had otitis media, and 39.1% had impacted cerumen. The most common rhinologic findings were saddle nose deformity in 56.5%, nasal obstruction and nasal dryness (52.2% each), and chronic rhinitis/rhinosinusitis (34.8%). The most common oral and oropharyngeal findings were difficulty chewing in 82.6% and dry mouth in 78.3%. All 23 patients had required dental work. Because this disorder affects several aspects of the body, its treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, with the otolaryngologist being a vital part of the management team.

  10. [Septo-optic dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, L; Arce, A; Caritg-Bosch, J; Campistol, J; Pavía, C; Gean-Molins, E

    Septo optic syndrome, described by De Morsier in 1956, consists in the hypoplasia of one or both optic nerves, mid line brain malformations and hypothalamohypophysial dysfunction, which is inconstant. It is an infrequent, but treatable, cause of hepatic and neurological damage, and it is important to obtain an early diagnosis and to begin hormone replacement therapy. We report the clinical case of a female baby who was diagnosed early on as suffering from septo?optic dysplasia, after discovery of the existence of cholestatic jaundice. In our case the three components of the syndrome were present: hypothalamohypophysial dysfunction, bilateral hypoplasia of the optic nerves and brain malformations with dysplasia of the transparent septum. All this gives rise to complex clinical features and the predominance of hypernatraemic dehydration secondary to insipid diabetes, nystagmus and serious psychomotor retardation. Our patient died, as in other cases reported in the literature, from an episode of sudden death. Despite the importance of an early diagnosis of this disorder, it is usually late. Most children who present hypopituitarism traits in the neonatal period are not diagnosed at that time, with the subsequent risk of death or brain damage. Some clinical findings, which appear early on and can provide clues which aid us to reach a diagnosis, are the appearance of episodes of hypoglycaemia in the neonatal period, the existence of micropenis and cryptorchidism with hypoplasic testes, jaundice or the appearance of clinical manifestations of insipid diabetes. Later on nystagmus and neurological symptoms may appear. The final diagnosis is performed through the use of neuroimaging techniques (CT or MRI) and hormonal studies.

  11. Sclerosing bone dysplasias: genetic, clinical and radiology update of hereditary and non-hereditary disorders

    PubMed Central

    Boulet, Cedric; Madani, Hardi; Lenchik, Leon; Vanhoenacker, Filip; Amalnath, Deepak S; de Mey, Johan

    2016-01-01

    There is a wide variety of hereditary and non-hereditary bone dysplasias, many with unique radiographic findings. Hereditary bony dysplasias include osteopoikilosis, osteopathia striata, osteopetrosis, progressive diaphyseal dysplasia, hereditary multiple diaphyseal sclerosis and pyknodysostosis. Non-hereditary dysplasias include melorheostosis, intramedullary osteosclerosis and overlap syndromes. Although many of these dysplasias are uncommon, radiologists should be familiar with their genetic, clinical and imaging findings to allow for differentiation from acquired causes of bony sclerosis. We present an overview of hereditary and non-hereditary bony dysplasias with focus on the pathogenesis, clinical and radiographic findings of each disorder. PMID:26898950

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Alagille syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition Alagille-Watson Syndrome Alagille's syndrome arteriohepatic dysplasia (AHD) cardiovertebral syndrome ... hypoplasia hepatofacioneurocardiovertebral syndrome paucity of interlobular bile ducts Watson-Miller syndrome Related Information How are genetic conditions ...

  13. Hypohidrotic and hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos Carvalho, Marianne; Romero Souto de Sousa, José; Paiva Correa de Melo, Filipe; Fonseca Faro, Tatiane; Nunes Santos, Ana Clara; Carvalho, Silvia; Veras Sobral, Ana Paula

    2013-07-14

    Ectodermal dysplasias are a large group of syndromes characterized by anomalies in the structures of ectodermal origin. There are 2 major types of this disorder, based on clinical findings: hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. This clinical classification is very important because clinical professionals involved with this disease need first a clear and practical method of diagnosis. The main oral manifestation of ectodermal dysplasia may be expressed as hypodontia. Thus, dental professionals may be the first to diagnose ectodermal dysplasia. The present article reports one case of each of the main types (hypohidrotic and hidrotic) of ectodermal dysplasia and the authors review the literature regarding the pathogenesis, clinical features, and therapeutic management of this condition.

  14. [Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: definitions and classifications].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Luna, M; Moreno Hernando, J; Botet Mussons, F; Fernández Lorenzo, J R; Herranz Carrillo, G; Rite Gracia, S; Salguero García, E; Echaniz Urcelay, I

    2013-10-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common sequelae related to very low birth weight infants, mostly with those of extremely low birth weight. Even with advances in prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome associated with prematurity, there is still no decrease in the incidence in this population, although a change in its clinical expression and severity has been observed. There are, however, differences in its frequency between health centres, probably due to a non-homogeneously used clinical definition. In this article, the Committee of Standards of the Spanish Society of Neonatology wishes to review the current diagnosis criteria of bronchopulmonary dysplasia to reduce, as much as possible, these inter-centre differences. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. A phase 2 trial of high dose lenalidomide in patients with relapsed/refractory higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukaemia with trilineage dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Zeidan, Amer M; Smith, B Douglas; Carraway, Hetty E; Gojo, Ivana; DeZern, Amy; Gore, Steven D

    2017-01-01

    Limited therapies exist for patients with refractory and relapsed (RR) higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (HR-MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia with trilineage dysplasia (AML-TD). High dose (HD) lenalidomide (50 mg) has activity as frontline therapy in elderly AML but there is limited data in the RR setting. This phase II trial included patients with RR HR-MDS or AML-TD at 2 doses of lenalidomide (15 or 50 mg) on days 1-28 of 42-day cycles. The primary endpoint was response rate using the 2006 International Working Group criteria. Overall survival (OS) was estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods. Of 27 patients enrolled, 59% had HR-MDS and 31% AML-TD. No patient had isolated del5q; 41% had poor-risk karyotype. Of 9 patients treated at 15 mg, 56% completed ≥2 cycles with no responses. Of 18 patients treated at 50 mg, 39% completed ≥2 cycles and 11% responded but all experienced grade 3/4 neutropenic fever/infection. The 60-day mortality rate was 30%. Median OS was 114 days with 19% surviving ≥1 year. The study was terminated due to lack of robust clinical activity. In conclusion, lenalidomide at 15 mg is ineffective in RR myeloid malignancies. Continous high dosing schedules are poorly tolerated and minimally active. Further evaluation should be considered in upfront intensive chemotherapy-ineligible patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Magnesium and bronchopulmonary dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Fridman, Elena; Linder, Nehama

    2013-03-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease that occurs in premature infants who have needed mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. BPD is defined as the presence of persistent respiratory symptoms, the need for supplemental oxygen to treat hypoxemia, and an abnormal chest radiograph at 36 weeks gestational age. Proinflammatory cytokines and altered angiogenic gene signaling impair prenatal and postnatal lung growth, resulting in BPD. Postnatal hyperoxia exposure further increases the production of cytotoxic free radicals, which cause lung injury and increase the levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Magnesium is the fourth most abundant metal in the body. It is commonly used for the treatment of preeclamsia, as well as for premature labor alleviation. Magnesium's role in BPD development is not clear. A significant association between high magnesium levels at birth and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), pulmonary interstitial emphysema in the extremely low birth weight, respiratory failure, and later development BPD was found. Conversely, low magnesium intake is associated with lower lung functions, and hypomagnesemia was found in 16% of patients with acute pulmonary diseases. Magnesium is used for the treatment of asthmatic attacks. Magnesium deficiency in pregnant women is frequently seen due to low intake. Hypomagnesemia was also found among preterm neonates and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Experimental hypomagnesemia evokes an inflammatory response, and oxidative damage of tissues. These were accompanied by changes in gene expression mostly involved in regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis and remodeling, processes associated with BPD. It is rational to believe that hypomagnesemia can contribute to BPD pathogenesis.

  17. A novel c.1037C > G (p.Ala346Gly) mutation in TP63 as cause of the ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Leandro Ucela; Pardono, Eliete; Otto, Paulo A.; Mingroni Netto, Regina Célia

    2015-01-01

    Ectrodactyly – ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome (OMIM 604292) is a rare disorder determined by mutations in the TP63 gene. Most cases of EEC syndrome are associated to mutations in the DNA binding domain (DBD) region of the p63 protein. Here we report on a three-generation Brazilian family with three individuals (mother, son and grandfather) affected by EEC syndrome, determined by a novel mutation c.1037C > G (p.Ala346Gly). The disorder in this family exhibits a broad spectrum of phenotypes: two individuals were personally examined, one presenting the complete constellation of EEC syndrome manifestations and the other presenting an intermediate phenotype; the third affected, a deceased individual not examined personally and referred to by his daughter, exhibited only the split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM). Our findings contribute to elucidate the complex phenotype-genotype correlations in EEC syndrome and other related TP63-mutation syndromes. The possibility of the mutation c.1037C > G being related both to acro-dermato-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome and SHFM is also raised by the findings here reported. PMID:25983622

  18. Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as focal cortical dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, D.J.; Bergin, A.; Rotenberg, A.; Peters, J.; Gorman, M.; Poduri, A.; Cryan, J.; Lidov, H.; Madsen, J.; Harini, C.

    2014-01-01

    Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare syndrome characterized by intractable seizures, often associated with epilepsia partialis continua and symptoms of progressive hemispheric dysfunction. Seizures are usually the hallmark of presentation, but antiepileptic drug treatment fails in most patients and is ineffective against epilepsia partialis continua, which often requires surgical intervention. Co-occurrence of focal cortical dysplasia has only rarely been described and may have implications regarding pathophysiology and management. We describe a rare case of dual pathology of Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and discuss the literature on this topic. PMID:25667877

  19. Lung volume reduction surgery in bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Siaplaouras, J; Heckmann, M; Reiss, I; Schaible, T; Waag, K L; Gortner, L

    2003-06-01

    We report on a female preterm infant of 29 wk gestational age, who developed acquired lobar emphysema after prolonged artificial ventilation secondary to respiratory disease syndrome and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The infant underwent atypical segmentectomy at the age of 12 mo because of life-threatening hypoxaemia with pulmonary hypertension and failure of conservative treatment. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) dramatically improved the respiratory function and resulted in adequate weight gain and psychomotor development. In selected cases LVRS can be an option for lobar emphysema in premature infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

  20. Del(12)(p11.21p12.2) associated with an asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy or chondroectodermal dysplasia-like syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, T.; Kato, R.; Hasegawa, T.

    1995-01-02

    We describe a 5-year-old Japanese boy who has some radiographic findings characteristic of asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD)-chondroectodermal dysplasia with a de novo chromosome abnormality. He also has mild mental retardation, short stature, hypoplastic hair and skin, oligodontia, small thoracic cage, hypoplastic pelvis and cone-shaped epiphyses of hands. On cytogenetic studies he was found to have a de novo del(12)(p11.21p12.2). These results suggest that the locus of the gene associated with ATD-chondroectodermal dysplasia may be situated at 12p11.21p12.2. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  1. FOXI2: a possible gene contributing to ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kurban, Mazen; Zeineddine, Savo Bou; Hamie, Lamiaa; Safi, Remi; Abbas, Ossama; Kibbi, Abdul Ghani; Bitar, Fadi; Nemer, Georges

    2017-12-01

    Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC), Noonan syndrome (NS), and Costello syndrome are a group of diseases that belong to the RASopathies. The syndromes share clinical features making diagnosis a challenge. To investigate the phenotype and genotype of a 10-year-old Iraqi girl with overlapping features of CFC, NS, and Costello syndromes, with additional features of ectodermal dysplasia. DNA was examined by exome sequencing and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Exome sequencing identified a mutation in the SOS1 gene and a de novo deletion in the FOXI2 gene which was neither present in the international databases, nor in 400 chromosomes from the same population. Based on immunohistochemical staining, FOXI2 was identified in the basal cell layer of the skin and overlapped with the expression of P63, a major player in ectodermal dysplasia. We therefore suggest screening for FOXI2 mutation in the setting of ectodermal features that are not associated with genes known to contribute to ectodermal dysplasia.

  2. [The difficulty of prenatal diagnosis of Kniest's disease. Apropos of a case simulating congenital spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Kerleroux, J; Roux, M S; Cottin, X

    1994-01-01

    The second antenatal diagnosis of Kniest's syndrome is described in this report. This skeletal dysplasia involving disproportional dwarfism and a flat facies is compatible with life and normal intelligence. The authors describe the observed sonographic imagery and emphasize the important role of ultrasonography for antenatal evaluation of the prognosis of the skeletal dysplasias. The main differential diagnosis is spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia congenita.

  3. Conference Report: International Research Symposium on Ankyloblepharon-Ectodermal Defects-Cleft Lip and/or Palate (AEC) Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fete, Mary; vanBokhoven, Hans; Clements, Suzanne; McKeon, Frank; Roop, Dennis R.; Koster, Maranke I.; Missero, Caterina; Attardi, Laura D.; Lombillo, Vivian A.; Ratovitski, Edward; Julapalli, Meena; Ruths, Derek; Sybert, Virginia P.; Siegfried, Elaine C.; Bree, Alanna F.

    2009-01-01

    Ankyloblepharon-Ectodermal Defects-Cleft Lip/Palate (AEC) Syndrome (Hay-Wells syndrome, MIM #106220) is a rare autosomal dominant ectodermal dysplasia syndrome. It is due to mutations in the p63 gene, known to be a regulatory gene with many downstream gene targets. TP63 is important in the differentiation and proliferation of the epidermis, as well as many other processes including limb and facial development. It is also known that mutations in p63 lead to skin erosions. These erosions, especially on the scalp, are defining features of AEC syndrome and cause significant morbidity and mortality in these patients. It was this fact that led to the 2003 AEC Skin Erosion Workshop. That conference laid the groundwork for the International Research Symposium for AEC Syndrome held at Texas Children's Hospital in 2006. The conference brought together the largest cohort of individuals with AEC syndrome, along with a multitude of physicians and scientists. The overarching goals were to define the clinical and pathologic findings for improved diagnostic criteria, to obtain tissue samples for further study and to define future research directions. The symposium was successful in accomplishing these aims as detailed in this conference report. Following our report, we also present eleven manuscripts within this special section that outline the collective clinical, pathologic and mutational data from eighteen individuals enrolled in the concurrent Baylor College of Medicine IRB-approved protocol: Characterization of AEC syndrome. These collaborative findings will hopefully provide a stepping stone to future translational projects of p63 and p63-related syndromes. PMID:19353643

  4. p63 in skin development and ectodermal dysplasias

    PubMed Central

    Koster, Maranke I.

    2010-01-01

    The transcription factor p63 is critically important for skin development and maintenance. Processes that require p63 include epidermal lineage commitment, epidermal differentiation, cell adhesion, and basement membrane formation. Not surprisingly, alterations in the p63 pathway underlie a subset of ectodermal dysplasias, developmental syndromes in which the skin and skin appendages do not develop normally. This review summarizes the current understanding of the role of p63 in normal development and ectodermal dysplasias. PMID:20445549

  5. [Advances in bone dysplasias].

    PubMed

    Borrego, E; Farrington, D M; Downey, F J

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of bone dysplasias is estimated to be one case per 1,000 inhabitants, which suggests that, at some point in the career of an orthopaedic surgeon, he will face with one of these patients. The aim of this paper is to review the general aspects of bone dysplasias and focus on those, which due to their frequency and importance, we consider most relevant (achondroplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, osteogenesis imperfecta), reviewing their fundamental features and the latest therapeutic advances. There is no cure for these diseases, so early diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic management, becomes the key to improving quality of life of these patients. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Cervical deciduosis imitating dysplasia.

    PubMed

    van Diepen, Diederik Anthony; Hellebrekers, Bart; van Haaften, Anne-Marie; Natté, Remco

    2015-09-22

    Ectopic cervical deciduosis is generally an accidental finding during pregnancy, and usually presents without any symptoms or need for therapeutic intervention. However, it can sometimes imitate dysplasia or carcinoma. We report a case of a 34-year-old G2P0, with a history of cervical dysplasia, presenting at 11 weeks of gestation, with vaginal blood loss. During examination, lesions mimicking dysplasia were found on the cervix. Histological examination reported cervical deciduosis. Deciduosis is a benign change during pregnancy and will resolve spontaneously. With the increasing use of cytology and colposcopy, the reported incidence is growing. When it is hard to differentiate between dysplasia and deciduosis, histological confirmation should be considered. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Cervical deciduosis imitating dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    van Diepen, Diederik Anthony; Hellebrekers, Bart; van Haaften, Anne-Marie; Natté, Remco

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic cervical deciduosis is generally an accidental finding during pregnancy, and usually presents without any symptoms or need for therapeutic intervention. However, it can sometimes imitate dysplasia or carcinoma. We report a case of a 34-year-old G2P0, with a history of cervical dysplasia, presenting at 11 weeks of gestation, with vaginal blood loss. During examination, lesions mimicking dysplasia were found on the cervix. Histological examination reported cervical deciduosis. Deciduosis is a benign change during pregnancy and will resolve spontaneously. With the increasing use of cytology and colposcopy, the reported incidence is growing. When it is hard to differentiate between dysplasia and deciduosis, histological confirmation should be considered. PMID:26396123

  8. Expanding the phenome and variome of skeletal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Maddirevula, Sateesh; Alsahli, Saud; Alhabeeb, Lamees; Patel, Nisha; Alzahrani, Fatema; Shamseldin, Hanan E; Anazi, Shams; Ewida, Nour; Alsaif, Hessa S; Mohamed, Jawahir Y; Alazami, Anas M; Ibrahim, Niema; Abdulwahab, Firdous; Hashem, Mais; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Monies, Dorota; Al Tassan, Nada; Alshammari, Muneera; Alsagheir, Afaf; Seidahmed, Mohammed Zain; Sogati, Samira; Aglan, Mona S; Hamad, Muddathir H; Salih, Mustafa A; Hamed, Ahlam A; Alhashmi, Nadia; Nabil, Amira; Alfadli, Fatima; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Alkuraya, Hisham; Peitee, Winnie Ong; Keng, W T; Qasem, Abdullah; Mushiba, Aziza M; Zaki, Maha S; Fassad, Mahmoud R; Alfadhel, Majid; Alexander, Saji; Sabr, Yasser; Temtamy, Samia; Ekbote, Alka V; Ismail, Samira; Hosny, Gamal Ahmed; Otaify, Ghada A; Amr, Khalda; Al Tala, Saeed; Khan, Arif O; Rizk, Tamer; Alaqeel, Aida; Alsiddiky, Abdulmonem; Singh, Ankur; Kapoor, Seema; Alhashem, Amal; Faqeih, Eissa; Shaheen, Ranad; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2018-04-05

    PurposeTo describe our experience with a large cohort (411 patients from 288 families) of various forms of skeletal dysplasia who were molecularly characterized.MethodsDetailed phenotyping and next-generation sequencing (panel and exome).ResultsOur analysis revealed 224 pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants (54 (24%) of which are novel) in 123 genes with established or tentative links to skeletal dysplasia. In addition, we propose 5 genes as candidate disease genes with suggestive biological links (WNT3A, SUCO, RIN1, DIP2C, and PAN2). Phenotypically, we note that our cohort spans 36 established phenotypic categories by the International Skeletal Dysplasia Nosology, as well as 18 novel skeletal dysplasia phenotypes that could not be classified under these categories, e.g., the novel C3orf17-related skeletal dysplasia. We also describe novel phenotypic aspects of well-known disease genes, e.g., PGAP3-related Toriello-Carey syndrome-like phenotype. We note a strong founder effect for many genes in our cohort, which allowed us to calculate a minimum disease burden for the autosomal recessive forms of skeletal dysplasia in our population (7.16E-04), which is much higher than the global average.ConclusionBy expanding the phenotypic, allelic, and locus heterogeneity of skeletal dysplasia in humans, we hope our study will improve the diagnostic rate of patients with these conditions.GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 5 April 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2018.50.

  9. Cervical Dysplasia: Is It Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... showed cervical dysplasia. What does that mean? Is it cancer? Answers from Shannon K. Laughlin-Tommaso, M. ... or glandular cells. Dysplasia could go away on its own. Or, rarely, it could develop into cancer. ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: craniometaphyseal dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Passos-Bueno MR. Mapping of the autosomal recessive (AR) craniometaphyseal dysplasia locus to chromosome region 6q21-22 and confirmation of genetic heterogeneity for mild AR spondylocostal dysplasia. Am J Med Genet. 2000 Dec ...

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of boomerang dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Marja W; Den Hollander, Nicolette S; De Krijger, Ronald R; Bonifé, Luisa; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Nikkels, Peter G; Willems, Patrick J

    2003-10-01

    Boomerang dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type 1 and Piepkorn dysplasia are bone dysplasias with an overlapping clinical spectrum characterized by deficient formation and ossification of specific elements of the skeleton. Typical symptoms include micromelia with diminished ossification, and a characteristic bowed and boomerang-like aspect of the long tubular bones. We report here a new case of boomerang dysplasia, which was detected prenatally in the 16th week of gestation by ultrasound. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Upper-extremity phocomelia reexamined: a longitudinal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Charles A; Manske, Paul R; Busa, Riccardo; Mills, Janith; Carter, Peter; Ezaki, Marybeth

    2005-12-01

    In contrast to longitudinal deficiencies, phocomelia is considered a transverse, intercalated segmental dysplasia. Most patients demonstrate severe, but not otherwise classifiable, upper-extremity deformities, which usually cannot be placed into one of three previously described phocomelia groups. Additionally, these phocomelic extremities do not demonstrate true segmental deficits; the limb is also abnormal proximal and distal to the segmental defect. The purpose of this investigation was to present evidence that upper-extremity abnormalities in patients previously diagnosed as having phocomelia in fact represent a proximal continuum of radial or ulnar longitudinal dysplasia. The charts and radiographs of forty-one patients (sixty extremities) diagnosed as having upper-extremity phocomelia were reviewed retrospectively. On the basis of the findings on the radiographs, the disorders were categorized into three groups: (1) proximal radial longitudinal dysplasia, which was characterized by an absent proximal part of the humerus, a nearly normal distal part of the humerus, a completely absent radius, and a radial-sided hand dysplasia; (2) proximal ulnar longitudinal dysplasia, characterized by a short one-bone upper extremity that bifurcated distally and by severe hand abnormalities compatible with ulnar dysplasia; and (3) severe combined dysplasia, with type A characterized by an absence of the forearm segment (i.e., the radius and ulna) and type B characterized by absence of the arm and forearm (i.e., the hand attached to the thorax). Twenty-nine limbs in sixteen patients could be classified as having proximal radial longitudinal dysplasia. Systemic medical conditions such as thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome were common in those patients, but additional musculoskeletal conditions were rare. Twenty limbs in seventeen patients could be classified as having proximal ulnar longitudinal dysplasia. Associated musculoskeletal abnormalities, such as proximal femoral

  13. [Kniest's syndrome (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kniest, W; Leiber, B

    1977-12-01

    The clinical picture of the Kniest's syndrome is described. The syndrome is a rare hereditary condition with generalized bone dysplasia, disproportional dwarfism, conduction deafness and severe myopia, retinal detachment, cataract and amaurosis.

  14. Differentiation Therapy With Decitabine in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-25

    Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Thrombocytopenia

  15. Mutations in FLNB cause boomerang dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bicknell, L; Morgan, T; Bonafe, L; Wessels, M; Bialer, M; Willems, P; Cohn, D; Krakow, D; Robertson, S

    2005-01-01

    Boomerang dysplasia (BD) is a perinatal lethal osteochondrodysplasia, characterised by absence or underossification of the limb bones and vertebrae. The BD phenotype is similar to a group of disorders including atelosteogenesis I, atelosteogenesis III, and dominantly inherited Larsen syndrome that we have recently shown to be associated with mutations in FLNB, the gene encoding the actin binding cytoskeletal protein, filamin B. We report the identification of mutations in FLNB in two unrelated individuals with boomerang dysplasia. The resultant substitutions, L171R and S235P, lie within the calponin homology 2 region of the actin binding domain of filamin B and occur at sites that are evolutionarily well conserved. These findings expand the phenotypic spectrum resulting from mutations in FLNB and underline the central role this protein plays during skeletogenesis in humans. PMID:15994868

  16. Mutations in FLNB cause boomerang dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bicknell, L S; Morgan, T; Bonafé, L; Wessels, M W; Bialer, M G; Willems, P J; Cohn, D H; Krakow, D; Robertson, S P

    2005-07-01

    Boomerang dysplasia (BD) is a perinatal lethal osteochondrodysplasia, characterised by absence or underossification of the limb bones and vertebrae. The BD phenotype is similar to a group of disorders including atelosteogenesis I, atelosteogenesis III, and dominantly inherited Larsen syndrome that we have recently shown to be associated with mutations in FLNB, the gene encoding the actin binding cytoskeletal protein, filamin B. We report the identification of mutations in FLNB in two unrelated individuals with boomerang dysplasia. The resultant substitutions, L171R and S235P, lie within the calponin homology 2 region of the actin binding domain of filamin B and occur at sites that are evolutionarily well conserved. These findings expand the phenotypic spectrum resulting from mutations in FLNB and underline the central role this protein plays during skeletogenesis in humans.

  17. Two-sided Ubiquitin Binding of NF-κB Essential Modulator (NEMO) Zinc Finger Unveiled by a Mutation Associated with Anhidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia with Immunodeficiency Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Ngadjeua, Flora; Chiaravalli, Jeanne; Traincard, François; Raynal, Bertrand; Fontan, Elisabeth; Agou, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Hypomorphic mutations in the X-linked human NEMO gene result in various forms of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency. NEMO function is mediated by two distal ubiquitin binding domains located in the regulatory C-terminal domain of the protein: the coiled-coil 2-leucine zipper (CC2-LZ) domain and the zinc finger (ZF) domain. Here, we investigated the effect of the D406V mutation found in the NEMO ZF of an ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency patients. This point mutation does not impair the folding of NEMO ZF or mono-ubiquitin binding but is sufficient to alter NEMO function, as NEMO-deficient fibroblasts and Jurkat T lymphocytes reconstituted with full-length D406V NEMO lead to partial and strong defects in NF-κB activation, respectively. To further characterize the ubiquitin binding properties of NEMO ZF, we employed di-ubiquitin (di-Ub) chains composed of several different linkages (Lys-48, Lys-63, and linear (Met-1-linked)). We showed that the pathogenic mutation preferentially impairs the interaction with Lys-63 and Met-1-linked di-Ub, which correlates with its ubiquitin binding defect in vivo. Furthermore, sedimentation velocity and gel filtration showed that NEMO ZF, like other NEMO related-ZFs, binds mono-Ub and di-Ub with distinct stoichiometries, indicating the presence of a new Ub site within the NEMO ZF. Extensive mutagenesis was then performed on NEMO ZF and characterization of mutants allowed the proposal of a structural model of NEMO ZF in interaction with a Lys-63 di-Ub chain. PMID:24100029

  18. A new probably autosomal recessive cardiomelic dysplasia with mesoaxial hexadactyly

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, R Martínez Y; Corona-Rivera, E; Jiménez-Martínez, M; Ocampo-Campos, R; García-Maravilla, S; Cantú, J M

    1981-01-01

    A distinct probably autosomal recessive syndrome was ascertained in a 17-year-old boy and his deceased sister. The main features were cardiac dysplasia, peculiar facies, central bilateral (mesoaxial) hexadactyly, synmetacarpalia, short stature, ocular torticollis, and delayed puberty. Images PMID:7241534

  19. Retinal tear presenting in a patient with ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Grogg, Jane Ann; Port, Nicholas; Graham, Trevor

    2014-04-01

    This article aims to report a case of known ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia in a young male patient who subsequently was found to have a retinal tear and localized retinal detachment. This is a case report of a 22-year-old white male patient with a history of ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia. Our patient initially presented with an acute exacerbation of bilateral, red, irritated eyes. No recent changes in vision were reported. The patient's ocular surface disease was consistent with ectrodermal dysplasia syndrome. However, a dilated fundus examination revealed an asymptomatic retinal tear with a surrounding localized retinal detachment. In this case, the patient presented with longstanding ocular surface disease known to be associated with this patient's inherited ectoderm disorder. In addition, this patient revealed a retinal tear, raising the possibility that patients with inherited congenital ectodermal dysplasia could be at risk for damaged structures originating from the neural ectoderm. In this heterogeneous disease, we are contributing to the existing literature a case of ectodermal dysplasia syndrome with obvious ectodermal complications that also had retinal findings leading us to speculate question if neural ectoderm could also be involved in this inherited disease.

  20. Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a hereditary disease characterized by dysplasia of tissues of ectodermal origin. The incidence of ectodermal dysplasia is rare (1 in 100,000 birth). This case report discusses the features, classification and prosthetic treatment plan (upper partial denture and lower complete denture for upper partial and lower complete edentulous arches respectively). This treatment plan would be able to provide psychological and functional boost to the sufferer. PMID:27678241

  1. Herediatary anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Studies in a Nigerian famil.

    PubMed

    Familusi, J B; Jaiyesimi, F; Ojo, C O; Attah, E B

    1975-08-01

    Studies in a Nigerian family with hereditary anhidrous ectodermal dysplasia are reported. Microscopical examinations of finger tips for sweat pores were diagnostic in phenotypes, and it is suggested that this simple nonsurgical procedure is a preferred alternative to skin biopsies in the diagnosis of the syndrome. The clinical implications of a tropical environment for the syndrome, as well as the factors that may favour maintenance of the gene in such an environment are discussed.

  2. Familial ectodermal dysplasia: a peers' agony.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Karthik; Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, Gopakumar; Nair, Preeti P

    2013-07-23

    Ectodermal dysplasias include a various group of inherited disorders which share primary defect in the development of two or more tissues of embryonic ectodermal origin. Though there are many subtypes, ectodermal dysplasias are mainly hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, among which the most common variety is X linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. We report a rare case of X linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia occurring in a family with various skin, hair and oral abnormalities.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: cranioectodermal dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... CRANIOECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA 4 Sources for This Page Arts H, Knoers N. Cranioectodermal Dysplasia. 2013 Sep 12. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Wallace SE, Amemiya A, Bean LJH, Bird TD, Fong CT, Mefford HC, Smith RJH, Stephens K, editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of ...

  4. Keratoprosthesis in Ectodermal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Rachel A F; Gonzalez, Mithra; Aquavella, James V

    2016-07-01

    To describe the complex surgical management and novel medical approach for a keratoprosthesis (KPro Boston type I) in a monocular, 73-year-old patient with ectodermal dysplasia and chronic, noninfectious corneal necrosis. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured with Snellen letters. Surgical intervention included an amniotic membrane graft, complete replacement of the KPro, conjunctival flap graft, corneal donor tissue grafts combined with inferior rectus muscle advancement, periosteal tissue graft, tarso-conjunctival flap construction, and symblepharolysis. Infliximab was used as a medical adjunctive therapy. Initial KPro placement provided a BCVA of 20/25 and long-term stability. Subsequent chronic melting at the optic border necessitated numerous surgeries to prevent extrusion and failure. Ultimate fistulization was addressed with the formation of a surgical pocket. The addition of infliximab promoted ocular surface stability, and the patient has maintained a BCVA of 20/80. Ectodermal dysplasia can result in eyelid and corneal abnormalities, requiring a KPro for visual restoration. In the setting of chronic, sterile corneal melt, novel surgical approaches and the off-label use of infliximab allowed for visual rehabilitation.

  5. Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome associated with renal dysplasia and embryonal tumor: localization of the gene to Xqcen-q21.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Benzie, R M; Hunter, A G; Allanson, J E; Mackenzie, A E

    We report 6 affected males in a 5-generation family with x-linked Simpson-Golabi-Behmel (SGB) syndrome. All had pre- and postnatal overgrowth with 2 adult males attaining heights over 195 cm. Other features included "coarse" face with hypertelorism, broad nasal root, cleft palate, full lips with a midline groove of the lower lip, grooved tongue with tongue tie, prominent mandible, congenital heart defects, arrhythmias, supernumerary nipples, splenomegaly, large dysplastic kidneys, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, skeletal abnormalities and postaxial hexadactyly. All affected individuals were of normal intelligence. One boy died at age 19 months of a neuroblastoma. The putative origin of the gene in this family was the maternal great grandmother of the propositus. Eight carrier females, who showed varying manifestations of the gene, have been identified. Anthropometric analysis has identified preliminary characteristic craniofacial dimensions in this syndrome. Molecular studies have shown a maximal lod score of 2.81 with no recombinants observed for the SGB-DXYS68 pairing, mapping the disorder to Xqcen-Xq21.3.

  6. Orthopaedic manifestations of campomelic dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Khoshhal, Khalid; Letts, R Mervyn

    2002-08-01

    Campomelic dysplasia is a rare form of congenital dwarfism associated with potentially fatal respiratory insufficiency. There are several types of campomelic dysplasia; however, it is characterized by the presence of anteriorly bowed tibias with cutaneous dimpling, anterolaterally bowed femurs, thoracic kyphoscoliosis, hypoplastic scapulas, and absence or delayed ossification of thoracic pedicles. With improving treatment of respiratory insufficiency, the survival rate of affected infants has increased, thereby necessitating treatment of the musculoskeletal malformations to prevent additional morbidity. In an attempt to increase awareness of the presentation of infants with campomelic dysplasia and to emphasize the difficulties of treating associated developmental dislocation of the hip early, the current authors report the case of a 2-year-old girl with campomelic dysplasia who was treated for dislocation of the right hip. The postoperative course of this child was complicated seriously by several apneic episodes secondary to tracheobronchial malacia for which she required admission to the pediatric intensive care unit.

  7. Guide to Understanding Frontonasal Dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... although most people with FND are of normal intelligence. Heart Rare cases of frontonasal dysplasia may be ... prognosis m any people with FND have normal intelligence and can expect a normal lifespan. how can ...

  8. Melorheostosis: a Rare Sclerosing Bone Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, Anupam; Clarke, Bart L

    2017-08-01

    Melorheostosis is a rare sclerosing bone dysplasia that affects both cortical bone and adjacent soft tissue structures in a sclerotomal distribution. In this review, we describe the natural history, radiological features, proposed pathogenesis, and management options for this debilitating condition. Since its first description in 1922, about 400 cases of melorheostosis have been reported, either as single reports or in small case series. Melorheostosis affects the appendicular skeleton more commonly than the axial skeleton and usually presents with lower limb deformity. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical and radiological features that help differentiate this condition from other sclerosing bone dysplasias. LEM domain-containing protein 3 (LEMD3) gene mutations have been demonstrated in several familial cases, but these have been more strongly correlated with other hereditary dysplasias, such as osteopoikilosis, and are not thought to be the causative gene for melorheostosis. The exact etiology of classic sporadically occurring melorheostosis remains unknown, with possible causes being somatic LEMD3 mutations, somatic mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein/transforming growth factor-beta pathway, mutations in multiple genes, or other non-genetic causes. Management in recent years has involved nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates in addition to traditional orthopedic surgical approaches and physical therapy. Melorheostosis may present as mixed or atypical osseous involvement in addition to the classically described "dripping candle wax" appearance of hyperostosis. Some patients may have overlap with osteopoikilosis or Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome. In the future, better characterization of genetic and developmental factors predisposing to melorheostosis may lead to the development of targeted therapy for this condition, as well as for more commonly encountered skeletal abnormalities.

  9. Mutation of Gtf2ird1 from the Williams-Beuren syndrome critical region results in facial dysplasia, motor dysfunction, and altered vocalisations.

    PubMed

    Howard, Monique L; Palmer, Stephen J; Taylor, Kylie M; Arthurson, Geoffrey J; Spitzer, Matthew W; Du, Xin; Pang, Terence Y C; Renoir, Thibault; Hardeman, Edna C; Hannan, Anthony J

    2012-03-01

    Insufficiency of the transcriptional regulator GTF2IRD1 has become a strong potential explanation for some of the major characteristic features of the neurodevelopmental disorder Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS). Genotype/phenotype correlations in humans indicate that the hemizygous loss of the GTF2IRD1 gene and an adjacent paralogue, GTF2I, play crucial roles in the neurocognitive and craniofacial aspects of the disease. In order to explore this genetic relationship in greater detail, we have generated a targeted Gtf2ird1 mutation in mice that blocks normal GTF2IRD1 protein production. Detailed analyses of homozygous null Gtf2ird1 mice have revealed a series of phenotypes that share some intriguing parallels with WBS. These include reduced body weight, a facial deformity resulting from localised epidermal hyperplasia, a motor coordination deficit, alterations in exploratory activity and, in response to specific stress-inducing stimuli; a novel audible vocalisation and increased serum corticosterone. Analysis of Gtf2ird1 expression patterns in the brain using a knock-in LacZ reporter and c-fos activity mapping illustrates the regions where these neurological abnormalities may originate. These data provide new mechanistic insight into the clinical genetic findings in WBS patients and indicate that insufficiency of GTF2IRD1 protein contributes to abnormalities of facial development, motor function and specific behavioural disorders that accompany this disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lenalidomide in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-10

    Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Lenz microphthalmia syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyeballs that are abnormally small ( microphthalmia ) or absent (anophthalmia), leading to vision loss or blindness. Other eye ... Lenz dysplasia Lenz syndrome MAA MCOPS1 microphthalmia or anophthalmos with associated anomalies microphthalmia, syndromic 1 Related Information ...

  12. Ureaplasma and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Gancia, Paolo; Delogu, Antonio; Pomero, Giulia

    2014-03-01

    Advances in neonatal intensive care have greatly improved survival rates for children born in a very early stage of lung development (i.e. less than 26 weeks of gestation). In these premature babies, even low levels of oxygen and methods of minimally invasive ventilation may disrupt the growth of the distal airways, a condition described as "new" bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Ureaplasma infection can occur in utero or in the perinatal period in premature infants, in some of which the infection with these organisms triggers an important lung pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic response, and may increase the risk of developing BPD. The inflammation may be worsened by exposure to oxygen and mechanical ventilation. At present, clinical studies have not clarified the role of Ureaplasma in the pathogenesis of BPD and there is insufficient evidence to determine whether antibiotic treatment of Ureaplasma has influence on the development of BPD and its comorbidities. Future research in the context of well-designed and controlled clinical trials of adequate statistical power should focus on how to determine whether the treatment of Ureaplasma decreases lung inflammation, reduces rates of BPD, and improves long-term neurodevelopment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genomics of Fibromuscular Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Di Monaco, Silvia; Georges, Adrien; Lengelé, Jean-Philippe; Vikkula, Miikka; Persu, Alexandre

    2018-05-21

    Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD) is “an idiopathic, segmental, non-atherosclerotic and non-inflammatory disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to stenosis of small and medium-sized arteries” (Persu, et al; 2014). FMD can lead to hypertension, arterial dissections, subarachnoid haemorrhage, stroke or mesenteric ischemia. The pathophysiology of the disease remains elusive. While familial cases are rare (<5%) in contemporary FMD registries, there is evidence in favour of the existence of multiple genetic factors involved in this vascular disease. Recent collaborative efforts allowed the identification of a first genetic locus associated with FMD. This intronic variant located in the phosphatase and actin regulator 1 gene ( PHACTR1 ) may influence the transcription activity of the endothelin-1 gene ( EDN1 ) located nearby on chromosome 6. Interestingly, the PHACTR1 locus has also been involved in vascular hypertrophy in normal subjects, carotid dissection, migraine and coronary artery disease. National and international registries of FMD patients, with deep and harmonised phenotypic and genetic characterisation, are expected to be instrumental to improve our understanding of the genetic basis and pathophysiology of this intriguing vascular disease.

  14. Herediatary anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Studies in a Nigerian famil.

    PubMed Central

    Familusi, J B; Jaiyesimi, F; Ojo, C O; Attah, E B

    1975-01-01

    Studies in a Nigerian family with hereditary anhidrous ectodermal dysplasia are reported. Microscopical examinations of finger tips for sweat pores were diagnostic in phenotypes, and it is suggested that this simple nonsurgical procedure is a preferred alternative to skin biopsies in the diagnosis of the syndrome. The clinical implications of a tropical environment for the syndrome, as well as the factors that may favour maintenance of the gene in such an environment are discussed. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:1200681

  15. Odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia in a patient homozygous for a WNT10A nonsense mutation and mild manifestations of ectodermal dysplasia in carriers of the mutation.

    PubMed

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Clemmensen, Ole; Gjørup, Hans; Hertz, Jens Michael; Bygum, Anette

    2016-03-10

    Odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia (OODD) is a rare form of ectodermal dysplasia characterized by severe oligodontia, onychodysplasia, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, dry skin, hypotrichosis, and hyperhidrosis of the palms and soles. The ectodermal dysplasias resulting from biallelic mutations in the WNT10A gene result in highly variable phenotypes, ranging from isolated tooth agenesis to OODD and Schöpf-Schulz-Passarge syndrome (SSPS). We identified a female patient, with consanguineous parents, who was clinically diagnosed with OODD. Genetic testing showed that she was homozygous for a previously reported pathogenic mutation in the WNT10A gene, c.321C > A, p.Cys107*. The skin and nail abnormalities were for many years interpreted as psoriasis and treated accordingly. A thorough clinical examination revealed hypotrichosis and hyperhidrosis of the soles and dental examination revealed agenesis of permanent teeth except the two maxillary central incisors. Skin biopsies from the hyperkeratotic palms and soles showed the characteristic changes of eccrine syringofibroadenomatosis, which has been described in patients with ectodermal dysplasias. Together with a family history of tooth anomalies, this lead to the clinical suspicion of a hereditary ectodermal dysplasia. This case illustrates the challenges of diagnosing ectodermal dysplasia like OODD and highlights the relevance of interdisciplinary cooperation in the diagnosis of rare conditions.

  16. 2008 International Conference on Ectodermal Dysplasias Classification Conference Report

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Carlos F.; Jorgenson, Ronald J.; Wright, J. Timothy; DiGiovanna, John J.; Fete, Mary D.

    2009-01-01

    There are many ways to classify ectodermal dysplasia syndromes. Clinicians in practice use a list of syndromes from which to choose a potential diagnosis, paging through a volume, such as Freire-Maia and Pinheiro's corpus, matching their patient's findings to listed syndromes. Medical researchers may want a list of syndromes that share one (monothetic system) or several (polythetic system) traits in order to focus research on a narrowly defined group. Special interest groups may want a list from which they can choose constituencies, and insurance companies and government agencies may want a list to determine for whom to provide (or deny) health care coverage. Furthermore, various molecular biologists are now promoting classification systems based on gene mutation (e.g. TP63 associated syndromes) or common molecular pathways. The challenge will be to balance comprehensiveness within the classification with usability and accessibility so that the benefits truly serve the needs of researchers, health care providers and ultimately the individuals and families directly affected by ectodermal dysplasias. It is also recognized that a new classification approach is an ongoing process and will require periodical reviews or updates. Whatever scheme is developed, however, will have far-reaching application for other groups of disorders for which classification is complicated by the number of interested parties and advances in diagnostic acumen. Consensus among interested parties is necessary for optimizing communication among the diverse groups whether it be for equitable distribution of funds, correctness of diagnosis and treatment, or focusing research efforts. PMID:19681152

  17. [Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia. A pediatric disease reaches adulthood].

    PubMed

    Lücke, Thomas; Kanzelmeyer, Nele; Franke, Doris; Hartmann, Hans; Ehrich, Jochen H H; Das, Anibh M

    2006-03-15

    Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD) is a rare autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder caused by mutations of the SMARCAL 1 gene (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1). Main clinical features are: disproportional growth deficiency due to spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, nephrotic syndrome with focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, and defective cellular immunity. Patients with severe SIOD have life-limiting complications like cerebral ischemia due to vaso-occlusive processes. Only a few patients reached adulthood. The clinical course of four adult SIOD patients is presented. Even patients with severe SIOD can reach adulthood. Therefore, doctors working in the field of internal medicine and family doctors should be familiar with the clinical picture of SIOD.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: cleidocranial dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bird TD, Ledbetter N, Mefford HC, Smith RJH, Stephens K, editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of ... gov/books/NBK1513/ Citation on PubMed Roberts T, Stephen L, Beighton P. Cleidocranial dysplasia: a review of ...

  19. Dentomaxillofacial characteristics of ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yumiko; Baba, Yoshiyuki; Tsuji, Michiko; Fukuoka, Hiroki; Ogawa, Takuya; Ohkuma, Mizue; Moriyama, Keiji

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective hospital-based study was to elucidate the dentomaxillofacial characteristics of ectodermal dysplasia. Six Japanese individuals (one male and five female; age range, 12.7-27.2 years) underwent comprehensive examinations, including history recording, cephalometric analysis, panoramic radiography, and analysis of dental models. All the subjects had two or more major manifestations for clinical diagnosis of ectodermal dysplasia (e.g., defects of hair, teeth, nails, and sweat glands). They presented hypodontia (mean number of missing teeth, 9.5; range, 5-14), especially in the premolar region, and enamel dysplasia. Five subjects had bilateral molar occlusion, whereas one subject had unilateral molar occlusion. The common skeletal features were small facial height, maxillary hypoplasia, counterclockwise rotation of the mandible, and mandibular protrusion. Interestingly, the maxillary first molars were located in higher positions and the upper anterior facial height was smaller than the Japanese norm. The results suggest that vertical and anteroposterior maxillary growth retardation, rather than lack of occlusal support due to hypodontia, leads to reduced anterior facial height in individuals with ectodermal dysplasia. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: diastrophic dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Changes Diastrophic dysplasia is one of several skeletal disorders caused by mutations in the SLC26A2 gene. This gene provides instructions for making a protein that is essential for the normal development of cartilage and for its conversion to bone. Cartilage is a tough, flexible tissue ...

  1. Occipitocervical fusion in skeletal dysplasia: a new surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Sitoula, Prakash; Mackenzie, William G; Shah, Suken A; Thacker, Mihir; Ditro, Colleen; Holmes, Laurens; Campbell, Jeffrey W; Rogers, Kenneth J

    2014-07-01

    Retrospective cohort study. This study describes clinical and radiological results of a new cable technique for occipitocervical fusion (OCF) in children with skeletal dysplasia (SD). Anatomical variability and poor bone quality make upper cervical surgery technically challenging in patients with SD. We present a new cable technique for OCF in children with SD when the posterior elements are not of a size or quality for other types of instrumentation. Retrospective review of 24 patients with SD (8 boys, 16 girls) who underwent OCF between 2001 and 2011. In this technique, cables provide compression across a bone graft that is prevented from entering the canal and the graft resists excessive lordosis. Demographic and radiographical data are presented. All patients were followed for initial outcomes of surgery, and 20 patients (83%) were followed for 2 years or more for mid- and long-term outcomes. Mean age at surgery was 6.5 years and mean follow-up was 4.1 ± 2.4 years. This technique was used as a primary procedure in 20 and a revision procedure in 4 patients. Diagnoses included Morquio syndrome (6), spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (9), spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (5), metatropic dysplasia (3), and Kniest syndrome (1). Ten patients had upper cervical instability and features of cervical myelopathy, and the remaining 14 patients had instability and signal changes on magnetic resonance image. Fusion extended from occiput to C2 in 71% patients, and upper cervical decompression was needed in 92% patients. Postoperatively, all patients were immobilized in a halo vest for mean duration of 12 weeks. Fusion was achieved in all patients. Complications included halo pin-tract infections (7), junctional instability (2), and extension of fusion (4). This new cable technique is a good alternative for OCF in patients with SD who have altered anatomy at the craniocervical junction not amenable to rigid internal fixation. 4.

  2. [Connective tissue dysplasia in patients with celiac desease as a problem of violation of adaptation reserve islands of the body].

    PubMed

    Tkachenko, E; Oreshko, L S; Soloveva, E A; Shabanova, A A; Zhuravleva, M S

    2015-01-01

    Clinically significant dysplasia of connective tissue in patients with celiac disease is often responsible for various visceral disorders. Different disturbances of motor and evacuation functions are often determined in this patients (gastroesophageal reflux, duodenogastral reflux, spastic and hyperkinetic dyskinesia). The clinical course of the celiac disease, associated with connective tissue dysplasia, is characterized by asthenovegetative syndrome, reduced tolerance to physical activity, general weakness, fatigue and emotional instability. These data should be considered in choosing a treatment.

  3. Ectodermal dysplasia with blindness in sibs on the island of Rodrigues.

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, C E; Beighton, P

    1992-01-01

    A brother and sister from the island of Rodrigues had mental retardation, blindness owing to severe ocular malformations, short stature, dysmorphic facial features, hypotrichosis, and dental abnormalities. It is likely that they have a hitherto unrecognised autosomal recessive ectodermal dysplasia syndrome. Images PMID:1583659

  4. Inherited retinal dysplasia and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous in Miniature Schnauzer dogs.

    PubMed

    Grahn, Bruce H; Storey, Eric S; McMillan, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to define the clinical syndrome of retinal dysplasia and persistent primary vitreous in Miniature Schnauzer dogs and determine the etiology. We examined 106 Miniature Schnauzers using a biomicroscope and indirect ophthalmoscope. The anterior and posterior segments of affected dogs were photographed. Four enucleated eyes were examined using routine light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A pedigree was constructed and related dogs were test-bred to define the mode of inheritance of this syndrome. Congenital retinal dysplasia was confirmed in 24 of 106 related Miniature Schnauzer dogs. Physical and postmortem examinations revealed that congenital abnormalities were limited to the eyes. Biomicroscopic, indirect ophthalmoscopic, and neuro-ophthalmic examinations confirmed that some of these dogs were blind secondary to bilateral retinal dysplasia and detachment (nonattachment) (n = 13), and the remainder had generalized retinal dysplasia (n = 11). Fifteen of these dogs were also diagnosed with unilateral (n = 9) or bilateral (n = 6) persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. Nutritional, infectious, or toxic etiologies were not evident on physical, postmortem, light microscopic, or transmitting and scanning electron microscopic examination of four affected Miniature Schnauzers. We examined the pedigree and determined that an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance was most likely. Three test-bred litters including those from affected parents, carrier and affected parents, and carrier parents confirmed this mode of inheritance. This study confirms that retinal dysplasia and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous is a congenital abnormality that is inherited as an autosomal recessive condition in Miniature Schnauzers.

  5. Follicular dysplasia in five Weimaraners.

    PubMed

    Laffort-Dassot, Catherine; Beco, Luc; Carlotti, Didier Noel

    2002-10-01

    This study evaluated the clinical and histopathological features and results of light and electron scanning microscopy assessments of follicular dysplasia in five Weimar Pointers. The data were compared with those obtained in three normal Weimaraners. In our study, this dermatosis affected young adults that showed progressive alopecia of the trunk (head and limbs were spared) associated with recurrent folliculitis/furunculosis. Exclusion of other dermatoses and the presence of histopathological lesions and hair shafts abnormalities seen in light and/or scanning electron microscopy similar to colour dilution alopecia led to the diagnosis of follicular dysplasia. The lesions we observed are the same as those described previously in colour dilution alopecia, but they were less pronounced in all our samples.

  6. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Mechanical Ventilation and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Keszler, Martin; Sant'Anna, Guilherme

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical ventilation is an important potentially modifiable risk factor for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Effective use of noninvasive respiratory support reduces the risk of lung injury. Lung volume recruitment and avoidance of excessive tidal volume are key elements of lung-protective ventilation strategies. Avoidance of oxidative stress, less invasive methods of surfactant administration, and high-frequency ventilation are also important factors in lung injury prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Absent pedicles in campomelic dysplasia.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Michael M; Dede, Ozgur; Bosch, Patrick; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to report a case of campomelic dysplasia illustrating the absence of cervical and thoracic pedicles. This report reiterates the importance of this clinical peculiarity in the setting of spine instrumentation. A 10-year-old female patient with campomelic dysplasia presented with progressive kyphoscoliosis and signs of neural compromise. Imaging studies confirmed thoracic level stenosis and demonstrated absence of multiple pedicles in cervical and thoracic spine. The patient underwent decompression and instrumentation/fusion for her spinal deformity. The patient was instrumented between C2 and L4 with pedicle screws and sublaminar cables. However, pedicle fixation was not possible for the lower cervical and upper-mid thoracic spine. Also, floating posterior elements precluded the use of laminar fixation in the lower cervical spine. Cervicothoracic lumbosacral orthosis (CTLSO) was used for external immobilization to supplement the tenuous fixation in the cervicothoracic area. The patient improved neurologically with no signs of implant failure at the 2-year follow-up. Absence of pedicles and floating posterior elements present a challenge during spine surgery in campomelic dysplasia. Surgeons should prepare for alternative fixation methods and external immobilization when planning on spinal instrumentation in affected patients. Level IV Case Report.

  9. Holoprosencephaly with caudal dysplasia. Pseudo-trisomy 13 or a distinct entity?

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, R.P.B.; Aylsworth, A.S.; Timmons, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    We have studied three chromosomally normal patients with multiple anomalies that include holoprosencephaly and caudal dysplasia. Each has features found in patients with pseudo-trisomy 13, though each lacks malformations common in that syndrome. Patients 1 and 2 did not have polydactyly and patients 2 and 3 had no congenital heart malformation. Patient 1 is also unusual in that he does not have typical holoprosencephalic facies and is alive at age 25 months. We have also identified two other similar patients in the London Dysmorphology Database, each of which had holoprosencephaly, congenital heart malformation, and imperforate anus. Isolated caudal dysplasia andmore » holoprosencephaly are both causally heterogeneous. They have been reported together rarely in patients with several different syndromes including chromosomal abnormalities, monogenic syndromes, teratogenic insults, and syndromes of unknown cause. Over thirty cases of {open_quotes}pseudo-trisomy 13{close_quotes} have now been reported and eight of these have had features of caudal dysplasia. There have been four with imperforate anus or anal stenosis, one with lumbosacral vertebral anomaly, and three others with bilateral renal agenesis or hypoplasia. Based on our patients and this review of other reported and unreported cases, we suggest that caudal dysplasia may be a significant clinical feature of pseudo-trisomy 13. Alternatively, holoprosencephaly and caudal dysplasia with a normal karyotype may represent a similar though distinct entity. Some may have submicroscopic chromosomal deletions. Molecular studies of regions known to be associated with holoprosencephaly are currently in progress on tissue from Patient 1. We hope these observations will stimulate reports of similarly affected patients to allow better definition of pseudo-trisomy 13 and other overlap syndromes.« less

  10. Recurrent short rib polydactyly syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriades, M; Iavazzo, C; Manolakos, E; Hassiakos, D; Botsis, D; Petersen, M; Konstantinidou, A

    2013-01-01

    We present three consecutive cases of skeletal dysplasias of a non-consanguineous couple with five pregnancies. The diagnosis of short-rib polydactyly syndrome (SRPS) was feasible by ultrasound during the 1st trimester of pregnancy. SRPS represents a heterogeneous group of lethal skeletal dysplasias. It is characterised by short limb dwarfism complicated by thoracic hypoplasia, polydactyly and different anomalies of major organs such as congenital heart defects and renal dysplasia. Four major types of the SRPS have been described: type I (Saldino-Noonan); type II (Majewski); type III (Verma-Naumoff) and type IV (Beemar-Langer). However, there is phenotypic overlapping between four types and with those of non-lethal skeletal dysplasias (i.e. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome and Jeune syndrome). Our cases show the importance of the nuchal translucency (NT) scan that offers the opportunity to examine fetal anatomy in the 1st trimester and diagnose rare skeletal abnormalities early in pregnancy.

  11. Mutation in WNT10A Is Associated with an Autosomal Recessive Ectodermal Dysplasia: The Odonto-onycho-dermal Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Adaimy, Lynn ; Chouery, Eliane ; Mégarbané, Hala ; Mroueh, Salman ; Delague, Valérie ; Nicolas, Elsa ; Belguith, Hanen ; de Mazancourt, Philippe ; Mégarbané, André 

    2007-01-01

    Odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome in which the presenting phenotype is dry hair, severe hypodontia, smooth tongue with marked reduction of fungiform and filiform papillae, onychodysplasia, keratoderma and hyperhidrosis of palms and soles, and hyperkeratosis of the skin. We studied three consanguineous Lebanese Muslim Shiite families that included six individuals affected with odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia. Using a homozygosity-mapping strategy, we assigned the disease locus to an ∼9-cM region at chromosome 2q35-q36.2, located between markers rs16853834 and D2S353, with a maximum multipoint LOD score of 5.7. Screening of candidate genes in this region led us to identify the same c.697G→T (p.Glu233X) homozygous nonsense mutation in exon 3 of the WNT10A gene in all patients. At the protein level, the mutation is predicted to result in a premature truncated protein of 232 aa instead of 417 aa. This is the first report to our knowledge of a human phenotype resulting from a mutation in WNT10A, and it is the first demonstration of an ectodermal dysplasia caused by an altered WNT signaling pathway, expanding the list of WNT-related diseases. PMID:17847007

  12. Mutation in WNT10A is associated with an autosomal recessive ectodermal dysplasia: the odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Adaimy, Lynn; Chouery, Eliane; Megarbane, Hala; Mroueh, Salman; Delague, Valerie; Nicolas, Elsa; Belguith, Hanen; de Mazancourt, Philippe; Megarbane, Andre

    2007-10-01

    Odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome in which the presenting phenotype is dry hair, severe hypodontia, smooth tongue with marked reduction of fungiform and filiform papillae, onychodysplasia, keratoderma and hyperhidrosis of palms and soles, and hyperkeratosis of the skin. We studied three consanguineous Lebanese Muslim Shiite families that included six individuals affected with odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia. Using a homozygosity-mapping strategy, we assigned the disease locus to an ~9-cM region at chromosome 2q35-q36.2, located between markers rs16853834 and D2S353, with a maximum multipoint LOD score of 5.7. Screening of candidate genes in this region led us to identify the same c.697G-->T (p.Glu233X) homozygous nonsense mutation in exon 3 of the WNT10A gene in all patients. At the protein level, the mutation is predicted to result in a premature truncated protein of 232 aa instead of 417 aa. This is the first report to our knowledge of a human phenotype resulting from a mutation in WNT10A, and it is the first demonstration of an ectodermal dysplasia caused by an altered WNT signaling pathway, expanding the list of WNT-related diseases.

  13. Anesthetic management of a pediatric patient with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia undergoing emergency surgery.

    PubMed

    Ahiskalioglu, Elif Oral; Ahiskalioglu, Ali; Firinci, Binali; Dostbil, Aysenur; Aksoy, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasias are rare conditions with a triad of hypotrichosis, anodontia and anhidrosis. In literature review there have been only a few reports of anesthetic management of patients with ectodermal dysplasias. Hyperthermia is a very serious risk which may occur due to the defect of sweat glands. The present case involves a 10-year-old child with ectodermal dysplasia who presented with an acute abdomen and was considered for an emergency surgery. Our aim was to demonstrate the successful management of this case using a combination of general and epidural anesthesia. It is important for anesthesiologist to have information about this syndrome in case of emergency operations, since it can prevent serious complications and even save lives. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Canine Hip Dysplasia: Diagnostic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Butler, J Ryan; Gambino, Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    Diagnostic imaging is the principal method used to screen for and diagnose hip dysplasia in the canine patient. Multiple techniques are available, each having advantages, disadvantages, and limitations. Hip-extended radiography is the most used method and is best used as a screening tool and for assessment for osteoarthritis. Distraction radiographic methods such as the PennHip method allow for improved detection of laxity and improved ability to predict future osteoarthritis development. More advanced techniques such as MRI, although expensive and not widely available, may improve patient screening and allow for improved assessment of cartilage health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tricho-odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia and WNT10A mutations.

    PubMed

    Kantaputra, P; Kaewgahya, M; Jotikasthira, D; Kantaputra, W

    2014-04-01

    We report on three novel (IVS2+1G>A splice site, c.1066G>T, and c.1039G>T, and one previously reported (c.637G>A) WNT10A mutations in three patients affected with odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia (OODD; OMIM 275980). OODD is a rare form of autosomal recessive ectodermal dysplasia involving hair, teeth, nails, and skin, characterized by hypodontia (tooth agenesis), smooth tongue with marked reduction of filiform and fungiform papillae, nail dysplasia, dry skin, palmoplantar keratoderma, and hyperhidrosis of palms and soles. The novel IVS+1G>A splice site mutation is predicted to cause significant protein alteration. The other novel mutations we found including c.1066G>T and c.1039G>T are predicted to cause p.Gly356Cys and p.Glu347X, respectively. Barrel-shaped mandibular incisors and severe hypodontia appear to be associated with homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations of WNT10A. The name "tricho-odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia" is suggested to replace "odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia" because hair anomalies including hypotrichosis and slow-growing hair have been reported in numerous reported patients with this syndrome. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cushing's syndrome and the nodular adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Samuels, M H; Loriaux, D L

    1994-09-01

    This article examines Cushing's syndrome in four main categories as associated with nodular adrenal glands: adrenal adenoma, adrenal carcinoma, primary pigmented nodular adrenal dysplasia, and macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. A summary of clinical features of these four categories is presented.

  17. Microcephaly, ectodermal dysplasia, multiple skeletal anomalies and distinctive facial appearance: delineation of cerebro-dermato-osseous-dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Pascolini, Giulia; Parisi, Valentina; Sana, Maria Elena; Novelli, Antonio; Nürnberg, Peter; Iascone, Maria; Grammatico, Paola

    2015-04-01

    In 1980, a novel multiple malformation syndrome has been described in a 17-year-old woman with micro- and turricephaly, intellectual disability, distinctive facial appearance, congenital atrichia, and multiple skeletal anomalies mainly affecting the limbs. Four further sporadic patients and a couple of affected sibs are also reported with a broad clinical variability. Here, we describe a 4-year-old girl strikingly resembling the original report. Phenotype comparison identified a recurrent pattern of multisystem features involving the central nervous system, and skin and bones in five sporadic patients (including ours), while the two sibs and a further sporadic case show significant phenotypic divergence. Marked clinical variability within the same entity versus syndrome splitting is discussed and the term "cerebro-dermato-osseous dysplasia" is introduced to define this condition. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A case of probable autosomal recessive ectodermal dysplasia with corkscrew hairs and mental retardation in a family with tuberous sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Argenziano, G; Monsurrò, M R; Pazienza, R; Delfino, M

    1998-02-01

    We describe a woman with a probable autosomal recessive ectodermal dysplasia with corkscrew hairs and mental retardation in a family with tuberous sclerosis. Other findings included syndactyly, typical facies, dental abnormalities, dermatoglyphic hypoplasia, epidermal ridge sweat pore count slightly below normal, and keratosis pilaris. Clinical studies and genetic analysis excluded the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis in our patient. We conclude that she has ectodermal dysplasia associated with mental retardation. This association has been described previously; it suggests the possible interrelationship of a community of ectodermal dysplasia syndromes with a distinctive structural hair abnormality (pili torti et canaliculi), variable midfacial malformations, limb defects, and other features such as mental retardation. The similarity of our patient to that described by Whiting et al. and Abramovits-Ackerman et al. suggests the autonomy of this syndrome.

  19. Cystic fibrous dysplasia in the long bone.

    PubMed

    Bahk, Won-Jong; Kang, Yong-Koo; Rhee, Seung-Koo; Chung, Yang-Guk; Lee, An-Hee; Bahk, Yong-Whee

    2007-10-01

    Prominent osteolysis associated with "ground glass" density of fibrous dysplasia may indicate cystic change or sarcomatous transformation. This complication has been reported only sporadically in the long bones. This article presents clinical, radiographic, and pathologic findings, and outcome of simple curettage and bone graft observed in a series of 8 patients with prominent cystic fibrous dysplasia of the long bone. Magnetic resonance imaging features provide a basis for separation of benign cystic change from malignant transformation. However, biopsy is necessary to distinguish nonspecific cystic degeneration from secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. Simple curettage with allo-chip-bone graft is an effective treatment for cystic fibrous dysplasia.

  20. Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia presenting as atrophic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Barman, Debasis; Mandal, Satadal; Nandi, Santanu; Banerjee, Pranabashish; Rashid, M A

    2011-11-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a complex group of familial disorders with numerous clinical characteristics, with an incidence of 7 in 10000 born alive children. Ectodermal dysplasia affects structures of ectodermal origin like the skin and its appendages as well as other non-ectodermal structures. The most common sites of involvement are the defects in the skin, hair, teeth, nails and sweat glands,which are of ectodermal origin. Though the dermatologists and paediatricians often manage such cases, we report one case of ectodermal dysplasia presenting with atrophic rhinitis.

  1. Pulmonary Hypertension in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Berkelhamer, Sara K.; Mestan, Karen K.; Steinhorn, Robin H.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of neonatal respiratory diseases including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and recent studies have increased awareness that PH worsens the clinical course, morbidity and mortality of BPD. Recent evidence indicates that up to 18% of all extremely low birth weight infants will develop some degree of PH during their hospitalization, and the incidence rises to 25–40% of infants with established BPD. Risk factors are not yet well understood, but new evidence shows that fetal growth restriction is a significant predictor of PH. Echocardiography remains the primary method for evaluation for BPD-associated PH, and the development of standardized screening timelines and techniques for identification of infants with BPD-associated PH remains an important ongoing topic of investigation. The use of pulmonary vasodilator medications such as nitric oxide, sildenafil, and others in the BPD population is steadily growing, but additional studies are needed regarding their long-term safety and efficacy. PMID:23582967

  2. Hypoxic Episodes in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Richard J.; Di Fiore, Juliann M.; Walsh, Michele C.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic episodes are troublesome components of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. Immature respiratory control appears to be the major contributor, typically superimposed upon abnormal respiratory function. As a result, relatively short respiratory pauses may precipitate desaturation and accompanying bradycardia. As this population is predisposed to pulmonary hypertension, it is likely that pulmonary vasoconstriction may also play a role in hypoxic episodes. The natural history of intermittent hypoxic episodes has been well characterized in the preterm population at risk for BPD. However, the consequences of these episodes are less clear. Proposed associations of intermittent hypoxia include retinopathy of prematurity, sleep disordered breathing, and neurodevelopmental delay. Future study should address whether these associations are causal relationships. PMID:26593081

  3. Genetics Home Reference: spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type

    MedlinePlus

    ... STRUDWICK TYPE Sources for This Page Amirfeyz R, Taylor A, Smithson SF, Gargan MF. Orthopaedic manifestations and management of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia Strudwick type. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2006 Jan;15(1):41-4. Citation on ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: septo-optic dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... have been associated with septo-optic dysplasia , although mutations in these genes appear to be rare causes ... brain (the forebrain) such as the optic nerves . Mutations in any of these genes disrupt the early ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Ghosal hematodiaphyseal dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... A, Le Merrer M, Cormier-Daire V. A gene responsible for Ghosal hemato-diaphyseal dysplasia maps to chromosome 7q33-34. Hum Genet. ... are genome editing and CRISPR-Cas9? What is precision medicine? What ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests Drug Therapy Genetic Counseling Palliative Care Surgery and Rehabilitation Related Information How ... manifestations of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia caused by MATN3 versus COMP mutations: a case control study. BMC Musculoskelet ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Langer mesomelic dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Citation on PubMed Campos-Barros A, Benito-Sanz S, Ross JL, Zinn AR, Heath KE. Compound heterozygosity of ... L, Elder FF, Scott CI Jr, Marttila P, Ross JL. Complete SHOX deficiency causes Langer mesomelic dysplasia. ...

  8. Situs inversus totalis associated with subaortic stenosis, restrictive ventricular septal defect, and tricuspid dysplasia in an adult dog.

    PubMed

    Piantedosi, Diego; Cortese, Laura; Meomartino, Leonardo; Di Loria, Antonio; Ciaramella, Paolo

    2011-11-01

    A rare association between situs inversus totalis (SIT), restrictive ventricular septal defect, severe subaortic stenosis, and tricuspid dysplasia was observed in an adult mixed-breed dog. Primary ciliary dyskinesia and Kartagener's syndrome were excluded. After 15 mo the dog died suddenly. The association between SIT and congenital heart diseases is discussed.

  9. Developmental tumors and adjacent cortical dysplasia: single or dual pathology?

    PubMed

    Palmini, André; Paglioli, Eliseu; Silva, Vinicius Duval

    2013-12-01

    Developmental tumors often lead to refractory partial seizures and constitute a well-defined, surgically remediable epilepsy syndrome. Dysplastic features are often associated with these tumors, and their significance carries both practical and conceptual relevance. If associated focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) relates to the extent of the epileptogenic tissue, then presurgical evaluation and surgical strategies should target both the tumor and the surrounding dyslaminated cortex. Furthermore, the association has been included in the recently revised classification of FCD and the epileptogenicity of this associated dysplastic tissue is crucial to validate such revision. In addition to the possibility of representing dual pathology, the association of developmental tumors and adjacent dysplasia may instead represent a single developmental lesion with distinct parts distributed along a histopathologic continuum. Moreover, the possibility that this adjacent dyslamination is of minor epileptogenic relevance should also be entertained. Surgical data show that complete resection of the solid tumors and immediately adjacent tissue harboring satellites may disrupt epileptogenic networks and lead to high rates of seizure freedom, challenging the epileptogenic relevance of more extensive adjacent dyslaminated cortex. Whether the latter is a primary or secondary abnormality and whether dyslaminated cortex in the context of a second lesion may produce seizures after complete resection of the main lesion is still to be proven. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. Ectodermal dysplasias: a new clinical-genetic classification

    PubMed Central

    Priolo, M.; Lagana, C.

    2001-01-01

    The ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a large and complex nosological group of diseases, first described by Thurnam in 1848. In the last 10 years more than 170 different pathological clinical conditions have been recognised and defined as EDs, all sharing in common anomalies of the hair, teeth, nails, and sweat glands. Many are associated with anomalies in other organs and systems and, in some conditions, with mental retardation.
The anomalies affecting the epidermis and epidermal appendages are extremely variable and clinical overlap is present among the majority of EDs. Most EDs are defined by particular clinical signs (for example, eyelid adhesion in AEC syndrome, ectrodactyly in EEC). To date, few causative genes have been identified for these diseases.
We recently reviewed genes known to be responsible for EDs in light of their molecular and biological function and proposed a new approach to EDs, integrating both molecular-genetic data and corresponding clinical findings. Based on our previous report, we now propose a clinical-genetic classification of EDs, expand it to other entities in which no causative genes have been identified based on the phenotype, and speculate on possible candidate genes suggested by associated "non-ectodermal" features.


Keywords: ectodermal dysplasia; clinical-functional correlation; epithelial-mesenchymal interaction; ectodermal structural proteins PMID:11546825

  11. Expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Emel Uzun; Acikgoz, Aydan; Ozan, Bora; Zengin, Ayse Zeynep; Gunhan, Omer

    2012-01-01

    To present a case of expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia and emphasize the importance of differential diagnosis. Cemento-osseous dysplasia is categorized into three subtypes on the basis of the clinical and radiographic features: Periapical, focal and florid. The focal type exhibits a single site of involvement in any tooth-bearing or edentulous area of the jaws. These lesions are usually asymptomatic; therefore, they are frequently diagnosed incidentally during routine radiographic examinations. Lesions are usually benign, show limited growth, and do not require further surgical intervention, but periodic follow-up is recommended because occasionally, this type of dysplasia progresses into florid osseous dysplasia and simple bone cysts are formed. A 24-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic for swelling in the left edentulous mandibular premolarmolar region and felt discomfort when she wore her prosthetics. She had no pain, tenderness or paresthesia. Clinical examination showed that the swelling in the posterior mandible that was firm, nonfluctuant and covered by normal mucosa. On panoramic radiography and computed tomography, a well defined lesion of approximately 1.5 cm in diameter of mixed density was observed. The swelling increased slightly in size over 2 years making it difficult to use prosthetics and, therefore, the lesion was totally excised under local anesthesia, and surgical specimens were submitted for histopathological examination. The histopathological diagnosis was focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. In the present case, because of the increasing size of the swelling making it difficult to use prosthetics, young age of the patient and localization of the lesion, in the initial examination, cemento-ossifying fibroma was suspected, and the lesion was excised surgically; the histopathological diagnosis confirmed it as focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. We present a case of expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. Differential diagnosis

  12. Survey Study and Records Review of Treatment Outcomes in Freeman-Sheldon Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-30

    Freeman-Sheldon Syndrome; Arthrogryposis Distal Type 2A; Whistling Face Syndrome; Craniocarpotarsal Dysplasia; Craniocarpotarsal Dystrophy; Freeman-Sheldon Syndrome Variant; Sheldon-Hall Syndrome; Arthrogryposis Distal Type 2B; Gordon Syndrome; Arthrogryposis Distal Type 3; Arthrogryposis Distal Type 1; Arthrogryposis, Distal, Type 1A; Arthrogryposis Distal Type 1B; Arthrogryposis, Distal; Craniofacial Abnormalities; Arthrogryposis

  13. Ocular and non-ocular manifestations of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Pallavi; Tyagi, Vipin; Hashim, Adnan A

    2011-01-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a group of rare multisystemic genetic syndromes that affects ectodermal structures such as skin, hair, nails, teeth and sweat glands. The authors present a case of a child with ocular and dermatological signs of HED along with severe involvement of other multiple organ systems. The family history could be traced to four generations and there was an observed trend of increase in severity of signs and symptoms occurring at younger age. The purpose of this case report is to create awareness in ophthalmic community of its diagnosis and clinical manifestations. This case highlights the role of multidisciplinary approach for management of systemic disease, genetic evaluation of affected individuals and carriers and genetic counselling. PMID:22700604

  14. VERTEBRAL DYSPLASIA IN YOUNG FISH EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDE TRIFLURALIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede, exposed to 5-5 to 31 micrograms/l of the herbicide trifluralin, throughout their first 28 days of life, developed a heretofore, undescribed vertebral dysplasia. This dysplasia consisted of semisymmetrical hypertrophy of vertebra...

  15. Locally Aggressive Fibrous Dysplasia Mimicking Malign Calvarial Lesion.

    PubMed

    Ogul, Hayri; Keskin, Emine

    2018-05-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is an unusual benign bone tumor. It is divided into 3 groups as monostotic, polyostotic, and craniofacial form. The authors reported an unusual patient with fibrous dysplasia with an aggressive radiologic appearance.

  16. Peripheral vestibular pathology in Mondini dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Serdar; Hızlı, Ömer; Kaya, Fatıma Kübra; Monsanto, Rafael DaCosta; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, our objective was to histopathologically analyze the peripheral vestibular system in patients with Mondini dysplasia. Comparative human temporal bone study. We assessed the sensory epithelium of the human vestibular system with a focus on the number of type I and type II hair cells, as well as the total number of hair cells. We compared those numbers in our Mondini dysplasia group versus our control group. The loss of type I and type II hair cells in the cristae of the superior, lateral, and posterior semicircular canals, as well as in the saccular and utricular macula, was significantly higher in our Mondini dysplasia group than in our control group. The total number of hair cells significantly decreased in the cristae of the superior, lateral, and posterior semicircular canals, as well as in the saccular and utricular macula, in our Mondini dysplasia group. Loss of vestibular hair cells can lead to vestibular dysfunction in patients with Mondini dysplasia. NA Laryngoscope, 127:206-209, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Neuromotor outcomes in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Karagianni, Paraskevi; Tsakalidis, Christos; Kyriakidou, Maria; Mitsiakos, Georgios; Chatziioanidis, Helias; Porpodi, Maria; Evangeliou, Athanasios; Nikolaides, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    We examine the neuromotor outcomes of preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Two hundred and nineteen infants (gestational age, ≤ 32 weeks; birth weight, ≤ 1500 g) were studied. Neuromotor development was assessed using the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination. All potential risk factors associated with neuromotor scores (P < 0.015) were included in the generalized linear model (multiple linear regression) to determine if bronchopulmonary dysplasia had an independent relationship with neuromotor scores. Infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia had lower global scores at ages 6 and 12 months. After adjustment for confounding factors, scores of infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia were reduced by 13.2 units, whereas scores for those with periventricular leukomalacia were reduced by 11.1 units, at age 6 months. At age 12 months, scores for those with periventricular leukomalacia were reduced by 11.9 units. Duration of hospital stay reduced scores by 0.1 for each additional day increase in hospital. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia constitutes a major cause of poor neuromotor outcomes at age 6 months, but improvements in motor outcomes occur over time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ectodermal Dysplasia Associated with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Volpato, Maria Carmen Palma Faria; de Carvalhosa, Artur Aburad; Palma, Vinicius Canavarros; Borges, Álvaro Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia and sickle cell anaemia are inherited disorders that affect, respectively, the tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm and the production of erythrocytes by the bone marrow. The simultaneous occurrence of both disorders is extremely rare. This is a case of both ectodermal dysplasia and sickle cell anaemia reported in a 6-year-old. The patient had been diagnosed with sickle cell anaemia for only six months when he sought treatment presenting with the following: hypotrichosis, dry skin, periocular hyperpigmentation, protruding lips, hypodontia, and morphologically altered teeth. The clinical features combined with his medical history led to the diagnosis of ectodermal dysplasia. Dentists should be prepared to recognise patterns that escape normality to aid in the diagnosis of systemic changes, even in patients with other previous diagnoses. PMID:25343049

  19. Ectodermal dysplasia associated with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Volpato, Maria Carmen Palma Faria; de Carvalhosa, Artur Aburad; Palma, Vinicius Canavarros; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia and sickle cell anaemia are inherited disorders that affect, respectively, the tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm and the production of erythrocytes by the bone marrow. The simultaneous occurrence of both disorders is extremely rare. This is a case of both ectodermal dysplasia and sickle cell anaemia reported in a 6-year-old. The patient had been diagnosed with sickle cell anaemia for only six months when he sought treatment presenting with the following: hypotrichosis, dry skin, periocular hyperpigmentation, protruding lips, hypodontia, and morphologically altered teeth. The clinical features combined with his medical history led to the diagnosis of ectodermal dysplasia. Dentists should be prepared to recognise patterns that escape normality to aid in the diagnosis of systemic changes, even in patients with other previous diagnoses.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neidich JA, Wilcox WR. Subtle radiographic findings of achondroplasia in patients with Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans ... of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 disorders: the achondroplasia family of skeletal dysplasias, Muenke craniosynostosis, and Crouzon ...

  1. PI3K/AKT pathway mutations cause a spectrum of brain malformations from megalencephaly to focal cortical dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaa, Ghayda M.; Ishak, Gisele E.; O'Roak, Brian J.; Hiatt, Joseph B.; Roden, William H.; Gunter, Sonya A.; Christian, Susan L.; Collins, Sarah; Adams, Carissa; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; St-Onge, Judith; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Shendure, Jay; Hevner, Robert F.; Dobyns, William B.

    2015-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development containing dysplastic neuronal and glial elements, including hemimegalencephaly and focal cortical dysplasia, are common causes of intractable paediatric epilepsy. In this study we performed multiplex targeted sequencing of 10 genes in the PI3K/AKT pathway on brain tissue from 33 children who underwent surgical resection of dysplastic cortex for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. Sequencing results were correlated with clinical, imaging, pathological and immunohistological phenotypes. We identified mosaic activating mutations in PIK3CA and AKT3 in this cohort, including cancer-associated hotspot PIK3CA mutations in dysplastic megalencephaly, hemimegalencephaly, and focal cortical dysplasia type IIa. In addition, a germline PTEN mutation was identified in a male with hemimegalencephaly but no peripheral manifestations of the PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome. A spectrum of clinical, imaging and pathological abnormalities was found in this cohort. While patients with more severe brain imaging abnormalities and systemic manifestations were more likely to have detected mutations, routine histopathological studies did not predict mutation status. In addition, elevated levels of phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein were identified in both neurons and astrocytes of all hemimegalencephaly and focal cortical dysplasia type II specimens, regardless of the presence or absence of detected PI3K/AKT pathway mutations. In contrast, expression patterns of the T308 and S473 phosphorylated forms of AKT and in vitro AKT kinase activities discriminated between mutation-positive dysplasia cortex, mutation-negative dysplasia cortex, and non-dysplasia epilepsy cortex. Our findings identify PI3K/AKT pathway mutations as an important cause of epileptogenic brain malformations and establish megalencephaly, hemimegalencephaly, and focal cortical dysplasia as part of a single pathogenic spectrum. PMID:25722288

  2. PI3K/AKT pathway mutations cause a spectrum of brain malformations from megalencephaly to focal cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Laura A; Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Ishak, Gisele E; O'Roak, Brian J; Hiatt, Joseph B; Roden, William H; Gunter, Sonya A; Christian, Susan L; Collins, Sarah; Adams, Carissa; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; St-Onge, Judith; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Shendure, Jay; Hevner, Robert F; Dobyns, William B

    2015-06-01

    Malformations of cortical development containing dysplastic neuronal and glial elements, including hemimegalencephaly and focal cortical dysplasia, are common causes of intractable paediatric epilepsy. In this study we performed multiplex targeted sequencing of 10 genes in the PI3K/AKT pathway on brain tissue from 33 children who underwent surgical resection of dysplastic cortex for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. Sequencing results were correlated with clinical, imaging, pathological and immunohistological phenotypes. We identified mosaic activating mutations in PIK3CA and AKT3 in this cohort, including cancer-associated hotspot PIK3CA mutations in dysplastic megalencephaly, hemimegalencephaly, and focal cortical dysplasia type IIa. In addition, a germline PTEN mutation was identified in a male with hemimegalencephaly but no peripheral manifestations of the PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome. A spectrum of clinical, imaging and pathological abnormalities was found in this cohort. While patients with more severe brain imaging abnormalities and systemic manifestations were more likely to have detected mutations, routine histopathological studies did not predict mutation status. In addition, elevated levels of phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein were identified in both neurons and astrocytes of all hemimegalencephaly and focal cortical dysplasia type II specimens, regardless of the presence or absence of detected PI3K/AKT pathway mutations. In contrast, expression patterns of the T308 and S473 phosphorylated forms of AKT and in vitro AKT kinase activities discriminated between mutation-positive dysplasia cortex, mutation-negative dysplasia cortex, and non-dysplasia epilepsy cortex. Our findings identify PI3K/AKT pathway mutations as an important cause of epileptogenic brain malformations and establish megalencephaly, hemimegalencephaly, and focal cortical dysplasia as part of a single pathogenic spectrum. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press

  3. Histogenesis of retinal dysplasia in trisomy 13

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ada; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan; Heffner, Reid; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Federico

    2007-01-01

    Background Although often associated with holoprosencephaly, little detail of the histopathology of cyclopia is available. Here, we describe the ocular findings in a case of trisomy 13 to better understand the histogenesis of the rosettes, or tubules, characteristic of the retinal dysplasia associated with this condition. Methods A full pediatric autopsy was performed of a near term infant who died shortly after birth from multiple congenital anomalies including fused facial-midline structures. A detailed histopathological study of the ocular structures was performed. The expression of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP), cellular retinal-binding protein (CRALBP), rod opsin, and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) were studied by immunohistochemistry. Results Holoprosencephaly, and a spectrum of anatomical findings characteristic of Patau's syndrome, were found. Cytogenetic studies demonstrated trisomy 13 [47, XY, +13]. The eyes were fused but contained two developed separate lenses. In contrast, the cornea, and angle structures were hypoplastic, and the anterior chamber had failed to form. The retina showed areas of normally laminated neural retina, whereas in other areas it was replaced by numerous neuronal rosettes. Histological and immunohistochemical studies revealed that the rosettes were composed of differentiated retinal neurons and Müller cell glia. In normally laminated retina, Shh expression was restricted to retinal-ganglion cells, and to a population of neurons in the inner zone of the outer nuclear layer. In contrast, Shh could not be detected in the dysplastic rosettes. Conclusion The histopathology of cyclopia appears to be more complex than what may have been previously appreciated. In fact, the terms "cyclopia" and "synophthalmia" are misnomers as the underlying mechanism is a failure of the eyes to form separately during development. The rosettes found in the dysplastic retina are fundamentally different than those of retinoblastoma, being

  4. Endoscopic Ultrasound in Barrett's Oesophagitis with Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Andrew; Rice, Paul; Love, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Purpose With the advent of conservative therapies including photodynamic therapy and endoscopic mucosal resection for Barrett's and high grade dysplasia, accurate staging has become increasingly important. We report our experience with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in these patients. Materials and Methods Retrospective review of 25 consecutive patients referred for EUS for assessment of Barrett's with high grade dysplasia and /or stricture or polyp. The findings were compared with subsequent surgical pathology, or endoscopy and biopsy follow up. Results Nine patients were found to have invasive tumour on EUS and this was confirmed in all 9 either by oesophagectomy, OGD and oncology follow up, or by endoscopic mucosal resection. Eight patients underwent oesophagectomy, 5 for invasive tumour and 3 for dysplasia only, with pathological agreement with EUS findings in 7 out of 8 cases. The one discrepancy was a EUS case of mucosal thickening only with no invasion, but pathology showed a T1 lesion. Thirteen patients with no evidence of invasion were managed conservatively, with 11 patients being followed up for 6-12 months with serial OGD and biopsy, and no cases of more invasive disease occurring. Therefore, in our experience the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of EUS in complex Barrett's is 90%, 100% and 100% respectively. Conclusion EUS is valuable in the assessment of high grade dysplasia in cases where conservative therapy is being considered, defining those with more deeply invasive tumour for whom radical treatment is the only option. PMID:23526576

  5. [Renal dysplasia: clinico-pathologic review].

    PubMed

    Cunha, A S; de Sousa, J F; Garcia, C

    1992-05-01

    Histology records from 63 nephrectomies were reviewed; 22 patients had unilateral totally dysplastic kidneys and 5 had polar or segmental dysplasia. A clinicopathological study of these cases was undertaken. In the first group, there was a slight male preponderance and 75% of the patients presented were under two years of age. Urinary tract infection was the most common complaint. 4 patients were diagnosed in utero by ultrasound and 5 infants presented an abdominal mass. Hypertension was documented in a newborn baby. Ipsilateral lower urinary tract anomalies were found in 12 patients and those of the contralateral kidney in 2 children. There were 3 cases of extrarenal anomalies. Histological examination revealed 13 cases of multicystic dysplasia and 9 of solid dysplasia. Metaplastic cartilage was found in 1 case. In the group of segmental dysplasia, age ranging from 27 weeks' gestation to 8 years, at the time of the diagnosis. They all had duplex kidneys and 4 had ureterocele. Histological study in these cases was similar to the one found in the previous series, although superimposed inflammatory changes were more pronounced. Some of the theories regarding the pathogenesis of this disorder are reviewed and the importance of its diagnosis is emphasised.

  6. The patellofemoral joint: from dysplasia to dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Zaffagnini, Stefano; Grassi, Alberto; Zocco, Gianluca; Rosa, Michele Attilo; Signorelli, Cecilia; Muccioli, Giulio Maria Marcheggiani

    2017-01-01

    Patellofemoral dysplasia is a major predisposing factor for instability of the patellofemoral joint. However, there is no consensus as to whether patellofemoral dysplasia is genetic in origin, caused by imbalanced forces producing maltracking and remodelling of the trochlea during infancy and growth, or due to other unknown and unexplored factors. The biomechanical effects of patellofemoral dysplasia on patellar stability and on surgical procedures have not been fully investigated. Also, different anatomical and demographic risk factors have been suggested, in an attempt to identify the recurrent dislocators. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of all the radiographic, MRI and CT parameters can help the clinician to assess patients with primary and recurrent patellar dislocation and guide management. Patellofemoral dysplasia still represents an extremely challenging condition to manage. Its controversial aetiology and its complex biomechanical behaviour continue to pose more questions than answers to the research community, which reflects the lack of universally accepted guidelines for the correct treatment. However, due to the complexity of this condition, an extremely personalised approach should be reserved for each patient, in considering and addressing the anatomical abnormalities responsible for the symptoms. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160081. Originally published online at www.efortopenreviews.org PMID:28630757

  7. IQ Measurement in Children with Skeletal Dysplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, John G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    IQ studies on 68 children (5 months-15 years) with skeletal dysplasia (dwarfism) were reviewed to provide counseling to parents of newborn affected children. Results of the study show that this population performs intellectually in the same range as other children. Journal availability: see EC 115 198. (PHR)

  8. Human papilloma virus infection and cervical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Melinte-Popescu, Alina; Costăchescu, Gh

    2012-01-01

    Pap testing is considered to be the best screening tool for cervical cancer but there is currently great interest in the possible application of human papilloma virus (HPV) testing to supplement Pap screening for cervical cancer. To determine the prevalence of high-risk HPV types in the studied population and to explore the association between high-risk HPV types and cervical dysplasia. Cross-sectional study conducted at the Iasi Cuza Voda Obstetrics-Gynecology Hospital and Suceava County Hospital. 332 women who underwent colposcopy for cervical lesions between 2006 and 2011 were included in this study. The overall prevalence of HPV was 57.23%. HPV prevalence differs significantly in the three age groups up to 50 years. It was highest in patients below the age of 40 and progressively lower with advancing age. The overall prevalence of cervical dysplasia was 56.62%. The prevalence of cervical dysplasia was highest in the age groups up to 40 years. The most important determinant of HPV infection is age. Persistence of HPV appears to be associated with progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion. Dysplasia is often missed in a cervical sample either because of human error in screening and interpretation, or because of suboptimal quality of Pap smear. Incorporation of HPV testing into the present Pap screening program has the potential of making screening for cervical cancer more effective, and a necessary prelude to assessing this is by determining the prevalence of the high-risk types.

  9. Syndromes with supernumerary teeth.

    PubMed

    Lubinsky, Mark; Kantaputra, Piranit Nik

    2016-10-01

    While most supernumerary teeth are idiopathic, they can be associated with a number of Mendelian syndromes. However, this can also be a coincidental finding, since supernumerary teeth occur in 6% or more of the normal population. To better define this relationship, we analyzed the evidence for specific associations. We excluded conditions with a single affected patient reported, supernumerary teeth adjacent to clefts or other forms of alveolar disruption (as secondary rather than primary findings), and natal teeth, which can involve premature eruption of a normal tooth. Since, the cause of supernumerary teeth shows considerable heterogeneity, certain findings are less likely to be coincidental, such as five or more supernumerary teeth in a single patient, or locations outside of the premaxilla. We found only eight genetic syndromes with strong evidence for an association: cleidocranial dysplasia; familial adenomatous polyposis; trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type I; Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome; Nance-Horan syndrome; Opitz BBB/G syndrome; oculofaciocardiodental syndrome; and autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome. There is also suggestive evidence of an association with two uncommon disorders, Kreiborg-Pakistani syndrome (craniosynostosis and dental anomalies), and insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with acanthosisnigricans. An association of a Mendelian disorder with a low frequency manifestation of supernumerary teeth is difficult to exclude without large numbers, but several commonly cited syndromes lacked evidence for clear association, including Hallermann-Streiff syndrome, Fabry disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Apert and Crouzon syndromes, Zimmermann-Laband syndrome, and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Surgical Management of Polyostotic Craniofacial Fibrous Dysplasia: Long-Term Outcomes and Predictors for Postoperative Regrowth

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Alison M.; Burke, Andrea; Peck, Carolee Cutler; DuFresne, Craig R.; Lee, Janice S.; Collins, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Background The mainstay of treatment for craniofacial fibrous dysplasia is surgical; however, optimal indications and techniques are poorly understood, particularly in polyostotic disease and McCune-Albright syndrome. This study investigated surgical indications and risk factors for recurrence in a large cohort. Methods One hundred thirty-three craniofacial fibrous dysplasia subjects in a natural history study were evaluated. Radiographic studies, operative reports, and clinical records were reviewed. Results Thirty-six subjects underwent 103 craniofacial procedures (mean, 2.8 operations per subject), with 13.5 ± 10.5-year follow-up (range, 0 to 39 years). The most common indication was craniofacial deformity (n = 61 operations), including 36 initial operations (59 percent) and 26 reoperations (41 percent). Mean time to reoperation was 3.4 ± 3.2 years (range, 0.3 to 13.3 years). Re-growth occurred after 42 operations (68 percent), and was more frequent after operations in subjects with McCune-Albright syndrome growth hormone excess [22 of 25 operations (88 percent)] than without growth hormone excess [15 of 36 operations (58 percent); p = 0.02]. Of 11 subjects with growth hormone excess, nine (82 percent) were undiagnosed at the time of their initial operation. Regrowth was more frequent after debulking procedures [31 of 38 (82 percent)] than after more aggressive reconstructions [nine of 20 (45 percent); p = 0.007]. Eleven subjects underwent treatment for aneurysmal bone cysts, with recurrence in one subject. Eleven subjects underwent biopsies and none had complications or regrowth. Conclusions Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia regrowth and reoperation are common, particularly after debulking procedures. Outcomes are favorable for aneurysmal bone cysts and biopsies. McCune-Albright syndrome growth hormone excess is a risk factor for regrowth, and may be underdiagnosed in surgical patients. Surgeons should be aware of appropriate screening for endocrinopathies in

  11. Hearing screening in children with skeletal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Tunkel, David E; Kerbavaz, Richard; Smith, Beth; Rose-Hardison, Danielle; Alade, Yewande; Hoover-Fong, Julie

    2011-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of hearing loss and abnormal tympanometry in children with skeletal dysplasia. Clinical screening program. National convention of the Little People of America. Convenience sample of volunteers aged 18 years or younger with skeletal dysplasias. Hearing screening with behavioral testing and/or otoacoustic emissions, otoscopy, and tympanometry. A failed hearing screen was defined as hearing 35 dB HL (hearing level) or greater at 1 or more tested frequencies or by a "fail" otoacoustic emissions response. Types B and C tympanograms were considered abnormal. A total of 58 children (aged ≤18 years) with skeletal dysplasia enrolled, and 56 completed hearing screening. Forty-one children had normal hearing (71%); 9 failed in 1 ear (16%); and 6 failed in both ears (10%). Forty-four children had achondroplasia, and 31 had normal hearing in both ears (71%); 8 failed hearing screening in 1 ear (18%), and 3 in both ears (7%). Tympanometry was performed in 45 children, with normal tympanograms found in 21 (47%), bilateral abnormal tympanograms in 15 (33%), and unilateral abnormal tympanograms in 9 (20%). Fourteen children with achondroplasia had normal tympanograms (42%); 11 had bilateral abnormal tympanograms (33%); and 8 had unilateral abnormal tympanograms (24%). For those children without functioning tympanostomy tubes, there was a 9.5 times greater odds of hearing loss if there was abnormal tympanometry (P = .03). Hearing loss and middle-ear disease are both highly prevalent in children with skeletal dysplasias. Abnormal tympanometry is highly associated with the presence of hearing loss, as expected in children with eustachian tube dysfunction. Hearing screening with medical intervention is recommended for these children.

  12. Ectoderm-targeted overexpression of the glucocorticoid receptor induces hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Cascallana, Jose Luis; Bravo, Ana; Donet, Eva; Leis, Hugo; Lara, Maria Fernanda; Paramio, Jesús M; Jorcano, José L; Pérez, Paloma

    2005-06-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is a human syndrome defined by maldevelopment of one or more ectodermal-derived tissues, including the epidermis and cutaneous appendices, teeth, and exocrine glands. The molecular bases of this pathology converge in a dysfunction of the transcription factor nuclear factor of the kappa-enhancer in B cells (NF-kappaB), which is essential to epithelial homeostasis and development. A number of mouse models bearing disruptions in NF-kappaB signaling have been reported to manifest defects in ectodermal derivatives. In ectoderm-targeted transgenic mice overexpressing the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) [keratin 5 (K5)-GR mice], the NF-kappaB activity is greatly decreased due to functional antagonism between GR and NF-kappaB. Here, we report that K5-GR mice exhibit multiple epithelial defects in hair follicle, tooth, and palate development. Additionally, these mice lack Meibomian glands and display underdeveloped sweat and preputial glands. These phenotypic features appear to be mediated specifically by ligand-activated GR because the synthetic analog dexamethasone induced similar defects in epithelial morphogenesis, including odontogenesis, in wild-type mice. We have focused on tooth development in K5-GR mice and found that an inhibitor of steroid synthesis partially reversed the abnormal phenotype. Immunostaining revealed reduced expression of the inhibitor of kappaB kinase subunits, IKKalpha and IKKgamma, and diminished p65 protein levels in K5-GR embryonic tooth, resulting in a significantly reduced kappaB-binding activity. Remarkably, altered NF-kappaB activity elicited by GR overexpression correlated with a dramatic decrease in the protein levels of DeltaNp63 in tooth epithelia without affecting Akt, BMP4, or Foxo3a. Given that many of the 170 clinically distinct ectodermal dysplasia syndromes still remain without cognate genes, deciphering the molecular mechanisms of this mouse model with epithelial NF-kappaB and p63 dysfunction may

  13. Craniofacial morphometric analysis of individuals with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Alice F; Larson, Jacinda R; Jones, Kyle B; Liberton, Denise K; Landan, Maya; Wang, Zhifeng; Boekelheide, Anne; Langham, Margaret; Mushegyan, Vagan; Oberoi, Snehlata; Brao, Rosalie; Wen, Timothy; Johnson, Ramsey; Huttner, Kenneth; Grange, Dorothy K; Spritz, Richard A; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Jheon, Andrew H; Klein, Ophir D

    2014-09-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most prevalent type of ectodermal dysplasia (ED). ED is an umbrella term for a group of syndromes characterized by missing or malformed ectodermal structures, including skin, hair, sweat glands, and teeth. The X-linked recessive (XL), autosomal recessive (AR), and autosomal dominant (AD) types of HED are caused by mutations in the genes encoding ectodysplasin (EDA1), EDA receptor (EDAR), or EDAR-associated death domain (EDARADD). Patients with HED have a distinctive facial appearance, yet a quantitative analysis of the HED craniofacial phenotype using advanced three-dimensional (3D) technologies has not been reported. In this study, we characterized craniofacial morphology in subjects with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) by use of 3D imaging and geometric morphometrics (GM), a technique that uses defined landmarks to quantify size and shape in complex craniofacial morphologies. We found that the XLHED craniofacial phenotype differed significantly from controls. Patients had a smaller and shorter face with a proportionally longer chin and midface, prominent midfacial hypoplasia, a more protrusive chin and mandible, a narrower and more pointed nose, shorter philtrum, a narrower mouth, and a fuller and more rounded lower lip. Our findings refine the phenotype of XLHED and may be useful both for clinical diagnosis of XLHED and to extend understanding of the role of EDA in craniofacial development.

  14. Bizarre cell dysplasia of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Ondič, Ondrej; Ferko, Radoslav; Kašpírková, Jana; Švajdler, Marián; Rýchly, Boris; Talarčík, Peter; Bouda, Jiří; Michal, Michal

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was the characterization of a new subtype of high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) with enlarged cells containing bizarre nuclei: so-called bizarre cell dysplasia (BCD). A total of 29 cervical cone biopsy samples of this type of dysplasia were studied. Multi-target polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization human papillomavirus (HPV) detection was performed in all cases. BCD was defined as a subtype of HSIL characterized by the presence of large dysplastic cells with abnormal, large pleomorphic nuclei or multinucleation causing nucleomegaly. This results in bizarre nuclear shapes. Bizarre cells are scattered throughout the whole thickness of the dysplastic squamous epithelium. The BCD lesions arise within the conventional/classic high grade or "bland" type squamous dysplasia HSIL. Statistically they were significantly associated with HVP type 16. A significant association with other studied viruses (Herpes simplex virus [HSV]1, HSV2, Varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 6, and human polyomaviruses BK and JC) was not confirmed. BCD involves cytologically characteristic morphologic changes that are recognizable, but which may pose some risk of misdiagnosis as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion due to the enlargement of dysplastic cells and multinucleation. Based on the unique histological, cytological and biological features of BCD including strong association with HPV 16 infection, we believe that this is a specific, and so far unrecognized variant of HSIL. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Iodine I 131 Monoclonal Antibody BC8, Fludarabine Phosphate, Cyclophosphamide, Total-Body Irradiation and Donor Bone Marrow Transplant in Treating Patients With Advanced Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-14

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; CD45-Positive Neoplastic Cells Present; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Ring Sideroblasts; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia and Ring Sideroblasts

  16. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia: review and a case report.

    PubMed

    Salem, Y M Y; Osman, Y I; Norval, E J G

    2010-10-01

    Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia is a benign fibro-osseous condition that can be seen in dentate and edentulous patients. It is an asymptomatic lesion and needs no treatment; however follow-up is essential due to the possibility that focal cemento-osseous dysplasia can progress to a condition called florid osseous dysplasia that involves multiple sites. A case report is presented here, along with a review of the differential diagnoses considered in order to reach a final diagnosis of focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  17. Treatment of oral dysplasia with 5% imiquimod cream: short communication.

    PubMed

    Mullins, R; Ansell, M; Laverick, S

    2016-11-01

    We report what we think is the first treatment of oral dysplasia with 5% imiquimod cream. A 60-year-old man presented with varying degrees of dysplasia on the soft palate. A cover plate was fabricated and the patient was prescribed 5% imiquimod cream, a topical imunomodulator, for six weeks. The lesion improved and histological examination of an incisional biopsy found no features of dysplasia. This case highlights the efficacy of imiquimod cream in the treatment of dysplasia, and the need for development of a preparation suitable for the oral mucosa. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. FGFR3-related condition: a skeletal dysplasia with similarities to thanatophoric dysplasia and SADDAN due to Lys650Met.

    PubMed

    Farmakis, Shannon G; Shinawi, Marwan; Miller-Thomas, Michelle; Radmanesh, Alireza; Herman, Thomas E

    2015-03-01

    Mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene account for six related skeletal dysplasia conditions: achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia types 1 and 2, SADDAN (severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans), and platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia, San Diego type. This group of disorders has very characteristic clinical and radiologic features, which distinguish them from other skeletal dysplasias. They display a spectrum of severity in the skeletal findings, ranging from relatively mild hypochondroplasia to lethal thanatophoric dysplasia. We report a patient who has the missense FGFR3 mutation, Lys650Met, previously reported in association only with SADDAN, who exhibits some findings similar to both thanatophoric dysplasia (types 1 and 2) in addition to those findings characteristic of SADDAN.

  19. Osseous dysplasia (cemento-osseous dysplasia) of the jaw bones in western Pennsylvania patients: analysis of 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Owosho, Adepitan A; Potluri, Anitha; Bilodeau, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the demographic, clinical, and radiographic presentations of osseous dysplasia of the jaws in western Pennsylvania patients and its associated complications. The clinical records and radiographs of patients diagnosed with osseous (cement-osseous) dysplasia were retrieved from the electronic health record of the University of Pittsburgh, School of Dental Medicine from 2007 to 2012. All cases were reviewed; the WHO criteria and classification for osseous dysplasia was used. Clinical and demographic data, radiographic findings, and final diagnoses were collected and analyzed. 35 cases of osseous dysplasia were retrieved over the six-year period.The majority (33) were females [94.3%], with ages ranging from 26 to 89 years, with a mean age of 53.9 years +/- standard deviation of 15.6 years, 32 [91.4%] were African Americans and 3 [8.6%] were Caucasians. 17 [48.6%] were florid osseous dysplasia, 13 [37.1%] periapical osseous dysplasia and 5 [14.3%] focal osseous dysplasia. Of the 35 patients only 8 [22.9%] patients were symptomatic. All florid osseous dysplasia patients were African American females, with 7 of the patients being symptomatic and the commonest symptom being pain. Also, all periapical osseous dysplasia patients were African Americans (12 females and 1 male), with 1 of the patients presenting with widening of the diastema. Of the focal osseous dysplasia patients, 3 were Caucasians and 2 African American (4 females and 1 male). The cases occurred mostly in African American females with a peak incidence in the fifth and sixth decades of life; most cases occurred in the mandible. The commonest form of osseous dysplasias was the florid osseous dysplasia which is most likely to present with symptoms.

  20. Syndrome of fetal gigantism, renal hamartomas, and nephroblastomatosis with Wilms' tumor.

    PubMed

    Perlman, M; Levin, M; Wittels, B

    1975-04-01

    A new case of the fetal gigantism-renal hamartomas-nephroblastomatosis syndrome is described, in which a Wilms' tumor occurred. It is considered that this observation provides strong evidence for the interrelationship between renal dysplasia and renal neoplasia.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educational Resources (6 links) Cincinnati Children's Hospital: Coxa Vera Disease InfoSearch: Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda X-linked Johns ... Free article on PubMed Central Savarirayan R, Thompson E, Gécz J. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda (SEDL, MIM #313400). ...

  2. Management of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Palley, S L; Sampliner, R E; Garewal, H S

    1989-08-01

    When Barrett's esophagus is complicated by adenocarcinoma, surgery is indicated in appropriate patients. Until now, high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus has been managed in a similar fashion. We explore this approach and review reported cases of high-grade dysplasia to suggest guidelines for collection of data to make future clinical decisions more rational.

  3. Intratracheal Administration of Budesonide/Surfactant to Prevent Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Tsu F; Chen, Chung M; Wu, Shou Y; Husan, Zahid; Li, Tsai C; Hsieh, Wu S; Tsai, Chang H; Lin, Hung C

    2016-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is an important complication of mechanical ventilation in preterm infants, and no definite therapy can eliminate this complication. Pulmonary inflammation plays a crucial role in its pathogenesis, and glucocorticoid is one potential therapy to prevent BPD. To compare the effect of intratracheal administration of surfactant/budesonide with that of surfactant alone on the incidence of death or BPD. A clinical trial was conducted in three tertiary neonatal centers in the United States and Taiwan, in which 265 very-low-birth-weight infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome who required mechanical ventilation and inspired oxygen (fraction of inspired oxygen, ≥50%) within 4 hours of birth were randomly assigned to one of two groups (131 intervention and 134 control). The intervention infants received surfactant (100 mg/kg) and budesonide (0.25 mg/kg), and the control infants received surfactant only (100 mg/kg), until each infant required inspired O2 at less than 30% or was extubated. The intervention group had a significantly lower incidence of BPD or death (55 of 131 [42.0%] vs. 89 of 134 [66%]; risk ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.77; P < 0.001; number needed to treat, 4.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.8-7.8). The intervention group required significantly fewer doses of surfactant than did the control group. The intervention group had significantly lower interleukin levels (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8) in tracheal aspirates at 12 hours and lower IL-8 at 3-5 and 7-8 days. In very-low-birth-weight infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome, intratracheal administration of surfactant/budesonide compared with surfactant alone significantly decreased the incidence of BPD or death without immediate adverse effect. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT-00883532).

  4. Osteosclerotic bone dysplasia (melorheostosis) of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Kuttenberger, J J; Hardt, N; Gebbers, J-O; Hofer, B

    2006-12-01

    Melorheostosis is a linear bone dysplasia of unknown origin that may be associated with soft-tissue alterations. Although any part of the skeleton can be affected, this condition is rarely observed in the craniofacial region. Only seven cases of melorheostosis with craniofacial involvement have been reported and cranial manifestation only is even rarer. To the authors' knowledge, manifestation in the mandible only has not yet been documented. A patient with isolated melorheostosis of the mandible with characteristic symptomatic bone pain is presented. The clinical, radiological and histological findings are described and possible therapeutic options are discussed.

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid otorhinorrhea due to cochlear dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Syal, Rajan; Tyagi, Isha; Goyal, Amit

    2005-07-01

    Cochlear dysplasia associated with defect in stapes footplate can be a cause of cerebrospinal fluid leak. Repair of cerebrospinal fluid leak in these cases is usually done by packing the vestibule with muscle or fascia. This traditional method of repair has 30-60% failure rate. Cerebrospinal fluid leak in four such patients was successfully repaired using multiple layer packing of vestibule, reinforced by pedicle temporalis muscle graft. Intraoperatively continuous lumbar drain was done. Magnetic resonance imaging of inner ear using 3D FSE T2WI and 3D FIESTA sequences was found helpful noninvasive investigation to localize site and route of cerebrospinal fluid leak.

  6. A distinct type of hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Halal, F; Setton, N; Wang, N S

    1991-03-15

    Four individuals from 2 generations of a family had a hidrotic type of ectodermal dysplasia (ED). Males and females were similarly affected. They had trichodysplasia, with absent eyebrows and eyelashes; normal teeth, onychodysplasia; normal sweating; mild retrognathia; abnormal dermatoglyphics; and mental retardation. Additional variable manifestations included irregular menses, high implanted or prominent ears, café-au-lait spot, keratosis pilaris, supernumerary nipple, and mild hearing loss. Their previously undescribed condition could be classified as an ED of 1-3 (trichoonychial) subgroup of group A according to Freire-Maia's classification and is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.

  7. Fibromuscular Dysplasia Presenting with Bilateral Renal Infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Doody, O., E-mail: orla_doody@hotmail.co; Adam, W. R.; Foley, P. T.

    2009-03-15

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) describes a group of conditions which cause nonatheromatous arterial stenoses, most commonly of the renal and carotid arteries, typically in young women. We report a rare case of bilateral segmental renal infarction secondary to FMD in a young male patient. His initial presentation with loin pain and pyrexia resulted in a delay in the definitive diagnosis of FMD. He was successfully treated with bilateral balloon angioplasty. The delayed diagnosis in this patient until the condition had progressed to bilateral renal infarcts highlights the need for prompt investigation and diagnosis of suspected cases of FMD.

  8. A novel FGFR3-binding peptide inhibits FGFR3 signaling and reverses the lethal phenotype of mice mimicking human thanatophoric dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Min; Yu, Ying; Qi, Huabing; Xie, Yangli; Su, Nan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Tan, Qiaoyan; Luo, Fengtao; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Quan; Du, Xiaolan; Xian, Cory J.; Liu, Peng; Huang, Haiyang; Shen, Yue; Deng, Chu-Xia; Chen, Di; Chen, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR3) lead to several types of human skeletal dysplasia syndromes including achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia (TD). Currently, there are no effective treatments for these skeletal dysplasia diseases. In this study, we screened, using FGFR3 as a bait, a random 12-peptide phage library and obtained 23 positive clones that share identical amino acid sequences (VSPPLTLGQLLS), named as peptide P3. This peptide had high binding specificity to the extracellular domain of FGFR3. P3 inhibited tyrosine kinase activity of FGFR3 and its typical downstream molecules, extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase. P3 also promoted proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of cultured ATDC5 chondrogenic cells. In addition, P3 alleviated the bone growth retardation in bone rudiments from mice mimicking human thanatophoric dysplasia type II (TDII). Finally, P3 reversed the neonatal lethality of TDII mice. Thus, this study identifies a novel inhibitory peptide for FGFR3 signaling, which may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of FGFR3-related skeletal dysplasia. PMID:23014564

  9. Mutations in LAMA1 Cause Cerebellar Dysplasia and Cysts with and without Retinal Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Aldinger, Kimberly A.; Mosca, Stephen J.; Tétreault, Martine; Dempsey, Jennifer C.; Ishak, Gisele E.; Hartley, Taila; Phelps, Ian G.; Lamont, Ryan E.; O’Day, Diana R.; Basel, Donald; Gripp, Karen W.; Baker, Laura; Stephan, Mark J.; Bernier, Francois P.; Boycott, Kym M.; Majewski, Jacek; Parboosingh, Jillian S.; Innes, A. Micheil; Doherty, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Cerebellar dysplasia with cysts (CDC) is an imaging finding typically seen in combination with cobblestone cortex and congenital muscular dystrophy in individuals with dystroglycanopathies. More recently, CDC was reported in seven children without neuromuscular involvement (Poretti-Boltshauser syndrome). Using a combination of homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing, we identified biallelic mutations in LAMA1 as the cause of CDC in seven affected individuals (from five families) independent from those included in the phenotypic description of Poretti-Boltshauser syndrome. Most of these individuals also have high myopia, and some have retinal dystrophy and patchy increased T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2/FLAIR) signal in cortical white matter. In one additional family, we identified two siblings who have truncating LAMA1 mutations in combination with retinal dystrophy and mild cerebellar dysplasia without cysts, indicating that cysts are not an obligate feature associated with loss of LAMA1 function. This work expands the phenotypic spectrum associated with the lamininopathy disorders and highlights the tissue-specific roles played by different laminin-encoding genes. PMID:25105227

  10. Frontonasal dysplasia: oral features, restorative and orthodontic dental treatment in a child.

    PubMed

    Valério, R A; Scatena, C; Santos, F R R; Romano, F L; Queiroz, A M; Paula-Silva, F W G

    2017-04-01

    Frontonasal dysplasia is a complex rare malformation, characterised by abnormalities involving the central portion of the face, especially the eyes, nose and forehead. It can manifest independently or associated with other abnormalities as part of some syndromes. The purpose of this case report was to describe a 5-year-old patient, diagnosed with frontonasal dysplasia. Among the abnormalities characterised with this disorder were ocular hypertelorism, broad nose tip with median notch, median facial cleft, bifid anterior skull, low set hairline, Poland's syndactyly and ankyloglossia. Consisted of behavioural management, oral hygiene instruction, prophylaxis, topical fluoride application, extraction of primary teeth, composite resin restorations and sealants in pits and fissures. Preformed metal crowns were also applied to the right and left primary maxillary second molars. Currently, the patient is 11 years-old in the permanent dentition and therefore was referred for corrective orthodontic and periodontal treatments due to the persistence of gingival retraction of the permanent mandibular right central incisor. The treatment in this case was directed to the promotion of oral health and orthodontic corrections, which are of fundamental importance due to medical, physical and social limitations of children affected by this syndrome, hindering healing and rehabilitative treatment. Paediatric dentists should be included in multidisciplinary teams providing care to patients with special needs, improving their quality of life.

  11. ORAI1 mutations abolishing store-operated Ca2+ entry cause anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jayson; Cuk, Mario; Kahlfuss, Sascha; Kozhaya, Lina; Vaeth, Martin; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Picard, Capucine; Benson, Melina J; Jakovcevic, Antonia; Bilic, Karmen; Martinac, Iva; Stathopulos, Peter; Kacskovics, Imre; Vraetz, Thomas; Speckmann, Carsten; Ehl, Stephan; Issekutz, Thomas; Unutmaz, Derya; Feske, Stefan

    2017-11-16

    Store-operated Ca 2+ entry (SOCE) through Ca 2+ release-activated Ca 2+ channels is an essential signaling pathway in many cell types. Ca 2+ release-activated Ca 2+ channels are formed by ORAI1, ORAI2, and ORAI3 proteins and activated by stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1 and STIM2. Mutations in the ORAI1 and STIM1 genes that abolish SOCE cause a combined immunodeficiency (CID) syndrome that is accompanied by autoimmunity and nonimmunologic symptoms. We performed molecular and immunologic analysis of patients with CID, anhidrosis, and ectodermal dysplasia of unknown etiology. We performed DNA sequencing of the ORAI1 gene, modeling of mutations on ORAI1 crystal structure, analysis of ORAI1 mRNA and protein expression, SOCE measurements, immunologic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte populations by using flow cytometry, and histologic and ultrastructural analysis of patient tissues. We identified 3 novel autosomal recessive mutations in ORAI1 in unrelated kindreds with CID, autoimmunity, ectodermal dysplasia with anhidrosis, and muscular dysplasia. The patients were homozygous for p.V181SfsX8, p.L194P, and p.G98R mutations in the ORAI1 gene that suppressed ORAI1 protein expression and SOCE in the patients' lymphocytes and fibroblasts. In addition to impaired T-cell cytokine production, ORAI1 mutations were associated with strongly reduced numbers of invariant natural killer T and regulatory T (Treg) cells and altered composition of γδ T-cell and natural killer cell subsets. ORAI1 null mutations are associated with reduced numbers of invariant natural killer T and Treg cells that likely contribute to the patients' immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. ORAI1-deficient patients have dental enamel defects and anhidrosis, representing a new form of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency that is distinct from previously reported patients with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the nuclear factor κB signaling

  12. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia masquerading as a residual cyst

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Rajat; Sandhu, Simarpreet V.; Bansal, Himanta; Behl, Rashi; Bhullar, Ramanpreet Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) is a benign fibroosseous condition that can be seen in dentulous and edentulous patients. It is an asymptomatic lesion and needs no treatment; however, follow-up is essential due to the possibility that it can progress to a condition called florid cemento-osseous dysplasia. We report a case of FCOD of mandible in a 25-year-old female. Clinically, the lesion resembled periapical pathosis of odontogenic origin. An attempt has been made to discuss the clinical and histopathologic features along with differential diagnosis of cemento-osseous dysplasia. PMID:22629069

  13. [Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia of the jaws].

    PubMed

    Benazzou, S; Boulaadas, M; El Ayoubi, A; Nazih, N; Essakalli, L; Kzadri, M

    2011-06-01

    Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia is a benign and rare tumor of the jaws. It is more commonly seen in middle-aged black women. Most cases are asymptomatic and are found during routine radiographic examination. We report two complicated cases of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, one with facial deformity and the other with chronic osteitis. The diagnosis of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia is based on clinical and radiological features. The lesions are commonly bilateral and symmetrical. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia masquerading as a residual cyst.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Rajat; Sandhu, Simarpreet V; Bansal, Himanta; Behl, Rashi; Bhullar, Ramanpreet Kaur

    2012-04-01

    Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) is a benign fibroosseous condition that can be seen in dentulous and edentulous patients. It is an asymptomatic lesion and needs no treatment; however, follow-up is essential due to the possibility that it can progress to a condition called florid cemento-osseous dysplasia. We report a case of FCOD of mandible in a 25-year-old female. Clinically, the lesion resembled periapical pathosis of odontogenic origin. An attempt has been made to discuss the clinical and histopathologic features along with differential diagnosis of cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  15. Prosthodontic management of a patient with ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Nandini, Yamini

    2013-12-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare congenital disease that affects the ectodermal structures. It is characterized by hypotrichosis, hypohidrosis and hypodontia. A 14-year-old boy with ectodermal dysplasia presenting with oligodontia and marked resorption of the maxillary and mandibular alveolar ridges is reported. Prosthetic rehabilitation in the form of a maxillary and mandibular partial denture was made with metal crowns on existing lower teeth to achieve appropriate vertical dimension. Significant improvement in speech, masticatory function and facial esthetics was achieved. Removable prosthodontics can provide an acceptable solution to esthetic, functional and psychological rehabilitation in patients with ectodermal dysplasia.

  16. Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant and Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in Treating Patients With High-Risk Advanced Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-28

    Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia and Ringed Sideroblasts; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  17. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total Body Irradiation Followed by a Donor Peripheral Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes or Myeloproliferative Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-28

    Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Essential Thrombocythemia; Myeloproliferative Neoplasm; Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria; Polycythemia Vera; Polycythemia Vera, Post-Polycythemic Myelofibrosis Phase; Primary Myelofibrosis; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Ring Sideroblasts; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia and Ring Sideroblasts

  18. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia of mandible

    PubMed Central

    Cankaya, Abdülkadir Burak; Erdem, Mehmet Ali; Olgac, Vakur; Firat, Deniz Refia

    2012-01-01

    Fibro-osseous lesions are disturbances in bone metabolism in which normal bone is replaced by a connective tissue matrix that then gradually develops into cemento-osseous tissue. Typically, the lesion is asymptomatic and is detected on routine radiographic examination. Radiologically, this lesion has three stages of maturation: pure radiolucent, radiopaque/mixed radiolucent, and radiopaque appearance. During these stages the lesion can be misdiagnosed. In this case report a 69-year- old patient with a a complaint of painless swelling of the left mandibular molar and premolar area is presented along with a review of the differential diagnoses considered in order to reach a final diagnosis of focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. PMID:22948991

  19. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia of mandible.

    PubMed

    Cankaya, Abdülkadir Burak; Erdem, Mehmet Ali; Olgac, Vakur; Firat, Deniz Refia

    2012-09-03

    Fibro-osseous lesions are disturbances in bone metabolism in which normal bone is replaced by a connective tissue matrix that then gradually develops into cemento-osseous tissue. Typically, the lesion is asymptomatic and is detected on routine radiographic examination. Radiologically, this lesion has three stages of maturation: pure radiolucent, radiopaque/mixed radiolucent, and radiopaque appearance. During these stages the lesion can be misdiagnosed. In this case report a 69-year- old patient with a a complaint of painless swelling of the left mandibular molar and premolar area is presented along with a review of the differential diagnoses considered in order to reach a final diagnosis of focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  20. Growth factors, stem cells and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Alphonse, Rajesh S; Thébaud, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the chronic lung disease of prematurity mainly affecting preterm infants that are born at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Surfactant therapy, antenatal steroids and incremental improvements in perinatal care have modified the pattern of injury and allowed survival of ever more immature infants, but there is still no specific treatment for BPD. As a consequence, this disorder remains the most common complication of extreme prematurity. Arrested alveolar growth and disrupted vasculogenesis, the histological hallmarks of BPD, may persist beyond childhood and lead to chronic lung diseases in adults. Recent advances in our understanding of stem cells and their potential to repair damaged organs offer the possibility for cell-based treatment for intractable diseases. This review summarizes basic concepts of stem cell biology and discusses the recent advances and challenges of stem cell-based therapies for lung diseases, with a particular focus on BPD. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The Epidemiology and Demographics of Hip Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Loder, Randall T.; Skopelja, Elaine N.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is unknown. There are many insights, however, from epidemiologic/demographic information. A systematic medical literature review regarding DDH was performed. There is a predominance of left-sided (64.0%) and unilateral disease (63.4%). The incidence per 1000 live births ranges from 0.06 in Africans in Africa to 76.1 in Native Americans. There is significant variability in incidence within each racial group by geographic location. The incidence of clinical neonatal hip instability at birth ranges from 0.4 in Africans to 61.7 in Polish Caucasians. Predictors of DDH are breech presentation, positive family history, and gender (female). Children born premature, with low birth weights, or to multifetal pregnancies are somewhat protected from DDH. Certain HLA A, B, and D types demonstrate an increase in DDH. Chromosome 17q21 is strongly associated with DDH. Ligamentous laxity and abnormalities in collagen metabolism, estrogen metabolism, and pregnancy-associated pelvic instability are well-described associations with DDH. Many studies demonstrate an increase of DDH in the winter, both in the northern and southern hemispheres. Swaddling is strongly associated with DDH. Amniocentesis, premature labor, and massive radiation exposure may increase the risk of DDH. Associated conditions are congenital muscular torticollis and congenital foot deformities. The opposite hip is frequently abnormal when using rigorous radiographic assessments. The role of acetabular dysplasia and adult hip osteoarthritis is complex. Archeological studies demonstrate that the epidemiology of DDH may be changing. PMID:24977057

  2. Bilateral Thalamocortical Abnormalities in Focal Cortical Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Rezayev, Arthur; Feldman, Henry A; Levman, Jacob; Takahashi, Emi

    2018-05-05

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), a congenital malformation of the neocortex and one of the most common causes of medication resistant epilepsy in pediatric populations, can be studied noninvasively by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The present study aimed to quantify changes in the thalamus and thalamocortical pathways with respect to fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), volume, and other common measures. The study quantified data collected from pediatric patients with a prior diagnosis of FCD; 75 patients (35 females, 10.1 ± 6.5 years) for analysis of thalamic volume and 68 patients (32 females, 10.2 ± 6.4 years) for DTI analysis. DTI scans were taken at 3 Tesla MRI scanners (30 diffusion gradient directions; b= 1000 s/mm 2 and 5 non diffusion-weighted measurements). DTI tractography was performed using the FACT algorithm with an angle threshold of 45 degrees. Manually delineated ROIs were used to compare the hemisphere containing the dysplasia to the contralateral hemisphere and controls. A significant decrease in the volume of the FCD hemisphere thalamus was detected as compared to the contralateral hemisphere. In comparison to controls, there was an observed reduction in tract volume, length, count, FA of thalami, and FA of thalamocortical pathways in FCD patients. FCD patients had higher odds of exhibiting high ADC in both the thalamus and thalamocortical pathways. The data implied a widespread reduction in structural connectivity of the thalamocortical network. MRI analysis suggests a potential influence of FCD on thalamic volume. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Cemento-osseous dysplasia in Jamaica: review of six cases.

    PubMed

    Ogunsalu, C; Miles, D

    2005-09-01

    Six cases of cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) of the jaw bone in Jamaicans are reviewed. Five were documented over a 15-year period (1980-1995). These include a case of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (previously called gigantiform cementoma). Three of the initial cases were histologically diagnosed as gigantiform cementoma. There was no indication in the patient's case file whether these were familial or non-familial. The other two cases were diagnosed histologically as periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia and cementoblastoma respectively. Based on the current understanding of the nature of florid-cemento-osseous dysplasia (FLCOD), a new case was diagnosed as such solely on radiological findings. This single case of FLCOD is reported and discussed against the background of other cemento-osseous lesions. Special emphasis is placed on the radiology of COD in this paper. The confirmative role of radiology without the need for histophathology and treatment for asymptomatic FLCOD is emphasized.

  4. [Clinical and molecular study in a family with cleidocranial dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Callea, Michele; Fattori, Fabiana; Bertini, Enrico S; Yavuz, Izzet; Bellacchio, Emanuele; Avendaño, Andrea; Araque, Dianora; Lacruz-Rengel, María A; Da Silva, Gloria; Cammarata-Scalisi, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia is an uncommon bone dysplasia with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern characterized by short stature, large fontanels, midface hypoplasia, absence or hypoplasia of clavicles and orodental alterations. This is Estudio clínico y molecular en una familia con displasia cleidocraneal Clinical and molecular study in a family with cleidocranial dysplasia produced by mutations in the RUNX2 gene located at 6p21.1. We report two male adolescents (cousins), with cleidocranial dysplasia who presented a heterozygous missense mutation (c.674G> A, p.R225Q) in the RUNX2 gene, characterized by severe phenotype, such as absent clavicles, but with variation in the delayed fontanel closure, dental abnormalities (anomalies in shape and number) and scoliosis, thus demonstrating intrafamilial variation in these patients with the same genotype. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  5. Categorizing Cortical Dysplasia Lesions for Surgical Outcome Using Network Functional Connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bdaiwi, Abdullah Sarray

    Lesion-symptom mapping is a powerful and broadly applicable approach that is used for linking neurological symptoms to specific brain regions. Traditionally, it involves identifying overlap in lesion location across patients with similar symptoms. This approach has limitations when symptoms do not localize to a single region or when lesions do not tend to overlap. In this thesis, we show that we can expand the traditional approach of lesion mapping to incorporate network effects into symptom localization without the need for specialized neuroimaging of patients. Our approach involves assessing the functional connectivity of each lesion volume with the rest of the typical healthy brain using a database of healthy pediatric brain imaging data (C-MIND), available at CCHMC. Our study included 24 subjects that had cortical dysplasia lesions and underwent surgery for seizures that did not respond to drug therapy. We tested our approach using healthy brain imaging data across all ages (2-18 years old) and using age & gender specific groupings of data. The analysis sought categorization of lesion connectivity based on five subject characteristics: gender, cortical dysplasia pathology, epilepsy syndrome, scalp EEG pattern and surgical outcome. Our primary analysis focused on surgical outcome. The results showed that there are some substantial connectivity differences in the outcome analysis. Lesions with stronger connectivity to default mode and attention/motor networks tended to result in poorer surgical outcomes. This result could be expanded with a larger set of data with the ultimate goal of allowing examination of lesions of cortical dysplasia patients and predicting their seizure outcomes.

  6. Risk factors for cervical dysplasia in Kerala, India.

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, C.; Amma, N. S.; Chitrathara, K.; Dhakad, N.; Rani, P.; Malathy, L.; Nair, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    A study in Kerala, India, confirmed the importance of genital hygiene in the fight against infections that have a role in the development of cervical dysplasia and cancer. Many women cannot afford sanitary pads, while adequate facilities for washing after coitus are often unavailable. Health education, satisfactory living standards, and the empowerment of women are prerequisites for reducing the incidence of cervical dysplasia. PMID:10212523

  7. Adult-onset Rasmussen encephalitis associated with focal cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Hohenbichler, Katharina; Lelotte, Julie; Lhommel, Renaud; Tahry, Riëm El; Vrielynck, Pascal; Santos, Susana Ferrao

    2017-12-01

    Rasmussen encephalitis is a rare, devastating condition, typically presenting in childhood. Cases of adult-onset Rasmussen have also been described, but the clinical picture is less defined, rendering final diagnosis difficult. We present a case of adult-onset Rasmussen encephalitis with dual pathology, associated with focal cortical dysplasia and encephalitis. We interpreted the Rasmussen encephalitis to be caused by severe and continuous epileptic activity due to focal cortical dysplasia. The best therapeutic approach for such cases remains unclear.

  8. Hereditary hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia: report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Paramkusam, Geetha; Meduri, Venkateswarlu; Nadendla, Lakshmi Kavitha; Shetty, Namratha

    2013-09-01

    Hereditary Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (HHED), an X-linked, recessive, Mendelian character, is seen usually in males and it is inherited through female carriers. It is characterised by congenital dysplasia of one or more ectodermal structures and it is manifested by hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis and hypodontia. It results from abnormal morphogenesis of cutaneous and oral embryonic ectoderm. Here, we are presenting a rare case of HHED in a 19 year female with classic features of this condition.

  9. Hereditary Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Paramkusam, Geetha; Meduri, Venkateswarlu; Nadendla, Lakshmi Kavitha; Shetty, Namratha

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (HHED), an X-linked, recessive, Mendelian character, is seen usually in males and it is inherited through female carriers. It is characterised by congenital dysplasia of one or more ectodermal structures and it is manifested by hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis and hypodontia. It results from abnormal morphogenesis of cutaneous and oral embryonic ectoderm. Here, we are presenting a rare case of HHED in a 19 year female with classic features of this condition. PMID:24179947

  10. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia: a clinical case with a longitudinal approach.

    PubMed

    Fraiz, Fabian Calixto; Gugisch, Renato Cordeiro; Cavalcante-Leão, Bianca Lopes; Macedo, Liliane Moreira

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes a clinical case of a male with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia submitted to rehabilitation and occlusal dental interventions with follow-up from 3 to 14 years of age. Due to the severe effects on function and esthetics, the clinical manifestations of ectodermal dysplasia exert a negative impact on quality of life. However, oral rehabilitation in childhood poses a challenge due to growth and development. A male with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia began dental intervention at the age of 3 years. The clinical and radiographic exams revealed the absence of several primary and permanent teeth and abnormal shape of the primary maxillary incisors. The facial characteristics were compatible with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, such as a prominent brow, everted lips, fattened bridge of the nose and small vertical facial height. The treatment proposed involved rehabilitation through successive temporary partial dentures, functional orthopedics of the jaws, esthetic reconstruction of the anterior teeth, timely occlusal intervention and preventive actions for the control of dental caries and plaque. The present case demonstrates that early care plays a fundamental role in minimizing the biopsychosocial consequences of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and preparing the patient for future oral rehabilitation. Although, the literature offers a number of papers describing dental treatment for ectodermal dysplasia, few cases include long-term follow-up and the use of a functional orthopedic appliance in combination with removable dentures in such patients.

  11. Papillary bile duct dysplasia in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, J; Wahlstrom, H E; Batts, K P; Wiesner, R H

    1992-06-01

    A 62-year-old man with a 20-year history of chronic ulcerative colitis and a 9-year history of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) underwent orthotopic liver transplantation because of symptoms related to PSC and cholangiographic features compatible with a biliary neoplasm. Study of the excised liver revealed papillary mucosal lesions in the common hepatic duct and the right and left hepatic ducts as well as cholangiectases and other features typically associated with PSC. The papillary lesions consisted of abundant fibrovascular stroma covered by biliary epithelium with low-grade and high-grade dysplasia. Some periductal glands were also dysplastic. These features distinguished papillary dysplasia from classic biliary papillomatosis. Only one focus of microinvasion was found; there were no metastases. Among 60 cases of PSC in whom the entire liver could be studied after orthotopic liver transplantation, this was the only instance of unequivocal dysplasia. However, in one specimen, papillary hyperplasia was found. Detailed macroscopic and microscopic rereview of 23 livers from our patients with the longest history of PSC (range, 5-24 years) failed to reveal any additional cases with dysplasia. It is concluded that (a) papillary mucosal lesions in PSC may represent papillary dysplasia without invasion; (b) these lesions may evolve from papillary hyperplasia; (c) the process may be largely, if not entirely, in situ; and (d) the prevalence of dysplasia and carcinoma of bile ducts may be less than the 7%-9% reported in the literature for malignancies associated with PSC.

  12. Management of respiratory distress syndrome: an update.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Ricardo J

    2003-03-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome is the most common respiratory disorder in preterm infants. Over the last decade, because of improvements in neonatal care and increased use of antenatal steroids and surfactant replacement therapy, mortality from respiratory distress syndrome has dropped substantially. However, respiratory morbidity, primarily bronchopulmonary dysplasia, remains unacceptably high. The management of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants is based on various modalities of respiratory support and the application of fundamental principles of neonatal care. To obtain best results, a multidisciplinary approach is crucial. This review discusses surfactant replacement therapy and some of the current strategies in ventilatory management of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Copyright 2003 Daedalus Enterprises

  13. Unusual association of SCN2A epileptic encephalopathy with severe cortical dysplasia detected by prenatal MRI.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Silvia; Marchionni, Enrica; Prudente, Sabrina; De Liso, Paola; Spalice, Alberto; Giancotti, Antonella; Manganaro, Lucia; Pizzuti, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    We present an atypical association of SCN2A epileptic encephalopathy with severe cortical dysplasia. SCN2A mutations are associated with epileptic syndromes from benign to extremely severe in absence of such macroscopic brain findings. Prenatal MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) in a 32 weeks fetus, with US (Ultrasonography) diagnosis of isolated ventriculomegaly showed CNS (Central Nervous System) dysplasia characterized by lack of differentiation between cortical and subcortical layers, pachygyria and corpus callosum dysgenesis. Postnatal MRI confirmed the prenatal findings. On day 6 the baby presented a focal status epilepticus, partially controlled by phenobarbital, phenytoin, and levetiracetam. After three weeks a moderate improvement in seizure control has been achieved with carbamazepine. Exome sequencing detected a de novo heterozygous mutation in the SCN2A gene, encoding the α II -subunit of a sodium channel. The patient findings expand the phenotype spectrum of SCN2A mutations to epileptic encephalopathies with macroscopic brain developmental features. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel EDA mutation in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and genotype-phenotype correlation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, B; Lu, H; Xiao, X; Zhou, L; Lu, J; Zhu, L; Yu, D; Zhao, W

    2015-11-01

    X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) is characterized by abnormalities of hair, teeth, and sweat glands, while non-syndromic hypodontia (NSH) affects only teeth. Mutations in Ectodysplasin A (EDA) underlie both XLHED and NSH. This study investigated the genetic causes of six hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) patients and genotype-phenotype correlation. The EDA gene of six patients with HED was sequenced. Bioinformatics analysis and structural modeling for the mutations were performed. The records of 134 patients with XLHED and EDA-related NSH regarding numbers of missing permanent teeth from this study and 20 articles were reviewed. Nonparametric tests were used to analyze genotype-phenotype correlations. In four of the six patients, we identified a novel mutation c.852T>G (p.Phe284Leu) and three reported mutations: c.467G>A (p.Arg156His), c.776C>A (p.Ala259Glu), and c.871G>A (p.Gly291Arg). They were predicted to be pathogenic by bioinformatics analysis and structural modeling. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis revealed that truncating mutations were associated with more missing teeth. Missense mutations and the mutations affecting the TNF homology domain were correlated with fewer missing teeth. This study extended the mutation spectrum of XLHED and revealed the relationship between genotype and the number of missing permanent teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Confirmation that RIPK4 mutations cause not only Bartsocas-Papas syndrome but also CHAND syndrome.

    PubMed

    Busa, Tiffany; Jeraiby, Mohammed; Clémenson, Alix; Manouvrier, Sylvie; Granados, Viviana; Philip, Nicole; Touraine, Renaud

    2017-11-01

    CHAND syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by curly hair, ankyloblepharon, and nail dysplasia. Only few patients were reported to date. A homozygous RIPK4 mutation was recently identified by homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing in three patients from an expanded consanguineous kindred with a clinical diagnosis of CHAND syndrome. RIPK4 was previously known to be implicated in Bartsocas-Papas syndrome, the autosomal recessive form of popliteal pterygium syndrome. We report here two cases of RIPK4 homozygous mutations in a fetus with severe Bartsocas-Papas syndrome and a patient with CHAND syndrome. The patient with CHAND syndrome harbored the same mutation as the one identified in the family previously reported. We thus confirm the implication of RIPK4 gene in CHAND syndrome in addition to Bartsocas-Papas syndrome and discuss genotype/phenotype correlations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Quality control initiative on the evaluation of the dysmegakaryopoiesis in myeloid neoplasms: Difficulties in the assessment of dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Goasguen, Jean E; Bennett, John M; Bain, Barbara J; Brunning, Richard D; Vallespí, Maria-Teresa; Tomonaga, Masao; Zini, Gina; Renault, Alain

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of megakaryocyte morphology is difficult but can be essential for the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and other myeloid neoplasms. We agreed upon descriptions and provided images of megakaryoblasts and of normal and dysplastic megakaryocytes, which were used as a basis for assessing the concordance of expert morphologists in their recognition. We showed a high rate of concordance for the recognition of micromegakaryocytes and confirmed their strong association with hematologic neoplasia, including MDS. Concordance was also found to be good for the recognition of multinucleated megakaryocytes, which showed a significant association with MDS. However cytoplasmic abnormalities were found not to be useful in MDS recognition. The occurrence of appreciable numbers of nonlobulated and hypolobulated megakaryocytes in individuals without a myeloid neoplasm was confirmed. We demonstrated that subjects without a myeloid neoplasm can have some megakaryocytes that are assessed as 'dysplastic' or 'possibly dysplastic' and that to avoid over diagnosis of dysplasia, 'possibly dysplastic' forms should be excluded from the count of dysplastic cells. Our results demonstrate that the nature as well as the presence of megakaryocyte dysplasia is important in the diagnosis of MDS; although evaluation of 30 megakaryocytes is strongly recommended, it may be possible to recognize diagnostically important dysplasia when fewer megakaryocytes are present but highly diagnostic forms are seen. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. McCune-Albright syndrome: radiological and MR findings.

    PubMed

    Yongjing, G; Huawei, L; Zilai, P; Bei, D; Hao, J; Kemin, C

    2001-01-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a non-inherited disorder due to the GNAS1 gene mutation. The syndrome is characterized with the triad of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, pigmented skin lesions, endocrinopathy, and precocious puberty. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy, presenting with sclerotic type of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. Radiological methods including plain X-ray film, MR and whole body bone scintigraphy suggested the diagnosis of MAS. MRI provided more directly perceived images and it was more sensitive in demonstrating the lesion: its shape, contents, especially the size of the affected region. Histopathological study and the identification of mutant gene finally confirmed the diagnostic result.

  18. Gastric intestinal metaplasia is associated with gastric dysplasia but is inversely correlated with esophageal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Justin M; Patrie, James T; Bleibel, Wissam; Frye, Jeanetta W; Sauer, Bryan G; Shami, Vanessa M; Stelow, Edward B; Moskaluk, Christopher A; Wang, Andrew Y

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine which clinical factors might be associated with gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) in a North American population. METHODS Pathology and endoscopy databases at an academic medical center were reviewed to identify patients with and without gastric IM on biopsies for a retrospective cohort study. Patient demographics, insurance status, and other clinical factors were reviewed. RESULTS Four hundred and sixty-eight patients with gastric IM (mean age: 61.0 years ± 14.4 years, 55.5% female) and 171 without gastric IM (mean age: 48.8 years ± 20.8 years, 55.0% female) were compared. The endoscopic appearance of atrophic gastritis correlated with finding gastric IM on histopathology (OR = 2.05, P = 0.051). Gastric IM was associated with histologic findings of chronic gastritis (OR = 2.56, P < 0.001), gastric ulcer (OR = 6.97, P = 0.015), gastric dysplasia (OR = 6.11, P = 0.038), and gastric cancer (OR = 6.53, P = 0.027). Histologic findings of Barrett’s esophagus (OR = 0.28, P = 0.003) and esophageal dysplasia (OR = 0.11, P = 0.014) were inversely associated with gastric IM. Tobacco use (OR = 1.73, P = 0.005) was associated with gastric IM. CONCLUSION Patients who smoke or have the endoscopic finding of atrophic gastritis are more likely to have gastric IM and should have screening gastric biopsies during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Patients with gastric IM are at increased risk for having gastric dysplasia and cancer, and surveillance EGD with gastric biopsies in these patients might be reasonable. PMID:28250898

  19. [Kenny-Caffey syndrome and its related syndromes].

    PubMed

    Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Kitanaka, Sachiko

    2015-11-01

    Kenny-Caffey syndrome (KCS) is a very rare dysmorphologic syndrome characterized by proportionate short stature, cortical thickening and medullary stenosis of tubular bones, delayed closure of anterior fontanelle, eye abnormalities, and hypoparathyroidism. Two types of KCS were known: the autosomal recessive form (KCS type 1), which is caused by mutations of the TBCE gene, and the autosomal dominant form (KCS type 2), which is caused by mutations of the FAM111A gene. TBCE mutation also causes hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome, and FAM111A mutation also causes gracile bone dysplasia. These two diseases can be called as KCS-related syndromes. In this article, we review the clinical manifestations of KCS and discuss its related syndromes.

  20. Arnold Chiari Malformation With Sponastrime (Spondylar and Nasal Changes, With Striations of the Metaphyses) Dysplasia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Je Hoon; Lee, A Leum; Cho, Sung Yoon; Jin, Dong Kyu; Im, Soo-Bin

    2016-05-01

    SPOndylar and NAsal changes, with STRIations of the Metaphyses (SPONASTRIME) dysplasia (SD) is a dwarfing autosomal recessive syndrome, characterized by a variety of clinical and radiographic features, which form the basis for diagnosis. We describe the presentation of an Arnold Chiari malformation in a patient with a clinical diagnosis of SD. The malformation was successfully treated by decompression of the foramen magnum and elevation of the cerebellum, with complete resolution of pain.We report a rare case of Arnold Chiari malformation in a patient presenting with clinical and radiographic features strongly suggestive of SD and be successfully treated.

  1. Influence of oral rehabilitation on the oral health-related quality of life of a child with ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    de Alencar, Nashalie Andrade; Reis, Kátia Rodrigues; Antonio, Andréa Gonçalves; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2015-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a rare congenital hereditary disorder among a group of syndromes characterized by abnormalities of ectodermic structures. The purpose of this report is to compare the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) before and after complete oral rehabilitation of a five-year-old boy with ED. Delivery of upper and lower dentures resulted in immediate improvement of the child's OHRQoL. Although ED affects patients physically and emotionally, the early oral rehabilitation of young patients is crucial to improve their social interaction and restore their speech and masticatory function.

  2. Surveillance and management of dysplasia in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Sarah A; Collins, Judith M; Knigge, Kandice L; Eisen, Glenn M

    2007-03-01

    Recently updated practice guidelines give specific recommendations on surveillance and management of dysplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis. Previous studies of gastroenterologists in the United States and the United Kingdom demonstrated inconsistent surveillance techniques and limited understanding of the implications of dysplasia. To demonstrate current surveillance practices and management of dysplasia among U.S. gastroenterologists. An 18-item questionnaire was mailed to 1000 gastroenterologists in the United States who were randomly selected from an American Gastroenterological Association mailing list. United States. A total of 334 questionnaires were returned, and 312 were analyzed: 25% of respondents were in academic practice and 75% were in private practice. The majority were in practice more than 10 years. Nearly 80% begin surveillance colonoscopy at 8 to 10 years of disease duration for patients with pancolitis, and 54% report sending at least 31 biopsy specimens. Sixty percent of respondents did not recommend immediate colectomy for a confirmed finding of low-grade dysplasia, instead opting for repeat colonoscopy in 3 to 12 months. Physicians who took fewer biopsy specimens were more likely to recommend continued surveillance for low-grade dysplasia compared with those who took a greater number of biopsy specimens. Limitations included the response rate of 33% and the potential for recall bias. Most U.S. gastroenterologists are practicing surveillance in patients with ulcerative colitis in accordance with published guidelines. There is widespread variation in the management of dysplasia and raised lesions, and the majority of U.S. gastroenterologists do not recommend immediate colectomy for a finding of low-grade dysplasia.

  3. Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia: clinicopathological features.

    PubMed

    Roghi, Marco; Scapparone, Chiara; Crippa, Rolando; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Angiero, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia (PCOD) is a rare benign lesion, often asymptomatic, in which fibrous tissue replaces the normal bone tissue, with metaplasic bone and neo-formed cement. We present a rare case of mandibular PCOD in a woman of 55 years, who presented with moderate swelling and mobility of teeth 32-33-34. Endoral radiography showed that these teeth had been devitalized; they had deep periodontal pockets and marked radicular radiotransparency; the root apices exhibited mixed radiotransparency and radio-opacity. Clinical and radiographical findings led to a diagnosis of periapical rarefying osteitis, and the three teeth were thus extracted. Due to the persistence of swelling and slight pain post-extraction, a cone-beam computed tomographic scan was taken; this showed a mixed radiotransparent and radio-opaque lesion in the area of the extracted teeth. A bone biopsy of the affected area was taken for histopathological evaluation; a diagnosis of PCOD was rendered. This case demonstrates the importance of a full investigation when a patient presents after tooth extraction with non-healing socket, pain, and swelling. A multidisciplinary approach is required to manage these rare cases.

  4. Appropriate fluid regimens to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Tammela, O K

    1995-01-01

    Pulmonary oedema is an important problem in premature neonates with surfactant deficiency because of fluid accumulation in the lung interstitium and reduced urine output. Some retrospective reports suggest that excessive early hydration might increase the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Only three prospective studies evaluating low or conventional fluid administration regimens to very low birth weight infants have been published. According to their results no significant differences in the incidence of BPD have been shown. However, fluid restriction seems to improve the outcome of the infants because of decreased incidence of haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, pulmonary air leaks and decreased mortality. The appropriate amount of sodium in the intravenous fluids during the first days of life needs further evaluation. In tiny infants with birth weights from 500 to 800g intensive monitoring of fluid balance is essential to control the extremely high fluid losses due to evaporation. Undernutrition is a risk factor of BPD and therefore it is important to start parenteral nutrition early. The benefit of the use of colloids as volume expanders is controversial. According to some retrospective reports there might be an association with increased use of colloidal fluids during the first days of life and the development of BPD. Early excessive fluid administration might constitute a potential risk for low birth weight infants with hyaline membrane disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Altered behavior in experimental cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fu-Wen; Rani, Asha; Martinez-Diaz, Hildabelis; Foster, Thomas C; Roper, Steven N

    2011-12-01

    Developmental delay and cognitive impairment are common comorbidities in people with epilepsy associated with malformations of cortical development (MCDs). We studied cognition and behavior in an animal model of diffuse cortical dysplasia (CD), in utero irradiation, using a battery of behavioral tests for neuromuscular and cognitive function. Fetal rats were exposed to 2.25 Gy external radiation on embryonic day 17 (E17). At 1 month of age they were tested using an open field task, a grip strength task, a grid walk task, inhibitory avoidance, an object recognition task, and the Morris water maze task. Rats with CD showed reduced nonlocomotor activity in the open field task and impaired motor coordination for grid walking but normal grip strength. They showed a reduced tendency to recognize novel objects and reduced retention in an inhibitory avoidance task. Water maze testing showed that learning and memory were impaired in irradiated rats for both cue discrimination and spatially oriented tasks. These results demonstrate significant deficits in cortex- and hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions associated with the diffuse abnormalities of cortical and hippocampal development that have been documented in this model. This study documents multimodal cognitive deficits associated with CD and can serve as the foundation for future investigations into the mechanisms of and possible therapeutic interventions for this problem. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. Recurrent SOX9 deletion campomelic dysplasia due to somatic mosaicism in the father.

    PubMed

    Smyk, M; Obersztyn, E; Nowakowska, B; Bocian, E; Cheung, S W; Mazurczak, T; Stankiewicz, P

    2007-04-15

    Haploinsufficiency of SOX9, a master gene in chondrogenesis and testis development, leads to the semi-lethal skeletal malformation syndrome campomelic dysplasia (CD), with or without XY sex reversal. We report on two children with CD and a phenotypically normal father, a carrier of a somatic mosaic SOX9 deletion. This is the first report of a mosaic deletion of SOX9; few familial CD cases with germline and somatic mutation mosaicism have been described. Our findings confirm the utility of aCGH and indicate that for a more accurate estimate of the recurrence risk for a completely penetrant autosomal dominant disorder, parental somatic mosaicism should be considered in healthy parents. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Dento-osseous anomalies associated to familial adenomatous polyposis mimicking florid cemento-osseous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fabiana Tolentino; Leite, André Ferreira; de Souza Figueiredo, Paulo Tadeu; Melo, Nilce Santos; Sousa, João Batista; Almeida, Rômulo; Acevedo, Ana Carolina; Silva Guerra, Eliete Neves

    2012-12-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a colorectal cancer syndrome characterized by the development of multiple polyps of the colon and rectum with high risk of malignant transformation. The extraintestinal manifestations such as dento-osseous changes are associated with FAP. This is a case report of a 36-year-old female patient who was referred for dental treatment with the initial diagnosis of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD). However, the association of the imaging dento-osseous findings with the medical history confirmed the diagnosis of FAP. The paper illustrates the clinical characteristics and imaging findings associated with FAP, and also discusses misdiagnosis based exclusively on imaging features. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Congenital mydriasis as an initial sign of septo-optic dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Carrascosa-Romero, M C; Ruiz-Cano, R; Martínez-López, F; Alfaro-Ponce, B; Pérez-Pardo, A

    2013-10-01

    Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD)[MIM182230] consisting of a heterogeneous and uncommon condition characterised by the classictriad: optic nerve hypoplasia, abnormalities of pituitary hormone, and defects of thebrain midline (including agenesis of the septum pellucidum and/or the corpus callosum; ithas also been described associated cortical malformations, it was referred to as SOD plus syndrome).We report the first known case in which the initial diagnostic sign of SOD was a bilateralmydriasis as a manifestation ofhypoplasia of both optic nerves, pituitary hypoplasia andcerebral dysgenesis with neuronal migration disorder.We discuss thedifferential diagnosis of congenital mydriasis. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. An unusual case of ectodermal dysplasia: combating senile features at an early age

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mudit; Sundaresh, Kumbar Jayadevappa; Batra, Manu; Rathva, Vandana J

    2014-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) refers to a group of inherited diseases that have developmental defects in at least two major structures derived from the ectoderm, that is, hair, teeth, nails and sweat glands. Although more than 192 distinct disorders have been described, the most common is X-linked recessive hypohidrotic ED (Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome). Since such patients usually presents with missing teeth, dentists are usually the first person to diagnose such cases. Diagnosis of such cases is important because absence of sweat glands can lead to hyperthermia which can be life-threatening if proper care is not taken. Through this manuscript, we report a case of anhidrotic ED affecting deciduous and permanent dentition, which is rare. PMID:24493109

  10. Brachymesomelic dysplasia with Peters anomaly of the eye results from disruptions of the X chromosome near the SHOX and SOX3 genes.

    PubMed

    Bleyl, Steven B; Byrne, Janice L B; South, Sarah T; Dries, David C; Stevenson, David A; Rope, Alan F; Vianna-Morgante, Angela M; Schoenwolf, Gary C; Kivlin, Jane D; Brothman, Arthur; Carey, John C

    2007-12-01

    We report on a mother and son affected with an unusual skeletal dysplasia and anterior segment eye abnormalities. Their skeletal phenotype overlaps with the SHOX-related skeletal dysplasias and is intermediate between Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and Langer Mesomelic dysplasia (LMD). The mother has bilateral Peters anomaly of the eye and was reported as having a new syndrome; the son had severe bilateral sclerocornea. Chromosome analysis showed that the mother has a pericentric inversion of the X chromosome [46,X,inv(X)(p22.3q27)] and the son, a resultant recombinant X chromosome [46,Y,rec(X)dup(Xq)inv(X)(p22.3q27)]. The observed skeletal and ophthalmologic abnormalities in both patients were similar in severity. The additional features of developmental delay, growth retardation, agenesis of the corpus callosum, cryptorchidism and hypoplastic scrotum in the son are consistent with Xq28 duplication. Analysis of the son's recombinant X chromosome showed that the Xp22.33 breakpoint lies 30-68 kb 5' of the SHOX gene. This finding suggests that the skeletal dysplasia in both mother and son is allelic with LWD and LMD and results from a novel misexpression of SHOX. Analysis of the Xq27.1 breakpoint localized it to a 90 kb interval 3' of the SOX3 gene, supporting a novel role of SOX3 misexpression in the development of Peters anomaly of the eye. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Two Patients with Severe Short Stature due to a FBN1 Mutation (p.Ala1728Val) with a Mild Form of Acromicric Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Christiaan; Finlayson, Courtney; Funari, Mariana F A; Vasques, Gabriela A; Lucheze Freire, Bruna; Lerario, Antonio M; Andrew, Melissa; Hwa, Vivian; Dauber, Andrew; Jorge, Alexander A L

    2016-01-01

    Acromicric dysplasia (AD) and geleophysic dysplasia 2 (GD2) belong to the category of acromelic dysplasia syndromes, consisting of severe short stature, short hands and feet and skin thickening. Both can result from missense mutations in the transforming growth factor beta 5 domain of the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1). Two patients (P1 age 10, and P2 age 7) from unrelated families presented to their endocrinologist with severe short stature (approx. -4 SDS). They were otherwise asymptomatic and only had mild facial dysmorphisms. Extensive endocrine work-up did not reveal an underlying etiology. Exome sequencing was performed in each family. Exome sequencing identified the presence of the same heterozygous missense variant c.C5183T (p.Ala1728Val) in the FBN1 gene in both P1 and P2. This variant was previously reported in a patient with GD2 and associated cardiac valvulopathy and hepatomegaly. Detailed clinical re-examination, cardiac and skeletal imaging did not reveal any abnormalities in P1 or P2 other than mild hip dysplasia. This report broadens the phenotypic spectrum of growth disorders associated with FBN1 mutations. Identical mutations give rise to a wide phenotypic spectrum, ranging from isolated short stature to a more classic picture of GD2 with cardiac involvement, distinct facial dysmorphisms and various skeletal anomalies. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED): clinical and diagnostic insights from an international patient registry.

    PubMed

    Fete, Mary; Hermann, Julie; Behrens, Jeffrey; Huttner, Kenneth M

    2014-10-01

    The web-based Ectodermal Dysplasia International Registry (EDIR) is a comprehensive patient-reported survey contributing to an understanding of ectodermal dysplasia (ED). XLHED is the most common of the genetic ED syndromes and was the primary diagnosis reported by 223/835 respondents (141 males and 82 females). Overall, 96% of XLHED registrants reported as least one other affected family member and 21% reported a family history of infant or childhood deaths, consistent with the published mortality data in this disorder. In general, XLHED is diagnosed by the triad of decreased sweating, reduced hair, and hypodontia (present in 89%, 74%, and 74% of XLHED respondents). Additionally, the registry dataset confirmed a spectrum of life-long XLHED clinical complications including recurrent sinus infections (49% males, 52% females), nasal congestion often foul smelling and interfering with feeding (73% males, 27% females), eczema (66% males, 40% females), wheezing (66% males, 45% females), and a hoarse, raspy voice (67% males, 23% females). The Registry results also highlighted features consistently differentiating XLHED from the non-hypohidrotic ED syndromes including the frequency of infant/childhood deaths, the presence of limb/digit abnormalities, feeding issues related to nasal discharge, dentures, and a diagnosis of asthma. These results represent the largest collection of data on a broad-spectrum of health-related issues affecting ED patients. This project provides information for expanding knowledge of the natural history of XLHED, and as such may facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of its varied and lifelong medical challenges. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Immunohistochemical Expression of MCM-2 in Oral Epithelial Dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Samar H; Farag, Heba A; Khater, Dina S

    2016-03-17

    Oral cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in the world. It arises from epithelial dysplasia. Hence, identifying these lesions in an early stage could prevent their malignant transformation. The aim of the present work was to assess the cell proliferative activity of minichromosome maintenance protein (MCM-2) in oral epithelial dysplastic lesions and to correlate the results with different grades of epithelial dysplasia in an attempt to use MCM-2 in the early detection of malignancy. MCM-2 expression was determined by the nuclear count in a total of 30 oral epithelial dysplastic specimens roughly classified into 10 cases of mild, moderate, and severe dysplasia. Five cases of early invasive squamous-cell carcinomas and 5 cases of epithelial hyperplasia were also included. The MCM-2 immunostaining was found to increase gradually from mild to moderate to severe dysplasia and reached its maximum value in early invasive squamous cell carcinoma. MCM-2 is of prognostic value in cases of oral dysplasia that have a tendency to undergo malignant transformation.

  14. Neonatal Death Dwarfism in a Girl with Distinctive Bone Dysplasia Compatible with Grebe Chondrodysplasia: Analysis by CT Scan-based Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Chehida, Farid Ben; Ganger, Rudolf; Grill, Franz

    2014-01-01

    We report on a female fetus noted to have severe malformative type of skeletal dysplasia on ultrasonography done at 35 weeks gestation. The girl died shortly after birth. Clinical examination showed a fetus with severe dwarfism, extensive long and short bones, and bone deficiencies associated with multiple dislocations. Computed tomography (CT) scan-based phenotype showed a complex constellation of malformations consistent with the diagnosis of Grebe syndrome. Parents being first cousins (consanguineous marriage) strongly suggests autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of neonatal death dwarfism of Grebe syndrome analyzed by CT scan-based phenotype.

  15. Structural Pituitary Abnormalities Associated With CHARGE Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Louise C.; Gevers, Evelien F.; Baker, Joanne; Kasia, Tessa; Chong, Kling; Josifova, Dragana J.; Caimari, Maria; Bilan, Frederic; McCabe, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: CHARGE syndrome is a multisystem disorder that, in addition to Kallmann syndrome/isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, has been associated with anterior pituitary hypoplasia (APH). However, structural abnormalities such as an ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP) have not yet been described in such patients. Objective: The aims of the study were: 1) to describe the association between CHARGE syndrome and a structurally abnormal pituitary gland; and 2) to investigate whether CHD7 variants, which are identified in 65% of CHARGE patients, are common in septo-optic dysplasia /hypopituitarism. Methods: We describe 2 patients with features of CHARGE and EPP. CHD7 was sequenced in these and other patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism. Results: EPP, APH, and GH, TSH, and probable LH/FSH deficiency were present in 1 patient, and EPP and APH with GH, TSH, LH/FSH, and ACTH deficiency were present in another patient, both of whom had features of CHARGE syndrome. Both had variations in CHD7 that were novel and undetected in control cohorts or in the international database of CHARGE patients, but were also present in their unaffected mothers. No CHD7 variants were detected in the patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism without additional CHARGE features. Conclusion: We report a novel association between CHARGE syndrome and structural abnormalities of the pituitary gland in 2 patients with variations in CHD7 that are of unknown significance. However, CHD7 mutations are an uncommon cause of septo-optic dysplasia or hypopituitarism. Our data suggest the need for evaluation of pituitary function/anatomy in patients with CHARGE syndrome. PMID:23526466

  16. [Ehler-Danlos syndrome (type V) with urethra bifida and polydactyly: an unusual combination].

    PubMed

    Manna, R; Modugno, I; Pala, M A; Caputo, S; Caradonna, E; Greco, A V

    1981-06-30

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is currently regarded as a connective tissue dysplasia. Its genetic, biochemical, histological and clinical features are described, together with a personal case in a patient who presented the fundamental symptoms, plus polydactyly and bifid urethra. This association had not been hitherto reported in the literature. The case itself is classed as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type V.

  17. Familial florid Cemento-osseous dysplasia - case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Thorawat, Amit; Kalkur, Chaitra; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G; Tarakji, Bassel

    2015-12-01

    Familial Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia is a very uncommon condition. Cemento-osseous dysplasia is totally asymptomatic in many cases, in those conditions, lesions are detected in a radiograph taken for other purposes. In this report, we describe a family in which mother and daughter exhibited clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  18. Axial correction of the lower limb deformities in a girl with anauxetic dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kenis, Vladimir; Grill, Franz; Al Kaissi, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Valgus subtrochanteric osteotomies and hemiepiphyseodesis around the knees have been performed to correct severe coxa vara and genua valga in a girl patient who manifested extreme dwarfism associated with spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia consistent with anauxetic dysplasia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the combined orthopaedic intervention in a girl with anauxetic dysplasia.

  19. Death due to complications of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Emily; Schandl, Cynthia; Tormos, Lee Marie

    2014-11-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia comprises a group of disorders affecting ectodermal tissues. Severity depends on the genetic aberration; hyperpyrexia secondary to absence of sweat glands is a common complication. Treatment is supportive. This case report describes a 1-month, 27-day-old male infant with a diagnosis of X-linked recessive anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. On the day of his death, his mother swaddled him in a blanket and placed him on the couch at 5:30 am. When she picked him up at 8:00 am, he was unresponsive. At the emergency department, his rectal temperature was 40°C. Postmortem blood culture was positive for group B streptococcus, a possible etiology for fever. It is vital to teach parents that close monitoring of children with ectodermal dysplasia is necessary, as an increase in body temperature can become life threatening. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Infantile bilateral glaucoma in a child with ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Callea, Michele; Vinciguerra, Agatino; Willoughby, Colin E; Deroma, Laura; Clarich, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare disease which affects at least two ectodermal-derived structures such as hair, nails, skin, sweat glands and teeth. Approximately 200 different conditions have been classified as an ectodermal dysplasia and X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XHED) represents the commonest form. Clinically, XHED is characterized by hypotrichosis, hypohidrosis and hypodontia. A variety of ocular manifestations have been reported in XHED, the most common being dryness of eyes due to tear deficiency and instability of the film secondary to the absence of meibomian gland function. Here we report a child with the distinctive clinical features of XHED confirmed with molecular diagnosis who presented with infantile bilateral glaucoma, in addition to the classical ocular involvement in XHED.

  1. Neuroimaging findings of extensive sphenoethmoidal dysplasia in NF1.

    PubMed

    Tam, Allison; Sliepka, Joseph M; Bellur, Sunil; Bray, Collin Douglas; Lincoln, Christie M; Nagamani, Sandesh C S

    2018-05-16

    Whereas isolated sphenoid wing dysplasia (SWD) is a well-known clinical feature in neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), extensive cranial defects involving multiple bones have been rarely reported in this disorder. In this report, we describe the clinical course of a 20-year-old male with NF1 and an extensive cranial bone dysplasia. The large sphenoethmoidal defect was associated with transethmoidal and orbital cephalocele as well as inferolateral herniation of the frontal lobe. In spite of the large defect, the individual did not have any symptoms or complications resulting from the osteopathy. We review the current knowledge of the pathogenesis and management of cranial bone dysplasia in NF1. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tumours and dysplasias of the mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    Hampe, J. F.; Misdorp, W.

    1974-01-01

    As mammary tumours occur frequently in the dog and cat but rarely in other domestic animals, only the tumours of these two species are classified. The epithelial tumours are termed “complex” when they consist of cells resembling both secretory and myoepithelial cells: these tumours are biologically less malignant than tumours of the “simple” type in which only one of these kinds of cell is present. The carcinomas are subdivided into adenocarcinoma, solid carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma. The term “carcinosarcoma or malignant mixed tumour” was used only when there were cells morphologically resembling not only one or both of the epithelial components but also connective tissue cells with their products of differentiation. The benign tumours are classed as adenoma, papilloma, fibroadenoma, or benign soft tissue tumour. The dysplasias are described under the following headings: cyst, adenosis, regular typical epithelial proliferation in ducts and lobules (epitheliosis), duct ectasia, fibrosclerosis, and lobular hyperplasia. ImagesFig. 41Fig. 42Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 45Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36 PMID:4371737

  3. Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    More, Chandramani B.; Bhavsar, Khusbhu; Joshi, Jigar; Varma, Saurabh N.; Tailor, Mansi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a group of rare, inherited disorders characterized by sparse hair, missing teeth and inability to sweat. Objective: To review and analyze cases of ED with an emphasis on clinical manifestations and parent's marriage history. Methodology: The present retrospective study was conducted by assessing the clinical records of nineteen cases of ED, available in the archives of the department; for age, gender, family history of consanguineous marriage and clinical manifestations. Results: It was observed that ED was more prevalent in males, with a ratio of 1.7:1. The hypohydrotic type was more common (78.95%) than hydrotic type (21.05%). The marriage history of parents revealed that 66.67% had consanguineous marriage and had 68.42% offspring's affected with ED; whereas 33.33% had history of non-consanguineous marriage and had 31.58% offspring's affected with ED. The clinical manifestations observed were- dry skin(94.74%); scaly skin(42.11%); sparse hair on scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes(100%); frontal bossing(63.18%); saddle nose (57.89%); hypertelorism (47.37%); nail abnormality(52.63%); normal sweat glands(21.05%); abnormal sweat glands(78.95%); hypoplastic maxilla(52.63%); protuberant lips (57.89%); palmo-plantar keratosis(21.05%); wrinkled & hyper pigmented facial skin(84.21%); partial anodontia(94.74%); conical shaped teeth(84.21%); high arched palate(68.42%); thin alveolar bone(100.00%); taurodontism(21.05%) and cleft lip & cleft palate(05.26%). The number of teeth present in all the cases ranged from 0 to 19. Conclusion: ED patients suffer from social problems and poor psychological and physiological development as a result of unacceptable esthetics and abnormal function of orofacial structures. Oral rehabilitation thus becomes mandatory, although it is often difficult; particularly in pediatric patients. PMID:24082749

  4. Canine hip dysplasia is predictable by genotyping.

    PubMed

    Guo, G; Zhou, Z; Wang, Y; Zhao, K; Zhu, L; Lust, G; Hunter, L; Friedenberg, S; Li, J; Zhang, Y; Harris, S; Jones, P; Sandler, J; Krotscheck, U; Todhunter, R; Zhang, Z

    2011-04-01

    To establish a predictive method using whole genome genotyping for early intervention in canine hip dysplasia (CHD) risk management, for the prevention of the progression of secondary osteoarthritis (OA), and for selective breeding. Two sets of dogs (six breeds) were genotyped with dense SNPs covering the entire canine genome. The first set contained 359 dogs upon which a predictive formula for genomic breeding value (GBV) was derived by using their estimated breeding value (EBV) of the Norberg angle (a measure of CHD) and their genotypes. To investigate how well the formula would work for an individual dog with genotype only (without using EBV), a cross validation was performed by masking the EBV of one dog at a time. The genomic data and the EBV of the remaining dogs were used to predict the GBV for the single dog that was left out. The second set of dogs included 38 new Labrador retriever dogs, which had no pedigree relationship to the dogs in the first set. The cross validation showed a strong correlation (R>0.7) between the EBV and the GBV. The independent validation showed a moderate correlation (R=0.5) between GBV for the Norberg angle and the observed Norberg angle (no EBV was available for the new 38 dogs). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the genomic data were all above 70%. Prediction of CHD from genomic data is feasible, and can be applied for risk management of CHD and early selection for genetic improvement to reduce the prevalence of CHD in breeding programs. The prediction can be implemented before maturity, at which age current radiographic screening programs are traditionally applied, and as soon as DNA is available. Copyright © 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum surfactant protein D as a marker for bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Vinod, Suja; Gow, Andrew; Weinberger, Barry; Potak, Debra; Hiatt, Mark; Chandra, Shaku; Hegyi, Thomas

    2017-10-26

    Lung epithelial cells express surfactant protein D (SP-D), a calcium-dependent lectin that plays an important role in antibody-independent pulmonary host defense. Previous studies have shown that it is found in the peripheral circulation in patients with pulmonary disease, likely because of translocation into the blood when lung epithelial barriers are disrupted by inflammation or acute injury. In adults, serum SP-D levels are biomarkers for the progression and severity of chronic lung disease. In neonates, elevated SP-D levels in cord blood and on day 1 have been associated with prenatal risk factors and with an increased risk of respiratory distress syndrome and infections. It is not known whether serum SP-D during the first week of life is a marker for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a form of chronic lung disease of prematurity that is associated with lung parenchymal maldevelopment and injury. The goal of this study is to determine whether serum SP-D on days 3 and 7 of life are associated with the development of BPD in preterm infants. Serum samples were obtained on postnatal days 3 and 7 from 106 preterm infants (500-2000 g birth weight, 23-32-week gestation). SP-D was quantified by Western blot. BPD was determined at 36 weeks PMA using NICHD criteria. The mean birth weight was 1145 ± 347 g and gestational age 29.2 ± 7.4 weeks. BPD was diagnosed in 7 and "BPD or death" in 16 infants. Days 3 and 7 values tracked significantly (r = 0.648), and did not correlate with birth weight or gestational age. Contrary to expectations, serum SP-D was not associated with BPD. Significant gender differences were noted, with SP-D dropping from day 3 to day 7 in males, while increasing in females (p < .05). Elevated serum SP-D does not appear to be a useful marker for BPD. Decreasing serum SP-D levels in males, as compared to females, during the first week of life are likely related to gender differences in lung maturation, consistent with the higher

  6. A case of thanatophoric dysplasia type 2: a novel mutation.

    PubMed

    Gülaşı, Selvi; Atıcı, Aytuğ; Çelik, Yalçın

    2015-03-01

    Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) is a lethal form of skeletal dysplasia with short-limb dwarfism. Two types distinguished with their radiological characteristics have been defined clinically. The femur is curved in type 1, while it is straight in type 2. TD is known to be due to a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. We report a male patient who showed clinical findings congruent with TD type 2 and a new mutation in the FGFR3 gene, a finding which has not been reported previously.

  7. Hip Dysplasia: Clinical Signs and Physical Examination Findings.

    PubMed

    Syrcle, Jason

    2017-07-01

    Hip dysplasia is a common developmental disorder of the dog, consisting of varying degrees of hip laxity, progressive remodeling of the structures of the hip, and subsequent development of osteoarthritis. It is a juvenile-onset condition, with clinical signs often first evident at 4 to 12 months of age. A tentative diagnosis of hip dysplasia can be made based on signalment, history, and physical examination findings. The Ortolani test is a valuable tool for identifying juvenile dogs affected with this condition. Further diagnostics can then be prioritized, contributing to prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ectodermal Dysplasia with Anodontia: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Bani, Mehmet; Tezkirecioglu, Ali Melih; Akal, Nese; Tuzuner, Tamer

    2010-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a hereditary disorder that occurs as a consequence of disturbances in the ectoderm of the developing embryo. The triad of nail dystrophy, alopecia or hypotrichosis and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis is usually accompanied by a lack of sweat glands and a partial or complete absence of primary and/or permanent dentition. Two case reports illustrating the prosthetic rehabilitation of 2 young boys with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia associated with severe anodontia are presented. Since the oral rehabilitation of these cases is often difficult; particularly in pediatric patients, treatment should be administered by a multidisciplinary team involving pediatric dentistry, orthodontics, prosthodontics and oral-maxillofacial surgery. PMID:20396456

  9. Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Clinical Overview for the Dental Practitioner.

    PubMed

    Halai, Tina; Stevens, Claire

    2015-10-01

    The term ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is used to describe a group of rare congenital disorders characterized by abnormalities of two or more ectodermal structures such as the skin, hair, nails, teeth and sweat glands. This paper will give an overview of the aetiology of ED and describe the manifestations and dental management of this condition. In particular, the important role of the dental practitioner in the identification and management of patients with ED will be highlighted. CPD/Clinical Relevance: Dental practitioners should be aware of the oral features of ectodermal dysplasia and be able to make timely referrals and provide appropriate continuing care for these patients.

  10. Cranioplasty Using a Modified Split Calvarial Graft Technique in Cleidocranial Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Young Taek; Cho, Jae Ik

    2015-01-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia is a well-documented rare autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia characterized by hypoplastic/aplastic clavicles, brachycephalic skull, patent sutures and fontanelles, midface hypoplasia, and abnormalities of dentition. Patients with cleidocranial dysplasia often complain about undesirable esthetic appearance of their forehead and skull. Notwithstanding many studies of molecular, genetics and skeletal abnormalities of this congenial disorder, there have been very few written reports of cranioplasty involving cleidocranial dysplasia. Thus, we report a rare case of successful cranioplasty using a modified split calvarial graft technique in patient with cleidocranial dysplasia. PMID:26279819

  11. Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia: case report and review of 25 patients

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, J.; Dinis, A.; Resende, C.; Faria, E.; Gomes, C.; Correia, A; Gil, J.; da Fonseca, N.

    1999-01-01

    Immuno-osseous dysplasia is characterised by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, lymphopenia with defective cellular immunity, and progressive renal disease. We describe a patient with a severe form of the disease, review the features of another 24 patients, and discuss the previous classification. The differences between the two groups are not striking, and although similarities are greater between affected sibs, the same diagnosis of Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia should apply to them all. The aetiology and physiopathology of this rare osteochondrodysplasia of presumed autosomal recessive inheritance remain unknown.


Keywords: osteochondrodysplasia; immuno-osseous dysplasia; spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia; defective cellular immunity PMID:10528861

  12. The Cognitive and Behavioural Phenotype of Roifman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, P. J.; McCartney, D. L.; McCartney, E.; Woolf, D.; Wozencroft, D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Roifman syndrome (OMIM 300258) is a multi-system disorder with a physical phenotype that includes B-cell immunodeficiency, intra-uterine and postnatal growth retardation, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, retinal dystrophy and characteristic facial dysmorphism. So far, six cases, all boys, have been reported in the literature. Roifman…

  13. Naegeli–Franceschetti–Jadassohn syndrome: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Bela J.; Jagati, Ashish K.; Gupta, Neha P.; Dhamale, Suyog S.

    2015-01-01

    Naegeli–Franceschetti–Jadassohn Syndrome (NFJS) is a rare, autosomal dominant inherited form of ectodermal dysplasia, caused by mutation in the KRT14 gene. We report here a case of NFJS in a 27-year-old male who presented with reticulate hyperpigmentation over skin, dental changes, absence of dermatoglyphics, hypohidrosis, and hair changes. PMID:26753140

  14. Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn syndrome: A rare case.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bela J; Jagati, Ashish K; Gupta, Neha P; Dhamale, Suyog S

    2015-01-01

    Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn Syndrome (NFJS) is a rare, autosomal dominant inherited form of ectodermal dysplasia, caused by mutation in the KRT14 gene. We report here a case of NFJS in a 27-year-old male who presented with reticulate hyperpigmentation over skin, dental changes, absence of dermatoglyphics, hypohidrosis, and hair changes.

  15. Mazabraud syndrome associated with McCune-Albright syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Biazzo, Alessio; Di Bernardo, Andrea; Parafioriti, Antonina; Confalonieri, Norberto

    2017-08-23

    Mazabraud syndrome is a very rare benign disorder characterized by the association of monostotic or polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and one or multiple intramuscular myxomas. McCune -Albright syndrome is a rare benign disorder characterized by the association of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, cafè-au-lait skin pigmentations and endocrine dysfunction, such as precocious puberty, diabetes mellitus, goiter and breast fibroadenomatosis. The association of Mazabraud syndrome and McCune-Albright in the same patient is an anecdotal event. We report the case of a 28-year-old girl with Mazabraud syndrome associated with McCune-Albright syndrome. Our literature review shows that in these patients there is a higher risk of malignant transformation of fibrous dysplasia into osteosarcoma, confirming previous reports. Conversely, no malignant transformation has been reported for myxomas in isolated Mazabraud syndrome or in the association with McCune-Albright syndrome. We conclude that these patients should be scheduled to a close and long-term follow-up.

  16. Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) lesion analysis with complex diffusion approach.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Jeny; Kannan, K; Kesavadas, C; Thomas, Bejoy

    2009-10-01

    Identification of Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) can be difficult due to the subtle MRI changes. Though sequences like FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) can detect a large majority of these lesions, there are smaller lesions without signal changes that can easily go unnoticed by the naked eye. The aim of this study is to improve the visibility of focal cortical dysplasia lesions in the T1 weighted brain MRI images. In the proposed method, we used a complex diffusion based approach for calculating the FCD affected areas. Based on the diffused image and thickness map, a complex map is created. From this complex map; FCD areas can be easily identified. MRI brains of 48 subjects selected by neuroradiologists were given to computer scientists who developed the complex map for identifying the cortical dysplasia. The scientists were blinded to the MRI interpretation result of the neuroradiologist. The FCD could be identified in all the patients in whom surgery was done, however three patients had false positive lesions. More lesions were identified in patients in whom surgery was not performed and lesions were seen in few of the controls. These were considered as false positive. This computer aided detection technique using complex diffusion approach can help detect focal cortical dysplasia in patients with epilepsy.

  17. Fatty metamorphosis and other patterns in fibrous dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Shidham, Vinod B; Chavan, Ashwini; Rao, R Nagarjun; Komorowski, Richard A; Asma, Zeenath

    2003-01-01

    Background Interpretation of small biopsy fragments from suspected lesions of fibrous dysplasia with unusual clinical and / or radiological features may be challenging due to wide histomorphological spectrum of stromal appearances. Awareness of these variations should improve diagnostic confidence. Methods We retrospectively studied 26 cases of fibrous dysplasia (F- 19, M- 7; Ages ranged from 10 to 53 years) with confirmed diagnosis. The sites of the lesions were skull bones (9), humerus (1), femur (8), tibia (2), fibula (3), talus (1), mandible (1), and maxilla (1). Results Different stromal patterns, variably admixed with the classical pattern, were observed in 58%(15/26) of the cases. 20%(3/15) of these had more than one pattern. Focal fatty metamorphosis as groups of fat cells in the central portion of the lesion in the stroma of fibrous dysplasia between osseous trabeculae was observed in 23%(6/26) cases. Other patterns included myxoid stroma in 16%(4/26), collagenization of stroma in 12%(3/26), stroma rich pattern (with paucity of trabeculae) in 12%(3/26), foci of few foam cells in 23% (6/26), and calcified spherules in 12%(3/26). Focal osteoblastic rimming of trabeculae was observed only in 4%(1/26). Conclusions Various stromal variations and previously unreported fatty metamorphosis were frequently observed in fibrous dysplasia. PMID:12946277

  18. Glenoid dysplasia and osteochondritis dissecans in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Schwarze, Rebecca A.; Tano, Cheryl A.; Carroll, Vincent W.

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year-old Maine coon cat was presented for a right forelimb lameness. Computed tomography of the shoulder revealed a shallow glenoid, osteophyte deposition at the caudal humeral head and medial glenoid, and an intra-articular osseous body. This cat had glenoid dysplasia and osteochondritis dissecans of the glenoid. PMID:26130839

  19. Multidisciplinary management of hypohydrotic ectodermal dysplasia – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Suja; Cherackal, George J; Jacob, Jose; Varghese, Alex K

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Hypohydrotic ectodermal dysplasia is a hereditary disorder, which affects ectodermal derivatives. It manifests several abnormalities of the teeth, and is commonly inherited through female carriers. This case report presents a patient with compromised esthetics and function. A multidisciplinary approach was planned involving an oral pathologist, endodontist, orthodontist and a prosthodontist. PMID:25984305

  20. Congenital heart defects in oculodentodigital dysplasia: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Kosuke; Lippa, Andrew M; Wilkens, Alisha; Feret, Holly A; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine H

    2013-12-01

    Oculodentodigital dysplasia is caused by mutations in the GJA1 gene. Oculodentodigital dysplasia presents with a spectrum of clinical features including craniofacial, ocular, dental, and limb anomalies. Although recent findings implicate the major role of GJA1 during cardiac organogenesis, congenital heart defects are infrequently reported in oculodentodigital dysplasia. Here we report on two patients with GJA1 mutations presenting with cardiac malformations and type III syndactyly. Patient 1 presented with pulmonary atresia, an intact septum, right ventricular hypoplasia and tricuspid stenosis. The infant had a small nose, thin columella and bilateral 4-5 syndactyly of the fingers. A de novo c.226C>T (p.Arg76Cys) mutation was identified. Patient 2 presented at 6 months with a ventricular septal defect. The child had hypoplastic alae nasi with a thin columella and bilateral 4-5 syndactyly of the digits. A de novo missense mutation, c.145C>G (p.Gln49Glu) was found. Our two patients underscore the importance of cardiac evaluations as part of the initial workup for patients with findings of oculodentodigital dysplasia. Conversely, those patients with type III syndactyly and congenital heart defect should be screened for GJA1 mutations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia and tibia vara: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cockshott, W P; Martin, R; Friedman, L; Yuen, M

    1994-07-01

    A 2-year-old black boy with focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia is described with illustrations of the typical radiographic appearances supplemented by computed tomographic and magnetic resonance images. Since this rare condition is self-correcting, diagnosis is important so that surgical intervention and biopsy can be avoided and conservative management instituted.

  2. Diencephalic-Mesencephalic Junction Dysplasia: A Novel Recessive Brain Malformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Maha S.; Saleem, Sahar N.; Dobyns, William B.; Barkovich, A. James; Bartsch, Hauke; Dale, Anders M.; Ashtari, Manzar; Akizu, Naiara; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Grijalvo-Perez, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    We describe six cases from three unrelated consanguineous Egyptian families with a novel characteristic brain malformation at the level of the diencephalic-mesencephalic junction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a dysplasia of the diencephalic-mesencephalic junction with a characteristic "butterfly"-like contour of the…

  3. Ectodermal dysplasias: A clinical classification and a causal review

    SciTech Connect

    Pinheiro, M.; Freire-Maia, N.

    1994-11-01

    The authors present a causal review of 154 ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) as classified into 11 clinical subgroups. The number of EDs in each subgroup varies from one to 43. The numbers of conditions due to autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked genes are, respectively, 41, 52, and 8. In 53 conditions cause is unknown; 35 of them present some causal (genetic) suggestion.

  4. C-type natriuretic peptide plasma levels are elevated in subjects with achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Olney, Robert C; Prickett, Timothy C R; Espiner, Eric A; Mackenzie, William G; Duker, Angela L; Ditro, Colleen; Zabel, Bernhard; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Bober, Michael B

    2015-02-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a crucial regulator of endochondral bone growth. In a previous report of a child with acromesomelic dysplasia, Maroteaux type (AMDM), caused by loss-of-function of the CNP receptor (natriuretic peptide receptor-B [NPR-B]), plasma levels of CNP were elevated. In vitro studies have shown that activation of the MAPK kinase (MEK)/ERK MAPK pathway causes functional inhibition of NPR-B. Achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia are syndromes of short-limbed dwarfism caused by activating mutations of fibroblast growth factor receptor-3, which result in overactivation of the MEK/ERK MAPK pathway. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these syndromes exhibit evidence of CNP resistance as reflected by increases in plasma CNP and its amino-terminal propeptide (NTproCNP). This was a prospective, observational study. Participants were 63 children and 20 adults with achondroplasia, 6 children with hypochondroplasia, 2 children with thanatophoric dysplasia, and 4 children and 1 adult with AMDM. Plasma levels of CNP and NTproCNP were higher in children with achondroplasia with CNP SD scores (SDSs) of 1.0 (0.3-1.4) (median [interquartile range]) and NTproCNP SDSs of 1.4 (0.4-1.8; P < .0005). NTproCNP levels correlated with height velocity. Levels were also elevated in adults with achondroplasia (CNP SDSs of 1.5 [0.7-2.1] and NTproCNP SDSs of 0.5 [0.1-1.0], P < .005). In children with hypochondroplasia, CNP SDSs were 1.3 (0.7-1.5) (P = .08) and NTproCNP SDSs were 1.9 (1.8-2.3) (P < .05). In children with AMDM, CNP SDSs were 1.6 (1.4-3.3) and NTproCNP SDSs were 4.2 (2.7-6.2) (P < .01). In these skeletal dysplasias, elevated plasma levels of proCNP products suggest the presence of tissue resistance to CNP.

  5. Rare case of nephrotic syndrome: Schimke syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Anna Kelly Krislane de Vasconcelos; Torres, Luiz Fernando Oliveira; Silva, Ana Corina Brainer Amorim da; Dantas, Adrianna Barros Leal; Zuntini, Káthia Liliane da Cunha Ribeiro; Aguiar, Lia Cordeiro Bastos

    2016-01-01

    Schimke syndrome corresponds to dysplasia of bone and immunity, associated with progressive renal disease secondary to nephrotic syndrome cortico-resistant, with possible other abnormalities such as hypothyroidism and blond marrow aplasia. It is a rare genetic disorder, with few reports in the literature. The most frequent renal involvement is nephrotic syndrome with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and progressive renal failure. The objective of this study was to report a case of Schimke syndrome, diagnostic investigation and management of the case. Resumo A síndrome Schimke corresponde à displasia imuno-óssea, associada à doença renal progressiva secundária à síndrome nefrótica córtico-resistente, podendo haver outras anormalidades como hipotireoidismo e aplasia de medula óssea. Trata-se de uma patologia genética rara, com poucos relatos na literatura. O acometimento renal mais frequente é uma síndrome nefrótica por glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal e falência renal progressiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um caso de síndrome de Schimke, investigação diagnóstica e condução do caso.

  6. Actinic cheilitis: clinicopathologic profile and association with degree of dysplasia.

    PubMed

    de Santana Sarmento, Dmitry José; da Costa Miguel, Márcia Cristina; Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes; Godoy, Gustavo Pina; da Silveira, Ericka Janine Dantas

    2014-04-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a potentially malignant disorder of the lip caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinicopathologic profile of cases of AC and to verify associations with the degree of dysplasia. This retrospective study analyzed data for 40 patients with AC. Demographic, clinical, and histopathologic data were evaluated. Sections measuring 5 μm in thickness were cut, deparaffinized, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic examination. The degree of epithelial dysplasia was graded using the criteria defined by the World Health Organization. Two calibrated oral pathologists analyzed the slides. Analysis of the AC patients sampled showed that 75.0% were male (P=0.002), 80.0% were aged≥40 years (P<0.001), 74.3% were Caucasian (P=0.004), and 68.6% had occupational exposure to sunlight (P=0.028). The most common clinical manifestation was white lesions (55.0%), and 40.0% of patients had no dysplasia. No significant associations emerged between the histologic grading of AC and gender (P=1.000), age (P=1.000), ethnicity (P=0.416), occupational exposure to sunlight (P=1.000), and clinical presentation (P=0.467). The degree of dysplasia in AC was not statistically associated with gender, age, ethnicity, occupational exposure to sunlight, or clinical appearance. This study provides some support for the hypothesis that clinicopathologic features are not related to the degree of dysplasia in AC. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Outcome of epilepsy surgery in focal cortical dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kral, T; Clusmann, H; Blumcke, I; Fimmers, R; Ostertun, B; Kurthen, M; Schramm, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe the outcome of surgery in patients with drug resistant epilepsy and a histopathological diagnosis of focal cortical dysplasia. Methods and subjects: Analysis of histories and presurgical and follow up data was carried out in 53 patients with a histological diagnosis of focal cortical dysplasia. Their mean age was 24.0 years (range 5 to 46), and they included 14 children and adolescents. Mean age at seizure onset was 12.4 years (0.4 to 36) and mean seizure duration was 11.6 years (1 to 45). Results: The presurgical detection rate of focal cortical dysplasia with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was 96%. There were 24 temporal and 29 extratemporal resections; additional multiple subpial transections were done in 12 cases to prevent spread of seizure discharges. There was a 6% rate of complications with permanent neurological deficit, but no deaths. All resected specimens were classified by neuropathological criteria as focal cortical dysplasia. Balloon cells were seen in most cases of extratemporal focal cortical dysplasia. After a mean follow up of 50 months, 38 patients (72%) were seizure-free, two (4%) had less than two seizures a year, nine (17%) had a reduction of seizure frequency of more than 75%, and four (8%) had no improvement. Seizure outcome was similar after temporal and extratemporal surgery. The patients in need of multilobar surgery had the poorest outcome. Conclusions: Circumscribed lesionectomy of focal dysplastic lesions provides seizure relief in patients with chronic drug resistant temporal and extratemporal epilepsy. There was a trend for the best seizure outcome to be in patients with early presurgical evaluation and early surgery, and in whom lesions were identified on the preoperative MRI studies. PMID:12531945

  8. FGF-23 in fibrous dysplasia of bone and its relationship to renal phosphate wasting

    PubMed Central

    Riminucci, Mara; Collins, Michael T.; Fedarko, Neal S.; Cherman, Natasha; Corsi, Alessandro; White, Kenneth E.; Waguespack, Steven; Gupta, Anurag; Hannon, Tamara; Econs, Michael J.; Bianco, Paolo; Gehron Robey, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    FGF-23, a novel member of the FGF family, is the product of the gene mutated in autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR). FGF-23 has been proposed as a circulating factor causing renal phosphate wasting not only in ADHR (as a result of inadequate degradation), but also in tumor-induced osteomalacia (as a result of excess synthesis by tumor cells). Renal phosphate wasting occurs in approximately 50% of patients with McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) and fibrous dysplasia of bone (FD), which result from postzygotic mutations of the GNAS1 gene. We found that FGF-23 is produced by normal and FD osteoprogenitors and bone-forming cells in vivo and in vitro. In situ hybridization analysis of FGF-23 mRNA expression identified “fibrous” cells, osteogenic cells, and cells associated with microvascular walls as specific cellular sources of FGF-23 in FD. Serum levels of FGF-23 were increased in FD/MAS patients compared with normal age-matched controls and significantly higher in FD/MAS patients with renal phosphate wasting compared with those without, and correlated with disease burden bone turnover markers commonly used to assess disease activity. Production of FGF-23 by FD tissue may play an important role in the renal phosphate–wasting syndrome associated with FD/MAS. PMID:12952917

  9. Imaging Keratitis-Icthyosis-Deafness (KID) syndrome with FDG-PET (F18-fluorodeoxiglucose-Positron Emission Tomography).

    PubMed

    Aparici, Carina Mari; Arcienega, Daniela; Cho, Eric; Hawkins, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Keratitis-Icthyosis-Deafness (KID) syndrome is a rare dysplasia characterized by vascularizing keratitis, congenital sensorineural hearing-loss, and progressive erythrokeratoderma. To our knowledge, this is the first KID syndrome imaged with FDG-PET in the literature. This paper is intended to help familiarize with the FDG abnormalities related to this rare entity.

  10. Imaging Keratitis-Icthyosis-Deafness (KID) syndrome with FDG-PET (F18-fluorodeoxiglucose-Positron Emission Tomography)

    PubMed Central

    Aparici, Carina Mari; Arcienega, Daniela; Cho, Eric; Hawkins, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Keratitis-Icthyosis-Deafness (KID) syndrome is a rare dysplasia characterized by vascularizing keratitis, congenital sensorineural hearing-loss, and progressive erythrokeratoderma. To our knowledge, this is the first KID syndrome imaged with FDG-PET in the literature. This paper is intended to help familiarize with the FDG abnormalities related to this rare entity. PMID:22470741

  11. Sessile serrated adenomas with dysplasia: morphological patterns and correlations with MLH1 immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Walker, Neal I; Leggett, Barbara A; Whitehall, Vicki Lj; Bettington, Mark L; Rosty, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    Sessile serrated adenomas are the precursor polyp of approximately 20% of colorectal carcinomas. Sessile serrated adenomas with dysplasia are rarely encountered and represent an intermediate step to malignant progression, frequently associated with loss of MLH1 expression. Accurate diagnosis of these lesions is important to facilitate appropriate surveillance, particularly because progression from dysplasia to carcinoma can be rapid. The current World Health Organization classification describes two main patterns of dysplasia occurring in sessile serrated adenomas, namely, serrated and conventional. However, this may not adequately reflect the spectrum of changes seen by pathologists in routine practice. Furthermore, subtle patterns of dysplasia that are nevertheless associated with loss of MLH1 expression are not encompassed in this classification. We performed a morphological analysis of 266 sessile serrated adenomas with dysplasia with concurrent MLH1 immunohistochemistry with the aims of better defining the spectrum of dysplasia occurring in these lesions and correlating dysplasia patterns with MLH1 expression. We found that dysplasia can be divided morphologically into four major patterns, comprising minimal deviation (19%), serrated (12%), adenomatous (8%) and not otherwise specified (79%) groups. Minimal deviation dysplasia is defined by minor architectural and cytological changes that typically requires loss of MLH1 immunohistochemical expression to support the diagnosis. Serrated dysplasia and adenomatous dysplasia have distinctive histological features and are less frequently associated with loss of MLH1 expression (13 and 5%, respectively). Finally, dysplasia not otherwise specified encompasses most cases and shows a diverse range of morphological changes that do not fall into the other subgroups and are frequently associated with loss of MLH1 expression (83%). This morphological classification of sessile serrated adenomas with dysplasia may represent an

  12. Acrogigantism and facial asymmetry: McCune-Albright syndrome.

    PubMed

    Subbiah, Sridhar; Palikhe, Gaurav; Bhadada, Sanjay Kumar; Mukherjee, Kanchan Kumar; Bhansali, Anil

    2011-01-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is characterized by a triad of poly/monoostotic fibrous dysplasia, café-au-lait macules and hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies. Association of MAS with GH excess is rare, and in most of the instances somatotropinoma has not been documented. Treatment of patients of MAS with acromegaly is difficult because of thickened calvarium and dysplastic skull bone. We report a 17-year-old girl, who presented with cranio-facial fibrous dysplasia, café-au-lait macules and also had acromegaly due to pituitary macroadenoma, and treated with gamma knife radiosurgery.

  13. Docosahexaenoic Acid and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Collins, Carmel T; Makrides, Maria; McPhee, Andrew J; Sullivan, Thomas R; Davis, Peter G; Thio, Marta; Simmer, Karen; Rajadurai, Victor S; Travadi, Javeed; Berry, Mary J; Liley, Helen G; Opie, Gillian F; Tan, Kenneth; Lui, Kei; Morris, Scott A; Stack, Jacqueline; Stark, Michael J; Chua, Mei-Chien; Jayagobi, Pooja A; Holberton, James; Bolisetty, Srinivas; Callander, Ian R; Harris, Deborah L; Gibson, Robert A

    2017-03-30

    Studies in animals and in humans have suggested that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, might reduce the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, but appropriately designed trials are lacking. We randomly assigned 1273 infants born before 29 weeks of gestation (stratified according to sex, gestational age [<27 weeks or 27 to <29 weeks], and center) within 3 days after their first enteral feeding to receive either an enteral emulsion providing DHA at a dose of 60 mg per kilogram of body weight per day or a control (soy) emulsion without DHA until 36 weeks of postmenstrual age. The primary outcome was bronchopulmonary dysplasia, defined on a physiological basis (with the use of oxygen-saturation monitoring in selected infants), at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age or discharge home, whichever occurred first. A total of 1205 infants survived to the primary outcome assessment. Of the 592 infants assigned to the DHA group, 291 (49.1% by multiple imputation) were classified as having physiological bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as compared with 269 (43.9%) of the 613 infants assigned to the control group (relative risk adjusted for randomization strata, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.25; P=0.02). The composite outcome of physiological bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death before 36 weeks of postmenstrual age occurred in 52.3% of the infants in the DHA group and in 46.4% of the infants in the control group (adjusted relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23; P=0.045). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the rates of death or any other neonatal illnesses. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia based on a clinical definition occurred in 53.2% of the infants in the DHA group and in 49.7% of the infants in the control group (P=0.06). Enteral DHA supplementation at a dose of 60 mg per kilogram per day did not result in a lower risk of physiological bronchopulmonary dysplasia than a control emulsion among preterm infants

  14. Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: Breastfeeding Complications Due to Impaired Breast Development.

    PubMed

    Wahlbuhl-Becker, Mandy; Faschingbauer, Florian; Beckmann, Matthias W; Schneider, Holm

    2017-04-01

    Background X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED), the most common form of ectodermal dysplasia, is caused by mutations in the gene EDA. While only affected men develop the full-blown clinical picture, females who are heterozygous for an EDA mutation often also show symptoms such as hypodontia, hypotrichosis and hypohidrosis. These women may also suffer from malformations of the mammary gland which represent not just a cosmetic problem but can limit their breastfeeding capability. This paper summarizes the findings of the first systematic study on the impact of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia on breastfeeding. Patients Thirty-eight adult female members of the German-Swiss-Austrian ectodermal dysplasia patient support group participated in a structured interview; most of them also agreed to a photodocumentation of their mammary region. Thirty-one women carried mutations in EDA (Group A) and seven were affected by other forms of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Group B). Results 39 % of the women of Group A reported that their breasts were of different size or entirely absent on one side. In Group B, 86 % of the women reported differently sized or even absent breasts; two of these women lacked both breasts entirely. Most women described their nipples as exceptionally flat. 10 % of the women of Group A had more than two nipples. The high percentage of deviations from the norm was confirmed in the photodocumentation. Both groups had few or no sebaceous glands of Montgomery in the areolar region. Around 80 % of interviewed women had children and had attempted to breastfeed their first child. 67 % of the mothers in Group A had had difficulty in breastfeeding their infants and generally attributed this difficulty to their flat nipples. All of the mothers in Group B reported difficulties in breastfeeding; 60 % had not been able to breastfeed their first child. Conclusion Mothers with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia very often have difficulty

  15. Goldenhar syndrome: Cardiac anesthesiologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Minati; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra

    2017-01-01

    Goldenhar syndrome or oculo-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia was defined by Goldenhar in 1952 and redefined by Grolin et al. later. As the name denotes, children with this syndrome present with craniofacial and vertebral anomalies which increase the risk of airway compromise. Neonates and infants with this syndrome often have premature internal organs, low birth weight, and airway disorders. For this reason, safe anesthesia in such infants requires a complete knowledge regarding metabolism and side effects of the drugs. The association of cardiovascular abnormalities is not uncommon and possesses additional challenge for anesthetic management. The aim of this review is to draw attention to the various perioperative problems that can be faced in these infants when they undergo surgery or the correction of the underlying cardiac problem.

  16. Familial cleidocranial dysplasia misdiagnosed as rickets over three generations.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Roberto; Maines, Evelina; Fedrizzi, Michela; Piemontese, Maria Rosaria; De Bonis, Patrizia; Agarwal, Nivedita; Bellizzi, Maria; Di Palma, Annunziata

    2015-10-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia characterized by hypoplastic clavicles, late closure of the fontanels, dental problems and other skeletal features. CCD is caused by mutations, deletions or duplications in runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), which encodes for a protein essential for osteoblast differentiation and chondrocyte maturation. We describe three familial cases of CCD, misdiagnosed as rickets over three generations. No mutations were detected on standard DNA sequencing of RUNX2, but a novel deletion was identified on quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The present cases indicate that CCD could be misdiagnosed as rickets, leading to inappropriate treatment, and confirm that mutations in RUNX2 are not able to be identified on standard DNA sequencing in all CCD patients, but can be identified on qPCR and MLPA. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. The surgical management of fibrous dysplasia of bone.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Robert P; Ippolito, Ernesto; Springfield, Dempsey; Lindaman, Lynn; Wientroub, Shlomo; Leet, Arabella

    2012-05-24

    The surgical management of Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia (FD) of bone is technically demanding. The most effective methods to manage the associated bone deformity remain unclear. The marked variation in the degree and pattern of bone involvement has made it difficult to acquire data to guide the surgeon's approach to these patients. In light of the paucity of data, but need for guidance, recognized experts in the management of these patients came together at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland as part of an International meeting to address issues related to fibrous dysplasia of bone to discuss and refine their recommendations regarding the surgical indications and preferred methods for the management of these challenging patients. The specific challenges, recommended approaches, and "lessons learned" are presented in hopes that surgeons faced with typical deformities can be guided in the surgical reconstruction of both children and adults with FD.

  18. Evolving management of metaplasia and dysplasia in Barrett's epithelium.

    PubMed

    Evans, Richard P T; Mourad, Moustafa Mabrouk; Fisher, Simon G; Bramhall, Simon R

    2016-12-21

    Oesophageal cancer affects more than 450000 people worldwide and despite continued medical advancements the incidence of oesophageal cancer is increasing. Oesophageal cancer has a 5 year survival of 15%-25% and now globally attempts are made to more aggressively diagnose and treat Barrett's oesophagus the known precursor to invasive disease. Currently diagnosis the of Barrett's oesophagus is predominantly made after endoscopic visualisation and histopathological confirmation. Minimally invasive techniques are being developed to improve the viability of screening programs. The management of Barrett's oesophagus can vary greatly dependent on the presence and severity of dysplasia. There is no consensus between the major international medical societies to determine and agreed surveillance and intervention pathway. In this review we analysed the current literature to demonstrate the evolving management of metaplasia and dysplasia in Barrett's epithelium.

  19. Evolving management of metaplasia and dysplasia in Barrett's epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Richard P T; Mourad, Moustafa Mabrouk; Fisher, Simon G; Bramhall, Simon R

    2016-01-01

    Oesophageal cancer affects more than 450000 people worldwide and despite continued medical advancements the incidence of oesophageal cancer is increasing. Oesophageal cancer has a 5 year survival of 15%-25% and now globally attempts are made to more aggressively diagnose and treat Barrett’s oesophagus the known precursor to invasive disease. Currently diagnosis the of Barrett’s oesophagus is predominantly made after endoscopic visualisation and histopathological confirmation. Minimally invasive techniques are being developed to improve the viability of screening programs. The management of Barrett’s oesophagus can vary greatly dependent on the presence and severity of dysplasia. There is no consensus between the major international medical societies to determine and agreed surveillance and intervention pathway. In this review we analysed the current literature to demonstrate the evolving management of metaplasia and dysplasia in Barrett’s epithelium. PMID:28058012

  20. A giant cranial aneurysmal bone cyst associated with fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Składzieriń, J; Olés, K; Zagólski, O; Moskała, M; Sztuka, M; Strek, P; Wierzchowski, W; Tomik, J

    2008-01-01

    An aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a rare, benign fibro-osseous lesion, considered a vascular phenomenon secondary to fibrous dysplasia or a giant-cell tumour, and occurs mainly in long bones and vertebrae. In this case report a 16-year-old male presented with massive epistaxis. He was admitted with a 3-year history of chronic rhinitis, headaches, right ocular pain and recurrent epistaxis. CT scans showed a predominantly cystic, expansive mass obstructing both nasal cavities, extending to all paranasal sinuses and both orbits, with evidence of anterior cranial fossa skull base destruction. The patient underwent a craniofacial resection of the tumour performed with an external approach and an immediate reconstruction of the dural defect. Histology confirmed the lesion was an ABC associated with fibrous dysplasia. The patient's recovery was complete. A large facial aneurysmal bone cyst can damage the facial skeleton and skull base, and requires excision by a combined external approach.

  1. Short stature in genetic syndromes: Selected issues.

    PubMed

    Łaczmańska, Izabela; Kuliczkowska-Płaksej, Justyna; Stembalska, Agnieszka

    2018-03-14

    Short stature, which is defined as height below 2 standard deviations of the mean height for the age and sex, is one of the most frequent reasons for medical consultations in children. Short stature may occur due to a constitutional delay in growth, familial short stature or chronic diseases, including many genetic syndromes, metabolic and endocrine disorders. In this article the authors provide a mini-review of the most frequent genetic syndromes associated with short stature that should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis process. Syndromes caused by chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations were divided into 2 main groups: syndromes that are associated with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and those in which IUGR does not occur in the natural history of the patient. The authors described the most important anomalies in each syndrome. Metabolic diseases and skeletal dysplasias were omitted, as they are major separate groups of diseases involving growth delay.

  2. HPV prevalence and HPV-related dysplasia in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Hermansson, Ruth S.; Olovsson, Matts; Hoxell, Emelie

    2018-01-01

    Introduction In Sweden, where screening ends at the age of 60, about 30% of the cervical cancer cases occur in women older than 60. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV and cervical dysplasia in women of 60 years and above. Patients and methods From September 2013 until June 2015, 1051 women aged 60–89 years (mean 68 years) were sampled for an HPV test when attending an outpatient gynecology clinic. Women with positive results had a second HPV test and liquid based cytology (LBC), after 3.5 months on average. Those with a positive second HPV test were examined by colposcopy, and biopsy and a sample for LBC was obtained. Results The prevalence of HPV was 4.1%, (95%CI 3.0–5.5, n = 43) at the first test, and at the second test 2.6% remained positive (95%CI 1.7–3.8, n = 27). The majority of women positive in both HPV tests, had dysplasia in histology, 81.5% (22/27) (4 CIN 2–0.4%, 18 CIN 1–1.7%). HPV-related dysplasia was found in 2.1%, (95%CI 1.3–3.2, n = 22) of the 1051 women. Four of the 22 women with positive HPV tests also had abnormal cytology, one ASCUS and three CIN 1. No cancer or glandular dysplasia was detected. Conclusion A significant proportion of elderly women were found to have a persistent cervical HPV infection. Among them there was a high prevalence of CIN diagnosed by histology. The HPV test showed high sensitivity and specificity in detecting CIN in elderly women, while cytology showed extremely low sensitivity. PMID:29320507

  3. Florid cemento osseous dysplasia in association with dentigerous cyst.

    PubMed

    Sanjai, Karpagaselvi; Kumarswamy, Jayalakshmi; Kumar, Vinod K; Patil, Archana

    2010-07-01

    We present a case of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia occurring in a 20-year-old Indian woman. The subject presented with three lesions involving the maxillary right quadrant, maxillary left quadrant and mandibular left quadrant. The mandibular left quadrant also demonstrated a cyst.The diagnosis was made by correlating the clinical presentation with that of the radiological and histopathological findings. This is a rare entity because of an unusual combination of Asian race along with the association of dentigerous cyst.

  4. Primary cellular meningeal defects cause neocortical dysplasia and dyslamination

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Jonathan H.; Siegenthaler, Julie A.; Patterson, Katelin P.; Pleasure, Samuel J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Cortical malformations are important causes of neurological morbidity, but in many cases their etiology is poorly understood. Mice with Foxc1 mutations have cellular defects in meningeal development. We use hypomorphic and null alleles of Foxc1 to study the effect of meningeal defects on neocortical organization. Methods Embryos with loss of Foxc1 activity were generated using the hypomorphic Foxc1hith allele and the null Foxc1lacZ allele. Immunohistologic analysis was used to assess cerebral basement membrane integrity, marginal zone heterotopia formation, neuronal overmigration, meningeal defects, and changes in basement membrane composition. Dysplasia severity was quantified using two measures. Results Cortical dysplasia resembling cobblestone cortex, with basement membrane breakdown and lamination defects, is seen in Foxc1 mutants. As Foxc1 activity was reduced, abnormalities in basement membrane integrity, heterotopia formation, neuronal overmigration, and meningeal development appeared earlier in gestation and were more severe. Surprisingly, the basement membrane appeared intact at early stages of development in the face of severe deficits in meningeal development. Prominent defects in basement membrane integrity appeared as development proceeded. Molecular analysis of basement membrane laminin subunits demonstrated that loss of the meninges led to changes in basement membrane composition. Interpretation Cortical dysplasia can be caused by cellular defects in the meninges. The meninges are not required for basement membrane establishment but are needed for remodeling as the brain expands. Specific changes in basement membrane composition may contribute to subsequent breakdown. Our study raises the possibility that primary meningeal defects may cortical dysplasia in some cases. PMID:20976766

  5. Growth-sparing spinal instrumentation in skeletal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Karatas, Ali F; Dede, Ozgur; Rogers, Kenneth; Ditro, Colleen P; Holmes, Laurens; Bober, Michael; Shah, Suken A; Mackenzie, William G

    2013-11-15

    Retrospective case series. To report the outcomes of distraction-based, growth-sparing spinal instrumentation in patients with skeletal dysplasia. Patients with skeletal dysplasia with spinal deformity often undergo early fusion, further compromising an already small chest. Nonfusion techniques may provide a safe alternative and allow for thoracic growth. Between 2004 and 2010, 12 children with a diagnosis of various types of skeletal dysplasia underwent growth-sparing spinal instrumentation for severe spinal deformities. The mean duration of treatment with growing rods was 57 months (42-84 mo). Nine patients were treated with growing rods (8 dual, 1 single), and 3 were treated with vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR; Synthes). Preoperative, initial postoperative, and final follow-up anteroposterior and lateral spine radiographs were measured for magnitude of deformity, junctional kyphosis, and implant failure. The major curve Cobb angle improved from a mean of 79° preoperatively to a mean of 41° at the last follow-up (52%). There was a decrease in mean thoracic kyphosis from 77° preoperatively to 64° at final follow-up and an increase in mean lumbar lordosis from 58° preoperatively to 63° at final follow-up. The mean space available for the lungs increased by 26 mm on the concave and 24 mm on the convex side. Six patients required revision surgery for proximal junctional kyphosis. There were 4 rod failures and 6 hook and 8 screw dislodgements. One patient with vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib had failed rib fixation that required revision. Growth-sparing spinal instrumentation in patients with skeletal dysplasia and severe spinal deformity has a high complication and revision rate, and surgeons should closely monitor these patients. The complication rate is comparable with previous reports on patients with other diagnoses. However, deformities were well controlled, some trunk growth was achieved, and fusion surgery was delayed in

  6. Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) in Gordon Setters with Symmetrical Lupoid Onychodystrophy and Black Hair Follicular Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bohnhorst, J Øvrebø; Hanssen, I; Moen, T

    2001-01-01

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were demonstrated in 3 out of 10 Gordon setters with symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy and in 5 out of 13 Gordon setters with black hair follicular dysplasia. Two dogs showed both symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy and black hair follicular dysplasia, and one of these was ANA positive. The results suggest that symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy and black hair follicular dysplasia in the Gordon setter might be autoimmune diseases that are pathogenetically related, which might indicate a common genetic predisposition. PMID:11887392

  7. Perinatal Autopsy Findings in a Case of De Novo Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Nagaraju, Smitha; Kangle, Rajit; Gosavi, Mansi

    2015-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia are group of inherited disorders involving the developmental defects of ectodermal structures like hair, teeth, nails, sweat glands, and others. X-linked recessive inheritance is most common. Here we describe perinatal autopsy findings in a case of de novo ectodermal dysplasia in a female fetus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fetal autopsy description in a case of ectodermal dysplasia.

  8. Perinatal features of the RASopathies: Noonan syndrome, cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome and Costello syndrome.

    PubMed

    Myers, Angela; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Brennan, Marie-Luise; Curry, Cynthia; Esplin, Edward D; Fisher, Jamie; Homeyer, Margaret; Manning, Melanie A; Muller, Eric A; Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Seaver, Laurie H; Hintz, Susan R; Hudgins, Louanne

    2014-11-01

    The RASopathies are a family of developmental disorders caused by heritable defects of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. While the postnatal presentation of this group of disorders is well known, the prenatal and neonatal findings are less widely recognized. We report on the perinatal presentation of 10 patients with Noonan syndrome (NS), nine with Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFCS) and three with Costello syndrome (CS), in conjunction with the results of a comprehensive literature review. The majority of perinatal findings in NS, CS, and CFCS are shared: polyhydramnios; prematurity; lymphatic dysplasia; macrosomia; relative macrocephaly; respiratory distress; hypotonia, as well as cardiac and renal anomalies. In contrast, fetal arrhythmia and neonatal hypoglycemia are relatively specific to CS. NS, CS, and CFCS should all be considered as a possible diagnosis in pregnancies with a normal karyotype and ultrasound findings of a RASopathy. Recognition of the common perinatal findings of these disorders should facilitate both their prenatal and neonatal diagnosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Characterization of X-linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (XL-HED) Hair and Sweat Gland Phenotypes Using Phototrichogram Analysis and Live Confocal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kyle B.; Goodwin, Alice F.; Landan, Maya; Seidel, Kerstin; Tran, Dong-Kha; Hogue, Jacob; Chavez, Miquella; Fete, Mary; Yu, Wenli; Hussein, Tarek; Johnson, Ramsey; Huttner, Kenneth; Jheon, Andrew H.; Klein, Ophir D.

    2015-01-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia (ED), which encompasses a large group of syndromes that share several phenotypic features such as missing or malformed ectodermal structures, including skin, hair, sweat glands, and teeth. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XL-HED) is associated with mutations in ectodysplasin (EDA1). Hypohidrosis due to hypoplastic sweat glands and thin, sparse hair are phenotypic features that significantly affect the daily lives of XL-HED individuals and therefore require systematic analysis. We sought to determine the quality of life of individuals with XL-HED and to quantify sweat duct and hair phenotypes using confocal imaging, pilocarpine iontophoresis, and phototrichogram analysis. Using these highly sensitive and non-invasive techniques, we demonstrated that 11/12 XL-HED individuals presented with a complete absence of sweat ducts and that none produced sweat. We determined that the thin hair phenotype observed in XL-HED was due to multiple factors, such as fewer terminal hairs with decreased thickness and slower growth rate, as well as fewer follicular units and fewer hairs per unit. The precise characterization of XL-HED phenotypes using sensitive and non-invasive techniques presented in our study will improve upon larger genotype-phenotype studies and in the assessment of future therapies in XL-HED. PMID:23687000

  10. Endoscopic Endonasal Optic Nerve Decompression for Fibrous Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    DeKlotz, Timothy R.; Stefko, S. Tonya; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C.; Gardner, Paul A.; Snyderman, Carl H.; Wang, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate visual outcomes and potential complications for optic nerve decompression using an endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for fibrous dysplasia. Design Retrospective chart review of patients with fibrous dysplasia causing extrinsic compression of the canalicular segment of the optic nerve that underwent an endoscopic endonasal optic nerve decompression at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center from 2010 to 2013. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome measure assessed was best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) with secondary outcomes, including visual field testing, color vision, and complications associated with the intervention. Results A total of four patients and five optic nerves were decompressed via an EEA. All patients were symptomatic preoperatively and had objective findings compatible with compressive optic neuropathy: decreased visual acuity was noted preoperatively in three patients while the remaining patient demonstrated an afferent pupillary defect. BCVA improved in all patients postoperatively. No major complications were identified. Conclusion EEA for optic nerve decompression appears to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with compressive optic neuropathy secondary to fibrous dysplasia. Further studies are required to identify selection criteria for an open versus an endoscopic approach. PMID:28180039

  11. Optical biopsy for the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, David C. O.; Bigio, Irving J.; Bown, Stephen G.; Lovat, Laurence B.; Ripley, Paul M.; Novelli, Marco

    2002-05-01

    Several research groups have been developing optical-spectroscopy methods, often mediated by fibre-optic probes, to noninvasively identify dysplasia and cancer in situ and in real time: often called 'optical biopsy'. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos, New Mexico) have developed the method of elastic-scattering spectroscopy (ESS). ESS is a point measurement that is sensitive to the morphological changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level, including changes in the size and/or density of the nuclei, mitochondria or other organelles. It is therefore sensitive to morphology features that a pathologist looks for during histological examination. We report on the first stages of a clinical study currently under way at the Middlesex Hospital an University College London, designed to test the ESS method for identification of dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus. Preliminary results using elastic-scattering spectroscopy during endoscopic examination show that this technique has potential as a real-time test for in vivo detection of dysplasia or early cancer within Barrett's mucosa, or at least as a guide to assist in locating optimum sites for biopsy. Initial data sets are encouraging and the randomly chosen testing and training sets give specificities and sensitivities comparable to the accuracy of histology. It is evident that the ESS technique is proving to be convenient for the physicians given its speed and compatibility with endoscopic equipment. It is intended to begin prospective trials in the next few months to assess the systems suitability for general clinical practice.

  12. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia: a felicitous approach to esthetic and prosthetic management.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tapan; Singh, Ronauk; Singh, Gurendra Pal; Singh, Jitender Pal

    2013-05-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a hereditary disease characterized by congenital dysplasia of one or more ectodermal structure and other accessory appendages. The oral manifestations are anodontia and poor bony foundation which impairs both esthetic as well as the masticatory function. The prosthodontic management of patients with such dysplastic condition necessitates a multidisciplinary approach. This case report describes the prosthodontic oral rehabilitation of a 16 years old female pediatric patient with ectodermal dysplasia. How to cite this article: Singh T, Singh R, Singh GP, Singh JP. Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Felicitous Approach to Esthetic and Prosthetic Management. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):140-145.

  13. Mazabraud's syndrome: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Munksgaard, Peter Svenssen; Salkus, Giedrius; Iyer, Victor V; Fisker, Rune Vincents

    2013-01-01

    Mazabraud's syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the association of single or multiple intramuscular myxomas with fibrous dysplasia. Here, we present the first case of Mazabraud's syndrome visualized on 18F-FDG PET/CT with histopathological confirmation of the myxoma. Our case demonstrates a slightly increased FDG uptake (SUVmax 2.1) within the myxomas and a moderately to highly increased tracer uptake (SUVmax 7.0) within the fibrous dysplastic lesions. The typical histological appearance of the intramuscular myxoma confirmed the radiological diagnosis. Further, we discuss the imaging findings and the histopathological features of this rare case with a review of the related literature. PMID:24198959

  14. EDA mutation as a cause of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Huang, S X; Liang, J L; Sui, W G; Lin, H; Xue, W; Chen, J J; Zhang, Y; Gong, W W; Dai, Y; Ou, M L

    2015-08-28

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) represents a collection of rare disorders that result from a failure of development of the tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm. ED is often associated with hair, teeth, and skin abnormalities, which are serious conditions affecting the quality of life of the patient. To date, a large number of genes have been found to be associated with this syndrome. Here, we report a patient with hypohidrotic ED (HED) without family history. We identified that this patient's disorder arises from an X-linked HED with a mutation in the EDA gene (G299D) found by whole-exome sequencing. In addition, in this paper we summarize the disease-causing mutations based on current literature. Overall, recent clinical and genetic research involving patients with HED have uncovered a large number of pathogenic mutations in EDA, which might contribute to a full understanding of the function of EDA and the underlying mechanisms of HED caused by EDA mutations.

  15. The effect of trochlear dysplasia on patellofemoral biomechanics: a cadaveric study with simulated trochlear deformities.

    PubMed

    Van Haver, Annemieke; De Roo, Karel; De Beule, Matthieu; Labey, Luc; De Baets, Patrick; Dejour, David; Claessens, Tom; Verdonk, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Trochlear dysplasia appears in different geometrical variations. The Dejour classification is widely used to grade the severity of trochlear dysplasia and to decide on treatment. To investigate the effect of trochlear dysplasia on patellofemoral biomechanics and to determine if different types of trochlear dysplasia have different effects on patellofemoral biomechanics. Controlled laboratory study. Trochlear dysplasia was simulated in 4 cadaveric knees by replacing the native cadaveric trochlea with different types of custom-made trochlear implants, manufactured with 3-dimensional printing. For each knee, 5 trochlear implants were designed: 1 implant simulated the native trochlea (control condition), and 4 implants simulated 4 types of trochlear dysplasia. The knees were subjected to 3 biomechanical tests: a squat simulation, an open chain extension simulation, and a patellar stability test. The patellofemoral kinematics, contact area, contact pressure, and stability were compared between the control condition (replica implants) and the trochlear dysplastic condition and among the subgroups of trochlear dysplasia. The patellofemoral joint in the trochlear dysplastic group showed increased internal rotation, lateral tilt, and lateral translation; increased contact pressures; decreased contact areas; and decreased stability when compared with the control group. Within the trochlear dysplastic group, the implants graded as Dejour type D showed the largest deviations for the kinematical parameters, and the implants graded as Dejour types B and D showed the largest deviations for the patellofemoral contact areas and pressures. Patellofemoral kinematics, contact area, contact pressure, and stability are significantly affected by trochlear dysplasia. Of all types of trochlear dysplasia, the models characterized with a pronounced trochlear bump showed the largest deviations in patellofemoral biomechanics. Investigating the relationship between the shape of the trochlea and

  16. A case of atypical McCune-Albright syndrome requiring optic nerve decompression.

    PubMed

    Yavuzer, R; Khilnani, R; Jackson, I T; Audet, B

    1999-10-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a disease of noninheritable, genetic origin defined by the triad of café-au-lait pigmentation of the skin, precocious puberty, and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. This syndrome, which affects young girls primarily, has also been reported with other endocrinopathies, and rarely with acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia. The fibrous dysplasia in MAS is of the polyostotic type and, apart from the characteristic sites such as the proximal aspects of the femur and the pelvis, the craniofacial region is frequently involved. A male patient with MAS presented with juvenile gigantism, precocious puberty, pituitary adenoma-secreting growth hormone and prolactin, hypothalamic pituitary gonadal and thyroid dysfunction, and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia causing optic nerve compression. Visual deterioration and its surgical management are presented.

  17. Rapid Prototyping 3D Model in Treatment of Pediatric Hip Dysplasia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Andrew M.; Starosolski, Zbigniew; Kan, J. Herman

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Rapid prototyping is an emerging technology that integrates common medical imaging with specialized production mechanisms to create detailed anatomic replicas. 3D-printed models of musculoskeletal anatomy have already proven useful in orthopedics and their applications continue to expand. Case Description: We present the case of a 10 year-old female with Down syndrome and left acetabular dysplasia and chronic hip instability who underwent periacetabular osteotomy. A rapid prototyping 3D model was created to better understand the anatomy, counsel the family about the problem and the surgical procedure, as well as guide surgical technique. The intricate detail and size match of the model with the patient’s anatomy offered unparalleled, hands-on experience with the patient’s anatomy pre-operatively and improved surgical precision. Conclusions: Our experience with rapid prototyping confirmed its ability to enhance orthopedic care by improving the surgeon’s ability to understand complex anatomy. Additionally, we report a new application utilizing intraoperative fluoroscopic comparison of the model and patient to ensure surgical precision and minimize the risk of complications. This technique could be used in other challenging cases. The increasing availability of rapid prototyping welcomes further use in all areas of orthopedics. PMID:28852351

  18. Endochondral gigantism: a newly recognized skeletal dysplasia with pre- and postnatal overgrowth and endocrine abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Heinrich; Kammer, Birgit; Grasser, Monika; Enders, Angelika; Rost, Imma; Kiess, Wieland

    2007-08-15

    We report on a 3-year-old male, born at 34 weeks of gestation, with marked pre- and postnatal overgrowth, birth weight of 6,600 g, length of 61 cm, and head circumference of 38.5 cm. A striking phenotype was recorded at birth, which became more evident during the follow-up period. He had macrobrachycephaly, facial abnormalities, small thoracic cage, long trunk, deformed spine, rhizomelia, large hands and feets, absent subcutaneous fat, small umbilical hernia, inguinal hernias, and large joints with mild contractures. Hypoglycemic episodes and obstructive apnea complicated the neonatal period. During follow-up, overgrowth continued with a height of 146 cm (+11.65 SDS) and a weight of 39 kg (BMI 18.3 kg/m(2)) at 3.5 years. Endocrinological work-up disclosed extremely low levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors, and insulin. What makes our patient unique is the association of marked prenatal overgrowth; unusual phenotype; skeletal dysplasia caused by accelerated endochondral ossification resulting in cartilage hyperplasia of the skull base and spine, and postnatal gigantism; and complete absence of subcutaneous fat. Other well-known overgrowth syndromes were excluded. We hypothesize that autocrine/paracrine growth factors could be the cause of excessive endochondral ossification. Alternately, activating mutations in transcription factors involved in both growth and endocrine/metabolic homeostasis could be responsible for this unusual phenotype. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Radiation induces genomic instability and mammary ductal dysplasia in Atm heterozygous mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weil, M. M.; Kittrell, F. S.; Yu, Y.; McCarthy, M.; Zabriskie, R. C.; Ullrich, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a genetic syndrome resulting from the inheritance of two defective copies of the ATM gene that includes among its stigmata radiosensitivity and cancer susceptibility. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that although women with a single defective copy of ATM (AT heterozygotes) appear clinically normal, they may never the less have an increased relative risk of developing breast cancer. Whether they are at increased risk for radiation-induced breast cancer from medical exposures to ionizing radiation is unknown. We have used a murine model of AT to investigate the effect of a single defective Atm allele, the murine homologue of ATM, on the susceptibility of mammary epithelial cells to radiation-induced transformation. Here we report that mammary epithelial cells from irradiated mice with one copy of Atm truncated in the PI-3 kinase domain were susceptible to radiation-induced genomic instability and generated a 10% incidence of dysplastic mammary ducts when transplanted into syngenic recipients, whereas cells from Atm(+/+) mice were stable and formed only normal ducts. Since radiation-induced ductal dysplasia is a precursor to mammary cancer, the results indicate that AT heterozygosity increases susceptibility to radiogenic breast cancer in this murine model system.

  20. Rapid Prototyping 3D Model in Treatment of Pediatric Hip Dysplasia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Holt, Andrew M; Starosolski, Zbigniew; Kan, J Herman; Rosenfeld, Scott B

    2017-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is an emerging technology that integrates common medical imaging with specialized production mechanisms to create detailed anatomic replicas. 3D-printed models of musculoskeletal anatomy have already proven useful in orthopedics and their applications continue to expand. We present the case of a 10 year-old female with Down syndrome and left acetabular dysplasia and chronic hip instability who underwent periacetabular osteotomy. A rapid prototyping 3D model was created to better understand the anatomy, counsel the family about the problem and the surgical procedure, as well as guide surgical technique. The intricate detail and size match of the model with the patient's anatomy offered unparalleled, hands-on experience with the patient's anatomy pre-operatively and improved surgical precision. Our experience with rapid prototyping confirmed its ability to enhance orthopedic care by improving the surgeon's ability to understand complex anatomy. Additionally, we report a new application utilizing intraoperative fluoroscopic comparison of the model and patient to ensure surgical precision and minimize the risk of complications. This technique could be used in other challenging cases. The increasing availability of rapid prototyping welcomes further use in all areas of orthopedics.

  1. Left Frontal Meningioangiomatosis Associated with Type IIIc Focal Cortical Dysplasia Causing Refractory Epilepsy and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Roux, Alexandre; Mellerio, Charles; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuelle; Still, Megan; Zerah, Michel; Bourgeois, Marie; Pallud, Johan

    2018-06-01

    We report the surgical management of a lesional drug-resistant epilepsy caused by a meningioangiomatosis associated with a type IIIc focal cortical dysplasia located in the left supplementary motor area in a young male patient. A first anatomically based partial surgical resection was performed on an 11-year-old under general anesthesia without intraoperative mapping, which allowed for postoperative seizure control (Engel IA) for 6 years. The patient then exhibited intractable right sensatory and aphasic focal onset seizures despite 2 appropriate antiepileptic drugs. A second functional-based surgical resection was performed using intraoperative corticosubcortical functional mapping with direct electrical stimulation under awake conditions. A complete surgical resection was performed, and a left partial supplementary motor area syndrome was observed. At 6 months postoperatively, the patient is seizure free (Engel IA) with an ongoing decrease in antiepileptic drug therapy. Intraoperative functional brain mapping can be applied to preserve the brain function and networks around a meningioangiomatosis to facilitate the resection of potentially epileptogenic perilesional dysplastic cortex and to tailor the extent of resection to functional boundaries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The evaluation of lumbosacral dysplasia in young patients with lumbosacral spondylolisthesis: comparison with controls and relationship with the severity of slip.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Abhijit; Labelle, Hubert; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc

    2012-11-01

    Comparison of lumbosacral dysplasia between normal individuals and patients with low and high grade spondylolisthesis has not been done previously. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between lumbosacral dysplasia and severity of slip in young patients with lumbosacral spondylolisthesis. Postero-anterior and lateral radiographs of 120 normal individuals and 131 patients with developmental spondylolisthesis (91 low and 40 high grades) were reviewed. Quantitative evaluation of lumbosacral dysplasia was done using 6 criteria involving the degree of laminar dysplasia, degree of facet dysplasia, size of L5 transverse processes, L5/S1 disc height, type of sacral doming and L5 lumbar index. Subjects were categorized as having no/low, moderate or severe dysplasia based on the total dysplasia score. Comparisons in total dysplasia score between normal, low grade and high grade groups were performed and the correlation between degree of dysplasia and percentage of slip was assessed. Most normal individuals (88.3%) had no/low dysplasia; most patients with low grade spondylolisthesis (61.5%) had moderate dysplasia, while most patients with high grade spondylolisthesis (72.5%) had severe dysplasia. There was a significant difference in dysplasia between normal individuals and patients with spondylolisthesis. Dysplasia also varied significantly between low and high grade spondylolisthesis. There was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.63) between severity of dysplasia and percentage of slip. There is a significant relationship between the severity of spondylolisthesis and lumbosacral dysplasia, with mainly no/low dysplasia observed in controls and increasing total dysplasia scores in higher grades of spondylolisthesis. In addition, a variable degree of dysplasia was found within groups with low or high grade spondylolisthesis, suggesting that different subgroups of patients exist with regard to dysplasia. Thus the degree of dysplasia varies in

  3. Recognizable cerebellar dysplasia associated with mutations in multiple tubulin genes

    PubMed Central

    Oegema, Renske; Cushion, Thomas D.; Phelps, Ian G.; Chung, Seo-Kyung; Dempsey, Jennifer C.; Collins, Sarah; Mullins, Jonathan G.L.; Dudding, Tracy; Gill, Harinder; Green, Andrew J.; Dobyns, William B.; Ishak, Gisele E.; Rees, Mark I.; Doherty, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in alpha- and beta-tubulins are increasingly recognized as a major cause of malformations of cortical development (MCD), typically lissencephaly, pachygyria and polymicrogyria; however, sequencing tubulin genes in large cohorts of MCD patients has detected tubulin mutations in only 1–13%. We identified patients with a highly characteristic cerebellar dysplasia but without lissencephaly, pachygyria and polymicrogyria typically associated with tubulin mutations. Remarkably, in seven of nine patients (78%), targeted sequencing revealed mutations in three different tubulin genes (TUBA1A, TUBB2B and TUBB3), occurring de novo or inherited from a mosaic parent. Careful re-review of the cortical phenotype on brain imaging revealed only an irregular pattern of gyri and sulci, for which we propose the term tubulinopathy-related dysgyria. Basal ganglia (100%) and brainstem dysplasia (80%) were common features. On the basis of in silico structural predictions, the mutations affect amino acids in diverse regions of the alpha-/beta-tubulin heterodimer, including the nucleotide binding pocket. Cell-based assays of tubulin dynamics reveal various effects of the mutations on incorporation into microtubules: TUBB3 p.Glu288Lys and p.Pro357Leu do not incorporate into microtubules at all, whereas TUBB2B p.Gly13Ala shows reduced incorporation and TUBA1A p.Arg214His incorporates fully, but at a slower rate than wild-type. The broad range of effects on microtubule incorporation is at odds with the highly stereotypical clinical phenotype, supporting differential roles for the three tubulin genes involved. Identifying this highly characteristic phenotype is important due to the low recurrence risk compared with the other (recessive) cerebellar dysplasias and the apparent lack of non-neurological medical issues. PMID:26130693

  4. Blood Cytokine Profiles Associated with Distinct Patterns of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia among Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    D'Angio, Carl T; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Carlo, Waldemar A; McDonald, Scott A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M; Shankaran, Seetha; Goldberg, Ronald N; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Tyson, Jon E; Stoll, Barbara J; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2016-07-01

    To explore differences in blood cytokine profiles among distinct bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) patterns. We evaluated blood spots collected from 943 infants born at ≤1000 g and surviving to 28 days on postnatal days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 for 25 cytokines. Infants were assigned to the following lung disease patterns: (1) no lung disease (NLD); (2) respiratory distress syndrome without BPD; (3) classic BPD (persistent exposure to supplemental oxygen until 28 days of age); or (4) atypical BPD (period without supplemental oxygen before 28 days). Median cytokine levels for infants with BPD were compared with the IQR of results among infants with NLD. The distribution of enrolled infants by group was as follows: 69 (NLD), 73 (respiratory distress syndrome), 381 (classic BPD), and 160 (atypical BPD). The remaining 260 infants could not be classified because of missing data (104) or not fitting a predefined pattern (156). Median levels of 3 cytokines (elevated interleukin [IL]-8, matrix metalloproteinase-9; decreased granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) fell outside the IQR for at least 2 time points in both infants with atypical and classic BPD. Profiles of 7 cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, C-reactive protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) differed between infants with classic and atypical BPD. Blood cytokine profiles may differ between infants developing classic and atypical BPD. These dissimilarities suggest the possibility that differing mechanisms could explain the varied patterns of pathophysiology of lung disease in extremely premature infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A retrospective study of clinical and mutational findings in 45 Danish families with ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Tiedemann Svendsen, Mathias; Henningsen, Emil; Hertz, Jens Michael; Vestergaard Grejsen, Dorthe; Bygum, Anette

    2014-09-01

    Ectodermal dysplasias form a complex, nosologic group of diseases with defects in at least 2 ectodermal structures. A retrospective study of patients with ectodermal dysplasia seen at our department over a period of 19 years (1994-2013) was performed. The study population consisted of 67 patients covering 17 different diagnoses. Forty-five families were identified of which 26 were sporadic cases with no affected family members. In 27 tested families a disease-causing mutation was identified in 23 families. Eleven mutations were novel mutations. To our knowledge, we present the first large ectodermal dysplasia cohort focusing on clinical manifestations in combination with mutational analysis. We recommend a nationwide study to estimate the prevalence of the ectodermal dysplasia and to ensure relevant molecular genetic testing which may form the basis of a national ectodermal dysplasia database.

  6. Developmental dysplasia of the hip: a history of innovation.

    PubMed

    Tarpada, Sandip P; Girdler, Steven J; Morris, Matthew T

    2018-05-01

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a relatively common malady that has profound consequences in the infant if left untreated. Effective and early treatment of DDH has been praised as one of the most successful ventures of modern pediatric orthopedics. Yet, before the modern management of DDH came into existence, there were extensive technological developments in the field of harnesses, casts, and traction methods. This paper aims to identify the centuries-old history of advancement in DDH treatment and the many important people involved. Their devices, thoughts, and ideas continue to have a profound impact on the current practice of orthopedic surgery.

  7. Etiopathogenesis of Canine Hip Dysplasia, Prevalence, and Genetics.

    PubMed

    King, Michael D

    2017-07-01

    First identified in 1935, canine hip dysplasia is thought to be the most common orthopedic condition diagnosed in the dog. It is most prevalent in large and giant breed dogs, with a complex polygenic mode of inheritance, and relatively low heritability. External factors including caloric intake when growing have a significant effect on phenotypic expression. Initial joint laxity progresses to osteoarthritis due to subluxation and abnormal wearing. Selective breeding programs to attempt to decrease prevalence have shown modest results so far. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Imaging diagnosis--temporomandibular joint dysplasia in a Basset Hound.

    PubMed

    Lerer, Assaf; Chalmers, Heather J; Moens, Noel M M; Mackenzie, Shawn D; Kry, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    A 5-month-old intact male Basset Hound presented for evaluation of pain and crepitation during manipulation of the temporomandibular joint, worse on the right side. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the head was performed. The CT images demonstrated the osseous features of temporomandibular joint dysplasia and facilitated a 3D reconstruction, which allowed better visualization of the dysplastic features. The patient responded to conservative management with a tape muzzle with no recurrence reported by the owner 6 months after presentation. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  9. Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia gene region cloned in yeast artificial chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kere, J.; Grzeschik, K.H.; Limon, J.

    1993-05-01

    Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA), an X-chromosomal recessive disorder, is expressed in a few females with chromosomal translocations involving bands Xq12-q13. Using available DNA markers from the region and somatic cell hybrids the authors mapped the X-chromosomal breakpoints in two such translocations. The breakpoints were further mapped within a yeast artificial chromosome contig constructed by chromosome walking techniques. Genomic DNA markers that map between the two translocation breakpoints were recovered representing putative portions of the EDA gene. 32 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The association between cervical dysplasia, a short cervix, and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Miller, Emily S; Sakowicz, Allie; Grobman, William A

    2015-10-01

    We sought to determine whether cervical dysplasia in the absence of an excisional procedure is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (PTB) and whether that risk is independent of the presence of a short cervix. This is a cohort study including women with a singleton pregnancy who underwent routine cervical length assessment between 18-23 6/7 weeks of gestation, stratified by cervical dysplasia (ie, no prior dysplasia, prior dysplasia but no excisional procedure, or prior excisional procedure). The frequency of a short cervix (≤2.5 cm) and PTB were compared between groups and multivariable analyses were performed to identify whether: (1) dysplasia alone or a prior excisional procedure was associated with PTB; and (2) whether these factors remained independently associated with PTB after adjusting for the presence of a short cervix. Of the 18,528 women who met inclusion criteria, 3023 (16.3%) had prior dysplasia alone and 1356 (7.3%) had a prior excisional procedure. The frequency of a short cervix for women without dysplasia, with prior dysplasia alone, or with a prior excisional procedure was 0.8%, 1.0%, and 2.2%, respectively (P < .001). The frequency of PTB, respectively, was 6.4%, 6.5%, and 8.4% (P < .001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, prior excisional procedure but not prior dysplasia alone was associated with PTB. Having a prior cervical excisional procedure but not dysplasia alone is associated with an increased risk of PTB. This association is independent of the presence of a short cervix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Activation of Wnt signalling promotes development of dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Moyes, Lisa H; McEwan, Hamish; Radulescu, Sorina; Pawlikowski, Jeff; Lamm, Catherine G; Nixon, Colin; Sansom, Owen J; Going, James J; Fullarton, Grant M; Adams, Peter D

    2012-09-01

    Barrett's oesophagus is a precursor of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, via intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia. Risk of cancer increases substantially with dysplasia, particularly high-grade dysplasia. Thus, there is a clinical need to identify and treat patients with early-stage disease (metaplasia and low-grade dysplasia) that are at high risk of cancer. Activated Wnt signalling is critical for normal intestinal development and homeostasis, but less so for oesophageal development. Therefore, we asked whether abnormally increased Wnt signalling contributes to the development of Barrett's oesophagus (intestinal metaplasia) and/or dysplasia. Forty patients with Barrett's metaplasia, dysplasia or adenocarcinoma underwent endoscopy and biopsy. Mice with tamoxifen- and β-naphthoflavone-induced expression of activated β-catenin were used to up-regulate Wnt signalling in mouse oesophagus. Immunohistochemistry of β-catenin, Ki67, a panel of Wnt target genes, and markers of intestinal metaplasia was performed on human and mouse tissues. In human tissues, expression of nuclear activated β-catenin was found in dysplasia, particularly high grade. Barrett's metaplasia did not show high levels of activated β-catenin. Up-regulation of Ki67 and Wnt target genes was also mostly associated with high-grade dysplasia. Aberrant activation of Wnt signalling in mouse oesophagus caused marked tissue disorganization with features of dysplasia, but only selected molecular indicators of metaplasia. Based on these results in human tissues and a mouse model, we conclude that abnormal activation of Wnt signalling likely plays only a minor role in initiation of Barrett's metaplasia but a more critical role in progression to dysplasia. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Duane Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Duane Syndrome? Duane syndrome, also called Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), is a congenital and non-progressive ... Is Duane syndrome congenital (present from birth)? Duane retraction syndrome is present from birth, even if it ...

  13. Presumed atypical HDR syndrome associated with Band Keratopathy and pigmentary retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cinoo; Cheong, Hae Il; Kim, Jeong Hun; Yu, Young Suk; Kwon, Ji Won

    2011-01-01

    This report describes presumed atypical hypoparathyroidism, deafness, and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome associated with unexpected ocular findings. The patient had exotropia, bilateral band keratopathy, and pigmentary retinopathy, including attenuated retinal vessels and atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium. Even though the calcific plaques were successfully removed, visual acuity in both eyes gradually decreased and electroretinography was extinguished. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. [Semiotics of the Currarino syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pankevych, T L; Lóniushkin, O I; Sitkovskyĭ, M B; Kaplan, V M; Iurchenko, M I; Cherniienko, Iu L

    1993-01-01

    The main criteria for diagnosis of the Currarino syndrome have been defined. Roentgenologic investigation of the lumbar-sacral spine in direct projection is indicated to all the patients with anorectal developmental defects, in particular with congenital anorectal stenosis. In detection of a specific defect of the terminal vertebrae, the performance of computed tomography of the pelvic bottom and nuclear magnetic resonance tomography of the lumbar-sacral spine is necessary. This permits to assess the nature of a presacral tumour and degree of dysplasia of the external and sphincter. Timely diagnosis of the Currarino syndrome in children with the anorectal developmental defects permits to avoid severe septic and functional complications in surgical intervention.

  15. Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome: an X-linked encephalo-tropho-schisis syndrome. 1988.

    PubMed

    Neri, G; Marini, R; Cappa, M; Borrelli, P; Opitz, J M

    2013-11-01

    The following paper by Professor GiovanniNeri and colleagues was originally published in 1988, American Journal of Medical Genetics 30:287–299. This paper represented a seminal work at the time of publication as it not only reported a new family with a disorder that had been called the “gigantism-dysplasia syndrome”, but also suggested naming the condition the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome. This eponym has clearly stood “the test of time”, and that designation is now widely accepted. This paper is graciously republished by Wiley-Blackwell in the Special Festschrift issue honoring Professor Neri. We report on another family with the so-called "gigantism-dysplasia syndrome", an X-linked condition characterized by pre-and postnatal overgrowth, characteristic face with apparent coarseness, dysplastic changes in several tissues, and mild intellectual impairment. This condition has been called the Golabi-Rosen syndrome; however, we agree that is the same entity as that described, in a milder form, by Simpson et al. in 1975 and by Behmel et al. in 1984. Therefore, we suggest that this entity be designated the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome. The manifestations in affected individuals suggest that this condition represents an X-linked encephalo-tropho-schisis syndrome. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ by ratio fluorometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, S.; Hung, J.Y.; Kennedy, S.M.

    1992-12-01

    Fluorescence bronchoscopy was performed in 82 volunteers recruited from occupational groups at risk of exposure to asbestos and/or diesel fumes to determine whether differences in tissue autofluorescence between normal and malignant bronchial tissues can be used to improve the sensitivity of standard fiberoptic bronchoscopy in detecting dysplasic and carcinoma in situ (CIS). This study consisted of 25 nonsmokers, 40 exsmokers, and 17 current smokers with mean ages of 52, 55, and 49 yr, respectively. Tissue autofluorescence was induced by a blue light from an He-Cd laser coupled to the illumination channel of the bronchoscope and analyzed by a ratiofluorometer. Onemore » or more sites of moderate or severe dysplasia were found in 12% of the exsmokers and current smokers but in none of the nonsmoker volunteers. CIS was found in two of the exsmokers. The sensitivity of fluorescence bronchoscopy (86%) was found to be 50% better than that of conventional white-light bronchoscopy (52%) in detecting dysplasia and CIS. Pre- and post-bronchoscopy sputum cytology failed to detect these precancerous lesions. Our results suggest that fluorescence bronchoscopy may be an important new method that can improve the ability to detect and localize precancerous and/or CIS lesions.« less

  17. Barrett's oesophagus: frequency and prediction of dysplasia and cancer.

    PubMed

    Falk, Gary W

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma is continuing to increase at an alarming rate in the Western world today. Barrett's oesophagus is a clearly recognized risk factor for the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, but the overwhelming majority of patients with Barrett's oesophagus will never develop oesophageal cancer. A number of endoscopic, histologic and epidemiologic risk factors identify Barrett's oesophagus patients at increased risk for progression to high-grade dysplasia and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic factors include segment length, mucosal abnormalities as seemingly trivial as oesophagitis and the 12 to 6 o'clock hemisphere of the oesophagus. Both intestinal metaplasia and low grade dysplasia, the latter only if confirmed by a pathologist with expertise in Barrett's oesophagus pathologic interpretation are the histologic risk factors for progression. Epidemiologic risk factors include ageing, male gender, obesity, and smoking. Factors that may protect against the development of adenocarcinoma include a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, and the use of proton pump inhibitors, aspirin/NSAIDs and statins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in pulmonary circulation in severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Bush, A; Busst, C M; Knight, W B; Hislop, A A; Haworth, S G; Shinebourne, E A

    1990-01-01

    Eight patients with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia underwent cardiac catheterisation. Seven had a pulmonary vascular resistance greater than 3 mm Hg.l-1 min.m2 (mean 8.9, range 2.2-13.8). All had raised intrapulmonary shunts (mean 25.6%, range 5.4-50%, normal less than 5%). Two had a high alveolar dead space, and two had unsuspected congenital heart disease. Epoprostenol (prostacyclin), but not 100% oxygen, caused a significant fall in pulmonary vascular resistance. Death was associated with a high pulmonary vascular resistance and a high shunt. Morphometric studies in three cases showed normal numbers of airways, but increased thickness of bronchial muscle. The numbers of alveoli were reduced and the walls thickened. There was increased medial thickness in small pulmonary arteries with distal extension of muscle. In the oldest child some vessels were obliterated by fibrosis. We speculate that measurements of pulmonary vascular resistance and shunt may have prognostic value; that a trial of pulmonary vasodilators other than oxygen might be worthwhile in patients with poor prognosis; and that abnormalities of the pulmonary circulation contribute to the difficulties of managing patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Images Figure 7 PMID:2117421

  19. Selection against canine hip dysplasia: success or failure?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Bethany; Nicholas, Frank W; Thomson, Peter C

    2011-08-01

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a multifactorial skeletal disorder which is very common in pedigree dogs and represents a huge concern for canine welfare. Control schemes based on selective breeding have been in operation for decades. The aim of these schemes is to reduce the impact of CHD on canine welfare by selecting for reduced radiographic evidence of CHD pathology as assessed by a variety of phenotypes. There is less information regarding the genotypic correlation between these phenotypes and the impact of CHD on canine welfare. Although the phenotypes chosen as the basis for these control schemes have displayed heritable phenotypic variation in many studies, success in achieving improvement in the phenotypes has been mixed. There is significant room for improvement in the current schemes through the use of estimated breeding values (EBVs), which can combine a dog's CHD phenotype with CHD phenotypes of relatives, other phenotypes as they are proven to be genetically correlated with CHD (especially elbow dysplasia phenotypes), and information from genetic tests for population-relevant DNA markers, as such tests become available. Additionally, breed clubs should be encouraged and assisted to formulate rational, evidenced-based breeding recommendations for CHD which suit their individual circumstances and dynamically to adjust the breeding recommendations based on continuous tracking of CHD genetic trends. These improvements can assist in safely and effectively reducing the impact of CHD on pedigree dog welfare. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Conventional Complete Denture in Patients with Ectodermal Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vilanova, Larissa Soares Reis; Sánchez-Ayala, Alfonso; Ribeiro, Giselle Rodrigues; Campos, Camila Heitor; Farias-Neto, Arcelino

    2015-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia is described as heritable conditions that involve anomalies of structures derived from the ectoderm, including hypodontia. In the cases of edentulous young patients, who did not finish their craniofacial growth, treatment with conventional complete denture is a suitable alternative. The aim of this study was to report a case of mandibular edentulism treated with conventional complete denture in a thirteen-year-old patient diagnosed with hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Typical features, such as frontal bossing, depressed nasal bridge, protuberant lips, scarce hair, and brittle nails, were visualized during the extraoral examination. The intraoral inspection and radiographic analysis revealed oligodontia, dental malformation, and prolonged retention of deciduous teeth at maxilla and total edentulism at mandible. A conventional complete denture was planned and constructed following the same steps of technique as recommended in adults. Although this option is not a definitive treatment, the patient and his parents were satisfied with his improvement in chewing and speech, as well as with the aesthetic benefits. PMID:26425372

  1. Pubic Hair Shaving Is Correlated to Vulvar Dysplasia and Inflammation: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Objective The risk factors for vulvar dysplasia and infections are not fully known. In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between pubic hair shaving and the occurrence of vulvar inflammation, dysplasia, and cancer. Methods This study was performed between January 2013 and December 2016 in which a standardized questionnaire concerning genital hair shaving was administered to vulvar dysplasia and cancer patients and healthy participants. The presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and the occurrence of genital inflammation were documented. Results We recruited 49 patients with vulvar dysplasia or cancer and 234 healthy women as a control group. Smoking, HPV infection, genital inflammation, and complete pubic hair removal were significantly more common in the vulvar dysplasia/cancer group. Pubic hair shaving per se presented a clear association with vulvar dysplasia/cancer. Shaving the labia majora in particular showed also an association. Conclusion Our findings suggest that partial or complete pubic hair shaving using a razor is correlated with and could be a potential risk factor for the development of genital inflammation, vulvar dysplasia, and malignancies. These results need to be confirmed in larger studies. HPV status and genital inflammation should be documented by medical personnel. PMID:29104417

  2. Determinants of impaired quality of life in patients with fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Majoor, Bas C J; Andela, Cornelie D; Bruggemann, Jens; van de Sande, Michiel A J; Kaptein, Ad A; Hamdy, Neveen A T; Dijkstra, P D Sander; Appelman-Dijkstra, Natasha M

    2017-04-27

    Fibrous dysplasia is a rare bone disorder, commonly associated with pain, deformity and fractures, which may significantly impact on quality of life. In this study we evaluate quality of life in patients with fibrous dysplasia using the Short Form-36 and the Brief Pain Inventory questionnaires. Data were compared with those of the general Dutch population. Out of 138 patients from a cohort of 255 patients with fibrous dysplasia that were sent questionnaires assessing quality of life and pain, the response rate was 70.3%, with 97 patients, predominantly female (65%), completing the questionnaires. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia was predominant (n = 62, 64%). Fibrous dysplasia patients had significantly lower quality of life outcome scores than the general Dutch population for all tested domains of the Short Form-36 except for the "Mental health" and the "Role emotional" domains. More severe forms of fibrous dysplasia, had the more severe Short-Form-36 quality of life outcomes, but there was no significant difference in Brief Pain Inventory domains between different subtypes of fibrous dysplasia. Quality of life was lower in patients with higher disease burden, as reflected by high skeletal burden scores (p = 0.003) and high levels of P1NP (p = 0.002). We demonstrate impairments in all domains of quality of life, except for 'Mental health' and 'Role emotional' domains, across the wide spectrum of fibrous dysplasia including its milder forms. We identified high skeletal burden scores, reflecting disease severity, as the most consistent predictor of impaired quality of life. Our findings hold significant clinical implications as they draw attention to the clinically unmet need to address quality of life issues in the management of patients with all subtypes of fibrous dysplasia, including its milder forms.

  3. LEOPARD syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple lentigines syndrome; Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines ... Genetics Home Reference -- ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/noonan-syndrome-with-multiple-lentigines National Organization for Rare Disorders -- ...

  4. Cushing syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hypercortisolism; Cortisol excess; Glucocorticoid excess - Cushing syndrome ... The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is taking too much ... Cushing syndrome . Prednisone, dexamethasone, and prednisolone ...

  5. Clinical, radiographic, and histological findings of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hee; Song, Byeong-Chul; Kim, Sun-Ho; Park, Yang-Soon

    2011-09-01

    Cemento-osseous dysplasias are a group of disorders known to originate from periodontal ligament tissue and involve, essentially, the same pathological process. They are usually classified into three main groups: periapical, florid, and focal cemental dysplasias depending on their extent and radiographic appearances. Radiographically, florid cementoosseous dysplasia (FCOD) appears as dense, lobulated masses, often symmetrically located in various regions of the jaws. The best management for the asymptomatic FCOD patient consists of regular recall examinations with prophylaxis. The management of the symptomatic patient is more difficult. A case of FCOD occurring in a 52-year-old edentulous Korean female is reported which is rare with regard to race and sex.

  6. Overdenture restoration in a growing patient with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Pae, Ahran; Kim, Kyu; Kim, Hyeong-Seob; Kwon, Kung-Rock

    2011-03-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a hereditary disorder of ectodermal origin. A 12-year-old boy was referred for management of the oral manifestations of his ectodermal dysplasia. An overdenture retained by natural teeth for the maxilla and a double-crown-retained denture for the mandible were made. Double-crown-retained dentures may be modified into complete dentures if the abutment teeth are lost. The patient was instructed to maintain oral hygiene and return periodically for follow-up visits. This report describes a potential routine approach to restoring the appearance, function, and psyche of a growing boy with ectodermal dysplasia.

  7. Radiographic Prevalence of Dysplasia, Cam, and Pincer Deformities in Elite Ballet.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joshua D; Gerrie, Brayden J; Varner, Kevin E; Lintner, David M; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    The demands of hip strength and motion in ballet are high. Hip disorders, such as cam and pincer deformities or dysplasia, may affect dance performance. However, the prevalence of these radiographic findings is unknown. To determine the prevalence of radiographic cam and pincer deformities, borderline dysplasia, and dysplasia in a professional ballet company. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. An institutional review board-approved cross-sectional investigation of a professional ballet company was undertaken. Male and female adult dancers were eligible for inclusion. Four plain radiographs were obtained (standing anteroposterior pelvis, bilateral false profile, and supine Dunn 45°) and verified for adequacy. Cam and pincer deformities, dysplasia, borderline dysplasia, and osteoarthritis were defined. All plain radiographic parameters were measured and analyzed on available radiographs. Student t test, chi-square test (and Fisher exact test), and Spearman correlation analyses were performed to compare sexes, groups, and the effect of select radiographic criteria. A total of 47 dancers were analyzed (21 males, 26 females; mean age (±SD), 23.8 ± 5.4 years). Cam deformity was identified in 25.5% (24/94) of hips and 31.9% (15/47) of subjects, with a significantly greater prevalence in male dancers than females (48% hips and 57% subjects vs 8% hips and 12% subjects; P < .001 and P = .001, respectively). Seventy-four percent of subjects had at least 2 of 6 radiographic signs of pincer deformity. Male dancers had a significantly greater prevalence of both prominent ischial spine and posterior wall signs (P = .001 and P < .001, respectively), while female dancers had a significantly greater prevalence of coxa profunda (85% female hips vs 26% male hips; P < .001). Eighty-nine percent of subjects had dysplasia or borderline dysplasia in at least 1 hip (37% dysplastic), with a significantly greater prevalence of dysplasia or borderline dysplasia in female versus

  8. Unusual fan shaped ossification in a female fetus with radiological features of boomerang dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Odent, S.; Loget, P.; Le Marec, B.; Delezoide, A.; Maroteaux, P.

    1999-01-01

    We report on a female fetus of 24 weeks whose clinical and radiological findings were compatible with boomerang dysplasia (BD). However, histopathology was unusual with a lateral fan shaped diaphyseal ossification. This has never been described either in typical atelosteogenesis I (AT-I) or in BD. The purpose of this report is to find out if this condition is a separate lethal bone dysplasia or another histological feature of the nosological group of AT-I and BD. 


Keywords: boomerang dysplasia; atelosteogenesis; lethal chondrodysplasia; lethal dwarfism PMID:10227404

  9. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia complicated by hydrops fetalis and fetal death: a case report.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh-Jahromi, Mojgan; Sari Aslani, Fatemeh; Parvari, Shams

    2013-09-01

    Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is a rare condition of the placenta and its true incidence and underlying cause has remained unknown till now due to its rarity. Its accurate diagnosis is essential, because placental mesenchymal dysplasia is usually compatible with a good fetal and maternal outcome. A precise ultrasonographic evaluation can contribute to the identification of characteristic features, particularly to discriminate it from partial hydatidiform mole, its main differential diagnosis. We report an early third-trimester pathologically- diagnosed case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia. It was complicated by fetal hydrops and death. 

  10. Mondini dysplasia with recurrent bacterial meningitis caused by three different pathogens.

    PubMed

    Shikano, Hiroaki; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Fukutomi, Hisashi; Ito, Kimiko; Morimoto, Masahiro; Teramoto, Takahide; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Nishihori, Takezumi; Akeda, Yukihiro; Oishi, Kazunori; Fukao, Toshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    Mondini dysplasia is rare, but has an important association with recurrent bacterial meningitis. We herein describe the case of a 3-year-old girl with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss who presented with three independent episodes of bacterial meningitis within 8 months. Temporal bone computed tomography indicated the characteristic features of Mondini dysplasia in the right inner ear. This was treated by surgical closure of the inner ear defect via oval window and additional vaccination was administered. Appropriate vaccination might prevent the recurrent bacterial meningitis associated with Mondini dysplasia. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. Facial clefts and facial dysplasia: revisiting the classification.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Riccardo F; Mazzola, Isabella C

    2014-01-01

    Most craniofacial malformations are identified by their appearance. The majority of the classification systems are mainly clinical or anatomical, not related to the different levels of development of the malformation, and underlying pathology is usually not taken into consideration. In 1976, Tessier first emphasized the relationship between soft tissues and the underlying bone stating that "a fissure of the soft tissue corresponds, as a general rule, with a cleft of the bony structure". He introduced a cleft numbering system around the orbit from 0 to 14 depending on its relationship to the zero line (ie, the vertical midline cleft of the face). The classification, easy to understand, became widely accepted because the recording of the malformations was simple and communication between observers facilitated. It represented a great breakthrough in identifying craniofacial malformations, named clefts by him. In the present paper, the embryological-based classification of craniofacial malformations, proposed in 1983 and in 1990 by us, has been revisited. Its aim was to clarify some unanswered questions regarding apparently atypical or bizarre anomalies and to establish as much as possible the moment when this event occurred. In our opinion, this classification system may well integrate the one proposed by Tessier and tries at the same time to find a correlation between clinical observation and morphogenesis.Terminology is important. The overused term cleft should be reserved to true clefts only, developed from disturbances in the union of the embryonic facial processes, between the lateronasal and maxillary process (or oro-naso-ocular cleft); between the medionasal and maxillary process (or cleft of the lip); between the maxillary processes (or cleft of the palate); and between the maxillary and mandibular process (or macrostomia).For the other types of defects, derived from alteration of bone production centers, the word dysplasia should be used instead. Facial

  12. Clival Malformations in CHARGE Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, E S; Whitehead, M T

    2018-06-01

    CHARGE syndrome is a multisystemic congenital disorder, most commonly including coloboma, heart malformations, choanal atresia, developmental delay, and genital and ear anomalies. The diagnostic criteria for CHARGE syndrome have been refined with time. However, limited reports describe skull base and craniocervical junction abnormalities. Recently, a coronal clival cleft has been identified in association with CHARGE syndrome. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of clival pathology in CHARGE syndrome. In this retrospective study, the CT/MR imaging data base at a single academic children's hospital was queried for the phrase "CHARGE syndrome" during a 17-year period (2001-2017). Electronic medical records were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis. Images were assessed for skull base anomalies, specifically clival hypoplasia and dysplasia. The search yielded 42 examinations (21 CTs and 21 MRIs) from 15 distinct patients (mean age, 4.1 ± 5.6 years; range, 2 days to 19 years). CHARGE syndrome diagnosis was confirmed either by clinical and genetic testing ( n = 6) or by clinical diagnosis only ( n = 9). A coronal clival cleft was identified in 87% of patients (37 examinations, n = 13 patients), either partial (53%) or complete (33%). Clival hypoplasia without clefting was present in all 5 examinations from the remaining 2 patients. Clival pathology is universal in CHARGE syndrome. Coronal clival clefts are extremely common, representing a useful additional diagnostic finding. Detection of a clival cleft should alert the radiologist to examine the palate, choana, eyes, ears, and olfactory centers for other signs of CHARGE syndrome. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  13. Synovial osteochondromatosis in hereditary arthro-ophthalmopathy (Wagner-Stickler syndrome).

    PubMed

    Tins, Bernhard; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor

    2003-05-01

    A case of bilateral synovial osteochondromatosis in a patient with hereditary arthro-ophthalmopathy is presented. The osteochondral lesions were largely calcified in one joint and largely chondromatous in the other. Typical features of hereditary arthro-ophthalmopathy are reviewed and it is hypothesised that the abnormal collagen in this syndrome is responsible for the development of synovial osteochondromatosis. Synovial manifestations of skeletal dysplasias have to our knowledge not been described previously but we suggest that synovial osteochondromatosis can be the manifestation of an underlying skeletal dysplasia.

  14. Medical closure of patent ductus arteriosus does not reduce mortality and development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Terek, Demet; Yalaz, Mehmet; Ulger, Zulal; Koroglu, Ozge Altun; Kultursay, Nilgun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is associated with significant morbidity due to hemodynamic instability in preterm infants, the effect of ductus closure on mortality and morbidity is a controversial issue. The aim is to evaluate the efficacy of oral and intravenous (IV) ibuprofen treatment on ductal closure and effects on mortality and bronchoplumonary dysplasia. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 292 premature infants treated at Ege University Neonatal Intensive Care Unit were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were classified into 3 groups as; No PDA, hemodynamically insignificant PDA (hiPDA) and hemodynamically significant PDA (hsPDA) according to the presence and hemodynamical significance of PDA by echocardiography. hsPDA group was treated with IV or oral ibuprofen. Results: Patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed by routine echocardiography in 145 patients, of whom 78 (53.7%) had hsPDA. All 65 infants with hiPDA had spontaneous PDA closure. Echocardiographic measurements were similar to those patients treated with oral or IV ibuprofen, as in the response rate to treatment without serious adverse effects. The presence of respiratory distress syndrome, surfactant therapy, late sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with hsPDA. However, with stepwise logistic regression; 5th min Apgar score (odds ratio [OR], 1.321, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.063-1.641, P = 0.012) and gestational age (OR, 1.422, 95% CI, 1.212-1.662, P < 0.001) were the only significant variables associated with mortality. Gestational age (OR, 0.680, 95% CI, 0.531-0.871, P = 0.002) was the only significant variable associated with BPD shown with logistic regression. Conclusion: Ibuprofen treatment is effective for hsPDA closure with minimal side effects. HiPDA can close spontaneously; therefore treatment decision should be individualized. However, medical treatment of PDA does not reduce mortality and

  15. Medical closure of patent ductus arteriosus does not reduce mortality and development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Terek, Demet; Yalaz, Mehmet; Ulger, Zulal; Koroglu, Ozge Altun; Kultursay, Nilgun

    2014-11-01

    Although, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is associated with significant morbidity due to hemodynamic instability in preterm infants, the effect of ductus closure on mortality and morbidity is a controversial issue. The aim is to evaluate the efficacy of oral and intravenous (IV) ibuprofen treatment on ductal closure and effects on mortality and bronchoplumonary dysplasia. The medical records of 292 premature infants treated at Ege University Neonatal Intensive Care Unit were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were classified into 3 groups as; No PDA, hemodynamically insignificant PDA (hiPDA) and hemodynamically significant PDA (hsPDA) according to the presence and hemodynamical significance of PDA by echocardiography. hsPDA group was treated with IV or oral ibuprofen. Patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed by routine echocardiography in 145 patients, of whom 78 (53.7%) had hsPDA. All 65 infants with hiPDA had spontaneous PDA closure. Echocardiographic measurements were similar to those patients treated with oral or IV ibuprofen, as in the response rate to treatment without serious adverse effects. The presence of respiratory distress syndrome, surfactant therapy, late sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with hsPDA. However, with stepwise logistic regression; 5(th) min Apgar score (odds ratio [OR], 1.321, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.063-1.641, P = 0.012) and gestational age (OR, 1.422, 95% CI, 1.212-1.662, P < 0.001) were the only significant variables associated with mortality. Gestational age (OR, 0.680, 95% CI, 0.531-0.871, P = 0.002) was the only significant variable associated with BPD shown with logistic regression. Ibuprofen treatment is effective for hsPDA closure with minimal side effects. HiPDA can close spontaneously; therefore treatment decision should be individualized. However, medical treatment of PDA does not reduce mortality and BPD.

  16. Cleft palate and ADULT phenotype in a patient with a novel TP63 mutation suggests lumping of EEC/LM/ADULT syndromes into a unique entity: ELA syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prontera, Paolo; Garelli, Emanuela; Isidori, Ilenia; Mencarelli, Amedea; Carando, Adriana; Silengo, Margherita Cirillo; Donti, Emilio

    2011-11-01

    Acro-dermato-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome is a rare condition belonging to the group of ectodermal dysplasias caused by TP63 mutations. Its clinical phenotype is similar to ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip/palate (EEC) and limb-mammary syndrome (LMS), and differs from these disorders mainly by the absence of cleft lip and/or palate. We report on a 39-year-old patient who was found to be heterozygous for a c.401G > T (p.Gly134Val) de novo mutation of TP63. This patient had the ADULT phenotype associated with cleft palate. Our findings, rather than extend the clinical spectrum of ADULT syndrome, suggest that cleft palate can no longer be considered an element for differential diagnosis for ADULT, EEC, and LMS. Our data, added to other reports on overlapping phenotypes, support the combining of these three phenotypes into a unique entity that we propose to call "ELA syndrome," which is an acronym of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip and palate, limb-mammary, and ADULT syndromes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Black hair follicular dysplasia in Large Münsterländer dogs: clinical, histological and ultrastructural features

    PubMed Central

    von Bomhard, Wolf; Mauldin, Elizabeth A.; Schmutz, Sheila M.; Leeb, Tosso; Casal, Margret L.

    2012-01-01

    Four Large Münsterländer cross-bred dogs affected with black hair follicular dysplasia (BHFD) and one unaffected control littermate were observed, and skin was sampled weekly over the first 19 weeks of life. Affected dogs were born with silvery grey hair, a consequence of melanin clumping in the hair shafts. Hair bulb melanocytes were densely pigmented, and contained abundant stage IV melanosomes but adjacent matrix keratinocytes lacked melanosomes. Melanin clumping was not prominent in epidermal melanocytes in the haired skin but occurred in the foot pads. Follicular changes progressed from bulbar clumping, clumping in the isthmus/ infundibulum and finally to dysplastic hair shafts. Alopecia developed progressively in pigmented areas. Silver-grey hair, melanin clumping, accumulation of stage IV melanosomes within melanocytes and insufficient melanin transfer to adjacent keratinocytes are also classic features of human Griscelli syndrome. The underlying cause in Griscelli syndrome is a defect of melanocytic intracellular transport proteins leading to inadequate and disorganized melanosome transfer to keratinocytes with resultant melanin clumping. In view of the correlation in the phenotype, histology and ultrastructure between both disorders, a defect in intracellular melanosome transport is postulated as the pathogenic mechanism in BHFD. PMID:16674733

  18. [Morphofunctional characteristics of immunocompetent cells in dysplasia of the breast].

    PubMed

    Dikshteĭn, E A; Burlak, Iu P; Shevchenko, N I

    1985-01-01

    Immunocompetent cells were studied in the stroma and epithelium of 34 cases of mammary gland dysplasia. The following stainings were used for light microscopy: hematoxylin and eosin, methods of Brachet, van Gieson, Romanovsky-Giemsa, hallocyanine alums, Gomori, PAS-reaction as well as the determination of acid and alkaline phosphatases, glucose-6-phosphate and succinate dehydrogenase were used. 14 cases were studied ultrastructurally. Two types of small B lymphocytes and one type of large lymphocytes, stromal macrophages are described. Their morphofunctional characteristics is given and their properties in proliferating and non-proliferating fibroadenomatosis are shown. Interaction of intraepithelial large granular lymphocytes (normal killers) with immature epithelial cells resulting in the death of these epitheliocytes is described. The results obtained are regarded as a morphological manifestation of the immune surveillance.

  19. Hyperostotic Esthesioneuroblastoma: Rare Variant and Fibrous Dysplasia Mimicker

    PubMed Central

    Knott, Phillip Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A 65-year-old male presented with a 3-year history of orbital symptoms. An imaging-based diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia involving the skull base was made at another institution. CT showed a diffuse sinonasal mass and ground-glass appearance of the bones of the anterior skull base with bony defects and mucocele formation. MRI demonstrated an accompanying intracranial and orbital rind of soft tissue mass along the hyperostotic bones. FDG-PET showed corresponding intense hypermetabolism. Small cysts were observed at the tumor-brain interface. Biopsy revealed esthesioneuroblastoma with bone infiltration that is compatible with the hyperostotic variant of esthesioneuroblastoma. There are a few cases of hyperostotic esthesioneuroblastoma reported in the literature. PMID:24497807

  20. [Progress in the diagnosis of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Zhang, P Y; Xiao, C

    2018-04-09

    Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FLCOD) is a rare, extensive bone metabolism disorder, which occurs only in the jaw bone. It is usually asymptomatic for a long time and discovered incidentally during a radiological examination. The characteristics of FLCOD in the initial stages are similar to those of periapical granuloma or jaw cyst, which may lead to misdiagnosis. After the lesion is mature, the imaging findings show that radiopaque with a thin radiolucent peripheral halo, which is crucial for the diagnosis of FLCOD, but other jaw lesions have similar imaging findings. Due to the poor blood supply of the lesion, the alveolar bone of root apices of vital teeth is slow to heal after trauma, increasing the chance of infection, which can lead to the osteomyelitis of the jaws and emerge sequestrum. This paper reviews the aspects of pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Towards in vivo focal cortical dysplasia phenotyping using quantitative MRI.

    PubMed

    Adler, Sophie; Lorio, Sara; Jacques, Thomas S; Benova, Barbora; Gunny, Roxana; Cross, J Helen; Baldeweg, Torsten; Carmichael, David W

    2017-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are a range of malformations of cortical development each with specific histopathological features. Conventional radiological assessment of standard structural MRI is useful for the localization of lesions but is unable to accurately predict the histopathological features. Quantitative MRI offers the possibility to probe tissue biophysical properties in vivo and may bridge the gap between radiological assessment and ex-vivo histology. This review will cover histological, genetic and radiological features of FCD following the ILAE classification and will explain how quantitative voxel- and surface-based techniques can characterise these features. We will provide an overview of the quantitative MRI measures available, their link with biophysical properties and finally the potential application of quantitative MRI to the problem of FCD subtyping. Future research linking quantitative MRI to FCD histological properties should improve clinical protocols, allow better characterisation of lesions in vivo and tailored surgical planning to the individual.

  2. Prenatal Correction of X-Linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Holm; Faschingbauer, Florian; Schuepbach-Mallepell, Sonia; Körber, Iris; Wohlfart, Sigrun; Dick, Angela; Wahlbuhl, Mandy; Kowalczyk-Quintas, Christine; Vigolo, Michele; Kirby, Neil; Tannert, Corinna; Rompel, Oliver; Rascher, Wolfgang; Beckmann, Matthias W; Schneider, Pascal

    2018-04-26

    Genetic deficiency of ectodysplasin A (EDA) causes X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED), in which the development of sweat glands is irreversibly impaired, an condition that can lead to life-threatening hyperthermia. We observed normal development of mouse fetuses with Eda mutations after they had been exposed in utero to a recombinant protein that includes the receptor-binding domain of EDA. We administered this protein intraamniotically to two affected human twins at gestational weeks 26 and 31 and to a single affected human fetus at gestational week 26; the infants, born in week 33 (twins) and week 39 (singleton), were able to sweat normally, and XLHED-related illness had not developed by 14 to 22 months of age. (Funded by Edimer Pharmaceuticals and others.).

  3. Molecular basis of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia: an update.

    PubMed

    Trzeciak, Wieslaw H; Koczorowski, Ryszard

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in understanding the molecular events underlying hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) caused by mutations of the genes encoding proteins of the tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-related signaling pathway have been presented. These proteins are involved in signal transduction from ectoderm to mesenchyme during development of the fetus and are indispensable for the differentiation of ectoderm-derived structures such as eccrine sweat glands, teeth, hair, skin, and/or nails. Novel data were reviewed and discussed on the structure and functions of the components of TNFα-related signaling pathway, the consequences of mutations of the genes encoding these proteins, and the prospect for further investigations, which might elucidate the origin of HED.

  4. Bilateral renal dysplasia with nephron hypoplasia in a foal.

    PubMed

    Zicker, S C; Marty, G D; Carlson, G P; Madigan, J E; Smith, J M; Goetzman, B W

    1990-06-15

    Bilateral renal dysplasia and nephron hypoplasia was diagnosed in a Quarter Horse foal with clinical signs of lethargy, convulsions, and diarrhea. Laboratory evaluation revealed anemia, hypoproteinemia, leukopenia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hyposmolality. The foal also had high concentrations of serum creatinine, BUN, and phosphorus. Evaluation of urinary indices revealed a high ratio of urinary gamma-glutamyl-transferase activity to concentration of creatinine, as well as a high fractional clearance ratio of sodium and potassium. Intravenous treatment with saline solution (0.9% NaCl) and antimicrobials provided only temporary resolution of some of the abnormalities. Diagnosis was partly established by histologic evaluation of renal tissue obtained via an ultrasonographically guided biopsy and was confirmed at necropsy. Pathologic changes in the kidney were unique in that the size of the kidneys, along with the appearance and number of glomeruli, were essentially normal despite marked hypoplasia of nephron tubules in the medulla.

  5. [Orthodontic and oral surgery therapy in cleidocranial dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Balaton, Gergely; Tarján, Ildikó; Balaton, Péter; Barabási, Zoltán; Gyulai Gál, Szabolcs; Nagy, Katalin; Vajó, Zoltán

    2007-02-01

    A cleidocranial dysplasia is an autosomal dominant inherited condition consisting of generalized skeletal disorder. Associated dental signs are present in 93,5%; failure of tooth eruption with multiple supernumerary teeth, dilaceration of roots, crown germination, microdontia, high arched palate, midface hypoplasia, high gonion angle. The molecular- genetic analysis revealed a missense mutation in the CBFA1 gene located on chromosome 6p21, which is considered to be etiological factor for CCD. Orthodontic and oral surgery therapy of a 13 year-old child with CCD was performed due to aesthetic and functional problems. The supernumerary germs were removed and the teeth were aligned with orthodontic appliances. Temporary functional rehabilitation was solved with partial denture. The presented case and the literature data support the importance of early diagnosis of CCD. The good collaboration of the orthodontic and maxillo-facial surgery specialists help achieve the correct rehabilitation of the patient.

  6. Tooth eruption in a patient with craniometaphyseal dysplasia: case report.

    PubMed

    Hayashibara, T; Komura, T; Sobue, S; Ooshima, T

    2000-10-01

    Craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD) is a very rare genetic disorder of bone remodeling caused by osteoclast dysfunction. The clinical and radiographical features of oral findings are presented in a sporadic case of CMD in a child (age 10 years, 7 months). An intraoral examination showed severe malocclusions, including anterior crossbite and deep bite. Furthermore, a radiographic examination showed increased radiopacity of the maxilla and mandibular bones due to hyperostosis and sclerosis of the jaw. There was no root resorption of the canines or molars in the primary dentition, although root formation of the permanent teeth was proceeding. Dental age was calculated to be approximately 1 year, 4 months younger than his chronological age. The eruption speed of the permanent lateral incisors after the gingival emergence was shown to be within normal values, and we discuss whether the canines and premolars in the permanent dentition could erupt or not.

  7. Telescopic overdenture for oral rehabilitation of ectodermal dysplasia patient.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Charu; Verma, Mahesh; Gupta, Rekha; Gill, Shubhra

    2015-09-01

    Reduced number of teeth with underdeveloped alveolar ridges poses a greatest prosthetic challenge in rehabilitation of ectodermal dysplasia patients (ED). Furthermore, surgical risks and financial constraints may preclude the implant supported prosthesis, the most desirable treatment option in an adult ED patient. Long edentulous span does not permit fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) as well. Telescopic denture by incorporating the best of both fixed and removable prosthesis can be a viable treatment alternative for ED patients with compromised dentition and limited finances. A 21-year-old young girl presented with chief complaint of esthetics and mastication due to missing upper and lower teeth. A provisional diagnosis of ED was made based on familial history, physical, and oral examination. This clinical report describes management of an adult ED patient by means of telescopic overdenture prosthesis in mandibular arch and FDP in maxillary arch which restored esthetics, function, and social confidence of the patient in a cost effective manner.

  8. Telescopic overdenture for oral rehabilitation of ectodermal dysplasia patient

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Charu; Verma, Mahesh; Gupta, Rekha; Gill, Shubhra

    2015-01-01

    Reduced number of teeth with underdeveloped alveolar ridges poses a greatest prosthetic challenge in rehabilitation of ectodermal dysplasia patients (ED). Furthermore, surgical risks and financial constraints may preclude the implant supported prosthesis, the most desirable treatment option in an adult ED patient. Long edentulous span does not permit fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) as well. Telescopic denture by incorporating the best of both fixed and removable prosthesis can be a viable treatment alternative for ED patients with compromised dentition and limited finances. A 21-year-old young girl presented with chief complaint of esthetics and mastication due to missing upper and lower teeth. A provisional diagnosis of ED was made based on familial history, physical, and oral examination. This clinical report describes management of an adult ED patient by means of telescopic overdenture prosthesis in mandibular arch and FDP in maxillary arch which restored esthetics, function, and social confidence of the patient in a cost effective manner. PMID:26604583

  9. Application of Raman spectroscopy for cervical dysplasia diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Elizabeth M.; Vargis, Elizabeth; Majumder, Shovan; Keller, Matthew D.; Woeste, Emily; Rao, Gautam G.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy among women worldwide, with over 490000 cases diagnosed and 274000 deaths each year. Although current screening methods have dramatically reduced cervical cancer incidence and mortality in developed countries, a “See and Treat” method would be preferred, especially in developing countries. Results from our previous work have suggested that Raman spectroscopy can be used to detect cervical precancers; however, with a classification accuracy of 88%, it was not clinically applicable. In this paper, we describe how incorporating a woman's hormonal status, particularly the point in menstrual cycle and menopausal state, into our previously developed classification algorithm improves the accuracy of our method to 94%. The results of this paper bring Raman spectroscopy one step closer to being utilized in a clinical setting to diagnose cervical dysplasia. Posterior probabilities of class membership, as determined by MRDF-SMLR, for patients regardless of menopausal status, and for pre-menopausal patients only PMID:19343687

  10. A case control study of nutritional factors and cervical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Liu, T; Soong, S J; Wilson, N P; Craig, C B; Cole, P; Macaluso, M; Butterworth, C E

    1993-01-01

    The association of nutritional factors with cervical dysplasia was examined through a case-control study. Analysis was conducted in 257 cases and 133 controls confirmed both by cytological examination and colposcopic findings. A 24-h dietary recall questionnaire was used to assess nutritional intake. Various risk factors (including age at first intercourse, number of sexual partners, parity, cigarette smoking, oral contraceptive use, human papillomavirus type 16 infection, and age and race) were adjusted for their potential confounding effects. While analyses were also performed to adjust for total calories, results were not changed significantly. Among the nutrients examined, vitamin A intake showed a significantly increased risk at the lowest quartile compared to the highest quartile, with an odds ratio of 2.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.2). A significant trend of increasing risk was also observed with lower intake of vitamin A (P = 0.05). Riboflavin showed increased risk at the two lower quartiles of intake with a trend test P value of 0.04. Increased risk was also found for lower intakes of vitamin C compared to the highest intake level. For folate, increased risk was found in the second highest quartile compared with the highest quartile with an odds ratio of 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.8). The calcium:phosphorus ratio showed an increased risk at the lowest level (odds ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-4.3). Insufficient intake of vitamin A, riboflavin, ascorbate, and folate is associated with an increased risk of cervical dysplasia.

  11. Long-Term Effects of Inhaled Budesonide for Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bassler, Dirk; Shinwell, Eric S; Hallman, Mikko; Jarreau, Pierre-Henri; Plavka, Richard; Carnielli, Virgilio; Meisner, Christoph; Engel, Corinna; Koch, Alexander; Kreutzer, Karen; van den Anker, Johannes N; Schwab, Matthias; Halliday, Henry L; Poets, Christian F

    2018-01-11

    The long-term effects on neurodevelopment of the use of inhaled glucocorticoids in extremely preterm infants for the prevention or treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia are uncertain. We randomly assigned 863 infants (gestational age, 23 weeks 0 days to 27 weeks 6 days) to receive early (within 24 hours after birth) inhaled budesonide or placebo. The prespecified secondary long-term outcome was neurodevelopmental disability among survivors, defined as a composite of cerebral palsy, cognitive delay (a Mental Development Index score of <85 [1 SD below the mean of 100] on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition, with higher scores on the scale indicating better performance), deafness, or blindness at a corrected age of 18 to 22 months. Adequate data on the prespecified composite long-term outcome were available for 629 infants. Of these infants, 148 (48.1%) of 308 infants assigned to budesonide had neurodevelopmental disability, as compared with 165 (51.4%) of 321 infants assigned to placebo (relative risk, adjusted for gestational age, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.09; P=0.40). There was no significant difference in any of the individual components of the prespecified outcome. There were more deaths in the budesonide group than in the placebo group (82 [19.9%] of 413 infants vs. 58 [14.5%] of 400 infants for whom vital status was available; relative risk, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.86; P=0.04). Among surviving extremely preterm infants, the rate of neurodevelopmental disability at 2 years did not differ significantly between infants who received early inhaled budesonide for the prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and those who received placebo, but the mortality rate was higher among those who received budesonide. (Funded by the European Union and Chiesi Farmaceutici; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01035190 .).

  12. Assessing dysplasia of a bronchial biopsy with FTIR spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, Liberty; Kimber, James A.; Oliver, Katherine V.; Brown, James M.; Janes, Samuel M.; Fearn, Tom; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Rich, Peter

    2015-03-01

    An FTIR image of an 8 µm section of de-paraffinised bronchial biopsy that shows a histological transition from normal to severe dysplasia/squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ was obtained in transmission by stitching together images of 256 x 256 µm recorded using a 96 x 96 element FPA detector. Each pixel spectrum was calculated from 128 co-added interferograms at 4 cm-1 resolution. In order to improve the signal to noise ratio, blocks of 4x4 adjacent pixels were subsequently averaged. Analyses of this spectral image, after conversion of the spectra to their second derivatives, show that the epithelium and the lamina propria tissue types can be distinguished using the area of troughs at either 1591, 1334, 1275 or 1215 cm-1 or, more effectively, by separation into two groups by hierarchical clustering (HCA) of the 1614-1465 region. Due to an insufficient signal to noise ratio, disease stages within the image could not be distinguished with this extent of pixel averaging. However, after separation of the cell types, disease stages within either the epithelium or the lamina propria could be distinguished if spectra were averaged from larger, manually selected areas of the tissue. Both cell types reveal spectral differences that follow a transition from normal to cancerous histology. For example, spectral changes that occurred in the epithelium over the transition from normal to carcinoma in situ could be seen in the 1200-1000 cm-1 region, particularly as a decrease in the second derivative troughs at 1074 and 1036 cm-1 , consistent with changes in some form of carbohydrate. Spectral differences that indicate a disease transition from normal to carcinoma in the lamina propria could be seen in the 1350-1175 cm-1 and 1125-1030 cm-1 regions. Thus demonstrating that a progression from healthy to severe dysplasia/squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ can be seen using FTIR spectroscopic imaging and multivariate analysis.

  13. Malignant transformation of oral epithelial dysplasia: clinicopathological risk factors and outcome analysis in a retrospective cohort of 138 cases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Bao, Zhe-Xuan; Shi, Lin-Jun; Tang, Guo-Yao; Zhou, Zeng-Tong

    2011-10-01

    To explore the usefulness of a new binary system of grading dysplasia proposed by the World Health Organization and to identify significant risk factors for malignant transformation in a long-term follow-up cohort of patients with oral epithelial dysplasia. A total of 138 patients with histologically confirmed oral dysplasia between 1978 and 2008 were reviewed retrospectively in our department. The mean follow-up period was 5.1 years. Of these dysplasias, 37 (26.8%) developed into cancer, with a mean duration of 4.6 years. Cox regression analysis revealed that high-grade dysplasia was an independent risk factor for transition, but age, gender, lesion site, diet habit, smoking and alcohol intake were not risk factors. High-grade dysplasia was associated with a 2.78-fold (95% confidence interval 1.44-5.38; P = 0.002) increased risk of transition, as compared with low-grade dysplasia. Consistently, high-grade dysplasia had a significantly higher incidence of malignancy than low-grade dysplasia by Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank test, P = 0.001). The utilization of high-grade dysplasia as a significant indicator for evaluating malignant transformation risk in patients with potentially malignant lesions is suggested; this may be helpful to guide treatment selection in clinical practice. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  14. Fanconi syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    De Toni-Fanconi syndrome ... Fanconi syndrome can be caused by faulty genes, or it may result later in life due to kidney damage. Sometimes the cause of Fanconi syndrome is unknown. Common causes of Fanconi syndrome in ...

  15. Outcomes of Hip Arthroscopy for Patients with Symptomatic Borderline Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Nawabi, Danyal H.; Bedi, Asheesh; Ranawat, Anil S.; Kelly, Bryan T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The outcomes of hip arthroscopy in the treatment of dysplasia are variable. Arthroscopy in severe dysplasia (LCEA<18°) results in poor outcomes and iatrogenic instability. However, in milder forms of dysplasia, favorable outcomes have been demonstrated at short-term follow-up. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of hip arthroscopy in borderline dysplastic patients to a control group of non-dysplastic patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for femorocetabular impingement (FAI). Methods: Between March 2009 and May 2012, 1381 patients (1593 hips) undergoing hip arthroscopy for intra-articular hip disorders were prospectively enrolled into a registry. From this cohort, a borderline dysplasia (BD) group comprising 44 patients (46 hips) with a LCEA ≥ 18° and ≤ 25° and a minimum of 2 years follow-up, was identified. A control group of 100 patients (123 hips) was also identified that had a LCEA ≥ 26° and ≤ 40°, and a minimum of 2 years follow-up. Patient-reported outcome scores, including the Modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score-Activity of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), the Sport-specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), and the International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33), were obtained preoperatively and at 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years postoperatively. Continuous and categorical variables were compared with independent-samples t-tests and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests (as appropriate) respectively. Changes in outcomes scores within groups were assessed via paired t-tests. Results: The mean age (±SD) of the BD and control groups was 29.3 ± 9.2 years and 29.1 ± 10.1 years respectively. There were 24 females (55%) in the BD group and 53 females (53%) in the control group (p=0.86). The mean LCEA was 21.8° (range, 18°-25°) in the BD group and 31.7° (range, 26°-40°) in the control group (p<0.001). The mean Tönnis angle was 6.2° (range, 1°-12°) in the BD group and 2.6° (range, -10°-12°) in the control group (p<0.001). The mean

  16. Controversies surrounding Jarcho-Levin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cornier, Alberto S; Ramirez, Norman; Carlo, Simón; Reiss, Abilio

    2003-12-01

    Jarcho-Levin syndrome is an eponym that has been used to describe a variety of clinical phenotypes consisting of short-trunk dwarfism associated with rib and vertebral anomalies. This admixture of phenotypes under Jarcho-Levin syndrome has allowed some confusion in terms of phenotype, prognosis, and mortality. In the past 2 years, few papers have provided more insight into the clinical diagnosis, prognosis, and management of patient with these phenotypes. Recently molecular, clinical, and radiologic data have allowed further characterization of these phenotypes. Based on these findings, we have divided these phenotypes into spondylothoracic dysplasia and spondylocostal dysostosis. A better understanding of the distinct phenotypes under Jarcho-Levin syndrome will help clinicians to understand the pathological factors of the disease, establish mode of inheritance, provide adequate genetic counseling, prognosis, molecular diagnosis, and clinical management recommendations.

  17. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population.

    PubMed

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias.

  18. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias. PMID:26488291

  19. Microcephalia with mandibular and dental dysplasia in adult Zmpste24-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    de Carlos, F; Varela, I; Germanà, A; Montalbano, G; Freije, J M P; Vega, J A; López-Otin, C; Cobo, J M

    2008-01-01

    ZMPSTE24 (also called FACE-1) is a zinc-metalloprotease involved in the post-translational processing of prelamin A to mature lamin A, a major component of the nuclear envelope. Mutations in the ZMPSTE24 gene or in that encoding its substrate prelamin A (LMNA) result in a series of human inherited diseases known collectively as laminopathies and showing regional or systemic manifestations (i.e. the Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome). Typically, patients suffering some laminopathies show craniofacial or mandible anomalies, aberrant dentition or facial features characteristic of aged persons. To analyse whether Zmpste24−/– mice reproduce the cranial phenotype observed in humans due to mutations in ZMPSTE24or LMNA, we conducted a craniometric study based on micro-computer tomography (µCT) images. Furthermore, using simple radiology, µCT, µCT-densitometry and scanning electron microscopy, we analysed the mandible and the teeth from Zmpste24−/– mice. Finally, the structure of the lower incisor was investigated using an H&E technique. The results demonstrate that Zmpste24−/– mice are microcephalic and show mandibular and dental dysplasia affecting only the mandible teeth. In all cases, the lower incisor of mice lacking Zmpste24 was smaller than in control animals, showed cylindrical morphology and a transverse fissure at the incisal edge, and the pulpal cavity was severely reduced. Structurally, the dental layers were normally arranged but cellular layers were disorganized. The inferior molars showed a reduced cusp size. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that Zmpste24−/– mice represent a good model to analyse the craniofacial and teeth malformations characteristic of lamin-related pathologies, and might contribute to a better understanding of the molecular events underlying these diseases. PMID:19014358

  20. A Complex 6p25 Rearrangement in a Child With Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bedoyan, Jirair K.; Lesperance, Marci M.; Ackley, Todd; Iyer, Ramaswamy K.; Innis, Jeffrey W.; Misra, Vinod K.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic rearrangements are increasingly recognized as important contributors to human disease. Here we report on an 11½-year-old child with myopia, Duane retraction syndrome, bilateral mixed hearing loss, skeletal anomalies including multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, and global developmental delay, and a complex 6p25 genomic rearrangement. We have employed oligonucleotide-based comparative genomic hybridization arrays (aCGH) of different resolutions (44 and 244K) as well as a 1 M single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to analyze this complex rearrangement. Our analyses reveal a complex rearrangement involving a ~2.21 Mb interstitial deletion, a ~240 kb terminal deletion, and a 70–80 kb region in between these two deletions that shows maintenance of genomic copy number. The interstitial deletion contains eight known genes, including three Forkhead box containing (FOX) transcription factors (FOXQ1, FOXF2, and FOXC1). The region maintaining genomic copy number partly overlaps the dual specificity protein phosphatase 22 (DUSP22) gene. Array analyses suggest a homozygous loss of genomic material at the 5′ end of DUSP22, which was corroborated using TaqMan® copy number analysis. It is possible that this homozygous genomic loss may render both copies of DUSP22 or its products non-functional. Our analysis suggests a rearrangement mechanism distinct from a previously reported replication-based error-prone mechanism without template switching for a specific 6p25 rearrangement with a 1.22 Mb interstitial deletion. Our study demonstrates the utility and limitations of using oligonucleotide-based aCGH and SNP array technologies of increasing resolutions in order to identify complex DNA rearrangements and gene disruptions. PMID:21204225

  1. Neurological manifestations of oculodentodigital dysplasia: a Cx43 channelopathy of the central nervous system?

    PubMed Central

    De Bock, Marijke; Kerrebrouck, Marianne; Wang, Nan; Leybaert, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The coordination of tissue function is mediated by gap junctions (GJs) that enable direct cell–cell transfer of metabolic and electric signals. GJs are formed by connexins of which Cx43 is most widespread in the human body. In the brain, Cx43 GJs are mostly found in astroglia where they coordinate the propagation of Ca2+ waves, spatial K+ buffering, and distribution of glucose. Beyond its role in direct intercellular communication, Cx43 also forms unapposed, non-junctional hemichannels in the plasma membrane of glial cells. These allow the passage of several neuro- and gliotransmitters that may, combined with downstream paracrine signaling, complement direct GJ communication among glial cells and sustain glial-neuronal signaling. Mutations in the GJA1 gene encoding Cx43 have been identified in a rare, mostly autosomal dominant syndrome called oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD). ODDD patients display a pleiotropic phenotype reflected by eye, hand, teeth, and foot abnormalities, as well as craniofacial and bone malformations. Remarkably, neurological symptoms such as dysarthria, neurogenic bladder (manifested as urinary incontinence), spasticity or muscle weakness, ataxia, and epilepsy are other prominent features observed in ODDD patients. Over 10 mutations detected in patients diagnosed with neurological disorders are associated with altered functionality of Cx43 GJs/hemichannels, but the link between ODDD-related abnormal channel activities and neurologic phenotype is still elusive. Here, we present an overview on the nature of the mutants conveying structural and functional changes of Cx43 channels and discuss available evidence for aberrant Cx43 GJ and hemichannel function. In a final step, we examine the possibilities of how channel dysfunction may lead to some of the neurological manifestations of ODDD. PMID:24133447

  2. Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma and dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-Mian; Yao, Shu-Kun; Yamamura, Nobuyoshi; Nakamura, Toshitsugu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To compare the difference of expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma and dysplasia, and to analyze the role of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins in the progression from dysplasia to carcinoma and to evaluate the correlation of Bcl-2/Bax protein expression with the biological behaviors. METHODS: Expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax were examined immunohistochemically in 27 cases of extrahepatic biliary tract carcinomas (bile duct carcinoma: n = 21, carcinoma of ampulla of Vater: n = 6), and 10 cases of atypical dysplasia. Five cases of normal biliary epithelial tissues were used as controls. A semiquantitative scoring system was used to assess the Bcl-2 and Bax reactivity. RESULTS: The expression of Bcl-2 was observed in 10 out of 27 (37.0%) invasive carcinomas, 1 out of 10 dysplasias, none out of 5 normal epithelial tissues. Bax expression rate was 74.1% (20/27) in invasive carcinoma, 30% (3/10) in dysplasia, and 40% (2/5) in normal biliary epithelium. Bcl-2 and Bax activities were more intense in carcinoma than in dysplasia, with no significant difference in Bcl-2 expression (P = 0.110), and significant difference in Bax expression (P = 0.038). Level of Bax expression was higher in invasive carcinoma than in dysplasia and normal tissue (P = 0.012). Bcl-2 expression was correlated to Bax expression (P = 0.0059). However, Bcl-2/Bax expression had no correlation with histological subtype, grade of differentiation, or level of invasion. CONCLUSION: Increased Bcl-2/Bax expression from dysplasia to invasive tumors supports the view that this is the usual route for the development of extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma. Bcl-2/Bax may be involved, at least in part, in the apoptotic activity in extrahepatic biliary carcinoma. PMID:14606101

  3. CBCT findings of periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia: A case report.

    PubMed

    Eskandarloo, Amir; Yousefi, Faezeh

    2013-09-01

    Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia (PCOD) is a subtype of cemento-osseous dysplasia that usually occurs in middle-aged black women. This report described a case of a 45-year-old Iranian woman who was diagnosed with PCOD on the basis of cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) findings. CBCT enabled detailed visualization of the bone changes. This report described the special radiographic characteristics of PCOD, including discontinuity of the lingual cortex on the CBCT sectional and three-dimensional images.

  4. Comparisons and Limitations of Current Definitions of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia for the Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program.

    PubMed

    Poindexter, Brenda B; Feng, Rui; Schmidt, Barbara; Aschner, Judy L; Ballard, Roberta A; Hamvas, Aaron; Reynolds, Anne Marie; Shaw, Pamela A; Jobe, Alan H

    2015-12-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common morbidity of prematurity, but the validity and utility of commonly used definitions have been questioned. To compare three commonly used definitions of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in a contemporary prospective, multicenter observational cohort of extremely preterm infants. At 36 weeks postmenstrual age, the following definitions of bronchopulmonary dysplasia were applied to surviving infants with and without imputation: need for supplemental oxygen (Shennan definition), National Institutes of Health Workshop definition, and "physiologic" definition after a room-air challenge. Of 765 survivors assessed at 36 weeks, bronchopulmonary dysplasia was diagnosed in 40.8, 58.6, and 32.0% of infants, respectively, with the Shennan, workshop and physiologic definitions. The number of unclassified infants was lowest with the workshop definition (2.1%) and highest with the physiologic definition (16.1%). After assigning infants discharged home in room air before 36 weeks as no bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the modified Shennan definition compared favorably to the workshop definition, with 2.9% unclassified infants. Newer management strategies with nasal cannula flows up to 4 L/min or more and 0.21 FiO2 at 36 weeks obscured classification of bronchopulmonary dysplasia status in 12.4% of infants. Existing definitions of bronchopulmonary dysplasia differ with respect to ease of data collection and number of unclassifiable cases. Contemporary changes in management of infants, such as use of high-flow nasal cannula, limit application of existing definitions and may result in misclassification. A contemporary definition of bronchopulmonary dysplasia that correlates with respiratory morbidity in childhood is needed. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01435187).

  5. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with ankylosis of temporomandibular joint and cleft palate: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Manisha; Pradhan, Gaurav; Gupta, Sunita; Kapoor, Seema

    2015-01-01

    The ectodermal dysplasias are a heterogenous group of diseases, which have one or more anomalies of the hair, teeth, nails, and sweat glands. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type and is usually transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. It is characterized by classical triad of hypotrichosis, anhidrosis/hypohidrosis, and hypodontia/anodontia. Here, we describe an Indian boy affected with HED and rare features including ankylosis of temporomandibular joint and cleft palate. PMID:25684924

  6. Syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with neural tube defects (VII).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2008-09-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) may be associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of the syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, including DK phocomelia syndrome (von Voss-Cherstvoy syndrome), Siegel-Bartlet syndrome, fetal warfarin syndrome, craniotelencephalic dysplasia, Czeizel-Losonci syndrome, maternal cocaine abuse, Weissenbacher- Zweymller syndrome, parietal foramina (cranium bifidum), Apert syndrome, craniomicromelic syndrome, XXagonadism with multiple dysraphic lesions including omphalocele and NTDs, Fryns microphthalmia syndrome, Gershoni-Baruch syndrome, PHAVER syndrome, periconceptional vitamin B6 deficiency, and autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker malformation with occipital cephalocele. NTDs associated with these syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal diagnosis of NTDs should alert doctors to the syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  7. Co-occurence of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia and simple bone cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kumuda Arvind; Shetty, Shishir Ram; Babu, Subhas G; Castelino, Renita Lorina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of co-occurrence of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia with simple bone cyst in a middle aged Asian woman. Most of the reported cases are isolated cases of simple bone cyst or florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, but co-occurrence of these two entities is extremely rare. The authors report a 41 year old female patient with co-occurrence of mandibular florid cemento-osseous dysplasia with simple bone cyst. A thorough clinical and radiological examination was carried out. It was diagnosed mandibular cyst with possible co-occurrence of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia. Surgical exploration of the multilocular lesion was applied. Since, the patient was symptomatic at the time of presentation utmost caution was taken during the surgical procedure as florid cemento-osseous dysplasia is associated with hypo-vascularity of the affected bone. Based on histopathological, as well as supporting clinico-radiological findings a confirmative diagnosis of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia co-occurring with simple bone cyst was made. Patient was followed-up for a period of six months and was reported to be asymptomatic. Timely diagnosis and well planned treatment is important to obtain a good prognosis when a rare co-occurrence of two or more bone lesions affects the jaws.

  8. The Radiograph of the Pelvis as a Window to Skeletal Dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Gajarajulu, Vijayalakshmi; Natarajan, Balakrishnan; Muralinath, S

    2016-06-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are disorders of bone formation. There are many dysplasias that have been identified and studied over the years and long lists of radiological features have been documented; it is not possible to remember all of them, most of which are common to more than one dysplasia. This article is about a practical approach to the radiological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias by viewing only a few radiographs rather than the entire skeletal survey. The radiographs that are to be studied are AP view of the pelvis, dorsolumbar spine- AP and lateral view and both hands PA view, in that order. The skull lateral view and both knees AP view are sometimes required. The authors advice to set out with the pelvis that provides information of not only the pelvic bones but also parts of the lumbar spine and the upper ends of the femur including their epiphyses, metaphyses and a part of the diaphyses. Sometimes the diagnosis is reached with only this one radiograph, as in achondroplasia or it may indicate a group like mucopolysaccharidoses which can be sorted out with radiographs of the spine and hands or the upper part of the femur can provide a cue to epiphyseal and metaphyseal dysplasias. Gamuts and atlases can be consulted for the rare dysplasias.

  9. Newly defined aberrant crypt foci as a marker for dysplasia in the rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Masako; Hippo, Yoshitaka; Izumiya, Masashi; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Dysplasia represents a preneoplastic status in multistep colon carcinogenesis. Whereas laborious preparation of thin sections is required for its diagnosis, we here show that newly defined aberrant crypt foci (ACF) simply mark the majority of the dysplasia on the whole colon. Specifically, decoloring of the azoxymethane-treated rat colon after scoring classical ACF (cACF) resulted in visualization of a subset of aberrant crypts that remained densely stained. They were morphologically classified into three subtypes, of which two with compressed luminal openings proved highly correlated with dysplasia. Accordingly, we designated those foci harboring either of the two crypt subtypes as dysplasia-associated ACF (dACF). By serially applying different detection methods for known preneoplastic lesions to the same colon, we showed that most dACF had already been identified as cACF, and a few newly identified dACF contained an entire population of more advanced lesions, such as flat ACF and mucin-depleted foci. Consequently, integrative scoring of cACF and dACF enabled capture of all early lesions of the colon. Furthermore, 94% of the dACF showed dysplasia and 90% of the dysplastic lesions proved to be dACF. Thus, dACF is a promising marker for dysplasia, likely facilitating precise identification of the early stages of colon carcinogenesis. PMID:24827115

  10. Histopathologic features in actinic cheilitis by the comparison of grading dysplasia systems.

    PubMed

    Pilati, Sfm; Bianco, B C; Vieira, Dsc; Modolo, F

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the histopathologic findings in actinic cheilitis (AC) and lip squamous cell carcinomas (LSCC) diagnosed at Federal University of Santa Catarina in order to attempt to predict the evolution from AC to LSCC based on the comparison of two dysplasia classification systems. Histopathologic features were evaluated according to the World Health Organization classification of dysplasia and binary system of classification. Also, in LSCC, pattern, stage of invasion, and degree of keratinization were evaluated. A total of 58 cases of AC and 70 cases of LSCC were studied, and data correlation was performed using statistical analysis. The presence of dyskeratosis and keratin pearls was found to be strongly associated with severe dysplasia and could represent higher proximity between the severe dysplasia in AC and LSCC. Also, changes related to the nuclei, such as hyperchromasia, nuclear pleomorphism, anisonucleosis, increase in the number and size of nucleoli, increased number of mitoses, and atypical mitoses, indicate progression in dysplasia spectrum. Knowledge of clinical and histological features of AC and LSCC leads to better understanding of factors possibly associated with malignant transformation of epithelial dysplasia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Respiratory Phenotypes for Preterm Infants, Children, and Adults: Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and More.

    PubMed

    Collaco, Joseph M; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2018-05-01

    Ongoing advancements in neonatal care since the late 1980s have led to increased numbers of premature infants surviving well beyond the neonatal period. As a result of increased survival, many individuals born preterm manifest chronic respiratory symptoms throughout infancy, childhood, and adult life. The archetypical respiratory disease of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, is the second most common chronic pediatric respiratory disease after asthma. However, there are several commonly held misconceptions. These misconceptions include that bronchopulmonary dysplasia is rare, that bronchopulmonary dysplasia resolves within the first few years of life, and that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not impact respiratory health in adult life. This focused review describes a spectrum of respiratory conditions that individuals born prematurely may experience throughout their lifespan. Specifically, this review provides quantitative estimates of the number of individuals with alveolar, airway, and vascular phenotypes associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as well as non-bronchopulmonary dysplasia respiratory phenotypes such as airway malacia, obstructive sleep apnea, and control of breathing issues. Furthermore, this review illustrates what is known about the potential for progression and/or lack of resolution of these respiratory phenotypes in childhood and adult life. Recognizing the spectrum of respiratory phenotypes associated with individuals born preterm and providing comprehensive and personalized care to these individuals may help to modulate adverse respiratory outcomes in later life.

  12. Expanded clinical spectrum of spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome and possible manifestation in a heterozygous father.

    PubMed

    Mitter, Diana; Krakow, Deborah; Farrington-Rock, Claire; Meinecke, Peter

    2008-03-15

    We report on a 5-year-old boy with spondylocarpotarsal synostosis (SCT) syndrome who presents with disproportionate short stature, thoracic scoliosis, pes planus, dental enamel hypoplasia, unilateral conductive hearing loss and mild facial dysmorphisms. Radiographs showed abnormal segmentation of the spine with block vertebrae and carpal synostosis. In addition to the typical phenotype of SCT syndrome, he showed pronounced delay of carpal bone age and bilateral epiphyseal dysplasia of the proximal femora. The patient's father has mild short stature and unilateral hip dysplasia. Molecular studies of the filamin B gene (FLNB) revealed a homozygous mutation in the index patient while both parents were heterozygous for the mutation. In this report we expand the phenotype of SCT syndrome in a patient with a causal FLNB mutation. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Short stature/short limb skeletal dysplasia with severe combined immunodeficiency and bowing of the femora: report of two patients and review.

    PubMed Central

    MacDermot, K D; Winter, R M; Wigglesworth, J S; Strobel, S

    1991-01-01

    We report two patients with severe combined immunodeficiency and short stature/short limb skeletal dysplasia. Case 1 presented at birth with rhizomelic shortening of the extremities and bowing of the femora. She developed clinical signs of severe combined immunodeficiency at 13 months and died at 21 months. Case 2 had severe prenatal shortening and bowing of the extremities and a small, malformed chest. Symptoms of severe combined immunodeficiency and severe failure to thrive developed soon after birth and she died at 5 months. The diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency in our patients was based on their clinical course and necropsy findings, supported in case 1 by the results of immune function tests. The results of investigation of immune function (immunoglobulins, lymphocyte subpopulations, lymphocyte function) are very variable in this syndrome as in other variants of severe combined immunodeficiency. Bone histopathology in both patients showed grossly irregular costochondral junctions, but normal transition of proliferating to hypertrophic chondrocytes. These cases belong to early lethal type 1 short limb skeletal dysplasia with severe combined immunodeficiency. Review of previously published cases with severe combined immunodeficiency and well documented skeletal findings show eight patients with prenatal onset of bowing and shortening of the extremities and metaphyseal abnormalities. These include two sib pairs concordant for the skeletal changes. In these cases, adenosine deaminase levels were not reported. An additional four published cases with associated adenosine deaminase deficiency had only mild metaphyseal abnormalities, but subsequently showed no linear growth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:1999827

  14. Novel Somatic Mutation in LEMD3 Splice Site Results in Buschke-Ollendorff Syndrome with Polyostotic Melorheostosis and Osteopoikilosis.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Cooper, Kevin D; Mitchell, Anna L; Cohn, Heather I

    2015-01-01

    Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by loss of function in LEMD3, resulting in connective tissue nevi and varying bone dysplasia. Although typically benign, we describe a novel LEMD3 splice site mutation (IVS12 + 1delG) in a 13-year-old boy with Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome presenting with severe skeletal deformities, polyostotic melorheostosis, and osteopoikilosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Phenotypic variability in gap junction syndromic skin disorders: experience from KID and Clouston syndromes' clinical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak, Anna; Niepokój, Katarzyna; Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna; Giza, Aleksandra; Mordasewicz-Goliszewska, Maria; Bal, Jerzy; Obersztyn, Ewa

    2015-08-01

    Connexins belong to the family of gap junction proteins which enable direct cell-to-cell communication by forming channels in adjacent cells. Mutations in connexin genes cause a variety of human diseases and, in a few cases, result in skin disorders. There are significant differences in the clinical picture of two rare autosomal dominant syndromes: keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome and hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Clouston syndrome), which are caused by GJB2 and GJB6 mutations, respectively. This is despite the fact that, in both cases, malfunctioning of the same family proteins and some overlapping clinical features (nail dystrophy, hair loss, and palmoplantar keratoderma) is observed. KID syndrome is characterized by progressive vascularizing keratitis, ichthyosiform erythrokeratoderma, and neurosensory hearing loss, whereas Clouston syndrome is characterized by nail dystrophy, hypotrichosis, and palmoplantar keratoderma. The present paper presents a Polish patient with sporadic KID syndrome caused by the mutation of p.Asp50Asn in GJB2. The patient encountered difficulties in obtaining a correct diagnosis. The other case presented is that of a family with Clouston syndrome (caused by p.Gly11Arg mutation in GJB6), who are the first reported patients of Polish origin suffering from this disorder. Phenotype diversity among patients with the same genotypes reported to date is also summarized. The conclusion is that proper diagnosis of these syndromes is still challenging and should always be followed by molecular verification.

  16. Quality-of-Life Outcomes of Patients following Patellofemoral Stabilization Surgery: The Influence of Trochlear Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra, Laurie Anne; Kerslake, Sarah; Lafave, Mark R

    2017-11-01

    Trochlear dysplasia is a well-described risk factor for recurrent patellofemoral instability. Despite its clear association with the incidence of patellofemoral instability, it is unclear whether the presence of high-grade trochlear dysplasia influences clinical outcome after patellofemoral stabilization. The purpose of this study was to assess whether trochlear dysplasia influenced patient-reported, disease-specific outcomes in surgically treated patellar instability patients, when risk factors were addressed in accordance with the à la carte surgical approach to the treatment of patellofemoral instability. The study design is of a case series. A total of 318 patellar stabilization procedures were performed during the study period. Of these procedures, 260 had adequate lateral radiographs and complete Banff Patellar Instability Instrument (BPII) scores available for assessment. A Pearson r correlation was calculated between four characteristics of trochlear dysplasia, the BPII total and the BPII symptoms, and physical complaints scores, a mean of 24 months following patellofemoral stabilization. Independent t -tests were performed between stratified trochlear dysplasia groups (no/low grade and high grade) and all BPII measures. There was a statistically significant correlation between measures of trochlear dysplasia and quality-of-life physical symptoms scores, an average of 2 years following patellofemoral stabilization surgery. The BPII symptoms and physical complaints domain score, as well as the individual weakness and stiffness questions, correlated with the classification of trochlear dysplasia as well as the presence of a trochlear bump ( p  < 0.05). Independent t -tests demonstrated statistically significant differences between the no/low-grade and high-grade dysplasia groups for the BPII stiffness ( p  = 0.002), BPII weakness ( p  = 0.05) and BPII symptom, and physical complaints values ( p  = 0.04). Two additional measures-the 24-month

  17. The economic impact of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Fuente, María; Arruza, Luis; Muro, Marta; Zozaya, Carlos; Avila, Alejandro; López-Ortego, Paloma; González-Armengod, Carmen; Torrent, Alba; Gavilán, Jose Luis; Del Cerro, María Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most serious chronic lung diseases in infancy and one of the most important sequels of premature birth (prevalence of 15-50%). Our objective was to estimate the cost of BPD of one preterm baby, with no other major prematurity-related complications, during the first 2 years of life in Spain. Data from the Spanish Ministry of Health regarding costs of diagnosis-related group of preterm birth, hospital admissions and visits, palivizumab administration, and oxygen therapy in the year 2013 were analyzed. In 2013, 2628 preterm babies were born with a weight under 1500 g; 50.9% were males. The need for respiratory support was 2.5% needed only oxygen therapy, 39.5% required conventional mechanical ventilation, and 14.9% required high-frequency ventilation. The incidence of BPD was of 34.9%. The cost of the first 2 years of life of a preterm baby with BPD and no other major prematurity-related complications ranged between 45,049.81 € and 118,760.43 €, in Spain, depending on birth weight and gestational age. If the baby required home oxygen therapy or developed pulmonary hypertension, this cost could add up to 181,742.43 €. Prematurity and BPD have an elevated cost, even for public health care systems. This cost will probably increase in the coming years if the incidence and survival of preterm babies keeps rising. The development of new therapies and preventive strategies to decrease the incidence of BPD and other morbidities associated with prematurity should be a priority. What is known: • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious chronic lung disease related with premature birth. • BPD is an increasing disease due to the up-rise in the number of premature births. What is new: • The economic cost of preterm birth and BPD has never before been estimated in Spain nor published with European data. • Preterm babies with BPD and a good clinical outcome carry also an important economic and social burden.

  18. p53 expression and mutation analysis of odontogenic cysts with and without dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Cox, Darren P

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of p53 protein is well described in odontogenic cystic lesions (OCLs), including those with epithelial dysplasia; however, most p53 antibodies stain both wild-type and mutated p53 protein and may not reflect genotype. Direct sequencing of the p53 gene has not identified mutations in OCLs with dysplasia. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular basis of p53 expression in several types of OCLs with and without dysplasia. The study material comprised 13 OCLs: odontogenic keratocyst (n = 5), orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (n = 5), dentigerous cyst (n = 2), lateral periodontal cyst (n = 1), and unspecified developmental odontogenic cyst (UDOC) (n = 1). Five of these had features of mild or moderate epithelial dysplasia. One intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that was believed to have arisen from an antecedent dysplastic orthokeratinized OC was also included. Immunohistochemistry was performed using the DO7 monoclonal antibody that recognizes wild-type and mutated p53. DNA was extracted from microdissected tissue for all samples and exons 4 to 8 of the p53 gene direct sequenced. In 4 of 5 OCLs with dysplasia there was strong nuclear staining of basal and suprabasal cells. In all cases without dysplasia, nuclear expression in basal cells was either negative or weak and was absent in suprabasal cell nuclei. A mutation in exon 6 of the p53 gene (E224D) was identified in both the dysplastic orthokeratinized OC and the subsequent intraosseous SCC. OCLs with features of dysplasia show increased expression of p53 protein that does not reflect p53 mutational status. One dysplastic OC shared the same p53 mutation with a subsequent intraosseous SCC, indicating that p53 mutation may be associated with malignant transformation in this case. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of Imiquimod-Loaded Mucoadhesive Films for Oral Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ramineni, S.K.; Cunningham, L.L.; Dziubla, T.D.; Puleo, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Oral squamous dysplasia, which can usually be readily visualized as leukoplakia during an oral examination and confirmed by histology, is often considered a premalignant condition. Current treatments, however, focus on the final stages of disease, and treatments such as surgery can lead to postoperative disabilities. Hence, this study was designed to develop a noninvasive, mucoadhesive drug delivery system loaded with an immune response modifier, imiquimod, as treatment for precancerous dysplastic lesions. Blends of polyvinylpyrrolidone and carboxymethylcellulose were used to prepare mucoadhesive films that were backed with poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate). Because of the hydrophobic nature of imiquimod, four methods of loading (sonication, linoleic acid, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, and acetate buffer) were compared. The formation of imiquimod-cyclodextrin complexes and their solubility was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and phase solubility studies. All films achieved sustained release of drug for three hours except for those prepared by linoleic acid. The high solubility of imiquimod in acetate buffer facilitated high loading capability and greater release (68%) of drug than did the other formulations (approximately 40%). In summary, a noninvasive and local approach with the potential to treat precancerous lesions may be achieved by this described mucoadhesive drug delivery system. PMID:23192692

  20. Inhaled budesonide for the prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bassler, Dirk

    2017-10-01

    Theoretically, administration of inhaled corticosteroids may allow for beneficial effects on the pulmonary system of infants with evolving or established bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) with a lower risk of undesirable side effects compared to systemic corticosteroids. However, before deciding whether to use inhaled corticosteroids for BPD in routine clinical practice, the available randomized study data need to be considered. Currently published systematic reviews from the Cochrane Collaboration conclude that there is no role for inhaled corticosteroids in neither prevention nor treatment of BPD outside clinical trials. In contrast multiple observational studies indicate that a large number of preterm infants in Europe, North America and East Asia receive inhaled corticosteroids for this indication in routine clinical care. This discrepancy between evidence and practice prompted a large randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating the role of inhaled budesonide for the prevention of BPD which was recently published and showed a significant reduction in the incidence of BPD. However, the primary outcome (a composite of death or BPD at 36 weeks postmenstrual age) was only of borderline significance as a result of a non-significant trend to increased mortality in the budesonide group. Results of the long-term follow up from this study should be considered when defining the future role of inhaled corticosteroids for BPD. Additionally, updated systematic reviews will help to determine whether the observed mortality difference between the two comparison groups represents truth or artifact.

  1. New Classification of Focal Cortical Dysplasia: Application to Practical Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Yoon-Sung; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Kim, Heung Dong; Kim, Se Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Malformation of cortical development (MCD) is a well-known cause of drug-resistant epilepsy and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is the most common neuropathological finding in surgical specimens from drug-resistant epilepsy patients. Palmini’s classification proposed in 2004 is now widely used to categorize FCD. Recently, however, Blumcke et al. recommended a new system for classifying FCD in 2011. Methods: We applied the new classification system in practical diagnosis of a sample of 117 patients who underwent neurosurgical operations due to drug-resistant epilepsy at Severance Hospital in Seoul, Korea. Results: Among 117 cases, a total of 16 cases were shifted to other FCD subtypes under the new classification system. Five cases were reclassified to type IIIa and five cases were categorized as dual pathology. The other six cases were changed within the type I category. Conclusions: The most remarkable changes in the new classification system are the advent of dual pathology and FCD type III. Thus, it will be very important for pathologists and clinicians to discriminate between these new categories. More large-scale research needs to be conducted to elucidate the clinical influence of the alterations within the classification of type I disease. Although the new FCD classification system has several advantages compared to the former, the correlation with clinical characteristics is not yet clear. PMID:24649461

  2. Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Abnormalities in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mourani, Peter M.; Abman, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the care of preterm infants have improved survival of infants born at earlier gestational ages. Yet, these infants remain at risk for the chronic lung disease of infancy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), which results in prolonged need for supplemental oxygen, recurrent respiratory exacerbations, and exercise intolerance. Recent investigations have highlighted the important contribution of the developing pulmonary circulation to lung development, demonstrating that these infants are also at risk for pulmonary vascular disease (PVD), including pulmonary hypertension (PH) and pulmonary vascular abnormalities, which contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. In the past few years, several epidemiological studies have delineated the incidence of PH in preterm infants and the impact on outcomes. However, these studies have also highlighted gaps in our understanding of PVD in BPD, including universally accepted definitions, approaches to diagnosis and treatment, and patient outcomes. Associated pulmonary vascular and cardiac abnormalities are increasingly recognized complications contributing to PH in these infants, but incidence of these lesions and degree of contribution to disease remains unknown. Therapeutic strategies for PVD in BPD are largely untested, but recent evidence presents the rationale for the approach to diagnosis and treatment of BPD infants with PH that can be evaluated in future studies. PMID:26593082

  3. Clinical Features and Endovascular Management of Iliac Artery Fibromuscular Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ketha, Siva S.; Bjarnason, Haraldur; Oderich, Gustavo S.; Misra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify the spectrum of clinical presentation of iliac artery fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) and to evaluate the outcomes of endovascular management of iliac FMD for claudication. Methods and materials All patients in our institution with a diagnosis of FMD between January 1980 and December 2010 were identified. 14 patients were found to have FMD of the iliac arteries. Associated risk factors included hypertension (79%), hyperlipidemia (64%), smoking history (36%), coronary artery disease (21%), diabetes (0 %), and obesity (36%). Results Eight (57%) patients were incidentally found to have iliac FMD on imaging. 6 (43%) patients had life style limiting claudication involving one or both extremities. All 6 patients were reported as mild peripheral arterial disease (PAD) based on ankle brachial index (ABI) measurements (0.7 to 0.9). These six patients underwent 10 endovascular procedures for claudication including angioplasty (n=8) and self-expanding stent placement (n=2). Mean symptom free survival was 56.3 months. Conclusion Iliac FMD may be found incidentally or may present with disabling claudication that is amenable to endovascular treatment. PMID:24768236

  4. Dental abnormalities in a mouse model for craniometaphyseal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Dutra, E H; Chen, I-P; Reichenberger, E J

    2013-02-01

    Mice carrying a knock-in mutation (Phe377del) in the Ank gene replicate many skeletal characteristics of human craniometaphyseal dysplasia, including hyperostotic mandibles. Ank (KI/KI) mice have normal morphology of erupted molars and incisors but excessive cementum deposition with increased numbers of Ibsp- and Dmp1-positive cells on root surfaces. The cervical loops of adult Ank (KI/KI) lower incisors are at the level of the third molars, while they are close to the mandibular foramen in Ank (+/+) mice. Furthermore, Ank (KI/KI) incisors show decreased eruption rates, decreased proliferation of odontoblast precursors, and increased cell apoptosis in the stellate reticulum. However, their capability for continuous elongation is not compromised. Quantification of TRAP-positive cells in the apical ends of Ank (KI/KI) incisors revealed decreased osteoclast numbers and osteoclast surfaces. Bisphosphonate injections in Ank (+/+) mice replicate the Ank (KI/KI) incisor phenotype. These results and a comparison with the dental phenotype of Ank loss-of-function mouse models suggest that increased cementum thickness may be caused by decreased extracellular PPi levels and that the incisor phenotype is likely due to hyperostosis of mandibles, which distinguishes Ank (KI/KI) mice from the other Ank mouse models.

  5. Psychoeducational Characteristics of Children with Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Maxim, Rolanda A.; Zinner, Samuel H.; Matsuo, Hisako; Prosser, Theresa M.; Fete, Mary; Leet, Terry L.; Fete, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is an X-linked hereditary disorder characterized by hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis, and anomalous dentition. Estimates of up to 50% of affected children having intellectual disability are controversial. Method. In a cross-sectional study, 45 youth with HED (77% males, mean age 9.75 years) and 59 matched unaffected controls (70% males, mean age 9.79 years) were administered the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, and their parents completed standardized neurodevelopmental and behavioral measures, educational, and health-related information regarding their child, as well as standardized and nonstandardized data regarding socioeconomic information for their family. Results. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in intelligence quotient composite and educational achievement scores, suggesting absence of learning disability in either group. No gender differences within or between groups were found on any performance measures. Among affected youth, parental education level correlated positively with (1) cognitive vocabulary scores and cognitive composite scores; (2) educational achievement for mathematics, reading, and composite scores. Conclusion. Youth affected with HED and unaffected matched peers have similar profiles on standardized measures of cognition, educational achievement, and adaptive functioning although children with HED may be at increased risk for ADHD. PMID:22536143

  6. Ear nose throat manifestations in hypoidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Callea, Michele; Teggi, Roberto; Yavuz, Izzet; Tadini, Gianluca; Priolo, Manuela; Crovella, Sergio; Clarich, Gabriella; Grasso, Domenico Leonardo

    2013-11-01

    The ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a large and complex group of inherited disorders. In various combinations, they all share anomalies in ectodermal derived structures: hair, teeth, nails and sweat gland function. Clinical overlap is present among EDs. Few causative genes have been identified, to date. Altered gene expression is not limited to the ectoderm but a concomitant effect on developing mesenchymal structures, with modification of ectodermal-mesenchymal signaling, takes place. The two major categories of ED include the hidrotic and hypohidrotic form, the latter more frequent; they differentiate each other for the presence or absence of sweat glands. We report Ear Nose Throat manifestations of ED, linked to the reduction of mucous glands in the nasal fossae with reduced ciliar function, and decrease salivary glands function. Often patients report an increased rate of infections of the upper respiratory tract and of the ear. Nasal obstruction due to the presence of nasal crusting, hearing loss and throat hoarseness are the most represented symptoms. Environmental measures, including a correct air temperature and humidification, is mandatory above all in subjects affected by hypohidrotic form. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mutations Preventing Regulated Exon Skipping in MET Cause Osteofibrous Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Mary J.; Kannu, Peter; Sharma, Swarkar; Neyt, Christine; Zhang, Dongping; Paria, Nandina; Daniel, Philip B.; Whetstone, Heather; Sprenger, Hans-Georg; Hammerschmidt, Philipp; Weng, Angela; Dupuis, Lucie; Jobling, Rebekah; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Dray, Michael; Su, Peiqiang; Wilson, Megan J.; Kapur, Raj P.; McCarthy, Edward F.; Alman, Benjamin A.; Howard, Andrew; Somers, Gino R.; Marshall, Christian R.; Manners, Simon; Flanagan, Adrienne M.; Rathjen, Karl E.; Karol, Lori A.; Crawford, Haemish; Markie, David M.; Rios, Jonathan J.; Wise, Carol A.; Robertson, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    The periosteum contributes to bone repair and maintenance of cortical bone mass. In contrast to the understanding of bone development within the epiphyseal growth plate, factors that regulate periosteal osteogenesis have not been studied as intensively. Osteofibrous dysplasia (OFD) is a congenital disorder of osteogenesis and is typically sporadic and characterized by radiolucent lesions affecting the cortical bone immediately under the periosteum of the tibia and fibula. We identified germline mutations in MET, encoding a receptor tyrosine kinase, that segregate with an autosomal-dominant form of OFD in three families and a mutation in a fourth affected subject from a simplex family and with bilateral disease. Mutations identified in all families with dominant inheritance and in the one simplex subject with bilateral disease abolished the splice inclusion of exon 14 in MET transcripts, which resulted in a MET receptor (METΔ14) lacking a cytoplasmic juxtamembrane domain. Splice exclusion of this domain occurs during normal embryonic development, and forced induction of this exon-exclusion event retarded osteoblastic differentiation in vitro and inhibited bone-matrix mineralization. In an additional subject with unilateral OFD, we identified a somatic MET mutation, also affecting exon 14, that substituted a tyrosine residue critical for MET receptor turnover and, as in the case of the METΔ14 mutations, had a stabilizing effect on the mature protein. Taken together, these data show that aberrant MET regulation via the juxtamembrane domain subverts core MET receptor functions that regulate osteogenesis within cortical diaphyseal bone. PMID:26637977

  8. [Guidelines for the follow up of patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Pérez Tarazona, S; Rueda Esteban, S; Alfonso Diego, J; Barrio Gómez de Agüero, M I; Callejón Callejón, A; Cortell Aznar, I; de la Serna Blázquez, O; Domingo Miró, X; García García, M L; García Hernández, G; Luna Paredes, C; Mesa Medina, O; Moreno Galdó, A; Moreno Requena, L; Pérez Pérez, G; Salcedo Posadas, A; Sánchez Solís de Querol, M; Torrent Vernetta, A; Valdesoiro Navarrete, L; Vilella Sabaté, M

    2016-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication of preterm birth, and remains a major problem in pediatric pulmonology units. The decision of discharging from the Neonatal Unit should be based on a thorough assessment of the condition of the patient and compliance with certain requirements, including respiratory and nutritional stability, and caregiver education on disease management. For proper control of the disease, a schedule of visits and complementary tests should be established prior to discharge, and guidelines for prevention of exacerbations and appropriate treatment should be applied. In this paper, the Working Group in Perinatal Respiratory Diseases of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Pulmonology proposes a protocol to serve as a reference for the follow up of patients with BPD among different centers and health care settings. Key factors to consider when planning discharge from the Neonatal Unit and during follow up are reviewed. Recommendations on treatment and prevention of complications are then discussed. The final section of this guide aims to provide a specific schedule for follow-up and diagnostic interventions to be performed in patients with BPD. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between anemia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jun; Kong, Xiangyong; Li, Qiuping; Hua, Shaodong; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Xiaoying; Feng, Zhichun

    2016-01-01

    Anemia is commonly seen in preterm infants. It may reduce the capacity of hemoglobin to transport oxygen throughout the body and may result in tissue and organ dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of anemia on the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. 243 infants who were admitted to BaYi Children’s Hospital Affiliated to Clinical Medical College in Beijing Military General Hospital with gestational age (GA) less than 32 weeks from February, 2014 to February, 2015 were included in the study. Maternal and infant data were recorded. Multivarariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between anemia and BPD. Of 243 preterm infants, the incidence of anemia was higher in BPD patients than non-BPD patients (p < 0.001). Mean Hct in BPD patients was lower than non-BPD patients at different time points in 1d, 7d, 14d, and 21d. Controlling for other confounding factors, early anemia was associated with an increased risk of BPD. Number of transfusions is also a significant risk factor for BPD (p = 0.001). Therefore, prevention and treatment of early anemia is necessary and reducing number of transfusions may reduce the incidence of BPD in preterm infants. PMID:26936610

  10. [Arterial involvements in hereditary dysplasia of the connective tissue].

    PubMed

    Beylot, C; Doutre, M S; Beylot-Barry, M; Busquet, M

    1994-03-01

    Arterial involvement is an important feature of the diagnosis and, above all, prognosis of heritable disorders of connective tissue. In pseudoxanthoma elasticum, a progressive occlusive syndrome is associated with hemorrhage and especially with gastrointestinal bleeding. Aneurysms are uncommon. Hypertension occurs frequently. Cutaneous signs (yellowish pseudo xanthomatous papules of the large folds) the ocular changes (angioid streaks) and pathology showing numerous, thickened, fragmented, disorganized, calcified elastic fibers in the deep dermis and arterial walls, allow the diagnosis to be made. In the heterogeneous group of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, type IV is characterized by sudden spontaneous rupture of the large arteries. Aneurysms and carotido-cavernous fistulae are rather frequent. Owing to friability of the arterial walls, arteriograms and other procedure requiring arterial puncture may prove hazardous and surgery difficult. Such patients have an acrogeric morphotype, and thin, fragile skin, but cutaneous hyperelasticity and joint hyperlaxity are usually minimal. Pathology evidences collagen hypoplasia in the skin and arterial walls. The severity of Marfan syndrome is due to aortic involvement. A fusiform aneurysm of the ascending aorta represents a vital risk of rupture. Aortic root dilatation is associated and responsible of severe aortic regurgitation. Aortic dissection is also a serious threat. Improved surgical techniques for repairing a dilated or dissected aortic root with simultaneous replacement of the aortic valve increases the life expectancy of such patients. Dolichomorphism is the characteristic skeletal abnormality, particularly with arachnodactyly and upward ectopia lentis, which is almost bilateral, is a very frequent feature of Marfan syndrome. The most typical histological finding is aortic cystic median necrosis. The basic defect in Marfan syndrome concerns the fibrillin, whose gene is located on chromosome 15. The three diseases

  11. Dysmorphic choroid plexuses and hydrocephalus associated with increased nuchal translucency: early ultrasound markers of de novo thanatophoric dysplasia type II with cloverleaf skull (Kleeblattschaedel).

    PubMed

    Tonni, Gabriele; Palmisano, Marcella; Ginocchi, Vladimiro; Ventura, Alessandro; Baldi, Maurizia; Baffico, Ave Maria

    2014-11-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) type II presenting in the first trimester with increased nuchal translucency (NT) and cloverleaf skull (Kleeblattschaedel) have been scantly reported in the medical record. Abnormal choroid plexus has been seen in association with fetal anomalies. Here we described a case of increased NT associated with indented choroid plexuses, early onset hydrocephalus and cloverleaf skull in a fetus subsequently diagnosed at early second trimester to carry a de novo mutation encoding for TD type II. The findings of dysmorphic choroid plexus, early onset hydrocephalus and cloverleaf skull at first trimester scan may be early, useful ultrasound markers of TD type II. Molecular analysis to control for possible overlapping syndromes were performed and resulted negative. Postmortem X-ray and 3D-CT scan confirmed the cloverleaf skull, narrow thorax, straight femur with rhizomelic shortening of the limbs and the presence of a communicating hydrocephalus. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  12. A "reverse" Maffucci's syndrome: case report and short review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Matzaroglou, Charalampos; Megas, Panagiotis; Panagiotopoulos, Elias; Notopoulos, Athanasios; Saridis, Alkis; Sourgiadaki, Efrosini; Koumoundourou, Dimitra; Dimakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2005-01-01

    Maffucci's syndrome is a congenital, non-hereditary mesodermal dysplasia associated with multiple enchondromas and after some years accompanied by hemangiomas. We describe a rare case of "reverse" Maffucci's syndrome in a 42-year-old woman who has suffered from multiple hemangiomas for the last 24 years. The last two years she complained for heel pain. Bone scintigraphic examination showed abnormal findings in the left calcaneal bone. The scintigraphy, radiology and histology findings revealed multiple enchondromas, so the diagnosis was changed into Maffucci's syndrome. After one year, the left calcaneal bone showed sarcomatous transformation.

  13. Crooked fingers and sparse hair: an interesting case of trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Ramakrishna; Chennareddy, Srinivasa

    2015-01-27

    Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1 is a rare skeletal dysplasia of autosomal-dominant inheritance due to defects in the TRPS-1 gene. The syndrome is characterised by sparse slow-growing hair, a bulbous pear-shaped nose, cone-shaped epiphyses and deformities of the interphalangeal joints resembling those in rheumatoid arthritis. We present a case of trichorhinophalangeal syndrome in a 23-year-old man who presented with symmetrical painless progressive deformity of the fingers in both hands. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Congenital joint dislocations caused by carbohydrate sulfotransferase 3 deficiency in recessive Larsen syndrome and humero-spinal dysostosis.

    PubMed

    Hermanns, Pia; Unger, Sheila; Rossi, Antonio; Perez-Aytes, Antonio; Cortina, Hector; Bonafé, Luisa; Boccone, Loredana; Setzu, Valeria; Dutoit, Michel; Sangiorgi, Luca; Pecora, Fabio; Reicherter, Kerstin; Nishimura, Gen; Spranger, Jürgen; Zabel, Bernhard; Superti-Furga, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    Deficiency of carbohydrate sulfotransferase 3 (CHST3; also known as chondroitin-6-sulfotransferase) has been reported in a single kindred so far and in association with a phenotype of severe chondrodysplasia with progressive spinal involvement. We report eight CHST3 mutations in six unrelated individuals who presented at birth with congenital joint dislocations. These patients had been given a diagnosis of either Larsen syndrome (three individuals) or humero-spinal dysostosis (three individuals), and their clinical features included congenital dislocation of the knees, elbow joint dysplasia with subluxation and limited extension, hip dysplasia or dislocation, clubfoot, short stature, and kyphoscoliosis developing in late childhood. Analysis of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in dermal fibroblasts showed markedly decreased 6-O-sulfation but enhanced 4-O-sulfation, confirming functional impairment of CHST3 and distinguishing them from diastrophic dysplasia sulphate transporter (DTDST)-deficient cells. These observations provide a molecular basis for recessive Larsen syndrome and indicate that recessive Larsen syndrome, humero-spinal dysostosis, and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia Omani type form a phenotypic spectrum.

  15. A standardized imaging protocol for the endoscopic prediction of dysplasia within sessile serrated polyps (with video).

    PubMed

    Tate, David J; Jayanna, Mahesh; Awadie, Halim; Desomer, Lobke; Lee, Ralph; Heitman, Steven J; Sidhu, Mayenaaz; Goodrick, Kathleen; Burgess, Nicholas G; Mahajan, Hema; McLeod, Duncan; Bourke, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Dysplasia within sessile serrated polyps (SSPs) is difficult to detect and may be mistaken for an adenoma, risking incomplete resection of the background serrated tissue, and is strongly implicated in interval cancer after colonoscopy. The use of endoscopic imaging to detect dysplasia within SSPs has not been systematically studied. Consecutively detected SSPs ≥8 mm in size were evaluated by using a standardized imaging protocol at a tertiary-care endoscopy center over 3 years. Lesions suspected as SSPs were analyzed with high-definition white light then narrow-band imaging. A demarcated area with a neoplastic pit pattern (Kudo type III/IV, NICE type II) was sought among the serrated tissue. If this was detected, the lesion was labeled dysplastic (sessile serrated polyp with dysplasia); if not, it was labeled non-dysplastic (sessile serrated polyp without dysplasia). Histopathology was reviewed by 2 blinded specialist GI pathologists. A total of 141 SSPs were assessed in 83 patients. Median lesion size was 15.0 mm (interquartile range 10-20), and 54.6% were in the right side of the colon. Endoscopic evidence of dysplasia was detected in 36 of 141 (25.5%) SSPs; of these, 5 of 36 (13.9%) lacked dysplasia at histopathology. Two of 105 (1.9%) endoscopically designated non-dysplastic SSPs had dysplasia at histopathology. Endoscopic imaging, therefore, had an accuracy of 95.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.1%-97.6%) and a negative predictive value of 98.1% (95% CI, 92.6%-99.7%) for detection of dysplasia within SSPs. Dysplasia within SSPs can be detected accurately by using a simple, broadly applicable endoscopic imaging protocol that allows complete resection. Independent validation of this protocol and its dissemination to the wider endoscopic community may have a significant impact on rates of interval cancer. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT03100552.). Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  16. [Use of bevacizumab (Avastin) in KID syndrome: case report].

    PubMed

    Caye, Luiza; Scheid, Karin; Pizzol, Melissa Manfroi Dal; Freda, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    KID syndrome is a congenital ectodermal dysplasia characterized by the association of keratitis, hyperkeratotic skin lesions and neurosensorial hearing loss. Ocular involvement occurs in 95% of patients. Although KID syndrome cutaneous manifestations have been studied in-depth, the treatment and prognosis of ophthalmic impairment have not been described in detail. At present, the treatment of the ocular damage caused by the syndrome is symptomatic and there are no studies defining a treatment that could change the disease course. In this case, ophthalmologic findings of a patient with KID syndrome and the use of subconjunctival bevacizumab to treat corneal neovascularization are described. In spite of the absence of improvement in this patient and the few reports of this disease, additional studies with bevacizumab to treat corneal deep neovascularization are suggested.

  17. Immunolocalization of osteopontin in dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas arising from oral epithelium.

    PubMed

    Aravind, Thara; Janardhanan, Mahija; Rakesh, S; Savithri, Vindhya; Unnikrishnan, U G

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains one of the most efficient ways to ensure patient survival and improved quality of life. Although specific biomarkers related to OSCC have been investigated, a useful biomarker that assesses the transition potential of potentially malignant lesion to OSCC remains to be found. Osteopontin (OPN) has been recognized as an important factor in tumorigenesis and their expression in OSCC have been investigated earlier. In the present study, evaluation of OPN expression in premalignant and malignant lesions has been carried out to assess their possible role as a biomarker in the early diagnosis and prognosis of OSCC. The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of OPN as a biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of OSCC. The study group consisted of archival paraffin-embedded blocks of ten cases each of varying grades of OSCC, oral epithelial dysplasias and epithelial hyperplasias. Sections were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for the biomarker OPN. A positive OPN expression was noticed in epithelial dysplasias and SCC arising from the oral epithelium. A progressive increase in the intensity of staining was seen with increasing grades of dysplasias and a decrease in OPN expression with an increase in grades was observed in OSCC. The expression of OPN in full thickness of epithelium in severe dysplasias, carcinoma in situ, and in the superficial epithelium of OSCC suggest the possibility of considering OPN expression in full epithelial thickness in dysplasias as an indicator for malignant transformation.

  18. Comparison and evaluation of mitotic figures in oral epithelial dysplasia using crystal violet and Feulgen stain.

    PubMed

    Rao, Roopa S; Patil, Shankargouda; Agarwal, Anveeta

    2014-05-01

    Routine staining procedures often pose a problem in differentiating a mitotic cell from an apoptotic cell, deteriorating the reliability of histology grading. Although various new methods have been recommended for identifying mitotic figures (MFs) in tissues, the time factor and cost makes them less feasible. Thus, an attempt was made to evaluate the efficacy of crystal violet and Feulgen reaction in identifying MFs and also to see for any variation in the number of MFs in various grades of Epithelial dysplasia. 1. Using crystal violet and Feulgen stain in the identification and counting of MFs on diagnosed cases of epithelial dysplasia and thereby to evaluate their efficacy. 2. To evaluate the variation in the number of MFs in various grades of epithelial dysplasia. The study sample includes retrieval of 30 formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections diagnosed for different grades of epithelial dysplasia (WHO grading system, 2005) from the archives, Department of Oral Pathology, MSRDC, Bengaluru. Ten tissue sections each of mild, moderate and severe epithelial dysplasia were stained with H&E, Feulgen and 1% crystal violet stains and the number of MFs were counted. Five cases of cervical carcinoma were taken as control. Stained sections were compared, and data obtained was statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. A significant increase in the number of MFs (p = 0.02) was observed in Feulgen stained sections as compared to H&E stain. Feulgen stain can be considered as a simple, reliable, cost-effective and reproducible method of staining MFs.

  19. Molecular genetic analysis of consanguineous Pakistani families with autosomal recessive hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Nosheen; Ahmad, Saeed; Ahmad, Wasim; Naeem, Muhammad

    2011-02-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is an inherited disorder characterized by defective development of teeth, hairs and sweat glands. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is caused by mutations in the EDA gene, and autosomal forms of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia are caused by mutations in either the EDAR or the EDARADD genes. To study the molecular genetic cause of autosomal recessive hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in three consanguineous Pakistani families (A, B and C), genotyping of 13 individuals was carried out by using polymorphic microsatellite markers that are closely linked to the EDAR gene on chromosome 2q11-q13 and the EDARADD gene on chromosome 1q42.2-q43. The results revealed linkage in the three families to the EDAR locus. Sequence analysis of the coding exons and splice junctions of the EDAR gene revealed two mutations: a novel non-sense mutation (p.E124X) in the probands of families A and B and a missense mutation (p.G382S) in the proband of family C. In addition, two synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms were also identified. The finding of mutations in Pakistani families extends the body of evidence that supports the importance of EDAR for the development of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2010 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  20. Analysis of Altered Micro RNA Expression Profiles in Focal Cortical Dysplasia IIB.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Liu, Chang-Qing; Li, Tian-Fu; Guan, Yu-Guang; Zhou, Jian; Qi, Xue-Ling; Yang, Yu-Tao; Deng, Jia-Hui; Xu, Zhi-Qing David; Luan, Guo-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia type IIB is a commonly encountered subtype of developmental malformation of the cerebral cortex and is often associated with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. In this study, to investigate the molecular etiology of focal cortical dysplasia type IIB, the authors performed micro ribonucleic acid (RNA) microarray on surgical specimens from 5 children (2 female and 3 male, mean age was 73.4 months, range 50-112 months) diagnosed of focal cortical dysplasia type IIB and matched normal tissue adjacent to the lesion. In all, 24 micro RNAs were differentially expressed in focal cortical dysplasia type IIB, and the microarray results were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then the putative target genes of the differentially expressed micro RNAs were identified by bioinformatics analysis. Moreover, biological significance of the target genes was evaluated by investigating the pathways in which the genes were enriched, and the Hippo signaling pathway was proposed to be highly related with the pathogenesis of focal cortical dysplasia type IIB. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Anesthetic management during a cesarean section in a patient with cleidocranial dysplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Yumiko; Hiraki, Teruyuki; Taniguchi, Hiroko; Ushijima, Kazuo

    2018-01-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia is a type of skeletal dysplasia, which is primarily characterized by delayed ossification of skeletal structures. It causes facial and oral abnormalities, resulting in difficult airway management and neuraxial anesthesia. The patient was a 24-year-old primipara (height 138 cm, weight 42 kg) with a hypoplastic right clavicle, patent fontanelles, dental malalignment, and a high palate. She was diagnosed with cleidocranial dysplasia at birth, although gene examination has not been performed. The fetus was confirmed to have short limbs and large fontanelles during an examination performed at 28 weeks gestation, suspected to have cleidocranial dysplasia. The mother was scheduled for a cesarean section at 37 weeks and 1 day due to cephalopelvic disproportion. Preoperative radiography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed no vertebral and spinal abnormalities, which allowed combined spinal-epidural analgesia (CSEA) to be performed. The surgery was safely concluded under CSEA with no intraoperative respiratory or circulatory problems. Patients with cleidocranial dysplasia exhibit facial, oral abnormalities, and often vertebral abnormalities. Imaging assessments before neuraxial anesthesia and careful preparation for airway management are required.

  2. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissues are proteins that support skin, bones, blood vessels, ... A problem with the fibrillin gene causes Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome can be mild to severe, and ...

  3. Malabsorption Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods you eat. If you have a malabsorption syndrome, your small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from foods. Causes of malabsorption syndromes include Celiac disease Lactose intolerance Short bowel syndrome. ...

  4. Williams syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Williams syndrome may show: A flattened nasal bridge with small upturned nose Long ridges in the ... Alternative Names Williams-Beuren syndrome Images Low nasal bridge Chromosomes and DNA References Morris CA. Williams syndrome. ...

  5. Prevalence and co-occurrence of hip dysplasia and elbow dysplasia in Dutch pure-bred dogs.

    PubMed

    Lavrijsen, I C M; Heuven, H C M; Meij, B P; Theyse, L F H; Nap, R C; Leegwater, P A J; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2014-05-01

    Hip as well as elbow dysplasia (HD, ED) are developmental disorders leading to malformation of their respective joints. For a long time both disorders have been scored and targeted for improvement using selective breeding in several Dutch dog populations. In this paper all scores for both HD and ED, given to pure bred dogs in the Netherlands from 2002 to 2010, were analyzed. Heritabilities and correlations between HD and ED were calculated for the 4 most frequently scored breeds. Heritabilities ranged from 0.0 to 0.37 for HD related traits (FCI-score, osteoarthritis, congruity, shape and laxity (Norberg angle); FCI: Fédération Cynologique Internationale) and from 0.0 to 0.39 for ED related traits (IEWG score, osteoarthritis, sclerosis and indentation; IEWG: International Elbow Working Group). HD related traits showed high genetic and residual correlations among each other but were only to a minor extent correlated with ED related traits, which also showed high correlations among each other. Genetic correlations were higher than residual correlations. Phenotypic and genetic trends since 2001 for the four most scored breeds were slightly positive but decreasing over time, indicating that selection over the past decade has not been effective. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. [Clinical efficacy of pulmonary surfactant combined with budesonide for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very low birth weight infants].

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Chen, Ming-Wu; Ni, Wen-Quan; Fang, Tao; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Ye; Pan, Jia-Hua

    2017-02-01

    To explore the clinical efficacy of intratracheal instillation of pulmonary surfactant (PS) combined with budesonide for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Thirty VLBW infants with gestational age <32 weeks who developed neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) (grade III-IV) suffering from intrauterine infection were randomly assigned into a PS + budesonide group and a PS alone group. The changes were compared between the two groups in arterial blood gas indexes, oxygenation index (OI), duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of oxygen supplementation, incidence of BPD, mortality rate at 36 weeks corrected gestational age and incidences of other complications except BPD. Compared with the PS alone group, the PS+budesonide group had a lower incidence of BPD, shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and oxygen supplementation (P<0.05). On the 2nd to 6th day after treatment, the PS+budesonide group had higher pH value of arterial blood gas and OI and lower carbon dioxide partial pressure compared with the PS alone group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the mortality rate at 36 weeks corrected gestational age and the incidences of other complications except BPD between the two groups (P>0.05). Intratracheal instillation of PS combined with budesonide can effectively reduce the incidence of BPD in VLBW premature infants with severe NRDS.

  7. Histological examination and clinical evaluation of the jawbone of an adult patient with cleidocranial dysplasia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Schnutenhaus, Sigmar; Luthardt, Ralph G; Rudolph, Heike; Götz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare congenital malformation syndrome, inherited autosomal-dominantly. During a course of treatment including surgical, implantological and restorative procedures, an opportunity arose to histologically examine biopsies of the maxilla and mandible of a CCD patient 47 years of age. Case report: The aim of this case report is to present the results of the histological evaluation of the alveolar bone and the surgical pretreatment for and placement of six implants each in the maxilla and the mandible. The implants were inserted in a minimally invasive procedure using 3D template guidance. Following uneventful healing of the implants, ceramically veneered bridges were cemented on individual titanium abutments. Since the patient had not received orthodontic treatment in childhood-which would have been the treatment modality of choice-this implantological and prosthodontic approach was necessary. Biopsies were taken from the maxilla and the mandible before placing the implants. Histological evaluation showed bone with strong, coarsely interconnecting trabeculae, especially in the maxilla. Both the bone and the gingiva otherwise exhibited a normal structure without pathological features or anomalies. Conclusion: The clinical parameters and histological evaluation of this one clinical case suggest that the concepts familiar from general oral implantology in terms of surgical and prosthetic procedures can be adopted for older patients with CCD. PMID:26339428

  8. ATF4 mediation of NF1 functions in osteoblast reveals a nutritional basis for congenital skeletal dysplasiae

    PubMed Central

    Elefteriou, Florent; Benson, M. Douglas; Sowa, Hideaki; Starbuck, Michael; Liu, Xiuyun; Ron, David; Parada, Luis F.; Karsenty, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Summary The transcription factor ATF4 enhances bone formation by favoring amino acid import and collagen synthesis in osteoblasts, a function requiring its phosphorylation by RSK2, the kinase inactivated in Coffin-Lowry Syndrome. Here, we show that in contrast, RSK2 activity, ATF4-dependent collagen synthesis, and bone formation are increased in mice lacking neurofibromin in osteoblasts (Nf1ob−/− mice). Independently of RSK2, ATF4 phosphorylation by PKA is enhanced in Nf1ob−/− mice, thereby increasing Rankl expression, osteoclast differentiation, and bone resorption. In agreement with ATF4 function in amino acid transport, a low-protein diet decreased bone protein synthesis and normalized bone formation and bone mass in Nf1ob−/− mice without affecting other organ weight, while a high-protein diet overcame Atf4−/− and Rsk2−/− mice developmental defects, perinatal lethality, and low bone mass. By showing that ATF4-dependent skeletal dysplasiae are treatable by dietary manipulations, this study reveals a molecular connection between nutrition and skeletal development. PMID:17141628

  9. ATF4 mediation of NF1 functions in osteoblast reveals a nutritional basis for congenital skeletal dysplasiae.

    PubMed

    Elefteriou, Florent; Benson, M Douglas; Sowa, Hideaki; Starbuck, Michael; Liu, Xiuyun; Ron, David; Parada, Luis F; Karsenty, Gerard

    2006-12-01

    The transcription factor ATF4 enhances bone formation by favoring amino acid import and collagen synthesis in osteoblasts, a function requiring its phosphorylation by RSK2, the kinase inactivated in Coffin-Lowry Syndrome. Here, we show that in contrast, RSK2 activity, ATF4-dependent collagen synthesis, and bone formation are increased in mice lacking neurofibromin in osteoblasts (Nf1(ob)(-/-) mice). Independently of RSK2, ATF4 phosphorylation by PKA is enhanced in Nf1(ob)(-/-) mice, thereby increasing Rankl expression, osteoclast differentiation, and bone resorption. In agreement with ATF4 function in amino acid transport, a low-protein diet decreased bone protein synthesis and normalized bone formation and bone mass in Nf1(ob)(-/-) mice without affecting other organ weight, while a high-protein diet overcame Atf4(-/-) and Rsk2(-/-) mice developmental defects, perinatal lethality, and low bone mass. By showing that ATF4-dependent skeletal dysplasiae are treatable by dietary manipulations, this study reveals a molecular connection between nutrition and skeletal development.

  10. Ischiovertebral dysplasia: a retrospective analysis of 30 consecutive cases pointing out the specifics and risks of the spine management.

    PubMed

    Aurégan, Jean-Charles; Odent, Thierry; Coyle, Ryan M; Miladi, Lotfi; Wicart, Philippe; Dubousset, Jean; Le Merrer, Martine; Padovani, Jean-Paul; Glorion, Christophe

    2014-04-20

    A review of clinical publications, current knowledge, and recent developments regarding the etiology of ischiovertebral dysplasia was combined with a clinical review of the condition. To acquaint orthopedic spine surgeons with identification patterns of ischiovertebral dysplasia in order to provide them with guidelines about spine management and which complications to expect. Ischiovertebral dysplasia is a rare skeletal dysplasia that may appear in a sporadic fashion or be inherited with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. It is defined by the association of an ischiopubic ramus hypoplasia and a vertebral dysplasia. It leads to a specific spine deformity whose management and complications should be clarified. Thirty consecutive patients from 0 to 31 years of age with ischiovertebral dysplasia were included from 5 centers specialized in congenital spinal deformities. Frontal and sagittal Cobb angles before treatment, natural history of the curves, therapeutic options, and their complications were systematically analyzed. All the patients had a vertebral dysplasia and 28 of them developed a spinal deformity. This deformity was an extremely severe thoracic kyphoscoliosis in 25 cases. The other deformities were a thoracolumbar scoliosis in 1 case and a thoracolumbar kyphosis in 2 cases. The management of the thoracic kyphoscoliosis was always challenging and complications included death by respiratory failure (3 cases) and neurological impairment (9 cases). Recognizing the occurrence of ischioverterbral dysplasia is very important to allow for dedicated treatment. The authors advocate preoperative distraction and circumferential fusion to prevent progression of the curve and to avoid the potentially fatal sequelae associated with this disorder. 4.

  11. Protein-losing enteropathy with intestinal lymphangiectasia in skeletal dysplasia with Lys650Met mutation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Dehner, Louis P

    2016-11-01

    Protein-losing enteropathy is a primary or secondary manifestation of a group of conditions, and etiologies which are broadly divisible into those with mucosal injury on the basis of inflammatory and ulcerative conditions, mucosal injury without erosions or ulcerations, and lymphatic abnormalities. We describe the first case of protein-losing enteropathy in a pediatric patient, with severe skeletal dysplasia consistent with thanatophoric dysplasia type I and DNA analysis that revealed a c.1949A>T (p.Lys650Met) in exon 15 of the FGFR3 gene. She presented with protein-losing enteropathy in her 6th month. Post-mortem examination revealed lymphangiectasia in the small intestine. To our knowledge, this is the first report of intestinal lymphangiectasia as a complication of skeletal dysplasia resulting in severe protein-losing enteropathy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Use of somatostatin analogues to treat chylothorax in a child with Generalised Lymphatic Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Brodlie, Malcolm; Abdelgalil, Sara; Mansour, Sahar; Spencer, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Generalised Lymphatic Dysplasia is a rare condition that may be associated with significant chylothoraces. The management of such effusions is often challenging. We present the case of a 15-year-old girl with bilateral chylothoraces and lymphoedema of her limbs. A clinical diagnosis of Generalised Lymphatic Dysplasia was made and long-term treatment with somatostatin analogues (somatostatin initially followed by monthly octreotide) was initiated. Over 12 months there was symptomatic benefit with some objective improvement in lung function and no adverse effects. After a year of treatment there was some reaccumulation of fluid, however this did not require any intervention. This is the first paediatric report of the use of somatostatin analogues to manage chylothorax in Generalised Lymphatic Dysplasia and we conclude that they represent a potentially useful treatment modality. Experience is only anecdotal however and further studies are required to establish an evidence base with regard to efficacy and safety. PMID:26056769

  13. Prenatal ultrasound and MRI findings of temporal and occipital lobe dysplasia in a twin with achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Pugash, D; Lehman, A M; Langlois, S

    2014-09-01

    Thanatophoric dysplasia, hypochondroplasia and achondroplasia are all caused by FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3) mutations. Neuropathological findings of temporal lobe dysplasia are found in thanatophoric dysplasia, and temporal and occipital lobe abnormalities have been described recently in brain imaging studies of children with hypochondroplasia. We describe twins discordant for achondroplasia, in one of whom the prenatal diagnosis was based on ultrasound and fetal MRI documentation of temporal and occipital lobe abnormalities characteristic of hypochondroplasia, in addition to the finding of short long bones. Despite the intracranial findings suggestive of hypochondroplasia, achondroplasia was confirmed following postnatal clinical and genetic testing. These intracranial abnormalities have not been previously described in a fetus with achondroplasia. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Two sibs who are double heterozygotes for achondroplasia and pseudoachondroplastic dysplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, C G; Rogers, J G; Mayne, V

    1994-01-01

    We report a family in which two sibs have both achondroplasia and pseudoachondroplastic dysplasia. The mother has achondroplasia and the father has pseudoachondroplastic dysplasia, which he had inherited from his father. Both children appeared typical of achondroplasia at birth. By 1 1/2 years they had developed a fixed lumbar kyphosis with gibbus and had additional x ray changes unusual for just achondroplasia and suggestive of pseudoachondroplastic dysplasia. Subsequently both children have shown characteristic features of both conditions and have grown less well than expected for achondroplasia. Radiographs show the striking synergistic effects of the two conditions. MRI in both sibs confirmed brain stem compression at the foramen magnum. This may be an important complication and should be actively sought in any double heterozygote. Images PMID:7966194

  15. Bronchial dysplasia induced by radiation in miners exposed to 222Rn progeny.

    PubMed Central

    Michaylov, M A; Pressyanov, D S; Kalinov, K B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate whether sputum cytology can be used to monitor epithelial cell changes in groups at high risk of lung cancer from exposure to radiation. METHODS--Dysplasia of bronchial cells was investigated by means of sputum cytology in a group of 434 underground miners. 100 of them were not exposed, and 334 were exposed to 222Rn progeny at cumulative exposures < 450 working level months. RESULTS--The frequency of dysplasia in the exposed group was significantly higher than that in the not exposed group (P < 0.0001), and an exposure-response relation was found. This relation was different for smokers and non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS--Possibly the frequencies of dysplasia could be used to assess past exposures of groups of miners. This approach could be applied to cases where data on radiation monitoring are not available or are very scarce. Images p82-a PMID:7757171

  16. Grebe dysplasia - prenatal diagnosis based on rendered 3-D ultrasound images of fetal limbs.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Luis F; Berger, Julie A; Macknis, Jacqueline K; Bauer, Samuel T; Bloom, David A

    2017-01-01

    Grebe dysplasia is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe acromesomelic shortening of the long bones in a proximal to distal gradient of severity, with bones of the hands and feet more severely affected than those of the forearms and legs, which in turn are more severely affected than the humeri and femora. In addition, the bones of the lower extremities tend to be more severely affected than the bones of the upper extremities. Despite the severe skeletal deformities, the condition is not lethal and surviving individuals can have normal intelligence. Herein we report a case of Grebe dysplasia diagnosed at 20 weeks of gestation. Rendered 3-D ultrasound images of the fetal limbs, particularly of the characteristic tiny and globular-looking fingers and toes, were instrumental in accurately characterizing the phenotype prenatally.

  17. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia and peripheral giant cell granuloma in a patient with neurofibromatosis 1.

    PubMed

    Sarmento, Dmitry José de Santana; Carvalho, Sérgio Henrique Gonçalves de; Araújo, José Cadmo Wanderley Peregrino de; Carvalho, Marianne de Vasconcelos; Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas da

    2017-01-01

    We report a 35-year-old mulatto female patient with neurofibromatosis Type 1 who presented with facial asymmetry. The patient had two lesions: florid cemento-osseous dysplasia associated with peripheral giant cell granuloma. She was referred for surgical treatment of the peripheral giant cell granuloma and the florid cemento-osseous dysplasia was treated conservatively by a multidisciplinary team. So far, no changes have been observed in the patient's clinical status. We observed no recurrence of peripheral giant cell granuloma. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first report of a patient with neurofibromatosis Type 1 associated with a giant cell lesion and florid cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  18. Concurrent Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia and Osteogenic Sarcoma: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, A. A.; Adeyemi, B. F.; Adisa, A. O.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) represents a rare group of benign fibroosseous disorders, while osteogenic sarcoma (OS) on the hand, is a malignant tumour of ominous prognosis. A combination of COD and OS is rare and sparsely reported in literature. There are only four reported cases known to the authors. The aim of this paper is to report additional cases of COD occurring concurrently with OS. Materials and Methods. The clinicoradiologic findings and histological analysis of mandibular lesions in two patients who reported at the Dental Centre of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, are presented. Results. The two patients were diagnosed of mandible osteosarcoma occurring concurrently with bilateral mandibular focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. Conclusion. The simultaneous occurrence of osteosarcoma and cemento-osseous dysplasia raises the question of whether COD has transformed into OS or a collision tumour has occurred and their simultaneous occurrence is just a coincidence. PMID:22474452

  19. Concurrent cemento-osseous dysplasia and osteogenic sarcoma: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, A A; Adeyemi, B F; Adisa, A O

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) represents a rare group of benign fibroosseous disorders, while osteogenic sarcoma (OS) on the hand, is a malignant tumour of ominous prognosis. A combination of COD and OS is rare and sparsely reported in literature. There are only four reported cases known to the authors. The aim of this paper is to report additional cases of COD occurring concurrently with OS. Materials and Methods. The clinicoradiologic findings and histological analysis of mandibular lesions in two patients who reported at the Dental Centre of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, are presented. Results. The two patients were diagnosed of mandible osteosarcoma occurring concurrently with bilateral mandibular focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. Conclusion. The simultaneous occurrence of osteosarcoma and cemento-osseous dysplasia raises the question of whether COD has transformed into OS or a collision tumour has occurred and their simultaneous occurrence is just a coincidence.

  20. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia and peripheral giant cell granuloma in a patient with neurofibromatosis 1*

    PubMed Central

    Sarmento, Dmitry José de Santana; de Carvalho, Sérgio Henrique Gonçalves; de Araújo Filho, José Cadmo Wanderley Peregrino; Carvalho, Marianne de Vasconcelos; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas

    2017-01-01

    We report a 35-year-old mulatto female patient with neurofibromatosis Type 1 who presented with facial asymmetry. The patient had two lesions: florid cemento-osseous dysplasia associated with peripheral giant cell granuloma. She was referred for surgical treatment of the peripheral giant cell granuloma and the florid cemento-osseous dysplasia was treated conservatively by a multidisciplinary team. So far, no changes have been observed in the patient's clinical status. We observed no recurrence of peripheral giant cell granuloma. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first report of a patient with neurofibromatosis Type 1 associated with a giant cell lesion and florid cemento-osseous dysplasia. PMID:28538890

  1. Compliance with therapy for cervical dysplasia among women of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Laedtke, T W; Dignan, M

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports results of a project designed to examine factors related to compliance with referral for follow-up and treatment of cervical dysplasia. Women studied had cervical dysplasia diagnosed by Pap smear between May 1989 and April 1990. These women had regular follow-up at the gynecology clinic of the Reynolds Health Center in Winston-Salem or at one of 14 county health departments in northwestern North Carolina. Data were collected by chart review, and included age, race, place of residence, marital status, parity/gravidity, education, previous papillomavirus infections, method of payment, and previous Pap smear results. Patients were traced through the treatment protocol, and compliance was assessed at each appointment. In these women of low socioeconomic status, approximately one third of those referred for treatment of dysplasia were noncompliant with referral.

  2. Sudden death in spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type.

    PubMed

    Dias, Cristina; Cairns, Robyn; Patel, Millan S

    2009-01-01

    The spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasias are an expanding group of skeletal dysplasias with specific features differentiating each subtype. We review the precocious carpal mineralization, unique metacarpal shape, triangular distal phalanges and mushroom cloud-shaped proximal phalanges present at an early age in spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type (SMED SL-AC) and report two patients with clinical and radiographic features consistent with SMED SL-AC, who died suddenly because of spinal cord compression. The patients presented are female siblings, providing further evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance. Cervical cord compression is found in half of reported patients and is the major cause of mortality. SMED SL-AC should be added to the list of genetic causes of sudden death. Radiological features in the hand may be used in the first few years of life to support an early diagnosis and thus allow for prevention of premature demise.

  3. [Clinical and molecular study in a child with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Callea, Michele; Yavuz, Izzet; Clarich, Gabriella; Cammarata-Scalisi, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia encompasses more than 200 clinically distinct entities, which affect at least two structures derived from the ectoderm, including the skin, hair, nails, teeth, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is the most common type and is caused by mutation of the EDA gene that encodes Ectodysplasin-A. It occurs in less than 1 in 100 000 individuals and is clinically characterized by hypodontia, hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis, and eye dis orders. We present a child evaluated in a multidisciplinary manner with clinical and molecular diagnosis of X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with type missense mutation c.1133C> T; p.T378M in EDA gene.

  4. Topical cetirizine and oral vitamin D: a valid treatment for hypotrichosis caused by ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Rossi, A; Miraglia, E; Fortuna, M C; Calvieri, S; Giustini, S

    2017-02-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by abnormal development of two or more of the following ectodermal-derived structures: hair, teeth, nails and sweat glands. The hair is the most frequently affected structure. Hair shaft abnormalities are of great concern to these patients, but no effective treatments are available. We describe three girls with congenital hypotrichosis (9, 5 and 6 years old) caused by ectodermal dysplasia treated with topical cetirizine solution (2 mL. once daily) and oral vitamin D supplementation (1000 IU daily). After 6 months of treatment, the density of hair on the scalp increased in all patients. The vellus hair was replaced by terminal hair. Hair regrowth was evaluated both from the clinical and trichoscopic point of view. We propose a combination of topical cetirizine and oral vitamin D as a rational treatment of choice in congenital hypotrichosis caused by ectodermal dysplasia. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. Maxillectomy for Cementifying Osseous Dysplasia of the Maxilla: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Sevtap; Demir, Mehmet Gokhan; Basak, Kayhan; Paksoy, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Osseous dysplasias are the most common subtype of fibro-osseous lesions of the maxillofacial bones. They are benign and often present as incidental asymptomatic lesions. Diagnosis can be made with clinical and radiographic examination. This article reports the case of a 47-year-old man with a huge cementifying osseous dysplasia of the maxilla that presented with secondary infection after teeth extraction and repair of oroantral fistula. A subtotal maxillectomy had to be done after conservative treatment failed to resolve the infection. Biopsy, tooth extraction or surgical trauma to the affected bones of osseous dysplasia could easily lead to severe secondary infection, the treatment of which may be very difficult, and thus should be avoided if possible.

  6. Fibrous Dysplasia of the Temporal Bone with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Secondary Cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Hsi; Chang, Kuo-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is a slowly progressive benign fibro-osseous disease, rarely occurring in temporal bones. In these cases, most bony lesions developed from the bony part of the external auditory canals, causing otalgia, hearing impairment, otorrhea, and ear hygiene blockade and probably leading to secondary cholesteatoma. We presented the medical history of a 24-year-old woman with temporal monostotic fibrous dysplasia with secondary cholesteatoma. The initial presentation was unilateral conductive hearing loss. A hard external canal tumor contributing to canal stenosis and a near-absent tympanic membrane were found. Canaloplasty and type I tympanoplasty were performed, but the symptoms recurred after 5 years. She received canal wall down tympanomastoidectomy with ossciculoplasty at the second time, and secondary cholesteatoma in the middle ear was diagnosed. Fifteen years later, left otorrhea recurred again and transcanal endoscopic surgery was performed for middle ear clearance. Currently, revision surgeries provide a stable auditory condition, but her monostotic temporal fibrous dysplasia is still in place.

  7. The management of ectodermal dysplasia and severe hypodontia. International conference statements.

    PubMed

    Hobkirk, J A; Nohl, F; Bergendal, B; Storhaug, K; Richter, M K

    2006-09-01

    An international conference on ectodermal dysplasias and hypodontia, held in London in 2004, featured a session devoted to the management of the ectodermal dysplasias and severe hypodontia. This paper presents a set of statements prepared by an international specialist panel, including representatives of patient support groups, who presented and subsequently debated a series of papers on this subject. The following topics were explored: potential roles of patient support groups; core care standards, including the roles and composition of medical and dental multidisciplinary teams for treating these conditions; the format of a baseline data set for patients with an ED; and priorities for research in ectodermal dysplasias, with particular regard to laboratory and clinical studies, and research methodology. The statements are intended to form an international framework for developing patient care pathways, and collaborative research in this field.

  8. GLUT-1 immunoexpression in oral epithelial dysplasia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and verrucous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Angadi, Vidya C; Angadi, Punnya V

    2015-06-01

    Glucose transporters, such as GLUT-1, mediate the important mechanisms involved in cellular glucose influx, allowing cells to proliferate and survive. The significance of GLUT-1 expression in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been less explored, and no study has investigated it in relation to verrucous carcinoma (VC). We evaluated 30 cases each of OED, OSCC, and VC, graded further on the basis of their differentiation, immunohistochemically for GLUT-1 expression, along with 10 specimens of normal oral mucosa (NOM) as controls. In OSCC, GLUT-1 expression increased with the degree of dysplasia and increasing grade (P < 0.001). The expression in VC was predominantly membranous and intense, resembling well differentiated OSCC. This increase of GLUT-1 expression in OSCC along with the degree of dysplasia and the histologic grade reflects the expanding glycolytic response to hypoxia. This is the first study to have revealed prominent GLUT-1 expression in VC, highlighting its inherent metabolic capacity.

  9. Mini-implants: alternative for oral rehabilitation of a child with ectodermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Mello, Bianca Zeponi Fernandes; Silva, Thiago Cruvinel; Rios, Daniela; Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira; Valarelli, Fabrício Pinelli; Oliveira, Thais Marchini

    2015-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare congenital disease that affects several structures of ectodermal origin. The most commonly related oral characteristics are hypodontia, malformed teeth and underdeveloped alveolar ridges. New alternative treatments are needed due to the failure of the conventional prosthesis retention. This case report outlines the oral rehabilitation treatment of a 9-year-old girl with ectodermal dysplasia. The treatment was performed with conventional prosthesis upon mini-implants. The mini-implants provided prosthetic retention. The patient reported a good adaptation of the dental prosthesis and satisfaction with the treatment. The increased self-esteem improved the socialization skills of the girl. In this case report, use of prosthesis with mini-implants was satisfactory for prosthetic retention. However, clinical studies with long-term follow-up are needed to test the mini-implants as an alternative for oral rehabilitation of children with ectodermal dysplasia.

  10. Dental implants in patients with ectodermal dysplasia: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos

    2018-05-21

    This study sought to assess the clinical outcome and survival rate of oral implants placed in individuals with ectodermal dysplasia (ED), based on previously published studies. An electronic search without time restrictions was undertaken in 5 databases (PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, J-Stage, Lilacs). Descriptive statistics, Kaplan Meier estimator and implant failure probability were calculated. 90 publications were included, reporting 228 ED patients that received 1472 implants (1392 conventional, 47 zygomatic, 33 mini-implants). Mean age of the patients was 20.2 ± 6.8 years (2-56). Patients had a mean of 3.2 ± 2.5 maxillary and 2.1 ± 2.6 mandibular permanent teeth (min-max, 0-14). Patients received a mean of 8.2 ± 3.8 implants (1-20). Most implants were placed in the third decade of life, 24.6% of the implants were placed in children (0-17 years of age). 1391 implants had information on follow-up (72 failures, 5.2%). The 20-year CSR was 84.6%. The probability of failure was 4.5% (95%CI 3.5%-5.6%, p < 0.001). Additional treatments performed were Le Fort I (99 implants, 20 patients, 3.5% failed), grafting (497 implants, 77 patients, 5.2% failed), distraction osteogenesis (79 implants, 16 patients, 10.1% failed). Mean follow-up was 42.9 ± 41.9 months (min-max, 2-240). Dental implants placed in ED patients, either infants or adults, present a high survival rate (20-year CSR 84.6%). Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pathogenetics of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins.

    PubMed

    Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Gambin, Tomasz; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V; Akdemir, Kadir Caner; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Schuette, Jennifer; Godiwala, Nihal; Yatsenko, Svetlana A; Sebastian, Jessica; Madan-Khetarpal, Suneeta; Surti, Urvashi; Abellar, Rosanna G; Bateman, David A; Wilson, Ashley L; Markham, Melinda H; Slamon, Jill; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; Palomares, María; Nevado, Julián; Lapunzina, Pablo; Chung, Brian Hon-Yin; Wong, Wai-Lap; Chu, Yoyo Wing Yiu; Mok, Gary Tsz Kin; Kerem, Eitan; Reiter, Joel; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Anderson, Scott A; Kelly, David R; Shieh, Joseph; Rosenthal, Taryn C; Scheible, Kristin; Steiner, Laurie; Iqbal, M Anwar; McKinnon, Margaret L; Hamilton, Sara Jane; Schlade-Bartusiak, Kamilla; English, Dawn; Hendson, Glenda; Roeder, Elizabeth R; DeNapoli, Thomas S; Littlejohn, Rebecca Okashah; Wolff, Daynna J; Wagner, Carol L; Yeung, Alison; Francis, David; Fiorino, Elizabeth K; Edelman, Morris; Fox, Joyce; Hayes, Denise A; Janssens, Sandra; De Baere, Elfride; Menten, Björn; Loccufier, Anne; Vanwalleghem, Lieve; Moerman, Philippe; Sznajer, Yves; Lay, Amy S; Kussmann, Jennifer L; Chawla, Jasneek; Payton, Diane J; Phillips, Gael E; Brosens, Erwin; Tibboel, Dick; de Klein, Annelies; Maystadt, Isabelle; Fisher, Richard; Sebire, Neil; Male, Alison; Chopra, Maya; Pinner, Jason; Malcolm, Girvan; Peters, Gregory; Arbuckle, Susan; Lees, Melissa; Mead, Zoe; Quarrell, Oliver; Sayers, Richard; Owens, Martina; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Lioy, Janet; McKay, Eileen; de Leeuw, Nicole; Feenstra, Ilse; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Elmslie, Frances; Thiruchelvam, Timothy; Bacino, Carlos A; Langston, Claire; Lupski, James R; Sen, Partha; Popek, Edwina; Stankiewicz, Paweł

    2016-05-01

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a lethal lung developmental disorder caused by heterozygous point mutations or genomic deletion copy-number variants (CNVs) of FOXF1 or its upstream enhancer involving fetal lung-expressed long noncoding RNA genes LINC01081 and LINC01082. Using custom-designed array comparative genomic hybridization, Sanger sequencing, whole exome sequencing (WES), and bioinformatic analyses, we studied 22 new unrelated families (20 postnatal and two prenatal) with clinically diagnosed ACDMPV. We describe novel deletion CNVs at the FOXF1 locus in 13 unrelated ACDMPV patients. Together with the previously reported cases, all 31 genomic deletions in 16q24.1, pathogenic for ACDMPV, for which parental origin was determined, arose de novo with 30 of them occurring on the maternally inherited chromosome 16, strongly implicating genomic imprinting of the FOXF1 locus in human lungs. Surprisingly, we have also identified four ACDMPV families with the pathogenic variants in the FOXF1 locus that arose on paternal chromosome 16. Interestingly, a combination of the severe cardiac defects, including hypoplastic left heart, and single umbilical artery were observed only in children with deletion CNVs involving FOXF1 and its upstream enhancer. Our data demonstrate that genomic imprinting at 16q24.1 plays an important role in variable ACDMPV manifestation likely through long-range regulation of FOXF1 expression, and may be also responsible for key phenotypic features of maternal uniparental disomy 16. Moreover, in one family, WES revealed a de novo missense variant in ESRP1, potentially implicating FGF signaling in the etiology of ACDMPV.

  12. Pathogenetics of Alveolar Capillary Dysplasia with Misalignment of Pulmonary Veins

    PubMed Central

    Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Gambin, Tomasz; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V.; Akdemir, Kadir Caner; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Schuette, Jennifer; Godiwala, Nihal; Yatsenko, Svetlana A.; Sebastian, Jessica; Madan-Khetarpal, Suneeta; Surti, Urvashi; Abellar, Rosanna G.; Bateman, David A.; Wilson, Ashley L.; Markham, Melinda H.; Slamon, Jill; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; Palomares, María; Nevado, Julián; Lapunzina, Pablo; Hon-Yin, Brian Chung; Wai-Lap, Wong; Chu, Yoyo Wing Yiu; Mok, Gary Tsz Kin; Eitan, Kerem; Reiter, Joel; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Anderson, Scott A.; Kelly, David R.; Shieh, Joseph; Rosenthal, Taryn C.; Scheible, Kristin; Steiner, Laurie; Iqbal, M. Anwar; McKinnon, Margaret; Hamilton, Sara Jane; Schlade-Bartusiak, Kamilla; English, Dawn; Hendson, Glenda; Roeder, Elizabeth R.; DeNapoli, Thomas S.; Littlejohn, Rebecca Okashah; Wolff, Daynna J.; Wagner, Carol L.; Yeung, Alison; Francis, David; Fiorino, Elizabeth K.; Edelman, Morris; Fox, Joyce; Hayes, Denise A.; Janssens, Sandra; De Baere, Elfride; Menten, Bjorn; Loccufier, Anne; Van Walleghem, Lieve; Moerman, Philippe; Sznajer, Yves; Lay, Amy S.; Kussmann, Jennifer L.; Chawla, Jasneek; Payton, Diane J.; Phillips, Gael E.; Brosens, Erwin; Tibboel, Dick; de Klein, Annelies; Maystadt, Isabelle; Fisher, Richard; Sebire, Neil; Male, Alison; Chopra, Maya; Pinner, Jason; Malcolm, Girvan; Peters, Gregory; Arbuckle, Susan; Lees, Melissa; Mead, Zoe; Quarrell, Oliver; Sayers, Richard; Owens, Martina; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Lioy, Janet; McKay, Eileen; de Leeuw, Nicole; Feenstra, Ilse; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Elmslie, Frances; Thiruchelvam, Timothy; Bacino, Carlos A.; Langston, Claire; Lupski, James R.; Sen, Partha; Popek, Edwina; Stankiewicz, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a lethal lung developmental disorder caused by heterozygous point mutations or genomic deletion copy-number variants (CNVs) of FOXF1 or its upstream enhancer involving fetal lung-expressed long noncoding RNA genes LINC01081 and LINC01082. Using custom-designed array comparative genomic hybridization, Sanger sequencing, whole exome sequencing (WES), and bioinformatic analyses, we studied 22 new unrelated families (20 postnatal and two prenatal) with clinically diagnosed ACDMPV. We describe novel deletion CNVs at the FOXF1 locus in 13 unrelated ACDMPV patients. Together with the previously reported cases, all 31 genomic deletions in 16q24.1, pathogenic for ACDMPV, for which parental origin was determined, arose de novo with 30 of them occurring on the maternally inherited chromosome 16, strongly implicating genomic imprinting of the FOXF1 locus in human lungs. Surprisingly, we have also identified four ACDMPV families with the pathogenic variants in the FOXF1 locus that arose on paternal chromosome 16. Interestingly, a combination of the severe cardiac defects, including hypoplastic left heart, and single umbilical artery were observed only in children with deletion CNVs involving FOXF1 and its upstream enhancer. Our data demonstrate that genomic imprinting at 16q24.1 plays an important role in variable ACDMPV manifestation likely through long-range regulation of FOXF1 expression, and may be also responsible for key phenotypic features of maternal uniparental disomy 16. Moreover, in one family, WES revealed a de novo missense variant in ESRP1, potentially implicating FGF signaling in etiology of ACDMPV. PMID:27071622

  13. Altered inhibition in Tuberous Sclerosis and Type IIb cortical dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Talos, Delia M.; Sun, Hongyu; Kosaras, Bela; Joseph, Annelise; Folkerth, Rebecca D.; Poduri, Annapurna; Madsen, Joseph R.; Black, Peter M.; Jensen, Frances E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The most common neurological symptom of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is early-life refractory epilepsy. As previous studies have shown enhanced excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission in TSC and FCD brains, we hypothesized that neurons associated with these lesions may also express altered GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated inhibition. Methods Expression of the GABAAR subunitsα1 and α4, the Na+-K+-2Cl− (NKCC1), and the K+−Cl− (KCC2) transporters in human TSC and FCD Type II specimens were analyzed by Western blot and double label immunocytochemistry. GABAAR responses in dysplastic neurons from a single case of TSC were measured by perforated-patch recording and compared to normal-appearing cortical neurons from a non-TSC epilepsy case. Results TSC and FCD Type IIb lesions demonstrated decreased expression of the GABAAR α1, increased NKCC1 and decreased KCC2 levels. In contrast, FCD Type IIa lesions showed decreased α4, and increased expression of both NKCC1 and KCC2 transporters. Patch clamp recordings from dysplastic neurons in acute slices from TSC tubers demonstrated excitatory GABAAR responses that were significantly attenuated by the NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide, in contrast to hyperpolarizing GABAAR-mediated currents in normal neurons from non-TSC cortical slices. Interpretation Expression and function of GABAARs in TSC and FCD IIb suggests the relative benzodiazepine insensitivity and more excitatory action of GABA compared to FCD IIa. These factors may contribute to resistance of seizure activity to anticonvulsants that increase GABAergic function, and may justify add-on trials of the NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide for the treatment of TSC and FCD Type IIb related epilepsy. PMID:22447678

  14. Adverse Outcomes in Infantile Bilateral Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

    PubMed

    Morbi, Abigail H M; Carsi, Belen; Gorianinov, Vitalli; Clarke, Nicholas M P

    2015-01-01

    It is believed that bilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) has poorer outcomes with higher rates of avascular necrosis (AVN) and reintervention, compared with unilateral DDH. However, there is limited evidence in the literature, with few studies looking specifically at bilateral cases. A retrospective review of 36 patients (72 hips) with >4 years of follow-up. Patient population included surgically treated DDH including late presentations and failures of conservative treatment. The dislocated hips underwent either simultaneous closed or 1 open and 1 closed, or sequential open reduction. AVN and secondary procedures were used as endpoints for analysis as well as clinical and radiologic outcomes. At the last follow-up, 33% of hips had radiologic signs of AVN. Those hips that had no ossific nucleus (ON) at the time of surgery had an odds ratio of developing AVN of 3.05 and a statistically significant association between the 2 variables, whereas open/closed or simultaneous/sequential reduction did not increase the risk for AVN. In addition, 45.8% of those hips required further surgery. The estimated odds ratio of needing additional surgery after simultaneous reduction was 4.04. Clinically, 79.2% of the hips were graded as McKay I, whereas radiologically only 38.8% were Severin I. The AVN rate in bilateral DDH treated surgically is greater than the rate noted in unilateral cases from the same institution undergoing identical protocols. There was no difference in AVN rates between simultaneous and sequential or between the first and second hip to be sequentially reduced. Presence of ON decreases the risk for AVN, suggesting that in bilateral cases, awaiting the appearance of the ON is an important tool to reduce the incidence of AVN. IV.

  15. Executive functioning deficits in young adult survivors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Gough, Aisling; Linden, Mark A; Spence, Dale; Halliday, Henry L; Patterson, Christopher C; McGarvey, Lorcan

    2015-01-01

    To assess long-term impairments of executive functioning in adult survivors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Participants were assessed on measures of executive functioning, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and social functioning. Survivors of BPD (n = 63; 34 males; mean age 24.2 years) were compared with groups comprising preterm (without BPD) (<1500 g; n = 45) and full-term controls (n = 63). Analysis of variance was used to explore differences among groups for outcome measures. Multiple regression analyzes were performed to identify factors predictive of long-term outcomes. Significantly more BPD adults, compared with preterm and term controls, showed deficits in executive functioning relating to problem solving (OR: 5.1, CI: 1.4-19.3), awareness of behavior (OR: 12.7, CI: 1.5-106.4) and organization of their environment (OR: 13.0, CI: 1.6-107.1). Birth weight, HRQoL and social functioning were predictive of deficits in executive functioning. This study represents the largest sample of survivors into adulthood of BPD and is the first to show that deficits in executive functioning persist. Children with BPD should be assessed to identify cognitive impairments and allow early intervention aimed at ameliorating their effects. Implications for Rehabilitation Adults born preterm with very-low birth weight, and particularly those who develop BPD, are at increased risk of exhibiting defects in executive functioning. Clinicians and educators should be made aware of the impact that BPD can have on the long-term development of executive functions. Children and young adults identified as having BPD should be periodically monitored to identify the need for possible intervention.

  16. Obstacles to reduction in infantile developmental dysplasia of the hip

    PubMed Central

    Studer, K.; Williams, N.; Studer, P.; Baker, M.; Glynn, A.; Foster, B. K.; Cundy, P. J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Identification of anatomical structures that block ­reduction in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is ­important for the management of this challenging condition. Obstacles to reduction seen on arthrogram are well-known. However, despite the increasing use of MRI in the assessment of adequacy of reduction in DDH, the interpretation of MRI patho-anatomy is ill-defined with a lack of relevant literature to guide clinicians. Method This is a retrospective analysis of the MRI of patients with DDH treated by closed reduction over a five-year period (between 2009 and 2014). Neuromuscular and genetic disorders were excluded. Each MRI was analysed by two orthopaedic surgeons and a paediatric musculoskeletal radiologist to identify the ligamentum teres, pulvinar, transverse acetabular ligament (TAL), capsule, labrum and acetabular roof cartilage hypertrophy. Inter- and intraobserver reliability was calculated. The minimum follow-up was 12 months. Results A total of 29 patients (38 hips) underwent closed reduction for treatment of DDH. Eight hips showed persistent subluxation on post-operative MRI. Only three of these eight hips showed an abnormality on arthrogram. The pulvinar was frequently interpreted as ‘abnormal’ on MRI. The main obstacles identified on MRI were the ligamentum teres (15.8%), labrum (13.1%) and acetabular roof cartilage hypertrophy (13.2%). The inter-rater reliability was good for TAL, capsule and pulvinar; moderate for ligamentum teres and labrum; and poor for hypertrophied cartilage. Conclusion The labrum, ligamentum teres and acetabular roof cartilage hypertrophy are the most important structures seen on MRI preventing complete reduction of DDH. Focused interpretation of these structures may assist in the management of DDH. PMID:29081850

  17. Obstacles to reduction in infantile developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    PubMed

    Studer, K; Williams, N; Studer, P; Baker, M; Glynn, A; Foster, B K; Cundy, P J

    2017-10-01

    Identification of anatomical structures that block -reduction in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is -important for the management of this challenging condition. Obstacles to reduction seen on arthrogram are well-known. However, despite the increasing use of MRI in the assessment of adequacy of reduction in DDH, the interpretation of MRI patho-anatomy is ill-defined with a lack of relevant literature to guide clinicians. This is a retrospective analysis of the MRI of patients with DDH treated by closed reduction over a five-year period (between 2009 and 2014). Neuromuscular and genetic disorders were excluded. Each MRI was analysed by two orthopaedic surgeons and a paediatric musculoskeletal radiologist to identify the ligamentum teres, pulvinar, transverse acetabular ligament (TAL), capsule, labrum and acetabular roof cartilage hypertrophy. Inter- and intraobserver reliability was calculated. The minimum follow-up was 12 months. A total of 29 patients (38 hips) underwent closed reduction for treatment of DDH. Eight hips showed persistent subluxation on post-operative MRI. Only three of these eight hips showed an abnormality on arthrogram. The pulvinar was frequently interpreted as 'abnormal' on MRI. The main obstacles identified on MRI were the ligamentum teres (15.8%), labrum (13.1%) and acetabular roof cartilage hypertrophy (13.2%). The inter-rater reliability was good for TAL, capsule and pulvinar; moderate for ligamentum teres and labrum; and poor for hypertrophied cartilage. The labrum, ligamentum teres and acetabular roof cartilage hypertrophy are the most important structures seen on MRI preventing complete reduction of DDH. Focused interpretation of these structures may assist in the management of DDH.

  18. Florid Cemento-osseous Dysplasia: A Case of Misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Delai, Débora; Bernardi, Anarela; Felippe, Gabriela Santos; da Silveira Teixeira, Cleonice; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Santos Felippe, Mara Cristina

    2015-11-01

    Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) belongs to the group of fibro-osseous lesions in which normal bone is replaced by fibrous connective tissue and calcified cementum tissue of the avascular type. Among the various types of fibro-osseous lesions, FCOD is one of the most commonly encountered diseases in clinical practice and may involve 3 or 4 of the quadrants. FCOD is located in the periapical regions of teeth, and the lesions are predominantly radiolucent (osteolytic phase), become mixed over time (cementoblast phase), and ultimately become radiopaque (osteogenic phase) with a thin radiolucent peripheral halo. The characteristics of FCOD in the initial stages are similar to those of periapical lesions of inflammatory origin, which may lead to misdiagnosis. A 38-year-old woman sought dental care because of complaints of pain on the right side of her face. A clinical examination revealed no marked alterations; a panoramic radiograph was therefore requested and revealed the presence of radiolucent lesions associated with the periapical regions of some of the lower teeth. Thus, the professional referred the patient for endodontic treatment of the associated teeth with the justification that the lesions were of endodontic origin. However, the endodontist found that the teeth responded positively to a sensitivity test. The initial diagnosis could have resulted in unnecessary root canal treatment, but after careful clinical, radiographic, and tomographic assessments by different professionals, FCOD was diagnosed, conservatively treated, and regularly monitored. It is important that dentists have a basic knowledge of the various injuries that affect the jaw bones to prevent errors in diagnosis and treatment and to promote oral health. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Differences and similarities between bronchopulmonary dysplasia and asthma in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Nordlund, Björn; James, Anna; Ebersjö, Christina; Hedlin, Gunilla; Broström, Eva B

    2017-09-01

    The long-term respiratory characteristics of ex-preterm children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are not established. The objective of this study was to describe hallmarks of BPD at school age in comparison to children with atopic asthma. This study was a cross-sectional descriptive comparative study in a hospital-based setting. Thirty schoolchildren diagnosed with BPD (10.4 years/born at 26.6 weeks' gestation) and 30 age- and sex-matched children with asthma and sensitized to airborne allergens (IgE >0.35 kU A /L) were analyzed. Measurements included fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO, ppb), dynamic and static lung function, and bronchial provocation with methacholine (PD:20) and mannitol (PD:15), as well as an evaluation of respiratory symptoms using the asthma control test (C-ACT). Lung function measures (FEV1% 77 vs 84, FEV1/FVC% 85 vs 91, FEF50% 61 vs 80) and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO%, 81 vs 88) were all reduced in children with BPD compared to asthma (P values <0.042). FENO values were also significantly lower in children with BPD (12 vs 23, P = 0.019). The proportion of positive methacholine tests (74% vs 93%, P = 0.14) was comparable between BPD and asthma. However, less responsiveness towards mannitol (19% vs 61%, P = 0.007) and fewer self-reported symptoms (C-ACT, median 26 vs 24, P = 0.003) were found in the BPD group. Respiratory hallmarks of BPD at school-age were reduced lung function, limited responsiveness towards indirectly acting mannitol but hyper-responsiveness towards direct acting methacholine and impairment in diffusion capacity. Children with BPD displayed less evidence of airway inflammation compared with atopic asthma. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Systemic connective tissue features in women with fibromuscular dysplasia.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Sarah; Kim, Esther Sh; Brinza, Ellen; Moran, Rocio; Fendrikova-Mahlay, Natalia; Wolski, Kathy; Gornik, Heather L

    2015-10-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a non-atherosclerotic disease associated with hypertension, headache, dissection, stroke, and aneurysm. The etiology is unknown but hypothesized to involve genetic and environmental components. Previous studies suggest a possible overlap of FMD with other connective tissue diseases that present with dissections and aneurysms. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of connective tissue physical features in FMD. A total of 142 FMD patients were consecutively enrolled at a single referral center (97.9% female, 92.1% of whom had multifocal FMD). Data are reported for 139 female patients. Moderately severe myopia (29.1%), high palate (33.1%), dental crowding (29.7%), and early-onset arthritis (15.6%) were prevalent features. Classic connective features such as hypertelorism, cleft palate, and hypermobility were uncommon. The frequency of systemic connective tissue features was compared between FMD patients with a high vascular risk profile (having had ⩾1 dissection and/or ⩾2 aneurysms) and those with a standard vascular risk profile. A history of spontaneous pneumothorax (5.9% high risk vs 0% standard risk) and atrophic scarring (17.6% high risk vs 6.8% standard risk) were significantly more prevalent in the high risk group, p<0.05. High palate was observed in 43.1% of the high risk group versus 27.3% in the standard risk group, p=0.055. In conclusion, in a cohort of women with FMD, there was a prevalence of moderately severe myopia, high palate, dental crowding, and early-onset osteoarthritis. However, a characteristic phenotype was not discovered. Several connective tissue features such as high palate and pneumothorax were more prominent among FMD patients with a high vascular risk profile. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Systemic Connective Tissue Features in Women with Fibromuscular Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Sarah; Kim, Esther S. H.; Brinza, Ellen; Moran, Rocio; Fendrikova-Mahlay, Natalia; Wolski, Kathy; Gornik, Heather L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD) is an non-atherosclerotic disease associated with hypertension, headache, dissection, stroke, and aneurysm. The etiology is unknown but hypothesized to involve genetic and environmental components. Previous studies suggest a possible overlap of FMD with other connective tissue diseases that present with dissections and aneurysms. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of connective tissue physical features in FMD. Methods and Results 142 FMD patients were consecutively enrolled at a single referral center (97.9% female, 92.3% had multifocal FMD). Data are reported for 139 female patients. Moderately severe myopia (29.1%), high palate (33.1%), dental crowding (29.7%), and early onset arthritis (15.6%) were prevalent features. Classic connective features such as hypertelorism, cleft palate, and hypermobility were uncommon. Frequency of systemic connective tissue features was compared between FMD patients with a high vascular risk profile (having had ≥1 dissection and/or ≥2 aneurysms) and those with a standard vascular risk profile. History of spontaneous pneumothorax (5.9% high risk vs. 0% standard risk) and atrophic scarring (17.3% high risk vs. 6.8% standard risk) were significantly more prevalent in the high risk group, p<0.05. High palate was observed in 43.1% of the high risk group vs. 27.3% in the standard risk group, p=0.055. Conclusions In a cohort of women with FMD, there was a prevalence of moderately severe myopia, high palate, dental crowding, and early onset osteoarthritis. However, a characteristic phenotype was not discovered. Several connective tissue features such as high palate and pneumothorax were more prominent among FMD patients with a high vascular risk profile. PMID:26156071

  2. Influence of own mother's milk on bronchopulmonary dysplasia and costs.

    PubMed

    Patel, Aloka L; Johnson, Tricia J; Robin, Beverley; Bigger, Harold R; Buchanan, Ashley; Christian, Elizabeth; Nandhan, Vikram; Shroff, Anita; Schoeny, Michael; Engstrom, Janet L; Meier, Paula P

    2017-05-01

    Human milk from the infant's mother (own mother's milk; OMM) feedings reduces the risk of several morbidities in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants, but limited data exist regarding its impact on bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). To prospectively study the impact of OMM received in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on the risk of BPD and associated costs. A 5-year prospective cohort study of the impact of OMM dose on growth, morbidity and NICU costs in VLBW infants. OMM dose was the proportion of enteral intake that consisted of OMM from birth to 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) or discharge, whichever occurred first. BPD was defined as the receipt of oxygen and/or positive pressure ventilation at 36 weeks PMA. NICU costs included hospital and physician costs. The cohort consisted of 254 VLBW infants with mean birth weight 1027±257 g and gestational age 27.8±2.5 weeks. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated a 9.5% reduction in the odds of BPD for every 10% increase in OMM dose (OR 0.905 (0.824 to 0.995)). After controlling for demographic and clinical factors, BPD was associated with an increase of US$41 929 in NICU costs. Increased dose of OMM feedings from birth to 36 weeks PMA was associated with a reduction in the odds of BPD in VLBW infants. Thus, high-dose OMM feeding may be an inexpensive, effective strategy to help reduce the risk of this costly multifactorial morbidity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Ectodysplasin A in Biological Fluids and Diagnosis of Ectodermal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Podzus, J; Kowalczyk-Quintas, C; Schuepbach-Mallepell, S; Willen, L; Staehlin, G; Vigolo, M; Tardivel, A; Headon, D; Kirby, N; Mikkola, M L; Schneider, H; Schneider, P

    2017-02-01

    The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family ligand ectodysplasin A (EDA) is produced as 2 full-length splice variants, EDA1 and EDA2, that bind to EDA receptor (EDAR) and X-linked EDA receptor (XEDAR/EDA2R), respectively. Inactivating mutations in Eda or Edar cause hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED), a condition characterized by malformations of the teeth, hair and glands, with milder deficiencies affecting only the teeth. EDA acts early during the development of ectodermal appendages-as early as the embryonic placode stage-and plays a role in adult appendage function. In this study, the authors measured EDA in serum, saliva and dried blood spots. The authors detected 3- to 4-fold higher levels of circulating EDA in cord blood than in adult sera. A receptor binding-competent form of EDA1 was the main form of EDA but a minor fraction of EDA2 was also found in fetal bovine serum. Sera of EDA-deficient patients contained either background EDA levels or low levels of EDA that could not bind to recombinant EDAR. The serum of a patient with a V262F missense mutation in Eda, which caused a milder form of X-linked HED (XLHED), contained low levels of EDA capable of binding to EDAR. In 2 mildly affected carriers, intermediate levels of EDA were detected, whereas a severely affected carrier had no active EDA in the serum. Small amounts of EDA were also detectable in normal adult saliva. Finally, EDA could be measured in spots of wild-type adult or cord blood dried onto filter paper at levels significantly higher than that measured in EDA-deficient blood. Measurement of EDA levels combined with receptor-binding assays might be of relevance to aid in the diagnosis of total or partial EDA deficiencies.

  4. Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumors in epilepsy: dysplasia or neoplasia?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Joan; Bongaarts, Anika; Reinten, Roy J.; Paradiso, Beatrice; Jäger, Hans Rolf; Reeves, Cheryl; Somani, Alyma; An, Shu; Marsdon, Derek; McEvoy, Andrew; Miserocchi, Anna; Thorne, Lewis; Newman, Fay; Bucur, Sorin; Honavar, Mrinalini; Jacques, Tom; Aronica, Eleonora

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor (MVNT) is a new pattern of neuronal tumour included in the recently revised WHO 2016 classification of tumors of the CNS. There are 15 reports in the literature to date. They are typically associated with late onset epilepsy and a neoplastic vs. malformative biology has been questioned. We present a series of ten cases and compare their pathological and genetic features to better characterized epilepsy‐associated malformations including focal cortical dysplasia type II (FCDII) and low‐grade epilepsy‐associated tumors (LEAT). Clinical and neuroradiology data were reviewed and a broad immunohistochemistry panel was applied to explore neuronal and glial differentiation, interneuronal populations, mTOR pathway activation and neurodegenerative changes. Next generation sequencing was performed for targeted multi‐gene analysis to identify mutations common to epilepsy lesions including FCDII and LEAT. All of the surgical cases in this series presented with seizures, and were located in the temporal lobe. There was a lack of any progressive changes on serial pre‐operative MRI and a mean age at surgery of 45 years. The vacuolated cells of the lesion expressed mature neuronal markers (neurofilament/SMI32, MAP2, synaptophysin). Prominent labelling of the lesional cells for developmentally regulated proteins (OTX1, TBR1, SOX2, MAP1b, CD34, GFAPδ) and oligodendroglial lineage markers (OLIG2, SMI94) was observed. No mutations were detected in the mTOR pathway genes, BRAF, FGFR1 or MYB. Clinical, pathological and genetic data could indicate that MVNT aligns more with a malformative lesion than a true neoplasm with origin from a progenitor neuro‐glial cell type showing aberrant maturation. PMID:28833756

  5. Prospective signs of cleidocranial dysplasia in Cebpb deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) has been considered a determinant of cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD), some CCD patients were free of RUNX2 mutations. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (Cebpb) is a key factor of Runx2 expression and our previous study has reported two CCD signs including hyperdontia and elongated coronoid process of the mandible in Cebpb deficient mice. Following that, this work aimed to conduct a case-control study of thoracic, zygomatic and masticatory muscular morphology to propose an association between musculoskeletal phenotypes and deficiency of Cebpb, using a sample of Cebpb-/-, Cebpb+/- and Cebpb+/+ adult mice. Somatic skeletons and skulls of mice were inspected with soft x-rays and micro-computed tomography (μCT), respectively. Zygomatic inclination was assessed using methods of coordinate geometry and trigonometric function on anatomic landmarks identified with μCT. Masseter and temporal muscles were collected and weighed. Expression of Cebpb was examined with a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. Results Cebpb-/- mice displayed hypoplastic clavicles, a narrow thoracic cage, and a downward tilted zygomatic arch (p < 0.001). Although Cebpb+/- mice did not show the phenotypes above (p = 0.357), a larger mass percentage of temporal muscles over masseter muscles was seen in Cebpb+/- littermates (p = 0.012). The mRNA expression of Cebpb was detected in the clavicle, the zygoma, the temporal muscle and the masseter muscle, respectively. Conclusions Prospective signs of CCD were identified in mice with Cebpb deficiency. These could provide an additional aetiological factor of CCD. Succeeding investigation into interactions among Cebpb, Runx2 and musculoskeletal development is indicated. PMID:24885110

  6. Tubulin-related cerebellar dysplasia: definition of a distinct pattern of cerebellar malformation.

    PubMed

    Romaniello, Romina; Arrigoni, Filippo; Panzeri, Elena; Poretti, Andrea; Micalizzi, Alessia; Citterio, Andrea; Bedeschi, Maria Francesca; Berardinelli, Angela; Cusmai, Raffaella; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Ferraris, Alessandro; Hackenberg, Annette; Kuechler, Alma; Mancardi, Margherita; Nuovo, Sara; Oehl-Jaschkowitz, Barbara; Rossi, Andrea; Signorini, Sabrina; Tüttelmann, Frank; Wahl, Dagmar; Hehr, Ute; Boltshauser, Eugen; Bassi, Maria Teresa; Valente, Enza Maria; Borgatti, Renato

    2017-12-01

    To determine the neuroimaging pattern of cerebellar dysplasia (CD) and other posterior fossa morphological anomalies associated with mutations in tubulin genes and to perform clinical and genetic correlations. Twenty-eight patients harbouring 23 heterozygous pathogenic variants (ten novel) in tubulin genes TUBA1A (n = 10), TUBB2B (n = 8) or TUBB3 (n = 5) were studied by a brain MRI scan performed either on a 1.5 T (n = 10) or 3 T (n = 18) MR scanner with focus on the posterior fossa. Cerebellar anomalies were detected in 24/28 patients (86%). CD was recognised in 19/28 (68%) including cortical cerebellar dysplasia (CCD) in 18/28, either involving only the cerebellar hemispheres (12/28) or associated with vermis dysplasia (6/28). CCD was located only in the right hemisphere in 13/18 (72%), including four TUBB2B-, four TUBB3- and five TUBA1A-mutated patients, while in the other five TUBA1A cases it was located only in the left hemisphere or in both hemispheres. The postero-superior region of the cerebellar hemispheres was most frequently affected. The cerebellar involvement in tubulinopathies shows specific features that may be labelled as 'tubulin-related CD'. This pattern is unique and differs from other genetic causes of cerebellar dysplasia. • Cortical cerebellar dysplasia without cysts is suggestive of tubulin-related disorder. • Cerebellar dysplasia in tubulinopathies shows specific features labelled as 'tubulin-related CD'. • Focal and unilateral involvement of cerebellar hemispheres has important implications for counselling.

  7. Management of symptomatic florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: Literature review and a case report

    PubMed Central

    Gucciardino, Federico; Rapetti, Roberta; Siervo, Sandro; Bianch, Andrea-Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Cemento-osseous dysplasia is a jaw disorder characterized by a reactive process in which normal bone is replaced by connective tissue matrix. There are different Cemento-osseous dysplasia entities. The treatment of these lesions, once diagnosed by radiology, is not required because generally they are asymptomatic. The localization is in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws and its distribution is symmetric. Case Reports In this case report, a 57-year-old Caucasian female patient was referred to our attention complaining of painful inflammatory events localized in the right angle of the jaw. The radiographic appearance, the distribution of several lesions and the positive vitality test of the involved teeth, supported the diagnosis of Florid Cemento-osseous dysplasia. Because of the symptomatology, the patient was submitted to surgery and the lesion and the second inferior right molar were removed. The histological examination of the specimens confirmed the diagnosis. Discussion Many lesions that may exhibit a similar sclerotic appearance on conventional radiographs have to be differentiated and dental imaging can be used to discriminate between Florid COD and other lesions. Diagnosis of Florid Cemento-osseous dysplasia can be made with accurate clinical and radiographic assessment. In asymptomatic cases no treatment is required and the patient should have regular follow-up, but in this symptomatic case it was necessary to proceed with surgical intervention. The surgery treatment in the symptomatic case had a favourable prognosis and the two years follow-up has shown a complete healing. Given the abow, it is concluded that the choice of treatment must be selective according to the disease sites. Key words:Cemento-ossifying dysplasia, fibro-osseous lesions, florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, cementoma. PMID:29721232

  8. Management of symptomatic florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: Literature review and a case report.

    PubMed

    Aiuto, Riccardo; Gucciardino, Federico; Rapetti, Roberta; Siervo, Sandro; Bianch, Andrea-Edoardo

    2018-03-01

    Cemento-osseous dysplasia is a jaw disorder characterized by a reactive process in which normal bone is replaced by connective tissue matrix. There are different Cemento-osseous dysplasia entities. The treatment of these lesions, once diagnosed by radiology, is not required because generally they are asymptomatic. The localization is in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws and its distribution is symmetric. In this case report, a 57-year-old Caucasian female patient was referred to our attention complaining of painful inflammatory events localized in the right angle of the jaw. The radiographic appearance, the distribution of several lesions and the positive vitality test of the involved teeth, supported the diagnosis of Florid Cemento-osseous dysplasia. Because of the symptomatology, the patient was submitted to surgery and the lesion and the second inferior right molar were removed. The histological examination of the specimens confirmed the diagnosis. Many lesions that may exhibit a similar sclerotic appearance on conventional radiographs have to be differentiated and dental imaging can be used to discriminate between Florid COD and other lesions. Diagnosis of Florid Cemento-osseous dysplasia can be made with accurate clinical and radiographic assessment. In asymptomatic cases no treatment is required and the patient should have regular follow-up, but in this symptomatic case it was necessary to proceed with surgical intervention. The surgery treatment in the symptomatic case had a favourable prognosis and the two years follow-up has shown a complete healing. Given the abow, it is concluded that the choice of treatment must be selective according to the disease sites. Key words: Cemento-ossifying dysplasia, fibro-osseous lesions, florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, cementoma.

  9. Tricuspid valve dysplasia: A retrospective study of clinical features and outcome in dogs in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Cubas, Xavier; Palermo, Valentina; French, Anne; Sanchis-Mora, Sandra; Culshaw, Geoff

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the demographic, clinical and survival characteristics and to identify risk factors for mortality due to tricuspid valve dysplasia in UK dogs. Records of client-owned dogs diagnosed with tricuspid valve dysplasia at a referral centre were retrospectively reviewed. Only dogs diagnosed with tricuspid valve dysplasia based on the presence of a right-sided heart murmur identified prior to one year of age, and confirmed with Doppler echocardiography, were included. Dogs with concomitant cardiac diseases, pulmonary hypertension and/or trivial tricuspid regurgitation were excluded. Analysed data included signalment, reason for presentation, clinical signs, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic features, survival status and cause of death. Survival times and risk factors for mortality were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression. Eighteen dogs met inclusion criteria. Border collies were over-represented (p= 0.014). Dogs were most frequently referred for investigation of heart murmur. The most common arrhythmia was atrial fibrillation (n=3). Median survival time from diagnosis of tricuspid valve dysplasia was 2775 days (range 1-3696 days; 95% CI 1542.41-4007.59) and from onset of right-sided congestive heart failure was 181 days (range 1-2130 days; 95% CI 0-455.59). Syncope was the sole risk factor for cardiac death. In this population of UK dogs, tricuspid valve dysplasia was uncommon but, when severe, frequently led to right-sided congestive heart failure. Prognosis was favourable for mild and moderate tricuspid dysplasia. Survival time was reduced with right-sided congestive heart failure but varied widely. Risk of cardiac death was significantly increased if syncope had occurred. PMID:29296595

  10. Is there a role for prophylactic colectomy in Lynch syndrome patients with inflammatory bowel disease?

    PubMed

    McNamara, Kate L; Aronson, Melyssa D; Cohen, Zane

    2016-01-01

    Lynch syndrome and chronic inflammatory bowel disease are two important risk factors for colorectal cancer. It is unclear whether Lynch syndrome patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at sufficiently increased risk for colorectal cancer to warrant prophylactic colectomy. This study aims to identify all cases of Lynch syndrome and concurrent inflammatory bowel disease in a large familial gastrointestinal cancer registry, define incidence of colorectal cancer, and characterize mismatch repair protein gene mutation status and inflammatory bowel disease-associated colorectal cancer risk factors. We retrospectively identified and collected clinical data for all cases with confirmed diagnoses of Lynch syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease in the Familial Gastrointestinal Cancer Registry at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Canada. Twelve cases of confirmed Lynch syndrome, and concurrent inflammatory bowel disease were identified. Four cases developed colorectal cancer. An additional five cases had colectomy; one was performed for severe colitis, and four were performed for low-grade dysplasia. None of these surgical specimens contained malignancy or high-grade dysplasia. The presentation of Lynch syndrome with inflammatory bowel disease is uncommon and not well described in the literature. This small but important series of twelve cases is the largest reported to date. In this series, patients with Lynch syndrome and concurrent inflammatory bowel disease do not appear to have sufficiently increased risk for colorectal cancer to recommend prophylactic surgery. Therefore, the decision to surgery should continue to be guided by surgical indications for each disease. Further evaluation of this important area will require multi-institutional input.

  11. Cancer risk after resection of polypoid dysplasia in patients with longstanding ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wanders, Linda K; Dekker, Evelien; Pullens, Bo; Bassett, Paul; Travis, Simon P L; East, James E

    2014-05-01

    American and European guidelines propose complete endoscopic resection of polypoid dysplasia (adenomas or adenoma-like masses) in patients with longstanding colitis, with close endoscopic follow-up. The incidence of cancer after detection of flat low-grade dysplasia or dysplasia-associated lesion or mass is estimated at 14 cases/1000 years of patient follow-up. However, the risk for polypoid dysplasia has not been determined with precision. We investigated the risk of cancer after endoscopic resection of polypoid dysplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane library were searched for studies of patients with colitis and resected polypoid dysplasia, with reports of colonoscopic follow-up and data on cancers detected. Outcomes from included articles were pooled to provide a single combined estimate of outcomes by using Poisson regression. Of 425 articles retrieved, we analyzed data from 10 studies, comprising 376 patients with colitis and polypoid dysplasia with a combined 1704 years of follow-up. A mean of 2.8 colonoscopies were performed for each patient after the index procedure (range, 0-15 colonoscopies). The pooled incidence of cancer was 5.3 cases (95% confidence interval, 2.7-10.1 cases)/1000 years of patient follow-up. There was no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias. The pooled rate of any dysplasia was 65 cases (95% confidence interval, 54-78 cases)/1000 patient years. Patients with colitis have a low risk of colorectal cancer after resection of polypoid dysplasia; these findings support the current strategy of resection and surveillance. However, these patients have a 10-fold greater risk of developing any dysplasia than colorectal cancer and should undergo close endoscopic follow-up. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dual-mode endomicroscopy for detection of epithelial dysplasia in the mouth: a descriptive pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenschatz, Nico; Poh, Catherine F.; Lam, Sylvia; Lane, Pierre; Guillaud, Martial; MacAulay, Calum E.

    2017-08-01

    Dual-mode endomicroscopy is a diagnostic tool for early cancer detection. It combines the high-resolution nuclear tissue contrast of fluorescence endomicroscopy with quantified depth-dependent epithelial backscattering as obtained by diffuse optical microscopy. In an in vivo pilot imaging study of 27 oral lesions from 21 patients, we demonstrate the complementary diagnostic value of both modalities and show correlations between grade of epithelial dysplasia and relative depth-dependent shifts in light backscattering. When combined, the two modalities provide diagnostic sensitivity to both moderate and severe epithelial dysplasia in vivo.

  13. Two familial cases with a lethal gracile bone dysplasia and intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Korniszewski, Lech; Arbuckle, Susan; Kozlowski, Kazimierz

    2003-05-01

    A number of more or less distinct entities with low birth weight and abnormal radiographic appearances have been identified. We studied two sisters who were unusual because of severe intrauterine growth restriction, absence of growth after birth, decrease of pre- and postnatal spontaneous mobility, and early fatal outcome. The chondro-osseous morphology documented a distinctive osteochondrodysplasia. The radiographic examination was superficially similar to gracile bone dysplasias but was inconsistent with any known types of this group. These two patients appear to have a unique gracile bone dysplasia. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Ultrasound diagnosis of fetal thanatophoric skeletal dysplasia: Three cases report and a brief review.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing-Hong; Shi, Hua; Hu, Jia-Qi; Wang, Dan; Fang, Gui; Zhang, Yu-Guo; Wang, Yan-Qing; Yang, Jing

    2017-02-01

    Congenital skeletal deformity of fetus varies and may be attributed to a range of reasons. Congenital skeletal deformity seriously affects body function or even leads to neonatal death directly. The disease brings great pain to victim and their family. We reviewed the fetal prenatal ultrasonic data conducted during period from Jan. 2013 to June 2016, and there were 84 fetuses with skeletal abnormalities among 12 000 cases, and 3 fetuses with thanatophoric dysplasia. Our report described and reviewed three common types of thanatophoric dysplasia, aiming to explore the value of standardized prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis of fetal abnormalities in the skeletal system.

  15. Quantitative biomarkers of colonic dysplasia based on intrinsic second-harmonic generation signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Wu, Guizhu; Chen, Jianxin; Xie, Shusen

    2011-12-01

    Most colorectal cancers arise from dysplastic lesions, such as adenomatous polyps, and these lesions are difficult to be detected by the current endoscopic screening approaches. Here, we present the use of an intrinsic second-harmonic generation (SHG) signal as a novel means to differentiate between normal and dysplastic human colonic tissues. We find that the SHG signal can quantitatively identify collagen change associated with colonic dysplasia that is indiscernible by conventional pathologic techniques. By comparing normal with dysplastic mucosa, there were significant differences in collagen density and collagen fiber direction, providing substantial potential to become quantitative intrinsic biomarkers for in vivo clinical diagnosis of colonic dysplasia.

  16. Pyle metaphyseal dysplasia in an African child: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wonkam, A; Makubalo, N; Roberts, T; Chetty, M

    2016-05-25

    Pyle disease (OMIM 265900), also known as metaphyseal dysplasia, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with no known gene mutation. We report a case of Pyle disease in a 7-year-old African boy of mixed ancestry who presented with finger and wrist fractures following minor trauma. The radiological findings revealed abnormally broad metaphyses of the tubular bones, known as Erlenmeyer-flask bone deformity, and mild cranial sclerosis, both hallmarks of the condition. We report the first case in a patient with African ancestry, which could help in the gene discovery of this rare autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia with unknown mutations.

  17. Risk Factors for Dysplasia in Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis in an Adult and Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Karatayli-Ozgursoy, Selmin; Bishop, Justin Avery; Hillel, Alexander; Akst, Lee; Best, Simon R A

    2016-03-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is classically described as a benign neoplasm of the larynx caused by the low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) viral subtypes. Nevertheless, transformation to dysplasia and invasive carcinoma can occur. We aimed to assess the prevalence of dysplasia and carcinoma-ex-papilloma in both adult-onset and juvenile-onset RRP and identify patient risk factors for this dysplastic transformation. Ten-year retrospective chart review of a tertiary otolaryngology referral center. Patients with papilloma were identified from a review of a pathology database and clinical records. Patient demographics, pathologic data, and treatment history, including use of cidofovir as an adjunctive therapy for papilloma, were extracted from electronic medical records. One hundred fifty-nine RRP patients were identified, 96 adult-onset (AORRP) and 63 juvenile-onset (JORRP) cases. Of this cohort, 139 (87%) had only benign papilloma as a pathologic diagnosis. In the AORRP cohort, 10 patients (10%) were diagnosed with dysplasia or carcinoma in situ in addition to papilloma, and 5 patients (5%) had malignant transformation to invasive carcinoma-ex-papilloma. There was a significantly higher age of disease onset for those with dysplasia or carcinoma versus those without dysplasia or carcinoma (56 vs 45 years old; P = .0005). Of the 63 JORRP patients, there were no cases of dysplasia but 3 (5%) cases of invasive carcinoma-ex-papilloma, all involving pulmonary disease. The JORRP patients with carcinoma-ex-papilloma had a younger average disease onset (2 vs 6 years old; P = .009) and a higher rate of tracheal involvement than those without carcinoma. Gender, smoking history, number of operations, or use of cidofovir showed no association with the development of dysplasia or carcinoma-ex-papillomatosis in either the AORRP or JORRP population. In a large series of RRP, age of disease onset is the strongest predictor of dysplastic transformation in the adult and

  18. CBCT findings of periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarloo, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia (PCOD) is a subtype of cemento-osseous dysplasia that usually occurs in middle-aged black women. This report described a case of a 45-year-old Iranian woman who was diagnosed with PCOD on the basis of cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) findings. CBCT enabled detailed visualization of the bone changes. This report described the special radiographic characteristics of PCOD, including discontinuity of the lingual cortex on the CBCT sectional and three-dimensional images. PMID:24083217

  19. Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a Child Suffering from Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia with Complete Anodontia

    PubMed Central

    Nikhil, M; Chugh, Anshul; Narwal, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 7-year-old male, described in the case report, exhibited many of the manifestations of ectodermal dysplasia as well as behavioral problems. The treatment to improve his appearance and oral function included a removable prosthesis. The results were significant improvements in speech, masticatory function, and facial esthetics, contributing to the development of normal dietary habits, and the improved and more rapid social integration of the child. How to cite this article: Bala S, Nikhil M, Chugh A, Narwal A. Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a Child Suffering from Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia with Complete Anodontia. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):148-150. PMID:25206157

  20. Familial Florid Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia: A Rare Manifestation in an Indian Family

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Adit; Agarwal, Rahul; Soni, Romesh; Sachan, Avesh; Shivakumar, G. C.; Chaturvedi, T. P.

    2012-01-01

    Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) is one of the uncommon dysplasias affecting the maxillofacial region. The age group may vary from 19 to 76 years and typically presents in the 4th and 5th decades. In most cases patients do not have hereditary basis of disease, and only a few familial cases have been documented. As far as we know this is the 1st reported case of familial FCOD in an Indian family. The mother and son exhibited multiple sclerotic masses in both jaws. The mode of transmission appeared to be autosomal dominant with variable phenotypic expression. PMID:23198165

  1. Headache Attributed to Fibrous Dysplasia of the Ethmoid Bone Mimicking Menstrual Migraine Without Aura.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-06-01

    The authors experienced a patient of fibrous dysplasia originating from the ethmoid bone which presented with severe headache with some features suggestive of menstrual migraine without aura. Fibrous dysplasia originating from the ethmoid bone is a rare disease entity, but may cause severe headache that can be misdiagnosed as "menstrual migraine" because of similar symptoms in female patients. Because the primary objective of surgery is symptomatic relief, conservative transnasal endoscopic approach may be considered an alternative to more invasive external surgical techniques in carefully selected patients, especially originating from the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.

  2. Valvular dysplasia and congestive heart failure in a juvenile African penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Allyson; Frasca, Salvatore; Mishra, Neha; Tuttle, Allison D

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: An aquarium-housed, 6-mo-old African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented with acute respiratory distress. Auscultation revealed a grade II-III systolic murmur in the absence of adventitial sounds, and an enlarged heart without pulmonary edema was seen radiographically. Echocardiographic evaluation revealed atrioventricular (AV) valvular dysplasia and ventricular enlargement. The penguin was treated with enalapril, furosemide, and pimobendan but died within 3 wk of detection of the murmur. Congenital dysplasia of the right AV valve with right atrial and ventricular dilation and ventricular hypertrophy were diagnosed on postmortem examination.

  3. Hair follicle nevus occurring in frontonasal dysplasia: an electron microscopic observation.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, H; Lao, L M; Kiyohara, T; Kumakiri, M; Igawa, H

    2001-06-01

    We report a rare hair follicle nevus that occurred in a three-month-old Japanese boy with mild frontonasal dysplasia. It had been present since birth. Histologically, numerous tiny vellus hair follicles were found within the dermis. The constituent cells of these follicles showed the features of follicular germ cells under the electron microscope. The fibroblasts around the follicles were active and merged with the colloid substance. Many myofibroblasts were found in a collagenous stroma in the atrophic lesion of the frontonasal dysplasia.

  4. Health-related quality of life and socioeconomic situation among diastrophic dysplasia patients in Finland.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Liisamari; Pohjolainen, Timo; Kaitila, Ilkka; Kautiainen, Hannu; Arkela-Kautiainen, Marja; Hurri, Heikki

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to gain a comprehensive view of the quality of life and socio-economic conditions in a more representative sample of patients with diastrophic dysplasia than previously presented. The study sample comprised 115 patients with diastrophic dysplasia, aged over 18 years. The patients were contacted, and 68 patients (59%) agreed to participate in the study. They answered a structured questionnaire, which included the items of RAND-36 and Finn-Health Assessment Questionnaire (Finn-HAQ) questionnaires. The Finn-HAQ items were linked to the categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Population controls for matching the participating patients for age and sex were identified in the Finnish population registry. Demographic and social factors (educational status, employment status and household income) were collected in separated questions. RAND-36 showed significantly lower physical functioning in the group of diastrophic dysplasia patients than in the control group. Also, the differences in scores for energy and social functioning were significant. In the mental component scales, no significant difference was found between the groups. When compared with the controls, we found significantly lower levels in all 3 ICF components of functioning in the group of patients when Finn-MDHAQ items linked to ICF were used. Almost 75% of patients with diastrophic dysplasia belonged to the group of people with minor/low income. Some or clear worsening of economic situation due to diastrophic dysplasia was reported by 25 (58%) female and 17 (68%) male patients. In their daily living, patients with diastrophic dysplasia have marked physical difficulties, which affect their quality of life, participation in society and their financial situation. It seems that the mental situation is not greatly affected, but a more detailed study is needed to evaluate and illuminate the psychological consequences of this

  5. Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaviarasan, P K; Prasad, P V S; Shradda; Viswanathan, P

    2005-01-01

    Kindler syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with skin fragility. It is characterized by blistering in infancy, photosensitivity and progressive poikiloderma. The syndrome involves the skin and mucous membrane with radiological changes. The genetic defect has been identified on the short arm of chromosome 20. This report describes an 18-year-old patient with classical features like blistering and photosensitivity in childhood and the subsequent development of poikiloderma. The differential diagnosis of Kindler syndrome includes diseases like Bloom syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, epidermolysis bullosa, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum. Our patient had classical cutaneous features of Kindler syndrome with phimosis as a complication.

  6. Mutations in WNT7A cause a range of limb malformations, including Fuhrmann syndrome and Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild/Schinzel phocomelia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Woods, C G; Stricker, S; Seemann, P; Stern, R; Cox, J; Sherridan, E; Roberts, E; Springell, K; Scott, S; Karbani, G; Sharif, S M; Toomes, C; Bond, J; Kumar, D; Al-Gazali, L; Mundlos, S

    2006-08-01

    Fuhrmann syndrome and the Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild/Schinzel phocomelia syndrome are considered to be distinct limb-malformation disorders characterized by various degrees of limb aplasia/hypoplasia and joint dysplasia in humans. In families with these syndromes, we found homozygous missense mutations in the dorsoventral-patterning gene WNT7A and confirmed their functional significance in retroviral-mediated transfection of chicken mesenchyme cell cultures and developing limbs. The results suggest that a partial loss of WNT7A function causes Fuhrmann syndrome (and a phenotype similar to mouse Wnt7a knockout), whereas the more-severe limb truncation phenotypes observed in Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild/Schinzel phocomelia syndrome result from null mutations (and cause a phenotype similar to mouse Shh knockout). These findings illustrate the specific and conserved importance of WNT7A in multiple aspects of vertebrate limb development.

  7. Mutations in WNT7A Cause a Range of Limb Malformations, Including Fuhrmann Syndrome and Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild/Schinzel Phocomelia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Woods, C. G.; Stricker, S.; Seemann, P.; Stern, R.; Cox, J.; Sherridan, E.; Roberts, E.; Springell, K.; Scott, S.; Karbani, G.; Sharif, S. M.; Toomes, C.; Bond, J.; Kumar, D.; Al-Gazali, L.; Mundlos, S.

    2006-01-01

    Fuhrmann syndrome and the Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild/Schinzel phocomelia syndrome are considered to be distinct limb-malformation disorders characterized by various degrees of limb aplasia/hypoplasia and joint dysplasia in humans. In families with these syndromes, we found homozygous missense mutations in the dorsoventral-patterning gene WNT7A and confirmed their functional significance in retroviral-mediated transfection of chicken mesenchyme cell cultures and developing limbs. The results suggest that a partial loss of WNT7A function causes Fuhrmann syndrome (and a phenotype similar to mouse Wnt7a knockout), whereas the more-severe limb truncation phenotypes observed in Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild/Schinzel phocomelia syndrome result from null mutations (and cause a phenotype similar to mouse Shh knockout). These findings illustrate the specific and conserved importance of WNT7A in multiple aspects of vertebrate limb development. PMID:16826533

  8. Mobius Syndrome: A 35-Year Single Institution Experience.

    PubMed

    K McClure, Philip; Kilinc, Eray; Oishi, Scott; I Riccio, Anthony; A Karol, Lori

    Mobius syndrome is a rare syndrome that is known to be associated with a variety of orthopaedic conditions including scoliosis, clubfoot, transverse limb deficiencies, Poland syndrome, and a myriad of hand conditions. To date, no large series exist to characterize the orthopaedic manifestations of Mobius syndrome. Medical records at a single tertiary pediatric institution were reviewed for all patients diagnosed with Mobius syndrome from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2015. Records and radiographs were reviewed for associated orthopaedic conditions and their management. In total, 44 patients with Mobius syndrome were identified. Age at presentation ranged from 6 days to 14 years. When compared with the general population, patients with Mobius syndrome had an increased incidence of clubfoot (41%), Poland syndrome (20%), and scoliosis (14%). Clubfoot treated both before and after the institution of Ponseti casting had a high rate of requiring posteromedial release, with a significant rate of subsequent revision. Hip dysplasia was noted in 1 patient and required surgical correction. Other associated syndromes included arthrogryposis, Pierre Robin syndrome, and chromosome 10 defect. Mobius syndrome is accompanied by an increased rate of several orthopaedic problems; most notably clubfoot, scoliosis, and upper extremity differences that often require surgical treatment. The management of clubfoot in the setting of Mobius syndrome often requires surgical intervention due to failure of casting, and seems to have a higher rate of need for revision. Early involvement of orthopaedists in the care of patients with Mobius syndrome is often necessary. Orthopaedist should counsel families that treatment may be more complex than that of idiopathic disease. Level IV-case series.

  9. [Bone dysplasia with dwarfism and diffuse skeletal alterations].

    PubMed

    Piussan, C; Maroteaux, P; Castroviejo, I; Risbourg, B

    1975-01-01

    Six cases of a new hereditary chondrodyplasia are reported. The features are severe dwarfism, generalized hypotonia, frequent and considerable desaxations of fingers and toes. Slight facial dysmorphism with evolutive scoliosis is often associated. Osteopetrosis is diffuse and is associated with important metaphyseal widening as well as epiphyseal irregularities and often carpal and tarsal supernumerary bones. No metabolic or chromosomal abnormality was found. The relations of the disease with related types described in Larsen's syndrome are considered.

  10. Altered immunophenotypic features of peripheral blood platelets in myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Sandes, Alex F.; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Matarraz, Sergio; Chauffaille, Maria de Lourdes L.F.; Quijano, Sandra; López, Antonio; Oguro, Tsutomu; Kimura, Eliza Y. S.; Orfao, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Multiparameter flow cytometric analysis of bone marrow and peripheral blood cells has proven to be of help in the diagnostic workup of myelodysplastic syndromes. However, the usefulness of flow cytometry for the detection of megakaryocytic and platelet dysplasia has not yet been investigated. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate by flow cytometry the diagnostic and prognostic value of platelet dysplasia in myelodysplastic syndromes. Design and Methods We investigated the pattern of expression of distinct surface glycoproteins on peripheral blood platelets from a series of 44 myelodysplastic syndrome patients, 20 healthy subjects and 19 patients with platelet alterations associated to disease conditions other than myelodysplastic syndromes. Quantitative expression of CD31, CD34, CD36, CD41a, CD41b, CD42a, CD42b and CD61 glycoproteins together with the PAC-1, CD62-P, fibrinogen and CD63 platelet activation-associated markers and platelet light scatter properties were systematically evaluated. Results Overall, flow cytometry identified multiple immunophenotypic abnormalities on platelets of myelodysplastic syndrome patients, including altered light scatter characteristics, over-and under expression of specific platelet glycoproteins and asynchronous expression of CD34; decreased expression of CD36 (n=5), CD42a (n=1) and CD61 (n=2), together with reactivity for CD34 (n=1) were only observed among myelodysplastic syndrome cases, while other alterations were also found in other platelet disorders. Based on the overall platelet alterations detected for each patient, an immunophenotypic score was built which identified a subgroup of myelodysplastic syndrome patients with a high rate of moderate to severe alterations (score>1.5; n=16) who more frequently showed thrombocytopenia, megakaryocytic dysplasia and high-risk disease, together with a shorter overall survival. Conclusions Our results show the presence of altered phenotypes by flow cytometry on

  11. Detection of intestinal dysplasia using angle-resolved low coherence interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Neil; Zhu, Yizheng; Thacker, Julie K. M.; Migaly, John; Guy, Cynthia; Mantyh, Christopher R.; Wax, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Angle-resolved low coherence interferometry (a/LCI) is an optical biopsy technique that allows for depth-resolved, label-free measurement of the average size and optical density of cell nuclei in epithelial tissue to assess the tissue health. a/LCI has previously been used clinically to identify the presence of dysplasia in Barrett's Esophagus patients undergoing routine surveillance. We present the results of a pilot, ex vivo study of tissues from 27 patients undergoing partial colonic resection surgery, conducted to evaluate the ability of a/LCI to identify dysplasia. Performance was determined by comparing the nuclear morphology measurements with pathological assessment of co-located physical biopsies. A statistically significant correlation between increased average nuclear size, reduced nuclear density, and the presence of dysplasia was noted at the basal layer of the epithelium, at a depth of 200 to 300 μm beneath the tissue surface. Using a decision line determined from a receiver operating characteristic, a/LCI was able to separate dysplastic from healthy tissues with a sensitivity of 92.9% (13/14), a specificity of 83.6% (56/67), and an overall accuracy of 85.2% (69/81). The study illustrates the extension of the a/LCI technique to the detection of intestinal dysplasia, and demonstrates the need for future in vivo studies. PMID:22029349

  12. Redefining Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as a Myeloid Dysplasia and Identifying B | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Redefining Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as a Myeloid Dysplasia and Identifying Biomarkers for Early Detection and Risk Assessment. This application addresses Program Announcement PA-09-197: Biomarkers for Early Detection of Hematopoietic Malignancies (R01). The overall aim of this project is to identify novel biomarkers that may be used to

  13. An Exploration of Sexual Health Education among Individuals with Skeletal Dysplasia (Dwarfism)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboni, Brian D.

    2018-01-01

    Using quantitative and qualitative measures, this study examined reports of sexual health education among 300 individuals with skeletal dysplasia (dwarfism). Many participants felt their sex education neglected their specific minority needs. These needs may include body image concerns, medical considerations in sex or pregnancy, and logistics of…

  14. Brain Dysplasia Associated with Ciliary Dysfunction In Infants with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Lee, Vincent; Ceschin, Rafael; Zuccoli, Giulio; Beluk, Nancy; Khalifa, Omar; Votava-Smith, Jodie K; DeBrunner, Mark; Munoz, Ricardo; Domnina, Yuliya; Morell, Victor; Wearden, Peter; De Toledo, Joan Sanchez; Devine, William; Zahid, Maliha; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test for associations between abnormal respiratory ciliary motion (CM) and brain abnormalities in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) Study design We recruited 35 infants with CHD preoperatively and performed nasal tissue biopsy to assess respiratory CM by videomicroscopy. Cranial ultrasound and brain magnetic resonance imaging were obtained pre- and/or post-operatively and systematically reviewed for brain abnormalities. Segmentation was used to quantitate cerebrospinal fluid and regional brain volumes. Perinatal and perioperative clinical variables were collected. Results A total of 10 (28.5%) patients with CHD had abnormal CM. Abnormal CM was not associated with brain injury, but was correlated with increased extra-axial CSF volume (p<0.001), delayed brain maturation (p<0.05), and a spectrum of subtle dysplasia including the hippocampus (p<0.0078) and olfactory bulb (p<0.034). Abnormal CM was associated with higher composite dysplasia score (p<0.001) and both were correlated with elevated pre-operative serum lactate (p <0.001). Conclusion Abnormal respiratory CM in infants with CHD is associated with a spectrum of brain dysplasia. These findings suggest that ciliary defects may play a role in brain dysplasia in patients with CHD and have the potential to prognosticate neurodevelopmental risks. PMID:27574995

  15. A novel immunocompetent murine model for Candida albicans-promoted oral epithelial dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    DWIVEDI, P. P.; MALLYA, S.; DONGARI-BAGTZOGLOU, A.

    2009-01-01

    Candida albicans is a common opportunistic pathogen found in the oral mucosa. Clinical observations indicate a significant positive association between oral Candida carriage or infection and oral epithelial dysplasia/neoplasia. The aim of this study was to test whether C. albicans is able to promote epithelial dysplasia or carcinoma in a mouse model of infection where a carcinogen (4 Nitroquinoline 1-oxide [4NQO]) was used as initiator of neoplasia. Mice were divided into four groups: group 1 received 4NQO alone; group 2 received 4NQO followed by C. albicans (ATCC 90234); group 3 received vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) followed by C. albicans and group 4 was untreated. Although 4NQO treated mice did not develop oral lesions, mice exposed to both 4NQO and C. albicans developed oral dysplastic lesions 19 weeks after exposure to 4NQO. Mice challenged with C. albicans only developed hyperplastic lesions. The expression of Ki-67 and p16, two cell-cycle associated proteins that are frequently deregulated in oral dysplasia/neoplasia, was also tested in these lesions. Ki-67 and p16 expression increased from normal to hyperplastic to dysplastic mucosa and was highest in the group exposed to both 4NQO and C. albicans. In conclusion, we showed that C. albicans plays a role in the promotion of oral dysplasia in a mouse model of infection when 4NQO was used as initiator of oral neoplasia. PMID:18608888

  16. Calcium absorption in very low birth weight infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of early bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) on calcium (Ca) metabolism and growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. A dual-tracer, stable isotope method was used to assess Ca absorption in VLBW infants. Infants with early BPD received energy-dense feedi...

  17. Detection of intestinal dysplasia using angle-resolved low coherence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, Neil; Zhu, Yizheng; Thacker, Julie K. M.; Migaly, John; Guy, Cynthia; Mantyh, Christopher R.; Wax, Adam

    2011-10-01

    Angle-resolved low coherence interferometry (a/LCI) is an optical biopsy technique that allows for depth-resolved, label-free measurement of the average size and optical density of cell nuclei in epithelial tissue to assess the tissue health. a/LCI has previously been used clinically to identify the presence of dysplasia in Barrett's Esophagus patients undergoing routine surveillance. We present the results of a pilot, ex vivo study of tissues from 27 patients undergoing partial colonic resection surgery, conducted to evaluate the ability of a/LCI to identify dysplasia. Performance was determined by comparing the nuclear morphology measurements with pathological assessment of co-located physical biopsies. A statistically significant correlation between increased average nuclear size, reduced nuclear density, and the presence of dysplasia was noted at the basal layer of the epithelium, at a depth of 200 to 300 μm beneath the tissue surface. Using a decision line determined from a receiver operating characteristic, a/LCI was able to separate dysplastic from healthy tissues with a sensitivity of 92.9% (13/14), a specificity of 83.6% (56/67), and an overall accuracy of 85.2% (69/81). The study illustrates the extension of the a/LCI technique to the detection of intestinal dysplasia, and demonstrates the need for future in vivo studies.

  18. Best practices in peri-operative management of patients with skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    White, Klane K; Bompadre, Viviana; Goldberg, Michael J; Bober, Michael B; Cho, Tae-Joon; Hoover-Fong, Julie E; Irving, Melita; Mackenzie, William G; Kamps, Shawn E; Raggio, Cathleen; Redding, Gregory J; Spencer, Samantha S; Savarirayan, Ravi; Theroux, Mary C

    2017-10-01

    Patients with skeletal dysplasia frequently require surgery. This patient population has an increased risk for peri-operative complications related to the anatomy of their upper airway, abnormalities of tracheal-bronchial morphology and function; deformity of their chest wall; abnormal mobility of their upper cervical spine; and associated issues with general health and body habitus. Utilizing evidence analysis and expert opinion, this study aims to describe best practices regarding the peri-operative management of patients with skeletal dysplasia. A panel of 13 multidisciplinary international experts participated in a Delphi process that included a thorough literature review; a list of 22 possible care recommendations; two rounds of anonymous voting; and a face to face meeting. Those recommendations with more than 80% agreement were considered as consensual. Consensus was reached to support 19 recommendations for best pre-operative management of patients with skeletal dysplasia. These recommendations include pre-operative pulmonary, polysomnography; cardiac, and neurological evaluations; imaging of the cervical spine; and anesthetic management of patients with a difficult airway for intubation and extubation. The goals of this consensus based best practice guideline are to provide a minimum of standardized care, reduce perioperative complications, and improve clinical outcomes for patients with skeletal dysplasia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Overexpression of Shox2 Leads to Congenital Dysplasia of the Temporomandibular Joint in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xihai; Liang, Wenna; Ye, Hongzhi; Weng, Xiaping; Liu, Fayuan; Liu, Xianxiang

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study reported that inactivation of Shox2 led to dysplasia and ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and that replacing Shox2 with human Shox partially rescued the phenotype with a prematurely worn out articular disc. However, the mechanisms of Shox2 activity in TMJ development remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the molecular and cellular basis for the congenital dysplasia of TMJ in Wnt1-Cre; pMes-stop Shox2 mice. We found that condyle and glenoid fossa dysplasia occurs primarily in the second week after the birth. The dysplastic TMJ of Wnt1-Cre; pMes-stop Shox2 mice exhibits a loss of Collagen type I, Collagen type II, Ihh and Gli2. In situ zymography and immunohistochemistry further demonstrate an up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP9 and MMP13, accompanied by a significantly increased cell apoptosis. In addition, the cell proliferation and expressions of Sox9, Runx2 and Ihh are no different in the embryonic TMJ between the wild type and mutant mice. Our results show that overexpression of Shox2 leads to the loss of extracellular matrix and the increase of cell apoptosis in TMJ dysplasia by up-regulating MMPs and down-regulating the Ihh signaling pathway. PMID:25062348

  20. An evaluation of clinical, radiological and three-dimensional dental tomography findings in ectodermal dysplasia cases

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Mehmet-Sinan; Callea, Michele; Aksoy, Orhan; Clarich, Gabriella; Günay, Ayşe; Günay, Ahmet; Güven, Sedat; Maglione, Michele; Akkuş, Zeki

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to review the results related to head and jaw disorders in cases of ectodermal dysplasia. The evaluation of ectodermal dysplasia cases was made by clincal examination and examination of the jaw and facial areas radiologically and on cone-beam 3-dimensional dental tomography (CBCT) images. Material and Methods In the 36 cases evaluated in the study, typical clinical findings of pure hypohidrotic ectodermal displasia (HED) were seen, such as missing teeth, dry skin, hair and nail disorders. CBCT images were obtained from 12 of the 36 cases, aged 1.5- 45 years, and orthodontic analyses were made on these images. Results The clinical and radiological evaluations determined, hypodontia or oligodontia, breathing problems, sweating problems, a history of fever, sparse hair, saddle nose, skin peeling, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, finger and nail deformities, conical teeth anomalies, abnormal tooth root formation, tooth resorption in the root, gingivitis, history of epilepsy, absent lachrymal canals and vision problems in the cases which included to the study. Conclusions Ectodermal dysplasia cases have a particular place in dentistry and require a professional, multi-disciplinary approach in respect of the chewing function, orthognathic problems, growth, oral and dental health. It has been understood that with data obtained from modern technologies such as three-dimensional dental tomography and the treatments applied, the quality of life of these cases can be improved. Key words: Ectodermal dysplasia, three-dimensional dental tomography. PMID:25662550