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Sample records for pacap-cytokine interactions govern

  1. Government - contractor interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the Administrative Contracting Officer represents an advance in the Government system of contract management because it provides an individual with knowledge, time, and a specialized function to insure performance of Government contracts. However, the development has created a dichotomy between the award and the post-award function which increases the adversary relationship with Government contractors. This paper advocates that this adversary relationship can be decreased if PCOs and ACOs are provided with opportunities to serve in the assignments of the other.

  2. Government and Governance of Regional Triple Helix Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danson, Mike; Todeva, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual paper contributes to the discussion of the role of regional government and regional Triple Helix constellations driving economic development and growth within regional boundaries. The impact of regionalism and subsidiarity on regional Triple Helix constellations, and the questions of governmentality, governance and institutional…

  3. Universal Power Law Governing Pedestrian Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamouzas, Ioannis; Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J.

    2014-12-01

    Human crowds often bear a striking resemblance to interacting particle systems, and this has prompted many researchers to describe pedestrian dynamics in terms of interaction forces and potential energies. The correct quantitative form of this interaction, however, has remained an open question. Here, we introduce a novel statistical-mechanical approach to directly measure the interaction energy between pedestrians. This analysis, when applied to a large collection of human motion data, reveals a simple power-law interaction that is based not on the physical separation between pedestrians but on their projected time to a potential future collision, and is therefore fundamentally anticipatory in nature. Remarkably, this simple law is able to describe human interactions across a wide variety of situations, speeds, and densities. We further show, through simulations, that the interaction law we identify is sufficient to reproduce many known crowd phenomena.

  4. A Universal Power Law Governing Pedestrian Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamouzas, Ioannis; Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J.

    2015-03-01

    Human crowds often bear a striking resemblance to interacting particle systems, and this has prompted many researchers to describe pedestrian dynamics in terms of interaction forces and potential energies. The correct quantitative form of this interaction, however, has remained an open question. Here, we introduce a novel statistical-mechanical approach to directly measure the interaction energy between pedestrians. This analysis, when applied to a large collection of human motion data, reveals a simple power law interaction that is based not on the physical separation between pedestrians but on their projected time to a potential future collision, and is therefore fundamentally anticipatory in nature. Remarkably, this simple law is able to describe human interactions across a wide variety of situations, speeds and densities. We further show, through simulations, that the interaction law we identify is sufficient to reproduce many known crowd phenomena. Work at Argonne National Laboratory is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Work at the University of Minnesota is supported by MnDRIVE Initiative on Robotics, Sensors, and Advanced Manufacturing.

  5. Biotic interactions govern genetic adaptation to toxicants.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jeremias Martin; Liess, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    The genetic recovery of resistant populations released from pesticide exposure is accelerated by the presence of environmental stressors. By contrast, the relevance of environmental stressors for the spread of resistance during pesticide exposure has not been studied. Moreover, the consequences of interactions between different stressors have not been considered. Here we show that stress through intraspecific competition accelerates microevolution, because it enhances fitness differences between adapted and non-adapted individuals. By contrast, stress through interspecific competition or predation reduces intraspecific competition and thereby delays microevolution. This was demonstrated in mosquito populations (Culex quinquefasciatus) that were exposed to the pesticide chlorpyrifos. Non-selective predation through harvesting and interspecific competition with Daphnia magna delayed the selection for individuals carrying the ace-1(R) resistance allele. Under non-toxic conditions, susceptible individuals without ace-1(R) prevailed. Likewise, predation delayed the reverse adaptation of the populations to a non-toxic environment, while the effect of interspecific competition was not significant. Applying a simulation model, we further identified how microevolution is generally determined by the type and degree of competition and predation. We infer that interactions with other species-especially strong in ecosystems with high biodiversity-can delay the development of pesticide resistance.

  6. Government and industry interactions in the development of clock technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellwig, H.

    1981-01-01

    It appears likely that everyone in the time and frequency community can agree on goals to be realized through the expenditure of resources. These goals are the same as found in most fields of technology: lower cost, better performance, increased reliability, small size and lower power. Related aspects are examined in the process of clock and frequency standard development. Government and industry are reviewed in a highly interactive role. These interactions include judgements on clock performance, what kind of clock, expenditure of resources, transfer of ideas or hardware concepts from government to industry, and control of production. Successful clock development and production requires a government/industry relationship which is characterized by long-term continuity, multidisciplinary team work, focused funding and a separation of reliability and production oriented tasks from performance improvement/research type efforts.

  7. Public-private interactions in global food safety governance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In response to an apparent decline in global food safety, numerous public and private regulatory initiatives have emerged to restore public confidence. This trend has been particularly marked by the growing influence of private regulators such as multinational food companies, supermarket chains and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who employ private standards, certification protocols, third-party auditing, and transnational contracting practices. This paper explores how the structure and processes of private food safety governance interact with traditional public governance regimes, focusing on Global Good Agricultural Practices (GlobalGAP) as a primary example of the former. Due to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of public regulation in the face of global problems, private governance in food safety has gradually replaced states' command-and-control regulation with more flexible, market-oriented mechanisms. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of constructive regime interaction instead of institutional boundary building to global food safety governance. Public and private ordering must each play a role as integral parts of a larger, dynamic and evolving governance complex.

  8. Public-private interactions in global food safety governance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In response to an apparent decline in global food safety, numerous public and private regulatory initiatives have emerged to restore public confidence. This trend has been particularly marked by the growing influence of private regulators such as multinational food companies, supermarket chains and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who employ private standards, certification protocols, third-party auditing, and transnational contracting practices. This paper explores how the structure and processes of private food safety governance interact with traditional public governance regimes, focusing on Global Good Agricultural Practices (GlobalGAP) as a primary example of the former. Due to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of public regulation in the face of global problems, private governance in food safety has gradually replaced states' command-and-control regulation with more flexible, market-oriented mechanisms. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of constructive regime interaction instead of institutional boundary building to global food safety governance. Public and private ordering must each play a role as integral parts of a larger, dynamic and evolving governance complex. PMID:25163209

  9. Caveolin interaction governs Kv1.3 lipid raft targeting.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Verdaguer, Mireia; Capera, Jesusa; Martínez-Mármol, Ramón; Camps, Marta; Comes, Núria; Tamkun, Michael M; Felipe, Antonio

    2016-03-02

    The spatial localization of ion channels at the cell surface is crucial for their functional role. Many channels localize in lipid raft microdomains, which are enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Caveolae, specific lipid rafts which concentrate caveolins, harbor signaling molecules and their targets becoming signaling platforms crucial in cell physiology. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in such spatial localization are under debate. Kv1.3 localizes in lipid rafts and participates in the immunological response. We sought to elucidate the mechanisms of Kv1.3 surface targeting, which govern leukocyte physiology. Kv1 channels share a putative caveolin-binding domain located at the intracellular N-terminal of the channel. This motif, lying close to the S1 transmembrane segment, is situated near the T1 tetramerization domain and the determinants involved in the Kvβ subunit association. The highly hydrophobic domain (FQRQVWLLF) interacts with caveolin 1 targeting Kv1.3 to caveolar rafts. However, subtle variations of this cluster, putative ancillary associations and different structural conformations can impair the caveolin recognition, thereby altering channel's spatial localization. Our results identify a caveolin-binding domain in Kv1 channels and highlight the mechanisms that govern the regulation of channel surface localization during cellular processes.

  10. Vortex dynamics in superfluids governed by an interacting gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butera, Salvatore; Valiente, Manuel; Öhberg, Patrik

    2016-08-01

    We study the dynamics of a vortex in a quasi two-dimensional Bose gas consisting of light-matter coupled atoms forming two-component pseudo spins. The gas is subject to a density dependent gauge potential, hence governed by an interacting gauge theory, which stems from a collisionally induced detuning between the incident laser frequency and the atomic energy levels. This provides a back-action between the synthetic gauge potential and the matter field. A Lagrangian approach is used to derive an expression for the force acting on a vortex in such a gas. We discuss the similarities between this force and the one predicted by Iordanskii, Lifshitz and Pitaevskii when scattering between a superfluid vortex and the thermal component is taken into account.

  11. Differential interaction forces govern bacterial sorting in early biofilms.

    PubMed

    Oldewurtel, Enno R; Kouzel, Nadzeya; Dewenter, Lena; Henseler, Katja; Maier, Berenike

    2015-09-24

    Bacterial biofilms can generate micro-heterogeneity in terms of surface structures. However, little is known about the associated changes in the physics of cell-cell interaction and its impact on the architecture of biofilms. In this study, we used the type IV pilus of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to test whether variation of surface structures induces cell-sorting. We show that the rupture forces between pili are fine-tuned by post-translational modification. Bacterial sorting was dependent on pilus post-translational modification and pilus density. Active force generation was necessary for defined morphologies of mixed microcolonies. The observed morphotypes were in remarkable agreement with the differential strength of adhesion hypothesis proposing that a tug-of-war among surface structures of different cells governs cell sorting. We conclude that in early biofilms the density and rupture force of bacterial surface structures can trigger cell sorting based on similar physical principles as in developing embryos.

  12. Governance of Innovation and Intermediation in Triple Helix Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todeva, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Research on sustainability and innovation-driven economic growth has exposed a lack of sufficient knowledge in the governance literature about the appropriate extent of government involvement. This paper focuses on the governance of innovation and the intermediary role of the state. The author synthesizes the literature on governance and…

  13. Aromatic stacking interactions govern catalysis in aryl-alcohol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Patricia; Hernández-Ortega, Aitor; Lucas, Fátima; Carro, Juan; Herguedas, Beatriz; Borrelli, Kenneth W; Guallar, Victor; Martínez, Angel T; Medina, Milagros

    2015-08-01

    Aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO, EC 1.1.3.7) generates H2 O2 for lignin degradation at the expense of benzylic and other π system-containing primary alcohols, which are oxidized to the corresponding aldehydes. Ligand diffusion studies on Pleurotus eryngii AAO showed a T-shaped stacking interaction between the Tyr92 side chain and the alcohol substrate at the catalytically competent position for concerted hydride and proton transfers. Bi-substrate kinetics analysis revealed that reactions with 3-chloro- or 3-fluorobenzyl alcohols (halogen substituents) proceed via a ping-pong mechanism. However, mono- and dimethoxylated substituents (in 4-methoxybenzyl and 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohols) altered the mechanism and a ternary complex was formed. Electron-withdrawing substituents resulted in lower quantum mechanics stacking energies between aldehyde and the tyrosine side chain, contributing to product release, in agreement with the ping-pong mechanism observed in 3-chloro- and 3-fluorobenzyl alcohol kinetics analysis. In contrast, the higher stacking energies when electron donor substituents are present result in reaction of O2 with the flavin through a ternary complex, in agreement with the kinetics of methoxylated alcohols. The contribution of Tyr92 to the AAO reaction mechanism was investigated by calculation of stacking interaction energies and site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of Tyr92 by phenylalanine does not alter the AAO kinetic constants (on 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol), most probably because the stacking interaction is still possible. However, introduction of a tryptophan residue at this position strongly reduced the affinity for the substrate (i.e. the pre-steady state Kd and steady-state Km increase by 150-fold and 75-fold, respectively), and therefore the steady-state catalytic efficiency, suggesting that proper stacking is impossible with this bulky residue. The above results confirm the role of Tyr92 in substrate binding, thus governing the kinetic mechanism

  14. Aromatic stacking interactions govern catalysis in aryl-alcohol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Patricia; Hernández-Ortega, Aitor; Lucas, Fátima; Carro, Juan; Herguedas, Beatriz; Borrelli, Kenneth W; Guallar, Victor; Martínez, Angel T; Medina, Milagros

    2015-08-01

    Aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO, EC 1.1.3.7) generates H2 O2 for lignin degradation at the expense of benzylic and other π system-containing primary alcohols, which are oxidized to the corresponding aldehydes. Ligand diffusion studies on Pleurotus eryngii AAO showed a T-shaped stacking interaction between the Tyr92 side chain and the alcohol substrate at the catalytically competent position for concerted hydride and proton transfers. Bi-substrate kinetics analysis revealed that reactions with 3-chloro- or 3-fluorobenzyl alcohols (halogen substituents) proceed via a ping-pong mechanism. However, mono- and dimethoxylated substituents (in 4-methoxybenzyl and 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohols) altered the mechanism and a ternary complex was formed. Electron-withdrawing substituents resulted in lower quantum mechanics stacking energies between aldehyde and the tyrosine side chain, contributing to product release, in agreement with the ping-pong mechanism observed in 3-chloro- and 3-fluorobenzyl alcohol kinetics analysis. In contrast, the higher stacking energies when electron donor substituents are present result in reaction of O2 with the flavin through a ternary complex, in agreement with the kinetics of methoxylated alcohols. The contribution of Tyr92 to the AAO reaction mechanism was investigated by calculation of stacking interaction energies and site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of Tyr92 by phenylalanine does not alter the AAO kinetic constants (on 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol), most probably because the stacking interaction is still possible. However, introduction of a tryptophan residue at this position strongly reduced the affinity for the substrate (i.e. the pre-steady state Kd and steady-state Km increase by 150-fold and 75-fold, respectively), and therefore the steady-state catalytic efficiency, suggesting that proper stacking is impossible with this bulky residue. The above results confirm the role of Tyr92 in substrate binding, thus governing the kinetic mechanism

  15. Differential interaction forces govern bacterial sorting in early biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Oldewurtel, Enno R; Kouzel, Nadzeya; Dewenter, Lena; Henseler, Katja; Maier, Berenike

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms can generate micro-heterogeneity in terms of surface structures. However, little is known about the associated changes in the physics of cell–cell interaction and its impact on the architecture of biofilms. In this study, we used the type IV pilus of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to test whether variation of surface structures induces cell-sorting. We show that the rupture forces between pili are fine-tuned by post-translational modification. Bacterial sorting was dependent on pilus post-translational modification and pilus density. Active force generation was necessary for defined morphologies of mixed microcolonies. The observed morphotypes were in remarkable agreement with the differential strength of adhesion hypothesis proposing that a tug-of-war among surface structures of different cells governs cell sorting. We conclude that in early biofilms the density and rupture force of bacterial surface structures can trigger cell sorting based on similar physical principles as in developing embryos. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10811.001 PMID:26402455

  16. 49 CFR 40.353 - What principles govern the interaction between MROs and other service agents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What principles govern the interaction between... Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.353 What principles govern the interaction between MROs and other service... interaction with MROs: (a) You may provide MRO services to employers, directly or through contract, if...

  17. Conserved rules govern genetic interaction degree across species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Synthetic genetic interactions have recently been mapped on a genome scale in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, providing a functional view of the central processes of eukaryotic life. Currently, comprehensive genetic interaction networks have not been determined for other species, and we therefore sought to model conserved aspects of genetic interaction networks in order to enable the transfer of knowledge between species. Results Using a combination of physiological and evolutionary properties of genes, we built models that successfully predicted the genetic interaction degree of S. cerevisiae genes. Importantly, a model trained on S. cerevisiae gene features and degree also accurately predicted interaction degree in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, suggesting that many of the predictive relationships discovered in S. cerevisiae also hold in this evolutionarily distant yeast. In both species, high single mutant fitness defect, protein disorder, pleiotropy, protein-protein interaction network degree, and low expression variation were significantly predictive of genetic interaction degree. A comparison of the predicted genetic interaction degrees of S. pombe genes to the degrees of S. cerevisiae orthologs revealed functional rewiring of specific biological processes that distinguish these two species. Finally, predicted differences in genetic interaction degree were independently supported by differences in co-expression relationships of the two species. Conclusions Our findings show that there are common relationships between gene properties and genetic interaction network topology in two evolutionarily distant species. This conservation allows use of the extensively mapped S. cerevisiae genetic interaction network as an orthology-independent reference to guide the study of more complex species. PMID:22747640

  18. Thermal Decomposition of IMX-104: Ingredient Interactions Govern Thermal Insensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Maharrey, Sean; Wiese-Smith, Deneille; Highley, Aaron M.; Steill, Jeffrey D.; Behrens, Richard; Kay, Jeffrey J.

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes initial studies into the chemical basis of the thermal insensitivity of INMX-104. The work follows upon similar efforts investigating this behavior for another DNAN-based insensitive explosive, IMX-101. The experiments described demonstrate a clear similarity between the ingredient interactions that were shown to lead to the thermal insensitivity observed in IMX-101 and those that are active in IMX-104 at elevated temperatures. Specifically, the onset of decomposition of RDX is shifted to a lower temperature based on the interaction of the RDX with liquid DNAN. This early onset of decomposition dissipates some stored energy that is then unavailable for a delayed, more violent release.

  19. Electrostatic interactions as governing the fouling in protein microfiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouammou, M.; Tijani, N.; Calvo, J. I.; Palacio, L.; Prádanos, P.; Hernández, A.

    2005-03-01

    The influence of pH and electrostatic interactions on the fouling mechanism during protein dead-end microfiltration (MF) has been investigated for two charged membranes. Polyethersulfone acidic membranes (ICE-450), being negatively charged, and basic ones (SB-6407), these positively charged, both from Pall Co., have been used in the investigations. BSA and Lysozyme solutions at different pH values (3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 8.5 and 10.0) were microfiltered through the membranes at a constant applied transmembrane pressure. Results have been analysed in terms of usual blocking filtration laws and a substantial change in the fouling behaviour has been observed when solution pH and/or membrane charge as the pressure was changed, this change being clearly related with the specific membrane-protein and protein-protein interactions.

  20. Side-Chain Conformational Preferences Govern Protein-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Andrew M; Bonneau, Richard; Arora, Paramjit S

    2016-08-24

    Protein secondary structures serve as geometrically constrained scaffolds for the display of key interacting residues at protein interfaces. Given the critical role of secondary structures in protein folding and the dependence of folding propensities on backbone dihedrals, secondary structure is expected to influence the identity of residues that are important for complex formation. Counter to this expectation, we find that a narrow set of residues dominates the binding energy in protein-protein complexes independent of backbone conformation. This finding suggests that the binding epitope may instead be substantially influenced by the side-chain conformations adopted. We analyzed side-chain conformational preferences in residues that contribute significantly to binding. This analysis suggests that preferred rotamers contribute directly to specificity in protein complex formation and provides guidelines for peptidomimetic inhibitor design.

  1. Interactions between spatially explicit conservation and management measures: implications for the governance of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, P Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F

    2013-12-01

    Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

  2. Interactions between spatially explicit conservation and management measures: implications for the governance of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, P Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F

    2013-12-01

    Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas. PMID:24091586

  3. Interactions Between Spatially Explicit Conservation and Management Measures: Implications for the Governance of Marine Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárcamo, P. Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F.

    2013-12-01

    Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

  4. Profile of the intermolecular forces governing the interaction of drugs with mucin.

    PubMed

    Caron, Giulia; Visentin, Sonja; Pontremoli, Carlotta; Ermondi, Giuseppe

    2015-07-01

    The study highlights the balance of the intermolecular forces governing the interaction between drugs and mucin. The interaction strength is expressed as a retention factor k (data retrieved from the literature (Gargano et al., 2014)) obtained by a new bio-affinity chromatographic method in which the stationary phase is based on covalently immobilized mucin (porcine gastric mucin, PGM). A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) between logk and 82 VolSurf+ descriptors was established and mechanistically interpreted. Results evidence that all blocks contribute similarly to the model; moreover, hydrogen bonding donor (HBD) properties of solutes favor the interaction with mucin; and thus, support their detrimental role on drug permeability.

  5. Interactions between bacterial surface and nanoparticles govern the performance of "chemical nose" biosensors.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mohit S; Wei, Shih-Chung; Rogowski, Jacob L; Tsuji, Jackson M; Chen, Paul Z; Lin, Chii-Wann; Jones, Lyndon; Gu, Frank X

    2016-09-15

    Rapid and portable diagnosis of pathogenic bacteria can save lives lost from infectious diseases. Biosensors based on a "chemical nose" approach are attracting interest because they are versatile but the governing interactions between bacteria and the biosensors are poorly understood. Here, we use a "chemical nose" biosensor based on gold nanoparticles to explore the role of extracellular polymeric substances in bacteria-nanoparticle interactions. We employ simulations using Maxwell-Garnett theory to show how the type and extent of aggregation of nanoparticles influence their colorimetric response to bacteria. Using eight different species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, we demonstrate that this "chemical nose" can detect and identify bacteria over two orders of magnitude of concentration (89% accuracy). Additionally, the "chemical nose" differentiates between binary and tertiary mixtures of the three most common hospital-isolated pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (100% accuracy). We demonstrate that the complex interactions between nanoparticles and bacterial surface determine the colorimetric response of gold nanoparticles and thus, govern the performance of "chemical nose" biosensors.

  6. Explanation of Interaction between Iranian Physicians and Government in the Field of Tax: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Pakdaman, Mohsen; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Sefiddashti, Sara Emamgholipour; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Abdoli, Ghahreman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the main tools for fair redistribution of income in the society is taxes, and, in developing countries, the public sector is financed through taxes. Identifying physicians’ income to determine their income tax is associated with many problems. This study was conducted to identify the factors that affect the interaction between Iranian physicians and the government regarding taxes to cover gaps in the tax system and resolve the problems associated with the interactions between physicians and the government relative to taxes. Methods This study was a qualitative content analysis conducted in 2015. Two groups of participants were involved in this qualitative study. The first group was 11 experts and scholars from organizations related to taxes, and the second group was 10 general practitioners and specialists selected through purposive sampling until data saturation was achieved. MAXQDA 10 software was used for assigning interviews, mining codes, and categorizing the codes. In addition, qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Data analysis resulted in emergence of three categories, i.e., “Tax Affairs Organization and government,” “physicians,” and “Medical Council.” There were 12 subcategories for these three categories. The results of this study showed that the Tax Affairs Organization does not have access to the income information of physicians required to determine their taxes. The government should create motivation for accurate and proper tax payments by physicians by providing them with various amenities. It should be clear and tangible where the government spends the taxes received from physicians, and an appropriate tax culture should be created by using the mass media. Conclusion The Tax Affairs Organization should identify the physicians who do not pay taxes through interaction and cooperation of the Medical Council as a trade organization, and it should compile their tax records. The Medical

  7. Possible mechanism for flocculation interactions governed by gene FLO1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Miki, B L; Poon, N H; James, A P; Seligy, V L

    1982-01-01

    A model is proposed for the mechanism of flocculation interactions in yeasts in which flocculent cells have a recognition factor which attaches to alpha-mannan sites on other cells. This factor may be governed by the expression of the single, dominant gene FLO1. Isogenic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, differing only at FLO1 and the marker genes ade1 and trp1, were developed to examine the components involved in flocculene. Electron microscopy and concanavalin Aferritin labeling of aggregated cells showed that extensive and intense interactions between cell wall mannan layers mediated cell aggregation. The components of the mannan layer essential for flocculence were Ca2+ ions, alpha-mannan carbohydrates, and proteins. By studying the divalent cation dependence at various pH values and in the presence of competing monovalent cations, flocculation was found to be Ca2+ dependent; however, Mg2+ and Mn2+ ions substituted for Ca2+ under certain conditions. Reversible inhibition of flocculation by concanavalin A and succinylated concanavalin A implicated alpha-branched mannan carbohydrates as one essential component which alone did not determine the strain specificity of flocculence, since nonflocculent strains interacted with and competed for binding sites on flocculent cells. FLO1 may govern the expression of a proteinaceous, lectin-like activity, firmly associated with the cell walls of flocculent cells, which bind to the alpha-mannan carbohydrates of adjoining cells. It was selectively and irreversibly inhibited by proteolysis and reduction of disulfide bonds. The potential of this system as a model for the genetic and biochemical control of cell-cell interactions is discussed. Images PMID:7040343

  8. Weak Interactions Govern the Viscosity of Concentrated Antibody Solutions: High-Throughput Analysis Using the Diffusion Interaction Parameter

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Brian D.; Petry, Chris; Yadav, Sandeep; Demeule, Barthélemy; Ciaccio, Natalie; Moore, Jamie M.R.; Shire, Steven J.; Gokarn, Yatin R.

    2012-01-01

    Weak protein-protein interactions are thought to modulate the viscoelastic properties of concentrated antibody solutions. Predicting the viscoelastic behavior of concentrated antibodies from their dilute solution behavior is of significant interest and remains a challenge. Here, we show that the diffusion interaction parameter (kD), a component of the osmotic second virial coefficient (B2) that is amenable to high-throughput measurement in dilute solutions, correlates well with the viscosity of concentrated monoclonal antibody (mAb) solutions. We measured the kD of 29 different mAbs (IgG1 and IgG4) in four different solvent conditions (low and high ion normality) and found a linear dependence between kD and the exponential coefficient that describes the viscosity concentration profiles (|R| ≥ 0.9). Through experimentally measured effective charge measurements, under low ion normality where the electroviscous effect can dominate, we show that the mAb solution viscosity is poorly correlated with the mAb net charge (|R| ≤ 0.6). With this large data set, our results provide compelling evidence in support of weak intermolecular interactions, in contrast to the notion that the electroviscous effect is important in governing the viscoelastic behavior of concentrated mAb solutions. Our approach is particularly applicable as a screening tool for selecting mAbs with desirable viscosity properties early during lead candidate selection. PMID:22828333

  9. pH-Dependent Interactions in Dimers Govern the Mechanics and Structure of von Willebrand Factor.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jochen P; Löf, Achim; Mielke, Salomé; Obser, Tobias; Bruetzel, Linda K; Vanderlinden, Willem; Lipfert, Jan; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Benoit, Martin

    2016-07-26

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a multimeric plasma glycoprotein that is activated for hemostasis by increased hydrodynamic forces at sites of vascular injury. Here, we present data from atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule force measurements, atomic force microscopy imaging, and small-angle x-ray scattering to show that the structure and mechanics of VWF are governed by multiple pH-dependent interactions with opposite trends within dimeric subunits. In particular, the recently discovered strong intermonomer interaction, which induces a firmly closed conformation of dimers and crucially involves the D4 domain, was observed with highest frequency at pH 7.4, but was essentially absent at pH values below 6.8. However, below pH 6.8, the ratio of compact dimers increased with decreasing pH, in line with a previous transmission electron microscopy study. These findings indicated that the compactness of dimers at pH values below 6.8 is promoted by other interactions that possess low mechanical resistance compared with the strong intermonomer interaction. By investigating deletion constructs, we found that compactness under acidic conditions is primarily mediated by the D4 domain, i.e., remarkably by the same domain that also mediates the strong intermonomer interaction. As our data suggest that VWF has the highest mechanical resistance at physiological pH, local deviations from physiological pH (e.g., at sites of vascular injury) may represent a means to enhance VWF's hemostatic activity where needed. PMID:27463134

  10. pH-Dependent Interactions in Dimers Govern the Mechanics and Structure of von Willebrand Factor.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jochen P; Löf, Achim; Mielke, Salomé; Obser, Tobias; Bruetzel, Linda K; Vanderlinden, Willem; Lipfert, Jan; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Benoit, Martin

    2016-07-26

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a multimeric plasma glycoprotein that is activated for hemostasis by increased hydrodynamic forces at sites of vascular injury. Here, we present data from atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule force measurements, atomic force microscopy imaging, and small-angle x-ray scattering to show that the structure and mechanics of VWF are governed by multiple pH-dependent interactions with opposite trends within dimeric subunits. In particular, the recently discovered strong intermonomer interaction, which induces a firmly closed conformation of dimers and crucially involves the D4 domain, was observed with highest frequency at pH 7.4, but was essentially absent at pH values below 6.8. However, below pH 6.8, the ratio of compact dimers increased with decreasing pH, in line with a previous transmission electron microscopy study. These findings indicated that the compactness of dimers at pH values below 6.8 is promoted by other interactions that possess low mechanical resistance compared with the strong intermonomer interaction. By investigating deletion constructs, we found that compactness under acidic conditions is primarily mediated by the D4 domain, i.e., remarkably by the same domain that also mediates the strong intermonomer interaction. As our data suggest that VWF has the highest mechanical resistance at physiological pH, local deviations from physiological pH (e.g., at sites of vascular injury) may represent a means to enhance VWF's hemostatic activity where needed.

  11. Hydrophobic interaction governs unspecific adhesion of staphylococci: a single cell force spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Thewes, Nicolas; Loskill, Peter; Jung, Philipp; Peisker, Henrik; Bischoff, Markus; Herrmann, Mathias; Jacobs, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Unspecific adhesion of bacteria is usually the first step in the formation of biofilms on abiotic surfaces, yet it is unclear up to now which forces are governing this process. Alongside long-ranged van der Waals and electrostatic forces, short-ranged hydrophobic interaction plays an important role. To characterize the forces involved during approach and retraction of an individual bacterium to and from a surface, single cell force spectroscopy is applied: A single cell of the apathogenic species Staphylococcus carnosus isolate TM300 is used as bacterial probe. With the exact same bacterium, hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces can be probed and compared. We find that as far as 50 nm from the surface, attractive forces can already be recorded, an indication of the involvement of long-ranged forces. Yet, comparing the surfaces of different surface energy, our results corroborate the model that large, bacterial cell wall proteins are responsible for adhesion, and that their interplay with the short-ranged hydrophobic interaction of the involved surfaces is mainly responsible for adhesion. The ostensibly long range of the attraction is a result of the large size of the cell wall proteins, searching for contact via hydrophobic interaction. The model also explains the strong (weak) adhesion of S. carnosus to hydrophobic (hydrophilic) surfaces. PMID:25247133

  12. Interacting forms of expertise in security governance: the example of CCTV surveillance at Geneva International Airport.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Francisco

    2009-06-01

    The paper investigates the multiple public-private exchanges and cooperation involved in the installation and development of CCTV surveillance at Geneva International Airport. Emphasis is placed on the interacting forms of authority and expertise of five parties: the user(s), owner and supplier of the camera system, as well as the technical managers of the airport and the Swiss regulatory bodies in airport security. While placing the issues of airport surveillance in the particular context of a specific range of projects and transformations relating to the developments of CCTV at Geneva Airport, the paper not only provides important insights into the micro-politics of surveillance at Geneva Airport, but aims to re-institute these as part of a broader 'problematic': the mediating role of expertise and the growing functional fragmentation of authority in contemporary security governance. On this basis, the paper also exemplifies the growing mutual interdependences between security and business interests in the ever growing 'surveillant assemblage' in contemporary security governance. PMID:19489820

  13. Periodic trends governing the interactions between impurity atoms [H-Ar] and (alpha)-U

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Christopher David

    2008-01-01

    The binding energies, geometries, charges and electronic structures of a series of impurity atoms [H-Ar] interacting with the {alpha}-U lattice in various configurations were assessed by means of density functional theory calculations. Periodic trends governing the binding energy were highlighted and related to the electronic properties of the impurity atoms, with some consideration given to the band-structure of {alpha}-U. The strongest bound impurity atoms include [C, N, O] and [Si, P, S]. The general trends in the binding energy can be reproduced by a simple parameterisation in terms of the electronegativity (charge-transfer) and covalent radius (elasticity theory) of the impurity atom. The strongest bound atoms deviate from this model, due to their ability to bind with an optimum mixture of covalency and ionicity. This last point is evidenced by the partial overlap of the impurity atom p-band with the hybrid d-/f-band of {alpha}-U. It is expected that the trends and general behaviour reported in this work can be extended to the interactions of impurity atoms with other metallic systems.

  14. Biogeochemistry and biodiversity interact to govern N2 fixers (Fabaceae) across Amazon tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Sarah; Hedin, Lars; Lloyd, Jon; Quesada, Beto

    2015-04-01

    Dinitrogen (N2)-fixing trees in the Fabaceae fulfill a central role in tropical rainforests by supplying nitrogen from the atmosphere, yet whether they will support a forest CO2 sink in the future by alleviating nitrogen limitation may depend on whether and how they are controlled by local environmental conditions. Theory predicts that soil nutrients govern the function of N2 fixers, yet there have been no large-scale field-based tests of this idea. Moreover, recent findings indicate that N2-fixing species behave differently in biogeochemical cycles, suggesting that any environmental control may differ by species, and that the diversity of N2-fixing trees may be critical for ensuring tropical forest function. In this talk, we will use the RAINFOR dataset of 108 (~1.0 ha) lowland tropical rainforest plots from across the Amazon Basin to test whether the abundance and diversity of N2-fixing trees are controlled by soil nutrient availability (i.e., increasing with phosphorus and decreasing with nitrogen), or if fixer abundance and diversity simply follow the dynamics of all tree species. We also test an alternative - but not mutually exclusive - hypothesis that the governing factor for fixers is forest disturbance. Results show a surprising lack of control by local nutrients or disturbance on the abundance or diversity of N2 fixers. The dominant driver of fixer diversity was the total number of tree species, with fixers comprising 10% of all species in a forest plot (R2 = 0.75, linear regression). When considering the dominant taxa of N2 fixers (Inga, Swartzia, Tachigali) alone, environmental factors (nitrogen, phosphorus and disturbance) became important and clearly governed their abundance. These taxa, which contain >60% of N2-fixing trees in the data set, appear to have evolved to specialize in different local environmental conditions. The strong biogeochemistry-by-biodiversity interaction observed here points to a need to consider individual species or taxa of N2

  15. Exploring the Complex Interaction between Governance and Knowledge in Education. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazekas, Mihaly; Burns, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    Governments in all Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries are facing the challenge of governing increasingly complex education systems. There is a growing need for governance structures that can handle this complexity and which can provide actors with the knowledge they need to make decisions. This working paper…

  16. Crepuscular flight activity of an invasive insect governed by interacting abiotic factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Seybold, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and diurnal flight patterns of the invasive walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, were assessed between 2011 and 2014 in northern California, USA in the context of the effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, wind speed, and barometric pressure. Pityophthorus juglandis generally initiated flight in late January and continued until late November. This seasonal flight could be divided approximately into three phases (emergence: January-March; primary flight: May-July; and secondary flight: September-October). The seasonal flight response to the male-produced aggregation pheromone was consistently female-biased (mean of 58.9% females). Diurnal flight followed a bimodal pattern with a minor peak in mid-morning and a major peak at dusk (76.4% caught between 1800 and 2200 h). The primarily crepuscular flight activity had a Gaussian relationship with ambient temperature and barometric pressure but a negative exponential relationship with increasing light intensity and wind speed. A model selection procedure indicated that the four abiotic factors collectively and interactively governed P. juglandis diurnal flight. For both sexes, flight peaked under the following second-order interactions among the factors when: 1) temperature between was 25 and 30 °C and light intensity was less than 2000 lux; 2) temperature was between 25 and 35 °C and barometric pressure was between 752 and 762 mba (and declined otherwise); 3) barometric pressure was between 755 and 761 mba and light intensity was less than 2000 lux (and declined otherwise); and 4) temperature was ca. 30 °C and wind speed was ca. 2 km/h. Thus, crepuscular flight activity of this insect can be best explained by the coincidence of moderately high temperature, low light intensity, moderate wind speed, and low to moderate barometric pressure. The new knowledge provides physical and temporal guidelines for the application of semiochemical-based control techniques as part of an IPM program for this

  17. Crepuscular Flight Activity of an Invasive Insect Governed by Interacting Abiotic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yigen; Seybold, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and diurnal flight patterns of the invasive walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, were assessed between 2011 and 2014 in northern California, USA in the context of the effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, wind speed, and barometric pressure. Pityophthorus juglandis generally initiated flight in late January and continued until late November. This seasonal flight could be divided approximately into three phases (emergence: January–March; primary flight: May–July; and secondary flight: September–October). The seasonal flight response to the male-produced aggregation pheromone was consistently female-biased (mean of 58.9% females). Diurnal flight followed a bimodal pattern with a minor peak in mid-morning and a major peak at dusk (76.4% caught between 1800 and 2200 h). The primarily crepuscular flight activity had a Gaussian relationship with ambient temperature and barometric pressure but a negative exponential relationship with increasing light intensity and wind speed. A model selection procedure indicated that the four abiotic factors collectively and interactively governed P. juglandis diurnal flight. For both sexes, flight peaked under the following second-order interactions among the factors when: 1) temperature between was 25 and 30°C and light intensity was less than 2000 lux; 2) temperature was between 25 and 35°C and barometric pressure was between 752 and 762 mba (and declined otherwise); 3) barometric pressure was between 755 and 761 mba and light intensity was less than 2000 lux (and declined otherwise); and 4) temperature was ca. 30°C and wind speed was ca. 2 km/h. Thus, crepuscular flight activity of this insect can be best explained by the coincidence of moderately high temperature, low light intensity, moderate wind speed, and low to moderate barometric pressure. The new knowledge provides physical and temporal guidelines for the application of semiochemical-based control techniques as part of an IPM program for

  18. Crepuscular flight activity of an invasive insect governed by interacting abiotic factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Seybold, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and diurnal flight patterns of the invasive walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, were assessed between 2011 and 2014 in northern California, USA in the context of the effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, wind speed, and barometric pressure. Pityophthorus juglandis generally initiated flight in late January and continued until late November. This seasonal flight could be divided approximately into three phases (emergence: January-March; primary flight: May-July; and secondary flight: September-October). The seasonal flight response to the male-produced aggregation pheromone was consistently female-biased (mean of 58.9% females). Diurnal flight followed a bimodal pattern with a minor peak in mid-morning and a major peak at dusk (76.4% caught between 1800 and 2200 h). The primarily crepuscular flight activity had a Gaussian relationship with ambient temperature and barometric pressure but a negative exponential relationship with increasing light intensity and wind speed. A model selection procedure indicated that the four abiotic factors collectively and interactively governed P. juglandis diurnal flight. For both sexes, flight peaked under the following second-order interactions among the factors when: 1) temperature between was 25 and 30 °C and light intensity was less than 2000 lux; 2) temperature was between 25 and 35 °C and barometric pressure was between 752 and 762 mba (and declined otherwise); 3) barometric pressure was between 755 and 761 mba and light intensity was less than 2000 lux (and declined otherwise); and 4) temperature was ca. 30 °C and wind speed was ca. 2 km/h. Thus, crepuscular flight activity of this insect can be best explained by the coincidence of moderately high temperature, low light intensity, moderate wind speed, and low to moderate barometric pressure. The new knowledge provides physical and temporal guidelines for the application of semiochemical-based control techniques as part of an IPM program for this

  19. Registered report: Interactions between cancer stem cells and their niche govern metastatic colonization

    PubMed Central

    Incardona, Francesca; Doroudchi, M Mehdi; Ismail, Nawfal; Carreno, Alberto; Griner, Erin; Anna Lim, Minyoung; Iorns, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by replicating selected results from a substantial number of high-profile papers in the field of cancer biology published between 2010 and 2012. This Registered report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from ‘Interactions between cancer stem cells and their niche govern metastatic colonization’ by Malanchi and colleagues, published in Nature in 2012 (Malanchi et al., 2012). The key experiments that will be replicated are those reported in Figures 2H, 3A, 3B, and S13. In these experiments, Malanchi and colleagues analyze messenger RNA levels of periostin (POSTN) in pulmonary fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells isolated from mice with micrometastases to determine which cell type is producing POSTN in the metastatic niche (Figure 2H; Malanchi et al., 2012). Additionally, they examine MMTV-PyMT control or POSTN null mice to test the effect of POSTN on primary tumor growth and metastasis (Figures 3A, 3B, and S13; Malanchi et al., 2012). The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange, and the results of the replications will be published in eLife. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06938.001 PMID:26086719

  20. Registered report: Interactions between cancer stem cells and their niche govern metastatic colonization.

    PubMed

    Incardona, Francesca; Doroudchi, M Mehdi; Ismail, Nawfal; Carreno, Alberto; Griner, Erin; Anna Lim, Minyoung

    2015-06-18

    The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by replicating selected results from a substantial number of high-profile papers in the field of cancer biology published between 2010 and 2012. This Registered report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from 'Interactions between cancer stem cells and their niche govern metastatic colonization' by Malanchi and colleagues, published in Nature in 2012 (Malanchi et al., 2012). The key experiments that will be replicated are those reported in Figures 2H, 3A, 3B, and S13. In these experiments, Malanchi and colleagues analyze messenger RNA levels of periostin (POSTN) in pulmonary fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells isolated from mice with micrometastases to determine which cell type is producing POSTN in the metastatic niche (Figure 2H; Malanchi et al., 2012). Additionally, they examine MMTV-PyMT control or POSTN null mice to test the effect of POSTN on primary tumor growth and metastasis (Figures 3A, 3B, and S13; Malanchi et al., 2012). The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange, and the results of the replications will be published in eLife.

  1. Synaptotagmin interaction with SNAP-25 governs vesicle docking, priming, and fusion triggering.

    PubMed

    Mohrmann, Ralf; de Wit, Heidi; Connell, Emma; Pinheiro, Paulo S; Leese, Charlotte; Bruns, Dieter; Davletov, Bazbek; Verhage, Matthijs; Sørensen, Jakob B

    2013-09-01

    SNARE complex assembly constitutes a key step in exocytosis that is rendered Ca(2+)-dependent by interactions with synaptotagmin-1. Two putative sites for synaptotagmin binding have recently been identified in SNAP-25 using biochemical methods: one located around the center and another at the C-terminal end of the SNARE bundle. However, it is still unclear whether and how synaptotagmin-1 × SNARE interactions at these sites are involved in regulating fast neurotransmitter release. Here, we have used electrophysiological techniques with high time-resolution to directly investigate the mechanistic ramifications of proposed SNAP-25 × synaptotagmin-1 interaction in mouse chromaffin cells. We demonstrate that the postulated central binding domain surrounding layer zero covers both SNARE motifs of SNAP-25 and is essential for vesicle docking, priming, and fast fusion-triggering. Mutation of this site caused no further functional alterations in synaptotagmin-1-deficient cells, indicating that the central acidic patch indeed constitutes a mechanistically relevant synaptotagmin-1 interaction site. Moreover, our data show that the C-terminal binding interface only plays a subsidiary role in triggering but is required for the full size of the readily releasable pool. Intriguingly, we also found that mutation of synaptotagmin-1 interaction sites led to more pronounced phenotypes in the context of the adult neuronal isoform SNAP-25B than in the embryonic isoform SNAP-25A. Further experiments demonstrated that stronger synaptotagmin-1 × SNAP-25B interactions allow for the larger primed vesicle pool supported by SNAP-25 isoform B. Thus, synaptotagmin-1 × SNARE interactions are not only required for multiple mechanistic steps en route to fusion but also underlie the developmental control of the releasable vesicle pool.

  2. [Government health planning in the state of Bahia, Brazil: political actors, social interaction and institutional learning].

    PubMed

    Jesus, Washington Luiz Abreu de; Teixeira, Carmen Fontes

    2014-09-01

    This article analyzes the process of government planning in health in the state of Bahia in the 2007-2010 period based on the formulation of the State Health Plan. The benchmark adopted involved adaptation of the theoretical model of the cycle of public policy, including analysis of context, characterization of the actors involved, operations conducted in decision making and the strategic means used. The production of information was through the analysis of documents organized in institutional portfolios and records of the planning process in the organization studied. The analysis of results reveals that the political game included "concessions" and "negotiations" regarding changes in the management and organization of the health system, highlighting the discussion on the problems facing the state management of the Unified Health System (SUS) during the period, and the search for alternatives and solutions to these problems. It also reveals the institutional learning acquired, involving managers and technicians who broadened and reinforced their capacity to analyze and formulate proposals around the government agenda.

  3. Building Capacity for Local Governance: An Application of Interactional Theory to Developing a Community of Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavey, Jamey L.; Muth, Allyson B.; Ostermeier, David; Davis, Miriam L. E. Steiner

    2007-01-01

    The Emory-Obed Watershed in Tennessee, like many other rural areas throughout the United States, is experiencing changes in economic activities and social values associated with natural resources. Informed by the interactional approach to community development, this effort strove to build community capacity so community members could more fully…

  4. Surface charge interactions of the FMN module govern catalysis by nitric-oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Panda, Koustubh; Haque, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Garcin-Hosfield, Elsa D; Durra, Deborah; Getzoff, Elizabeth D; Stuehr, Dennis J

    2006-12-01

    The FMN module of nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) plays a pivotal role by transferring NADPH-derived electrons to the enzyme heme for use in oxygen activation. The process may involve a swinging mechanism in which the same face of the FMN module accepts and provides electrons during catalysis. Crystal structure shows that this face of the FMN module is electronegative, whereas the complementary interacting surface is electropositive, implying that charge interactions enable function. We used site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the roles of six electronegative surface residues of the FMN module in electron transfer and catalysis in neuronal NOS. Results are interpreted in light of crystal structures of NOS and related flavoproteins. Neutralizing or reversing the negative charge of each residue altered the NO synthesis, NADPH oxidase, and cytochrome c reductase activities of neuronal NOS and also altered heme reduction. The largest effects occurred at the NOS-specific charged residue Glu(762). Together, the results suggest that electrostatic interactions of the FMN module help to regulate electron transfer and to minimize flavin autoxidation and the generation of reactive oxygen species during NOS catalysis. PMID:17001078

  5. CLASP2 interacts with p120-catenin and governs microtubule dynamics at adherens junctions

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Marta N.; Megias, Diego; Epifano, Carolina; Akhmanova, Anna; Gundersen, Gregg G.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Classical cadherins and their connections with microtubules (MTs) are emerging as important determinants of cell adhesion. However, the functional relevance of such interactions and the molecular players that contribute to tissue architecture are still emerging. In this paper, we report that the MT plus end–binding protein CLASP2 localizes to adherens junctions (AJs) via direct interaction with p120-catenin (p120) in primary basal mouse keratinocytes. Reductions in the levels of p120 or CLASP2 decreased the localization of the other protein to cell–cell contacts and altered AJ dynamics and stability. These features were accompanied by decreased MT density and altered MT dynamics at intercellular junction sites. Interestingly, CLASP2 was enriched at the cortex of basal progenitor keratinocytes, in close localization to p120. Our findings suggest the existence of a new mechanism of MT targeting to AJs with potential functional implications in the maintenance of proper cell–cell adhesion in epidermal stem cells. PMID:24368809

  6. The nature of protein interactions governing globular protein-polymer block copolymer self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Lam, Christopher N; Kim, Minkyu; Thomas, Carla S; Chang, Dongsook; Sanoja, Gabriel E; Okwara, Chimdimma U; Olsen, Bradley D

    2014-04-14

    The effects of protein surface potential on the self-assembly of protein-polymer block copolymers are investigated in globular proteins with controlled shape through two approaches: comparison of self-assembly of mCherry-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) bioconjugates with structurally homologous enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-PNIPAM bioconjugates, and mutants of mCherry with altered electrostatic patchiness. Despite large changes in amino acid sequence, the temperature-concentration phase diagrams of EGFP-PNIPAM and mCherry-PNIPAM conjugates have similar phase transition concentrations. Both materials form identical phases at two different coil fractions below the PNIPAM thermal transition temperature and in the bulk. However, at temperatures above the thermoresponsive transition, mCherry conjugates form hexagonal phases at high concentrations while EGFP conjugates form a disordered micellar phase. At lower concentration, mCherry shows a two-phase region while EGFP forms homogeneous disordered micellar structures, reflecting the effect of changes in micellar stability. Conjugates of four mCherry variants with changes to their electrostatic surface patchiness also showed minimal change in phase behavior, suggesting that surface patchiness has only a small effect on the self-assembly process. Measurements of protein/polymer miscibility, second virial coefficients, and zeta potential show that these coarse-grained interactions are similar between mCherry and EGFP, indicating that coarse-grained interactions largely capture the relevant physics for soluble, monomeric globular protein-polymer conjugate self-assembly. PMID:24654888

  7. Electrostatic interactions govern both nucleation and elongation during phage P22 procapsid assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, Kristin N.; Doyle, Shannon M.; Anderson, Eric; Teschke, Carolyn M. . E-mail: teschke@uconn.edu

    2005-09-15

    Icosahedral capsid assembly is an example of a reaction controlled solely by the interactions of the proteins involved. Bacteriophage P22 procapsids can be assembled in vitro by mixing coat and scaffolding proteins in a nucleation-limited reaction, where scaffolding protein directs the proper assembly of coat protein. Here, we investigated the effect of the buffer composition on the interactions necessary for capsid assembly. Different concentrations of various salts, chosen to follow the electroselectivity series for anions, were added to the assembly reaction. The concentration and type of salt was found to be crucial for proper nucleation of procapsids. Nucleation in low salt concentrations readily occurred but led to bowl-like partial procapsids, as visualized by negative stain electron microscopy. The edge of the partial capsids remained assembly-competent since coat protein addition triggered procapsid completion. The addition of salt to the partial capsids also caused procapsid completion. In addition, each salt affected both assembly rates and the extent of procapsid formation. We hypothesize that low salt conditions increase the coat protein:scaffolding protein affinity, causing excessive nuclei to form, which decreases coat protein levels leading to incomplete assembly.

  8. Rewriting the rules governing high intensity interactions of light with matter.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Alex B; McCorkindale, John C; Poopalasingam, Sankar; Longworth, James W; Simon, Peter; Szatmári, Sándor; Rhodes, Charles K

    2016-04-01

    The trajectory of discovery associated with the study of high-intensity nonlinear radiative interactions with matter and corresponding nonlinear modes of electromagnetic propagation through material that have been conducted over the last 50 years can be presented as a landscape in the intensity/quantum energy [I-ħω] plane. Based on an extensive series of experimental and theoretical findings, a universal zone of anomalous enhanced electromagnetic coupling, designated as the fundamental nonlinear domain, can be defined. Since the lower boundaries of this region for all atomic matter correspond to ħω ~ 10(3) eV and I  ≈  10(16) W cm(-2), it heralds a future dominated by x-ray and γ-ray studies of all phases of matter including nuclear states. The augmented strength of the interaction with materials can be generally expressed as an increase in the basic electromagnetic coupling constant in which the fine structure constant α  →  Z(2)α, where Z denotes the number of electrons participating in an ordered response to the driving field. Since radiative conditions strongly favoring the development of this enhanced electromagnetic coupling are readily produced in self-trapped plasma channels, the processes associated with the generation of nonlinear interactions with materials stand in natural alliance with the nonlinear mechanisms that induce confined propagation. An experimental example involving the Xe (4d(10)5s(2)5p(6)) supershell for which Z  ≅  18 that falls in the specified anomalous nonlinear domain is described. This yields an effective coupling constant of Z(2)α  ≅  2.4  >  1, a magnitude comparable to the strong interaction and a value rendering as useless conventional perturbative analyses founded on an expansion in powers of α. This enhancement can be quantitatively understood as a direct consequence of the dominant role played by coherently driven multiply-excited states in the dynamics of the coupling

  9. Rewriting the rules governing high intensity interactions of light with matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Alex B.; McCorkindale, John C.; Poopalasingam, Sankar; Longworth, James W.; Simon, Peter; Szatmári, Sándor; Rhodes, Charles K.

    2016-04-01

    The trajectory of discovery associated with the study of high-intensity nonlinear radiative interactions with matter and corresponding nonlinear modes of electromagnetic propagation through material that have been conducted over the last 50 years can be presented as a landscape in the intensity/quantum energy [I-ħω] plane. Based on an extensive series of experimental and theoretical findings, a universal zone of anomalous enhanced electromagnetic coupling, designated as the fundamental nonlinear domain, can be defined. Since the lower boundaries of this region for all atomic matter correspond to ħω ~ 103 eV and I  ≈  1016 W cm-2, it heralds a future dominated by x-ray and γ-ray studies of all phases of matter including nuclear states. The augmented strength of the interaction with materials can be generally expressed as an increase in the basic electromagnetic coupling constant in which the fine structure constant α  →  Z 2 α, where Z denotes the number of electrons participating in an ordered response to the driving field. Since radiative conditions strongly favoring the development of this enhanced electromagnetic coupling are readily produced in self-trapped plasma channels, the processes associated with the generation of nonlinear interactions with materials stand in natural alliance with the nonlinear mechanisms that induce confined propagation. An experimental example involving the Xe (4d105s25p6) supershell for which Z  ≅  18 that falls in the specified anomalous nonlinear domain is described. This yields an effective coupling constant of Z 2 α  ≅  2.4  >  1, a magnitude comparable to the strong interaction and a value rendering as useless conventional perturbative analyses founded on an expansion in powers of α. This enhancement can be quantitatively understood as a direct consequence of the dominant role played by coherently driven multiply-excited states in the dynamics of the coupling. It is also

  10. Investigation of mechanisms governing electrowetting and hydrodynamic interactions in the presence of draining channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rohini

    Modulation of solid-liquid interfacial interactions via electric field (or electrowetting) is an effective method to deform and move liquid drops on solid surfaces in micro-/nanoscale systems. The deformation and motion of a liquid drop on a solid surface in response to an external driving force is hindered by pinning of triple contact line. A better understanding of the mechanisms and limitations of electrowetting is warranted for design and optimization of active micro-/nanoscale systems. Modulation of hydrodynamic interactions via surface structures may contribute to the adhesion and locomotion mechanisms employed by tree frogs under flooded conditions: a better understanding of which will facilitate design of biomimetic systems inspired by the same. This thesis summarizes the results of investigation of the mechanisms and limitations of electrowetting (electrowetting on dielectric and potential-induced molecular reorganization) and the hydrodynamic interactions in the presence of draining channels. The mechanism at play during electrowetting on dielectric is probed via capillary condensation inside surface force apparatus. Height of a nanometer-sized annular water meniscus is measured and observed to be independent of the applied potential. These nanoscale electrowetting measurements unequivocally demonstrate that spreading of a liquid conductive drop on a charged dielectric is driven by electromechanics and not by a change in solid-liquid interfacial energy. Macroscopic electrowetting response of substrates with a range of contact angle hysteresis is characterized to quantify the relationship between contact angle hysteresis, threshold potential for liquid actuation, and electrowetting hysteresis. These results are interpreted within the electromechanical framework corrected for pinning of the moving triple contact line and demonstrate that the electrowetting hysteresis and the contact angle hysteresis are equal in magnitude. Alternatively, potential

  11. Rewriting the rules governing high intensity interactions of light with matter.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Alex B; McCorkindale, John C; Poopalasingam, Sankar; Longworth, James W; Simon, Peter; Szatmári, Sándor; Rhodes, Charles K

    2016-04-01

    The trajectory of discovery associated with the study of high-intensity nonlinear radiative interactions with matter and corresponding nonlinear modes of electromagnetic propagation through material that have been conducted over the last 50 years can be presented as a landscape in the intensity/quantum energy [I-ħω] plane. Based on an extensive series of experimental and theoretical findings, a universal zone of anomalous enhanced electromagnetic coupling, designated as the fundamental nonlinear domain, can be defined. Since the lower boundaries of this region for all atomic matter correspond to ħω ~ 10(3) eV and I  ≈  10(16) W cm(-2), it heralds a future dominated by x-ray and γ-ray studies of all phases of matter including nuclear states. The augmented strength of the interaction with materials can be generally expressed as an increase in the basic electromagnetic coupling constant in which the fine structure constant α  →  Z(2)α, where Z denotes the number of electrons participating in an ordered response to the driving field. Since radiative conditions strongly favoring the development of this enhanced electromagnetic coupling are readily produced in self-trapped plasma channels, the processes associated with the generation of nonlinear interactions with materials stand in natural alliance with the nonlinear mechanisms that induce confined propagation. An experimental example involving the Xe (4d(10)5s(2)5p(6)) supershell for which Z  ≅  18 that falls in the specified anomalous nonlinear domain is described. This yields an effective coupling constant of Z(2)α  ≅  2.4  >  1, a magnitude comparable to the strong interaction and a value rendering as useless conventional perturbative analyses founded on an expansion in powers of α. This enhancement can be quantitatively understood as a direct consequence of the dominant role played by coherently driven multiply-excited states in the dynamics of the coupling

  12. RNA protein interactions governing expression of the most abundant protein in human body, type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, Branko

    2013-01-01

    Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in human body. The protein turns over slowly and its replacement synthesis is low. However, in wound healing or in pathological fibrosis the cells can increase production of type I collagen several hundred fold. This increase is predominantly due to posttranscriptional regulation, including increased half-life of collagen messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and their increased translatability. Type I collagen is composed of two α1 and one α2 polypeptides that fold into a triple helix. This stoichiometry is strictly regulated to prevent detrimental synthesis of α1 homotrimers. Collagen polypeptides are co-translationally modified and the rate of modifications is in dynamic equilibrium with the rate of folding, suggesting coordinated translation of collagen α1(I) and α2(I) polypeptides. Collagen α1(I) mRNA has in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) a C-rich sequence that binds protein αCP, this binding stabilizes the mRNA in collagen producing cells. In the 5' UTR both collagen mRNAs have a conserved stem-loop (5' SL) structure. The 5' SL is critical for high collagen expression, knock in mice with disruption of the 5' SL are resistant to liver fibrosis. the 5' SL binds protein LARP6 with strict sequence specificity and high affinity. LARP6 recruits RNA helicase A to facilitate translation initiation and associates collagen mRNAs with vimentin and nonmuscle myosin filaments. Binding to vimentin stabilizes collagen mRNAs, while nonmuscle myosin regulates coordinated translation of α1(I) and α2(I) mRNAs. When nonmuscle myosin filaments are disrupted the cells secrete only α1 homotrimers. Thus, the mechanism governing high collagen expression involves two RNA binding proteins and development of cytoskeletal filaments.

  13. Above–belowground interactions govern the course and impact of biological invasions

    PubMed Central

    Vestergård, Mette; Rønn, Regin; Ekelund, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of exotic organisms that subsequently become invasive is considered a serious threat to global biodiversity, and both scientists and nature-conservationists attempt to find explanations and means to meet this challenge. This requires a thorough analysis of the invasion phenomenon in an evolutionary and ecological context; in the case of invasive plants, we must have a major focus on above–belowground interactions. Thus, we discuss different theories that have been proposed to explain the course of invasions through interactions between plants and soil organisms. Further, a thorough analysis of invasion must include a temporal context. Invasions will typically include an initial acute phase, where the invader expands its territory and a later chronic phase where equilibrium is re-established. Many studies fail to make this distinction, which is unfortunate as it makes it impossible to thoroughly understand the invasion of focus. Thus, we claim that invasions fall into two broad categories. Some invasions irreversibly change pools and pathways of matter and energy in the invaded system; even if the abundance of the invader is reduced or it is completely removed, the system will not return to its former state. We use earthworm invasion in North America as a particular conspicuous example of invasive species that irreversibly change ecosystems. However, invasions may also be reversible, where the exotic organism dominates the system for a period, but in the longer term it either disappears, declines or its negative impact decreases. If the fundamental ecosystem structure and flows of energy and matter have not been changed, the system will return to a state not principally different from the original. PMID:25854693

  14. Above-belowground interactions govern the course and impact of biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Vestergård, Mette; Rønn, Regin; Ekelund, Flemming

    2015-04-08

    Introduction of exotic organisms that subsequently become invasive is considered a serious threat to global biodiversity, and both scientists and nature-conservationists attempt to find explanations and means to meet this challenge. This requires a thorough analysis of the invasion phenomenon in an evolutionary and ecological context; in the case of invasive plants, we must have a major focus on above-belowground interactions. Thus, we discuss different theories that have been proposed to explain the course of invasions through interactions between plants and soil organisms. Further, a thorough analysis of invasion must include a temporal context. Invasions will typically include an initial acute phase, where the invader expands its territory and a later chronic phase where equilibrium is re-established. Many studies fail to make this distinction, which is unfortunate as it makes it impossible to thoroughly understand the invasion of focus. Thus, we claim that invasions fall into two broad categories. Some invasions irreversibly change pools and pathways of matter and energy in the invaded system; even if the abundance of the invader is reduced or it is completely removed, the system will not return to its former state. We use earthworm invasion in North America as a particular conspicuous example of invasive species that irreversibly change ecosystems. However, invasions may also be reversible, where the exotic organism dominates the system for a period, but in the longer term it either disappears, declines or its negative impact decreases. If the fundamental ecosystem structure and flows of energy and matter have not been changed, the system will return to a state not principally different from the original.

  15. Above-belowground interactions govern the course and impact of biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Vestergård, Mette; Rønn, Regin; Ekelund, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of exotic organisms that subsequently become invasive is considered a serious threat to global biodiversity, and both scientists and nature-conservationists attempt to find explanations and means to meet this challenge. This requires a thorough analysis of the invasion phenomenon in an evolutionary and ecological context; in the case of invasive plants, we must have a major focus on above-belowground interactions. Thus, we discuss different theories that have been proposed to explain the course of invasions through interactions between plants and soil organisms. Further, a thorough analysis of invasion must include a temporal context. Invasions will typically include an initial acute phase, where the invader expands its territory and a later chronic phase where equilibrium is re-established. Many studies fail to make this distinction, which is unfortunate as it makes it impossible to thoroughly understand the invasion of focus. Thus, we claim that invasions fall into two broad categories. Some invasions irreversibly change pools and pathways of matter and energy in the invaded system; even if the abundance of the invader is reduced or it is completely removed, the system will not return to its former state. We use earthworm invasion in North America as a particular conspicuous example of invasive species that irreversibly change ecosystems. However, invasions may also be reversible, where the exotic organism dominates the system for a period, but in the longer term it either disappears, declines or its negative impact decreases. If the fundamental ecosystem structure and flows of energy and matter have not been changed, the system will return to a state not principally different from the original. PMID:25854693

  16. Vector-Host Interactions Governing Epidemiology of West Nile Virus in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Molaei, Goudarz; Cummings, Robert F.; Su, Tianyun; Armstrong, Philip M.; Williams, Greg A.; Cheng, Min-Lee; Webb, James P.; Andreadis, Theodore G.

    2010-01-01

    Southern California remains an important focus of West Nile virus (WNV) activity, with persistently elevated incidence after invasion by the virus in 2003 and subsequent amplification to epidemic levels in 2004. Eco-epidemiological studies of vectors-hosts-pathogen interactions are of paramount importance for better understanding of the transmission dynamics of WNV and other emerging mosquito-borne arboviruses. We investigated vector-host interactions and host-feeding patterns of 531 blood-engorged mosquitoes in four competent mosquito vectors by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method targeting mitochondrial DNA to identify vertebrate hosts of blood-fed mosquitoes. Diagnostic testing by cell culture, real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR, and immunoassays were used to examine WNV infection in blood-fed mosquitoes, mosquito pools, dead birds, and mammals. Prevalence of WNV antibodies among wild birds was estimated by using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Analyses of engorged Culex quinquefasciatus revealed that this mosquito species acquired 88.4% of the blood meals from avian and 11.6% from mammalian hosts, including humans. Similarly, Culex tarsalis fed 82% on birds and 18% on mammals. Culex erythrothorax fed on both birds (59%) and mammals (41%). In contrast, Culex stigmatosoma acquired all blood meals from avian hosts. House finches and a few other mostly passeriform birds served as the main hosts for the blood-seeking mosquitoes. Evidence of WNV infection was detected in mosquito pools, wild birds, dead birds, and mammals, including human fatalities during the study period. Our results emphasize the important role of house finches and several other passeriform birds in the maintenance and amplification of WNV in southern California, with Cx. quinquefasciatus acting as both the principal enzootic and “bridge vector” responsible for the spillover of WNV to humans. Other mosquito species, such as Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma, are

  17. Swi/Snf dynamics on stress-responsive genes is governed by competitive bromodomain interactions.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Arnob; Gogol, Madelaine; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Smolle, Michaela; Venkatesh, Swaminathan; Gilmore, Joshua; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Workman, Jerry L

    2014-10-15

    The Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex functions to alter nucleosome positions by either sliding nucleosomes on DNA or the eviction of histones. The presence of histone acetylation and activator-dependent recruitment and retention of Swi/Snf is important for its efficient function. It is not understood, however, why such mechanisms are required to enhance Swi/Snf activity on nucleosomes. Snf2, the catalytic subunit of the Swi/Snf remodeling complex, has been shown to be a target of the Gcn5 acetyltransferase. Our study found that acetylation of Snf2 regulates both recruitment and release of Swi/Snf from stress-responsive genes. Also, the intramolecular interaction of the Snf2 bromodomain with the acetylated lysine residues on Snf2 negatively regulates binding and remodeling of acetylated nucleosomes by Swi/Snf. Interestingly, the presence of transcription activators mitigates the effects of the reduced affinity of acetylated Snf2 for acetylated nucleosomes. Supporting our in vitro results, we found that activator-bound genes regulating metabolic processes showed greater retention of the Swi/Snf complex even when Snf2 was acetylated. Our studies demonstrate that competing effects of (1) Swi/Snf retention by activators or high levels of histone acetylation and (2) Snf2 acetylation-mediated release regulate dynamics of Swi/Snf occupancy at target genes.

  18. Swi/Snf dynamics on stress-responsive genes is governed by competitive bromodomain interactions.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Arnob; Gogol, Madelaine; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Smolle, Michaela; Venkatesh, Swaminathan; Gilmore, Joshua; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Workman, Jerry L

    2014-10-15

    The Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex functions to alter nucleosome positions by either sliding nucleosomes on DNA or the eviction of histones. The presence of histone acetylation and activator-dependent recruitment and retention of Swi/Snf is important for its efficient function. It is not understood, however, why such mechanisms are required to enhance Swi/Snf activity on nucleosomes. Snf2, the catalytic subunit of the Swi/Snf remodeling complex, has been shown to be a target of the Gcn5 acetyltransferase. Our study found that acetylation of Snf2 regulates both recruitment and release of Swi/Snf from stress-responsive genes. Also, the intramolecular interaction of the Snf2 bromodomain with the acetylated lysine residues on Snf2 negatively regulates binding and remodeling of acetylated nucleosomes by Swi/Snf. Interestingly, the presence of transcription activators mitigates the effects of the reduced affinity of acetylated Snf2 for acetylated nucleosomes. Supporting our in vitro results, we found that activator-bound genes regulating metabolic processes showed greater retention of the Swi/Snf complex even when Snf2 was acetylated. Our studies demonstrate that competing effects of (1) Swi/Snf retention by activators or high levels of histone acetylation and (2) Snf2 acetylation-mediated release regulate dynamics of Swi/Snf occupancy at target genes. PMID:25319830

  19. Swi/Snf dynamics on stress-responsive genes is governed by competitive bromodomain interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Arnob; Gogol, Madelaine; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Smolle, Michaela; Venkatesh, Swaminathan; Gilmore, Joshua; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Workman, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    The Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex functions to alter nucleosome positions by either sliding nucleosomes on DNA or the eviction of histones. The presence of histone acetylation and activator-dependent recruitment and retention of Swi/Snf is important for its efficient function. It is not understood, however, why such mechanisms are required to enhance Swi/Snf activity on nucleosomes. Snf2, the catalytic subunit of the Swi/Snf remodeling complex, has been shown to be a target of the Gcn5 acetyltransferase. Our study found that acetylation of Snf2 regulates both recruitment and release of Swi/Snf from stress-responsive genes. Also, the intramolecular interaction of the Snf2 bromodomain with the acetylated lysine residues on Snf2 negatively regulates binding and remodeling of acetylated nucleosomes by Swi/Snf. Interestingly, the presence of transcription activators mitigates the effects of the reduced affinity of acetylated Snf2 for acetylated nucleosomes. Supporting our in vitro results, we found that activator-bound genes regulating metabolic processes showed greater retention of the Swi/Snf complex even when Snf2 was acetylated. Our studies demonstrate that competing effects of (1) Swi/Snf retention by activators or high levels of histone acetylation and (2) Snf2 acetylation-mediated release regulate dynamics of Swi/Snf occupancy at target genes. PMID:25319830

  20. Information-governing dynamics of attacker-defender interactions in youth rugby union.

    PubMed

    Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Gouveia, Luis; Milho, João; Serpa, Sidónio

    2008-11-01

    Previous work on dynamics of interpersonal interactions in 1 vs. 1 sub-phases of basketball has identified changes in interpersonal distance between an attacker and defender as a potential control parameter for influencing organizational states of attacker-defender dyads. Other studies have reported the constraining effect of relative velocity between an attacker and defender in 1 vs. 1 dyads. To evaluate the relationship between these candidate control parameters, we compared the impact of both interpersonal distance and relative velocity on the pattern-forming dynamics of attacker-defender dyads in the sport of rugby union. Results revealed that when interpersonal distance achieved a critical value of less than 4 m, and relative velocity values increased or were maintained above 1 m x s(-1), a successful outcome (i.e. clean attempt) for an attacker was predicted. Alternatively, when values of relative velocity suddenly decreased below this threshold, at the same critical value of interpersonal distance, a successful outcome for the defender was predicted. Data demonstrated how the coupling of these two potential, nested control parameters moved the dyadic system to phase transitions, characterized as a try or a tackle. Observations suggested that relative velocity increased its influence on the organization of attacker-defender dyads in rugby union over time as spatial proximity to the try line increased.

  1. Timing of favorable conditions, competition and fertility interact to govern recruitment of invasive Chinese tallow tree in stressful environments.

    PubMed

    Gabler, Christopher A; Siemann, Evan

    2013-01-01

    The rate of new exotic recruitment following removal of adult invaders (reinvasion pressure) influences restoration outcomes and costs but is highly variable and poorly understood. We hypothesize that broad variation in average reinvasion pressure of Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow tree, a major invader) arises from differences among habitats in spatiotemporal availability of realized recruitment windows. These windows are periods of variable duration long enough to permit establishment given local environmental conditions. We tested this hypothesis via a greenhouse mesocosm experiment that quantified how the duration of favorable moisture conditions prior to flood or drought stress (window duration), competition and nutrient availability influenced Triadica success in high stress environments. Window duration influenced pre-stress seedling abundance and size, growth during stress and final abundance; it interacted with other factors to affect final biomass and germination during stress. Stress type and competition impacted final size and biomass, plus germination, mortality and changes in size during stress. Final abundance also depended on competition and the interaction of window duration, stress type and competition. Fertilization interacted with competition and stress to influence biomass and changes in height, respectively, but did not affect Triadica abundance. Overall, longer window durations promoted Triadica establishment, competition and drought (relative to flood) suppressed establishment, and fertilization had weak effects. Interactions among factors frequently produced different effects in specific contexts. Results support our 'outgrow the stress' hypothesis and show that temporal availability of abiotic windows and factors that influence growth rates govern Triadica recruitment in stressful environments. These findings suggest that native seed addition can effectively suppress superior competitors in stressful environments. We also describe

  2. Timing of Favorable Conditions, Competition and Fertility Interact to Govern Recruitment of Invasive Chinese Tallow Tree in Stressful Environments

    PubMed Central

    Gabler, Christopher A.; Siemann, Evan

    2013-01-01

    The rate of new exotic recruitment following removal of adult invaders (reinvasion pressure) influences restoration outcomes and costs but is highly variable and poorly understood. We hypothesize that broad variation in average reinvasion pressure of Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow tree, a major invader) arises from differences among habitats in spatiotemporal availability of realized recruitment windows. These windows are periods of variable duration long enough to permit establishment given local environmental conditions. We tested this hypothesis via a greenhouse mesocosm experiment that quantified how the duration of favorable moisture conditions prior to flood or drought stress (window duration), competition and nutrient availability influenced Triadica success in high stress environments. Window duration influenced pre-stress seedling abundance and size, growth during stress and final abundance; it interacted with other factors to affect final biomass and germination during stress. Stress type and competition impacted final size and biomass, plus germination, mortality and changes in size during stress. Final abundance also depended on competition and the interaction of window duration, stress type and competition. Fertilization interacted with competition and stress to influence biomass and changes in height, respectively, but did not affect Triadica abundance. Overall, longer window durations promoted Triadica establishment, competition and drought (relative to flood) suppressed establishment, and fertilization had weak effects. Interactions among factors frequently produced different effects in specific contexts. Results support our ‘outgrow the stress’ hypothesis and show that temporal availability of abiotic windows and factors that influence growth rates govern Triadica recruitment in stressful environments. These findings suggest that native seed addition can effectively suppress superior competitors in stressful environments. We also describe

  3. Loop-loop interactions govern multiple steps in indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zaccardi, Margot J; O'Rourke, Kathleen F; Yezdimer, Eric M; Loggia, Laura J; Woldt, Svenja; Boehr, David D

    2014-03-01

    interactions with nearby structural elements.

  4. Eph/ephrin-B-mediated cell-to-cell interactions govern MTS20(+) thymic epithelial cell development.

    PubMed

    Montero-Herradón, Sara; García-Ceca, Javier; Sánchez Del Collado, Beatriz; Alfaro, David; Zapata, Agustín G

    2016-08-01

    Thymus development is a complex process in which cell-to-cell interactions between thymocytes and thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are essential to allow a proper maturation of both thymic cell components. Although signals that control thymocyte development are well known, mechanisms governing TEC maturation are poorly understood, especially those that regulate the maturation of immature TEC populations during early fetal thymus development. In this study, we show that EphB2-deficient, EphB2LacZ and EphB3-deficient fetal thymuses present a lower number of cells and delayed maturation of DN cell subsets compared to WT values. Moreover, deficits in the production of chemokines, known to be involved in the lymphoid seeding into the thymus, contribute in decreased proportions of intrathymic T cell progenitors (PIRA/B(+)) in the mutant thymuses from early stages of development. These features correlate with increased proportions of MTS20(+) cells but fewer MTS20(-) cells from E13.5 onward in the deficient thymuses, suggesting a delayed development of the first epithelial cells. In addition, in vitro the lack of thymocytes or the blockade of Eph/ephrin-B-mediated cell-to-cell interactions between either thymocytes-TECs or TECs-TECs in E13.5 fetal thymic lobes coursed with increased proportions of MTS20(+) TECs. This confirms, for the first time, that the presence of CD45(+) cells, corresponding at these stages to DN1 and DN2 cells, and Eph/ephrin-B-mediated heterotypic or homotypic cell interactions between thymocytes and TECs, or between TECs and themselves, contribute to the early maturation of MTS20(+) TECs.

  5. An interactive governance and fish chain approach to fisheries rebuilding: a case study of the Northern Gulf cod in eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ahmed; Chuenpagdee, Ratana

    2014-09-01

    Rebuilding collapsed fisheries is a multifaceted problem, requiring a holistic governance approach rather than technical management fixes. Using the Northern Gulf cod case study in eastern Canada, we illustrate how a "fish chain" framework, drawn from the interactive governance perspective, is particularly helpful in analyzing rebuilding challenges. The analysis demonstrates that factors limiting rebuilding exist along the entire fish chain, i.e., the pre-harvest, harvest, and post-harvest stages. These challenges are embedded in both the ecological and social systems associated with the Northern Gulf cod fisheries, as well as in the governing systems. A comparative analysis of the pre- and post-collapse of the cod fisheries also reveals governance opportunities in rebuilding, which lie in policy interventions such as integrated and ecosystem-based management, livelihood transitional programs, and cross-scale institutional arrangements. Lessons from the Northern Gulf cod case study, especially the missed opportunities to explore alternative governing options during the transition, are valuable for rebuilding other collapsed fisheries.

  6. Collaboration and nested environmental governance: Scale dependency, scale framing, and cross-scale interactions in collaborative conservation.

    PubMed

    Wyborn, Carina; Bixler, R Patrick

    2013-07-15

    The problem of fit between social institutions and ecological systems is an enduring challenge in natural resource management and conservation. Developments in the science of conservation biology encourage the management of landscapes at increasingly larger scales. In contrast, sociological approaches to conservation emphasize the importance of ownership, collaboration and stewardship at scales relevant to the individual or local community. Despite the proliferation of initiatives seeking to work with local communities to undertake conservation across large landscapes, there is an inherent tension between these scales of operation. Consequently, questions about the changing nature of effective conservation across scales abound. Through an analysis of three nested cases working in a semiautonomous fashion in the Northern Rocky Mountains in North America, this paper makes an empirical contribution to the literature on nested governance, collaboration and communication across scales. Despite different scales of operation, constituencies and scale frames, we demonstrate a surprising similarity in organizational structure and an implicit dependency between these initiatives. This paper examines the different capacities and capabilities of collaborative conservation from the local to regional to supra regional. We draw on the underexplored concept of 'scale-dependent comparative advantage' (Cash and Moser, 2000), to gain insight into what activities take place at which scale and what those activities contribute to nested governance and collaborative conservation. The comparison of these semiautonomous cases provides fruitful territory to draw lessons for understanding the roles and relationships of organizations operating at different scales in more connected networks of nested governance.

  7. "Governance" or "Governing"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, David

    This paper draws on four perspectives on power and its exercise in organizations to analyze the practice of governing colleges and universities. The exploration uses political theories (particularly those assessing the legitimacy and effectiveness of stable political entities), leadership studies, analyses of how formal and informal organizations…

  8. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Melby, Eric S.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Orr, Galya; et al

    2015-07-24

    We report that design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations, and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment require understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the lipid-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) andmore » second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. Association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Lastly, our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides.« less

  9. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Melby, Eric S.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Orr, Galya; Geiger, Franz M.; Haynes, Christy L.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2015-07-24

    We report that design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations, and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment require understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the lipid-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. Association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Lastly, our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides.

  10. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Melby, Eric S.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Orr, Galya; Geiger, Franz M.; Haynes, Christy L.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2015-01-01

    Design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment requires understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate the electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the outer leaflet-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed the electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. The association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides. PMID:26207769

  11. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Kurt H; Gunsolus, Ian L; Kuech, Thomas R; Troiano, Julianne M; Melby, Eric S; Lohse, Samuel E; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B; Murphy, Catherine J; Orr, Galya; Geiger, Franz M; Haynes, Christy L; Pedersen, Joel A

    2015-09-01

    Design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment requires understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate the electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the outer leaflet-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed the electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. The association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides.

  12. [The territorial state-governed medical expert facilities and law-enforcement agencies: the problems of their interaction].

    PubMed

    Zharov, V V; Shigeev, S V

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the theoretical aspects and present-day practice of commissioning expert assessments and performance of forensic medical expertise. Special attention is given to the conceptual problem of the interaction between the organizations engaged in forensic medical examination and law-enforcement bodies. The authors outline the most promising directions for the improvement of cooperation between such agencies, preliminary investigation and criminal enquiry facilities.

  13. Conceptual aspects of fiscal interactions between local governments and federally-owned, high-level radioactive waste-isolation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Johnson, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines a number of ways to transfer revenues between a federally-owned high level radioactive waste isolation facility (hereafter simply, facility) and local governments. Such payments could be used to lessen fiscal disincentives or to provide fiscal incentives for communities to host waste isolation facilities. Two facility characteristics which necessitate these actions are singled out for attention. First, because the facility is federally owned, it is not liable for state and local taxes and may be viewed by communities as a fiscal liability. Several types of payment plans to correct this deficiency are examined. The major conclusion is that while removal of disincentives or creation of incentives is possible, plans based on cost compensation that fail to consider opportunity costs cannot create incentives and are likely to create disincentives. Second, communities other than that in which the facility is sited may experience costs due to the siting and may, therefore, oppose it. These costs (which also accrue to the host community) arise due to the element of risk which the public generally associates with proximity to the transport and storage of radioactive materials. It is concluded that under certain circumstances compensatory payments are possible, but that measuring these costs will pose difficulty.

  14. Molecular and environmental factors governing non-covalent bonding interactions and conformations of phosphorous functionalized γ-cyclodextrin hydrate systems.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Recent strategies in molecular drugs-design shift efforts to nanomedicine. Large supra-molecular inclusion systems are implemented as therapeutics. The sophistication of design is based on major advances of cyclodextrins (CDs) as host molecules. They are friendly towards biological environment. CDs have good (bio)compatibility as well. CDs can form host-guest macromolecular systems incorporating small molecules with suitable shapes due to non-covalent interactions. Innovative strategies yield to polymeric nano-particles; micelles; linear polymers and/or CDs-functionalized dendrimeric nanostructures; nanofibers as well as hydrogels. Attractive are phosphorous containing (bio)matrerials, having high selectivity toward biological active molecules. The non-covalent interactions in aquatic CD-systems contribute to stability of host-guest systems under physiological conditions, determining conformational preferences of host-CD macromolecule and guest small molecular template. In this paper we have reported complementation application of mass spectrometric (MS) and quantum chemical analysis of phosphorous chemically substituted γ-cyclodextrin hydrates γ-CDPO/nH2O (n ∊ [0-14]), studying neutral and polynegatively charged molecules as an effort to describe realistic a representative scale of physiological conditions. The binding affinity and molecular conformations are discussed. The 250 neutral and charged systems (γ-CDPOHm/nH2O, n ∊ [10][0,14], m ∊ [0,15], γ-CDPOH-8/nH2O.8Na(+), and γ-CDPOH-16/nH2O.16Na(+)) in four main domains of non-covalent hydrogen bonding interactions are studied. PMID:26944657

  15. Allosteric Interactions by p53 mRNA Govern HDM2 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Specificity under Different Conditions.

    PubMed

    Medina-Medina, Ixaura; García-Beltrán, Paola; de la Mora-de la Mora, Ignacio; Oria-Hernández, Jesús; Millot, Guy; Fahraeus, Robin; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Sampedro, José G; Olivares-Illana, Vanesa

    2016-08-15

    HDM2 and HDMX are key negative regulatory factors of the p53 tumor suppressor under normal conditions by promoting its degradation or preventing its trans activity, respectively. It has more recently been shown that both proteins can also act as positive regulators of p53 after DNA damage. This involves phosphorylation by ATM on serine residues HDM2(S395) and HDMX(S403), promoting their respective interaction with the p53 mRNA. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of how these phosphorylation events switch HDM2 and HDMX from negative to positive regulators of p53 is not known. Our results show that these phosphorylation events reside within intrinsically disordered domains and change the conformation of the proteins. The modifications promote the exposition of N-terminal interfaces that support the formation of a new HDMX-HDM2 heterodimer independent of the C-terminal RING-RING interaction. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of this complex toward p53 is prevented by the p53 mRNA ligand but, interestingly, does not affect the capacity to ubiquitinate HDMX and HDM2. These results show how ATM-mediated modifications of HDMX and HDM2 switch HDM2 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity away from p53 but toward HDMX and itself and illustrate how the substrate specificity of HDM2 E3 ligase activity is regulated.

  16. Are there generic mechanisms governing interactions between nanoparticles and cells? Epitope mapping the outer layer of the protein material interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Iseult

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the possibility of a general paradigm for cell-biomaterial and cell-nanoparticle interactions. The basis of the paradigm is that the nature of the biomaterial or nanoparticle surface is not the important parameter, but rather the nature of the outermost layer of adsorbed proteins as well as long-lived misfolded proteins shed from the surfaces. If the adsorbed protein is irreversibly adsorbed onto the surface it may be sufficiently disrupted so that a variety of peptide units (here termed “cryptic epitopes”) not usually expressed in nature at the surface of the protein become exposed. Similarly, where there is a slow exchange time with the surface, surface-induced perturbations may lead to long-lived misfolded proteins being shed from the surface and continuing to express altered surface peptide sequences. In cases where the proteins have lost most of their tertiary structure, anomalous peptide sequences and geometries that are not displayed at the surface by the native protein may in fact be presented after surface adsorption of a protein. Such anomalous surface expressions could contain novel epitopes that trigger various signalling pathways or even diseases. Thus, future approaches to understanding cell-biomaterial and cell-nanoparticle interactions should focus on characterising the outer layer of the adsorbed proteins, or “epitope mapping” as well as examining the possibility of formation of essentially “new” proteins as a result of desorption of conformationally or geometrically altered proteins.

  17. Taylor-Goertler instabilities of Tollmien-Schlichting waves and other flows governed by the interactive boundary layer equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Taylor-Gortler vortex instability equations are formulated for steady and unsteady interacting boundary layer flows of the type which arise in triple-deck theory. The effective Gortler number is shown to be a function of the all shape in the boundary layer and the possibility of both steady and unsteady Taylor-Gortler modes exists. As an example the steady flow in a symmetrically constricted channel is considered and it is shown that unstable Gortler vortices exist before the boundary layers at the wall develop the Goldstein singularity. As an example of an unsteady spatially varying basic state the instability of high frequency large amplitude Tollmien-Schlichting waves in a curved channel were considered. It is shown that they are unstable in the first Stokes layer stage of the hierarchy of nonlinear states. The Tollmien-Schlichting waves are shown to be unstable in the presence of both convex and concave curvature.

  18. Secondary interactions or ligand scrambling? Subtle steric effects govern the iridium(I) coordination chemistry of phosphoramidite ligands.

    PubMed

    Osswald, Tina; Rüegger, Heinz; Mezzetti, Antonio

    2010-01-25

    The like and unlike isomers of phosphoramidite (P*) ligands are found to react differently with iridium(I), which is a key to explaining the apparently inconsistent results obtained by us and other research groups in a variety of catalytic reactions. Thus, the unlike diastereoisomer (aR,S,S)-[IrCl(cod)(1 a)] (2 a; cod=1,5-cyclooctadiene, 1 a=(aR,S,S)-(1,1'-binaphthalene)-2,2'-diyl bis(1-phenylethyl)phosphoramidite) forms, upon chloride abstraction, the monosubstituted complex (aR,S,S)-[Ir(cod)(1,2-eta-1 a,kappaP)](+) (3 a), which contains a chelating P* ligand that features an eta(2) interaction between a dangling phenyl group and iridium. Under analogous conditions, the like analogue (aR,R,R)-1 a' gives the disubstituted species (aR,R,R)-[Ir(cod)(1 a',kappaP)(2)](+) (4 a') with monodentate P* ligands. The structure of 3 a was assessed by a combination of X-ray and NMR spectroscopic studies, which indicate that it is the configuration of the binaphthol moiety (and not that of the dangling benzyl N groups) that determines the configuration of the complex. The effect of the relative configuration of the P* ligand on its iridium(I) coordination chemistry is discussed in the context of our preliminary catalytic results and of apparently random results obtained by other groups in the iridium(I)-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of allylic acetates and in rhodium(I)-catalyzed asymmetric cycloaddition reactions. Further studies with the unlike ligand (aS,R,R)-(1,1'-binaphthalene)-2,2'-diyl bis{[1-(1-naphthalene-1-yl)ethyl]phosphoramidite} (1 b) showed a yet different coordination mode, that is, the eta(4)-arene-metal interaction in (aS,R,R)-[Ir(cod)(1,2,3,4-eta-1 b,kappaP)](+) (3 b).

  19. Taylor-Goertler instabilities of Tollmien-Schlichting waves and other flows governed by the interactive boundary-layer equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Philip; Bennett, James

    1986-01-01

    The Taylor-Goertler vortex instability equations are formulated for steady and unsteady interacting boundary-layer flows. The effective Goertler number is shown to be a function of the wall shape in the boundary layer and the possibility of both steady and unsteady Taylor-Goertler modes exists. As an example the steady flow in a symmetrically constricted channel is considered and it is shown that unstable Goertler vortices exist before the boundary layers at the wall develop the Goldstein singularity discussed by Smith and Daniels (1981). As an example of an unsteady spatially varying basic state, it is considered the instability of high-frequency large-amplitude two- and three-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves in a curved channel. It is shown that they are unstable in the first 'Stokes-layer stage' of the hierarchy of nonlinear states discussed by Smith and Burggraf (1985). This instability of Tollmien-Schlichting waves in an internal flow can occur in the presence of either convex or concave curvature. Some discussion of this instability in external flows is given.

  20. Taylor-Goertler instabilities of Tollmien-Schlichting waves and other flows governed by the interactive boundary-layer equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Philip; Bennett, James

    1986-10-01

    The Taylor-Goertler vortex instability equations are formulated for steady and unsteady interacting boundary-layer flows. The effective Goertler number is shown to be a function of the wall shape in the boundary layer and the possibility of both steady and unsteady Taylor-Goertler modes exists. As an example the steady flow in a symmetrically constricted channel is considered and it is shown that unstable Goertler vortices exist before the boundary layers at the wall develop the Goldstein singularity discussed by Smith and Daniels (1981). As an example of an unsteady spatially varying basic state, it is considered the instability of high-frequency large-amplitude two- and three-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves in a curved channel. It is shown that they are unstable in the first 'Stokes-layer stage' of the hierarchy of nonlinear states discussed by Smith and Burggraf (1985). This instability of Tollmien-Schlichting waves in an internal flow can occur in the presence of either convex or concave curvature. Some discussion of this instability in external flows is given.

  1. Regulation of T cell-dendritic cell interactions by IL-7 governs T-cell activation and homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Manoj; Pearson, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) plays a central role in the homeostasis of the T-cell compartment by regulating T-cell survival and proliferation. Whether IL-7 can influence T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling in T cells remains controversial. Here, using IL-7–deficient hosts and TCR-transgenic T cells that conditionally express IL-7R, we examined antigen-specific T-cell responses in vitro and in vivo to viral infection and lymphopenia to determine whether IL-7 signaling influences TCR-triggered cell division events. In vitro, we could find no evidence that IL-7 signaling could costimulate T-cell activation over a broad range of conditions, suggesting that IL-7 does not directly tune TCR signaling. In vivo, however, we found an acute requirement for IL-7 signaling for efficiently triggering T-cell responses to influenza A virus challenge. Furthermore, we found that IL-7 was required for the enhanced homeostatic TCR signaling that drives lymphopenia-induced proliferation by a mechanism involving efficient contacts of T cells with dendritic cells. Consistent with this, saturating antigen-presenting capacity in vivo overcame the triggering defect in response to cognate peptide. Thus, we demonstrate a novel role for IL-7 in regulating T cell–dendritic cell interactions that is essential for both T-cell homeostasis and activation in vivo. PMID:19357399

  2. Molecular-level processes governing the interaction of contaminants with iron and manganese oxides. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, S.A.; Brown, G.

    1997-06-01

    'The central tenet of this proposal is that a fundamental understanding of specific mineral surface-site reactivities will substantially improve reactive transport models of contaminants in geologic systems, and will allow more effective remediation schemes to be devised. Most large-scale, macroscopic models employ global chemical reaction kinetics and thermochemistry. However, such models do not incorporate molecular-level input critical to the detailed prediction of how contaminants interact with minerals in the subsurface. A first step leading to the incorporation of molecular-level processes in large-scale macroscopic models is the ability to understand which molecular-level processes will dominate the chemistry at the microscopic grain level of minerals. To this end, the research focuses on the fundamental mechanisms of redox chemistry at mineral surfaces. As much of this chemistry in sediments involves the Fe(III)/Fe(II) and Mn(IV)/Mn(II) couples, the authors focus on mineral phases containing these species. Of particular interest is the effect of the local coordination environment of Fe and Mn atoms on their reactivity toward contaminant species. Studies of the impact of local atomic structure on reactivity in combination with knowledge about the types and amounts of various surfaces on natural grain- size minerals provide the data for statistical models. These models in turn form the basis of the larger-scale macroscopic descriptions of reactivity that are needed for reactive transport models. A molecular-level understanding of these mechanisms will enhance the ability to design much greater performance efficiency, cost effectiveness, and remediation strategies that have minimal negative impact on the local environment. For instance, a comprehensive understanding of how minerals that contain Fe(II) reduce oxyanions and chlorinated organics should enable the design of other Fe(II)-containing remediation materials in a way that is synergistic with existing

  3. Bacteria attenuation by iron electrocoagulation governed by interactions between bacterial phosphate groups and Fe(III) precipitates.

    PubMed

    Delaire, Caroline; van Genuchten, Case M; Amrose, Susan E; Gadgil, Ashok J

    2016-10-15

    Iron electrocoagulation (Fe-EC) is a low-cost process in which Fe(II) generated from an Fe(0) anode reacts with dissolved O2 to form (1) Fe(III) precipitates with an affinity for bacterial cell walls and (2) bactericidal reactive oxidants. Previous work suggests that Fe-EC is a promising treatment option for groundwater containing arsenic and bacterial contamination. However, the mechanisms of bacteria attenuation and the impact of major groundwater ions are not well understood. In this work, using the model indicator Escherichia coli (E. coli), we show that physical removal via enmeshment in EC precipitate flocs is the primary process of bacteria attenuation in the presence of HCO3(-), which significantly inhibits inactivation, possibly due to a reduction in the lifetime of reactive oxidants. We demonstrate that the adhesion of EC precipitates to cell walls, which results in bacteria encapsulation in flocs, is driven primarily by interactions between EC precipitates and phosphate functional groups on bacteria surfaces. In single solute electrolytes, both P (0.4 mM) and Ca/Mg (1-13 mM) inhibited the adhesion of EC precipitates to bacterial cell walls, whereas Si (0.4 mM) and ionic strength (2-200 mM) did not impact E. coli attenuation. Interestingly, P (0.4 mM) did not affect E. coli attenuation in electrolytes containing Ca/Mg, consistent with bivalent cation bridging between bacterial phosphate groups and inorganic P sorbed to EC precipitates. Finally, we found that EC precipitate adhesion is largely independent of cell wall composition, consistent with comparable densities of phosphate functional groups on Gram-positive and Gram-negative cells. Our results are critical to predict the performance of Fe-EC to eliminate bacterial contaminants from waters with diverse chemical compositions.

  4. Phi29 Connector-DNA Interactions Govern DNA Crunching and Rotation, Supporting the Check-Valve Model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajendra; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2016-01-19

    During replication of the ϕ29 bacteriophage inside a bacterial host cell, a DNA packaging motor transports the viral DNA into the procapsid against a pressure difference of up to 40 ± 20 atm. Several models have been proposed for the underlying molecular mechanism. Here we have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine the role of the connector part of the motor, and specifically the one-way revolution and the push-roll model. We have focused at the structure and intermolecular interactions between the DNA and the connector, for which a near-complete structure is available. The connector is found to induce considerable DNA deformations with respect to its canonical B-form. We further assessed by force-probe simulations to which extent the connector is able to prevent DNA leakage and found that the connector can act as a partial one-way valve by a check-valve mechanism via its mobile loops. Analysis of the geometry, flexibility, and energetics of channel lysine residues suggested that this arrangement of residues is incompatible with the observed DNA packaging step-size of ∼2.5 bp, such that the step-size is probably determined by the other components of the motor. Previously proposed DNA revolution and rolling motions inside the connector channel are both found implausible due to structural entanglement between the DNA and connector loops that have not been resolved in the crystal structure. Rather, in the simulations, the connector facilitates minor DNA rotation during the packaging process compatible with recent optical-tweezers experiments. Combined with the available experimental data, our simulation results suggest that the connector acts as a check-valve that prevents DNA leakage and induces DNA compression and rotation during DNA packaging. PMID:26789768

  5. How chain plasmons govern the optical response in strongly interacting self-assembled metallic clusters of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Ruben; Taylor, Richard W; Baumberg, Jeremy J; Aizpurua, Javier

    2012-06-19

    numbers of strongly interacting particles. PMID:22364608

  6. Phi29 Connector-DNA Interactions Govern DNA Crunching and Rotation, Supporting the Check-Valve Model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajendra; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2016-01-19

    During replication of the ϕ29 bacteriophage inside a bacterial host cell, a DNA packaging motor transports the viral DNA into the procapsid against a pressure difference of up to 40 ± 20 atm. Several models have been proposed for the underlying molecular mechanism. Here we have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine the role of the connector part of the motor, and specifically the one-way revolution and the push-roll model. We have focused at the structure and intermolecular interactions between the DNA and the connector, for which a near-complete structure is available. The connector is found to induce considerable DNA deformations with respect to its canonical B-form. We further assessed by force-probe simulations to which extent the connector is able to prevent DNA leakage and found that the connector can act as a partial one-way valve by a check-valve mechanism via its mobile loops. Analysis of the geometry, flexibility, and energetics of channel lysine residues suggested that this arrangement of residues is incompatible with the observed DNA packaging step-size of ∼2.5 bp, such that the step-size is probably determined by the other components of the motor. Previously proposed DNA revolution and rolling motions inside the connector channel are both found implausible due to structural entanglement between the DNA and connector loops that have not been resolved in the crystal structure. Rather, in the simulations, the connector facilitates minor DNA rotation during the packaging process compatible with recent optical-tweezers experiments. Combined with the available experimental data, our simulation results suggest that the connector acts as a check-valve that prevents DNA leakage and induces DNA compression and rotation during DNA packaging.

  7. Phosphorylation of Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel by Serine/Threonine Kinases Governs Its Interaction with Tubulin

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Kely L.; Maldonado, Eduardo N.; Lemasters, John J.; Rostovtseva, Tatiana K.; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    2011-01-01

    Tubulin was recently found to be a uniquely potent regulator of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), the most abundant channel of the mitochondrial outer membrane, which constitutes a major pathway for ATP/ADP and other metabolites across this membrane. Dimeric tubulin induces reversible blockage of VDAC reconstituted into a planar lipid membrane and dramatically reduces respiration of isolated mitochondria. Here we show that VDAC phosphorylation is an important determinant of its interaction with dimeric tubulin. We demonstrate that in vitro phosphorylation of VDAC by either glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) or cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), increases the on-rate of tubulin binding to the reconstituted channel by orders of magnitude, but only for tubulin at the cis side of the membrane. This and the fact the basic properties of VDAC, such as single-channel conductance and selectivity, remained unaltered by phosphorylation allowed us to suggest the phosphorylation regions positioned on the cytosolic loops of VDAC and establish channel orientation in our reconstitution experiments. Experiments on human hepatoma cells HepG2 support our conjecture that VDAC permeability for the mitochondrial respiratory substrates is regulated by dimeric tubulin and channel phosphorylation. Treatment of HepG2 cells with colchicine prevents microtubule polymerization, thus increasing dimeric tubulin availability in the cytosol. Accordingly, this leads to a decrease of mitochondrial potential measured by assessing mitochondrial tetramethylrhodamine methyester uptake with confocal microscopy. Inhibition of PKA activity blocks and reverses mitochondrial depolarization induced by colchicine. Our findings suggest a novel functional link between serine/threonine kinase signaling pathways, mitochondrial respiration, and the highly dynamic microtubule network which is characteristic of cancerogenesis and cell proliferation. PMID:22022409

  8. Student Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Joyce

    Materials for running a student government program at the junior high school level are provided in three general sections. Section 1 is a description of student government operations. Topics covered include student government responsibilities and activities, student council meeting procedures, parliamentary rules, responsibilities of the…

  9. Cutting Edge: IL-4, IL-21, and IFN-γ Interact To Govern T-bet and CD11c Expression in TLR-Activated B Cells.

    PubMed

    Naradikian, Martin S; Myles, Arpita; Beiting, Daniel P; Roberts, Kenneth J; Dawson, Lucas; Herati, Ramin Sedaghat; Bengsch, Bertram; Linderman, Susanne L; Stelekati, Erietta; Spolski, Rosanne; Wherry, E John; Hunter, Christopher; Hensley, Scott E; Leonard, Warren J; Cancro, Michael P

    2016-08-15

    T-bet and CD11c expression in B cells is linked with IgG2c isotype switching, virus-specific immune responses, and humoral autoimmunity. However, the activation requisites and regulatory cues governing T-bet and CD11c expression in B cells remain poorly defined. In this article, we reveal a relationship among TLR engagement, IL-4, IL-21, and IFN-γ that regulates T-bet expression in B cells. We find that IL-21 or IFN-γ directly promote T-bet expression in the context of TLR engagement. Further, IL-4 antagonizes T-bet induction. Finally, IL-21, but not IFN-γ, promotes CD11c expression independent of T-bet. Using influenza virus and Heligmosomoides polygyrus infections, we show that these interactions function in vivo to determine whether T-bet(+) and CD11c(+) B cells are formed. These findings suggest that T-bet(+) B cells seen in health and disease share the common initiating features of TLR-driven activation within this circumscribed cytokine milieu.

  10. Interaction among the vacuole, the mitochondria, and the oxidative stress response is governed by the transient receptor potential channel in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qilin; Zhang, Bing; Yang, Baopeng; Chen, Jiatong; Wang, Hui; Jia, Chang; Ding, Xiaohui; Xu, Ning; Dong, Yijie; Zhang, Biao; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun

    2014-12-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most important opportunistic pathogens, causing both mucosal candidiasis and life-threatening systemic infections. To survive in the host immune defense system, this pathogen uses an elaborate signaling network to recognize and respond to oxidative stress, which is essential for its pathogenicity. However, the exact mechanisms that this fungus employs to integrate the oxidative stress response (OSR) with functions of various organelles remain uncharacterized. Our previous work implicated a connection between the calcium signaling system and the OSR. In this study, we find that the vacuolar transient receptor potential (TRP) channel Yvc1, one of the calcium signaling members, plays a critical role in cell tolerance to oxidative stress. We further provide evidence that this channel is required not only for activation of Cap1-related transcription of OSR genes but also for maintaining the stability of both the mitochondria and the vacuole in a potassium- and calcium-dependent manner. Element assays reveal that this TRP channel affects calcium influx and potassium transport from the vacuole to the mitochondria. Therefore, the TRP channel governs the novel interaction among the OSR, the vacuole, and the mitochondria by mediating ion transport in this pathogen under oxidative stress. PMID:25308698

  11. Interaction among the vacuole, the mitochondria, and the oxidative stress response is governed by the transient receptor potential channel in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qilin; Zhang, Bing; Yang, Baopeng; Chen, Jiatong; Wang, Hui; Jia, Chang; Ding, Xiaohui; Xu, Ning; Dong, Yijie; Zhang, Biao; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun

    2014-12-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most important opportunistic pathogens, causing both mucosal candidiasis and life-threatening systemic infections. To survive in the host immune defense system, this pathogen uses an elaborate signaling network to recognize and respond to oxidative stress, which is essential for its pathogenicity. However, the exact mechanisms that this fungus employs to integrate the oxidative stress response (OSR) with functions of various organelles remain uncharacterized. Our previous work implicated a connection between the calcium signaling system and the OSR. In this study, we find that the vacuolar transient receptor potential (TRP) channel Yvc1, one of the calcium signaling members, plays a critical role in cell tolerance to oxidative stress. We further provide evidence that this channel is required not only for activation of Cap1-related transcription of OSR genes but also for maintaining the stability of both the mitochondria and the vacuole in a potassium- and calcium-dependent manner. Element assays reveal that this TRP channel affects calcium influx and potassium transport from the vacuole to the mitochondria. Therefore, the TRP channel governs the novel interaction among the OSR, the vacuole, and the mitochondria by mediating ion transport in this pathogen under oxidative stress.

  12. Physics and Government

    SciTech Connect

    Hendry, Nancy H.

    1999-08-24

    In defining the powers and duties of the three branches of government, the U.S. Constitution never explicitly referred to Science, except in the patent clause. But many technical responsibilities are implied in references to weights and measures, the census, and the like. Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and in particular Benjamin Franklin, were highly literate in science, but it was their disciple, President John Quincy Adams who promoted as a matter of policy a direct role of the government in science--in particular with respect to astronomy, land surveys and navigation--all physical sciences. Some agencies of government--notably the National Bureau of Standards and the Department of Agriculture were founded in the early days of the Republic with scientific and technical missions. Since then the involvement of the government with science has waxed and waned but the major expansion of the interaction between physics and government occurred after World War II when physicists demonstrated the power of their craft during mobilization of science in support of the war effort. In discussing the interaction of physics with government we should distinguish ''science in government''--scientific input into policy making--from ''government in science,'' which is the support and management of that part of the overall scientific endeavor for which the government has responsibility. Let me turn first to the subject of physics in government. An overwhelming fraction of governmental decisions today have scientific and technical components; decisions ignoring these components are wasteful at best and can imperil the nation. For this reason governmental bodies at all levels solicit scientific advice--or at least give lip service to the need for such advice. When such advice was deliberately avoided, as President Reagan did before announcing his Strategic Defense Initiative in March 1983, the technically unattainable goal ''to make nuclear weapons impotent and obsolete'' was proclaimed.

  13. Reinventing Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, David T.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout all levels of American government, a shift is taking place from the rigid, wasteful, centralized bureaucracies of the industrial era to the more flexible, entrepreneurial, decentralized government needed to succeed in today's world. This shift has been brought about by an unprecedented, ongoing fiscal crisis that has created a sudden…

  14. Remaking Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, John

    2000-01-01

    The Policy Governance model's philosophical foundations lie in Rousseau's social contract, Greenleaf's servant-leadership, and modern management theory. Policy Governance stresses primacy of the owner-representative role; full-board authority; superintendents as chief executive officers; authoritative prescription of "ends," bounded freedom for…

  15. Policing Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Jack H.

    1991-01-01

    The American Association of University Professors' (AAUP) new policy authorizing sanctions against colleges when investigation discloses serious departures from accepted governance norms is examined. Issues discussed include the existence and general relevance of governance norms, evidence of violation of those standards, and the AAUP's right to…

  16. Renewing governance.

    PubMed

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance. PMID:17208717

  17. Government Regulatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Katie

    Government regulation of food products, food processing, and food preparation is imperative in bringing an unadulterated, nonmisleading, and safe food product to market and is relevant to all areas of food science, including engineering, processing, chemistry, and microbiology. The liability associated with providing consumers with an adulterated or substandard product cannot only tarnish a company's name and reputation, but also impose substantial financial repercussions on the company and those individuals who play an active role in the violation. In order for a company to fully comply with the relevant food laws (both federal and state), an intimate knowledge of food science is required. Individuals knowledgeable in food science play an integral role not only in implementing and counseling food companies/processors to ensure compliance with government regulations, but these individuals are also necessary to the state and federal governments that make and enforce the relevant laws and regulators.

  18. Understanding the forces that govern packing: a density functional theory and structural investigation of anion-π-anion and nonclassical C-H···anion interactions.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Sally; White, Nicholas G; Bauzá, Antonio; Deyà, Pere M; Frontera, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    The ability of Ni(II) coordinated 4-pyrrolyl-3,5-di(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole (pldpt) to establish multiple anion-π interactions is analyzed. Experimentally, such complexes were previously shown to form strong anion-π interactions, including "π-pocket" and "π-sandwiched" motifs, in the crystal lattice. In the latter, the triazole ring is "sandwiched" by two anions forming a ternary anion-π-anion assembly (π-sandwich) which, surprisingly, gave about 0.2 Å shorter anion-π distances than in binary assemblies (where only one side of the triazole participates in the anion binding), indicating the possibility of cooperativity. In depth analysis, using dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT, BP86-D/def2-TZVP level of theory), shows that this ternary anion-π-anion interaction is slightly less energetically favorable than the binary anion-π interactions in isolation. Hence, the sandwich interaction is not cooperative (E(coop) is positive), but, as E(coop) contributes less than 1.5% of the total interaction energy (which is dominated by the strong electrostatic attraction of the anions to the highly π-acidic Ni(II)-coordinated triazole ring), the presence of nonclassical C-H···anion hydrogen bonds can offset this, making the short anion-π sandwich interactions the most favorable solid state conformation. PMID:22974250

  19. Charge and aggregation pattern govern the interaction of plasticins with LPS monolayers mimicking the external leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Michel, J P; Wang, Y X; Dé, E; Fontaine, P; Goldmann, M; Rosilio, V

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics has become today a major public health issue. In the development of new anti-infectious therapies, antimicrobial peptides appear as promising candidates. However, their mechanisms of action against bacterial membranes are still poorly understood. We describe for the first time the interaction and penetration of plasticins into lipid monolayers and bilayers modeling the two leaflets of the asymmetrical outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The lipid composition of these monolayers mimics that of each leaflet: mixtures of LPS Re 595 mutant and wild type S-form from Salmonella enterica for the external leaflet, and SOPE/SOPG/cardiolipin (80/15/5) for the inner one. The analysis of the interfacial behavior of native (PTCDA1) and modified (PTCDA1-KF) antimicrobial plasticins showed that PTCDA1-KF exhibited better surface properties than its unmodified counterpart. Both peptides could penetrate into the model monolayers at concentrations higher than 0.1 μM. The penetration was particularly enhanced for PTCDA1-KF into the mixed LPS monolayer, due to attractive electrostatic interactions. Grazing X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy studies revealed the changes in LPS monolayers organization upon peptide insertion. The interaction of plasticins with liposomes was also monitored by light scattering and circular dichroism techniques. Only the cationic plasticin achieved full disaggregation and structuration in α helices, whereas the native one remained aggregated and unstructured. The main steps of the penetration mechanism of the two plasticins into lipid models of the external leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria have been established.

  20. Historical changes in flowering phenology are governed by temperature × precipitation interactions in a widespread perennial herb in western North America.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Elizabeth R; Mazer, Susan J

    2016-04-01

    For most species, a precise understanding of how climatic parameters determine the timing of seasonal life cycle stages is constrained by limited long-term data. Further, most long-term studies of plant phenology that have examined relationships between phenological timing and climate have been local in scale or have focused on single climatic parameters. Herbarium specimens, however, can expand the temporal and spatial coverage of phenological datasets. Using Trillium ovatum specimens collected over > 100 yr across its native range, we analyzed how seasonal climatic conditions (mean minimum temperature (Tmin ), mean maximum temperature and total precipitation (PPT)) affect flowering phenology. We then examined long-term changes in climatic conditions and in the timing of flowering across T. ovatum's range. Warmer Tmin advanced flowering, whereas higher PPT delayed flowering. However, Tmin and PPT were shown to interact: the advancing effect of warmer Tmin was strongest where PPT was highest, and the delaying effect of higher PPT was strongest where Tmin was coldest. The direction of temporal change in climatic parameters and in the timing of flowering was dependent on geographic location. Tmin , for example, decreased across the observation period in coastal regions, but increased in inland areas. Our results highlight the complex effects of climate and geographic location on phenology. PMID:26595165

  1. Historical changes in flowering phenology are governed by temperature × precipitation interactions in a widespread perennial herb in western North America.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Elizabeth R; Mazer, Susan J

    2016-04-01

    For most species, a precise understanding of how climatic parameters determine the timing of seasonal life cycle stages is constrained by limited long-term data. Further, most long-term studies of plant phenology that have examined relationships between phenological timing and climate have been local in scale or have focused on single climatic parameters. Herbarium specimens, however, can expand the temporal and spatial coverage of phenological datasets. Using Trillium ovatum specimens collected over > 100 yr across its native range, we analyzed how seasonal climatic conditions (mean minimum temperature (Tmin ), mean maximum temperature and total precipitation (PPT)) affect flowering phenology. We then examined long-term changes in climatic conditions and in the timing of flowering across T. ovatum's range. Warmer Tmin advanced flowering, whereas higher PPT delayed flowering. However, Tmin and PPT were shown to interact: the advancing effect of warmer Tmin was strongest where PPT was highest, and the delaying effect of higher PPT was strongest where Tmin was coldest. The direction of temporal change in climatic parameters and in the timing of flowering was dependent on geographic location. Tmin , for example, decreased across the observation period in coastal regions, but increased in inland areas. Our results highlight the complex effects of climate and geographic location on phenology.

  2. Identification of icsA, a plasmid locus of Shigella flexneri that governs bacterial intra- and intercellular spread through interaction with F-actin.

    PubMed Central

    Bernardini, M L; Mounier, J; d'Hauteville, H; Coquis-Rondon, M; Sansonetti, P J

    1989-01-01

    The capacity of Shigella to spread within the cytosol of infected epithelial cells and to infect adjacent cells is critical for the development of infection foci, which lead to mucosal abscesses. Shigella is a nonmotile microorganism that appears to utilize host cell microfilaments to generate intra- as well as intercellular movements, since this movement was inhibited by cytochalasin D and involvement of F-actin was demonstrated by direct labeling of infected cells with the specific dye N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)phallacidin. Such movements led to the formation of extracellular protrusions, which may explain cell to cell spread. icsA, a locus necessary for intra- and intercellular spread, was identified on the Shigella flexneri virulence plasmid pWR100. This locus was cloned and shown to express a 120-kDa outer membrane protein, which plays an important role in the interactions established between host cell microfilaments and the bacterial surface, thus leading to intracellular movement. Images PMID:2542950

  3. Factors Governing P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Drug-Drug Interactions at the Blood-Brain Barrier Measured with Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Wanek, Thomas; Römermann, Kerstin; Mairinger, Severin; Stanek, Johann; Sauberer, Michael; Filip, Thomas; Traxl, Alexander; Kuntner, Claudia; Pahnke, Jens; Bauer, Florian; Erker, Thomas; Löscher, Wolfgang; Müller, Markus; Langer, Oliver

    2015-09-01

    The adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter P-glycoprotein (ABCB1/Abcb1a) restricts at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) brain distribution of many drugs. ABCB1 may be involved in drug-drug interactions (DDIs) at the BBB, which may lead to changes in brain distribution and central nervous system side effects of drugs. Positron emission tomography (PET) with the ABCB1 substrates (R)-[(11)C]verapamil and [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide and the ABCB1 inhibitor tariquidar has allowed direct comparison of ABCB1-mediated DDIs at the rodent and human BBB. In this work we evaluated different factors which could influence the magnitude of the interaction between tariquidar and (R)-[(11)C]verapamil or [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide at the BBB and thereby contribute to previously observed species differences between rodents and humans. We performed in vitro transport experiments with [(3)H]verapamil and [(3)H]-N-desmethyl-loperamide in ABCB1 and Abcb1a overexpressing cell lines. Moreover we conducted in vivo PET experiments and biodistribution studies with (R)-[(11)C]verapamil and [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide in wild-type mice without and with tariquidar pretreatment and in homozygous Abcb1a/1b((-/-)) and heterozygous Abcb1a/1b((+/-)) mice. We found no differences for in vitro transport of [(3)H]verapamil and [(3)H]-N-desmethyl-loperamide by ABCB1 and Abcb1a and its inhibition by tariquidar. [(3)H]-N-Desmethyl-loperamide was transported with a 5 to 9 times higher transport ratio than [(3)H]verapamil in ABCB1- and Abcb1a-transfected cells. In vivo, brain radioactivity concentrations were lower for [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide than for (R)-[(11)C]verapamil. Both radiotracers showed tariquidar dose dependent increases in brain distribution with tariquidar half-maximum inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 1052 nM (95% confidence interval CI: 930-1189) for (R)-[(11)C]verapamil and 1329 nM (95% CI: 980-1801) for [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide. In homozygous Abcb1a/1b

  4. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  5. Technology transfer within the government

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Carissa Bryce

    1992-01-01

    The report of a workshop panel concerned with technology transfer within the government is presented. The suggested subtopics for the panel were as follows: (1) transfer from non-NASA U.S. government technology developers to NASA space missions/programs; and (2) transfer from NASA to other U.S. government civil space mission programs. Two presentations were made to the panel: Roles/Value of Early Strategic Planning Within the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to Facilitate Later Technology Transfer To and From Industry; and NOAA Satellite Programs and Technology Requirements. The panel discussion addresses the following major issues: DOD/NASA cooperation; alternative mechanisms for interagency communication and interactions; current technology transfer relationships among federal research agencies, and strategies for improving this transfer; technology transfer mechanisms appropriate to intragovernment transfer; the importance of industry as a technology transfer conduit; and measures of merit.

  6. Pay modernisation and healthcare governance.

    PubMed

    Benton, David C

    Policies interact and have direct and indirect consequences resulting in both short-term and longer-term effects on the working lives of professionals, the care they offer and the education needed by future generations of staff. This article explores how pay modernisation could result in benefits and risks for corporate, clinical and staff governance. It is argued that if pay modernisation as a major enabler of service redesign is to succeed then far greater understanding of how various policies interact and their potential consequences is required. PMID:15473207

  7. Pay modernisation and healthcare governance.

    PubMed

    Benton, David C

    Policies interact and have direct and indirect consequences resulting in both short-term and longer-term effects on the working lives of professionals, the care they offer and the education needed by future generations of staff. This article explores how pay modernisation could result in benefits and risks for corporate, clinical and staff governance. It is argued that if pay modernisation as a major enabler of service redesign is to succeed then far greater understanding of how various policies interact and their potential consequences is required.

  8. Wyoming Government, Unit VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming government presents concepts, activities, and stories for elementary school students. Concepts stress that the functions of government are determined according to the demands, needs, and traditions of the people; each part of government has a special function; as citizens, we should be loyal to the underlying concepts of our…

  9. LACC Shared Governance Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Mary

    This document discusses Los Angeles City College's (LACC) (California) Shared Governance Model. In response to California Assembly Bill 1725, LACC set forth a plan to implement the statutory requirements of shared governance. Shared governance is a concept grounded in the idea that decision-making is a process that affects the entire campus…

  10. Taking Student Government Seriously.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the student government at La Mesa Middle School (California) that was modeled after the three-branch U.S. government as a means for increasing students' civic understanding. Describes the structure of the legislative, judicial, and executive branches, the different activities of the student government, and the reasons for the hiatus.…

  11. Modelling University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakman, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Twentieth century governance models used in public universities are subject to increasing doubt across the English-speaking world. Governments question if public universities are being efficiently governed; if their boards of trustees are adequately fulfilling their trust obligations towards multiple stakeholders; and if collegial models of…

  12. Governance in Strategic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter begins with a retrospective look at governance in community colleges based on a working understanding of governance as a correlate of decision making. In its simplest form, governance is "a process for distributing authority, power, and influence in decision making among constituencies" (Alfred and Smydra, 1985, pp. 201-202). What…

  13. Teaching about Comparative Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2009-01-01

    As international relationships become increasingly important (with both friendly and not-so-friendly governments), the author believes that it is important for U.S. students to learn about how a parliamentary democracy works--how it is similar, but different from a presidential-style government. Learning about the systems of government of other…

  14. 77 FR 18258 - Government-to-Government Telephonic Consultation Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Government-to-Government Telephonic Consultation Meetings AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. SUMMARY: The National Park Service announces two telephonic government-...

  15. Models of Government Blogging: Design Tradeoffs in Civic Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanaugh, Andrea; Kim, Hyung Nam; Pérez-Quiñones, Manuel; Isenhour, Philip

    Some local government officials and staff have been experimenting with emerging technologies as part of a broad suite of media used for informing and communicating with their constituencies. In addition to the typical government website and, for some, email exchange with citizens, some town and municipal governments are using blogs, video streaming, pod- casting, and Real Simple Syndication (RSS) to reach constituencies with updates and, in some cases, interaction and discussion between citizens and government.

  16. The Iraqi Governing Council

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article provides the details of the chronological events surrounding the establishment of a Governing Council in Iraq in July 2003 by the United States, acting as the leader of the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) that administers Iraq. The following topics are discussed in the article: (1) The Composition of the Governing Council; (2)…

  17. Government Quality Conference Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Government Quality Conference was an attempt to bring together executive organizations and senior individuals in the Federal Government that have a desire to improve productivity. It was designed to provide an exchange of ideas based on experience, and to encourage individual management initiatives to tap the capabilities of Federal employees.

  18. Restructuring for Good Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Stephen; Carey, Russell C.

    2006-01-01

    American higher education has never been more in need of good governance than it is right now. Yet much of the structure many boards have inherited or created tends to stall or impede timely, well-informed, and broadly supported decision making. At many institutions (ours included), layers of governance have been added with each passing year,…

  19. Using IT Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brobst, Jan; Council, Chip

    2005-01-01

    The discussion in this article is intended to provide an examination of why top management, IT management, and internal auditors should be interested in IT governance. Some aspects of IT management will be described including implementation, auditing, availability, security, and alignment. One governance framework, COBIT, will be utilized as a…

  20. Government Information Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearstyne, Bruce W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six articles discuss government information policy in context of technology and electronic records; policies on information resources management from OMB (Office of Management and Budget); state information resources, including Council of State Governments (CSG); state record laws and preservation of archival records; and management of electronic…

  1. Educational Governance in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  2. Policy Governance Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, William J.

    2001-01-01

    An administrator trainer/former superintendent's experience suggests that corporate governance models don't fit the reality of school governance in many districts. Elected board members define their roles differently than their business counterparts and derive little or no monetary benefit from public service. The "new breed" resemble political…

  3. State and local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    The Virginia Space Grant Consortium approach to a close working relation to state and local governments is presented as a model for consideration. State government relations are especially important in that this is a primary resource in securing matching funds. Avenues for establishing these relationships are listed and discussed.

  4. Truth in Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Norman

    In this position paper the author examines truth in government. Examination of recent political events, especially in areas of foreign policy, reveals that the government has assumed the right to decide what truths are to be told and when they are to be told. To return to the principles developed by the members of the Constitutional Convention of…

  5. Comment on ``Communicating Government Science''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lins, Harry F.

    2006-05-01

    Soroosh Sorooshian's editorial in the 18 April issue of Eos (87(16) 2005) is a timely reminder of the need for unambiguous guidelines governing the interactions between government scientists and the media. His comments implicitly recognize the central role that science plays in a modern democratic society, which includes informing policy at the highest levels of government and educating the general public about the world we inhabit. Federal research scientists, who constitute approximately 15 percent of the AGU's U.S. membership, have a unique public responsibility. They would welcome a consistent policy for the review and approval of publications, oral presentations, and media communications. An example of the value and success that such a policy can have to both science and the nation is evident in the operations of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). For more than a century, the USGS has had clear policies and procedures for ensuring the communication of accurate, high-quality, and impartial scientific information. These policies and procedures are set forth in the USGS Manual under sections entitled ``Approval by the director for outside publication and oral presentation,'' ``Review of USGS publications and abstracts of oral presentations for policy-sensitive issues,'' and ``News release and media relations policy.'' These policies are available online at http:// www.usgs.gov/usgs-manual/500/500-9.html (.../500-8.html and .../500 5.html).

  6. Towards Self-Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses the advantages of student self-government and describes the work of student committees at Belper High School, Derbyshire, in setting up a student coffee shop, planning school sports, and orienting new students. (SJL)

  7. LESS Government Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Latham, Tom [R-IA-4

    2011-06-15

    06/30/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Organization, Efficiency, and Financial Management . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contract oversight could reduce such sums significantly. Government outsourcing for services also raises... governmental functions. Agencies and departments must operate under clear rules prescribing when outsourcing is... oversee acquisitions appropriately; and (4) clarify when governmental outsourcing for services is and...

  9. Shared health governance.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2011-07-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a ) developed the "health capability paradigm," a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called "shared health governance" (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

  10. Shared health governance.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2011-07-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a ) developed the "health capability paradigm," a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called "shared health governance" (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically.

  11. Government Positions for Physicists.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, David

    2006-03-01

    There are a number of government agencies that employ physicists in a wide variety of jobs -- from student internships to post docs to full time staff positions. You can do real, creative, fore-front physics or pursue a wide range of leadership positions. The possibilities are almost unlimited and so is the impact your work can have on the government, academia, and industry. So how do you go about finding a government job? What qualities or abilities are deemed valuable? What are the advantages and disadvantages to working in the government? I will bring some personal experiences and observations from working in the government (one year as a rotator at the National Science Foundation in the Division of Materials Research and almost 18 years at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, both as a Group Leader and a Division Chief) to bear on these questions and more. Prior to my government career I was a physics professor pursuing research and teaching in academia.

  12. Understanding 'anticipatory governance'.

    PubMed

    Guston, David H

    2014-04-01

    Anticipatory governance is 'a broad-based capacity extended through society that can act on a variety of inputs to manage emerging knowledge-based technologies while such management is still possible'. It motivates activities designed to build capacities in foresight, engagement, and integration--as well as through their production ensemble. These capacities encourage and support the reflection of scientists, engineers, policy makers, and other publics on their roles in new technologies. This article reviews the early history of the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the United States, and it further explicates anticipatory governance through exploring the genealogy of the term and addressing a set of critiques found in the literature. These critiques involve skepticism of three proximities of anticipatory governance: to its object, nanotechnology, which is a relatively indistinct one; to the public, which remains almost utterly naive toward nanotechnology; and to technoscience itself, which allegedly renders anticipatory governance complicit in its hubris. The article concludes that the changing venues and the amplification within them of the still, small voices of folks previously excluded from offering constructive visions of futures afforded by anticipatory governance may not be complete solutions to our woes in governing technology, but they certainly can contribute to bending the long arc of technoscience more toward humane ends. PMID:24941612

  13. Government Information Access: A decisive Factor for E-Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yikun; Huang, Cui

    In recent years we are witnessing enormous development of e-government, which has brought about great changes in our society. This study examines the relationship between the levels of e-government and the quality of government information access, pointing out that e-government principles are based on the assumption that government information should be accessed among all kinds of organizations. In contrast to government webs' rapid growth, the low quality of government information access has been a dilemma which impacts the usability and efficiency of e-government. This paper also analyzes blocking factors about information access in China, draw a conclusion that on-line government information access should be the key factor of e-government which steps should be taken to enhance accessibility to government information.

  14. Visual Culture and Electronic Government: Exploring a New Generation of E-Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekkers, Victor; Moody, Rebecca

    E-government is becoming more picture-oriented. What meaning do stakeholders attach to visual events and visualization? Comparative case study research show the functional meaning primarily refers to registration, integration, transparency and communication. The political meaning refers to new ways of framing in order to secure specific interests and claims. To what the institutional meaning relates is ambiguous: either it improves the position of citizens, or it reinforces the existing bias presented by governments. Hence, we expect that the emergence of a visualized public space, through omnipresent penetration of (mobile) multimedia technologies, will influence government-citizen interactions.

  15. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Governance Structure: Palomar College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palomar Coll., San Marcos, CA.

    The governance structure of Palomar College (PC) in San Marcos, California, is defined in the plan described in this document. Introductory material indicates that the plan was designed to provide appropriate representation for each of PC's constituent groups, delineate committee responsibilities and reporting relationships, establish the…

  17. Ethics in Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson developed by the Center for Civic Education giving secondary students the opportunity to explore ethical issues in government from the perspective of corrective justice. Outlines role plays and other class activities based on a fictitious ethics scandal involving bribery. Identifies specific questions to be asked on issues of…

  18. In Brief: Open government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama's Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government requires federal agencies to take steps toward increased transparency, public participation, and collaboration. Agencies are accepting suggestions until 19 March 2010. For more information, visit http://www.whitehouse.gov/open and http://www.usa.gov/webcontent/open/tool_poc.shtml.

  19. Governance Final Briefing Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    One of the State Board of Education's (SBE) strategic plan goals is to advocate for an effective, accountable governance structure for public education in Washington. The development of this goal comes from Board members' experiences over the last five years to understand and address the complexity of Washington's education system and their role…

  20. Government in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Donald J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This issue begins with information on new economic education curriculum materials and includes a conceptual introduction to the relationship between local government and the economy. Following this, four instructional units are provided. The first unit, called "Communities Need Rules," is intended for preschool and kindergarten children. Students…

  1. Governance Review without Tears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lynn K.; Page, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    The faculty at the Raymond Walters College of the University of Cincinnati recently conceived, developed, and implemented a complete governance review that the faculty approved unanimously. Raymond Walters College is one of the sixteen colleges of the University of Cincinnati which offers transfer programs, associate degrees, and technical…

  2. Biology and the Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Roger D.

    1969-01-01

    Emphasizes the social implications of biological knowledge and discusses two main government roles in biology: (1) a creative and supportive role, including support of education and research, (2) control, regulation and protection related to the applications of biological knowledge. Public control is considered necessary in areas such as food and…

  3. Governance of Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, K. D.; Martinez, Robert P.

    Two basic questions underlie school law battles: Who governs public education? What are the limits of the school board's power? Examples can be seen in litigation regarding questions such as State-local responsibility in school finance and assessment, the public release of district-wide test scores, the authority of arbitrators to make educational…

  4. Governance and Civic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ekundayo J. D., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on the socioeconomic development, legal, gender, philosophical, and human rights dimensions of state governance within the context of social, economic, and political processes in Sierra Leone and Kenya. The Political Literacy and Civic Education (PLACE) Project, which was sponsored by the British Overseas Development…

  5. Independent School Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavis, Allan K.

    Findings of a study that examined the role of the governing body in the independent school's self-renewing processes are presented in this paper. From the holistic paradigm, the school is viewed as a self-renewing system that is able to maintain its identity despite environmental changes through existing structures that define and create…

  6. Government-Sponsored Programs on Structures Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This document contains the presentations from the joint UVA/AIAA workshops on Government-Sponsored Programs on Structures Technology, held on April 6, 1997 in Kissimmee, Florida and on September 4, 1997 in Hampton, Virginia. Workshop attendees were the Members and Friends of the AIAA Structures Technical Committee. The objectives of the workshops were to: (a) provide a forum for discussion of current government-sponsored programs in the structures area; (b) identify high-potential research areas for future aerospace systems; and (c) initiate suitable interaction mechanisms with the managers of structures programs.

  7. State Governance Action Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This is the fifth edition of the State Governance Action Report that has been produced since 2000 by the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges' (AGB's) Ingram Center for Public Trusteeship and Governance. Focusing primarily on state and higher education policies directly affecting governance, trusteeship, and institutionally…

  8. State Governance Action Report, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the State Governance Action Report for 2007. Compiled in this report are state policy developments, including legislation, commissions, and studies, affecting the structure, responsibilities, and operations of public higher education governing boards and institutionally related foundations. Governance and governance-related…

  9. Shifting Power Relations Between Higher Education and State Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyquist, Ewald B.

    In the United States, decision-making in education is becoming laterally dispersed, involving the interaction of many more variables and many more people, groups, and agencies. It is also rising to higher levels of government, including the federal government. This is correlated with relatively new sources of financial support and with…

  10. The Difficulties of School Governance: A Layperson's Job?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Viviane; Ward, Lorrae; Timperley, Helen

    2003-01-01

    Interviews sample of New Zealand governors, head teachers, and state education officials to determine nature and frequency of difficulties governing bodies experience in carrying out four key governance tasks. Finds three main types of difficulties: skill and understanding, difficulties in interaction with professionals, and inadequate…

  11. Ethics and constitutional government.

    PubMed

    Albright, James A

    2007-01-01

    The term ethics refers to a set of principles that govern acceptable, proper conduct. Attacks on the Constitution of the United States pose the most serious breach of ethics today. Our country was founded as a republic, not as a democracy. Our Founding Fathers' main concern was to protect citizens from the power of the federal government, so constitutionally, the central government has little or no authority over individual citizens except on federal property. One of the major problems today is the fact that we now have professional politicians. This is due in large part to the lure of financial gain from countless special interest groups. This would change under constitutional law because the federal budget would decrease drastically. Article 1 states that all legislative power is vested in Congress. Congress has only 18 enumerated powers, and almost half of these pertain to defense of the country. Many of our current problems are due to regulatory agencies that have become independent fiefdoms with unconstitutional legislative, as well as executive and judicial, powers. The regulatory agency most relevant to medicine, both clinical care and research, is the FDA. It is now obvious that its basic structure needs to be changed or abolished because its actions are identical to those inherent in authoritarian systems. Constructive change could come from Congress, but it would be most desirable if the Supreme Court would take the lead and reestablish the authority of the Constitution as the Supreme Law of the Land. The FDA's function could be limited to the determination of safety, but preferably its mission would be altered to that of product certification. Defenders of the current system claim that such a drastic change would be too dangerous and their prime example is thalidomide. But it is now known that the market has already solved that problem prior to the government-imposed sanctions. Realistically, market forces and their ramifications, including our legal

  12. Ethics and constitutional government.

    PubMed

    Albright, James A

    2007-01-01

    The term ethics refers to a set of principles that govern acceptable, proper conduct. Attacks on the Constitution of the United States pose the most serious breach of ethics today. Our country was founded as a republic, not as a democracy. Our Founding Fathers' main concern was to protect citizens from the power of the federal government, so constitutionally, the central government has little or no authority over individual citizens except on federal property. One of the major problems today is the fact that we now have professional politicians. This is due in large part to the lure of financial gain from countless special interest groups. This would change under constitutional law because the federal budget would decrease drastically. Article 1 states that all legislative power is vested in Congress. Congress has only 18 enumerated powers, and almost half of these pertain to defense of the country. Many of our current problems are due to regulatory agencies that have become independent fiefdoms with unconstitutional legislative, as well as executive and judicial, powers. The regulatory agency most relevant to medicine, both clinical care and research, is the FDA. It is now obvious that its basic structure needs to be changed or abolished because its actions are identical to those inherent in authoritarian systems. Constructive change could come from Congress, but it would be most desirable if the Supreme Court would take the lead and reestablish the authority of the Constitution as the Supreme Law of the Land. The FDA's function could be limited to the determination of safety, but preferably its mission would be altered to that of product certification. Defenders of the current system claim that such a drastic change would be too dangerous and their prime example is thalidomide. But it is now known that the market has already solved that problem prior to the government-imposed sanctions. Realistically, market forces and their ramifications, including our legal

  13. Shared Health Governance

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2014-01-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a) developed the “health capability paradigm,” a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called “shared health governance” (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

  14. Governance Challenges in Telecoupled Food Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, H.; Mahanti, A.; Rueda, X.

    2015-12-01

    Distal connections increasingly influence food systems' governance: social actors in one geographic context produce intended and unintended consequences in distant locations, coupling the dynamics of socio-ecological systems. While these linkages are not new, economic globalization, urbanization and the dynamics of consumer preferences have accentuated these 'telecoupled' relationships in food systems. Telecoupling refers to the unexpected causal interactions among human-environment systems that were otherwise not linked. This paper presents a framework for evaluating telecoupling processes and outcomes in food systems, focusing on how the disparate scales of drivers and outcomes, diverse values of actors involved, and spatial and social distance combine to challenge socio-ecological system governance. We draw from two examples of food systems (coffee and maize) to argue that telecoupling, as a challenge for food systems, emerges when the institutions and mechanisms of governance acting over one system do not account for the consequences and interactions involving a different system. Telecoupling can stimulate new forms of governance, such as the development of codes of conduct and certification schemes, with positive impacts on food and livelihood security. Our cases suggest that the emergence of new governance arrangements is at least partially contingent on the prior existence of alternative social networks, which cultivate shared values, meanings and goals in food systems, as well as the capacity of affected actors to mobilize political influence and demonstrate plausible causal links. In the absence of such networks and associated capacities, the prior governance arrangements, although poorly adjusted to the new circumstances, are likely to persist, reinforcing existing power relations and the probability of undesirable social and ecological outcomes.

  15. Digital government and public health.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Jane E

    2004-10-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agency's readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, managerial, and political capabilities. Public health agencies are especially challenged by a lack of funding for technical infrastructure and expertise, by privacy and security issues, and by lack of Internet access for low-income and marginalized populations. Public health agencies understand the difficulties of working across agencies and levels of government, but the development of new, integrated e-programs will require more than technical change - it will require a profound change in paradigm.

  16. Clinical governance. Scope to improve.

    PubMed

    Walshe, K; Freeman, T; Latham, L; Spurgeon, P; Wallace, L

    2000-10-26

    A survey of all 47 trusts in the West Midlands found that clinical governance had not been advanced beyond the production of strategies, establishing committees and appointing leads. There is little evidence of the cultural change clinical governance requires. Clinical governance has yet to make a real difference at the clinical workface. PMID:11138206

  17. Shared Governance: The Next Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovas, John C.; And Others

    This document contains three papers which present information from various perspectives on aspects of shared governance at De Anza College, in Cupertino, California. First, "Shared Governance: The Next Generation," by John C. Lovas, provides a brief history of governance in the Foothill-De Anza Community College District, and suggests some of the…

  18. Local Government: The Learning Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degelman, Charles, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Service-Learning Network" looks at the ways that service learning can transform local government into a learning laboratory for civic education. The first article, "Creating the Missing Link: Local Government, Service Learning, and Civic Education" (Todd Clark), introduces the issue. "Service Learning and Local Government" (Ann…

  19. Practice Governance 101, v. 2013.

    PubMed

    Hayes, David F

    2013-03-01

    Consensus governance is a principal weakness leading to group malfunction and failure. Inadequate group governance produces inadequate decisions, leading to inconsistent patient care, inadequate responses to marketplace challenges, and disregard for customers and strategic partners. The effectiveness of consensus management is limited by the pervasive incomplete knowledge and personal biases of partners. Additional structural weaknesses of group behavior include information cascade, the wisdom of the crowd, groupthink, pluralistic ignorance, analysis paralysis, peer pressure, and the herding instinct. Usual corporate governance is, by necessity, the governance model of choice. Full accountability of the decider(s) is the defining requirement of all successful governance models. PMID:23571058

  20. Practice Governance 101, v. 2013.

    PubMed

    Hayes, David F

    2013-03-01

    Consensus governance is a principal weakness leading to group malfunction and failure. Inadequate group governance produces inadequate decisions, leading to inconsistent patient care, inadequate responses to marketplace challenges, and disregard for customers and strategic partners. The effectiveness of consensus management is limited by the pervasive incomplete knowledge and personal biases of partners. Additional structural weaknesses of group behavior include information cascade, the wisdom of the crowd, groupthink, pluralistic ignorance, analysis paralysis, peer pressure, and the herding instinct. Usual corporate governance is, by necessity, the governance model of choice. Full accountability of the decider(s) is the defining requirement of all successful governance models.

  1. Governance for personal health records.

    PubMed

    Reti, Shane R; Feldman, Henry J; Safran, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Personal health records (PHR) are a modern health technology with the ability to engage patients more fully in their healthcare. Despite widespread interest, there has been little discussion around PHR governance at an organizational level. We develop a governance model and compare it to the practices of some of the early PHR adopters, including hospitals and ambulatory care settings, insurers and health plans, government departments, and commercial sectors. Decision-making structures varied between organizations. Business operations were present in all groups, but patients were not represented in any of the governance structures surveyed. To improve patient-centered care, policy making for PHRs needs to include patient representation at a governance level.

  2. Globalization and emerging governance modalities.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Deane Edward

    2005-09-01

    This paper explores the possibilities for global governance effectively dealing with the international transmission of disease. First, zoonotic regulation and control pose a special case for public health agencies, and this paper proposes a propositional model for an effective public health stance. Second, globalization dynamics are briefly reviewed in terms of an emerging consensus on the need for global governance in public health. Third, a brief examination of global governance modalities suggests that a strong global governance case has distinct limitations (despite its possible justification); an exploration of contemporary directions in global governance follows. Finally, the paper examines the phenomenon of contemporary zoonotic control within the conditions of an effective regulatory regime.

  3. Government-to-Government E-Government: A Case Study of a Federal Financial Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faokunla, Olumide Adegboyega

    2012-01-01

    The problem with the study of the concept of electronic government (e-Gov) is that scholars in the field have not adequately explored various dimensions of the concept. Literature on e-Gov is replete with works on the form of government to consumer e-Gov. Much less work had been done on the government to government (G2G) e-Gov. This qualitative…

  4. Nanomedicine: Governing uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisolino, Antonella

    Nanomedicine is a promising and revolutionary field to improve medical diagnoses and therapies leading to a higher quality of life for everybody. Huge benefits are expected from nanomedicine applications such as in diagnostic and therapeutic field. However, nanomedicine poses several issues on risks to the human health. This thesis aims to defense a perspective of risk governance that sustains scientific knowledge process by developing guidelines and providing the minimum safety standards acceptable to protect the human health. Although nanomedicine is in an early stage of its discovery, some cautious measures are required to provide regulatory mechanisms able to response to the unique set of challenges associated to nanomedicine. Nanotechnology offers an unique opportunity to intensify a major interplay between different disciplines such as science and law. This multidisciplinary approach can positively contributes to find reliable regulatory choices and responsive normative tools in dealing with challenges of novel technologies.

  5. An Empirical Investigation of the Role of Information Quality in Citizens' Trust in E-Government Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ally

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a change in the citizen-government relationship. Citizens have moved from a traditional face-to-face communication with their government, to an electronic interaction through the use of e-government systems. Emerging technology has enabled citizens to communicate with their government remotely. However, trust…

  6. Why governance? A challenge to good governance of biobanks.

    PubMed

    Browne, Katharine

    2015-12-01

    In this commentary on Karla Stroud and Kieran O'Doherty's 'Ethically Sustainable Governance in the Biobanking of Eggs and Embryos for Research' (2015) I call into question the need for good governance to overcome the challenges facing biobanking of eggs and embryos. I argue that the principles of good governance for biobanking that Stroud and O'Doherty outline come up short in providing concrete normative guidance to resolve the challenges associated with a biobank for eggs and embryos.

  7. Successful Shared Governance Through Education.

    PubMed

    Brull, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Shared governance is one way nurses can attain a healthy work environment. Having direct-care nurses involved in raising relevant clinical and operational issues and creating systematic approaches has been linked to greater levels of empowerment which is often transposed into shared governance. Nurse leaders at one hospital used a comprehensive educational strategy to implement shared governance in less than 2 years. An authoritative style of leadership and decision making does not meet the needs of today's complex health care environment; nor does it meet the needs of today's employees. The focus on a very deliberate and educational strategy for shared governance was successful in building the structures and processes needed to take a unit and division from traditional governance to shared governance in less than 2 years.

  8. Successful Shared Governance Through Education.

    PubMed

    Brull, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Shared governance is one way nurses can attain a healthy work environment. Having direct-care nurses involved in raising relevant clinical and operational issues and creating systematic approaches has been linked to greater levels of empowerment which is often transposed into shared governance. Nurse leaders at one hospital used a comprehensive educational strategy to implement shared governance in less than 2 years. An authoritative style of leadership and decision making does not meet the needs of today's complex health care environment; nor does it meet the needs of today's employees. The focus on a very deliberate and educational strategy for shared governance was successful in building the structures and processes needed to take a unit and division from traditional governance to shared governance in less than 2 years. PMID:26845819

  9. Global health justice and governance.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  10. Global health justice and governance.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors. PMID:23215931

  11. Technology transfer within the government

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, John

    1992-01-01

    The report of a workshop panel concerned with technology transfer within the government is presented. The presentation is made in vugraph form. The assigned subtopic for this panel are as follows: (1) transfer from non-NASA US government technology developers to NASA space missions/programs; and (2) transfer from NASA to other US government space mission programs. A specific area of inquiry was Technology Maturation Milestones. Three areas were investigated: technology development; advanced development; and flight hardware development.

  12. Government influence on patient organizations.

    PubMed

    Van de Bovenkamp, Hester M; Trappenburg, Margo J

    2011-12-01

    Patient organizations increasingly play an important role in health care decision-making in Western countries. The Netherlands is one of the countries where this trend has gone furthest. In the literature some problems are identified, such as instrumental use of patient organizations by care providers, health insurers and the pharmaceutical industry. To strengthen the position of patient organizations government funding is often recommended as a solution. In this paper we analyze the ties between Dutch government and Dutch patient organizations to learn more about the effects of such a relationship between government and this part of civil society. Our study is based on official government documents and existing empirical research on patient organizations. We found that government influence on patient organizations has become quite substantial with government influencing the organizational structure of patient organizations, the activities these organizations perform and even their ideology. Financing patient organizations offers the government an important means to hold them accountable. Although the ties between patient organizations and the government enable the former to play a role that can be valued as positive by both parties, we argue that they raise problems as well which warrant a discussion on how much government influence on civil society is acceptable.

  13. County Governments: "Forgotten" Subjects in Local Government Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, J. Edwin

    2007-01-01

    Revenue, expenditure, and employment data indicate that county governments--once taken for granted and playing "second fiddle" to municipalities--are playing an increasingly important role (and sometimes a role equal to that of municipalities) as vital service providers. Therefore, one would expect that county governments and municipal governments…

  14. Non-Functional Property Driven Service Governance: Performance Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yan; Zhu, Liming; Bass, Len; Gorton, Ian; Staples, Mark

    2007-09-17

    Service governance is a set of businesses processes, policies and technical solutions that support enterprises in their implementation and management of their SOA. The decisions of service governance, especially concerning service boundaries at the enterprise level, influence the deployment topology of business services across or within business organizations. Deployment topologies are realized by integration technologies such as Enterprise Service Bus (ESB). Service governance and technical solutions interact in a subtle way including through communication patterns and protocols between services and ESBs, as well as the deployment and configuration of ESB. These factors have a strong influence on the Non- Functional Properties (NFP) of a SOA solution. A systematic approach is essential to understand alternative technical solutions for a specific service governance decision. This paper proposes a modeling approach to evaluate the performance-related NFP impacts when mapping service governance to technical solutions using an ESB. This approach is illustrated by the quantitative performance analysis of a real

  15. The Governance of Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vergino, E S; May, M

    2003-09-22

    be successful. Regaining that consensus on the other hand means alleviating some fundamental insecurity on the part of states, and weakening the hold that terrorist groups have on some state governments. This in turn requires that some fundamental issues be addressed, with recognition that these are part of a suite of complex and dynamic interactions. Among these issues are: How will states provide for their own security and other central interests while preventing further proliferation, protecting against the use of nuclear weapons, and yet allowing for the possible expansion of nuclear power?; How best can states with limited resources to fight terrorist activities and safeguard nuclear materials be assisted in securing their materials and technologies?; What is the future role of international inspections? Does the IAEA remain the right organization to carry out these tasks? If not, what are the desired characteristics of a successor agency and can there be agreement on one?; How confident can we be of nonproliferation as latent nuclear weapon capabilities spread? The policies to address these and other issues must explicitly deal with NPT members who do not observe their obligations; NPT non-members; illicit trade in SNM and weapon technologies and the possibility of a regional nuclear war.

  16. The Business of Governing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gann, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    In September 2015, the Secretary of State for Education asked for more business involvement in schools, and in particular for business leaders' help to improve failing schools. This article questions the twenty-year campaign by all governments to engage business expertise and values in the governance of schools.

  17. Government Documents Departmental Operations Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John S.; And Others

    This manual for the operation and maintenance of the Government Documents Department at Baylor University's Moody Memorial Library is divided into 13 topical sections. The guide opens with the collection development policy statement, which covers the general collection, the maps division, and weeding government documents. Technical processing…

  18. From Partnership to Community Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    If learning is a journey between worlds, school governing bodies have a crucial role to play in mediating them. By establishing a public space for the voice of different communities to be expressed and deliberated governing bodies enable schools to understand and engage the cultural sources that motivate young people to learn. This article draws…

  19. Government Censorship and Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Robert A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    This third report in a series concerning restraints by government agencies on academic research concerns and recommends withdrawal of a recent presidential directive establishing a mechanism for controlling the release of classified information to the public through a system of prior review by government officials. (MSE)

  20. School Boards: Emerging Governance Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Patricia; Osborne, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The governance role of school boards is not new. Local school boards have governed education in Canada since the 19th century. However, significant forces are impacting on school boards and how they enact their roles and responsibilities. In this article, the authors want to look at the growing pressures on school boards, to actively acknowledge…

  1. Governance: A Community College Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carhart, John I.; Collins, Charles C.

    The purpose of this report is to describe the development of the input/output governance model at Los Medanos College and to explore the governance issues pertinent to all community colleges. Considerations in creating the model included the issue of authority and responsibility in terms of legal sources, the authority and accountability…

  2. Recent Literature on Government Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to provide government information scholars and students with a broad overview of recent publications about government information from the literature of librarianship, archives, information technology management, public policy and law. Given the volume of literature produced in this field, a columnist cannot claim…

  3. Recent Literature on Government Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to provide government information scholars and students with a broad overview of recent publications about government information from the literature of librarianship, archives, information technology management, public policy, and law. Given the volume of literature produced in this field, a columnist cannot claim…

  4. State Governance Action Report, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toutsi, Cristin

    2009-01-01

    This sixth edition of the State Governance Report summarizes the most relevant issues, legislative proposals, and proposed policies facing public higher education and its governance and oversight. The majority of coverage is devoted to the current or just recently completed 2009 legislative sessions. Other issues covered in this report include…

  5. Transforming Institutions through Shared Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Shared governance is a basic tenet of higher education and is frequently referred to. For shared governance to be successful, board members, administrators, and faculty members must learn to have respect for and confidence in each other, acting inclusively, transparently, and responsibly. Boards need to be active and involved, participating in…

  6. State and Local Government Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

    This report concerns public purchasing at all levels of government and brings into focus the role of the purchasing official in government management. Covered in the report are essential elements of the purchasing process, including the assessment of needs; written specifications; advertising, evaluating, and awarding bids; and inspection and…

  7. Government Policy, Saving and Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Several arguments that government policy--income redistribution and support of the poor, higher marginal income taxes, and social security--has depressed saving are found wanting. Also hard to sustain is the argument that investment demand has been depressed by tax policy. Current government policy will not improve saving and investment. (RM)

  8. The Future of Shared Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crellin, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Higher education has relied on the power of collaborative decision making on college and university campuses through the model of shared governance since the early 1900s. However, the principles of shared governance are now more thoroughly tested than ever before. In response to these simultaneous pressures and challenges, the leadership of…

  9. Government Publishing: Past to Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernon, Peter; Relyea, Harold C.

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of government publishing that focuses on the United States national government. Documents the shift from paper to electronic publication and discusses implications. Highlights include public availability and access, propaganda, policy, workshops on information dissemination, preservation of electronic resources, and the…

  10. Evaluation in the Government Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Ernest R.

    1997-01-01

    The large government market in evaluation that has developed in recent years does not follow the idealized image of open markets because of the contracting process, which means that a few firms conduct most evaluations. To produce honest, unbiased evaluations, evaluation ethics must take government market factors into consideration. (SLD)

  11. 3 CFR - Managing Government Records

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... records, including email and social media, deploying cloud-based services or storage solutions, and... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Managing Government Records Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of November 28, 2011 Managing Government Records Memorandum...

  12. Understanding Horizontal Governance. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Horizontal governance is an umbrella term that covers a range of approaches to policy development, service delivery issues, and management practices. A horizontal initiative may take place across levels of government, across boundaries between units of a single department or agency or among multiple departments or agencies, or across public,…

  13. Faculty Communication with Governing Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiede, Hans-Joerg

    2013-01-01

    College and university governance works best when every constituency within the institution has a clear understanding of its role with respect to the other constituencies. It works best when communication among the governing board, the administration, and the faculty (not to mention the staff and students) is regular, open, and honest. Too often…

  14. Governance matters: an ecological association between governance and child mortality

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ro-Ting; Chien, Lung-Chang; Chen, Ya-Mei; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Governance of a country may have widespread effects on the health of its population, yet little is known about the effect of governance on child mortality in a country that is undergoing urbanization, economic development, and disease control. Methods We obtained indicators of six dimensions of governance (perceptions of voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and control of corruption) and national under-5 mortality rates for 149 countries between 1996 and 2010. We applied a semi-parametric generalized additive mixed model to examine associations after controlling for the effects of development factors (urbanization level and economy), disease control factors (hygienic conditions and vaccination rates), health expenditures, air quality, and time. Results Governance, development, and disease control showed clear inverse relations with the under-5 mortality rate (p<0.001). Per unit increases in governance, development, and disease control factors, the child mortality rate had a 0.901-, 0.823-, and 0.922-fold decrease, respectively, at fixed levels of the other two factors. Conclusions In the effort to reduce the global under-5 mortality rate, addressing a country's need for better governance is as important as improvements in development and disease control. PMID:24711600

  15. English obesity policies: To govern and not to govern.

    PubMed

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2015-06-01

    Problem definitions constitute a crucial part of the policy process. In 2008 the Labour Government presented a plan to reduce the obesity prevalence in England. Only three years later the Conservative-Liberal Government introduced a plan on the same topic, which it presented as new and innovative. The aim of this study is to analyse the respective governments' problematisations of obesity and to identify similarities and differences. Despite the different hues of the two governments, the programmes are surprisingly similar. They seek to simultaneously govern and not to govern. They adhere to liberal ideals of individual choice and they also suggest initiatives that will lead people to choose certain behaviours. Both governments encourage the food and drink industry to support their policies voluntarily, rather than obliging them to do so, although Labour is somewhat more inclined to use statutory measures. The Conservative-Liberal plan does not represent many new ideas. The plans are characterised by the paradox that they convey both ideas and ideals about freedom of choice as well as about state interventions to influence people's choices, which could be seen as incompatible, but as the study shows in practice they are not.

  16. Interactive DIF Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preheim, Larry E.; Amy, Laraine; Young, Jimmie D.

    1993-01-01

    Interactive DIF Generator (IDG) computer program serves as utility to generate and manipulate directory interchange format (DIF) files. Creates and updates DIF files, sent to NASA's Master Directory, also referred to as International Global Change Directory at Goddard Space Flight Center. Many government and university data systems use Master Directory to advertise availability of research data. IDG is interactive software tool and requires mouse or trackball to operate. Written in C language.

  17. Governance and Institutional Autonomy: Governing and Governance in Portuguese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Antonio; Veiga, Amelia; Ribeiro, Filipa; Amaral, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at looking at governance instruments beyond managerial technicality. It intends to do so by analysing the impact of governance reforms on the universities autonomy assumed as a regulation instrument to politically steer systems and institutions. The regulation efforts undertaken at the European and national levels reflect a trend…

  18. Government Services Information Infrastructure Management

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallini, J.S.; Aiken, R.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Government Services Information Infrastructure (GSII) is that portion of the NII used to link Government and its services, enables virtual agency concepts, protects privacy, and supports emergency preparedness needs. The GSII is comprised of the supporting telecommunications technologies, network and information services infrastructure and the applications that use these. The GSII is an enlightened attempt by the Clinton/Gore Administration to form a virtual government crossing agency boundaries to interoperate more closely with industry and with the public to greatly improve the delivery of government services. The GSII and other private sector efforts, will have a significant impact on the design, development, and deployment of the NII, even if only through the procurement of such services. The Federal Government must adopt new mechanisms and new paradigms for the management of the GSII, including improved acquisition and operation of GSII components in order to maximize benefits. Government requirements and applications will continue to evolv. The requirements from government services and users of form affinity groups that more accurately and effectively define these common requirements, that drive the adoption and use of industry standards, and that provide a significant technology marketplace.

  19. Risk, governance and the experience of care

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Alexandra; Tadd, Win; Calnan, Sian; Calnan, Michael; Bayer, Antony; Read, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on perspectives from the governmentality literature and the sociology of risk, this article explores the strategies, tools and mechanisms for managing risk in acute hospital trusts in the United Kingdom. The article uses qualitative material from an ethnographic study of four acute hospital trusts undertaken between 2008 and 2010 focusing on the provision of dignified care for older people. Extracts from ethnographic material show how the organisational mechanisms that seek to manage risk shape the ways in which staff interact with and care for patients. The article bridges the gap between the sociological analysis of policy priorities, management strategy and the organisational cultures of the NHS, and the everyday interactions of care provision. In bringing together this ethnographic material with sociological debates on the regulation of healthcare, the article highlights the specific ways in which forms of governance shape how staff care for their patients challenging the possibility of providing dignified care for older people. PMID:23356787

  20. The dynamics of interacting nonlinearities governing long wavelength driftwave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, D.E.

    1993-09-01

    Because of the ubiquitous nature of turbulence and the vast array of different systems which have turbulent solutions, the study of turbulence is an area of active research. Much present day understanding of turbulence is rooted in the well established properties of homogeneous Navier-Stokes turbulence, which, due to its relative simplicity, allows for approximate analytic solutions. This work examines a group of turbulent systems with marked differences from Navier-Stokes turbulence, and attempts to quantify some of their properties. This group of systems represents a variety of drift wave fluctuations believed to be of fundamental importance in laboratory fusion devices. From extensive simulation of simple local fluid models of long wavelength drift wave turbulence in tokamaks, a reasonably complete picture of the basic properties of spectral transfer and saturation has emerged. These studies indicate that many conventional notions concerning directions of cascades, locality and isotropy of transfer, frequencies of fluctuations, and stationarity of saturation are not valid for moderate to long wavelengths. In particular, spectral energy transfer at long wavelengths is dominated by the E {times} B nonlinearity, which carries energy to short scale in a manner that is highly nonlocal and anisotropic. In marked contrast to the canonical self-similar cascade dynamics of Kolmogorov, energy is efficiently passed between modes separated by the entire spectrum range in a correlation time. At short wavelengths, transfer is dominated by the polarization drift nonlinearity. While the standard dual cascade applies in this subrange, it is found that finite spectrum size can produce cascades that are reverse directed and are nonconservative in enstrophy and energy similarity ranges. In regions where both nonlinearities are important, cross-coupling between the nolinearities gives rise to large no frequency shifts as well as changes in the spectral dynamics.

  1. Governing for the Common Good.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-12-01

    The proper object of global health governance (GHG) should be the common good, ensuring that all people have the opportunity to flourish. A well-organized global society that promotes the common good is to everyone's advantage. Enabling people to flourish includes enabling their ability to be healthy. Thus, we must assess health governance by its effectiveness in enhancing health capabilities. Current GHG fails to support human flourishing, diminishes health capabilities and thus does not serve the common good. The provincial globalism theory of health governance proposes a Global Health Constitution and an accompanying Global Institute of Health and Medicine that together propose to transform health governance. Multiple lines of empirical research suggest that these institutions would be effective, offering the most promising path to a healthier, more just world.

  2. Government Reform Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Royce, Edward R. [R-CA-40

    2011-01-05

    02/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Organization, Efficiency, and Financial Management . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. New government raises science hopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Canada's scientific community has welcomed the country's new Liberal government - led by prime minister Justin Trudeau - after it promised to put science on a stronger footing than in the previous decade of Conservative rule.

  4. Governing for the Common Good.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-12-01

    The proper object of global health governance (GHG) should be the common good, ensuring that all people have the opportunity to flourish. A well-organized global society that promotes the common good is to everyone's advantage. Enabling people to flourish includes enabling their ability to be healthy. Thus, we must assess health governance by its effectiveness in enhancing health capabilities. Current GHG fails to support human flourishing, diminishes health capabilities and thus does not serve the common good. The provincial globalism theory of health governance proposes a Global Health Constitution and an accompanying Global Institute of Health and Medicine that together propose to transform health governance. Multiple lines of empirical research suggest that these institutions would be effective, offering the most promising path to a healthier, more just world. PMID:26122555

  5. Government Neutrality in Contracting Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Sullivan, John [R-OK-1

    2009-02-11

    02/24/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. [Government management and society: information, technology and scientific output].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Patrícia; Sophia, Daniela Carvalho; Grigório, Deise de Araújo

    2007-01-01

    The complexity of government tasks today suggests that virtual interaction processes that could streamline flows and exchanges of information between governments and society in public policymaking may contribute to more effective intervention that is more closely attuned to the heterogeneity and diversity of social problems. Innovative participatory government administration initiatives have proliferated, together with the extension of public control over government actions, handled through by information technologies. Exploring this field, this paper identifies some key issues for better demarcation and qualification of such initiatives in public sector management, based on the authors' own experience in leading an institutional project designed to empower the political, technical, and communicative participation of society in discussions of the implementation of the Unified National Health System in Brazil. Based on a review of the literature analyzing the links among information, technology, development, and democracy, and particularly with regard to social management, this paper systematizes aspects for consideration drawn from in experiences of interactions between government and society, mediated by scientific knowledge, fostering greater transparency and plurality of views in government management.

  7. 48 CFR 225.7303-3 - Government-to-government agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Government-to-government... Military Sales 225.7303-3 Government-to-government agreements. If a government-to-government agreement between the United States and a foreign government for the sale, coproduction, or cooperative...

  8. 48 CFR 225.7303-3 - Government-to-government agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Government-to-government... Military Sales 225.7303-3 Government-to-government agreements. If a government-to-government agreement between the United States and a foreign government for the sale, coproduction, or cooperative...

  9. 48 CFR 225.7303-3 - Government-to-government agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Government-to-government... Military Sales 225.7303-3 Government-to-government agreements. If a government-to-government agreement between the United States and a foreign government for the sale, coproduction, or cooperative...

  10. Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models.

    PubMed

    Saltman, Richard B; Duran, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    A central problem in designing effective models of provider governance in health systems has been to ensure an appropriate balance between the concerns of public sector and/or government decision-makers, on the one hand, and of non-governmental health services actors in civil society and private life, on the other. In tax-funded European health systems up to the 1980s, the state and other public sector decision-makers played a dominant role over health service provision, typically operating hospitals through national or regional governments on a command-and-control basis. In a number of countries, however, this state role has started to change, with governments first stepping out of direct service provision and now de facto pushed to focus more on steering provider organizations rather than on direct public management. In this new approach to provider governance, the state has pulled back into a regulatory role that introduces market-like incentives and management structures, which then apply to both public and private sector providers alike. This article examines some of the main operational complexities in implementing this new governance reality/strategy, specifically from a service provision (as opposed to mostly a financing or even regulatory) perspective. After briefly reviewing some of the key theoretical dilemmas, the paper presents two case studies where this new approach was put into practice: primary care in Sweden and hospitals in Spain. The article concludes that good governance today needs to reflect practical operational realities if it is to have the desired effect on health sector reform outcome. PMID:26673647

  11. Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models.

    PubMed

    Saltman, Richard B; Duran, Antonio

    2015-11-03

    A central problem in designing effective models of provider governance in health systems has been to ensure an appropriate balance between the concerns of public sector and/or government decision-makers, on the one hand, and of non-governmental health services actors in civil society and private life, on the other. In tax-funded European health systems up to the 1980s, the state and other public sector decision-makers played a dominant role over health service provision, typically operating hospitals through national or regional governments on a command-and-control basis. In a number of countries, however, this state role has started to change, with governments first stepping out of direct service provision and now de facto pushed to focus more on steering provider organizations rather than on direct public management. In this new approach to provider governance, the state has pulled back into a regulatory role that introduces market-like incentives and management structures, which then apply to both public and private sector providers alike. This article examines some of the main operational complexities in implementing this new governance reality/strategy, specifically from a service provision (as opposed to mostly a financing or even regulatory) perspective. After briefly reviewing some of the key theoretical dilemmas, the paper presents two case studies where this new approach was put into practice: primary care in Sweden and hospitals in Spain. The article concludes that good governance today needs to reflect practical operational realities if it is to have the desired effect on health sector reform outcome.

  12. Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models

    PubMed Central

    Saltman, Richard B.; Duran, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    A central problem in designing effective models of provider governance in health systems has been to ensure an appropriate balance between the concerns of public sector and/or government decision-makers, on the one hand, and of non-governmental health services actors in civil society and private life, on the other. In tax-funded European health systems up to the 1980s, the state and other public sector decision-makers played a dominant role over health service provision, typically operating hospitals through national or regional governments on a command-and-control basis. In a number of countries, however, this state role has started to change, with governments first stepping out of direct service provision and now de facto pushed to focus more on steering provider organizations rather than on direct public management. In this new approach to provider governance, the state has pulled back into a regulatory role that introduces market-like incentives and management structures, which then apply to both public and private sector providers alike. This article examines some of the main operational complexities in implementing this new governance reality/strategy, specifically from a service provision (as opposed to mostly a financing or even regulatory) perspective. After briefly reviewing some of the key theoretical dilemmas, the paper presents two case studies where this new approach was put into practice: primary care in Sweden and hospitals in Spain. The article concludes that good governance today needs to reflect practical operational realities if it is to have the desired effect on health sector reform outcome. PMID:26673647

  13. Developing Government Renewable Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt S. Myers; Thomas L. Baldwin; Jason W. Bush; Jake P. Gentle

    2012-07-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a study of past INL experiences and complete a report that identifies the processes that are needed for the development of renewable energy projects on government properties. The INL has always maintained expertise in power systems and applied engineering and INL’s renewable energy experiences date back to the 1980’s when our engineers began performing US Air Force wind energy feasibility studies and development projects. Over the last 20+ years of working with Department of Defense and other government agencies to study, design, and build government renewable projects, INL has experienced the do’s and don’ts for being successful with a project. These compiled guidelines for government renewable energy projects could include wind, hydro, geothermal, solar, biomass, or a variety of hybrid systems; however, for the purpose of narrowing the focus of this report, wind projects are the main topic discussed throughout this report. It is our thought that a lot of what is discussed could be applied, possibly with some modifications, to other areas of renewable energy. It is also important to note that individual projects (regardless the type) vary to some degree depending on location, size, and need but in general these concepts and directions can be carried over to the majority of government renewable energy projects. This report focuses on the initial development that needs to occur for any project to be a successful government renewable energy project.

  14. Emergence, institutionalization and renewal: Rhythms of adaptive governance in complex social-ecological systems.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Brian C; Gunderson, Lance H

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive governance provides the capacity for environmental managers and decision makers to confront variable degrees of uncertainty inherent to complex social-ecological systems. Current theoretical conceptualizations of adaptive governance represent a series of structures and processes best suited for either adapting or transforming existing environmental governance regimes towards forms flexible enough to confront rapid ecological change. As the number of empirical examples of adaptive governance described in the literature grows, the conceptual basis of adaptive governance remains largely under theorized. We argue that reconnecting adaptive governance with foundational concepts of ecological resilience-specifically Panarchy and the adaptive cycle of complex systems-highlights the importance of episodic disturbances and cross-scale interactions in triggering reorganizations in governance. By envisioning the processes of adaptive governance through the lens of Panarchy, scholars and practitioners alike will be better able to identify the emergence of adaptive governance, as well as take advantage of opportunities to institutionalize this type of governance in pursuit of sustainability outcomes. The synergistic analysis of adaptive governance and Panarchy can provide critical insight for analyzing the role of social dynamics during oscillating periods of stability and instability in social-ecological systems. A deeper understanding of the potential for cross-scale interactions to shape adaptive governance regimes may be useful as society faces the challenge of mitigating the impacts of global environmental change. PMID:26426283

  15. Emergence, institutionalization and renewal: Rhythms of adaptive governance in complex social-ecological systems.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Brian C; Gunderson, Lance H

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive governance provides the capacity for environmental managers and decision makers to confront variable degrees of uncertainty inherent to complex social-ecological systems. Current theoretical conceptualizations of adaptive governance represent a series of structures and processes best suited for either adapting or transforming existing environmental governance regimes towards forms flexible enough to confront rapid ecological change. As the number of empirical examples of adaptive governance described in the literature grows, the conceptual basis of adaptive governance remains largely under theorized. We argue that reconnecting adaptive governance with foundational concepts of ecological resilience-specifically Panarchy and the adaptive cycle of complex systems-highlights the importance of episodic disturbances and cross-scale interactions in triggering reorganizations in governance. By envisioning the processes of adaptive governance through the lens of Panarchy, scholars and practitioners alike will be better able to identify the emergence of adaptive governance, as well as take advantage of opportunities to institutionalize this type of governance in pursuit of sustainability outcomes. The synergistic analysis of adaptive governance and Panarchy can provide critical insight for analyzing the role of social dynamics during oscillating periods of stability and instability in social-ecological systems. A deeper understanding of the potential for cross-scale interactions to shape adaptive governance regimes may be useful as society faces the challenge of mitigating the impacts of global environmental change.

  16. [Governance in Public Health: towards an analytical framework].

    PubMed

    Hufty, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that the governance analytical framework (GAF) is a methodology having strong potential for investigation in social policy, particularly in the case of public health. It defines the concept of governance in a pragmatic way as being the processes of interactions between the actors involved in a public affair leading to decision-making or to formulating social norms. It is postulated that any society has governance processes and, unlike other approaches, that these can be observed and be analysed from a non-normative perspective. A methodology for analysing governance processes based on five main analytical units is presented here: problems/stakes, actors, norms, processes and nodal points. These logically articulated analytical units make up a coherent methodology aimed at being used as a tool for social policy research.

  17. [Governance in Public Health: towards an analytical framework].

    PubMed

    Hufty, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that the governance analytical framework (GAF) is a methodology having strong potential for investigation in social policy, particularly in the case of public health. It defines the concept of governance in a pragmatic way as being the processes of interactions between the actors involved in a public affair leading to decision-making or to formulating social norms. It is postulated that any society has governance processes and, unlike other approaches, that these can be observed and be analysed from a non-normative perspective. A methodology for analysing governance processes based on five main analytical units is presented here: problems/stakes, actors, norms, processes and nodal points. These logically articulated analytical units make up a coherent methodology aimed at being used as a tool for social policy research. PMID:20963301

  18. 48 CFR 46.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foreign governments. 46... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 46.406 Foreign governments. Government contract quality assurance performed for foreign governments or international agencies shall...

  19. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  20. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  1. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  2. 48 CFR 46.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign governments. 46... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 46.406 Foreign governments. Government contract quality assurance performed for foreign governments or international agencies shall...

  3. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  4. 48 CFR 46.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foreign governments. 46... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 46.406 Foreign governments. Government contract quality assurance performed for foreign governments or international agencies shall...

  5. 48 CFR 46.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foreign governments. 46... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 46.406 Foreign governments. Government contract quality assurance performed for foreign governments or international agencies shall...

  6. 48 CFR 46.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foreign governments. 46... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 46.406 Foreign governments. Government contract quality assurance performed for foreign governments or international agencies shall...

  7. 42 CFR 425.106 - Shared governance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shared governance. 425.106 Section 425.106 Public... Requirements § 425.106 Shared governance. (a) General rule. An ACO must maintain an identifiable governing body... innovative ways in ACO governance or provide meaningful representation in ACO governance by...

  8. 42 CFR 425.106 - Shared governance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shared governance. 425.106 Section 425.106 Public... Requirements § 425.106 Shared governance. (a) General rule. An ACO must maintain an identifiable governing body... innovative ways in ACO governance or provide meaningful representation in ACO governance by...

  9. 42 CFR 425.106 - Shared governance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shared governance. 425.106 Section 425.106 Public... Requirements § 425.106 Shared governance. (a) General rule. An ACO must maintain an identifiable governing body... innovative ways in ACO governance or provide meaningful representation in ACO governance by...

  10. Embedding climate change risk assessment within a governance context

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2011-01-01

    Climate change adaptation is increasingly being framed in the context of climate risk management. This has contributed to the proliferation of climate change vulnerability and/or risk assessments as means of supporting institutional decision-making regarding adaptation policies and measures. To date, however, little consideration has been given to how such assessment projects and programs interact with governance systems to facilitate or hinder the implementation of adaptive responses. An examination of recent case studies involving Australian local governments reveals two key linkages between risk assessment and the governance of adaptation. First, governance systems influence how risk assessment processes are conducted, by whom they are conducted, and whom they are meant to inform. Australia s governance system emphasizes evidence-based decision-making that reinforces a knowledge deficit model of decision support. Assessments are often carried out by external experts on behalf of local government, with limited participation by relevant stakeholders and/or civil society. Second, governance systems influence the extent to which the outputs from risk assessment activities are translated into adaptive responses and outcomes. Technical information regarding risk is often stranded by institutional barriers to adaptation including poor uptake of information, competition on the policy agenda, and lack of sufficient entitlements. Yet, risk assessments can assist in bringing such barriers to the surface, where they can be debated and resolved. In fact, well-designed risk assessments can contribute to multi-loop learning by institutions, and that reflexive problem orientation may be one of the more valuable benefits of assessment.

  11. Creating a Common Grammar for European Higher Education Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Antonio; Veiga, Amelia; Ribeiro, Filipa M.; Sousa, Sofia; Santiago, Rui

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the interaction between European Union policies and national higher education sectors in the countries involved in the TRUE project (England, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and Switzerland) making the case for European governance. Relevant for this matter is the role of political processes that…

  12. University Assistance to State Government: Problems and Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthley, John A.; Apfel, Jeffrey

    1978-01-01

    Renewed interest in improving linkages between knowledge resources of universities and information needs of state government has produced innovative efforts at developing mechanisms for interaction. A review of these efforts helps clarify prevailing theoretical and practical difficulties. Guidelines are suggested. (Author/LBH)

  13. Feedback from Faculty Development Day on Faculty Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schefter, Maria; Inoue, Yukiko

    This report presents feedback on the University of Guam's Faculty Development Day (FDD) (January 19, 2001), which focused on collegial faculty governance and highlighted interactions between the Senate, faculty, and administration. Feedback came from feedback surveys designed to gauge the success of the workshop. The surveys asked about…

  14. Human capital management in government: replacing government retirees.

    PubMed

    Kochanowski, Yvonne J

    2011-01-01

    Faced with high levels of senior civil servant retirement in the coming years and limited by civil service requirements, government organizations often struggle to maintain the knowledge base of previous processes and results while promoting people who are truly interested in being leaders in an agency. Upcoming generations of public sector workers do not share the same motivation and workplace characteristics of current exiting civil servants, further complicating smooth transitions of leadership. Government personnel systems for the most part are inflexible and slow to hire, and retention methods for workers do not encourage succession planning. Against this backdrop, a five-phased human capital management system, using some of the best practices found in both public and private sector organizations, is proposed as a solution for replacing government retirees with workers who are prepared for their leadership and management roles.

  15. Government action to reduce smoking.

    PubMed

    Sandford, Amanda

    2003-03-01

    The major health impacts of smoking were established more than 40 years ago but Governments were slow to respond to the growing health epidemic. Despite laudable tobacco control strategies in many countries, globally deaths from smoking continue to rise and are forecast to reach 10 million a year by the 2030's. There is now general agreement that in order to substantially reduce smoking rates, governments need to adopt a comprehensive approach to tobacco control. This should include a range of measures, notably: a total ban on tobacco advertising and promotion; restrictions on smoking in public places and in the workplace; sustained increases in tobacco taxation combined with measures to curb smuggling; large, bold health warnings on tobacco products; smoking cessation and health education campaigns; and the regulation of tobacco to standards agreed by the health community rather than those set by the tobacco industry. While legislation is to be favoured over voluntary controls, the key to the successful implementation of these measures is winning public support and ensuring proper enforcement. Given the enormous burden that smoking places on health services, governments in developed nations have generally responded by introducing a range of tobacco control measures. However, the picture is far from uniform and some of the best examples of strong, government-led action have occurred in less developed nations. Governments can learn much from these countries and, by supporting the impending global treaty on tobacco control, can help to reduce the smoking-related diseases and deaths of the future.

  16. Earthquake Planning for Government Continuity

    PubMed

    PERRY; LINDELL

    1997-01-01

    / The problem of assuring government operational continuity following earthquakes has been given little research attention. Recent earthquake experience has documented that government organizations without a public safety mission do incur damaged facilities and routinely see increases in public demands following an earthquake. Impediments to service delivery associated with such dam-ages can be minimized if agencies address earthquake plan elements likely to enhance postimpact functioning, including: the potential to relocate operations, protection for the workplace, possession of an organizational inventory, emergency instructions for employees, the ability to use volunteers, and communication capacity. Factors associated with the adoption of these plan elements were studied in one county government and its municipal county seat in the southwestern United States. A census of departments within these jurisdictions was asked to complete a questionnaire reporting the level of planning activity relative to each of these plan elements. It was found that the overall level of preparedness was low, but statistically significantly related to agency size, perceived risk, and information seeking. The implications of these findings underscore the potential for disruption to government service delivery and permit the identification of potential avenues for increasing levels of preparedness.KEY WORDS: Emergency planning; Earthquakes; Government preparedness PMID:8939788

  17. Space Station Facility government estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Joseph A.

    1993-01-01

    This new, unique Cost Engineering Report introduces the 800-page, C-100 government estimate for the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) and Volume IV Aerospace Construction Price Book. At the January 23, 1991, bid opening for the SSPF, the government cost estimate was right on target. Metric, Inc., Prime Contractor, low bid was 1.2 percent below the government estimate. This project contains many different and complex systems. Volume IV is a summary of the cost associated with construction, activation and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) design, estimating, fabrication, installation, testing, termination, and verification of this project. Included are 13 reasons the government estimate was so accurate; abstract of bids, for 8 bidders and government estimate with additive alternates, special labor and materials, budget comparison and system summaries; and comments on the energy credit from local electrical utility. This report adds another project to our continuing study of 'How Does the Low Bidder Get Low and Make Money?' which was started in 1967, and first published in the 1973 AACE Transaction with 18 ways the low bidders get low. The accuracy of this estimate proves the benefits of our Kennedy Space Center (KSC) teamwork efforts and KSC Cost Engineer Tools which are contributing toward our goals of the Space Station.

  18. New directions in hospital governance.

    PubMed

    Shortell, S M

    1989-01-01

    This article suggests new directions for hospital governance to meet the demands of a rapidly changing health care environment. Board members must increasingly play roles as risk takers, strategic directors, experts, mentors, and evaluators. Lessons from other industries regarding risk taking, use of expertise, and streamlining decision making must be adapted to meet hospital needs. Recent data suggest that these needs may still differ by hospital ownership despite a convergence in investor-owned and not-for-profit corporate structures. The effectiveness of hospital boards in the future will depend on their ability to: (1) manage a diverse group of stakeholders; (2) involve physicians in the management and governance process; (3) meet the governance needs of multi-institutional systems and hospital restructuring; (4) meet the challenges of diversification and vertical integration; and (5) understand strategy formulation and implementation as interdependent and interrelated processes.

  19. Surveys explore critical governance relationship.

    PubMed

    Grant, M K

    1987-01-01

    The transition in religious-sponsored health care from a ministry of direct service to one of governance has generated serious and penetrating questions, analyses, and retrenchment. Emphasis on and demand for value-laden leadership development programs are growing at the same time that sponsoring groups are becoming more actively involved in the governance and oversight of their corporate ministries. Two recent Catholic Health Association (CHA) studies focused on the critical governance relationship between the sponsoring group and its incorporated ministries. The first study asked religious institutes and dioceses that were sponsors of CHA member health care freestanding facilities and systems to describe their current governance structure. The second study represented an initial attempt to identify qualitative components of effective governance or sponsorship and asked 19 major superiors and system chief executive officers (CEOs) to characterize an ideal relationship between sponsor and ministry. The studies' findings included the following: In freestanding facilities, lay-religious governing boards have all but replaced the all-sponsor and all-lay advisory boards of the past. Trustee orientation, development, and evaluation were not equally stressed in the three groups surveyed, with trustee evaluation programs lagging behind in all three. Major superiors and CEOs had remarkably similar expectations relating to accountability for mission, relationships between sponsor and corporation, communication, and leadership development. Both major superiors and CEOs looked for greater collaboration in defining roles, translating mission into "business plan", and developing formation programs for leadership. Major superiors' emphasized simplicity of life-style, whereas the CEOs stressed stable commitment to corporate ministry.

  20. Implementing a new governance model.

    PubMed

    Stanley-Clarke, Nicky; Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to discuss the lessons learnt from the process of implementing a new model of governance within Living Well, a New Zealand statutory mental health agency. Design/methodology/approach - It presents the findings from an organisational case study that involved qualitative interviews, meeting observations and document analysis. Archetype theory provided the analytical framework for the research enabling an analysis of both the formal structures and informal value systems that influenced the implementation of the governance model. Findings - The research found that the move to a new governance model did not proceed as planned. It highlighted the importance of staff commitment, the complexity of adopting a new philosophical approach and the undue influence of key personalities as key determining factors in the implementation process. The findings suggest that planners and managers within statutory mental health agencies need to consider the implications of any proposed governance change on existing roles and relationships, thinking strategically about how to secure professional commitment to change. Practical implications - There are ongoing pressures within statutory mental health agencies to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of organisational structures and systems. This paper has implications for how planners and managers think about the process of implementing new governance models within the statutory mental health environment in order to increase the likelihood of sustaining and embedding new approaches to service delivery. Originality/value - The paper presents insights into the process of implementing new governance models within a statutory mental health agency in New Zealand that has relevance for other jurisdictions. PMID:27119399

  1. Implementing a new governance model.

    PubMed

    Stanley-Clarke, Nicky; Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to discuss the lessons learnt from the process of implementing a new model of governance within Living Well, a New Zealand statutory mental health agency. Design/methodology/approach - It presents the findings from an organisational case study that involved qualitative interviews, meeting observations and document analysis. Archetype theory provided the analytical framework for the research enabling an analysis of both the formal structures and informal value systems that influenced the implementation of the governance model. Findings - The research found that the move to a new governance model did not proceed as planned. It highlighted the importance of staff commitment, the complexity of adopting a new philosophical approach and the undue influence of key personalities as key determining factors in the implementation process. The findings suggest that planners and managers within statutory mental health agencies need to consider the implications of any proposed governance change on existing roles and relationships, thinking strategically about how to secure professional commitment to change. Practical implications - There are ongoing pressures within statutory mental health agencies to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of organisational structures and systems. This paper has implications for how planners and managers think about the process of implementing new governance models within the statutory mental health environment in order to increase the likelihood of sustaining and embedding new approaches to service delivery. Originality/value - The paper presents insights into the process of implementing new governance models within a statutory mental health agency in New Zealand that has relevance for other jurisdictions.

  2. Federal government expands compliance initiatives.

    PubMed

    Dugan, J K

    1997-09-01

    In 1995, the Federal government initiated Operation Restore Trust to increase enforcement of fraud and abuse regulations in Medicare and Medicaid programs. With the success of the original initiative, the government is expanding the project to additional states and program areas. The initial scrutiny of home health agencies, nursing homes, hospice care, and durable medical equipment is being expanded to managed care plans and acute care hospitals with an eye toward DRG creep. To manage this increased enforcement activity, healthcare organizations should institute comprehensive corporate compliance programs. Such programs should provide a framework that delineates responsibilities and provides a systematic means to resolve issues in a timely manner. PMID:10170318

  3. Federal government expands compliance initiatives.

    PubMed

    Dugan, J K

    1997-09-01

    In 1995, the Federal government initiated Operation Restore Trust to increase enforcement of fraud and abuse regulations in Medicare and Medicaid programs. With the success of the original initiative, the government is expanding the project to additional states and program areas. The initial scrutiny of home health agencies, nursing homes, hospice care, and durable medical equipment is being expanded to managed care plans and acute care hospitals with an eye toward DRG creep. To manage this increased enforcement activity, healthcare organizations should institute comprehensive corporate compliance programs. Such programs should provide a framework that delineates responsibilities and provides a systematic means to resolve issues in a timely manner.

  4. Geoengineering Policy and Governance Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Sean; Moore, Nigel; Chen, Zhewen; McManamen, Keith; Blackstock, Jason J.

    Geoengineering - the deliberate and technological manipulation of the climate system to forestall the worst effects of global warming (also referred to as climate engineering) - has recently emerged as a novel and controversial issue in climate governance. It is sometimes proposed as an insurance policy, should either (a) primary efforts to develop sustainable energy and societal systems prove unable to quickly enough overcome the inertia of current ones, or (b) uncertainty in the climate system lead to unexpectedly large damage to societies and ecosystems [1]. This entry explores the current attempts and future ideas for governing emerging geoengineering research programs and technologies in ways that effectively manage their climatic and societal impacts.

  5. Assessment of government tribology programs

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.B.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    An assessment has been made to determine current tribology research and development work sponsored or conducted by the government. Data base surveys and discussions were conducted to isolate current projects sponsored primarily by 21 different government organizations. These projects were classified by subject, objective, energy relevance, type of research, phenomenon being investigated, variables being studied, type of motion, materials and application. An abstract of each project was prepared which included the classification, sponsor, performing organization and a project description. It was found that current work is primarily materials oriented to meet military requirements. Other than the high temperature programs very few of the tribology projects accomplish energy related objectives.

  6. PROFESSIONAL REGISTRATION OF GOVERNMENT ENGINEERS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    The American Society of Civil Engineers views professional registration as an appropriate requirement for engineers, including those in government. The National Society of Professional Engineers makes registration a requirement for the grade of member and full privileges in the society. Some Federal agencies require engineering registration for certain positions in their agencies. Engineers in government service should consider the value of engineering registration to themselves and to their agencies and take pride in their professions and in their own capabilities by becoming registered engineers. They should also take steps to encourage their agencies to give more attention to engineering registration.

  7. Local governments LANDSAT applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The approach used to develop the internal capabilities of local governments to handle and evaluate LANDSAT data included remote sensing training, development of a low-cost digital image processing system, and technical assistance. Cost sharing, program management and coordination, and networking were also employed to address problems related to land use, water resources, environmental assessment, and air quality as experienced by urban planners. Local experiences gained in Atlanta, Georgia; Henrico County, Virginia; Oklahoma City; Oklahoma; and San Jose, California are described. Policy recommendations formulated for transferring remote sensing technologies to local governments are included.

  8. (Duplicate Work Item) Finances of County Governments: 2002. Census of Governments. Vol. 4, No. 3, Government Finances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Government Finances, Volume 4", contains six parts that encompass the entire range of state and local government financial activity in fiscal year 2001-02. They are: (1)Finances of Public School Systems; (2) Finances of Special Districts; (3) Finances of County Governments; (4) Finances of Municipal and Township Governments; (5) Compendium of…

  9. Science in the Federal Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeau, Sharon Gibbs

    1985-01-01

    Examines the realm of science and the federal government made evident in the 1950s by A. Hunter Dupree's classic work on the subject. Federal science before 1940, federal science since 1940, and sources of historical materials are among the major areas considered. (JN)

  10. Collection Development Policy: Government Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazek, Dan

    Intended as a general guideline for selecting government documents at the University of Miami (Florida) Otto G. Richter Library, this collection development policy includes the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Mission Statement; (3) Selection Responsibility; (4) Subject Areas, Collection Intensity Levels and Collection Arrangement,…

  11. Gender Play and Good Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Like good government, thoughtful care of children requires those in power, whether teachers or parents, to recognize when it is appropriate for them to step back from day-to-day decision-making while still working behind the scenes to ensure an organizational structure that supports the independence and equitable development of those they serve.…

  12. Global Trends in Academic Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K.; Finkelstein, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Even before the current global economic crisis, discontent with the governance of higher education institutions was widespread among faculty in the United States and throughout the world. Drawing from the 2007 Changing Academic Profession (CAP) survey of faculty in seventeen countries, the authors examine faculty perceptions of the current state…

  13. Do Kids Need Government Censors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabkin, Rhoda

    2002-01-01

    Fashioning public policies restricting children's access to entertainment glamorizing violence, sex, drugs, and vulgarity is a complex task. The recently introduced Media Marketing Accountability Act would empower the federal government to regulate advertising of entertainment products to youth. Suggests that this power is undesirable compared to…

  14. Campus Life and Government Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shekleton, James F.

    This paper discusses the proper way to conduct official government investigations on college campuses within the framework of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution which protects against unreasonable searches and seizures. The article emphasizes that this amendment lays the groundwork for the limitations on the exercise of…

  15. Refocusing Government-Communications Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Ithiel de Sola; And Others

    In 1976, the Aspen Institute's Program on Communications and Society sponsored a series of Washington staff seminars on communications policy: "Policy Choices for the Information Age,""Government Telecommunications Research and Policy Development,""Problems of Regulating Specialized Telecommunications Common Carriers," and "Public Service Uses of…

  16. In Search of Good Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grush, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Since his retirement in 2005, UC-Berkeley's Associate Vice Chancellor and CIO Emeritus and current ECAR fellow John (Jack) McCredie has devoted much of his professional energy to studying and writing/speaking about IT governance and leadership in higher education. In his role at UC-Berkeley, he was responsible for leading central IT support for…

  17. Archeology and the Federal Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, George S., Comp.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Government's concern for preservation of important archeological properties began during the 19th century in response to the destruction and looting of Indian ruins in the U.S. Southwest. Since that time, the breadth of this concern has grown to include the consideration of impact to archeological properties, as well as to other kinds of…

  18. Seattle Schools' Governance under Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on how Seattle has joined the growing list of urban districts where policymakers are eyeing changes in school governance. A bill pending in the Washington state legislature, introduced late January 2007 by three lawmakers from the city, would permit citizens to petition to hold a local referendum on switching from the elected…

  19. 76 FR 2001 - Government Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... rule at 73 FR 73202, December 2, 2008. The 60 day comment period for the proposed rule ended February 2... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NASA is issuing a final rule to revise...

  20. Vietnam and American Government Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Paul C.; Eksterowicz, Anthony J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the importance of studying the Vietnam War. Attempts to illustrate the amount and quality of coverage of the Vietnam War in U.S. government textbooks. Explains that the amount of space devoted to the war in most of these texts remains inadequate for student understanding of the Vietnam War. (CMK)

  1. Teacher Unionization in School Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The role of unions in school governance is reviewed to note that labor operates in a larger context of principal-agent relationships. As agents for teachers, unions articulate the concerns that must be addressed if teachers are to be successfully enlisted in the struggle to reduce achievement gaps among at-risk students. Transcending industrial…

  2. Financial Responsibilities of Governing Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, William S.

    2001-01-01

    This completely redone edition is meant to be a primer on the financial responsibilities of trustees of colleges and universities and on complex trends and issues bearing on the responsibilities of governing boards. Trustees must deal with a complex blend of competing values, evolving information, and challenging analyses while taking into account…

  3. Neutrality between Government and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    The overall guiding principle of neutrality between government and religion masks a tension that exists between free exercise of religion and establishment of religion. Reviews the development and current status of "Lemon" as a test for neutrality; proposes a new test for neutrality, evenhandedness, that is common to both the Free Exercise and…

  4. Government Documents Go to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sandra Q.

    2005-01-01

    In the fall of 2002, the author conducted brief surveys of the teacher and teacher-librarians in her graduate cataloging class and in a colleage's media selection class to learn whether and how government documents are used in the schools where these students were employed. The schools included in the surveys were in several central Minnesota…

  5. Campus Life and Government Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leed, Arthur

    As more government agencies request information and records from colleges and universities, it is important that all institutions establish standard procedures for handling such requests. Administrators should: learn the personality of the particular agency or office making the request; establish a professional, cooperative, non-adversarial…

  6. Reproductive governance in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lynn M; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors - such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements - use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over 'rights', where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the 'right to life' of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction. PMID:22889430

  7. Governance of Children's Everyday Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Charlotte; Danby, Susan; Farrell, Ann

    2005-01-01

    With the emergence of sociological and economic change there is increasing attention given to governance of children's spaces in recent years. This paper discusses these changes and how they have impacted on, and contributed to, this increased interest. The paper draws on the sociology of childhood framework in order to examine how children…

  8. Is shared governance still relevant?

    PubMed

    Porter-O'Grady, T

    2001-10-01

    Is shared governance still relevant in this era of significant changes in healthcare? Requisites to support nurses and others are more important now than ever before. Shared decision-making is not only relevant, it is essential. The road to empowerment is not easy. Many patterns of organization and relationship must be changed forever through commitment and leadership today.

  9. Unofficial Road Building in the Brazilian Amazon: Dilemmas and Models for Road Governance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Overdevest, Christine; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.

    2007-01-01

    Unofficial roads form dense networks in landscapes, generating a litany of negative ecological outcomes, but unofficial roads in frontier areas are also instrumental in local livelihoods and community development. This trade-off poses dilemmas for the governance of unofficial roads. Unofficial road building in frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon illustrates the challenges of 'road governance.' Both state-based and community based governance models exhibit important liabilities for governing unofficial roads. Whereas state-based governance has experienced difficulties in adapting to specific local contexts and interacting effectively with local interest groups, community-based governance has a mixed record owing to social inequalities and conflicts among local interest groups. A state-community hybrid model may offer more effective governance of unofficial road building by combining the oversight capacity of the state with locally grounded community management via participatory decision-making.

  10. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  11. 42 CFR 460.62 - Governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Governing body. 460.62 Section 460.62 Public Health... Administrative Requirements § 460.62 Governing body. (a) Governing body. A PACE organization must be operating under the control of an identifiable governing body (for example, a board of directors) or a...

  12. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  13. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  14. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  15. 22 CFR 232.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 232.16 Section 232.16 Foreign...-74-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 232.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and...

  16. 22 CFR 232.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 232.16 Section 232.16 Foreign...-74-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 232.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and...

  17. Computerized and Networked Government Information Column

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratford, Juri

    2004-01-01

    The efforts of the U.S. federal government to develop E-Government services have been the subject of many recent news stories. In February 2002, Arthur Andersen's Office of Government Services released a usability analysis of federal government Web sites. In addition, in February, Vice-President Cheney announced the release of a report detailing…

  18. Governance and Trust in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidovich, Lesley; Currie, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of more corporate models of governance is a contemporary trend in higher education. In the early 2000s, the Australian Government legislated national governance protocols for universities, using the policy lever of financial sanctions. These more corporate-style governance protocols followed similar changes in the UK, consistent with…

  19. 42 CFR 51c.304 - Governing board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Governing board. 51c.304 Section 51c.304 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Centers § 51c.304 Governing board. A governing board for the... members. The method of selection of all governing board members shall be prescribed in the by-laws...

  20. 42 CFR 51c.304 - Governing board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Governing board. 51c.304 Section 51c.304 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Centers § 51c.304 Governing board. A governing board for the... members. The method of selection of all governing board members shall be prescribed in the by-laws...

  1. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  2. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign... § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the United...

  3. 42 CFR 51c.304 - Governing board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Governing board. 51c.304 Section 51c.304 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Centers § 51c.304 Governing board. A governing board for the... members. The method of selection of all governing board members shall be prescribed in the by-laws...

  4. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the United...

  5. 7 CFR 25.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Governments. 25.501 Section 25.501 Agriculture Office....501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  6. 7 CFR 25.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Governments. 25.501 Section 25.501 Agriculture Office....501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  7. 24 CFR 598.505 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Governments. 598.505 Section 598.505... Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part applies to all such governments....

  8. 24 CFR 598.505 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Governments. 598.505 Section 598.505... Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part applies to all such governments....

  9. 24 CFR 598.505 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governments. 598.505 Section 598....505 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part applies to all such governments....

  10. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340... CENTRAL CONTRACTOR REGISTRATION Definitions § 25.340 Local government. Local government means a: (a... district; (j) School district; (k) Intrastate district; (l) Council of governments, whether or...

  11. 22 CFR 62.29 - Government visitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government visitors. 62.29 Section 62.29... Program Provisions § 62.29 Government visitors. (a) Purpose. The government visitor category is for the exclusive use of the U.S. federal, state, or local government agencies. Programs under this section are...

  12. 25 CFR 700.531 - Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government property. 700.531 Section 700.531 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.531 Government property. Employees shall be held accountable for Government... employee has a positive duty to protect and conserve Government property and to use it economically and...

  13. 24 CFR 597.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governments. 597.501 Section 597... Special Rules § 597.501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  14. 24 CFR 597.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governments. 597.501 Section 597... Special Rules § 597.501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  15. 25 CFR 700.531 - Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government property. 700.531 Section 700.531 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.531 Government property. Employees shall be held accountable for Government... employee has a positive duty to protect and conserve Government property and to use it economically and...

  16. 22 CFR 62.29 - Government visitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Government visitors. 62.29 Section 62.29... Program Provisions § 62.29 Government visitors. (a) Purpose. The government visitor category is for the exclusive use of the U.S. federal, state, or local government agencies. Programs under this section are...

  17. 24 CFR 598.505 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governments. 598.505 Section 598....505 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part applies to all such governments....

  18. 24 CFR 597.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Governments. 597.501 Section 597.501... Rules § 597.501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  19. 7 CFR 25.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Governments. 25.501 Section 25.501 Agriculture Office....501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  20. 7 CFR 25.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Governments. 25.501 Section 25.501 Agriculture Office....501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  1. 24 CFR 598.505 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governments. 598.505 Section 598....505 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part applies to all such governments....

  2. 25 CFR 700.531 - Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Government property. 700.531 Section 700.531 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.531 Government property. Employees shall be held accountable for Government... employee has a positive duty to protect and conserve Government property and to use it economically and...

  3. 24 CFR 597.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governments. 597.501 Section 597... Special Rules § 597.501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  4. 22 CFR 62.29 - Government visitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Government visitors. 62.29 Section 62.29... Program Provisions § 62.29 Government visitors. (a) Purpose. The government visitor category is for the exclusive use of the U.S. federal, state, or local government agencies. Programs under this section are...

  5. 7 CFR 25.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Governments. 25.501 Section 25.501 Agriculture Office....501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  6. 24 CFR 597.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Governments. 597.501 Section 597.501... Rules § 597.501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  7. 25 CFR 700.531 - Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Government property. 700.531 Section 700.531 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.531 Government property. Employees shall be held accountable for Government... employee has a positive duty to protect and conserve Government property and to use it economically and...

  8. 25 CFR 700.531 - Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Government property. 700.531 Section 700.531 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.531 Government property. Employees shall be held accountable for Government... employee has a positive duty to protect and conserve Government property and to use it economically and...

  9. 2 CFR 200.64 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local government. 200.64 Section 200.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.64 Local government. Local government means any unit of government within a state, including a: (a) County; (b) Borough; (c) Municipality;...

  10. 22 CFR 62.29 - Government visitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Government visitors. 62.29 Section 62.29... Program Provisions § 62.29 Government visitors. (a) Purpose. The government visitor category is for the exclusive use of the U.S. federal, state, or local government agencies. Programs under this section are...

  11. 42 CFR 494.180 - Condition: Governance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Governance. 494.180 Section 494.180... Administration § 494.180 Condition: Governance. The ESRD facility is under the control of an identifiable governing body, or designated person(s) with full legal authority and responsibility for the governance...

  12. 42 CFR 494.180 - Condition: Governance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Governance. 494.180 Section 494.180... Administration § 494.180 Condition: Governance. The ESRD facility is under the control of an identifiable governing body, or designated person(s) with full legal authority and responsibility for the governance...

  13. 42 CFR 494.180 - Condition: Governance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Governance. 494.180 Section 494.180... Administration § 494.180 Condition: Governance. The ESRD facility is under the control of an identifiable governing body, or designated person(s) with full legal authority and responsibility for the governance...

  14. Multilevel Governance and Organizational Performance: Investigating the Political-Bureaucratic Labyrinth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Kenneth J.; O'Toole, Laurence J., Jr.; Nicholson-Crotty, Sean

    2004-01-01

    Research on governance has extensively explored the complex interactions of governmental, nongovernmental, and for-profit entities in the execution of public policy. It has consistently failed, however, to model empirically the joint effects of political and bureaucratic actors in governance systems. To address this issue, a theory of multilevel…

  15. IBS: transformation of our governance.

    PubMed

    Basford, Kaye E

    2013-06-01

    In my Presidential Address at the 2010 International Biometric Conference in Florianopolis, I outlined the revised governance structure for the International Biometric Society (IBS). That structure was subsequently modified, with the final version being approved by the society membership in June 2012. The membership also approved the merger of the constitution with the bylaws, effectively dissolving the constitution (as it was no longer consistent with practice). From January 1, 2013, responsibility for the governance and leadership of the IBS rests with a 15-member Executive Board which will be supported by a larger Representative Council whose members are selected by and from each of the society's regions. The Representative Council is responsible for overseeing the determination of the Executive Board, providing advice on strategic and policy issues, and contributing to the operation of the IBS. This Council will be an effective conduit between the regions and the Executive Board, aided by the Chair attending all Board meetings.

  16. Adaptation in Collaborative Governance Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, Kirk; Gerlak, Andrea K.

    2014-10-01

    Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program.

  17. Adaptation in collaborative governance regimes.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Kirk; Gerlak, Andrea K

    2014-10-01

    Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program.

  18. Public Education Finances: 2002 Census of Governments: Volume 4, Government Finances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Volume 4. Government Finances contains six parts that cover a wide range of state and local government financial activity in fiscal year 2001-02. They are: (1) Public Education Finances; (2)Finances of Special District Governments; (3) Finances of County Governments; (4) Finances of Municipal and Township Governments; (5) Compendium of Government…

  19. Information at the Nexus: Young People's Perceptions of Government and Government Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Natalie Greene

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the perceptions that young people have of federal government websites and of the U.S. government, as well as exploring possible connections between the perceptions of government and government websites. Not only is this a virtually unstudied area of e-government and youth information behavior, but it is also of…

  20. 31 CFR 575.304 - Entity of the Government of Iraq; Iraqi Government entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity of the Government of Iraq... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 575.304 Entity of the Government of Iraq; Iraqi Government entity. The term entity of the Government of Iraq or Iraqi Government entity includes: (a)...

  1. Cooperativity governs the size and structure of biological interfaces.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2012-11-15

    Interfaces, defined as the surface of interactions between two parts of a system at a discontinuity, are very widely found in nature. While it is known that the specific structure of an interface plays an important role in defining its properties, it is less clear whether or not there exist universal scaling laws that govern the structural evolution of a very broad range of natural interfaces. Here we show that cooperativity of interacting elements, leading to great strength at low material use, is a key concept that governs the structural evolution of many natural interfaces. We demonstrate this concept for the cases of β-sheet proteins in spider silk, gecko feet, legs of caterpillars, and self-assembling of penguins into huddles, which range in scales from the submolecular to the macroscopic level. A general model is proposed that explains the size and structure of biological interfaces from a fundamental point of view.

  2. Science-policy processes for transboundary water governance.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Derek; de Loë, Rob C; Morris, Michelle; Edwards, Tom W D; Gerlak, Andrea K; Hall, Roland I; Huitema, Dave; Ison, Ray; Livingstone, David; MacDonald, Glen; Mirumachi, Naho; Plummer, Ryan; Wolfe, Brent B

    2015-09-01

    In this policy perspective, we outline several conditions to support effective science-policy interaction, with a particular emphasis on improving water governance in transboundary basins. Key conditions include (1) recognizing that science is a crucial but bounded input into water resource decision-making processes; (2) establishing conditions for collaboration and shared commitment among actors; (3) understanding that social or group-learning processes linked to science-policy interaction are enhanced through greater collaboration; (4) accepting that the collaborative production of knowledge about hydrological issues and associated socioeconomic change and institutional responses is essential to build legitimate decision-making processes; and (5) engaging boundary organizations and informal networks of scientists, policy makers, and civil society. We elaborate on these conditions with a diverse set of international examples drawn from a synthesis of our collective experiences in assessing the opportunities and constraints (including the role of power relations) related to governance for water in transboundary settings.

  3. Measuring government commitment to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Amanda; Zoloa, Juan Ignacio; Duran, Denizhan

    2013-04-18

    Vaccination is among the most cost-effective health interventions and has attracted ever greater levels of funding from public and private donors. However, some countries, mainly populous lower-middle income countries, are lagging behind on vaccination financing and performance. In this paper, we discuss the rationale for investing in vaccination and construct a metric to measure government commitment to vaccination that could promote accountability and better tracking of performance. While noting the limitations of available data, we find that populous middle-income countries, which stand to gain tremendously from increased vaccination uptake, perform poorly in terms of their vaccination outcomes. PMID:23598491

  4. Measuring government commitment to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Amanda; Zoloa, Juan Ignacio; Duran, Denizhan

    2013-04-18

    Vaccination is among the most cost-effective health interventions and has attracted ever greater levels of funding from public and private donors. However, some countries, mainly populous lower-middle income countries, are lagging behind on vaccination financing and performance. In this paper, we discuss the rationale for investing in vaccination and construct a metric to measure government commitment to vaccination that could promote accountability and better tracking of performance. While noting the limitations of available data, we find that populous middle-income countries, which stand to gain tremendously from increased vaccination uptake, perform poorly in terms of their vaccination outcomes.

  5. Pan-European E-Government Services Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitvar, Tomáš; Mocan, Adrian; Nazir, Sanaullah; Wang, Xia

    E-Government has been the center of interest for public administrations, citizens and businesses, as well as software vendors for several years. E-Government enables customers and members of the public and private sectors to take advantage of automated administration processes accessible on-line. These activities involve electronic exchange of information to acquire or provide products or services, to place or receive orders, or to complete financial transactions. All such communications must be performed securely, while at the same time maintaining the privacy of involved parties. E-Government allows citizens and businesses to process requests on-line, and with minimal physical interactions with public bodies. Since a complex information support often needs to be developed incrementally, e-Government services were first available as single services in specific sectors and for specific users. While these services are being further developed and expanded to be available in more sectors and for more users, their growing number leads to requirements of total or partial automation of certain tasks, for example, discovery, selection, composition and mediation of services. In addition, extensive numbers of such services are available in different sectors, and their provisioning in complex scenarios requires a good information strategy along with a good architectural and technological basis. The main goal is to identify and define methods, standards, technologies as well as legislation to be used within the whole development process and provisioning of complex e-Government systems. In the EU, the e-Government information strategy can be seen at two levels as (1) a European strategy driven by the European Commission to enable e-Government services across the EU member states and (2) national strategies to form a national e-Government available within a particular EU member state. The initiative which aims to develop the European strategy at the EU level is called IDABC.1

  6. Employee-Retirement Systems of State and Local Governments: 2002 Census of Governments. Volume 4, Number 6, Government Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2004

    2004-01-01

    A census of governments is taken at 5-year intervals as required by law under title 13, United States Codes, Section 161. This 2002 census, similar to those taken since 1957, covers three major subject fields: government organization; public employment; and government finances. This document contains six parts that cover the entire range of state…

  7. CLA Brief: Distribution of Federal Government Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Brian; Kitchen, Paul

    1976-01-01

    The Canadian Library Association submits a brief to the Canadian legislature. History, purpose, and status of government publications and their catalogs and distribution are discussed. Recommendations are provided for an improved government publications program. (LS)

  8. Ion Electrodiffusion Governs Silk Electrogelation

    PubMed Central

    Kojic, Nikola; Panzer, Matthew J.; Leisk, Gary G.; Raja, Waseem K.; Kojic, Milos; Kaplan, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Silk electrogelation involves the transition of an aqueous silk fibroin solution to a gel state (E-gel) in the presence of an electric current. The process is based on local pH changes as a result of water electrolysis – generating H+ and OH− ions at the (+) and (−) electrodes, respectively. Silk fibroin has a pI=4.2 and when local pHgoverning ion electrodiffusion equations were solved and the calculated pH matched the experimental pH profile, indicating that ion electrodiffusion dictates local pH changes and E-gel growth. Furthermore, the model predicted the constant currents (2mA and 3mA) necessary for two hypothetical E-gel growth curves and these results were then validated experimentally. The model thus shows how ion electrodiffusion governs the electrogelation process and also provides predictable outcomes for fundamental and practical E-gel applications. PMID:22822409

  9. Managing government funded scientific consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Bakul; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    In recent years, it is becoming apparent that good science not only requires the talents of individual scientists, but also state-of-the-art laboratory facilities. These faculties, often costing millions to billions of dollars, allow scientists unprecedented opportunities to advance their knowledge and improve the quality of human life. To make optimum use of these experimental facilities, a significant amount of computational simulations is required. These mega-projects require large-scale computational facilities and complementary infrastructures of network and software. For physical sciences in US, most of these research and development efforts are funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and National Science Foundation (NSF). Universities, US National Laboratories, and occasionally industrial partners work together on projects awarded with different flavors of government funds managed under different rules. At Fermilab, we manage multiple such collaborative computing projects for university and laboratory consortia. In this paper, I explore important lessons learned from my experience with these projects. Using examples of projects delivering computing infrastructure for the Lattice QCD Collaboration, I explain how the use of federal enterprise architecture may be deployed to run projects effectively. I also describe the lessons learned in the process. Lessons learned from the execution of the above projects are also applicable to other consortia receiving federal government funds.

  10. Participation, political economy and protection: food aid governance in Darfur, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Young, Helen; Maxwell, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Humanitarian food assistance aims to meet short-term emergency needs, yet often it is sustained over many years and develops its own systems and infrastructure that interact with local governance and local communities. This paper explores the links between participation and local governance, as well as the implications for exclusion of certain groups, the dignity of those involved, and protection issues. The paper proposes a framework for reviewing the governance functions and capacities of local Food Relief Committees, based on the following criteria: accountability; gender equity; legitimacy and authority; representativeness; responsiveness; and transparency. A case study of the Darfur region reviews how local governance evolves as a result of both the wider conflict and of adapting to the international humanitarian system, itself a form of governance. The paper concludes by proposing three strategies for enhancing participation and applying lessons learned: improved analysis of participation; linking programming strategies and protection; and taking account of governance functions and capacities.

  11. Towards a Multidimensional Measure of Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Shabana

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new index of governance based on the Alkire-Foster methodology and compares it with the Mo Ibrahim Index of African Governance. The proposed new index improves on existing measures of governance in two ways. First, it is able to incorporate both cardinal and ordinal variables without having to assign cardinal meaning to…

  12. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  13. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  14. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  15. Media-Government Relations in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Government and the media are intimately connected in many ways though each distrusts the other. This paper, based on the author's experience in government, describes the ways that governments try to deal with the media and discusses three of the main complaints about media coverage--its tendency to simplify, to assign blame, and to be primarily…

  16. Skills Governance and the Workforce Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hordern, Jim

    2013-01-01

    In the United Kingdom higher education environment, government may make efforts to encourage institutions to engage in governance structures to secure policy objectives through a steering approach. In this article connections between skills governance structures and the recent Higher Education Funding Council for England workforce development…

  17. Notable Government Documents 2007: Blogs, Battles, & Bees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Jim

    2008-01-01

    The world of government information mirrors the headlines. The resources in this list of Notable Government Documents from the American Library Association's Government Documents Round Table reflect the diversity of the profession, with topics ranging from "underappreciated fish" in Alaska to the Colonial papers of Sir William Johnson; from an…

  18. An Experiment in Participatory Student Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Laurence L.

    Tallahassee Community College (Florida) can serve as an example of how a student government failed and was successfully resurrected. The initial problem was in adopting rather than adapting the traditional pattern of student government practiced in 4-year institutions. The failure symptoms were: no real authority for student government;…

  19. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  20. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  1. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  2. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  3. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  4. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  5. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  6. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  7. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  8. Student Governance: Toward Effectiveness and the Ideal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Jennifer M.; Miller, Michael T.; Nadler, Daniel P.

    2008-01-01

    College students have been engaged in various aspects of campus governance since nearly the beginning of the academy. This governance was formalized greatly by the academic freedom movement of 40 years ago, and the current system of shared governance has not adapted well to the changing nature of the commercial higher education institution. The…

  9. Shared Governance in the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kater, Sue; Levin, John S.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined shared governance in public, unionized community colleges and creates a national inventory of areas in which faculty participate in governance according to the language of collective-bargaining agreements. The findings suggest that community college faculty are engaged in shared governance in both the traditional academic areas…

  10. Two Successful Approaches to Teaching AP Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Brian; Stepp, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Amador Valley High School, in Pleasanton, California, uses two unique approaches to teaching Advanced Placement Government and Politics. AP Government consists of six units: Constitutional Underpinnings; Political Behavior and Political Beliefs; Mass Media, Interest Groups, and Political Parties; Institutions of Government; Civil Liberties and…

  11. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government claims. 460.21 Section 460.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses,...

  12. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government claims. 460.21 Section 460.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses,...

  13. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government claims. 460.21 Section 460.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses,...

  14. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government claims. 460.21 Section 460.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses,...

  15. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government claims. 460.21 Section 460.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses,...

  16. 2011 AGB Survey of Higher Education Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report, the second of AGB's studies of higher education governance, documents the extent to which college and university boards are following good-governance practices. In addition, it takes a focused look at board engagement to determine the degree to which governing boards are actively, intellectually, and strategically involved with their…

  17. 31 CFR 342.8 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Governing regulations. Savings notes are subject to the regulations of the Department of the Treasury, now or hereafter prescribed, governing United States Savings Bonds, contained in 31 CFR part 315, also... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Governing regulations. 342.8...

  18. 31 CFR 342.8 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Governing regulations. Savings notes are subject to the regulations of the Department of the Treasury, now or hereafter prescribed, governing United States Savings Bonds, contained in 31 CFR part 315, also... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Governing regulations. 342.8...

  19. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  20. 31 CFR 342.8 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Governing regulations. Savings notes are subject to the regulations of the Department of the Treasury, now or hereafter prescribed, governing United States Savings Bonds, contained in 31 CFR part 315, also... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governing regulations. 342.8...

  1. Placing Teachers in Global Governance Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the focus on teacher policies and practices by a range of global actors and explores their meaning for the governance of teachers. Through a historical and contemporary reading, I argue that an important shift in the locus of power to govern has taken place. I show how the mechanisms of global governance of teachers are being…

  2. 31 CFR 342.8 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Governing regulations. Savings notes are subject to the regulations of the Department of the Treasury, now or hereafter prescribed, governing United States Savings Bonds, contained in 31 CFR part 315, also... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Governing regulations. 342.8...

  3. 31 CFR 342.8 - Governing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Governing regulations. Savings notes are subject to the regulations of the Department of the Treasury, now or hereafter prescribed, governing United States Savings Bonds, contained in 31 CFR part 315, also... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Governing regulations. 342.8...

  4. Governing Public Universities in Arab Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally in Arab public universities, presidents are appointed by government authorities. Recently, in uprising Arab countries universities' presidents have been elected by universities' faculty members. Neither traditional nor self-governance pattern succeeded to modernise Arab universities. Reforming patterns of governance is…

  5. 39 CFR 259.1 - Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Government. 259.1 Section 259.1 Postal Service....1 Government. (a) Policy. The Postal Service cooperates with Federal Agencies whenever the overall costs to Government will be reduced. Assistance in a number of special projects and programs is...

  6. 10 CFR 603.220 - Government participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government participation. 603.220 Section 603.220 Energy... Technology Investment Agreements § 603.220 Government participation. A TIA is used to carry out cooperative relationships between the Federal Government and the recipient(s) which require substantial involvement of...

  7. 10 CFR 1060.301 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government employees. 1060.301 Section 1060.301 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES OF PERSONS WHO ARE NOT GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 1060.301 Government employees. Nothing in this part shall be interpreted as being applicable...

  8. 7 CFR 97.154 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government employees. 97.154 Section 97.154... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Attorneys and Agents § 97.154 Government employees. Officers and employees... attorneys or agents in proceedings or other matters before government departments or agencies, shall not...

  9. 48 CFR 246.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foreign governments. 246..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 246.406 Foreign governments. (1) Quality assurance among North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries....

  10. 10 CFR 1060.301 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government employees. 1060.301 Section 1060.301 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES OF PERSONS WHO ARE NOT GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 1060.301 Government employees. Nothing in this part shall be interpreted as being applicable...

  11. 10 CFR 1060.301 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government employees. 1060.301 Section 1060.301 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES OF PERSONS WHO ARE NOT GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 1060.301 Government employees. Nothing in this part shall be interpreted as being applicable...

  12. 7 CFR 3015.191 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Governments. 3015.191 Section 3015.191 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Cost Principles § 3015.191 Governments. (a) OMB Circular No... be used in determining the allowable costs of activities conducted by governments. (b)...

  13. 49 CFR 372.223 - Consolidated governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consolidated governments. 372.223 Section 372.223... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.223 Consolidated governments. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of a consolidated government within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate...

  14. 39 CFR 259.1 - Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Government. 259.1 Section 259.1 Postal Service....1 Government. (a) Policy. The Postal Service cooperates with Federal Agencies whenever the overall costs to Government will be reduced. Assistance in a number of special projects and programs is...

  15. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government contributions. 890.501 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans,...

  16. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340... IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL CONTRACTOR REGISTRATION Definitions § 25.340 Local government. Local government means...; (i) Special district; (j) School district; (k) Intrastate district; (l) Council of...

  17. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  18. 10 CFR 603.220 - Government participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government participation. 603.220 Section 603.220 Energy... Technology Investment Agreements § 603.220 Government participation. A TIA is used to carry out cooperative relationships between the Federal Government and the recipient(s) which require substantial involvement of...

  19. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340... IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL CONTRACTOR REGISTRATION Definitions § 25.340 Local government. Local government means...; (i) Special district; (j) School district; (k) Intrastate district; (l) Council of...

  20. 48 CFR 836.572 - Government supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Government supervision... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.572 Government supervision. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-78, Government supervision,...

  1. 7 CFR 3015.191 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Governments. 3015.191 Section 3015.191 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Cost Principles § 3015.191 Governments. (a) OMB Circular No... be used in determining the allowable costs of activities conducted by governments. (b)...

  2. 19 CFR 111.33 - Government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Government records. 111.33 Section 111.33 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.33 Government records. A broker must not procure or attempt to procure, directly or indirectly, information from Government records...

  3. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340... IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL CONTRACTOR REGISTRATION Definitions § 25.340 Local government. Local government means...; (i) Special district; (j) School district; (k) Intrastate district; (l) Council of...

  4. 32 CFR 310.12 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Government contractors. 310.12 Section 310.12... PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Systems of Records § 310.12 Government contractors. (a) Applicability to government contractors. (1) When a DoD Component contract requires the operation or maintenance of a...

  5. 32 CFR 310.12 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Government contractors. 310.12 Section 310.12... PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Systems of Records § 310.12 Government contractors. (a) Applicability to government contractors. (1) When a DoD Component contract requires the operation or maintenance of a...

  6. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government contributions. 890.501 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans,...

  7. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  8. 32 CFR 310.12 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Government contractors. 310.12 Section 310.12... PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Systems of Records § 310.12 Government contractors. (a) Applicability to government contractors. (1) When a DoD Component contract requires the operation or maintenance of a...

  9. 49 CFR 372.223 - Consolidated governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consolidated governments. 372.223 Section 372.223... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.223 Consolidated governments. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of a consolidated government within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate...

  10. 48 CFR 246.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foreign governments. 246..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 246.406 Foreign governments. (1) Quality assurance among North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries....

  11. 49 CFR 372.223 - Consolidated governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consolidated governments. 372.223 Section 372.223... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.223 Consolidated governments. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of a consolidated government within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate...

  12. 4 CFR 83.19 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government contractors. 83.19 Section 83.19 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.19 Government contractors. When GAO provides by a contract for the operation by or on behalf of GAO of a system of...

  13. 39 CFR 259.1 - Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Government. 259.1 Section 259.1 Postal Service....1 Government. (a) Policy. The Postal Service cooperates with Federal Agencies whenever the overall costs to Government will be reduced. Assistance in a number of special projects and programs is...

  14. 76 FR 39769 - Disclosure of Government Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Office of the Secretary RIN 0605-AA29 15 CFR Part 4 Disclosure of Government Information AGENCY... reasons above, amend 15 CFR Part 4 as follows: PART 4--DISCLOSURE OF GOVERNMENT INFORMATION 0 1....

  15. 19 CFR 111.33 - Government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Government records. 111.33 Section 111.33 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.33 Government records. A broker must not procure or attempt to procure, directly or indirectly, information from Government records...

  16. 10 CFR 603.220 - Government participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government participation. 603.220 Section 603.220 Energy... Technology Investment Agreements § 603.220 Government participation. A TIA is used to carry out cooperative relationships between the Federal Government and the recipient(s) which require substantial involvement of...

  17. 28 CFR 65.2 - State Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State Government. 65.2 Section 65.2... Eligible Applicants § 65.2 State Government. In the event that a law enforcement emergency exists throughout a state or part of a state, a state (on behalf of itself or a local unit of government) may...

  18. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government contributions. 891.401 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health...

  19. 28 CFR 65.2 - State Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State Government. 65.2 Section 65.2... Eligible Applicants § 65.2 State Government. In the event that a law enforcement emergency exists throughout a state or part of a state, a state (on behalf of itself or a local unit of government) may...

  20. 49 CFR 372.223 - Consolidated governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consolidated governments. 372.223 Section 372.223... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.223 Consolidated governments. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of a consolidated government within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate...

  1. 10 CFR 1060.301 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government employees. 1060.301 Section 1060.301 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES OF PERSONS WHO ARE NOT GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 1060.301 Government employees. Nothing in this part shall be interpreted as being applicable...

  2. 19 CFR 111.33 - Government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Government records. 111.33 Section 111.33 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.33 Government records. A broker must not procure or attempt to procure, directly or indirectly, information from Government records...

  3. 48 CFR 836.572 - Government supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Government supervision... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.572 Government supervision. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-78, Government supervision,...

  4. 32 CFR 310.12 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Government contractors. 310.12 Section 310.12... PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Systems of Records § 310.12 Government contractors. (a) Applicability to government contractors. (1) When a DoD Component contract requires the operation or maintenance of a...

  5. 32 CFR 310.12 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government contractors. 310.12 Section 310.12... PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Systems of Records § 310.12 Government contractors. (a) Applicability to government contractors. (1) When a DoD Component contract requires the operation or maintenance of a...

  6. 4 CFR 83.19 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government contractors. 83.19 Section 83.19 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.19 Government contractors. When GAO provides by a contract for the operation by or on behalf of GAO of a system of...

  7. 7 CFR 3015.191 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Governments. 3015.191 Section 3015.191 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Cost Principles § 3015.191 Governments. (a) OMB Circular No... be used in determining the allowable costs of activities conducted by governments. (b)...

  8. 7 CFR 3015.191 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Governments. 3015.191 Section 3015.191 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Cost Principles § 3015.191 Governments. (a) OMB Circular No... be used in determining the allowable costs of activities conducted by governments. (b)...

  9. 49 CFR 372.223 - Consolidated governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Consolidated governments. 372.223 Section 372.223... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.223 Consolidated governments. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of a consolidated government within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate...

  10. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government contributions. 891.401 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health...

  11. 28 CFR 65.2 - State Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Government. 65.2 Section 65.2... Eligible Applicants § 65.2 State Government. In the event that a law enforcement emergency exists throughout a state or part of a state, a state (on behalf of itself or a local unit of government) may...

  12. 48 CFR 246.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foreign governments. 246..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 246.406 Foreign governments. (1) Quality assurance among North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries....

  13. 19 CFR 111.33 - Government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government records. 111.33 Section 111.33 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.33 Government records. A broker must not procure or attempt to procure, directly or indirectly, information from Government records...

  14. 48 CFR 836.572 - Government supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Government supervision... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.572 Government supervision. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-78, Government supervision,...

  15. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  16. 28 CFR 65.2 - State Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State Government. 65.2 Section 65.2... Eligible Applicants § 65.2 State Government. In the event that a law enforcement emergency exists throughout a state or part of a state, a state (on behalf of itself or a local unit of government) may...

  17. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government contributions. 890.501 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans,...

  18. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government contributions. 890.501 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans,...

  19. 7 CFR 97.154 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government employees. 97.154 Section 97.154... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Attorneys and Agents § 97.154 Government employees. Officers and employees... attorneys or agents in proceedings or other matters before government departments or agencies, shall not...

  20. 7 CFR 97.154 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government employees. 97.154 Section 97.154... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Attorneys and Agents § 97.154 Government employees. Officers and employees... attorneys or agents in proceedings or other matters before government departments or agencies, shall not...

  1. 19 CFR 111.33 - Government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government records. 111.33 Section 111.33 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.33 Government records. A broker must not procure or attempt to procure, directly or indirectly, information from Government records...

  2. 28 CFR 65.2 - State Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State Government. 65.2 Section 65.2... Eligible Applicants § 65.2 State Government. In the event that a law enforcement emergency exists throughout a state or part of a state, a state (on behalf of itself or a local unit of government) may...

  3. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  4. 10 CFR 603.220 - Government participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government participation. 603.220 Section 603.220 Energy... Technology Investment Agreements § 603.220 Government participation. A TIA is used to carry out cooperative relationships between the Federal Government and the recipient(s) which require substantial involvement of...

  5. 10 CFR 603.220 - Government participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government participation. 603.220 Section 603.220 Energy... Technology Investment Agreements § 603.220 Government participation. A TIA is used to carry out cooperative relationships between the Federal Government and the recipient(s) which require substantial involvement of...

  6. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government contributions. 891.401 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health...

  7. Federal Grants to State and Local Governments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congressional Budget Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In fiscal year 2011, the federal government provided $607 billion in grants to state and local governments. Those funds accounted for 17 percent of federal outlays, 4 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), and a quarter of spending by state and local governments that year. Over the past 30 years, those "intergovernmental" grants--financial…

  8. 10 CFR 1060.301 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government employees. 1060.301 Section 1060.301 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES OF PERSONS WHO ARE NOT GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 1060.301 Government employees. Nothing in this part shall be interpreted as being applicable...

  9. 4 CFR 83.19 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Government contractors. 83.19 Section 83.19 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.19 Government contractors. When GAO provides by a contract for the operation by or on behalf of GAO of a system of...

  10. 39 CFR 259.1 - Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government. 259.1 Section 259.1 Postal Service....1 Government. (a) Policy. The Postal Service cooperates with Federal Agencies whenever the overall costs to Government will be reduced. Assistance in a number of special projects and programs is...

  11. 39 CFR 259.1 - Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Government. 259.1 Section 259.1 Postal Service....1 Government. (a) Policy. The Postal Service cooperates with Federal Agencies whenever the overall costs to Government will be reduced. Assistance in a number of special projects and programs is...

  12. 4 CFR 83.19 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government contractors. 83.19 Section 83.19 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.19 Government contractors. When GAO provides by a contract for the operation by or on behalf of GAO of a system of...

  13. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government contributions. 891.401 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health...

  14. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government contributions. 891.401 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health...

  15. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government contributions. 890.501 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans,...

  16. 7 CFR 97.154 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government employees. 97.154 Section 97.154... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Attorneys and Agents § 97.154 Government employees. Officers and employees... attorneys or agents in proceedings or other matters before government departments or agencies, shall not...

  17. 48 CFR 836.572 - Government supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government supervision... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.572 Government supervision. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-78, Government supervision,...

  18. 7 CFR 3015.191 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Governments. 3015.191 Section 3015.191 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Cost Principles § 3015.191 Governments. (a) OMB Circular No... be used in determining the allowable costs of activities conducted by governments. (b)...

  19. 4 CFR 83.19 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government contractors. 83.19 Section 83.19 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.19 Government contractors. When GAO provides by a contract for the operation by or on behalf of GAO of a system of...

  20. 7 CFR 97.154 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government employees. 97.154 Section 97.154... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Attorneys and Agents § 97.154 Government employees. Officers and employees... attorneys or agents in proceedings or other matters before government departments or agencies, shall not...

  1. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  2. 48 CFR 246.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign governments. 246..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 246.406 Foreign governments. (1) Quality assurance among North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries....

  3. Designing Software to Shape Open Government Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Harlan Ming-Tun

    2012-01-01

    Modern information technologies have transformed the meaning and promise of "open government." The term originally stood for the ideas of government transparency and public accountability. But with the rise of the Internet, "open government" has grown to encompass a wide range of civic goals--greater public participation and…

  4. 48 CFR 246.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foreign governments. 246..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 246.406 Foreign governments. (1) Quality assurance among North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries....

  5. 48 CFR 836.572 - Government supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Government supervision... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.572 Government supervision. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-78, Government supervision,...

  6. An Economic Theory of School Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rada, Roger D.

    Working from the basic assumption that the primary motivation for those involved in school governance is self-interest, this paper develops and discusses 15 hypotheses that form the essential elements of an economic theory of school governance. The paper opens with a review of previous theories of governance and their origins in social science…

  7. School Governance in the New South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Heystek, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses early experiences of school governing bodies in South Africa. Examines governing bodies' powers to set fees, resulting impact on resources for different types of schools, and implications for equity and equality. Explores governing bodies' admission policies and how this led to school populations differentiated by class and race. (CAJ)

  8. 42 CFR 56.304 - Governing board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Governing board. 56.304 Section 56.304 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Centers § 56.304 Governing board. The governing board of...

  9. Biographical Information and Other Government Secrets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Lucinda D.

    1981-01-01

    Covers relevant biographical sources for diplomatic, foreign, and American government personnel, including online services, monographs, back files, the card catalog, State Department and CIA publications, other government documents, and trade publications. Lists of CIA biographical directories and U.S. government agency press offices are appended.…

  10. Government delays release of medical marijuana supply.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Liz

    2002-07-01

    The federal government's initiative to make marijuana available for medical use continues to run into problems and delays. In a recent development, the first crop produced by the government's designated grower turned out to be too impure to use. The delays have led to the launch of a lawsuit against the federal government. PMID:14765485

  11. Governance Reform at China's "985 Project" Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qingnian, Xiong; Duanhong, Zhang; Hong, Liu

    2011-01-01

    Higher education reform in China is deepening, and the governance reform taking place at the 985 Project universities over the past decade has displayed a shift from government driven to internally driven, from adaptive to proactive, and from localized to systemic. This reflects the overall status of governance reform in China's higher education.…

  12. Shared Governance in the Modern University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A governance model is developed in which university governance is shared between the academic and governing bodies and is coordinated by the university executive. Viewing the university as a professional service organisation, and noting the importance of developing a flexible culture within a shifting, marketised external environment, it is argued…

  13. 42 CFR 494.180 - Condition: Governance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... governing body, or designated person(s) with full legal authority and responsibility for the governance and operation of the facility. The governing body adopts and enforces rules and regulations relative to its...

  14. Grid Interaction Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Grid Interaction Technical Team (GITT) is to support a transition scenario to large scale grid-connected vehicle charging with transformational technology, proof of concept and information dissemination. The GITT facilitates technical coordination and collaboration between vehicle-grid connectivity and communication activities among U.S. DRIVE government and industry partners.

  15. Service Oriented E-Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Margareth; Laner, Dietmar, Dr.

    Due to different directives, the growing request for citizen-orientation, improved service quality, effectiveness, efficiency, transparency and reduction of costs, as well as administrative burden public administrations apply increasingly management tools and IT for continual service development and sustainable citizens' satisfaction. Therefore public administrations implement always more standard based management systems, such as quality ISO9001, environmental ISO 14001 or others. Due to this situation we used in different case studies as basis for e-government a the administration adapted, holistic administration management model to analyze stakeholder requirements and to integrate, harmonize and optimize services, processes, data, directives, concepts and forms. In these case studies the developed and consequently implemented holistic administration management model promotes constantly over more years service effectiveness, citizen satisfaction, efficiency, cost reduction, shorter initial training periods for new collaborators, employee involvement for sustainable citizen-oriented service improvement and organizational development.

  16. Bangladeshi government appeals to WHO.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, K

    2000-07-29

    In Dhaka, Bangladesh, it has been recorded that hundreds of people are infected by dengue (a mosquito-borne viral infection), and there have been at least 12 dengue-related deaths. Those who have died include a dentist, an orthopedic surgeon, a hospital auxiliary, and a number of patients coming to the hospitals everyday. Such an outbreak is attributed to unchecked growth in the urban population, poor household water storage, and inadequate solid waste disposal services. Dengue fever has also hit the cities of Chittagong, Faridpur and Sylhet. Despite the enormity of the outbreak, the government insists that the situation is not that serious and that there is no reason to panic. However, Bangladesh has made an emergency appeal to the WHO to help control the country's increase in dengue fever.

  17. Nepal: "a problem of governance".

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, B

    1993-01-01

    Nepal faces the choice between sustainable development in a fragile mountain environment in balance with a growing population or the continuation of stagnation and inertia. The political change of April 1990 created new optimism for the country's 18.5 million people, 70% of who live in abject poverty despite international aid making up 60% of the development budget. The maternal mortality rate stands at an exorbitant 850 deaths/100,000. The life expectancy of women is lower than that of men, and there is only 1 doctor for every 30,000 people, while 90% of births are not attended by a trained practitioner. The annual population growth rate amounts to 2.1%, which could double population in 30 years. This rate had outstripped crop production on a limited supply of land, resulting in the addition of another 250,000 poor people every year to the total. Government policies are skewed; a major hydroelectric project is planned to be constructed in 1994 despite talk about poverty alleviation. The National Conservation Plan of 1988 is in its 3rd phase of implementation, with plans in forestry, irrigation, livestock, and horticulture also being implemented at the request of the World Bank. Family planning lapsed as the vertical delivery system was replaced by a horizontal one encouraging villages to build sub-health posts providing family planning and primary health care. 700 such village health posts exist among 4000 villages, and another 600 are scheduled to open in 1994. Positive signs of meaningful development efforts include the budgetary shift to education, health care, and clean drinking water provision. Decentralization laws passed in 1992 and subsequent local elections aimed at handing over to local people the responsibility for their development assisted by government funds and technical support. The poor and often illiterate people have the manpower to dig irrigation canals and stabilize hillside terraces; therefore, the ruling party's central policy is to mobilize

  18. Building energy governance in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, YiHsiu Michelle

    With Asia's surging economies and urbanization, the region is adding to its built environment at an unprecedented rate, especially those population centers in China and India. With numerous existing buildings, plus a new building boom, construction in these major Asian cities has caused momentous sustainability challenges. This dissertation focuses on China's leading city, Shanghai, to explore and assess its existing commercial building energy policies and practices. Research estimates that Shanghai's commercial buildings might become a key challenge with regard to energy use and CO2 emissions as compared to other major Asian cities. Relevant building energy policy instruments at national and local levels for commercial buildings are reviewed. In addition, two benchmarks are established to further assess building energy policies in Shanghai. The first benchmark is based on the synthesis of relevant criteria and policy instruments as recommended by professional organizations, while the second practical benchmark is drawn from an analysis of three global cities: New York, London and Tokyo. Moreover, two large-scale commercial building sites - Shanghai IKEA and Plaza 66 - are selected for investigation and assessment of their efforts on building energy saving measures. Detailed building energy savings, CO2 reductions, and management cost reductions based on data availability and calculations are presented with the co-benefits approach. The research additionally analyzes different interventions and factors that facilitate or constrain the implementation process of building energy saving measures in each case. Furthermore, a multi-scale analytical framework is employed to investigate relevant stakeholders that shape Shanghai's commercial building energy governance. Research findings and policy recommendations are offered at the close of this dissertation. Findings and policy recommendations are intended to facilitate commercial building energy governance in Shanghai and

  19. Changing governance of the world's forests.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Arun; Chhatre, Ashwini; Hardin, Rebecca

    2008-06-13

    Major features of contemporary forest governance include decentralization of forest management, logging concessions in publicly owned commercially valuable forests, and timber certification, primarily in temperate forests. Although a majority of forests continue to be owned formally by governments, the effectiveness of forest governance is increasingly independent of formal ownership. Growing and competing demands for food, biofuels, timber, and environmental services will pose severe challenges to effective forest governance in the future, especially in conjunction with the direct and indirect impacts of climate change. A greater role for community and market actors in forest governance and deeper attention to the factors that lead to effective governance, beyond ownership patterns, is necessary to address future forest governance challenges. PMID:18556552

  20. A Sociotechnical Framework for Governing Climate Engineering

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Proposed ways of governing climate engineering have most often been supported by narrowly framed and unreflexive appraisals and processes. This article explores the governance implications of a Deliberative Mapping project that, unlike other governance principles, have emerged from an extensive process of reflection and reflexivity. In turn, the project has made significant advances in addressing the current deficit of responsibly defined criteria for shaping governance propositions. Three such propositions argue that (1) reflexive foresight of the imagined futures in which climate engineering proposals might reside is required; (2) the performance and acceptance of climate engineering proposals should be decided in terms of robustness, not optimality; and (3) climate engineering proposals should be satisfactorily opened up before they can be considered legitimate objects of governance. Taken together, these propositions offer a sociotechnical framework not simply for governing climate engineering but for governing responses to climate change at large. PMID:26973363

  1. Governing the Governors: A Case Study of College Governance in English Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleeson, Denis; Abbott, Ian; Hill, Ron

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the nature of governors in the governance of further education colleges in an English context. It explores the complex relationship between governors (people/agency), government (policy/structure) and governance (practice), in a college environment. While recent research has focused on the governance of schooling and higher…

  2. Beyond Professionalisation: Enhancing the Governance Culture for Australian University Governing Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jeanette

    2006-01-01

    This article examines emerging norms of good practice for Australian university governing boards and issues that university governing boards could address to develop effective governance cultures. It firstly considers the ways in which support for many Australian university governing boards has become professionalised over the past decade. At the…

  3. 48 CFR 1815.207-71 - Appointing non-Government evaluators as special Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... evaluators as special Government employees. 1815.207-71 Section 1815.207-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations...-Government evaluators as special Government employees. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, non-Government evaluators, except employees of JPL, shall be appointed as special...

  4. 48 CFR 1815.207-71 - Appointing non-Government evaluators as special Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... evaluators as special Government employees. 1815.207-71 Section 1815.207-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations...-Government evaluators as special Government employees. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, non-Government evaluators, except employees of JPL, shall be appointed as special...

  5. 49 CFR 604.6 - Government officials on official government business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Government officials on official government...) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Exceptions § 604.6 Government officials on official government business. (a) A recipient may provide charter service to...

  6. 49 CFR 604.6 - Government officials on official government business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Government officials on official government...) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Exceptions § 604.6 Government officials on official government business. (a) A recipient may provide charter service to...

  7. 49 CFR 604.6 - Government officials on official government business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Government officials on official government...) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Exceptions § 604.6 Government officials on official government business. (a) A recipient may provide charter service to...

  8. 49 CFR 604.6 - Government officials on official government business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government officials on official government...) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Exceptions § 604.6 Government officials on official government business. (a) A recipient may provide charter service to...

  9. 49 CFR 604.6 - Government officials on official government business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Government officials on official government...) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Exceptions § 604.6 Government officials on official government business. (a) A recipient may provide charter service to...

  10. Do Bacterial Symbionts Govern Aphid's Dropping Behavior?

    PubMed

    Lavy, Omer; Sher, Noa; Malik, Assaf; Chiel, Elad

    2015-06-01

    Defensive symbiosis is amongst nature's most important interactions shaping the ecology and evolution of all partners involved. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae), harbors one obligatory bacterial symbiont and up to seven different facultative symbionts, some of which are known to protect the aphid from pathogens, natural enemies, and other mortality factors. Pea aphids typically drop off the plant when a mammalian herbivore approaches it to avoid incidental predation. Here, we examined whether bacterial symbionts govern the pea aphid dropping behavior by comparing the bacterial fauna in dropping and nondropping aphids of two A. pisum populations, using two molecular techniques: high-throughput profiling of community structure using 16 S reads sequenced on the Illumina platform, and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We found that in addition to the obligatory symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, the tested colonies of A. pisum harbored the facultative symbionts Serratia symbiotica, Regiella insecticola and Rickettsia, with no significant differences in infection proportions between dropping and nondropping aphids. While S. symbiotica was detected by both techniques, R. insecticola and Rickettsia could be detected only by diagnostic PCR. We therefore conclude that A. pisum's dropping behavior is not affected by its bacterial symbionts and is possibly affected by other factors. PMID:26313964

  11. Do Bacterial Symbionts Govern Aphid's Dropping Behavior?

    PubMed

    Lavy, Omer; Sher, Noa; Malik, Assaf; Chiel, Elad

    2015-06-01

    Defensive symbiosis is amongst nature's most important interactions shaping the ecology and evolution of all partners involved. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae), harbors one obligatory bacterial symbiont and up to seven different facultative symbionts, some of which are known to protect the aphid from pathogens, natural enemies, and other mortality factors. Pea aphids typically drop off the plant when a mammalian herbivore approaches it to avoid incidental predation. Here, we examined whether bacterial symbionts govern the pea aphid dropping behavior by comparing the bacterial fauna in dropping and nondropping aphids of two A. pisum populations, using two molecular techniques: high-throughput profiling of community structure using 16 S reads sequenced on the Illumina platform, and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We found that in addition to the obligatory symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, the tested colonies of A. pisum harbored the facultative symbionts Serratia symbiotica, Regiella insecticola and Rickettsia, with no significant differences in infection proportions between dropping and nondropping aphids. While S. symbiotica was detected by both techniques, R. insecticola and Rickettsia could be detected only by diagnostic PCR. We therefore conclude that A. pisum's dropping behavior is not affected by its bacterial symbionts and is possibly affected by other factors.

  12. Water governance in Chile: Availability, management and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés-Pineda, Rodrigo; Pizarro, Roberto; García-Chevesich, Pablo; Valdés, Juan B.; Olivares, Claudio; Vera, Mauricio; Balocchi, Francisco; Pérez, Felipe; Vallejos, Carlos; Fuentes, Roberto; Abarza, Alejandro; Helwig, Bridget

    2014-11-01

    Chile has a unique geography that provides an extraordinary variety of climatic conditions and availability of water resources. The objective of this manuscript was to describe and analyze the spatial and temporal distribution patterns, as well as the management of water resources, along a country with a narrow distance from the Andes Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. This presents challenges to water governance from data collection and analysis perspectives, and for administration of the resource. The Water Resources Directorate (Dirección General de Aguas, DGA), is the federal government organization in charge of the water resources of the country. The DGA and other relevant public and private institutions are examined in terms of competition and conflict resolution across different scales and levels of interaction associated with water resources governance. Both monitoring stations (rainfall, streamflow, water quality, groundwater, sediment and snowfall), and the Chilean management and legislation of water resources are also analyzed. Finally, the success (or lack) of the national administration to upgrade its monitoring stations and equalize water resources distribution throughout the country is discussed including the influence of climate change on data collection, and decision making across different scales of water governance.

  13. Understanding global health governance as a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S

    2011-01-01

    The transition from international to global health reflects the rapid growth in the numbers and nature of stakeholders in health, as well as the constant change embodied in the process of globalisation itself. This paper argues that global health governance shares the characteristics of complex adaptive systems, with its multiple and diverse players, and their polyvalent and constantly evolving relationships, and rich and dynamic interactions. The sheer quantum of initiatives, the multiple networks through which stakeholders (re)configure their influence, the range of contexts in which development for health is played out - all compound the complexity of this system. This paper maps out the characteristics of complex adaptive systems as they apply to global health governance, linking them to developments in the past two decades, and the multiple responses to these changes. Examining global health governance through the frame of complexity theory offers insight into the current dynamics of governance, and while providing a framework for making meaning of the whole, opens up ways of accessing this complexity through local points of engagement.

  14. Assessing eGovernment Systems Success: A Validation of the DeLone and McLean Model of Information Systems Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yi-Shun; Liao, Yi-Wen

    2008-01-01

    With the proliferation of the Internet and World Wide Web applications, people are increasingly interacting with government to citizen (G2C) eGovernment systems. It is therefore important to measure the success of G2C eGovernment systems from the citizen's perspective. While general information systems (IS) success models have received much…

  15. State and Local Government Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Alexander; Rinebold, Joel; Aresta, Paul

    2012-03-30

    The State and Local Government Partnership project has built relationships between the Department of Energy (DOE), regional states, and municipalities. CCAT implemented this project using a structure that included leadership by the DOE. Outreach was undertaken through collaborative meetings, workshops, and briefings; the development of technical models and local energy plans; support for state stakeholder groups; and implementation of strategies to facilitate the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The final guidance documents provided to stakeholders consisted of individual strategic state “Roadmaps” to serve as development plans. These “Roadmaps” confirm economic impacts, identify deployment targets, and compare policies and incentives for facility development in each of the regional states. The partnerships developed through this project have improved the exchange of knowledge between state and local government stakeholders and is expected to increase the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in early market applications, consistent with the DOE’s market transformation efforts. Technically accurate and objective information was, and continues to be, provided to improve public and stakeholder perceptions regarding the use of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Based on the “Roadmaps” and studies conducted for this project, there is the potential to generate approximately 10.75 million megawatt hours (MWh) of electricity annually from hydrogen and fuel cell technologies at potential host sites in the Northeast regional states, through the development of 1,364 to 1,818 megawatts (MW) of fuel cell electric generation capacity. Currently, the region has approximately 1,180 companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cell industry supply chain in the region. These companies are estimated to have over $1 billion in annual revenue and investment, contribute more than $51 million in annual state and local tax revenue

  16. A new governance space for health.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Szabo, Martina Marianna Cassar

    2014-01-01

    Global health refers to 'those health issues which transcend national boundaries and governments and call for actions on the global forces and global flows that determine the health of people'. (Kickbusch 2006) Governance in this trans-national and cross-cutting arena can be analyzed along three political spaces: global health governance, global governance for health, and governance for global health. It is argued that the management of the interface between these three political spaces of governance in the global public health domain is becoming increasingly important in order to move the global health agenda forward. Global health governance refers mainly to those institutions and processes of governance which are related to an explicit health mandate, such as the World Health Organization; global governance for health refers mainly to those institutions and processes of global governance which have a direct and indirect health impact, such as the United Nations, World Trade Organization or the Human Rights Council; governance for global health refers to the institutions and mechanisms established at the national and regional level to contribute to global health governance and/or to governance for global health--such as national global health strategies or regional strategies for global health. It can also refer to club strategies, such as agreements by a group of countries such as the BRICS. In all three political spaces, the involvement of a multitude of state and non-state actors has become the norm--that is why issues of legitimacy, accountability and transparency have moved to the fore. The transnational nature of global health will require the engagement of all actors to produce global public goods for health (GPGH) and to ensure a rules-based and reliably financed global public health domain. PMID:24560259

  17. A new governance space for health

    PubMed Central

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Szabo, Martina Marianna Cassar

    2014-01-01

    Global health refers to ‘those health issues which transcend national boundaries and governments and call for actions on the global forces and global flows that determine the health of people’. (Kickbusch 2006) Governance in this trans-national and cross-cutting arena can be analyzed along three political spaces: global health governance, global governance for health, and governance for global health. It is argued that the management of the interface between these three political spaces of governance in the global public health domain is becoming increasingly important in order to move the global health agenda forward. Global health governance refers mainly to those institutions and processes of governance which are related to an explicit health mandate, such as the World Health Organization; global governance for health refers mainly to those institutions and processes of global governance which have a direct and indirect health impact, such as the United Nations, World Trade Organization or the Human Rights Council; governance for global health refers to the institutions and mechanisms established at the national and regional level to contribute to global health governance and/or to governance for global health – such as national global health strategies or regional strategies for global health. It can also refer to club strategies, such as agreements by a group of countries such as the BRICS. In all three political spaces, the involvement of a multitude of state and non-state actors has become the norm – that is why issues of legitimacy, accountability and transparency have moved to the fore. The transnational nature of global health will require the engagement of all actors to produce global public goods for health (GPGH) and to ensure a rules-based and reliably financed global public health domain. PMID:24560259

  18. A new governance space for health.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Szabo, Martina Marianna Cassar

    2014-01-01

    Global health refers to 'those health issues which transcend national boundaries and governments and call for actions on the global forces and global flows that determine the health of people'. (Kickbusch 2006) Governance in this trans-national and cross-cutting arena can be analyzed along three political spaces: global health governance, global governance for health, and governance for global health. It is argued that the management of the interface between these three political spaces of governance in the global public health domain is becoming increasingly important in order to move the global health agenda forward. Global health governance refers mainly to those institutions and processes of governance which are related to an explicit health mandate, such as the World Health Organization; global governance for health refers mainly to those institutions and processes of global governance which have a direct and indirect health impact, such as the United Nations, World Trade Organization or the Human Rights Council; governance for global health refers to the institutions and mechanisms established at the national and regional level to contribute to global health governance and/or to governance for global health--such as national global health strategies or regional strategies for global health. It can also refer to club strategies, such as agreements by a group of countries such as the BRICS. In all three political spaces, the involvement of a multitude of state and non-state actors has become the norm--that is why issues of legitimacy, accountability and transparency have moved to the fore. The transnational nature of global health will require the engagement of all actors to produce global public goods for health (GPGH) and to ensure a rules-based and reliably financed global public health domain.

  19. Government`s response to the competitiveness problem

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.; Carayannis, E.

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of how the US government responded to the concern in the 1980`s that US companies were experiencing problems of competitiveness in international markets. By the mid 1980`s there was great and growing concern throughout the US that US companies were experiencing difficulties in international competition. Pressure on Congress to take action came from constituents seeking jobs and companies that would directly benefit (this usually means receive public money) from programs that Congress might initiate. The fact that most constituent calls to Congress were about job creation was lost in the on-rush of R&D performers seeking funds for their favorite R&D project. In response, Congress created the Advanced Technology Program, the Technology Transfer Initiative, and the Technology Reinvestment Project, expanded the responsibilities of ARPA/DARPA, increased funding for the Small Business Initiative, expanded the Manufacturing Extension Partnership, funded SEMATECH, and increased NSF funding for basic research at universities. Many of these programs were later criticized for being industrial welfare and several were cut-back or stopped. Retrospective analysis shows that few of these programs addressed the root cause of competitiveness difficulties. In fact, by the time most of these programs were in place, US companies were well on their way to correcting their competitiveness problems. In addition, few were relevant to companies` often expressed concerns about workforce training, regulatory costs, and access to foreign markets. Twenty percent reductions in health care costs, regulatory costs, and education costs could annually pump $500 billion into the US economy and make companies operating in the US much more competitive in international markets.

  20. The Interactions of the Student Aid Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Thomas; Braxton, Larry

    The interactions of student financial aid offices with other campus offices, government agencies, and private groups are described. Campus groups that interact with the financial aid office include the following: campus veterans affairs office, student affairs office/dean of students, recruitment staff, campus registrar, chief executive officer,…

  1. Interactions of wolves and dogs in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, S.H.; Paul, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    This article reports on the nature and extent of wolf-dog interactions in Minnesota, based on investigations of complaints received by personnel of the federal government dealing with wolf-depredation control. Findings may indicate the wolf-dog interactions that can be expected in other recovery areas.

  2. Purcell's Work Helping the Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garwin, Richard

    2012-02-01

    I worked closely with Ed Purcell from 1956 through 1975 or so, largely through our joint membership on and consulting with the President's Science Advisory Committee (PSAC) and working with the ``Land Panel'' on reconnaissance satellites. Purcell's work with the government had begun long before, with his 5-year service at the MIT Radiation Laboratory, and his advisory role had included, in particular, important work of the Technological Capabilities Panel (TCP) of the predecessor to PSAC. I will try to capture the flavor of Ed's contributions and the context of the times in which he was involved. His style and impact are well characterized by this quote from the book of Eisenhower's Science Advisor and PSAC Chair, James R. Killian, ``When Eisenhower was later to speak in memorable tribute of `my scientists' he was surely recalling among others this quiet, modest, lucid man. Robert Kreidler [one of Killian's staff], in an interview I had with him in preparing for this memoir spoke almost with awe of his [Purcell's] impact on PSAC, `Ed Purcell did not speak often,' he said, `but when he did there would be enormous silence in the room, because everybody knew that whatever he said was going to be worth listening to with careful attention.''' I give some examples why it was so worthwhile listening to Ed Purcell.

  3. Confidentiality governing surgical research practice.

    PubMed

    Mavroforou, Anna; Giannoukas, Athanasios D; Mavrophoros, Dimitrios; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel

    2005-02-01

    Healthy subjects or patients volunteering to participate in trials expect that their privacy and autonomy will be protected. The aim of this article is to highlight issues related to confidentiality governing surgical research practice. A search of the current relevant literature was undertaken. Consent to the disclosure of any information should be sought wherever practicable, but disclosures should be kept to the minimum necessary. The data should be made anonymous where unidentifiable data serve the purpose. Where the previously described actions are not practicable for various reasons, data may be disclosed for research, provided participants have been given information about access to their records and about their right to object. Personal information may only be disclosed without individual's consent when it is for the protection of the public interest, but this has proved too ambiguous a rubric to be useful without proper clarification. Hampering of noncommercial medical research should also be avoided, as it may cause serious damage to public health. Confidentiality in research is an important issue in the protection of the participants' rights to privacy and autonomy, and it should be considered in the design of each study. Breach of confidentiality is legally justifiable for the sake of the public interest, but proper clarification of the law is required in order to avoid hampering noncommercial medical research that is vital for the public health.

  4. Emerging Strategies for Healthy Urban Governance

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Trevor; Lin, Vivian; Herzog, Andre

    2007-01-01

    Urban health promotion is not simply a matter of the right interventions, or even the necessary resources. Urban (and indeed global) health depends to an important extent on governance, the institutions and processes through which societies manage the course of events. This paper describes the concept of governance, distinguishing between reforms aimed at improving how government works and innovations that more fundamentally reinvent governance by developing new institutions and processes of local stakeholder control. The paper highlights strategies urban governors can use to maximize their influence on the national and international decisions that structure urban life. It concludes with some observations on the limitations of local governance strategies and the importance of establishing a “virtuous circuit” of governance through which urban dwellers play a greater role in the formation and implementation of policy at the national and global levels. PMID:17464568

  5. 42 CFR 56.304 - Governing board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... selected for their expertise in relevant subject areas, such as community affairs, local government, finance and banking, legal affairs, trade unions, and other commercial and industrial concerns, or...

  6. 42 CFR 56.304 - Governing board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... selected for their expertise in relevant subject areas, such as community affairs, local government, finance and banking, legal affairs, trade unions, and other commercial and industrial concerns, or...

  7. 42 CFR 56.304 - Governing board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... selected for their expertise in relevant subject areas, such as community affairs, local government, finance and banking, legal affairs, trade unions, and other commercial and industrial concerns, or...

  8. 42 CFR 56.304 - Governing board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... selected for their expertise in relevant subject areas, such as community affairs, local government, finance and banking, legal affairs, trade unions, and other commercial and industrial concerns, or...

  9. Security Requirements for One Stop Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Georg E.

    The highest ranking e-government solutions are based on one-window, one-click or one stop government concepts. For Europe, the EU services directive sets new requirements for e-government, that have to be met till December 2009. Simple, easy to understand and complete information is one requirement. The other requirements are, that the services covered by this directive shall be available electronically and at a distance (which means mostly “by Internet”). Acceptable solutions are digitally signed mails and, as an alternative or supplement, transaction oriented online services. To implement this, a one stop government with document safe is best practice.

  10. Shared governance in a clinic system.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Michelle M; Costanzo, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Shared governance in health care empowers nurses to share in the decision-making process, which results in decentralized management and collective accountability. Share governance practices have been present in hospitals since the late 1970s. However, shared governance in ambulatory care clinics has not been well established. The subjects of this quality project included staff and administrative nurses in a clinic system. The stakeholder committee chose what model of shared governance to implement and educated clinic staff. The Index of Professional Nursing Governance measured a shared governance score pre- and postimplementation of the Clinic Nursing Council. The Clinic Nursing Council met bimonthly for 3 months during this project to discuss issues and make decisions related to nursing staff. The Index of Professional Nursing Governance scores indicated traditional governance pre- and postimplementation of the Clinic Nursing Council, which is to be expected. The stakeholder committee was beneficial to the initial implementation process and facilitated staff nurse involvement. Shared governance is an evolutionary process that develops empowered nurses and nurse leaders.

  11. Informal Institutional Responses to Government Interventions: Lessons from Madhupur National Park, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, H. M. Tuihedur; Sarker, Swapan Kumar; Hickey, Gordon M.; Mohasinul Haque, M.; Das, Niamjit

    2014-11-01

    Madhupur National Park is renowned for severe resource ownership conflicts between ethnic communities and government authorities in Bangladesh. In this study, we applied the Institutional Analysis and Development framework to identify: (i) past and present informal institutional structures within the ethnic Garo community for land resource management; (ii) the origin of the land ownership dispute; (iii) interaction mechanisms between formal and informal institutions; and (iv) change in land management authority and informal governance structures. We identify that the informal institutions of the traditional community have undergone radical change due to government interventions with implications for the regulation of land use, informal institutional functions, and joint-decision-making. Importantly, the government's persistent denial of the role of existing informal institutions is widening the gap between government and community actors, and driving land ownership conflicts in a cyclic way with associated natural resource degradation.

  12. Mechanical Forces Governing Tissue Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Glenn

    2002-10-01

    We have refined a UV-laser microbeam to investigate the forces at play during morphogenesis, i.e. early biological development, in the fruit fly Drosophila (1). While the microbeam typically is used to ablate tissue with cellular spatial resolution, it has the capability for submicron and thus subcellular spatial resolution. The microbeam can be steered in two-dimensions and UV-laser dissection occurred in vivo while the tissue was imaged in real time using a (visible) laser-scanning confocal microscope. We investigated a morphogenic process, known as dorsal closure, in a genetically engineered strain of Drosophila where green fluorescent protein has been fused to a fragment of a native structural protein (2). This allowed us to visualize the fluorescing contours of two opposing, outer sheets of tissue closing over an inner tissue sheet. Time-lapse imaging captured the contours in native closure as well as in response to UV-laser dissection. Specific patterns of dissection essentially eliminated a selected force: by tracking the changes in contour geometry we estimated the relative magnitude of that force (mechanical jump). Using this approach we identified and characterized a set of forces governing tissue dynamics. We have developed a mechanical model for the dynamics of dorsal closure based on this data set. This model provides a theoretical framework for investigating defective closure in mutant flies. Dorsal closure is a model system for various aspects of cell movement in wound healing and vertebrate development. This research has been supported by the DoD MFEL Program as administered by the AFOSR and by the NIH. 1. M.S. Hutson, Y. Tokutake, M-S. Chang, J.W. Bloor, S. Venakides, D.P. Kiehart, and G.S. Edwards. "Laser dissection of morphogenetic dynamics in Drosophila dorsal closure." In preparation. 2. D.P. Kiehart, et al, J. Cell Biol. 149, 471 (2000).

  13. Governing drug use through partnerships: Towards a genealogy of government/non-government relations in drug policy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Natalie; Bull, Melissa; Dioso-Villa, Rachel; Smith, Catrin

    2016-02-01

    Drug policy in Australia is underpinned by the idea of partnerships wherein the non-government sector is one important partner in both delivering services and contributing to policy and decision-making processes. This article presents a genealogy of the concept of government/non-government 'partnerships', tracing its emergence and development within drug policy discourse in Australia. We find that the rise of neo-liberal policies since the 1980s has been a key factor facilitating the emergence of government/non-government 'partnerships' rhetoric in drug policy. Since the 1980s, the role of non-government organisations (NGOs) in drug policy has been articulated in relation to 'community' responsibilisation in contrast to the welfarist reliance on expert intervention. We link the rise of this rhetoric with the neo-liberal turn to governing through community and the individualisation of social problems. Furthermore, although we find that governments on the whole have encouraged the service delivery and policy work of NGOs at least in policy rhetoric, the actions of the state have at times limited the ability of NGOs to perform advocacy work and contribute to policy. Constraints on NGO drug policy work could potentially compromise the responsiveness of drug policy systems by limiting opportunities for innovative policy-making and service delivery.

  14. Governing drug use through partnerships: Towards a genealogy of government/non-government relations in drug policy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Natalie; Bull, Melissa; Dioso-Villa, Rachel; Smith, Catrin

    2016-02-01

    Drug policy in Australia is underpinned by the idea of partnerships wherein the non-government sector is one important partner in both delivering services and contributing to policy and decision-making processes. This article presents a genealogy of the concept of government/non-government 'partnerships', tracing its emergence and development within drug policy discourse in Australia. We find that the rise of neo-liberal policies since the 1980s has been a key factor facilitating the emergence of government/non-government 'partnerships' rhetoric in drug policy. Since the 1980s, the role of non-government organisations (NGOs) in drug policy has been articulated in relation to 'community' responsibilisation in contrast to the welfarist reliance on expert intervention. We link the rise of this rhetoric with the neo-liberal turn to governing through community and the individualisation of social problems. Furthermore, although we find that governments on the whole have encouraged the service delivery and policy work of NGOs at least in policy rhetoric, the actions of the state have at times limited the ability of NGOs to perform advocacy work and contribute to policy. Constraints on NGO drug policy work could potentially compromise the responsiveness of drug policy systems by limiting opportunities for innovative policy-making and service delivery. PMID:26683746

  15. Corporate Sector Practice Informs Online Workforce Training for Australian Government Agencies: Towards Effective Educational-Learning Systems Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Elspeth; Vilela, Cenie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline government online training practice. We searched individual research domains of the human-dimensions of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), information and communications technologies (ICT) and instructional design for evidence of either corporate sector or government training practices. We overlapped these…

  16. 18 CFR 11.2 - Use of government lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Government Dams § 11.2 Use of government lands. (a) Reasonable annual charges for recompensing the United... Government dams or other structures owned by the United States Government) or its other property, will...

  17. 48 CFR 27.305-2 - Administration by the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27... contract performance. Government effort to review and correct contractor compliance with its patent rights... its Government contracts; and (4) To have cognizant Government personnel interview...

  18. The governance mechanism of industrial clusters based on the analysis of the demand shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu-xian

    2009-07-01

    Based on a re-study on the organizational characteristics of industry clusters, the paper analyzes the interactive relation between the industry clusters and network organizations. The types of clusters are re-classified in terms of different responses to demand shock. It suggests that the actual firms and virtual firms be regarded as the core type of industry clusters. With the new thoughts of the governance mechanism, the paper makes the classical corporate governance theory applicable to the research on industry clusters governance.erContact

  19. The Long Way From Government Open Data to Mobile Health Apps: Overcoming Institutional Barriers in the US Federal Government

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Government agencies in the United States are creating mobile health (mHealth) apps as part of recent policy changes initiated by the White House’s Digital Government Strategy. Objective The objective of the study was to understand the institutional and managerial barriers for the implementation of mHealth, as well as the resulting adoption pathways of mHealth. Methods This article is based on insights derived from qualitative interview data with 35 public managers in charge of promoting the reuse of open data through Challenge.gov, the platform created to run prizes, challenges, and the vetting and implementation of the winning and vendor-created apps. Results The process of designing apps follows three different pathways: (1) entrepreneurs start to see opportunities for mobile apps, and develop either in-house or contract out to already vetted Web design vendors; (2) a top-down policy mandates agencies to adopt at least two customer-facing mobile apps; and (3) the federal government uses a policy instrument called “Prizes and Challenges”, encouraging civic hackers to design health-related mobile apps using open government data from HealthData.gov, in combination with citizen needs. All pathways of the development process incur a set of major obstacles that have to be actively managed before agencies can promote mobile apps on their websites and app stores. Conclusions Beyond the cultural paradigm shift to design interactive apps and to open health-related data to the public, the managerial challenges include accessibility, interoperability, security, privacy, and legal concerns using interactive apps tracking citizen. PMID:25537314

  20. Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tong Logan, Angela; Silverman, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    One of the most clinically significant complications related to the use of pharmacotherapy is the potential for drug-drug or drug-disease interactions. The gastrointestinal system plays a large role in the pharmacokinetic profile of most medications, and many medications utilized in gastroenterology have clinically significant drug interactions. This review will discuss the impact of alterations of intestinal pH, interactions mediated by phase I hepatic metabolism enzymes and P-glycoprotein, the impact of liver disease on drug metabolism, and interactions seen with commonly utilized gastrointestinal medications. PMID:22933873