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Sample records for pacap-cytokine interactions govern

  1. Government - contractor interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the Administrative Contracting Officer represents an advance in the Government system of contract management because it provides an individual with knowledge, time, and a specialized function to insure performance of Government contracts. However, the development has created a dichotomy between the award and the post-award function which increases the adversary relationship with Government contractors. This paper advocates that this adversary relationship can be decreased if PCOs and ACOs are provided with opportunities to serve in the assignments of the other.

  2. Government and Governance of Regional Triple Helix Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danson, Mike; Todeva, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual paper contributes to the discussion of the role of regional government and regional Triple Helix constellations driving economic development and growth within regional boundaries. The impact of regionalism and subsidiarity on regional Triple Helix constellations, and the questions of governmentality, governance and institutional…

  3. Government and Governance of Regional Triple Helix Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danson, Mike; Todeva, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual paper contributes to the discussion of the role of regional government and regional Triple Helix constellations driving economic development and growth within regional boundaries. The impact of regionalism and subsidiarity on regional Triple Helix constellations, and the questions of governmentality, governance and institutional…

  4. Universal Power Law Governing Pedestrian Interactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Karamouzas, Ioannis; Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J.

    2014-12-02

    Human crowds often bear a striking resemblance to interacting particle systems, and this has prompted many researchers to describe pedestrian dynamics in terms of interaction forces and potential energies. The correct quantitative form of this interaction, however, has remained an open question. Here, we introduce a novel statistical-mechanical approach to directly measure the interaction energy between pedestrians. This analysis, when applied to a large collection of human motion data, reveals a simple power-law interaction that is based not on the physical separation between pedestrians but on their projected time to a potential future collision, and is therefore fundamentally anticipatory in nature. Remarkably, this simple law is able to describe human interactions across a wide variety of situations, speeds, and densities. We further show, through simulations, that the interaction law we identify is sufficient to reproduce many known crowd phenomena.

  5. Universal Power Law Governing Pedestrian Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamouzas, Ioannis; Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J.

    2014-12-01

    Human crowds often bear a striking resemblance to interacting particle systems, and this has prompted many researchers to describe pedestrian dynamics in terms of interaction forces and potential energies. The correct quantitative form of this interaction, however, has remained an open question. Here, we introduce a novel statistical-mechanical approach to directly measure the interaction energy between pedestrians. This analysis, when applied to a large collection of human motion data, reveals a simple power-law interaction that is based not on the physical separation between pedestrians but on their projected time to a potential future collision, and is therefore fundamentally anticipatory in nature. Remarkably, this simple law is able to describe human interactions across a wide variety of situations, speeds, and densities. We further show, through simulations, that the interaction law we identify is sufficient to reproduce many known crowd phenomena.

  6. A Universal Power Law Governing Pedestrian Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamouzas, Ioannis; Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J.

    2015-03-01

    Human crowds often bear a striking resemblance to interacting particle systems, and this has prompted many researchers to describe pedestrian dynamics in terms of interaction forces and potential energies. The correct quantitative form of this interaction, however, has remained an open question. Here, we introduce a novel statistical-mechanical approach to directly measure the interaction energy between pedestrians. This analysis, when applied to a large collection of human motion data, reveals a simple power law interaction that is based not on the physical separation between pedestrians but on their projected time to a potential future collision, and is therefore fundamentally anticipatory in nature. Remarkably, this simple law is able to describe human interactions across a wide variety of situations, speeds and densities. We further show, through simulations, that the interaction law we identify is sufficient to reproduce many known crowd phenomena. Work at Argonne National Laboratory is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Work at the University of Minnesota is supported by MnDRIVE Initiative on Robotics, Sensors, and Advanced Manufacturing.

  7. Molecular Mediators Governing Iron-Copper Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gulec, Sukru; Collins, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Given their similar physiochemical properties, it is a logical postulate that iron and copper metabolism are intertwined. Indeed, iron-copper interactions were first documented over a century ago, but the homeostatic effects of one on the other has not been elucidated at a molecular level to date. Recent experimental work has, however, begun to provide mechanistic insight into how copper influences iron metabolism. During iron deficiency, elevated copper levels are observed in the intestinal mucosa, liver, and blood. Copper accumulation and/or redistribution within enterocytes may influence iron transport, and high hepatic copper may enhance biosynthesis of a circulating ferroxidase, which potentiates iron release from stores. Moreover, emerging evidence has documented direct effects of copper on the expression and activity of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. This review summarizes current experimental work in this field, with a focus on molecular aspects of iron-copper interplay and how these interactions relate to various disease states. PMID:24995690

  8. Government and industry interactions in the development of clock technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellwig, H.

    1981-01-01

    It appears likely that everyone in the time and frequency community can agree on goals to be realized through the expenditure of resources. These goals are the same as found in most fields of technology: lower cost, better performance, increased reliability, small size and lower power. Related aspects are examined in the process of clock and frequency standard development. Government and industry are reviewed in a highly interactive role. These interactions include judgements on clock performance, what kind of clock, expenditure of resources, transfer of ideas or hardware concepts from government to industry, and control of production. Successful clock development and production requires a government/industry relationship which is characterized by long-term continuity, multidisciplinary team work, focused funding and a separation of reliability and production oriented tasks from performance improvement/research type efforts.

  9. Public-private interactions in global food safety governance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In response to an apparent decline in global food safety, numerous public and private regulatory initiatives have emerged to restore public confidence. This trend has been particularly marked by the growing influence of private regulators such as multinational food companies, supermarket chains and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who employ private standards, certification protocols, third-party auditing, and transnational contracting practices. This paper explores how the structure and processes of private food safety governance interact with traditional public governance regimes, focusing on Global Good Agricultural Practices (GlobalGAP) as a primary example of the former. Due to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of public regulation in the face of global problems, private governance in food safety has gradually replaced states' command-and-control regulation with more flexible, market-oriented mechanisms. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of constructive regime interaction instead of institutional boundary building to global food safety governance. Public and private ordering must each play a role as integral parts of a larger, dynamic and evolving governance complex.

  10. Governance of Innovation and Intermediation in Triple Helix Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todeva, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Research on sustainability and innovation-driven economic growth has exposed a lack of sufficient knowledge in the governance literature about the appropriate extent of government involvement. This paper focuses on the governance of innovation and the intermediary role of the state. The author synthesizes the literature on governance and…

  11. Governance of Innovation and Intermediation in Triple Helix Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todeva, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Research on sustainability and innovation-driven economic growth has exposed a lack of sufficient knowledge in the governance literature about the appropriate extent of government involvement. This paper focuses on the governance of innovation and the intermediary role of the state. The author synthesizes the literature on governance and…

  12. Aromatic stacking interactions govern catalysis in aryl-alcohol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Patricia; Hernández-Ortega, Aitor; Lucas, Fátima; Carro, Juan; Herguedas, Beatriz; Borrelli, Kenneth W; Guallar, Victor; Martínez, Angel T; Medina, Milagros

    2015-08-01

    Aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO, EC 1.1.3.7) generates H2 O2 for lignin degradation at the expense of benzylic and other π system-containing primary alcohols, which are oxidized to the corresponding aldehydes. Ligand diffusion studies on Pleurotus eryngii AAO showed a T-shaped stacking interaction between the Tyr92 side chain and the alcohol substrate at the catalytically competent position for concerted hydride and proton transfers. Bi-substrate kinetics analysis revealed that reactions with 3-chloro- or 3-fluorobenzyl alcohols (halogen substituents) proceed via a ping-pong mechanism. However, mono- and dimethoxylated substituents (in 4-methoxybenzyl and 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohols) altered the mechanism and a ternary complex was formed. Electron-withdrawing substituents resulted in lower quantum mechanics stacking energies between aldehyde and the tyrosine side chain, contributing to product release, in agreement with the ping-pong mechanism observed in 3-chloro- and 3-fluorobenzyl alcohol kinetics analysis. In contrast, the higher stacking energies when electron donor substituents are present result in reaction of O2 with the flavin through a ternary complex, in agreement with the kinetics of methoxylated alcohols. The contribution of Tyr92 to the AAO reaction mechanism was investigated by calculation of stacking interaction energies and site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of Tyr92 by phenylalanine does not alter the AAO kinetic constants (on 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol), most probably because the stacking interaction is still possible. However, introduction of a tryptophan residue at this position strongly reduced the affinity for the substrate (i.e. the pre-steady state Kd and steady-state Km increase by 150-fold and 75-fold, respectively), and therefore the steady-state catalytic efficiency, suggesting that proper stacking is impossible with this bulky residue. The above results confirm the role of Tyr92 in substrate binding, thus governing the kinetic mechanism

  13. Facilitating Business to Government Interaction Using a Citizen-Centric Web 2.0 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dais, Alexandros; Nikolaidou, Mara; Anagnostopoulos, Dimosthenis

    Modelling Business to Government (B2G) interaction is considered to be more complex than Citizen to Government (C2G) interaction, since the concept of authorized citizens, representing the Business while interacting with specific governmental organizations should be explored. Novel interaction models should be introduced, transforming the way Governmental services are delivered to Businesses. To this end, we propose a Web 2.0 citizen-centric model facilitating Business to Government interaction by establishing a social network between citizens and public agencies. All kinds of interactions (B2G, G2G) are expressed as C2G interactions establishing the citizen-centric nature of the proposed interaction model. The architecture of a Web 2.0 platform, named MyCCP, based on the suggested interaction model is also presented, along with a case study illustrating business-to-government interaction to indicate the potential of the suggested model.

  14. Informed Consent Policies Governing Medical Students' Interactions with Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Daniel L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    To determine compliance with the guidelines of the U.S. government and the Joint Committee on Accreditation of Hospitals pertaining to informed consent, hospital administrators, medical school department chairpersons, and medical school deans were surveyed about policies on student involvement in patient care. (Author/MLW)

  15. Governance: Interacting Roles of Faculty, Students, and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, John J.

    The central cause of the present sorry state of governance in many institutions is an historical misunderstanding as to the real nature of a college or university. Most institutions have inherited a formal organizational structure founded on the concept of hierarchy, a concept that is totally unsuitable to the needs of an institution of higher…

  16. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, K. D.

    The author notes that two trends appear to be developing in litigation over the governance of the public schools. One trend is increasing participation of organized groups in suits against the schools. The other is a greater volume of litigation dealing with open meeting laws and freedom of information acts. Reflecting the second trend, the…

  17. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, K. D.

    This chapter summarized and analyzes all state supreme court and federal court decisions as well as other significant court decisions affecting the realm of school governance. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1974 and reported in the General Digest on or before March 1, 1975. Because of its unusual significance,…

  18. Thermal Decomposition of IMX-104: Ingredient Interactions Govern Thermal Insensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Maharrey, Sean; Wiese-Smith, Deneille; Highley, Aaron M.; Steill, Jeffrey D.; Behrens, Richard; Kay, Jeffrey J.

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes initial studies into the chemical basis of the thermal insensitivity of INMX-104. The work follows upon similar efforts investigating this behavior for another DNAN-based insensitive explosive, IMX-101. The experiments described demonstrate a clear similarity between the ingredient interactions that were shown to lead to the thermal insensitivity observed in IMX-101 and those that are active in IMX-104 at elevated temperatures. Specifically, the onset of decomposition of RDX is shifted to a lower temperature based on the interaction of the RDX with liquid DNAN. This early onset of decomposition dissipates some stored energy that is then unavailable for a delayed, more violent release.

  19. Electrostatic interactions as governing the fouling in protein microfiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouammou, M.; Tijani, N.; Calvo, J. I.; Palacio, L.; Prádanos, P.; Hernández, A.

    2005-03-01

    The influence of pH and electrostatic interactions on the fouling mechanism during protein dead-end microfiltration (MF) has been investigated for two charged membranes. Polyethersulfone acidic membranes (ICE-450), being negatively charged, and basic ones (SB-6407), these positively charged, both from Pall Co., have been used in the investigations. BSA and Lysozyme solutions at different pH values (3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 8.5 and 10.0) were microfiltered through the membranes at a constant applied transmembrane pressure. Results have been analysed in terms of usual blocking filtration laws and a substantial change in the fouling behaviour has been observed when solution pH and/or membrane charge as the pressure was changed, this change being clearly related with the specific membrane-protein and protein-protein interactions.

  20. Stochasticity and Spatial Interaction Govern Stem Cell Differentiation Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Quinton; Stukalin, Evgeny; Kusuma, Sravanti; Gerecht, Sharon; Sun, Sean X

    2015-07-31

    Stem cell differentiation underlies many fundamental processes such as development, tissue growth and regeneration, as well as disease progression. Understanding how stem cell differentiation is controlled in mixed cell populations is an important step in developing quantitative models of cell population dynamics. Here we focus on quantifying the role of cell-cell interactions in determining stem cell fate. Toward this, we monitor stem cell differentiation in adherent cultures on micropatterns and collect statistical cell fate data. Results show high cell fate variability and a bimodal probability distribution of stem cell fraction on small (80-140 μm diameter) micropatterns. On larger (225-500 μm diameter) micropatterns, the variability is also high but the distribution of the stem cell fraction becomes unimodal. Using a stochastic model, we analyze the differentiation dynamics and quantitatively determine the differentiation probability as a function of stem cell fraction. Results indicate that stem cells can interact and sense cellular composition in their immediate neighborhood and adjust their differentiation probability accordingly. Blocking epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) can diminish this cell-cell contact mediated sensing. For larger micropatterns, cell motility adds a spatial dimension to the picture. Taken together, we find stochasticity and cell-cell interactions are important factors in determining cell fate in mixed cell populations.

  1. Stochasticity and Spatial Interaction Govern Stem Cell Differentiation Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Quinton; Stukalin, Evgeny; Kusuma, Sravanti; Gerecht, Sharon; Sun, Sean X.

    2015-07-01

    Stem cell differentiation underlies many fundamental processes such as development, tissue growth and regeneration, as well as disease progression. Understanding how stem cell differentiation is controlled in mixed cell populations is an important step in developing quantitative models of cell population dynamics. Here we focus on quantifying the role of cell-cell interactions in determining stem cell fate. Toward this, we monitor stem cell differentiation in adherent cultures on micropatterns and collect statistical cell fate data. Results show high cell fate variability and a bimodal probability distribution of stem cell fraction on small (80-140 μm diameter) micropatterns. On larger (225-500 μm diameter) micropatterns, the variability is also high but the distribution of the stem cell fraction becomes unimodal. Using a stochastic model, we analyze the differentiation dynamics and quantitatively determine the differentiation probability as a function of stem cell fraction. Results indicate that stem cells can interact and sense cellular composition in their immediate neighborhood and adjust their differentiation probability accordingly. Blocking epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) can diminish this cell-cell contact mediated sensing. For larger micropatterns, cell motility adds a spatial dimension to the picture. Taken together, we find stochasticity and cell-cell interactions are important factors in determining cell fate in mixed cell populations.

  2. Stochasticity and Spatial Interaction Govern Stem Cell Differentiation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Quinton; Stukalin, Evgeny; Kusuma, Sravanti; Gerecht, Sharon; Sun, Sean X.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell differentiation underlies many fundamental processes such as development, tissue growth and regeneration, as well as disease progression. Understanding how stem cell differentiation is controlled in mixed cell populations is an important step in developing quantitative models of cell population dynamics. Here we focus on quantifying the role of cell-cell interactions in determining stem cell fate. Toward this, we monitor stem cell differentiation in adherent cultures on micropatterns and collect statistical cell fate data. Results show high cell fate variability and a bimodal probability distribution of stem cell fraction on small (80–140 μm diameter) micropatterns. On larger (225–500 μm diameter) micropatterns, the variability is also high but the distribution of the stem cell fraction becomes unimodal. Using a stochastic model, we analyze the differentiation dynamics and quantitatively determine the differentiation probability as a function of stem cell fraction. Results indicate that stem cells can interact and sense cellular composition in their immediate neighborhood and adjust their differentiation probability accordingly. Blocking epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) can diminish this cell-cell contact mediated sensing. For larger micropatterns, cell motility adds a spatial dimension to the picture. Taken together, we find stochasticity and cell-cell interactions are important factors in determining cell fate in mixed cell populations. PMID:26227093

  3. Dynamic metabolic exchange governs a marine algal-bacterial interaction

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Einat; Wyche, Thomas P; Kim, Ki Hyun; Petersen, Jörn; Ellebrandt, Claire; Vlamakis, Hera; Barteneva, Natasha; Paulson, Joseph N; Chai, Liraz; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is a model coccolithophore micro-alga that generates vast blooms in the ocean. Bacteria are not considered among the major factors influencing coccolithophore physiology. Here we show through a laboratory model system that the bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens, a well-studied member of the Roseobacter group, intimately interacts with E. huxleyi. While attached to the algal cell, bacteria initially promote algal growth but ultimately kill their algal host. Both algal growth enhancement and algal death are driven by the bacterially-produced phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid. Bacterial production of indole-3-acetic acid and attachment to algae are significantly increased by tryptophan, which is exuded from the algal cell. Algal death triggered by bacteria involves activation of pathways unique to oxidative stress response and programmed cell death. Our observations suggest that bacteria greatly influence the physiology and metabolism of E. huxleyi. Coccolithophore-bacteria interactions should be further studied in the environment to determine whether they impact micro-algal population dynamics on a global scale. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17473.001 PMID:27855786

  4. Dispersion interactions govern the strong thermal stability of a protein.

    PubMed

    Vondrásek, Jirí; Kubar, Tomás; Jenney, Francis E; Adams, Michael W W; Kozísek, Milan; Cerný, Jirí; Sklenár, Vladimír; Hobza, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Rubredoxin from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf Rd) is an extremely thermostable protein, which makes it an attractive subject of protein folding and stability studies. A fundamental question arises as to what the reason for such extreme stability is and how it can be elucidated from a complex set of interatomic interactions. We addressed this issue first theoretically through a computational analysis of the hydrophobic core of the protein and its mutants, including the interactions taking place inside the core. Here we show that a single mutation of one of phenylalanine's residues inside the protein's hydrophobic core results in a dramatic decrease in its thermal stability. The calculated unfolding Gibbs energy as well as the stabilization energy differences between a few core residues follows the same trend as the melting temperature of protein variants determined experimentally by microcalorimetry measurements. NMR spectroscopy experiments have shown that the only part of the protein affected by mutation is the reasonably rearranged hydrophobic core. It is hence concluded that stabilization energies, which are dominated by London dispersion, represent the main source of stability of this protein.

  5. Dynamic metabolic exchange governs a marine algal-bacterial interaction.

    PubMed

    Segev, Einat; Wyche, Thomas P; Kim, Ki Hyun; Petersen, Jörn; Ellebrandt, Claire; Vlamakis, Hera; Barteneva, Natasha; Paulson, Joseph N; Chai, Liraz; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto

    2016-11-18

    Emiliania huxleyi is a model coccolithophore micro-alga that generates vast blooms in the ocean. Bacteria are not considered among the major factors influencing coccolithophore physiology. Here we show through a laboratory model system that the bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens, a well-studied member of the Roseobacter group, intimately interacts with E. huxleyi. While attached to the algal cell, bacteria initially promote algal growth but ultimately kill their algal host. Both algal growth enhancement and algal death are driven by the bacterially-produced phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid. Bacterial production of indole-3-acetic acid and attachment to algae are significantly increased by tryptophan, which is exuded from the algal cell. Algal death triggered by bacteria involves activation of pathways unique to oxidative stress response and programmed cell death. Our observations suggest that bacteria greatly influence the physiology and metabolism of E. huxleyi. Coccolithophore-bacteria interactions should be further studied in the environment to determine whether they impact micro-algal population dynamics on a global scale.

  6. Interactions Between Spatially Explicit Conservation and Management Measures: Implications for the Governance of Marine Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárcamo, P. Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F.

    2013-12-01

    Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

  7. Interactions between spatially explicit conservation and management measures: implications for the governance of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, P Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F

    2013-12-01

    Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

  8. 49 CFR 40.353 - What principles govern the interaction between MROs and other service agents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What principles govern the interaction between MROs and other service agents? 40.353 Section 40.353 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and...

  9. Profile of the intermolecular forces governing the interaction of drugs with mucin.

    PubMed

    Caron, Giulia; Visentin, Sonja; Pontremoli, Carlotta; Ermondi, Giuseppe

    2015-07-05

    The study highlights the balance of the intermolecular forces governing the interaction between drugs and mucin. The interaction strength is expressed as a retention factor k (data retrieved from the literature (Gargano et al., 2014)) obtained by a new bio-affinity chromatographic method in which the stationary phase is based on covalently immobilized mucin (porcine gastric mucin, PGM). A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) between logk and 82 VolSurf+ descriptors was established and mechanistically interpreted. Results evidence that all blocks contribute similarly to the model; moreover, hydrogen bonding donor (HBD) properties of solutes favor the interaction with mucin; and thus, support their detrimental role on drug permeability.

  10. Weak interactive forces govern the interaction between a non-ionic surfactant with human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Narayani; Mondal, Ramakanta; Deshmukh, Arundhati; Dutta, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Saptarshi

    2015-08-01

    The effect of the non-ionic surfactant Tween 40 (TW40) on Human Serum Albumin (HSA) has been studied by spectroscopic and isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) methods. Our steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic results reveal the perturbation of the native protein conformation upon interaction with TW40. The interaction of TW40 with HSA does not occur in a sequential manner unlike another anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Our major conclusion is that the HSA-TW40 interaction is mainly driven by weak forces like van der Waal/hydrogen bonding interactions. This is also generalized from the results of interaction of HSA with another non-ionic surfactant TW80.

  11. Explanation of Interaction between Iranian Physicians and Government in the Field of Tax: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Pakdaman, Mohsen; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Sefiddashti, Sara Emamgholipour; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Abdoli, Ghahreman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the main tools for fair redistribution of income in the society is taxes, and, in developing countries, the public sector is financed through taxes. Identifying physicians’ income to determine their income tax is associated with many problems. This study was conducted to identify the factors that affect the interaction between Iranian physicians and the government regarding taxes to cover gaps in the tax system and resolve the problems associated with the interactions between physicians and the government relative to taxes. Methods This study was a qualitative content analysis conducted in 2015. Two groups of participants were involved in this qualitative study. The first group was 11 experts and scholars from organizations related to taxes, and the second group was 10 general practitioners and specialists selected through purposive sampling until data saturation was achieved. MAXQDA 10 software was used for assigning interviews, mining codes, and categorizing the codes. In addition, qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Data analysis resulted in emergence of three categories, i.e., “Tax Affairs Organization and government,” “physicians,” and “Medical Council.” There were 12 subcategories for these three categories. The results of this study showed that the Tax Affairs Organization does not have access to the income information of physicians required to determine their taxes. The government should create motivation for accurate and proper tax payments by physicians by providing them with various amenities. It should be clear and tangible where the government spends the taxes received from physicians, and an appropriate tax culture should be created by using the mass media. Conclusion The Tax Affairs Organization should identify the physicians who do not pay taxes through interaction and cooperation of the Medical Council as a trade organization, and it should compile their tax records. The Medical

  12. Interactions between bacterial surface and nanoparticles govern the performance of "chemical nose" biosensors.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mohit S; Wei, Shih-Chung; Rogowski, Jacob L; Tsuji, Jackson M; Chen, Paul Z; Lin, Chii-Wann; Jones, Lyndon; Gu, Frank X

    2016-09-15

    Rapid and portable diagnosis of pathogenic bacteria can save lives lost from infectious diseases. Biosensors based on a "chemical nose" approach are attracting interest because they are versatile but the governing interactions between bacteria and the biosensors are poorly understood. Here, we use a "chemical nose" biosensor based on gold nanoparticles to explore the role of extracellular polymeric substances in bacteria-nanoparticle interactions. We employ simulations using Maxwell-Garnett theory to show how the type and extent of aggregation of nanoparticles influence their colorimetric response to bacteria. Using eight different species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, we demonstrate that this "chemical nose" can detect and identify bacteria over two orders of magnitude of concentration (89% accuracy). Additionally, the "chemical nose" differentiates between binary and tertiary mixtures of the three most common hospital-isolated pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (100% accuracy). We demonstrate that the complex interactions between nanoparticles and bacterial surface determine the colorimetric response of gold nanoparticles and thus, govern the performance of "chemical nose" biosensors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Extracting sets of chemical substructures and protein domains governing drug-target interactions.

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, Yoshihiro; Pauwels, Edouard; Saigo, Hiroto; Stoven, Véronique

    2011-05-23

    The identification of rules governing molecular recognition between drug chemical substructures and protein functional sites is a challenging issue at many stages of the drug development process. In this paper we develop a novel method to extract sets of drug chemical substructures and protein domains that govern drug-target interactions on a genome-wide scale. This is made possible using sparse canonical correspondence analysis (SCCA) for analyzing drug substructure profiles and protein domain profiles simultaneously. The method does not depend on the availability of protein 3D structures. From a data set of known drug-target interactions including enzymes, ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, and nuclear receptors, we extract a set of chemical substructures shared by drugs able to bind to a set of protein domains. These two sets of extracted chemical substructures and protein domains form components that can be further exploited in a drug discovery process. This approach successfully clusters protein domains that may be evolutionary unrelated but that bind a common set of chemical substructures. As shown in several examples, it can also be very helpful for predicting new protein-ligand interactions and addressing the problem of ligand specificity. The proposed method constitutes a contribution to the recent field of chemogenomics that aims to connect the chemical space with the biological space.

  14. Protein-mediated RNA folding governs sequence-specific interactions between rotavirus genome segments.

    PubMed

    Borodavka, Alexander; Dykeman, Eric C; Schrimpf, Waldemar; Lamb, Don C

    2017-09-18

    Segmented RNA viruses are ubiquitous pathogens, which include influenza viruses and rotaviruses. A major challenge in understanding their assembly is the combinatorial problem of a non-random selection of a full genomic set of distinct RNAs. This process involves complex RNA-RNA and protein-RNA interactions, which are often obscured by non-specific binding at concentrations approaching in vivo assembly conditions. Here, we present direct experimental evidence of sequence-specific inter-segment interactions between rotavirus RNAs, taking place in a complex RNA- and protein-rich milieu. We show that binding of the rotavirus-encoded non-structural protein NSP2 to viral ssRNAs results in the remodeling of RNA, which is conducive to formation of stable inter-segment contacts. To identify the sites of these interactions, we have developed an RNA-RNA SELEX approach for mapping the sequences involved in inter-segment base-pairing. Our findings elucidate the molecular basis underlying inter-segment interactions in rotaviruses, paving the way for delineating similar RNA-RNA interactions that govern assembly of other segmented RNA viruses.

  15. Decoding of lipoprotein – receptor interactions; Properties of ligand binding modules governing interactions with ApoE

    PubMed Central

    Guttman, Miklos; Prieto, J. Helena; Croy, Johnny E.; Komives, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Clusters of complement-type ligand binding repeats in the LDL receptor family are thought to mediate the interactions between these receptors and their various ligands. Apolipoprotein E, a key ligand for cholesterol homeostasis, has been shown to interact with LDLR, LRP and VLDLR, through these clusters. LDLR and VLDLR each contain a single ligand-binding repeat cluster, whereas LRP contains three large clusters of ligand binding repeats, each with ligand binding functions. We show that within sLRP3, the three-repeat subcluster CR16-18 recapitulated ligand binding to the isolated receptor binding portion of ApoE (residues 130-149). Binding experiments with LA3-5 of LDLR and CR16-18 showed that a conserved W25/D30 pair appears critical for high affinity binding to ApoE(130-149). The triple repeat LA3-5 showed the expected interaction with ApoE(1-191)•DMPC, but surprisingly CR16-18 did not interact with this form of ApoE. To understand these differences in ApoE binding affinity, we introduced mutations of conserved residues from LA5 into CR18, and produced a CR16-18 variant capable of binding ApoE(1-191)•DMPC. This change cannot fully be accounted for by the interaction with the proposed ApoE receptor binding region, therefore we speculate that LA5 is recognizing a distinct epitope on ApoE that may only exists in the lipid bound form. The combination of avidity effects with this distinct recognition process likely governs the ApoE-LDL receptor interaction. PMID:20030366

  16. Weak Interactions Govern the Viscosity of Concentrated Antibody Solutions: High-Throughput Analysis Using the Diffusion Interaction Parameter

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Brian D.; Petry, Chris; Yadav, Sandeep; Demeule, Barthélemy; Ciaccio, Natalie; Moore, Jamie M.R.; Shire, Steven J.; Gokarn, Yatin R.

    2012-01-01

    Weak protein-protein interactions are thought to modulate the viscoelastic properties of concentrated antibody solutions. Predicting the viscoelastic behavior of concentrated antibodies from their dilute solution behavior is of significant interest and remains a challenge. Here, we show that the diffusion interaction parameter (kD), a component of the osmotic second virial coefficient (B2) that is amenable to high-throughput measurement in dilute solutions, correlates well with the viscosity of concentrated monoclonal antibody (mAb) solutions. We measured the kD of 29 different mAbs (IgG1 and IgG4) in four different solvent conditions (low and high ion normality) and found a linear dependence between kD and the exponential coefficient that describes the viscosity concentration profiles (|R| ≥ 0.9). Through experimentally measured effective charge measurements, under low ion normality where the electroviscous effect can dominate, we show that the mAb solution viscosity is poorly correlated with the mAb net charge (|R| ≤ 0.6). With this large data set, our results provide compelling evidence in support of weak intermolecular interactions, in contrast to the notion that the electroviscous effect is important in governing the viscoelastic behavior of concentrated mAb solutions. Our approach is particularly applicable as a screening tool for selecting mAbs with desirable viscosity properties early during lead candidate selection. PMID:22828333

  17. Mechanisms governing the interaction of metallic particles with nanosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Demos, Stavros G; Negres, Raluca A; Raman, Rajesh N; Shen, Nan; Rubenchik, Alexander M; Matthews, Manyalibo J

    2016-04-04

    The interaction of nanosecond laser pulses at 1064- and 355-nm with micro-scale, nominally spherical metallic particles is investigated in order to elucidate the governing interaction mechanisms as a function of material and laser parameters. The experimental model used involves the irradiation of metal particles located on the surface of transparent plates combined with time-resolved imaging capable of capturing the dynamics of particle ejection, plume formation and expansion along with the kinetics of the dispersed material from the liquefied layer of the particle. The mechanisms investigated in this work are informative and relevant across a multitude of materials and irradiation geometries suitable for the description of a wide range of specific applications. The experimental results were interpreted using physical models incorporating specific processes to assess their contribution to the overall observed behaviors. Analysis of the experimental results suggests that the induced kinetic properties of the particle can be adequately described using the concept of momentum coupling introduced to explain the interaction of plane metal targets to large-aperture laser beams. The results also suggest that laser energy deposition on the formed plasma affects the energy partitioning and the material modifications to the substrate.

  18. Interacting forms of expertise in security governance: the example of CCTV surveillance at Geneva International Airport.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Francisco

    2009-06-01

    The paper investigates the multiple public-private exchanges and cooperation involved in the installation and development of CCTV surveillance at Geneva International Airport. Emphasis is placed on the interacting forms of authority and expertise of five parties: the user(s), owner and supplier of the camera system, as well as the technical managers of the airport and the Swiss regulatory bodies in airport security. While placing the issues of airport surveillance in the particular context of a specific range of projects and transformations relating to the developments of CCTV at Geneva Airport, the paper not only provides important insights into the micro-politics of surveillance at Geneva Airport, but aims to re-institute these as part of a broader 'problematic': the mediating role of expertise and the growing functional fragmentation of authority in contemporary security governance. On this basis, the paper also exemplifies the growing mutual interdependences between security and business interests in the ever growing 'surveillant assemblage' in contemporary security governance.

  19. Solvents Polarity Governs Ion Interactions and Transport in a Solvated Room Temperature Ionic Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Osti, Naresh C; Van Aken, Katherine; Thompson, Matthew W; Tiet, Felix; Jiang, Dr. De-en; Cummings, Peter; Gogotsi, Yury G.; Mamontov, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    We explore the influence of the solvent dipole moment on cation anion interactions and transport in 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl), [BMIM+][Tf2N ]. Free energy profiles derived from atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show a correlation of the cation anion separation and the equilibrium depth of the potential of mean force with the dipole moment of the solvent. Correlations of the ion diffusivity with the dipole moment and the concentration of the solvent were further demonstrated by classical MD simulations. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments with deuterated solvents reveal a complex picture of nanophase separation into the ionic liquid-rich and solvent-rich phases. The experiment corroborates the trend of concentration- and dipole moment-dependent enhancement of ion mobility by the solvent, as suggested by the simulations. Despite the considerable structural complexity of ionic liquid solvent mixtures, we can rationalize and generalize the trends governing ionic transport in these complex electrolytes.

  20. Periodic trends governing the interactions between impurity atoms [H-Ar] and (alpha)-U

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Christopher David

    2008-01-01

    The binding energies, geometries, charges and electronic structures of a series of impurity atoms [H-Ar] interacting with the {alpha}-U lattice in various configurations were assessed by means of density functional theory calculations. Periodic trends governing the binding energy were highlighted and related to the electronic properties of the impurity atoms, with some consideration given to the band-structure of {alpha}-U. The strongest bound impurity atoms include [C, N, O] and [Si, P, S]. The general trends in the binding energy can be reproduced by a simple parameterisation in terms of the electronegativity (charge-transfer) and covalent radius (elasticity theory) of the impurity atom. The strongest bound atoms deviate from this model, due to their ability to bind with an optimum mixture of covalency and ionicity. This last point is evidenced by the partial overlap of the impurity atom p-band with the hybrid d-/f-band of {alpha}-U. It is expected that the trends and general behaviour reported in this work can be extended to the interactions of impurity atoms with other metallic systems.

  1. Biogeochemistry and biodiversity interact to govern N2 fixers (Fabaceae) across Amazon tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Sarah; Hedin, Lars; Lloyd, Jon; Quesada, Beto

    2015-04-01

    Dinitrogen (N2)-fixing trees in the Fabaceae fulfill a central role in tropical rainforests by supplying nitrogen from the atmosphere, yet whether they will support a forest CO2 sink in the future by alleviating nitrogen limitation may depend on whether and how they are controlled by local environmental conditions. Theory predicts that soil nutrients govern the function of N2 fixers, yet there have been no large-scale field-based tests of this idea. Moreover, recent findings indicate that N2-fixing species behave differently in biogeochemical cycles, suggesting that any environmental control may differ by species, and that the diversity of N2-fixing trees may be critical for ensuring tropical forest function. In this talk, we will use the RAINFOR dataset of 108 (~1.0 ha) lowland tropical rainforest plots from across the Amazon Basin to test whether the abundance and diversity of N2-fixing trees are controlled by soil nutrient availability (i.e., increasing with phosphorus and decreasing with nitrogen), or if fixer abundance and diversity simply follow the dynamics of all tree species. We also test an alternative - but not mutually exclusive - hypothesis that the governing factor for fixers is forest disturbance. Results show a surprising lack of control by local nutrients or disturbance on the abundance or diversity of N2 fixers. The dominant driver of fixer diversity was the total number of tree species, with fixers comprising 10% of all species in a forest plot (R2 = 0.75, linear regression). When considering the dominant taxa of N2 fixers (Inga, Swartzia, Tachigali) alone, environmental factors (nitrogen, phosphorus and disturbance) became important and clearly governed their abundance. These taxa, which contain >60% of N2-fixing trees in the data set, appear to have evolved to specialize in different local environmental conditions. The strong biogeochemistry-by-biodiversity interaction observed here points to a need to consider individual species or taxa of N2

  2. Exploring the Complex Interaction between Governance and Knowledge in Education. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazekas, Mihaly; Burns, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    Governments in all Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries are facing the challenge of governing increasingly complex education systems. There is a growing need for governance structures that can handle this complexity and which can provide actors with the knowledge they need to make decisions. This working paper…

  3. Exploring the Complex Interaction between Governance and Knowledge in Education. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazekas, Mihaly; Burns, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    Governments in all Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries are facing the challenge of governing increasingly complex education systems. There is a growing need for governance structures that can handle this complexity and which can provide actors with the knowledge they need to make decisions. This working paper…

  4. Crepuscular Flight Activity of an Invasive Insect Governed by Interacting Abiotic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yigen; Seybold, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and diurnal flight patterns of the invasive walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, were assessed between 2011 and 2014 in northern California, USA in the context of the effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, wind speed, and barometric pressure. Pityophthorus juglandis generally initiated flight in late January and continued until late November. This seasonal flight could be divided approximately into three phases (emergence: January–March; primary flight: May–July; and secondary flight: September–October). The seasonal flight response to the male-produced aggregation pheromone was consistently female-biased (mean of 58.9% females). Diurnal flight followed a bimodal pattern with a minor peak in mid-morning and a major peak at dusk (76.4% caught between 1800 and 2200 h). The primarily crepuscular flight activity had a Gaussian relationship with ambient temperature and barometric pressure but a negative exponential relationship with increasing light intensity and wind speed. A model selection procedure indicated that the four abiotic factors collectively and interactively governed P. juglandis diurnal flight. For both sexes, flight peaked under the following second-order interactions among the factors when: 1) temperature between was 25 and 30°C and light intensity was less than 2000 lux; 2) temperature was between 25 and 35°C and barometric pressure was between 752 and 762 mba (and declined otherwise); 3) barometric pressure was between 755 and 761 mba and light intensity was less than 2000 lux (and declined otherwise); and 4) temperature was ca. 30°C and wind speed was ca. 2 km/h. Thus, crepuscular flight activity of this insect can be best explained by the coincidence of moderately high temperature, low light intensity, moderate wind speed, and low to moderate barometric pressure. The new knowledge provides physical and temporal guidelines for the application of semiochemical-based control techniques as part of an IPM program for

  5. Community interactions govern host-switching with implications for host–parasite coevolutionary history

    PubMed Central

    Harbison, Christopher W.; Clayton, Dale H.

    2011-01-01

    Reciprocal selective effects between coevolving species are often influenced by interactions with the broader ecological community. Community-level interactions may also influence macroevolutionary patterns of coevolution, such as cospeciation, but this hypothesis has received little attention. We studied two groups of ecologically similar feather lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) that differ in their patterns of association with a single group of hosts. The two groups, “body lice” and “wing lice,” are both parasites of pigeons and doves (Columbiformes). Body lice are more host-specific and show greater population genetic structure than wing lice. The macroevolutionary history of body lice also parallels that of their columbiform hosts more closely than does the evolutionary history of wing lice. The closer association of body lice with hosts, compared with wing lice, can be explained if body lice are less capable of switching hosts than wing lice. Wing lice sometimes disperse phoretically on parasitic flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), but body lice seldom engage in this behavior. We tested the hypothesis that wing lice switch host species more often than body lice, and that the difference is governed by phoresis. Our results show that, where flies are present, wing lice switch to novel host species in sufficient numbers to establish viable populations on the new host. Body lice do not switch hosts, even where flies are present. Thus, differences in the coevolutionary history of wing and body lice can be explained by differences in host-switching, mediated by a member of the broader parasite community. PMID:21606369

  6. Crepuscular flight activity of an invasive insect governed by interacting abiotic factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Seybold, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and diurnal flight patterns of the invasive walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, were assessed between 2011 and 2014 in northern California, USA in the context of the effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, wind speed, and barometric pressure. Pityophthorus juglandis generally initiated flight in late January and continued until late November. This seasonal flight could be divided approximately into three phases (emergence: January-March; primary flight: May-July; and secondary flight: September-October). The seasonal flight response to the male-produced aggregation pheromone was consistently female-biased (mean of 58.9% females). Diurnal flight followed a bimodal pattern with a minor peak in mid-morning and a major peak at dusk (76.4% caught between 1800 and 2200 h). The primarily crepuscular flight activity had a Gaussian relationship with ambient temperature and barometric pressure but a negative exponential relationship with increasing light intensity and wind speed. A model selection procedure indicated that the four abiotic factors collectively and interactively governed P. juglandis diurnal flight. For both sexes, flight peaked under the following second-order interactions among the factors when: 1) temperature between was 25 and 30 °C and light intensity was less than 2000 lux; 2) temperature was between 25 and 35 °C and barometric pressure was between 752 and 762 mba (and declined otherwise); 3) barometric pressure was between 755 and 761 mba and light intensity was less than 2000 lux (and declined otherwise); and 4) temperature was ca. 30 °C and wind speed was ca. 2 km/h. Thus, crepuscular flight activity of this insect can be best explained by the coincidence of moderately high temperature, low light intensity, moderate wind speed, and low to moderate barometric pressure. The new knowledge provides physical and temporal guidelines for the application of semiochemical-based control techniques as part of an IPM program for this

  7. Intellectual property as an instrument of interaction between government, business, science and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitenko, S. M.; Mesyats, M. A.; Rozhkova, O. V.

    2017-09-01

    This article is devoted to research the characteristics associated with pledge of intellectual property in foreign and domestic practice. Holding intellectual property objects’ pledge transactions accelerates the pace of creating innovative systems in the economy. In present paper the modern scheme for bank loan, financing secured with patented intellectual property is researched. The authors give the brief description of features of pledge security registration for loans in some Europe countries. The Europe Union experience shows that as collateral for monetary loans can be used trademarks, patents on the intellectual property, as well as their registration requests. Russian experience of the pledge operations of the intellectual property is too small. This way of bank lending is at an early stage of development. The main constraint is the difficulty of assessing the value of the pledged intellectual property as intangible assets. However, taking into account world and domestic practice this direction for Russian market is estimated by the authors as promising one. Pledge transactions take place within the framework of the Quadruple-Helix Model concept that involves four participants: “science”, “business”, “government” and “society”. Intellectual property are estimates by the authors as an instrument of interaction between government, business, science and society.

  8. Solvents Polarity Governs Ion Interactions and Transport in a Solvated Room Temperature Ionic Liquid

    DOE PAGES

    Osti, Naresh C; Van Aken, Katherine; Thompson, Matthew W; ...

    2017-01-01

    We explore the influence of the solvent dipole moment on cation anion interactions and transport in 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl), [BMIM+][Tf2N ]. Free energy profiles derived from atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show a correlation of the cation anion separation and the equilibrium depth of the potential of mean force with the dipole moment of the solvent. Correlations of the ion diffusivity with the dipole moment and the concentration of the solvent were further demonstrated by classical MD simulations. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments with deuterated solvents reveal a complex picture of nanophase separation into the ionic liquid-rich and solvent-rich phases. The experimentmore » corroborates the trend of concentration- and dipole moment-dependent enhancement of ion mobility by the solvent, as suggested by the simulations. Despite the considerable structural complexity of ionic liquid solvent mixtures, we can rationalize and generalize the trends governing ionic transport in these complex electrolytes.« less

  9. Solvent Polarity Governs Ion Interactions and Transport in a Solvated Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Osti, Naresh C; Van Aken, Katherine L; Thompson, Matthew W; Tiet, Felix; Jiang, De-En; Cummings, Peter T; Gogotsi, Yury; Mamontov, Eugene

    2017-01-05

    We explore the influence of the solvent dipole moment on cation-anion interactions and transport in 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl), [BMIM(+)][Tf2N(-)]. Free energy profiles derived from atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show a correlation of the cation-anion separation and the equilibrium depth of the potential of mean force with the dipole moment of the solvent. Correlations of the ion diffusivity with the dipole moment and the concentration of the solvent were further demonstrated by classical MD simulations. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments with deuterated solvents reveal a complex picture of nanophase separation into the ionic liquid-rich and solvent-rich phases. The experiment corroborates the trend of concentration- and dipole moment-dependent enhancement of ion mobility by the solvent, as suggested by the simulations. Despite the considerable structural complexity of ionic liquid-solvent mixtures, we can rationalize and generalize the trends governing ionic transport in these complex electrolytes.

  10. Governing the surgical count through communication interactions: implications for patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Riley, R; Manias, E; Polglase, A

    2006-01-01

    Background Intermittently, the incidence of retained surgical items after surgery is reported in the healthcare literature, usually in the form of case studies. It is commonly recognised that poor communication practices influence surgical outcomes. Aim To explore the power relationships in the communication between nurses and surgeons that affect the conduct of the surgical count. Methods A qualitative, ethnographic study was undertaken. Data were collected in three operating room departments in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. 11 operating room nurses who worked as anaesthetic, instrument and circulating nurses were individually observed during their interactions with surgeons, anaesthetists, other nurses and patients. Data were generated through 230 h of participant observation, 11 individual and 4 group interviews, and the keeping of a diary by the first author. A deconstructive analysis was undertaken. Results Results are discussed in terms of the discursive practices in which clinicians engaged to govern and control the surgical count. The three major issues presented in this paper are judging, coping with normalisation and establishing priorities. Conclusions The findings highlight the power relationships between members of the surgical team and the complexity of striking a balance between organisational policy and professional judgement. Increasing professional accountability may help to deal with the issues of normalisation, whereas greater attention needs to be paid to issues of time management. More sophisticated technological solutions need to be considered to support manual counting techniques. PMID:17074876

  11. Registered report: Interactions between cancer stem cells and their niche govern metastatic colonization

    PubMed Central

    Incardona, Francesca; Doroudchi, M Mehdi; Ismail, Nawfal; Carreno, Alberto; Griner, Erin; Anna Lim, Minyoung; Iorns, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by replicating selected results from a substantial number of high-profile papers in the field of cancer biology published between 2010 and 2012. This Registered report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from ‘Interactions between cancer stem cells and their niche govern metastatic colonization’ by Malanchi and colleagues, published in Nature in 2012 (Malanchi et al., 2012). The key experiments that will be replicated are those reported in Figures 2H, 3A, 3B, and S13. In these experiments, Malanchi and colleagues analyze messenger RNA levels of periostin (POSTN) in pulmonary fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells isolated from mice with micrometastases to determine which cell type is producing POSTN in the metastatic niche (Figure 2H; Malanchi et al., 2012). Additionally, they examine MMTV-PyMT control or POSTN null mice to test the effect of POSTN on primary tumor growth and metastasis (Figures 3A, 3B, and S13; Malanchi et al., 2012). The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange, and the results of the replications will be published in eLife. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06938.001 PMID:26086719

  12. [Government health planning in the state of Bahia, Brazil: political actors, social interaction and institutional learning].

    PubMed

    Jesus, Washington Luiz Abreu de; Teixeira, Carmen Fontes

    2014-09-01

    This article analyzes the process of government planning in health in the state of Bahia in the 2007-2010 period based on the formulation of the State Health Plan. The benchmark adopted involved adaptation of the theoretical model of the cycle of public policy, including analysis of context, characterization of the actors involved, operations conducted in decision making and the strategic means used. The production of information was through the analysis of documents organized in institutional portfolios and records of the planning process in the organization studied. The analysis of results reveals that the political game included "concessions" and "negotiations" regarding changes in the management and organization of the health system, highlighting the discussion on the problems facing the state management of the Unified Health System (SUS) during the period, and the search for alternatives and solutions to these problems. It also reveals the institutional learning acquired, involving managers and technicians who broadened and reinforced their capacity to analyze and formulate proposals around the government agenda.

  13. Synaptotagmin interaction with SNAP-25 governs vesicle docking, priming, and fusion triggering.

    PubMed

    Mohrmann, Ralf; de Wit, Heidi; Connell, Emma; Pinheiro, Paulo S; Leese, Charlotte; Bruns, Dieter; Davletov, Bazbek; Verhage, Matthijs; Sørensen, Jakob B

    2013-09-04

    SNARE complex assembly constitutes a key step in exocytosis that is rendered Ca(2+)-dependent by interactions with synaptotagmin-1. Two putative sites for synaptotagmin binding have recently been identified in SNAP-25 using biochemical methods: one located around the center and another at the C-terminal end of the SNARE bundle. However, it is still unclear whether and how synaptotagmin-1 × SNARE interactions at these sites are involved in regulating fast neurotransmitter release. Here, we have used electrophysiological techniques with high time-resolution to directly investigate the mechanistic ramifications of proposed SNAP-25 × synaptotagmin-1 interaction in mouse chromaffin cells. We demonstrate that the postulated central binding domain surrounding layer zero covers both SNARE motifs of SNAP-25 and is essential for vesicle docking, priming, and fast fusion-triggering. Mutation of this site caused no further functional alterations in synaptotagmin-1-deficient cells, indicating that the central acidic patch indeed constitutes a mechanistically relevant synaptotagmin-1 interaction site. Moreover, our data show that the C-terminal binding interface only plays a subsidiary role in triggering but is required for the full size of the readily releasable pool. Intriguingly, we also found that mutation of synaptotagmin-1 interaction sites led to more pronounced phenotypes in the context of the adult neuronal isoform SNAP-25B than in the embryonic isoform SNAP-25A. Further experiments demonstrated that stronger synaptotagmin-1 × SNAP-25B interactions allow for the larger primed vesicle pool supported by SNAP-25 isoform B. Thus, synaptotagmin-1 × SNARE interactions are not only required for multiple mechanistic steps en route to fusion but also underlie the developmental control of the releasable vesicle pool.

  14. On the spatial evolution of long-wavelength Goertler vortices governed by a viscous-inviscid interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan; Hall, Philip; Streett, Craig

    1992-01-01

    The generation of long-wavelength, viscous-inviscid interactive Goertler vortices is studied in the linear regime by numerically solving the time-dependent governing equations. It is found that time-dependent surface deformations, which assume a fixed nonzero shape at large times, generate steady Goertler vortices that amplify in the downstream direction. Thus, the Goertler instability in this regime is shown to be convective in nature, contrary to the earlier findings of Ruban and Savenkov. The disturbance pattern created by steady and streamwise-elongated surface obstacles on a concave surface is examined in detail, and also contrasted with the flow pattern due to roughness elements with aspect ratio of order unity on flat surfaces. Finally, the applicability of the Briggs-Bers criterion to unstable physical systems of this type is questioned by providing a counterexample in the form of the inviscid limit of interactive Goertler vortices.

  15. Building Capacity for Local Governance: An Application of Interactional Theory to Developing a Community of Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavey, Jamey L.; Muth, Allyson B.; Ostermeier, David; Davis, Miriam L. E. Steiner

    2007-01-01

    The Emory-Obed Watershed in Tennessee, like many other rural areas throughout the United States, is experiencing changes in economic activities and social values associated with natural resources. Informed by the interactional approach to community development, this effort strove to build community capacity so community members could more fully…

  16. Organism-sediment interactions govern post-hypoxia recovery of ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Van Colen, Carl; Rossi, Francesca; Montserrat, Francesc; Andersson, Maria G I; Gribsholt, Britta; Herman, Peter M J; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda; Ysebaert, Tom; Middelburg, Jack J

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia represents one of the major causes of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning loss for coastal waters. Since eutrophication-induced hypoxic events are becoming increasingly frequent and intense, understanding the response of ecosystems to hypoxia is of primary importance to understand and predict the stability of ecosystem functioning. Such ecological stability may greatly depend on the recovery patterns of communities and the return time of the system properties associated to these patterns. Here, we have examined how the reassembly of a benthic community contributed to the recovery of ecosystem functioning following experimentally-induced hypoxia in a tidal flat. We demonstrate that organism-sediment interactions that depend on organism size and relate to mobility traits and sediment reworking capacities are generally more important than recovering species richness to set the return time of the measured sediment processes and properties. Specifically, increasing macrofauna bioturbation potential during community reassembly significantly contributed to the recovery of sediment processes and properties such as denitrification, bedload sediment transport, primary production and deep pore water ammonium concentration. Such bioturbation potential was due to the replacement of the small-sized organisms that recolonised at early stages by large-sized bioturbating organisms, which had a disproportionately stronger influence on sediment. This study suggests that the complete recovery of organism-sediment interactions is a necessary condition for ecosystem functioning recovery, and that such process requires long periods after disturbance due to the slow growth of juveniles into adult stages involved in these interactions. Consequently, repeated episodes of disturbance at intervals smaller than the time needed for the system to fully recover organism-sediment interactions may greatly impair the resilience of ecosystem functioning.

  17. Organism-Sediment Interactions Govern Post-Hypoxia Recovery of Ecosystem Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Van Colen, Carl; Rossi, Francesca; Montserrat, Francesc; Andersson, Maria G. I.; Gribsholt, Britta; Herman, Peter M. J.; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda; Ysebaert, Tom; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia represents one of the major causes of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning loss for coastal waters. Since eutrophication-induced hypoxic events are becoming increasingly frequent and intense, understanding the response of ecosystems to hypoxia is of primary importance to understand and predict the stability of ecosystem functioning. Such ecological stability may greatly depend on the recovery patterns of communities and the return time of the system properties associated to these patterns. Here, we have examined how the reassembly of a benthic community contributed to the recovery of ecosystem functioning following experimentally-induced hypoxia in a tidal flat. We demonstrate that organism-sediment interactions that depend on organism size and relate to mobility traits and sediment reworking capacities are generally more important than recovering species richness to set the return time of the measured sediment processes and properties. Specifically, increasing macrofauna bioturbation potential during community reassembly significantly contributed to the recovery of sediment processes and properties such as denitrification, bedload sediment transport, primary production and deep pore water ammonium concentration. Such bioturbation potential was due to the replacement of the small-sized organisms that recolonised at early stages by large-sized bioturbating organisms, which had a disproportionately stronger influence on sediment. This study suggests that the complete recovery of organism-sediment interactions is a necessary condition for ecosystem functioning recovery, and that such process requires long periods after disturbance due to the slow growth of juveniles into adult stages involved in these interactions. Consequently, repeated episodes of disturbance at intervals smaller than the time needed for the system to fully recover organism-sediment interactions may greatly impair the resilience of ecosystem functioning. PMID:23185440

  18. When an Intramolecular Disulfide Bridge Governs the Interaction of DUOX2 with Its Partner DUOXA2

    PubMed Central

    Carré, Aurore; Louzada, Ruy A.N.; Fortunato, Rodrigo S.; Ameziane-El-Hassani, Rabii; Morand, Stanislas; Ogryzko, Vasily; de Carvalho, Denise Pires; Grasberger, Helmut; Leto, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) protein belongs to the NADPH oxidase (NOX) family. As H2O2 generator, it plays a key role in both thyroid hormone biosynthesis and innate immunity. DUOX2 forms with its maturation factor, DUOX activator 2 (DUOXA2), a stable complex at the cell surface that is crucial for the H2O2-generating activity, but the nature of their interaction is unknown. The contribution of some cysteine residues located in the N-terminal ectodomain of DUOX2 in a surface protein–protein interaction is suggested. We have investigated the involvement of different cysteine residues in the formation of covalent bonds that could be of critical importance for the function of the complex. Results: We report the identification and the characterization of an intramolecular disulfide bond between cys-124 of the N-terminal ectodomain and cys-1162 of an extracellular loop of DUOX2, which has important functional implications in both export and activity of DUOX2. This intramolecular bridge provides structural support for the formation of interdisulfide bridges between the N-terminal domain of DUOX2 and the two extracellular loops of its partner, DUOXA2. Innovation: Both stability and function of the maturation factor, DUOXA2, are dependent on the oxidative folding of DUOX2, indicating that DUOX2 displays a chaperone-like function with respect to its partner. Conclusions: The oxidative folding of DUOX2 that takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) appears to be a key event in the trafficking of the DUOX2/DUOXA2 complex as it promotes an appropriate conformation of the N-terminal region, which is propitious to subsequent covalent interactions with the maturation factor, DUOXA2. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 724–733. PMID:25761904

  19. RNA protein interactions governing expression of the most abundant protein in human body, type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, Branko

    2013-01-01

    Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in human body. The protein turns over slowly and its replacement synthesis is low. However, in wound healing or in pathological fibrosis the cells can increase production of type I collagen several hundred fold. This increase is predominantly due to posttranscriptional regulation, including increased half-life of collagen messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and their increased translatability. Type I collagen is composed of two α1 and one α2 polypeptides that fold into a triple helix. This stoichiometry is strictly regulated to prevent detrimental synthesis of α1 homotrimers. Collagen polypeptides are co-translationally modified and the rate of modifications is in dynamic equilibrium with the rate of folding, suggesting coordinated translation of collagen α1(I) and α2(I) polypeptides. Collagen α1(I) mRNA has in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) a C-rich sequence that binds protein αCP, this binding stabilizes the mRNA in collagen producing cells. In the 5' UTR both collagen mRNAs have a conserved stem-loop (5' SL) structure. The 5' SL is critical for high collagen expression, knock in mice with disruption of the 5' SL are resistant to liver fibrosis. the 5' SL binds protein LARP6 with strict sequence specificity and high affinity. LARP6 recruits RNA helicase A to facilitate translation initiation and associates collagen mRNAs with vimentin and nonmuscle myosin filaments. Binding to vimentin stabilizes collagen mRNAs, while nonmuscle myosin regulates coordinated translation of α1(I) and α2(I) mRNAs. When nonmuscle myosin filaments are disrupted the cells secrete only α1 homotrimers. Thus, the mechanism governing high collagen expression involves two RNA binding proteins and development of cytoskeletal filaments. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Electrostatic interactions govern both nucleation and elongation during phage P22 procapsid assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, Kristin N.; Doyle, Shannon M.; Anderson, Eric; Teschke, Carolyn M. . E-mail: teschke@uconn.edu

    2005-09-15

    Icosahedral capsid assembly is an example of a reaction controlled solely by the interactions of the proteins involved. Bacteriophage P22 procapsids can be assembled in vitro by mixing coat and scaffolding proteins in a nucleation-limited reaction, where scaffolding protein directs the proper assembly of coat protein. Here, we investigated the effect of the buffer composition on the interactions necessary for capsid assembly. Different concentrations of various salts, chosen to follow the electroselectivity series for anions, were added to the assembly reaction. The concentration and type of salt was found to be crucial for proper nucleation of procapsids. Nucleation in low salt concentrations readily occurred but led to bowl-like partial procapsids, as visualized by negative stain electron microscopy. The edge of the partial capsids remained assembly-competent since coat protein addition triggered procapsid completion. The addition of salt to the partial capsids also caused procapsid completion. In addition, each salt affected both assembly rates and the extent of procapsid formation. We hypothesize that low salt conditions increase the coat protein:scaffolding protein affinity, causing excessive nuclei to form, which decreases coat protein levels leading to incomplete assembly.

  1. CLASP2 interacts with p120-catenin and governs microtubule dynamics at adherens junctions

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Marta N.; Megias, Diego; Epifano, Carolina; Akhmanova, Anna; Gundersen, Gregg G.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Classical cadherins and their connections with microtubules (MTs) are emerging as important determinants of cell adhesion. However, the functional relevance of such interactions and the molecular players that contribute to tissue architecture are still emerging. In this paper, we report that the MT plus end–binding protein CLASP2 localizes to adherens junctions (AJs) via direct interaction with p120-catenin (p120) in primary basal mouse keratinocytes. Reductions in the levels of p120 or CLASP2 decreased the localization of the other protein to cell–cell contacts and altered AJ dynamics and stability. These features were accompanied by decreased MT density and altered MT dynamics at intercellular junction sites. Interestingly, CLASP2 was enriched at the cortex of basal progenitor keratinocytes, in close localization to p120. Our findings suggest the existence of a new mechanism of MT targeting to AJs with potential functional implications in the maintenance of proper cell–cell adhesion in epidermal stem cells. PMID:24368809

  2. The nature of protein interactions governing globular protein-polymer block copolymer self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Lam, Christopher N; Kim, Minkyu; Thomas, Carla S; Chang, Dongsook; Sanoja, Gabriel E; Okwara, Chimdimma U; Olsen, Bradley D

    2014-04-14

    The effects of protein surface potential on the self-assembly of protein-polymer block copolymers are investigated in globular proteins with controlled shape through two approaches: comparison of self-assembly of mCherry-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) bioconjugates with structurally homologous enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-PNIPAM bioconjugates, and mutants of mCherry with altered electrostatic patchiness. Despite large changes in amino acid sequence, the temperature-concentration phase diagrams of EGFP-PNIPAM and mCherry-PNIPAM conjugates have similar phase transition concentrations. Both materials form identical phases at two different coil fractions below the PNIPAM thermal transition temperature and in the bulk. However, at temperatures above the thermoresponsive transition, mCherry conjugates form hexagonal phases at high concentrations while EGFP conjugates form a disordered micellar phase. At lower concentration, mCherry shows a two-phase region while EGFP forms homogeneous disordered micellar structures, reflecting the effect of changes in micellar stability. Conjugates of four mCherry variants with changes to their electrostatic surface patchiness also showed minimal change in phase behavior, suggesting that surface patchiness has only a small effect on the self-assembly process. Measurements of protein/polymer miscibility, second virial coefficients, and zeta potential show that these coarse-grained interactions are similar between mCherry and EGFP, indicating that coarse-grained interactions largely capture the relevant physics for soluble, monomeric globular protein-polymer conjugate self-assembly.

  3. Investigation of mechanisms governing electrowetting and hydrodynamic interactions in the presence of draining channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rohini

    Modulation of solid-liquid interfacial interactions via electric field (or electrowetting) is an effective method to deform and move liquid drops on solid surfaces in micro-/nanoscale systems. The deformation and motion of a liquid drop on a solid surface in response to an external driving force is hindered by pinning of triple contact line. A better understanding of the mechanisms and limitations of electrowetting is warranted for design and optimization of active micro-/nanoscale systems. Modulation of hydrodynamic interactions via surface structures may contribute to the adhesion and locomotion mechanisms employed by tree frogs under flooded conditions: a better understanding of which will facilitate design of biomimetic systems inspired by the same. This thesis summarizes the results of investigation of the mechanisms and limitations of electrowetting (electrowetting on dielectric and potential-induced molecular reorganization) and the hydrodynamic interactions in the presence of draining channels. The mechanism at play during electrowetting on dielectric is probed via capillary condensation inside surface force apparatus. Height of a nanometer-sized annular water meniscus is measured and observed to be independent of the applied potential. These nanoscale electrowetting measurements unequivocally demonstrate that spreading of a liquid conductive drop on a charged dielectric is driven by electromechanics and not by a change in solid-liquid interfacial energy. Macroscopic electrowetting response of substrates with a range of contact angle hysteresis is characterized to quantify the relationship between contact angle hysteresis, threshold potential for liquid actuation, and electrowetting hysteresis. These results are interpreted within the electromechanical framework corrected for pinning of the moving triple contact line and demonstrate that the electrowetting hysteresis and the contact angle hysteresis are equal in magnitude. Alternatively, potential

  4. Rewriting the rules governing high intensity interactions of light with matter.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Alex B; McCorkindale, John C; Poopalasingam, Sankar; Longworth, James W; Simon, Peter; Szatmári, Sándor; Rhodes, Charles K

    2016-04-01

    The trajectory of discovery associated with the study of high-intensity nonlinear radiative interactions with matter and corresponding nonlinear modes of electromagnetic propagation through material that have been conducted over the last 50 years can be presented as a landscape in the intensity/quantum energy [I-ħω] plane. Based on an extensive series of experimental and theoretical findings, a universal zone of anomalous enhanced electromagnetic coupling, designated as the fundamental nonlinear domain, can be defined. Since the lower boundaries of this region for all atomic matter correspond to ħω ~ 10(3) eV and I  ≈  10(16) W cm(-2), it heralds a future dominated by x-ray and γ-ray studies of all phases of matter including nuclear states. The augmented strength of the interaction with materials can be generally expressed as an increase in the basic electromagnetic coupling constant in which the fine structure constant α  →  Z(2)α, where Z denotes the number of electrons participating in an ordered response to the driving field. Since radiative conditions strongly favoring the development of this enhanced electromagnetic coupling are readily produced in self-trapped plasma channels, the processes associated with the generation of nonlinear interactions with materials stand in natural alliance with the nonlinear mechanisms that induce confined propagation. An experimental example involving the Xe (4d(10)5s(2)5p(6)) supershell for which Z  ≅  18 that falls in the specified anomalous nonlinear domain is described. This yields an effective coupling constant of Z(2)α  ≅  2.4  >  1, a magnitude comparable to the strong interaction and a value rendering as useless conventional perturbative analyses founded on an expansion in powers of α. This enhancement can be quantitatively understood as a direct consequence of the dominant role played by coherently driven multiply-excited states in the dynamics of the coupling

  5. Rewriting the rules governing high intensity interactions of light with matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Alex B.; McCorkindale, John C.; Poopalasingam, Sankar; Longworth, James W.; Simon, Peter; Szatmári, Sándor; Rhodes, Charles K.

    2016-04-01

    The trajectory of discovery associated with the study of high-intensity nonlinear radiative interactions with matter and corresponding nonlinear modes of electromagnetic propagation through material that have been conducted over the last 50 years can be presented as a landscape in the intensity/quantum energy [I-ħω] plane. Based on an extensive series of experimental and theoretical findings, a universal zone of anomalous enhanced electromagnetic coupling, designated as the fundamental nonlinear domain, can be defined. Since the lower boundaries of this region for all atomic matter correspond to ħω ~ 103 eV and I  ≈  1016 W cm-2, it heralds a future dominated by x-ray and γ-ray studies of all phases of matter including nuclear states. The augmented strength of the interaction with materials can be generally expressed as an increase in the basic electromagnetic coupling constant in which the fine structure constant α  →  Z 2 α, where Z denotes the number of electrons participating in an ordered response to the driving field. Since radiative conditions strongly favoring the development of this enhanced electromagnetic coupling are readily produced in self-trapped plasma channels, the processes associated with the generation of nonlinear interactions with materials stand in natural alliance with the nonlinear mechanisms that induce confined propagation. An experimental example involving the Xe (4d105s25p6) supershell for which Z  ≅  18 that falls in the specified anomalous nonlinear domain is described. This yields an effective coupling constant of Z 2 α  ≅  2.4  >  1, a magnitude comparable to the strong interaction and a value rendering as useless conventional perturbative analyses founded on an expansion in powers of α. This enhancement can be quantitatively understood as a direct consequence of the dominant role played by coherently driven multiply-excited states in the dynamics of the coupling. It is also

  6. Above–belowground interactions govern the course and impact of biological invasions

    PubMed Central

    Vestergård, Mette; Rønn, Regin; Ekelund, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of exotic organisms that subsequently become invasive is considered a serious threat to global biodiversity, and both scientists and nature-conservationists attempt to find explanations and means to meet this challenge. This requires a thorough analysis of the invasion phenomenon in an evolutionary and ecological context; in the case of invasive plants, we must have a major focus on above–belowground interactions. Thus, we discuss different theories that have been proposed to explain the course of invasions through interactions between plants and soil organisms. Further, a thorough analysis of invasion must include a temporal context. Invasions will typically include an initial acute phase, where the invader expands its territory and a later chronic phase where equilibrium is re-established. Many studies fail to make this distinction, which is unfortunate as it makes it impossible to thoroughly understand the invasion of focus. Thus, we claim that invasions fall into two broad categories. Some invasions irreversibly change pools and pathways of matter and energy in the invaded system; even if the abundance of the invader is reduced or it is completely removed, the system will not return to its former state. We use earthworm invasion in North America as a particular conspicuous example of invasive species that irreversibly change ecosystems. However, invasions may also be reversible, where the exotic organism dominates the system for a period, but in the longer term it either disappears, declines or its negative impact decreases. If the fundamental ecosystem structure and flows of energy and matter have not been changed, the system will return to a state not principally different from the original. PMID:25854693

  7. Above-belowground interactions govern the course and impact of biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Vestergård, Mette; Rønn, Regin; Ekelund, Flemming

    2015-04-08

    Introduction of exotic organisms that subsequently become invasive is considered a serious threat to global biodiversity, and both scientists and nature-conservationists attempt to find explanations and means to meet this challenge. This requires a thorough analysis of the invasion phenomenon in an evolutionary and ecological context; in the case of invasive plants, we must have a major focus on above-belowground interactions. Thus, we discuss different theories that have been proposed to explain the course of invasions through interactions between plants and soil organisms. Further, a thorough analysis of invasion must include a temporal context. Invasions will typically include an initial acute phase, where the invader expands its territory and a later chronic phase where equilibrium is re-established. Many studies fail to make this distinction, which is unfortunate as it makes it impossible to thoroughly understand the invasion of focus. Thus, we claim that invasions fall into two broad categories. Some invasions irreversibly change pools and pathways of matter and energy in the invaded system; even if the abundance of the invader is reduced or it is completely removed, the system will not return to its former state. We use earthworm invasion in North America as a particular conspicuous example of invasive species that irreversibly change ecosystems. However, invasions may also be reversible, where the exotic organism dominates the system for a period, but in the longer term it either disappears, declines or its negative impact decreases. If the fundamental ecosystem structure and flows of energy and matter have not been changed, the system will return to a state not principally different from the original.

  8. Vector-Host Interactions Governing Epidemiology of West Nile Virus in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Molaei, Goudarz; Cummings, Robert F.; Su, Tianyun; Armstrong, Philip M.; Williams, Greg A.; Cheng, Min-Lee; Webb, James P.; Andreadis, Theodore G.

    2010-01-01

    Southern California remains an important focus of West Nile virus (WNV) activity, with persistently elevated incidence after invasion by the virus in 2003 and subsequent amplification to epidemic levels in 2004. Eco-epidemiological studies of vectors-hosts-pathogen interactions are of paramount importance for better understanding of the transmission dynamics of WNV and other emerging mosquito-borne arboviruses. We investigated vector-host interactions and host-feeding patterns of 531 blood-engorged mosquitoes in four competent mosquito vectors by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method targeting mitochondrial DNA to identify vertebrate hosts of blood-fed mosquitoes. Diagnostic testing by cell culture, real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR, and immunoassays were used to examine WNV infection in blood-fed mosquitoes, mosquito pools, dead birds, and mammals. Prevalence of WNV antibodies among wild birds was estimated by using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Analyses of engorged Culex quinquefasciatus revealed that this mosquito species acquired 88.4% of the blood meals from avian and 11.6% from mammalian hosts, including humans. Similarly, Culex tarsalis fed 82% on birds and 18% on mammals. Culex erythrothorax fed on both birds (59%) and mammals (41%). In contrast, Culex stigmatosoma acquired all blood meals from avian hosts. House finches and a few other mostly passeriform birds served as the main hosts for the blood-seeking mosquitoes. Evidence of WNV infection was detected in mosquito pools, wild birds, dead birds, and mammals, including human fatalities during the study period. Our results emphasize the important role of house finches and several other passeriform birds in the maintenance and amplification of WNV in southern California, with Cx. quinquefasciatus acting as both the principal enzootic and “bridge vector” responsible for the spillover of WNV to humans. Other mosquito species, such as Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma, are

  9. Thermal Interaction Between Molten Metal Jet and Sodium Pool: Effect of Principal Factors Governing Fragmentation of the Jet

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Izumi; Sugiyama, Ken-Ichiro; Ueda, Nobuyuki

    2005-02-15

    To clarify the effects of the principal factors that govern the thermal fragmentation of a molten metallic fuel jet in the course of fuel-coolant interaction, which is important in evaluating the sequence of core disruptive accidents (CDAs) for metallic fuel fast reactors, basic experiments were carried out using molten metallic fuel simulants (copper and silver) and a sodium pool.Fragmentation of a molten metal jet with a solid crust was caused by internal pressure produced by the boiling of sodium, which is locally entrapped inside the jet due to hydrodynamic motion between the jet and the coolant. The superheating and the latent heat of fusion of the jet are the principal factors governing this type of thermal fragmentation. On the other hand, the effect of the initial sodium temperature is regarded as negligible in the case of thermal conditions expected to result in CDAs for practical metallic fuel cores. Based on the fragmentation data for several kinds of jets (Cu, Ag, SUS, U, and U-5 wt% Zr alloy), an empirical correlation is proposed that is applicable to the calculation of a mass median diameter of fragments produced by the thermal fragmentation of the jet with a solid crust under low ambient Weber number conditions.

  10. Education Program for Doctoral Researchers by Industrial-Government-Academic Cooperation and Interaction between Different Research Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Kazuya; Sawaragi, Tetsuo; Hasebe, Shinji; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    New education program to train graduate students and postdoctoral researchers who can be good leaders in a variety of social fields by cooperation of graduate school of engineering and pharmaceutical sciences is conducted as an advanced activity in Kyoto University. This program consists of four sub-programs and the educational effect by the collaboration of industry-government-academic and the interaction between dissimilar research fields is described in this paper. Trainees in this program acquire the ability to understand objectively one’ s research from comprehensive point of view and to debate with researchers in different fields. This program supports them to become ‘Global Leaders’ who play an important role internationally in advanced technology.

  11. Swi/Snf dynamics on stress-responsive genes is governed by competitive bromodomain interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Arnob; Gogol, Madelaine; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Smolle, Michaela; Venkatesh, Swaminathan; Gilmore, Joshua; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Workman, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    The Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex functions to alter nucleosome positions by either sliding nucleosomes on DNA or the eviction of histones. The presence of histone acetylation and activator-dependent recruitment and retention of Swi/Snf is important for its efficient function. It is not understood, however, why such mechanisms are required to enhance Swi/Snf activity on nucleosomes. Snf2, the catalytic subunit of the Swi/Snf remodeling complex, has been shown to be a target of the Gcn5 acetyltransferase. Our study found that acetylation of Snf2 regulates both recruitment and release of Swi/Snf from stress-responsive genes. Also, the intramolecular interaction of the Snf2 bromodomain with the acetylated lysine residues on Snf2 negatively regulates binding and remodeling of acetylated nucleosomes by Swi/Snf. Interestingly, the presence of transcription activators mitigates the effects of the reduced affinity of acetylated Snf2 for acetylated nucleosomes. Supporting our in vitro results, we found that activator-bound genes regulating metabolic processes showed greater retention of the Swi/Snf complex even when Snf2 was acetylated. Our studies demonstrate that competing effects of (1) Swi/Snf retention by activators or high levels of histone acetylation and (2) Snf2 acetylation-mediated release regulate dynamics of Swi/Snf occupancy at target genes. PMID:25319830

  12. Timing of favorable conditions, competition and fertility interact to govern recruitment of invasive Chinese tallow tree in stressful environments.

    PubMed

    Gabler, Christopher A; Siemann, Evan

    2013-01-01

    The rate of new exotic recruitment following removal of adult invaders (reinvasion pressure) influences restoration outcomes and costs but is highly variable and poorly understood. We hypothesize that broad variation in average reinvasion pressure of Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow tree, a major invader) arises from differences among habitats in spatiotemporal availability of realized recruitment windows. These windows are periods of variable duration long enough to permit establishment given local environmental conditions. We tested this hypothesis via a greenhouse mesocosm experiment that quantified how the duration of favorable moisture conditions prior to flood or drought stress (window duration), competition and nutrient availability influenced Triadica success in high stress environments. Window duration influenced pre-stress seedling abundance and size, growth during stress and final abundance; it interacted with other factors to affect final biomass and germination during stress. Stress type and competition impacted final size and biomass, plus germination, mortality and changes in size during stress. Final abundance also depended on competition and the interaction of window duration, stress type and competition. Fertilization interacted with competition and stress to influence biomass and changes in height, respectively, but did not affect Triadica abundance. Overall, longer window durations promoted Triadica establishment, competition and drought (relative to flood) suppressed establishment, and fertilization had weak effects. Interactions among factors frequently produced different effects in specific contexts. Results support our 'outgrow the stress' hypothesis and show that temporal availability of abiotic windows and factors that influence growth rates govern Triadica recruitment in stressful environments. These findings suggest that native seed addition can effectively suppress superior competitors in stressful environments. We also describe

  13. Loop-loop interactions govern multiple steps in indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zaccardi, Margot J; O'Rourke, Kathleen F; Yezdimer, Eric M; Loggia, Laura J; Woldt, Svenja; Boehr, David D

    2014-03-01

    interactions with nearby structural elements. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  14. Dissecting the chemical interactions and substrate structural signatures governing RNA polymerase II trigger loop closure by synthetic nucleic acid analogues

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Butler, Kyle Vincent; Chong, Jenny; Wengel, Jesper; Kool, Eric T.; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    The trigger loop (TL) of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a conserved structural motif that is crucial for Pol II catalytic activity and transcriptional fidelity. The TL remains in an inactive open conformation when the mismatched substrate is bound. In contrast, TL switches from an inactive open state to a closed active state to facilitate nucleotide addition upon the binding of the cognate substrate to the Pol II active site. However, a comprehensive understanding of the specific chemical interactions and substrate structural signatures that are essential to this TL conformational change remains elusive. Here we employed synthetic nucleotide analogues as ‘chemical mutation’ tools coupling with α-amanitin transcription inhibition assay to systematically dissect the key chemical interactions and structural signatures governing the substrate-coupled TL closure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol II. This study reveals novel insights into understanding the molecular basis of TL conformational transition upon substrate binding during Pol II transcription. This synthetic chemical biology approach may be extended to understand the mechanisms of other RNA polymerases as well as other nucleic acid enzymes in future studies. PMID:24692664

  15. Dissecting the chemical interactions and substrate structural signatures governing RNA polymerase II trigger loop closure by synthetic nucleic acid analogues.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Butler, Kyle Vincent; Chong, Jenny; Wengel, Jesper; Kool, Eric T; Wang, Dong

    2014-05-01

    The trigger loop (TL) of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a conserved structural motif that is crucial for Pol II catalytic activity and transcriptional fidelity. The TL remains in an inactive open conformation when the mismatched substrate is bound. In contrast, TL switches from an inactive open state to a closed active state to facilitate nucleotide addition upon the binding of the cognate substrate to the Pol II active site. However, a comprehensive understanding of the specific chemical interactions and substrate structural signatures that are essential to this TL conformational change remains elusive. Here we employed synthetic nucleotide analogues as 'chemical mutation' tools coupling with α-amanitin transcription inhibition assay to systematically dissect the key chemical interactions and structural signatures governing the substrate-coupled TL closure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol II. This study reveals novel insights into understanding the molecular basis of TL conformational transition upon substrate binding during Pol II transcription. This synthetic chemical biology approach may be extended to understand the mechanisms of other RNA polymerases as well as other nucleic acid enzymes in future studies. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Coalition building by drug user and sex worker community-based organizations in Vietnam can lead to improved interactions with government agencies: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Le, Leah T; Grau, Lauretta E; Nguyen, Huong H; Khuat, Oanh Hai T; Heimer, Robert

    2015-10-16

    Drug users and female sex workers are among the groups most vulnerable to HIV infection in Vietnam. To address the HIV epidemic within these communities, former drug users and sex workers established the first community-based organizations (CBOs) in 2009. The study provides a focused assessment of CBOs' expanding efforts to advocate for their members that identifies existing collaborations with Vietnamese government programs. This assessment explores the barriers to and facilitators of expansion in order to propose recommendations to improve the working relationship between CBOs and government programs. Thirty-two individuals from drug user and sex worker CBOs (n = 24) and relevant government programs (n = 8) participated in face-to-face interviews in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, and Hai Phong. Coded interview transcripts were analyzed qualitatively concerning the purpose of CBOs, the interactions between CBOs and government programs, and the perceived barriers, facilitators, and feasibility of future CBO-government program collaborations. Services provided by the CBOs were considered to improve members' quality of life. The formation of coalitions among CBOs increased efficiency in meeting members' specific service needs, in addition to internal capacity building. Government field staff interacted with CBOs by providing CBOs with technical and legal support. CBOs and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics collaborated to help the clinics meet patient enrollment quotas and facilitate entry into treatment for CBO members. Barriers to CBO-government program collaboration included perceived conflicting missions on how to address drug use and sex work in the community, limited CBO-government program communication, CBO mistrust of the MMT system, and lack of legal status for CBOs. To reduce these barriers, we recommend (1) introduction of CBO consultative services at government healthcare centers, (2) enlistment of CBO outreach to ensure full access to the

  17. Genetic effects and genotype × environment interactions govern seed oil content in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanli; Si, Ping; Wang, Nan; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Zou, Jitao; Fu, Tingdong; Shen, Jinxiong

    2017-01-05

    As seed oil content (OC) is a key measure of rapeseed quality, better understanding the genetic basis of OC would greatly facilitate the breeding of high-oil cultivars. Here, we investigated the components of genetic effects and genotype × environment interactions (GE) that govern OC using a full diallel set of nine parents, which represented a wide range of the Chinese rapeseed cultivars and pure lines with various OCs. Our results from an embryo-cytoplasm-maternal (GoCGm) model for diploid seeds showed that OC was primarily determined by genetic effects (VG) and GE (VGE), which together accounted for 86.19% of the phenotypic variance (VP). GE (VGE) alone accounted for 51.68% of the total genetic variance, indicating the importance of GE interaction for OC. Furthermore, maternal variance explained 75.03% of the total genetic variance, embryo and cytoplasmic effects accounted for 21.02% and 3.95%, respectively. We also found that the OC of F1 seeds was mainly determined by maternal effect and slightly affected by xenia. Thus, the OC of rapeseed was simultaneously affected by various genetic components, including maternal, embryo, cytoplasm, xenia and GE effects. In addition, general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), and maternal variance had significant influence on OC. The lines H2 and H1 were good general combiners, suggesting that they would be the best parental candidates for OC improvement. Crosses H3 × M2 and H1 × M3 exhibited significant SCA, suggesting their potentials in hybrid development. Our study thoroughly investigated and reliably quantified various genetic factors associated with OC of rapeseed by using a full diallel and backcross and reciprocal backcross. This findings lay a foundation for future genetic studies of OC and provide guidance for breeding of high-oil rapeseed cultivars.

  18. A dock and coalesce mechanism driven by hydrophobic interactions governs Cdc42 binding with its effector protein ACK.

    PubMed

    Tetley, George J N; Mott, Helen R; Cooley, R Neil; Owen, Darerca

    2017-07-07

    Cdc42 is a Rho-family small G protein that has been widely studied for its role in controlling the actin cytoskeleton and plays a part in several potentially oncogenic signaling networks. Similar to most other small G proteins, Cdc42 binds to many downstream effector proteins to elicit its cellular effects. These effector proteins all engage the same face of Cdc42, the conformation of which is governed by the activation state of the G protein. Previously, the importance of individual residues in conferring binding affinity has been explored for residues within Cdc42 for three of its Cdc42/Rac interactive binding (CRIB) effectors, activated Cdc42 kinase (ACK), p21-activated kinase (PAK), and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP). Here, in a complementary study, we have used our structure of Cdc42 bound to ACK via an intrinsically disordered ACK region to guide an analysis of the Cdc42 interface on ACK, creating a panel of mutant proteins with which we can now describe the complete energetic landscape of the Cdc42-binding site on ACK. Our data suggest that the binding affinity of ACK relies on several conserved residues that are critical for stabilizing the quaternary structure. These residues are centered on the CRIB region, with the complete binding region anchored at each end by hydrophobic interactions. These findings suggest that ACK adopts a dock and coalesce binding mechanism with Cdc42. In contrast to other CRIB-family effectors and indeed other intrinsically disordered proteins, hydrophobic residues likely drive Cdc42-ACK binding. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. (19)F NMR screening of unrelated antimicrobial peptides shows that membrane interactions are largely governed by lipids.

    PubMed

    Afonin, Sergii; Glaser, Ralf W; Sachse, Carsten; Salgado, Jesús; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Ulrich, Anne S

    2014-09-01

    Many amphiphilic antimicrobial peptides permeabilize bacterial membranes via successive steps of binding, re-alignment and/or oligomerization. Here, we have systematically compared the lipid interactions of two structurally unrelated peptides: the cyclic β-pleated gramicidin S (GS), and the α-helical PGLa. (19)F NMR was used to screen their molecular alignment in various model membranes over a wide range of temperatures. Both peptides were found to respond to the phase state and composition of these different samples in a similar way. In phosphatidylcholines, both peptides first bind to the bilayer surface. Above a certain threshold concentration they can re-align and immerse more deeply into the hydrophobic core, which presumably involves oligomerization. Re-alignment is most favorable around the lipid chain melting temperature, and also promoted by decreasing bilayer thickness. The presence of anionic lipids has no influence in fluid membranes, but in the gel phase the alignment states are more complex. Unsaturated acyl chains and other lipids with intrinsic negative curvature prevent re-alignment, hence GS and PGLa do not insert into mixtures resembling bacterial membranes, nor into bacterial lipid extracts. Cholesterol, which is present in high concentrations in animal membranes, even leads to an expulsion of the peptides from the bilayer and prevents their binding altogether. However, a very low cholesterol content of 10% was found to promote binding and re-alignment of both peptides. Overall, these findings show that the ability of amphiphilic peptides to re-align and immerse into a membrane is determined by the physico-chemical properties of the lipids, such as spontaneous curvature. This idea is reinforced by the remarkably similar behavior observed here for two structurally unrelated molecules (with different conformation, size, shape, charge), which further suggests that their activity at the membrane level is largely governed by the properties of the

  20. An interactive governance and fish chain approach to fisheries rebuilding: a case study of the Northern Gulf cod in eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ahmed; Chuenpagdee, Ratana

    2014-09-01

    Rebuilding collapsed fisheries is a multifaceted problem, requiring a holistic governance approach rather than technical management fixes. Using the Northern Gulf cod case study in eastern Canada, we illustrate how a "fish chain" framework, drawn from the interactive governance perspective, is particularly helpful in analyzing rebuilding challenges. The analysis demonstrates that factors limiting rebuilding exist along the entire fish chain, i.e., the pre-harvest, harvest, and post-harvest stages. These challenges are embedded in both the ecological and social systems associated with the Northern Gulf cod fisheries, as well as in the governing systems. A comparative analysis of the pre- and post-collapse of the cod fisheries also reveals governance opportunities in rebuilding, which lie in policy interventions such as integrated and ecosystem-based management, livelihood transitional programs, and cross-scale institutional arrangements. Lessons from the Northern Gulf cod case study, especially the missed opportunities to explore alternative governing options during the transition, are valuable for rebuilding other collapsed fisheries.

  1. Collaboration and nested environmental governance: Scale dependency, scale framing, and cross-scale interactions in collaborative conservation.

    PubMed

    Wyborn, Carina; Bixler, R Patrick

    2013-07-15

    The problem of fit between social institutions and ecological systems is an enduring challenge in natural resource management and conservation. Developments in the science of conservation biology encourage the management of landscapes at increasingly larger scales. In contrast, sociological approaches to conservation emphasize the importance of ownership, collaboration and stewardship at scales relevant to the individual or local community. Despite the proliferation of initiatives seeking to work with local communities to undertake conservation across large landscapes, there is an inherent tension between these scales of operation. Consequently, questions about the changing nature of effective conservation across scales abound. Through an analysis of three nested cases working in a semiautonomous fashion in the Northern Rocky Mountains in North America, this paper makes an empirical contribution to the literature on nested governance, collaboration and communication across scales. Despite different scales of operation, constituencies and scale frames, we demonstrate a surprising similarity in organizational structure and an implicit dependency between these initiatives. This paper examines the different capacities and capabilities of collaborative conservation from the local to regional to supra regional. We draw on the underexplored concept of 'scale-dependent comparative advantage' (Cash and Moser, 2000), to gain insight into what activities take place at which scale and what those activities contribute to nested governance and collaborative conservation. The comparison of these semiautonomous cases provides fruitful territory to draw lessons for understanding the roles and relationships of organizations operating at different scales in more connected networks of nested governance.

  2. Government Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlatch, Jo Bell

    1979-01-01

    Reviews recent federal publications on government information, particularly in the area of general informational services, public access to government information and privacy issues, coordination of government information systems, and congressional information needs. (Author)

  3. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Melby, Eric S.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Orr, Galya; Geiger, Franz M.; Haynes, Christy L.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2015-07-24

    We report that design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations, and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment require understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the lipid-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. Association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Lastly, our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; ...

    2015-07-24

    We report that design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations, and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment require understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the lipid-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) andmore » second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. Association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Lastly, our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides.« less

  5. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Melby, Eric S.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Orr, Galya; Geiger, Franz M.; Haynes, Christy L.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2015-01-01

    Design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment requires understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate the electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the outer leaflet-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed the electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. The association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides. PMID:26207769

  6. High-T C superconductivity in Cs3C60 compounds governed by local Cs-C60 Coulomb interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harshman, Dale R.; Fiory, Anthony T.

    2017-04-01

    Unique among alkali-doped A 3C60 fullerene compounds, the A15 and fcc forms of Cs3C60 exhibit superconducting states varying under hydrostatic pressure with highest transition temperatures at T\\text{C}\\text{meas}   =  38.3 and 35.2 K, respectively. Herein it is argued that these two compounds under pressure represent the optimal materials of the A 3C60 family, and that the C60-associated superconductivity is mediated through Coulombic interactions with charges on the alkalis. A derivation of the interlayer Coulombic pairing model of high-T C superconductivity employing non-planar geometry is introduced, generalizing the picture of two interacting layers to an interaction between charge reservoirs located on the C60 and alkali ions. The optimal transition temperature follows the algebraic expression, T C0  =  (12.474 nm2 K)/ℓζ, where ℓ relates to the mean spacing between interacting surface charges on the C60 and ζ is the average radial distance between the C60 surface and the neighboring Cs ions. Values of T C0 for the measured cation stoichiometries of Cs3-x C60 with x  ≈  0 are found to be 38.19 and 36.88 K for the A15 and fcc forms, respectively, with the dichotomy in transition temperature reflecting the larger ζ and structural disorder in the fcc form. In the A15 form, modeled interacting charges and Coulomb potential e2/ζ are shown to agree quantitatively with findings from nuclear-spin relaxation and mid-infrared optical conductivity. In the fcc form, suppression of T\\text{C}\\text{meas} below T C0 is ascribed to native structural disorder. Phononic effects in conjunction with Coulombic pairing are discussed.

  7. High-T C superconductivity in Cs3C60 compounds governed by local Cs-C60 Coulomb interactions.

    PubMed

    Harshman, Dale R; Fiory, Anthony T

    2017-04-12

    Unique among alkali-doped A 3C60 fullerene compounds, the A15 and fcc forms of Cs3C60 exhibit superconducting states varying under hydrostatic pressure with highest transition temperatures at [Formula: see text]  =  38.3 and 35.2 K, respectively. Herein it is argued that these two compounds under pressure represent the optimal materials of the A 3C60 family, and that the C60-associated superconductivity is mediated through Coulombic interactions with charges on the alkalis. A derivation of the interlayer Coulombic pairing model of high-T C superconductivity employing non-planar geometry is introduced, generalizing the picture of two interacting layers to an interaction between charge reservoirs located on the C60 and alkali ions. The optimal transition temperature follows the algebraic expression, T C0  =  (12.474 nm(2) K)/ℓζ, where ℓ relates to the mean spacing between interacting surface charges on the C60 and ζ is the average radial distance between the C60 surface and the neighboring Cs ions. Values of T C0 for the measured cation stoichiometries of Cs3-x C60 with x  ≈  0 are found to be 38.19 and 36.88 K for the A15 and fcc forms, respectively, with the dichotomy in transition temperature reflecting the larger ζ and structural disorder in the fcc form. In the A15 form, modeled interacting charges and Coulomb potential e(2)/ζ are shown to agree quantitatively with findings from nuclear-spin relaxation and mid-infrared optical conductivity. In the fcc form, suppression of [Formula: see text] below T C0 is ascribed to native structural disorder. Phononic effects in conjunction with Coulombic pairing are discussed.

  8. Kids' Presence on Government Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    2000-01-01

    Discusses government Web sites for children and young adults that use multimedia and interactive features in their design. Provides an annotated list of 50 selective government Web sites from various agencies and departments. (LRW)

  9. The cellular response to neuregulins is governed by complex interactions of the erbB receptor family.

    PubMed Central

    Riese, D J; van Raaij, T M; Plowman, G D; Andrews, G C; Stern, D F

    1995-01-01

    Deregulated signaling by the four members of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase family (erbB family) is implicated in the genesis or progression of human cancers. However, efforts to analyze signaling by these receptors have been hampered by the diversity of ligands and extensive interreceptor cross talk. We have expressed the four human erbB family receptors, singly and in pairwise combinations, in a pro-B-lymphocyte cell line (Ba/F3) and investigated the range of interactions activated by the epidermal growth factor homology domain of the agonist neuregulin beta. The results provide the first comprehensive analysis of the response of this receptor family to a single peptide agonist. This peptide induced complex patterns of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation and regulation of Ba/F3 cell survival and proliferation. These data demonstrate the existence of several previously undocumented receptor interactions driven by neuregulin. PMID:7565730

  10. [The territorial state-governed medical expert facilities and law-enforcement agencies: the problems of their interaction].

    PubMed

    Zharov, V V; Shigeev, S V

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the theoretical aspects and present-day practice of commissioning expert assessments and performance of forensic medical expertise. Special attention is given to the conceptual problem of the interaction between the organizations engaged in forensic medical examination and law-enforcement bodies. The authors outline the most promising directions for the improvement of cooperation between such agencies, preliminary investigation and criminal enquiry facilities.

  11. Conceptual aspects of fiscal interactions between local governments and federally-owned, high-level radioactive waste-isolation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Johnson, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines a number of ways to transfer revenues between a federally-owned high level radioactive waste isolation facility (hereafter simply, facility) and local governments. Such payments could be used to lessen fiscal disincentives or to provide fiscal incentives for communities to host waste isolation facilities. Two facility characteristics which necessitate these actions are singled out for attention. First, because the facility is federally owned, it is not liable for state and local taxes and may be viewed by communities as a fiscal liability. Several types of payment plans to correct this deficiency are examined. The major conclusion is that while removal of disincentives or creation of incentives is possible, plans based on cost compensation that fail to consider opportunity costs cannot create incentives and are likely to create disincentives. Second, communities other than that in which the facility is sited may experience costs due to the siting and may, therefore, oppose it. These costs (which also accrue to the host community) arise due to the element of risk which the public generally associates with proximity to the transport and storage of radioactive materials. It is concluded that under certain circumstances compensatory payments are possible, but that measuring these costs will pose difficulty.

  12. Host-specific adaptation governs the interaction of the marine diatom, Pseudo-nitzschia and their microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Sison-Mangus, Marilou P; Jiang, Sunny; Tran, Kevin N; Kudela, Raphael M

    2014-01-01

    The association of phytoplankton with bacteria is ubiquitous in nature and the bacteria that associate with different phytoplankton species are very diverse. The influence of these bacteria in the physiology and ecology of the host and the evolutionary forces that shape the relationship are still not understood. In this study, we used the Pseudo-nitzschia–microbiota association to determine (1) if algal species with distinct domoic acid (DA) production are selection factors that structures the bacterial community, (2) if host-specificity and co-adaptation govern the association, (3) the functional roles of isolated member of microbiota on diatom–hosts fitness and (4) the influence of microbiota in changing the phenotype of the diatom hosts with regards to toxin production. Analysis of the pyrosequencing-derived 16S rDNA data suggests that the three tested species of Pseudo-nitzschia, which vary in toxin production, have phylogenetically distinct bacterial communities, and toxic Pseudo-nitzschia have lower microbial diversity than non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia. Transplant experiments showed that isolated members of the microbiota are mutualistic to their native hosts but some are commensal or parasitic to foreign hosts, hinting at co-evolution between partners. Moreover, Pseudo-nitzschia host can gain protection from algalytic bacteria by maintaining association with its microbiota. Pseudo-nitzschia also exhibit different phenotypic expression with regards to DA production, and this depends on the bacterial species with which the host associates. Hence, the influences of the microbiota on diatom host physiology should be considered when studying the biology and ecology of marine diatoms. PMID:23985747

  13. Allosteric Interactions by p53 mRNA Govern HDM2 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Specificity under Different Conditions.

    PubMed

    Medina-Medina, Ixaura; García-Beltrán, Paola; de la Mora-de la Mora, Ignacio; Oria-Hernández, Jesús; Millot, Guy; Fahraeus, Robin; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Sampedro, José G; Olivares-Illana, Vanesa

    2016-08-15

    HDM2 and HDMX are key negative regulatory factors of the p53 tumor suppressor under normal conditions by promoting its degradation or preventing its trans activity, respectively. It has more recently been shown that both proteins can also act as positive regulators of p53 after DNA damage. This involves phosphorylation by ATM on serine residues HDM2(S395) and HDMX(S403), promoting their respective interaction with the p53 mRNA. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of how these phosphorylation events switch HDM2 and HDMX from negative to positive regulators of p53 is not known. Our results show that these phosphorylation events reside within intrinsically disordered domains and change the conformation of the proteins. The modifications promote the exposition of N-terminal interfaces that support the formation of a new HDMX-HDM2 heterodimer independent of the C-terminal RING-RING interaction. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of this complex toward p53 is prevented by the p53 mRNA ligand but, interestingly, does not affect the capacity to ubiquitinate HDMX and HDM2. These results show how ATM-mediated modifications of HDMX and HDM2 switch HDM2 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity away from p53 but toward HDMX and itself and illustrate how the substrate specificity of HDM2 E3 ligase activity is regulated.

  14. Interactions of carbon nanotubes with the nitromethane-water mixture governing selective adsorption of energetic molecules from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingzhe; Lai, Weipeng; Yu, Tao; Kang, Ying; Ge, Zhongxue

    2015-03-14

    The structure and dynamics of the nitromethane-water (NM-WT) binary mixture surrounding single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation trajectories show that the NM molecules can be selectively adsorbed both outside the surface and inside the cavity of SWNTs mainly dominated by van der Waals attractions because SWNTs have a higher binding affinity for NM than WT. The binding energies of SWNTs with NM and WT obtained from electronic structure calculations at the M06-2X/6-31+G* level are 15.31 and 5.51 kcal mol(-1), respectively. Compared with the SWNT exterior, the selective adsorption of NM is preferentially occurred in the SWNT interior due to the hydrophobic interactions and the dipole-dipole interactions, which induces the decrease of the hydrogen-bond number of NM with WT and ordered structures of NM with preferred intermolecular orientation in the SWNT cavity. Furthermore, the selective adsorption dynamics of NM from the aqueous solution is regardless of the chirality and radius of SWNTs. The SWNT radius plays a negligible role in the mass density distributions of NM outside the SWNTs, while the mass density of NM in the SWNT interior decreases gradually as the SWNT radius increases. The structural arrangements and intermolecular orientations of NM in the SWNT cavity are greatly dependent on the SWNT radius due to the size effect.

  15. Allosteric Interactions by p53 mRNA Govern HDM2 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Specificity under Different Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Medina, Ixaura; García-Beltrán, Paola; de la Mora-de la Mora, Ignacio; Oria-Hernández, Jesús; Millot, Guy; Fahraeus, Robin; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Sampedro, José G.

    2016-01-01

    HDM2 and HDMX are key negative regulatory factors of the p53 tumor suppressor under normal conditions by promoting its degradation or preventing its trans activity, respectively. It has more recently been shown that both proteins can also act as positive regulators of p53 after DNA damage. This involves phosphorylation by ATM on serine residues HDM2(S395) and HDMX(S403), promoting their respective interaction with the p53 mRNA. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of how these phosphorylation events switch HDM2 and HDMX from negative to positive regulators of p53 is not known. Our results show that these phosphorylation events reside within intrinsically disordered domains and change the conformation of the proteins. The modifications promote the exposition of N-terminal interfaces that support the formation of a new HDMX-HDM2 heterodimer independent of the C-terminal RING-RING interaction. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of this complex toward p53 is prevented by the p53 mRNA ligand but, interestingly, does not affect the capacity to ubiquitinate HDMX and HDM2. These results show how ATM-mediated modifications of HDMX and HDM2 switch HDM2 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity away from p53 but toward HDMX and itself and illustrate how the substrate specificity of HDM2 E3 ligase activity is regulated. PMID:27215386

  16. Military Government

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1949-07-01

    CGSC MG MILITARY GOVERNMENT LIBHARY ARI\\’IY WAR COLLEGE CJ\\RLISLE BARRACKS, PAa This text is approved for resident and extension-course...and functions · of ’ military government . It conforms ·substantially to the subject matter , of Field Manual 27-5, Civil Affairs/ Military Government ...Teaching experience at the Command and General Staff College has ···--·demonstrated the need for a military government text which brings to- gether

  17. Unfair competition governs the interaction of pCPI-17 with myosin phosphatase (PP1-MYPT1).

    PubMed

    Filter, Joshua J; Williams, Byron C; Eto, Masumi; Shalloway, David; Goldberg, Michael L

    2017-04-07

    The small phosphoprotein pCPI-17 inhibits myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). Current models postulate that during muscle relaxation, phosphatases other than MLCP dephosphorylate and inactivate pCPI-17 to restore MLCP activity. We show here that such hypotheses are insufficient to account for the observed rapidity of pCPI-17 inactivation in mammalian smooth muscles. Instead, MCLP itself is the critical enzyme for pCPI-17 dephosphorylation. We call the mutual sequestration mechanism through which pCPI-17 and MLCP interact inhibition by unfair competition: MLCP protects pCPI-17 from other phosphatases, while pCPI-17 blocks other substrates from MLCP's active site. MLCP dephosphorylates pCPI-17 at a slow rate that is nonetheless both sufficient and necessary to explain the speed of pCPI-17 dephosphorylation and the consequent MLCP activation during muscle relaxation.

  18. Taylor-Goertler instabilities of Tollmien-Schlichting waves and other flows governed by the interactive boundary layer equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Taylor-Gortler vortex instability equations are formulated for steady and unsteady interacting boundary layer flows of the type which arise in triple-deck theory. The effective Gortler number is shown to be a function of the all shape in the boundary layer and the possibility of both steady and unsteady Taylor-Gortler modes exists. As an example the steady flow in a symmetrically constricted channel is considered and it is shown that unstable Gortler vortices exist before the boundary layers at the wall develop the Goldstein singularity. As an example of an unsteady spatially varying basic state the instability of high frequency large amplitude Tollmien-Schlichting waves in a curved channel were considered. It is shown that they are unstable in the first Stokes layer stage of the hierarchy of nonlinear states. The Tollmien-Schlichting waves are shown to be unstable in the presence of both convex and concave curvature.

  19. Nectin-4 Interactions Govern Measles Virus Virulence in a New Model of Pathogenesis, the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    Delpeut, Sébastien; Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao-Xiang; Frenzke, Marie; Cattaneo, Roberto; von Messling, Veronika

    2017-06-01

    In addition to humans, only certain nonhuman primates are naturally susceptible to measles virus (MeV) infection. Disease severity is species dependent, ranging from mild to moderate for macaques to severe and even lethal for certain New World monkey species. To investigate if squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), which are reported to develop a course of disease similar to humans, may be better suited than macaques for the identification of virulence determinants or the evaluation of therapeutics, we infected them with a green fluorescent protein-expressing MeV. Compared to cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) infected with the same virus, the squirrel monkeys developed more-severe immunosuppression, higher viral load, and a broader range of clinical signs typical for measles. In contrast, infection with an MeV unable to interact with the epithelial receptor nectin-4, while causing immunosuppression, resulted in only a mild and transient rash and a short-lived elevation of the body temperature. Similar titers of the wild-type and nectin-4-blind MeV were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node homogenates, but only the wild-type virus was found in tracheal lavage fluids and urine. Thus, our study demonstrates the importance of MeV interactions with nectin-4 for clinical disease in the new and better-performing S. sciureus model of measles pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE The characterization of mechanisms underlying measles virus clinical disease has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that reproduces the course of disease seen in human patients. Here, we report that infection of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) fulfills these requirements. Comparative infection with wild-type and epithelial cell receptor-blind viruses demonstrated the importance of epithelial cell infection for clinical disease, highlighting the spread to epithelia as an attractive target for therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Secondary interactions or ligand scrambling? Subtle steric effects govern the iridium(I) coordination chemistry of phosphoramidite ligands.

    PubMed

    Osswald, Tina; Rüegger, Heinz; Mezzetti, Antonio

    2010-01-25

    The like and unlike isomers of phosphoramidite (P*) ligands are found to react differently with iridium(I), which is a key to explaining the apparently inconsistent results obtained by us and other research groups in a variety of catalytic reactions. Thus, the unlike diastereoisomer (aR,S,S)-[IrCl(cod)(1 a)] (2 a; cod=1,5-cyclooctadiene, 1 a=(aR,S,S)-(1,1'-binaphthalene)-2,2'-diyl bis(1-phenylethyl)phosphoramidite) forms, upon chloride abstraction, the monosubstituted complex (aR,S,S)-[Ir(cod)(1,2-eta-1 a,kappaP)](+) (3 a), which contains a chelating P* ligand that features an eta(2) interaction between a dangling phenyl group and iridium. Under analogous conditions, the like analogue (aR,R,R)-1 a' gives the disubstituted species (aR,R,R)-[Ir(cod)(1 a',kappaP)(2)](+) (4 a') with monodentate P* ligands. The structure of 3 a was assessed by a combination of X-ray and NMR spectroscopic studies, which indicate that it is the configuration of the binaphthol moiety (and not that of the dangling benzyl N groups) that determines the configuration of the complex. The effect of the relative configuration of the P* ligand on its iridium(I) coordination chemistry is discussed in the context of our preliminary catalytic results and of apparently random results obtained by other groups in the iridium(I)-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of allylic acetates and in rhodium(I)-catalyzed asymmetric cycloaddition reactions. Further studies with the unlike ligand (aS,R,R)-(1,1'-binaphthalene)-2,2'-diyl bis{[1-(1-naphthalene-1-yl)ethyl]phosphoramidite} (1 b) showed a yet different coordination mode, that is, the eta(4)-arene-metal interaction in (aS,R,R)-[Ir(cod)(1,2,3,4-eta-1 b,kappaP)](+) (3 b).

  1. Taylor-Goertler instabilities of Tollmien-Schlichting waves and other flows governed by the interactive boundary-layer equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Philip; Bennett, James

    1986-01-01

    The Taylor-Goertler vortex instability equations are formulated for steady and unsteady interacting boundary-layer flows. The effective Goertler number is shown to be a function of the wall shape in the boundary layer and the possibility of both steady and unsteady Taylor-Goertler modes exists. As an example the steady flow in a symmetrically constricted channel is considered and it is shown that unstable Goertler vortices exist before the boundary layers at the wall develop the Goldstein singularity discussed by Smith and Daniels (1981). As an example of an unsteady spatially varying basic state, it is considered the instability of high-frequency large-amplitude two- and three-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves in a curved channel. It is shown that they are unstable in the first 'Stokes-layer stage' of the hierarchy of nonlinear states discussed by Smith and Burggraf (1985). This instability of Tollmien-Schlichting waves in an internal flow can occur in the presence of either convex or concave curvature. Some discussion of this instability in external flows is given.

  2. Taylor-Goertler instabilities of Tollmien-Schlichting waves and other flows governed by the interactive boundary-layer equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Philip; Bennett, James

    1986-01-01

    The Taylor-Goertler vortex instability equations are formulated for steady and unsteady interacting boundary-layer flows. The effective Goertler number is shown to be a function of the wall shape in the boundary layer and the possibility of both steady and unsteady Taylor-Goertler modes exists. As an example the steady flow in a symmetrically constricted channel is considered and it is shown that unstable Goertler vortices exist before the boundary layers at the wall develop the Goldstein singularity discussed by Smith and Daniels (1981). As an example of an unsteady spatially varying basic state, it is considered the instability of high-frequency large-amplitude two- and three-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves in a curved channel. It is shown that they are unstable in the first 'Stokes-layer stage' of the hierarchy of nonlinear states discussed by Smith and Burggraf (1985). This instability of Tollmien-Schlichting waves in an internal flow can occur in the presence of either convex or concave curvature. Some discussion of this instability in external flows is given.

  3. Taylor-Goertler instabilities of Tollmien-Schlichting waves and other flows governed by the interactive boundary-layer equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Philip; Bennett, James

    1986-10-01

    The Taylor-Goertler vortex instability equations are formulated for steady and unsteady interacting boundary-layer flows. The effective Goertler number is shown to be a function of the wall shape in the boundary layer and the possibility of both steady and unsteady Taylor-Goertler modes exists. As an example the steady flow in a symmetrically constricted channel is considered and it is shown that unstable Goertler vortices exist before the boundary layers at the wall develop the Goldstein singularity discussed by Smith and Daniels (1981). As an example of an unsteady spatially varying basic state, it is considered the instability of high-frequency large-amplitude two- and three-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves in a curved channel. It is shown that they are unstable in the first 'Stokes-layer stage' of the hierarchy of nonlinear states discussed by Smith and Burggraf (1985). This instability of Tollmien-Schlichting waves in an internal flow can occur in the presence of either convex or concave curvature. Some discussion of this instability in external flows is given.

  4. Phi29 Connector-DNA Interactions Govern DNA Crunching and Rotation, Supporting the Check-Valve Model

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajendra; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    During replication of the ϕ29 bacteriophage inside a bacterial host cell, a DNA packaging motor transports the viral DNA into the procapsid against a pressure difference of up to 40 ± 20 atm. Several models have been proposed for the underlying molecular mechanism. Here we have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine the role of the connector part of the motor, and specifically the one-way revolution and the push-roll model. We have focused at the structure and intermolecular interactions between the DNA and the connector, for which a near-complete structure is available. The connector is found to induce considerable DNA deformations with respect to its canonical B-form. We further assessed by force-probe simulations to which extent the connector is able to prevent DNA leakage and found that the connector can act as a partial one-way valve by a check-valve mechanism via its mobile loops. Analysis of the geometry, flexibility, and energetics of channel lysine residues suggested that this arrangement of residues is incompatible with the observed DNA packaging step-size of ∼2.5 bp, such that the step-size is probably determined by the other components of the motor. Previously proposed DNA revolution and rolling motions inside the connector channel are both found implausible due to structural entanglement between the DNA and connector loops that have not been resolved in the crystal structure. Rather, in the simulations, the connector facilitates minor DNA rotation during the packaging process compatible with recent optical-tweezers experiments. Combined with the available experimental data, our simulation results suggest that the connector acts as a check-valve that prevents DNA leakage and induces DNA compression and rotation during DNA packaging. PMID:26789768

  5. Molecular-level processes governing the interaction of contaminants with iron and manganese oxides. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, S.A.; Brown, G.

    1997-06-01

    'The central tenet of this proposal is that a fundamental understanding of specific mineral surface-site reactivities will substantially improve reactive transport models of contaminants in geologic systems, and will allow more effective remediation schemes to be devised. Most large-scale, macroscopic models employ global chemical reaction kinetics and thermochemistry. However, such models do not incorporate molecular-level input critical to the detailed prediction of how contaminants interact with minerals in the subsurface. A first step leading to the incorporation of molecular-level processes in large-scale macroscopic models is the ability to understand which molecular-level processes will dominate the chemistry at the microscopic grain level of minerals. To this end, the research focuses on the fundamental mechanisms of redox chemistry at mineral surfaces. As much of this chemistry in sediments involves the Fe(III)/Fe(II) and Mn(IV)/Mn(II) couples, the authors focus on mineral phases containing these species. Of particular interest is the effect of the local coordination environment of Fe and Mn atoms on their reactivity toward contaminant species. Studies of the impact of local atomic structure on reactivity in combination with knowledge about the types and amounts of various surfaces on natural grain- size minerals provide the data for statistical models. These models in turn form the basis of the larger-scale macroscopic descriptions of reactivity that are needed for reactive transport models. A molecular-level understanding of these mechanisms will enhance the ability to design much greater performance efficiency, cost effectiveness, and remediation strategies that have minimal negative impact on the local environment. For instance, a comprehensive understanding of how minerals that contain Fe(II) reduce oxyanions and chlorinated organics should enable the design of other Fe(II)-containing remediation materials in a way that is synergistic with existing

  6. Phi29 Connector-DNA Interactions Govern DNA Crunching and Rotation, Supporting the Check-Valve Model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajendra; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2016-01-19

    During replication of the ϕ29 bacteriophage inside a bacterial host cell, a DNA packaging motor transports the viral DNA into the procapsid against a pressure difference of up to 40 ± 20 atm. Several models have been proposed for the underlying molecular mechanism. Here we have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine the role of the connector part of the motor, and specifically the one-way revolution and the push-roll model. We have focused at the structure and intermolecular interactions between the DNA and the connector, for which a near-complete structure is available. The connector is found to induce considerable DNA deformations with respect to its canonical B-form. We further assessed by force-probe simulations to which extent the connector is able to prevent DNA leakage and found that the connector can act as a partial one-way valve by a check-valve mechanism via its mobile loops. Analysis of the geometry, flexibility, and energetics of channel lysine residues suggested that this arrangement of residues is incompatible with the observed DNA packaging step-size of ∼2.5 bp, such that the step-size is probably determined by the other components of the motor. Previously proposed DNA revolution and rolling motions inside the connector channel are both found implausible due to structural entanglement between the DNA and connector loops that have not been resolved in the crystal structure. Rather, in the simulations, the connector facilitates minor DNA rotation during the packaging process compatible with recent optical-tweezers experiments. Combined with the available experimental data, our simulation results suggest that the connector acts as a check-valve that prevents DNA leakage and induces DNA compression and rotation during DNA packaging. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mutational analysis of the quorum-sensing receptor LasR reveals interactions that govern activation and inhibition by non-lactone ligands

    PubMed Central

    Gerdt, Joseph P.; McInnis, Christine E.; Schell, Trevor L.; Rossi, Francis M.; Blackwell, Helen E.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Gram-negative bacteria use N-acyl L-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing (QS) signals to regulate the expression of myriad phenotypes. Non-native AHL analogs can strongly attenuate QS receptor activity and thereby QS signaling; however, we currently lack a molecular understanding of the mechanisms by which most of these compounds elicit their agonistic or antagonistic profiles. In this study, we investigated the origins of striking activity profile switches (i.e., receptor activator to inhibitor, and vice versa) observed upon alteration of the lactone head group in certain AHL analogs. Reporter gene assays of mutant versions of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS receptor LasR revealed that interactions between the ligands and Trp60, Tyr56, and Ser129 govern whether these ligands behave as LasR activators or inhibitors. Using this knowledge, we propose a model for the modulation of LasR by AHL analogs—encompassing a subtly different interaction with the binding pocket to a global change in LasR conformation. PMID:25242287

  8. Physics and Government

    SciTech Connect

    Hendry, Nancy H.

    1999-08-24

    In defining the powers and duties of the three branches of government, the U.S. Constitution never explicitly referred to Science, except in the patent clause. But many technical responsibilities are implied in references to weights and measures, the census, and the like. Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and in particular Benjamin Franklin, were highly literate in science, but it was their disciple, President John Quincy Adams who promoted as a matter of policy a direct role of the government in science--in particular with respect to astronomy, land surveys and navigation--all physical sciences. Some agencies of government--notably the National Bureau of Standards and the Department of Agriculture were founded in the early days of the Republic with scientific and technical missions. Since then the involvement of the government with science has waxed and waned but the major expansion of the interaction between physics and government occurred after World War II when physicists demonstrated the power of their craft during mobilization of science in support of the war effort. In discussing the interaction of physics with government we should distinguish ''science in government''--scientific input into policy making--from ''government in science,'' which is the support and management of that part of the overall scientific endeavor for which the government has responsibility. Let me turn first to the subject of physics in government. An overwhelming fraction of governmental decisions today have scientific and technical components; decisions ignoring these components are wasteful at best and can imperil the nation. For this reason governmental bodies at all levels solicit scientific advice--or at least give lip service to the need for such advice. When such advice was deliberately avoided, as President Reagan did before announcing his Strategic Defense Initiative in March 1983, the technically unattainable goal ''to make nuclear weapons impotent and obsolete'' was proclaimed.

  9. Reinventing Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, David T.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout all levels of American government, a shift is taking place from the rigid, wasteful, centralized bureaucracies of the industrial era to the more flexible, entrepreneurial, decentralized government needed to succeed in today's world. This shift has been brought about by an unprecedented, ongoing fiscal crisis that has created a sudden…

  10. Remaking Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, John

    2000-01-01

    The Policy Governance model's philosophical foundations lie in Rousseau's social contract, Greenleaf's servant-leadership, and modern management theory. Policy Governance stresses primacy of the owner-representative role; full-board authority; superintendents as chief executive officers; authoritative prescription of "ends," bounded…

  11. Molecular mechanisms governing different pharmacokinetics of ginsenosides and potential for ginsenoside-perpetrated herb–drug interactions on OATP1B3

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rongrong; Dong, Jiajia; Li, Xiuxue; Du, Feifei; Jia, Weiwei; Xu, Fang; Wang, Fengqing; Yang, Junling; Niu, Wei; Li, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ginsenosides are bioactive saponins derived from Panax notoginseng roots (Sanqi) and ginseng. Here, the molecular mechanisms governing differential pharmacokinetics of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and notoginsenoside R1 and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides Rb1, Rc and Rd were elucidated. Experimental Approach Interactions of ginsenosides with human and rat hepatobiliary transporters were characterized at the cellular and vesicular levels. A rifampin-based inhibition study in rats evaluated the in vivo role of organic anion-transporting polypeptide (Oatp)1b2. Plasma protein binding was assessed by equilibrium dialysis. Drug–drug interaction indices were calculated to estimate potential for clinically relevant ginsenoside-mediated interactions due to inhibition of human OATP1Bs. Key Results All the ginsenosides were bound to human OATP1B3 and rat Oatp1b2 but only the 20(S)-protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides were transported. Human multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)2/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/bile salt export pump (BSEP)/multidrug resistance protein-1 and rat Mrp2/Bcrp/Bsep also mediated the transport of the 20(S)-protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides. Glomerular-filtration-based renal excretion of the 20(S)-protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides was greater than that of the 20(S)-protopanaxadiol-type counterparts due to differences in plasma protein binding. Rifampin-impaired hepatobiliary excretion of the 20(S)-protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides was effectively compensated by the renal excretion in rats. The 20(S)-protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides were potent inhibitors of OATP1B3. Conclusion and Implications Differences in hepatobiliary and in renal excretory clearances caused markedly different systemic exposure and different elimination kinetics between the two types of ginsenosides. Caution should be exercised with the long-circulating 20(S)-protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides as they

  12. Cutting Edge: IL-4, IL-21, and IFN-γ Interact To Govern T-bet and CD11c Expression in TLR-Activated B Cells.

    PubMed

    Naradikian, Martin S; Myles, Arpita; Beiting, Daniel P; Roberts, Kenneth J; Dawson, Lucas; Herati, Ramin Sedaghat; Bengsch, Bertram; Linderman, Susanne L; Stelekati, Erietta; Spolski, Rosanne; Wherry, E John; Hunter, Christopher; Hensley, Scott E; Leonard, Warren J; Cancro, Michael P

    2016-08-15

    T-bet and CD11c expression in B cells is linked with IgG2c isotype switching, virus-specific immune responses, and humoral autoimmunity. However, the activation requisites and regulatory cues governing T-bet and CD11c expression in B cells remain poorly defined. In this article, we reveal a relationship among TLR engagement, IL-4, IL-21, and IFN-γ that regulates T-bet expression in B cells. We find that IL-21 or IFN-γ directly promote T-bet expression in the context of TLR engagement. Further, IL-4 antagonizes T-bet induction. Finally, IL-21, but not IFN-γ, promotes CD11c expression independent of T-bet. Using influenza virus and Heligmosomoides polygyrus infections, we show that these interactions function in vivo to determine whether T-bet(+) and CD11c(+) B cells are formed. These findings suggest that T-bet(+) B cells seen in health and disease share the common initiating features of TLR-driven activation within this circumscribed cytokine milieu. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Coherence analysis overestimates the role of baroreflex in governing the interactions between heart period and systolic arterial pressure variabilities during general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Bassani, Tito; Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; Wu, Maddalena Alessandra; Baselli, Giuseppe; Citerio, Giuseppe; Beda, Alessandro; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Güldner, Andreas; Guzzetti, Stefano; Porta, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    During general anesthesia positive pressure mechanical ventilation (MV) profoundly affects intrathoracic pressure and venous return, thus soliciting cardiopulmonary reflexes and modifying stroke volume. As a consequence heart period, approximated as the temporal distance between two consecutive R peaks on the ECG (RR), and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) variability series are usually highly correlated at the MV frequency (MVF) and this significant correlation is commonly taken as an indication of an active baroreflex. In this study the involvement of baroreflex was tested according to a time-domain linear Granger causality approach accounting explicitly for MV in two experimental protocols. In the first protocol volatile (VA) or intravenous (IA) anesthetic was administered in humans during pressure controlled MV (PCMV). In the second protocol IA was administered in pigs during PCMV or pressure support MV (PSMV). Causality analysis was contrasted with RR-SAP squared coherence. Significant coherence values at MVF were always found in both protocols. On the contrary, a significant causal link from SAP to RR was less frequently found in humans independently of the anesthesiological strategy and in animals during PCMV. PSMV was superior to PCMV in animals because it was able to better preserve a link from SAP to RR. During general anesthesia the involvement of baroreflex in governing RR-SAP variability interactions is largely overestimated by RR-SAP squared coherence and causality analysis can be exploited to rank anesthesiological strategies and MV modes according to the ability of preserving a working baroreflex. PMID:23578373

  14. Government Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    large, complex , and difficult to manage. U.S. Government procurement is the largest business enterprise in the world affecting the security...listed in this study.) With the single exception of rocket and spacecraft acquisitions, ship acquisitions are the highest cost and most complex ...acquisitions U.S. Government agencies undertake. Many factors influence the level of complexity for a given ship acquisition program. Between the Navy and

  15. Government Regulatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Katie

    Government regulation of food products, food processing, and food preparation is imperative in bringing an unadulterated, nonmisleading, and safe food product to market and is relevant to all areas of food science, including engineering, processing, chemistry, and microbiology. The liability associated with providing consumers with an adulterated or substandard product cannot only tarnish a company's name and reputation, but also impose substantial financial repercussions on the company and those individuals who play an active role in the violation. In order for a company to fully comply with the relevant food laws (both federal and state), an intimate knowledge of food science is required. Individuals knowledgeable in food science play an integral role not only in implementing and counseling food companies/processors to ensure compliance with government regulations, but these individuals are also necessary to the state and federal governments that make and enforce the relevant laws and regulators.

  16. Electrostatic interactions, but not the YGNGV consensus motif, govern the binding of pediocin PA-1 and its fragments to phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y; Ludescher, R D; Montville, T J

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize in detail the binding of pediocin PA-1 and its fragments to target membranes by using tryptophan fluorescence as a probe. Based on a three-dimensional model (Y. Chen, R. Shapira, M. Eisenstein, and T. J. Montville, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:524-531, 1997), four synthetic N-terminal pediocin fragments were selected to study the mechanism of the initial step by which the bacteriocin associates with membranes. Binding of pediocin PA-1 to vesicles of phosphatidylglycerol, the major component of Listeria membranes, caused an increase in the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence intensity with a blue shift of the emission maximum. The Stern-Volmer constants for acrylamide quenching of the fluorescence of pediocin PA-1 in buffer and in the lipid vesicles were 8.83 +/- 0.42 and 3.53 +/- 0.67 M-1, respectively, suggesting that the tryptophan residues inserted into the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer. The synthetic pediocin fragments bound strongly to the lipid vesicles when a patch of positively charged amino acid residues (K-11 and H-12) was present but bound weakly when this patch was mutated out. Quantitative comparison of changes in tryptophan fluorescence parameters, as well as the dissociation constants for pediocin PA-1 and its fragments, revealed that the relative affinity to the lipid vesicles paralleled the net positive charge in the peptide. The relative affinity for the fragment containing the YGNGV consensus motif was 10-fold lower than that for the fragment containing the positive patch. Furthermore, changing the pH from 6.0 to 8.0 decreased binding of the fragments containing the positive patch, probably due to deprotonation of His residues. These results demonstrate that electrostatic interactions, but not the YGNGV motif, govern pediocin binding to the target membrane. PMID:9406395

  17. Adaptive approaches to biosecurity governance.

    PubMed

    Cook, David C; Liu, Shuang; Murphy, Brendan; Lonsdale, W Mark

    2010-09-01

    This article discusses institutional changes that may facilitate an adaptive approach to biosecurity risk management where governance is viewed as a multidisciplinary, interactive experiment acknowledging uncertainty. Using the principles of adaptive governance, evolved from institutional theory, we explore how the concepts of lateral information flows, incentive alignment, and policy experimentation might shape Australia's invasive species defense mechanisms. We suggest design principles for biosecurity policies emphasizing overlapping complementary response capabilities and the sharing of invasive species risks via a polycentric system of governance.

  18. Light-dependent redistribution of arrestin in vertebrate rods is an energy-independent process governed by protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Nair, K Saidas; Hanson, Susan M; Mendez, Ana; Gurevich, Eugenia V; Kennedy, Matthew J; Shestopalov, Valery I; Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A; Chen, Jeannie; Hurley, James B; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Slepak, Vladlen Z

    2005-05-19

    In rod photoreceptors, arrestin localizes to the outer segment (OS) in the light and to the inner segment (IS) in the dark. Here, we demonstrate that redistribution of arrestin between these compartments can proceed in ATP-depleted photoreceptors. Translocation of transducin from the IS to the OS also does not require energy, but depletion of ATP or GTP inhibits its reverse movement. A sustained presence of activated rhodopsin is required for sequestering arrestin in the OS, and the rate of arrestin relocalization to the OS is determined by the amount and the phosphorylation status of photolyzed rhodopsin. Interaction of arrestin with microtubules is increased in the dark. Mutations that enhance arrestin-microtubule binding attenuate arrestin translocation to the OS. These results indicate that the distribution of arrestin in rods is controlled by its dynamic interactions with rhodopsin in the OS and microtubules in the IS and that its movement occurs by simple diffusion.

  19. New Insights into the Roles of Host Gene-Necrotrophic Effector Interactions in Governing Susceptibility of Durum Wheat to Tan Spot and Septoria nodorum Blotch.

    PubMed

    Virdi, Simerjot K; Liu, Zhaohui; Overlander, Megan E; Zhang, Zengcui; Xu, Steven S; Friesen, Timothy L; Faris, Justin D

    2016-12-07

    Tan spot and Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB) are important diseases of wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungi Pyrenophora tritici-repentis and Parastagonospora nodorum, respectively. The P. tritici-repentis necrotrophic effector (NE) Ptr ToxB causes tan spot when recognized by the Tsc2 gene. The NE ToxA is produced by both pathogens and has been associated with the development of both tan spot and SNB when recognized by the wheat Tsn1 gene. Most work to study these interactions has been conducted in common wheat, but little has been done in durum wheat. Here, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of a segregating biparental population indicated that the Tsc2-Ptr ToxB interaction plays a prominent role in the development of tan spot in durum. However, analysis of two biparental populations indicated that the Tsn1-ToxA interaction was not associated with the development of tan spot, but was strongly associated with the development of SNB. Pa. nodorum expressed ToxA at high levels in infected Tsn1 plants, whereas ToxA expression in P. tritici-repentis was barely detectable, suggesting that the differences in disease levels associated with the Tsn1-ToxA interaction were due to differences in pathogen expression of ToxA These and previous results together indicate that: (1) the effects of Tsn1-ToxA on tan spot in common wheat can range from nonsignificant to highly significant depending on the host genetic background; (2) Tsn1-ToxA is not a significant factor for tan spot development in durum wheat; and (3) Tsn1-ToxA plays a major role in SNB development in both common and durum wheat. Durum and common wheat breeders alike should strive to remove both Tsc2 and Tsn1 from their materials to achieve disease resistance.

  20. New Insights into the Roles of Host Gene-Necrotrophic Effector Interactions in Governing Susceptibility of Durum Wheat to Tan Spot and Septoria nodorum Blotch

    PubMed Central

    Virdi, Simerjot K.; Liu, Zhaohui; Overlander, Megan E.; Zhang, Zengcui; Xu, Steven S.; Friesen, Timothy L.; Faris, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    Tan spot and Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB) are important diseases of wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungi Pyrenophora tritici-repentis and Parastagonospora nodorum, respectively. The P. tritici-repentis necrotrophic effector (NE) Ptr ToxB causes tan spot when recognized by the Tsc2 gene. The NE ToxA is produced by both pathogens and has been associated with the development of both tan spot and SNB when recognized by the wheat Tsn1 gene. Most work to study these interactions has been conducted in common wheat, but little has been done in durum wheat. Here, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of a segregating biparental population indicated that the Tsc2-Ptr ToxB interaction plays a prominent role in the development of tan spot in durum. However, analysis of two biparental populations indicated that the Tsn1-ToxA interaction was not associated with the development of tan spot, but was strongly associated with the development of SNB. Pa. nodorum expressed ToxA at high levels in infected Tsn1 plants, whereas ToxA expression in P. tritici-repentis was barely detectable, suggesting that the differences in disease levels associated with the Tsn1-ToxA interaction were due to differences in pathogen expression of ToxA. These and previous results together indicate that: (1) the effects of Tsn1-ToxA on tan spot in common wheat can range from nonsignificant to highly significant depending on the host genetic background; (2) Tsn1-ToxA is not a significant factor for tan spot development in durum wheat; and (3) Tsn1-ToxA plays a major role in SNB development in both common and durum wheat. Durum and common wheat breeders alike should strive to remove both Tsc2 and Tsn1 from their materials to achieve disease resistance. PMID:27777262

  1. Scapula development is governed by genetic interactions of Pbx1 with its family members and with Emx2 via their cooperative control of Alx1

    PubMed Central

    Capellini, Terence D.; Vaccari, Giulia; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Fantini, Sebastian; He, Mu; Pellegrini, Massimo; Quintana, Laura; Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Sharpe, James; Selleri, Licia; Zappavigna, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    The genetic pathways underlying shoulder blade development are largely unknown, as gene networks controlling limb morphogenesis have limited influence on scapula formation. Analysis of mouse mutants for Pbx and Emx2 genes has suggested their potential roles in girdle development. In this study, by generating compound mutant mice, we examined the genetic control of scapula development by Pbx genes and their functional relationship with Emx2. Analyses of Pbx and Pbx1;Emx2 compound mutants revealed that Pbx genes share overlapping functions in shoulder development and that Pbx1 genetically interacts with Emx2 in this process. Here, we provide a biochemical basis for Pbx1;Emx2 genetic interaction by showing that Pbx1 and Emx2 can bind specific DNA sequences as heterodimers. Moreover, the expression of genes crucial for scapula development is altered in these mutants, indicating that Pbx genes act upstream of essential pathways for scapula formation. In particular, expression of Alx1, an effector of scapula blade patterning, is absent in all compound mutants. We demonstrate that Pbx1 and Emx2 bind in vivo to a conserved sequence upstream of Alx1 and cooperatively activate its transcription via this potential regulatory element. Our results establish an essential role for Pbx1 in genetic interactions with its family members and with Emx2 and delineate novel regulatory networks in shoulder girdle development. PMID:20627960

  2. Indications of hard-soft-acid-base interactions governing formation of ultra-small (r < 3 nm) digestively ripened copper oxide quantum-dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talluri, Bhusankar; Thomas, Tiju

    2017-10-01

    We use a soft-approach for synthesis of quasi-spherical, ultra-small, digestively-ripened, stable copper oxide QDs (radius < 3 nm). Common copper precursors (acetate, sulphite, nitrate and chloride) are explored. Triethanolamine (TEA) capping results in substantial increase of zetapotential (25 ± 5 meV); this is invariant with respect to Cu-precursor used. Relevant spectral analysis indicates that solvent and the surfactant are the most critical parameters. Hard-hard-acid-base-interaction (between CuO and TEA) based (i) mass-transfer (for pre-DR QDs) and (ii) passivation (for DR-QDs) seems to be the mechanism behind observed ceramic-DR; interestingly this is consistent with the metallic-DR-model proposed by Prasad et al. (Chem. Phys. Lett., 2012).

  3. A Positive Feedback Loop Governed by SUB1A1 Interaction with MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE3 Imparts Submergence Tolerance in Rice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction networks have been extensively explored in plants; however, the connection between MAPK signaling cascades and submergence tolerance is currently unknown. The ethylene response factor-like protein SUB1A orchestrates a plethora of responses during submergence stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa). In this study, we report that MPK3 is activated by submergence in a SUB1A-dependent manner. MPK3 physically interacts with and phosphorylates SUB1A in a tolerant-allele-specific manner. Furthermore, the tolerant allele SUB1A1 binds to the MPK3 promoter and regulates its expression in a positive regulatory loop during submergence stress signaling. We present molecular and physiological evidence for the key role of the MPK3-SUB1A1 module in acclimation of rice seedlings to the adverse effects of submergence. Overall, the results provide a mechanistic understanding of submergence tolerance in rice. PMID:27081183

  4. Mille general practice governance (MilleGPG): an interactive tool to address an effective quality of care through the Italian general practice network.

    PubMed

    Cricelli, Iacopo; Lapi, Francesco; Montalbano, Carmelo; Medea, Gerardo; Cricelli, Claudio

    2013-10-01

    The General Practitioner (GP) is the "gate-keeper" in patients' treatment and management. Herein, the use of Electronic Medical Records (EMR) could represent an effective support for GPs. Software capable of managing EMRs are available and they can be functional in adopting treatment guidelines by means of computerized prompts and reminders systems. These tools can be also programmed to include clinical algorithms with which to measure the quality of care to make possible the identification of clinical issues, and to take actions for addressing them. Given that similar tools were not available in Italy, we developed MilleGPG, an interactive tool aimed to evaluate, and subsequently improve the quality of care among patients with comorbidities.

  5. Species Specificity of Vaccinia Virus Complement Control Protein for the Bovine Classical Pathway Is Governed Primarily by Direct Interaction of Its Acidic Residues with Factor I.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jitendra; Yadav, Viveka Nand; Phulera, Swastik; Kamble, Ashish; Gautam, Avneesh Kumar; Panwar, Hemendra Singh; Sahu, Arvind

    2017-10-01

    Poxviruses display species tropism-variola virus is a human-specific virus, while vaccinia virus causes repeated outbreaks in dairy cattle. Consistent with this, variola virus complement regulator SPICE (smallpox inhibitor of complement enzymes) exhibits selectivity in inhibiting the human alternative complement pathway and vaccinia virus complement regulator VCP (vaccinia virus complement control protein) displays selectivity in inhibiting the bovine alternative complement pathway. In the present study, we examined the species specificity of VCP and SPICE for the classical pathway (CP). We observed that VCP is ∼43-fold superior to SPICE in inhibiting bovine CP. Further, functional assays revealed that increased inhibitory activity of VCP for bovine CP is solely due to its enhanced cofactor activity, with no effect on decay of bovine CP C3-convertase. To probe the structural basis of this specificity, we utilized single- and multi-amino-acid substitution mutants wherein 1 or more of the 11 variant VCP residues were substituted in the SPICE template. Examination of these mutants for their ability to inhibit bovine CP revealed that E108, E120, and E144 are primarily responsible for imparting the specificity and contribute to the enhanced cofactor activity of VCP. Binding and functional assays suggested that these residues interact with bovine factor I but not with bovine C4(H2O) (a moiety conformationally similar to C4b). Mapping of these residues onto the modeled structure of bovine C4b-VCP-bovine factor I supported the mutagenesis data. Taken together, our data help explain why the vaccine strain of vaccinia virus was able to gain a foothold in domesticated animals.IMPORTANCE Vaccinia virus was used for smallpox vaccination. The vaccine-derived virus is now circulating and causing outbreaks in dairy cattle in India and Brazil. However, the reason for this tropism is unknown. It is well recognized that the virus is susceptible to neutralization by the complement

  6. Identification of icsA, a plasmid locus of Shigella flexneri that governs bacterial intra- and intercellular spread through interaction with F-actin.

    PubMed Central

    Bernardini, M L; Mounier, J; d'Hauteville, H; Coquis-Rondon, M; Sansonetti, P J

    1989-01-01

    The capacity of Shigella to spread within the cytosol of infected epithelial cells and to infect adjacent cells is critical for the development of infection foci, which lead to mucosal abscesses. Shigella is a nonmotile microorganism that appears to utilize host cell microfilaments to generate intra- as well as intercellular movements, since this movement was inhibited by cytochalasin D and involvement of F-actin was demonstrated by direct labeling of infected cells with the specific dye N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)phallacidin. Such movements led to the formation of extracellular protrusions, which may explain cell to cell spread. icsA, a locus necessary for intra- and intercellular spread, was identified on the Shigella flexneri virulence plasmid pWR100. This locus was cloned and shown to express a 120-kDa outer membrane protein, which plays an important role in the interactions established between host cell microfilaments and the bacterial surface, thus leading to intracellular movement. Images PMID:2542950

  7. Practice, science and governance in interaction: European effort for the system-wide implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Stucki, Gerold; Zampolini, Mauro; Juocevicius, Alvydas; Negrini, Stefano; Christodoulou, Nicolas

    2016-11-24

    Since its launch in 2001, relevant international, regional and national PRM bodies have aimed to implement the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM), whereby contributing to the development of suitable practical tools. These tools are available for implementing the ICF in day-to-day clinical practice, standardized reporting of functioning outcomes in quality management and research, and guiding evidence-informed policy. Educational efforts have reinforced PRM physicians' and other rehabilitation professionals' ICF knowledge, and numerous implementation projects have explored how the ICF is applied in clinical practice, research and policy. Largely lacking though is the system-wide implementation of ICF in day-to-day practice across all rehabilitation services of national health systems. In Europe, system-wide implementation of ICF requires the interaction between practice, science and governance. Considering its mandate, the UEMS PRM Section and Board have decided to lead a European effort towards system-wide ICF implementation in PRM, rehabilitation and health care at large, in interaction with governments, non-governmental actors and the private sector, and aligned with ISPRM's collaboration plan with WHO. In this paper we present the current PRM internal and external policy agenda towards system-wide ICF implementation and the corresponding implementation action plan, while highlighting priority action steps - promotion of ICF-based standardized reporting in national quality management and assurance programs, development of unambiguous rehabilitation service descriptions using the International Classification System for Service Organization in Health-related Rehabilitation, development of Clinical Assessment Schedules, qualitative linkage and quantitative mapping of data to the ICF, and the cultural adaptation of the ICF Clinical Data Collection Tool in European languages.

  8. Factors Governing P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Drug–Drug Interactions at the Blood–Brain Barrier Measured with Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter P-glycoprotein (ABCB1/Abcb1a) restricts at the blood–brain barrier (BBB) brain distribution of many drugs. ABCB1 may be involved in drug–drug interactions (DDIs) at the BBB, which may lead to changes in brain distribution and central nervous system side effects of drugs. Positron emission tomography (PET) with the ABCB1 substrates (R)-[11C]verapamil and [11C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide and the ABCB1 inhibitor tariquidar has allowed direct comparison of ABCB1-mediated DDIs at the rodent and human BBB. In this work we evaluated different factors which could influence the magnitude of the interaction between tariquidar and (R)-[11C]verapamil or [11C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide at the BBB and thereby contribute to previously observed species differences between rodents and humans. We performed in vitro transport experiments with [3H]verapamil and [3H]-N-desmethyl-loperamide in ABCB1 and Abcb1a overexpressing cell lines. Moreover we conducted in vivo PET experiments and biodistribution studies with (R)-[11C]verapamil and [11C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide in wild-type mice without and with tariquidar pretreatment and in homozygous Abcb1a/1b(−/−) and heterozygous Abcb1a/1b(+/−) mice. We found no differences for in vitro transport of [3H]verapamil and [3H]-N-desmethyl-loperamide by ABCB1 and Abcb1a and its inhibition by tariquidar. [3H]-N-Desmethyl-loperamide was transported with a 5 to 9 times higher transport ratio than [3H]verapamil in ABCB1- and Abcb1a-transfected cells. In vivo, brain radioactivity concentrations were lower for [11C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide than for (R)-[11C]verapamil. Both radiotracers showed tariquidar dose dependent increases in brain distribution with tariquidar half-maximum inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 1052 nM (95% confidence interval CI: 930–1189) for (R)-[11C]verapamil and 1329 nM (95% CI: 980–1801) for [11C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide. In homozygous Abcb1a/1b(−/−) mice brain

  9. [Governance for health].

    PubMed

    Holčík, Jan

    2012-01-01

    New approaches to governance are driven by the changing nature of the challenges faced by 21st century societies. People, their health and capabilities are the key resources of a knowledge society. In the article the meaning of "governance for health" is explained and some methods of governance are presented. Governance for health will be implemented in the new European health policy - Health 2020.

  10. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  11. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  12. Technology transfer within the government

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Carissa Bryce

    1992-01-01

    The report of a workshop panel concerned with technology transfer within the government is presented. The suggested subtopics for the panel were as follows: (1) transfer from non-NASA U.S. government technology developers to NASA space missions/programs; and (2) transfer from NASA to other U.S. government civil space mission programs. Two presentations were made to the panel: Roles/Value of Early Strategic Planning Within the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to Facilitate Later Technology Transfer To and From Industry; and NOAA Satellite Programs and Technology Requirements. The panel discussion addresses the following major issues: DOD/NASA cooperation; alternative mechanisms for interagency communication and interactions; current technology transfer relationships among federal research agencies, and strategies for improving this transfer; technology transfer mechanisms appropriate to intragovernment transfer; the importance of industry as a technology transfer conduit; and measures of merit.

  13. Transformative environmental governance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  14. Transformative environmental governance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

  15. Governance is Academic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manahan, Richard A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A model for systematic development and reorganization of college governance systems consists of three processes: reviewing the existing governance structure; examining the concerns and interrelationships of individuals and groups; and pinpointing desired changes. All must be done in the context of linking governance to overall institutional…

  16. Teaching about Comparative Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2009-01-01

    As international relationships become increasingly important (with both friendly and not-so-friendly governments), the author believes that it is important for U.S. students to learn about how a parliamentary democracy works--how it is similar, but different from a presidential-style government. Learning about the systems of government of other…

  17. Modelling University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakman, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Twentieth century governance models used in public universities are subject to increasing doubt across the English-speaking world. Governments question if public universities are being efficiently governed; if their boards of trustees are adequately fulfilling their trust obligations towards multiple stakeholders; and if collegial models of…

  18. Modelling University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakman, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Twentieth century governance models used in public universities are subject to increasing doubt across the English-speaking world. Governments question if public universities are being efficiently governed; if their boards of trustees are adequately fulfilling their trust obligations towards multiple stakeholders; and if collegial models of…

  19. Transformative environmental governance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

  20. Teaching about Comparative Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2009-01-01

    As international relationships become increasingly important (with both friendly and not-so-friendly governments), the author believes that it is important for U.S. students to learn about how a parliamentary democracy works--how it is similar, but different from a presidential-style government. Learning about the systems of government of other…

  1. Taking Student Government Seriously.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the student government at La Mesa Middle School (California) that was modeled after the three-branch U.S. government as a means for increasing students' civic understanding. Describes the structure of the legislative, judicial, and executive branches, the different activities of the student government, and the reasons for the hiatus.…

  2. Wyoming Government, Unit VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming government presents concepts, activities, and stories for elementary school students. Concepts stress that the functions of government are determined according to the demands, needs, and traditions of the people; each part of government has a special function; as citizens, we should be loyal to the underlying concepts of our…

  3. Pay modernisation and healthcare governance.

    PubMed

    Benton, David C

    Policies interact and have direct and indirect consequences resulting in both short-term and longer-term effects on the working lives of professionals, the care they offer and the education needed by future generations of staff. This article explores how pay modernisation could result in benefits and risks for corporate, clinical and staff governance. It is argued that if pay modernisation as a major enabler of service redesign is to succeed then far greater understanding of how various policies interact and their potential consequences is required.

  4. Health governance and healthcare reforms in China.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, M; Wu, Xun; He, Alex Jingwei

    2014-09-01

    This article examines the role of health governance in shaping the outcomes of healthcare reforms in China. The analysis shows that the failure of reforms during the 1980s and 1990s was in part due to inadequate attention to key aspects in health governance, such as strategic interactions among government, providers and users, as well as incentive structures shaping their preferences and behaviour. Although more recent reforms seek to correct these flaws, they are insufficiently targeted at the fundamental governance problems that beset the sector. The article suggests that the Chinese government needs to heighten its efforts to enhance health governance and change the ways providers are paid if it is to succeed in achieving its goal of providing health care to all at affordable cost.

  5. Quantitative Analyses of the Influence of Parameters Governing Rate-Determining Process of Hepatic Elimination of Drugs on the Magnitudes of Drug-Drug Interactions via Hepatic OATPs and CYP3A Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models.

    PubMed

    Yoshikado, Takashi; Maeda, Kazuya; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Furihata, Ken-Ichi; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2017-09-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models were constructed for hepatic organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) substrates (bosentan, repaglinide, clarithromycin, and simeprevir), a CYP3A probe substrate (midazolam), and selective inhibitors for OATPs (rifampicin) and CYP3A (itraconazole), although the role of OATPs in the hepatic uptake of clarithromycin is unclear. The pharmacokinetic data were obtained from our previous clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) study. Parameters optimized from clinical PK data were confirmed to reproduce their blood concentrations in control phase. DDIs with rifampicin and itraconazole were simulated using in vivo Rdif (ratio of diffusional uptake to active uptake) and β (the fraction of the sum of intrinsic clearances for metabolism and biliary excretion in all possible itineraries of intracellular drugs including basolateral efflux) estimated by static analyses based on the extended clearance concept, in vivo inhibition constant (Ki) for hepatic OATPs reported previously, and in vivo Ki for CYP3A determined from DDI data with midazolam and itraconazole. Sensitivity analyses showed the magnitudes of DDIs largely depended on Rdif and β. In conclusion, our approach using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling showed that the rational estimation of parameters governing rate-determining process of hepatic elimination is critical to accurately predict DDI magnitudes involving OATPs/CYP3A inhibition. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 77 FR 18258 - Government-to-Government Telephonic Consultation Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Government-to-Government Telephonic Consultation Meetings AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. SUMMARY: The National Park Service announces two telephonic government-...

  7. Government Quality Conference Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Government Quality Conference was an attempt to bring together executive organizations and senior individuals in the Federal Government that have a desire to improve productivity. It was designed to provide an exchange of ideas based on experience, and to encourage individual management initiatives to tap the capabilities of Federal employees.

  8. Educational Governance in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  9. Improve Governance for Charters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Manno, Bruno V.; Wright, Brandon L.

    2017-01-01

    With 25 years of experience, the charter sector has had enough time to experience a host of unanticipated and unresolved problems related to the complex ways in which charter school governance relates to school leadership. The time has come for the sector to revisit some fundamental decisions about how charter schools and networks are governed,…

  10. Using IT Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brobst, Jan; Council, Chip

    2005-01-01

    The discussion in this article is intended to provide an examination of why top management, IT management, and internal auditors should be interested in IT governance. Some aspects of IT management will be described including implementation, auditing, availability, security, and alignment. One governance framework, COBIT, will be utilized as a…

  11. State and local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    The Virginia Space Grant Consortium approach to a close working relation to state and local governments is presented as a model for consideration. State government relations are especially important in that this is a primary resource in securing matching funds. Avenues for establishing these relationships are listed and discussed.

  12. Restructuring for Good Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Stephen; Carey, Russell C.

    2006-01-01

    American higher education has never been more in need of good governance than it is right now. Yet much of the structure many boards have inherited or created tends to stall or impede timely, well-informed, and broadly supported decision making. At many institutions (ours included), layers of governance have been added with each passing year,…

  13. Using IT Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brobst, Jan; Council, Chip

    2005-01-01

    The discussion in this article is intended to provide an examination of why top management, IT management, and internal auditors should be interested in IT governance. Some aspects of IT management will be described including implementation, auditing, availability, security, and alignment. One governance framework, COBIT, will be utilized as a…

  14. Policy Governance Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, William J.

    2001-01-01

    An administrator trainer/former superintendent's experience suggests that corporate governance models don't fit the reality of school governance in many districts. Elected board members define their roles differently than their business counterparts and derive little or no monetary benefit from public service. The "new breed" resemble…

  15. Educational Governance in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  16. Global Governance, Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundy, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In the last half decade, a rising literature has focused on the idea that processes of economic, political and social globalization require analysis in terms of governance at the global level. It is argued in this article that emerging forms of global governance have produced significant challenges to conventional conceptions of international…

  17. Policy Governance Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, William J.

    2001-01-01

    An administrator trainer/former superintendent's experience suggests that corporate governance models don't fit the reality of school governance in many districts. Elected board members define their roles differently than their business counterparts and derive little or no monetary benefit from public service. The "new breed" resemble…

  18. Governance: Senates and Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polishook, Irwin H.; Naples, Caesar J.

    1989-01-01

    Edited versions of two conference papers are presented. The first paper, "The Debate Over Academic Unions and Faculty Governance," by Irwin H. Polishook, discusses why the concept of collective bargaining continues to be a significant issue in academe and is considered to be incompatible with faculty governance. It examines the union…

  19. Pricing Government Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, James

    1995-01-01

    Improvements in technology have increased the social and economic value of government information. This increase, combined with changes in information storage and dissemination cost, contributes to controversy over how government information should be disseminated and priced. Discussion includes economic concepts, rules and algorithms used by…

  20. Obesity and government.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Scott; Zvenyach, Tracy

    2016-10-01

    Despite much effort, obesity prevalence and disease severity continues to worsen. The purpose of this review is to describe the leading government supported food and nutrition interventions and policies to prevent and address obesity in the USA. The review also summarizes obesity interventions and policies that the government plays a role in, but further development is warranted. The government's role in obesity has largely focused on interventions and policies such as national surveillance, obesity education and awareness, grant-based food subsidy programs, zoning for food access, school-based nutrition programs, dietary guidelines, nutrition labeling, and food marketing and pricing policies. The government has played a lesser role in obesity interventions and policies that provide access to evidence-based obesity care to people affected by the disease. Given the magnitude of the obesity epidemic, the government should explore multiple evidence-based interventions and policies across prevention and clinical care.

  1. Comment on ``Communicating Government Science''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lins, Harry F.

    2006-05-01

    Soroosh Sorooshian's editorial in the 18 April issue of Eos (87(16) 2005) is a timely reminder of the need for unambiguous guidelines governing the interactions between government scientists and the media. His comments implicitly recognize the central role that science plays in a modern democratic society, which includes informing policy at the highest levels of government and educating the general public about the world we inhabit. Federal research scientists, who constitute approximately 15 percent of the AGU's U.S. membership, have a unique public responsibility. They would welcome a consistent policy for the review and approval of publications, oral presentations, and media communications. An example of the value and success that such a policy can have to both science and the nation is evident in the operations of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). For more than a century, the USGS has had clear policies and procedures for ensuring the communication of accurate, high-quality, and impartial scientific information. These policies and procedures are set forth in the USGS Manual under sections entitled ``Approval by the director for outside publication and oral presentation,'' ``Review of USGS publications and abstracts of oral presentations for policy-sensitive issues,'' and ``News release and media relations policy.'' These policies are available online at http:// www.usgs.gov/usgs-manual/500/500-9.html (.../500-8.html and .../500 5.html).

  2. Partnerships between government and industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    The author describes the future as one of unprecedented change as industry and other institutions become immersed in a system of global commerce driven by fast moving technologies that had their origin in the United States. These trends are expected to intensify as the pace of scientific and technological discovery and innovation continues unabated. The end of the Cold War is viewed as an opportunity to position the United States for leadership in this rapidly changing environment. The role of science and technology in achieving sustained economic growth and improved competitiveness and to address what government can do to help the process along is examined in detail. Statistical data on globalization of trade and market shares of various countries is given along with the participation by multi-national corporations. The historical aspects of technology ages and their development are discussed along with the history of government technology policy. New policies will improve the climate for innovation with government, industry, and the academic community developing interactive and supportive roles. 22 figs.

  3. Government and the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondale, Walter F.

    1975-01-01

    In order to deal successfully with the changes and pressures placed upon families, article considered the extent government policies are helping or hurting families, and what kind of support services are available. (Author/RK)

  4. Local Governments Reimbursement Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In the event of a release (or threatened release) of hazardous substances, EPA may provide a safety net of up to $25,000 per incident to local governments for expenses related to the release and associated emergency response measures.

  5. LESS Government Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Latham, Tom [R-IA-4

    2011-06-15

    06/30/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Organization, Efficiency, and Financial Management . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. LESS Government Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Latham, Tom [R-IA-4

    2011-06-15

    06/30/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Organization, Efficiency, and Financial Management . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Lean Government Methods Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Guide focuses primarily on Lean production, which is an organizational improvement philosophy and set of methods that originated in manufacturing but has been expanded to government and service sectors.

  8. Towards Self-Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses the advantages of student self-government and describes the work of student committees at Belper High School, Derbyshire, in setting up a student coffee shop, planning school sports, and orienting new students. (SJL)

  9. LESS Government Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Latham, Tom [R-IA-4

    2011-06-15

    House - 06/30/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Organization, Efficiency, and Financial Management . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contract oversight could reduce such sums significantly. Government outsourcing for services also raises... governmental functions. Agencies and departments must operate under clear rules prescribing when outsourcing is... oversee acquisitions appropriately; and (4) clarify when governmental outsourcing for services is and...

  11. Shared health governance.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2011-07-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a ) developed the "health capability paradigm," a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called "shared health governance" (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically.

  12. Government Positions for Physicists.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, David

    2006-03-01

    There are a number of government agencies that employ physicists in a wide variety of jobs -- from student internships to post docs to full time staff positions. You can do real, creative, fore-front physics or pursue a wide range of leadership positions. The possibilities are almost unlimited and so is the impact your work can have on the government, academia, and industry. So how do you go about finding a government job? What qualities or abilities are deemed valuable? What are the advantages and disadvantages to working in the government? I will bring some personal experiences and observations from working in the government (one year as a rotator at the National Science Foundation in the Division of Materials Research and almost 18 years at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, both as a Group Leader and a Division Chief) to bear on these questions and more. Prior to my government career I was a physics professor pursuing research and teaching in academia.

  13. Understanding 'anticipatory governance'.

    PubMed

    Guston, David H

    2014-04-01

    Anticipatory governance is 'a broad-based capacity extended through society that can act on a variety of inputs to manage emerging knowledge-based technologies while such management is still possible'. It motivates activities designed to build capacities in foresight, engagement, and integration--as well as through their production ensemble. These capacities encourage and support the reflection of scientists, engineers, policy makers, and other publics on their roles in new technologies. This article reviews the early history of the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the United States, and it further explicates anticipatory governance through exploring the genealogy of the term and addressing a set of critiques found in the literature. These critiques involve skepticism of three proximities of anticipatory governance: to its object, nanotechnology, which is a relatively indistinct one; to the public, which remains almost utterly naive toward nanotechnology; and to technoscience itself, which allegedly renders anticipatory governance complicit in its hubris. The article concludes that the changing venues and the amplification within them of the still, small voices of folks previously excluded from offering constructive visions of futures afforded by anticipatory governance may not be complete solutions to our woes in governing technology, but they certainly can contribute to bending the long arc of technoscience more toward humane ends.

  14. Empirical studies on changes in oil governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemal, Mohammad

    Regulation of the oil and gas sector is consequential to the economies of oil-producing countries. In the literature, there are two types of regulation: indirect regulation through taxes and tariffs or direct regulation through the creation of a National Oil Company (NOC). In the 1970s, many oil-producing countries nationalized their oil and gas sectors by creating and giving ownership rights of oil and gas resources to NOCs. In light of the success of Norway in regulating its oil and gas resources, over the past two decades several countries have changed their oil governance by changing the rights given to NOC from ownership right to mere access rights like other oil companies. However, empirical literature on these changes in oil governance is quite thin. Thus, this dissertation will explore three research questions to investigate empirically these changes in oil governance. First, I investigate empirically the impact of the changes in oil governance on aggregate domestic income. By employing a difference-in-difference method, I will show that a country which changed its oil governance increases its GDP per-capita by 10%. However, the impact is different for different types of political institution. Second, by observing the changes in oil governance in Indonesia , I explore the impact of the changes on learning-by-doing and learning spillover effect in offshore exploration drilling. By employing an econometric model which includes interaction terms between various experience variables and changes in an oil governance dummy, I will show that the change in oil governance in Indonesia enhances learning-by-doing by the rigs and learning spillover in a basin. Lastly, the impact of the changes in oil governance on expropriation risk and extraction path will be explored. By employing a difference-in-difference method, this essay will show that the changes in oil governance reduce expropriation and the impact of it is different for different sizes of resource stock.

  15. Approaching Moisture Recycling Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keys, Patrick; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line; Galaz, Victor; Ebbesson, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of water resources are a continuous challenge for effective and sustainable national and international governance. Despite the surface watershed being the typical unit of water management, recent advances in hydrology have revealed 'atmospheric watersheds' - otherwise known as precipitationsheds. Also, recent research has demonstrated that water flowing within a precipitationshed may be modified by land-use change in one location, while the effect of this modification could be felt in a different province, nation, or continent. Notwithstanding these insights, the major legal and institutional implications of modifying moisture recycling have remained unexplored. In this presentation, we examine potential approaches to moisture recycling governance. We first identify a set of international study regions, and then develop a typology of moisture recycling relationships within these regions ranging from bilateral moisture exchange to more complex networks. This enables us to classify different types of legal and institutional governance principles. Likewise, we relate the moisture recycling types to existing land and water governance frameworks and management practices. The complexity of moisture recycling means institutional fit will be difficult to generalize for all moisture recycling relationships, but our typology allows the identification of characteristics that make effective governance of these normally ignored water flows more tenable.

  16. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Biology and the Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Roger D.

    1969-01-01

    Emphasizes the social implications of biological knowledge and discusses two main government roles in biology: (1) a creative and supportive role, including support of education and research, (2) control, regulation and protection related to the applications of biological knowledge. Public control is considered necessary in areas such as food and…

  18. Leadership and Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Arthur

    1998-01-01

    Discusses leadership and governance issues in implementing curricular reform at eight medical schools participating in a large-scale medical curriculum development project. Attention is given to the definition of leadership, characteristics of successful leaders, management of resistance to change, the role of curriculum committees, the use of…

  19. In Brief: Open government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama's Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government requires federal agencies to take steps toward increased transparency, public participation, and collaboration. Agencies are accepting suggestions until 19 March 2010. For more information, visit http://www.whitehouse.gov/open and http://www.usa.gov/webcontent/open/tool_poc.shtml.

  20. Governance Review without Tears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lynn K.; Page, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    The faculty at the Raymond Walters College of the University of Cincinnati recently conceived, developed, and implemented a complete governance review that the faculty approved unanimously. Raymond Walters College is one of the sixteen colleges of the University of Cincinnati which offers transfer programs, associate degrees, and technical…

  1. Governance Structure: Palomar College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palomar Coll., San Marcos, CA.

    The governance structure of Palomar College (PC) in San Marcos, California, is defined in the plan described in this document. Introductory material indicates that the plan was designed to provide appropriate representation for each of PC's constituent groups, delineate committee responsibilities and reporting relationships, establish the…

  2. Governance Final Briefing Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    One of the State Board of Education's (SBE) strategic plan goals is to advocate for an effective, accountable governance structure for public education in Washington. The development of this goal comes from Board members' experiences over the last five years to understand and address the complexity of Washington's education system and their role…

  3. The University's Governance Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maassen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    One can observe a growing external pressure on universities to become more responsive to society through proactively engaging in various types of competition--competing for students, staff, external funding, and for academic prestige and status. The ensuing reform agendas aim at changing the intra-university governance structures for stimulating…

  4. Government in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Donald J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This issue begins with information on new economic education curriculum materials and includes a conceptual introduction to the relationship between local government and the economy. Following this, four instructional units are provided. The first unit, called "Communities Need Rules," is intended for preschool and kindergarten children.…

  5. Government Classification: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Karen M.

    Classification of government documents (confidential, secret, top secret) is a system used by the executive branch to, in part, protect national security and foreign policy interests. The systematic use of classification markings with precise definitions was established during World War I, and since 1936 major changes in classification have…

  6. Name that Government Guru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCew, Sheri

    2004-01-01

    No Child Left Behind and state testing mandate the study of government officials, at local, state, and federal levels, in judicial, legislative, and executive branches. At Wattles Elementary School in Troy, Michigan, test scores indicated that this was a weak area--not surprising since this always has been primarily a high school subject. In this…

  7. Governance Structure: Palomar College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palomar Coll., San Marcos, CA.

    The governance structure of Palomar College (PC) in San Marcos, California, is defined in the plan described in this document. Introductory material indicates that the plan was designed to provide appropriate representation for each of PC's constituent groups, delineate committee responsibilities and reporting relationships, establish the…

  8. Governance and Civic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ekundayo J. D., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on the socioeconomic development, legal, gender, philosophical, and human rights dimensions of state governance within the context of social, economic, and political processes in Sierra Leone and Kenya. The Political Literacy and Civic Education (PLACE) Project, which was sponsored by the British Overseas Development…

  9. Government in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Donald J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This issue begins with information on new economic education curriculum materials and includes a conceptual introduction to the relationship between local government and the economy. Following this, four instructional units are provided. The first unit, called "Communities Need Rules," is intended for preschool and kindergarten children.…

  10. Biology and the Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Roger D.

    1969-01-01

    Emphasizes the social implications of biological knowledge and discusses two main government roles in biology: (1) a creative and supportive role, including support of education and research, (2) control, regulation and protection related to the applications of biological knowledge. Public control is considered necessary in areas such as food and…

  11. State Governance Action Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This is the fifth edition of the State Governance Action Report that has been produced since 2000 by the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges' (AGB's) Ingram Center for Public Trusteeship and Governance. Focusing primarily on state and higher education policies directly affecting governance, trusteeship, and institutionally…

  12. State Governance Action Report, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the State Governance Action Report for 2007. Compiled in this report are state policy developments, including legislation, commissions, and studies, affecting the structure, responsibilities, and operations of public higher education governing boards and institutionally related foundations. Governance and governance-related…

  13. State Governance Action Report, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the State Governance Action Report for 2007. Compiled in this report are state policy developments, including legislation, commissions, and studies, affecting the structure, responsibilities, and operations of public higher education governing boards and institutionally related foundations. Governance and governance-related…

  14. Effective Government Structures for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkin, Rachel

    1997-01-01

    Argues that government structures are not effective for children. Suggests that a Minister and Children's Unit be responsible for four tasks, including developing government strategy for children, presenting research on children to provide a full view of the child's situation to government, coordinating government departments, and consulting…

  15. Preface to the special issue of Journal of Marine Systems. Selected papers from the Fifth International Marine Environmental Modelling Seminar, New Orleans, USA, October 2001 - Facilitating constructive government-industry interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Mark; LaBelle, Robert

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of IMEMS is to bring together marine environmental scientists and managers from academia, research, industry, and government to share information and concepts. In this way model developers and users may achieve a common understanding of present and future capabilities, needs, and limitations. IMEMS is intended to contribute to improved understanding of our technological capabilities and limitations, such that better environmental management decisions may be made.

  16. Productive School Governance: Success Case Studies from New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    The rhetoric abounds concerning the types of effective, high trust, interactions that should exist for a school governing body. In practise, however, such interactions are often difficult to define, establish, maintain, and sustain. The study reported on in this paper attempted to identify interactions linked to perceptions of high trust via a…

  17. Government-Sponsored Programs on Structures Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This document contains the presentations from the joint UVA/AIAA workshops on Government-Sponsored Programs on Structures Technology, held on April 6, 1997 in Kissimmee, Florida and on September 4, 1997 in Hampton, Virginia. Workshop attendees were the Members and Friends of the AIAA Structures Technical Committee. The objectives of the workshops were to: (a) provide a forum for discussion of current government-sponsored programs in the structures area; (b) identify high-potential research areas for future aerospace systems; and (c) initiate suitable interaction mechanisms with the managers of structures programs.

  18. 48 CFR 46.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 46.406 Foreign governments. Government contract quality assurance performed for foreign governments or international agencies shall...

  19. Ethics and constitutional government.

    PubMed

    Albright, James A

    2007-01-01

    The term ethics refers to a set of principles that govern acceptable, proper conduct. Attacks on the Constitution of the United States pose the most serious breach of ethics today. Our country was founded as a republic, not as a democracy. Our Founding Fathers' main concern was to protect citizens from the power of the federal government, so constitutionally, the central government has little or no authority over individual citizens except on federal property. One of the major problems today is the fact that we now have professional politicians. This is due in large part to the lure of financial gain from countless special interest groups. This would change under constitutional law because the federal budget would decrease drastically. Article 1 states that all legislative power is vested in Congress. Congress has only 18 enumerated powers, and almost half of these pertain to defense of the country. Many of our current problems are due to regulatory agencies that have become independent fiefdoms with unconstitutional legislative, as well as executive and judicial, powers. The regulatory agency most relevant to medicine, both clinical care and research, is the FDA. It is now obvious that its basic structure needs to be changed or abolished because its actions are identical to those inherent in authoritarian systems. Constructive change could come from Congress, but it would be most desirable if the Supreme Court would take the lead and reestablish the authority of the Constitution as the Supreme Law of the Land. The FDA's function could be limited to the determination of safety, but preferably its mission would be altered to that of product certification. Defenders of the current system claim that such a drastic change would be too dangerous and their prime example is thalidomide. But it is now known that the market has already solved that problem prior to the government-imposed sanctions. Realistically, market forces and their ramifications, including our legal

  20. Professionalizing Government Strategists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    recommendations to resolve this problem. Understanding why government strategists need professional development and a system of personnel management... Professional Development and Career Management, DA Pam 600-3 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Army, February 1, 2010), 263-269; Harry R. Yarger...January 29, 2013). 12 U.S. Department of the Army, Commissioned Officer Professional Development and Career Management, 263-269. 13 Yarger, Educating for

  1. Shared Health Governance

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2014-01-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a) developed the “health capability paradigm,” a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called “shared health governance” (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

  2. Auditing Government Transportation Bills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    of the Comptroller of the United States, June 5, 1974, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1974. 13. Ballou , Ronald H., Business ...Transportation Policy I Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Production and Logistics ) Washington, D.C. 20301-8000 8. Naval Supply Systems Command 1...of Federal Regulations CONUS Continential United States DLA Defense Logistics Agency DOD Department of Defense EDI Electronic Data Interchange EFT

  3. What governs governance, and how does it evolve? The sociology of governance-in-action.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nick J; Ward, Katie J

    2008-09-01

    Governance addresses a wide range of issues including social, economic and political continuity, security and integrity, individual and collective safety and the liberty and rights to self-actualization of citizens. Questions to be answered include how governance can be achieved and sustained within a social context imbued with cultural values and in which power is distributed unevenly and dynamically, and how governance impacts on individuals and institutions. Drawing on Gramscian notions of hegemony and consent, and recent political science literatures on regulation and meta-regulation, this paper develops a sociological model of governance that emphasizes a dynamic and responsive governance in action. Empirical data from a study of pharmaceutical governance is used to show how multiple institutions and actors are involved in sustaining effective governance. The model addresses issues of how governance is sustained in the face of change, why governance of practices varies from setting to setting, and how governance is achieved without legislation.

  4. Digital government and public health.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Jane E

    2004-10-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agency's readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, managerial, and political capabilities. Public health agencies are especially challenged by a lack of funding for technical infrastructure and expertise, by privacy and security issues, and by lack of Internet access for low-income and marginalized populations. Public health agencies understand the difficulties of working across agencies and levels of government, but the development of new, integrated e-programs will require more than technical change - it will require a profound change in paradigm.

  5. Governance Challenges in Telecoupled Food Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, H.; Mahanti, A.; Rueda, X.

    2015-12-01

    Distal connections increasingly influence food systems' governance: social actors in one geographic context produce intended and unintended consequences in distant locations, coupling the dynamics of socio-ecological systems. While these linkages are not new, economic globalization, urbanization and the dynamics of consumer preferences have accentuated these 'telecoupled' relationships in food systems. Telecoupling refers to the unexpected causal interactions among human-environment systems that were otherwise not linked. This paper presents a framework for evaluating telecoupling processes and outcomes in food systems, focusing on how the disparate scales of drivers and outcomes, diverse values of actors involved, and spatial and social distance combine to challenge socio-ecological system governance. We draw from two examples of food systems (coffee and maize) to argue that telecoupling, as a challenge for food systems, emerges when the institutions and mechanisms of governance acting over one system do not account for the consequences and interactions involving a different system. Telecoupling can stimulate new forms of governance, such as the development of codes of conduct and certification schemes, with positive impacts on food and livelihood security. Our cases suggest that the emergence of new governance arrangements is at least partially contingent on the prior existence of alternative social networks, which cultivate shared values, meanings and goals in food systems, as well as the capacity of affected actors to mobilize political influence and demonstrate plausible causal links. In the absence of such networks and associated capacities, the prior governance arrangements, although poorly adjusted to the new circumstances, are likely to persist, reinforcing existing power relations and the probability of undesirable social and ecological outcomes.

  6. Arctic tipping points: governance in turbulent times.

    PubMed

    Young, Oran R

    2012-02-01

    Interacting forces of climate change and globalization are transforming the Arctic. Triggered by a non-linear shift in sea ice, this transformation has unleashed mounting interest in opportunities to exploit the region's natural resources as well as growing concern about environmental, economic, and political issues associated with such efforts. This article addresses the implications of this transformation for governance, identifies limitations of existing arrangements, and explores changes needed to meet new demands. It advocates the development of an Arctic regime complex featuring flexibility across issues and adaptability over time along with an enhanced role for the Arctic Council both in conducting policy-relevant assessments and in promoting synergy in interactions among the elements of the emerging Arctic regime complex. The emphasis throughout is on maximizing the fit between the socioecological features of the Arctic and the character of the governance arrangements needed to steer the Arctic toward a sustainable future.

  7. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  8. Recent Literature on Government Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutto, Dena Holiman

    2000-01-01

    Provides a bibliography of recent publications about government information from the literature of librarianship, archives, information technology and management, and public policy. Discusses traditional government roles and new models for information management, services, and resources; information infrastructure; access to government information…

  9. Local Government: The Learning Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degelman, Charles, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Service-Learning Network" looks at the ways that service learning can transform local government into a learning laboratory for civic education. The first article, "Creating the Missing Link: Local Government, Service Learning, and Civic Education" (Todd Clark), introduces the issue. "Service Learning and Local Government" (Ann…

  10. Shared Governance: Balancing the Euphoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guffey, J. Stephen; Rampp, Lary C.

    This paper presents an alternative view of shared governance within higher education institutions, examining the major problems encountered by institutions as they implement a shared governance model. Based on a review of the literature, it argues that shared governance, though increasingly popular in recent years, is an issue that should be…

  11. Governance for personal health records.

    PubMed

    Reti, Shane R; Feldman, Henry J; Safran, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Personal health records (PHR) are a modern health technology with the ability to engage patients more fully in their healthcare. Despite widespread interest, there has been little discussion around PHR governance at an organizational level. We develop a governance model and compare it to the practices of some of the early PHR adopters, including hospitals and ambulatory care settings, insurers and health plans, government departments, and commercial sectors. Decision-making structures varied between organizations. Business operations were present in all groups, but patients were not represented in any of the governance structures surveyed. To improve patient-centered care, policy making for PHRs needs to include patient representation at a governance level.

  12. Government-to-Government E-Government: A Case Study of a Federal Financial Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faokunla, Olumide Adegboyega

    2012-01-01

    The problem with the study of the concept of electronic government (e-Gov) is that scholars in the field have not adequately explored various dimensions of the concept. Literature on e-Gov is replete with works on the form of government to consumer e-Gov. Much less work had been done on the government to government (G2G) e-Gov. This qualitative…

  13. Government-to-Government E-Government: A Case Study of a Federal Financial Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faokunla, Olumide Adegboyega

    2012-01-01

    The problem with the study of the concept of electronic government (e-Gov) is that scholars in the field have not adequately explored various dimensions of the concept. Literature on e-Gov is replete with works on the form of government to consumer e-Gov. Much less work had been done on the government to government (G2G) e-Gov. This qualitative…

  14. Virtual university governance.

    PubMed

    Hovenga, Evelyn J S

    2004-01-01

    There is a need to establish collaboration alliances or partnerships if we are to provide global Health Informatics educatics education. Agreements need to make provision for the existing diversity between country educational systems as well as variations in funding, legislation and political systems and a number of other issues including intellectual property and copyright. Four virtual University governance models were identified, 1) evolution of existing universities, 2) newly created organisations collectively delivering one type of program eg MBA, 3) a consortium of partners using a common portal and 4) a commercial enterprise. Collectively IMIA academic members need to be in a good position to respond to the global changes in higher education and minimise the risk of failure when establishing a virtual University to collectively deliver Health Informatics education. Others have undertaken a similar path in the past, some successful others not so, we need to learn from these experiences.

  15. Nanomedicine: Governing uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisolino, Antonella

    Nanomedicine is a promising and revolutionary field to improve medical diagnoses and therapies leading to a higher quality of life for everybody. Huge benefits are expected from nanomedicine applications such as in diagnostic and therapeutic field. However, nanomedicine poses several issues on risks to the human health. This thesis aims to defense a perspective of risk governance that sustains scientific knowledge process by developing guidelines and providing the minimum safety standards acceptable to protect the human health. Although nanomedicine is in an early stage of its discovery, some cautious measures are required to provide regulatory mechanisms able to response to the unique set of challenges associated to nanomedicine. Nanotechnology offers an unique opportunity to intensify a major interplay between different disciplines such as science and law. This multidisciplinary approach can positively contributes to find reliable regulatory choices and responsive normative tools in dealing with challenges of novel technologies.

  16. Why governance? A challenge to good governance of biobanks.

    PubMed

    Browne, Katharine

    2015-12-01

    In this commentary on Karla Stroud and Kieran O'Doherty's 'Ethically Sustainable Governance in the Biobanking of Eggs and Embryos for Research' (2015) I call into question the need for good governance to overcome the challenges facing biobanking of eggs and embryos. I argue that the principles of good governance for biobanking that Stroud and O'Doherty outline come up short in providing concrete normative guidance to resolve the challenges associated with a biobank for eggs and embryos.

  17. An Empirical Investigation of the Role of Information Quality in Citizens' Trust in E-Government Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ally

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a change in the citizen-government relationship. Citizens have moved from a traditional face-to-face communication with their government, to an electronic interaction through the use of e-government systems. Emerging technology has enabled citizens to communicate with their government remotely. However, trust…

  18. An Empirical Investigation of the Role of Information Quality in Citizens' Trust in E-Government Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ally

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a change in the citizen-government relationship. Citizens have moved from a traditional face-to-face communication with their government, to an electronic interaction through the use of e-government systems. Emerging technology has enabled citizens to communicate with their government remotely. However, trust…

  19. The Molecular Circuitry Governing Retinal Determination

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Justin P.

    2009-01-01

    The developing eye of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has become a premier model system for studying the genetic and molecular mechanisms that govern tissue determination. Over the last fifteen years a regulatory circuit consisting of the members of the Pax, Six, Eya and Dach gene families has been identified and shown to govern the specification of a wide range of tissues including the retina of both insects and mammals. These genes are not organized in a simple developmental pathway or cascade in which there is a unidirectional flow of information. Rather, there are multiple feedback loops built into the system rendering its appearance and functionality more in line with the workings of a network. In this review I will attempt to describe the genetic, molecular and biochemical interactions that govern the specification of the Drosophila compound eye. In particular, the primary focus will be on the interactions that have been experimentally verified at the molecular and biochemical levels. During the course of this description I will also attempt to place each discovery in its own historical context. While a number of signaling pathways play significant roles in early eye development this review will focus on the network of nuclear factors that promote retinal determination. PMID:19013263

  20. Global health justice and governance.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  1. Successful Shared Governance Through Education.

    PubMed

    Brull, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Shared governance is one way nurses can attain a healthy work environment. Having direct-care nurses involved in raising relevant clinical and operational issues and creating systematic approaches has been linked to greater levels of empowerment which is often transposed into shared governance. Nurse leaders at one hospital used a comprehensive educational strategy to implement shared governance in less than 2 years. An authoritative style of leadership and decision making does not meet the needs of today's complex health care environment; nor does it meet the needs of today's employees. The focus on a very deliberate and educational strategy for shared governance was successful in building the structures and processes needed to take a unit and division from traditional governance to shared governance in less than 2 years.

  2. Copyright in Government Employee Works

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    34 Government shop right" exists despite the comment to the contrary in the House Judici- ary Committee’s discussion of section 201.Ŝ Supportive of this...NUMBERS Copyright in Government Employee Works 5. AUTHOR(S) John 0. Tresansky 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING... Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply. 12. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Section 105 of

  3. Technology transfer within the government

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, John

    1992-01-01

    The report of a workshop panel concerned with technology transfer within the government is presented. The presentation is made in vugraph form. The assigned subtopic for this panel are as follows: (1) transfer from non-NASA US government technology developers to NASA space missions/programs; and (2) transfer from NASA to other US government space mission programs. A specific area of inquiry was Technology Maturation Milestones. Three areas were investigated: technology development; advanced development; and flight hardware development.

  4. Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-14

    1 For text, see [http://www.un.org/News/dh/latest/afghan/afghan-agree.htm]. Order Code RS21922 Updated October 14, 2008 Afghanistan: Government ...However, ethnic disputes have been confined to political debate and competition, enabling Karzai to focus on improving governance , reversing security...deterioration and on his re-election bid in the fall of 2009. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post- War Governance , Security, and U.S. Policy, by

  5. Government influence on patient organizations.

    PubMed

    Van de Bovenkamp, Hester M; Trappenburg, Margo J

    2011-12-01

    Patient organizations increasingly play an important role in health care decision-making in Western countries. The Netherlands is one of the countries where this trend has gone furthest. In the literature some problems are identified, such as instrumental use of patient organizations by care providers, health insurers and the pharmaceutical industry. To strengthen the position of patient organizations government funding is often recommended as a solution. In this paper we analyze the ties between Dutch government and Dutch patient organizations to learn more about the effects of such a relationship between government and this part of civil society. Our study is based on official government documents and existing empirical research on patient organizations. We found that government influence on patient organizations has become quite substantial with government influencing the organizational structure of patient organizations, the activities these organizations perform and even their ideology. Financing patient organizations offers the government an important means to hold them accountable. Although the ties between patient organizations and the government enable the former to play a role that can be valued as positive by both parties, we argue that they raise problems as well which warrant a discussion on how much government influence on civil society is acceptable.

  6. Transformative environmental governance | Science Inventory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  7. Student Government Manual: A Practical Guide for Organizing Student Governments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Harlem Block Nursery, Inc., New York, NY.

    This manual is written for adults working in the schools to organize student governments. It is based on the experience of the Youth Action Program (YAP) of East Harlem (New York City) in organizing and developing student leadership. The manual is divided into 10 sections. "Student Government: Leadership and Purposes" explores the…

  8. Governing the Governance of Education: The State Strikes Back?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Christine

    2007-01-01

    In many countries, there have been changes in the way in which education is governed, with greater fragmentation of responsibility between the state, local government, schools, individuals and the market often accompanied by a move from detailed regulation to framework legislation. Previously, these developments have been seen as part of the move…

  9. Governance of Higher Education--Implementation of Project Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macheridis, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on coordination between governance actors in higher education. The object of the study is a department at a public university, seen as a multi-project environment. The purpose of this article is to illustrate and analyze project governance as a tool that allows departmental management to coordinate with the authorities, the…

  10. Non-Functional Property Driven Service Governance: Performance Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yan; Zhu, Liming; Bass, Len; Gorton, Ian; Staples, Mark

    2007-09-17

    Service governance is a set of businesses processes, policies and technical solutions that support enterprises in their implementation and management of their SOA. The decisions of service governance, especially concerning service boundaries at the enterprise level, influence the deployment topology of business services across or within business organizations. Deployment topologies are realized by integration technologies such as Enterprise Service Bus (ESB). Service governance and technical solutions interact in a subtle way including through communication patterns and protocols between services and ESBs, as well as the deployment and configuration of ESB. These factors have a strong influence on the Non- Functional Properties (NFP) of a SOA solution. A systematic approach is essential to understand alternative technical solutions for a specific service governance decision. This paper proposes a modeling approach to evaluate the performance-related NFP impacts when mapping service governance to technical solutions using an ESB. This approach is illustrated by the quantitative performance analysis of a real

  11. The Governance of Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vergino, E S; May, M

    2003-09-22

    be successful. Regaining that consensus on the other hand means alleviating some fundamental insecurity on the part of states, and weakening the hold that terrorist groups have on some state governments. This in turn requires that some fundamental issues be addressed, with recognition that these are part of a suite of complex and dynamic interactions. Among these issues are: How will states provide for their own security and other central interests while preventing further proliferation, protecting against the use of nuclear weapons, and yet allowing for the possible expansion of nuclear power?; How best can states with limited resources to fight terrorist activities and safeguard nuclear materials be assisted in securing their materials and technologies?; What is the future role of international inspections? Does the IAEA remain the right organization to carry out these tasks? If not, what are the desired characteristics of a successor agency and can there be agreement on one?; How confident can we be of nonproliferation as latent nuclear weapon capabilities spread? The policies to address these and other issues must explicitly deal with NPT members who do not observe their obligations; NPT non-members; illicit trade in SNM and weapon technologies and the possibility of a regional nuclear war.

  12. Plasma-membrane-bound macromolecules are dynamically aggregated to form non-random codistribution patterns of selected functional elements. Do pattern recognition processes govern antigen presentation and intercellular interactions?

    PubMed

    Vereb, G; Mátyus, L; Bene, L; Panyi, G; Bacsó, Z; Balázs, M; Matkó, J; Szöllösi, J; Gáspár, R; Damjanovich, S

    1995-01-01

    Molecular recognition processes between cell surface elements are discussed with special reference to cell surface pattern formation of membrane-bound integral proteins. The existence, as detected by flow cytometric resonance energy transfer (Appendix), and significance of cell surface patterns involving the interleukin-2 receptor, the T-cell receptor-CD3 system, the intercellular adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and the major histocompatibility complex class I and class II molecules in the plasma membrane of lymphocytes are described. The modulation of antigen presentation by transmembrane potential changes is discussed, and a general role of transmembrane potential changes, and therefore of ion channel activities, adduced as one of the major regulatory mechanisms of cell-cell communication. A general role in the mediation and regulation of intercellular interactions is suggested for cell-surface macromolecular patterns. The dynamic pattern of protein and lipid molecules in the plasma membrane is generated by the genetic code, but has a remarkable flexibility and may be one of the major instruments of accommodation and recognition processes at the cellular level.

  13. Faculty Communication with Governing Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiede, Hans-Joerg

    2013-01-01

    College and university governance works best when every constituency within the institution has a clear understanding of its role with respect to the other constituencies. It works best when communication among the governing board, the administration, and the faculty (not to mention the staff and students) is regular, open, and honest. Too often…

  14. Recent Literature on Government Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to provide government information scholars and students with a broad overview of recent publications about government information from the literature of librarianship, archives, information technology management, public policy and law. Given the volume of literature produced in this field, a columnist cannot claim…

  15. Recent Literature on Government Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to provide government information scholars and students with a broad overview of recent publications about government information from the literature of librarianship, archives, information technology management, public policy, and law. Given the volume of literature produced in this field, a columnist cannot claim…

  16. The Future of Shared Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crellin, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Higher education has relied on the power of collaborative decision making on college and university campuses through the model of shared governance since the early 1900s. However, the principles of shared governance are now more thoroughly tested than ever before. In response to these simultaneous pressures and challenges, the leadership of…

  17. Governance: A Community College Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carhart, John I.; Collins, Charles C.

    The purpose of this report is to describe the development of the input/output governance model at Los Medanos College and to explore the governance issues pertinent to all community colleges. Considerations in creating the model included the issue of authority and responsibility in terms of legal sources, the authority and accountability…

  18. Government Documents at the Crossroads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Karrie; Cowell, Elizabeth; Jacobs, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Discusses problems and as-yet unresolved questions about public access to government documents raised by electronic publishing. One solution is libraries should adapt to include electronic files of government publications and include them in the growing digital collections. The way that librarians approach the struggle to maintain free and open…

  19. 3 CFR - Managing Government Records

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements in law, regulation, and this memorandum is a priority for senior agency management; (ii) ensure... (Archivist), a senior agency official to supervise the review required by subsection (b) of this section, in...) increasing open Government and appropriate public access to Government records; (v) supporting...

  20. Governing with the Christian Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckman, Melissa M.

    2006-01-01

    The author of this article recently studied the impact of the Christian Right on school board politics in a Maryland school district. The six-year situation in Garrett County shows that religious conservatives do not necessarily govern by placing their personal religious views above all else. Governing with Christian Right board members might…

  1. The Business of Governing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gann, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    In September 2015, the Secretary of State for Education asked for more business involvement in schools, and in particular for business leaders' help to improve failing schools. This article questions the twenty-year campaign by all governments to engage business expertise and values in the governance of schools.

  2. The Business of Governing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gann, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    In September 2015, the Secretary of State for Education asked for more business involvement in schools, and in particular for business leaders' help to improve failing schools. This article questions the twenty-year campaign by all governments to engage business expertise and values in the governance of schools.

  3. Transforming Institutions through Shared Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Shared governance is a basic tenet of higher education and is frequently referred to. For shared governance to be successful, board members, administrators, and faculty members must learn to have respect for and confidence in each other, acting inclusively, transparently, and responsibly. Boards need to be active and involved, participating in…

  4. School Boards: Emerging Governance Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Patricia; Osborne, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The governance role of school boards is not new. Local school boards have governed education in Canada since the 19th century. However, significant forces are impacting on school boards and how they enact their roles and responsibilities. In this article, the authors want to look at the growing pressures on school boards, to actively acknowledge…

  5. The Future of Shared Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crellin, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Higher education has relied on the power of collaborative decision making on college and university campuses through the model of shared governance since the early 1900s. However, the principles of shared governance are now more thoroughly tested than ever before. In response to these simultaneous pressures and challenges, the leadership of…

  6. Understanding Horizontal Governance. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Horizontal governance is an umbrella term that covers a range of approaches to policy development, service delivery issues, and management practices. A horizontal initiative may take place across levels of government, across boundaries between units of a single department or agency or among multiple departments or agencies, or across public,…

  7. Shared Governance: Promises and Perils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Patricia L.

    Shared governance in the community college district has both advantages and disadvantages. Among the three "perils" of implementing shared governance are that the process is difficult, lengthy, and sometimes tedious; that responsibility for decisions and actions must somehow be maintained; and that an appropriate role for faculty, staff,…

  8. Governing Board Meeting Management Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Don E.

    This checklist is intended to give school governing board members a means of assessing their meeting practices. The checklist contains five categories, with a total of 80 questions, pertaining to meeting-management variables common to all governing boards. The categories include: (1) preparation for the meetings; (2) operation of the meetings; (3)…

  9. School Boards: Emerging Governance Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Patricia; Osborne, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The governance role of school boards is not new. Local school boards have governed education in Canada since the 19th century. However, significant forces are impacting on school boards and how they enact their roles and responsibilities. In this article, the authors want to look at the growing pressures on school boards, to actively acknowledge…

  10. Recent Literature on Government Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to provide government information scholars and students with a broad overview of recent publications about government information from the literature of librarianship, archives, information technology management, public policy, and law. Given the volume of literature produced in this field, a columnist cannot claim…

  11. Recent Literature on Government Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to provide government information scholars and students with a broad overview of recent publications about government information from the literature of librarianship, archives, information technology management, public policy and law. Given the volume of literature produced in this field, a columnist cannot claim…

  12. Governance Failure in Social Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Chris; Chinnock, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the participative, democratic model of governance commonly found within social enterprises. This model has its origins in the broader not-for-profit sector where it is widely adopted. A core assumption of this governance form is that it ensures that the organisation will take a range of views into…

  13. Transforming Institutions through Shared Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Shared governance is a basic tenet of higher education and is frequently referred to. For shared governance to be successful, board members, administrators, and faculty members must learn to have respect for and confidence in each other, acting inclusively, transparently, and responsibly. Boards need to be active and involved, participating in…

  14. Faculty Communication with Governing Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiede, Hans-Joerg

    2013-01-01

    College and university governance works best when every constituency within the institution has a clear understanding of its role with respect to the other constituencies. It works best when communication among the governing board, the administration, and the faculty (not to mention the staff and students) is regular, open, and honest. Too often…

  15. DOBIS: The Canadian Government Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, William L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Presents background information on DOBIS (an online library system) evaluation, software acquisition, and development, and describes the status and plans for DOBIS in the Canadian government. Appendices provide an overview of the Canadian government version of the system from a librarian's and a systems analyst's perspective. (CWM)

  16. State Governance of Education: 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnes, Donald W.; And Others

    The authors report on major trends and emerging issues in state education policy-making. Two parts cover, first, the history, status, and future of educational governance and, second, the alternatives open to state leaders in structuring and using education commissions. In accounting for trends in educational governance, the authors consider such…

  17. State and Local Government Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

    This report concerns public purchasing at all levels of government and brings into focus the role of the purchasing official in government management. Covered in the report are essential elements of the purchasing process, including the assessment of needs; written specifications; advertising, evaluating, and awarding bids; and inspection and…

  18. Administration of Government Documents Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harleston, Rebekah M.; Stoffle, Carla J.

    A manual is presented which describes procedures for processing government documents. A brief overview of government publishing and the depository system is provided in chapter one. Chapter two explains the principles of the Superintendent of Documents classification system and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using it. Bibliographic…

  19. Government Documents Departmental Operations Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John S.; And Others

    This manual for the operation and maintenance of the Government Documents Department at Baylor University's Moody Memorial Library is divided into 13 topical sections. The guide opens with the collection development policy statement, which covers the general collection, the maps division, and weeding government documents. Technical processing…

  20. Choosing to Pursue Great Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Jay; March, Terry

    2006-01-01

    New ways of thinking about governance are beginning to transform the leadership strategies of many people who serve in nonprofit organizations. How specifically can the time and talents of higher education trustees be used more effectively to advance the interests of colleges and universities? How many college and university boards govern like…

  1. Practice Governance 101, v. 2013.

    PubMed

    Hayes, David F

    2013-03-01

    Consensus governance is a principal weakness leading to group malfunction and failure. Inadequate group governance produces inadequate decisions, leading to inconsistent patient care, inadequate responses to marketplace challenges, and disregard for customers and strategic partners. The effectiveness of consensus management is limited by the pervasive incomplete knowledge and personal biases of partners. Additional structural weaknesses of group behavior include information cascade, the wisdom of the crowd, groupthink, pluralistic ignorance, analysis paralysis, peer pressure, and the herding instinct. Usual corporate governance is, by necessity, the governance model of choice. Full accountability of the decider(s) is the defining requirement of all successful governance models. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. English obesity policies: To govern and not to govern.

    PubMed

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2015-06-01

    Problem definitions constitute a crucial part of the policy process. In 2008 the Labour Government presented a plan to reduce the obesity prevalence in England. Only three years later the Conservative-Liberal Government introduced a plan on the same topic, which it presented as new and innovative. The aim of this study is to analyse the respective governments' problematisations of obesity and to identify similarities and differences. Despite the different hues of the two governments, the programmes are surprisingly similar. They seek to simultaneously govern and not to govern. They adhere to liberal ideals of individual choice and they also suggest initiatives that will lead people to choose certain behaviours. Both governments encourage the food and drink industry to support their policies voluntarily, rather than obliging them to do so, although Labour is somewhat more inclined to use statutory measures. The Conservative-Liberal plan does not represent many new ideas. The plans are characterised by the paradox that they convey both ideas and ideals about freedom of choice as well as about state interventions to influence people's choices, which could be seen as incompatible, but as the study shows in practice they are not.

  3. Governance matters: an ecological association between governance and child mortality

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ro-Ting; Chien, Lung-Chang; Chen, Ya-Mei; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Governance of a country may have widespread effects on the health of its population, yet little is known about the effect of governance on child mortality in a country that is undergoing urbanization, economic development, and disease control. Methods We obtained indicators of six dimensions of governance (perceptions of voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and control of corruption) and national under-5 mortality rates for 149 countries between 1996 and 2010. We applied a semi-parametric generalized additive mixed model to examine associations after controlling for the effects of development factors (urbanization level and economy), disease control factors (hygienic conditions and vaccination rates), health expenditures, air quality, and time. Results Governance, development, and disease control showed clear inverse relations with the under-5 mortality rate (p<0.001). Per unit increases in governance, development, and disease control factors, the child mortality rate had a 0.901-, 0.823-, and 0.922-fold decrease, respectively, at fixed levels of the other two factors. Conclusions In the effort to reduce the global under-5 mortality rate, addressing a country's need for better governance is as important as improvements in development and disease control. PMID:24711600

  4. Governance matters: an ecological association between governance and child mortality.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ro-Ting; Chien, Lung-Chang; Chen, Ya-Mei; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-09-01

    Governance of a country may have widespread effects on the health of its population, yet little is known about the effect of governance on child mortality in a country that is undergoing urbanization, economic development, and disease control. We obtained indicators of six dimensions of governance (perceptions of voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and control of corruption) and national under-5 mortality rates for 149 countries between 1996 and 2010. We applied a semi-parametric generalized additive mixed model to examine associations after controlling for the effects of development factors (urbanization level and economy), disease control factors (hygienic conditions and vaccination rates), health expenditures, air quality, and time. Governance, development, and disease control showed clear inverse relations with the under-5 mortality rate (p<0.001). Per unit increases in governance, development, and disease control factors, the child mortality rate had a 0.901-, 0.823-, and 0.922-fold decrease, respectively, at fixed levels of the other two factors. In the effort to reduce the global under-5 mortality rate, addressing a country's need for better governance is as important as improvements in development and disease control. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. RADIUS: the government viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerson, Donald J.

    1992-04-01

    The Office of Research and Development, with major involvement and support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), has begun a highly applications- oriented project intended to provide image understanding (IU) technology in a fully and semi- automated support system of human-machine interface interactive tools to the photo interpreter and imagery analyst (IA). The central concept of Research and Development for Image Understanding Systems (RADIUS) is that of model supported exploitation. Two- and/or three dimensional site models are developed and/or maintained by analysts using imagery source data, imagery-derived information, and appropriate non-imagery sourced information (often called collateral). IU technology and necessary non-IU technology are used where feasible to integrate this base of information which can be accessed spatially via the now-developed site model and displayed or rendered in support of the IA during the imagery exploitation and reporting process. As new imagery is obtained, it may be registered to the site model, or through the site model to other images, to support the specific exploitation tasks and applications which will be developed. The current effort is the concept definition phase. This phase will determine the viability of current technology to perform these tasks and will define future activities.

  6. Governance and Institutional Autonomy: Governing and Governance in Portuguese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Antonio; Veiga, Amelia; Ribeiro, Filipa; Amaral, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at looking at governance instruments beyond managerial technicality. It intends to do so by analysing the impact of governance reforms on the universities autonomy assumed as a regulation instrument to politically steer systems and institutions. The regulation efforts undertaken at the European and national levels reflect a trend…

  7. Governance and Institutional Autonomy: Governing and Governance in Portuguese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Antonio; Veiga, Amelia; Ribeiro, Filipa; Amaral, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at looking at governance instruments beyond managerial technicality. It intends to do so by analysing the impact of governance reforms on the universities autonomy assumed as a regulation instrument to politically steer systems and institutions. The regulation efforts undertaken at the European and national levels reflect a trend…

  8. Governance, veterinary legislation and quality.

    PubMed

    Petitclerc, M

    2012-08-01

    This review of governance distinguishes between ends and means and, by highlighting the complexity and differing definitions of the concept, defines its scope and focuses discussion on its characteristics in order to establish an interrelationship between veterinary legislation and governance. Good governance must be backed by legislation, and good legislation must incorporate the principles and instruments of good governance. This article lists some of the main characteristics of governance and then reviews them in parallel with the methodology used to draft veterinary legislation, emphasising the importance of goal-setting and stakeholder participation. This article describes the criteria developed by the Veterinary Legislation Support Programme (VLSP) of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for assessing the quality of veterinary legislation. It then makes a comparison between the quality assurance process and the good governance process in order to demonstrate that the introduction and proper use of the tools for developing veterinary legislation offered by the OIE VLSP leads to a virtuous circle linking legislation with good governance. Ultimately, the most important point remains the implementation of legislation. Consequently, the author points out that satisfactory implementation relies not only on legislation that is technically and legally appropriate, acceptable, applicable, sustainable, correctly drafted, well thought through and designed for the long term, but also on the physical and legal capacity of official Veterinary Services to perform their administrative and enforcement duties, and on there being the means available for all those involved to discharge their responsibilities.

  9. Risk, governance and the experience of care

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Alexandra; Tadd, Win; Calnan, Sian; Calnan, Michael; Bayer, Antony; Read, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on perspectives from the governmentality literature and the sociology of risk, this article explores the strategies, tools and mechanisms for managing risk in acute hospital trusts in the United Kingdom. The article uses qualitative material from an ethnographic study of four acute hospital trusts undertaken between 2008 and 2010 focusing on the provision of dignified care for older people. Extracts from ethnographic material show how the organisational mechanisms that seek to manage risk shape the ways in which staff interact with and care for patients. The article bridges the gap between the sociological analysis of policy priorities, management strategy and the organisational cultures of the NHS, and the everyday interactions of care provision. In bringing together this ethnographic material with sociological debates on the regulation of healthcare, the article highlights the specific ways in which forms of governance shape how staff care for their patients challenging the possibility of providing dignified care for older people. PMID:23356787

  10. Risk, governance and the experience of care.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Alexandra; Tadd, Win; Calnan, Sian; Calnan, Michael; Bayer, Antony; Read, Simon

    2013-07-01

    Drawing on perspectives from the governmentality literature and the sociology of risk, this article explores the strategies, tools and mechanisms for managing risk in acute hospital trusts in the United Kingdom. The article uses qualitative material from an ethnographic study of four acute hospital trusts undertaken between 2008 and 2010 focusing on the provision of dignified care for older people. Extracts from ethnographic material show how the organisational mechanisms that seek to manage risk shape the ways in which staff interact with and care for patients. The article bridges the gap between the sociological analysis of policy priorities, management strategy and the organisational cultures of the NHS, and the everyday interactions of care provision. In bringing together this ethnographic material with sociological debates on the regulation of healthcare, the article highlights the specific ways in which forms of governance shape how staff care for their patients challenging the possibility of providing dignified care for older people.

  11. Government Neutrality in Contracting Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Sullivan, John [R-OK-1

    2009-02-11

    02/24/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Government Reform Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Royce, Edward R. [R-CA-40

    2011-01-05

    02/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Organization, Efficiency, and Financial Management . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Government Reform Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Royce, Edward R. [R-CA-40

    2009-01-09

    02/24/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. SOA governance in healthcare organisations.

    PubMed

    Koumaditis, Konstantinos; Themistocleous, Marinos; Vassilakopoulos, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is increasingly adopted by many sectors, including healthcare. Due to the nature of healthcare systems there is a need to increase SOA adoption success rates as the non integrated nature of healthcare systems is responsible for medical errors that cause the loss of tens of thousands patients per year. Following our previous research [1] we propose that SOA governance is a critical success factor for SOA success in healthcare. Literature reports multiple SOA governance models that have limitations and they are confusing. In addition to this, there is a lack of healthcare specific SOA governance models. This highlights a literature void and thus the purpose of this paper is to proposed a healthcare specific SOA governance framework.

  15. School Governance as Discretionary Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manley-Casimir, Michael E.

    1974-01-01

    Author developed a model of school governance in terms of discretionary justice and argued that the model of discretionary justice is judicially compatible and is inherently responsible to judicial norms. (Editor/RK)

  16. Innovation Across the Federal Government

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Innovation happens at EPA, but it also takes place at many other government agencies including NASA, DARPA, HHS, OPM, and USGS through projects such as SBIR, innovation labs, innovation offices, and high-risk, high-reward scientific research.

  17. Government Neutrality in Contracting Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Sullivan, John [R-OK-1

    2009-02-11

    02/24/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Government Neutrality in Contracting Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Sullivan, John [R-OK-1

    2009-02-11

    House - 02/24/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Governing for the Common Good.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-12-01

    The proper object of global health governance (GHG) should be the common good, ensuring that all people have the opportunity to flourish. A well-organized global society that promotes the common good is to everyone's advantage. Enabling people to flourish includes enabling their ability to be healthy. Thus, we must assess health governance by its effectiveness in enhancing health capabilities. Current GHG fails to support human flourishing, diminishes health capabilities and thus does not serve the common good. The provincial globalism theory of health governance proposes a Global Health Constitution and an accompanying Global Institute of Health and Medicine that together propose to transform health governance. Multiple lines of empirical research suggest that these institutions would be effective, offering the most promising path to a healthier, more just world.

  20. Government Reform Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Royce, Edward R. [R-CA-40

    2009-01-09

    House - 02/24/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Government Reform Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Royce, Edward R. [R-CA-40

    2011-01-05

    House - 02/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Organization, Efficiency, and Financial Management . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Government Reform Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Royce, Edward R. [R-CA-40

    2009-01-09

    02/24/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Government Reform Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Royce, Edward R. [R-CA-40

    2011-01-05

    02/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Organization, Efficiency, and Financial Management . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. 48 CFR 225.7303-3 - Government-to-government agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Government-to-government... Military Sales 225.7303-3 Government-to-government agreements. If a government-to-government agreement between the United States and a foreign government for the sale, coproduction, or cooperative...

  5. 48 CFR 225.7303-3 - Government-to-government agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Government-to-government... Military Sales 225.7303-3 Government-to-government agreements. If a government-to-government agreement between the United States and a foreign government for the sale, coproduction, or cooperative...

  6. 48 CFR 225.7303-3 - Government-to-government agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Government-to-government... Military Sales 225.7303-3 Government-to-government agreements. If a government-to-government agreement between the United States and a foreign government for the sale, coproduction, or cooperative...

  7. 48 CFR 225.7303-3 - Government-to-government agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Government-to-government... Military Sales 225.7303-3 Government-to-government agreements. If a government-to-government agreement between the United States and a foreign government for the sale, coproduction, or cooperative...

  8. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    policies (North 1990, Williamson 1991 , World Bank 1993, etc.). These advances highlighted the importance of the strategic behaviors of governments...1990, Williamson 1991 , World Bank 1993, Persson and Tabellini 1990), roles of markets and governments (Commander et al 1996), role of human...widespread debt crisis in developing countries. The declining trend was more pronounced during 1991 -1997 with an absolute decline in net ODA flows from

  9. Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models

    PubMed Central

    Saltman, Richard B.; Duran, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    A central problem in designing effective models of provider governance in health systems has been to ensure an appropriate balance between the concerns of public sector and/or government decision-makers, on the one hand, and of non-governmental health services actors in civil society and private life, on the other. In tax-funded European health systems up to the 1980s, the state and other public sector decision-makers played a dominant role over health service provision, typically operating hospitals through national or regional governments on a command-and-control basis. In a number of countries, however, this state role has started to change, with governments first stepping out of direct service provision and now de facto pushed to focus more on steering provider organizations rather than on direct public management. In this new approach to provider governance, the state has pulled back into a regulatory role that introduces market-like incentives and management structures, which then apply to both public and private sector providers alike. This article examines some of the main operational complexities in implementing this new governance reality/strategy, specifically from a service provision (as opposed to mostly a financing or even regulatory) perspective. After briefly reviewing some of the key theoretical dilemmas, the paper presents two case studies where this new approach was put into practice: primary care in Sweden and hospitals in Spain. The article concludes that good governance today needs to reflect practical operational realities if it is to have the desired effect on health sector reform outcome. PMID:26673647

  10. Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models.

    PubMed

    Saltman, Richard B; Duran, Antonio

    2015-11-03

    A central problem in designing effective models of provider governance in health systems has been to ensure an appropriate balance between the concerns of public sector and/or government decision-makers, on the one hand, and of non-governmental health services actors in civil society and private life, on the other. In tax-funded European health systems up to the 1980s, the state and other public sector decision-makers played a dominant role over health service provision, typically operating hospitals through national or regional governments on a command-and-control basis. In a number of countries, however, this state role has started to change, with governments first stepping out of direct service provision and now de facto pushed to focus more on steering provider organizations rather than on direct public management. In this new approach to provider governance, the state has pulled back into a regulatory role that introduces market-like incentives and management structures, which then apply to both public and private sector providers alike. This article examines some of the main operational complexities in implementing this new governance reality/strategy, specifically from a service provision (as opposed to mostly a financing or even regulatory) perspective. After briefly reviewing some of the key theoretical dilemmas, the paper presents two case studies where this new approach was put into practice: primary care in Sweden and hospitals in Spain. The article concludes that good governance today needs to reflect practical operational realities if it is to have the desired effect on health sector reform outcome.

  11. Developing Government Renewable Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt S. Myers; Thomas L. Baldwin; Jason W. Bush; Jake P. Gentle

    2012-07-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a study of past INL experiences and complete a report that identifies the processes that are needed for the development of renewable energy projects on government properties. The INL has always maintained expertise in power systems and applied engineering and INL’s renewable energy experiences date back to the 1980’s when our engineers began performing US Air Force wind energy feasibility studies and development projects. Over the last 20+ years of working with Department of Defense and other government agencies to study, design, and build government renewable projects, INL has experienced the do’s and don’ts for being successful with a project. These compiled guidelines for government renewable energy projects could include wind, hydro, geothermal, solar, biomass, or a variety of hybrid systems; however, for the purpose of narrowing the focus of this report, wind projects are the main topic discussed throughout this report. It is our thought that a lot of what is discussed could be applied, possibly with some modifications, to other areas of renewable energy. It is also important to note that individual projects (regardless the type) vary to some degree depending on location, size, and need but in general these concepts and directions can be carried over to the majority of government renewable energy projects. This report focuses on the initial development that needs to occur for any project to be a successful government renewable energy project.

  12. [Government management and society: information, technology and scientific output].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Patrícia; Sophia, Daniela Carvalho; Grigório, Deise de Araújo

    2007-01-01

    The complexity of government tasks today suggests that virtual interaction processes that could streamline flows and exchanges of information between governments and society in public policymaking may contribute to more effective intervention that is more closely attuned to the heterogeneity and diversity of social problems. Innovative participatory government administration initiatives have proliferated, together with the extension of public control over government actions, handled through by information technologies. Exploring this field, this paper identifies some key issues for better demarcation and qualification of such initiatives in public sector management, based on the authors' own experience in leading an institutional project designed to empower the political, technical, and communicative participation of society in discussions of the implementation of the Unified National Health System in Brazil. Based on a review of the literature analyzing the links among information, technology, development, and democracy, and particularly with regard to social management, this paper systematizes aspects for consideration drawn from in experiences of interactions between government and society, mediated by scientific knowledge, fostering greater transparency and plurality of views in government management.

  13. The Marketplace and Electronic Government Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, James P.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the economic impact of government-produced electronic information. Examples of government prices for electronic information products are given; the debate over the privatization of government information dissemination is addressed, including examples from various government agencies; government bulletin board services are described; and…

  14. The Marketplace and Electronic Government Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, James P.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the economic impact of government-produced electronic information. Examples of government prices for electronic information products are given; the debate over the privatization of government information dissemination is addressed, including examples from various government agencies; government bulletin board services are described; and…

  15. 48 CFR 46.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foreign governments. 46... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 46.406 Foreign governments. Government contract quality assurance performed for foreign governments or international agencies shall...

  16. 48 CFR 46.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foreign governments. 46... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 46.406 Foreign governments. Government contract quality assurance performed for foreign governments or international agencies shall...

  17. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  18. 48 CFR 46.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foreign governments. 46... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 46.406 Foreign governments. Government contract quality assurance performed for foreign governments or international agencies shall...

  19. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  20. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  1. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  2. 48 CFR 46.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foreign governments. 46... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 46.406 Foreign governments. Government contract quality assurance performed for foreign governments or international agencies shall...

  3. Shared Governance in Community Colleges. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetz, Pam

    This digest discusses shared governance in community colleges and identifies issues highlighted by recent shared governance experiences. Governance structure in public community colleges tends to have many variations at both the state and local level. Shared governance is a pattern of self-government in which decision-making is shared among…

  4. Yanks, Canucks, and Aussies: Governance as Liberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, John S.

    2008-01-01

    The role of government in community college governance cannot be underestimated: state, provincial, and territorial governments are the formal creators of public colleges and the bodies that can alter governance arrangements. Nonetheless, local contexts are not to be overlooked. Interpretations of legislation and government policy give rise to…

  5. Emergence, institutionalization and renewal: Rhythms of adaptive governance in complex social-ecological systems.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Brian C; Gunderson, Lance H

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive governance provides the capacity for environmental managers and decision makers to confront variable degrees of uncertainty inherent to complex social-ecological systems. Current theoretical conceptualizations of adaptive governance represent a series of structures and processes best suited for either adapting or transforming existing environmental governance regimes towards forms flexible enough to confront rapid ecological change. As the number of empirical examples of adaptive governance described in the literature grows, the conceptual basis of adaptive governance remains largely under theorized. We argue that reconnecting adaptive governance with foundational concepts of ecological resilience-specifically Panarchy and the adaptive cycle of complex systems-highlights the importance of episodic disturbances and cross-scale interactions in triggering reorganizations in governance. By envisioning the processes of adaptive governance through the lens of Panarchy, scholars and practitioners alike will be better able to identify the emergence of adaptive governance, as well as take advantage of opportunities to institutionalize this type of governance in pursuit of sustainability outcomes. The synergistic analysis of adaptive governance and Panarchy can provide critical insight for analyzing the role of social dynamics during oscillating periods of stability and instability in social-ecological systems. A deeper understanding of the potential for cross-scale interactions to shape adaptive governance regimes may be useful as society faces the challenge of mitigating the impacts of global environmental change.

  6. [Governance in Public Health: towards an analytical framework].

    PubMed

    Hufty, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that the governance analytical framework (GAF) is a methodology having strong potential for investigation in social policy, particularly in the case of public health. It defines the concept of governance in a pragmatic way as being the processes of interactions between the actors involved in a public affair leading to decision-making or to formulating social norms. It is postulated that any society has governance processes and, unlike other approaches, that these can be observed and be analysed from a non-normative perspective. A methodology for analysing governance processes based on five main analytical units is presented here: problems/stakes, actors, norms, processes and nodal points. These logically articulated analytical units make up a coherent methodology aimed at being used as a tool for social policy research.

  7. Embedding climate change risk assessment within a governance context

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2011-01-01

    Climate change adaptation is increasingly being framed in the context of climate risk management. This has contributed to the proliferation of climate change vulnerability and/or risk assessments as means of supporting institutional decision-making regarding adaptation policies and measures. To date, however, little consideration has been given to how such assessment projects and programs interact with governance systems to facilitate or hinder the implementation of adaptive responses. An examination of recent case studies involving Australian local governments reveals two key linkages between risk assessment and the governance of adaptation. First, governance systems influence how risk assessment processes are conducted, by whom they are conducted, and whom they are meant to inform. Australia s governance system emphasizes evidence-based decision-making that reinforces a knowledge deficit model of decision support. Assessments are often carried out by external experts on behalf of local government, with limited participation by relevant stakeholders and/or civil society. Second, governance systems influence the extent to which the outputs from risk assessment activities are translated into adaptive responses and outcomes. Technical information regarding risk is often stranded by institutional barriers to adaptation including poor uptake of information, competition on the policy agenda, and lack of sufficient entitlements. Yet, risk assessments can assist in bringing such barriers to the surface, where they can be debated and resolved. In fact, well-designed risk assessments can contribute to multi-loop learning by institutions, and that reflexive problem orientation may be one of the more valuable benefits of assessment.

  8. The dynamics of interacting nonlinearities governing long wavelength driftwave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, David E.

    1993-09-01

    Because of the ubiquitous nature of turbulence and the vast array of different systems which have turbulent solutions, the study of turbulence is an area of active research. Much present day understanding of turbulence is rooted in the well established properties of homogeneous Navier-Stokes turbulence, which, due to its relative simplicity, allows for approximate analytic solutions. This work examines a group of turbulent systems with marked differences from Navier-Stokes turbulence, and attempts to quantify some of their properties. This group of systems represents a variety of drift wave fluctuations believed to be of fundamental importance in laboratory fusion devices. From extensive simulation of simple local fluid models of long wavelength drift wave turbulence in tokamaks, a reasonably complete picture of the basic properties of spectral transfer and saturation has emerged. These studies indicate that many conventional notions concerning directions of cascades, locality and isotropy of transfer, frequencies of fluctuations, and stationarity of saturation are not valid for moderate to long wavelengths. In particular, spectral energy transfer at long wavelengths is dominated by the E x B nonlinearity, which carries energy to short scale in a manner that is highly nonlocal and anisotropic. In marked contrast to the canonical self-similar cascade dynamics of Kolmogorov, energy is efficiently passed between modes separated by the entire spectrum range in a correlation time. At short wavelengths, transfer is dominated by the polarization drift nonlinearity. While the standard dual cascade applies in this subrange, it is found that finite spectrum size can produce cascades that are reverse directed and are nonconservative in enstrophy and energy similarity ranges. In regions where both nonlinearities are important, cross-coupling between the nolinearities gives rise to large no frequency shifts as well as changes in the spectral dynamics.

  9. Microstructural Models of Interactions That Govern Protein Conformations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-31

    Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 WOESE , Carl R. Genetics Department SILVERMAN, Michael University of Illinois Agouron Institute 515 Morrill Hall 505 Coast Blvd...ADDRESS (City State, and ZIP Code ) 7b. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code ) Department of Chemical Engineering 800 N. Quincy Street 1415 Johnson Drive...ORGANIZATION (If applicable) Office of Naval Research ONR N00014-89-J-3001 Bc. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code ) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS 800 N. Quincy

  10. Understanding the Dynamic System of Terrorist-Government Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    of IRA bomb-making expertise in response to Britain’s improved counterterrorism efforts (Hoffman, 1998:180-183). During the discovery phase of post...The Studies in Conflict & Terrorism journal, available on the electronic EBSCO research database, is an amazing source of research material for this

  11. 48 CFR 246.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 246.406 Foreign governments. (1) Quality assurance among North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries. (i) NATO Standardization Agreement (STANAG) 4107, Mutual Acceptance of Government Quality Assurance...

  12. Space Station Facility government estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Joseph A.

    1993-01-01

    This new, unique Cost Engineering Report introduces the 800-page, C-100 government estimate for the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) and Volume IV Aerospace Construction Price Book. At the January 23, 1991, bid opening for the SSPF, the government cost estimate was right on target. Metric, Inc., Prime Contractor, low bid was 1.2 percent below the government estimate. This project contains many different and complex systems. Volume IV is a summary of the cost associated with construction, activation and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) design, estimating, fabrication, installation, testing, termination, and verification of this project. Included are 13 reasons the government estimate was so accurate; abstract of bids, for 8 bidders and government estimate with additive alternates, special labor and materials, budget comparison and system summaries; and comments on the energy credit from local electrical utility. This report adds another project to our continuing study of 'How Does the Low Bidder Get Low and Make Money?' which was started in 1967, and first published in the 1973 AACE Transaction with 18 ways the low bidders get low. The accuracy of this estimate proves the benefits of our Kennedy Space Center (KSC) teamwork efforts and KSC Cost Engineer Tools which are contributing toward our goals of the Space Station.

  13. 75 FR 7463 - National Assessment Governing Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... receive briefings on NAEP assessment development topics related to science interactive computer tasks at... Governing Board is established under section 412 of the National Education Statistics Act of 1994, as... Education Statistics (NCES) on options for NAEP contracts covering the 2010-2012 assessment years, based...

  14. Creating a Common Grammar for European Higher Education Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Antonio; Veiga, Amelia; Ribeiro, Filipa M.; Sousa, Sofia; Santiago, Rui

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the interaction between European Union policies and national higher education sectors in the countries involved in the TRUE project (England, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and Switzerland) making the case for European governance. Relevant for this matter is the role of political processes that…

  15. Creating a Common Grammar for European Higher Education Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Antonio; Veiga, Amelia; Ribeiro, Filipa M.; Sousa, Sofia; Santiago, Rui

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the interaction between European Union policies and national higher education sectors in the countries involved in the TRUE project (England, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and Switzerland) making the case for European governance. Relevant for this matter is the role of political processes that…

  16. 75 FR 70010 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing... Soc. 2007 Sep12;129(36):11067-11078. 3. Schito ML, et al. In vivo antiviral activity of novel human... Interaction Assay Description of Invention: Investigators at the National Institute on Deafness and...

  17. Financial Responsibilities of Governing Boards of Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 1979

    1979-01-01

    A reference manual on financial activities of a college or university and the interactive role of the governing board is presented for board members and institutional officers who provide information to the board. Financial data related to a fictitious hybrid university are included. After identifying three broad kinds of financial information…

  18. Clinical governance: principles into practice.

    PubMed

    Wright, J; Smith, M L; Jackson, D R

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the early development of clinical governance in an acute NHS Trust. Three Trust-wide workshops and 17 individual departmental workshops were held between 1998-1999. The discussions in these workshops were used to define the key founding principles of clinical governance and the operational structure. The philosophy behind clinical governance, to improve quality of services, was recognised as being part of mainstream trust business, not an optional add-on. The authors found that teamwork and multidisciplinary collaboration are essential components of future quality improvement. Effective leadership skills need to be supported and developed, with responsibilities shared between a core group within each department rather than one individual. Contributions should be recognised and rewarded. Collaboration with primary care and involvement of patients are prerequisites. Specific objectives should be agreed by each department and used to monitor progress. More effective use of existing resources (staff, time, IT and training) can be made.

  19. Implementing a new governance model.

    PubMed

    Stanley-Clarke, Nicky; Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to discuss the lessons learnt from the process of implementing a new model of governance within Living Well, a New Zealand statutory mental health agency. Design/methodology/approach - It presents the findings from an organisational case study that involved qualitative interviews, meeting observations and document analysis. Archetype theory provided the analytical framework for the research enabling an analysis of both the formal structures and informal value systems that influenced the implementation of the governance model. Findings - The research found that the move to a new governance model did not proceed as planned. It highlighted the importance of staff commitment, the complexity of adopting a new philosophical approach and the undue influence of key personalities as key determining factors in the implementation process. The findings suggest that planners and managers within statutory mental health agencies need to consider the implications of any proposed governance change on existing roles and relationships, thinking strategically about how to secure professional commitment to change. Practical implications - There are ongoing pressures within statutory mental health agencies to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of organisational structures and systems. This paper has implications for how planners and managers think about the process of implementing new governance models within the statutory mental health environment in order to increase the likelihood of sustaining and embedding new approaches to service delivery. Originality/value - The paper presents insights into the process of implementing new governance models within a statutory mental health agency in New Zealand that has relevance for other jurisdictions.

  20. Interactive DIF Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preheim, Larry E.; Amy, Laraine; Young, Jimmie D.

    1993-01-01

    Interactive DIF Generator (IDG) computer program serves as utility to generate and manipulate directory interchange format (DIF) files. Creates and updates DIF files, sent to NASA's Master Directory, also referred to as International Global Change Directory at Goddard Space Flight Center. Many government and university data systems use Master Directory to advertise availability of research data. IDG is interactive software tool and requires mouse or trackball to operate. Written in C language.

  1. Assessment of government tribology programs

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.B.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    An assessment has been made to determine current tribology research and development work sponsored or conducted by the government. Data base surveys and discussions were conducted to isolate current projects sponsored primarily by 21 different government organizations. These projects were classified by subject, objective, energy relevance, type of research, phenomenon being investigated, variables being studied, type of motion, materials and application. An abstract of each project was prepared which included the classification, sponsor, performing organization and a project description. It was found that current work is primarily materials oriented to meet military requirements. Other than the high temperature programs very few of the tribology projects accomplish energy related objectives.

  2. Local governments LANDSAT applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The approach used to develop the internal capabilities of local governments to handle and evaluate LANDSAT data included remote sensing training, development of a low-cost digital image processing system, and technical assistance. Cost sharing, program management and coordination, and networking were also employed to address problems related to land use, water resources, environmental assessment, and air quality as experienced by urban planners. Local experiences gained in Atlanta, Georgia; Henrico County, Virginia; Oklahoma City; Oklahoma; and San Jose, California are described. Policy recommendations formulated for transferring remote sensing technologies to local governments are included.

  3. PROFESSIONAL REGISTRATION OF GOVERNMENT ENGINEERS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    The American Society of Civil Engineers views professional registration as an appropriate requirement for engineers, including those in government. The National Society of Professional Engineers makes registration a requirement for the grade of member and full privileges in the society. Some Federal agencies require engineering registration for certain positions in their agencies. Engineers in government service should consider the value of engineering registration to themselves and to their agencies and take pride in their professions and in their own capabilities by becoming registered engineers. They should also take steps to encourage their agencies to give more attention to engineering registration.

  4. 41 CFR 102-34.215 - May Government contractors use Government motor vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contractors use Government motor vehicles? 102-34.215 Section 102-34.215 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Official Use of Government Motor Vehicles § 102-34.215 May Government contractors use Government motor vehicles? Yes, Government contractors may use Government motor vehicles when...

  5. 41 CFR 102-34.215 - May Government contractors use Government motor vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contractors use Government motor vehicles? 102-34.215 Section 102-34.215 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Official Use of Government Motor Vehicles § 102-34.215 May Government contractors use Government motor vehicles? Yes, Government contractors may use Government motor vehicles when...

  6. 41 CFR 102-34.215 - May Government contractors use Government motor vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contractors use Government motor vehicles? 102-34.215 Section 102-34.215 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Official Use of Government Motor Vehicles § 102-34.215 May Government contractors use Government motor vehicles? Yes, Government contractors may use Government motor vehicles...

  7. Governability framework for the evaluation and implementation of complex public health functions.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Joe; Kutty, V Raman

    2012-08-01

    The dominant theoretical basis of our public health practice originates from a positivist or reductionist paradigm. It fails to take into account the complexity emerging out of public health's multiple influences originating from biological and social worlds. A deeper understanding of the interaction of elements that characterize the implementation of public health functions will enhance our ability to generate evidence and learn further. The "interactive governance theory" by Jan Kooiman introduced here offers an analytical framework that uses the concept of "governability." It is a measure of how governable a particular social system is that takes care of a public function. Assessment is facilitated by breaking down and describing the social system into constituent parts and by exploring the properties, qualities, and the way in which they interact with each other. Further, by deliberating a complex public health function such as immunization services in the context of developing countries, we explore the application of the interactive governance theory and governability. The theory offers new insights into how interactive and holistic approaches can be integrated into public health practice. The advantage of the concept of "governability" is that it enables us to explore why some governance systems deliver what they are expected to, while others do not. This might help us to identify areas where governance can be improved.

  8. Teleconferencing and Interactive Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Lorne A., Comp.; Olgren, Christine H., Comp.

    This publication contains more than 50 papers on the latest developments and applications of interactive media to link distant locations. The contributors, who represent business, government, education, medical, and telecommunications organizations in the United States, Canada, England, and Australia, have had direct experience with the full range…

  9. Teleconferencing and Interactive Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Lorne A., Comp.; Olgren, Christine H., Comp.

    This publication contains more than 50 papers on the latest developments and applications of interactive media to link distant locations. The contributors, who represent business, government, education, medical, and telecommunications organizations in the United States, Canada, England, and Australia, have had direct experience with the full range…

  10. 47 CFR 101.1523 - Sharing and coordination among non-government licensees and between non-government and government...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-government licensees and between non-government and government services. (a) Registration of each link in the.... (b) The licensee or applicant shall: (1) Complete coordination with Federal Government links... links has been analyzed according to the standards of section 101.105 and generally accepted good...

  11. 76 FR 34650 - Models for a Governance Structure for the National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... international cooperation within the Identity Ecosystem? Dated: June 7, 2011. Patrick Gallagher, Under Secretary... Federal government; and interactions with international governments and fora. Request for Comment: This... international considerations. 1. Structure of the Steering Group There are many models of governance that...

  12. Training Governments to Buy Recycled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Describes a program developed by the Northeast Maryland Waste Disposal Authority to teach government buyers how to buy recycled materials. The program consists of a hands-on training seminar and a manual that offers step-by-step instructions for setting up a buy-recycled purchasing program. (LZ)

  13. A Unique Governance Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptista, Margo

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on some of the findings of a 2008-2009 graduate study conducted as a shared organizational learning experience for the Grant MacEwan College (now MacEwan University) Board of Governors to learn about a vital board governance responsibility--presidential search. Through a facilitated, qualitative action research exercise,…

  14. Reproductive governance in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lynn M; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors - such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements - use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over 'rights', where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the 'right to life' of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction.

  15. Governance of Children's Everyday Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Charlotte; Danby, Susan; Farrell, Ann

    2005-01-01

    With the emergence of sociological and economic change there is increasing attention given to governance of children's spaces in recent years. This paper discusses these changes and how they have impacted on, and contributed to, this increased interest. The paper draws on the sociology of childhood framework in order to examine how children…

  16. The Governance of the College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Mary's Coll., Notre Dame, IN.

    Saint Mary's College issued this document in 1973 covering the institution's governance. It includes the bylaws of the Board of Regents; an administrative manual detailing the responsibilities of the members of the administration and the various councils and standing committees; a faculty manual listing the responsibilities of the teaching…

  17. Government Publications: A Forgotten Treasure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    1995-01-01

    Presents information on government publications for school library media specialists, notes problems, and identifies selection aids. Topics include: the "Monthly Catalog" on CD-ROM, the Superintendent of Documents Classification System, GPO bookstores and depository libraries, how to purchase and promote the use of government…

  18. Campus Life and Government Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leed, Arthur

    As more government agencies request information and records from colleges and universities, it is important that all institutions establish standard procedures for handling such requests. Administrators should: learn the personality of the particular agency or office making the request; establish a professional, cooperative, non-adversarial…

  19. Gender Play and Good Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Like good government, thoughtful care of children requires those in power, whether teachers or parents, to recognize when it is appropriate for them to step back from day-to-day decision-making while still working behind the scenes to ensure an organizational structure that supports the independence and equitable development of those they serve.…

  20. Neutrality between Government and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    The overall guiding principle of neutrality between government and religion masks a tension that exists between free exercise of religion and establishment of religion. Reviews the development and current status of "Lemon" as a test for neutrality; proposes a new test for neutrality, evenhandedness, that is common to both the Free…

  1. Gender Play and Good Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Like good government, thoughtful care of children requires those in power, whether teachers or parents, to recognize when it is appropriate for them to step back from day-to-day decision-making while still working behind the scenes to ensure an organizational structure that supports the independence and equitable development of those they serve.…

  2. In Search of Good Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grush, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Since his retirement in 2005, UC-Berkeley's Associate Vice Chancellor and CIO Emeritus and current ECAR fellow John (Jack) McCredie has devoted much of his professional energy to studying and writing/speaking about IT governance and leadership in higher education. In his role at UC-Berkeley, he was responsible for leading central IT support for…

  3. Governance Resilience: The Presbyterian Journey.

    PubMed

    Hinton, James H

    2015-01-01

    Presbyterian Healthcare Services, based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is the state's only private, not-for-profit integrated healthcare system. It was founded in 1908 as a sanitorium for tuberculosis patients who came to the arid Southwest in search of a cure. Today, Presbyterian is thriving as a twenty-first-century integrated healthcare system, serving one in three New Mexicans in its statewide hospital system; it also includes a 440,000-member health plan and a 700-plus provider medical group. Presbyterian remains dedicated to its singular purpose of improving the health of the patients, members, and communities it serves. Just as Presbyterian has progressed and grown during its 106-year history, its governance system has evolved over time. Presbyterian has always believed that the New Mexico communities it serves deserve not just good governance but great governance and relies on strong structure and processes to lead it to superior outcomes. The ebb and flow of change, our ability to learn from trial and error, and our commitment to success in spite of obstacles make up the story of Presbyterian's strong governance system.

  4. Seattle Schools' Governance under Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on how Seattle has joined the growing list of urban districts where policymakers are eyeing changes in school governance. A bill pending in the Washington state legislature, introduced late January 2007 by three lawmakers from the city, would permit citizens to petition to hold a local referendum on switching from the elected…

  5. Programs for Training Government Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    The twelve continuing education programs for government officials are described to exemplify the broad range of activities that can be afforded by institutions of higher education. (All but one were funded by Title I, Higher Education Act of 1965.) Four of the programs have full descriptions including focus, audience, activities, cost/staffing,…

  6. The Changing Governance of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2008-01-01

    The 1988 Education Reform Act sought to deconstruct the framework of post-Second World War social democratic governance and replace the tacit rule of professional providers with mechanisms of choice and market competition, thus empowering parents and school leaders. Functions, powers and responsibilities were fundamentally reconstituted and have…

  7. Organization and Governance of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleiklie, Ivar; Kogan, Maurice

    2007-01-01

    The article analyses how the dominant ideals about the actual organizational patterns of university governance have changed over the past few decades away from the classical notion of the university as a republic of scholars towards the idea of the university as a stakeholder organization. In this article, we first look at some general…

  8. Do Kids Need Government Censors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabkin, Rhoda

    2002-01-01

    Fashioning public policies restricting children's access to entertainment glamorizing violence, sex, drugs, and vulgarity is a complex task. The recently introduced Media Marketing Accountability Act would empower the federal government to regulate advertising of entertainment products to youth. Suggests that this power is undesirable compared to…

  9. Vietnam and American Government Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Paul C.; Eksterowicz, Anthony J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the importance of studying the Vietnam War. Attempts to illustrate the amount and quality of coverage of the Vietnam War in U.S. government textbooks. Explains that the amount of space devoted to the war in most of these texts remains inadequate for student understanding of the Vietnam War. (CMK)

  10. Collection Development Policy: Government Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazek, Dan

    Intended as a general guideline for selecting government documents at the University of Miami (Florida) Otto G. Richter Library, this collection development policy includes the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Mission Statement; (3) Selection Responsibility; (4) Subject Areas, Collection Intensity Levels and Collection Arrangement,…

  11. Neutrality between Government and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    The overall guiding principle of neutrality between government and religion masks a tension that exists between free exercise of religion and establishment of religion. Reviews the development and current status of "Lemon" as a test for neutrality; proposes a new test for neutrality, evenhandedness, that is common to both the Free…

  12. Global Trends in Academic Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K.; Finkelstein, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Even before the current global economic crisis, discontent with the governance of higher education institutions was widespread among faculty in the United States and throughout the world. Drawing from the 2007 Changing Academic Profession (CAP) survey of faculty in seventeen countries, the authors examine faculty perceptions of the current state…

  13. Global Trends in Academic Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K.; Finkelstein, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Even before the current global economic crisis, discontent with the governance of higher education institutions was widespread among faculty in the United States and throughout the world. Drawing from the 2007 Changing Academic Profession (CAP) survey of faculty in seventeen countries, the authors examine faculty perceptions of the current state…

  14. The Faculty in University Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, T. R.; Mortimer, Kenneth P.

    The empirical basis of this monograph is intensive case studies of faculty participation in the governance of one large multipurpose state college and two large complex state university campuses. The chapters are concerned with faculty oligarchies (who rules and how), faculty-administrative and faculty-trustee relationships, external constraints…

  15. Watergate and American Government Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eksterowicz, Anthony J.; Cline, Paul C.

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that the Watergate scandal during the 1972 presidential election altered the U.S. government and the very mood of the United States. Presents a content analysis of 5 middle school, 5 secondary, and 12 college-level textbooks. Finds that the texts exhibit weak historical discussion or analysis of Watergate. (CFR)

  16. Do Kids Need Government Censors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabkin, Rhoda

    2002-01-01

    Fashioning public policies restricting children's access to entertainment glamorizing violence, sex, drugs, and vulgarity is a complex task. The recently introduced Media Marketing Accountability Act would empower the federal government to regulate advertising of entertainment products to youth. Suggests that this power is undesirable compared to…

  17. Archeology and the Federal Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, George S., Comp.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Government's concern for preservation of important archeological properties began during the 19th century in response to the destruction and looting of Indian ruins in the U.S. Southwest. Since that time, the breadth of this concern has grown to include the consideration of impact to archeological properties, as well as to other kinds of…

  18. Trends in global protected area governance, 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Dearden, Philip; Bennett, Michelle; Johnston, Jim

    2005-07-01

    Governance refers to the interactions among structures, processes, and traditions that determine direction, how power is exercised, and how the views of citizens or stakeholders are incorporated into decision-making. Governance is now recognized as a critical aspect of effective conservation and is a prominent part of the Convention on Biological Diversity's work program on protected areas. This study reports on a global survey to assess changes in governance of protected area systems between 1992 and 2002 based on responses from 41 countries. Results indicate that substantial changes have taken place with overall trends towards increased participation of more stakeholders, greater use of formal accountability mechanisms, and a wider range of participatory techniques. Many of these changes are supported by legislative and policy requirements and 75% of respondents reported changes in legislation over the past decade. Protected areas are becoming more influenced by global forces. A majority of respondents reported increased involvement of the private sector. Funding is coming from a broader range of sources, with a smaller proportion of income coming from government sources in 2002. Absolute funding amounts have increased, but almost two-thirds report that budgets fall short of requirements. Almost 90% of respondents felt that protected area governance had improved over the last decade; 67% felt that this had also led to improved management effectiveness. Respondents felt that secure funding, capacity building, and increased community involvement were the main governance needs for the future.

  19. Endemic cattle diseases: comparative epidemiology and governance.

    PubMed

    Carslake, David; Grant, Wyn; Green, Laura E; Cave, Jonathan; Greaves, Justin; Keeling, Matt; McEldowney, John; Weldegebriel, Habtu; Medley, Graham F

    2011-07-12

    Cattle are infected by a community of endemic pathogens with different epidemiological properties that invoke different managerial and governmental responses. We present characteristics of pathogens that influence their ability to persist in the UK, and describe a qualitative framework of factors that influence the political response to a livestock disease. We develop simple transmission models for three pathogens (bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine herpesvirus and Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis) using observed cattle movements, and compare the outcomes to an extensive dataset. The results demonstrate that the epidemiology of the three pathogens is determined by different aspects of within- and between-farm processes, which has economic, legal and political implications for control. We consider how these pathogens, and Mycobacterium bovis (the agent of bovine tuberculosis), may be classified by the process by which they persist and by their political profile. We further consider the dynamic interaction of these classifications with pathogen prevalence and with the action taken by the government.

  20. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  1. E-Government: Initiatives, Developments, and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Duncan; Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a background of government efforts to incorporate telecommunication and computer technologies to improve government performance and enhance citizen access to government information and services. Describes this symposium issue which discusses key issues that affect the success and implementation of electronic government initiatives. (LRW)

  2. Computerized and Networked Government Information Column

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratford, Juri

    2004-01-01

    The efforts of the U.S. federal government to develop E-Government services have been the subject of many recent news stories. In February 2002, Arthur Andersen's Office of Government Services released a usability analysis of federal government Web sites. In addition, in February, Vice-President Cheney announced the release of a report detailing…

  3. Governance and Trust in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidovich, Lesley; Currie, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of more corporate models of governance is a contemporary trend in higher education. In the early 2000s, the Australian Government legislated national governance protocols for universities, using the policy lever of financial sanctions. These more corporate-style governance protocols followed similar changes in the UK, consistent with…

  4. Strong Student Governments...and Their Advisement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatman, Sara

    1988-01-01

    The ideal student government and the ideal student government adviser were discussed by advisers who met at the NACA National Student Government Workshop. Key issues in a strong student government are described including information, access, mutual respect, and institutional impact. (MLW)

  5. 22 CFR 62.29 - Government visitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Government visitors. 62.29 Section 62.29... Program Provisions § 62.29 Government visitors. (a) Purpose. The government visitor category is for the exclusive use of the U.S. federal, state, or local government agencies. Programs under this section are...

  6. 25 CFR 700.531 - Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government property. 700.531 Section 700.531 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.531 Government property. Employees shall be held accountable for Government... employee has a positive duty to protect and conserve Government property and to use it economically and...

  7. 22 CFR 62.29 - Government visitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Government visitors. 62.29 Section 62.29... Program Provisions § 62.29 Government visitors. (a) Purpose. The government visitor category is for the exclusive use of the U.S. federal, state, or local government agencies. Programs under this section are...

  8. 25 CFR 700.531 - Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Government property. 700.531 Section 700.531 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.531 Government property. Employees shall be held accountable for Government... employee has a positive duty to protect and conserve Government property and to use it economically and...

  9. 24 CFR 597.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Governments. 597.501 Section 597.501... Rules § 597.501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  10. 2 CFR 200.64 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local government. 200.64 Section 200.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.64 Local government. Local government means any unit of government within a state, including a: (a) County; (b) Borough; (c) Municipality;...

  11. 7 CFR 25.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Governments. 25.501 Section 25.501 Agriculture Office....501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  12. 22 CFR 62.29 - Government visitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Government visitors. 62.29 Section 62.29... Program Provisions § 62.29 Government visitors. (a) Purpose. The government visitor category is for the exclusive use of the U.S. federal, state, or local government agencies. Programs under this section are...

  13. 7 CFR 25.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Governments. 25.501 Section 25.501 Agriculture Office....501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  14. 25 CFR 700.531 - Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government property. 700.531 Section 700.531 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.531 Government property. Employees shall be held accountable for Government... employee has a positive duty to protect and conserve Government property and to use it economically and...

  15. 7 CFR 25.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Governments. 25.501 Section 25.501 Agriculture Office....501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  16. 25 CFR 700.531 - Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Government property. 700.531 Section 700.531 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.531 Government property. Employees shall be held accountable for Government... employee has a positive duty to protect and conserve Government property and to use it economically and...

  17. 25 CFR 700.531 - Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Government property. 700.531 Section 700.531 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.531 Government property. Employees shall be held accountable for Government... employee has a positive duty to protect and conserve Government property and to use it economically and...

  18. 24 CFR 597.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governments. 597.501 Section 597... Special Rules § 597.501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  19. 24 CFR 597.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governments. 597.501 Section 597... Special Rules § 597.501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  20. 24 CFR 597.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governments. 597.501 Section 597... Special Rules § 597.501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  1. 24 CFR 598.505 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Governments. 598.505 Section 598.505... Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part applies to all such governments....

  2. 24 CFR 597.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Governments. 597.501 Section 597.501... Rules § 597.501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  3. 7 CFR 25.501 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Governments. 25.501 Section 25.501 Agriculture Office....501 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part shall apply to all such governments....

  4. 24 CFR 598.505 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Governments. 598.505 Section 598.505... Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part applies to all such governments....

  5. 24 CFR 598.505 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governments. 598.505 Section 598....505 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part applies to all such governments....

  6. 24 CFR 598.505 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governments. 598.505 Section 598....505 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part applies to all such governments....

  7. 24 CFR 598.505 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governments. 598.505 Section 598....505 Governments. If more than one State or local government seeks to nominate an urban area under this part, any reference to or requirement of this part applies to all such governments....

  8. Governance and Trust in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidovich, Lesley; Currie, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of more corporate models of governance is a contemporary trend in higher education. In the early 2000s, the Australian Government legislated national governance protocols for universities, using the policy lever of financial sanctions. These more corporate-style governance protocols followed similar changes in the UK, consistent with…

  9. Spanning the Local Government Information Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrance, Joan C.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of implications of highly decentralized nature of local government for collection of local documents highlights meaning of access, effect of local government environment on access to local government information, library responses, and tools that can assist libraries in increasing citizen and government access to local government…

  10. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  11. 22 CFR 232.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 232.16 Section 232.16 Foreign...-74-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 232.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and...

  12. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  13. 22 CFR 232.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 232.16 Section 232.16 Foreign...-74-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 232.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and...

  14. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  15. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  16. Unofficial Road Building in the Brazilian Amazon: Dilemmas and Models for Road Governance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Overdevest, Christine; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.

    2007-01-01

    Unofficial roads form dense networks in landscapes, generating a litany of negative ecological outcomes, but unofficial roads in frontier areas are also instrumental in local livelihoods and community development. This trade-off poses dilemmas for the governance of unofficial roads. Unofficial road building in frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon illustrates the challenges of 'road governance.' Both state-based and community based governance models exhibit important liabilities for governing unofficial roads. Whereas state-based governance has experienced difficulties in adapting to specific local contexts and interacting effectively with local interest groups, community-based governance has a mixed record owing to social inequalities and conflicts among local interest groups. A state-community hybrid model may offer more effective governance of unofficial road building by combining the oversight capacity of the state with locally grounded community management via participatory decision-making.

  17. Unofficial Road Building in the Brazilian Amazon: Dilemmas and Models for Road Governance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Overdevest, Christine; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.

    2007-01-01

    Unofficial roads form dense networks in landscapes, generating a litany of negative ecological outcomes, but unofficial roads in frontier areas are also instrumental in local livelihoods and community development. This trade-off poses dilemmas for the governance of unofficial roads. Unofficial road building in frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon illustrates the challenges of 'road governance.' Both state-based and community based governance models exhibit important liabilities for governing unofficial roads. Whereas state-based governance has experienced difficulties in adapting to specific local contexts and interacting effectively with local interest groups, community-based governance has a mixed record owing to social inequalities and conflicts among local interest groups. A state-community hybrid model may offer more effective governance of unofficial road building by combining the oversight capacity of the state with locally grounded community management via participatory decision-making.

  18. Multilevel Governance and Organizational Performance: Investigating the Political-Bureaucratic Labyrinth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Kenneth J.; O'Toole, Laurence J., Jr.; Nicholson-Crotty, Sean

    2004-01-01

    Research on governance has extensively explored the complex interactions of governmental, nongovernmental, and for-profit entities in the execution of public policy. It has consistently failed, however, to model empirically the joint effects of political and bureaucratic actors in governance systems. To address this issue, a theory of multilevel…

  19. Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-06

    elected government in Afghan history, although there were parliamentary elections during the reign of King Zahir Shah (the last were in 1969...helped Osama bin Laden escape Tora Bora; and Mullah Abdul Salam (“Mullah Rocketi”), from Zabol. The “opposition,” led by ethnic minorities (Tajik...the nine-member Supreme Court, the highest judicial body, including ousting 74-year-old Islamic conservative Fazl Hadi Shinwari as chief justice

  20. Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-05

    the first fully elected government in Afghan history, although there were parliamentary elections during the reign of King Zahir Shah (the last were...prominent example is the defense ministry, in which the chief of staff is a Tajik (Bismillah Khan), who reports to a Pashtun Defense Minister ( Abdul Rahim...redoubt at Tora Bora in December 2001; Pacha Khan Zadran (Paktia) who, by some accounts, helped Osama bin Laden escape Tora Bora; and Mullah Abdul

  1. Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-21

    is the first fully elected government in Afghan history, although there were parliamentary elections during the reign of King Zahir Shah (the last...defense ministry, in which the chief of staff is a Tajik (Bismillah Khan), who reports to a Pashtun Defense Minister ( Abdul Rahim Wardak). Some... Abdul Salam (“Mullah Rocketi”), from Zabol. The Opposition The “opposition” is led by ethnic minorities (Tajik, Uzbek, and Hazara) who were in an

  2. Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-14

    Karzai’s is the first fully elected government in Afghan history, although there were parliamentary elections during the reign of King Zahir Shah (the last...Qaeda redoubt at Tora Bora in December 2001; Pacha Khan Zadran (Paktia) who, by some accounts, helped Osama bin Laden escape Tora Bora; and Mullah Abdul ...ousting 74-year-old Islamic conservative Fazl Hadi Shinwari as chief justice. Parliament approved his new Court choices in July 2006, all of whom are

  3. Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-28

    elected government in Afghan history, although there were parliamentary elections during the reign of King Zahir Shah (the last were in 1969...during the U.S.-led war; Pacha Khan Zadran (Paktia) who, by some accounts, helped Osama bin Laden escape Tora Bora; Mullah Abdul Salam (“Mullah Rocketi...the nine- member Supreme Court, the highest judicial body, including ousting 74-year-old Islamic conservative Fazl Hadi Shinwari as chief justice

  4. Bioethics as a Governance Practice.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Bioethics can be considered as a topic, an academic discipline (or combination of disciplines), a field of study, an enterprise in persuasion. The historical specificity of the forms bioethics takes is significant, and raises questions about some of these approaches. Bioethics can also be considered as a governance practice, with distinctive institutions and structures. The forms this practice takes are also to a degree country specific, as the paper illustrates by drawing on the author's UK experience. However, the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics can provide a starting point for comparisons provided that this does not exclude sensitivity to the socio-political context. Bioethics governance practices are explained by various legitimating narratives. These include response to scandal, the need to restrain irresponsible science, the accommodation of pluralist views, and the resistance to the relativist idea that all opinions count equally in bioethics. Each approach raises interesting questions and shows that bioethics should be studied as a governance practice as a complement to other approaches.

  5. Adaptation in Collaborative Governance Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, Kirk; Gerlak, Andrea K.

    2014-10-01

    Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program.

  6. Adaptation in collaborative governance regimes.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Kirk; Gerlak, Andrea K

    2014-10-01

    Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program.

  7. Information at the Nexus: Young People's Perceptions of Government and Government Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Natalie Greene

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the perceptions that young people have of federal government websites and of the U.S. government, as well as exploring possible connections between the perceptions of government and government websites. Not only is this a virtually unstudied area of e-government and youth information behavior, but it is also of…

  8. Information at the Nexus: Young People's Perceptions of Government and Government Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Natalie Greene

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the perceptions that young people have of federal government websites and of the U.S. government, as well as exploring possible connections between the perceptions of government and government websites. Not only is this a virtually unstudied area of e-government and youth information behavior, but it is also of…

  9. Renewing the compact between science and government

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    The historical relationship between science and government was profoundly changed by World War II and the vast nature of government sponsored research which continued in the post-war era but is now by threatened government budget deficits. The concepts advanced by the scientific community to justify continued government support are examined and compared to specific research and development program funding decisions. The use-inspired basic research justification is addressed in detail as an approach to strengthen the bridge between science and government. Some methodology to institutionalizing a new compact for government funded research is presented in detail. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  10. A comprehensive sustainability appraisal of water governance in Phoenix, AZ.

    PubMed

    Larson, Kelli L; Wiek, Arnim; Withycombe Keeler, Lauren

    2013-02-15

    In Phoenix, Arizona and other metropolitan areas, water governance challenges include variable climate conditions, growing demands, and continued groundwater overdraft. Based on an actor-oriented examination of who does what with water and why, along with how people interact with hydro-ecological systems and man-made infrastructure, we present a sustainability appraisal of water governance for the Phoenix region. Broadly applicable to other areas, our systems approach to sustainable water governance overcomes prevailing limitations to research and management by: employing a comprehensive and integrative perspective on water systems; highlighting the activities, intentions, and rules that govern various actors, along with the values and goals driving decisions; and, establishing a holistic set of principles for social-ecological system integrity and interconnectivity, resource efficiency and maintenance, livelihood sufficiency and opportunity, civility and democratic governance, intra- and inter-generational equity, and finally, precaution and adaptive capacity. This study also contributes to reforming and innovating governance regimes by illuminating how these principles are being met, or not, in the study area. What is most needed in metropolitan Phoenix is enhanced attention to ecosystem functions and resource maintenance as well as social equity and public engagement in water governance. Overall, key recommendations entail: addressing interconnections across hydrologic units and sub-systems (e.g., land and water), increasing decentralized initiatives for multiple purposes (e.g., ecological and societal benefits of green infrastructure), incorporating justice goals into decisions (e.g., fair allocations and involvement), and building capacity through collaborations and social learning with diverse interests (e.g., scientists, policymakers, and the broader public).

  11. Employee-Retirement Systems of State and Local Governments: 2002 Census of Governments. Volume 4, Number 6, Government Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2004

    2004-01-01

    A census of governments is taken at 5-year intervals as required by law under title 13, United States Codes, Section 161. This 2002 census, similar to those taken since 1957, covers three major subject fields: government organization; public employment; and government finances. This document contains six parts that cover the entire range of state…

  12. Measuring government commitment to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Amanda; Zoloa, Juan Ignacio; Duran, Denizhan

    2013-04-18

    Vaccination is among the most cost-effective health interventions and has attracted ever greater levels of funding from public and private donors. However, some countries, mainly populous lower-middle income countries, are lagging behind on vaccination financing and performance. In this paper, we discuss the rationale for investing in vaccination and construct a metric to measure government commitment to vaccination that could promote accountability and better tracking of performance. While noting the limitations of available data, we find that populous middle-income countries, which stand to gain tremendously from increased vaccination uptake, perform poorly in terms of their vaccination outcomes.

  13. China engages global health governance: processes and dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Chan, L H; Lee, P K; Chan, G

    2009-01-01

    Using HIV/AIDS, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), and avian influenza as case studies, this paper discusses the processes and dilemmas of China's participation in health governance, both at the domestic level and the global level. Globalization has eroded the boundary between public and private health and between domestic and global health governance. In addition, the SARS outbreak of 2002-2003 focused global attention on China's public health. As a rising power with the largest population on earth, China is expected by the international community to play a better and more active role in health management. Since the turn of this century, China has increasingly embraced multilateralism in health governance. This paper argues that China's multilateral cooperation is driven by both necessity and conscious design. International concerns about good governance and its aspiration to become a 'responsible' state have exerted a normative effect on China to change tack. Its interactions with United Nations agencies have triggered a learning process for China to securitize the spread of infectious diseases as a security threat. Conversely, China has utilized multilateralism to gain access to international resources and technical assistance. It is still a matter of debate whether China's cooperative engagement with global health governance can endure, because of the persistent problems of withholding information on disease outbreaks and because of its insistence on the Westphalian notion of sovereignty.

  14. Science-policy processes for transboundary water governance.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Derek; de Loë, Rob C; Morris, Michelle; Edwards, Tom W D; Gerlak, Andrea K; Hall, Roland I; Huitema, Dave; Ison, Ray; Livingstone, David; MacDonald, Glen; Mirumachi, Naho; Plummer, Ryan; Wolfe, Brent B

    2015-09-01

    In this policy perspective, we outline several conditions to support effective science-policy interaction, with a particular emphasis on improving water governance in transboundary basins. Key conditions include (1) recognizing that science is a crucial but bounded input into water resource decision-making processes; (2) establishing conditions for collaboration and shared commitment among actors; (3) understanding that social or group-learning processes linked to science-policy interaction are enhanced through greater collaboration; (4) accepting that the collaborative production of knowledge about hydrological issues and associated socioeconomic change and institutional responses is essential to build legitimate decision-making processes; and (5) engaging boundary organizations and informal networks of scientists, policy makers, and civil society. We elaborate on these conditions with a diverse set of international examples drawn from a synthesis of our collective experiences in assessing the opportunities and constraints (including the role of power relations) related to governance for water in transboundary settings.

  15. Pan-European E-Government Services Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitvar, Tomáš; Mocan, Adrian; Nazir, Sanaullah; Wang, Xia

    E-Government has been the center of interest for public administrations, citizens and businesses, as well as software vendors for several years. E-Government enables customers and members of the public and private sectors to take advantage of automated administration processes accessible on-line. These activities involve electronic exchange of information to acquire or provide products or services, to place or receive orders, or to complete financial transactions. All such communications must be performed securely, while at the same time maintaining the privacy of involved parties. E-Government allows citizens and businesses to process requests on-line, and with minimal physical interactions with public bodies. Since a complex information support often needs to be developed incrementally, e-Government services were first available as single services in specific sectors and for specific users. While these services are being further developed and expanded to be available in more sectors and for more users, their growing number leads to requirements of total or partial automation of certain tasks, for example, discovery, selection, composition and mediation of services. In addition, extensive numbers of such services are available in different sectors, and their provisioning in complex scenarios requires a good information strategy along with a good architectural and technological basis. The main goal is to identify and define methods, standards, technologies as well as legislation to be used within the whole development process and provisioning of complex e-Government systems. In the EU, the e-Government information strategy can be seen at two levels as (1) a European strategy driven by the European Commission to enable e-Government services across the EU member states and (2) national strategies to form a national e-Government available within a particular EU member state. The initiative which aims to develop the European strategy at the EU level is called IDABC.1

  16. CLA Brief: Distribution of Federal Government Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Brian; Kitchen, Paul

    1976-01-01

    The Canadian Library Association submits a brief to the Canadian legislature. History, purpose, and status of government publications and their catalogs and distribution are discussed. Recommendations are provided for an improved government publications program. (LS)

  17. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses, certifies, recommends, or otherwise favors your product unless it is true. Do not say or imply that your insulation...

  18. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses, certifies, recommends, or otherwise favors your product unless it is true. Do not say or imply that your insulation...

  19. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses, certifies, recommends, or otherwise favors your product unless it is true. Do not say or imply that your insulation...

  20. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses, certifies, recommends, or otherwise favors your product unless it is true. Do not say or imply that your insulation...

  1. Ports Primer: 3.2 Port Governance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    State and local governments are important players in port governance and in oversight of transportation projects that may affect ports. Private corporations may also play a role if they lease or own a terminal at a port.

  2. Disjointed Governance in University Centers and Institutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, William

    2004-01-01

    Research centers and institutes are one example of how institutional governance has become increasingly disjointed; as the "suburbs" of the university expand, core governance structures lose influence. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  3. Government research and development summaries: Magnetohydrodynamic project briefs. Irregular

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic Project Briefs describe the status of all R and D programs submitted to the Power Information Center by the government sponsors in energy conversion involving the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) interaction between electromagnetic fields and electrically conducting fields, including fuels, materials, plasma dynamics, and combustion. The document is not to be reproduced, in whole or in part, for dissemination outside your own organization nor may it be reproduced for advertising or sales promotion purposes.

  4. Government research and development summaries: Magnetohydrodynamic project briefs. Irregular

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic Project Briefs describe the status of all R and D programs submitted to the Power Information Center by the government sponsors in energy conversion involving the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) interaction between electromagnetic fields and electrically conducting fields, including fuels, materials, plasma dynamics, and combustion. The document is not to be reproduced, in whole or in part, for dissemination outside your own organization nor may it be reproduced for advertising or sales promotion purposes.

  5. Government research and development summaries: Magnetohydrodynamic project briefs. Irregular

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic Project Briefs describe the status of all R and D programs submitted to the Power Information Center by the government sponsors in energy conversion involving the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) interaction between electromagnetic fields and electrically conducting fields, including fuels, materials, plasma dynamics, and combustion. The document is not to be reproduced, in whole or in part, for dissemination outside your own organization nor may it be reproduced for advertising or sales promotion purposes.

  6. Managing government funded scientific consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Bakul; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    In recent years, it is becoming apparent that good science not only requires the talents of individual scientists, but also state-of-the-art laboratory facilities. These faculties, often costing millions to billions of dollars, allow scientists unprecedented opportunities to advance their knowledge and improve the quality of human life. To make optimum use of these experimental facilities, a significant amount of computational simulations is required. These mega-projects require large-scale computational facilities and complementary infrastructures of network and software. For physical sciences in US, most of these research and development efforts are funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and National Science Foundation (NSF). Universities, US National Laboratories, and occasionally industrial partners work together on projects awarded with different flavors of government funds managed under different rules. At Fermilab, we manage multiple such collaborative computing projects for university and laboratory consortia. In this paper, I explore important lessons learned from my experience with these projects. Using examples of projects delivering computing infrastructure for the Lattice QCD Collaboration, I explain how the use of federal enterprise architecture may be deployed to run projects effectively. I also describe the lessons learned in the process. Lessons learned from the execution of the above projects are also applicable to other consortia receiving federal government funds.

  7. Government Research Services in the Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidsson, Robert I.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Government Information Service of Florida's Palm Beach County Library System (PBCLS). Highlights include models for service, the need for specialized government services, costs versus benefits, the Question-Response Service and Government Web site, and keys to success. (AEF)

  8. Towards a Multidimensional Measure of Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Shabana

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new index of governance based on the Alkire-Foster methodology and compares it with the Mo Ibrahim Index of African Governance. The proposed new index improves on existing measures of governance in two ways. First, it is able to incorporate both cardinal and ordinal variables without having to assign cardinal meaning to…

  9. Skills Governance and the Workforce Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hordern, Jim

    2013-01-01

    In the United Kingdom higher education environment, government may make efforts to encourage institutions to engage in governance structures to secure policy objectives through a steering approach. In this article connections between skills governance structures and the recent Higher Education Funding Council for England workforce development…

  10. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-17

    Afghanistan: Politics , Elections, and Government Performance Congressional Research Service 25 appointments and provide for two ECC officials to...U.N. compound in the city and killed at least 12 people , including 7 U.N workers. A more serious Afghanistan: Politics , Elections, and Government...Afghanistan: Politics , Elections, and Government Performance Kenneth Katzman Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs September 17, 2014

  11. Notable Government Documents 2007: Blogs, Battles, & Bees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Jim

    2008-01-01

    The world of government information mirrors the headlines. The resources in this list of Notable Government Documents from the American Library Association's Government Documents Round Table reflect the diversity of the profession, with topics ranging from "underappreciated fish" in Alaska to the Colonial papers of Sir William Johnson;…

  12. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government claims. 460.21 Section 460.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses,...

  13. 22 CFR 62.29 - Government visitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government visitors. 62.29 Section 62.29 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific Program Provisions § 62.29 Government visitors. (a) Purpose. The government visitor category is for...

  14. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  15. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  16. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  17. Two Successful Approaches to Teaching AP Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Brian; Stepp, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Amador Valley High School, in Pleasanton, California, uses two unique approaches to teaching Advanced Placement Government and Politics. AP Government consists of six units: Constitutional Underpinnings; Political Behavior and Political Beliefs; Mass Media, Interest Groups, and Political Parties; Institutions of Government; Civil Liberties and…

  18. Governing Public Universities in Arab Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally in Arab public universities, presidents are appointed by government authorities. Recently, in uprising Arab countries universities' presidents have been elected by universities' faculty members. Neither traditional nor self-governance pattern succeeded to modernise Arab universities. Reforming patterns of governance is critical for…

  19. Supporting Governing Bodies with Effective Clerking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassoon, David

    2008-01-01

    Responsibilities placed on a governing body are profound--starting with governors' own performance and the achievement of the pupils. In recognition of the weight of duty placed upon them, every governing body has, by law, to appoint a clerk who is not a governor. Committees of the governing body may be clerked by governors, but the main meeting…

  20. Reaffirming the Value of Shared Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Larry G.

    1997-01-01

    Debate over the role of college presidents, governing boards, and faculty in college governance reflects growing economic and political pressures on colleges and universities and demands for stronger leadership and more efficient administration. However, unlike the corporate model of governance, higher education institutions should never become…

  1. School Governance in the New South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Heystek, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses early experiences of school governing bodies in South Africa. Examines governing bodies' powers to set fees, resulting impact on resources for different types of schools, and implications for equity and equality. Explores governing bodies' admission policies and how this led to school populations differentiated by class and race. (CAJ)

  2. 77 FR 5442 - Indian Tribal Government Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI19 Indian Tribal Government Plans AGENCY: Internal...-08) relating to Indian tribal government plans. This notice supersedes the notice of public hearing...

  3. Prospective Governance. AGB Occasional Paper No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Darryl G.

    1997-01-01

    Higher education governance structures are ineffective and new structures of "prospective governance" are needed for future success. Trends affecting higher education include financial scarcity, lack of government funding juxtaposed with the growing public demand for better services, and the competitive pressures of commercialization and…

  4. Governance Reform at China's "985 Project" Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qingnian, Xiong; Duanhong, Zhang; Hong, Liu

    2011-01-01

    Higher education reform in China is deepening, and the governance reform taking place at the 985 Project universities over the past decade has displayed a shift from government driven to internally driven, from adaptive to proactive, and from localized to systemic. This reflects the overall status of governance reform in China's higher education.…

  5. Notable Government Documents 2007: Blogs, Battles, & Bees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Jim

    2008-01-01

    The world of government information mirrors the headlines. The resources in this list of Notable Government Documents from the American Library Association's Government Documents Round Table reflect the diversity of the profession, with topics ranging from "underappreciated fish" in Alaska to the Colonial papers of Sir William Johnson;…

  6. Federal Grants to State and Local Governments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congressional Budget Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In fiscal year 2011, the federal government provided $607 billion in grants to state and local governments. Those funds accounted for 17 percent of federal outlays, 4 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), and a quarter of spending by state and local governments that year. Over the past 30 years, those "intergovernmental" grants--financial…

  7. The Changing Landscape of Education Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziebarth, Todd

    This paper provides a basic understanding of the changes taking place within education governance. The document opens with a description of the traditional education governance system, typified by a centralized, bureaucratic approach that has been the predominant mode of public education governance for most of the 20th century. The focus then…

  8. 28 CFR 65.2 - State Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State Government. 65.2 Section 65.2... Eligible Applicants § 65.2 State Government. In the event that a law enforcement emergency exists throughout a state or part of a state, a state (on behalf of itself or a local unit of government) may...

  9. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government contributions. 891.401 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health...

  10. 7 CFR 97.154 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government employees. 97.154 Section 97.154... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Attorneys and Agents § 97.154 Government employees. Officers and employees... attorneys or agents in proceedings or other matters before government departments or agencies, shall not...

  11. 10 CFR 1060.301 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government employees. 1060.301 Section 1060.301 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES OF PERSONS WHO ARE NOT GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 1060.301 Government employees. Nothing in this part shall be interpreted as being applicable...

  12. 28 CFR 65.2 - State Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State Government. 65.2 Section 65.2... Eligible Applicants § 65.2 State Government. In the event that a law enforcement emergency exists throughout a state or part of a state, a state (on behalf of itself or a local unit of government) may...

  13. 7 CFR 3015.191 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Governments. 3015.191 Section 3015.191 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Cost Principles § 3015.191 Governments. (a) OMB Circular No... be used in determining the allowable costs of activities conducted by governments. (b)...

  14. 32 CFR 310.12 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Government contractors. 310.12 Section 310.12... PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Systems of Records § 310.12 Government contractors. (a) Applicability to government contractors. (1) When a DoD Component contract requires the operation or maintenance of a...

  15. 48 CFR 246.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foreign governments. 246..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 246.406 Foreign governments. (1) Quality assurance among North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries....

  16. 7 CFR 3015.191 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Governments. 3015.191 Section 3015.191 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Cost Principles § 3015.191 Governments. (a) OMB Circular No... be used in determining the allowable costs of activities conducted by governments. (b)...

  17. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  18. 7 CFR 3015.191 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Governments. 3015.191 Section 3015.191 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Cost Principles § 3015.191 Governments. (a) OMB Circular No... be used in determining the allowable costs of activities conducted by governments. (b)...

  19. 48 CFR 836.572 - Government supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Government supervision... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.572 Government supervision. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-78, Government supervision,...

  20. 19 CFR 111.33 - Government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government records. 111.33 Section 111.33 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.33 Government records. A broker must not procure or attempt to procure, directly or indirectly, information from Government records...

  1. 10 CFR 1060.301 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government employees. 1060.301 Section 1060.301 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES OF PERSONS WHO ARE NOT GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 1060.301 Government employees. Nothing in this part shall be interpreted as being applicable...

  2. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  3. 28 CFR 65.2 - State Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Government. 65.2 Section 65.2... Eligible Applicants § 65.2 State Government. In the event that a law enforcement emergency exists throughout a state or part of a state, a state (on behalf of itself or a local unit of government) may...

  4. 28 CFR 65.2 - State Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State Government. 65.2 Section 65.2... Eligible Applicants § 65.2 State Government. In the event that a law enforcement emergency exists throughout a state or part of a state, a state (on behalf of itself or a local unit of government) may...

  5. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government contributions. 891.401 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health...

  6. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government contributions. 890.501 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans,...

  7. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  8. 49 CFR 372.223 - Consolidated governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consolidated governments. 372.223 Section 372.223... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.223 Consolidated governments. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of a consolidated government within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate...

  9. 39 CFR 259.1 - Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government. 259.1 Section 259.1 Postal Service....1 Government. (a) Policy. The Postal Service cooperates with Federal Agencies whenever the overall costs to Government will be reduced. Assistance in a number of special projects and programs is...

  10. 19 CFR 111.33 - Government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Government records. 111.33 Section 111.33 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.33 Government records. A broker must not procure or attempt to procure, directly or indirectly, information from Government records...

  11. 7 CFR 97.154 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government employees. 97.154 Section 97.154... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Attorneys and Agents § 97.154 Government employees. Officers and employees... attorneys or agents in proceedings or other matters before government departments or agencies, shall not...

  12. 4 CFR 83.19 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Government contractors. 83.19 Section 83.19 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.19 Government contractors. When GAO provides by a contract for the operation by or on behalf of GAO of a system of...

  13. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government contributions. 891.401 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health...

  14. 48 CFR 836.572 - Government supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Government supervision... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.572 Government supervision. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-78, Government supervision,...

  15. 48 CFR 246.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foreign governments. 246..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 246.406 Foreign governments. (1) Quality assurance among North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries....

  16. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government contributions. 890.501 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans,...

  17. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  18. 48 CFR 836.572 - Government supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Government supervision... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.572 Government supervision. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-78, Government supervision,...

  19. 10 CFR 1060.301 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government employees. 1060.301 Section 1060.301 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES OF PERSONS WHO ARE NOT GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 1060.301 Government employees. Nothing in this part shall be interpreted as being applicable...

  20. 39 CFR 259.1 - Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Government. 259.1 Section 259.1 Postal Service....1 Government. (a) Policy. The Postal Service cooperates with Federal Agencies whenever the overall costs to Government will be reduced. Assistance in a number of special projects and programs is...

  1. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government contributions. 891.401 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health...

  2. 32 CFR 310.12 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Government contractors. 310.12 Section 310.12... PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Systems of Records § 310.12 Government contractors. (a) Applicability to government contractors. (1) When a DoD Component contract requires the operation or maintenance of a...

  3. 7 CFR 3015.191 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Governments. 3015.191 Section 3015.191 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Cost Principles § 3015.191 Governments. (a) OMB Circular No... be used in determining the allowable costs of activities conducted by governments. (b)...

  4. 19 CFR 111.33 - Government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Government records. 111.33 Section 111.33 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.33 Government records. A broker must not procure or attempt to procure, directly or indirectly, information from Government records...

  5. 48 CFR 246.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foreign governments. 246..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 246.406 Foreign governments. (1) Quality assurance among North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries....

  6. 39 CFR 259.1 - Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Government. 259.1 Section 259.1 Postal Service....1 Government. (a) Policy. The Postal Service cooperates with Federal Agencies whenever the overall costs to Government will be reduced. Assistance in a number of special projects and programs is...

  7. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government contributions. 890.501 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans,...

  8. 32 CFR 310.12 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Government contractors. 310.12 Section 310.12... PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Systems of Records § 310.12 Government contractors. (a) Applicability to government contractors. (1) When a DoD Component contract requires the operation or maintenance of a...

  9. 76 FR 39769 - Disclosure of Government Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Office of the Secretary RIN 0605-AA29 15 CFR Part 4 Disclosure of Government Information AGENCY... reasons above, amend 15 CFR Part 4 as follows: PART 4--DISCLOSURE OF GOVERNMENT INFORMATION 0 1....

  10. 7 CFR 3015.191 - Governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Governments. 3015.191 Section 3015.191 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Cost Principles § 3015.191 Governments. (a) OMB Circular No... be used in determining the allowable costs of activities conducted by governments. (b)...

  11. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government contributions. 890.501 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans,...

  12. 48 CFR 246.406 - Foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foreign governments. 246..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 246.406 Foreign governments. (1) Quality assurance among North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries....

  13. 7 CFR 97.154 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government employees. 97.154 Section 97.154... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Attorneys and Agents § 97.154 Government employees. Officers and employees... attorneys or agents in proceedings or other matters before government departments or agencies, shall not...

  14. 48 CFR 836.572 - Government supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government supervision... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.572 Government supervision. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-78, Government supervision,...

  15. 48 CFR 836.572 - Government supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Government supervision... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.572 Government supervision. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-78, Government supervision,...

  16. 10 CFR 1060.301 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government employees. 1060.301 Section 1060.301 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES OF PERSONS WHO ARE NOT GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 1060.301 Government employees. Nothing in this part shall be interpreted as being applicable...

  17. 19 CFR 111.33 - Government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Government records. 111.33 Section 111.33 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.33 Government records. A broker must not procure or attempt to procure, directly or indirectly, information from Government records...

  18. 7 CFR 97.154 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government employees. 97.154 Section 97.154... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Attorneys and Agents § 97.154 Government employees. Officers and employees... attorneys or agents in proceedings or other matters before government departments or agencies, shall not...

  19. 4 CFR 83.19 - Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government contractors. 83.19 Section 83.19 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.19 Government contractors. When GAO provides by a contract for the operation by or on behalf of GAO of a system of...

  20. 10 CFR 1060.301 - Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government employees. 1060.301 Section 1060.301 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES OF PERSONS WHO ARE NOT GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 1060.301 Government employees. Nothing in this part shall be interpreted as being applicable...